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Sample records for viridis heterodimer mutant

  1. Methods for performing crosses in Setaria viridis, a new model system for the grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Barbier, Hugues; Brutnell, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Setaria viridis is an emerging model system for C4 grasses. It is closely related to the bioenergy feed stock switchgrass and the grain crop foxtail millet. Recently, the 510 Mb genome of foxtail millet, S. italica, has been sequenced (1,2) and a 25x coverage genome sequence of the weedy relative S. viridis is in progress. S. viridis has a number of characteristics that make it a potentially excellent model genetic system including a rapid generation time, small stature, simple growth requirements, prolific seed production (3) and developed systems for both transient and stable transformation (4). However, the genetics of S. viridis is largely unexplored, in part, due to the lack of detailed methods for performing crosses. To date, no standard protocol has been adopted that will permit rapid production of seeds from controlled crosses. The protocol presented here is optimized for performing genetic crosses in S. viridis, accession A10.1. We have employed a simple heat treatment with warm water for emasculation after pruning the panicle to retain 20-30 florets and labeling of flowers to eliminate seeds resulting from newly developed flowers after emasculation. After testing a series of heat treatments at permissive temperatures and varying the duration of dipping, we have established an optimum temperature and time range of 48 °C for 3-6 min. By using this method, a minimum of 15 crosses can be performed by a single worker per day and an average of 3-5 outcross progeny per panicle can be recovered. Therefore, an average of 45-75 outcross progeny can be produced by one person in a single day. Broad implementation of this technique will facilitate the development of recombinant inbred line populations of S. viridis X S. viridis or S. viridis X S. italica, mapping mutations through bulk segregant analysis and creating higher order mutants for genetic analysis.

  2. Optimization of Phenotyping Assays for the Model Monocot Setaria viridis.

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    Acharya, Biswa R; Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Estelle, Aiden B; Vijayakumar, Anitha; Zhu, Chuanmei; Hovis, Laryssa; Pandey, Sona

    2017-01-01

    Setaria viridis (green foxtail) is an important model plant for the study of C4 photosynthesis in panicoid grasses, and is fast emerging as a system of choice for the study of plant development, domestication, abiotic stress responses and evolution. Basic research findings in Setaria are expected to advance research not only in this species and its close relative S. italica (foxtail millet), but also in other panicoid grasses, many of which are important food or bioenergy crops. Here we report on the standardization of multiple growth and development assays for S. viridis under controlled conditions, and in response to several phytohormones and abiotic stresses. We optimized these assays at three different stages of the plant's life: seed germination and post-germination growth using agar plate-based assays, early seedling growth and development using germination pouch-based assays, and adult plant growth and development under environmentally controlled growth chambers and greenhouses. These assays will be useful for the community to perform large scale phenotyping analyses, mutant screens, comparative physiological analysis, and functional characterization of novel genes of Setaria or other related agricultural crops. Precise description of various growth conditions, effective treatment conditions and description of the resultant phenotypes will help expand the use of S. viridis as an effective model system.

  3. Optimization of Phenotyping Assays for the Model Monocot Setaria viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswa R. Acharya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Setaria viridis (green foxtail is an important model plant for the study of C4 photosynthesis in panicoid grasses, and is fast emerging as a system of choice for the study of plant development, domestication, abiotic stress responses and evolution. Basic research findings in Setaria are expected to advance research not only in this species and its close relative S. italica (foxtail millet, but also in other panicoid grasses, many of which are important food or bioenergy crops. Here we report on the standardization of multiple growth and development assays for S. viridis under controlled conditions, and in response to several phytohormones and abiotic stresses. We optimized these assays at three different stages of the plant’s life: seed germination and post-germination growth using agar plate-based assays, early seedling growth and development using germination pouch-based assays, and adult plant growth and development under environmentally controlled growth chambers and greenhouses. These assays will be useful for the community to perform large scale phenotyping analyses, mutant screens, comparative physiological analysis, and functional characterization of novel genes of Setaria or other related agricultural crops. Precise description of various growth conditions, effective treatment conditions and description of the resultant phenotypes will help expand the use of S. viridis as an effective model system.

  4. Reversion of autocrine transformation by a dominant negative platelet-derived growth factor mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassbotn, F S; Andersson, M; Westermark, B; Heldin, C H; Ostman, A

    1993-07-01

    A non-receptor-binding mutant of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) A chain, PDGF-0, was generated by exchanging 7 amino acids in the sequence. The mutant chains formed dimers that were similar to wild-type PDGF-AA with regard to stability and rate of processing to the mature 30-kDa secreted forms. Moreover, the mutant chains formed disulfide-bonded heterodimers with the PDGF B chain in NIH 3T3 cells heterodimer underwent the same processing and secretion as PDGF-AB. Transfection of c-sis-expressing 3T3 cells with PDGF-0 significantly inhibited the transformed phenotype of these cells, as determined by the following criteria. (i) Compared with PDGF-0-negative clones, PDGF-0-producing clones showed a reverted morphology. (ii) Clones producing PDGF-0 grew more slowly than PDGF-0-negative clones, with a fivefold difference in cell number after 14 days in culture. (iii) The expression of PDGF-0 completely inhibited the ability of the c-sis-expressing 3T3 cells to form colonies in soft agar; this inhibition was overcome by the addition of recombinant PDGF-BB to the culture medium, showing that the lack of colony formation of these cells was not due to a general unresponsiveness to PDGF. The specific expression of a PDGF-0/PDGF wild-type heterodimer in COS cells revealed that the affinity of the mutant heterodimer for the PDGF alpha receptor was decreased by approximately 50-fold compared with that of PDGF-AA. Thus, we show that a non-receptor-binding PDGF A-chain mutant neutralizes in a trans-dominant manner the autocrine transforming potential of the c-sis/PDGF B chain by forming low-affinity heterodimers with wild-type PDGF chains. This method of specifically antagonizing the effect of PDGF may be useful in investigations of the role of PDGF in normal and pathological conditions.

  5. Bioactive Pentacyclic Triterpene Ester Derivatives from Alnus viridis ssp. viridis Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Miroslav; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Veselinovic, Jovana; Ilic-Tomic, Tatjana; Vidakovic, Vera; Tesevic, Vele; Milosavljevic, Slobodan

    2017-05-26

    Seven derivatives of pentacyclic triterpene acids (1-7) were isolated from the bark of Alnus viridis ssp. viridis using a combination of column chromatography and semipreparative HPLC. Compounds 1-3, 6, and 7 were determined to be new after spectroscopic data interpretation and were assigned as 27-hydroxyalphitolic acid derivatives (1-3), a 27-hydroxybetulinic acid derivative (6), and a 3-epi-maslinic acid derivative (7), respectively. Pentacyclic triterpenoids with a C-27 hydroxymethyl group have been found in species of the genus Alnus for the first time. These compounds were subjected to cytotoxicity testing against a number of cancer cell lines. Also, selected pentacyclic triterpenoids were selected as potential inhibitors of topoisomerases I and IIα for an in silico investigation.

  6. Coexistence of Phases in a Protein Heterodimer

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    Krokhotin, Andrey; Liwo, Adam; Niemi, Antti J.; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2012-07-01

    A heterodimer consisting of two or more different kinds of proteins can display an enormous number of distinct molecular architectures. The conformational entropy is an essential ingredient in the Helmholtz free energy and, consequently, these heterodimers can have a very complex phase structure. Here, it is proposed that there is a state of proteins, in which the different components of a heterodimer exist in different phases. For this purpose, the structures in the protein data bank (PDB) have been analyzed, with radius of gyration as the order parameter. Two major classes of heterodimers with their protein components coexisting in different phases have been identified. An example is the PDB structure 3DXC. This is a transcriptionally active dimer. One of the components is an isoform of the intra-cellular domain of the Alzheimer-disease related amyloid precursor protein (AICD), and the other is a nuclear multidomain adaptor protein in the Fe65 family. It is concluded from the radius of gyration that neither of the two components in this dimer is in its own collapsed phase, corresponding to a biologically active protein. The UNRES energy function has been utilized to confirm that, if the two components are separated from each other, each of them collapses. The results presented in this work show that heterodimers whose protein components coexist in different phases, can have intriguing physical properties with potentially important biological consequences.

  7. The formation of heterodimers by vancomycin group antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staroske, T; O'Brien, DP; Jørgensen, Thomas J. D.

    2000-01-01

    The formation of heterodimers in mixtures of glycopeptide antibiotics has been detected by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and dimerization constants have been determined. By using NMR spectroscopy, it has been shown that these heterodimers indeed exist in aqueous solution...

  8. The Use of Maleic Hydrazide for Effective Hybridization of Setaria viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govinda Rizal

    Full Text Available An efficient method for crossing green foxtail (Setaria viridis is currently lacking. S. viridis is considered to be the new model plant for the study of C4 system in monocots and so an effective crossing protocol is urgently needed. S. viridis is a small grass with C4-NADP (ME type of photosynthesis and has the advantage of having small genome of about 515 Mb, small plant stature, short life cycle, multiple tillers, and profuse seed set, and hence is an ideal model species for research. The objectives of this project were to develop efficient methods of emasculation and pollination, and to speed up generation advancement. We assessed the response of S. viridis flowers to hot water treatment (48°C and to different concentrations of gibberellic acid, abscisic acid, maleic hydrazide (MH, and kinetin. We found that 500 μM of MH was effective in the emasculation of S. viridis, whilst still retaining the receptivity of the stigma to pollination. We also report effective ways to accelerate the breeding cycle of S. viridis for research through the germination of mature as well as immature seeds in optimized culture media. We believe these findings will be of great interest to researchers using Setaria.

  9. Mapping of HABs Contaminated In Green Shells (Perna viridis) in Semarang Bay

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    A'in, Churun; Suryanti, Suryanti; Haeruddin, Haeruddin

    2018-02-01

    The existence of Harmful Algae Blooms (HABs) can adversely affect the water like a mass death of fish and oxygen depletion. Some types of HABs can be contaminated with seafood and contain biotoxins that are detrimental to the health of humans who consume them. Green mussels (Perna viridis) has the properties of filter feeders so vulnerable to contamination HABs. This research was conducted to produce spatially thematic maps contaminated HABs in P. viridis so providing information about risk prediction P. viridis when consumed by humans. Sampling was done purposively in three (3) stations that represent the Bay Semarang namely western boundary waters (Kendal), middle (Semarang) and the eastern boundary (Demak). Sampling done two (2) times, namely East season (June -July) and the second transitional season (September) 2016. Analysis of HABs done either in water or body tissues of P. viridis through the analysis of food habit. The results shows that P. viridis genus positive contaminated HABs phytoplankton Tricodesmium and Ceratium. Spatial distribution and abundance of Tricodesmium genus Fitoplankton is wider and taller than the HABs Phytoplankton genus Ceratium. Group HABs are found in the tissues of P. viridis no potential as biotoxin that does not cause adverse health risks.

  10. The Ku Heterodimer and the Metabolism of Single-Ended DNA Double-Strand Breaks

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    Alessia Balestrini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Single-ended double-strand breaks (DSBs are a common form of spontaneous DNA break, generated when the replisome encounters a discontinuity in the DNA template. Given their prevalence, understanding the mechanisms governing the fate(s of single-ended DSBs is important. We describe the influence of the Ku heterodimer and Mre11 nuclease activity on processing of single-ended DSBs. Separation-of-function alleles of yku70 were derived that phenocopy Ku deficiency with respect to single-ended DSBs but remain proficient for NHEJ. The Ku mutants fail to regulate Exo1 activity, and bypass the requirement for Mre11 nuclease activity in the repair of camptothecin-induced single-ended DSBs. Ku mutants exhibited reduced affinity for DNA ends, manifest as both reduced end engagement and enhanced probability of diffusing inward on linear DNA. This study reveals an interplay between Ku and Mre11 in the metabolism of single-ended DSBs that is distinct from repair pathway choice at double-ended DSBs.

  11. Population genetics of Setaria viridis, a new model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pu; Feldman, Maximilian; Schroder, Stephan; Bahri, Bochra A; Diao, Xianmin; Zhi, Hui; Estep, Matt; Baxter, Ivan; Devos, Katrien M; Kellogg, Elizabeth A

    2014-10-01

    An extensive survey of the standing genetic variation in natural populations is among the priority steps in developing a species into a model system. In recent years, green foxtail (Setaria viridis), along with its domesticated form foxtail millet (S. italica), has rapidly become a promising new model system for C4 grasses and bioenergy crops, due to its rapid life cycle, large amount of seed production and small diploid genome, among other characters. However, remarkably little is known about the genetic diversity in natural populations of this species. In this study, we survey the genetic diversity of a worldwide sample of more than 200 S. viridis accessions, using the genotyping-by-sequencing technique. Two distinct genetic groups in S. viridis and a third group resembling S. italica were identified, with considerable admixture among the three groups. We find the genetic variation of North American S. viridis correlates with both geography and climate and is representative of the total genetic diversity in this species. This pattern may reflect several introduction/dispersal events of S. viridis into North America. We also modelled demographic history and show signal of recent population decline in one subgroup. Finally, we show linkage disequilibrium decay is rapid (<45 kb) in our total sample and slow in genetic subgroups. These results together provide an in-depth understanding of the pattern of genetic diversity of this new model species on a broad geographic scale. They also provide key guidelines for on-going and future work including germplasm preservation, local adaptation, crossing designs and genomewide association studies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. S-acylation of SOD1, CCS, and a stable SOD1-CCS heterodimer in human spinal cords from ALS and non-ALS subjects.

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    Antinone, Sarah E; Ghadge, Ghanashyam D; Ostrow, Lyle W; Roos, Raymond P; Green, William N

    2017-01-25

    Previously, we found that human Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is S-acylated (palmitoylated) in vitro and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mouse models, and that S-acylation increased for ALS-causing SOD1 mutants relative to wild type. Here, we use the acyl resin-assisted capture (acyl-RAC) assay to demonstrate S-acylation of SOD1 in human post-mortem spinal cord homogenates from ALS and non-ALS subjects. Acyl-RAC further revealed that endogenous copper chaperone for SOD1 (CCS) is S-acylated in both human and mouse spinal cords, and in vitro in HEK293 cells. SOD1 and CCS formed a highly stable heterodimer in human spinal cord homogenates that was resistant to dissociation by boiling, denaturants, or reducing agents and was not observed in vitro unless both SOD1 and CCS were overexpressed. Cysteine mutations that attenuate SOD1 maturation prevented the SOD1-CCS heterodimer formation. The degree of S-acylation was highest for SOD1-CCS heterodimers, intermediate for CCS monomers, and lowest for SOD1 monomers. Given that S-acylation facilitates anchoring of soluble proteins to cell membranes, our findings suggest that S-acylation and membrane localization may play an important role in CCS-mediated SOD1 maturation. Furthermore, the highly stable S-acylated SOD1-CCS heterodimer may serve as a long-lived maturation intermediate in human spinal cord.

  13. Reference gene identification for reliable normalisation of quantitative RT-PCR data in Setaria viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc Quan; Eamens, Andrew L; Grof, Christopher P L

    2018-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the key platform for the quantitative analysis of gene expression in a wide range of experimental systems and conditions. However, the accuracy and reproducibility of gene expression quantification via RT-qPCR is entirely dependent on the identification of reliable reference genes for data normalisation. Green foxtail ( Setaria viridis ) has recently been proposed as a potential experimental model for the study of C 4 photosynthesis and is closely related to many economically important crop species of the Panicoideae subfamily of grasses, including Zea mays (maize), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) and Sacchurum officinarum (sugarcane). Setaria viridis (Accession 10) possesses a number of key traits as an experimental model, namely; (i) a small sized, sequenced and well annotated genome; (ii) short stature and generation time; (iii) prolific seed production, and; (iv) is amendable to Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation. There is currently however, a lack of reference gene expression information for Setaria viridis ( S. viridis ). We therefore aimed to identify a cohort of suitable S. viridis reference genes for accurate and reliable normalisation of S. viridis RT-qPCR expression data. Eleven putative candidate reference genes were identified and examined across thirteen different S. viridis tissues. Of these, the geNorm and NormFinder analysis software identified SERINE / THERONINE - PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A ( PP2A ), 5 '- ADENYLYLSULFATE REDUCTASE 6 ( ASPR6 ) and DUAL SPECIFICITY PHOSPHATASE ( DUSP ) as the most suitable combination of reference genes for the accurate and reliable normalisation of S. viridis RT-qPCR expression data. To demonstrate the suitability of the three selected reference genes, PP2A , ASPR6 and DUSP , were used to normalise the expression of CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE ( CAD ) genes across the same tissues. This approach readily demonstrated the suitably of the three

  14. The greening of the coasts: review of the Perna viridis success story.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajagopal, S.; Venugopalan, V.P.; Velde, G. van der; Jenner, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    The green mussel Perna viridis has been receiving a lot of attention from workers working in the research areas of intertidal ecology, aquaculture, pollution monitoring, biofouling, zoogeography and invasion biology. P. viridis is a remarkable species in terms of its ability to reach very high

  15. The Ku heterodimer and the metabolism of single-ended DNA double-strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Alessia; Ristic, Dejan; Dionne, Isabelle; Liu, Xiao Z; Wyman, Claire; Wellinger, Raymund J; Petrini, John H J

    2013-06-27

    Single-ended double-strand breaks (DSBs) are a common form of spontaneous DNA break, generated when the replisome encounters a discontinuity in the DNA template. Given their prevalence, understanding the mechanisms governing the fate(s) of single-ended DSBs is important. We describe the influence of the Ku heterodimer and Mre11 nuclease activity on processing of single-ended DSBs. Separation-of-function alleles of yku70 were derived that phenocopy Ku deficiency with respect to single-ended DSBs but remain proficient for NHEJ. The Ku mutants fail to regulate Exo1 activity, and bypass the requirement for Mre11 nuclease activity in the repair of camptothecin-induced single-ended DSBs. Ku mutants exhibited reduced affinity for DNA ends, manifest as both reduced end engagement and enhanced probability of diffusing inward on linear DNA. This study reveals an interplay between Ku and Mre11 in the metabolism of single-ended DSBs that is distinct from repair pathway choice at double-ended DSBs. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantification of Cooperativity in Heterodimer-DNA Binding Improves the Accuracy of Binding Specificity Models*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakova, Alina; Berset, Yves; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily; Deplancke, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Many transcription factors (TFs) have the ability to cooperate on DNA elements as heterodimers. Despite the significance of TF heterodimerization for gene regulation, a quantitative understanding of cooperativity between various TF dimer partners and its impact on heterodimer DNA binding specificity models is still lacking. Here, we used a novel integrative approach, combining microfluidics-steered measurements of dimer-DNA assembly with mechanistic modeling of the implicated protein-protein-DNA interactions to quantitatively interrogate the cooperative DNA binding behavior of the adipogenic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ):retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) heterodimer. Using the high throughput MITOMI (mechanically induced trapping of molecular interactions) platform, we derived equilibrium DNA binding data for PPARγ, RXRα, as well as the PPARγ:RXRα heterodimer to more than 300 target DNA sites and variants thereof. We then quantified cooperativity underlying heterodimer-DNA binding and derived an integrative heterodimer DNA binding constant. Using this cooperativity-inclusive constant, we were able to build a heterodimer-DNA binding specificity model that has superior predictive power than the one based on a regular one-site equilibrium. Our data further revealed that individual nucleotide substitutions within the target site affect the extent of cooperativity in PPARγ:RXRα-DNA binding. Our study therefore emphasizes the importance of assessing cooperativity when generating DNA binding specificity models for heterodimers. PMID:26912662

  17. Quantification of Cooperativity in Heterodimer-DNA Binding Improves the Accuracy of Binding Specificity Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakova, Alina; Berset, Yves; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily; Deplancke, Bart

    2016-05-06

    Many transcription factors (TFs) have the ability to cooperate on DNA elements as heterodimers. Despite the significance of TF heterodimerization for gene regulation, a quantitative understanding of cooperativity between various TF dimer partners and its impact on heterodimer DNA binding specificity models is still lacking. Here, we used a novel integrative approach, combining microfluidics-steered measurements of dimer-DNA assembly with mechanistic modeling of the implicated protein-protein-DNA interactions to quantitatively interrogate the cooperative DNA binding behavior of the adipogenic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ):retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) heterodimer. Using the high throughput MITOMI (mechanically induced trapping of molecular interactions) platform, we derived equilibrium DNA binding data for PPARγ, RXRα, as well as the PPARγ:RXRα heterodimer to more than 300 target DNA sites and variants thereof. We then quantified cooperativity underlying heterodimer-DNA binding and derived an integrative heterodimer DNA binding constant. Using this cooperativity-inclusive constant, we were able to build a heterodimer-DNA binding specificity model that has superior predictive power than the one based on a regular one-site equilibrium. Our data further revealed that individual nucleotide substitutions within the target site affect the extent of cooperativity in PPARγ:RXRα-DNA binding. Our study therefore emphasizes the importance of assessing cooperativity when generating DNA binding specificity models for heterodimers. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. A simple and highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for Setaria viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Kelly Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The production and use of sugarcane in Brazil is very important for bioenergy production and is recognized as one of the most efficient in the world. In our laboratory, Setaria viridis is being tested as a model plant for sugarcane. S. viridis has biological attributes (rapid life cycle, small genome, diploid, short stature and simple growth requirements that make it suitable for use as a model system. We report a highly efficient protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of S. viridis. The optimization of several steps in tissue culture allowed the rapid regeneration of plants and increased the rate of transformation up to 29%. This protocol could become a powerful tool for functional genomics in sugarcane.

  19. Abundance and size distribution of the sacoglossan Elysia viridis on co-occurring algal hosts on the Swedish west coast.

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    Finn A Baumgartner

    Full Text Available Sacoglossans are specialized marine herbivores that tend to have a close evolutionary relationship with their macroalgal hosts, but the widely distributed species Elysia viridis can associate with several algal species. However, most previous investigations on the field abundance and size distribution of E. viridis have focussed on Codium spp. in the British Isles, and algae from this genus are considered superior hosts for E. viridis. In the present study, we investigated the abundance and size distribution of E. viridis on 6 potential host algae with differing morphologies (the septate species Cladophora sericea, Cladophora rupestris, Chaetomorpha melagonium, and Ceramium virgatum, as well as the siphonaceous species Codium fragile and Bryopsis sp. at 2 sites on the Swedish west coast over the course of a year. In spring, slugs were almost absent from all algal hosts. In summer and autumn, E. viridis consistently occurred on several of the algal species at both sites. The highest number of small E. viridis were found on C. sericea, intermediate numbers of significantly larger E. viridis were found on C. rupestris, while fewer, intermediate sized animals were found on C. fragile. Throughout the study period, only a few E. viridis individuals were found on C. melagonium, Bryopsis sp., and C. virgatum. Our results indicate that E. viridis is an annual species in Sweden, capable of exploiting co-occurring congeneric and intergeneric algal hosts with differing morphologies. These results corroborate previous findings that E. viridis can exploit several different algal species, but does not indicate that C. fragile is a superior host.

  20. Establishment of primary cell culture from the temperate symbiotic cnidarian, Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnay-Verdier, Stéphanie; Dall'osso, Diane; Joli, Nathalie; Olivré, Juliette; Priouzeau, Fabrice; Zamoum, Thamilla; Merle, Pierre-Laurent; Furla, Paola

    2013-10-01

    The temperate symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis, a member of the Cnidaria phylum, is a relevant experimental model to investigate the molecular and cellular events involved in the preservation or in the rupture of the symbiosis between the animal cells and their symbiotic microalgae, commonly named zooxanthellae. In order to increase research tools for this model, we developed a primary culture from A. viridis animal cells. By adapting enzymatic dissociation protocols, we isolated animal host cells from a whole tentacle in regeneration state. Each plating resulted in a heterogeneous primary culture consisted of free zooxanthellae and many regular, small rounded and adherent cells (of 3-5 μm diameter). Molecular analyses conducted on primary cultures, maintained for 2 weeks, confirmed a specific signature of A. viridis cells. Further serial dilutions and micromanipulation allowed us to obtain homogenous primary cultures of the small rounded cells, corresponding to A. viridis "epithelial-like cells". The maintenance and the propagation over a 4 weeks period of primary cells provide, for in vitro cnidarian studies, a preliminary step for further investigations on cnidarian cellular pathways notably in regard to symbiosis interactions.

  1. Preliminary study on the bioaccumulation of saxitoxins in Perna viridis through the dissolved pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Carmelo Adrian B.

    2011-03-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a common fear among shellfish consumers. Saxitoxins are the group of compounds that are responsible for PSP. These compounds are produced by Pyrodinium bahamense var compresssum (PbC) which accumulate in perna viridis as they feed on PbC. This study aims to determine the presence of an alternative pathway, called the dissolved pathway, through which saxitoxins accumulate in Perna viridis independent of PbC. Perna viridis were exposed to a certain concentration of saxitoxins for a period of 24 hours and saxitoxin levels were determined at certain times throughout the period. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) - Oshima method was used in the measurement of toxins levels. Results show that mussels accumulate saxitoxins even in the absence of PbC, which supported the hypothesis that an alternative dissolved pathway contributes to the accumulation of saxitoxins in Perna viridis. (author)

  2. Abscission zone development in Setaria viridis and its domesticated relative, Setaria italica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, John G; Kellogg, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-01

    Development of an abscission zone (AZ) is needed for dispersal of seeds, and AZ loss was a critical early step in plant domestication. The AZ forms in different tissues in different species of plants, but whether the AZ is developmentally similar wherever it occurs is unknown. AZ development in Setaria viridis was studied as a representative of the previously uncharacterized subfamily Panicoideae. One accession of the wild species S. viridis and two of its domesticate, S. italica, were studied. Strength of the AZ was measured with a force gauge. Anatomy of the AZ was studied throughout development using bright field and confocal microscopy. The force required to remove a spikelet of S. viridis from the parent plant dropped steadily during development, whereas that required to remove spikelets of S. italica increased initially before stabilizing at a high level. Despite the clear difference in tensile strength of the AZ, anatomical differences between S. viridis and S. italica were subtle, and the position of the AZ was not easy to determine in cross sections of pedicel apices. Staining with DAPI showed that nuclei were present up to and presumably through abscission in S. viridis, and acridine orange staining showed much less lignification than in other cereals. The AZ in Setaria is developmentally and anatomically different from that characterized in rice, barley, and many eudicots. In particular, no set of small, densely cytoplasmic cells is obvious. This difference in anatomy could point to differential genetic control of the structure. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  3. Kleptoplasts photoacclimation state modulates the photobehaviour of the solar-powered sea slug Elysia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartaxana, Paulo; Morelli, Luca; Quintaneiro, Carla; Calado, Gonçalo; Calado, Ricardo; Cruz, Sónia

    2018-04-30

    Some sacoglossan sea slugs incorporate intracellular functional algal chloroplasts (kleptoplasty) for periods ranging from a few days to several months. Whether this association modulates the photobehaviour of solar-powered sea slugs is unknown. In this study, the long-term retention species Elysia viridis showed avoidance of dark independently of light acclimation state. On the contrary, Placida dendritica , which shows non-functional retention of kleptoplasts, showed no preference over dark, low or high light. High light acclimated (HL ac ) E. viridis showed a higher preference for high light than low light acclimated (LL ac ) conspecifics. The position of the lateral folds (parapodia) was modulated by irradiance, with increasing light levels leading to a closure of parapodia and protection of kleptoplasts from high light exposure. Furthermore, closure of parapodia occurred at higher irradiances in HL ac E. viridis Our results strongly indicate that kleptoplasts photoacclimation state modulates the photobehaviour of the solar-powered sea slug E. viridis . © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Complete genome sequence of Saccharomonospora viridis type strain (P101T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pati, Amrita; Sikorski, Johannes; Nolan, Matt; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Lucas, Susan; Chen, Feng; Tice, Hope; Pitluck, Sam; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Chertkov, Olga; Brettin, Thomas; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C.; Kuske, Cheryl; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Chain, Patrick; D' haeseleer, Patrik; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Rohde, Manfred; Tindall, Brian J.; Goker, Markus; Bristow, Jim; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides1, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2009-05-20

    Saccharomonospora viridis (Schuurmans et al. 1956) Nonomurea and Ohara 1971 is the type species of the genus Saccharomonospora which belongs to the family Pseudonocardiaceae. S. viridis is of interest because it is a Gram-negative organism classified amongst the usually Gram-positive actinomycetes. Members of the species are frequently found in hot compost and hay, and its spores can cause farmer?s lung disease, bagassosis, and humidifier fever. Strains of the species S. viridis have been found to metabolize the xenobiotic pentachlorophenol (PCP). The strain described in this study has been isolated from peat-bog in Ireland. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the family Pseudonocardiaceae, and the 4,308,349 bp long single replicon genome with its 3906 protein-coding and 64 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  5. Content Heavy Metal Pb, Cd In Perna viridis And Sediments In Semarang Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprapto, D.; Suryanti, S.; Latifah, N.

    2018-02-01

    Waste disposal from human activities, generally contain heavy metals such as Pb and Cd which derived from industrial activities. The aims of the study were to know the concentration of Pb and Cd heavy metals contained in Perna viridis tissue, sediment and water at Semarang Bay. This study was conducted in May 2017 at Semarang Bay. - Samples were collected using purposive sampling method. The heavy metal content in the water and clam was observed using- APHA method and was analyzed using AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer). The results showed that concentration of heavy metal of Pb in the water was 0.00-50.5mg/L and the Cd content was of 26.9-51.7 mg/L, whereas the concentration of Pb in the sediment is 445.5-2.053.0mg/L and Cd 963.3-2,150.0 mg/L. Pb content in soft tissue of Perna viridis - is 67.1-1.933.9 mg/L and the concentration of Cd was 203.5-5.787.3 mg/L. The analysis of Pb and Cd in seawater, sediment and soft tissue of Perna viridis according to Enviroment Ministerial decree (KepMenLH ) number 51 of 2004 and applied by NOAA 1999 does not exceed the quality standard, that meant that the Perna viridis has been contaminated by metal Pb it is controversial with the above sentence and Cd. It concluded that the metal content of Pb and Cd in Perna viridis tissue exceeds the quality standard, so it is not suitable to be consumed, especially in high quantity

  6. Molecular characterization, ecology, and epidemiology of a novel Tymovirus in Asclepias viridis from Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Byoung-Eun; Feldman, Tracy S; Ali, Akhtar; Wiley, Graham; Muthukumar, Vijay; Roe, Bruce A; Roossinck, Marilyn; Melcher, Ulrich; Palmer, Michael W; Nelson, Richard S

    2012-02-01

    Native virus-plant interactions require more understanding and their study will provide a basis from which to identify potential sources of emerging destructive viruses in crops. A novel tymovirus sequence was detected in Asclepias viridis (green milkweed), a perennial growing in a natural setting in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve (TGPP) of Oklahoma. It was abundant within and frequent among A. viridis plants and, to varying extents, within other dicotyledonous and one grass (Panicum virgatum) species obtained from the TGPP. Extracts from A. viridis containing the sequence were infectious to a limited number of species. The virus genome was cloned and determined to be closely related to Kennedya yellow mosaic virus. The persistence of the virus within the Oklahoma A. viridis population was monitored for five successive years. Virus was present in a high percentage of plants within representative areas of the TGPP in all years and was spreading to additional plants. Virus was present in regions adjacent to the TGPP but not in plants sampled from central and south-central Oklahoma. Virus was present in the underground caudex of the plant during the winter, suggesting overwintering in this tissue. The RNA sequence encoding the virus coat protein varied considerably between individual plants (≈3%), likely due to drift rather than selection. An infectious clone was constructed and the virus was named Asclepias asymptomatic virus (AsAV) due to the absence of obvious symptoms on A. viridis.

  7. Anampses viridis Valenciennes 1840 (Pisces: Labridae)--a case of taxonomic con- fusion and mistaken extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Barry C; Craig, Matthew T

    2013-01-01

    Anampses viridis Valenciennes 1840 is known from only three specimens collected from Mauritius, and despite intensive sampling, the species has not been seen or reported since it was originally described. This apparent failure to 'rediscover' A. viridis at Mauritius has led to speculation that it is extinct, and the species has been widely cited as an example of a marine fish extinction. Far from being extinct, Anampses viridis has been taxonomically confused and actually is the adult male (terminal phase) colour form and a junior synonym of A. caeruleopunctatus Rüppell 1829, a species that is common and widespread throughout the Indo-West Pacific region.

  8. Assessment of pollution in road runoff using a Bufo viridis biological assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorchin, A.; Shanas, U.

    2010-01-01

    Road runoff is a major source of environmental pollution, significantly threatening nearby aquatic habitats. Chemical analyses indicate high pollutant concentrations in the road's 'first flush', but bioassays are more advantageous for addressing the cumulative effects of the numerous pollutants within the runoff. We used Bufo viridis embryos and larvae to assess the toxicity of road runoff from two major highways in Israel. We show, for the first time, that exposure to midseason runoff not only has an adverse effect on growth and development rates of B. viridis larvae but can also lead to increased rates of morphological deformations. Seasonal first flushes, despite having higher metal concentrations, did not adversely affect the toad larvae, apparently due to a counter effect of organic matter that potentially served as a supplementary energy resource. Road runoff can be a major cause for a qualitative decrease in the quality of aquatic habitats threatening amphibians in Israel. - Highway runoff has detrimental effects on the development of B. viridis larvae.

  9. Ni@Fe2O3 heterodimers: controlled synthesis and magnetically recyclable catalytic application for dehalogenation reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhjavan, Bahar; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Natalio, Filipe; Panthöfer, Martin; Gao, Haitao; Dietzsch, Michael; Andre, Rute; Gasi, Teuta; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Branscheid, Robert; Kolb, Ute; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2012-07-01

    Ni@Fe2O3 heterodimer nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by thermal decomposition of organometallic reactants. After functionalization, these Ni@Fe2O3 heterodimers became water soluble. The pristine heterodimeric NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements. A special advantage of the heterodimers lies in the fact that nanodomains of different composition can be used as catalysts for the removal of environmentally hazardous halogenated pollutants.Ni@Fe2O3 heterodimer nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by thermal decomposition of organometallic reactants. After functionalization, these Ni@Fe2O3 heterodimers became water soluble. The pristine heterodimeric NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements. A special advantage of the heterodimers lies in the fact that nanodomains of different composition can be used as catalysts for the removal of environmentally hazardous halogenated pollutants. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr12121b

  10. High mortality and poor growth of green mussels, Perna viridis, in high chlorophyll- a environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, Tan Kar; Denil, Delta Jenetty; Ransangan, Julian

    2016-03-01

    The current study was carried out from May 2014 to April 2015 to estimate the stock status of P. viridis in Marudu Bay. The gonad development was monitored by histological examination, while the population parameters including asymptotic length ( L ∞), growth coefficient ( K), mortality rate ( Z, F and M), exploitation level ( E) and recruitment of P. viridis were estimated using the lengthfrequency data. Results of the current study demonstrated that P. viridis in Marudu Bay spawned throughout the year with two major peaks, one in April to May and another one in October to December. The recruitment pattern was continuous with the peak in May to June 2014, which corresponded to the first spawning peak in April. However, no significant recruitment was observed from the second spawning peak due to the difference in spawning timing between male and female populations. The estimated asymptotic length ( L ∞), growth coefficient ( K), total mortality ( Z), natural mortality ( M), fishing mortality ( F) and growth performance ( φ) of P. viridis in Marudu Bay were estimate to be 117 mm, 0.97 yr-1, 4.39 yr-1, 1.23 yr-1, 3.16 yr-1 and 4.123, respectively. The exponent b of the lengthweight relationship was 2.4 and exploitation level ( E) was 0.72. The high mortality, low condition indices and negative allometric of P. viridis in Marudu Bay is caused by a lack of suitable food in the surrounding water.

  11. Synthesis, morphological control, and antibacterial properties of hollow/solid Ag2S/Ag heterodimers

    KAUST Repository

    Pang, Maolin; Hu, Jiangyong; Zeng, Huachun

    2010-01-01

    of this highly asymmetric dipolar composite, photocatalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli K-12 in the presence of the as-prepared Ag 2S/Ag heterodimers has been carried out under UV irradiation. The added Ag2S/Ag heterodimers show good chemical stability under

  12. Udbredelsen af den invasive børsteorm, Marenzelleria viridis, langs danske kyster – tegn på økologiske konsekvenser?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banta, Gary Thomas; Christoffersen, Kenn

    ud af de 6 resterende stationer vi undersøgte. Antallet af M. viridis på disse stationer var dog beskeden (... tæthed af M. viridis og en række sediment og abiotiske parametre, hvilket bekræfter artens store tolerance overfor det omskiftelige brakvands miljø og sediment karakteristika, der kendetegner de danske kyster. Disse abiotiske parametre understøtter dog forekomsten af lige netop M. viridis frem for de...... andre søskendearter, da sidstnævnte fortrækker enten lavere salinitet eller lavere temperatur end typisk for de danske kyster. Der blev observerede nogle svage negative sammenhæng mellem Marenzelleria viridis og de naturligt forekommende arter, såsom Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor, Corophium spp. og...

  13. Comprehensive EST analysis of the symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourault, Cécile; Ganot, Philippe; Deleury, Emeline; Allemand, Denis; Furla, Paola

    2009-07-23

    Coral reef ecosystems are renowned for their diversity and beauty. Their immense ecological success is due to a symbiotic association between cnidarian hosts and unicellular dinoflagellate algae, known as zooxanthellae. These algae are photosynthetic and the cnidarian-zooxanthellae association is based on nutritional exchanges. Maintenance of such an intimate cellular partnership involves many crosstalks between the partners. To better characterize symbiotic relationships between a cnidarian host and its dinoflagellate symbionts, we conducted a large-scale EST study on a symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis, in which the two tissue layers (epiderm and gastroderm) can be easily separated. A single cDNA library was constructed from symbiotic tissue of sea anemones A. viridis in various environmental conditions (both normal and stressed). We generated 39,939 high quality ESTs, which were assembled into 14,504 unique sequences (UniSeqs). Sequences were analysed and sorted according to their putative origin (animal, algal or bacterial). We identified many new repeated elements in the 3'UTR of most animal genes, suggesting that these elements potentially have a biological role, especially with respect to gene expression regulation. We identified genes of animal origin that have no homolog in the non-symbiotic starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis genome, but in other symbiotic cnidarians, and may therefore be involved in the symbiosis relationship in A. viridis. Comparison of protein domain occurrence in A. viridis with that in N. vectensis demonstrated an increase in abundance of some molecular functions, such as protein binding or antioxidant activity, suggesting that these functions are essential for the symbiotic state and may be specific adaptations. This large dataset of sequences provides a valuable resource for future studies on symbiotic interactions in Cnidaria. The comparison with the closest available genome, the sea anemone N. vectensis, as well as

  14. Comprehensive EST analysis of the symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deleury Emeline

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coral reef ecosystems are renowned for their diversity and beauty. Their immense ecological success is due to a symbiotic association between cnidarian hosts and unicellular dinoflagellate algae, known as zooxanthellae. These algae are photosynthetic and the cnidarian-zooxanthellae association is based on nutritional exchanges. Maintenance of such an intimate cellular partnership involves many crosstalks between the partners. To better characterize symbiotic relationships between a cnidarian host and its dinoflagellate symbionts, we conducted a large-scale EST study on a symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis, in which the two tissue layers (epiderm and gastroderm can be easily separated. Results A single cDNA library was constructed from symbiotic tissue of sea anemones A. viridis in various environmental conditions (both normal and stressed. We generated 39,939 high quality ESTs, which were assembled into 14,504 unique sequences (UniSeqs. Sequences were analysed and sorted according to their putative origin (animal, algal or bacterial. We identified many new repeated elements in the 3'UTR of most animal genes, suggesting that these elements potentially have a biological role, especially with respect to gene expression regulation. We identified genes of animal origin that have no homolog in the non-symbiotic starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis genome, but in other symbiotic cnidarians, and may therefore be involved in the symbiosis relationship in A. viridis. Comparison of protein domain occurrence in A. viridis with that in N. vectensis demonstrated an increase in abundance of some molecular functions, such as protein binding or antioxidant activity, suggesting that these functions are essential for the symbiotic state and may be specific adaptations. Conclusion This large dataset of sequences provides a valuable resource for future studies on symbiotic interactions in Cnidaria. The comparison with the closest

  15. Activation of RXR–PPAR heterodimers by organotin environmental endocrine disruptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Maire, Albane; Grimaldi, Marina; Roecklin, Dominique; Dagnino, Sonia; Vivat-Hannah, Valérie; Balaguer, Patrick; Bourguet, William

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear receptor retinoid X receptor-α (RXR-α)–peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) heterodimer was recently reported to have a crucial function in mediating the deleterious effects of organotin compounds, which are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. However, because organotins are unrelated to known RXR-α and PPAR-γ ligands, the mechanism by which these compounds bind to and activate the RXR-α–PPAR-γ heterodimer at nanomolar concentrations has remained elusive. Here, we show that tributyltin (TBT) activates all three RXR–PPAR-α, -γ, -δ heterodimers, primarily through its interaction with RXR. In addition, the 1.9 Å resolution structure of the RXR-α ligand-binding domain in complex with TBT shows a covalent bond between the tin atom and residue Cys 432 of helix H11. This interaction largely accounts for the high binding affinity of TBT, which only partly occupies the RXR-α ligand-binding pocket. Our data allow an understanding of the binding and activation properties of the various organotins and suggest a mechanism by which these tin compounds could affect other nuclear receptor signalling pathways. PMID:19270714

  16. Perdas causadas por Coccus viridis (Hemiptera: Coccidae em mudas de Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Lemes Fernandes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Coccus viridis (Green danifica plantas jovens e adultas de Coffea arabica Linnaeu. No entanto, nada se sabe sobre a magnitude dos danos causados por esta praga. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar as relações entre o ataque de C. viridis e as perdas causadas por este inseto a C. arabica. Este trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Foram utilizadas sementes da linhagem IAC 15 da variedade “Catuaí vermelho” de café (C. arabica. Para a confecção dos tratamentos esta praga foi criada em casa de vegetação separada do experimento. Os tratamentos foram: plantas infestadas e não infestadas por adultos e ninfas da cochonilha verde. As plantas foram nutridas com solução nutritiva. Durante 110 dias foram avaliados: números de adultos e de ninfas de primeiro, segundo e terceiro ínstares, área foliar, diâmetro do caule, altura das plantas em todas repetições. No final do experimento avaliou-se o peso das raízes, caule, folhas e total. Os pesos das raízes, matéria seca total, área foliar e diâmetro do caule de plantas não atacadas por C. viridis superaram em 1,31; 1,41; 1,50 e 8,93 vezes, respectivamente o peso de plantas atacadas. As variáveis selecionadas foram: diâmetro do caule (cm, área foliar (cm², peso de raízes (g, ninfas, adultos e total das cochonilhas. Concluindo que a planta de C. arabica é afetada de forma diferente entre seus órgãos e que a ninfa de terceiro ínstar e adultos são as fases que mais causam danos a C. arabica.Losses Caused by Coccus viridis (Green (Hemiptera: Coccidae on Seedlings of Coffea arabica L.Abstract. Coccus viridis (Green cause losses on seedling and old plants of Coffea arabica (Green. However, nothing is known about of the damages caused by this pest. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the relations between atack of C. viridis and the losses caused by this insect. on C. arabica. This work was conduced in greenhouse at

  17. Setaria viridis and Setaria italica, model genetic systems for the Panicoid grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pinghua; Brutnell, Thomas P

    2011-05-01

    Setaria italica and its wild ancestor Setaria viridis are diploid C(4) grasses with small genomes of ∼515 Mb. Both species have attributes that make them attractive as model systems. Setaria italica is a grain crop widely grown in Northern China and India that is closely related to the major food and feed crops maize and sorghum. A large collection of S. italica accessions are available and thus opportunities exist for association mapping and allele mining for novel variants that will have direct application in agriculture. Setaria viridis is the weedy relative of S. italica with many attributes suitable for genetic analyses including a small stature, rapid life cycle, and prolific seed production. Setaria sp. are morphologically similar to most of the Panicoideae grasses, including major biofuel feedstocks, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and Miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus). They are broadly distributed geographically and occupy diverse ecological niches. The cross-compatibility of S. italica and S. viridis also suggests that gene flow is likely between wild and domesticated accessions. In addition to serving as excellent models for C(4) photosynthesis, these grasses provide novel opportunities to study abiotic stress tolerance and as models for bioenergy feedstocks.

  18. Synthesis, morphological control, and antibacterial properties of hollow/solid Ag2S/Ag heterodimers

    KAUST Repository

    Pang, Maolin

    2010-08-11

    Ag2S and Ag are important functional materials that have received considerable research interest in recent years. In this work, we develop a solution-based synthetic method to combine these two materials into hollow/solid Ag2S/Ag heterodimers at room temperature. Starting from monodisperse Cu2O solid spheres, CuS hollow spheres can be converted from Cu2O through a modified Kirkendall process, and the obtained CuS can then be used as a solid precursor for preparation of the Ag2S/Ag heterodimers through ion exchange and photo-assisted reduction. We have found that formation of the Ag2S/Ag heterodimers is instantaneous, and the size of Ag nanocrystals on the hollow spheres of Ag2S can be controlled by changing the concentration and power of reducing agents in the synthesis. The growth of Ag nanoparticles on hollow spheres of Ag2S in the dimers is along the [111] direction of the silver crystal; the light absorption properties have also been investigated. Furthermore, coupling or tripling of Ag2S/Ag heterodimers into dumbbell-like trimers ((Ag 2S)2/Ag, linear) and triangular tetramers ((Ag 2S)3/Ag, coplanar) can also be attained at 60°C by adding the bidentate ligand ethylenediamine as a cross-linking agent. To test the applicability of this highly asymmetric dipolar composite, photocatalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli K-12 in the presence of the as-prepared Ag 2S/Ag heterodimers has been carried out under UV irradiation. The added Ag2S/Ag heterodimers show good chemical stability under prolonged UV irradiation, and no appreciable solid dissolution is found. Possible mechanisms regarding the enhanced antibacterial activity have also been addressed. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  19. Comparative venomics of the Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) from Colorado: Identification of a novel pattern of ontogenetic changes in venom composition and assessment of the immunoreactivity of the commercial antivenom CroFab®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviola, Anthony J; Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Castoe, Todd A; Calvete, Juan J; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2015-05-21

    Here we describe and compare the venomic and antivenomic characteristics of both neonate and adult Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) venoms. Although both neonate and adult venoms contain unique components, similarities among protein family content were seen. Both neonate and adult venoms consisted of myotoxin, bradykinin-potentiating peptide (BPP), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), Zn(2+)-dependent metalloproteinase (SVMP), serine proteinase, L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO), cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) and disintegrin families. Quantitative differences, however, were observed, with venoms of adults containing significantly higher concentrations of the non-enzymatic toxic compounds and venoms of neonates containing higher concentrations of pre-digestive enzymatic proteins such as SVMPs. To assess the relevance of this venom variation in the context of snakebite and snakebite treatment, we tested the efficacy of the common antivenom CroFab® for recognition of both adult and neonate venoms in vitro. This comparison revealed that many of the major protein families (SVMPs, CRISP, PLA2, serine proteases, and LAAO) in both neonate and adult venoms were immunodepleted by the antivenom, whereas myotoxins, one of the major toxic components of C. v. viridis venom, in addition to many of the small peptides, were not efficiently depleted by CroFab®. These results therefore provide a comprehensive catalog of the venom compounds present in C. v. viridis venom and new molecular insight into the potential efficacy of CroFab® against human envenomations by one of the most widely distributed rattlesnake species in North America. Comparative proteomic analysis of venoms of neonate and adult Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) from a discrete population in Colorado revealed a novel pattern of ontogenetic shifts in toxin composition for viperid snakes. The observed stage-dependent decrease of the relative content of disintegrins, catalytically active D49-PLA2s

  20. Whole transcriptome analysis using next-generation sequencing of model species Setaria viridis to support C4 photosynthesis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiajia; Li, Yuanyuan; Ma, Xiuling; Ding, Jianfeng; Wang, Kai; Wang, Sisi; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Hui; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2013-09-01

    Setaria viridis is an emerging model species for genetic studies of C4 photosynthesis. Many basic molecular resources need to be developed to support for this species. In this paper, we performed a comprehensive transcriptome analysis from multiple developmental stages and tissues of S. viridis using next-generation sequencing technologies. Sequencing of the transcriptome from multiple tissues across three developmental stages (seed germination, vegetative growth, and reproduction) yielded a total of 71 million single end 100 bp long reads. Reference-based assembly using Setaria italica genome as a reference generated 42,754 transcripts. De novo assembly generated 60,751 transcripts. In addition, 9,576 and 7,056 potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs) covering S. viridis genome were identified when using the reference based assembled transcripts and the de novo assembled transcripts, respectively. This identified transcripts and SSR provided by this study can be used for both reverse and forward genetic studies based on S. viridis.

  1. Plasmonic Heterodimers with Binding Site-Dependent Hot Spot for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuanyuan; Shuai, Zhenhua; Shen, Jingjing; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Shufen; Song, Chunyuan; Zhao, Baomin; Fan, Quli; Wang, Lianhui

    2018-05-07

    A novel plasmonic heterodimer nanostructure with a controllable self-assembled hot spot is fabricated by the conjugation of individual Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes (Au@Ag NCs) and varisized gold nanospheres (GNSs) via the biotin-streptavidin interaction from the ensemble to the single-assembly level. Due to their featured configurations, three types of heterogeneous nanostructures referred to as Vertice, Vicinity, and Middle are proposed and a single hot spot forms between the nanocube and nanosphere, which exhibits distinct diversity in surface plasmon resonance effect. Herein, the calculated surface-enhanced Raman scattering enhancement factors of the three types of heterodimers show a narrow distribution and can be tuned in orders of magnitude by controlling the size of GNSs onto individual Au@Ag NCs. Particularly, the Vertice heterodimer with unique configuration can provide extraordinary enhancement of the electric field for the single hot spot region due to the collaborative interaction of lightning rod effect and interparticle plasmon coupling effect. This established relationship between the architecture and the corresponding optical properties of the heterodimers provides the basis for creating controllable platforms which can be exploited in the applications of plasmonic devices, electronics, and biodetection. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Dissecting the role of distinct OCT4-SOX2 heterodimer configurations in pluripotency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Natalia; MacCarthy, Caitlin; Esch, Daniel; Gabriele Marthaler, Adele; Tiemann, Ulf; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J.; Jauch, Ralf; Cojocaru, Vlad; Schöler, Hans R.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factors OCT4 and SOX2 are required for generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and for maintaining embryonic stem cells (ESCs). OCT4 and SOX2 associate and bind to DNA in different configurations depending on the arrangement of their individual DNA binding elements. Here we have investigated the role of the different OCT4-SOX2-DNA assemblies in regulating and inducing pluripotency. To this end, we have generated SOX2 mutants that interfere with specific OCT4-SOX2 heterodimer configurations and assessed their ability to generate iPSCs and to rescue ESC self-renewal. Our results demonstrate that the OCT4-SOX2 configuration that dimerizes on a Hoxb1-like composite, a canonical element with juxtaposed individual binding sites, plays a more critical role in the induction and maintenance of pluripotency than any other OCT4-SOX2 configuration. Overall, the results of this study provide new insight into the protein interactions required to establish a de novo pluripotent network and to maintain a true pluripotent cell fate. PMID:26314899

  3. Genetic characterization of Perna viridis L. in peninsular Malaysia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A total of 19 polymorphic microsatellite loci were used to analyse levels of genetic variation for 10 populations of Perna viridis L. collected from all over peninsular Malaysia. The populations involved in this study included Pulau Aman in Penang, Tanjung Rhu in Kedah, Bagan Tiang in Perak, Pulau Ketam in Selangor, Muar, ...

  4. Tolerance of High Inorganic Mercury of Perna viridis : Laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tolerance of High Inorganic Mercury of Perna viridis : Laboratory Studies of Its Accumulation, Depuration and Distribution. ... coefficient, indicating that it could act as one of the excretion routes for Hg and it can be proposed as a sensitive biomonitoring material for Hg. The fecal materials released by the mussel had elevated ...

  5. Characterization of PUD-1 and PUD-2, two proteins up-regulated in a long-lived daf-2 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yue-He; Du, Yun-Guang; Luo, Shukun; Li, Yu-Xin; Li, Tie-Mei; Yoshina, Sawako; Wang, Xing; Klage, Karsten; Mitani, Shohei; Ye, Keqiong; Dong, Meng-Qiu

    2013-01-01

    C. elegans PUD-1 and PUD-2, two proteins up-regulated in daf-2(loss-of-function) (PUD), are homologous 17-kD proteins with a large abundance increase in long-lived daf-2 mutant animals of reduced insulin signaling. In this study, we show that both PUD-1 and PUD-2 are abundantly expressed in the intestine and hypodermis, and form a heterodimer. We have solved their crystal structure to 1.9-Å resolution and found that both proteins adopt similar β-sandwich folds in the V-shaped dimer. In contrast, their homologs PUD-3, PUD-4, PUDL-1 and PUDL-2 are all monomeric proteins with distinct expression patterns in C. elegans. Thus, the PUD-1/PUD-2 heterodimer probably has a function distinct from their family members. Neither overexpression nor deletion of pud-1 and pud-2 affected the lifespan of WT or daf-2 mutant animals, suggesting that their induction in daf-2 worms does not contribute to longevity. Curiously, deletion of pud-1 and pud-2 was associated with a protective effect against paralysis induced by the amyloid β-peptide (1-42), which further enhanced the protection conferred by daf-2(RNAi) against Aβ.

  6. MODULACIÓN DE LA SINTESIS DE METALOTIONINAS EN Perna viridis PREEXPUESTOS A COBRE Y EXPUESTOS A CADMIO | MODULATION OF METALLOTHIONEIN SYNTHESIS IN Perna viridis PRE EXPOSED TO COPPER AND EXPOSED TO CADMIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marín Lemus,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The metallothioneins (Mts have been used as biomarkers because toxic metals such as Hg, Cd, Cu can induce their synthesis; however, environmental factors and the presence of other xenobiotics can determine the magnitude of the response in future exposures to metal ions. Metallothionein concentration was determinate in the soft tissue of Perna viridis juveniles pre-exposed to Cu and exposed to Cd (Cu/Cd for 21 days. For this, three experimental groups were established: exposed to Cd, pre-exposed to Cu and exposed to Cd and the control group (no metal. Cadmium accumulation in tissues of P. viridis was significantly higher in pre-exposed organisms to Cu, with an average value of 6.6 ± 1.9 mg/g, while in those exposed to Cd, was 4.7 ± 2.4 mg/g. Mts concentrations were also higher in the Cu/Cd experimental group, with a value of 1.36 ± 0.52 mg/g in relation to those exposed to Cd which had a value of 0.79 ± 0.47 mg/g. The relationship between Mts and bioaccumulation of Cd was significant in the group exposed to Cd, but not in the exposed Cu/Cd. These results suggest that Cu possibly acted as an inducer of Mts in the body, which led to increased accumulation of Cd in P. viridis and increase in Mts concentration. Tolerance and bioaccumulation of Cd in P. viridis was determined by previous exposure of the organism and hence its response on levels of MTs also depends on it.

  7. A serine protease inhibitor from hemolymph of green mussel, Perna viridis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khan, M.S.; Goswami, U.; Rojatkar, S.R.; Khan, M.I.

    Bioactivity guided fractions of cell-free hemolymph of bacterially challenged marine mussel, Perna viridis led to the isolation of a novel quaternary alkaloid 1, which was identified by its spectral data. The isolated molecule 1 has been found...

  8. SdAb heterodimer formation using leucine zippers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ellen R.; Anderson, George P.; Brozozog-Lee, P. Audrey; Zabetakis, Dan

    2013-05-01

    Single domain antibodies (sdAb) are variable domains cloned from camel, llama, or shark heavy chain only antibodies, and are among the smallest known naturally derived antigen binding fragments. SdAb derived from immunized llamas are able to bind antigens with high affinity, and most are capable of refolding after heat or chemical denaturation to bind antigen again. We hypothesized that the ability to produce heterodimeric sdAb would enable reagents with the robust characteristics of component sdAb, but with dramatically improved overall affinity through increased avidity. Previously we had constructed multimeric sdAb by genetically linking sdAb that bind non-overlapping epitopes on the toxin, ricin. In this work we explored a more flexible approach; the construction of multivalent binding reagents using multimerization domains. We expressed anti-ricin sdAb that recognize different epitopes on the toxin as fusions with differently charged leucine zippers. When the initially produced homodimers are mixed the leucine zipper domains will pair to produce heterodimers. We used fluorescence resonance energy transfer to confirm heterodimer formation. Surface plasmon resonance, circular dichroism, enzyme linked immunosorbent assays, and fluid array assays were used to characterize the multimer constructs, and evaluate their utility in toxin detection.

  9. Excitation dynamics and relaxation in a molecular heterodimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balevičius, V.; Gelzinis, A.; Abramavicius, D.; Mančal, T.; Valkunas, L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dynamics of excitation within a heterogenous molecular dimer. ► Excited states can be swapped due to different reorganization energies of monomers. ► Conventional excitonic basis becomes renormalized due to interaction with the bath. ► Relaxation is independent of mutual positioning of monomeric excited states. -- Abstract: The exciton dynamics in a molecular heterodimer is studied as a function of differences in excitation and reorganization energies, asymmetry in transition dipole moments and excited state lifetimes. The heterodimer is composed of two molecules modeled as two-level systems coupled by the resonance interaction. The system-bath coupling is taken into account as a modulating factor of the molecular excitation energy gap, while the relaxation to the ground state is treated phenomenologically. Comparison of the description of the excitation dynamics modeled using either the Redfield equations (secular and full forms) or the Hierarchical quantum master equation (HQME) is demonstrated and discussed. Possible role of the dimer as an excitation quenching center in photosynthesis self-regulation is discussed. It is concluded that the system-bath interaction rather than the excitonic effect determines the excitation quenching ability of such a dimer.

  10. Comparative performance of the mussels Perna perna and Perna viridis, cultivated at four different depths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marielyn García

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aims to evaluate the effect of environmental variability on the growth and survival of the subtropical and tropical mussels Perna perna and Perna viridis at four different culture depths in the Gulf of Cariaco during an annual cycle. Juveniles of P. perna (39.1±1.88 mm in shell length and P. viridis (36.7±1.87 mm were sown on nylon ropes (3/4" and suspended from a raft at 1, 3, 6 and 9 m depths. Every six weeks, three replicates of each species were sampled (10 individuals per replicate at each depth. Growth parameters were determined: mass and shell length, dry mass of soft tissues as well as fouling and survival rates. Temperature, transparency, chlorophyll a, oxygen, salinity and particulate organic and inorganic matter were recorded at each culture depth for the purpose of relating growth and survival to environmental change. The results show that the growth of both species was linked to the environment, especially with regard to the influence of the food and temperature. A period of stagnant growth of P. perna was associated with the higher temperature and lower phytoplankton biomass that is characteristic of the season with prevalent water column stratification (August-November 2007. By contrast, the growth of P. viridis did not stagnate, although it was gradual and relatively lower. At the end, P. perna achieved higher growth rates than P. viridis. Possible culture strategies to improve the production of both mussel species are discussed.

  11. Inter-population thermal variability and physiological response in the intertidal fish Scartichthys viridis (Blenniidae Variabilidad térmica intrapoblacional y respuesta fisiológica en el pez intermareal Scartichthys viridis (Blenniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ M PULGAR

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Determining habitat conditions that generate individual physiological variability represents key basic knowledge to understand the direction of animal's responses to habitat change. The coastal fish Scartichthys viridis inhabits low intertidal pools along the Chilean coast. Because seawater in the low intertidal is renewed during every tidal cycle, this zone is characterized by a low thermal variation and abundant food within and between localities. We evaluated whether seawater thermal conditions and food availability of low intertidal pools registered in three localities of Chilean coast are sufficient to generate physiological and energetic differences in individuals of S. viridis captured from three geographic separate populations spanning approximately 1,200 km. Southern fishes acclimatized to 25 °C showed higher metabolic rates than those from other localities and thermal treatments. On the other hand, southern fishes in natural conditions showed higher condition factor than northern fishes. This evidence is sufficient to indicate that slight latitudinal differences in tidepool seawater temperature associated to differential food availability induced an energetic constraint in this species. Moreover, southern population of S. viridis may suffer important effects on energetic allocation if seawater temperature increases slightly, with repercussions on its geographic distribution in southern Pacific OceanDeterminar las condiciones del ambiente que generan variabilidad fisiológica, representa un conocimiento básico para comprender el sentido de la respuesta de los animales a los cambios en su habitat. El pez costero Scartichthys viridis habita las pozas bajas del intermareal a lo largo de la costa chilena. Debido a que el agua de mar se renueva en cada ciclo de marea en las pozas bajas, esta zona está caracterizada por una baja variación térmica y abundante alimento entre localidades. Nosotros evaluamos si las condiciones térmicas y la

  12. Intoxication of sheep exposed to ozark milkweed (Asclepias viridis Walter).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R A; Scharko, P; Bolin, D; Hong, C B

    2000-12-01

    Some 20 sheep died 1 at a time on a farm in Fleming County, KY, in late July of 1999 after consumption of Asclepias viridis Walter. Major histological lesions were mild multifocal nonsuppurative myocarditis. Gross pathology revealed wet and heavy lungs. Many affected animals had a hunched appearance, and marked posterior paresis was also observed.

  13. Biochemical characterization and cellular effects of CADASIL mutants of NOTCH3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Meng

    Full Text Available Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL is the best understood cause of dominantly inherited stroke and results from NOTCH3 mutations that lead to NOTCH3 protein accumulation and selective arterial smooth muscle degeneration. Previous studies show that NOTCH3 protein forms multimers. Here, we investigate protein interactions between NOTCH3 and other vascular Notch isoforms and characterize the effects of elevated NOTCH3 on smooth muscle gene regulation. We demonstrate that NOTCH3 forms heterodimers with NOTCH1, NOTCH3, and NOTCH4. R90C and C49Y mutant NOTCH3 form complexes which are more resistant to detergents than wild type NOTCH3 complexes. Using quantitative NOTCH3-luciferase clearance assays, we found significant inhibition of mutant NOTCH3 clearance. In coculture assays of NOTCH function, overexpressed wild type and mutant NOTCH3 significantly repressed NOTCH-regulated smooth muscle transcripts and potently impaired the activity of three independent smooth muscle promoters. Wildtype and R90C recombinant NOTCH3 proteins applied to cell cultures also blocked canonical Notch fuction. We conclude that CADASIL mutants of NOTCH3 complex with NOTCH1, 3, and 4, slow NOTCH3 clearance, and that overexpressed wild type and mutant NOTCH3 protein interfere with key NOTCH-mediated functions in smooth muscle cells.

  14. Controlled synthesis of PbS-Au nanostar-nanoparticle heterodimers and cap-like Au nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nana; Li, Lianshan; Huang, Teng; Qi, Limin

    2010-11-01

    Uniform PbS-Au nanostar-nanoparticle heterodimers consisting of one Au nanoparticle grown on one horn of a well-defined six-horn PbS nanostar were prepared using the PbS nanostars as growth substrates for the selective deposition of Au nanoparticles. The size of the Au nanoparticles on the horns of the PbS nanostars could be readily adjusted by changing the PbS concentration for the deposition of Au nanoparticles. An optimum cetyltrimethylammonium bromide concentration and temperature were essential for the selective deposition of uniform Au nanoparticles on single horns of the PbS nanostars. Unusual PbS-Au nanoframe-nanoparticle heterodimers were obtained by etching the PbS-Au nanostar-nanoparticle heterodimers with oxalic acid while novel cap-like Au nanoparticles were obtained by etching with hydrochloric acid. The obtained heterodimeric nanostructures and cap-like nanoparticles are promising candidates for anisotropic nanoscale building blocks for the controllable assembly of useful, complex architectures.

  15. A taxonomic review of the Dark-winged Trumpeter Psophia viridis (Aves: Gruiformes: Psophiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Oppenheimer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dark-winged Trumpeter, Psophia viridis (Gruiformes, Psophiidae is a Brazilian endemic species and includes three subspecies: Psophia viridis viridis Spix, 1825; Psophia v. dextralis Conover, 1934, and Psophia v. obscura Pelzeln, 1857, as well as P. v. interjecta Griscom & Greenway, 1937, whose validity has been questioned by several authors. These taxa are allopatric in distribution along the south of the Amazon River, although the precise limits of their distribution still remain unknown. This complex has never been taxonomically reviewed and this work aims to test the validity of its taxa based on the Phylogenetic Species Concept. Morphometrical characters and plumage colour patterns were analyzed, and the distribution of the taxa was also revised. In this study, 108 specimens from 41 localities were examined (all types included, with each reliable literature-based locality being included in order to delimit the geographical distribution of the complex. Morphometrical data did not point out significant differences between the taxa, also showing no sexual dimorphism among them. Meanwhile, plumage characters showed consistent and distinct patterns for each of the taxa, except for P. v. interjecta, whose features indicated by authors as diagnosable are the result of individual variation. No clinal variation or intergradation were observed, even at regions close to the rivers headwaters, where supposedly populations could be in contact. It is suggested that the currently accepted subspecies be elevated to the species level, such as: Psophia viridis Spix, 1825, distributed in the Madeira-Tapajós interfluvium, P. dextralis, found in the Tapajós-Tocantins interfluvium, and P. obscura, which occurs from the right bank of the Tocantins River to the west of the State of Maranhão.Os jacamins-de-costas-verdes, Psophia viridis (Gruiformes, Psophiidae são endêmicos da Amazônia brasileira e contam, atualmente, com três subespécies reconhecidas

  16. Plasmon-mediated binding forces on gold or silver homodimer and heterodimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaw, Jiunn-Woei; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Kuo, Mao-Kuen

    2016-01-01

    This study theoretically investigates plasmon-mediated optical binding forces, which are exerted on metal homo or heterodimers, induced by the normal illumination of a linearly polarized plane wave or Gaussian beam. Using the multiple multipole method, we analyzed the optical force in terms of Maxwell's stress tensor for various interparticle distance at some specific wavelengths. Numerical results show that for a given wavelength there are several stable equilibrium distances between two nanoparticles (NPs) of a homodimer, which are slightly shorter than some integer multiples of the wavelength in medium, such that metal dimer acts as bonded together. At these specific interparticle distances, the optical force between dimer is null and serves a restoring force, which is repulsive and attractive, respectively, as the two NPs are moving closer to and away from each other. The spring constant of the restoring force at the first stable equilibrium is always the largest, indicating that the first stable equilibrium distance is the most stable one. Moreover, the central line (orientation) of a dimer tends to be perpendicular to the polarization of light. For the cases of heterodimers, the phenomenon of stable equilibrium interparticle distance still exists, except there is an extra net photophoretic force drifting the heterodimer as one. Moreover, gradient force provided by a Gaussian beam may reduce the stability of these equilibriums, so larger NPs are preferred to stabilize a dimer under illumination of Gaussian beam. The finding may pave the way for using optical manipulation on the gold or silver colloidal self-assembly. - Highlights: • Optical binding force on Au/Ag dimer by linearly polarized light is studied. • For a wavelength several stable equilibriums for homodimer bound together exist. • The central line of a dimer tends to be perpendicular to the polarization of light. • For a heterodimer, stable equilibriums still exist with a net photophoretic

  17. The duplicated B-class heterodimer model: whorl-specific effects and complex genetic interactions in Petunia hybrida flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbussche, Michiel; Zethof, Jan; Royaert, Stefan; Weterings, Koen; Gerats, Tom

    2004-03-01

    In both Antirrhinum (Antirrhinum majus) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the floral B-function, which specifies petal and stamen development, is embedded in a heterodimer consisting of one DEFICIENS (DEF)/APETALA3 (AP3)-like and one GLOBOSA (GLO)/PISTILLATA (PI)-like MADS box protein. Here, we demonstrate that gene duplications in both the DEF/AP3 and GLO/PI lineages in Petunia hybrida (petunia) have led to a functional diversification of their respective members, which is reflected by partner specificity and whorl-specific functions among these proteins. Previously, it has been shown that mutations in PhDEF (formerly known as GREEN PETALS) only affect petal development. We have isolated insertion alleles for PhGLO1 (FLORAL BINDING PROTEIN1) and PhGLO2 (PETUNIA MADS BOX GENE2) and demonstrate unique and redundant properties of PhDEF, PhGLO1, and PhGLO2. Besides a full homeotic conversion of petals to sepals and of stamens to carpels as observed in phglo1 phglo2 and phdef phglo2 flowers, we found that gene dosage effects for several mutant combinations cause qualitative and quantitative changes in whorl 2 and 3 meristem fate, and we show that the PHDEF/PHGLO1 heterodimer controls the fusion of the stamen filaments with the petal tube. Nevertheless, when the activity of PhDEF, PhGLO1, and PhGLO2 are considered jointly, they basically appear to function as DEF/GLO does in Antirrhinum and to a lesser extent as AP3/PI in Arabidopsis. By contrast, our data suggest that the function of the fourth B-class MADS box member, the paleoAP3-type PETUNIA HYBRIDA TM6 (PhTM6) gene, differs significantly from the known euAP3-type DEF/AP3-like proteins; PhTM6 is mainly expressed in the developing stamens and ovary of wild-type flowers, whereas its expression level is upregulated in whorls 1 and 2 of an A-function floral mutant; PhTM6 is most likely not involved in petal development. The latter is consistent with the hypothesis that the evolutionary origin of the higher eudicot

  18. The polar 2e/12c bond in phenalenyl-azaphenalenyl hetero-dimers: Stronger stacking interaction and fascinating interlayer charge transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Rong-Lin; Li, Zhi-Ru, E-mail: hlxu@nenu.edu.cn, E-mail: lzr@jlu.edu.cn [Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Xu, Hong-Liang, E-mail: hlxu@nenu.edu.cn, E-mail: lzr@jlu.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Material Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin 130024 (China)

    2016-08-07

    An increasing number of chemists have focused on the two-electron/multicenter bond (2e/mc) that was first introduced to interpret the bonding mechanism of radical dimers. Herein, we report the polar two-electron/twelve center (2e/12c) bonding character in a series of phenalenyl-azaphenalenyl radical hetero-dimers. Interestingly, the bonding energy of weaker polar hetero-dimer (P-TAP) is dominated by the overlap of the two different singly occupied molecular orbital of radicals, while that of stronger polar hetero-dimer (P-HAP) is dominated by the electrostatic attraction. Results show that the difference between the electronegativity of the monomers plays a prominent role in the essential attribution of the polar 2e/12c bond. Correspondingly, a stronger stacking interaction in the hetero-dimer could be effectively achieved by increasing the difference of nitrogen atoms number between the monomers. It is worthy of note that an interesting interlayer charge transfer character is induced in the polar hetero-dimers, which is dependent on the difference between the electronegativity of the monomers. It is our expectation that the new knowledge about the bonding nature of radical hetero-dimers might provide important information for designing radical based functional materials with various applications.

  19. Changes in microbial communities associated with the sea anemone Anemonia viridis in a natural pH gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meron, Dalit; Buia, Maria-Cristina; Fine, Maoz; Banin, Ehud

    2013-02-01

    Ocean acidification, resulting from rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, is a pervasive stressor that can affect many marine organisms and their symbionts. Studies which examine the host physiology and microbial communities have shown a variety of responses to the ocean acidification process. Recently, several studies were conducted based on field experiments, which take place in natural CO(2) vents, exposing the host to natural environmental conditions of varying pH. This study examines the sea anemone Anemonia viridis which is found naturally along the pH gradient in Ischia, Italy, with an aim to characterize whether exposure to pH impacts the holobiont. The physiological parameters of A. viridis (Symbiodinium density, protein, and chlorophyll a+c concentration) and its microbial community were monitored. Although reduction in pH was seen to have had an impact on composition and diversity of associated microbial communities, no significant changes were observed in A. viridis physiology, and no microbial stress indicators (i.e., pathogens, antibacterial activity, etc.) were detected. In light of these results, it appears that elevated CO(2) does not have a negative influence on A. viridis that live naturally in the site. This suggests that natural long-term exposure and dynamic diverse microbial communities may contribute to the acclimation process of the host in a changing pH environment.

  20. The invasive Asian green mussel Perna viridis in South Africa: all ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Asian green mussel Perna viridis is an invasive Indo-Pacific species recently reported from South African harbours. To verify the invasion, a phylogenetic (and morphological) analysis of green-shelled mussels (n = 39), found in six South African harbours, was conducted using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase ...

  1. Critical role of RanBP2-mediated SUMOylation of Small Heterodimer Partner in maintaining bile acid homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kwon, Sanghoon; Byun, Sangwon; Xiao, Zhen; Park, Sean; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Chiang, Cheng-Ming; Kemper, Byron; Kemper, Jongsook Kim

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are recently recognized signalling molecules that profoundly affect metabolism. Because of detergent-like toxicity, BA levels must be tightly regulated. An orphan nuclear receptor, Small Heterodimer Partner (SHP), plays a key role in this regulation, but how SHP senses the BA signal for feedback transcriptional responses is not clearly understood. We show an unexpected function of a nucleoporin, RanBP2, in maintaining BA homoeostasis through SUMOylation of SHP. Upon BA signalling, RanBP2 co-localizes with SHP at the nuclear envelope region and mediates SUMO2 modification at K68, which facilitates nuclear transport of SHP and its interaction with repressive histone modifiers to inhibit BA synthetic genes. Mice expressing a SUMO-defective K68R SHP mutant have increased liver BA levels, and upon BA- or drug-induced biliary insults, these mice exhibit exacerbated cholestatic pathologies. These results demonstrate a function of RanBP2-mediated SUMOylation of SHP in maintaining BA homoeostasis and protecting from the BA hepatotoxicity. PMID:27412403

  2. Overexpression of BdMATE Gene Improves Aluminum Tolerance in Setaria viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P. Ribeiro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Acidic soils are distributed worldwide, predominantly in tropical and subtropical areas, reaching around 50% of the arable soil. This type of soil strongly reduces crop production, mainly because of the presence of aluminum, which has its solubility increased at low pH levels. A well-known physiological mechanism used by plants to cope with Al stress involves activation of membrane transporters responsible for organic acid anions secretion from the root apex to the rhizosphere, which chelate Al, preventing its absorption by roots. In sorghum, a membrane transporter gene belonging to multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE family was identified and characterized as an aluminum-activated citrate transporter gene responsible for Al tolerance in this crop. Setaria viridis is an emerging model for C4 species and it is an important model to validate some genes for further C4 crops transformation, such as sugarcane, maize, and wheat. In the present work, Setaria viridis was used as a model plant to overexpress a newly identified MATE gene from Brachypodium distachyon (BdMATE, closely related to SbMATE, for aluminum tolerance assays. Transgenic S. viridis plants overexpressing a BdMATE presented an improved Al tolerance phenotype, characterized by sustained root growth and exclusion of aluminum from the root apex in transgenic plants, as confirmed by hematoxylin assay. In addition, transgenic plants showed higher root citrate exudation into the rhizosphere, suggesting that Al tolerance improvement in these plants could be related to the chelation of the metal by the organic acid anion. These results suggest that BdMATE gene can be used to transform C4 crops of economic importance with improved aluminum tolerance.

  3. A heterodimer of human 3'-phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases is a new sulphate activating complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grum, Daniel; Boom, Johannes van den; Neumann, Daniel; Matena, Anja; Link, Nina M.; Mueller, Jonathan W.

    2010-01-01

    3'-Phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases are fundamental to mammalian sulphate metabolism. These enzymes have recently been linked to a rising number of human diseases. Despite many studies, it is not yet understood how the mammalian PAPS synthases 1 and 2 interact with each other. We provide first evidence for heterodimerisation of these two enzymes by pull-down assays and Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements. Kinetics of dimer dissociation/association indicates that these heterodimers form as soon as PAPSS1 and -S2 encounter each other in solution. Affinity of the homo- and heterodimers were found to be in the low nanomolar range using anisotropy measurements employing proteins labelled with the fluorescent dye IAEDANS that - in spite of its low quantum yield - is well suited for anisotropy due to its large Stokes shift. Within its kinase domain, the PAPS synthase heterodimer displays similar substrate inhibition by adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (APS) as the homodimers. Due to divergent catalytic efficacies of PAPSS1 and -S2, the heterodimer might be a way of regulating PAPS synthase function within mammalian cells.

  4. Nidovirus-Associated Proliferative Pneumonia in the Green Tree Python (Morelia viridis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervas, Eva; Hepojoki, Jussi; Laimbacher, Andrea; Romero-Palomo, Fernando; Jelinek, Christine; Keller, Saskia; Smura, Teemu; Hetzel, Udo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In 2014 we observed a noticeable increase in the number of sudden deaths among green tree pythons (Morelia viridis). Pathological examination revealed the accumulation of mucoid material within the airways and lungs in association with enlargement of the entire lung. We performed a full necropsy and histological examination on 12 affected green tree pythons from 7 different breeders to characterize the pathogenesis of this mucinous pneumonia. By histology we could show a marked hyperplasia of the airway epithelium and of faveolar type II pneumocytes. Since routine microbiological tests failed to identify a causative agent, we studied lung tissue samples from a few diseased snakes by next-generation sequencing (NGS). From the NGS data we could assemble a piece of RNA genome whose sequence was pythons and Indian pythons. We then employed reverse transcription-PCR to demonstrate the presence of the novel nidovirus in all diseased snakes. To attempt virus isolation, we established primary cultures of Morelia viridis liver and brain cells, which we inoculated with homogenates of lung tissue from infected individuals. Ultrastructural examination of concentrated cell culture supernatants showed the presence of nidovirus particles, and subsequent NGS analysis yielded the full genome of the novel virus Morelia viridis nidovirus (MVNV). We then generated an antibody against MVNV nucleoprotein, which we used alongside RNA in situ hybridization to demonstrate viral antigen and RNA in the affected lungs. This suggests that in natural infection MVNV damages the respiratory tract epithelium, which then results in epithelial hyperplasia, most likely as an exaggerated regenerative attempt in association with increased epithelial turnover. IMPORTANCE Novel nidoviruses associated with severe respiratory disease were fairly recently identified in ball pythons and Indian pythons. Herein we report on the isolation and identification of a further nidovirus from green tree

  5. Sex determination in Bonellia viridis (Echiura : Bonelliidae): population dynamics and evolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berec, Luděk; Schembri, P. J.; Boukal S., David

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 3 (2005), s. 473-484 ISSN 0030-1299 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK6005114; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAB1007201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Bonellia viridis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.309, year: 2005

  6. Natural high pCO2 increases autotrophy in Anemonia viridis (Anthozoa) as revealed from stable isotope (C, N) analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Horwitz, Rael; Borell, Esther M.; Yam, Ruth; Shemesh, Aldo; Fine, Maoz

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary cnidarian-algae symbioses are challenged by increasing CO2 concentrations (ocean warming and acidification) affecting organisms' biological performance. We examined the natural variability of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis to investigate dietary shifts (autotrophy/heterotrophy) along a natural pCO2 gradient at the island of Vulcano, Italy. ?13C values for both algal symbionts (Symbiodinium) and host tissue of A. viridis became significa...

  7. Characterization of glutathione peroxidase diversity in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pey, Alexis; Zamoum, Thamilla; Christen, Richard; Merle, Pierre-Laurent; Furla, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Cnidarians living in symbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates (commonly named zooxanthellae) are exposed to high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon illumination. To quench ROS production, both the cnidarian host and zooxanthellae express a full suite of antioxidant enzymes. Studying antioxidative balance is therefore crucial to understanding how symbiotic cnidarians cope with ROS production. We characterized glutathione peroxidases (GPx) in the symbiotic cnidarian Anemonia viridis by analysis of their isoform diversity, their activity distribution in the three cellular compartments (ectoderm, endoderm and zooxanthellae) and their involvement in the response to thermal stress. We identified a GPx repertoire through a phylogenetic analysis showing 7 GPx transcripts belonging to the A. viridis host and 4 GPx transcripts strongly related to Symbiodinium sp. The biochemical approach, used for the first time with a cnidarian species, allowed the identification of GPx activity in the three cellular compartments and in the animal mitochondrial fraction, and revealed a high GPx electrophoretic diversity. The symbiotic lifestyle of zooxanthellae requires more GPx activity and diversity than that of free-living species. Heat stress induced no modification of GPx activities. We highlight a high GPx diversity in A. viridis tissues by genomic and biochemical approaches. GPx activities represent an overall constitutive enzymatic pattern inherent to symbiotic lifestyle adaptation. This work allows the characterization of the GPx family in a symbiotic cnidarian and establishes a foundation for future studies of GPx in symbiotic cnidarians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  8. Setaria viridis as a model system to advance millet genetics and genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Millet is a common name for a group of polyphyletic, small-seeded cereal crops that include pearl, finger and foxtail millet. Millet species are an important source of calories for many societies, often in developing countries. Compared to major cereal crops such as rice and maize, millets are generally better adapted to dry and hot environments. Despite their food security value, the genetic architecture of agronomically important traits in millets, including both morphological traits and climate resilience remains poorly studied. These complex traits have been challenging to dissect in large part because of the lack of sufficient genetic tools and resources. In this article, we review the phylogenetic relationship among various millet species and discuss the value of a genetic model system for millet research. We propose that a broader adoption of green foxtail (Setaria viridis as a model system for millets could greatly accelerate the pace of gene discovery in the millets, and summarize available and emerging resources in S. viridis and its domesticated relative S. italica. These resources have value in forward genetics, reverse genetics and high throughput phenotyping. We describe methods and strategies to best utilize these resources to facilitate the genetic dissection of complex traits. We envision that coupling cutting-edge technologies and the use of S. viridis for gene discovery will accelerate genetic research in millets in general. This will enable strategies and provide opportunities to increase productivity, especially in the semi-arid tropics of Asia and Africa where millets are staple food crop.

  9. Setaria viridis as a Model System to Advance Millet Genetics and Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pu; Shyu, Christine; Coelho, Carla P; Cao, Yingying; Brutnell, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Millet is a common name for a group of polyphyletic, small-seeded cereal crops that include pearl, finger and foxtail millet. Millet species are an important source of calories for many societies, often in developing countries. Compared to major cereal crops such as rice and maize, millets are generally better adapted to dry and hot environments. Despite their food security value, the genetic architecture of agronomically important traits in millets, including both morphological traits and climate resilience remains poorly studied. These complex traits have been challenging to dissect in large part because of the lack of sufficient genetic tools and resources. In this article, we review the phylogenetic relationship among various millet species and discuss the value of a genetic model system for millet research. We propose that a broader adoption of green foxtail ( Setaria viridis ) as a model system for millets could greatly accelerate the pace of gene discovery in the millets, and summarize available and emerging resources in S. viridis and its domesticated relative S. italica . These resources have value in forward genetics, reverse genetics and high throughput phenotyping. We describe methods and strategies to best utilize these resources to facilitate the genetic dissection of complex traits. We envision that coupling cutting-edge technologies and the use of S. viridis for gene discovery will accelerate genetic research in millets in general. This will enable strategies and provide opportunities to increase productivity, especially in the semi-arid tropics of Asia and Africa where millets are staple food crops.

  10. Setaria viridis as a Model System to Advance Millet Genetics and Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pu; Shyu, Christine; Coelho, Carla P.; Cao, Yingying; Brutnell, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Millet is a common name for a group of polyphyletic, small-seeded cereal crops that include pearl, finger and foxtail millet. Millet species are an important source of calories for many societies, often in developing countries. Compared to major cereal crops such as rice and maize, millets are generally better adapted to dry and hot environments. Despite their food security value, the genetic architecture of agronomically important traits in millets, including both morphological traits and climate resilience remains poorly studied. These complex traits have been challenging to dissect in large part because of the lack of sufficient genetic tools and resources. In this article, we review the phylogenetic relationship among various millet species and discuss the value of a genetic model system for millet research. We propose that a broader adoption of green foxtail (Setaria viridis) as a model system for millets could greatly accelerate the pace of gene discovery in the millets, and summarize available and emerging resources in S. viridis and its domesticated relative S. italica. These resources have value in forward genetics, reverse genetics and high throughput phenotyping. We describe methods and strategies to best utilize these resources to facilitate the genetic dissection of complex traits. We envision that coupling cutting-edge technologies and the use of S. viridis for gene discovery will accelerate genetic research in millets in general. This will enable strategies and provide opportunities to increase productivity, especially in the semi-arid tropics of Asia and Africa where millets are staple food crops. PMID:27965689

  11. Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA Integration and Gene Targeting in Arabidopsis thaliana Non-Homologous End-Joining Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Jia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the role of AtKu70 and AtKu80 in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and gene targeting, plant lines with a T-DNA insertion in AtKu80 or AtKu70 genes were functionally characterized. Such plant lines lacked both subunits, indicating that heterodimer formation between AtKu70 and AtKu80 is needed for the stability of the proteins. Homozygous mutants were phenotypically indistinguishable from wild-type plants and were fertile. However, they were hypersensitive to the genotoxic agent bleomycin, resulting in more DSBs as quantified in comet assays. They had lower end-joining efficiency, suggesting that NHEJ is a critical pathway for DSB repair in plants. Both Atku mutants and a previously isolated Atmre11 mutant were impaired in Agrobacterium T-DNA integration via floral dip transformation, indicating that AtKu70, AtKu80, and AtMre11 play an important role in T-DNA integration in Arabidopsis. The frequency of gene targeting was not significantly increased in the Atku80 and Atku70 mutants, but it was increased at least 10-fold in the Atmre11 mutant compared with the wild type.

  12. Setaria viridis floral-dip: A simple and rapid Agrobacterium-medicated transformation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setaria viridis was recently described as a new monocotyledonous model species for C4 photosynthesis research and genetic transformation. It has biological attributes (rapid life cycle, small genome, diploid, short stature and simple growth requirements) that make it suitable for use as a model plan...

  13. Assessment of pollution in road runoff using a Bufo viridis biological assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorchin, A; Shanas, U

    2010-12-01

    Road runoff is a major source of environmental pollution, significantly threatening nearby aquatic habitats. Chemical analyses indicate high pollutant concentrations in the road's "first flush", but bioassays are more advantageous for addressing the cumulative effects of the numerous pollutants within the runoff. We used Bufo viridis embryos and larvae to assess the toxicity of road runoff from two major highways in Israel. We show, for the first time, that exposure to midseason runoff not only has an adverse effect on growth and development rates of B. viridis larvae but can also lead to increased rates of morphological deformations. Seasonal first flushes, despite having higher metal concentrations, did not adversely affect the toad larvae, apparently due to a counter effect of organic matter that potentially served as a supplementary energy resource. Road runoff can be a major cause for a qualitative decrease in the quality of aquatic habitats threatening amphibians in Israel. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Elucidating the Small Regulatory RNA Repertoire of the Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis Based on Whole Genome and Small RNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbarova, Ilona; Patel, Hardip; Forêt, Sylvain; Karlsen, Bård Ove; Jørgensen, Tor Erik; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Johansen, Steinar D

    2018-02-01

    Cnidarians harbor a variety of small regulatory RNAs that include microRNAs (miRNAs) and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), but detailed information is limited. Here, we report the identification and expression of novel miRNAs and putative piRNAs, as well as their genomic loci, in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. We generated a draft assembly of the A. viridis genome with putative size of 313 Mb that appeared to be composed of about 36% repeats, including known transposable elements. We detected approximately equal fractions of DNA transposons and retrotransposons. Deep sequencing of small RNA libraries constructed from A. viridis adults sampled at a natural CO2 gradient off Vulcano Island, Italy, identified 70 distinct miRNAs. Eight were homologous to previously reported miRNAs in cnidarians, whereas 62 appeared novel. Nine miRNAs were recognized as differentially expressed along the natural seawater pH gradient. We found a highly abundant and diverse population of piRNAs, with a substantial fraction showing ping-pong signatures. We identified nearly 22% putative piRNAs potentially targeting transposable elements within the A. viridis genome. The A. viridis genome appeared similar in size to that of other hexacorals with a very high divergence of transposable elements resembling that of the sea anemone genus Exaiptasia. The genome encodes and expresses a high number of small regulatory RNAs, which include novel miRNAs and piRNAs. Differentially expressed small RNAs along the seawater pH gradient indicated regulatory gene responses to environmental stressors. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  15. Natural high pCO2 increases autotrophy in Anemonia viridis (Anthozoa) as revealed from stable isotope (C, N) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Rael; Borell, Esther M; Yam, Ruth; Shemesh, Aldo; Fine, Maoz

    2015-03-05

    Contemporary cnidarian-algae symbioses are challenged by increasing CO2 concentrations (ocean warming and acidification) affecting organisms' biological performance. We examined the natural variability of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis to investigate dietary shifts (autotrophy/heterotrophy) along a natural pCO2 gradient at the island of Vulcano, Italy. δ(13)C values for both algal symbionts (Symbiodinium) and host tissue of A. viridis became significantly lighter with increasing seawater pCO2. Together with a decrease in the difference between δ(13)C values of both fractions at the higher pCO2 sites, these results indicate there is a greater net autotrophic input to the A. viridis carbon budget under high pCO2 conditions. δ(15)N values and C/N ratios did not change in Symbiodinium and host tissue along the pCO2 gradient. Additional physiological parameters revealed anemone protein and Symbiodinium chlorophyll a remained unaltered among sites. Symbiodinium density was similar among sites yet their mitotic index increased in anemones under elevated pCO2. Overall, our findings show that A. viridis is characterized by a higher autotrophic/heterotrophic ratio as pCO2 increases. The unique trophic flexibility of this species may give it a competitive advantage and enable its potential acclimation and ecological success in the future under increased ocean acidification.

  16. Fano resonance assisting plasmonic circular dichroism from nanorice heterodimers for extrinsic chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li; Huang, Yingzhou; Fang, Liang; Chen, Guo; Wei, Hua; Fang, Yurui

    2015-11-01

    In this work, the circular dichroisms (CD) of nanorice heterodimers consisting of two parallel arranged nanorices with the same size but different materials are investigated theoretically. Symmetry-breaking is introduced by using different materials and oblique incidence to achieve strong CD at the vicinity of Fano resonance peaks. We demonstrate that all Au-Ag heterodimers exhibit multipolar Fano resonances and strong CD effect. A simple quantitative analysis shows that the structure with larger Fano asymmetry factor has stronger CD. The intensity and peak positions of the CD effect can be flexibly tuned in a large range by changing particle size, shape, the inter-particle distance and surroundings. Furthermore, CD spectra exhibit high sensitivity to ambient medium in visible and near infrared regions. Our results here are beneficial for the design and application of high sensitive CD sensors and other related fields.

  17. Componentes bioquímicos de los tejidos de Perna perna y P. viridis (Lineo, 1758 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae, en relación al crecimiento en condiciones de cultivo suspendido Biochemical components of the tissues of Perna perna and P. viridis (Lineo, 1758 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae, in relation to the growth under conditions of suspended cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Acosta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó los cambios ocurridos en carbohidratos, proteínas y lípidos de la glándula digestiva, músculo y lóbulos gonadales de los mejillones Perna perna y P. viridis bajo condiciones de cultivo suspendido en el Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela. Paralelamente, se llevaron registros de la condición reproductiva de ambas especies y de temperatura, clorofila a y seston. Los resultados muestraron que en los tejidos analizados de ambas especies, los lóbulos gonadales presentaron las mayores variaciones de los sustratos energéticos estudiados. La variación de los sustratos energéticos se explicó en ambos mejillones mediante desarrollo gonádico y la disponibilidad de alimento, particularmente clorofila a para P. perna y seston total para P. viridis. La temperatura fue un factor que afectó negativamente a P. viridis. Los contenidos de los diferentes sustratos energéticos observados en P. perna fueron más altos que en P. viridis, a lo largo de casi todo el periodo experimental, lo que indicó que esta especie mostró una mayor capacidad para explotar de manera más eficiente los recursos alimenticios presentes en las condiciones de cultivo suspendido.In the organisms, the variations of the biochemical composition of reproductive and somatic tissues in the growth permit to infer about its adaptative to environment. In the present study, we evaluate the changes observed in carbohydrates, lipids and proteins of digestive gland, muscle and gonad tissues of Perna perna and P. viridis, growing in suspended culture at Cariaco Gulf , Venezuela. The reproductive condition of both mussels and environmental factors (temperature, chlorophyll a and of the seston were determinate. The results show that, in both species, the gonadic lobes showed the highest variations in the biochemical component. The variations in the biochemical components were direct explained by the variations in the gonad development and the food availability, particularly chlorophyll a

  18. Growth of the green mussel, Perna viridis L., in a sea water circulating system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Growth of the green mussel, P. viridis L., was studied in a sea water circulating system for 12 months. The maximum growth rate was recorded during March - May, coinciding with the maximum abundance of phytoplankton. The other hydrological...

  19. The relationship of heavy metals and condition indices of green-lipped mussel perna viridis from contaminated and uncontaminated environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Ismail; Yap Chee Kong

    1999-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations and condition indices of green-fipped mussel Perna viridis were detemiined at two different sites of Peninsular Malaysia. Significant negative correlations (p< 0.001) between condition indices and heavy metals were observed. Samples from Kuala Perlis which relatively showed high heavy metals concentrations in mussels exhibited lower condition index while Kg. Tg. Batu with lower heavy metal levels, showed higher condition index. The environmental stress is believed to be responsible for the different physiological index in green-fipped mussel P. viridis. (author)

  20. Parasites and pathological condition in Green mussel Perna viridis Linnaeus, 1758 from western Johor Straits, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur-Fauzana; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2018-04-01

    This study describes the parasites and pathological condition of infected organ of the green mussel Perna viridis from Merambong Shoal, Western Johor Straits, Malaysia. Samples were collected randomly in November and December 2013. Histopathology techniques using Masson's Trichrome staining protocol were performed and the thin sections were observed under light microscope. Result showed that gonad was the most infected organ followed by the digestive tubule, adductor muscle, intestine and mantle tissue. The parasites (apicomplexa) such as spore-like Nematopsis, macrogamont-like coccidian, mature oocyst-like coccidian, unidentified coccidian and protozoan were found in the adductor muscle, gonad and mantle. Meanwhile, the pathological conditions were found in all infected organs except the gill, such as particular melanin deposits in cytoplasm, Rickettsia-like or Chlamydiae organism and bacteria-like inclusions. Haemocytic infiltrations were found in the surrounding connective tissues of all infected organs. However, these light infections are not causing morbidity and mortalityof the green mussel P.viridis. This study provides baseline information on health profile of the green mussel P.viridis. Further investigations are needed particularly on parasite species identification and their ecology. Understanding of the morphology and pathology of parasites infecting mollusks are very important for management of the resources.

  1. Nanoparticle heterodimers: The role of size and interparticle gap distance on the optical response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb

    2018-05-01

    Composite plasmonic nanostructures with controlled size, shape and relative arrangement is a subject of significant current research interest. Much of this is stimulated by the prospects by generating enormous near-field enhancements of the surface and interparticle gap regions for potential applications in surface-enhanced spectroscopies. In this manuscript, using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations, we investigate how the optical response in size matched homodimers and size mismatched heterodimers composed of Aluminum modify while varying the size and interparticle gap distances in the sub-nanometer range. Both systems show interesting optical response evolution. In particular, the size mismatched heterodimers show even more complex optical response evolution due to a symmetry-breaking in the system.

  2. Assessing the herbivore role of the sea-urchin Echinometra viridis: Keys to determine the structure of communities in disturbed coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangil, Carlos; Guzman, Hector M

    2016-09-01

    Echinometra viridis previously was considered a cryptic species unable to control the development and growth of macroalgae on coral reefs. Its role as a herbivore was seen as minor compared to other grazers present on the reef. However, the present disturbed state of some reefs has highlighted the role played by this sea-urchin. Combining field data with experiments on the Caribbean coast of Panama, we demonstrate that the current community organization on disturbed coral reefs in the Mesoamerican Caribbean is largely due to the action of E. viridis. It is the most abundant sea-urchin species, together with two others (Diadema antillarum and Echinometra lucunter). Field data also indicate that the relationship between its density and the abundance of macroalgae is stronger and it is more negative in impact than those of the other two. However, the niche this urchin exploits most efficiently is confined to leeward reefs with low levels of sedimentation. Outside these habitats, their populations are not decisive in controlling macroalgal growth. Grazing experiments showed that E. viridis consumes more fresh macroalgae per day and per weight of sea-urchin, and is a more effective grazer than D. antillarum or E. lucunter. E. viridis showed food preferences for early-successional turf macroalgae (Acanthophora spicifera), avoiding the less palatable late-successional and fleshy macroalgae (Lobophora variegata, Halimeda opuntia). However, it becomes a generalist herbivore feeding on all varieties of macroalgae when resources are scarce. H. opuntia is the macroalga that most resists E. viridis activity, which may explain its wide distribution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reduced anti-oxidative stress activities of DJ-1 mutants found in Parkinson's disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi-Niki, Kazuko; Niki, Takeshi; Taira, Takahiro; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M.M.; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2004-01-01

    DJ-1 is a multi-functional protein that plays roles in transcriptional regulation and anti-oxidative stress, and loss of its function is thought to result in onset of Parkinson's disease. We have previously reported that L166P, a mutant DJ-1 found in Parkinson's disease patients, had no activity to prevent hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced cell death. In this study, we analyzed other mutants of DJ-1 found in Parkinson's disease patients, including M26I, R98Q, and D149A, as well as L166P. We first found that all of the mutants made heterodimers with wild-type DJ-1, while all of the mutants except for L166P made homodimers. We then found that M26I and L166P, both of which are derived from homozygous mutations of the DJ-1 gene, were unstable and that their stabilities were recovered, in part, in the presence of proteasome inhibitor, MG132. NIH3T3 cell lines stably expressing these mutants of DJ-1 showed that cell lines of L166P and C106S, a mutant for protease activity (-) of DJ-1, had no activity to scavenge even endogenously producing reactive oxygen species. These cell lines also showed that all of the mutants had reduced activities to eliminate exogenously added H 2 O 2 and that these activities, except for that of D149A, were parallel to those preventing H 2 O 2 -induced cell death

  4. Binary Toxin Subunits of Lysinibacillus sphaericus Are Monomeric and Form Heterodimers after In Vitro Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Surya

    Full Text Available The binary toxin from Lysinibacillus sphaericus has been successfully used for controlling mosquito-transmitted diseases. An activation step shortens both subunits BinA and BinB before their interaction with membranes and internalization in midgut cells, but the precise role of this activation step is unknown. Herein, we show conclusively using three orthogonal biophysical techniques that protoxin subunits form only monomers in aqueous solution. However, in vitro activated toxins readily form heterodimers. This oligomeric state did not change after incubation of these heterodimers with detergent. These results are consistent with the evidence that maximal toxicity in mosquito larvae is achieved when the two subunits, BinA and BinB, are in a 1:1 molar ratio, and directly link proteolytic activation to heterodimerization. Formation of a heterodimer must thus be necessary for subsequent steps, e.g., interaction with membranes, or with a suitable receptor in susceptible mosquito species. Lastly, despite existing similarities between BinB C-terminal domain with domains 3 and 4 of pore-forming aerolysin, no aerolysin-like SDS-resistant heptameric oligomers were observed when the activated Bin subunits were incubated in the presence of detergents or lipidic membranes.

  5. Bases débiles minoritarias de la raíz de Rauvolfia viridis Roem. et Schult.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Martínez Pérez

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio químico de la raíz de la especie Rauvolfia viridis Roem. et Schult. que crece en Cuba, con el objetivo de profundizar en este tema. Se aislaron, purificaron y caracterizaron diferentes alcaloides correspondientes a las bases débiles, entre los que se encuentran la ajmalidina, la a-yohimbina, la quebrachidina, la reserpinina y la yohimbina. Se descarta la presencia de reserpina.It was conducted a chemical study of the root of the species Rauwolfia viridis Roem. et Schult. that grows in Cuba aimed at depening in this topic. Different alkaloids corresponding to the weak bases, such as ajmaline, a-yohimbin, quebrachidine, reserpine and yohimbin, were isolated, purified and characterized. The presence of reserpine is discarded.

  6. Spectral Sensitization of TiO2 Substrates by Monolayers of Porphyrin Heterodimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koehorst, R.B.M.; Boschloo, G.K.; Savenije, T.J.; Goossens, A.; Schaafsma, T.J.

    2000-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical cells have been constructed by depositing monolayers of oriented covalently linked zinc/free base porphyrin heterodimers onto ~30 nm nonporous layers of TiO2 on ITO, deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MO-CVD), and onto ~100 nm porous, nanostructured TiO2

  7. Characterization of Translationally Controlled Tumour Protein from the Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis and Transcriptome Wide Identification of Cnidarian Homologues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicosia, Aldo; Bennici, Carmelo; Biondo, Girolama; Costa, Salvatore; Di Natale, Marilena; Masullo, Tiziana; Monastero, Calogera; Ragusa, Maria Antonietta; Tagliavia, Marcello; Cuttitta, Angela

    2018-01-11

    Gene family encoding translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP) is defined as highly conserved among organisms; however, there is limited knowledge of non-bilateria. In this study, the first TCTP homologue from anthozoan was characterised in the Mediterranean Sea anemone, Anemonia viridis . The release of the genome sequence of Acropora digitifera , Exaiptasia pallida , Nematostella vectensis and Hydra vulgaris enabled a comprehensive study of the molecular evolution of TCTP family among cnidarians. A comparison among TCTP members from Cnidaria and Bilateria showed conserved intron exon organization, evolutionary conserved TCTP signatures and 3D protein structure. The pattern of mRNA expression profile was also defined in A. viridis . These analyses revealed a constitutive mRNA expression especially in tissues with active proliferation. Additionally, the transcriptional profile of A. viridis TCTP ( AvTCTP ) after challenges with different abiotic/biotic stresses showed induction by extreme temperatures, heavy metals exposure and immune stimulation. These results suggest the involvement of AvTCTP in the sea anemone defensome taking part in environmental stress and immune responses.

  8. Characterization of Translationally Controlled Tumour Protein from the Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis and Transcriptome Wide Identification of Cnidarian Homologues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Nicosia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene family encoding translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP is defined as highly conserved among organisms; however, there is limited knowledge of non-bilateria. In this study, the first TCTP homologue from anthozoan was characterised in the Mediterranean Sea anemone, Anemonia viridis. The release of the genome sequence of Acropora digitifera, Exaiptasia pallida, Nematostella vectensis and Hydra vulgaris enabled a comprehensive study of the molecular evolution of TCTP family among cnidarians. A comparison among TCTP members from Cnidaria and Bilateria showed conserved intron exon organization, evolutionary conserved TCTP signatures and 3D protein structure. The pattern of mRNA expression profile was also defined in A. viridis. These analyses revealed a constitutive mRNA expression especially in tissues with active proliferation. Additionally, the transcriptional profile of A. viridis TCTP (AvTCTP after challenges with different abiotic/biotic stresses showed induction by extreme temperatures, heavy metals exposure and immune stimulation. These results suggest the involvement of AvTCTP in the sea anemone defensome taking part in environmental stress and immune responses.

  9. Recyclable magnetite-silver heterodimer nanocomposites with durable antibacterial performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Yong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a significant need for magnetite-silver nanocomposites that exhibit durable and recyclable antimicrobial activity. In this study, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs coated with ethylenediamine-modified chitosan/polyacrylic acid copolymeric layer (Fe3O4@ECS/PAA were fabricated. Subsequently, directly deposited silver (Ag NPs procedure was carried out to form the antibacterial heterodimers of Fe3O4@ECS/PAA-Ag NPs. The composition and morphology of the resultant nanostructures were confirmed by FT-IR, XRD, TEM and TGA. The overall length of the heterodimers was approximately 45 nm, in which the mean diameter of Fe3O4@ECS/PAA NPs reached up to 35 nm, and that of Ag NPs was around 15 nm. The mass fraction of silver NPs in the nanocomposites was about 63.1%. The obtained Fe3O4@ECS/PAA NPs exhibited good colloidal stability, and excellent response to additional magnetic field, making the NPs easy to recover after antibacterial tests. In particular, the Fe3O4@ECS/PAA-Ag NPs retained nearly 100% biocidal efficiency (106–107 CFU/mg nanoparticles for both Gram-negative bacteria E. coli and Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus throughout ten cycles without washing with any solvents or water, exhibiting potent and durable antibacterial activity.

  10. Effects of mutants in bHLH region on structure stability and protein-DNA binding energy in DECs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yi; Wang, Zhen; Jia, Yanfei; Li, Ping; Hao, Shuhua; Wang, Yunshan

    2017-07-01

    The human DEC subfamily contains two highly conserved members belonging to basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. This conserved family is spread widely among various species with the function of regulating various crucial molecular signaling pathways. Due to the significance of DECs for important biological processes, their relationship with diseases and the lack of experimentally proven structures, we have implemented a comparative modeling for the bHLH region of DECs as homodimers with themselves and heterodimers with HES-1. Three mutants with predicted roles in reducing intramolecular binding (H57A, R65A, and LL7879AA in DEC1 and LL7071AA in DEC2) were investigated on DEC monomers. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were also employed to evaluate the behavior of the mutant molecules in aqueous solution. The monomer was divided into subregions for accurate investigation. The fluctuation in the basic region of mutants was higher than that of wild-type molecules. The binding energy value between protein and DNA obviously increased in the homodimer harboring R65A mutants, which led to more unstable status between protein and DNA. Thus, the mutant R65A interfered DNA-binding affinity. A study on the spatial structures of wild-type and mutant DECs may facilitate functional prediction for mutation effects and dynamic behavior under various conditions and may ultimately help in targeted drug design.

  11. Novel insights about the MDM2/MDM4 heterodimer

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti, Fabiola

    2015-01-01

    MDM2 (mouse double minute 2 homolog) and MDM4 (double minute 4 human homolog, also known as MDMX) inhibit the activity of tumor protein p53 (TP53, best known as p53) through their heterodimerization. New evidence indicates that under stress conditions the heterodimer is modified, leading to different activities of the single molecules. In particular, following lethal DNA damage, MDM2 and MDM4 dissociate and MDM4 promotes the stabilization of homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) an...

  12. Mortalidade de Coccus viridis (Hemiptera: Coccidae por Lecanicillium spp. em diferentes órgãos de Coffea arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Lemes Fernandes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a mortalidade de Coccus viridis por Lecanicillium spp. em folhas e ramos de Coffea arabica. O trabalho foi realizado na casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal de Viçosa, entre fevereiro de 2005 a junho de 2006. Foram utilizadas sementes da variedade Catuaí vermelho de café (C. arabica. A solução nutritiva utilizada foi composta por 3,0 mmol/L de N, 9,0 mmol/L de K, 1,0 mmol/L de P, 4,0 mmol/L de Ca, 2,1 mmol/L de S, 46 µmol/L de B, 0,3 µmol/L de Cu, 60,0 µmol/L de Fe, 2,0 µmol/L de Mg, 0,5 µmol/L de Mo e 36,0 µmol/L de Mn. As cochonilhas e o fungo foram coletados de folhas de café em lavouras comerciais de Viçosa, MG e foram mantidos em gaiolas em Casa de Vegetação. As plantas foram infestadas com oito meses de idade. A infestação foi realizada por contato de C. viridis infectadas com o fungo sobre as cochonilhas sadias. As densidades de C. viridis viva e morta nas folhas e nos ramos foram avaliadas aos 0, 15, 30, 35, 45, 60 e 75 dias após a infestação. Usou-se análise de variância, teste de média de Skott-Knott e análise de regressão linear simples a p<0,05. O fungo Lecanicillium spp. causou mortalidade em todos os estádios de C. viridis. De forma geral, a maior mortalidade ocorreu no terceiro ínstar. Além disso, o fungo causou maior mortalidade nesse inseto praga na face abaxial da folha de café. Mortality of Coccus viridis (Hemiptera: Coccidae by Lecanicillium spp. in differents Coffea arabica organs in greenhouseAbstract. The objective of this work was to evaluate the mortality of Coccus viridis by Lecanicillium spp. on faces of the leaves, and branches of Coffea arabica. This work was conducted in greenhouse at UFV. The experiment was carried out from February 2005 to June 2006. Seeds of the lineage IAC 15 from the variety “Catuaí Vermelho” coffee (C. arabica were used. The nutritive solution utilized was composed for 3. 0 mmol/L of N, 9. 0 mmol/L of K, 1. 0 mmol

  13. Oxygen dynamics and porewater transport in sediments inhabited by the invasive polychaete Marenzelleria viridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, Zeljko; Larsen, Morten; Quintana, Cintia Organo

    2014-01-01

    (rhodamine WT and brilliant blue), we investigated the relationship between irrigation and O2 dynamics in burrows of M. viridis. The investigated animals shifted between 2 modes of ventilation: ciliary pumping for 77% of the time and muscular pumping for 23% of the time. On average, muscular pumping...

  14. Bistable optical response of a nanoparticle heterodimer : Mechanism, phase diagram, and switching time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugroho, Bintoro; Iskandar, Alexander; Malyshev, V.A.; Knoester, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    We conduct a theoretical study of the bistable optical response of a nanoparticle heterodimer comprised of a closely spaced semiconductor quantum dot and a metal nanoparticle. The bistable nature of the response results from the interplay between the quantum dot's optical nonlinearity and its

  15. DNA damage in male gonad cells of Green mussel (Perna viridis) upon exposure to tobacco products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nagarajappa; Ganguly, A.; Goswami, U.

    DNA damage (determined by the Comet Assay) and the occurrence of deformed nuclei were measured as endpoints of genotoxicity in male gonad cells of the marine mussel (Perna viridis). Upon exposure of the organism to varying concentrations...

  16. Is Echinometra viridis facilitating a phase shift on an Acropora cervicornis patch reef in Belize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanic, C. M.; Greer, L.; Norvell, D.; Benson, W.; Curran, H.

    2012-12-01

    Coral reef health is in rapid decline across the Caribbean due to a number of anthropogenic and natural disturbances. A phase shift from coral- to macroalgae-dominant reefs is pervasive and has been well documented. Acropora cervicornis (Staghorn Coral) has been particularly affected by this shift due to mass mortality of this species since the 1980s. In recent years few Caribbean A. cervicornis refugia have been documented. This study characterizes the relationship between coral and grazing urchins on a rare patch reef system dominated by A. cervicornis off the coast of Belize. To assess relative abundance of live A. cervicornis and the urchin Echinometra viridis, photographs and urchin abundance data were collected from 132 meter square quadrats along five transects across the reef. Photographs were digitized and manually segmented using Adobe Illustrator, and percent live coral cover and branch tip densities were calculated using Matlab. Mean percent live coral cover across all transects was 24.4 % with a high of 65% live coral per meter square. Average urchin density was 18.5 per quadrat, with an average density per transect ranging from 22.1 to 0.5 per quadrat. Up to over 400 live A. cervicornis branch tips per quadrat were observed. Data show a positive correlation between E. viridis abundance and live A. cervicornis, suggesting that these urchins are facilitating recovery or persistence of this endangered coral species. These results suggest the relationship between E. viridis and A. cervicornis could be a key element in a future reversal of the coral to macroalgae phase shift on some Caribbean coral reefs.

  17. Effect of CCS on the accumulation of FALS SOD1 mutant-containing aggregates and on mitochondrial translocation of SOD1 mutants: implication of a free radical hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha Kun; Chung, Youn Wook; Chock, P Boon; Yim, Moon B

    2011-05-15

    Missense mutations of SOD1 are linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) through a yet-to-be identified toxic-gain-of-function. One of the proposed mechanisms involves enhanced aggregate formation. However, a recent study showed that dual transgenic mice overexpressing both G93A and CCS copper chaperone (G93A/CCS) exhibit no SOD1-positive aggregates yet show accelerated FALS symptoms with enhanced mitochondrial pathology compared to G93A mice. Using a dicistronic mRNA to simultaneously generate hSOD1 mutants, G93A, A4V and G85R, and hCCS in AAV293 cells, we revealed: (i) CCS is degraded primarily via a macroautophagy pathway. It forms a stable heterodimer with inactive G85R, and via its novel copper chaperone-independent molecular chaperone activity facilitates G85R degradation via a macroautophagy-mediated pathway. For active G93A and A4V, CCS catalyzes their maturation to form active and soluble homodimers. (ii) CCS reduces, under non-oxidative conditions, yet facilitates in the presence of H(2)O(2), mitochondrial translocation of inactive SOD1 mutants. These results, together with previous reports showing FALS SOD1 mutants enhanced free radical-generating activity, provide a mechanistic explanation for the observations with G93A/CCS dual transgenic mice and suggest that free radical generation by FALS SOD1, enhanced by CCS, may, in part, be responsible for the FALS SOD1 mutant-linked aggregation, mitochondrial translocation, and degradation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Extract of Indian green mussel, Perna viridis (L.) shows inhibition of blood capillary formation in vitro

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mirshahi, M.; Mirshahi, P.; Negro, S.; Soria, J.; Sreekumar, P.K.; Kotnala, S.; Therwath, A; Chatterji, A

    The extract of the Indian green mussel (Perna viridis L.) was found to inhibit the formation of endothelial cell capillary tube in a concentration dependent manner in vitro. At a concentration of 5 mg/ml of crude extract, there no formation...

  19. Disseminated Mycobacterium celatum infection in a white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, M. F.; Grondahl, C.; Giese, Steen Bjørck

    2006-01-01

    An adult female white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis) was presented with abdominal enlargement and hard subcutaneous masses. Necropsy findings included bony masses extending from skeletal structures, disseminated pale foci in the liver, and a pale mass in the kidney. Histological examination revea...... revealed multifocal to coalescing granulomatous inflammation in the bone, liver, kidney, lung and spleen. Mycobacterium celatum was isolated from the liver and identified by DNA sequencing. This is the first report of M. celatum infection in an avian species....

  20. Characterization of mutants expressing thermostable D1 and D2 polypeptides of photosystem II in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Norihisa; Kaseda, Jun; Nakayama, Yasumune; Nagahama, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Takahira; Matsuoka, Masayoshi

    2018-06-08

    Photosystem II complex embedded in thylakoid membrane performs oxygenic photosynthesis where the reaction center D1/D2 heterodimer accommodates all components of the electron transport chain. To express thermostable D1/D2 heterodimer in a cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, we constructed a series of mutant strains whose psbA1 and psbD1 genes encoding, respectively, the most highly expressed D1 and D2 polypeptides were replaced with those of a thermophilic strain, Thermosynechococcus vulcanus. Because the C-terminal 16 amino acid sequences of D1 polypeptides should be processed prior to maturation but diverge from each other, we also constructed the psbA1ΔC-replaced strain expressing a thermostable D1 polypeptide devoid of the C-terminal extension. The psbA1/psbD1-replaced strain showed decreased growth rate and oxygen evolution rate, suggesting inefficient photosystem II. Immunoblot analyses for thermostable D1, D2 polypeptides revealed that the heterologous D1 protein was absent in thylakoid membrane from any mutant strains with psbA1, psbA1ΔC, and psbA1/psbD1-replacements, whereas the heterologous D2 protein was present in thylakoid membrane as well as purified photosystem II complex from the psbA1/psbD1-replaced strain. In the latter strain, the compensatory expression of psbA3 and psbD2 genes was elevated. These data suggest that heterologous D2 polypeptide could be combined with the host D1 polypeptide to form chimeric D1/D2 heterodimer, whereas heterologous D1 polypeptide even without the C-terminal extension was unable to make complex with the host D2 polypeptide. Since the heterologous D1 could not be detected even in the whole cells of psbA1/psbD1-replaced strain, the rapid degradation of unprocessed or unassembled heterologous D1 was implicated. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Spatiotemporal variations in metal accumulation, RNA/DNA ratio and energy reserve in Perna viridis transplanted along a marine pollution gradient in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Jamius W Y; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2017-11-30

    We examined spatiotemporal variations of metal levels and three growth related biomarkers, i.e., RNA/DNA ratio (RD), total energy reserve (Et) and condition index (CI), in green-lipped mussels Perna viridis transplanted into five locations along a pollution gradient in the marine environment of Hong Kong over 120days of deployment. There were significant differences in metal levels and biomarker responses among the five sites and six time points. Mussels in two clean sites displayed better CI and significantly lower levels of Ag, Cu, Pb and Zn in their tissues than the other sites. Temporal patterns of RD in P. viridis were found to be site-specific. Across all sites, Et decreased in P. viridis over the deployment period, though the rate of decrease varied significantly among the sites. Therefore, temporal variation of biomarkers should be taken to consideration in mussel-watch programs because such information can help discriminate pollution-induced change from natural variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Peucetia viridis (Blackwall, 1858), caracteres y discusión (Aranae, Oxyopidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Barrientos Alfageme, José Antonio

    1991-01-01

    New records of the type-species of the genus Peucetia from the south of the Iberian Peninsula, near the Mediterranean Sea, confirm its presence in Europe. P. viridis has been recently the subject of taxonomical confussion. In this paper a more complete description of the species is proposed, illustraded with drawings of its general aspect and genital organs. Algunas citas nuevas de la banda mediterránea, en el sur de la Península Ibérica, confirman la presencia en Europa de la especie-tipo...

  3. Observations on a population of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis (Forskal, 1775) in the North Aegean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chariton Chintiroglou, C. [Thessaloniki, Aristotle Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Zoology

    1996-12-31

    The present paper is concerned with the structural aspects of Anemonia viridis populations found in the North Aegean Sea. It was found that mean wet weight and density of anemone populations increases with depth and distance from shore. Differences in the structure of the Anemonia viridis populations were attributed both to the specific hydrodynamic characteristics of the biotopes and to a number biotic interactions. From our results and t previous investigations the adoption of three different lifestyles by the anemones was assumed.: (1) a colonial form, with population densities around 650 individuals per m{sup 2}, found in substrates exposed to increased hydrodynamism; (2) a colonial form, with lower densities (90 indiv. per m{sup 2}), found in less exposed sites; (3) finally, large individuals in deeper waters chose a solitary lifestyle, as mechanical stresses were much lower.

  4. Correlation of paramagnetic states and molecular structure in bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers: The symmetry of the primary electron donor in Rhodopseudomonas viridis and Rhodobacter sphaeroides R-26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, J.R.; Budil, D.E.; Gast, P.; Chang, C.H.; El-Kabbani, O.; Schiffer, M.

    1989-01-01

    The orientation of the principal axes of the primary electron donor triplet state measured in single crystals of photosynthetic reaction centers is compared to the x-ray structures of the bacteria Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides R-26 and Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) viridis. The primary donor of Rps. viridis is significantly different from that of Rb. sphaeroides. The measured directions of the axes indicate that triplet excitation is almost completely localized on the L-subunit half of the dimer in Rps. viridis but is more symmetrically distributed on the dimeric donor in Rb. sphaeroides R-26. The large reduction of the zero field splitting parameters relative to monomeric bacteriochlorophyll triplet in vitro suggests significant participation of asymmetrical charge transfer electronic configurations in the special pair triplet state of both organisms

  5. Antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of Amaranthus viridis Linn. in different experimental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ashok B.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of the whole plant extract of Amaranthus viridis L (MEAV was screened for antinociceptive activity using the acetic acid writhing test, hot plate test and tail immersion test in mice and for antipyretic activity using the yeast-induced pyrexia method in rats, at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. Significant (p<0.01 dose-dependent antinociceptive and antipyretic properties were observed with 200 and 400 mg/kg.

  6. Rexinoid Bexarotene Modulates Triglyceride but not Cholesterol Metabolism via Gene-Specific Permissivity of the RXR/LXR Heterodimer in the Liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lalloyer, Fanny; Pedersen, Thomas Åskov; Gross, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Bexarotene (Targretin) is a clinically used antitumoral agent which exerts its action through binding to and activation of the retinoid-X-receptor (RXR). The most frequent side-effect of bexarotene administration is an increase in plasma triglycerides, an independent risk factor...... controlling cholesterol homeostasis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that the hypertriglyceridemic action of bexarotene occurs via the RXR/LXR heterodimer and show that RXR heterodimers can act with a selective permissivity on target genes of specific metabolic pathways in the liver....

  7. Engineering of Immunoglobulin Fc Heterodimers Using Yeast Surface-Displayed Combinatorial Fc Library Screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Ji Choi

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin Fc heterodimers, which are useful scaffolds for the generation of bispecific antibodies, have been mostly generated through structure-based rational design methods that introduce asymmetric mutations into the CH3 homodimeric interface to favor heterodimeric Fc formation. Here, we report an approach to generate heterodimeric Fc variants through directed evolution combined with yeast surface display. We developed a combinatorial heterodimeric Fc library display system by mating two haploid yeast cell lines, one haploid cell line displayed an Fc chain library (displayed FcCH3A with mutations in one CH3 domain (CH3A on the yeast cell surface, and the other cell line secreted an Fc chain library (secreted FcCH3B with mutations in the other CH3 domain (CH3B. In the mated cells, secreted FcCH3B is displayed on the cell surface through heterodimerization with the displayed FcCH3A, the detection of which enabled us to screen the library for heterodimeric Fc variants. We constructed combinatorial heterodimeric Fc libraries with simultaneous mutations in the homodimer-favoring electrostatic interaction pairs K370-E357/S364 or D399-K392/K409 at the CH3 domain interface. High-throughput screening of the libraries using flow cytometry yielded heterodimeric Fc variants with heterodimer-favoring CH3 domain interface mutation pairs, some of them showed high heterodimerization yields (~80-90% with previously unidentified CH3 domain interface mutation pairs, such as hydrogen bonds and cation-π interactions. Our study provides a new approach for engineering Fc heterodimers that could be used to engineer other heterodimeric protein-protein interactions through directed evolution combined with yeast surface display.

  8. Chlorogenic acid, rutin and hyperoside content in Fragaria vesca, F. viridis and F. moschata in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdonaite, Edita; Jakstas, Valdas; Raudonis, Raimondas; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2013-01-01

    In Lithuania, two species of the genus Fragaria L. (Rosaceae), F. vesca L. and F. viridis Weston, occur naturally in the wild and two others, F. moschata Weston and F. × ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier are found escaped from cultivation. The main objective of this study was to establish the variation pattern in the content of chlorogenic acid, rutin and hyperoside in leaves and fruits of the native Lithuanian species. In this work, the chemical polymorphisms of different Fragaria species were studied by growing plants side by side under the same cultivated field conditions. F. vesca fruits had the highest rutin (1.38 ± 0.19 mg g(-1) DM), hyperoside (0.69 ± 0.10 mg g(-1) DM) and chlorogenic acid (2.25 ± 0.34 mg g(-1) DM) content, followed by F. viridis and F. moschata. Our results showed that the leaves should be taken into account as important rutin and hyperoside contributors for strawberries.

  9. Determination of the Phenolic Profile and Antioxidant Properties of Salvia viridis L. Shoots: A Comparison of Aqueous and Hydroethanolic Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Grzegorczyk-Karolak

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Salvia viridis L. is an annual herb used in Mediterranean medicine. The purpose of this study was to determine the polyphenol profile of aqueous (decoction and infusion and hydroethanolic extracts of aerial parts of field-grown S.viridis and to evaluate their antioxidant activity. The polyphenol profiling was performed via UPLC-DAD/ESI-MS. Additionally, the total polyphenol content in extracts tested were determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometry using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The antioxidant effect was evaluated by the FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, O2•− scavenging and TBARS methods. The hydroethanolic extract gave the highest content of total phenolic compounds, followed by the infusion. The UPLC-DAD/ESI-MS analysis of extracts showed a total of 19 phenolic compounds identified as flavonoids (four compounds, phenylethanoids (eight compounds and phenolic acids (seven compounds. Rosmarinic acid was the predominant phenolic acid, verbascoside was the predominant phenylethanoid, while apigenin glucuronide or methylluteolin glucuronide, depending on the sample, were the predominant flavonoids in the analyzed extracts. The presence of a high polyphenol level indicated a high antioxidant activity of both the infusion and the hydroalcoholic extract. These results indicate that S. viridis is a rich resource of phenolic compounds and can be used in dietary applications with the potential to reduce oxidative stress.

  10. Complete chloroplast genome sequence of green foxtail (Setaria viridis), a promising model system for C4 photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-09-01

    The complete chloroplast genome of green foxtail (Setaria viridis), a promising model system for C4 photosynthesis, is first reported in this study. The genome harbors a large single copy (LSC) region of 81 016 bp and a small single copy (SSC) region of 12 456  bp separated by a pair of inverted repeat (IRa and IRb) regions of 22 315 bp. GC content is 38.92%. The proportion of coding sequence is 57.97%, comprising of 111 (19 duplicated in IR regions) unique genes, 71 of which are protein-coding genes, four are rRNA genes, and 36 are tRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that S. viridis was clustered with its cultivated species S. italica in the tribe Paniceae of the family Poaceae. This newly determined chloroplast genome will provide valuable genetic resources to assist future studies on C4 photosynthesis in grasses.

  11. Effects of Sodium Nitrate and Mixotrophic Culture on Biomass and Lipid Production in Hypersaline Microalgae Dunaliella Viridis Teod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Kharati-Koupaei

    Full Text Available To access the potential application of Dunaliella viridis Teod. for biofuel production, the effects of culture media composition on biomass and lipid content of this microalgae were investigated. Measured at the 20 th day, sodium nitrate at 5.0 mM augmented biomass production by 26.5 percent compared to control (1 mM sodium nitrate. Total lipids expressed as µg mL-1 of culture also increased with increase in nitrate concentration up to 5.0 mM sodium nitrate, whereas when expressed on the per cell basis, total lipids stayed relatively constant at most of the tested nitrate concentrations except at 0.5 mM which was 31.4 percent higher compared to 1.0 mM nitrate. At 5.0 mM sodium nitrate, by using 20 g L-1 of glucose in mixotrophic culture of D. viridis, cell number augmented by 36.4 percent compared to the cultures with no added glucose. Llipid content per cell and per mL of culture was increased by 71.4 and 135.1 percent, respectively. Among plant hormones, 10-9 M indole-3- acetic acid (IAA plus 10 -8 M trans-zeatin riboside led to 22.8 percent higher biomass relative to control (without hormone and at 1.0 mM sodium nitrate. It is concluded that altering the growth conditions of D. viridis can lead to higher cell densities and higher lipids content which can be exploited for biofuel production.

  12. Interactions of a Pop5/Rpp1 heterodimer with the catalytic domain of RNase MRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perederina, Anna; Khanova, Elena; Quan, Chao; Berezin, Igor; Esakova, Olga; Krasilnikov, Andrey S

    2011-10-01

    Ribonuclease (RNase) MRP is a multicomponent ribonucleoprotein complex closely related to RNase P. RNase MRP and eukaryotic RNase P share most of their protein components, as well as multiple features of their catalytic RNA moieties, but have distinct substrate specificities. While RNase P is practically universally found in all three domains of life, RNase MRP is essential in eukaryotes. The structural organizations of eukaryotic RNase P and RNase MRP are poorly understood. Here, we show that Pop5 and Rpp1, protein components found in both RNase P and RNase MRP, form a heterodimer that binds directly to the conserved area of the putative catalytic domain of RNase MRP RNA. The Pop5/Rpp1 binding site corresponds to the protein binding site in bacterial RNase P RNA. Structural and evolutionary roles of the Pop5/Rpp1 heterodimer in RNases P and MRP are discussed.

  13. Computational modeling of the bHLH domain of the transcription factor TWIST1 and R118C, S144R and K145E mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Amanda M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human TWIST1 is a highly conserved member of the regulatory basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH transcription factors. TWIST1 forms homo- or heterodimers with E-box proteins, such as E2A (isoforms E12 and E47, MYOD and HAND2. Haploinsufficiency germ-line mutations of the twist1 gene in humans are the main cause of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS, which is characterized by limb abnormalities and premature fusion of cranial sutures. Because of the importance of TWIST1 in the regulation of embryonic development and its relationship with SCS, along with the lack of an experimentally solved 3D structure, we performed comparative modeling for the TWIST1 bHLH region arranged into wild-type homodimers and heterodimers with E47. In addition, three mutations that promote DNA binding failure (R118C, S144R and K145E were studied on the TWIST1 monomer. We also explored the behavior of the mutant forms in aqueous solution using molecular dynamics (MD simulations, focusing on the structural changes of the wild-type versus mutant dimers. Results The solvent-accessible surface area of the homodimers was smaller on wild-type dimers, which indicates that the cleft between the monomers remained more open on the mutant homodimers. RMSD and RMSF analyses indicated that mutated dimers presented values that were higher than those for the wild-type dimers. For a more careful investigation, the monomer was subdivided into four regions: basic, helix I, loop and helix II. The basic domain presented a higher flexibility in all of the parameters that were analyzed, and the mutant dimer basic domains presented values that were higher than the wild-type dimers. The essential dynamic analysis also indicated a higher collective motion for the basic domain. Conclusions Our results suggest the mutations studied turned the dimers into more unstable structures with a wider cleft, which may be a reason for the loss of DNA binding capacity observed for in vitro

  14. Conformational heterogeneity of the bacteriopheophytin electron acceptor HA in reaction centers from Rhodopseudomonas viridis revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, J; Bibikova, M; Oesterhelt, D; Nabedryk, E

    1999-08-31

    The light-induced Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectra corresponding to the photoreduction of either the HA bacteriopheophytin electron acceptor (HA-/HA spectrum) or the QA primary quinone (QA-/QA spectrum) in photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) of Rhodopseudomonas viridis are reported. These spectra have been compared for wild-type (WT) RCs and for two site-directed mutants in which the proposed interactions between the carbonyls on ring V of HA and the RC protein have been altered. In the mutant EQ(L104), the putative hydrogen bond between the protein and the 9-keto C=O of HA should be affected by changing Glu L104 to a Gln. In the mutant WF(M250), the van der Waals interactions between Trp M250 and the 10a-ester C=O of HA should be modified. The characteristic effects of both mutations on the FTIR spectra support the proposed interactions and allow the IR modes of the 9-keto and 10a-ester C=O of HA and HA- to be assigned. Comparison of the HA-/HA and QA-/QA spectra leads us to conclude that the QA-/QA IR signals in the spectral range above 1700 cm-1 are largely dominated by contributions from the electrostatic response of the 10a-ester C=O mode of HA upon QA photoreduction. A heterogeneity in the conformation of the 10a-ester C=O mode of HA in WT RCs, leading to three distinct populations of HA, appears to be related to differences in the hydrogen-bonding interactions between the carbonyls of ring V of HA and the RC protein. The possibility that this structural heterogeneity is related to the observed multiexponential kinetics of electron transfer and the implications for primary processes are discussed. The effect of 1H/2H exchange on the QA-/QA spectra of the WT and mutant RCs shows that neither Glu L104 nor any other exchangeable carboxylic residue changes appreciably its protonation state upon QA reduction.

  15. Biometric and morphometric studies of Perna viridis and Perna indica along the southwest coast of India: a statistical approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Nair, M.; DileepKumar, R.; Vijayan, M.

    morphometric gradient groups (spat and adult), indicating the different phenotypic plasticity between them. The factor scores classified P. indica as a unimodal, positively skewed leptokurtic population and P. viridis as a unimodal, negatively skewed...

  16. Convergent Synthesis of Two Fluorescent Ebselen-Coumarin Heterodimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küppers, Jim; Schulz-Fincke, Anna Christina; Palus, Jerzy; Giurg, Mirosław; Skarżewski, Jacek; Gütschow, Michael

    2016-07-08

    The organo-seleniumdrug ebselen exhibits a wide range of pharmacological effects that are predominantly due to its interference with redox systems catalyzed by seleno enzymes, e.g., glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase. Moreover, ebselen can covalently interact with thiol groups of several enzymes. According to its pleiotropic mode of action, ebselen has been investigated in clinical trials for the prevention and treatment of different ailments. Fluorescence-labeled probes containing ebselen are expected to be suitable for further biological and medicinal studies. We therefore designed and synthesized two coumarin-tagged activity-based probes bearing the ebselen warhead. The heterodimers differ by the nature of the spacer structure, for which-in the second compound-a PEG/two-amide spacer was introduced. The interaction of this probe and of ebselen with two cysteine proteases was investigated.

  17. Phytolith analysis for differentiating between foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and green foxtail (Setaria viridis).

    OpenAIRE

    Jianping Zhang; Houyuan Lu; Naiqin Wu; Xiaoyan Yang; Xianmin Diao

    2011-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is one of the oldest domesticated cereal crops in Eurasia, but identifying foxtail millets, especially in charred grains, and differentiating it from its wild ancestor, green foxtail (Setaria viridis), in the archaeobotanical remains, is still problematic. Phytolithic analysis provides a meaningful method for identifying this important crop. In this paper, the silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from inflorescence bracts in 16 modern p...

  18. Characterization of the UV-crosslinked heterodimer of histones H2B and H4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.R.; Brown, D.M.; DeLange, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    At relatively high salt concentrations (1.2 M), histone 2B (H2B) and histone 4 (H4) can be covalently crosslinked by irradiation with ultraviolet light to yield a mixture of the three possible dimers: H2B-H2B, H4-H4, and H2B-H4. The formation of the H2B-H4 heterodimer was found to be favored at lower histone concentrations (> 90% H2B-H4 at 0.1 mg/ml total histone protein). CNBr cleavage of the H2B-H4 dimer produced three fragments which were separated by reverse phase HPLC. These fragments were identified by amino acid compositional analysis to be H4(85-102), H2B(62-125), and the crosslinked N-terminal regions H2B(1-59)-H4(1-84). Amino acid sequence analysis of the crosslinked fragment indicated that tyrosine-40 of H2B is likely involved in the covalent crosslinkage which joins the histone monomers to form the heterodimer

  19. HUBUNGAN KEKERABATAN BEBERAPA POPULASI KERANG HIJAU (Perna viridis DI INDONESIA BERDASARKAN SEKUEN CYTROCROME B mtDNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Sudradjat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui hubungan kekerabatan stok kerang hijau (Perna viridis di beberapa perairan Indonesia sebagai informasi dasar bagi program pemuliaan. Sampel kerang hijau yang berasal dari populasi alam perairan Tanjung Kait, Kamal, Panimbang, Cirebon, Pasuruan, Kenjeran, dan Pangkep diambil secara acak. Amplifikasi PCR dan sekuensing mitokondria daerah cytochrome B adalah HCO (F: 5’-TAA ACT TCA GGG TGA CCA AAA AAT CA-3’ (26 bp dan LCO (R: 5’-GGT CAA CAA ATC ATA AAG ATA TTG G-3’ (25 bp. Sekuen DNA yang diperoleh digunakan untuk analisis homologi, analisis genetic distance dan analisis kekerabatan. Hasil analisis homologi susunan nukleotida berdasarkan BLAST-N terhadap sekuen mtDNA Perna viridis yang tersimpan di Genebank menunjukkan similaritas 97%. Hasil analisis didapatkan jarak genetik yang terdekat adalah populasi Tanjung Kait dengan Kenjeran sedangkan jarak genetik terjauh adalah populasi Cirebon dengan Kamal. Hubungan kekerabatan yang ditunjukkan dengan dendrogram diperoleh 2 kelompok yaitu 6 populasi membentuk satu kelompok dan populasi Cirebon membentuk kluster tersendiri. Sekuens tersebut mungkin dapat digunakan sebagai penanda dalam program breeding kerang hijau di Indonesia

  20. Modulation of antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes in the gills of Perna viridis (L.) exposed to water accomodate fraction of diesel

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jena, K.B.; Verlecar, X.N.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    tested for cell damage and antioxidant responses in P. viridis for over 15 day period. The parameters measured included lipid peroxidation (LPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR...

  1. Response regulator heterodimer formation controls a key stage in Streptomyces development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M Al-Bassam

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The orphan, atypical response regulators BldM and WhiI each play critical roles in Streptomyces differentiation. BldM is required for the formation of aerial hyphae, and WhiI is required for the differentiation of these reproductive structures into mature spores. To gain insight into BldM function, we defined the genome-wide BldM regulon using ChIP-Seq and transcriptional profiling. BldM target genes clustered into two groups based on their whi gene dependency. Expression of Group I genes depended on bldM but was independent of all the whi genes, and biochemical experiments showed that Group I promoters were controlled by a BldM homodimer. In contrast, Group II genes were expressed later than Group I genes and their expression depended not only on bldM but also on whiI and whiG (encoding the sigma factor that activates whiI. Additional ChIP-Seq analysis showed that BldM Group II genes were also direct targets of WhiI and that in vivo binding of WhiI to these promoters depended on BldM and vice versa. We go on to demonstrate that BldM and WhiI form a functional heterodimer that controls Group II promoters, serving to integrate signals from two distinct developmental pathways. The BldM-WhiI system thus exemplifies the potential of response regulator heterodimer formation as a mechanism to expand the signaling capabilities of bacterial cells.

  2. Fusion and retrotransposition events in the evolution of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis neurotoxin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Yehu; Weinberger, Hagar; Lazarus, Nimrod; Gur, Maya; Kahn, Roy; Gordon, Dalia; Gurevitz, Michael

    2009-08-01

    Sea anemones are sessile predators that use a variety of toxins to paralyze prey and foe. Among these toxins, Types I, II and III are short peptides that affect voltage-gated sodium channels. Anemonia viridis is the only sea anemone species that produces both Types I and III neurotoxin. Although the two toxin types are unrelated in sequence and three-dimensional structure, cloning and comparative analysis of their loci revealed a highly similar sequence at the 5' region, which encodes a signal peptide. This similarity was likely generated by gene fusion and could be advantageous in transcript stability and intracellular trafficking and secretion. In addition, these analyses identified the processed pseudogenes of the two gene families in the genome of A. viridis, probably resulting from retrotransposition events. As presence of processed pseudogenes in the genome requires transcription in germ-line cells, we analyzed oocyte-rich ovaries and found that indeed they contain Types I and III transcripts. This result raises questions regarding the role of toxin transcripts in these tissues. Overall, the retrotransposition and gene fusion events suggest that the genes of both Types I and III neurotoxins evolved in a similar fashion and share a partial common ancestry.

  3. Morphostasis in a novel eukaryote illuminates the evolutionary transition from phagotrophy to phototrophy: description of Rapaza viridis n. gen. et sp. (Euglenozoa, Euglenida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi Aika

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Morphostasis of traits in different species is necessary for reconstructing the evolutionary history of complex characters. Studies that place these species into a molecular phylogenetic context test hypotheses about the transitional stages that link divergent character states. For instance, the transition from a phagotrophic mode of nutrition to a phototrophic lifestyle has occurred several times independently across the tree of eukaryotes; one of these events took place within the Euglenida, a large group of flagellates with diverse modes of nutrition. Phototrophic euglenids form a clade that is nested within lineages of phagotrophic euglenids and that originated through a secondary endosymbiosis with green algae. Although it is clear that phototrophic euglenids evolved from phagotrophic ancestors, the morphological disparity between species representing these different nutritional modes remains substantial. Results We cultivated a novel marine euglenid, Rapaza viridis n. gen. et sp. ("green grasper", and a green alga, Tetraselmis sp., from the same environment. Cells of R. viridis were comprehensively characterized with light microscopy, SEM, TEM, and molecular phylogenetic analysis of small subunit rDNA sequences. Ultrastructural and behavioral observations demonstrated that this isolate habitually consumes a specific strain of Tetraselmis prey cells and possesses a functional chloroplast that is homologous with other phototrophic euglenids. A novel feeding apparatus consisting of a reduced rod of microtubules facilitated this first and only example of mixotrophy among euglenids. R. viridis also possessed a robust photoreception apparatus, two flagella of unequal length, euglenoid movement, and a pellicle consisting of 16 strips and one (square-shaped whorl of posterior strip reduction. The molecular phylogenetic data demonstrated that R. viridis branches as the nearest sister lineage to phototrophic euglenids

  4. Convergent Synthesis of Two Fluorescent Ebselen-Coumarin Heterodimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Küppers

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The organo-seleniumdrug ebselen exhibits a wide range of pharmacological effects that are predominantly due to its interference with redox systems catalyzed by seleno enzymes, e.g., glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase. Moreover, ebselen can covalently interact with thiol groups of several enzymes. According to its pleiotropic mode of action, ebselen has been investigated in clinical trials for the prevention and treatment of different ailments. Fluorescence-labeled probes containing ebselen are expected to be suitable for further biological and medicinal studies. We therefore designed and synthesized two coumarin-tagged activity-based probes bearing the ebselen warhead. The heterodimers differ by the nature of the spacer structure, for which—in the second compound—a PEG/two-amide spacer was introduced. The interaction of this probe and of ebselen with two cysteine proteases was investigated.

  5. Response of DNA, proteins, lipids and antioxidant enzymes as measure of toxicity to mercury exposures in green mussel Perna viridis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    Studies on exposures of gills of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis to sublethal levels of mercury (Hg) indicates that oxidative stress marker like lipids peroxidation and protein carbonyl content increase. With the exception of superoxide dismutase...

  6. The transcriptomic response to thermal stress is immediate, transient and potentiated by ultraviolet radiation in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, A; Ganot, P; Furla, P; Sabourault, C

    2012-03-01

    Among the environmental threats to coral reef health, temperature and ultraviolet increases have been proposed as major agents, although the relative contribution of each in the cnidarian/zooxanthellae symbiosis breakdown has been poorly addressed. We have investigated the transcriptomic response to thermal stress, with and without ultraviolet radiation (UVR), in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Using the Oligo2K A. viridis microarray, dedicated to genes potentially involved in the symbiosis interaction, we monitored the gene expression profiles after 1, 2 and 5 days of stresses that further lead to massive losses of zooxanthellae. Each stress showed a specific gene expression profile with very little overlap. We showed that the major response to thermal stress is immediate (24 h) but returns to the baseline gene expression profile after 2 days. UVR alone has little effect but potentiates thermal stress, as a second response at 5 days was observed when the two stresses were coupled. Several pathways were highlighted, such as mesoglea loosening, cell death and calcium homeostasis and described in more details. Finally, we showed that the dermatopontin gene family, potentially involved in collagen fibrillogenesis, issued from actinarian-specific duplication events, with one member preferentially expressed in the gastroderm and specifically responding to stress. Anemonia viridis EST sequences have been deposited into GenBank dbEST ([GenBank:FK719875–FK759813]. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Accumulation of phenolic compounds in in vitro cultures and wild plants of Lavandula viridis L'Hér and their antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Patrícia; Gonçalves, Sandra; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Romano, Anabela

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the phenolic profile, antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase potential of different extracts from wild plants and in vitro cultures of Lavandula viridis L'Hér. The HPLC-DAD analysis allowed the identification and quantification of 3-O-caffeoylquinic, 4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and rosmarinic acids, and luteolin and pinocembrin. Water/ethanol extract from in vitro cultures contained the highest amount of the identified phenolic compounds (51652.92 mg/kg). To investigate the antioxidant activity we used Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, Fe(2+) chelation activity and the inhibition of Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation in mouse brain homogenates (in vitro). Overall, all the extracts from both wild plants and in vitro cultures exhibited ability to scavenge free radicals, to chelate Fe(2+) and to protect against lipid peroxidation. In addition, the extracts from L. viridis were active in inhibiting both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase (Ellman's method). Our findings suggest that L. viridis in vitro cultures represent a promising alternative for the production of active metabolites with antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. OCCURRENCE IN THE SOIL AND DISPERSAL OF Lecanicillium lecanii, A FUNGAL PATHOGEN OF THE GREEN COFFEE SCALE (Coccus viridis AND COFFEE RUST (Hemileia vastatrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug William Jackson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Lecanicillium lecanii attacks the green scale (Coccus viridis, a pest of coffee, and is also a hyperparasite of coffee rust (Hemileia vastatrix. Knowledge of the epizootiology of this fungus is potentially important for conservation biological control in coffee agroecosystems. The presence of viable propagules of L. lecanii in the soil, a possible environmental reservoir, was assessed using two baiting methods: the standard Galleria mellonella bait method and a C. viridis bait method. Infectious propagules of L. lecanii were detected in soil samples taken from a 45 ha study plot, both nearby and far from recent epizootics of L. lecanii. To test the potential for the transmission of L. lecanii conidia from the soil via rain splash or wind, coffee seedlings with populations of C. viridis were placed near L. lecanii-inoculated soil and then subjected to artificial rain and wind treatments. Rain splash was shown to be a potential transmission mechanism. Dispersal of L. lecanii conidia by the ant Azteca instabilis was tested using field and laboratory ant-exclusion experiments. Azteca instabilis was shown to transport conidia of L. lecanii; however, dispersal by A. instabilis may not be important under field conditions.

  9. SALT EFFECTS ON SWARMERS OF DUNALIELLA VIRIDIS TEOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas-Becking, L. G. M.

    1931-01-01

    1. Dunaliella viridis Teodoresco thrives equally well in solutions of NaCl 1 to 4 mol and pH 6 to 9. 2. The organism is sensitive to calcium and magnesium, especially in acid medium. 3. Calcium and magnesium are antagonistic. In a molar solution of NaCl the antagonistic relation Mg:Ca is 4 to 5. In a 4 molar solution of NaCl the proportion becomes many times as great (20:1). 4. Although the strains used in this investigation did not occur in sea water concentrates, the increase in the antagonistic ratio Mg:Ca in which they can live closely paralleled the changes in this ratio which take place when sea water evaporates. 5. The other organisms which occurred in the cultures each show a specific relation to Ca and Mg. 6. The size of the cells of Dunaliella does not decrease with increasing NaCl content. PMID:19872621

  10. High speed translocation of /sup 86/Rb in the phloem of Tradescantia viridis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penot, M.

    1976-01-01

    An autoradiographic study of the rooted shoots of Tradescantia viridis showed a high speed translocation of /sup 86/Rb applied to a leaf for short periods of time (5 to 2.5 min). The speed of this translocation (between 840 and 1.440 cm h/sup -1/) speaks for the existence of a very rapid phloem component translocating ions to an active sink, represented here by the growing roots. Pretreatment with cycloheximide (48 h, 50 mg 1/sup -1/) decreases the quantity of this long distance transport but not the velocity.

  11. Algal genotype and photoacclimatory responses of the symbiotic alga Symbiodinium in natural populations of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bythell, J. C.; Douglas, A. E.; Sharp, V. A.; Searle, J. B.; Brown, B. E.

    1997-01-01

    As an approach to investigate the impact of solar radiation on an alga–invertebrate symbiosis, the genetic variation and photosynthetic responses of the dinoflagellate algal symbiosis in an intertidal and a subtidal population of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis were explored. Allozyme analysis of the anemones indicated that the two populations were genetically very similar, with a Nei's index value of genetic identity (I) of 0.998. The algae in all animals examined were identified as Symbiodinium of clade a by PCR-RFLP analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. The symbiosis in the two populations did not differ significantly in algal population density, chlorophyll a content per algal cell or any photosynthetic parameter obtained from studies of the relationship between photosynthesis and irradiance. We conclude that there is not necessarily genetic variation or photosynthetic plasticity of the symbiotic algae in Anemonia viridis inhabiting environments characterized by the different solar irradiances of the subtidal and intertidal habitats.

  12. N2 fixing alder (Alnus viridis spp.fruticosa) effects on soil properties across a secondary successional chronosequence in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer S. Mitchell; Roger W. Ruess

    2009-01-01

    Green alder (Alnus viridis ssp. fruticosa) is a dominant understory shrub during secondary successional development of upland forests throughout interior Alaska, where it contributes substantially to the nitrogen (N) economy through atmospheric N2 fixation. Across a replicated 200+ year old vegetation...

  13. Characterization of small HSPs from Anemonia viridis reveals insights into molecular evolution of alpha crystallin genes among cnidarians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Nicosia

    Full Text Available Gene family encoding small Heat-Shock Proteins (sHSPs containing α-crystallin domain are found both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms; however, there is limited knowledge of their evolution. In this study, two small HSP genes termed AvHSP28.6 and AvHSP27, both organized in one intron and two exons, were characterised in the Mediterranean snakelocks anemone Anemonia viridis. The release of the genome sequence of Hydra magnipapillata and Nematostella vectensis enabled a comprehensive study of the molecular evolution of α-crystallin gene family among cnidarians. Most of the H. magnipapillata sHSP genes share the same gene organization described for AvHSP28.6 and AvHSP27, differing from the sHSP genes of N. vectensis which mainly show an intronless architecture. The different genomic organization of sHSPs, the phylogenetic analyses based on protein sequences, and the relationships among Cnidarians, suggest that the A.viridis sHSPs represent the common ancestor from which H. magnipapillata genes directly evolved through segmental genome duplication. Additionally retroposition events may be considered responsible for the divergence of sHSP genes of N. vectensis from A. viridis. Analyses of transcriptional expression profile showed that AvHSP28.6 was constitutively expressed among different tissues from both ectodermal and endodermal layers of the adult sea anemones, under normal physiological conditions and also under different stress condition. Specifically, we profiled the transcriptional activation of AvHSP28.6 after challenges with different abiotic/biotic stresses showing induction by extreme temperatures, heavy metals exposure and immune stimulation. Conversely, no AvHSP27 transcript was detected in such dissected tissues, in adult whole body cDNA library or under stress conditions. Hence, the involvement of AvHSP28.6 gene in the sea anemone defensome is strongly suggested.

  14. Characterization of small HSPs from Anemonia viridis reveals insights into molecular evolution of alpha crystallin genes among cnidarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicosia, Aldo; Maggio, Teresa; Mazzola, Salvatore; Gianguzza, Fabrizio; Cuttitta, Angela; Costa, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Gene family encoding small Heat-Shock Proteins (sHSPs containing α-crystallin domain) are found both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms; however, there is limited knowledge of their evolution. In this study, two small HSP genes termed AvHSP28.6 and AvHSP27, both organized in one intron and two exons, were characterised in the Mediterranean snakelocks anemone Anemonia viridis. The release of the genome sequence of Hydra magnipapillata and Nematostella vectensis enabled a comprehensive study of the molecular evolution of α-crystallin gene family among cnidarians. Most of the H. magnipapillata sHSP genes share the same gene organization described for AvHSP28.6 and AvHSP27, differing from the sHSP genes of N. vectensis which mainly show an intronless architecture. The different genomic organization of sHSPs, the phylogenetic analyses based on protein sequences, and the relationships among Cnidarians, suggest that the A.viridis sHSPs represent the common ancestor from which H. magnipapillata genes directly evolved through segmental genome duplication. Additionally retroposition events may be considered responsible for the divergence of sHSP genes of N. vectensis from A. viridis. Analyses of transcriptional expression profile showed that AvHSP28.6 was constitutively expressed among different tissues from both ectodermal and endodermal layers of the adult sea anemones, under normal physiological conditions and also under different stress condition. Specifically, we profiled the transcriptional activation of AvHSP28.6 after challenges with different abiotic/biotic stresses showing induction by extreme temperatures, heavy metals exposure and immune stimulation. Conversely, no AvHSP27 transcript was detected in such dissected tissues, in adult whole body cDNA library or under stress conditions. Hence, the involvement of AvHSP28.6 gene in the sea anemone defensome is strongly suggested.

  15. Chloride transport in toad skin (Bufo viridis). The effect of salt adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, U; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1984-01-01

    The steady-state Cl- current across the skin of Bufo viridis adapted to tap water was found to be rectified. In skins bathed with NaCl Ringer on both sides, a large outward current, carried by influx of Cl-, was observed at a clamping voltage (V) of less than -50 mV (outside of the skin negative......, and apparent leakage conductance was reduced. Application of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine to skin of fully salt-adapted toads increased the transepithelial Cl- conductance, and the time courses of voltage clamp currents became more like those of water-adapted toads. Apparent...... leakage conductance was increased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)...

  16. Detection of metal induced cytopathological alterations and DNA damage in the gills and hepatopancreas of green mussel Perna viridis from Ennore Estuary, Chennai, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasanthi, Lourduraj A.; Revathi, Peranandam; Babu Rajendran, Ramaswamy; Munuswamy, Natesan

    2017-01-01

    This study report the impact of heavy metals on cytopathology and DNA damage in the gills and hepatopancreas of Perna viridis collected from Ennore estuary and the Kovalam coastal waters. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed significant differences among all variables at the scale of plots. The ultrastructural alterations such as lack of microvilli, distorted mitochondria, electron dense particles and the presence of large mucous droplets were common in the gill and hepatopancreatic cells of mussels from Ennore estuary. However, the gill and hepatopancreatic cells of P. viridis from Kovalam revealed normal compartmentalization of cells. The percentage of tail DNA in the mussels from Ennore estuary was recorded as 12.44 and 10.14% in the gills and hepatopancreas respectively. Overall, it has been demonstrated that the Comet and cytopathological assays are useful biomarkers to assess the level of pollution and it provide reliable information on ecotoxicology and genotoxicology of coastal waters. - Highlights: • Bioaccumulation of heavy metals was studied in P. viridis from Ennore estuary. • Heavy metal accumulation leads to severe cellular and DNA damage. • Comet assay and cytopathology proved to be a biomarker in ecotoxicology. • The data justifies the need of remedial measures along Ennore Estuary.

  17. Prevalence of airborne allergenic Amaranthus viridis pollen in seven different regions of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnain, Syed M.; Fatima, K.; Al-Frayh, A.

    2007-01-01

    Amaranthus pollen grains are known to have highly allergenic and potential cause of respiratory allergic diseases. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of Amaranthus pollen in the environment is limited and almost non-existent for Saudi Arabia. We conducted an investigation to record the airborne incidence of A.viridis and other allergenic pollen in Al-Khobar, Dammam, Hail, Jeddah, Jizan, Qassim and Taif, using Burkard Volumetric Samplers. The samples were operated continuously for one year at each location. The data revealed A.viridis as one of the major components of outdoor airspora, constituting a maximum of 96% of total pollen counts in Hail, followed by Al-Khobar (89%), Jeddah (87%), Qassim (85%), Taif (84%), Dammam (83%) and Jizan (61%). These higher percentages contributed largely to the total weed pollen catch during August to November in all seven regions. In addition, the data also showed that A. virdis pollen were present throughout the year with distinct seasonal variations. The diel periodicities for at least five sites averaged over a year showed mid-day to early evening maxima. The maximum concentration approached 3000 mt. cube of air in October and 1827 mt. cube of air in September. The data also exhibited, a seasonal pattern, in their maximum appearance. Further studies related to biochemical and allergological aspects are needed to confirm the allergenic impact of Amaranthus pollen and sensitization in allergic individuals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  18. Karyological and flow cytometric evidence of triploid specimens in Bufo viridis (Amphibia Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Cavallo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Karyological and flow cytometric (FCM analyses were performed on a group of 14 green toads of the Bufo viridis species from seven Eurasian populations. Both approaches gave concordant results concerning the DNA ploidy level. All the populations examined were represented exclusively by diploid or tetraploid specimens, except one, where triploids were found. Results evidenced an interpopulation variability in DNA content against the same ploidy level, as well as an unusually high number of triploids in a particular reproductive place. The origin of polyploidy and the presence and persistence of a high number of triploids in a particular population are discussed.

  19. Accumulation, distribution and excretion of 134Cs and 65Zn by the green mussels (Perna Viridis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shunhua; Zhong Chuangguang; Yan Yuanyi; Zhao Xiaokui; Peng Yefang; Shi Qiong

    1997-10-01

    Two important radionuclides 134 Cs and 65 Zn were applied to study the accumulation, distribution and excretion of radioactive nuclides in organs and tissues of green mussel Perna Viridis. the results showed that the uptake rate of 134 Cs by green mussels was very low and the concentration factor (CF) for 134 Cs in the byssus approximated to 1. This CF value was lower than that of other tissues and organs of mussels, but its excretion rate was much higher than that of soft tissues. It was also found that the byssus of mussels had a special ability to accumulate 65 Zn. Concentration factor (CF) for 65 Zn in the byssus could reach as high as 900, which was much higher than that of any other tissues. However, its excretion rate was lower than that of other tissues and organs. The uptake rate of 65 Zn by soft tissues was markedly higher than that of 134 Cs. The mussels could also highly concentrate the low level 65 Zn even if specific activity of 65 Zn was very low in the environmental seawater. Results of radioactive trace experiments showed that the absorption of 134 Cs and 65 Zn by Perna Viridis was selective

  20. Nutritional value of the marine invertebrates Anemonia viridis and Haliothis tuberculata and effects on serum cholesterol concentration in ratsopen star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, M; Caride, B; Lamas, A; Taboada, C

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional value of diets with protein from two marine species (Haliotis tuberculata and Anemonia viridis) as compared to a high-quality protein reference based on casein or casein supplemented with olive oil. We also investigated the effects of these diets on serum lipid levels. Male rats were fed these diets for 23 days. Protein quality indicators (true digestibility, net protein utilization, biological value) were similar to those obtained for casein-based feeds except for lower true digestibility and net protein utilization values for the Anemonia viridis feed. HDL-cholesterol level was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the groups fed marine species or casein supplemented with olive oil than in the casein group. Total-cholesterol level was higher in the group fed Haliotis tuberculata fed than in the other groups. These results suggest that these marine species are a good protein source, and that they may have positive effects on serum cholesterol level.

  1. Low-dose rhBMP2/7 heterodimer to reconstruct peri-implant bone defects: a micro-CT evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Zheng, Y.; Zhao, J.; Liu, T.; Gao, L.; Gu, Z.; Wu, G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To delineate the dynamic micro-architectures of bone induced by low-dose bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2/7 heterodimer in peri-implant bone defects compared to BMP2 and BMP7 homodimer. Material and Methods Peri-implant bone defects (8 mm in diameter, 4 mm in depth) were created

  2. Propagação Assexuada de Chacrona (Psychotria viridis Ruiz & Pavon) Via Estaquia Foliar

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado, Moisés Pereira Galvão; Universidade de Taubaté - UNITAU; Furlan, Marcos Roberto; Universidade de Taubaté; Aoyama, Elisa Mitsuko; Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo - UFES; Rodrigues, Eliana; Universidade Federal de São Paulo; Cruz, Lilian Pereira; Universidade Estadual de Campinas - UNICAMP

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the asexual propagation of Psychotria viridis by leaf cuttings. The treatments were: A - Whole leaf cuttings, B - leaf cuttings with the top third cut off; C - with the lower third of the cuttings removed; D - with cuts on the primary vein of leaf cuttings, and E - poles with cuts on the leaf ’s secondary veins. The cuttings were immersed in distilled water for a period of 70 days. In all the treatments, the rooting was observed to occur in the region of the cut, or...

  3. PE2 cleavage mutants of Sindbis virus : Correlation between viral infectivity and pH-dependent membrane fusion activation of the spike heterodimer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, JM; Klimstra, WB; Ryman, KD; Bittman, R; Johnston, RE; Wilschut, J

    2001-01-01

    The spike glycoprotein E2 of Sindbis virus (SIN) is synthesized in the infected cell as a PE2 precursor protein, which matures through cleavage by a cellular furin-like protease. Previous work has shown that SIN mutants impaired in PE2 cleavage are noninfectious on BHK-21 cells, the block in

  4. Cultivation of green mussel, Perna viridis L., on a floating raft in an estuary along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rivonker, C.U.; Ansari, Z.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Total production of green mussels, Perna viridis, grown on a raft (16 m sup(2)) for 1 year was 2144.64 kg and biomass (meat weight) was 1040.00 kg. Annual production (P) and biomass (B) estimated were 33.51 and 16.25 kg m sup(-1) respectively...

  5. Microsporidia in a woodland pool I. Lanatospora costata sp. n. (Opisthosporidia, Microsporidia), parasite of Megacyclops viridis (Crustacea, Copepoda): fine structure and molecular phylogeny

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávra, Jiří; Hyliš, M.; Fiala, Ivan; Refardt, D.; Larsson, J.I.R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2016), s. 269-280 ISSN 0065-1583 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : microsporidian parasite * Megacyclops viridis * SSU rRNA Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.481, year: 2016

  6. Intracellular distribution of a speech/language disorder associated FOXP2 mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, Akifumi; Matsuzaki, Ayumi; Momoi, Mariko Y.; Fujita, Eriko; Tanabe, Yuko; Momoi, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Although a mutation (R553H) in the forkhead box (FOX)P2 gene is associated with speech/language disorder, little is known about the function of FOXP2 or its relevance to this disorder. In the present study, we identify the forkhead nuclear localization domains that contribute to the cellular distribution of FOXP2. Nuclear localization of FOXP2 depended on two distally separated nuclear localization signals in the forkhead domain. A truncated version of FOXP2 lacking the leu-zip, Zn 2+ finger, and forkhead domains that was observed in another patient with speech abnormalities demonstrated an aggregated cytoplasmic localization. Furthermore, FOXP2 (R553H) mainly exhibited a cytoplasmic localization despite retaining interactions with nuclear transport proteins (importin α and β). Interestingly, wild type FOXP2 promoted the transport of FOXP2 (R553H) into the nucleus. Mutant and wild type FOXP2 heterodimers in the nucleus or FOXP2 R553H in the cytoplasm may underlie the pathogenesis of the autosomal dominant speech/language disorder

  7. Trace element profiles of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis living nearby a natural CO2 vent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rael Horwitz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification (OA is not an isolated threat, but acts in concert with other impacts on ecosystems and species. Coastal marine invertebrates will have to face the synergistic interactions of OA with other global and local stressors. One local factor, common in coastal environments, is trace element contamination. CO2 vent sites are extensively studied in the context of OA and are often considered analogous to the oceans in the next few decades. The CO2 vent found at Levante Bay (Vulcano, NE Sicily, Italy also releases high concentrations of trace elements to its surrounding seawater, and is therefore a unique site to examine the effects of long-term exposure of nearby organisms to high pCO2 and trace element enrichment in situ. The sea anemone Anemonia viridis is prevalent next to the Vulcano vent and does not show signs of trace element poisoning/stress. The aim of our study was to compare A. viridis trace element profiles and compartmentalization between high pCO2 and control environments. Rather than examining whole anemone tissue, we analyzed two different body compartments—the pedal disc and the tentacles, and also examined the distribution of trace elements in the tentacles between the animal and the symbiotic algae. We found dramatic changes in trace element tissue concentrations between the high pCO2/high trace element and control sites, with strong accumulation of iron, lead, copper and cobalt, but decreased concentrations of cadmium, zinc and arsenic proximate to the vent. The pedal disc contained substantially more trace elements than the anemone’s tentacles, suggesting the pedal disc may serve as a detoxification/storage site for excess trace elements. Within the tentacles, the various trace elements displayed different partitioning patterns between animal tissue and algal symbionts. At both sites iron was found primarily in the algae, whereas cadmium, zinc and arsenic were primarily found in the animal tissue. Our data

  8. Trace element profiles of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis living nearby a natural CO2 vent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Rael; Borell, Esther M; Fine, Maoz; Shaked, Yeala

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is not an isolated threat, but acts in concert with other impacts on ecosystems and species. Coastal marine invertebrates will have to face the synergistic interactions of OA with other global and local stressors. One local factor, common in coastal environments, is trace element contamination. CO2 vent sites are extensively studied in the context of OA and are often considered analogous to the oceans in the next few decades. The CO2 vent found at Levante Bay (Vulcano, NE Sicily, Italy) also releases high concentrations of trace elements to its surrounding seawater, and is therefore a unique site to examine the effects of long-term exposure of nearby organisms to high pCO2 and trace element enrichment in situ. The sea anemone Anemonia viridis is prevalent next to the Vulcano vent and does not show signs of trace element poisoning/stress. The aim of our study was to compare A. viridis trace element profiles and compartmentalization between high pCO2 and control environments. Rather than examining whole anemone tissue, we analyzed two different body compartments-the pedal disc and the tentacles, and also examined the distribution of trace elements in the tentacles between the animal and the symbiotic algae. We found dramatic changes in trace element tissue concentrations between the high pCO2/high trace element and control sites, with strong accumulation of iron, lead, copper and cobalt, but decreased concentrations of cadmium, zinc and arsenic proximate to the vent. The pedal disc contained substantially more trace elements than the anemone's tentacles, suggesting the pedal disc may serve as a detoxification/storage site for excess trace elements. Within the tentacles, the various trace elements displayed different partitioning patterns between animal tissue and algal symbionts. At both sites iron was found primarily in the algae, whereas cadmium, zinc and arsenic were primarily found in the animal tissue. Our data suggests that A. viridis

  9. Self-assembly of Hydrazide-based Heterodimers Driven by Hydrogen Bonding and Donor-Acceptor Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG,Dai-Jun; WANG,Peng; LI,Xiao-Qiang; LI,Zhan-Ting

    2006-01-01

    A new series of hydrogen bonding-driven heterodimers have been self-assembled in chloroform from hydrazide-based monomers. Additional intermolecular donor-acceptor interaction between the electron-rich bis(p-phenylene)-34-crown-10 unit and the electron-deficient naphthalene diimide unit has been utilized to increase the stability of the dimmers, and pronounced cooperativity of the two discrete non-covalent forces to stabilize the dimer has been revealed by the quantitative 1H (2D) NMR and UV-Vis experiments.

  10. Validating Internal Control Genes for the Accurate Normalization of qPCR Expression Analysis of the Novel Model Plant Setaria viridis.

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    Julia Lambret-Frotté

    Full Text Available Employing reference genes to normalize the data generated with quantitative PCR (qPCR can increase the accuracy and reliability of this method. Previous results have shown that no single housekeeping gene can be universally applied to all experiments. Thus, the identification of a suitable reference gene represents a critical step of any qPCR analysis. Setaria viridis has recently been proposed as a model system for the study of Panicoid grasses, a crop family of major agronomic importance. Therefore, this paper aims to identify suitable S. viridis reference genes that can enhance the analysis of gene expression in this novel model plant. The first aim of this study was the identification of a suitable RNA extraction method that could retrieve a high quality and yield of RNA. After this, two distinct algorithms were used to assess the gene expression of fifteen different candidate genes in eighteen different samples, which were divided into two major datasets, the developmental and the leaf gradient. The best-ranked pair of reference genes from the developmental dataset included genes that encoded a phosphoglucomutase and a folylpolyglutamate synthase; genes that encoded a cullin and the same phosphoglucomutase as above were the most stable genes in the leaf gradient dataset. Additionally, the expression pattern of two target genes, a SvAP3/PI MADS-box transcription factor and the carbon-fixation enzyme PEPC, were assessed to illustrate the reliability of the chosen reference genes. This study has shown that novel reference genes may perform better than traditional housekeeping genes, a phenomenon which has been previously reported. These results illustrate the importance of carefully validating reference gene candidates for each experimental set before employing them as universal standards. Additionally, the robustness of the expression of the target genes may increase the utility of S. viridis as a model for Panicoid grasses.

  11. Vitamin D receptor displays DNA binding and transactivation as a heterodimer with the retinoid X receptor, but not with the thyroid hormone receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, P D; Hsieh, J C; Whitfield, G K; Haussler, C A; Jurutka, P W; Galligan, M A; Tillman, J B; Spindler, S R; Haussler, M R

    1999-12-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a transcription factor believed to function as a heterodimer with the retinoid X receptor (RXR). However, it was reported [Schräder et al., 1994] that, on putative vitamin D response elements (VDREs) within the rat 9k and mouse 28k calcium binding protein genes (rCaBP 9k and mCaBP 28k), VDR and thyroid hormone receptor (TR) form heterodimers that transactivate in response to both 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)). We, therefore, examined associations of these receptors on the putative rCaBP 9k and mCaBP 28k VDREs, as well as on established VDREs from the rat osteocalcin (rOC) and mouse osteopontin (mOP) genes, plus the thyroid hormone response element (TRE) from the rat myosin heavy chain (rMHC) gene. In gel mobility shift assays, we found no evidence for VDR-TR heterodimer interaction with any tested element. Further, employing these hormone response elements linked to reporter genes in transfected cells, VDR and TR mediated responses to their cognate ligands only from the rOC/mOP and rMHC elements, respectively, while the CaBP elements were unresponsive to any combination of ligand(s). Utilizing the rOC and mOP VDREs, two distinct repressive actions of TR on VDR-mediated signaling were demonstrated: a T(3)-independent action, presumably via direct TR-RXR competition for DNA binding, and a T(3)-dependent repression, likely by diversion of limiting RXR from VDR-RXR toward the formation of TR-RXR heterodimers. The relative importance of these two mechanisms differed in a response element-specific manner. These results may provide a partial explanation for the observed association between hyperthyroidism and bone demineralization/osteoporosis. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Mapping of quantitative trait locus (QTLs that contribute to germination and early seedling drought tolerance in the interspecific cross Setaria italica×Setaria viridis.

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    Lufeng Qie

    Full Text Available Drought tolerance is an important breeding target for enhancing the yields of grain crop species in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Two species of Setaria, domesticated foxtail millet (S. italica and its wild ancestor green foxtail (S. viridis are becoming widely adopted as models for functional genomics studies in the Panicoid grasses. In this study, the genomic regions controlling germination and early seedling drought tolerance in Setaria were identified using 190 F7 lines derived from a cross between Yugu1, a S. italica cultivar developed in China, and a wild S. viridis genotype collected from Uzbekistan. Quantitative trait loci were identified which contribute to a number of traits including promptness index, radical root length, coleoptile length and lateral root number at germinating stage and seedling survival rate was characterized by the ability of desiccated seedlings to revive after rehydration. A genetic map with 128 SSR markers which spans 1293.9 cM with an average of 14 markers per linkage group of the 9 linkage groups was constructed. A total of eighteen QTLs were detected which included nine that explained over 10% of the phenotypic variance for a given trait. Both the wild green foxtail genotype and the foxtail millet cultivar contributed the favorite alleles for traits detected in this trial, indicating that wild Setaria viridis populations may serve as a reservoir for novel stress tolerance alleles which could be employed in foxtail millet breeding.

  13. Mapping of quantitative trait locus (QTLs) that contribute to germination and early seedling drought tolerance in the interspecific cross Setaria italica×Setaria viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qie, Lufeng; Jia, Guanqing; Zhang, Wenying; Schnable, James; Shang, Zhonglin; Li, Wei; Liu, Binhui; Li, Mingzhe; Chai, Yang; Zhi, Hui; Diao, Xianmin

    2014-01-01

    Drought tolerance is an important breeding target for enhancing the yields of grain crop species in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Two species of Setaria, domesticated foxtail millet (S. italica) and its wild ancestor green foxtail (S. viridis) are becoming widely adopted as models for functional genomics studies in the Panicoid grasses. In this study, the genomic regions controlling germination and early seedling drought tolerance in Setaria were identified using 190 F7 lines derived from a cross between Yugu1, a S. italica cultivar developed in China, and a wild S. viridis genotype collected from Uzbekistan. Quantitative trait loci were identified which contribute to a number of traits including promptness index, radical root length, coleoptile length and lateral root number at germinating stage and seedling survival rate was characterized by the ability of desiccated seedlings to revive after rehydration. A genetic map with 128 SSR markers which spans 1293.9 cM with an average of 14 markers per linkage group of the 9 linkage groups was constructed. A total of eighteen QTLs were detected which included nine that explained over 10% of the phenotypic variance for a given trait. Both the wild green foxtail genotype and the foxtail millet cultivar contributed the favorite alleles for traits detected in this trial, indicating that wild Setaria viridis populations may serve as a reservoir for novel stress tolerance alleles which could be employed in foxtail millet breeding.

  14. Metalotioninas en Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae: variación estacional y su relación con la biología reproductiva Metallothioneins in Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae: seasonal variation and its relation to reproductive biology

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    Mairin Lemus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Las metalotioninas (Mts son proteínas de baja masa molecular que juegan un rol importante en la detoxificación de metales, en vista de su papel ecotoxicológico se evaluaron las metalotioneínas (MTs en 350 ejemplares del bivalvo Perna viridis en dos localidades de la costa norte del estado Sucre, desde febrero hasta diciembre 2003. Se determinaron los índices biométricos: índice de condición (IC, rendimiento de carne (RC y relación peso seco-talla (PSL. Las Mts fueron separadas por cromatografía de exclusión molecular, Sephadex G-50 y se cuantificaron por saturación con cadmio. Los índices biométricos (RC y PSL mostraron variaciones estacionales, entre localidades y estados de madurez, con la excepción del CI. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre sexos. Las Mts mostraron variaciones estacionales, con concentraciones más elevadas entre febrero y marzo y mínimos entre septiembre y diciembre, que coincidieron con los períodos de alta y baja productividad en el área, respectivamente. Los mejillones de Río Caribe presentaron una mayor concentración de Mts que los de Chacopata. Los mejillones inmaduros mostraron la mayor concentración de Mts y la más baja en los desovados. Se encontró una relación negativa y significativa entre Mts y CI. Los resultados demuestran que las Mts de Perna viridis están influidas por el índice de condición y la condición reproductiva, asi como también pot los factores físico-químicos del ambiente marino.Metallothionein is a cytosolic protein found in a variety of tissues and have been involved in the regulation of essential trace metals such as copper and zinc, and in the detoxification of essential and nonessential metals. With the aim to study their seasonal variation and their possible role in reproductive behavior, we evaluated metallothioneins (Mts in Perna viridis, taken from Rio Caribe and Chacopata localities in the North coast of Sucre state, Venezuela. A total of 325

  15. ThWRKY4 from Tamarix hispida Can Form Homodimers and Heterodimers and Is Involved in Abiotic Stress Responses

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    Liuqiang Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available WRKY proteins are a large family of transcription factors that are involved in diverse developmental processes and abiotic stress responses in plants. However, our knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms of WRKYs participation in protein–protein interactions is still fragmentary, and such protein–protein interactions are fundamental in understanding biological networks and the functions of proteins. In this study, we report that a WRKY protein from Tamarix hispida, ThWRKY4, can form both homodimers and heterodimers with ThWRKY2 and ThWRKY3. In addition, ThWRKY2 and ThWRKY3 can both bind to W-box motif with binding affinities similar to that of ThWRKY4. Further, the expression patterns of ThWRKY2 and ThWRKY3 are similar to that of ThWRKY4 when plants are exposed to abscisic acid (ABA. Subcellular localization shows that these three ThWRKY proteins are nuclear proteins. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ThWRKY4 is a dimeric protein that can form functional homodimers or heterodimers that are involved in abiotic stress responses.

  16. ThWRKY4 from Tamarix hispida Can Form Homodimers and Heterodimers and Is Involved in Abiotic Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liuqiang; Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Chunrui; Wang, Yucheng; Lu, Mengzhu; Gao, Caiqiu

    2015-11-13

    WRKY proteins are a large family of transcription factors that are involved in diverse developmental processes and abiotic stress responses in plants. However, our knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms of WRKYs participation in protein-protein interactions is still fragmentary, and such protein-protein interactions are fundamental in understanding biological networks and the functions of proteins. In this study, we report that a WRKY protein from Tamarix hispida, ThWRKY4, can form both homodimers and heterodimers with ThWRKY2 and ThWRKY3. In addition, ThWRKY2 and ThWRKY3 can both bind to W-box motif with binding affinities similar to that of ThWRKY4. Further, the expression patterns of ThWRKY2 and ThWRKY3 are similar to that of ThWRKY4 when plants are exposed to abscisic acid (ABA). Subcellular localization shows that these three ThWRKY proteins are nuclear proteins. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ThWRKY4 is a dimeric protein that can form functional homodimers or heterodimers that are involved in abiotic stress responses.

  17. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oils of Lavandula viridis L'Her.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzarte, Mónica; Gonçalves, Maria José; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Canhoto, Jorge; Vale-Silva, Luís; Silva, Maria João; Pinto, Eugénia; Salgueiro, Lígia

    2011-05-01

    In the present work we report for what we believe to be the first time the antifungal activity and mechanism of action of the essential oils of Lavandula viridis from Portugal. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC/MS. The MIC and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of the essential oil and its major compounds were determined against several pathogenic fungi. The influence of subinhibitory concentrations of the essential oil on the dimorphic transition in Candida albicans was also studied, as well as propidium iodide and FUN-1 staining of Candida albicans cells by flow cytometry following short treatments with the essential oil. The oils were characterized by a high content of oxygen-containing monoterpenes, with 1,8-cineole being the main constituent. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were present at lower concentrations. According to the determined MIC and MLC values, the dermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformans were the most sensitive fungi (MIC and MLC values ranging from 0.32 to 0.64 µl ml⁻¹), followed by Candida species (at 0.64-2.5 µl ml⁻¹). For most of these strains, MICs were equivalent to MLCs, indicating a fungicidal effect of the essential oil. The oil was further shown to completely inhibit filamentation in Candida albicans at concentrations well below the respective MICs (as low as MIC/16). Flow cytometry results suggested a mechanism of action ultimately leading to cytoplasmic membrane disruption and cell death. Our results show that L. viridis essential oils may be useful in the clinical treatment of fungal diseases, particularly dermatophytosis and candidosis, although clinical trials are required to evaluate the practical relevance of our in vitro research.

  18. Nomenclatural availability of the names applied to “varieties” of the green toad (Bufo viridis subgroup in the Italian territory, with emphasis on the variety lineata of Ninni (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Nicola Novarini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent molecular investigations on Eurasian green toads led to the recognition of distinct lineages and to the establishment of new taxa within the former Bufo viridis; as a consequence, significant range-wide nomenclatural changes have been proposed, although some uncertainties remained on the available names applicable within the Italian territory. In order to contribute to clarify the matter, we evaluated, under the provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the nomenclatural availability of all the names that have been applied to infrasubspecific entities of the Bufo viridis subgroup within the Italian territory. We also provided a historical overview of the usage of all these names, as well as detailed information on the original material upon which the variety lineata of A.P. Ninni was established. Our analysis supports the view that only the names crucigera Eichwald, 1831 and balearica Boettger, 1880 are available, the former being however junior synonym of B. viridis Laurenti, 1768, whereas the names acutirostris and obtusirostris of Lessona, lineata of Ninni, concolor and maculata of Camerano, and nardoi of Paolucci, Fuhn and Bruno are all not available.

  19. Egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae and Trichogrammatidae) of the gall-making leafhopper Scenergates viridis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Uzbekistan, with taxonomic notes on the Palaearctic species of Aphelinoidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakitov, Roman; Triapitsyn, Serguei V

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the Aphelinoidea Girault (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), A. (Aphelinoidea) sariq Triapitsyn & Rakitov sp. n., is described from Uzbekistan. Both sexes were reared from eggs of the only known truly gall-making leafhopper, Scenergates viridis (Vilbaste), laid inside its galls on camelthorn, Alhagi maurorum Medikus; additional females were found dead inside the galls. Aphelinoidea sariq is the only known species of the nominate subgenus of Aphelinoidea whose body color is predominantly yellow. Taxonomic notes on other Palaearctic species of Aphelinoidea are provided; A. scythica Fursov, syn. n. is synonymized underA. (Aphelinoidea) turanica S. Trjapitzin. Another trichogrammatid, Par-acentrobia (Paracentrobia) sp., was reared from eggs of S. viridis in much smaller numbers. Also described from the same locality and host is Gonatocerus (Lymaenon) mitjaevi Triapitsyn & Rakitov sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae).

  20. The 60-kDa heat shock protein (HSP60) of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis: a potential early warning system for environmental changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choresh, O; Ron, E; Loya, Y

    2001-09-01

    Expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) is often correlated with adaptation to environmental stress. We examined the role of HSP60 (60 kDa) in acclimatization to thermal stress in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Using monoclonal antibodies, we identified HSP60 in sea anemones for the first time, and showed that its expression varied with changes in seawater temperature (SWT). Anemonia viridis displayed high levels of HSP60 when extreme temperatures prevailed in stressful habitats such as tidal pools. Specimens sampled from different temperature layers in the same tidal pool differed in their levels of HSP60. Specimens from subtidal zones exhibited a seasonal pattern of expression of HSP60, according to the seasonal SWT. The level of HSP60 was significantly higher in the summer (SWT, 31 degrees C) than in other seasons throughout the year. This study suggests the use of HSP60 expression as a tool for stress detection in marine invertebrates.

  1. Partially Purified Extracts of Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis Affect the Growth and Viability of Selected Tumour Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Bulati, Matteo; Longo, Alessandra; Masullo, Tiziana; Vlah, Sara; Bennici, Carmelo; Bonura, Angela; Salamone, Monica; Tagliavia, Marcello; Nicosia, Aldo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Colombo, Paolo; Cuttitta, Angela

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, marine species have been investigated for the presence of natural products with anticancer activity. Using reversed phase chromatography, low molecular weight proteins were fractionated from the sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Four different fractions were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity by means of erythrocyte haemolysis test, MTS, and LDH assays. Finally, the antiproliferative activities of three of these fractions were studied on PC3, PLC/PRF/5, and A375 human c...

  2. Characterization of Small HSPs from Anemonia viridis Reveals Insights into Molecular Evolution of Alpha Crystallin Genes among Cnidarians

    OpenAIRE

    Nicosia, Aldo; Maggio, Teresa; Mazzola, Salvatore; Gianguzza, Fabrizio; Cuttitta, Angela; Costa, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Gene family encoding small Heat-Shock Proteins (sHSPs containing α-crystallin domain) are found both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms; however, there is limited knowledge of their evolution. In this study, two small HSP genes termed AvHSP28.6 and AvHSP27, both organized in one intron and two exons, were characterised in the Mediterranean snakelocks anemone Anemonia viridis. The release of the genome sequence of Hydra magnipapillata and Nematostella vectensis enabled a comprehensive stu...

  3. Pemanfaatan Limbah Cangkang Kerang Hijau (Perna Viridis Menjadi Kitin Sebagai Biokoagulan Air Sungai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsidar HS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the optimum weight of chitin that used as biocoagulant of river water. The water sample is taken from Kajenjeng river and the chitin used for research are isolated from green mussels (Perna viridis shell powder through three steps such as deproteination by NaOH 3%, demineralization by HCl 1,25 N and depigmentation by NaOCl 4%. Then, the obtained chitin are contacted into water with variation of 0,25 gram; 0,5 gram; 0,75 gram and 1 gram in an hour. The result showed that optimum weight of chitin for COD determination, total hardness, calcium and turbidity is 0,75 gram, while optimum weight of chitin for magnesium determination is 0,5 gram.

  4. Evolutionary conserved mechanisms pervade structure and transcriptional modulation of allograft inflammatory factor-1 from sea anemone Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttitta, Angela; Ragusa, Maria Antonietta; Costa, Salvatore; Bennici, Carmelo; Colombo, Paolo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Gianguzza, Fabrizio; Nicosia, Aldo

    2017-08-01

    Gene family encoding allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is well conserved among organisms; however, there is limited knowledge in lower organisms. In this study, the first AIF-1 homologue from cnidarians was identified and characterised in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis. The full-length cDNA of AvAIF-1 was of 913 bp with a 5' -untranslated region (UTR) of 148 bp, a 3'-UTR of 315 and an open reading frame (ORF) of 450 bp encoding a polypeptide with149 amino acid residues and predicted molecular weight of about 17 kDa. The predicted protein possesses evolutionary conserved EF hand Ca 2+ binding motifs, post-transcriptional modification sites and a 3D structure which can be superimposed with human members of AIF-1 family. The AvAIF-1 transcript was constitutively expressed in all tested tissues of unchallenged sea anemone, suggesting that AvAIF-1 could serve as a general protective factor under normal physiological conditions. Moreover, we profiled the transcriptional activation of AvAIF-1 after challenges with different abiotic/biotic stresses showing induction by warming conditions, heavy metals exposure and immune stimulation. Thus, mechanisms associated to inflammation and immune challenges up-regulated AvAIF-1 mRNA levels. Our results suggest its involvement in the inflammatory processes and immune response of A. viridis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Acquired phototrophy through retention of functional chloroplasts increases growth efficiency of the sea slug Elysia viridis.

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    Finn A Baumgartner

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is a fundamental process sustaining heterotrophic organisms at all trophic levels. Some mixotrophs can retain functional chloroplasts from food (kleptoplasty, and it is hypothesized that carbon acquired through kleptoplasty may enhance trophic energy transfer through increased host growth efficiency. Sacoglossan sea slugs are the only known metazoans capable of kleptoplasty, but the relative fitness contributions of heterotrophy through grazing, and phototrophy via kleptoplasts, are not well understood. Fitness benefits (i.e. increased survival or growth of kleptoplasty in sacoglossans are commonly studied in ecologically unrealistic conditions under extended periods of complete darkness and/or starvation. We compared the growth efficiency of the sacoglossan Elysia viridis with access to algal diets providing kleptoplasts of differing functionality under ecologically relevant light conditions. Individuals fed Codium fragile, which provide highly functional kleptoplasts, nearly doubled their growth efficiency under high compared to low light. In contrast, individuals fed Cladophora rupestris, which provided kleptoplasts of limited functionality, showed no difference in growth efficiency between light treatments. Slugs feeding on Codium, but not on Cladophora, showed higher relative electron transport rates (rETR in high compared to low light. Furthermore, there were no differences in the consumption rates of the slugs between different light treatments, and only small differences in nutritional traits of algal diets, indicating that the increased growth efficiency of E. viridis feeding on Codium was due to retention of functional kleptoplasts. Our results show that functional kleptoplasts from Codium can provide sacoglossan sea slugs with fitness advantages through photosynthesis.

  6. BIOCUMULACIÓN Y EFECTO DEL CADMIO EN JUVENILES DEL MEJILLÓN VERDE Perna viridis (L. 1758 (MYTILOIDA: MYTILIDAEI BIOCUMULACIÓN AND EFFECT OF CADMIUM IN JUVENILES THE GREEN MUSSEL Perna viridis (L. 1758 (MYTILOIDA: MYTILIDAE

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    VANESSA ACOSTA

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the potential for bioaccumulation of Cadmium in juveniles of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis (with average antero-posterior length 12.67±3.02 mm exposed to two sublethal concentrations of cadmium chloride (50 and 80 μgCd/ L and the immediate effect on the RNA/DNA ratio during an exposure period of 8 days. Cadmium levels were quantified in all tissues and the shell, using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer with air-acetylene flame. The ratio RNA/DNA was quantified in the abductor muscle. After two days of the experiment, the mussels showed the highest accumulation of Cd in tissues, which was proportional to the experimental concentrations, and then the levels in tissues remained unchanged during the rest of the experiment. Organisms in the control treatment maintained a constant amount of cadmium throughout the study. The accumulation in the shell was continuous and proportional to the concentration of the treatments. The ratio RNA/DNA showed a decline in both treatments, while organisms in the control group showed the highest levels and without significant changes throughout the experiment. Results showed an immediate incorporation of Cd in organisms, during the first 48 hours of exposure, with subsequent regulation of the metal, generating possibly a metabolic cost to counteract the toxic effect, leading to a decrease in RNA/ DNA ratio. Perna viridis is a species capable of regulating tolerable levels of cadmium, responding with effective regulatory mechanisms that allow it to acclimate to contaminated areas. The continuous accumulation of Cd in the shell suggests that this compartment can be used as an indicator of pollution for this metal in aquatic systems.

  7. Sharing mutants and experimental information prepublication using FgMutantDb (https://scabusa.org/FgMutantDb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Thomas T; Basenko, Evelina; Harb, Omar; Brown, Neil A; Urban, Martin; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E; Bregitzer, Phil P

    2018-06-01

    There is no comprehensive storage for generated mutants of Fusarium graminearum or data associated with these mutants. Instead, researchers relied on several independent and non-integrated databases. FgMutantDb was designed as a simple spreadsheet that is accessible globally on the web that will function as a centralized source of information on F. graminearum mutants. FgMutantDb aids in the maintenance and sharing of mutants within a research community. It will serve also as a platform for disseminating prepublication results as well as negative results that often go unreported. Additionally, the highly curated information on mutants in FgMutantDb will be shared with other databases (FungiDB, Ensembl, PhytoPath, and PHI-base) through updating reports. Here we describe the creation and potential usefulness of FgMutantDb to the F. graminearum research community, and provide a tutorial on its use. This type of database could be easily emulated for other fungal species. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Occurrence of the alien nudibranch Melibe viridis (Kelaart, 1858 (Opisthobranchia, Tethydidae, in the Maltese Islands

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    J.A. BORG

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The alien dendronotacean nudibranch Melibe viridis (Kelaart, 1858, a tropical Indo-Pacific species that seems to have been introduced by shipping into the Mediterranean via the Suez Canal, and which has established populations in Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Montenegro, Croatia, NW Sicily, southern peninsular Italy and Djerba Island in the Gulf of Gabes, is recorded for the first time from Malta. A thriving population was observed on a soft sediment bottom at a depth of 18-20 m off the western coast of the island of Comino (Maltese Islands. It is suggested that this species was introduced into Malta due to a natural range expansion of surrounding populations.

  9. Larval development and shape variation of the kelpfish Myxodes viridis (Teleostei: Clinidae

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    Francisca Zavala-Muñoz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Larval development and shape ontogeny of the kelpfish Myxodes viridis (Clinidae are described for the first time. A total of 214 individuals ranging between 3.51 and 23.09 mm standard length collected off central Chile were assessed employing classic and geometric morphometrics, illustration with camera lucida and a double-staining technique for cartilaginous and bone structure observation. Based on characteristics such as yolk sac presence and fin formation, six stages of larval development were differentiated: yolk sac, preflexion, flexion, early postflexion, late postflexion and juvenile. Shape changes during development are subtle and occur smoothly, being more significant in the head and preanal length, and ontogenetic allometry accounts for almost 15%. Cartilage formation takes place first at the branchial arches and cranium; then hypural, haemal and neural arches are consecutively formed. Bony structure ossification occurs late in the development. Vertebral centra ossify directly, without cartilaginous matrix replacement.

  10. Mutants induced in winter rye (Secale cereale L.): Short straw-mutant No. 2714 and late-senescence mutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muszynski, S; Darlewska, M [Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Science, Warsaw Agricultural University, Warsaw (Poland)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Mutants were induced by treating dormant seeds with ionizing radiation (fast neutrons) or chemicals (N-nitroso-N-ethyl urea or sodium azide). Among several mutants obtained, of special value is the short-straw mutant No. 2714 and a late senescent mutant. (author)

  11. Extracts from Cladiella australis, Clavularia viridis and Klyxum simplex (Soft Corals are Capable of Inhibiting the Growth of Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guey-Horng Wang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Many biomedical products have already been obtained from marine organisms. In order to search more therapeutic drugs against cancer, this study demonstrates the cytotoxicity effects of Cladiella australis, Clavularia viridis and Klyxum simplex extractson human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC4, SCC9 and SCC25 cells using cell adhesion and cell viability assay. The morphological alterations in SCCs cells after treatment with three extracts, such as typical nuclear condensation, nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic bodies of cells were demonstrated by Hoechst stain. Flow cytometry indicated that three extracts sensitized SCC25 cells in the G0/G1 and S-G2/M phases with a concomitant significantly increased sub-G1 fraction, indicating cell death by apoptosis. This apoptosis process was accompanied by activation of caspase-3 expression after SCC25 cells were treated with three extracts. Thereby, it is possible that extracts of C. australis, C. viridis and K. simplex cause apoptosis of SCCs and warrant further research investigating the possible anti-oral cancer compounds in these soft corals.

  12. The crystal structure of the AhRR-ARNT heterodimer reveals the structural basis of the repression of AhR-mediated transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Shunya; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Ohto, Umeharu

    2017-10-27

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin and related compounds are extraordinarily potent environmental toxic pollutants. Most of the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin toxicities are mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor belonging to the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) family. Upon ligand binding, AhR forms a heterodimer with AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) and induces the expression of genes involved in various biological responses. One of the genes induced by AhR encodes AhR repressor (AhRR), which also forms a heterodimer with ARNT and represses the activation of AhR-dependent transcription. The control of AhR activation is critical for managing AhR-mediated diseases, but the mechanisms by which AhRR represses AhR activation remain poorly understood, because of the lack of structural information. Here, we determined the structure of the AhRR-ARNT heterodimer by X-ray crystallography, which revealed an asymmetric intertwined domain organization presenting structural features that are both conserved and distinct among bHLH-PAS family members. The structures of AhRR-ARNT and AhR-ARNT were similar in the bHLH-PAS-A region, whereas the PAS-B of ARNT in the AhRR-ARNT complex exhibited a different domain arrangement in this family reported so far. The structure clearly disclosed that AhRR competitively represses AhR binding to ARNT and target DNA and further suggested the existence of an AhRR-ARNT-specific repression mechanism. This study provides a structural basis for understanding the mechanism by which AhRR represses AhR-mediated gene transcription. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Cytotoxic xanthone-anthraquinone heterodimers from an unidentified fungus of the order Hypocreales (MSX 17022).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Sloan; Graf, Tyler N; Adcock, Audrey F; Kroll, David J; Shen, Qi; Swanson, Steven M; Matthew, Susan; Carcache de Blanco, Esperanza J; Wani, Mansukh C; Darveaux, Blaise A; Pearce, Cedric J; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2012-01-01

    Two new xanthone-anthraquinone heterodimers, acremoxanthone C (5) and acremoxanthone D (2), have been isolated from an extract of an unidentified fungus of the order Hypocreales (MSX 17022) by bioactivity-directed fractionation as part of a search for anticancer leads from filamentous fungi. Two known related compounds, acremonidin A (4) and acremonidin C (3) were also isolated, as was a known benzophenone, moniliphenone (1). The structures of these isolates were determined via extensive use of spectroscopic and spectrometric tools in conjunction with comparisons to the literature. All compounds (1-5) were evaluated against a suite of biological assays, including those for cytotoxicity, inhibition of the 20S proteasome, mitochondrial transmembrane potential and nuclear factor-κB.

  14. Dioxin and phthalate uptake and assimilation by the green mussel Perna viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wen-Xiong; Zhang, Qiong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the aqueous uptake and dietary assimilation (trophic transfer) of two endocrine disrupting compounds (dioxin and phathalic acid) in the green mussel Perna viridis were quantified. During short-term exposure period, dioxin rapidly sorbed onto phytoplankton and its accumulation was much higher than that of phthalate. The uptake of these two compounds by the mussels increased with increasing temperature and salinity (for dioxin only). The dietary assimilation of the two contaminants was rather modest (10–64% for dioxin and 20–47% for phthalate), and was greatly dependent on the food species and concentration. Interestingly, dietary assimilation increased with increasing diatom food concentration. Gut passage time was partially responsible for the variable dietary assimilation. Given the high dissolved uptake rate and the modest dietary assimilation, aqueous exposure was predicted to be the dominant bioaccumulation source for both dioxin and phthalate in the green mussels under most conditions. -- Capsule: Aqueous uptake was the predominant pathway for dioxin and phthalate accumulation in marine green mussels

  15. Feasibility of green mussel, Perna viridis farming in Marudu Bay, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Kar Soon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bivalve aquaculture is an important source of affordable animal protein for coastal community. The success and sustainability of this industry is highly influenced by the suitability of the environment in which it is carried out. Present study was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of green mussel (Perna viridis farming in Marudu Bay. The site suitability for green mussel farming was evaluated based on biophysical parameters and food availability. The in situ environmental parameters, phytoplankton abundance and composition were collected from 10 sampling stations on monthly interval from May 2014 to April 2015. The results showed that the environmental parameters and food availability in most of the sampling stations were suitable for green mussel. However, the presence of phytoplankton taxa (Chaetoceraceae which are unfavorable by green mussel in most of the stations located at the bay pocket make those areas less recommended for green mussel farming. In contrast, stations located on the mouth of the bay exhibited high site suitability rating points and hence are highly recommended for cultivation of green mussel.

  16. A transcriptionally active estrogen receptor mutant is a novel type of dominant negative inhibitor of estrogen action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, E M; Ince, B A; Shapiro, D J; Katzenellenbogen, B S

    1996-12-01

    We have characterized a human estrogen receptor (ER) mutant, V364E, which has a single amino acid substitution in its hormone-binding domain. This ER mutant is fully active or even superactive at saturating levels of estradiol (10(-8) M E2) yet has the capacity to act as a strong dominant negative inhibitor of the wild type ER. In transient transfection assays using ER-negative Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and two different estrogen response element (ERE)-containing promoter reporter genes, V364E treated with 10(-8) M E2 exhibited approximately 250% and 100% of the activity of the wild type ER with these two promoter contexts, respectively. Despite the high activity of V364E when present alone in cells, coexpression of both V364E and wild type ER causes a significant decrease in overall ER-mediated transcriptional activity. On the TATA promoter, where V364E was more inhibitory, estrogen-stimulated activity was reduced by approximately 50% at a 1:1 ratio of mutant to wild type ER expression vector, and at a 10:1 ratio, 75% of ER activity was inhibited. V364E was expressed at lower levels than wild type ER and has a approximately 40-fold lower affinity for E2 compared with wild type ER. In promoter interference assays, V364E exhibited a strict dependence upon E2 for binding to an ERE. Surprisingly, even when V364E was unable to bind to ERE DNA (i.e. either at low E2 concentration or by mutation of its DNA-binding domain), this mutant retained full dominant negative activity. This highly active ER mutant is, thus, able to repress ER-mediated transcription when the mutant and wild type ER are present together in cells, even without DNA binding. Since competition for ERE binding and the formation of inactive heterodimers cannot fully account for the dominant negative activity of V364E, it is probable that altered interactions with proteins important in ER-mediated transcription play a key role in the repression of transcription by V364E. The properties and probable

  17. Association of HLA-DQ trans-heterodimers with prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Buryat ethnic group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Nikolaevna Ivanova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Search for the most pronounced HLA II markers of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM in Buryat ethnic group and analysis ofHLA-DQ trans-heterodimers. Materials and methods. Case control design was applied for assessment of 74 patients with T1DM and 61 healthy individuals. Alleleidentification was performed with multi-primer allele-specific PCR technique. Association of genetic markers with pathology wasevaluated according to odds ratio (OR index. All calculations were performed with StatSoft and STATISTICA 6 software applications. Results. We show that regarding race-specific highly diabetogenic HLA class II haplotypes Buryat ethnic group holds intermediateposition between Mongoloids and Caucasians and none of those haplotypes are associated with T1DM. We revealed a statisticallysignificant association of T1DM with DQA1*0301+DQB1*0201+ phenotype represented by trans-coding alleles in 77% of cases. Onpopulation level DQA1*0301+DQB1*0302+ or *0201+ phenotype is found to be the most sensitive marker. It was registered in 43%of patients with T1DM against 11.5% of controls (OR 5.9; рс=0.0094. DQA1*0301+/DQВ1*0201 and DQВ1*0302 phenotype is themost specific marker, registered in 16% of patients, but not found in controls (OR 11.8; рс=0.047.Conclusions. HLA-mediated risk for development of T1DM in Buryat ethnic group is determined by HLA-DQ trans-heterodimers.

  18. Identification of lysozyme activity from two edible bivalves - Perna viridis (Linnaeus) and Meretrix casta (Chemnitz)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, S.; Tanu; Chatterji, A.

    on the column. Fractions of 1 ml each were collected. The absorbance of these fractions was also monitored at 280 nm. The lysozyme activity was checked against Micrococcus luteus. Ion exchange chromatography - The lyophilized active samples (McL2 and PvL2... in the case of M. casta – McL1, McL2 (fr 7), McL3, McL4, McL5 and McL6, and 7 in the case of P. viridis - PvL1, PvL2 (fr 5), PvL3, PvL4, PvL5, PvL6, PvL 7. Fig. 2: Absorbance of Sephadex fractions of M. casta at 280 nm Absorbance at 280 nm Fig. 3...

  19. Impact of cadmium on forage kale (Brassica oleracea var. viridis cv "Prover") after 3-,10- and 56-day exposure to a Cd-spiked field soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Fabien; Dumez, Sylvain; Lemière, Sébastien; Platel, Anne; Nesslany, Fabrice; Deram, Annabelle; Vandenbulcke, Franck; Cuny, Damien

    2018-03-15

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic element for living organisms and is widespread in metal-contaminated soils. As organisms which can grow up on these polluted areas, plants have some protection mechanisms against Cd issues. Among the plant kingdom, the Brassicaceae family includes species which are known to be able to tolerate and accumulate Cd in their tissues. In this study, Brassica oleracea var. viridis cv "Prover" was exposed to a range of artificially Cd-contaminated soils (from 2.5 up to 20 mg kg -1 ) during 3, 10, and 56 days and the effects on life traits, photosynthesis activity, antioxidant enzymatic activities were studied. Metal accumulation was quantified, as well as DNA damage, by means of the comet assay and immunodetection of 8-OHdG levels. Globally, B. oleracea was relatively tolerant to those Cd exposures. However, comet assay and detection of 8-OHdG revealed some DNA damage but which are not significant. According to metal accumulation analysis, B. oleracea var. viridis cv Prover could be a good candidate for alternative growing in contaminated areas.

  20. METHYL MERCURY IN GREEN MUSCLE (Mytilus viridis L. FROM FISH MARKET MUARA ANGKE : BEFORE AND AFTER COOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermin K. Winarno

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The determination of methyl mercury content in green muscle (Mytilus viridis L. that were taken from Pasar Pelelangan Ikan Muara Angke, Jakarta Bay has been carried out. Sampling was taken in November 2005 and March 2006, the samples were bought from the green muscle sellers. The aim of this research is to know the effect of cooking on the content of methyl mercury in green muscle. Samples were homogenized, weighed and washed with aceton and toluene. After washing, the homogenized material was added with HCl solution, extracted with toluene, then the methyl mercury content in toluene extract was analyzed using gas chromatography. The results of this research showed that methyl mercury concentration in raw and cooked green muscle respectively were 0.803 + 0.019 mg/g and 0.443 + 0.035 mg/g (in November 2005 and 0.096 + 0.014 mg/g and 0.079 + 0.016 mg/g (in March 2006 respectively. The methyl mercury content in raw (in November 2005 was higher than in cooked green muscle as permitted concentration in the sea biota by WHO and FAO, it is 0.5 ppm (mg/g, on the other hand the result of the second sampling in March 2006 showed that methyl mercury content in green muscle was lower than permitted concentration. Cooking process of the green muscle decreased methyl mercury content 44.85% (sampling in November 2005 and 17.71% (sampling in March 2006, because methyl mercury that bonded to protein were distributed to boiling water. Methyl mercury content in green muscle after cooking was still lower than the permitted concentration.   Keywords: methyl mercury, green muscle, Mytilus viridis L., Muara Angke

  1. Analysis of [Gossypium capitis-viridis × (G.hirsutum × G.australe2] Trispecific Hybrid and Selected Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Chen

    Full Text Available Speciation is always a contentious and challenging issue following with the presence of gene flow. In Gossypium, there are many valuable resources and wild diploid cotton especially C and B genome species possess some excellent traits which cultivated cotton always lacks. In order to explore character transferring rule from wild cotton to upland tetraploid cotton, the [G. capitis-viridis × (G. hirsutum × G. australe2] triple hybrid was synthesized by interspecies hybridization and chromosome doubling. Morphology comparisons were measured among this hybrid and its parents. It showed that trispecific hybrid F1 had some intermediate morphological characters like leaf style between its parents and some different characters from its parents, like crawl growth characteristics and two kind flower color. It is highly resistant to insects comparing with other cotton species by four year field investigation. By cytogenetic analysis, triple hybrid was further confirmed by meiosis behavior of pollen mother cells. Comparing with regular meiosis of its three parents, it was distinguished by the occurrence of polyads with various numbers of unbalanced microspores and finally generating various abnormal pollen grains. All this phenomenon results in the sterility of this hybrid. This hybrid was further identified by SSR marker from DNA molecular level. It showed that 98 selected polymorphism primers amplified effective bands in this hybrids and its parents. The genetic proportion of three parents in this hybrid is 47.8% from G. hirsutum, 14.3% from G. australe, 7.0% from G. capitis-viridis, and 30.9% recombination bands respectively. It was testified that wild genetic material has been transferred into cultivated cotton and this new germplasm can be incorporated into cotton breeding program.

  2. Role of a Novel Human Leukocyte Antigen-DQA1*01:02;DRB1*15:01 Mixed Isotype Heterodimer in the Pathogenesis of “Humanized” Multiple Sclerosis-like Disease*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushansky, Nathali; Eisenstein, Miriam; Boura-Halfon, Sigalit; Hansen, Bjarke Endel; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Milo, Ron; Zeilig, Gabriel; Lassmann, Hans; Altmann, Daniel M.; Ben-Nun, Avraham

    2015-01-01

    Gene-wide association and candidate gene studies indicate that the greatest effect on multiple sclerosis (MS) risk is driven by the HLA-DRB1*15:01 allele within the HLA-DR15 haplotype (HLA-DRB1*15:01-DQA1*01:02-DQB1*0602-DRB5*01:01). Nevertheless, linkage disequilibrium makes it difficult to define, without functional studies, whether the functionally relevant effect derives from DRB1*15:01 only, from its neighboring DQA1*01:02-DQB1*06:02 or DRB5*01:01 genes of HLA-DR15 haplotype, or from their combinations or epistatic interactions. Here, we analyzed the impact of the different HLA-DR15 haplotype alleles on disease susceptibility in a new “humanized” model of MS induced in HLA-transgenic (Tg) mice by human oligodendrocyte-specific protein (OSP)/claudin-11 (hOSP), one of the bona fide potential primary target antigens in MS. We show that the hOSP-associated MS-like disease is dominated by the DRB1*15:01 allele not only as the DRA1*01:01;DRB1*15:01 isotypic heterodimer but also, unexpectedly, as a functional DQA1*01:02;DRB1*15:01 mixed isotype heterodimer. The contribution of HLA-DQA1/DRB1 mixed isotype heterodimer to OSP pathogenesis was revealed in (DRB1*1501xDQB1*0602)F1 double-Tg mice immunized with hOSP(142–161) peptide, where the encephalitogenic potential of prevalent DRB1*1501/hOSP(142–161)-reactive Th1/Th17 cells is hindered due to a single amino acid difference in the OSP(142–161) region between humans and mice; this impedes binding of DRB1*1501 to the mouse OSP(142–161) epitope in the mouse CNS while exposing functional binding of mouse OSP(142–161) to DQA1*01:02;DRB1*15:01 mixed isotype heterodimer. This study, which shows for the first time a functional HLA-DQA1/DRB1 mixed isotype heterodimer and its potential association with disease susceptibility, provides a rationale for a potential effect on MS risk from DQA1*01:02 through functional DQA1*01:02;DRB1*15:01 antigen presentation. Furthermore, it highlights a potential contribution to MS

  3. A new species of myrmecophilous lady beetle in the genus Diomus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Diomini) from Chiapas, Mexico that feeds on green coffee scale, Coccus viridis (Green) (Hemiptera: Coccidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of myrmecophilous lady beetle in the genus Diomus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Diomini) is described from a coffee agroecosystem in Chiapas, Mexico. The new species was found preying on the green coffee scale pest, Coccus viridis (Green), tended primarily by Azteca sericeasur Longino an...

  4. A Study of the Major Phytocoenotic and Economic Attributes of Fragaria Viridis (Duch.) Weston in Natural Conditions (through the Example of East Kazakhstan Region)

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana A. Vdovina; Olga A. Serova; Nina M. Kadantseva

    2014-01-01

    This article provides data on the phytocoenotic and economic - morphological attributes of Fragaria viridis Duch., green strawberry, in various locations. The most sustainable habitat for the existence of this species has been located near the village of Zimoviye. The ratio between the generative and vegetative species in the examined coenopopulations allows us to subsume them under the invasional and normal types.

  5. Disseminated Mycosis in Veiled Chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus) Caused by Chamaeleomyces granulomatis, a New Fungus Related to Paecilomyces viridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigler, Lynne; Gibas, Connie Fe C.; Kokotovic, Branko

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of disseminated granulomatous disease occurred in a group of veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus) in a zoo collection. An adult female and six offspring developed large granulomas in multiple organs and were euthanized. At necropsy, roughly spherical yellow-to-white nodules 1 to 3...... of morphology results to represent Paecilomyces viridis, a species known only from one outbreak of fatal mycosis in carpet chameleons (Furcifer lateralis). Data obtained from morphological studies and from phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal rRNA (rDNA) sequence data revealed the Danish chameleon....... Chamaeleomyces species appear to be rare but aggressive pathogens of chameleons....

  6. Relationship of leaf oxygen and carbon isotopic composition with transpiration efficiency in the C4 grasses Setaria viridis and Setaria italica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Patrick Z; Ellsworth, Patrícia V; Cousins, Asaph B

    2017-06-15

    Leaf carbon and oxygen isotope ratios can potentially provide a time-integrated proxy for stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rate (E), and can be used to estimate transpiration efficiency (TE). In this study, we found significant relationships of bulk leaf carbon isotopic signature (δ13CBL) and bulk leaf oxygen enrichment above source water (Δ18OBL) with gas exchange and TE in the model C4 grasses Setaria viridis and S. italica. Leaf δ13C had strong relationships with E, gs, water use, biomass, and TE. Additionally, the consistent difference in δ13CBL between well-watered and water-limited plants suggests that δ13CBL is effective in separating C4 plants with different availability of water. Alternatively, the use of Δ18OBL as a proxy for E and TE in S. viridis and S. italica was problematic. First, the oxygen isotopic composition of source water, used to calculate leaf water enrichment (Δ18OLW), was variable with time and differed across water treatments. Second, water limitations changed leaf size and masked the relationship of Δ18OLW and Δ18OBL with E. Therefore, the data collected here suggest that δ13CBL but not Δ18OBL may be an effective proxy for TE in C4 grasses. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. A Study of the Major Phytocoenotic and Economic Attributes of Fragaria Viridis (Duch. Weston in Natural Conditions (through the Example of East Kazakhstan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana A. Vdovina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides data on the phytocoenotic and economic - morphological attributes of Fragaria viridis Duch., green strawberry, in various locations. The most sustainable habitat for the existence of this species has been located near the village of Zimoviye. The ratio between the generative and vegetative species in the examined coenopopulations allows us to subsume them under the invasional and normal types.

  8. The solute specificity profiles of nucleobase cation symporter 1 (NCS1) from Zea mays and Setaria viridis illustrate functional flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Micah; Schein, Jessica; Hunt, Kevin A; Nalam, Vamsi; Mourad, George S; Schultes, Neil P

    2016-03-01

    The solute specificity profiles (transport and binding) for the nucleobase cation symporter 1 (NCS1) proteins, from the closely related C4 grasses Zea mays and Setaria viridis, differ from that of Arabidopsis thaliana and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii NCS1. Solute specificity profiles for NCS1 from Z. mays (ZmNCS1) and S. viridis (SvNCS1) were determined through heterologous complementation studies in NCS1-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The four Viridiplantae NCS1 proteins transport the purines adenine and guanine, but unlike the dicot and algal NCS1, grass NCS1 proteins fail to transport the pyrimidine uracil. Despite the high level of amino acid sequence similarity, ZmNCS1 and SvNCS1 display distinct solute transport and recognition profiles. SvNCS1 transports adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, cytosine, and allantoin and competitively binds xanthine and uric acid. ZmNCS1 transports adenine, guanine, and cytosine and competitively binds, 5-fluorocytosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid. The differences in grass NCS1 profiles are due to a limited number of amino acid alterations. These amino acid residues do not correspond to amino acids essential for overall solute and cation binding or solute transport, as previously identified in bacterial and fungal NCS1, but rather may represent residues involved in subtle solute discrimination. The data presented here reveal that within Viridiplantae, NCS1 proteins transport a broad range of nucleobase compounds and that the solute specificity profile varies with species.

  9. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mlh1-Mlh3 heterodimer is an endonuclease that preferentially binds to Holliday junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjha, Lepakshi; Anand, Roopesh; Cejka, Petr

    2014-02-28

    MutLγ, a heterodimer of the MutL homologues Mlh1 and Mlh3, plays a critical role during meiotic homologous recombination. The meiotic function of Mlh3 is fully dependent on the integrity of a putative nuclease motif DQHAX2EX4E, inferring that the anticipated nuclease activity of Mlh1-Mlh3 is involved in the processing of joint molecules to generate crossover recombination products. Although a vast body of genetic and cell biological data regarding Mlh1-Mlh3 is available, mechanistic insights into its function have been lacking due to the unavailability of the recombinant protein complex. Here we expressed the yeast Mlh1-Mlh3 heterodimer and purified it into near homogeneity. We show that recombinant MutLγ is a nuclease that nicks double-stranded DNA. We demonstrate that MutLγ binds DNA with a high affinity and shows a marked preference for Holliday junctions. We also expressed the human MLH1-MLH3 complex and show that preferential binding to Holliday junctions is a conserved capacity of eukaryotic MutLγ complexes. Specific DNA recognition has never been observed with any other eukaryotic MutL homologue. MutLγ thus represents a new paradigm for the function of the eukaryotic MutL protein family. We provide insights into the mode of Holliday junction recognition and show that Mlh1-Mlh3 prefers to bind the open unstacked Holliday junction form. This further supports the model where MutLγ is part of a complex acting on joint molecules to generate crossovers in meiosis.

  10. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mlh1-Mlh3 Heterodimer Is an Endonuclease That Preferentially Binds to Holliday Junctions*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjha, Lepakshi; Anand, Roopesh; Cejka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    MutLγ, a heterodimer of the MutL homologues Mlh1 and Mlh3, plays a critical role during meiotic homologous recombination. The meiotic function of Mlh3 is fully dependent on the integrity of a putative nuclease motif DQHAX2EX4E, inferring that the anticipated nuclease activity of Mlh1-Mlh3 is involved in the processing of joint molecules to generate crossover recombination products. Although a vast body of genetic and cell biological data regarding Mlh1-Mlh3 is available, mechanistic insights into its function have been lacking due to the unavailability of the recombinant protein complex. Here we expressed the yeast Mlh1-Mlh3 heterodimer and purified it into near homogeneity. We show that recombinant MutLγ is a nuclease that nicks double-stranded DNA. We demonstrate that MutLγ binds DNA with a high affinity and shows a marked preference for Holliday junctions. We also expressed the human MLH1-MLH3 complex and show that preferential binding to Holliday junctions is a conserved capacity of eukaryotic MutLγ complexes. Specific DNA recognition has never been observed with any other eukaryotic MutL homologue. MutLγ thus represents a new paradigm for the function of the eukaryotic MutL protein family. We provide insights into the mode of Holliday junction recognition and show that Mlh1-Mlh3 prefers to bind the open unstacked Holliday junction form. This further supports the model where MutLγ is part of a complex acting on joint molecules to generate crossovers in meiosis. PMID:24443562

  11. Selective Assembly of Na,K-ATPase α2β2 Heterodimers in the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habeck, Michael; Tokhtaeva, Elmira; Nadav, Yotam; Ben Zeev, Efrat; Ferris, Sean P.; Kaufman, Randal J.; Bab-Dinitz, Elizabeta; Kaplan, Jack H.; Dada, Laura A.; Farfel, Zvi; Tal, Daniel M.; Katz, Adriana; Sachs, George; Vagin, Olga; Karlish, Steven J. D.

    2016-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase α2 subunit plays a key role in cardiac muscle contraction by regulating intracellular Ca2+, whereas α1 has a more conventional role of maintaining ion homeostasis. The β subunit differentially regulates maturation, trafficking, and activity of α-β heterodimers. It is not known whether the distinct role of α2 in the heart is related to selective assembly with a particular one of the three β isoforms. We show here by immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation that α2 is preferentially expressed with β2 in T-tubules of cardiac myocytes, forming α2β2 heterodimers. We have expressed human α1β1, α2β1, α2β2, and α2β3 in Pichia pastoris, purified the complexes, and compared their functional properties. α2β2 and α2β3 differ significantly from both α2β1 and α1β1 in having a higher K0.5K+ and lower K0.5Na+ for activating Na,K-ATPase. These features are the result of a large reduction in binding affinity for extracellular K+ and shift of the E1P-E2P conformational equilibrium toward E1P. A screen of perhydro-1,4-oxazepine derivatives of digoxin identified several derivatives (e.g. cyclobutyl) with strongly increased selectivity for inhibition of α2β2 and α2β3 over α1β1 (range 22–33-fold). Molecular modeling suggests a possible basis for isoform selectivity. The preferential assembly, specific T-tubular localization, and low K+ affinity of α2β2 could allow an acute response to raised ambient K+ concentrations in physiological conditions and explain the importance of α2β2 for cardiac muscle contractility. The high sensitivity of α2β2 to digoxin derivatives explains beneficial effects of cardiac glycosides for treatment of heart failure and potential of α2β2-selective digoxin derivatives for reducing cardiotoxicity. PMID:27624940

  12. Specific binding of a Pop6/Pop7 heterodimer to the P3 stem of the yeast RNase MRP and RNase P RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perederina, Anna; Esakova, Olga; Koc, Hasan; Schmitt, Mark E; Krasilnikov, Andrey S

    2007-10-01

    Pop6 and Pop7 are protein subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNase MRP and RNase P. Here we show that bacterially expressed Pop6 and Pop7 form a soluble heterodimer that binds the RNA components of both RNase MRP and RNase P. Footprint analysis of the interaction between the Pop6/7 heterodimer and the RNase MRP RNA, combined with gel mobility assays, demonstrates that the Pop6/7 complex binds to a conserved region of the P3 domain. Binding of these proteins to the MRP RNA leads to local rearrangement in the structure of the P3 loop and suggests that direct interaction of the Pop6/7 complex with the P3 domain of the RNA components of RNases MRP and P may mediate binding of other protein components. These results suggest a role for a key element in the RNase MRP and RNase P RNAs in protein binding, and demonstrate the feasibility of directly studying RNA-protein interactions in the eukaryotic RNases MRP and P complexes.

  13. Bioreduction of trivalent aurum to nano-crystalline gold particles by active and inactive cells and cell-free extract of Aspergillus oryzae var. viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binupriya, A.R.; Sathishkumar, M.; Vijayaraghavan, K.; Yun, S.-I.

    2010-01-01

    Bioreduction efficacy of both active (AB) and inactive (IB) cells/biomass of Aspergillus oryzae var. viridis and their respective cell-free extracts (ACE and ICE) to convert trivalent aurum to gold nanoparticles were tested in the present study. Strong plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles was observed between 540 and 560 nm in the samples obtained from AB, IB, ACE and ICE. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were performed to examine the formation of gold nanoparticles. Comparing all four forms of A. oryzae var. viridis, ICE showed high gold nanoparticle productivity. The nanoparticles formed were quite uniform in shape and ranged in size from 10 to 60 nm. In addition some triangle, pentagon and hexagon-shaped nanoplates with size range of 30-400 nm were also synthesized especially at lower pH. Organics from the inactive cells are believed to be responsible for reduction of trivalent aurum to nano-sized gold particles. Organic content of the ICE was found to be double the amount of ACE. High productivity of gold nanoparticles by metabolic-independent process opens up an interesting area of nanoparticle synthesis using waste fungal biomass from industries.

  14. Bioreduction of trivalent aurum to nano-crystalline gold particles by active and inactive cells and cell-free extract of Aspergillus oryzae var. viridis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binupriya, A.R. [Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Sathishkumar, M., E-mail: cvemuthu@nus.edu.sg [Singapore-Delft Water Alliance, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117577 (Singapore); Vijayaraghavan, K. [Singapore-Delft Water Alliance, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117577 (Singapore); Yun, S.-I., E-mail: siyun@chonbuk.ac.kr [Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Bioreduction efficacy of both active (AB) and inactive (IB) cells/biomass of Aspergillus oryzae var. viridis and their respective cell-free extracts (ACE and ICE) to convert trivalent aurum to gold nanoparticles were tested in the present study. Strong plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles was observed between 540 and 560 nm in the samples obtained from AB, IB, ACE and ICE. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were performed to examine the formation of gold nanoparticles. Comparing all four forms of A. oryzae var. viridis, ICE showed high gold nanoparticle productivity. The nanoparticles formed were quite uniform in shape and ranged in size from 10 to 60 nm. In addition some triangle, pentagon and hexagon-shaped nanoplates with size range of 30-400 nm were also synthesized especially at lower pH. Organics from the inactive cells are believed to be responsible for reduction of trivalent aurum to nano-sized gold particles. Organic content of the ICE was found to be double the amount of ACE. High productivity of gold nanoparticles by metabolic-independent process opens up an interesting area of nanoparticle synthesis using waste fungal biomass from industries.

  15. Mortalities of the Green Toad (Epidalea viridis (Laurenti, 1768 in Urban Environment: A Case Study from the City of Plovdiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglena V. Valkanova

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study analyzes the types of mortalities of the green toad (Epidalea viridis in the city of Plovdiv. Among all recorded mortalities (n=42, the road kill was the most common cause of death (65 % of the cases, followed by killing by humans (usually children – 31%. Killing of green toads by dogs (2% and domestic cats (2% has the lowest impact. Both most significant factors (road kill and killing by humans affect mainly the adult specimens. No statistically significant difference between the mortalities of the two sexes was detected.

  16. Identification of Listeria monocytogenes on Green Mussels (Perna viridis and Cockle Shell (Anadara granosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winiati Puji Rahayu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Green mussel (Perna viridis and cockle shell (Anadara granosa are one of many sources of animalprotein which is many cultivated in Indonesia because their price is relatively affordable. This study wasconducted to identify the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in 27 samples of green mussels and 3 samplesof cockle shells using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (real-time PCR and biochemical methods. Thetarget gene for amplification in real-time PCR was an hlyA gene because this gene was a determinant ofvirulence genes that produce listeriolysin O. Primers used in this study were forward primer DG69 (GTGCCG GGT AAA AGA CCA TA and reverse primer DG74 (CGC CAC TGA GAT ACT AT and fluorescencesignals indicator using SYBR Green I. The results of analysis using real-time PCR were negative Listeriamonocytogenes in all samples, while using biochemical methods there was one of 30 samples contaminatedby Listeria welshimeri.

  17. A mutant of a mutant of a mutant of a ...: Irradiation of progressive radiation-induced mutants in a mutation-breeding programme with Chrysanthenum morifolium RAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broertjes, C.; Koene, P.; Veen, J.W.H. van.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation-induced sports in Chrysanthemum morifolium RAM. have been reported for several years. It has become an everyday practice to produce flower-colour mutants from outstanding cross-breeding products, even before they are distributed for the commercial production of cut flowers. One of the most successful and recent examples is that of cv. Horim, of which hundreds of mutants were produced by successive use of radiation-induced mutants in the mutation-breeding programme. Over about 4 years a variety of flower-colour mutants was obtained, not only largely including the outstanding characteristics of the original cultivar but sometimes even with an appreciable improvement in quality and yield. It is expected that the latter types, the Miros group, will soon completely supersede the spontaneous or raditation-induced Horim sports and mutants and take over the leading position of the Horim group in the production of all-year-round (AYR) cut-flowers. (orig.)

  18. A herbicide-resistant ACCase 1781 Setaria mutant shows higher fitness than wild type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T; Picard, J C; Tian, X; Darmency, H

    2010-10-01

    It is often alleged that mutations conferring herbicide resistance have a negative impact on plant fitness. A mutant ACCase1781 allele endowing resistance to the sethoxydim herbicide was introgressed from a resistant green foxtail (Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv) population into foxtail millet (S. italica (L.) Beauv.). (1) Better and earlier growth of resistant plants was observed in a greenhouse cabinet. (2) Resistant plants of the advanced BC7 backcross generation showed more vigorous juvenile growth in the field, earlier flowering, more tillers and higher numbers of grains than susceptible plants did, especially when both genotypes were grown in mixture, but their seeds were lighter than susceptible seeds. (3) Field populations originating from segregating hybrids had the expected allele frequencies under normal growth conditions, but showed a genotype shift toward an excess of homozygous resistant plants within 3 years in stressful conditions. Lower seed size, lower germination rate and perhaps unexplored differences in seed longevity and predation could explain how the resistant plants have the same field fitness over the whole life cycle as the susceptible ones although they produce more seeds. More rapid growth kinetics probably accounted for higher fitness of the resistant plants in adverse conditions. The likelihood of a linkage with a beneficial gene is discussed versus the hypothesis of a pleiotropic effect of the ACCase resistance allele. It is suggested that autogamous species like Setaria could not develop a resistant population without the help of a linkage with a gene producing a higher fitness.

  19. UNTAGGED MUTATION IN RICE GAL4/VP16 TRANSCRIPTIONAL ACTIVATOR FACILITATED-ENHANCER TRAP LINES

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    Sri Koerniati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An enhancer trap system is an insertional mutagenesis based upon gene expression, instead of gene knock-out, so its insertion in genome is  expected not linked to any dramatic changes in plant phenotypes. Gene  knock-out, leading to lossof- function (LoF mutation, is a dominant  approach for rice functional genomic studies. The objective of this study was to find out whether Transcriptional Activator-Facilitated Enhancer Trap (TAFET T-DNA insertion inducing mutant phenotypes in rice TAFET population. Materials used in this experiment were T1 generation of 270 rice TAFET lines. Eight plants of each were grown in the greenhouse and observed for any mutant phenotypes. Phenotypic, histochemical, Southernblot analyses were carried out to define a mutant of pSKC66.1- 8e. Result showed that about 10% of the 270 lines produced chlorophyll-deficient  leaves, ranged from yellowish green (viridis, white stripe green zebra-like stripe to completely white (albino. Albino plants died after two weeks,  whilst white stripe or viridis mutants became normal in the next generation(T2. Another mutant was pSKC66.1-8e line which had floral dramatic phenotype change with various spikelet shapes and number of organs, and had a single twisted culm. The flower of mutant also had gus gene expression. Plants with wild type did not express gus gene and had six or more straight culms. Molecular, histochemical and phenotypic analyses of this particular line for three generations indicated that mutant phenotype was not due to the T-DNA insertion. Since there was approved that Tos17 is activated during tissue culture and induced mutant phenotype, this line might relate to Tos17 insertion, but it needs further investigation to gain such conclusion.

  20. Moessbauer spectroscopy on the reaction center of Rhodopseudomonas viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, E.; Goldanskii, V.I.; Birk, A.; Parak, F.; Fritzsch, G.; Sinning, I.; Michel, H.

    1992-01-01

    Proteins called 'reaction centers' (RC) can be isolated from many photosynthetic bacteria. They have one non-heme iron in a quinone acceptor region. The RC of Rhodopseudomonas viridis contains an additional tightly bound tetra-heme cytochrome c subunit. The electronic configuration of both cytochrome and the non-heme iron has been studied in the crystallized protein by Moessbauer spectroscopy at different redox potentials, pH-values, and with an addition of o-phenanthroline. At high potentials (E h =+500 mV) all heme irons are in the low spin Fe 3+ -state, and at low potential (E h = 1 50 mV) they are low spin Fe 2+ with the same Moessbauer parameters for all hemes independent of pH. Redox titrations change the relative area of the reduced and oxidized states in agreement with other methods. The non-heme iron shows a high spin Fe 2+ configuration independent of E h and pH with parameters comparable to those of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides. Surprisingly, there is strong evidence for another non-heme iron species in part of the molecules with a Fe 2+ low spin configuration. Incubation with o-phenanthroline decreases the relative Fe 2+ hs-area and increases the contribution of Fe 2+ ls-area. Above 210 K the mean square displacement, 2 >, of the RC-crystals increases more than linearly with temperature. This may be correlated with the increase of the electron transfer rate and indicates that intramolecular mobility influences the functional activity of a protein. (orig.)

  1. MutLα heterodimers modify the molecular phenotype of Friedreich ataxia.

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    Vahid Ezzatizadeh

    Full Text Available Friedreich ataxia (FRDA, the most common autosomal recessive ataxia disorder, is caused by a dynamic GAA repeat expansion mutation within intron 1 of FXN gene, resulting in down-regulation of frataxin expression. Studies of cell and mouse models have revealed a role for the mismatch repair (MMR MutS-heterodimer complexes and the PMS2 component of the MutLα complex in the dynamics of intergenerational and somatic GAA repeat expansions: MSH2, MSH3 and MSH6 promote GAA repeat expansions, while PMS2 inhibits GAA repeat expansions.To determine the potential role of the other component of the MutLα complex, MLH1, in GAA repeat instability in FRDA, we have analyzed intergenerational and somatic GAA repeat expansions from FXN transgenic mice that have been crossed with Mlh1 deficient mice. We find that loss of Mlh1 activity reduces both intergenerational and somatic GAA repeat expansions. However, we also find that loss of either Mlh1 or Pms2 reduces FXN transcription, suggesting different mechanisms of action for Mlh1 and Pms2 on GAA repeat expansion dynamics and regulation of FXN transcription.Both MutLα components, PMS2 and MLH1, have now been shown to modify the molecular phenotype of FRDA. We propose that upregulation of MLH1 or PMS2 could be potential FRDA therapeutic approaches to increase FXN transcription.

  2. Studies on mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of gamma rays and its effect on quantitative traits in finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Ambavane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry seeds (12% moisture of two finger millet cultivar viz., Dapoli-1 and Dapoli Safed were irradiated with four doses of gamma-rays viz., 400 Gy, 500 Gy, 600 Gy and 700 Gy at BARC, Mumbai. In laboratory test, root and shoot lengths of seedlings were decreased with increase in dose of gamma rays. Similarly, germination percentage and survival rate of seedlings were decreased with increase in dose of gamma irradiation during field study. In M1 generation, three types of chlorophyll mutations viz., albino, xantha and viridis were observed. Albino and xantha were observed in all treatments, whereas, viridis observed only in lower doses viz., 400 Gy and 500 Gy. Based on the chlorophyll mutation frequency on M1 plants, mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency were computed. In Dapoli-1 variety, two early maturing mutants and three high yielding mutants were isolated from 500 Gy dose and 600 Gy dose, respectively. In M2 generation, the mutagenic treatments were effective in inducing various types of chlorophyll and morphological macro mutants, few of those show significant change in flowering, maturity and plant height character and few of them have good breeding value.

  3. Low-dose rhBMP2/7 heterodimer to reconstruct peri-implant bone defects: a micro-CT evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxiao; Zheng, Yuanna; Zhao, Juan; Liu, Tie; Gao, Lixia; Gu, Zhiyuan; Wu, Gang

    2012-01-01

    To delineate the dynamic micro-architectures of bone induced by low-dose bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2/7 heterodimer in peri-implant bone defects compared to BMP2 and BMP7 homodimer. Peri-implant bone defects (8 mm in diameter, 4 mm in depth) were created surrounding SLA-treated titanium implants (3.1 mm in diameter, 10 mm in length) in minipig's calvaria. We administrated collagen sponges with adsorbed low-dose (30 ng/mm(3) ) BMP2/7 to treat the defects using BMP2, BMP7 or no BMP as controls.2, 3 and 6 weeks after implantation, we adopted micro-computer tomography to evaluate the micro-architectures of new bone using the following parameters: relative bone volume (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular separation (Tb.Sp), connectivity density, and structure mode index (SMI). Bone implant contact (BIC) was also revealed histologically. Consistent with 2 and 3 weeks, after 6 weeks post-operation, BMP2/7 resulted in significantly higher BV/TV (63.033 ± 2.055%) and significantly lower SMI (-4.405 ± 0.500) than BMP2 (BV/TV: 43.133 ± 2.001%; SMI: -0.086 ± 0.041) and BMP7 (BV/TV: 41.467 ± 1.850%; SMI: -0.044 ± 0.016) respectively. Significant differences were also found in Tb.N, Tb.Th and Tb.Sp at all time points. At 2 weeks, BMP2/7 resulted in significantly higher BIC than the controls. Low-dose BMP2/7 heterodimer facilitated more rapid bone regeneration in better quality in peri-implant bone defects than BMP2 and BMP7 homodimers. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Increasing pCO2 correlates with low concentrations of intracellular dimethylsulfoniopropionate in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borell, Esther M; Steinke, Michael; Horwitz, Rael; Fine, Maoz

    2014-02-01

    Marine anthozoans maintain a mutualistic symbiosis with dinoflagellates that are prolific producers of the algal secondary metabolite dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), the precursor of the climate-cooling trace gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Surprisingly, little is known about the physiological role of DMSP in anthozoans and the environmental factors that regulate its production. Here, we assessed the potential functional role of DMSP as an antioxidant and determined how future increases in seawater pCO2 may affect DMSP concentrations in the anemone Anemonia viridis along a natural pCO2 gradient at the island of Vulcano, Italy. There was no significant difference in zooxanthellae genotype and characteristics (density of zooxanthellae, and chlorophyll a) as well as protein concentrations between anemones from three stations along the gradient, V1 (3232 μatm CO2), V2 (682 μatm) and control (463 μatm), which indicated that A. viridis can acclimate to various seawater pCO2. In contrast, DMSP concentrations in anemones from stations V1 (33.23 ± 8.30 fmol cell(-1)) and V2 (34.78 ± 8.69 fmol cell(-1)) were about 35% lower than concentrations in tentacles from the control station (51.85 ± 12.96 fmol cell(-1)). Furthermore, low tissue concentrations of DMSP coincided with low activities of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). Superoxide dismutase activity for both host (7.84 ± 1.37 U·mg(-1) protein) and zooxanthellae (2.84 ± 0.41 U·mg(-1) protein) at V1 was 40% lower than at the control station (host: 13.19 ± 1.42; zooxanthellae: 4.72 ± 0.57 U·mg(-1) protein). Our results provide insight into coastal DMSP production under predicted environmental change and support the function of DMSP as an antioxidant in symbiotic anthozoans.

  5. Atomic structure of the GaAs(001)-c(4x4) surface: first-principles evidence for diversity of heterodimer motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penev, E; Kratzer, P; Scheffler, M

    2004-10-01

    The GaAs(001)-c(4x4) surface was studied using ab initio atomistic thermodynamics based on density-functional theory calculations. We demonstrate that in a range of stoichiometries, between those of the conventional three As-dimer and the new three Ga-As-dimer models, there exists a diversity of atomic structures featuring Ga-As heterodimers. These results fully explain the experimental scanning tunneling microscopy images and are likely to be relevant also to the c(4x4)-reconstructed (001) surfaces of other III-V semiconductors.

  6. Qualitative Assessment and Management of Microplastics in Asian Green Mussels (Perna viridis Cultured in Bacoor Bay, Cavite, Phillipines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Ryan Argamino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Microplastics (> 5 mm have gained popularity in research and the public eye in recent years. This is due to the fact that they contain persistent organic pollutants (POPs which pose potential risks to the environment and human health. Bivalves, which are filter feeders, are considered to be good indicators of marine pollution. In this preliminary study, Asian green mussel (Perna viridis, an example of edible bivalve, cultured in Bacoor Bay, Cavite, Philippines was subjected to qualitative analysis to determine the presence of microplastics. Through microscopic analysis, microplastics were found present in the acid-digested mussel soft tissue. A management program is suggested for policy makers and stakeholders to reduce the negative impact of microplastic pollution to both humans and the marine environment.

  7. Oxidative stress and apoptotic events during thermal stress in the symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richier, Sophie; Sabourault, Cécile; Courtiade, Juliette; Zucchini, Nathalie; Allemand, Denis; Furla, Paola

    2006-09-01

    Symbiosis between cnidarian and photosynthetic protists is widely distributed over temperate and tropical seas. These symbioses can periodically breakdown, a phenomenon known as cnidarian bleaching. This event can be irreversible for some associations subjected to acute and/or prolonged environmental disturbances, and leads to the death of the animal host. During bleaching, oxidative stress has been described previously as acting at molecular level and apoptosis is suggested to be one of the mechanisms involved. We focused our study on the role of apoptosis in bleaching via oxidative stress in the association between the sea anemone Anemonia viridis and the dinoflagellates Symbiodinium species. Characterization of caspase-like enzymes were conducted at the biochemical and molecular level to confirm the presence of a caspase-dependent apoptotic phenomenon in the cnidarian host. We provide evidence of oxidative stress followed by induction of caspase-like activity in animal host cells after an elevated temperature stress, suggesting the concomitant action of these components in bleaching.

  8. Application of a novel alkali-tolerant thermostable DyP-type peroxidase from Saccharomonospora viridis DSM 43017 in biobleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp.

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    Wangning Yu

    Full Text Available Saccharomonospora viridis is a thermophilic actinomycete that may have biotechnological applications because of its dye decolorizing activity, though the enzymatic oxidative system responsible for this activity remains elusive. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a DyP-type peroxidase gene in the genome of S. viridis DSM 43017 with sequence similarity to peroxidase from dye-decolorizing microbes. This gene, svidyp, consists of 1,215 bp encoding a polypeptide of 404 amino acids. The gene encoding SviDyP was cloned, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and then purified. The recombinant protein could efficiently decolorize several triarylmethane dyes, anthraquinonic and azo dyes under neutral to alkaline conditions. The optimum pH and temperature for SviDyP was pH 7.0 and 70°C, respectively. Compared with other DyP-type peroxidases, SviDyP was more active at high temperatures, retaining>63% of its maximum activity at 50-80°C. It also showed broad pH adaptability (>35% activity at pH 4.0-9.0 and alkali-tolerance (>80% activity after incubation at pH 5-10 for 1 h at 37°C, and was highly thermostable (>60% activity after incubation at 70°C for 2 h at pH 7.0. SviDyP had an accelerated action during the biobleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp, resulting in a 21.8% reduction in kappa number and an increase of 2.98% (ISO in brightness. These favorable properties make SviDyP peroxidase a promising enzyme for use in the pulp and paper industries.

  9. MutLα Heterodimers Modify the Molecular Phenotype of Friedreich Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzatizadeh, Vahid; Sandi, Chiranjeevi; Sandi, Madhavi; Anjomani-Virmouni, Sara; Al-Mahdawi, Sahar; Pook, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), the most common autosomal recessive ataxia disorder, is caused by a dynamic GAA repeat expansion mutation within intron 1 of FXN gene, resulting in down-regulation of frataxin expression. Studies of cell and mouse models have revealed a role for the mismatch repair (MMR) MutS-heterodimer complexes and the PMS2 component of the MutLα complex in the dynamics of intergenerational and somatic GAA repeat expansions: MSH2, MSH3 and MSH6 promote GAA repeat expansions, while PMS2 inhibits GAA repeat expansions. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine the potential role of the other component of the MutLα complex, MLH1, in GAA repeat instability in FRDA, we have analyzed intergenerational and somatic GAA repeat expansions from FXN transgenic mice that have been crossed with Mlh1 deficient mice. We find that loss of Mlh1 activity reduces both intergenerational and somatic GAA repeat expansions. However, we also find that loss of either Mlh1 or Pms2 reduces FXN transcription, suggesting different mechanisms of action for Mlh1 and Pms2 on GAA repeat expansion dynamics and regulation of FXN transcription. Conclusions/Significance Both MutLα components, PMS2 and MLH1, have now been shown to modify the molecular phenotype of FRDA. We propose that upregulation of MLH1 or PMS2 could be potential FRDA therapeutic approaches to increase FXN transcription. PMID:24971578

  10. Influence of single and combination treatments of physical and chemical mutagen on chlorophyll mutations in Finger Millet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Binod; Mahto, Jaylal; Haider, Z.A.

    1993-01-01

    Gamma rays, ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and their combined treatments influenced differently in producing chlorophyll mutations. A good number of chlorophyll mutants with varied frequencies were recorded in M 2 generation. The frequency of chlorophyll mutants was higher at lower doses of gamma rays, EMS and their combination treatments. The most frequently observed mutant was Albino type. The other chlorophyll mutants isolated were Xantha, Viridis, Striata and Tigrina. The frequency of tigrina and striata was lowest in variety A-404 and Hr-374, respectively. The efficiency and effectiveness was high at the lower doses of mutagens in both the varieties. EMS (0.2%) was more effective than the corresponding lower dose of gamma rays for both the varieties. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs

  11. An extra early mutant of pigeonpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravikesavan, R.; Kalaimagal, T.; Rathnaswamy, R.

    2001-01-01

    The redgram (Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth) variety 'Prabhat DT' was gamma irradiated with 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gy doses. Several mutants have been identified viz., extra early mutants, monostem mutants, obcordifoliate mutants and bi-stigmatic mutants. The extra early mutant was obtained when treated with 100 Gy dose. The mutant was selfed and forwarded from M 2 to M 4 generation. In the M 4 generation the mutant line was raised along with the parental variety. Normal cultural practices were followed and the biometrical observations were recorded. It was observed that for the characters viz., total number of branches per plant, number of pods per plants, seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and seed yield per plant there was no difference between the mutant and parent variety. Whereas, regarding the days to flowering and maturity the mutants were earlier than the parents. The observation was recorded from two hundred plants each. The mutant gives the same yield in 90 days as that of the parent variety in 107 days, which make it an economic mutant

  12. Life History of the Camelthorn Gall Leafhopper, Scenergates viridis (Vilbaste (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae

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    Roman Rakitov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The world’s only member of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha known to form true galls, the leafhopper Scenergates viridis (Vilbaste (Cicadellidae, transforms leaves of camelthorn (Alhagi maurorum Medikus, Fabaceae into pod-like chambers, up to 35 mm long, inside which individual leafhoppers develop, mate, and lay eggs. At the study site 40 km SE of Bukhara (Uzbekistan, two generations develop annually. First-instar nymphs cause young leaves to fold along the midrib. The subsequent development takes place inside the tightly closed growing gall, plugged at both ends with a mixture of leafhopper excrement, brochosomes, and crushed exuviae. These plugs act as mechanical barriers and sticky traps for intruders. The inner surface of the gall, lined with brochosomes and wax platelets, is hydrophobic. Adult males emerge from their galls and squeeze into female galls. Fertilized females insert an average of 146 eggs under the gall’s inner epidermis and remain inside, possibly protecting the brood, until they die. The walls of the galls containing eggs are approximately three times thicker than regular leaves. The galls are subject to predation by Gelechiidae caterpillars; the eggs of the leafhopper are parasitized by two species of Trichogrammatidae and one Mymaridae (Hymenoptera, and its larvae by one species of Pipunculidae (Diptera.

  13. Toxic responses of Perna viridis hepatopancreas exposed to DDT, benzo(a)pyrene and their mixture uncovered by iTRAQ-based proteomics and NMR-based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qinqin; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiaoping

    2017-11-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) are environmental estrogens (EEs) that are ubiquitous in the marine environment. In the present study, we integrated isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic approaches to explore the toxic responses of green mussel hepatopancreas exposed to DDT (10μg/L), BaP (10μg/L) and their mixture. The metabolic responses indicated that BaP primarily disturbed energy metabolism and osmotic regulation in the hepatopancreas of the male green mussel P. viridis. Both DDT and the mixture of DDT and BaP perturbed the energy metabolism and osmotic regulation in P. viridis. The proteomic responses revealed that BaP affected the proteins involved in energy metabolism, material transformation, cytoskeleton, stress responses, reproduction and development in green mussels. DDT exposure could change the proteins involved in primary metabolism, stress responses, cytoskeleton and signal transduction. However, the mixture of DDT and BaP altered proteins associated with material and energy metabolism, stress responses, signal transduction, reproduction and development, cytoskeleton and apoptosis. This study showed that iTRAQ-based proteomic and NMR-based metabolomic approaches could effectively elucidate the essential molecular mechanism of disturbances in hepatopancreas function of green mussels exposed to environmental estrogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mutant heterosis in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In the variety TKM6 a high yielding semidwarf mutant has been induced. This TKM6 mutant was used in test crosses with a number of other varieties and mutants to examine the extent of heterosis of dwarfs in rice and to select superior crosses. An excerpt of the published data is given. It appears from the backcross of the mutant with its original variety, that an increase in number of productive tillers occurs in the hybrid, leading to a striking grain yield increase, while the semi-dwarf culm length (the main mutant character) reverts to the normal phenotype. In the cross with IR8 on the other hand, there is only a minimal increase in tiller number but a substantial increase in TGW leading to more than 30% yield increase over the better parent

  15. Cloning, overexpression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of a slow-processing mutant of penicillin G acylase from Kluyvera citrophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Nishant Kumar; Ramasamy, Sureshkumar; Brannigan, James A.; Wilkinson, Anthony J.; Suresh, C. G.

    2013-01-01

    The pac gene encoding penicillin G acylase from K. citrophila was cloned and a slow-processing site-directed mutant was prepared, expressed, purified and crystallized. Triclinic and monoclinic crystal forms were obtained which diffracted to 2.5 and 3.5 Å resolution, respectively. Kluyvera citrophila penicillin G acylase (KcPGA) has recently attracted increased attention relative to the well studied and commonly used Escherichia coli PGA (EcPGA) because KcPGA is more resilient to harsh conditions and is easier to immobilize for the industrial hydrolysis of natural penicillins to generate the 6-aminopenicillin (6-APA) nucleus, which is the starting material for semi-synthetic antibiotic production. Like other penicillin acylases, KcPGA is synthesized as a single-chain inactive pro-PGA, which upon autocatalytic processing becomes an active heterodimer of α and β chains. Here, the cloning of the pac gene encoding KcPGA and the preparation of a slow-processing mutant precursor are reported. The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of crystals of this precursor protein are described. The protein crystallized in two different space groups, P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 54.0, b = 124.6, c = 135.1 Å, α = 104.1, β = 101.4, γ = 96.5°, and C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 265.1, b = 54.0, c = 249.2 Å, β = 104.4°, using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. Diffraction data were collected at 100 K and the phases were determined using the molecular-replacement method. The initial maps revealed electron density for the spacer peptide

  16. Partially Purified Extracts of Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis Affect the Growth and Viability of Selected Tumour Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Bulati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, marine species have been investigated for the presence of natural products with anticancer activity. Using reversed phase chromatography, low molecular weight proteins were fractionated from the sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Four different fractions were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity by means of erythrocyte haemolysis test, MTS, and LDH assays. Finally, the antiproliferative activities of three of these fractions were studied on PC3, PLC/PRF/5, and A375 human cancer cell lines. Our analysis revealed that the four fractions showed different protein contents and diverse patterns of activity towards human PBMC and cancer cell lines. Interestingly, fractions III and IV exerted cytotoxic effects on human cells. Conversely, fractions I and II displayed very low toxic effects associated with antiproliferative activities on cancer cell lines.

  17. Partially Purified Extracts of Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis Affect the Growth and Viability of Selected Tumour Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulati, Matteo; Longo, Alessandra; Masullo, Tiziana; Vlah, Sara; Bennici, Carmelo; Bonura, Angela; Salamone, Monica; Tagliavia, Marcello; Nicosia, Aldo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Colombo, Paolo; Cuttitta, Angela

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, marine species have been investigated for the presence of natural products with anticancer activity. Using reversed phase chromatography, low molecular weight proteins were fractionated from the sea anemone Anemonia viridis . Four different fractions were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity by means of erythrocyte haemolysis test, MTS, and LDH assays. Finally, the antiproliferative activities of three of these fractions were studied on PC3, PLC/PRF/5, and A375 human cancer cell lines. Our analysis revealed that the four fractions showed different protein contents and diverse patterns of activity towards human PBMC and cancer cell lines. Interestingly, fractions III and IV exerted cytotoxic effects on human cells. Conversely, fractions I and II displayed very low toxic effects associated with antiproliferative activities on cancer cell lines.

  18. A Low Molecular Weight Protein from the Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis with an Anti-Angiogenic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwann P. Loret

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sea anemones are a remarkable source of active principles due to a decentralized venom system. New blood vessel growth or angiogenesis is a very promising target against cancer, but the few available antiangiogenic compounds have limited efficacy. In this study, a protein fraction, purified from tentacles of Anemonia viridis, was able to limit endothelial cells proliferation and angiogenesis at low concentration (14 nM. Protein sequences were determined with Edman degradation and mass spectrometry in source decay and revealed homologies with Blood Depressing Substance (BDS sea anemones. The presence of a two-turn alpha helix observed with circular dichroism and a trypsin activity inhibition suggested that the active principle could be a Kunitz-type inhibitor, which may interact with an integrin due to an Arginine Glycin Aspartate (RGD motif. Molecular modeling showed that this RGD motif was well exposed to solvent. This active principle could improve antiangiogenic therapy from existing antiangiogenic compounds binding on the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF.

  19. A Low Molecular Weight Protein from the Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis with an Anti-Angiogenic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loret, Erwann P; Luis, José; Nuccio, Christopher; Villard, Claude; Mansuelle, Pascal; Lebrun, Régine; Villard, Pierre Henri

    2018-04-19

    Sea anemones are a remarkable source of active principles due to a decentralized venom system. New blood vessel growth or angiogenesis is a very promising target against cancer, but the few available antiangiogenic compounds have limited efficacy. In this study, a protein fraction, purified from tentacles of Anemonia viridis , was able to limit endothelial cells proliferation and angiogenesis at low concentration (14 nM). Protein sequences were determined with Edman degradation and mass spectrometry in source decay and revealed homologies with Blood Depressing Substance (BDS) sea anemones. The presence of a two-turn alpha helix observed with circular dichroism and a trypsin activity inhibition suggested that the active principle could be a Kunitz-type inhibitor, which may interact with an integrin due to an Arginine Glycin Aspartate (RGD) motif. Molecular modeling showed that this RGD motif was well exposed to solvent. This active principle could improve antiangiogenic therapy from existing antiangiogenic compounds binding on the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF).

  20. Establishing the thermal threshold of the tropical mussel Perna viridis in the face of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, B P L; Lai, C H

    2014-08-30

    With increasing recognition that maximum oxygen demand is the unifying limit in tolerance, the first line of thermal sensitivity is, as a corollary, due to capacity limitations at a high level of organisational complexity before individual, molecular or membrane functions become disturbed. In this study the tropical mussel Perna viridis were subjected to temperature change of 0.4 °C per hour from ambient to 8-36 °C. By comparing thermal mortality against biochemical indices (hsp70, gluthathione), physiological indices (glycogen, FRAP, NRRT) and behavioural indices (clearance rate), a hierarchy of thermal tolerance was therein elucidated, ranging from systemic to cellular to molecular levels. Generally, while biochemical indices indicated a stress signal much earlier than the more integrated behavioural indices, failure of the latter (indicating a tolerance limit and transition to pejus state) occurred much earlier than the other indices tending towards thermal extremities at both ends of the thermal spectrum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evidence of accelerated evolution and ectodermal-specific expression of presumptive BDS toxin cDNAs from Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicosia, Aldo; Maggio, Teresa; Mazzola, Salvatore; Cuttitta, Angela

    2013-10-30

    Anemonia viridis is a widespread and extensively studied Mediterranean species of sea anemone from which a large number of polypeptide toxins, such as blood depressing substances (BDS) peptides, have been isolated. The first members of this class, BDS-1 and BDS-2, are polypeptides belonging to the β-defensin fold family and were initially described for their antihypertensive and antiviral activities. BDS-1 and BDS-2 are 43 amino acid peptides characterised by three disulfide bonds that act as neurotoxins affecting Kv3.1, Kv3.2 and Kv3.4 channel gating kinetics. In addition, BDS-1 inactivates the Nav1.7 and Nav1.3 channels. The development of a large dataset of A. viridis expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and the identification of 13 putative BDS-like cDNA sequences has attracted interest, especially as scientific and diagnostic tools. A comparison of BDS cDNA sequences showed that the untranslated regions are more conserved than the protein-coding regions. Moreover, the KA/KS ratios calculated for all pairwise comparisons showed values greater than 1, suggesting mechanisms of accelerated evolution. The structures of the BDS homologs were predicted by molecular modelling. All toxins possess similar 3D structures that consist of a triple-stranded antiparallel β-sheet and an additional small antiparallel β-sheet located downstream of the cleavage/maturation site; however, the orientation of the triple-stranded β-sheet appears to differ among the toxins. To characterise the spatial expression profile of the putative BDS cDNA sequences, tissue-specific cDNA libraries, enriched for BDS transcripts, were constructed. In addition, the proper amplification of ectodermal or endodermal markers ensured the tissue specificity of each library. Sequencing randomly selected clones from each library revealed ectodermal-specific expression of ten BDS transcripts, while transcripts of BDS-8, BDS-13, BDS-14 and BDS-15 failed to be retrieved, likely due to under-representation in our

  2. Evidence of Accelerated Evolution and Ectodermal-Specific Expression of Presumptive BDS Toxin cDNAs from Anemonia viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Nicosia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Anemonia viridis is a widespread and extensively studied Mediterranean species of sea anemone from which a large number of polypeptide toxins, such as blood depressing substances (BDS peptides, have been isolated. The first members of this class, BDS-1 and BDS-2, are polypeptides belonging to the β-defensin fold family and were initially described for their antihypertensive and antiviral activities. BDS-1 and BDS-2 are 43 amino acid peptides characterised by three disulfide bonds that act as neurotoxins affecting Kv3.1, Kv3.2 and Kv3.4 channel gating kinetics. In addition, BDS-1 inactivates the Nav1.7 and Nav1.3 channels. The development of a large dataset of A. viridis expressed sequence tags (ESTs and the identification of 13 putative BDS-like cDNA sequences has attracted interest, especially as scientific and diagnostic tools. A comparison of BDS cDNA sequences showed that the untranslated regions are more conserved than the protein-coding regions. Moreover, the KA/KS ratios calculated for all pairwise comparisons showed values greater than 1, suggesting mechanisms of accelerated evolution. The structures of the BDS homologs were predicted by molecular modelling. All toxins possess similar 3D structures that consist of a triple-stranded antiparallel β-sheet and an additional small antiparallel β-sheet located downstream of the cleavage/maturation site; however, the orientation of the triple-stranded β-sheet appears to differ among the toxins. To characterise the spatial expression profile of the putative BDS cDNA sequences, tissue-specific cDNA libraries, enriched for BDS transcripts, were constructed. In addition, the proper amplification of ectodermal or endodermal markers ensured the tissue specificity of each library. Sequencing randomly selected clones from each library revealed ectodermal-specific expression of ten BDS transcripts, while transcripts of BDS-8, BDS-13, BDS-14 and BDS-15 failed to be retrieved, likely due to under

  3. Gamma-radiation Mutagenesis in Genetically Unstable Barley Mutants. Pt. 2. Comparison of Various Mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balchiuniene, L.

    1995-01-01

    Spontaneous and gamma-induced mutability was compared in two groups of genetically unstable barley ear structure mutants - tweaky spike (tw) and branched ear (be). Instability in different loci causes different levels of spontaneous and gamma-induced mutability. A high spontaneous level of chlorophyll mutations is peculiar to be-ust mutants. It is suggested that the high level of induced chlorophyll mutations in allelic tw mutants is a result of better surviving of chlorophyll mutation carriers in the genotypical-physiological environment created by mutant tw alleles. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Neuro-endocrine effects of aqueous extract of Amaranthus viridis (Linn. leaf in male Wistar rat model of cyclophosphamide-induced reproductive toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladele Abiodun Ayoka

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide (CP is a widely used cytotoxic alkylating agent with antitumor and immunosuppressant properties that is associated with various forms of reproductive toxicity. The significance of natural antioxidants of plant origin should be explored, especially in a world with increasing incidence of patients in need of chemotherapy. The neuro-endocrine effects of aqueous extract of Amaranthus viridis (Linn. leaf (AEAVL in Wistar rats with CP-induced reproductive toxicity was determined. Forty rats were used for this study such that graded doses of the extract were administered following CP-induced reproductive toxicity and comparisons were made against control, toxic and standard (vitamin E groups at p < 0.05. The synthetic drugs (CP, 65 mg/kg i.p. for 5 days; Vitamin E, 100 mg/kg p.o. for 30 days as well as the extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. for 30 days were administered to the rats at 0.2 mL/100 g. CP induced reproductive toxicity as evidenced by significantly lowered levels of FSH, LH and testosterone, perturbation of sperm characterization, deleterious disruptions of the antioxidant system as evidenced by decreased levels of GSH as well as elevation of TBARS activity. Histopathological examination showed hemorrhagic lesions with scanty and hypertrophied parenchymal cells in the pituitary while the testis showed ballooned seminiferous tubules with loosed connective tissues and vacuolation of testicular interstitium. These conditions were significantly reversed (p < 0.05 following administration of the graded doses of the extract. It was, therefore, concluded that AEAVL could potentially be a therapeutic choice in patients with CP-induced neuro-endocrine dysfunction and reproductive toxicity. Keywords: Cyclophosphamide, Neuro-endocrine dysfunction, Reproductive toxicity, Rats, Amaranthus viridis

  5. Promising rice mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Two induced mutants namely, Mut NS 1 (tall) and Mut NS 5 (semi-dwarf) derived from rice variety Nizersail were evaluated for various agronomic characters at four locations in Bangladesh. Both the mutants matured about three weeks earlier and yielded significantly higher than the parent variety Nizersail. (author). 3 tabs., 9 refs

  6. Gamma ray induced mutants in Coleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, K; Jos, J S [Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Trivandrum, Kerala (India)

    1988-07-01

    The germplasm collection of Chinese potato (Coleus parviflorus Benth) contains almost no variation for yield contributing traits. The crop does not produce seeds. Treatment of underground tubers with 1 kR, 2 kR, 3 kR and 4 kR gamma rays resulted in 50 morphologically different mutants which are maintained as mutant clones. In the M{sub 1}V{sub 1} generation, suspected mutant sprouts, were carefully removed and grown separately. The most interesting mutant types are the following: (i) erect mutant with spoon shaped light green leaves, 30 cm long inflorescences against 20 cm in the control, cylindrical tubers measuring ca. 7.0 cm long and 3 cm girth against 4 cm and 2.5 cm in the control (ii) early mutants 1 and 2, one having less leaf serration, the other having light green small leaves and dwarf type (iii) fleshy leaf mutant, dark green, thick and smooth leaves. Control plants spread almost in 1 m{sup 2} area and bear tubers from the nodes of branches. In the early mutants tuber formation is mainly restricted to the base of the plant, which makes harvest easier. The crop usually matures within 150 - 160 days, the early mutants are ready for harvest 100 days after planting. As the mutants are less spreading, the yield could be increased by closer spacing.

  7. Gamma ray induced mutants in Coleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudevan, K.; Jos, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The germplasm collection of Chinese potato (Coleus parviflorus Benth) contains almost no variation for yield contributing traits. The crop does not produce seeds. Treatment of underground tubers with 1 kR, 2 kR, 3 kR and 4 kR gamma rays resulted in 50 morphologically different mutants which are maintained as mutant clones. In the M 1 V 1 generation, suspected mutant sprouts, were carefully removed and grown separately. The most interesting mutant types are the following: (i) erect mutant with spoon shaped light green leaves, 30 cm long inflorescences against 20 cm in the control, cylindrical tubers measuring ca. 7.0 cm long and 3 cm girth against 4 cm and 2.5 cm in the control (ii) early mutants 1 and 2, one having less leaf serration, the other having light green small leaves and dwarf type (iii) fleshy leaf mutant, dark green, thick and smooth leaves. Control plants spread almost in 1 m 2 area and bear tubers from the nodes of branches. In the early mutants tuber formation is mainly restricted to the base of the plant, which makes harvest easier. The crop usually matures within 150 - 160 days, the early mutants are ready for harvest 100 days after planting. As the mutants are less spreading, the yield could be increased by closer spacing

  8. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  9. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  10. Effect of body size on accumulation and distribution of 125I in the green mussel (Perna Viridis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shunhua; Shi Qiong; Zhao Xiaokui

    1997-10-01

    Effect of body size on accumulation and distribution of 125 I in the green mussel (Perna Viridis), has been studied. The results showed that concentration capacity of every part in smaller mussels was higher than that in larger ones. Concentration factors of 125 I in byssus (about 0.5 x 10 3 ∼1.5 x 10 3 ), the highest in all parts of the mussels, were 30∼200 times as that in soft tissues, 200∼600 times as that in feet, 600∼1000 times as that in shells. Although wet weight of byssus was no more than 1% of whole body's wet weight, the content of 125 I accumulated in it accounted for as high as 75% of total 125 I content. The relationship between concentration factor of 125 I in byssus and whole body's wet weight (or shell length) can be described as a negative power function. (16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.)

  11. Mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roosien, J.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis the isolation and characterization of a number of mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus, a plant virus with a coat protein dependent genome, is described. Thermo-sensitive (ts) mutants were selected since, at least theoretically, ts mutations can be present in all virus coded functions. It was found that a high percentage of spontaneous mutants, isolated because of their aberrant symptoms, were ts. The majority of these isolates could grow at the non-permissive temperature in the presence of a single wild type (wt) component. To increase the mutation rate virus preparations were treated with several mutagens. After nitrous acid treatment or irradiation with ultraviolet light, an increase in the level of mutations was observed. UV irradiation was preferred since it did not require large amounts of purified viral components. During the preliminary characterization of potential ts mutants the author also obtained one structural and several symptom mutants which were analysed further (chapter 7, 8 and 9). The properties of the ts mutants are described in chapter 3-7. (Auth.)

  12. Temporal variations of heavy metals levels in Perna viridis, on the Chacopata-Bocaripo lagoon axis, Sucre State, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Rafael; Acosta, Vanessa; Segnini, Mary Isabel; Brito, Leonor; Martínez, Gregorio

    2015-02-28

    Perna viridis was used as biomonitor to assess heavy metal levels in the Chacopata-Bocaripo lagoon axis, Venezuela, during rain and drought seasons. The mussels were weighed and measured. The metal concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. For rain period, the order of bioavailability was: Cu>Ni>Mn>Co>Cd>Pb, and for drought: Cu>Mn>Ni>Co>Pb>Cd. The concentrations of Ni, Co, Cd and Pb showed significant differences (P<0.05) in both periods. There was higher metal accumulation during drought season, possibly related to upwelling, since it produces an increase in primary productivity, which translates more food into organisms, making metals bioavailable for mussels. Only Cu and Mn showed significant relationships between the size and metal concentration, during drought period, it may be because of the organisms need for these essential metals in different physiological processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic fingerprinting of mutant rose cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S; Prasad, K V; Singh, K P; Singh, A.P. [Division of Floriculture and Landscaping, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi (India)], E-mail: kvprasad66@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    Six rose mutants evolved at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi from four parent cultivars were characterized based on RAPD markers. Contrary to the earlier findings our effort has conclusively proven that the RAPD markers are indeed robust tools to discern the mutants from their parents. Among 40 primers screened, 7 primers produced inconsistent banding pattern. The number of polymorphic bands varied between 4 (OPA 14) and 10 (OPA1) with an average of 6.5 bands per primer. The percentage polymorphism ranged from 62.5 (OPM 9) to 100 percent (OPA 1). Most of the primers produced monomorphic bands between parent and mutant rose cultivars. When primer OPA 2 was used a specific band of 2.5 kb was noticed in mutant cv. Pusa Urmil and cv. Pusa Abhishek but was absent in parent cv. Jantar Mantar. A polymorphic band of 750 bp was noticed in the parent Kiss of Fire and helped in differentiating the parent from its mutant when amplified with OPK 3. Primer OPS 16 produced discriminatory band of 800 bp in mutant cv. Pink Sport of Montezuma while it was absent in its parent cv. Montezuma. Another specific band of 650 bp was present in parent cv. Montezuma and absent in its mutant cv. Pink Sport of Montezuma signifying the uniqueness of the mutant. Primer OPM 5 brought out distinct polymorphism among the parent Jantar Mantar and its three mutants with absence of a specific band of 1.5 kb in the parent. The four parents and 6 mutants were divided into four distinct groups in the Dendogram constructed by UPGMA method. The most genetically similar cultivar among the 10 cultivars analyzed are Montezuma and its pink sport of Montezuma whereas Abhisarika a mutant of cv. Kiss of Fire was distinctly different and formed a separate cluster. (author)

  14. From one body mutant to one cell mutant. A progress of radiation breeding in crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatomi, Shigeki

    1996-01-01

    An effective method was established to obtain non-chimeral mutants with wide spectrum of flower colors, regenerated from floral organs on which mutated sectors were come out on chronic irradiated plants. By this way, six mutant varieties of flower colors have been selected from one pink flower of chrysanthemum, and cultivated for cut-flower production. By the same method, 3 mutant varieties with small and spray type flowers were selected in Eustoma. Mutant varieties such as a rust disease resistant in sugarcane, 6 dwarfs in Cytisus and pure-white mushroom in velvet shank have been selected successively for short period. (J.P.N.)

  15. Heavy metal bioaccumulation in the soft tissues of the green mussels, Perna viridis (L.) Bivalve: Mytilacea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbon, V.X.L.

    1991-01-01

    Untreated agro-industrial and domestic waste continuously being damped along the shores of its surrounding provinces and cities pollute the Manila Bay coastal waters. Presumably, its oyster and mussel culture farms are contaminated with toxic heavy metals. Yet, this alarming signs remain barely investigated. Pollution enhanced, the bioavailability and toxicity of heavy metals threaten the flora and fauna of the aquatic ecosystem. Trace concentrations of toxic elements in the marine food chain can trigger deleterious biochemical, physiological and ecological impact. Known to be bio-accumulated by aquatic organisms, the mean concentrations of Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn in the edible tissues of Perna viridis were determined. Water and sediments sampled from the mussel culture farms were also analyzed. Results revealed that despite the apparent pollution, except for Cu and Zn, which registered slightly higher values, Hg, Cd and Pb concentrations were much lower than the maximum permissible limits. Even water and sediments samples tested showed that mean concentrations of these elements were still below sublethal limits. (auth.). 79 refs.; 8 figs.; 13 tabs.; 16 plates

  16. Absence of Intramolecular Singlet Fission in Pentacene-Perylenediimide Heterodimers: The Role of Charge Transfer State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Wu, Yishi; Chen, Jianwei; Wang, Lanfen; Liu, Yanping; Yu, Zhenyi; Yao, Jiannian; Fu, Hongbing

    2017-11-16

    A new class of donor-acceptor heterodimers based on two singlet fission (SF)-active chromophores, i.e., pentacene (Pc) and perylenediimide (PDI), was developed to investigate the role of charge transfer (CT) state on the excitonic dynamics. The CT state is efficiently generated upon photoexcitation. However, the resulting CT state decays to different energy states depending on the energy levels of the CT state. It undergoes extremely rapid deactivation to the ground state in polar CH 2 Cl 2 , whereas it undergoes transformation to a Pc triplet in nonpolar toluene. The efficient triplet generation in toluene is not due to SF but CT-mediated intersystem crossing. In light of the energy landscape, it is suggested that the deep energy level of the CT state relative to that of the triplet pair state makes the CT state actually serve as a trap state that cannot undergoes an intramolecular singlet fission process. These results provide guidance for the design of SF materials and highlight the requisite for more widely applicable design principles.

  17. Crecimiento del mejillón verde Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae bajo sistema de cultivo de fondo en la ensenada de Turpialito, Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela Growth and survival of the green mussel P. viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae in bottom culture conditions in Turpialito, Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Acosta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los moluscos representan uno de los grupos más importantes desde el punto de vista económico en la acuicultura marina, debido a los bajos costos de producción y a su alta rentabilidad. En este estudio se planteó probar la hipótesis de un mayor crecimiento de Perna viridis en cultivo de fondo, por un mejor aprovechamiento de alimento presente en el medio, lo cual permitirá descartarla o no como especie de cultivo para el Golfo de Cariaco. En este sentido, se evaluó el crecimiento y la supervivencia del mejillón verde P. viridis en condiciones de cultivo de fondo entre julio 2007 y febrero 2008. Las semillas del mejillón (35.81±1.41mm de longitud fueron obtenidas en la localidad de Guaca (costa norte del estado Sucre y trasladadas hasta la Estación Hidrobiológica de Turpialito, golfo de Cariaco, estado Sucre-Venezuela, en donde se sembraron en cestas “españolas”. Mensualmente se determinó supervivencia así como la longitud máxima de la concha, la masa seca del músculo, resto de tejidos y de la gónada. Los parámetros ambientales (temperatura del agua, salinidad, oxígeno disuelto, clorofila a, seston total y su fracción orgánica, en la zona de cultivo se determinaron cada 15 días. Mensualmente se realizaron determinaciones de proteínas, lípidos y carbohidratos al seston. Durante todo el estudio el mejillón mantuvo un crecimiento continuo, alcanzando al final una longitud máxima de 78.7±4.43mm. Sin embargo, la tasa de crecimiento de la masa seca de los tejidos somáticos (músculo, resto de tejido y reproductivo, mostraron variabilidad a lo largo del estudio, produciéndose al final un incremento significativo en dichos tejidos. Las variaciones observadas en la tasa de crecimiento de la masa del tejido reproductivo, dependió de las reservas acumuladas y del alimento ofertado por el medio ambiente. El seston orgánico durante toda la experiencia mostró una independencia de la temperatura y de la clorofila a

  18. Induction of Mutants in Durum Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Ubaidi, M.; Ibrahim, I.; AL-Hadithi, A.

    2002-01-01

    This investigation presents a breeding program for induction and development of a new genotype of durum wheat, resistant to lodging with high yield, by irradiation durum wheat hybrids (F2) with gamma rays 100 Gy, during 1990-1997 cultivation seasons. This program involves: induction of variability, selection evaluation of the mutants at three locations: Twaitha (Baghdad) Latifya ( Babylon) and Swari (Kutt). All mutants showed resistance to lodging and there was a significant reduction in plant height. Mutant SIXIZ-22 surpassed other mutants and its origin in lodging resistance and plant height (83.5,82.8 and 89.4 cm) in the three locations at generation M5 and M6, respectively. Also, there were significant differences between mutant and their origin in the number of spikes/M 2 and grain yild during the two successive generation. On the other hand, mutant IZxCO-105 surpassed other mutants in the number of spikes/M 2 (231.8,242.3 and 292) and grain yield (4336,3376 and 5232 kg/ha) in all testing location, respectively . (authors) 14 refs., 4 tabs

  19. Can the shell of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia be a potential biomonitoring material for Cd, Pb and Zn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, C. K.; Ismail, A.; Tan, S. G.; Abdul Rahim, I.

    2003-07-01

    The distributions of Cd, Pb and Zn in the total soft tissues and total shells of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis were studied in field collected samples as well as from laboratory experimental samples. The results showed that Cd, Pb and Zn were readily accumulated in the whole shells. In mussels sampled from 12 locations along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, the ratios of the shell metals to the soft tissue metals were different at each sampling site. Nevertheless, the Cd and Pb levels in the shells were always higher than those in the soft tissues, while the Zn level was higher in the soft tissues than in the shells. In comparison with soft tissues, the degrees of variability for Pb and Cd concentrations in the shells were lower. The lower degrees of variability and significant ( Pwork showed that the pattern of depuration in the shell was not similar to that of the soft tissue although their patterns of accumulation were similar. This indicated that the depuration of heavy metals in the shell was not affected by the physiological conditions of the mussels. Although Zn could be regulated by the soft tissue, the incorporated Cd, Pb and Zn remained in the shell matrices. The present results support the use of the total shell of P. viridis as a potential biomonitoring material for long-term contamination of Cd, Pb and Zn.

  20. Dissecting the Photoprotective Mechanism Encoded by the flv4-2 Operon: a Distinct Contribution of Sll0218 in Photosystem II Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersanini, Luca; Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Battchikova, Natalia; Heinz, Steffen; Lespinasse, Maija; Ruohisto, Essi; Mustila, Henna; Nickelsen, Jörg; Vass, Imre; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2017-03-01

    In Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, the flv4-2 operon encodes the flavodiiron proteins Flv2 and Flv4 together with a small protein, Sll0218, providing photoprotection for Photosystem II (PSII). Here, the distinct roles of Flv2/Flv4 and Sll0218 were addressed, using a number of flv4-2 operon mutants. In the ∆sll0218 mutant, the presence of Flv2/Flv4 rescued PSII functionality as compared with ∆sll0218-flv2, where neither Sll0218 nor the Flv2/Flv4 heterodimer are expressed. Nevertheless, both the ∆sll0218 and ∆sll0218-flv2 mutants demonstrated deficiency in accumulation of PSII proteins suggesting a role for Sll0218 in PSII stabilization, which was further supported by photoinhibition experiments. Moreover, the accumulation of PSII assembly intermediates occurred in Sll0218-lacking mutants. The YFP-tagged Sll0218 protein localized in a few spots per cell at the external side of the thylakoid membrane, and biochemical membrane fractionation revealed clear enrichment of Sll0218 in the PratA-defined membranes, where the early biogenesis steps of PSII occur. Further, the characteristic antenna uncoupling feature of the ∆flv4-2 operon mutants is shown to be related to PSII destabilization in the absence of Sll0218. It is concluded that the Flv2/Flv4 heterodimer supports PSII functionality, while the Sll0218 protein assists PSII assembly and stabilization, including optimization of light harvesting. © 2016 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Enviroment Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Root hair mutants of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engvild, K.C.; Rasmussen, K.

    2005-01-01

    Barley mutants without root hairs or with short or reduced root hairs were isolated among M 2 seeds of 'Lux' barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) after acidified sodium azide mutagenesis. Root hair mutants are investigated intensively in Arabidopsis where about 40 genes are known. A few root hair mutants are known in maize, rice, barley and tomato. Many plants without root hairs grow quite well with good plant nutrition, and mutants have been used for investigations of uptake of strongly bound nutrients like phosphorus, iron, zinc and silicon. Seed of 'Lux' barley (Sejet Plant Breeding, Denmark) were soaked overnight, and then treated with 1.5-millimolarsodium azide in 0.1 molar sodium phosphate buffer, pH 3, for 2.5 hours according to the IAEA Manual on Mutation Breeding (2nd Ed.). After rinsing in tap water and air-drying, the M 2 seeds were sown in the field the same day. Spikes, 4-6 per M 1 plant, were harvested. The mutation frequency was similar to that obtained with other barley cultivars from which low-phytate mutants were isolated [5]. Seeds were germinated on black filter paper in tap water for 3 or 4 days before scoring for root hair mutants

  2. A Single Transcriptome of a Green Toad (Bufo viridis Yields Candidate Genes for Sex Determination and -Differentiation and Non-Anonymous Population Genetic Markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn F Gerchen

    Full Text Available Large genome size, including immense repetitive and non-coding fractions, still present challenges for capacity, bioinformatics and thus affordability of whole genome sequencing in most amphibians. Here, we test the performance of a single transcriptome to understand whether it can provide a cost-efficient resource for species with large unknown genomes. Using RNA from six different tissues from a single Palearctic green toad (Bufo viridis specimen and Hiseq2000, we obtained 22,5 Mio reads and publish >100,000 unigene sequences. To evaluate efficacy and quality, we first use this data to identify green toad specific candidate genes, known from other vertebrates for their role in sex determination and differentiation. Of a list of 37 genes, the transcriptome yielded 32 (87%, many of which providing the first such data for this non-model anuran species. However, for many of these genes, only fragments could be retrieved. In order to allow also applications to population genetics, we further used the transcriptome for the targeted development of 21 non-anonymous microsatellites and tested them in genetic families and backcrosses. Eleven markers were specifically developed to be located on the B. viridis sex chromosomes; for eight markers we can indeed demonstrate sex-specific transmission in genetic families. Depending on phylogenetic distance, several markers, which are sex-linked in green toads, show high cross-amplification success across the anuran phylogeny, involving nine systematic anuran families. Our data support the view that single transcriptome sequencing (based on multiple tissues provides a reliable genomic resource and cost-efficient method for non-model amphibian species with large genome size and, despite limitations, should be considered as long as genome sequencing remains unaffordable for most species.

  3. Isozyme differences in barley mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AI-Jibouri, A.A.M.; Dham, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Thirty mutants (M 11 ) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) induced by physical and chemical mutagens were analysed for isozyme composition using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results show that these mutants were different in the isozymes leucine aminopeptidase, esterase and peroxidase. The differences included the number of forms of each enzyme, relative mobility value and their intensity on the gel. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase isozyme was found in six molecular forms and these forms were similar in all mutants. (author)

  4. Ascertainment of the effect of differential growth rates of mutants on observed mutant frequencies in X-irradiated mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaap, A.G.A.C.; Simons, J.W.I.M.

    1983-01-01

    As it is not known to what extent differential growth rates of induced mutants lead to over- and under-representation of mutants in treated populations and thereby affect the determination of mutant frequencies, the mutation induction in X-irradiated L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells was determined via two methods. The first method involves the standard protocol which may suffer from the effect of differential growth rates, while the second method is based upon the fluctuation test in which the differential growth rates can be actually measured. It appeared that the standard protocol led to a mutant frequency that was similar to the mutant frequency determined in the fluctuation test. Therefore, the standard protocol appears to lead to only a minor under-estimation if any. Substantial heterogeneity in growth rates of induced mutants was observed, but the mutants with a selective advantage appear largely to compensate for the mutants that are lost because of selective disadvantage. It was calculated that the chance for isolating the same mutant twice from a treated population had been increased 2.2-fold because of the observed differential growth rates. (orig./AJ)

  5. Isozyme differences in barley mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AI-Jibouri, A A.M.; Dham, K M [Department of Botany, Nuclear Research Centre, Baghdad (Iraq)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Thirty mutants (M{sub 11}) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) induced by physical and chemical mutagens were analysed for isozyme composition using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results show that these mutants were different in the isozymes leucine aminopeptidase, esterase and peroxidase. The differences included the number of forms of each enzyme, relative mobility value and their intensity on the gel. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase isozyme was found in six molecular forms and these forms were similar in all mutants. (author)

  6. European green lizard (Lacerta viridis) personalities: Linking behavioural types to ecologically relevant traits at different ontogenetic stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Katalin; Horváth, Gergely; Molnár, Orsolya; Török, János; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Herczeg, Gábor

    2015-02-01

    Consistent individual differences within (animal personality) and across (behavioural syndrome) behaviours became well recognized during the past decade. Nevertheless, our knowledge about the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms behind the phenomena is still incomplete. Here, we explored if risk-taking and exploration were consistent and linked to different ecologically relevant traits in wild-caught adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis) and in their 2-3 weeks old laboratory-reared offspring. Both adults and juveniles displayed animal personality, consistency being higher in juveniles. We found correlation between risk-taking and exploration (suggestive of a behavioural syndrome) only in adults. Juveniles were more explorative than adults. Large or ectoparasite-free adult males were more explorative than small or parasitized males. Juvenile females tended to be more risk-taking than males. Behaviour of fathers and their offspring did not correlate. We conclude that European green lizards show high behavioural consistency and age is an important determinant of its strength and links to traits likely affecting fitness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The endosomal recycling of FgSnc1 by FgSnx41-FgSnx4 heterodimer is essential for polarized growth and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenhui; Lin, Yahong; Fang, Wenqin; Zhao, Xu; Lou, Yi; Wang, Guanghui; Zheng, Huawei; Liang, Qifu; Abubakar, Yakubu Saddeeq; Olsson, Stefan; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Zonghua

    2018-04-20

    Endosomal sorting machineries regulate the transport of their cargoes among intracellular compartments. However, the molecular nature of such intracellular trafficking processes in pathogenic fungal development and pathogenicity remains unclear. Here, we dissect the roles and molecular mechanisms of two sorting nexin proteins and their cargoes in endosomal recycling in Fusarium graminearum using high-resolution microscopy and high-throughput co-immunoprecipitation strategies. We show that the sorting nexins, FgSnx41 and FgSnx4, interact with each other and assemble into a functionally interdependent heterodimer through their respective BAR domains. Further analyses demonstrate that the dimer localizes to the early endosomal membrane and coordinates endosomal sorting. The small GTPase FgRab5 regulates the correct localization of FgSnx41-FgSnx4 and is consequently required for its trafficking function. The protein FgSnc1 is a cargo of FgSnx41-FgSnx4 and regulates the fusion of secreted vesicles with the fungal growing apex and plasma membrane. In the absence of FgSnx41 or FgSnx4, FgSnc1 is mis-sorted and degraded in the vacuole, and null deletion of either component causes defects in the fungal polarized growth and virulence. Overall, for the first time, our results reveal the mechanism of FgSnc1 endosomal recycling by FgSnx41-FgSnx4 heterodimer which is essential for polarized growth and pathogenicity in F. graminearum. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  9. Toxic effects of male Perna viridis gonad exposed to BaP, DDT and their mixture: A metabolomic and proteomic study of the underlying mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qinqin; Zheng, Pengfei; Qiu, Liguo; Jiang, Xiu; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiaoping

    2016-01-05

    Benzo(a)pyrene and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane are typical persistent organic pollutants, and also the widespread environmental estrogens with known toxicity towards green mussels Perna viridis. In this study, the toxicological effects of BaP and DDT and their mixture were assessed in green mussel gonads using proteomic and metabolomic approaches. Metabolomics by NMR spectroscopy revealed that BaP did not show obvious metabolite changes in the gonad of male green mussel. DDT mainly caused some disturbance of osmotic regulation and energy metabolism by changing BCAAs, alanine, threonine, arginine, etc., unknown metabolite (3.53 ppm), glycine, homarine and ATP at different levels. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT mainly caused some disturbance in osmotic regulation and energy metabolism by differentially altering branched chain amino acids, glutamate, alanine, arginine, unknown metabolite (3.53 ppm), glycine, 4-aminobutyrate, dimethylglycine, homarine and ATP. The results suggest that DDT alone may cause most of metabolites changes in the mixture exposed male mussel gonad, and the results also show that the male P. viridis gonad was more sensitive to DDT than BaP exposures. Proteomic study showed that BaP, DDT and their mixture may have different modes of action. Proteomic responses revealed that BaP induced signal transduction, oxidative stress, spermatogenesis, etc. in the male green mussel gonad; whereas DDT exposure altered proteins that were associated with signal transduction, oxidative stress, cytoskeleton and cell structure, cellular organization, energy metabolism, etc. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT affected proteins related to cytoskeleton and cell structure, oxidative stress, cellular organization, etc. This research demonstrated that metabolomic and proteomic approaches could better elucidate the underlying mechanism of environmental pollutants gonad toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Changes in growth, carbon and nitrogen enzyme activity and mRNA accumulation in the halophilic microalga Dunaliella viridis in response to NaCl stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongmei; Wang, Weiwei; Xu, Nianjun; Sun, Xue

    2016-12-01

    Many species of microalga Dunaliella exhibit a remarkable tolerance to salinity and are therefore ideal for probing the effects of salinity. In this work, we assessed the effects of NaCl stress on the growth, activity and mRNA level of carbon and nitrogen metabolism enzymes of D. viridis. The alga could grow over a salinity range of 0.44 mol L-1 to 3.00 mol L-1 NaCl, but the most rapid growth was observed at 1.00 mol L-1 NaCl, followed by 2.00 mol L-1 NaCl. Paralleling these growth patterns, the highest initial and total Rubisco activities were detected in the presence of 1.00 mol L-1 NaCl, decreasing to 37.33% and 26.39% of those values, respectively, in the presence of 3.00 mol L-1 NaCl, respectively. However, the highest extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity was measured in the presence of 2.00 mol L-1 NaCl, followed by 1.00 mol L-1 NaCl. Different from the two carbon enzymes, nitrate reductase (NR) activity showed a slight change under different NaCl concentrations. At the transcriptional level, the mRNAs of Rubisco large subunit ( rbcL), and small subunit ( rbcS), attained their highest abundances in the presence of 1.00 and 2.00 mol L-1 NaCl, respectively. The CA mRNA accumulation was induced from 0.44 mol L-1 to 3.00 mol L-1 NaCl, but the NR mRNA showed the decreasing tendency with the increasing salinity. In conclusion, the growth and carbon fixation enzyme of Rubisco displayed similar tendency in response to NaCl stress, CA was proved be salt-inducible within a certain salinity range and NR showed the least effect by NaCl in D. viridis.

  11. Dwarf mutant of rice variety Seratus Malam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugiono, P. S.; Soemanggono, A.M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Seeds of 'Seratus Malam', a local tall upland variety with long panicles and high yield potential were irradiated with 10-50 krad gamma rays in 1983. From 50,000 M 2 plants, 130 semidwarf mutants and 1 dwarf mutant were selected. The dwarf mutant M-362 was obtained from the 10 krad treatment. The mutant shows about 50% reduction in plant height, but also in number of productive tillers. Thus the yield per plant is also significantly less. However, the mutant gene is not allelic to DGWG and therefore may be useful in cross breeding. (author)

  12. Mutant power: using mutant allele collections for yeast functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Kaitlyn L; Kumar, Anuj

    2016-03-01

    The budding yeast has long served as a model eukaryote for the functional genomic analysis of highly conserved signaling pathways, cellular processes and mechanisms underlying human disease. The collection of reagents available for genomics in yeast is extensive, encompassing a growing diversity of mutant collections beyond gene deletion sets in the standard wild-type S288C genetic background. We review here three main types of mutant allele collections: transposon mutagen collections, essential gene collections and overexpression libraries. Each collection provides unique and identifiable alleles that can be utilized in genome-wide, high-throughput studies. These genomic reagents are particularly informative in identifying synthetic phenotypes and functions associated with essential genes, including those modeled most effectively in complex genetic backgrounds. Several examples of genomic studies in filamentous/pseudohyphal backgrounds are provided here to illustrate this point. Additionally, the limitations of each approach are examined. Collectively, these mutant allele collections in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the related pathogenic yeast Candida albicans promise insights toward an advanced understanding of eukaryotic molecular and cellular biology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Allosteric Mutant IDH1 Inhibitors Reveal Mechanisms for IDH1 Mutant and Isoform Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Xiaoling; Baird, Daniel; Bowen, Kimberly; Capka, Vladimir; Chen, Jinyun; Chenail, Gregg; Cho, YoungShin; Dooley, Julia; Farsidjani, Ali; Fortin, Pascal; Kohls, Darcy; Kulathila, Raviraj; Lin, Fallon; McKay, Daniel; Rodrigues, Lindsey; Sage, David; Touré, B. Barry; van der Plas, Simon; Wright, Kirk; Xu, Ming; Yin, Hong; Levell, Julian; Pagliarini, Raymond A. (Novartis)

    2017-03-01

    Oncogenic IDH1 and IDH2 mutations contribute to cancer via production of R-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). Here, we characterize two structurally distinct mutant- and isoform-selective IDH1 inhibitors that inhibit 2-HG production. Both bind to an allosteric pocket on IDH1, yet shape it differently, highlighting the plasticity of this site. Oncogenic IDH1R132H mutation destabilizes an IDH1 “regulatory segment,” which otherwise restricts compound access to the allosteric pocket. Regulatory segment destabilization in wild-type IDH1 promotes inhibitor binding, suggesting that destabilization is critical for mutant selectivity. We also report crystal structures of oncogenic IDH2 mutant isoforms, highlighting the fact that the analogous segment of IDH2 is not similarly destabilized. This intrinsic stability of IDH2 may contribute to observed inhibitor IDH1 isoform selectivity. Moreover, discrete residues in the IDH1 allosteric pocket that differ from IDH2 may also guide IDH1 isoform selectivity. These data provide a deeper understanding of how IDH1 inhibitors achieve mutant and isoform selectivity.

  14. Semi-dwarf mutants for rice improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Ramli; Osman, Mohammad; Ibrahim, Rusli

    1990-01-01

    Full text: MARDI and the National University of Malaysia embarked on a programme to induce resistance against blast in rice in 1978. MARDI also obtained semi dwarf mutants of cvs 'Mahsuri', 'Muda', 'Pongsu seribu' and 'Jarum Mas', which are under evaluation. The popular local rice variety 'Manik' was subjected to gamma irradiation (15-40 krad) and 101 promising semidwarf mutants have been obtained following selection in M 2 -M 6 . 29 of them show grain yields of 6.0-7.3 t/ha, compared with 5.7t for 'Manik'. Other valuable mutants were found showing long grain, less shattering, earlier maturity, and glutinous endosperm. One mutant, resistant to brown plant hopper yields 6.3t/ha. (author)

  15. Evaluation of tall rice mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    One tall mutant (Mut NS1) of rice variety Nizersail was put to multilocation on-farm trial. It showed improvement over the parent in respect of by earlier maturity and higher grain yield at all locations and thus it appears as an improved mutant of Nizersail. (author). 6 refs

  16. Homologous series of induced early mutants in indican rice. Pt.1. The production of homologous series of early mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; Yang Hefeng; He Zhentian; Han Yuepeng; Liu Xueyu

    1999-01-01

    The percentage of homologous series of early mutants induced from the same Indican rice variety were almost the same (1.37%∼1.64%) in 1983∼1993, but the ones from the different eco-typical varieties were different. The early variety was 0.73%, the mid variety was 1.51%, and the late variety was 1.97%. The percentage of homologous series of early mutants from the varieties with the same pedigree and relationship were similar, but the one from the cog nation were lower than those from distant varieties. There are basic laws and characters in the homologous series of early mutants: 1. The inhibited phenotype is the basic of the homologous series of early mutants; 2. The production of the homologous series of early mutants is closely related with the growing period of the parent; 3. The parallel mutation of the stem and leaves are simultaneously happened with the variation of early or late maturing; 4. The occurrence of the homologous series of early mutants is in a state of imbalance. According to the law of parallel variability, the production of homologous series of early mutants can be predicted as long as the parents' classification of plant, pedigree and ecological type are identified. Therefore, the early breeding can be guided by the law of homologous series of early mutants

  17. Studies on reduced height mutants in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narahari, P.; Bhagwat, S.G.

    1984-01-01

    Two cross-bred derivatives of the mutant TR5xTR17 and TR21 continued to show promise and were advanced to wider scale testing. TR5 was found to carry a semi-dwarfing gene different from that in IR8. New semi-dwarf mutants were screened from M 2 through M 4 from two separate radiation experiments. The gibberellin response of seedlings of mutant and tester strains was evaluated and crosses of tester stocks and mutant semi-dwarfs were made for genetic analyses. (author)

  18. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    inducing this change the insoluble form of HET-s behaves like a prion. .... Two other het-S mutants (F25S and Y38H) also were found to possess the ... were obtained in a screen for UV-induced “escape” from the self-incompatibility phenotype of a ... form both homo- and heterodimers was established by using a yeast two-.

  19. Ku must load directly onto the chromosome end in order to mediate its telomeric functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Lopez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ku heterodimer associates with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomere, where it impacts several aspects of telomere structure and function. Although Ku avidly binds DNA ends via a preformed channel, its ability to associate with telomeres via this mechanism could be challenged by factors known to bind directly to the chromosome terminus. This has led to uncertainty as to whether Ku itself binds directly to telomeric ends and whether end association is crucial for Ku's telomeric functions. To address these questions, we constructed DNA end binding-defective Ku heterodimers by altering amino acid residues in Ku70 and Ku80 that were predicted to contact DNA. These mutants continued to associate with their known telomere-related partners, such as Sir4, a factor required for telomeric silencing, and TLC1, the RNA component of telomerase. Despite these interactions, we found that the Ku mutants had markedly reduced association with telomeric chromatin and null-like deficiencies for telomere end protection, length regulation, and silencing functions. In contrast to Ku null strains, the DNA end binding defective Ku mutants resulted in increased, rather than markedly decreased, imprecise end-joining proficiency at an induced double-strand break. This result further supports that it was the specific loss of Ku's telomere end binding that resulted in telomeric defects rather than global loss of Ku's functions. The extensive telomere defects observed in these mutants lead us to propose that Ku is an integral component of the terminal telomeric cap, where it promotes a specific architecture that is central to telomere function and maintenance.

  20. Ku must load directly onto the chromosome end in order to mediate its telomeric functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Christopher R; Ribes-Zamora, Albert; Indiviglio, Sandra M; Williams, Christopher L; Haricharan, Svasti; Bertuch, Alison A

    2011-08-01

    The Ku heterodimer associates with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomere, where it impacts several aspects of telomere structure and function. Although Ku avidly binds DNA ends via a preformed channel, its ability to associate with telomeres via this mechanism could be challenged by factors known to bind directly to the chromosome terminus. This has led to uncertainty as to whether Ku itself binds directly to telomeric ends and whether end association is crucial for Ku's telomeric functions. To address these questions, we constructed DNA end binding-defective Ku heterodimers by altering amino acid residues in Ku70 and Ku80 that were predicted to contact DNA. These mutants continued to associate with their known telomere-related partners, such as Sir4, a factor required for telomeric silencing, and TLC1, the RNA component of telomerase. Despite these interactions, we found that the Ku mutants had markedly reduced association with telomeric chromatin and null-like deficiencies for telomere end protection, length regulation, and silencing functions. In contrast to Ku null strains, the DNA end binding defective Ku mutants resulted in increased, rather than markedly decreased, imprecise end-joining proficiency at an induced double-strand break. This result further supports that it was the specific loss of Ku's telomere end binding that resulted in telomeric defects rather than global loss of Ku's functions. The extensive telomere defects observed in these mutants lead us to propose that Ku is an integral component of the terminal telomeric cap, where it promotes a specific architecture that is central to telomere function and maintenance.

  1. Molecular diversity and population structure of Chinese green foxtail [Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.] revealed by microsatellite analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Guanqing; Shi, Shenkui; Wang, Chunfang; Niu, Zhengang; Chai, Yang; Zhi, Hui; Diao, Xianmin

    2013-09-01

    Green foxtail (Setaria viridis) is a new model plant for the genomic investigation of C4 photosynthesis biology. As the ancestor of foxtail millet (Setaria italica), an ancient cereal of great importance in arid regions of the world, green foxtail is crucial for the study of domestication and evolution of this ancient crop. In the present study, 288 green foxtail accessions, which were collected from all geographical regions of China, were analysed using 77 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) that cover the whole genome. A high degree of molecular diversity was detected in these accessions, with an average of 33.5 alleles per locus. Two clusters, which were inconsistent with the distribution of eco-geographical regions in China, were inferred from STRUCTURE, Neighbor-Joining, and principal component analysis, indicating a partially mixed distribution of Chinese green foxtails. The higher subpopulation diversity was from accessions mainly collected from North China. A low level of linkage disequilibrium was observed in the green foxtail genome. Furthermore, a combined analysis of green foxtail and foxtail millet landraces was conducted, and the origin and domestication of foxtail millet was inferred in North China.

  2. Habitat degradation correlates with tolerance to climate-change related stressors in the green mussel Perna viridis from West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Carolin Charlotte; Huhn, Mareike; Ayu, Nurina; Bachtiar, Ramadian; von Juterzenka, Karen; Lenz, Mark

    2013-06-15

    It is unclear whether habitat degradation correlates with tolerance of marine invertebrates to abiotic stress. We therefore tested whether resistance to climate change-related stressors differs between populations of the green mussel Perna viridis from a heavily impacted and a mostly pristine site in West Java, Indonesia. In laboratory experiments, we compared their oxygen consumption and mortality under lowered salinity (-13 and -18 units, both responses), hypoxia (0.5 mg/l, mortality only) and thermal stress (+7 °C, mortality only). Mussels from the eutrophied and polluted Jakarta Bay showed a significantly smaller deviation from their normal oxygen consumption and higher survival rates when stressed than their conspecifics from the unaffected Lada Bay. This shows that human induced habitat degradation correlates with mussel tolerance to environmental stress. We discuss possible mechanisms - e.g. the selection of tolerant genotypes or habitat-specific differences in the nutritional status of the mussels - that could explain our observation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular analysis of waxy mutants in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatou, O.; Amano, E.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The 'waxy' gene is a structural gene coding a glycosyl transferase which synthesises amylose in the endosperm tissue. 'Non-waxy' rice cultivars have an active gene and their amylose content is 18-25% depending upon gene performance and modifier genes. In 'waxy' rice, no amylose is found because the enzyme is absent. In mutants induced by gamma rays, neutrons, EI or EMS, amylose content ranged from 0 to 20%, i.e. there are intermediate phenotypes as well. Some of them had the same amount of the enzyme as a 'non-waxy' cultivar, even fully 'waxy' mutants showed a certain amount of the enzyme. This suggests that in mutants there may be no structural change in the enzyme gene but the enzyme produced might be less active. By molecular analysis of the mutants' genes it was found that only two mutants induced by thermal neutrons show structural alterations, the changes in other mutants are either too small to be detected by Southern analysis or are outside the structural gene in question. (author)

  4. X-rays sensitive mammalian cell mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsumi, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    A phenomenon that in x-ray-sensitive mammalian-cell mutants, cellular death due to x-ray radiation was not increased by caffeine, but on the contrary, the dead cells were resuscitated by it was discussed. The survival rate of mutant cells increased by caffein in a low concentration. This suggested that caffeine may have induced some mechanism to produce x-ray resistant mutant cells. Postirradiation treatment with caffeine increased considerably the survival rate of the mutant cells, and this suggested the existence of latent caffeine-sensitive potentially lethal damage repair system. This system, after a few hours, is thought to be substituted by caffeine-resistant repair system which is induced by caffeine, and this may be further substituted by x-ray-resistant repair system. The repair system was also induced by adenine. (Ueda, J.)

  5. Radiation induced mutants in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayar, G.G.; Rajendran, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    Full text: Stem cuttings and true seeds of three promising cultivars of cassava were exposed respectively to 1 to 5 kR and 10 to 50 kR acute gamma rays from a 60 Co source. Treatments of stem cuttings beyond 5 kR and seeds beyond 50 kR were lethal. One mutant each in the cultivars M4, H-165 and H-2304 was obtained from the stem irradiated populations. Another mutant was found in the seed irradiated progeny of H-2304. The mutant of M4 is characterised by light green (chlorina) leaves. The mutant of H-165 shows significantly shorter petiole (22,5 against 35.2 cm) and narrow leaf lobes, while the H-2304 mutant shows speckled leaves, branching and early flowering. The mutant found in the seed irradiated progeny of H-2304 is having yellow tuber flesh indicating the presence of carotene. The mutants may be useful in studies related to basic information as well as in practical breeding. The chlorina mutant in M4 showed slow growth and high HCN content in leaves. Late branching may be a useful trait in the traditionally non-branching clones of cassava to maintain the desirable leaf area index during high leaf fall period. Early flowering could be useful in a recombinant breeding programme. The tuber yield of the short petiole mutant in H-165 increased by 20% - 25% through closer planting. The narrow leaf lobes of this mutant permit better light penetration to lower leaves. (author)

  6. Phytolith analysis for differentiating between foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and green foxtail (Setaria viridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Houyuan; Wu, Naiqin; Yang, Xiaoyan; Diao, Xianmin

    2011-05-06

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is one of the oldest domesticated cereal crops in Eurasia, but identifying foxtail millets, especially in charred grains, and differentiating it from its wild ancestor, green foxtail (Setaria viridis), in the archaeobotanical remains, is still problematic. Phytolithic analysis provides a meaningful method for identifying this important crop. In this paper, the silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from inflorescence bracts in 16 modern plants of foxtail millet and green foxtail from China and Europe are examined using light microscopy with phase-contrast and a microscopic interferometer. Our research shows that the silicon structure of ΩIII from upper lemmas and paleas in foxtail millet and green foxtail can be correspondingly divided into two groups. The size of ΩIII type phytolith of foxtail millet is bigger than that from green foxtail. Discriminant function analysis reveals that 78.4% of data on foxtail millet and 76.9% of data on green foxtail are correctly classified. This means certain morphotypes of phytoliths are relatively reliable tools for distinguishing foxtail millet from green foxtail. Our results also revealed that the husk phytolith morphologies of foxtail millets from China and Eastern Europe are markedly different from those from Western Europe. Our research gives a meaningful method of separating foxtail millet and green foxtail. The implications of these findings for understanding the history of foxtail millet domestication and cultivation in ancient civilizations are significant.

  7. Phytolith analysis for differentiating between foxtail millet (Setaria italica and green foxtail (Setaria viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Zhang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Foxtail millet (Setaria italica is one of the oldest domesticated cereal crops in Eurasia, but identifying foxtail millets, especially in charred grains, and differentiating it from its wild ancestor, green foxtail (Setaria viridis, in the archaeobotanical remains, is still problematic. Phytolithic analysis provides a meaningful method for identifying this important crop. In this paper, the silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from inflorescence bracts in 16 modern plants of foxtail millet and green foxtail from China and Europe are examined using light microscopy with phase-contrast and a microscopic interferometer. Our research shows that the silicon structure of ΩIII from upper lemmas and paleas in foxtail millet and green foxtail can be correspondingly divided into two groups. The size of ΩIII type phytolith of foxtail millet is bigger than that from green foxtail. Discriminant function analysis reveals that 78.4% of data on foxtail millet and 76.9% of data on green foxtail are correctly classified. This means certain morphotypes of phytoliths are relatively reliable tools for distinguishing foxtail millet from green foxtail. Our results also revealed that the husk phytolith morphologies of foxtail millets from China and Eastern Europe are markedly different from those from Western Europe. Our research gives a meaningful method of separating foxtail millet and green foxtail. The implications of these findings for understanding the history of foxtail millet domestication and cultivation in ancient civilizations are significant.

  8. Kelayakan Kualitas Perairan Sekitar Mangrove Center Tuban Untuk Aplikasi Alat Pengumpul Kerang Hijau (Perna viridis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarifah Hikmah Julinda Sari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The coastal waters around the Mangrove Center Tuban, East Java is a potential habitat for the green mussel (Perna viridis L.. Therefore, the water quality of this area need to be assessment. The study was aimed to determine the feasibility of water quality in coastal water f Mangrove Center Tuban for application collecting gear of green mussels. The sampling was conducted by set up three stations randomly in studied area. Parameters was measured including temperature, pH, salinity, DO, depth, turbidity, BOD and TSS. The results showed that the coastal waters around the Mangrove Center Tuban, owned temperature that ranged from 29.10 to 30.67 0C, the pH ranged from 8.23 to 8.37, salinity ranged from 26.87 to 30.30 ‰, DO fall in the range of 6,63- 6.87 mg / L, the water depth at the time of measurement ranges from 40-85 cm. TSS ranged from 206.2 mg / L to 353.7 mg / L, BOD value between 4.05 to 12.2 mg / L, while the turbidity ranged from 134 to 400 NTU. Parameters that below the standard namely temperature, pH, DO, salinity and BOD, while TSS and turbidity were exceed the threshold quality standards set by the government.

  9. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels (Perna viridis) from shell-fish markets of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuphanunt, M; Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Saksirisampant, W; Karanis, P

    2009-09-01

    Mussels filter large volumes of water and can concentrate pathogenic organisms, which may act as potential vehicles of transmission to the consumer. A survey study was carried out to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites in green mussels (Perna viridis), the smussles pecies most destined for consumption in Thailand. In total, 56 samples were examined from Bangkok (n = 24) and Samut Prakan (n = 32) a wholesale shell-fish markets located at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. The market for green mussels was closed to the mussel culture placed along the coastal line and this localization may have significant economical impact if the mussels' cultures are found contaminated. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by the immunofluorescence antibody method (IFA) in 12.5% of the samples examined. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels' population of Samut Prakan was higher (15.6%) than in Bangkok market (8.3%). These differences in positive samples from the two locations may be caused by physical, ecological and anthropogenic conditions. This could relay to different contamination levels of marine water by Cryptosporidium oocysts and consequently to contamination of harvested shellfish populations. The results demonstrate that the Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were found indigenous in mussels from the coastal line of Thailand, indicating that mussels may act as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium foodborne infections for humans.

  10. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels (Perna viridis from shell-fish markets of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisuphanunt M.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Mussels filter large volumes of water and can concentrate pathogenic organisms, which may act as potential vehicles of transmission to the consumer. A survey study was carried out to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites in green mussels (Perna viridis, the smussles pecies most destined for consumption in Thailand. In total, 56 samples were examined from Bangkok (n = 24 and Samut Prakan (n = 32 a wholesale shell-fish markets located at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. The market for green mussels was closed to the mussel culture placed along the coastal line and this localization may have significant economical impact if the mussels’ cultures are found contaminated. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by the immunofluorescence antibody method (IFA in 12.5% of the samples examined. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels’ population of Samut Prakan was higher (15.6% than in Bangkok market (8.3%. These differences in positive samples from the two locations may be caused by physical, ecological and anthropogenic conditions. This could relay to different contamination levels of marine water by Cryptosporidium oocysts and consequently to contamination of harvested shellfish populations. The results demonstrate that the Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were found indigenous in mussels from the coastal line of Thailand, indicating that mussels may act as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium foodborne infections for humans.

  11. Officially released mutant varieties in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.; Van Zanten, L.; Shu, Q.Y.; Maluszynski, M.

    2004-01-01

    The use of mutation techniques for crop improvement in China has a long and well-established tradition of more than 50 years. As the result of intensive research in many institutes dealing with application of nuclear technologies more than 620 cultivars of 44 crop species have been released. Numerous mutant varieties have been grown on a large scale bringing significant economic impact, sustaining crop production and greatly contributing to increase of food production also in stress prone areas of the country. However, there is still missing information not only on the number of mutant varieties released in particular crop species but also on mutagens applied, selection approaches and on the use of mutants in cross breeding. Numerous Chinese scientists collected and systematized this information. Results of their work were often published in local scientific journals in the Chinese language and as such were unavailable to breeders from other countries. Having this in mind, we requested Dr. Liu Luxiang, the Director of the Department of Plant Mutation Breeding and Genetics, Institute for Application of Atomic Energy, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Beijing to help us in finding as much information as possible on mutant varieties officially released in China. The data has been collected in close collaboration with his colleagues from various institutions all over the country and then evaluated, edited and prepared for publication by our team responsible for the FAO/IAEA Database of Officially Released Mutant Varieties. We would like to thank all Chinese colleagues who contributed to this list of Chinese mutant varieties. We hope that this publication will stimulate plant breeders in China to collect more information on released mutant varieties and especially on the use of mutated genes in cross breeding. (author)

  12. Temperature sensitive riboflavin mutants of Penicillium vermiculatum Dangeard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, J.; Chaudhari, K.L.

    1974-01-01

    Two temperature sensitive UV induced riboflavin mutants rib 1 and rib 6 have been physiologically and genetically characterized. The two mutants behave differently with regard to their temperature sensitivity. The rib 1 mutant exhibits a leaky growth in minimal medium between 15 0 C and 30 0 C but grows well when the medium is supplemented with riboflavin. At 35 0 C the growth response of the mutant is at its max. and at 40 0 C and below 15 0 C it ceases to grow. The rib 6 mutant which is red brown in colour shows wild type character at temp. below 25 0 C in minimal medium but requires riboflavin at 30 0 C and above. Heterokaryotic analysis revealed the nonallelic nature of the two temperature mutants. Genetic tests of allelic relationship between riboflavin markers by crossing were also done. (author)

  13. High yielding mutants of blackgram variety 'PH-25'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, R.C.; Mohapatra, B.D.; Panda, B.S.

    2001-01-01

    Seeds of blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) variety 'PH-5' were treated with chemical mutagens ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), nitrosoguanidine (NG), maleic hydrazide (MH) and sodium azide (NaN 3 ), each at 3 different concentrations. Thirty six mutant lines developed from mutagenic treatments along with parent varieties were tested in M 4 generation. The mutants showed wide variation in most of the traits and multivariante D 2 analysis showed genetic divergence among themselves. Twenty of the thirty mutants showed genetic divergence from parent. Ten selected high yielding mutants were tested in M 5 . Yield and other productive traits of five high yielding mutants in M 4 and M 5 are presented

  14. Gamma-radiation Mutagenesis in Genetically Unstable Barley Mutants. Pt. 1. Chlorophyll Mutations in Allelic tw Mutants and Their Revertants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaitkuniene, V.

    1995-01-01

    Genotypical environment is an essential factor determining the mutability of mutants of the same type. Decreased chlorophyll mutant frequency was a common characteristic of all tested tw type (tw, tw 1 , tw 2 ) mutants induced in barley c. 'Auksiniai II'. The mutability of all the tested revertants was close to that of the initial c. 'Auksiniai II'. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Molecular analysis of mutants of the Neurospora adenylosuccinate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-08-07

    Aug 7, 2012 ... and mutants induced with X-ray, UV or chemical mutagens. ... We have sequenced the ad-8 locus from 13 of these mutants and identified the molecular nature ..... mutants in yeast by selection for constitutive behavior in pig-.

  16. Development of fibre and parenchyma cells in the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, E.

    2000-02-01

    The development of the shoot apex and the ontogeny of fibre and parenchyma cells in elongating shoots of the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens (Carr.) Riv. and Riv., seen under the light microscope is described. Fibre cells differentiated from cells of the procambium, whilst the parenchyma cells differentiated from cells of the primary thickening meristem which surround the procambium strands. Three stages of early fibre and parenchyma cell development were identified and these are referred to in subsequent studies of cell wall development. The cytology of developing internodal fibre and parenchyma cells seen under the transmission electron microscope (TEM) is described. There were few ultrastructural features to distinguish the two cell types. Thiery's PATAg test was performed to identify organelles which may be associated with the synthesis of polysaccharides destined for the cell wall. The ultrastructural results are discussed in terms of the process of cell wall deposition. Observations were made of cytoskeletal elements using indirect immunofluorescence techniques. Orientations of cortical microtubules differed from those of the microfilaments throughout early development. Filaments on the inner walls of cells seen under the conventional scanning electron microscope (SEM) were cytoskeletal-like in their orientation and form. Immunogold labelling techniques were performed in an attempt to confirm their identity. Staining with safranin and alcian blue allowed an anatomical description of wall development in fibre and parenchyma cells. These studies were coupled with observations using polarizing optics where cellulose microfibril orientations of the primary and secondary wall layers were established. The field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was used to describe microfibril orientations seen on the inner wall of developing and maturing fibre and parenchyma cells. Chemical extraction of wall matrix materials was necessary for maturing tissue

  17. Gamma-ray induced mutants in castor (Ricinus communis L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janila, P.; Ashok Kumar, A.; Rajashekar Reddy, N.; Hemalatha, V.

    2007-01-01

    We report isolation of three recessive mutants in castor using dry seed irradiation with gamma rays. The crinkled leaf mutant (crf) was identified in K-55-112 M2 family and leafy mutant (lea) in H-55-577 M2 family; both are recessive lethal and thus maintained as heterozygotes. The cri mutant has highly wrinkled leaves resembling finger millet head and failed to enter reproductive phase, consequently did not produce seeds. The number of leaf lobes is reduced in lea mutant and though it produced spikes, the male and female flowers are converted to leafy appendages. The third mutant, fused (Ius) stem identified in H-55-617 M2 family is a recessive mutant. The branches of which are fused at the base and though each branch terminates in to monoceous spike like normal plant, the spike is highly condensed. The three mutants under report are valuable genetic stocks for development of linkage maps in castor, which is at infancy. (author)

  18. Expression of homing endonuclease gene and insertion-like element in sea anemone mitochondrial genomes: Lesson learned from Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Sylvia Ighem; Urbarova, Ilona; Johansen, Steinar D

    2018-04-30

    The mitochondrial genomes of sea anemones are dynamic in structure. Invasion by genetic elements, such as self-catalytic group I introns or insertion-like sequences, contribute to sea anemone mitochondrial genome expansion and complexity. By using next generation sequencing we investigated the complete mtDNAs and corresponding transcriptomes of the temperate sea anemone Anemonia viridis and its closer tropical relative Anemonia majano. Two versions of fused homing endonuclease gene (HEG) organization were observed among the Actiniidae sea anemones; in-frame gene fusion and pseudo-gene fusion. We provided support for the pseudo-gene fusion organization in Anemonia species, resulting in a repressed HEG from the COI-884 group I intron. orfA, a putative protein-coding gene with insertion-like features, was present in both Anemonia species. Interestingly, orfA and COI expression were significantly up-regulated upon long-term environmental stress corresponding to low seawater pH conditions. This study provides new insights to the dynamics of sea anemone mitochondrial genome structure and function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Productive mutants of niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    Seeds of six niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) varieties ('GA-10', 'ONS-8', 'IGP-72', 'N-71', 'NB-9' and 'UN-4') were treated with 0.5, 0.75 and 1% ethyl methanesulphonate. After four generations of selection, 29 mutant lines were developed and those were evaluated from 1990-92 during Kharif (July to October) and Rabi (December to March) seasons. Average plant characteristics and yield data of four high yielding mutants along with 'IGP-76' (National Check), GA-10 (Zonal Check) and 'Semiliguda Local' (Local Check) are presented

  20. Isolation and characterization of MMS-sensitive mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, L.; Prakash, S.

    1977-01-01

    We have isolated mutants sensitive to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Alleles of rad1, rad4, rad6, rad52, rad55 and rad57 were found among these mms mutants. Twenty-nine of the mms mutants which complement the existing radiation-sensitive (rad and rev) mutants belong to 22 new complementation groups. Mutants from five complementation groups are sensitive only to MMS. Mutants of 11 complementation groups are sensitive to uv or x rays in addition to MMS, mutants of six complementation groups are sensitive to all three agents. The cross-sensitivities of these mms mutants to uv and x rays are discussed in terms of their possible involvement in DNA repair. Sporulation is reduced or absent in homozygous diploids of mms mutants from nine complementation groups

  1. Isoenzymes performance of some rice varieties and their mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winarno, Ermin; Suliwarno, Ambyah; Ismachin, M.

    1992-01-01

    Isoenzymes performance of some rice varieties and their mutants. Genetics studies on alcohol dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, peroxidase, acid phosphase, and aminopeptidase isoenzymes were carried out on several groups of rice varieties and their mutant lines. The first groups consisted of Atomita I, Pelita I/1, A227/5, Mudgo, TN-1, and IR-26. The second group was Cisadane variety and its five mutants, namely OBS 18, OBS 208, OBS 297, OBS 306, and OBS 330. The third group was mutants line 627-10-3 and its mutants, namely 1063, 1066, 1067, 1076, and 1090. Isoenzymes extracts of the rice leaves were fractionated using polyacrylamide gel disc electrophoresis. The pattern of acid phosphate isoenzyme shows the specific character of rice mutants susceptible to brown plant hopper biotype 1. The gene(s) controlling malic enzyme in Cisadane's mutants is (are) estimated more resistant toward gamma irradiation than gene(s) responsible for controlling the other enzymes. Generally, the isoenzymes zymograms show that gene(s) controlling the mutants enzyme have undergone mutation. This case is shown by the changes of Rm value, as well as the amount and intensity of mutants bands. (authors). 7 refs., 7 figs

  2. Mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 with enhanced resistance to ionizing radiation. 4. Peculiarities of recombination in Gamsup(r) mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresler, S.E.; Kalinin, V.L.; Laneeva, N.I.

    1984-01-01

    Radioresistant mutant Gam sup(r) 444 differs from a wild type and from Gam sup(r) 445 mutant in decreased frequency of long episome heritage ORF 1 (pur E + -tsx + -proC + -lac + ) and F 14 (ilv + -argE + ), containing hot points of RecRecF - depending recombination and in increased frequency of chromosome mobilization and integrative suppression of temperature sensitive dna A46 mutation by sexual factor F. In this respect Gam sup(r) 444 mutant resembles rec BC sbs B mutant with RecF - recombination type

  3. Bending patterns of chlamydomonas flagella: III. A radial spoke head deficient mutant and a central pair deficient mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, C J; Luck, D J

    1985-01-01

    Flash photomicrography at frequencies up to 300 Hz and computer-assisted image analysis have been used to obtain parameters describing the flagellar bending patterns of mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. All strains contained the uni1 mutation, to facilitate photography. The radial spoke head deficient mutant pf17, and the central pair deficient mutant, pf15, in combination with suppressor mutations that restore motility without restoring the ultrastructural or biochemical deficiencies, both generate forward mode bending patterns with increased shear amplitude and decreased asymmetry relative to the "wild-type" uni1 flagella described previously. In the reverse beating mode, the suppressed pf17 mutants generate reverse bending patterns with large shear amplitudes. Reverse beating of the suppressed pf15 mutants is rare. There is a reciprocal relationship between increased shear amplitude and decreased beat frequency, so that the velocity of sliding between flagellar microtubules is not increased by an increase in shear amplitude. The suppressor mutations alone cause decreased frequency and sliding velocity in both forward and reverse mode beating, with little change in shear amplitude or symmetry.

  4. Characterization of a Weak Allele of Zebrafish cloche Mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Huang, Zhibin; Chen, Xiaohui; He, Fei; Wang, Kun; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Linfeng; Xu, Xiangmin; Liao, Wangjun; Ruan, Hua; Luo, Shenqiu; Zhang, Wenqing

    2011-01-01

    Hematopoiesis is a complicated and dynamic process about which the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Danio rerio (zebrafish) is an excellent vertebrate system for studying hematopoiesis and developmental mechanisms. In the previous study, we isolated and identified a cloche 172 (clo 172) mutant, a novel allele compared to the original cloche (clo) mutant, through using complementation test and initial mapping. Here, according to whole mount in-situ hybridization, we report that the endothelial cells in clo 172 mutant embryos, although initially developed, failed to form the functional vascular system eventually. In addition, further characterization indicates that the clo 172 mutant exhibited weaker defects instead of completely lost in primitive erythroid cells and definitive hematopoietic cells compared with the clo s5 mutant. In contrast, primitive myeloid cells were totally lost in clo 172 mutant. Furthermore, these reappeared definitive myeloid cells were demonstrated to initiate from the remaining hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in clo 172 mutant, confirmed by the dramatic decrease of lyc in clo 172 runx1w84x double mutant. Collectively, the clo 172 mutant is a weak allele compared to the clo s5 mutant, therefore providing a model for studying the early development of hematopoietic and vascular system, as well as an opportunity to further understand the function of the cloche gene. PMID:22132109

  5. An enhanceosome containing the Jun B/Fra-2 heterodimer and the HMG-I(Y) architectural protein controls HPV 18 transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouallaga, I; Massicard, S; Yaniv, M; Thierry, F

    2000-11-01

    Recent studies have reported new mechanisms that mediate the transcriptional synergy of strong tissue-specific enhancers, involving the cooperative assembly of higher-order nucleoprotein complexes called enhanceosomes. Here we show that the HPV18 enhancer, which controls the epithelial-specific transcription of the E6 and E7 transforming genes, exhibits characteristic features of these structures. We used deletion experiments to show that a core enhancer element cooperates, in a specific helical phasing, with distant essential factors binding to the ends of the enhancer. This core sequence, binding a Jun B/Fra-2 heterodimer, cooperatively recruits the architectural protein HMG-I(Y) in a nucleoprotein complex, where they interact with each other. Therefore, in HeLa cells, HPV18 transcription seems to depend upon the assembly of an enhanceosome containing multiple cellular factors recruited by a core sequence interacting with AP1 and HMG-I(Y).

  6. Commercialization Of Orchid Mutants For Floriculture Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakinah Ariffin; Zaiton Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Orchids are the main contributors to cut flower industry in Malaysia with an existing good market and a huge business potential. Orchid industry has been established in Malaysia since 1960s but only started to develop and expand since 1980s. Continuous development of new orchid varieties is essential to meet customers' demands. Orchid mutagenesis research using gamma irradiation at Malaysian Nuclear Agency has successfully generated a number of new orchid varieties with commercial potentials. Therefore, Nuclear Malaysia has collaborated with an industrial partner, Hexagon Green Sdn Bhd (HGSB), to carry out commercialization research on these mutants under a Technofund project entitled 'Pre-Commercialization of Mutant Orchids for Cut Flowers Industry' from July 2011 to July 2014. Through this collaboration, Dendrobium orchid mutant plants developed by Nuclear Malaysia were transferred to HGSB's commercial orchid nursery at Bukit Changgang Agrotechnology Park, Banting, Selangor, for mass-propagation. The activities include evaluations on plant growth performance, flower quality, post harvest and market potential of these mutants. Mutants with good field performance have been identified and filed for Plant Variety Protection (PVP) with Department of Agriculture Malaysia. This paper describes outputs from this collaboration and activities undertaken in commercializing these mutants. (author)

  7. Structure of the Human Atg13-Atg101 HORMA Heterodimer: an Interaction Hub within the ULK1 Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shiqian; Kim, Do Jin; Stjepanovic, Goran; Hurley, James H

    2015-10-06

    The ULK1 complex, consisting of the ULK1 protein kinase itself, FIP200, Atg13, and Atg101, controls the initiation of autophagy in animals. We determined the structure of the complex of the human Atg13 HORMA (Hop1, Rev7, Mad2) domain in complex with the full-length HORMA domain-only protein Atg101. The two HORMA domains assemble with an architecture conserved in the Mad2 conformational heterodimer and the S. pombe Atg13-Atg101 HORMA complex. The WF finger motif that is essential for function in human Atg101 is sequestered in a hydrophobic pocket, suggesting that the exposure of this motif is regulated. Benzamidine molecules from the crystallization solution mark two hydrophobic pockets that are conserved in, and unique to, animals, and are suggestive of sites that could interact with other proteins. These features suggest that the activity of the animal Atg13-Atg101 subcomplex is regulated and that it is an interaction hub for multiple partners. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Serrated leaf mutant in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, I.A.; Ghulam, Sarwar; Yousaf, Ali; Saleem, M.

    1988-01-01

    Dry dormant seeds of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek) were treated with gamma rays (15, 30 and 60 kR). The serrated leaf mutation was noticed in M 2 of cultivar Pak 32 treated with 60 kR. Cf 14 plants, 3 showed the altered leaf structure and the others were normal. The feature of this mutant was the deep serration of leaflet margins. The mutant had large thick leaflets with prominent venation. The mutant bred true in the M 3 and successive generation. Details of the morphological characteristics of the mutant are presented. The mutant exhibited slower growth particularly during the early stages of development, flowered later and attained shorter height. There was an increase in the number of pods, in seed weight and in seed protein content, but number of seed per pod was considerably reduced. The seed coat colour showed a change from green to yellowish green. In the mutant's flowers the stamina were placed much below the stigma level and the stigma sometimes protruded the corolla. Outcrossing of 4% recorded in some of the mutant lines revealed a reduced cleistogamy. The low number of seeds per pod in the mutant could be due to reduced pollen fertility. The mutant behaved as monogenic recessive. The symbols SL/sl are proposed for this allelic pair. The mutant may have use as a green manure crop because of its large foliage and for the breeders as a genetic marker

  9. Comunidad de moluscos asociados al mejillón verde Perna viridis (Mollusca: Bivalvia y sus relaciones tróficas en la costa norte de la Península de Araya, Estado Sucre, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sioliz Villafranca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Perna viridis es un bivalvo procedente del Indo-Pacífico que habita en la zona intermareal y ha invadido varios ecosistemas de la costa norte del estado Sucre, Venezuela. Con la finalidad de realizar un estudio sobre las comunidades de moluscos asociadas a esta especie y sus relaciones tróficas, se llevaron a cabo muestreos bimensuales entre octubre/97 y agosto/98, en un banco natural de mejillones a dos metros de profundidad en la costa norte de la península de Araya (10°40’N -48°63’W. Los organismos fueron recolectados delimitando el área con una cuadrícula de 0.25 m². Se identificaron los organismos hasta la categoría de especies utilizando claves específicas para moluscos y bibliográficamente se les determinó categoría trófica.Se capturó un total de 1 235 individuos de P. viridis y asociados a la especie 3 163 especímenes pertenecientes al phylum Mollusca, contenidos en tres clases: Bivalvia,Gastropoda y Polyplacophora. Éstas estuvieron representadas por 50 especies correspondientes a 10 órdenes, 24 familias; para los gasterópodos se contabilizaron 25 especies, para los bivalvos 22 y tres para los poliplacóforos. Del total de las especies, 40% fueron filtradoras, 26% carnívoras, 24% herbívoras y el 10% restante presentó dos categorías.De las filtradoras las más representativas fueron: Perna perna, Musculus lateralis, Crassostrea rhizophorae y Ostrea equestris; en el grupo de los carnívoros dominaron tres especies de la familia Columbellidae:Mitrella lunata, Anachis obesa y Nitidella ocellata y para el grupo de los herbívoros destacaron dos especies de la familia Fisurellidae: Diodora cayenensis y D. minuta. Se registraron dos especies filtradoras-detritívoras, y tres especies herbívoras-filtradoras representantes del género C repidula. El alto porcentaje de filtradores sería un indicativo de que dentro de este sistema probablemente hay una mayor disponibilidad de fracciones alimenticias para este grupo

  10. Bacterio-opsin mutants of Halobacterium halobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betlach, Mary; Pfeifer, Felicitas; Friedman, James; Boyer, Herbert W.

    1983-01-01

    The bacterio-opsin (bop) gene of Halobacterium halobium R1 has been cloned with about 40 kilobases of flanking genomic sequence. The 40-kilobase segment is derived from the (G+C)-rich fraction of the chromosome and is not homologous to the major (pHH1) or minor endogenous covalently closed circular DNA species of H. halobium. A 5.1-kilobase Pst I fragment containing the bop gene was subcloned in pBR322 and a partial restriction map was determined. Defined restriction fragments of this clone were used as probes to analyze the defects associated with the bop gene in 12 bacterio-opsin mutants. Eleven out of 12 of the mutants examined had inserts ranging from 350 to 3,000 base pairs either in the bop gene or up to 1,400 base pairs upstream. The positions of the inserts were localized to four regions in the 5.1-kilobase genomic fragment: within the gene (one mutant), in a region that overlaps the 5′ end of the gene (seven mutants), and in two different upstream regions (three mutants). Two revertants of the mutant with the most distal insert had an additional insert in the same region. The polar effects of these inserts are discussed in terms of inactivation of a regulatory gene or disruption of part of a coordinately expressed operon. Given the defined nature of the bop mRNA—i.e., it has a 5′ leader sequence of three ribonucleotides—these observations indicate that the bop mRNA might be processed from a large mRNA transcript. Images PMID:16593291

  11. Effects of coating molecules on the magnetic heating properties of Au-Fe3O4 heterodimer nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Ogasawara, J.; Himukai, H.; Itoh, T.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we report the heating properties of gold-magnetite (Au-Fe3O4) heterodimer nanoparticles (NPs) subjected to an alternating magnetic field. The Au-Fe3O4 NPs coated with oleic acid and oleylamine (OA) were synthesized through a method that combines seed mediation and high-temperature decomposition. The coating was replaced with dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) by the ligand-exchange method. The specific absorption rates (SARs) for the OA- and DMSA-coated Au-Fe3O4 NPs coated with OA and DMSA at room temperature were determined through the calorimetric and magnetometric methods. SAR depended on the square of the magnetic field H up to an H value of 4 kA/m. The absolute value of the SAR for DMSA-coated NPs is about fivefold higher than that of the OA-coated NPs. The AC magnetic hysteresis measurements showed the recovery of the magnetic volume and the decrease in the magnetic anisotropy of the DMSA-coated NPs relative to those of the OA-coated NPs. These results suggest that the protective agent influences the magnetic properties of magnetite NPs via gold NPs.

  12. Improved insecticidal toxicity by fusing Cry1Ac of Bacillus thuringiensis with Av3 of Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fu; Cheng, Xing; Ding, Xuezhi; Yao, Ting; Chen, Hanna; Li, Wenping; Hu, Shengbiao; Yu, Ziquan; Sun, Yunjun; Zhang, Youming; Xia, Liqiu

    2014-05-01

    Av3, a neurotoxin of Anemonia viridis, is toxic to crustaceans and cockroaches but inactive in mammals. In the present study, Av3 was expressed in Escherichia coli Origami B (DE3) and purified by reversed-phase liquid chromatography. The purified Av3 was injected into the hemocoel of Helicoverpa armigera, rendering the worm paralyzed. Then, Av3 was expressed alone or fusion expressed with the Cry1Ac in acrystalliferous strain Cry(-)B of Bacillus thuringiensis. The shape of Cry1Ac was changed by fusion with Av3. The expressed fusion protein, Cry1AcAv3, formed irregular rhombus- or crescent-shaped crystalline inclusions, which is quite different from the shape of original Cry1Ac crystals. The toxicity of Cry1Ac was improved by fused expression. Compared with original Cry1Ac expressed in Cry(-)B, the oral toxicity of Cry1AcAv3 to H. armigera was elevated about 2.6-fold. No toxicity was detected when Av3 was expressed in Cry(-)B alone. The present study confirmed that marine toxins could be used in bio-control and implied that fused expression with other insecticidal proteins could be an efficient way for their application.

  13. The application of shortened upper leaf mutant in barley breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Hua

    2004-01-01

    The shortened upper leaf mutant was induced from Fuji Nigo by γ-ray irradiation. Fuji Nigo, the mutant, cross-cut F 1 , F 2 and back-cross F 1 , F 2 were used to analyze mutant heredity by comparative study. The yield, chlorophyll content, light intensity, dry matter of mutant were investigated. The results showed that (1) the mutant character was controlled by a couple of nuclear genes which were partial dominance; (2) the transmittance of the mutant colony was better than that of Fuji Nigo and bottom dry matter was much more than that of Fuji Nigo; (3) under the condition of high fertilizer and high plant population , the yield of mutant was higher than that of Fuji Nigo; (4) the content of chlorophyll a in the mutant was higher than that in Fuji Nigo

  14. Genetical, cytological and physiological studies on the induced mutants with special regard to effective methods for obtaining useful mutants in perennial woody plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukimura, H.; Ikeda, F.; Fujita, H.; Maeta, T.; Nakajima, K.; Katagiri, K.; Nakahira, K.; Somegou, M.

    1975-01-01

    The study was aimed at elucidating the biological aspects of artificially induced mutations in perennial tree crops and at promoting the utilization of such mutations in a practical breeding programme. A number of mutants obtained particularly in Cryptomeria and mulberry (Morus spp.) by means of gamma radiation were examined for their practical usefulness. Doses from 7.5 to 15.0 kR were used. In mulbery, some mutant strains showed increased shoot growth, and one mutant strain showed a remarkable increase also in rooting ability. Entire leaf mutants were investigated for their breeding behaviour. None of the mutant strains showed acquired disease resistance. Changes in the number of isozyme bands and different staining intensity was observed in all the mutant strains compared to the original strains

  15. Semi-dwarf mutants in triticale and wheat breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    The triticale lines Beagle and DR-IRA have been subjected to ionizing irradiation and chemical mutagenesis in order to produce semi-dwarf mutants. Beagle is 100 cm tall and DR-IRA 80 cm under average field conditions. A bulk then pedigree method is currently represented by 158 single plots of M 6 (or in some cases M 7 ) mutants that are from 5 to 35 cm shorter than the control variety. The shortest mutants are 65 cm in height. Forty of these mutants are also earlier flowering than the control varieties. Replicated yield testing will be conducted on confirmed mutants in 1983. Response to gibberellic acid of these mutants will also be determined. The Cornerstone male-sterility mutant (ms1c) on chromosome arm 4Aα has been combined with the GA-insensitive/reduced height gene Gai/Rht1 which is also on chromosome arm 4Aα. The ms1c mutant has also been combined with Gai/Rht2 on chromosome 4D and with both Gai/Rht1 and Gai/Rht2. The combination ms1c and Gai/Rht1 has been chosen as the basis of a composite cross. Thirteen varieties were tested with GA 3 and seven (Warigal, Aroona, Oxley, Banks, Avocet, Matipo and Toquifen) which contain Gai/Rht1 were crossed with ms1c Gai/Rht1 and entered into an interpollinating F 2 . The entire composite is homozygous for this semi-dwarf allele and selection will be practiced for increased height on a GA-insensitive background. (author)

  16. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Sordaria macrospora Mutants Identifies Developmental Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrousian, Minou; Teichert, Ines; Masloff, Sandra; Kück, Ulrich

    2012-02-01

    The study of mutants to elucidate gene functions has a long and successful history; however, to discover causative mutations in mutants that were generated by random mutagenesis often takes years of laboratory work and requires previously generated genetic and/or physical markers, or resources like DNA libraries for complementation. Here, we present an alternative method to identify defective genes in developmental mutants of the filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora through Illumina/Solexa whole-genome sequencing. We sequenced pooled DNA from progeny of crosses of three mutants and the wild type and were able to pinpoint the causative mutations in the mutant strains through bioinformatics analysis. One mutant is a spore color mutant, and the mutated gene encodes a melanin biosynthesis enzyme. The causative mutation is a G to A change in the first base of an intron, leading to a splice defect. The second mutant carries an allelic mutation in the pro41 gene encoding a protein essential for sexual development. In the mutant, we detected a complex pattern of deletion/rearrangements at the pro41 locus. In the third mutant, a point mutation in the stop codon of a transcription factor-encoding gene leads to the production of immature fruiting bodies. For all mutants, transformation with a wild type-copy of the affected gene restored the wild-type phenotype. Our data demonstrate that whole-genome sequencing of mutant strains is a rapid method to identify developmental genes in an organism that can be genetically crossed and where a reference genome sequence is available, even without prior mapping information.

  17. Selective Assembly of Na,K-ATPase α2β2 Heterodimers in the Heart: DISTINCT FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES AND ISOFORM-SELECTIVE INHIBITORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habeck, Michael; Tokhtaeva, Elmira; Nadav, Yotam; Ben Zeev, Efrat; Ferris, Sean P; Kaufman, Randal J; Bab-Dinitz, Elizabeta; Kaplan, Jack H; Dada, Laura A; Farfel, Zvi; Tal, Daniel M; Katz, Adriana; Sachs, George; Vagin, Olga; Karlish, Steven J D

    2016-10-28

    The Na,K-ATPase α 2 subunit plays a key role in cardiac muscle contraction by regulating intracellular Ca 2+ , whereas α 1 has a more conventional role of maintaining ion homeostasis. The β subunit differentially regulates maturation, trafficking, and activity of α-β heterodimers. It is not known whether the distinct role of α 2 in the heart is related to selective assembly with a particular one of the three β isoforms. We show here by immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation that α 2 is preferentially expressed with β 2 in T-tubules of cardiac myocytes, forming α 2 β 2 heterodimers. We have expressed human α 1 β 1 , α 2 β 1 , α 2 β 2 , and α 2 β 3 in Pichia pastoris, purified the complexes, and compared their functional properties. α 2 β 2 and α 2 β 3 differ significantly from both α 2 β 1 and α 1 β 1 in having a higher K 0.5 K + and lower K 0.5 Na + for activating Na,K-ATPase. These features are the result of a large reduction in binding affinity for extracellular K + and shift of the E 1 P-E 2 P conformational equilibrium toward E 1 P. A screen of perhydro-1,4-oxazepine derivatives of digoxin identified several derivatives (e.g. cyclobutyl) with strongly increased selectivity for inhibition of α 2 β 2 and α 2 β 3 over α 1 β 1 (range 22-33-fold). Molecular modeling suggests a possible basis for isoform selectivity. The preferential assembly, specific T-tubular localization, and low K + affinity of α 2 β 2 could allow an acute response to raised ambient K + concentrations in physiological conditions and explain the importance of α 2 β 2 for cardiac muscle contractility. The high sensitivity of α 2 β 2 to digoxin derivatives explains beneficial effects of cardiac glycosides for treatment of heart failure and potential of α 2 β 2 -selective digoxin derivatives for reducing cardiotoxicity. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Study of the plant COPII vesicle coat subunits by functional complementation of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan-Owen De Craene

    Full Text Available The formation and budding of endoplasmic reticulum ER-derived vesicles depends on the COPII coat protein complex that was first identified in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ER-associated Sec12 and the Sar1 GTPase initiate the COPII coat formation by recruiting the Sec23-Sec24 heterodimer following the subsequent recruitment of the Sec13-Sec31 heterotetramer. In yeast, there is usually one gene encoding each COPII protein and these proteins are essential for yeast viability, whereas the plant genome encodes multiple isoforms of all COPII subunits. Here, we used a systematic yeast complementation assay to assess the functionality of Arabidopsis thaliana COPII proteins. In this study, the different plant COPII subunits were expressed in their corresponding temperature-sensitive yeast mutant strain to complement their thermosensitivity and secretion phenotypes. Secretion was assessed using two different yeast cargos: the soluble α-factor pheromone and the membranous v-SNARE (vesicle-soluble NSF (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor Snc1 involved in the fusion of the secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane. This complementation study allowed the identification of functional A. thaliana COPII proteins for the Sec12, Sar1, Sec24 and Sec13 subunits that could represent an active COPII complex in plant cells. Moreover, we found that AtSec12 and AtSec23 were co-immunoprecipitated with AtSar1 in total cell extract of 15 day-old seedlings of A. thaliana. This demonstrates that AtSar1, AtSec12 and AtSec23 can form a protein complex that might represent an active COPII complex in plant cells.

  19. Cytogenetic characteristics of soft wheat mutants under x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakaryan, Zh.O.; Avakyan, V.A.; Amirbekyan, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    Radiosensitivity of induced mutants of soft wheat is studied by criteria of frequency and character of changes in 1 and 2 divisions of meiosis. Two constant induced mutant forms of soft wheat were investigated. Mutant lines of squareheads with red ear (re) and erectoids 37/1 were obtained by X-ray irradiating hydride seeds F 1 of hybride combination of Alty-Agach Awnless 1. Seeds of mutants and initial kinds were exposed to X-rays at a dose of 10 kR. A conclusion may be drawn on the basis of studying the meiosis process in mutants and initial kinds of soft wheat on X-ray radiation that the mutants are more radiosensitive. This testifies to that that the induced mutants of soft wheat represent new genotypes in comparison with the initial kinds and differ from the latter not only in morphological characters but in the reaction norm with respect to external medium factors, i.e. the limit of possible changeability of the genotype has been extended [ru

  20. Genetics of Ustilago violacea. I. Carotenoid mutants and carotenogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garber, E.D.; Baird, M.L.; Chapman, D.J.

    1975-01-01

    Wild-type strains of Ustilago violacea produce pink colonies on laboratory medium and yield white, orange, pumpkin, and yellow colonies after uv mutagenesis. The wild-type strains contain neurosporene and lycopene; one orange mutant, γ-carotene; and one yellow mutant, β-carotene. One white mutant had no detectable carotenoids. Diploid colonies heterozygous for wild type and orange, pumpkin, yellow, or white are phenotypically wild type. Diploid colonies heterozygous for yellow and orange are also phenotypically wild type. Diploid colonies heterozygous for white and orange; white and yellow; and white, yellow, and orange are phenotypically light orange, light yellow, and orange-yellow, respectively. The white mutants give a circular complementation map; the color mutants fit a linear complementation map. We propose a multienzyme of four identical dehydrogenases and one or two identical cyclases for carotenogenesis in this species. The white and color mutants represent structural mutations altering the conformation of the dehydrogenase or cyclase, respectively. Furthermore, cyclases may or may not aggregate in association with the dehydrogenase aggregate to form the multienzyme aggregate responsible for the color mutants

  1. Spectrum of induced floral mutants in Petunia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmaja, V.; Sudhakar, P.

    1987-01-01

    A total of six floral mutants of garden Petunia isolated from the populations raised from the seed treatment with γ-rays, 2, 4-D and sodium azide are described. Five of the mutants viz. stellata, Campyloflora, Rubriflora mixed, Grandiflora and Albiflora mixed originated as segregants in M 2 generation while the chimeral floral phenotype was expressed in M 1 generation itself. Breeding behaviour of these horticulturally interesting altered floral phenotypes were studied in subsequent generations and appropriate conclusions were drawn regarding mode of inheritance of the mutant traits. 15 refs., 4 figures, 1 table. (author)

  2. Chemotaxis-defective mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, D B; Sheridan, R E; Russell, R L

    1975-06-01

    The technique of countercurrent separation has been used to isolate 17 independent chemotaxis-defective mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The mutants, selected to be relatively insensitive to the normally attractive salt NaCl, show varying degrees of residual sensitivity; some are actually weakly repelled by NaCl. The mutants are due to single gene defects, are autosomal and recessive, and identify at least five complementation groups.

  3. Purkinje Cell Compartmentation in the Cerebellum of the Lysosomal Acid Phosphatase 2 Mutant Mouse (Nax - Naked-Ataxia Mutant Mouse)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Karen; Rahimi Balaei, Maryam; Mannan, Ashraf; Del Bigio, Marc R.; Marzban, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The Acp2 gene encodes the beta subunit of lysosomal acid phosphatase, which is an isoenzyme that hydrolyzes orthophosphoric monoesters. In mice, a spontaneous mutation in Acp2 results in severe cerebellar defects. These include a reduced size, abnormal lobulation, and an apparent anterior cerebellar disorder with an absent or hypoplastic vermis. Based on differential gene expression in the cerebellum, the mouse cerebellar cortex can normally be compartmentalized anteroposteriorly into four transverse zones and mediolaterally into parasagittal stripes. In this study, immunohistochemistry was performed using various Purkinje cell compartmentation markers to examine their expression patterns in the Acp2 mutant. Despite the abnormal lobulation and anterior cerebellar defects, zebrin II and PLCβ4 showed similar expression patterns in the nax mutant and wild type cerebellum. However, fewer stripes were found in the anterior zone of the nax mutant, which could be due to a lack of Purkinje cells or altered expression of the stripe markers. HSP25 expression was uniform in the central zone of the nax mutant cerebellum at around postnatal day (P) 18–19, suggesting that HSP25 immunonegative Purkinje cells are absent or delayed in stripe pattern expression compared to the wild type. HSP25 expression became heterogeneous around P22–23, with twice the number of parasagittal stripes in the nax mutant compared to the wild type. Aside from reduced size and cortical disorganization, both the posterior zone and nodular zone in the nax mutant appeared less abnormal than the rest of the cerebellum. From these results, it is evident that the anterior zone of the nax mutant cerebellum is the most severely affected, and this extends beyond the primary fissure into the rostral central zone/vermis. This suggests that ACP2 has critical roles in the development of the anterior cerebellum and it may regulate anterior and central zone compartmentation. PMID:24722417

  4. Environment-dependence of behavioural consistency in adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urszán, Tamás János; Bajer, Katalin; Molnár, Orsolya; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Herczeg, Gábor

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the background mechanisms affecting the emergence and maintenance of consistent between-individual variation within population in single (animal personality) or across multiple (behavioural syndrome) behaviours has key importance. State-dependence theory suggests that behaviour is ‘anchored’ to individual state (e.g. body condition, gender, age) and behavioural consistency emerges through behavioural-state feedbacks. A number of relevant state variables are labile (e.g. body condition, physiological performance) and expected to be affected by short-term environmental change. Yet, whether short-term environmental shifts affect behavioural consistency during adulthood remains questionable. Here, by employing a full-factorial laboratory experiment, we explored if quantity of food (low vs. high) and time available for thermoregulation (3h vs. 10h per day) had an effect on activity and risk-taking of reproductive adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis). We focussed on different components of behavioural variation: (i) strength of behavioural consistency (repeatability for animal personality; between-individual correlation for behavioural syndrome), (ii) behavioural type (individual mean behaviour) and (iii) behavioural predictability (within-individual behavioural variation). Activity was repeatable in all treatments. Risk-taking was repeatable only in the low basking treatments. We found significant between-individual correlation only in the low food × long basking time group. The treatments did not affect behavioural type, but affected behavioural predictability. Activity predictability was higher in the short basking treatment, where it also decreased with size (≈ age). Risk-taking predictability in the short basking treatment increased with size under food limitation, but decreased when food supply was high. We conclude that short-term environmental change can alter various components of behavioural consistency. The effect could be

  5. Regulation of intracellular pH in cnidarians: response to acidosis in Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Julien; Venn, Alexander; Tambutté, Éric; Ganot, Philippe; Allemand, Denis; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2014-02-01

    The regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) is a fundamental aspect of cell physiology that has received little attention in studies of the phylum Cnidaria, which includes ecologically important sea anemones and reef-building corals. Like all organisms, cnidarians must maintain pH homeostasis to counterbalance reductions in pHi, which can arise because of changes in either intrinsic or extrinsic parameters. Corals and sea anemones face natural daily changes in internal fluids, where the extracellular pH can range from 8.9 during the day to 7.4 at night. Furthermore, cnidarians are likely to experience future CO₂-driven declines in seawater pH, a process known as ocean acidification. Here, we carried out the first mechanistic investigation to determine how cnidarian pHi regulation responds to decreases in extracellular and intracellular pH. Using the anemone Anemonia viridis, we employed confocal live cell imaging and a pH-sensitive dye to track the dynamics of pHi after intracellular acidosis induced by acute exposure to decreases in seawater pH and NH₄Cl prepulses. The investigation was conducted on cells that contained intracellular symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium sp.) and on symbiont-free endoderm cells. Experiments using inhibitors and Na⁺-free seawater indicate a potential role of Na⁺/H⁺ plasma membrane exchangers (NHEs) in mediating pHi recovery following intracellular acidosis in both cell types. We also measured the buffering capacity of cells, and obtained values between 20.8 and 43.8 mM per pH unit, which are comparable to those in other invertebrates. Our findings provide the first steps towards a better understanding of acid-base regulation in these basal metazoans, for which information on cell physiology is extremely limited. © 2013 FEBS.

  6. Environment-dependence of behavioural consistency in adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Gergely; Mészáros, Boglárka; Urszán, Tamás János; Bajer, Katalin; Molnár, Orsolya; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Herczeg, Gábor

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the background mechanisms affecting the emergence and maintenance of consistent between-individual variation within population in single (animal personality) or across multiple (behavioural syndrome) behaviours has key importance. State-dependence theory suggests that behaviour is 'anchored' to individual state (e.g. body condition, gender, age) and behavioural consistency emerges through behavioural-state feedbacks. A number of relevant state variables are labile (e.g. body condition, physiological performance) and expected to be affected by short-term environmental change. Yet, whether short-term environmental shifts affect behavioural consistency during adulthood remains questionable. Here, by employing a full-factorial laboratory experiment, we explored if quantity of food (low vs. high) and time available for thermoregulation (3h vs. 10h per day) had an effect on activity and risk-taking of reproductive adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis). We focussed on different components of behavioural variation: (i) strength of behavioural consistency (repeatability for animal personality; between-individual correlation for behavioural syndrome), (ii) behavioural type (individual mean behaviour) and (iii) behavioural predictability (within-individual behavioural variation). Activity was repeatable in all treatments. Risk-taking was repeatable only in the low basking treatments. We found significant between-individual correlation only in the low food × long basking time group. The treatments did not affect behavioural type, but affected behavioural predictability. Activity predictability was higher in the short basking treatment, where it also decreased with size (≈ age). Risk-taking predictability in the short basking treatment increased with size under food limitation, but decreased when food supply was high. We conclude that short-term environmental change can alter various components of behavioural consistency. The effect could be

  7. Environment-dependence of behavioural consistency in adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Horváth

    Full Text Available Understanding the background mechanisms affecting the emergence and maintenance of consistent between-individual variation within population in single (animal personality or across multiple (behavioural syndrome behaviours has key importance. State-dependence theory suggests that behaviour is 'anchored' to individual state (e.g. body condition, gender, age and behavioural consistency emerges through behavioural-state feedbacks. A number of relevant state variables are labile (e.g. body condition, physiological performance and expected to be affected by short-term environmental change. Yet, whether short-term environmental shifts affect behavioural consistency during adulthood remains questionable. Here, by employing a full-factorial laboratory experiment, we explored if quantity of food (low vs. high and time available for thermoregulation (3h vs. 10h per day had an effect on activity and risk-taking of reproductive adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis. We focussed on different components of behavioural variation: (i strength of behavioural consistency (repeatability for animal personality; between-individual correlation for behavioural syndrome, (ii behavioural type (individual mean behaviour and (iii behavioural predictability (within-individual behavioural variation. Activity was repeatable in all treatments. Risk-taking was repeatable only in the low basking treatments. We found significant between-individual correlation only in the low food × long basking time group. The treatments did not affect behavioural type, but affected behavioural predictability. Activity predictability was higher in the short basking treatment, where it also decreased with size (≈ age. Risk-taking predictability in the short basking treatment increased with size under food limitation, but decreased when food supply was high. We conclude that short-term environmental change can alter various components of behavioural consistency. The effect could be

  8. Promising semi-dwarf mutant in wheat variety K68

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, D [Banaras Hindu Univ. (India). Dept. of Genetics and Plant Breeding

    1977-04-01

    A semi-dwarf mutant (HUW-SDf 1) was induced from common wheat Var. K68 through the exposure of /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays at 15 kR. This mutant along with other induced mutants and control was assessed for yield components, yield and grain quality (M/sub 4/ generation); internode length reduction pattern and the yielding ability at three levels of nitrogen (M/sub 5/ generation). The mutant was significantly shorter in height and almost equal in tillers per plant and grains per spike to K68. However, it showed marked reduction in spike length and spikelets per spike. On the other hand, it possessed significantly higher (50.04 g) 1000-grain weight against control (41.15 g). The mutant gave 56.0% higher yield than the control. Grain quality studies indicated that the mutant possessed significantly higher (14.15%) total protein than K68. It was equally as good as K68 in lysine content. Pelshenke value (62.5 min) of the mutant indicated medium hard nature of gluten as compared to hard nature (198.0) of the control. The mutant showed 24.0% reduction in total culm length compared to K68. Reduction occurred due to maximum and almost equal reduction in 5th and 4th internodes (ca 34.0%) followed by 3rd, 2nd and 1st. The mutant showed similar yield and yield response to increasing nitrogen levels (80 to 160 kg per ha.) as for current commercial semi-dwarf varieties.

  9. Spectrum of mutant characters utilized in developing improved cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donini, B.; Kawai, T.; Micke, A.

    1984-01-01

    Although about 500 cultivars are known to have been developed by using induced mutations, the range of mutant traits seems to be rather narrow. Mutant traits have mostly been used that can be detected visually on an individual plant basis. However, in the background of such mutants other valuable mutations have been found in later generations. In cross-breeding with mutants valuable characteristics occurred, which could not be predicted from the phenotypes of the parents. It is concluded that improved attributes in the released mutant varieties do not comprise the entire genetic variation that could derive from mutagenesis. Current selection techniques are inadequate to exploit the full potential of mutagenesis for plant breeding. (author)

  10. Poliovirus Mutants Resistant to Neutralization with Soluble Cell Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Gerardo; Peters, David; Racaniello, Vincent R.

    1990-12-01

    Poliovirus mutants resistant to neutralization with soluble cellular receptor were isolated. Replication of soluble receptor-resistant (srr) mutants was blocked by a monoclonal antibody directed against the HeLa cell receptor for poliovirus, indicating that the mutants use this receptor to enter cells. The srr mutants showed reduced binding to HeLa cells and cell membranes. However, the reduced binding phenotype did not have a major impact on viral replication, as judged by plaque size and one-step growth curves. These results suggest that the use of soluble receptors as antiviral agents could lead to the selection of neutralization-resistant mutants that are able to bind cell surface receptors, replicate, and cause disease.

  11. Circulation of Pneumocystis dihydropteroate synthase mutants in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, Solène; Damiani, Céline; Perrot, Maëla; Rouillé, Amélie; Virmaux, Michèle; Quinio, Dorothée; Moalic, Elodie; Saliou, Philippe; Berthou, Christian; Le Meur, Yann; Totet, Anne; Nevez, Gilles

    2012-10-01

    Data on the prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) mutants in France are still limited. In this study, mutant prevalence in the Brest region (western France) was determined. Archival pulmonary specimens from 85 patients infected with P. jirovecii and admitted to our institution (University Hospital, Brest) from October 2007 to February 2010 were retrospectively typed at the DHPS locus using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Type identification was successful in 66 of 85 patients. Sixty-four patients were infected with a wild type, whereas mutants were found in 2 patients (2/66, 3%). Medical chart analysis revealed that these 2 patients usually lived in Paris. Another patient usually lived on the French Riviera, whereas 63 patients were from the city of Brest. Thus, the corrected prevalence of mutants in patients who effectively lived in our geographic area was 0% (0/63). Taking into account that i) Paris is characterized by a high prevalence of mutants from 18.5% to 40%, ii) infection diagnoses were performed in the 2 Parisians during their vacation Paris to Brest through infected vacationers. The study shows that the usual city of patient residence, rather than the city of infection diagnosis, is a predictor of mutants and that P. jirovecii infections involving mutants do not represent a public health issue in western France. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mutant number distribution in an exponentially growing population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peter; Antal, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    We present an explicit solution to a classic model of cell-population growth introduced by Luria and Delbrück (1943 Genetics 28 491-511) 70 years ago to study the emergence of mutations in bacterial populations. In this model a wild-type population is assumed to grow exponentially in a deterministic fashion. Proportional to the wild-type population size, mutants arrive randomly and initiate new sub-populations of mutants that grow stochastically according to a supercritical birth and death process. We give an exact expression for the generating function of the total number of mutants at a given wild-type population size. We present a simple expression for the probability of finding no mutants, and a recursion formula for the probability of finding a given number of mutants. In the ‘large population-small mutation’ limit we recover recent results of Kessler and Levine (2014 J. Stat. Phys. doi:10.1007/s10955-014-1143-3) for a fully stochastic version of the process.

  13. Characteristics of mutant lines of sweet potato flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryanti

    2012-01-01

    Research on mutation induction of sweet potato Sari variety has been conducted. Flour mutant lines were obtained from selection of M1V5 tubers irradiated by gamma rays at the dose of 10 Gy. Flour was made by peeling of tubers, then dried, blended and sieved. The quality test of flour have been done by measuring degree of whiteness, proximate, amylose contents, water content, soluble water, swelling power, and flour characteristics. The result of this work showed that flour of C6.26.13 mutant line had higher protein content than the parent plant with concentration of 3.62 % and its amylose content was also higher than the other mutant lines. The soluble water value of mutant lines were significant different compared to the parent plant from 1.82 to 2.25 % and swelling power from 4.28 to 5.55 %. The flour granule of the mutant line was different compared to the parent plant. (author)

  14. Defective Glycinergic Synaptic Transmission in Zebrafish Motility Mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Hirata, Hiromi; Carta, Eloisa; Yamanaka, Iori; Harvey, Robert J.; Kuwada, John Y.

    2010-01-01

    Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo) mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR) β subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic ...

  15. X-ray-induced mutants resistant to 8-azaguanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, J.H.; Dewey, W.C.; Hopwood, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    Asynchronous Chinese hamster ovary cells were irradiated and colony survival in Alpha MEM medium with dialyzed serum was determined with or without 15 μg/ml 8-Azaguanine (AG). Data indicated that a reproducible assay for the system was dependent upon controlling cell density at least two days prior to induction as well as throughout the expression period. Generally, spontaneous and radiation-induced mutant frequencies decreased when cell densities exceeded a critical density of 3-6 x 10 4 cells/cm 2 . Infrequently, the critical density was exceeded by a factor of two with no observed decrease, possibly correlated with a longer cell doubling time. Drug depletion artifacts can occur because of drug degradation, or because wild-type cells utilize the drug or produce conditions which reduce uptake of the drug. Thus, as the effective drug concentration is lowered, the observed mutant frequency increases because a spectrum of mutants resistant to only low concentrations can now survive. In fact, refeeding with AG at intervals during the incubation period lowered spontaneous and radiation-induced frequencies approx. 5-fold. Therefore, to standardize conditions, cells were trypsinized at the end of the expression time and replated at a constant cell number for mutant selection by AG. Over two generations of growth during the expression period were required for optimal manifestation of induced mutants, and when densities were kept below 4 x 10 4 cells/cm 2 at all times, observed mutant frequencies did not change significantly over a period between 80 and 140 h post-induction (over 4 generations for irradiated cells and over 6 generations for controls). Previous reports of observed mutant frequencies decreasing beyond three generations may be due to cell interaction prior to mutant selection

  16. The research progress on plant mutant germplasm resources in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Cexi; Ji Linzhen; Zhao Shirong

    1991-07-01

    Mutants induced by nuclear radiation or other mutagens are new artificial germplasm resources. Some mutants have been applied in plant breeding and great achievements have been reached. The status and progress on the collection, identification and utilization of mutants in China are introduced. A proposal for developing mutant germplasm resources with good agronomic characters is suggested

  17. Radiation studies in Cajanus cajan: meiotic behaviour in some M/sub 2/ mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, S.S.N.; Akhaury, S.B. (Ranchi Univ. (India). Dept. of Botany)

    1982-01-01

    A qualitative study of the mutants produced in M/sub 2/ generation has been made. The mutants were classified as: (1) chlorophyll mutant, (2) morphological mutant, (3) pollen mutant, (4) semi-sterile and (5) sterile mutant. Cytological investigations of pollen mutants, sterile and semi-sterile mutants have revealed that these mutants generally arise at higher dose levels (20 Kr and 25 Kr).

  18. Biochemical Analysis of Two Single Mutants that Give Rise to a Polymorphic G6PD A-Double Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Jiovany Ramírez-Nava

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD is a key regulatory enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular energy and redox balance. Mutations in the gene encoding G6PD cause the most common enzymopathy that drives hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. To gain insights into the effects of mutations in G6PD enzyme efficiency, we have investigated the biochemical, kinetic, and structural changes of three clinical G6PD variants, the single mutations G6PD A+ (Asn126AspD and G6PD Nefza (Leu323Pro, and the double mutant G6PD A− (Asn126Asp + Leu323Pro. The mutants showed lower residual activity (≤50% of WT G6PD and displayed important kinetic changes. Although all Class III mutants were located in different regions of the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme and were not close to the active site, these mutants had a deleterious effect over catalytic activity and structural stability. The results indicated that the G6PD Nefza mutation was mainly responsible for the functional and structural alterations observed in the double mutant G6PD A−. Moreover, our study suggests that the G6PD Nefza and G6PD A− mutations affect enzyme functions in a similar fashion to those reported for Class I mutations.

  19. Phanerochaete mutants with enhanced ligninolytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakar, S.N.; Perez, A.; Gonzales, J.

    1994-01-01

    In addition to lignin, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organo pollutants in soils and aqueous media. Most of the organic compounds are degraded under ligninolytic conditions with the involvement of the extracellular enzymes, lignin peroxidases, and manganese-dependent peroxidases, which are produced as secondary metabolites triggered by conditions of nutrient starvation (e.g., nitrogen limitation). The fungus and its enzymes can thus provide alternative technologies for bioremediation, bio pulping, bio bleaching, and other industrial applications. The efficiency and effectiveness of the fungus can be enhanced by increasing production and secretion of the important enzymes in large quantities and as primary metabolites under enriched conditions. One way this can be achieved is through isolation of mutants that are deregulated, or are hyper producers or super secretors of key enzymes under enriched conditions. Through UV-light and γ-ray mutagenesis, we have isolated a variety of mutants, some of which produce key enzymes of the ligninolytic system under high-nitrogen growth conditions. One of the mutants, 76UV, produced 272 U of lignin peroxidases enzyme activity/L after 9 d under high nitrogen (although the parent strain does not produce this enzyme under these conditions). The mutant and the parent strains produced up to 54 and 62 U/L, respectively, of the enzyme activity under low nitrogen growth conditions during this period. In some experiments, the mutant showed 281 U/L of enzyme activity under high nitrogen after 17 d

  20. Isolation of New Gravitropic Mutants under Hypergravity Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akiko; Toyota, Masatsugu; Shimada, Masayoshi; Mekata, Mika; Kurata, Tetsuya; Tasaka, Masao; Morita, Miyo T

    2016-01-01

    Forward genetics is a powerful approach used to link genotypes and phenotypes, and mutant screening/analysis has provided deep insights into many aspects of plant physiology. Gravitropism is a tropistic response in plants, in which hypocotyls and stems sense the direction of gravity and grow upward. Previous studies of gravitropic mutants have suggested that shoot endodermal cells in Arabidopsis stems and hypocotyls are capable of sensing gravity (i.e., statocytes). In the present study, we report a new screening system using hypergravity conditions to isolate enhancers of gravitropism mutants, and we also describe a rapid and efficient genome mapping method, using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based markers. Using the endodermal-amyloplast less 1 ( eal1 ) mutant, which exhibits defective development of endodermal cells and gravitropism, we found that hypergravity (10 g) restored the reduced gravity responsiveness in eal1 hypocotyls and could, therefore, be used to obtain mutants with further reduction in gravitropism in the eal1 background. Using the new screening system, we successfully isolated six ene ( enhancer of eal1 ) mutants that exhibited little or no gravitropism under hypergravity conditions, and using NGS and map-based cloning with SNP markers, we narrowed down the potential causative genes, which revealed a new genetic network for shoot gravitropism in Arabidopsis .

  1. Inactivation of carbenicillin by some radioresistant mutant strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahiera, T.S.; Mahmoud, M.I.; Bashandy, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    Sensitivity test of five bacterial species to carbenicillin was performed microbiologically. The bacterial species were previously isolated from high level radiation environment. All the studied species could either highly decrease the antibiotic activity or even inactivate it completely. Detailed study of the inactivation of carbenicillin by the radioresistant mutant strains B. Laterosporus, B. firmus and M. roseus was performed, in the present study. Using high performace liquid chromatography technique. The gram-positive m. roseus mutant strain seemed to be the most active mutant in degrading the antibiotic. The left over of the antibiotic attained a value of 9% of the original amount after 14 day incubation of the antibiotic with this mutant strain, while the value of the left over reached 36% and 32% after the same period of incubation with the mutants B. laterosporus and B. firmus respectively. In the case of bacillus species, the degradation of the antibiotic started at the same moment when it was added to the bacterial cultures. This fact may indicate that the inactivation of the studied antibiotic by these bacillus species was due to extracellular enzymes extracted rapidly in the surrounding medium. In the case of M. roseus the inactivation process started later. after the addition of the antibiotic to the mutant culture

  2. Agronomic performance of old soybean variety 'Altona' derived mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodosne, K.G.; Heszky, L.E.

    2001-01-01

    An induced mutation program has been initiated at the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding to develop early maturing cultivars with good yielding capacity. Some new mutants have been produced by irradiation of variety Altona with 60 Co gamma rays. Ten years of breeding resulted in two new mutant varieties named 'Noventa' and 'Gate 511'. The present study deals with agronomic performance of these mutants. Registered soybean varieties Altona and 'McCall' as well as Altona derived mutants (Gate 511 and Noventa) have been compared

  3. Analysis of AtCry1 and Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Derek; Purvis, Adam; Ahmad, Margaret; Link, Justin J.; Engle, Dorothy

    Cryptochrome is an incredibly versatile protein that influences numerous biological processes such as plant growth, bird migration, and sleep cycles. Due to the versatility of this protein, understanding the mechanism would allow for advances in numerous fields such as crop growth, animal behavior, and sleep disorders. It is known that cryptochrome requires blue light to function, but the exact processes in the regulation of biological activity are still not fully understood. It is believed that the c-terminal domain of the protein undergoes a conformational change when exposed to blue light which allows for biological function. Three different non-functioning mutants were tested during this study to gain insight on the mechanism of cryptochrome. Absorbance spectra showed a difference between two of the mutants and the wild type with one mutant showing little difference. Immunoprecipitation experiments were also conducted to identify the different c-terminal responses of the mutants. By studying non functioning mutants of this protein, the mechanism of the protein can be further characterized. This two-month research experience in Paris allowed us to experience international and interdisciplinary collaborations in science and immerse in a different culture. The Borcer Fund for Student Research, Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH, and John Hauck Foundation.

  4. Biological Carbon Dioxide Assimilation Process Using Marine Phytoplankton Tetraselmis suecica and Bivalve Perna viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirichai Dharmvanij

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Biological CO2 assimilation process using marine phytoplankton and marine bivalve was evaluated by carbon assimilation of the green mussel Perna viridis fed with Tetraselmis suecica under laboratory condition. Incorporation of carbon dioxide into phytoplankton biomass was performed through aeration. The experiment consisted of three treatments i.e. mussels without feeding (Control, mussels fed with T. suecica cultured with air (Treatment 1: T-Air, and mussels fed with T. suecica cultured with 1.5% CO2 in air (Treatment 2: T-CO2. The results showed that growth of mussels in T-Air and T-CO2 was 22.4 ± 4.0 mg/individual/day and 28.9 ± 12.3 mg/individual/day, respectively, which was significantly higher than control (mussels without feeding. Growth of mussels in T-Air was significantly lower than in T-CO2. Carbon content in shell (15.59 ± 0.57 % D.W. and meat (38.28 ± 1.72 % D.W. of mussels fed with aerated T. suecica (T-Air was significantly higher than that found in mussels fed with 1.5% CO2 T. suecica (14.2 ± 0.47 and 36.61± 0.43 % D.W. in shell and in meat, respectively (p≤0.05. With T-Air, 1.95±0.27 and 9.36±1.24% of carbon from T. suecica cells was assimilated into shell and meat of the mussel, respectively, while in T-CO2 , carbon assimilation from T. suecica cells in shell and meat was 2.19±0.55 and 11.22±2.76% respectively.

  5. Biochemical characteristics of mutant lines of currant tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatenko, I.Yu.; Khrustaleva, V.V.; Shcherbakov, V.K.

    1988-01-01

    The currant tomato is used in breeding for fruit quality. It contains up to 50 mg% ascorbic acid, a large quantity of sugar and 8-10% of dry matter. The weight of the fruit, however, does not exceed 1.2-1.5 g. The plants have long, spreading and very branchy stems. Gamma ray induced mutants of currant tomato were used, as initial material in breeding for fruit quality in varieties suitable for mechanized harvesting. The research was carried out mainly at the Department of Vegetable Growing Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Irrigation Farming. The regional variety Lebyazhinskij (suitable for mechanized harvesting) was adopted as the standard. Its fruits contain: 5.6% dry matter, 2.7% sugars, 0.543% titrated acidity, 26.6 mg/100 g ascorbic acid, 0.425 mg% carotene and 0.35% cellulose. The biochemical characteristics of the tomato mutants are shown. In terms of fruit dry matter, all mutants surpassed the standard. The acidity and the ascorbic acid content varied considerably. Most noteworthy in terms of carotene were the lines GP-5, GP-9 and GP-12. An important factor in the production of tomato paste is the fruit cellulose content. The lowest cellulose content is found in mutant GP-3. As shown, all of the mutants were early ripening. The mutants surpassed the standard in simultaneous fruit ripening. Mutant lines GP-3, GP-6, GP-9 and GP-12 will be used in the breeding programme for improving fruit quality of varieties suitable for mechanized harvesting

  6. Genetic analyses of nonfluorescent root mutants induced by mutagenesis in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, S.; Palmer, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Nonfluorescent root mutants in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] are useful as markers in genetic studies and in tissue culture research. Our objective was to obtain mutagen-induced nonfluorescent root mutants and to conduct genetic studies with them. Thirteen nonfluorescent mutants were detected among 154016 seedlings derived from soybean lines treated with six mutagens. One of these mutants, derived from Williams treated with 20 kR gamma rays, did not correspond to any of the known (standard) nonfluorescent spontaneous mutants. This is the first mutagen-induced nonfluorescent root mutant in soybean. It was assigned Genetic Type Collection no. T285 and the gene symbol fr5 fr5. The fr5 allele was not located on trisomics A, B, or C and was not linked to five chlorophyll-deficient mutants (y9, y11, y12, y13, and y20-k2) or flower color mutant w1. The remaining nonfluorescent root mutants were at the same loci as known spontaneous mutants; i.e., four had the fr1 allele, five had the fr2 allele, and three had the fr4 allele

  7. Genetical, cytological and physiological studies on the induced mutants with special regard to effective methods for obtaining useful mutants in perennial woody plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukimura, H.; Ikeda, F.; Fujita, H.; Maeta, T.; Nakajima, K.; Katagiri, K.; Nakahira, K.; Somegou, M.

    1976-01-01

    The plants studied included apple trees, cryptomeria (japanese cedar) and mulberry. In apple, dwarf and compact types of mutants from cv. Fuji were found to be graft incompatible on Maruba-kaido(Malus prunifolia) rootstock. In Sunki mandarin(Citrus sunki), the number of nucellar embryo per seed was affected by gamma-irradiation, and morphological mutants from nucellar seedlings were obtained at high rate by irradiation at floral bud stage with 2kR exposure. In Cryptomeria, re-irradiated waxless mutants by gamma-rays showed very high rate of somatic mutation when compared to other morphological mutants. Pollen sterility and pollen shaped PMC were found in the most of gamma-induced-mutants. Mutants forming pollen shaped PMC had a genetical tendency of continuous male flower bud formation for a longer term. With mulberry, time of sprouting of induced mutants differed from the originals. Ability of root initiation of semi-softwood cuttings in morphological mutants were tested. Cytochimera induction were found at considerably high rate when actively growing diploid plants were irradiated by gamma-rays. Eight kinds of cytochimeras were induced. Frequency of 2-4-4 was extremely high(approx. 50%), then 4-2-2 and 2-4-2 chimeras followed. Seven kinds were induced by semi-acute irradiation(200R/h), while 4 kinds by acute irradiation(5kR/h). By breeding test it was cleared that the elongate and entire leaf was sexually transmissible, whereas the 'dwarf' was not obvious and the 'marginally curledleaf' was not transmissible. Pyronin-methylgreen staining method proved to be useful in some morphological mutants to distinguish the histo-genetical differences which exist in the shoot apex.

  8. Development of high yielding mutants in lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.A.; Sarwar, G.; Siddiqui, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) locally known as Masoor, is the second most important rabi pulse crop, after chickpea, in Pakistan. It is cultivated on an area of over 63,400 ha, which constitutes about 4.83% of the total area under pulses. The annual production of the crop is 28,200 tones with an average yield of 445 kg/ha. Yield at the national level is very low, about one-half of the world's yield, which is mainly due to non-availability of high yield potential genotypes. Keeping in view the importance of mutants in developing a large number of new varieties, an induced mutations programme was initiated at AEARC, Tandojam during 1987-88, to develop high yielding varieties in lentil. For this, seeds of two lentil varieties, 'Masoor-85' and 'ICARDA-8' had been irradiated with gamma-rays ranging from 100-600 Gy in NIAB, Faisalabad during 1990. Selections were made in M2 on the basis of earliness, plant height, branches/plant and 100 grain weight. After confirming these mutants in M3 they were promoted in station yield trials and studied continuously for three consecutive years (1993- 1995). Overall results revealed that these mutants have consistent improvement of earliness in flowering and maturity. Plant height also increased in all mutant lines except AEL 23/40/91 where reduction in this attribute was observed as compared to parent variety. Mutant lines AEL 49/20/91 and AEL 13/30/91 showed improvement in 100 grain weight. The improvement of some agronomic characters enhanced the yield of mutant lines in comparison to parent varieties (Masoor-85 and ICARDA-8). The diversity in yield over the respective parents was computed from 6.94 to 60.12%. From these encouraging results it is hoped that mutant lines like AEL 12/30/91 and AEL 49/20/91 may serve as potential lentil genotypes in future. (author)

  9. Methods of producing protoporphyrin IX and bacterial mutants therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jizhong; Qiu, Dongru; He, Zhili; Xie, Ming

    2016-03-01

    The presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed in certain embodiments to a method of producing protoporphyrin IX by (1) cultivating a strain of Shewanella bacteria in a culture medium under conditions suitable for growth thereof, and (2) recovering the protoporphyrin IX from the culture medium. The strain of Shewanella bacteria comprises at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX. In certain embodiments of the method, the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or of shew_1140. In other embodiments, the presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed to mutant strains of Shewanella bacteria having at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX during cultivation of the bacteria. In certain embodiments the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or shew_1140.

  10. Genetic studies with morphological mutants of Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Ponty; Das, Arati

    1979-01-01

    Three classes of coloured mutations, viz., fawn, yellow and green, occurred recurrently among the population following UV- and γ-radiation from Co 60 of a wild Aspergillus niger strain 350. Ten mutants were picked up and complementation tests were performed by growing them in pairwise combinations. In two cases, allelic mutants of the same colour were observed. All these mutants were again grown in pairwise crosses with a brown A. niger mutant of different lineage. A poor heterokaryotic growth was, however, observed in one combination which later produced a diploid heterozygous nucleus. It segregated spontaneously to develop a large variety of colonies ranging from haploidy to diploidy including aneuploids. These have been analysed genetically and the possible explanations have been given. (auth.)

  11. A structural basis for electron transfer in bacterial photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, J.R.; DiMagno, T.J.; Angerhofer, A.; Chang, C.H.; El-Kabbani, O.; Schiffer, M.

    1989-01-01

    Triplet data for the primary donor in single crystals of bacterial reaction centers of Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodopseudomonas viridis are interpreted in terms of the corresponding x-ray structures. The analysis of electron paramagnetic resonance data from single crystals (triplet zero field splitting and cation and triplet linewidth of the primary special pair donor of bacterial reaction centers) is extended to systems of a non-crystalline nature. A unified interpretation based on frontier molecular orbitals concludes that the special pair behaves like a supermolecule in all wild-type bacteria investigated here. However, in heterodimers of Rb. capsulatus (His M200 changed to Leu or Phe with the result that the M-half of the special pair is converted to bacteriopheophytin) the special pair possesses the EPR properties more appropriately described in terms of a monomer. In all cases the triplet state and cation EPR properties appear to be dominated by the highest occupied molecular orbitals. These conclusions derived from EPR experiments are supplemented by data from Stark spectroscopy of reaction centers from Rb. capsulatus. 41 refs., 3 tabs

  12. NMR-based metabolomic studies on the toxicological effects of cadmium and copper on green mussels Perna viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Huifeng; Wang Wenxiong

    2010-01-01

    Traditional toxicology studies have focused on selected biomarkers to characterize the biological stress induced by metals in marine organisms. In this study, a system biology tool, metabolomics, was applied to the marine mussel Perna viridis to investigate changes in the metabolic profiles of soft tissue as a response to copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd), both as single metal and as a mixture. The major metabolite changes corresponding to metal exposure are related to amino acids, osmolytes, and energy metabolites. Following metal exposure for 1 week, there was a significant increase in the levels of branched chain amino acids, histidine, glutamate, glutamine, hypotaurine, dimethylglycine, arginine and ATP/ADP. For the Cu + Cd co-exposed mussels, the levels of lactate, branched chain amino acid, succinate, and NAD increased, whereas the levels of glucose, glycogen, and ATP/ADP decreased, indicating a different metabolic profile for the single metal exposure groups. After 2 weeks of exposure, the mussels showed acclimatization to Cd exposure based on the recovery of some metabolites. However, the metabolic profile induced by the metal mixture was very similar to that from Cu exposure, suggesting that Cu dominantly induced the metabolic disturbances. Both Cu and Cd may lead to neurotoxicity, disturbances in energy metabolism, and osmoregulation changes. These results demonstrate the high applicability and reliability of NMR-based metabolomics in interpreting the toxicological mechanisms of metals using global metabolic biomarkers.

  13. UV-induced lethal sectoring and pure mutant clones in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, M A; Duck, P; Nasim, A

    1976-08-01

    The induction of lethal sectoring and pure mutant clones by ultraviolet light has been studied in a homogeneous G1 population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in a normal growth medium. At the lowest UV dose of 250 ergs, which corresponds to a shoulder in the survival curve, all mutants appeared as pure clones. At higher doses the frequency of mosaic mutants progressively increased. These results indicate a relationship between the highest frequency of complete mutants and the maximum repair activity. In addition, the frequency of lethal sectoring at all doses tested was too low to account for the origin of pure mutant clones.

  14. Pollen irradiation method to obtain mutants in cucumber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, S.; Amano, E.

    1988-01-01

    Seed irradiation for mutation induction in dioecious crops like cucumber is not very useful because chimerism of the mutated tissues makes the segregation of mutants in the M 2 generation nearly impossible. This problem does not exist with pollen irradiation. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. var. Nishikisuyo) was used for a model experiment. The petals of male and female flowers were closed by pinching with binding wire before flowering to prevent pollination by insects. On the flowering day, the male flowers were collected and irradiated with 1kR to 10 kR of acute gamma rays (137-Cs), then used to pollinate the female flowers. The M 1 seeds thus obtained are not chimeric but heterozygous for induced mutations. When planted, no mutant phenotype appeared. Selfing within a plant lead to segregation of mutants in the M 2 generation. Seedling examination revealed eight mutants. One mutant line, in which the shape of leaves changed from pentagonal to round heart shape, was found under field conditions. The optimal dose for pollen irradiation seems to be between 2 kR and 4kR

  15. Mutant number distribution in an exponentially growing population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Peter; Antal, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    We present an explicit solution to a classic model of cell-population growth introduced by Luria and Delbrück (1943 Genetics 28 491–511) 70 years ago to study the emergence of mutations in bacterial populations. In this model a wild-type population is assumed to grow exponentially in a deterministic fashion. Proportional to the wild-type population size, mutants arrive randomly and initiate new sub-populations of mutants that grow stochastically according to a supercritical birth and death process. We give an exact expression for the generating function of the total number of mutants at a given wild-type population size. We present a simple expression for the probability of finding no mutants, and a recursion formula for the probability of finding a given number of mutants. In the ‘large population-small mutation’ limit we recover recent results of Kessler and Levine (2014 J. Stat. Phys. doi:10.1007/s10955-014-1143-3) for a fully stochastic version of the process. (paper)

  16. A wheat cold resistance mutant derived from space mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peng; Sun Mingzhu; Zhang Fengyun; Gao Guoqiang; Qiu Denglin; Li Xinhua

    2012-01-01

    A cold resistance mutant, obtained by spaceflight mutagenesis on the seeds of wheat variety Han6172, and the DNA of cold resistance mutant and contrast Han6172 were compared by SRAP technique. 380 pairs of primers were screened, 6 pairs of them had polymorphisms between mutant and contrast, the rate was 1.58%, and this data indicated that there are no obvious DNA differences between mutant and contrast Six specific fragments were obtained, 3 fragments of them were amplified in mutant. Homology analysis in GenBank showed that Me3-Em7-Mt, Me4-Em11-CK, Me7-Em19-CK and Me6-Em9-Mt all had homologous sequences with wheat chromosome 3B-specific BAC library, and this result indicated that the gene and regulator sequences associated with mutant cold resistance might locate on 3B chromosome. It was speculated that space mutation induced the mutation of 3B chromosome primary structure, and influenced the expressions of cold resistance genes, which resulted in the mutation of cold resistance ability. (authors)

  17. A wheat cold resistance mutant derived from space mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peng; Sun Mingzhu; Zhang Fengyun; Gao Guoqiang; Qiu Denglin; Li Xinhua

    2011-01-01

    A cold resistance mutant, obtained by spaceflight mutagenesis on the seeds of wheat variety Han6172, and the DNA of cold resistance mutant and contrast Han6172 were compared by SRAP technique. 380 pairs of primers were screened, 6 pairs of them had polymorphisms between mutant and contrast, the rate was 1.58%, and this data indicated that there are no obvious DNA differences between mutant and contrast. Six specific fragments were obtained, 3 fragments of them were amplified in mutant. Homology analysis in GenBank showed that Me3-Em7-Mt, Me4-Em11-CK, Me7-Em19-CK and Me6-Em9-Mt all had homologous sequences with wheat chromosome 3B-specific BAC library, and this result indicated that the gene and regulator sequences associated with mutant cold resistance might locate on 3B chromosome. It was speculated that space mutation induced the mutation of 3B chromosome primary structure, and influenced the expressions of cold resistance genes, which resulted in the mutation of cold resistance ability. (authors)

  18. Isolation of new gravitropic mutants under hypergravity conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Mori

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Forward genetics is a powerful approach used to link genotypes and phenotypes, and mutant screening/analysis has provided deep insights into many aspects of plant physiology. Gravitropism is a tropistic response in plants, in which hypocotyls and stems sense the direction of gravity and grow upwards. Previous studies of gravitropic mutants have suggested that shoot endodermal cells in Arabidopsis stems and hypocotyls are capable of sensing gravity (i.e., statocytes. In the present study, we report a new screening system using hypergravity conditions to isolate enhancers of gravitropism mutants, and we also describe a rapid and efficient genome mapping method, using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP-based markers. Using the endodermal-amyloplast less 1 (eal1 mutant, which exhibits defective development of endodermal cells and gravitropism, we found that hypergravity (10 g restored the reduced gravity responsiveness in eal1 hypocotyls and could, therefore, be used to obtain mutants with further reduction in gravitropism in the eal1 background. Using the new screening system, we successfully isolated six ene (enhancer of eal1 mutants that exhibited little or no gravitropism under hypergravity conditions, and using NGS and map-based cloning with SNP markers, we narrowed down the potential causative genes, which revealed a new genetic network for shoot gravitropism in Arabidopsis.

  19. Defective glycinergic synaptic transmission in zebrafish motility mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Hirata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR β subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic transmission due to a lack of synaptic aggregation of GlyRs. Due to the consequent loss of reciprocal inhibition of motor circuits between the two sides of the spinal cord, motor neurons activate simultaneously on both sides resulting in bilateral contraction of axial muscles of beo mutants, eliciting the so-called ‘accordion’ phenotype. Similar defects in GlyR subunit genes have been observed in several mammals and are the basis for human hyperekplexia/startle disease. By contrast, zebrafish shocked (sho mutants have a defect in slc6a9, encoding GlyT1, a glycine transporter that is expressed by astroglial cells surrounding the glycinergic synapse in the hindbrain and spinal cord. GlyT1 mediates rapid uptake of glycine from the synaptic cleft, terminating synaptic transmission. In zebrafish sho mutants, there appears to be elevated extracellular glycine resulting in persistent inhibition of postsynaptic neurons and subsequent reduced motility, causing the ‘twitch once’ phenotype. We review current knowledge regarding zebrafish ‘accordion’ and ‘twitch once’ mutants, including beo and sho, and report the identification of a new α2 subunit that revises the phylogeny of zebrafish GlyRs.

  20. Defective Glycinergic Synaptic Transmission in Zebrafish Motility Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Hiromi; Carta, Eloisa; Yamanaka, Iori; Harvey, Robert J.; Kuwada, John Y.

    2009-01-01

    Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo) mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR) β subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic transmission due to a lack of synaptic aggregation of GlyRs. Due to the consequent loss of reciprocal inhibition of motor circuits between the two sides of the spinal cord, motor neurons activate simultaneously on both sides resulting in bilateral contraction of axial muscles of beo mutants, eliciting the so-called ‘accordion’ phenotype. Similar defects in GlyR subunit genes have been observed in several mammals and are the basis for human hyperekplexia/startle disease. By contrast, zebrafish shocked (sho) mutants have a defect in slc6a9, encoding GlyT1, a glycine transporter that is expressed by astroglial cells surrounding the glycinergic synapse in the hindbrain and spinal cord. GlyT1 mediates rapid uptake of glycine from the synaptic cleft, terminating synaptic transmission. In zebrafish sho mutants, there appears to be elevated extracellular glycine resulting in persistent inhibition of postsynaptic neurons and subsequent reduced motility, causing the ‘twitch-once’ phenotype. We review current knowledge regarding zebrafish ‘accordion’ and ‘twitch-once’ mutants, including beo and sho, and report the identification of a new α2 subunit that revises the phylogeny of zebrafish GlyRs. PMID:20161699

  1. X-ray-sensitive mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeggo, P.A.; Kemp, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    A standard technique of microbial genetics, which involves the transfer of cells from single colonies by means of sterile toothpicks, has been adapted to somatic cell genetics. Its use has been demonstrated in the isolation of X-ray-sensitive mutants of CHO cells. 9000 colonies have been tested and 6 appreciably X-ray-sensitive mutants were isolated. (D 10 values 5-10-fold of wild-type D 10 value.) A further 6 mutants were obtained which showed a slight level of sensitivity (D 10 values less than 2-fold of wild-type D 10 value). The 6 more sensitive mutants were also sensitive to bleomycin, a chemotherapeutic agent inducing X-ray-like damage. Cross-sensitivity to UV-irradiation and treatment with the alkylating agents, MMS, EMS and MNNG, was investigated for these mutants. Some sensitivity to these other agents was observed, but in all cases it was less severe than the level of sensitivity to X-irradiation. Each mutant showed a different overall response to the spectrum of agents examined and these appear to represent new mutant phenotypes derived from cultured mammalian cell lines. One mutant strain, xrs-7, was cross-sensitive to all the DNA-damaging agents, but was proficient in the repair of single-strand breaks. (Auth.)

  2. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Long Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT is larger than that of wild type (WT and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape.

  3. Expression of CALR mutants causes mpl-dependent thrombocytosis in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K-H; Chang, Y-C; Chiang, Y-H; Lin, H-C; Chang, C-Y; Lin, C-S; Huang, L; Wang, W-T; Gon-Shen Chen, C; Chou, W-C; Kuo, Y-Y

    2016-10-07

    CALR mutations are identified in about 30% of JAK2/MPL-unmutated myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) including essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis. Although the molecular pathogenesis of CALR mutations leading to MPNs has been studied using in vitro cell lines models, how mutant CALR may affect developmental hematopoiesis remains unknown. Here we took advantage of the zebrafish model to examine the effects of mutant CALR on early hematopoiesis and model human CALR-mutated MPNs. We identified three zebrafish genes orthologous to human CALR, referred to as calr, calr3a and calr3b. The expression of CALR-del52 and CALR-ins5 mutants caused an increase in the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells followed by thrombocytosis without affecting normal angiogenesis. The expression of CALR mutants also perturbed early developmental hematopoiesis in zebrafish. Importantly, morpholino knockdown of mpl but not epor or csf3r could significantly attenuate the effects of mutant CALR. Furthermore, the expression of mutant CALR caused jak-stat signaling activation in zebrafish that could be blocked by JAK inhibitors (ruxolitinib and fedratinib). These findings showed that mutant CALR activates jak-stat signaling through an mpl-dependent mechanism to mediate pathogenic thrombopoiesis in zebrafish, and illustrated that the signaling machinery related to mutant CALR tumorigenesis are conserved between human and zebrafish.

  4. Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bame, K.J.; Kiser, C.S.; Esko, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have isolated Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in proteoglycan synthesis by radiographic screening for cells unable to incorporate 35 SO 4 into acid-precipitable material. Some mutants did not incorporate 35 SO 4 into acid-precipitable material, whereas others incorporated about 3-fold less radioactivity. HPLC anion exchange chromatographic analysis of radiolabelled glycosaminoglycans isolated from these mutants revealed many are defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis. Mutants 803 and 677 do not synthesize heparan sulfate, although they produce chondroitin sulfate: strain 803 makes chondroitin sulfate normally, whereas 677 overaccumulates chondroitin sulfate by a factor of three. These mutants fall into the same complementation group, suggesting that the mutations are allelic. A second group of heparan sulfate biosynthetic mutants, consisting of cell lines 625, 668 and 679, produce undersulfated heparan sulfate and normal chondroitin sulfate. Treatment of the chains with nitrous acid should determine the position of the sulfate groups along the chain. These mutants may define a complementation group that is defective in the enzymes which modify the heparan sulfate chain. To increase the authors repertoire of heparan sulfate mutants, they are presently developing an in situ enzyme assay to screen colonies replica plated on filter discs for sulfotransferase defects

  5. Primary study on lesion mimic mutants of rice (oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Zhongna; Zhang Hongzhi; Tao Rongixang

    2007-01-01

    Nineteen lesion mimic mutants (xsl1-19) of japonica rice Xiushui11 were obtained by γ-rays irradiation treatment. All mutants belonged to whole life lesion mimic. Lesion mimic of mutants didn't largen after tillering stage, leaves didn't wither, and no effect on the plants exsert spikes and seed. When the highest temperature in day exceeded 32 degree C in seedling stage, lesion mimic of all mutant expect xsl19 disappeared. Under 32 degree C, lesion mimic would appear gradually, and symptoms weren't inhibited by high temperature after 5 leaf stage. The plant heights of all lesion mimic mutants were 47.56-63.54 cm in the tillering stage, and that of CK was 83.75 cm; but the dwarf phenomenon of mutants only appeared before tillering stage, and didn't affect plant heights finally; the heading dates of mutants were the same to the CK, the ear length of all mutants were 9.43-15.19 cm, and that of CK was 16.41 cm; the total grain quantity per spike of all mutants were 88.17-165.33, and those of xsl19 and CK were 49.50 and 76.17. The results showed all lesion mimic mutants except xsl19 had short spikes and total grain quantity per spike increasing. All lesion mimic mutants were susceptible to Magnaporthe grisea, and they had no relationship with resistance. (authors)

  6. Grain product of 34 soya mutant lines;Rendimiento de grano de 34 lineas mutantes de soya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmeron E, J.; Mastache L, A. A.; Valencia E, F.; Diaz V, G. E. [Colegio Superior Agropecuario del Estado de Guerrero, Vicente Guerrero No. 81, Col. Centro, 40000 Iguala, Guerrero (Mexico); Cervantes S, T. [Instituto de Recursos Geneticos y Productividad, Colegio de Posgraduados, Carretera Mexico-Texcoco Km. 36.5, Montecillo, 56230 Texcoco, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); De la Cruz T, E.; Garcia A, J. M.; Falcon B, T.; Gatica T, M. A. [ININ, Departamento de Biologia, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    This work was development with the objective of obtaining information of the agronomic behavior of 34 soya mutant lines (R{sub 4}M{sub 18}) for human consumption and this way to select the 2 better lines. The genetic materials were obtained starting from the variety ISAAEG-B M2 by means of the application of recurrent radiation with Co{sup 60} gammas, to a dose of 350 Gray for the first two generations and both later to 200 Gray and selection during 17 cycles, being obtained the 34 better lines mutants with agronomic characteristic wanted and good flavor. The obtained results were that the mutant lines L{sub 25} and L{sub 32} produced the major quantity in branches/plant number with 7.5 and 7.25, pods/plant number with 171.25 and 167, grains/plant number with 350.89 and 333.07 and grain product (ton/ha) to 15% of humidity 5.15 and 4.68 ton/ha, respectively. (Author)

  7. Cytoembryologic study of gamma-ray induced sterile Pisum sativum L. mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molkhova, E.; Vasileva, M.

    1977-01-01

    Three new pea mutant forms are described - 1878, Crampled petal Waxless type, and Lathyrus type - which were induced by different gamma-ray ( 60 Co) doses and rates. The flowers of the 1878 and Crampled petal Waxless type mutants were very much deformed, while those of the Lathyrus type had smaller flowers with normal morphology. The three mutant forms were entirely sterile and were propagated by segregation in the progeny of heterozygous sister plants. PMC meiosis and the development of the male gametophyte of the Lathyrus type mutant had a normal course, while in the mutant forms Crampled petal Waxless type and 1878 slight disturbances were observed, but the pollen of all three mutants was not functional. The development of the female gametophyte of the three mutants stops at an early phase and only in the Lathyrus type mutant in single cases embryosacks were formed with differentiated sex apparatus and early stages of embryo and endosperm development were scored, but they also soon degenerate. It is pointed out that sterility of the three pea mutant forms studied depends on factors, which stop at different stages the normal development of the generative organs, of the female gametophyte and of embryogenesis. (author)

  8. Collection of rice mutants and application studies of their agronomic characters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shuxiang; Jin Wei; Luo Qian; Sheng Ping; Huang Rongmin

    1993-01-01

    More than 1600 accessions of rice mutant germplasm have been collected since 1980, and 1142 accessions of mutants have been identified according to their agronomy and pattern characters. A part of mutants were compared with their original cultivars in eight main agronomic characters. The results showed that the agronomic characters of mutants induced by ionizing radiations changed to both positive and negative directions compared with their original cultivars. Only 6.3% mutants varied in single agronomic character, and 91.1% mutants varied in two to six agronomic characters. Tenetic analysis and Cellular observations were carried out for two kinds of early mutants. It showed that early mutants 'Yuan Feng Zao' are controlled by two independent and incomplete dominant genes. For the dwarf, the reduction of the number of longitudinal cell layers causes the stem shorter and the increase of the number of horizontal cell layers causes the stem wall thicker. More than 100 preserved accessions of mutants were supplied to breeding units as parents or for genetic studies. Sixteen cultivars (lines) were bred from the parents which played an important role in raising the output of rice production

  9. The agronomic characters of a high protein rice mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harn, C.; Won, J.L.; Choi, K.T.

    1975-01-01

    Mutant lines (M 5 -M 9 ) of macro-phenotypic traits from several varieties were screened for the protein content. Mutant 398 (M 9 ) is one of the high protein mutants selected from Hokwang. Three years' tests revealed that it has a high protein line under any condition of cultivation. Except for early maturity and short culmness, other agronomic and yield characters were similar to the original variety. There was no difference between the mutant 398 and its mother variety in grain shape and weight, and also the size and protein content of the embryo. The high protein content of the mutant is attributable to the increase of protein in the endosperm. About 150 normal-looking or a few days-earlier-maturing selections were made from Jinheung variety in the M 3 and screened for protein. Promising lines in terms of the plant type, yield and protein were obtained. (author)

  10. Induction and characterization of Arabidopsis mutants by Ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Y. H.; Choi, J. D.; Park, J. Y.; Lee, J. R.; Sohn, H. S.

    2008-03-01

    This study was conducted to search the proper conditions and times for irradiating proton beam to seeds generally used for induction of mutant. Arabidopsis as model plants has good characters that is a short generation time, producing a lot of seeds, sequenced genome, developed maker. This points were the best materials for plant breeding for this study. The data of inducing mutants of Arabidopsis is used to be applicate to crops have more longer generation that is the final goals of this study. The goals of this project were to inducing and characterizing arabidopsis mutants by the proton ion beam and γ-ray. As well as, the purpose of this study was securing more than 10 lines of arabidopsis mutants in this project and also to know the changed DNA structure of the mutants using the basic data for applying to the more study

  11. Induction and characterization of Arabidopsis mutants by Ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Y. H.; Choi, J. D.; Park, J. Y.; Lee, J. R.; Sohn, H. S. [Gyeongbuk Institute for Bio Industry, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    This study was conducted to search the proper conditions and times for irradiating proton beam to seeds generally used for induction of mutant. Arabidopsis as model plants has good characters that is a short generation time, producing a lot of seeds, sequenced genome, developed maker. This points were the best materials for plant breeding for this study. The data of inducing mutants of Arabidopsis is used to be applicate to crops have more longer generation that is the final goals of this study. The goals of this project were to inducing and characterizing arabidopsis mutants by the proton ion beam and {gamma}-ray. As well as, the purpose of this study was securing more than 10 lines of arabidopsis mutants in this project and also to know the changed DNA structure of the mutants using the basic data for applying to the more study

  12. Multivariate analysis for selecting apple mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faedi, W.; Bagnara, G.L.; Rosati, P.; Cecchini, M.

    1992-01-01

    The mutlivariate analysis of four year records on several vegetative and productive traits of twenty-one apple mutants (3 of 'Jonathan', 3 of 'Ozark Gold', 14 of 'Mollie's Delicious', 1 of 'Neipling's Early Stayman)' induced by gamma radiations showed that observation of some traits of one-year-old shoots is the most efficient way to reveal compact growing apple mutants. In particular, basal cross-section area, total length and leaf area resulted the most appropriate parameters, while internode length together with conopy height and width are less appropriate. The most interesting mutants we found are: one of 'Mollie's Delicious for the best balance among tree and fruit traits and for high skin color; one of 'Neipling's Early Stayman' with an earlier and more extensively red colored apple than the original clone. (author)

  13. Biocontrol potential of salinity tolerant mutants of Trichoderma harzianum against Fusarium oxysporum Potencial de biocontrole de mutantes sal-tolerantes de Trichoderma harzianum contra Fusarium oxysporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Abdel-Latif A. Mohamed

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposing a wild-type culture of Trichoderma harzianum to gamma irradiation induced two stable salt-tolerant mutants (Th50M6 and Th50M11. Under saline conditions, both mutants greatly surpassed their wild type strain in growth rate, sporulation and biological proficiency against Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of tomato wilt disease. Tolerant T. harzianum mutants detained a capability to grow and convinced sporulation in growth media containing up to 69 mM NaCl. In comparison with their parent strain, characterization of both mutants confirmed that they have reinforced contents of proline and hydroxyproline, relatively higher sodium content compared to potassium, calcium or magnesium contents, higher level of total phenols. Electrophoretic analysis of total soluble proteins in the salt tolerance mutant Th50M6 showed different bands accumulated in response to 69 mM NaCl. Data also showed that mutants produce certain active metabolites, such as chitinases, cellulases, beta-galactosidases, as well as, some antibiotics i.e., trichodermin, gliotoxin and gliovirin. Trichoderma mutants significantly reduced wilt disease incidence and improved yield and mineral contents of tomato plants under both saline and non-saline soil conditions, as well as, under infested and natural conditions. T. harzianum mutants were also more efficient in dropping the F. oxysporum growth in rhizosphere compared to the wild type strain. Population density of both mutants in rhizosphere far exceeded that of T. harzianum wild type strain.A exposição de uma cepa selvagem de Trichoderma harzianum à irradiação gama induziu dois mutantes tolerantes a sal (Th50M6 e Th50M11. Em condições salinas, os dois mutantes foram muito superiores à cepa selvagem em relação à velocidade de multiplicação, esporulação e eficiência contra Fusarium oxysporum, o agente causador da doença wilt do tomate. Os mutantes tolerantes foram capazes de multiplicação e esporulação em

  14. Human liver cell trafficking mutants: characterization and whole exome sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yuan

    Full Text Available The HuH7 liver cell mutant Trf1 is defective in membrane trafficking and is complemented by the casein kinase 2α subunit CK2α''. Here we identify characteristic morphologies, trafficking and mutational changes in six additional HuH7 mutants Trf2-Trf7. Trf1 cells were previously shown to be severely defective in gap junction functions. Using a Lucifer yellow transfer assay, remarkable attenuation of gap junction communication was revealed in each of the mutants Trf2-Trf7. Electron microscopy and light microscopy of thiamine pyrophosphatase showed that several mutants exhibited fragmented Golgi apparatus cisternae compared to parental HuH7 cells. Intracellular trafficking was investigated using assays of transferrin endocytosis and recycling and VSV G secretion. Surface binding of transferrin was reduced in all six Trf2-Trf7 mutants, which generally correlated with the degree of reduced expression of the transferrin receptor at the cell surface. The mutants displayed the same transferrin influx rates as HuH7, and for efflux rate, only Trf6 differed, having a slower transferrin efflux rate than HuH7. The kinetics of VSV G transport along the exocytic pathway were altered in Trf2 and Trf5 mutants. Genetic changes unique to particular Trf mutants were identified by exome sequencing, and one was investigated in depth. The novel mutation Ile34Phe in the GTPase RAB22A was identified in Trf4. RNA interference knockdown of RAB22A or overexpression of RAB22AI34F in HuH7 cells caused phenotypic changes characteristic of the Trf4 mutant. In addition, the Ile34Phe mutation reduced both guanine nucleotide binding and hydrolysis activities of RAB22A. Thus, the RAB22A Ile34Phe mutation appears to contribute to the Trf4 mutant phenotype.

  15. Characterization of MMS-sensitive mutants of Neurospora crassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLange, A.M.; Mishra, N.C.

    1982-01-01

    Several MMS-sensitive mutants of Neurospora crassa were compared with the wild-type strain for their relative sensitivities to UV, X-ray, and histidine. They were also compared for the frequency of spontaneous mutation at the loci which confer resistance to p-fluorophenylalanine. The mutants were also examined for possible defects in meiotic behavior in homozygous crosses and for any change in the inducible DNA salvage pathways. On the basis of these characterizations, the present MMS-sensitive mutants of Neurospora can be placed into three groups. On the basis of data presented, the MMS sensitivity of the first group mutants cannot be ascertained to arise from a defect in the DNA repair pathways; instead, it may stem from altered cell permeability or other pleotropic effects of the mus mutations. However, it can be suggested that the second and third group of mus mutants may indeed result from a defect in the DNA repair pathways controlled by the mus genes; this conclusion is based on their cross-sensitivity to a number of DNA-damaging agents such as MMS, UV and/or X-rays, high frequencies of spontaneous mutation and defects in meiotic behavior.

  16. Productive mutants in lemongrass induced by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinathan Nair, V.

    1980-01-01

    Seeds of the lemongrass variety O.D. 19 were irradiated with gamma rays at a dose range of 5 to 30 krad. M 1 plants with one or a few tillers differing from the standard plants of O.D. 19 were selected, split into single slips and planted as clonal progenies. Mutants were isolated in M 1 V 1 and carried forward. Forty two M 1 V 2 mutant clones differing from O.D. 19 in morphological characters such as vigour, plant height, growth habit, pigmentation and number of tillers have been established. These were evaluated for tiller number, grass yield and oil content. Six clones gave higher grass yield, the highest being 556 gm per plant per cutting as against 360 gm in the standard. Five clones gave higher oil yield, the highest being 0.42% as against 0.23% in the standard. Isolation of viable mutants with high grass yield and essential oil content indicate the scope for evolving productive mutant varieties in this perennial aromatic grass. The eleven M 1 V 2 mutant clones are being critically evaluated by estimating oil yield per hectare per year. (author)

  17. [Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, green mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in different areas of the Eastern Venezuela and the West Coast of Trinidad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koftayan, Tamar; Milano, Jahiro; D'Armas, Haydelba; Salazar, Gabriel

    2011-03-01

    The species Perna viridis is a highly consumed species, which fast growth makes it an interesting aquaculture alternative for Venezuelan and Trinidad coasts. With the aim to contribute with its nutritional value information, this study analyzed lipid and fatty acid contents from samples taken in five locations from Eastern Venezuela and three from Trinidad West Coast. Total lipids were extracted and quantified, from a pooled sample of 100 organisms per location, by standard gravimetric methods, and their identification and quantification was done by TLC/FID (Iatroscan system). Furthermore, the esterified fatty acids of total lipid, phospholipids and triacylglycerols were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Eastern Venezuela samples from Los Cedros, La Brea and Chaguaramas showed the highest total lipid values of 7.92, 7.74 and 7.53, respectively, and the minimum values were obtained for La Restinga (6.08%). Among lipid composition, Chacopata samples showed the lowest phospholipid concentration (48.86%) and the maximum values for cholesterol (38.87%) and triacylglycerols (12.26%); besides, La Esmeralda and Rio Caribe samples exhibited maximum phospholipids (88.71 and 84.93 respectively) and minimum cholesterol (6.50 and 4.42%) concentrations. Saturated fatty acids represented between 15.04% and 65.55% within total lipid extracts, with maximum and minimum values for La Esmeralda and Chacopata, respectively. Polyunsaturated results resulted between 7.80 and 37.18%, with higher values in La Brea and lower values in La Esmeralda. For phospholipids, saturated fatty acids concentrations varied between 38.81 and 48.68% for Chaguaramas and Chacopata samples, respectively. In the case of polyunsaturated fatty acids, these varied between non detected and 34.51%, with high concentrations in Los Cedros (27.97%) and Chaguaramas (34.51%) samples. For the triacylglycerols, the saturated fatty acids composition oscillated between 14.27 and 53.80% with low

  18. Generation and characterization of pigment mutants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compared to the wild CC-124, these mutants are characterized by a decrease in chlorophyll a & b content and an increase in carotenoids. The lowest decrease in chlorophyll a was 3 to 4 folds, while the highest increase in carotenoids was 2 to 4 folds. The result of bio-test, using the resulting pigment mutant of C. reinhardtii ...

  19. Study on ionizing radiosensitivity of respiratory deficiency yeast mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Shuhong; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Jin Genming; Wei Zengquan; Xie Hongmei

    2006-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of respiratory deficiency yeast mutants has been studied in this work. The mutants which were screened from the yeasts after ionizing irradiation were irradiated with 12 C 6+ at different doses. Because of the great change in its mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA, the respiratory deficiency yeast mutants show radio-sensitivity at dose less than 1 Gy and radioresistance at doses higher than 1 Gy. (authors)

  20. Development of Database Software with Plant Mutant Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namgoong, Won; Lee, M. J.; Kim, J. D.; Ma, N. K.

    2007-03-01

    In this research, mutants induced by nuclear radiation are developed information computerised system. The status and progress on the collection, identification and utilization of mutants in Korea are introduced. And it was produced home page, manual, test record, construction of system

  1. Construindo Marcas Mutantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizete De Azevedo Kreutz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo é o resultado de estudos realizados desde 2000 e busca instrumentalizar os proñssionals para a construção de Marcas Mutantes, que é   uma tendência contemporânea nas estratégias comunicacionais e de branding. Embora esta estratégia ainda não esteja consolidada, observamos que a mesma tem obtido um crescimento constante e tem sido adotadas pelas mais diferentes categorias de marcas e não apenas por aquelas direcionadas aos jovens, ao esporte, ao entretenimento, como era no principia. Com base na Hermenêutica de Profundidade de Thompson (1995, alicerçada nas pesquisas bibliográficas, de intemet, entrevistas e análise semiótica, desenhamos um método de construção de Marcas Mutantes dividido em sete fases. Como resultado, esperamos que este estudo possa auxiliar na compreensão dos processos envolvidos, ao mesmo tempo que provoque a discussão sobreo mesmo e, por consequência, o seu aprimoramento.

  2. Mutants of Cercospora kikuchii altered in cercosporin synthesis and pathogenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upchurch, R.G.; Walker, D.C.; Rollins, J.A.; Ehrenshaft, M.; Daub, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have obtained spontaneous and UV-induced stable mutants, altered in the synthesis of cercosporin, of the fungal soybean pathogen Cercospora kikuchii. The mutants were isolated on the basis of colony color on minimal medium. The UV-induced mutants accumulated, at most, 2% of wild-type cercosporin levels on all media tested. In contrast, cercosporin accumulation by the spontaneous mutants was strongly medium regulated, occurring only on potato dextrose medium but at concentrations comparable to those produced by the wild-type strain. UV-induced mutants unable to synthesize cercosporin on any medium were unable to incite lesions when inoculated onto the soybean host. Cercosporin was reproducibly isolated from all inoculated leaves showing lesions. Although cercosporin involvement in disease has been indirectly suggested by many previous studies, this is the first report in which mutants blocked in cercosporin synthesis have been used to demonstrate that cercosporin is a crucial pathogenicity factor for this fungal genus

  3. Connexin mutants and cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C Beyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The lens is a multicellular, but avascular tissue that must stay transparent to allow normal transmission of light and focusing of it on the retina. Damage to lens cells and/or proteins can cause cataracts, opacities that disrupt these processes. The normal survival of the lens is facilitated by an extensive network of gap junctions formed predominantly of connexin46 and connexin50. Mutations of the genes that encode these connexins (GJA3 and GJA8 have been identified and linked to inheritance of cataracts in human families and mouse lines. In vitro expression studies of several of these mutants have shown that they exhibit abnormalities that may lead to disease. Many of the mutants reduce or modify intercellular communication due to channel alterations (including loss of function or altered gating or due to impaired cellular trafficking which reduces the number of gap junction channels within the plasma membrane. However, the abnormalities detected in studies of other mutants suggest that they cause cataracts through other mechanisms including gain of hemichannel function (leading to cell injury and death and formation of cytoplasmic accumulations (that may act as light scattering particles. These observations and the anticipated results of ongoing studies should elucidate the mechanisms of cataract development due to mutations of lens connexins and abnormalities of other lens proteins. They may also contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of disease due to connexin mutations in other tissues.

  4. Distribución de los inmaduros de Antichloris viridis Druce, 1884 en la planta de plátano (Musa AAB, sub grupo plátano, cv. Hartón) en el sur del lago de Maracaibo, Venezuela.

    OpenAIRE

    Liscano, O.A.; Domínguez Gil, O

    2005-01-01

    Para determinar la distribución de Antichloris viridis, en la planta de plátano, se seleccionaron dos plantaciones comerciales, en los municipios Francisco Javier Pulgar y Colón del estado Zulia, Venezuela. Se clasificaron los estados de desarrollo de las plantas (GD) en seis grados de acuerdo al número de hojas y el estado fisiológico de la planta. Se determinó el % de defoliación y la presencia de huevos, larvas pequeñas, medianas y grandes y pupas por hoja. Se delimitaron tres estratos por...

  5. High-Protein Soybean Mutants by Using Irradiation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yathaputanon, C.; Kumsueb, B.; Srisombun, S.

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Soybean variety improvement for high seed protein using induced mutation was initiated. Approximately 5,000 seeds of soybean variety Chiang Mai 60 were irradiated with gamma rays at the dose of 200 Grays at Kasetsart University. High-protein seed mutants in M2 to M4 generations were selected at Nakhon Ratchasima Field Crops Research Center during 2004-2008. The Pedigree method of selection was used. Kjeldahl method was used to analyze seed protein percentages. The M2 seeds protein content of the M2 generation was 45.2% while that of the original parent was 43.0%. M3s were seeded plant to row. In each row, the best four plants were selected for protein analysis. The average protein content of selected mutant lines was 3.9% while the check variety had average protein content of 42.4%. In the M4 generation, the result showed that the average protein contents of the selected mutant lines and the check variety were 42.8% and 42.0%, respectively. In the 2007-2008 trials, four promising mutants had and average protein content of 428%, while the check variety had and average protein content of 41.1%. The four mutants produced the mean grain yield of 2.20-2.42 t/Ha, which was 10.21% higher than that of Chiang Mai 60. The mutant lines produced both a high grain protein content and a high grain yield. They will be further tested their adaptability in the research centers and farmer fields

  6. Gamma ray induced male sterility mutant in lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.; Yadav, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Male sterility refers to the failure of pollen grains to bring about effective fertilization, either due to structural default or physiological disfunctioning and has special significance in hybridization programmes. Male steriles have been produced in a number of crop plants like red gram, pigeon pea, mung bean, khesari and lentil. A completely male sterile mutant was isolated in Lens culinaris Medik, after seed treatment with 100 Gy dose of gamma rays. The male sterile mutant showed 100% pollen sterility but was morphologically more vigorous than the parent plants. It showed more branches and its leaves were bigger, more oblong and dark green. The number of flowers borne by the mutant was significantly higher than any other plant of the treatment. The size of the flowers was also increased but the anthers were smaller in size. Pollen grains were few in number, round in shape but empty and did not take up any stain, indicating that normal microsporogenesis had not taken place. This male sterile mutant was used as the female parent and pollinated with pollen of a parent. Four pods with one seed in each were formed indicating that the mutant was female fertile. The seeds were smaller than those of the parent variety and also dark coloured. The mutant showed increased vigour and flower number as compared to parental plants. Lentil is an important pulse crop and induction of variability in its germplasm is necessary for its improvement. Male steriles can be used conveniently in lentil hybridization programmes. (author)

  7. Two-Step Hydrothermal Synthesis of Bifunctional Hematite-Silver Heterodimer Nanoparticles for Potential Antibacterial and Anticancer Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Vu Thi; Tam, Le Thi; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Van Quy, Nguyen; Huy, Tran Quang; Le, Anh-Tuan

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, the development of composite nanostructures containing noble metal and magnetic nanocrystals has attracted much interest because they offer a promising avenue for multifunctional applications in nanomedicine and pharmacotherapy. In this work, we present a facile two-step hydrothermal approach for the synthesis of bifunctional heterodimer nanoparticles (HDNPs) composed of hematite nanocubes (α-Fe2O3 NCs) and silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs). The formation and magnetic property of α-Fe2O3-Ag HDNPs was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometer. Interestingly, the hydrothermal-synthesized α-Fe2O3-Ag HDNPs were found to display significant antibacterial activity against three types of infectious bacteria. The cytotoxicity of α-Fe2O3-Ag nanocomposite against lung cancer A549 cell line was investigated and compared with that of pure α-Fe2O3 NCs and Ag-NPs. The obtained results reveal that the α-Fe2O3-Ag nanocomposite exhibited higher anticancer performance than that of pure Ag-NPs, whereas pure α-Fe2O3 NCs were not cytotoxic to the tested cells. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the α-Fe2O3-Ag nanocomposite was found at 20.94 μg/mL. With the aforementioned properties, α-Fe2O3-Ag HDNPs showed a high potential as a multifunctional material for advanced biomedicine and nanotherapy applications.

  8. Temperature-sensitive host range mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koment, R.W.; Rapp, F.

    1975-01-01

    Herpesviruses are capable of several types of infection of a host cell. To investigate the early events which ultimately determine the nature of the virus-host cell interaction, a system was established utilizing temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2. Four mutants have been isolated which fail to induce cytopathic effects and do not replicate at 39 C in hamster embryo fibroblast cells. At least one mutant is virus DNA negative. Since intracellular complementation is detectable between pairs of mutants, a virus function is known to be temperature sensitive. However, all four mutants induce cytopathic effects and replicate to parental virus levels in rabbit kidney cells at 39 C. This suggests that a host cell function, lacking or nonfunctional in HEF cells but present in rabbit kidney cells at 39 C, is required for the replication of these mutants in hamster embryo fibroblast cells at 39 C. Therefore, we conclude that these mutants are both temperature sensitive and exhibit host range properties

  9. Molar extinction coefficients and other properties of an improved reaction center preparation from Rhodopseudomonas viridis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, R.K.; Clayton, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    Reaction centers have been purified from chromatophores of Rhodopseudomonas viridis by treatment with lauryl dimethyl amine oxide followed by hydroxyapatite chromatography and precipitation with ammonium sulfate. The absorption spectrum at low temperature shows bands at 531 and 543 nm, assigned to two molecules of bacteriopheophytin b. The 600 nm band of bacteriochlorophyll b is resolved at low temperature into components at 601 and 606.5 nm. At room temperature the light-induced difference spectrum shows a negative band centered at 615 nm, where the absorption spectrum shows only a week shoulder adjacent to the 600 nm band. The fluorescence spectrum shows a band at 1000 nm and no fluorescence corresponding to the 830 nm absorption band. Two molecules of cytochrome 558 and three of cytochrome 552 accompany each reaction center. The differential extinction coefficient (reduced minus oxidized) of cytochrome 558 nm was estimated as 20 +- 2 mM/sup -1/.cm/sup -1/ through a coupled reaction with equine cytochrome c. The extinction coefficient of reaction centers at 960 nm was determined to be 123 +- 25 mM/sup -1/.cm/sup -1/ by measuring the light-induced bleaching of P-960 and the coupled oxidation of cytochrome 558. The corresponding extinction coefficient at 830 nm is 300 +- 65 mM/sup -1/.cm/sup -1/. The absorbance ratio ..cap alpha../sub 280nm/..cap alpha../sub 830nm/ in our preparations was 2.1, and there was 190 kg protein per mol of reaction centers. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed three major components of apparent molecular weights 31,000, 37,000, and 41,000.

  10. Induced mutants for the improvement of sesame and hybrid seed production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, G.S.S.

    2001-01-01

    With an overall objective to develop hybrids in sesame, induced mutants were used in cross breeding and five initial yield trials were conducted. For obtaining the mutant hybrids, recessive morphological mutants were used as female, and check varieties as male parents. In each trial, seed yields of mutant hybrids were compared with: i) the original parent in which the mutants were induced, ii) best check variety and iii) best cultivar hybrid. Among 138 mutant hybrids evaluated between 1994 and 1997, 18 showed superiority. In the development of hybrids, it is also desirable to have male sterile lines. By irradiating seeds with 400 Gy gamma rays, four genetic male sterile mutants were isolated. One of them, TMST-11 appears to be promising for breeding programme showing 100% male sterility and characterised by dark green foliage. To study the percent outcrossing, a monogenic chlorina mutant which can be identified from the seedling stage, was used in experiments conducted for two years. Among open pollinated plants, 92-98% plants were found outcrossed. Based on plant to row progenies, percent outcrossing ranged between 0.0 to 13.8%. (author)

  11. Molecular Genetic Identification Of Some Flax Mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AMER, I.M.; MOUSTAFA, H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Five flax genotypes (Linum usitatissimum L.) i.e., commercial cultivar Sakha 2, the mother variety Giza 4 and three mutant types induced by gamma rays, were screened for their salinity tolerance in field experiments (salinity concentration was 8600 and 8300 ppm for soil and irrigation water, respectively). Mutation 6 was the most salt tolerant as compared to the other four genotypes.RAPD technique was used to detect some molecular markers associated with salt tolerance in flax (Mut 6), RAPD-PCR results using 12 random primers exhibited 149 amplified fragments; 91.9% of them were polymorphic and twelve molecular markers (8.1%) for salt tolerant (mutant 6) were identified with molecular size ranged from 191 to 4159 bp and only eight primers successes to amplify these specific markers. Concerning the other mutants, Mut 15 and Mut 25 exhibited 4.3% and 16.2% specific markers, respectively. The induced mutants exhibited genetic similarity to the parent variety were about 51%, 58.3% and 61.1% for Mut 25, Mut 6 and Mut 15, respectively. These specific markers (SM) are used for identification of the induced mutations and it is important for new variety registration.

  12. Semi-dwarf mutant lines of hexaploid triticale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pidra, M.

    1989-01-01

    A spring form of hexaploid secondary triticale ADD 143/71, bred by MOGILEVA at the Plant Breeding Station at Uhretice was used for the mutagen treatment. The mutation experiment started in 1979. Seeds were treated with a 0.8 mM water solution of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNH) (CETL and RELICHOVA, unpublished). From 180 M 1 plants, one spike was harvested per plant. A random sample of these seeds was sown as M 2 in 1980 and several plants with shorter main culm were selected. Selfed progenies of eight mutant plants designated ADD 143-m1, ADD 143-m2, ADD 143-m3 etc. were further tested in M 3 and M 4 . There were significant differences in culm length and in some other characters between the original line and the mutant lines. Especially the line m8 looks like a promising source of semi-dwarfness for breeding programmes of hexaploid triticale. During 1985-1987 genetic analysis was performed on the ADD 143/71 and the mutant lines m2, m6, m7 and m8, which suggest that their mutant genes are allelic and recessive

  13. Subunit-specific phenotypes of Salmonella typhimurium HU mutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Hillyard, D R; Edlund, M; Hughes, K T; Marsh, M; Higgins, N P

    1990-01-01

    Salmonella hupA and hupB mutants were studied to determine the reasons for the high degree of conservation in HU structure in bacteria. We found one HU-1-specific effect; the F'128 plasmid was 25-fold less stable in hupB compared with hupA or wild-type cells. F' plasmids were 120-fold more unstable in hupA hupB double mutants compared with wild-type cells, and the double mutant also had a significant alteration in plasmid DNA structure. pBR322 DNA isolated from hupA hupB strains was deficient...

  14. Mutation induction and evaluation of high yield rice mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Rahim Harun; Sobri Husein; Rusli Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    The successful use of plant breeding for improving crops requires the existence of genetic variation of useful traits. Unfortunately, the desired variation is often lacking. However, radiation has been used to induce mutations and thereby generate genetic variation from which desired mutants may be selected. Mutation induction has become a proven way of creating variation within a crop variety. It offers the possibility of inducing desired attributes that either cannot be expressed in nature or have been lost during evolution. Rice is security food crop in Malaysia. Efforts were undertaken to enhance rice yield from 4.0 tones per hectare in 1995 to 5.5 tones per hectare in 2010. Proper management and good varieties are two factors that require for enhancing yield of rice. In this research, purified seeds of MR211 and MR219 were gamma irradiated at 100 to 400 Gray and sown for planting as M1 generation at MARDI experimental plot. The M2 population was sown in bulk with population size around 15,000 to 20,000 plants. Individual plant selection was carried out at maturity and each selected plant became a mutant line of M3 generation. Agronomic trial of M3 mutants lines were conducted in Mardi, Tanjung Karang, Selangor. About 115 of selected mutant lines were evaluated. Each row of those mutant lines were planted in two rows at planting distance of 25cm within and between rows. These mutant lines were visually observed and data were recorded in each of every mutant line. (Author)

  15. Biological changes in Barley mutants resistant to powdery mildew disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, I. M.; Fahim, M. M.; Moustafa, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    physiological studies showed that all kinds of chlorophyll (a), (b) and (a + b) content in infected plant were decreased while, the carotenes pigment were increased. Infection generally reduced total sugars content of all resistant mutants. Infected resistant mutant showed more phenols content and peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase activities than healthy ones of the mutants. (Author)

  16. Reactions of green lizards (Lacerta viridis) to major repellent compounds secreted by Graphosoma lineatum (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorovičová, Martina; Černíková, Alena

    2015-06-01

    The chemical defence of Heteroptera is primarily based on repellent secretions which signal the potential toxicity of the bug to its predators. We tested the aversive reactions of green lizards (Lacerta viridis) towards the major compounds of the defensive secretion of Graphosoma lineatum, specifically: (i) a mixture of three aldehydes: (E)-hex-2-enal, (E)-oct-2-enal, (E)-dec-2-enal; (ii) a mixture of these three aldehydes and tridecane; (iii) oxoaldehyde: (E)-4-oxohex-2-enal; (iv) secretion extracted from metathoracic scent glands of G. lineatum adults and (v) hexane as a non-polar solvent. All chemicals were presented on a palatable food (Tenebrio molitor larvae). The aversive reactions of the green lizards towards the mealworms were evaluated by observing the approach latencies, attack latencies and approach-attack intervals. The green lizards exhibited a strong aversive reaction to the mixture of three aldehydes. Tridecane reduced the aversive reaction to the aldehyde mixture. Oxoaldehyde caused the weakest, but still significant, aversive reaction. The secretion from whole metathoracic scent glands also clearly had an aversive effect on the green lizards. Moreover, when a living specimen of G. lineatum or Pyrrhocoris apterus (another aposematic red-and-black prey) was presented to the green lizards before the trials with the aldehyde mixture, the aversive effect of the mixture was enhanced. In conclusion, the mixture of three aldehydes had the strong aversive effect and could signal the potential toxicity of G. lineatum to the green lizards. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Functional polarity of the tentacle of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis: role in inorganic carbon acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furla, P; Bénazet-Tambutté, S; Jaubert, J; Allemand, D

    1998-02-01

    The oral epithelial layers of anthozoans have a polarized morphology: photosynthetic endosymbionts live within endodermal cells facing the coelenteric cavity and are separated from the external seawater by the ectodermal layer and the mesoglea. To study if this morphology plays a role in the supply of inorganic carbon for symbiont photosynthesis, we measured the change in pH and the rate of OH- (H+) fluxes induced by each cell layer on a tentacle of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Light-induced pH increase of the medium bathing the endodermal layers led to the generation of a transepithelial pH gradient of approximately 0.8 pH units across the tentacle, whereas darkness induced acidification of this medium. The light-induced pH change was associated with an increase of total alkalinity. Only the endodermal layer was able to induce a net OH- secretion (H+ absorption). The light-induced OH- secretion by the endodermal cell layer was dependent on the presence of HCO3- in the compartment facing the ectoderm and was sensitive to several inhibitors of ion transport. [14C] HCO3- incorporation into photosynthates confirmed the ectodermal supply, the extent of which varied from 25 to > 90%, according to HCO3- availability. Our results suggest that the light-induced OH- secretion by the endodermal cell layer followed the polarized transport of HCO3- and its subsequent decarboxylation within the endodermal cell layer. This polarity may play a significant role both in inorganic carbon absorption and in the control of light-enhanced calcification in scleractinian corals.

  18. Phage Pl mutants with altered transducing abilities for Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, J.D.; Harriman, P.D.

    1974-01-01

    A search was made for mutants of the coliphage P1 with altered transducing frequencies. A method was developed for the rapid assay of transducing frequencies in single plaques using prophage lambda as the transduced bacterial marker. This procedure selects for mutants altered in their ability to package host DNA. Mutants with 5 to 10 times higher or 10 to 20 times lower frequencies than those of wild-type P1 were found. Not only are the markers used for the detection of the mutants affected, but all other markers are similarly affected (not always to the same extent). One of the high transducing frequency mutants is a suppressible amber, indicating that loss of a function increases P1's ability to package host DNA preferentially. (U.S.)

  19. Photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability in several soybean mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandanegara, S.; Hendratno, K.

    1987-01-01

    Photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability in several soybean mutant lines. A greenhouse experiment has been carried out to study photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability of five mutant lines and two soybean varieties. An amount of 330 uCi of 14 CO 2 was fed to the plants including of the non-fixing reference crop (Chippewa non-nodulating isoline). Nitrogen fixation measurements was carried out using 15 N isotope dilution technique according to A-value concept. Results showed that beside variety/mutant lines, plant growth also has important role in photosynthetic and N fixing capability. Better growth and a higher photosynthetic capability in Orba, mutant lines nos. 63 and 65 resulted in a greater amount of N 2 fixed (mg N/plant) than other mutant lines. (author). 12 refs.; 5 figs

  20. Isolation and characterization of stable mutants of Streptomyces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Daunorubicin and its derivative doxorubicin are antitumour anthracycline antibiotics produced by Streptomyces peucetius. In this study we report isolation of stable mutants of S. peucetius blocked in different steps of the daunorubicin biosynthesis pathway. Mutants were screened on the basis of colony colour since producer ...

  1. Compact type mutants in apple and sour cherries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagaja, S.W.; Przybyla, A.

    1976-01-01

    Induction of mutations in deciduous fruits is considered complementary to the conventional breeding methods. Several promissing mutants, particularly in apples, were described and some of them were introduced to commercial orchards. Studies described herein are aimed at developing compact type mutants in apple cultivars, apple rootstocks and in sour cherry cultivars. Data obtained so far confirm the results of the other authors, who developed compact type mutants in apples and sweet cherries. Physiological studies have shown that the leaves of spontaneous apple mutants of compact type are more efficient in photosynthesis than the leaves of respective standards. In spite of this, using branch ringing techniques, it was found that the leaves of compacts and those of standards do not differ in their productivity. There seem to be several advantages in employing tissue culture technique in mutation breeding. That is why a project was started to work out a method of growing apple shoots from adventitious buds developed on sections of roots. (author)

  2. early maturing mutants in Indica rice and their traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; He Zhentian; Han Yuepeng; Liu Xueyu; Yang Hefeng; Xu Chenwu; Gu Shiliang

    1998-01-01

    The correlation and genetic parameters of eleven agronomic characters of 50 early mature lines induced from late mature cultivar, IR 1529-68-3-2 were studied by morphological classification and correlation and regression analysis. The results showed that: 1. The early mutants could be divided into two ecotype: early mature type and medium mature type of mid-maturity rice. 2. The 1000-grain weight of early mutants negatively correlated with the length of growing period. 3. According to direct path coefficients, the relation with heading period of early mutants was in order of 1000-grain-weight>plant height>seed sterility. 4.The higher heritability in broad sense were found in plant height, 1000 grain weight and heading period of the early mutants

  3. Different ways to die: cell death modes of the unicellular chlorophyte Dunaliella viridis exposed to various environmental stresses are mediated by the caspase-like activity DEVDase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Carlos; Capasso, Juan M; Edelstein, Charles L; Rivard, Christopher J; Lucia, Scott; Breusegem, Sophia; Berl, Tomás; Segovia, María

    2009-01-01

    Programmed cell death is necessary for homeostasis in multicellular organisms and it is also widely recognized to occur in unicellular organisms. However, the mechanisms through which it occurs in unicells, and the enzymes involved within the final response is still the subject of heated debate. It is shown here that exposure of the unicellular microalga Dunaliella viridis to several environmental stresses, induced different cell death morphotypes, depending on the stimulus received. Senescent cells demonstrated classical and unambiguous apoptotic-like characteristics such as chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, intact organelles, and blebbing of the cell membrane. Acute heat shock caused general swelling and altered plasma membrane, but the presence of chromatin clusters and DNA strand breaks suggested a necrotic-like event. UV irradiated cells presented changes typical for necrosis, together with apoptotic characteristics resembling an intermediate cell-death phenotype termed aponecrosis-like. Cells subjected to hyperosmotic shock revealed chromatin spotting without DNA fragmentation, and extensive cytoplasmic swelling and vacuolization, comparable to a paraptotic-like cell death phenotype. Nitrogen-starved cells showed pyknosis, blebbing, and cytoplasmic consumption, indicating a similarity to autophagic/vacuolar-like cell death. The caspase-like activity DEVDase was measured by using the fluorescent substrate Ac-DEVD-AMC and antibodies against the human caspase-3 active enzyme cross-reacted with bands, the intensity of which paralleled the activity. All the environmental stresses tested produced a substantial increase in both DEVDase activity and protein levels. The irreversible caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK completely inhibited the enzymatic activity whereas serine and aspartyl proteases inhibitors did not. These results show that cell death in D. viridis does not conform to a single pattern and that environmental stimuli may produce different types of

  4. Promising mutant variety of rice evolved through gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, S.C.; Sinha, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    Rice occupies a major share in crop production in the Chotanagpur plateau of Bihar State. Uplands are roughly 40% in area where traditional low yielding rice, known as ''gora'' is cultivated as directly sown crop. Despite introduction of high yielding rice varieties, gora group of rices continue to prevail. It is therefore desired to increase the productivity level of the gora rice by mutation breeding. One such mutant known as ''gora mutant'' was obtained through gamma irradiation (10 kR) of variety Brown gora. The maturity of both parent and mutant remaining constant (ie. 100 days), there is some improvement in other characteristics like plant height, tillering capacity and kernel character. The parent being tall, shy in tillering and red bold kernel, the mutant has dwarfish characteristics, profuse tillering habit and white kernel with fine grains. The yielding capacity of mutant derivative is 30-40% higher than the parent Brown gora. This variety is in pre-release stage, and the farmers have taken great liking for it. (author)

  5. A preliminary yield trial of some soybean mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratma, Rivaie

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary yield trial of some soybean mutant lines, derived from irradiated Orba variety with dose of 0.40 kGy, were carried out during the wet and dry season in 1979-1982 in Muara and Citayam, Bogor. The result obtained showed that yield potential of mutant lines no. M6/40/10 was higher than that of the control in dry season in 1979 as well as in the wet season of 1979/80 in Muara. Whereas, the yield potential of the mutant lines no. M6/40/8 and no. M6/40/14 were higher than that of the control only in the wet season. The yield potential of semi dwarf mutant lines no. M6/40/68 was highly significant compared to that of the control in dry season in Muara and the wet season in 1981/82 in Citayam. Whereas, the yield potential of the mutant lines no. M6/40/69 was higher yield compared to that of the control in dry season in 1981 in Muara. (author). 10 refs

  6. Applications of Protein Thermodynamic Database for Understanding Protein Mutant Stability and Designing Stable Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromiha, M Michael; Anoosha, P; Huang, Liang-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    Protein stability is the free energy difference between unfolded and folded states of a protein, which lies in the range of 5-25 kcal/mol. Experimentally, protein stability is measured with circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry, and fluorescence spectroscopy using thermal and denaturant denaturation methods. These experimental data have been accumulated in the form of a database, ProTherm, thermodynamic database for proteins and mutants. It also contains sequence and structure information of a protein, experimental methods and conditions, and literature information. Different features such as search, display, and sorting options and visualization tools have been incorporated in the database. ProTherm is a valuable resource for understanding/predicting the stability of proteins and it can be accessed at http://www.abren.net/protherm/ . ProTherm has been effectively used to examine the relationship among thermodynamics, structure, and function of proteins. We describe the recent progress on the development of methods for understanding/predicting protein stability, such as (1) general trends on mutational effects on stability, (2) relationship between the stability of protein mutants and amino acid properties, (3) applications of protein three-dimensional structures for predicting their stability upon point mutations, (4) prediction of protein stability upon single mutations from amino acid sequence, and (5) prediction methods for addressing double mutants. A list of online resources for predicting has also been provided.

  7. Evaluation of some mutant lines of rice induced by gamma radiation treatment 1. mean performance of rice mutants in M4 generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Banna, M.N.; El-Wakil, H.M.F.; Ebaid, R.A.; Sallam, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Grains of eight rice mutants; SC 1, SC 6, RTY 1, RTY 3, HY 14, HYI 17, EH 4 and HYPI 22 were secured from Botany Department Faculty of Agriculture Cairo university. The procedures and the methodology for induction these mutants as well as the original mean performance of such mutants are presented else where; Sabbour, (1989) and Sabbour etal. (2002). Grains were sown (M4 generation) at the experimental farm in Itai EI-Baroud Agricultural Research Station Behaira Governorate Agricultural Research Center (ARC) in the summer season (2007). The mean performance of such mutants was studied during M4 generation. The most exciting results were as follows: the selected line SC 1 showed in M4 generation superior agronomic and yield traits. Sc 1 mutant line is not bred truly and it need more generations to reach stability. SC 6 in M4 generation showed considerable number of individuals scored low mean values toward the negative direction and lowering the overall trait mean performance. The rice lines RTY 1 and RTY 3 proved that, the average number of fertile tillers per plant of the selected lines maintained previously recorded mean values of M3 generation in M4. The traits showed significant differences among their progeny that recorded high CV% values as compared with those showed no significant differences. The rice lines HY 14 and HYI 17 showed a true breeding signs and no more breeding generations are required. Rice lines EH 4, showed a considerable reduction in number of days elapsed from date of cultivation till harvest. As, this mutant maintained 86.58 days till heading. Rice mutant line HYPI 22 did not bred truly for the original selected traits (high yield and high protein content) and it still need more generations of selection to reach considerable stability

  8. Nonbehavioral Selection for Pawns, Mutants of PARAMECIUM AURELIA with Decreased Excitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Stanley J.

    1976-01-01

    The reversal response in Paramecium aurelia is mediated by calcium which carries the inward current during excitation. Electrophysiological studies indicate that strontium and barium can also carry the inward current. Exposure to high concentrations of barium rapidly paralyzes and later kills wild-type paramecia. Following mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine, seven mutants which continued to swim in the `high-barium' solution were selected. All of the mutants show decreased reversal behavior, with phenotypes ranging from extremely non-reversing (`extreme' pawns) to nearly wild-type reversal behavior (`partial' pawns). The mutations fall into three complementation groups, identical to the pwA, pwB, and pwC genes of Kung et al. (1975). All of the pwA and pwB mutants withstand longer exposure to barium, the pwB mutants surviving longer than the pwA mutants. Among mutants of each gene, survival is correlated with loss of reversal behavior. Double mutants (A–B, A–C, B–C), identified in the exautogamous progeny of crosses between `partial' mutants, exhibited a more extreme non-reversing phenotype than either of their single-mutant (`partial' pawn) parents.———Inability to reverse could be expected from an alteration in the calcium-activated reversal mechanism or in excitation. A normal calcium-activated structure was demonstrated in all pawns by chlorpromazine treatment. In a separate report (Schein, Bennett and Katz 1976) the results of electrophysiological investigations directly demonstrate decreased excitability in all of the mutants, a decrease due to an altered calcium activation. The studies of the genetics, the survival in barium and the electro-physiology of the pawns demonstrate that the pwA and pwB genes have different effects on calcium activation. PMID:1001878

  9. Identification of a novel ga-related bush mutant in pumpkin (cucurbita moschata duchesne)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.; Cao, J.

    2015-01-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) bush mutant plants were characterized by short stems. The sensitivity of pumpkin bush mutant plants to exogenous hormones was identified in this study. Results revealed that internode elongation of bush mutant plants could respond to gibberellins (GA4+7 and GA3), but not to indole acetic acid (IAA) and brassinosteroids (BR); by contrast, the mutant phenotype of bush mutant plants could not be fully rescued by GA4+7 and GA3. The internode of bush mutant plants yielded a lower KS expression level than that of vine plants. Therefore, pumpkin bush mutant plants were designated as GA-related mutant plants eliciting a partial response to GAs; the action of IAA and BR might not be involved in the internode growth of pumpkin bush mutant plants, specifically Cucurbita moschata Duch. (author)

  10. Mutant lines of currant tomato, valuable germplasm with multiple disease resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govorova, G.F.; Khrustaleva, V.V.; Shcherbakov, V.K.

    1987-01-01

    Studies were carried out for two years on eight mutant lines of currant tomato at the Krymsk Experimental Breeding Station of the N.I. Vavilov All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Plant-Growing (VIR). The station is situated in an area of commercial field tomato growing (Krasnodar region). The mutant lines of currant tomato (VIR specimen No. k-4053) were obtained through chronic gamma-irradiation. A disease resistance evaluation of the mutants was carried out for Verticillium wilt (Verticillium albo-atrum Rein. and Berth.), for black bacterial spotting (Xanthomonas vesicatoria Dows.), for tobacco mosaic virus Nicotiana 1 Smith), for streak virus (Nicotiana 1), for the combination TMV with X and Y potato viruses, for cucumber virus (Cucumis 1), and also for top rot. Fifty plants of each mutant line were evaluated and checks were made three times in each season. A comparison of the currant tomato mutants with the standard tomato varieties demonstrates the better resistance shown by the mutant germplasm to the main pathogens. The degree to which some currant tomato mutants were affected by Verticillium was lower than that of the most VerticiIlium-resistant samples of tomato evaluated between 1975 and 1981. The mutants of currant tomato should therefore be of interest as germplasm in breeding tomatoes for improved multiple disease resistance

  11. A chilling sensitive mutant of Arabidopsis with altered steryl-ester metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugly, S.; McCourt, P.; Somerville, C.; Browse, J.; Patterson, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    A chilling-sensitive mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana was isolated and subjected to genetic, physiological, and biochemical analysis. The chilling-sensitive nature of the mutant line is due to a single recessive nuclear mutation at a locus designated chs1. In contrast to wild-type plants, which are not adversely affected by low temperatures, the chs1 mutant is killed by several days of exposure to temperatures below 18 degree C. Following exposure to chilling temperatures, the mutant displays two common symptoms of chilling injury - leaf chlorosis and electrolyte leakage. In these respects, the physiological response of the mutant to low temperatures mimics the response observed in some naturally occurring chilling sensitive species. The biochemical basis of chilling sensitivity was explored by examining the pattern of incorporation of 14 CO 2 into soluble metabolites and lipids in wild-type and mutant plants. The only difference observed between the mutant and wild type was that following low temperature treatment, the mutant accumulated 10-fold more radioactivity in a specific class of neutral lipids which were identified by a variety of criteria to be steryl-esters. The accumulation of radioactivity in the steryl-ester fraction occurs 24 hours before there is any visible evidence of chilling injury

  12. Sodium azide mutagenesis in wheat: Mutants with golden glumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, K.A.; Jafri, K.A.; Arain, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    In bread wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (2n=6x=42, AABBDD), detection of induced mutations is hampered by the presence of duplicate and triplicate genes. Induced changes in spike characteristics are known, but mutants with changed glume colour do not seem to have been reported. Physical mutagens such as gamma rays, thermal neutrons and fast neutrons, and chemical mutagens like EMS, El, dES and NEH have been extensively used for induction of mutations in bread wheat but it seems as if these mutagens did not induce mutants with changed glume colour. We used sodium azide for inducing mutations in the widely adapted cultivar 'Sonalika', which is characterized by brown glume colour. Presoaked seeds were treated with 0.2M sodium azide for 3 hours. Three spikes were harvested from each M 1 plant. M 2 generation was space-planted as spike progeny. We were successful in identifying 3 mutants with golden glumes. The mutants resemble 'Sonalika' in other spike characteristics. The mutants glume colour was confirmed in M 3 . The mutants were also evaluated for agronomically important characteristics. Some characters were significantly different from the parent. Glume colours may be useful as genetic markers since such characters are less influenced by the environment. Our investigation confirms that also agronomically useful genetic variation may be readily induced in bread wheat through sodium azide

  13. Production and characterization of radiation-sensitive meiotic mutants of Coprinus cinereus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolan, M.E.; Tremel, C.J.; Pukkila, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    We have isolated four gamma-sensitive mutants of the basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus. When homozygous, two of these (rad 3-1 and rad 9-1) produce fruiting bodies with very few viable basidiospores, the products of meiosis in this organism. A less radiation-sensitive allele of RAD 3, rad 3-2, causes no apparent meiotic defect in homozygous strains. Quantitative measurements of oidial survival of rad 3-1;rad 9-1 double mutants compared to the single mutants indicated that rad 3-1 and rad 9-1 mutants are defective in the same DNA repair pathway. In the pew viable basidiospores that are produced by these two strains, essentially normal levels of meiotic recombination can be detected. None of the mutants exhibits increased sensitivity to UV radiation. Cytological examination of meiotic chromosomes from mutant and wild-type fruiting bodies showed that rad 3-1 homozygous strains fail to condense and pair homologous chromosomes during prophase I. Although rad 9-1 strains are successful at chromosome pairing, meiosis is usually not completed in these mutants

  14. Seed protein and nitrogen fixation in chickpea mutant variety Hyprosola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, H E; Gibson, A H; Oram, R N [CSIRO, Division of Plant Industry, Canberra ACT (Australia); Shaikh, M A.Q. [Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh (Bangladesh)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: 'Hyprosola' is a high yielding, high protein mutant cultivar obtained after gamma irradiation from the variety 'Faridpur-1'. The mutant yields 45 % more protein per unit area. The essential amino acid index is unchanged. It is likely that the high nutritional value in 'Hyprosola' seed protein arises from an increase in the albumin:globulin ratio. Nitrogen fixation rates of the mutant during the first 7 weeks of growth were found to be similar to 'Faridpur-1'. Under field conditions, the mutant may be able to nodulate more rapidly and more extensively than the parent variety. (author)

  15. Morphological and physiological investigations on mutants of Fusarium monoliforme IM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gancheva, V.

    1996-01-01

    High-producing mutants of Fusarium moniliforme IM are obtained as a result of gamma irradiation. The cultural characteristics of mutant strains 3284, 3211 and 76 following incubation of the producers for 14 days on potato-glucose agar are described. The colour of the aerial and substrate mycelium and the ability of the mutant strains to form conidiae and pigments are discussed in detail. The differences in the ability of mutants to assimilate different carbon and nitrogen sources are of specific importance for modelling nutrient media for submerged cultivation of F. moniliforme. 2 tabs., 2 figs. 7 refs

  16. Mildew resistant and less lodging wheat mutants induced in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naghedi-Ahmadi, I.

    1989-01-01

    ''Tabassi'' is a lodging and mildew susceptible cultivar. To induce mutations, seeds were gamma irradiated (50 to 150 Gy) in 1982 and selection for lodging resistance was carried out in M 2 . During field experiments with the mutant lines in 1985/86 there has been a heavy mildew epidemic under which mutant 63-5-I (derived from 50 Gy treatment) exhibited considerable resistance and as a consequence, higher yield. The control was 100% infected, the mutant only 40%. The mutant yielded 31% more grain, 7.5% less straw and 4.5% more protein than the control. Lodging of 63-5-I was only 60% in an experiment under rainfed conditions in the same season, resulting in a relative yield increase of about 11%. In 1986/87 there was no mildew epidemic and the mutant yielded the same as ''Tabassi''

  17. Mutants of GABA transaminase (POP2 suppress the severe phenotype of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ssadh mutants in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Ludewig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gamma-aminubutyrate (GABA shunt bypasses two steps of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and is present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In plants, the pathway is composed of the calcium/calmodulin-regulated cytosolic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD, the mitochondrial enzymes GABA transaminase (GABA-T; POP2 and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH. We have previously shown that compromising the function of the GABA-shunt, by disrupting the SSADH gene of Arabidopsis, causes enhanced accumulation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs and cell death in response to light and heat stress. However, to date, genetic investigations of the relationships between enzymes of the GABA shunt have not been reported. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To elucidate the role of succinic semialdehyde (SSA, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB and GABA in the accumulation of ROIs, we combined two genetic approaches to suppress the severe phenotype of ssadh mutants. Analysis of double pop2 ssadh mutants revealed that pop2 is epistatic to ssadh. Moreover, we isolated EMS-generated mutants suppressing the phenotype of ssadh revealing two new pop2 alleles. By measuring thermoluminescence at high temperature, the peroxide contents of ssadh and pop2 mutants were evaluated, showing that only ssadh plants accumulate peroxides. In addition, pop2 ssadh seedlings are more sensitive to exogenous SSA or GHB relative to wild type, because GHB and/or SSA accumulate in these plants. SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the lack of supply of succinate and NADH to the TCA cycle is not responsible for the oxidative stress and growth retardations of ssadh mutants. Rather, we suggest that the accumulation of SSA, GHB, or both, produced downstream of the GABA-T transamination step, is toxic to the plants, resulting in high ROI levels and impaired development.

  18. Modulation of expression of the nuclear receptor NR0B2 (small heterodimer partner 1 and its impact on proliferation of renal carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prestin K

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Katharina Prestin,1,* Maria Olbert,2,* Janine Hussner,1 Tamara L Isenegger,1 Daniel G Gliesche,1 Kerstin Böttcher,2 Uwe Zimmermann,3 Henriette E Meyer zu Schwabedissen1 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Biopharmacy, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 2Center of Drug Absorption and Transport, Institute of Pharmacology, 3Department of Urology, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Mammalian nuclear receptors (NRs are transcription factors regulating the expression of target genes that play an important role in drug metabolism, transport, and cellular signaling pathways. The orphan and structurally unique receptor small heterodimer partner 1 (syn NR0B2 is not only known for its modulation of drug response, but has also been reported to be involved in hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Indeed, previous studies show that NR0B2 is downregulated in human hepatocellular carcinoma, suggesting that NR0B2 acts as a tumor suppressor via inhibition of cellular growth and activation of apoptosis in this tumor entity. The aim of our study was to elucidate whether NR0B2 may also play a role in other tumor entities. Comparing NR0B2 expression in renal cell carcinoma and adjacent nonmalignant transformed tissue revealed significant downregulation in vivo. Additionally, the impact of heterologous expression of NR0B2 on cell cycle progression and proliferation in cells of renal origin was characterized. Monitoring fluorescence intensity of resazurin turnover in RCC-EW cells revealed no significant differences in metabolic activity in the presence of NR0B2. However, there was a significant decrease of cellular proliferation in cells overexpressing this NR, and NR0B2 was more efficient than currently used antiproliferative agents. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis showed that heterologous overexpression of NR0B2 significantly reduced the amount of cells passing the G1 phase, while on

  19. Isozyme patterns of powdery mildew resistant wheat mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Wengau; Li Zhengkui; Wang Kefeng

    1989-01-01

    Full Text: Wheat mutants induced by gamma irradiation and showing improved resistance to powdery mildew were analysed for isozymes. The peroxidase band 3A could be related to the disease reaction. The band 3A is absent in resistant mutants, the higher the activity of band 3A the greater the susceptibility. (author)

  20. Nature of mutants induced by ionizing radiation in cultured hamster cells. II. Antigenic response and reverse mutation of HPRT-deficient mutants induced by. gamma. -rays or ethyl methanesulphonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R; Stretch, A; Thacker, J

    1986-04-01

    A large series of independent mutants deficient in HPRT enzyme activity, isolated from V79-4 hamster cells, were assessed for properties which reflect the nature of the genetic changes induced. A total of 88 mutants were screened, 43 isolated from ..gamma..-ray-treated cultures and 45 induced by ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS). Firstly, each mutant was assayed for the presence of protein with the antigenic response of HPRT. In a competitive inhibition assay, 31% of EMS-induced mutants were CRM-positive compared to 7% of the ..gamma..-ray series. Secondly, each mutant was tested for ability to revert to HPRT proficiency. All except 2 of the EMS-induced mutants reverted with ethyl nitrosourea ENU, and many reverted spontaneously, under the given conditions. However reversion was not detected in about 80% of ..gamma..-ray-induced mutants, suggesting that the types of forward mutation caused by ionizing radiation differ qualitatively from those caused by EMS. (Auth.). 30 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs.

  1. Isolation and characterization of xylitol-assimilating mutants of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Tatsunori; Taguchi, Hisataka; Fujimori, Kazuhiro E; Sahara, Takehiko; Ohgiya, Satoru; Kamagata, Yoichi; Akamatsu, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    To clarify the mechanisms of xylitol utilization, three xylitol-assimilating mutants were isolated from recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains showing highly efficient xylose-utilization. The nucleotide sequences of the mutant genomes were analyzed and compared with those of the wild-type strains and the mutation sites were identified. gal80 mutations were common to all the mutants, and recessive to the wild-type allele. Hence we constructed a gal80Δ mutant and confirmed that the gal80Δ mutant showed a xylitol-assimilation phenotype. When the constructed gal80Δ mutant was crossed with the three isolated mutants, all diploid hybrids showed xylitol assimilation, indicating that the mutations were all located in the GAL80. We analyzed the role of the galactose permease Gal2, controlled by the regulatory protein Gal80, in assimilating xylitol. A gal2Δ gal80Δ double mutant did not show xylitol assimilation, whereas expression of GAL2 under the control of the TDH3 promoter in the GAL80 strain did result in assimilation. These data indicate that Gal2 was needed for xylitol assimilation in the wild-type strain. When the gal80 mutant with an initial cell concentration of A660 = 20 was used for batch fermentation in a complex medium containing 20 g/L xylose or 20 g/L xylitol at pH 5.0 and 30°C under oxygen limitation, the gal80 mutant consumed 100% of the xylose within 12 h, but xylitol within 100 h, indicating that xylose reductase is required for xylitol consumption in oxygen-limited conditions. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Induction of chlorophyll chimeras and chlorophyll mutations in mungbean (Vigna radiata) cv. T44

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.P.; Yadav, R.D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Uniform and healthy seeds of mungbean (Vigna radiata) cv. T44 were exposed to varying doses of gamma rays, ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) and combination treatment of gamma rays with EMS. The data were recorded for seed germination, plant survival, frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll chimeras in M 1 and chlorophyll mutations in M 2 generation. Among all, the combination treatments were found most effective for inducing chlorophyll chimeras and chlorophyll mutations than the gamma rays or EMS alone. Of the mutants under reference, the albino, xantha and chlorina showed monogenic recessive while viridis exhibited digenic recessive inheritance. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs

  3. Enhancement of yellow pigment production by intraspecific protoplast fusion of Monascus spp. yellow mutant (ade(-)) and white mutant (prototroph).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinsupa, Worawan; Phansiri, Salak; Thongpradis, Panida; Yongsmith, Busaba; Pothiratana, Chetsada

    2016-01-10

    To breed industrially useful strains of a slow-growing, yellow pigment producing strain of Monascus sp., protoplasts of Monascus purpureus yellow mutant (ade(-)) and rapid-growing M. purpureus white mutant (prototroph) were fused and fusants were selected on minimal medium (MM). Preliminary conventional protoplast fusion of the two strains was performed and the result showed that only white colonies were detected on MM. It was not able to differentiate the fusants from the white parental prototroph. To solve this problem, the white parental prototroph was thus pretreated with 20mM iodoacetamide (IOA) for cytoplasm inactivation and subsequently taken into protoplast fusion with slow-growing Monascus yellow mutant. Under this development technique, only the fusants, with viable cytoplasm from Monascus yellow mutant (ade(-)), could thus grow on MM, whereas neither IOA pretreated white parental prototroph nor yellow auxotroph (ade(-)) could survive. Fifty-three fusants isolated from yellow colonies obtained through this developed technique were subsequently inoculated on complete medium (MY agar). Fifteen distinguished yellow colonies from their parental yellow mutant were then selected for biochemical, morphological and fermentative properties in cassava starch and soybean flour (SS) broth. Finally, three most stable fusants (F7, F10 and F43) were then selected and compared in rice solid culture. Enhancement of yellow pigment production over the parental yellow auxotroph was found in F7 and F10, while enhanced glucoamylase activity was found in F43. The formation of fusants was further confirmed by monacolin K content, which was intermediate between the two parents (monacolin K-producing yellow auxotroph and non-monacolin K producing white prototroph). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Repair-defective mutants of Alteromonas espejiana, the host for bacteriophage PM2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerler, B.R.; Wallace, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    The in vivo repair processes of Alteromonas espejiana, the host for bacteriophage PM2, were characterized, and UV- and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-sensitive mutants were isolated. Wild-type A. espejiana cells were capable of photoreactivation, excision, recombination, and inducible repair. There was no detecttable pyrimidine dimer-DNA N-glycosylase activity, and pyrimidine dimer removal appeared to occur by a pathway analogous to the Escherichia coli Uvr pathway. The UV- and MMS-sensitive mutants of A. espejiana included three groups, each containing at least one mutation involved with excision, recombination, or inducible repair. One group that was UV sensitive but not sensitive to MMS or X rays showed a decreased ability to excise pyrimidine dimers. Mutants in this group were also sensitive to psoralen plus near-UV light and were phenotypically analogous to the E. coli uvr mutants. A second group was UV and MMS sensitive but not sensitive to X rays and appeared to contain mutations in a gene(s) involved in recombination repair. These recombination-deficient mutants differed from the E. coli rec mutants, which are MMS and X-ray sensitive. The third group of A. espejiana mutants was sensitive to UV, MMS, and X rays. These mutants were recombination deficient, lacked inducible repair, and were phenotypically similar to E. coli recA mutants

  5. Survival and mutant production induced by mutagenic agents in Metarhizium anisopliae Sobrevivência e obtenção de mutantes induzidos por agentes mutagênicos em Metarhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kava - Cordeiro

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available A wild strain of Metarhizium anisopliae, an entomopathogenic fungus, was submitted to three mutagenic agents: gamma radiation, ultraviolet light and nitrous acid. Survival curves were obtained and mutants were selected using different mutagenic doses which gave 1 to 5% survival. Morphological and auxotrophic mutants were isolated. Morphological mutants were grouped in a class with yellow conidia and other with pale vinaceous conidia as opposed to the green wild type conidia. Auxotrophic mutants had requirements for vitamin and aminoacid biosynthesis. More than 58% of the total auxotrophk mutants required proline/aipnine. Gamma radiation showed to be the most efficient mutagenic agent giving 0.2% of auxotrophk mutants followed by ultraviolet light (0.12% and nitrous acid (0.06%.The conidial colour and auxotrophk mutants isolated until now from M. anisopliae were reviewed.Uma linhagem selvagem do fungo entomopatogênico Metarhizium anisopliae foi submetida à ação de três agentes mutagênicos: radiação gama, luz ultravioleta e ácido nitroso. Curvas de sobrevivência foram obtidas para cada mutagênicos utilizado e mutantes foram selecionados a partir de doses dos mutagênicos que proporcionassem de 1 a 5% de sobrevivência. Mutantes morfológicos para a coloração de conídios e mutantes auxotróficos foram isolados. Mutantes para coloração de conidios foram agrupados em duas classes, uma com conídios amarelos e outra com conídios vinho pálido. Os mutantes auxotróficos obtidos foram deficientes para aminoácidos e vitaminas e mais de 58% deles eram auxotróficos para prolina/argmina. Radiação gama foi o mutagênico mais eficiente com uma porcentagem de obtenção de mulantes auxotróficos de aproximadamente 0,2%, seguido pela luz ultravioleta (0.12% e pelo ácido nitroso (0.06%.Os mulantes morfológicos e auxotróficos obtidos até o momento em Metarhizium anisopliae foram revistos.

  6. Study on the early and late mutants of radiation induced rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hefeng; Chen Xiulan; He Zhentian; Gu Shiliang; Xu Chenwu

    1990-12-01

    After three years of consecutive experiments for the irradiated M 2 generations of 53 different varieties of rice, the following results have been obtained: (1) The average of early mutant plant rate is 1.4%. The rate in the early-maturing varieties is lower than that in the late-maturing varieties. It is in proportion to the length of growing period of these varieties tested. The shortened days of growing period of early mutants are 3 to 32 days (the average was 9.5 days), and it is increasing as the growing period increases. (2) In the irradiated M 2 generation of same variety, the early mutants and late mutants could be simultaneously happened, but the rate of the late mutants is 2.67%, which is higher than the rate of early mutants (1.39%). The shortened and prolonged days of growing period are 11.5 and 10.5 days respectively. These early and late mutants have some changes, both good and bad, in agronomical traits such as plant height, weight per kilo-grains and grains number per tassel. In some extent these changes are significant

  7. Development Of New Chrysanthemum Mutants For Malaysian Floriculture Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaiton Ahmad; Affrida Abu Hassan; Shakinah Salleh; Nurul Hidayah Mahmud; Shuhaimi Shamsudin; Mohamed Najli Mohamed Yasin

    2014-01-01

    This five-year project was in collaboration with Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) under the Bilateral Cooperative Research Program and was partly funded by Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-Based Industry (MOA) under Agriculture R&D Fund. The main objective was to produce new chrysanthemum varieties with good horticultural traits especially for cut flower production. In this project, tissue culture samples of chrysanthemum (red and pink varieties) were sent to JAEA for ion beam irradiations. Plant regeneration and multiplication were carried out at Nuclear Malaysia whilst field screenings for morphological characteristics were done at MARDI Cameron Highlands. Through this project, a number of stable chrysanthemum mutants with various new features have been generated and of these, 8 mutants were selected based on their uniqueness and/or suitability for cut flower production. In preparation for future commercialization process, five of these mutants have been filed for plant variety protection with Department of Agriculture Malaysia and a similar process in Japan is also under consideration. In addition, molecular marker work to fingerprint these mutants has also been initiated and future research may also include development of markers for selected horticultural traits and isolation of unique mutant genes. (author)

  8. Gamma ray induced mutants in Colocasia with improved storability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudevan, K.; Jos, J.S.; Padmaja, G.

    1989-01-01

    Our mutation induction experiments with Colocasia esculenta (taro) were described before. Poor storability of tubers and acridity of tuber flesh in tubers are problems in taro. While screening for induced mutants, variability in shelf-life of tubers was observed. Tubers of the mutant CM 17 did neither spoil nor lose their viability even after storing for 180 days. Yield and results of quality analyses are presented in the Table in comparison with the control variety C 9 (locally known as ''Thamarakkannan''), the check variety Rasmi (well accepted in Kerala) and another mutant CM 1. Besides high yield and long storability, the mutant CM 17 shows a reduction in phenol and sugar, but an increase in dry matter and starch content which were found to be excellent characteristics for making taro chips as the usual browning phenomenon did not occur

  9. Genetic analysis of plant height in induced mutants of aromatic rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kole, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    Inheritance of plant height in five gamma-ray induced mutants of aromatic rice cultivar Gobindabhog was studied through 6 x 6 diallel cross and segregation analyses. Diallel analysis revealed presence of additive and non-additive gene action with the preponderance of the latter. Proportion of dominant and recessive alleles was distributed unequally among the parents. The direction of dominance was towards tallness. The number of groups of genes was found to be three. The segregation analysis indicated the role of a single major recessive gene for height reduction in three mutants and, in another mutant, a single major recessive gene with negative modifiers. The other semi-dwarf mutant had two major recessive genes with almost equal effect in height reduction. The mutant allele(s) of the latter two mutants were non-allelic to sd sub(1) gene, which could be used as an alternative source of Dee Gee Woo Gen to widen the genetic diversity in semi-dwarfism [it

  10. Improved Medium for Selecting Nitrate-Nonutilizing (nit) Mutants of Verticillium dahliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, N; Katan, T

    1997-10-01

    ABSTRACT Nitrate-nonutilizing (nit) mutants are commonly used to determine vegetative compatibility between isolates of Verticillium dahliae by complementation (heterokaryon) testing. These mutants emerge spontaneously as chlorate-resistant sectors growing out of partially restricted, wild-type colonies on chlorate-amended media. The commonly used chlorate media are based on minimal medium (MMC) or cornmeal agar (CMC), amended with potassium chlorate. nit mutants recovered on these media constituted 10 to 36%(on MMC) and 25 to 45%(on CMC) of the apparently resistant sectors. An improved water agar chlorate medium (WAC) is described that is more effective for selecting chlorate-resistant nit mutants. WAC medium consists of agar (2%), glucose (0.02%), and potassium chlorate (2 to 5%). On WAC, growth of most V. dahliae isolates was strongly inhibited, and 66 to 100%(average >80%) of the chlorate-resistant sectors formed were nit mutants. Most mutants were characterized as nit1, and about 6% as NitM.

  11. Fusion genetic analysis of jasmonate-signalling mutants in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Bøgh; Raventos, D.; Mundy, John Williams

    2002-01-01

    as two recessive mutants, designated joe1 and 2, that overexpress the reporter. Genetic analysis indicated that reporter overexpression in the joe mutants requires COI. joe1 responded to MeJA with increased anthocyanin accumulation, while joe2 responded with decreased root growth inhibition. In addition...... activity was also induced by the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine and antagonized by the protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid. FLUC bio-imaging, RNA gel-blot analysis and progeny analyses identified three recessive mutants that underexpress the FLUC reporter, designated jue1, 2 and 3, as well...

  12. Radiation induced mutants in cape-gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Roy, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    Dry seeds of Physalis peruviana (n=24) were irradiated with different doses of gamma-rays. The M 1 plants were grown to maturity and their seeds collected and sown separately for M 2 generation. Mutants were isolated from M 2 seedlings and plants. Mutant characters obtained were virido-albino chlorophyllous, high yielding, small leaf and fruit, semi-sterile and curly leaf type etc. The high yielding and small leaf and fruit mutants bred true in M 3 and M 4 generation reproducing the characters of the M 2 generation. (author)

  13. Strain improvement in dye decolourising mutants of Mucor mucedo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... M. mucedo {MMM1-U.V. irradiated mutant and MMM2-EMS (ethyl methyl sulfonate) treated ... tions were induced and two positive mutants (MMM1, .... yeast biofilter for the treatment of a Nigerian fertilizer plant effluent. World J.

  14. Molecular analysis of mutant and wild type alcohol dehydrogenase alleles from Drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzer, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Wild type alcohol dehydrogenase polypeptides (ADH) from Drosophila melanogaster transformants were examined using western blots and polyclonal antiserum specific for Drosophila melanogaster ADH. Mutants induced in Drosophila spermatozoa at the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) locus using X-rays, 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea (ENU) or ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) were characterized using genetic complementation tests, western blots, Southern blots, northern blots and enzymatic amplification of the Adh locus. Genetic complementation tests showed that 22/30 X-ray-induced mutants, and 3/13 ENU and EMS induced mutants were multi-locus deficiencies. Western blot analysis of the intragenic mutations showed that 4/7 X-ray-induced mutants produced detectable polypeptides, one of which was normal in molecular weight and charge. In contrast 8/10 intragenic ENU and EMS induced mutants produced normal polypeptides. Southern blot analysis showed that 5/7 intragenic X-ray induced mutants and all 10 of the intragenic ENU and EMS induced mutants were normal with respect to the alleles they were derived from

  15. Normal aging modulates the neurotoxicity of mutant huntingtin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Diguet

    Full Text Available Aging likely plays a role in neurodegenerative disorders. In Huntington's disease (HD, a disorder caused by an abnormal expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the protein huntingtin (Htt, the role of aging is unclear. For a given tract length, the probability of disease onset increases with age. There are mainly two hypotheses that could explain adult onset in HD: Either mutant Htt progressively produces cumulative defects over time or "normal" aging renders neurons more vulnerable to mutant Htt toxicity. In the present study, we directly explored whether aging affected the toxicity of mutant Htt in vivo. We studied the impact of aging on the effects produced by overexpression of an N-terminal fragment of mutant Htt, of wild-type Htt or of a beta-Galactosidase (beta-Gal reporter gene in the rat striatum. Stereotaxic injections of lentiviral vectors were performed simultaneously in young (3 week and old (15 month rats. Histological evaluation at different time points after infection demonstrated that the expression of mutant Htt led to pathological changes that were more severe in old rats, including an increase in the number of small Htt-containing aggregates in the neuropil, a greater loss of DARPP-32 immunoreactivity and striatal neurons as assessed by unbiased stereological counts.The present results support the hypothesis that "normal" aging is involved in HD pathogenesis, and suggest that age-related cellular defects might constitute potential therapeutic targets for HD.

  16. Relationship of Genetics and Cs-137 in Asian Green Mussel (Perna viridis from Nuclear Activities in Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwiwa Tumnoi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the relationship of genetics and Cs-137 radiation doses in Asian green mussel (Perna viridis collected from Chonburi province, Thailand. They might accumulate the radiocaesium from the nuclear power plants in the Asia-Pacific region including the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant via their routine or accidental releases. The radiation doses, estimated using ERICA Tool in the bivalves categorized into 3 different size classes including 4-6, 6-8, and 8-10 cm, were below 0.02 nGy/h. In parallel, Micronucleus test and Comet assay were used to investigate genetic responses in the mussels. They revealed minimum micronucleus frequency (MNF and %Tail DNA varying from 1.80-2.90% and 1.36-1.70%, respectively. The result indicates that neither particular accumulation of Cs-137 nor genetic responses among different size classes of the animals were observed. Furthermore, the radiation doses in the mussels were below the dose limit of 10 µGy/h. Therefore, no radiation effect caused by Cs-137 was found and it was also confirmed by minimal genetic damages. Data obtained can be used as site-specific data for radiological dose and impact assessment and as baseline data to establish the national radiation safety levels to protect Thai marine biota from any possible future nuclear accidents.

  17. Biomonitoring of Mercury Contamination at Petroleum Production Platforms in the Gulf of Thailand using Transplanted Green Mussel, Perna viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatree Ritthong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of mercury contamination was conducted using transplanted green mussels (Perna viridis. Mussels were first exposed to HgCl2 at 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 nmol/L for 8 weeks at laboratory conditions. The result showed that Hg level in the water decreased rapidly, while Hg in mussels increased coincidentally with the applied doses. After 8 weeks the Hg, levels in tissue were a thousand-fold higher than that in the water. Mussels were then transplanted to 3 petroleum production platforms for field study. The result revealed that survival and growth rates of transplanted mussels at all 3 stations were in close to each other but significantly lower than that from the reference site. Hg concentrations in the tissues of transplanted mussels ranged from less than 0.010 to 0.173 µg/g, and Hg concentrations in mussel tissues from all stations were significantly increased within 2 months, while Hg levels in mussel tissues from reference site were not changed. Hg levels of transplanted mussels increased with increasing depths of the water. The transplanted mussels showed no signs of any physical anomalies, indicating that transplanted mussels could be maintained for up to 3 months in an un-natural habitat, such as petroleum production platforms, where food is much less abundant.

  18. Mutant genes in pea breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiecicki, W.K.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Mutations of genes Dpo (dehiscing pods) and A (anthocyanin synthesis) played a role in pea domestication. A number of other genes were important in cultivar development for 3 types of usage (dry seeds, green vegetable types, fodder), e.g. fn, fna, le, p, v, fas and af. New genes (induced and spontaneous), are important for present ideotypes and are registered by the Pisum Genetics Association (PGA). Comparison of a pea variety ideotype with the variation available in gene banks shows that breeders need 'new' features. In mutation induction experiments, genotype, mutagen and method of treatment (e.g. combined or fractionated doses) are varied for broadening the mutation spectrum and selecting more genes of agronomic value. New genes are genetically analysed. In Poland, some mutant varieties with the gene afila were registered, controlling lodging by a shorter stem and a higher number of internodes. Really non-lodging pea varieties could strongly increase seed yield. But the probability of detecting a major gene for lodging resistance is low. Therefore, mutant genes with smaller influence on plant architecture are sought, to combine their effect by crossing. Promising seem to be the genes rogue, reductus and arthritic as well as a number of mutant genes not yet genetically identified. The gene det for terminal inflorescence - similarly to Vicia faba - changes plant development. Utilisation of assimilates and ripening should be better. Improvement of harvest index should give higher seed yield. A number of genes controlling disease resistance are well known (eg. Fw, Fnw, En, mo and sbm). Important in mass screening of resistance are closely linked gene markers. Pea gene banks collect respective lines, but mutants induced in highly productive cultivars would be better. Inducing gene markers sometimes seems to be easier than transfer by crossing. Mutation induction in pea breeding is probably more important because a high number of monogenic features are

  19. Study on homologous series of induced early mutants in Indica rice Ⅱ. the relationship between the homologous series of early mutants induced and the ecotype in Indica rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; Yang Hefeng; He Zhentian; Han Yuepeng; Liu Xueyu

    2001-01-01

    The induced mutation in light sensitivity of the Indica rice leads to induction of the homologous series of early mutants along with the variation of ecological character and the ecoclimate. The induction of mutants was closely related to the ecotype of Indica rice, the homologous series of early mutants in different level were derived from the different ecotype of the Indica rice, otherwise, the similar homologous series of early mutants were derived from the same ecotypic variety. The induction of the early ecotypic variety derived from the homologous series of early mutants provides the basis and possibility for accelerating the development of the new cultivars. (authors)

  20. Perfil de lípidos y ácidos grasos de Perna viridis, mejillón verde (Mollusca: Bivalvia en el oriente venezolano y la costa oeste de Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Koftayan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los lípidos totales fueron extraídos, identificados y cuantificados por gravimetría, mediante TLC/FID (sistema Iatroscan. Los ácidos grasos de los lípidos totales, fosfolípidos y triacilgliceroles fueron identificados y cuantificados por cromatografía de gases. Las mayores concentraciones de lípidos totales se presentaron en las muestras de Los Cedros, La Brea y Chaguaramas con valores de 7.92, 7.74 y 7.53%; respectivamente y los valores mínimos en las de La Restinga (6.08%. En la composición lípidica, las muestras de Chacopata presentaron la menor concentración de fosfolípidos (48.86% y los máximos valores de colesterol (38.87% y triacilgliceroles (12.26%, y las muestras de La Esmeralda y Río Caribe exhibieron concentraciones máximas de fosfolípidos (88.71-84.93%, respectivamente y mínimas de colesterol (6.50-4.42%. En los lípidos totales, los ácidos grasos saturados se encontraron entre 15.04 y 65.55%, con máximos en muestras de La Esmeralda y mínimos en Chacopata y los poliinsaturados estuvieron entre 7.80 y 37.18%, con máximos valores en la Brea y mínimos en la Esmeralda. En los fosfolípidos, la concentración de ácidos grasos saturados estuvo entre 38.81 y 48.68% para las muestras de Chaguaramas y Chacopata, respectivamente; los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados se encontraron entre no detectado y 34.51%, con altas concentraciones en muestras de Los Cedros (27.97% y Chaguaramas (34.51%. En los triacilgliceroles, la composición de ácidos grasos saturados variaron entre 14.27 y 53.80%, con baja concentración en Chacopata y alta concentración en La Restinga; los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados estuvieron entre 4.66 y 35.55%, con valores menores en las muestras de Chacopata (4.66% y mayores en Chaguaramas. El consumo frecuente de Perna viridis es recomendable, debido a su alto contenido de fosfolípidos y ácidos grasos insaturados.Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, Green Mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia in

  1. Leaf and canopy photosynthesis of a chlorophyll deficient soybean mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakowska, Karolina; Alberti, Giorgio; Genesio, Lorenzo; Peressotti, Alessandro; Delle Vedove, Gemini; Gianelle, Damiano; Colombo, Roberto; Rodeghiero, Mirco; Panigada, Cinzia; Juszczak, Radosław; Celesti, Marco; Rossini, Micol; Haworth, Matthew; Campbell, Benjamin W; Mevy, Jean-Philippe; Vescovo, Loris; Cendrero-Mateo, M Pilar; Rascher, Uwe; Miglietta, Franco

    2018-03-02

    The photosynthetic, optical, and morphological characteristics of a chlorophyll-deficient (Chl-deficient) "yellow" soybean mutant (MinnGold) were examined in comparison with 2 green varieties (MN0095 and Eiko). Despite the large difference in Chl content, similar leaf photosynthesis rates were maintained in the Chl-deficient mutant by offsetting the reduced absorption of red photons by a small increase in photochemical efficiency and lower non-photochemical quenching. When grown in the field, at full canopy cover, the mutants reflected a significantly larger proportion of incoming shortwave radiation, but the total canopy light absorption was only slightly reduced, most likely due to a deeper penetration of light into the canopy space. As a consequence, canopy-scale gross primary production and ecosystem respiration were comparable between the Chl-deficient mutant and the green variety. However, total biomass production was lower in the mutant, which indicates that processes other than steady state photosynthesis caused a reduction in biomass accumulation over time. Analysis of non-photochemical quenching relaxation and gas exchange in Chl-deficient and green leaves after transitions from high to low light conditions suggested that dynamic photosynthesis might be responsible for the reduced biomass production in the Chl-deficient mutant under field conditions. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Differential distribution of lipids in epidermis, gastrodermis and hosted Symbiodinium in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, Johana; Massi, Lionel; Mehiri, Mohamed; Boutoute, Marc; Mayzaud, Patrick; Capron, Laure; Sabourault, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis mainly relies on nutrient recycling, thus providing both partners with a competitive advantage in nutrient-poor waters. Essential processes related to lipid metabolism can be influenced by various factors, including hyperthermal stress. This can affect the lipid content and distribution in both partners, while contributing to symbiosis disruption and bleaching. In order to gain further insight into the role and distribution of lipids in the cnidarian metabolism, we investigated the lipid composition of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis and its photosynthetic dinoflagellate endosymbionts (Symbiodinium). We compared the lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the host cellular layers, non-symbiotic epidermal and symbiont-containing gastrodermal cells, and those of Symbiodinium, in a mass spectrometry-based assessment. Lipids were more concentrated in Symbiodinium cells, and the lipid class distribution was dominated by polar lipids in all tissues. The fatty acid distribution between host cell layers and Symbiodinium cells suggested potential lipid transfers between the partners. The lipid composition and distribution was modified during short-term hyperthermal stress, mainly in Symbiodinium cells and gastrodermis. Exposure to elevated temperature rapidly caused a decrease in polar lipid C18 unsaturated fatty acids and a strong and rapid decrease in the abundance of polar lipid fatty acids relative to sterols. These lipid indicators could therefore be used as sensitive biomarkers to assess the physiology of symbiotic cnidarians, especially the effect of thermal stress at the onset of cnidarian bleaching. Overall, the findings of this study provide some insight on key lipids that may regulate maintenance of the symbiotic interaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Behavioural and neurotoxic effects of ayahuasca infusion (Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis) in female Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pic-Taylor, Aline; da Motta, Luciana Gueiros; de Morais, Juliana Alves; Junior, Willian Melo; Santos, Alana de Fátima Andrade; Campos, Leandro Ambrósio; Mortari, Marcia Renata; von Zuben, Marcus Vinicius; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2015-09-01

    Ayahuasca, a psychoactive beverage used by indigenous and religious groups, is generally prepared by the coction of Psychotria viridis and Banisteriopsis caapi plants containing N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and β-carboline alkaloids, respectively. To investigate the acute toxicity of ayahuasca, the infusion was administered by gavage to female Wistar rats at doses of 30X and 50X the dose taken during a religious ritual, and the animals observed for 14 days. Behavioural functions were investigated one hour after dosing at 15X and 30X using the open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swimming tests. Neuronal activation (c-fos marked neurons) and toxicity (Fluoro-Jade B and Nissl/Cresyl staining) were investigated in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN), amygdaloid nucleus, and hippocampal formation brain areas of rats treated with a 30X ayahuasca dose. The actual lethal oral dose in female Wistar rats could not be determined in this study, but was shown to be higher than the 50X (which corresponds to 15.1mg/kg bw DMT). The ayahuasca and fluoxetine treated groups showed a significant decrease in locomotion in the open field and elevated plus-maze tests compared to controls. In the forced swimming test, ayahuasca treated animals swam more than controls, a behaviour that was not significant in the fluoxetine group. Treated animals showed higher neuronal activation in all brain areas involved in serotoninergic neurotransmission. Although this led to some brain injury, no permanent damage was detected. These results suggest that ayahuasca has antidepressant properties in Wistar female at high doses, an effect that should be further investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Depuration Study of Heavy Metal Lead (Pb) and Copper (Cu) in Green Mussels Perna viridis through Continues-discontinues and Acid Extraction Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiawan; Bakri, Ridla; Cahaya Dani, Intan; Handayani, Sri; Ade Kurnia Putri, Rizki; Tamala, Riska

    2018-01-01

    Green mussel or Perna viridis is filter feeder, which is very susceptible to heavy metals. It takes an effort to release heavy metal contents on the green shell, one of method that can be used to release heavy metal from green shell is depuration proccess. In this research, the depuration process was conducted by continues method of depuration, discontinues method by using various kind of water and acid extraction. The optimum time of continues depuration method is 1.5 hours, with circulation speed 250 L/h and result of Pb metal content decreased is equal to 30.048% and 29.748% for Cu. In the discontinues method, the optimum result was reached at 100oC by using PAM water as the media at 3 h immersion period with decrease of Pb metal content 35.001% and Cu metal content 39.015%. In the acid extraction method, the optimum condition was achieved by 11% acetic acid solvent with decreasing of Pb and Cu levels are 88.224% and 76.298%. For the determination of protein content, the decrease of protein content obtained by treatment with 11% acetic acid extract showed decrease of protein content 36.656% with Kjeldahl method.

  5. High lysine and high yielding mutants in wheat (Triticum aestivum) L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, T.; Mahmood, F.; Ahmad, A.; Sattar, A.; Khan, I.

    1988-01-01

    The dry seeds of the variety Lu-26 were irradiated with 20 krad of gamma rays. In M 2 about 300 mutant plants were selected for short stature, rust resistance and other desirable traits. As a result of further selection, in M 6 , eight superior lines were finally identified. The agronomic characteristics of these mutants, the parent variety (Lu-26) and a standard check variety (Pak-81) are shown. The selected mutants and commercially grown cultivars (Lu-26 and Pak-81) were studied for total protein content and amino acid pattern. The mutants WM-89-1, WM-6-17 and WM-81-2 showing high yield also contained comparatively high amounts of methionine and lysine. The lysine contents were 565, 410, and 370 mg/100g in the mutants WM-89-1, WM-6-17 and WM-81-2, respectively against a range value of 210-370 mg/100g in other mutants and 250-320 in the commercial cultivars. The mutant WM-81-2 was comparable to WM-56-1-5 in lysine content. The results of these experiments show a possibility of developing varieties having high yield and high amounts of essential amino acids such as lysine and methionine

  6. Development of compact mutants in apple and sour cherry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagaja, S.W.; Przybyla, A.; Machnik, B.

    1982-01-01

    During the period 1973 - 79 studies were conducted with the aim of developing compact mutants in apple and cherry cultivars and in apple vegetative rootstocks. During the investigations the effect of the dose of gamma rays on frequency of the mutants was studied. Attempts were also made to evolve a micropropagation technique adapted to propagate P 2 and P 22 apple rootstocks, as an aid in mutation breeding. Several mutants were produced in all the material studied, but none of them have yet reached a sufficient developmental stage to enable their complete assessment. On the basis of the results obtained so far the following conclusions can be drawn: higher doses of irradiation resulted in higher frequency of mutants in most apple cultivars and apple rootstocks; in sour cherries the effect of dose depended on the cultivars. Among V 1 shoots developed from sleeping buds on irradiated scion wood, compact mutants were found; their frequency, however, was about 60% lower than among V 1 shoots developed directly from irradiated dormant buds. In apple rootstocks A 2 and M 26 several dwarfed mutants were found; some of these produced thorny plants and some had lower rooting ability; both these characteristics are inferior from the practical point of view. Multiplication and rooting media for in vitro propagation of apple rootstocks, worked out for M 26, were found unsuitable for the rootstocks P 2 and P 22; modifications made in the growth substance composition of the above media enabled satisfactory propagation to be obtained. (author)

  7. High protein mutants of winter fodder barley induced by radiation and chemical mutagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yankulov, M.; Genchev, K.; Nikolov, Kh.

    1982-01-01

    Several induced mutants of winter fodder barley with higher rpotein content are described. These mutants were produced by treating seeds of cvs. Vogelsaenger Gold, Ager and 468 with gamma-rays, sodium azide and ethyl methanesulfonate (alone and in combinations) and with ethylene and formamide. The gamma-ray induced mutants of winter fodder barley have 1-4% higher protein content. The mutant line 109 has, besides high protein content (17,37%), 5.96 lysine per 100 g protein, but its endosperm is wrinkeled. Mutants produced by chemical mutagens have 6-7% higher protein content than the initial cultivars. All induced mutants have 85-95 cm high stems, i.e. they are by 10-20 cm shorter than the initial cultivars. Some of these mutants are now resistant to the diseases Helminthosporium gramineum and Ustilago nuda. The recommended mutants could be successfully used in breeding programs for producing of higher protein content and quality in winter fodder barley.

  8. High protein mutants of winter fodder barley induced by radiation and chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankulov, M.; Genchev, K.; Nikolov, Kh.

    1982-01-01

    Several induced mutants of winter fodder barley with higher rpotein content are described. These mutants were produced by treating seeds of cvs. Vogelsaenger Gold, Ager and 468 with gamma-rays, sodium azide and ethyl methanesulfonate (alone and in combinations) and with ethylene and formamide. The gamma-ray induced mutants of winter fodder barley have 1-4% higher protein content. The mutant line 109 has, besides high protein content (17,37%), 5.96 lysine per 100 g protein, but its endosperm is wrinkeled. Mutants produced by chemical mutagens have 6-7% higher protein content than the initial cultivars. All induced mutants have 85-95 cm high stems, i.e. they are by 10-20 cm shorter than the initial cultivars. Some of these mutants are now resistant to the diseases Helminthosporium gramineum and Ustilago nuda. The recommended mutants could be successfully used in breeding programs for producing of higher protein content and quality in winter fodder barley

  9. Gamma rays induced bold seeded high yielding mutant in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wani, A.A.; Anis, M.

    2001-01-01

    In pulses especially in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), genetic variability has been exhausted due to natural selection and hence conventional breeding methods are not very fruitful. Mutation techniques are the best methods to enlarge the genetically conditioned variability of a species within a short time and have played a significant role in the development of many crop varieties. Investigations on the effects of ionizing radiations and chemical mutagens in induction of macro-mutations have received much attention owing to their utmost importance in plant breeding. The present study reports a bold seeded mutant in chickpea, the most dominating pulse crop on the Indian subcontinent. Fresh seeds of chickpea variety 'Pusa-212' were procured from IARI, New Delhi and treated with different doses/concentrations of gamma rays ( 60 Co source at NBRI, Lucknow) and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS), individually as well as in combination, to raise the M1 generation. Seeds of M 1 plants were sown to raise M2 plant progenies. A bold seeded mutant was isolated from 400 Gy gamma ray treatments. The mutant was confirmed as true bred, all the mutant seeds gave rise to morphologically similar plants in M 3 , which were quite distinct from the control. The bold seeded mutant showed 'gigas' characteristics and vigorous growth. The plant remained initially straight but later on attained a trailing habit due to heavy secondary branching. The leaves, petioles, flowers, pods and seeds were almost double that of the parent variety, in size. The flowering occurred 10 days later than the parent and maturity was also delayed accordingly. Observations were recorded on various quantitative traits. Plant height and number of primary branches showed a significant improvement over the parent. It is interesting to note that the number of pods and number of seeds per pod significantly decreased. However, the hundred seed weight (31.73±0.59g) in the mutant plants was more than double in the parent

  10. Radiation-induced mutagenicity in repair deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesmer, J.G.; Saunders, E.H.; Chen, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    To determine if there is a relationship between DNA double-strand break repair and mutagenicity the authors utilized two x-ray sensitive mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells along with the parental line K1. The two mutant lines xrs-5 and xrs-6, which have different DSB repair capabilities, were used to determine cell killing and 6-thioguanine resistance (6TG/sup r/) mutation frequencies induced by either x-rays of α-particles, x-ray survival data indicated the two mutant lines have similar sensitivity and are 5-7 fold more sensitive than the parental line K1. The mutant lines are also sensitive to α-particles but to a lesser extent. The authors' 6TG mutation data indicated that the two mutant lines are hypermutable. When mutation frequencies were plotted against the log of survival, mutation frequency at a given survival level was greater in mutant cell population than in parental K1 cells. Their results support the notion that repair of DSB play an important role in the expression of radiation-induced cell killing and mutagenicity

  11. Respiratory-deficient mutants of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Thalia; Larosa, Véronique; Cardol, Pierre; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence; Remacle, Claire

    2014-05-01

    Genetic manipulation of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is straightforward. Nuclear genes can be interrupted by insertional mutagenesis or targeted by RNA interference whereas random or site-directed mutagenesis allows the introduction of mutations in the mitochondrial genome. This, combined with a screen that easily allows discriminating respiratory-deficient mutants, makes Chlamydomonas a model system of choice to study mitochondria biology in photosynthetic organisms. Since the first description of Chlamydomonas respiratory-deficient mutants in 1977 by random mutagenesis, many other mutants affected in mitochondrial components have been characterized. These respiratory-deficient mutants increased our knowledge on function and assembly of the respiratory enzyme complexes. More recently some of these mutants allowed the study of mitochondrial gene expression processes poorly understood in Chlamydomonas. In this review, we update the data concerning the respiratory components with a special focus on the assembly factors identified on other organisms. In addition, we make an inventory of different mitochondrial respiratory mutants that are inactivated either on mitochondrial or nuclear genes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Grain product of 34 soya mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmeron E, J.; Mastache L, A. A.; Valencia E, F.; Diaz V, G. E.; Cervantes S, T.; De la Cruz T, E.; Garcia A, J. M.; Falcon B, T.; Gatica T, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    This work was development with the objective of obtaining information of the agronomic behavior of 34 soya mutant lines (R 4 M 18 ) for human consumption and this way to select the 2 better lines. The genetic materials were obtained starting from the variety ISAAEG-B M2 by means of the application of recurrent radiation with Co 60 gammas, to a dose of 350 Gray for the first two generations and both later to 200 Gray and selection during 17 cycles, being obtained the 34 better lines mutants with agronomic characteristic wanted and good flavor. The obtained results were that the mutant lines L 25 and L 32 produced the major quantity in branches/plant number with 7.5 and 7.25, pods/plant number with 171.25 and 167, grains/plant number with 350.89 and 333.07 and grain product (ton/ha) to 15% of humidity 5.15 and 4.68 ton/ha, respectively. (Author)

  13. Officially released mutant varieties - the FAO/IAEA Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maluszynski, M.; Nichterlein, K.; Zanten, L. van; Ahloowalia, B.S.

    2000-01-01

    In the approximately 70 year-old history of induced mutations, there are many examples on the development of new and valuable alteration in plant characters significantly contributing to increased yield potential of specific crops. However, knowledge on the success of induced mutations in crop improvement among geneticists and breeders is usually limited to species of their interest. The present paper contains a comprehensive list of officially released mutant varieties, based on information from plant breeders. The number of mutant varieties officially released and recorded in the FAO/IAEA Mutant Varieties Database before the end of 2000 is 2,252. Almost half of these varieties have been released during the last 15 years. Considering a significant delay in the dissemination of information on newly released varieties and difficulties in the collection of such data, there has been a renaissance in the use of mutation techniques in crop improvement. At the demand of geneticists, plant breeders, and more recently molecular geneticists, for information on released mutant varieties of specific crops, the MVD was transferred to the web site of the FAO/IAEA Joint Division. The MVD will be available on our web pages early in 2001. (author)

  14. Selection of mutants of capsicum annuum induced by gamma ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. I.; Lee, Y. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, E. K. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    For induction and selection of mutations of Capsicum annuum L., dry seeds of pure lines No.1 and No.2 were irradiated with gamma ray of 150Gy, 200Gy and 250Gy. Various mutants were selected such as showing early maturity, short plant height, long fruit and chlorophyll mutations. Mutation frequency of No.1 line was 3.4% in the dose of 150Gy, while the frequency of No.2 line was 2.7% in the dose of 250Gy. For selection of resistant mutant to amino acid analog, the optimum concentration of 5-methyltryptophan (5-MT) and S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine were 25 ppm and 30 ppm, respectively. Four resistant mutant lines to 5-MT were selected among 400 mutant lines.

  15. Andrographolide induces degradation of mutant p53 via activation of Hsp70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hirofumi; Hiraki, Masatsugu; Namba, Takushi; Egawa, Noriyuki; Baba, Koichi; Tanaka, Tomokazu; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2018-05-22

    The tumor suppressor gene p53 encodes a transcription factor that regulates various cellular functions, including DNA repair, apoptosis and cell cycle progression. Approximately half of all human cancers carry mutations in p53 that lead to loss of tumor suppressor function or gain of functions that promote the cancer phenotype. Thus, targeting mutant p53 as an anticancer therapy has attracted considerable attention. In the current study, a small-molecule screen identified andrographlide (ANDRO) as a mutant p53 suppressor. The effects of ANDRO, a small molecule isolated from the Chinese herb Andrographis paniculata, on tumor cells carrying wild-type or mutant p53 were examined. ANDRO suppressed expression of mutant p53, induced expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and pro-apoptotic proteins genes, and inhibited the growth of cancer cells harboring mutant p53. ANDRO also induced expression of the heat-shock protein (Hsp70) and increased binding between Hsp70 and mutant p53 protein, thus promoting proteasomal degradation of p53. These results provide novel insights into the mechanisms regulating the function of mutant p53 and suggest that activation of Hsp70 may be a new strategy for the treatment of cancers harboring mutant p53.

  16. Methylammonium-resistant mutants of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia are affected in nitrate transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godon, C; Krapp, A; Leydecker, M T; Daniel-Vedele, F; Caboche, M

    1996-02-25

    This work reports the isolation and preliminary characterization of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia mutants resistant to methylammonium. Nicotiana plumbaginifolia plants cannot grow on low levels of nitrate in the presence of methylammonium. Methylammonium is not used as a nitrogen source, although it can be efficiently taken up by Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cells and converted into methylglutamine, an analog of glutamine. Glutamine is known to repress the expression of the enzymes that mediate the first two steps in the nitrate assimilatory pathway, nitrate reductase (NR) and nitrite reductase (NiR). Methylammonium has therefore been used, in combination with low concentrations of nitrate, as a selective agent in order to screen for mutants in which the nitrate pathway is de-repressed. Eleven semi-dominant mutants, all belonging to the same complementation group, were identified. The mutant showing the highest resistance to methylammonium was not affected either in the utilization of ammonium, accumulation of methylammonium or in glutamine synthase activity. A series of experiments showed that utilization of nitrite by the wild-type and the mutant was comparable, in the presence or the absence of methylammonium, thus suggesting that the mutation specifically affected nitrate transport or reduction. Although NR mRNA levels were less repressed by methylammonium treatment of the wild-type than the mutant, NR activities of the mutant remained comparable with or without methylammonium, leading to the hypothesis that modified expression of NR is probably not responsible for resistance to methylammonium. Methylammonium inhibited nitrate uptake in the wild-type but had only a limited effect in the mutant. The implications of these results are discussed.

  17. Isolation of glutathione-deficient mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistler, M.; Eckardt, F.; Summer, K.-H.

    1986-01-01

    Glutathione-deficient (gsh - ) mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated after UV treatment using MNNG as selective agent. For genetic and biochemical characterization 5 mutant strains were chosen which exhibited considerably decreased residual GSH contents varying from 2 to 6% of the wild-type levels. All 5 isolates showed a 2:2 segregation of the gsh - :GSH + phenotypes alluding to a monogenic recessive mutation. Complementation analysis indicates that all gsh - mutants belong to one complementation group. (Auth.)

  18. Is auxin involved in the induction of genetic instability in barley homeotic double mutants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiukšta, Raimondas; Vaitkūnienė, Virginija; Rančelis, Vytautas

    2018-02-01

    The triggers of genetic instability in barley homeotic double mutants are tweaky spike -type mutations associated with an auxin imbalance in separate spike phytomeres. Barley homeotic tweaky spike;Hooded (tw;Hd) double mutants are characterized by an inherited instability of spike and flower development, which is absent in the single parental constituents. The aim of the present study was to show that the trigger of genetic instability in the double mutants is the tw mutations, which are associated with an auxin imbalance in the developing spikes. Their pleiotropic effects on genes related to spike/flower development may cause the genetic instability of double mutants. The study of four double-mutant groups composed of different mutant alleles showed that the instability arose only if the mutant allele tw was a constituent of the double mutants. Application of auxin inhibitors and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) demonstrated the relationship of the instability of the double mutants and the phenotype of the tw mutants to auxin imbalance. 2,4-D induced phenocopies of the tw mutation in wild-type plants and rescued the phenotypes of three allelic tw mutants. The differential display (dd-PCR) method allowed the identification of several putative candidate genes in tw that may be responsible for the initiation of instability in the double mutants by pleiotropic variations of their expression in the tw mutant associated with auxin imbalance in the developing spikes. The results of the present study linked the genetic instability of homeotic double mutants with an auxin imbalance caused by one of the constituents (tw). The genetic instability of the double mutants in relation to auxin imbalance was studied for the first time. A matrocliny on instability expression was also observed.

  19. Proteomic analysis of the flooding tolerance mechanism in mutant soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Setsuko; Nanjo, Yohei; Nishimura, Minoru

    2013-02-21

    Flooding stress of soybean is a serious problem because it reduces growth; however, flooding-tolerant cultivars have not been identified. To analyze the flooding tolerance mechanism of soybean, the flooding-tolerant mutant was isolated and analyzed using a proteomic technique. Flooding-tolerance tests were repeated five times using gamma-ray irradiated soybeans, whose root growth (M6 stage) was not suppressed even under flooding stress. Two-day-old wild-type and mutant plants were subjected to flooding stress for 2days, and proteins were identified using a gel-based proteomic technique. In wild-type under flooding stress, levels of proteins related to development, protein synthesis/degradation, secondary metabolism, and the cell wall changed; however, these proteins did not markedly differ in the mutant. In contrast, an increased number of fermentation-related proteins were identified in the mutant under flooding stress. The root tips of mutant plants were not affected by flooding stress, even though the wild-type plants had damaged root. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the mutant increased at an early stage of flooding stress compared with that of the wild-type. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of the fermentation system in the early stages of flooding may be an important factor for the acquisition of flooding tolerance in soybean. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic and agronomic evaluation of induced semi-dwarf mutants of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutger, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    Induced semi-dwarf mutants have played an important role in California's rapid shift from nearly all tall rice varieties in 1978 to nearly all semi-dwarf varieties at present. In 1981 over half of the California rice area was planted with semi-dwarf varieties carrying the induced mutant semi-dwarfing gene sd 1 , while much of the other half was planted to a variety deriving its semi-dwarfism from IR8. The sd 1 mutant is allelic to the major semi-dwarfing gene in DGWG and IR8. Current objectives are to determine the inheritance of new semi-dwarf mutants, including allelism tests with sd 1 , and to evaluate the agronomic potential of nonallelic sources and of double-dwarfs. To date semi-dwarf mutants from 10 varieties have been partially or completely evaluated. At least three nonallelic semi-dwarfing genes, sd 1 , sd 2 , and sd 4 , have been described. Rather than attempt to determine all possible allelic relationships of new mutants, crosses are being made only to the reference sd 1 source, since sd 1 , still seems to be the most productive semi-dwarfing gene source. However, nonallelic semi-dwarf mutants in the varieties M5 and Labelle may be useful if genetic vulnerability from widespread usage of the sd 1 source becomes a problem. (author)

  1. Induction of mutants in Durum Wheat by hybridization and irradiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Ubaidi, M.O.; Ibrahim, I.F.

    2001-01-01

    This investigation presents a breeding program for induction and development a new genotypes of durum wheat, resistant to lodging with high yield, by irradiated seeds (F2) of durum wheat hybrid's (Sin Al-jemal X Izraa, Sin Al-Jemal X Cocorat and Izraa X Cocorat) with gamma rays 100 Gy dose. This program involves: Induction of variability, selection, evaluation of the best mutants at three different locations, Twaitha(Baghdad), Latifya (Babylon) and Swari (Kutt), for the period 1990-1999. Results revealed that the mutants ( Si X Iz-7, Si X Iz-22, Si X Co-43, Si X Co-48, Si X Co-50, Si X Co- 87, Iz X Co-95 and Iz X Co-105) showed resistance to lodging with a significant reduction in plant heigth, but mutant Si X Iz-22 surpassed the other mutants and it is origin in lodging resistance and reduction in plant heigth (84.8, 81.9 and 86.3 cm) at Twaitha, Latifya and Babylon respectively in M7 and M8 generations. Also there were a significant differences between the mutants and their origin in yield and yield components during the two successive generations, on the other hand mutant Iz X Co-105 surpassed the other mutants in spikes/m2 ( 278.8, 263.3 and 289) and grain yield (4950, 4820 and 5320 kg/ha) in the testing locations respectively

  2. Structure and expression of cytochrome f in an Oenothera plastome mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E M; Sears, B B

    1990-06-01

    The chloroplast mutant pm7 is one of a number of mutants derived from the plastome mutator (pm) line of Oenothera hookeri, strain Johansen. Immunoblotting showed that this mutant accumulates a protein that is cross-antigenic with cytochrome f, but five kilodaltons larger than the mature wild-type protein. Since cytochrome f is known to be translated on plastid ribosomes as a precursor with an amino-terminal extension, it is proposed that the unprocessed cytochrome f precursor accumulates in pm7. In addition to this precursor-sized cytochrome f protein, some mature-sized cytochrome f was also found in the mutant plastids. The pm7 mutation is inherited in a non-Mendelian fashion; but no alterations in chloroplast DNA restriction patterns, or differences in DNA sequence in the region encoding cytochrome f, were found in a comparison of the wild-type and pm7 chloroplast DNAs. Although the mutant was capable of synthesizing heme, no covalently-bound heme, normally found associated with mature, functional, cytochrome f was detected in the mutant at sizes expected for the presumed precursor, or for mature cytochrome f. These results indicate that the aberrant accumulation of a precursor-sized cytochrome f in pm7 is not due to a lesion directly in the plastid gene encoding cytochrome f, petA, or to a deficiency in the ability of the mutant plastids to synthesize or accumulate heme.

  3. EMS mutant spectra generated by multi-parameter flow cytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keysar, Stephen B. [Cell and Molecular Biology Graduate Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Fox, Michael H., E-mail: michael.fox@colostate.edu [Cell and Molecular Biology Graduate Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The CHO A{sub L} cell line contains a single copy of human chromosome 11 that encodes several cell surface proteins including glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) linked CD59 and CD90, as well as CD98, CD44 and CD151 which are not GPI-linked. The flow cytometry mutation assay (FCMA) measures mutations of the CD59 gene by the absence of fluorescence when stained with antibodies against the CD59 cell surface protein. We have measured simultaneous mutations in CD59, CD44, CD90, CD98 and CD151 to generate a mutant spectrum for ionizing radiation. After treatment with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) many cells have an intermediate level of CD59 staining. Single cells were sorted from CD59{sup -} regions with varying levels of fluorescence and the resulting clonal populations had a stable phenotype for CD59 expression. Mutant spectra were generated by flow cytometry using the isolated clones and nearly all clones were mutated in CD59 only. Interestingly, about 60% of the CD59 negative clones were actually GPI mutants determined by staining with the GPI specific fluorescently labeled bacterial toxin aerolysin (FLAER). The GPI negative cells are most likely caused by mutations in the X-linked pigA gene important in GPI biosynthesis. Small mutations of pigA and CD59 were expected for the alkylating agent EMS and the resulting spectra are significantly different than the large deletions found when analyzing radiation mutants. After analyzing the CD59{sup -} clonal populations we have adjusted the FCMA mutant regions from 1% to 10% of the mean of the CD59 positive peak to include the majority of CD59 mutants.

  4. Nanoformulated cell-penetrating survivin mutant and its dual actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriramoju B

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bhasker Sriramoju, Rupinder K Kanwar, Jagat R Kanwar Nanomedicine Laboratory of Immunology and Molecular Biomedical Research (NLIMBR, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia Abstract: In this study, we investigated the differential actions of a dominant-negative survivin mutant (SurR9-C84A against cancerous SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cell lines and differentiated SK-N-SH neurons. In both the cases, the mutant protein displayed dual actions, where its effects were cytotoxic toward cancerous cells and proliferative toward the differentiated neurons. This can be explained by the fact that tumorous (undifferentiated SK-N-SH cells have a high endogenous survivin pool and upon treatment with mutant SuR9-C84A causes forceful survivin expression. These events significantly lowered the microtubule dynamics and stability, eventually leading to apoptosis. In the case of differentiated SK-N-SH neurons that express negligible levels of wild-type survivin, the mutant indistinguishably behaved in a wild-type fashion. It also favored cell-cycle progression, forming the chromosome-passenger complex, and stabilized the microtubule-organizing center. Therefore, mutant SurR9-C84A represents a novel therapeutic with its dual actions (cytotoxic toward tumor cells and protective and proliferative toward neuronal cells, and hence finds potential applications against a variety of neurological disorders. In this study, we also developed a novel poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticulate formulation to surmount the hurdles associated with the delivery of SurR9-C84A, thus enhancing its effective therapeutic outcome. Keywords: survivin mutant, neurological disorders, protein therapeutics, inhibitor of apoptosis protein family, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid

  5. Some mutants in maize obtained by irradiation with thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconu, P.

    1993-01-01

    Irradiation was carried out at the Bucharest Institute of Atomic Physics and the National Laboratory Brookhaven, USA. A description is given of 22 genic mutants affecting leaf color, plant size, and branching capacity. Characteristics related to pollen fertility and the vegetative period were affected in all the mutants. Improvement of pollen fertility was attempted over four generations without success. The maize mutants obtained by irradiation may be considered as being without practical significance. (author). 7 figs., 1 tab. 11 ref

  6. Heterozygous inactivation of tsc2 enhances tumorigenesis in p53 mutant zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Hyung Kim

    2013-07-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is a multi-organ disorder caused by mutations of the TSC1 or TSC2 genes. A key function of these genes is to inhibit mTORC1 (mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 kinase signaling. Cells deficient for TSC1 or TSC2 have increased mTORC1 signaling and give rise to benign tumors, although, as a rule, true malignancies are rarely seen. In contrast, other disorders with increased mTOR signaling typically have overt malignancies. A better understanding of genetic mechanisms that govern the transformation of benign cells to malignant ones is crucial to understand cancer pathogenesis. We generated a zebrafish model of TSC and cancer progression by placing a heterozygous mutation of the tsc2 gene in a p53 mutant background. Unlike tsc2 heterozygous mutant zebrafish, which never exhibited cancers, compound tsc2;p53 mutants had malignant tumors in multiple organs. Tumorigenesis was enhanced compared with p53 mutant zebrafish. p53 mutants also had increased mTORC1 signaling that was further enhanced in tsc2;p53 compound mutants. We found increased expression of Hif1-α, Hif2-α and Vegf-c in tsc2;p53 compound mutant zebrafish compared with p53 mutant zebrafish. Expression of these proteins probably underlies the increased angiogenesis seen in compound mutant zebrafish compared with p53 mutants and might further drive cancer progression. Treatment of p53 and compound mutant zebrafish with the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin caused rapid shrinkage of tumor size and decreased caliber of tumor-associated blood vessels. This is the first report using an animal model to show interactions between tsc2, mTORC1 and p53 during tumorigenesis. These results might explain why individuals with TSC rarely have malignant tumors, but also suggest that cancer arising in individuals without TSC might be influenced by the status of TSC1 and/or TSC2 mutations and be potentially treatable with mTORC1 inhibitors.

  7. Variation of several agronomic and biochemical traits in γ-ray induced mutant soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Kyo Moon; Kim, Sun Hyung; Kim, Nam Soo; Son, Hi Sup; Rhee, Hae Ik

    1996-01-01

    Two soybean cultivars(Paldalkong and Bangsakong) were irradiated with gamma-ray to reduce seed size, which is an important trait for soybean sprout and the derived mutant soybeans were analyzed in several agronomic and biochemical traits. There were high levels of variations in quantitative traits among the mutants. Several mutant lines showed higher yield and smaller seed than their parents. Qualitative traits such as seed coat color or pubescent color were also changed in a few lines. Biochemical variations were also observed among the mutants. In seed storage protein analysis, many mutant lines showed reduced intensities in β-subunits in 7S globulin than their parents and an additional band in the acidic subunit at 31KDa. Two mutant lines derived from Paldalkong showed an additional band and a shifted band of protease inhibitor by electrophoretic analysis. Variations in isozymes and RAPD were also observed among the mutants. Six isozymes(Adh, Est, Gdh, Idh, Mdh and Pgm) among eleven isozymes showed some variations and six out of ten primers showed polymorphic amplified DNA fragments among the mutants. (author)

  8. Application Of Database Program in selecting Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L) Mutant Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H, Soeranto

    2000-01-01

    Computer database software namely MSTAT and paradox have been exercised in the field of mutation breeding especially in the process of selecting plant mutant lines of sorghum. In MSTAT, selecting mutant lines can be done by activating the SELECTION function and then followed by entering mathematical formulas for the selection criterion. Another alternative is by defining the desired selection intensity to the analysis results of subprogram SORT. Including the selected plant mutant lines in BRSERIES program, it will make their progenies be easier to be traced in subsequent generations. In paradox, an application program for selecting mutant lines can be made by combining facilities of Table, form and report. Selecting mutant lines with defined selection criterion can easily be done through filtering data. As a relation database, paradox ensures that the application program for selecting mutant lines and progeny trachings, can be made easier, efficient and interactive

  9. Characterization of mutants of yeast sensitive to x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strike, T.L.

    1978-01-01

    This study deals with the characterization of mutants at the rad50 to rad57 loci selected on the basis of their sensitivity to x rays. They were also examined for sensitivity to uv and mms and for characteristics of mutation induction, heteroallelic reversion (gene conversion), liquid holding recovery from x rays, and sporulation. All the mutants were slightly to moderately sensitive to uv though they did not show the extreme sensitivity of the rad1 to rad22 mutations, and all demonstrated cross sensitivity to both x rays and MMS. If a mutant was very sensitive to x-rays, it was usually very sensitive to MMS also

  10. Construction of a large-scale Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 transposon mutant library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yee-Chin; Pain, Arnab; Nathan, Sheila

    2014-09-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia, a pathogenic member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), has emerged as a significant threat towards cystic fibrosis patients, where infection often leads to the fatal clinical manifestation known as cepacia syndrome. Many studies have investigated the pathogenicity of B. cenocepacia as well as its ability to become highly resistant towards many of the antibiotics currently in use. In addition, studies have also been undertaken to understand the pathogen's capacity to adapt and survive in a broad range of environments. Transposon based mutagenesis has been widely used in creating insertional knock-out mutants and coupled with recent advances in sequencing technology, robust tools to study gene function in a genome-wide manner have been developed based on the assembly of saturated transposon mutant libraries. In this study, we describe the construction of a large-scale library of B. cenocepacia transposon mutants. To create transposon mutants of B. cenocepacia strain J2315, electrocompetent bacteria were electrotransformed with the EZ-Tn5 transposome. Tetracyline resistant colonies were harvested off selective agar and pooled. Mutants were generated in multiple batches with each batch consisting of ˜20,000 to 40,000 mutants. Transposon insertion was validated by PCR amplification of the transposon region. In conclusion, a saturated B. cenocepacia J2315 transposon mutant library with an estimated total number of 500,000 mutants was successfully constructed. This mutant library can now be further exploited as a genetic tool to assess the function of every gene in the genome, facilitating the discovery of genes important for bacterial survival and adaptation, as well as virulence.

  11. Clear Plaque Mutants of Lactococcal Phage TP901-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kot, Witold; Kilstrup, Mogens; Vogensen, Finn K.

    2016-01-01

    We report a method for obtaining turbid plaques of the lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1 and its derivative TP901-BC1034. We have further used the method to isolate clear plaque mutants of this phage. Analysis of 8 such mutants that were unable to lysogenize the host included whole genome...

  12. Mutations that promote furin-independent growth of Semliki Forest virus affect p62-E1 interactions and membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinyong; Kielian, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    The enveloped alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infects cells via a low pH-triggered membrane fusion reaction mediated by the E1 protein. E1's fusion activity is regulated by its heterodimeric interaction with a companion membrane protein E2. Mature E2 protein is generated by furin processing of the precursor p62. Processing destabilizes the heterodimer, allowing dissociation at acidic pH, E1 conformational changes, and membrane fusion. We used a furin-deficient cell line, FD11, to select for SFV mutants that show increased growth in the absence of p62 processing. We isolated and characterized 7 such pci mutants (p62 cleavage independent), which retained the parental furin cleavage site but showed significant increases in their ability to carry out membrane fusion in the p62 form. Sequence analysis of the pci mutants identified mutations primarily on the E2 protein, and suggested sites important in the interaction of p62 with E1 and the regulation of fusion

  13. Chlorophyll mutants in Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) Savi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetleva, D.; Petkova, S.

    1991-01-01

    Three-year investigations were conducted on chlorophyll mutants of three type: viridissima, claroviridis, flavoviridis, viridocostata and xanthomarginata produced post gamma irradiation ( 60 Co, 8 krad, 280 rad/min). Cell division rate in spectrum and in quantity of induced aberrations was found to have no significant differences with the control. Chlorophyll mutations compared to the control are less developed and their productive characters are less manifested. Cell division rate and the quantity of induced aberrations have no relation to the elements of productivity in the mutants investigated. 3 tabs., 12 refs

  14. Characterization of mitomycin-C-sensitive mouse lymphoma L5178Y cell mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Hiroko; Shiomi, Naoko; Shiomi, Tadahiro; Sato, Koki; Yoshida, Michihiro.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-six mutants showing high sensitivity to mytomicin-C (MMC) were isolated from mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells by a replica-plating technique. Twenty-five of the mutants were 5 - 10 times more sensitive to MMC than were parental cells, and showed normal sensitivity to U.V. light and x-rays. From a complementation analysis, 5 mutants (MC s ) isolated from independently mutagenized cell populations were classified into two groups. These mutants possessed recessive character for MMC-sensitivity and there were at least two genes involved in the MMC-sensitivity. As for DNA-damaging factors, such as photoadducts of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and 3-carbethoxysoralen (3-CPs), MC s mutants showed higher sensitivity to photoadducts of 8-MOP than to (3-CPs). MC s mutants were also highly sensitive to a DNA cross-linking agent, cisplatin. Characterization of the sensitivity of mouse MC s mutants was analogous to that of Fanconi's anemia (FA)-derived cells. Low concentrations (10 ng/ml) of MMC induced chromosome aberration in a high incidence in mouse MC s cells, as well as in FA cells. The frequency of MMC-induced chromosome aberrations was normal in hybrid cells between normal human diploid somatic cells and mouse mutants and between FA cells and mouse wild cells, and hereditary deficiency became normal by hybrization. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Agronomic performance of rape seed (brassica napus L.) mutant lines under drought conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.A.; Ali, I.; Shah, S.J.A.; Rehman, K.; Rashid, A.

    1995-01-01

    Oil seed forms of Brassica napus are not well adapted to drought and the warner environments of Pakistan. Induced mutations were, therefore, utilized for improving drought tolerance efficiency of two napus cultivars. Induction of genetic variability, selection of desirable mutants and stabilization of mutants in acceptable agronomic background were carried out during 1988-1991. Fourteen promising mutants each of cv. Pak-cheen and Tower were evaluated for different agronomic characters in separate yield trials, under extremely drought conditions. The results demonstrated that yield potential of some mutants was very high and 9 mutants of cv. Pak-cheen and 8 mutants of cv. Tower significantly (P<0.05) out yield the local commercial cultivar. Eleven mutants in both the trials matured significantly earlier than the check. Nevertheless, more extensive testing of the drought tolerant lines under diversified environs of the country will help confirm these findings. (author)

  16. Defining the requirements for the pathogenic interaction between mutant calreticulin and MPL in MPN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elf, Shannon; Abdelfattah, Nouran S; Baral, April J; Beeson, Danielle; Rivera, Jeanne F; Ko, Amy; Florescu, Natalie; Birrane, Gabriel; Chen, Edwin; Mullally, Ann

    2018-02-15

    Mutations in calreticulin ( CALR ) are phenotypic drivers in the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms. Mechanistic studies have demonstrated that mutant CALR binds to the thrombopoietin receptor MPL, and that the positive electrostatic charge of the mutant CALR C terminus is required for mutant CALR-mediated activation of JAK-STAT signaling. Here we demonstrate that although binding between mutant CALR and MPL is required for mutant CALR to transform hematopoietic cells; binding alone is insufficient for cytokine independent growth. We further show that the threshold of positive charge in the mutant CALR C terminus influences both binding of mutant CALR to MPL and activation of MPL signaling. We find that mutant CALR binds to the extracellular domain of MPL and that 3 tyrosine residues within the intracellular domain of MPL are required to activate signaling. With respect to mutant CALR function, we show that its lectin-dependent function is required for binding to MPL and for cytokine independent growth, whereas its chaperone and polypeptide-binding functionalities are dispensable. Together, our findings provide additional insights into the mechanism of the pathogenic mutant CALR-MPL interaction in myeloproliferative neoplasms. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  17. Evaluation of short stature mutants of Basmati-370 for yield and grain quality characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, M.A.; Ahmad, M.; Cheema, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Three short stature mutants were induced in an indica rice cultivar by gamma irradiation. The mutants were assessed for their yielding ability and grain quality characteristics. All the mutants out yielded the parent variety, Basmati-370. The increase in yield of the mutants ranged from 19.37% to 29.66%. DM-2 gave the highest yield (3587.96 kg/ha) among the mutants. As regards physical, cooking and eating quality characteristics, there was no significant difference in water absorption, volume expansion ratios and stickiness among the mutants and Basmati-370. However, Basmati-370 was scored best for flavour as this variety had strong aroma as compared to its mutants which were scored for moderately strong aroma. (authors)

  18. Characterization of a bacteriophage T4 mutant lacking DNA-dependent ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behme, M.T.; Ebisuzaki, K.

    1975-01-01

    A DNA-dependent ATPase has previously been purified from bacteriophage T4-infected Escherichia coli. A mutant phage strain lacking this enzyme has been isolated and characterized. Although the mutant strain produced no detectable DNA-dependent ATPase, growth properties were not affected. Burst sizes were similar for the mutant phage and T4D in polAl, recB, recC, uvrA, uvrB, uvrC, and various DNA-negative E. coli. UV sensitivity and genetic recombination were normal in a variety of E. coli hosts. Mapping data indicate that the genetic locus controlling the mutant occurs near gene 56. The nonessential nature of this gene is discussed

  19. Radiation-sensitive mutant of hypertoxinogenic strain 569B of Vibro cholerae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, G.; Das, J.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation-sensitive mutant of the hypertoxinogenic strain 569B of Vibrio cholerae was isolated and characterized. The mutant, designated V. cholerae 569Bsub(s), lacks both excision- and medium-dependent dark-repair mechanisms of UV-induced DNA damage while retaining the wild-type photoreactivating capability. Analysis of the UV-irradiated cell DNA by velocity sedimentation in alkaline sucrose gradient suggests that UV-induced pyrimidine dimers may not be incised in these cells. In contrast to the wild-type cells, the mutant cell DNA was degraded after treatment with nalidixic acid. The mutant cells failed to produce any detectable amount of cholera toxin as measured by ileal-loop assay. (orig.)

  20. Therapeutic Targeting of Spliceosomal-Mutant Acquired Bone Marrow Failure Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    spliceosomal mutant cells . This effort has also highlighted a requirement for innate immune signaling in SF3B1-mutant MDS and has implicated a few specific...relative to single-mutant cells (Figure 5A). As innate immune signaling has been implicated in MDS pathogenesis (Basiorka et al., 2016; Fang et al...Sato et al., 2005; Tang et al., 2008; Vink et al., 2013; Xin et al., 2017). Here, we observed that SF3B1K700E/+ human lymphoid leukemia cells (NALM-6

  1. Cloning, preparation and preliminary crystallographic studies of penicillin V acylase autoproteolytic processing mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, P. Manish; Brannigan, James A.; Prabhune, Asmita; Pundle, Archana; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Dodson, G. Guy; Suresh, C. G.

    2004-01-01

    The production, crystallization and characterization of three inactive mutants of penicillin V acylase from B. sphaericus in their respective precursor and processed forms are reported. The space groups are different for the native enzyme and the mutants. The crystallization of three catalytically inactive mutants of penicillin V acylase (PVA) from Bacillus sphaericus in precursor and processed forms is reported. The mutant proteins crystallize in different primitive monoclinic space groups that are distinct from the crystal forms for the native enzyme. Directed mutants and clone constructs were designed to study the post-translational autoproteolytic processing of PVA. The catalytically inactive mutants will provide three-dimensional structures of precursor PVA forms, plus open a route to the study of enzyme–substrate complexes for this industrially important enzyme

  2. Small heterodimer partner (SHP deficiency protects myocardia from lipid accumulation in high fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hun Ohn

    Full Text Available The small heterodimer partner (SHP regulates fatty acid oxidation and lipogenesis in the liver by regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ expression. SHP is also abundantly expressed in the myocardium. We investigated the effect of SHP expression on myocardia assessing not only heart structure and function but also lipid metabolism and related gene expression in a SHP deletion animal model. Transcriptional profiling with a microarray revealed that genes participating in cell growth, cytokine signalling, phospholipid metabolism, and extracellular matrix are up-regulated in the myocardia of SHP knockout (KO mice compared to those of wild-type (WT mice (nominal p value < 0.05. Consistent with these gene expression changes, the left ventricular masses of SHP KO mice were significantly higher than WT mice (76.8 ± 20.5 mg vs. 52.8 ± 6.8 mg, P = 0.0093. After 12 weeks of high fat diet (HFD, SHP KO mice gained less weight and exhibited less elevation in serum-free fatty acid and less ectopic lipid accumulation in the myocardium than WT mice. According to microarray analysis, genes regulated by PPARγ1 and PPARα were down-regulated in myocardia of SHP KO mice compared to their expression in WT mice after HFD, suggesting that the reduction in lipid accumulation in the myocardium resulted from a decrease in lipogenesis regulated by PPARγ. We confirmed the reduced expression of PPARγ1 and PPARα target genes such as CD36, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase by SHP KO after HFD.

  3. Small heterodimer partner overexpression partially protects against liver tumor development in farnesoid X receptor knockout mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guodong; Kong, Bo; Zhu, Yan; Zhan, Le; Williams, Jessica A.; Tawfik, Ossama; Kassel, Karen M.; Luyendyk, James P.; Wang, Li; Guo, Grace L.

    2013-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR, Nr1h4) and small heterodimer partner (SHP, Nr0b2) are nuclear receptors that are critical to liver homeostasis. Induction of SHP serves as a major mechanism of FXR in suppressing gene expression. Both FXR −/− and SHP −/− mice develop spontaneous hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). SHP is one of the most strongly induced genes by FXR in the liver and is a tumor suppressor, therefore, we hypothesized that deficiency of SHP contributes to HCC development in the livers of FXR −/− mice and therefore, increased SHP expression in FXR −/− mice reduces liver tumorigenesis. To test this hypothesis, we generated FXR −/− mice with overexpression of SHP in hepatocytes (FXR −/− /SHP Tg ) and determined the contribution of SHP in HCC development in FXR −/− mice. Hepatocyte-specific SHP overexpression did not affect liver tumor incidence or size in FXR −/− mice. However, SHP overexpression led to a lower grade of dysplasia, reduced indicator cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. All tumor-bearing mice had increased serum bile acid levels and IL-6 levels, which was associated with activation of hepatic STAT3. In conclusion, SHP partially protects FXR −/− mice from HCC formation by reducing tumor malignancy. However, disrupted bile acid homeostasis by FXR deficiency leads to inflammation and injury, which ultimately results in uncontrolled cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in the liver. - Highlights: • SHP does not prevent HCC incidence nor size in FXR KO mice but reduces malignancy. • Increased SHP promotes apoptosis. • Bile acids and inflammation maybe critical for HCC formation with FXR deficiency

  4. PedonnanceofE3rly MatUring MutantS Derived from ''SuPa'~ Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vienna, Austria in 1994. The dry seeds were in-adiated with gamma rays using three doses (170, 210. --iifid 24OC;Y).frOm C.obalt 60 (lCO) in order shorten the plant height and maturity period. From the resulting mutant. PoPulations ortgindtiriifroni modified single seed descent method, five Jery early maturing lines plus the ...

  5. Studies on induced partially resistant mutants of barley against powdery mildew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roebbelen, G.; Abdel-Hafez, A.G.; Reinhold, M.; Kwon, H.J.; Neuhaus-Steinmetz, J.P.; Heun, M.

    1983-01-01

    After mutagenic seed treatment of three partially resistant cultivars of spring barley with EMS and NaN 3 , 45 mutants in a first and 16 in a second experiment were selected in the M 2 -M 4 generations. The screening was done alternatively under natural infection in the field or controlled infection with a single pathotype in the greenhouse. These mutants exhibited a higher resistance and a higher susceptibility, respectively, than the initial cultivars Asse, Bomi and Vada. Some mutants expressed their altered resistance behaviour particularly during certain stages of development. High-level resistance was conditioned by mutation in the ml-o locus in three cases. For several Bomi mutants pathotype specificity with and without reversed ranking was proven as well as pathotype non-specificity in comparison with the reaction of the original cultivar. In 14 cases studied the inheritance of the involved mutants was monogenic recessive. The laevigatum locus responsible for the intermediate mildew resistance of Bomi was not affected by the mutations. Detection of groups of allelic mutants showed that there are at least two regions in the barley genome in which mutations for mildew resistance can occur rather frequently. In total, the past ten years of this mutation research have given convincing evidence that the strategies of mutant screening applied have yielded promising new material both for breeding and for progress in basic understanding of host-pathogen interactions. (author)

  6. Characteristics and use of wheat mutants tolerant or resistant to Septoria nodorum Berk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossati, A.; Kleijer, G.; Fried, P.M.

    1983-01-01

    Mutation induction was used to obtain mutants tolerant or resistant to Septoria nodorum. This technique is valuable but many genotypes had to be treated because mutants could not be selected from all the genotypes. Short tolerant mutants could be obtained from 3 of the 15 treated tall tolerant lines. Induction of tolerance in susceptible lines of good agronomic value succeeded for 2 of 5 treated varieties. All these mutants showed a reduction in yield potential. One mutant showed partial resistance to S. nodorum. The disease development on the leaves and the spikes of this mutant was much slower than on the original variety. The characteristics of this mutant are discussed in detail. The genetics of tolerance proved to be polygenic and additive, which has consequences on the breeding method. A good way of obtaining a stable system would be the combination of high tolerance and partial resistance in the same cultivar. (author)

  7. The induction of menadione stress tolerance in the marine microalga, Dunaliella viridis, through cold pretreatment and modulation of the ascorbate and glutathione pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadkar Haghjou, Maryam; Colville, Louise; Smirnoff, Nicholas

    2014-11-01

    The effect of cold pretreatment on menadione tolerance was investigated in the cells of the marine microalga, Dunaliella viridis. In addition, the involvement of ascorbate and glutathione in the response to menadione stress was tested by treating cell suspensions with l-galactono-1,4-lactone, an ascorbate precursor, and buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis. Menadione was highly toxic to non cold-pretreated cells, and caused a large decrease in cell number. Cold pretreatment alleviated menadione toxicity and cold pretreated cells accumulated lower levels of reactive oxygen species, and had enhanced antioxidant capacity due to increased levels of β-carotene, reduced ascorbate and total glutathione compared to non cold-pretreated cells. Cold pretreatment also altered the response to l-galactono-1,4-lactone and buthionine sulfoximine treatments. Combined l-galactono-1,4-lactone and menadione treatment was lethal in non-cold pretreated cells, but in cold-pretreated cells it had a positive effect on cell numbers compared to menadione alone. Overall, exposure of Dunaliella cells to cold stress enhanced tolerance to subsequent oxidative stress induced by menadione. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. An early maturing rice mutant released as a variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azam, M.A.; Imtiaz Uddin, Md.

    2001-01-01

    In the content of food grain production deficiency (about 1.0-1.5 million tons of rice per year according to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, 1998) an induced mutation programme was undertaken in 1985. One moderate early maturing and high yielding rice mutant line (BINA6-84-4-115) has been developed by irradiating F 2 seeds of the cross 'BR4' x 'Iratom 38'. Three treatments viz., 250, 300 and 350 Gy were given to the F 2 seeds. Finally, this line was selected in M 6 generation for advanced yield trial. The line was evaluated in comparative trials with another mutant line BINA6-84-4-163. These two mutant lines had been selected earlier from 300 Gy originated lines. The two check varieties, 'BR 11' and 'BR 22' were also included in the trial, which was conducted in two consecutive T. aman seasons (July to December) during 1994 and 1995 at five locations in Bangladesh. From the results, it was evident that the mutant BINA6-84-4-115 did not differ much with the other mutant lines or check varieties in respect to plant height, number of effective tillers and panicle length but it was 10-18 days earlier than the other 3 entries. It produced a similar yield as the check BR 11 in 1994 and a higher yield than the check BR 11 and BR 22 in 1995. This mutant line gave the highest yield per day among all the entries. In addition to this, the grains are long, fine and possess a high L/B ratio, which are of high commercial value. This line has been released by the National Seed Board of Bangladesh in 1998 as a commercial variety under the name 'BINADHAN-4' for cultivation throughout Bangladesh

  9. Isolation of new gravitropic mutants under hypergravity conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Akiko Mori; Masatsugu Toyota; Masatsugu Toyota; Masayoshi Shimada; Mika Mekata; Tetsuya Kurata; Masao Tasaka; Miyo Terao Morita

    2016-01-01

    Forward genetics is a powerful approach used to link genotypes and phenotypes, and mutant screening/analysis has provided deep insights into many aspects of plant physiology. Gravitropism is a tropistic response in plants, in which hypocotyls and stems sense the direction of gravity and grow upwards. Previous studies of gravitropic mutants have suggested that shoot endodermal cells in Arabidopsis stems and hypocotyls are capable of sensing gravity (i.e., statocytes). In the present study, we ...

  10. A higher yielding mutant of black gram with improved nodule formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.K.; Raghuvanshi, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    Dry seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo (L) Hopper) var. T 9 with 12.2% moisture content were irradiated at 10, 20 and 30 krad of gamma rays. This was followed by combined treatment of one set in each dose with freshly prepared 0. 25% EMS in phosphate buffer at 7.0 pH at 30± deg. C for 6 hours. In M 2 population of 20 krad two mutants with pentafoliate instead of trifoliate leaves were found. This character was true breeding in M 3 M 6 generation. Crosses revealed monogenic recessive inheritance of this character. The proposed gene symbol is p5. This mutant has normal maturity period and the plant height is the same as T 9 (ca. 50 cm). Preliminary yield trials indicate superiority of the mutant line over control. The mutant line also shows a significant improvement in number and weight of root nodules, potentially improving green manuring value. Improvement of root nodulation in mungbean mutants was reported before by others

  11. Benomyl-resistant mutant strain of Trichoderma sp. with increased mycoparasitic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejníková, P; Ondrusová, Z; Krystofová, S; Hudecová, D

    2010-01-01

    Application of UV radiation to the strain Trichoderma sp. T-bt (isolated from lignite) resulted in the T-brm mutant which was resistant to the systemic fungicide benomyl. The tub2 gene sequence in the T-brm mutant differed from the parent as well as the collection strain (replacing tyrosine with histidine in the TUB2 protein). Under in vitro conditions this mutant exhibited a higher mycoparasitic activity toward phytopathogenic fungi.

  12. Sensorimotor learning in Dab1(scm) (scrambler) mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, R; Strazielle, C

    2011-04-15

    Homozygous Dab1(scm) mouse mutants with cell ectopias in cerebellar cortex and neocortex were compared with non-ataxic controls on two tests of motor coordination: rotorod and grid climbing. Even at the minimal speed of 4 rpm and unlike controls, none of the Dab1(scm) mutants reached criterion on the constant speed rotorod. In contrast, Dab1(scm) mutants improved their performances on the vertical grid over the course of the same number of trials. Thus, despite massive cerebellar degeneration, sensorimotor learning for equilibrium is still possible, indicating the potential usefulness of the grid-climbing test in determining residual functions in mice with massive cerebellar damage. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Molecular analyses of in vivo hprt mutant T cells from atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakoda, M.; Hirai, Y.; Kyoizumi, S.; Akiyama, M.

    1989-01-01

    In vivo-derived hprt-deficient mutant T cells isolated from three nonirradiated controls and two atomic bomb survivors were studied by Southern blot analysis to investigate the molecular spectra of the mutations. Mutant frequencies for the three controls were 1.8, 2.3, and 7.3 x 10(-6), and those for the two survivors (who had received radiation doses of 2.46 and 2.15 Gy, based upon the revised atomic bomb shielded kerma estimates) were 9.3 and 14.4 x 10(-6), respectively. Fourteen (13%) of 105 mutant T-cell colonies from the controls showed various structural changes in the hprt gene. The frequency of mutants with hprt gene structural changes in one atomic bomb survivor, who exhibited a mutant frequency of 9.3 x 10(-6), was 26% (16/61), which was significantly higher than that of the controls. However, the frequency of structural changes in the other survivor (14%, 8/59) was not higher than that of the controls. Two sets of mutants (in total, eight mutants) from the survivor, who showed a significantly higher frequency of mutants with hprt gross alterations than did the controls, had the same hprt changes and the same rearrangements of T-cell receptor (TcR) beta- and gamma-chain genes, indicating a clonal expansion from one progenitor mutant. This phenomenon may reflect an in vivo recovery process of T cells in the periphery after exposure to atomic bomb radiation. However, when comparing the frequency of mutations, these two sets of mutants should be reduced. After reducing the total number of mutants from the number of gross hprt changes, the frequency was not significantly higher than that of the controls

  14. Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase of Escherichia coli, Identification of a mutant enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Nygaard, Per

    1982-01-01

    , stimulated the mutant enzyme. The activity of PRib-PP synthetase in crude extract was higher in the mutant than in the parent. When starved for purines an accumulation of PRib-PP was observed in the parent strain, while the pool decreased in the mutant. During pyrimidine starvation derepression of PRib...

  15. Increased spontaneous mitotic segregation in MMS-sensitive mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, S.; Prakash, L.

    1977-01-01

    Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-sensitive mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae belonging to four different complementation groups, when homozygous, increase the rate of spontaneous mitotic segregation to canavanine resistance from heterozygous sensitive (can/sup r//+) diploids by 13- to 170-fold. The mms8-1 mutant is MMS and x-ray sensitive and increases the rate of spontaneous mitotic segregation 170-fold. The mms9-1 and mms13-1 mutants are sensitive to x rays and uv, respectively, in addition to MMS, and increase the rate of spontaneous mitotic segregation by 13-fold and 85-fold, respectively. The mutant mms21-1 is sensitive to MMS, x rays and uv and increases the rate of spontaneous mitotic segregation 23-fold

  16. Identification of dominant male sterile mutants in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xudong; Rutger, J.N.

    2000-01-01

    Genetic male sterile mutants 1783 and 1789 were selected from US variety Orion and Kaybonnet seeds treated by gamma irradiation. Investigation of fertility characterization of pollen and spikelets of these mutants were made by progeny tests in 1783 M 7 and 1789 M 6 generations. The results showed that genetic male sterile mutants 1783 and 1789 with the fertility segregating of 1 sterile: 1 fertile were controlled by a single dominant gene. The pollen staining of mutants characterized partial sterility. Open-pollinated seed set was about 30% and bagged seed set was only 0.3%-3.5%. It is concluded that dominant genetic male sterile is a useful tool in improvement of population for rice breeding

  17. Root and Nodulation Phenotypes of the Ethylene-Insensitive Sickle Mutant of Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOKO PRAYITNO

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The sickle (skl mutant of the model legume Medicago truncatula is an ethylene-sensitive mutant that have a ten-fold increase in nodule numbers. The nodulation and root phenotypes of the skl mutant were investigated and further characterised. The skl mutant had longer roots than the wild type, but when inoculated with Sinorhizobium, its root length was reduced to the level of wild type. Furthermore, lateral root numbers in uninoculated skl were similar to those in uninoculated wild type. However, when the root tips were decapitated, fewer lateral roots formed in skl than in wild type. Nodule numbers of the skl mutant were significantly reduced by low nitrate concentration (2.5 mM. These results suggest that skl mutant has alterations in both root and nodule development.

  18. Mutant of Japanese pear resistant to Black Spot Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, T.; Nishida, T.; Ikeda, F.

    1987-01-01

    Full text: Nijisseike is one of the leading cultivars of Japanese pear (Pyrus serotinea Rehd.), but susceptible to black spot disease. Farmers try to prevent this disease by wrapping the fruit with a paper bag and by repeated spraying of fungicides. The disease is caused by a Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. Susceptibility is controlled by a single dominant gene. In 1962, grafted trees of this cultivar were planted at a distance between 53 and 93 m from the 60 Co source in the gamma-field (daily dose 15-4 rad). One branch on a tree planted at 53 m was detected as resistant in 1981. Under field conditions, black spots were observed on many fruits and leaves of the original trees by natural infection in early July, however, they were not observed on the mutant. To examine the resistance of the mutant, artificial inoculations were made using spores of the pathogen and the host specific toxin produced by germinating spores. When some drops of the spore suspension are placed on leaves, the formation of black spots depends upon the leaf age. In a resistant cv. as Chojuro, black spot symptoms are formed only when inoculated on young leaves. An intermediate reaction was observed in the mutant, whereas the original Nijisseiki showed severe symptoms. When inoculation was made on matured fruit skins, no black spot was formed on the mutant just like on the resistant cv. Chojuro, while many small black spots were formed and grew into large spots overlapping each other on the susceptible cv. Nijisseiki. In case of the crude toxin inoculation (4-0.04 ppm) of cv. Nijisseiki black spots were formed on the surface of the susceptible fruit skin, and necrotic lesions at the cut end of detached small pieces of leaves, although reaction on fruit skins was weaker compared with inoculation by spores. However, no symptoms were observed from the toxin application on the mutant and the resistant cv. Chojuro. That the resistance of the mutant is classified as

  19. UV and gamma-ray sensitivity of meiosis-deficient mutants in Podospora anserina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Two mutants, mei1 and mei2, were isolated by screening for deficiencies occurring in the meiotic process. The sensitivity of mei1 and mei2 mutant strains to UV irradiation showed a significant increase as compared with that of the wild-type stock, hwhereas the sensitivity to γ-rays remained unchanged. The double-mutant strains were no more sensitive than each single mutant. The data indicate that both mei1 and mei2 loci are probably involved in the same pathway of excision-repair of UV-induced lesions

  20. Growth and sporulation of a pyrimidine spore color mutant of Sordaria fimicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Ani, A S

    1967-04-07

    A nonautonomous spore color mutant of Sordaria fimicola is a pyrimidine auxotroph that produces hyaline nonviable ascospores. Uracil, uridine, and cytidine are more effective growth factors than cytosine and thymine and, in high concentrations, render the mutant self-fertile by inducing the ascospores to resume development and maturation. Crosses with the unlinked arginine non-autonomus spore color mutant st-59 yielded the double mutant st-59 pyr that requires both arginine and a pyrimidine for growth, which indicates a lack of suppression of the pyrimidine requirement by the arginine locus.

  1. Preliminary Study of the Characteristics of Several Glossy Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Jun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine the characteristics and potential practical applications of glossy cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. mutants, five different glossy mutants were studied. The amount of epicuticular wax covering the mutant leaves was only approximately 30% that of the wild-type (WT leaves. The wax crystals of WT plants were columnar and linear, while they were granular and rod-shaped in the mutants. Additionally, in WT cabbage, the primary wax components were alkanes, alcohols, fatty acids, ketones, and aldehydes. There was a significant decrease in the abundance of alkanes and ketones in the wax of the mutants. The glossy-green trait of the mutants may be the result of an inhibited alkane-forming pathway. Higher rates of chlorophyll leaching and water loss demonstrate that the mutant leaves were more permeable and sensitive to drought stress than the WT leaves. Growth curve results indicated that the growth rate of mutant-1 and mutant-3 was slower than that of the corresponding WT cabbage, resulting in shorter plants. However, the growth rate of mutant-2 was not influenced by the lack of coating wax. An investigation of the agronomic traits and heterosis of the glossy cabbage mutants indicated that all five mutants had glossy-green leaves, which was a favorable characteristic. The F1 plants derived from crosses involving mutant-2 exhibited obvious heterosis, suggesting the observed glossy-green trait is controlled by a dominant gene. Therefore, mutant-2 may be useful as a source of genetic material for future cabbage breeding experiments.

  2. Behaviour of UV-sensitive mutants of Proteus mirabilis to repair incision breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoerl, K.; Mund, C.

    1977-01-01

    In U.V.-sensitive mutants of P. mirabilis with the phenotype HCR, REC and EXR single-strand breaks appeared immediately after UV-irradiation. The behaviour of REC- and EXR-mutants was similar to the wildtype. The number of incision breaks observed by sedimentation analysis in these strains was very low. They could be joined during the excision repair process. From the ability of REC- and EXR-strains to rejoin most of the induced single-strand breaks it can be concluded that these strains have approximately the same capacity for excision repair as the wildtype. HCR-mutants of P. mirabilis produced single-strand breaks after UV-irradiation in contrast to HCR-mutants of E. coli. Therefore we suggest that HCR-mutants of P. mirabilis are not completely inhibited in the incision step. The single-strand breaks introduced in the DNA at the beginning of the repair process were not rejoined during further incubation. Experiments with toluenized cells led to the same results. The newly synthesized daughter DNA-strands of UV-irradiated HCR-mutants were of low molecular weight in comparison with those from unirradiated control cells during the repair period. This result is in agreement with the incapability of HCR-mutants to remove the pyrimidine dimers from the parental template strand. (author)

  3. Development mutants of anabaena doliolum defective in repair of UV-damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, D.N.; Singh, C.B.

    1980-01-01

    Nitrosoguanidine induced 'blue' pigment mutants of the blue-green alga anabaena doliolum were isolated. The blue-mutants on further characterization were grouped into three developmental phenotypes - (i) those forming doli-form blue-spores of heterogenous size i.e., Ad 011, (ii) those forming spheroidal cells in the stationary phase, some of which behave like spores on transfer to fresh medium i.e., Ad 012, and (iii) those showing no sporulation and conditionally producing abnormal cells in the presence of combined nitrogen only i.e., Ad 007. The former two classes of mutants showed the formation of abnormal cells irrespective of the presence or absence of combined nitrogen sources in the medium. The formation of abnormal cells in the filaments of the above mutants were distinguished by their larger size and irregular mode of division leading to true-branch formation. The comparative characterization of these mutant strains with the parental one showed sluggish growth, increased UV-sensitivity, almost unchanged photorepair capacity, a marked change in the pigment composition and relative resistance to nitrosoguanidine. Irregular cell division in both space and time in the mutant strains and their increased sensitivity to ultraviolet irradiation indicate the possible involvement of dark repair system in maintaining the precision of cell cylce in this alga. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 HIS

  4. Selection of high hectolitre weight mutants of winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, C.; Jones, P.

    1989-01-01

    Grain quality in wheat includes hectolitre weight (HLW) besides protein content and thousand-grain weight (TGW). The British winter wheat variety ''Guardian'' has a very high yield potential. Although the long grain of ''Guardian'' results in a desirable high TGW the HLW is too low. To select mutants exhibiting increased HLW the character was first analyzed to identify traits that could more easily be screened for using M 2 seeds. In comparison of 6 wheat cultivars, correlation analyses with HLW resulted in coefficients of -0.86 (grain length, L:P 2 seeds for shorter, less prolate grains. Mutagenesis was carried out using EMS sulphonate (1.8 or 3.6%), sodium azide (2 or 20 mM) or X-rays (7.5 or 20 kR). 69 M 2 grains with altered shape were selected. Examination of the M 3 progeny confirmed 6 grain-shape mutants, most of them resulting from EMS treatment (Table). Two of the mutants showed TGW values significantly below the parental variety, but three mutants exhibited HLW and TGW values significantly greater than those of the parental variety. Microplot yield trails on selected M 3 lines are in progress. The influence of physical grain characteristics on HLW offers prospects for mechanical fractionation of large M 2 populations. The application of gravity separators (fractionation on the basis of grain density) and sieves (fractionation on the basis of grain length) in screening mutants possessing improved grain quality is being investigated

  5. RAPD analysis on male sterility mutant of Lilium asiatic hybrids 'pollyanna' induced by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Yuehui; Zhao Xiangyun; Zhang Kezhong; Huang Shangwu; Lu Changxun

    2005-01-01

    RAPD analysis of 80 random 10-mer primers on Lilium Asiatic hybrids 'pollyanna' and its 20 phenotype male sterility mutants induced by irradiation was carried out. Of the tested primers, 31 primers could produced ideal amplification bands on all materials, 4 primers generated stable different polymorphic bands among 9 mutants and 'pollyanna'. Different polymorphic bands of 7-18 were found among 9 mutants and 'pollyanna'. It was showed that 9 mutants were phenotype male sterility mutant of 'pollyanna'. (authors)

  6. Photorepair mutants of Arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, C.Z.; Yee, J.; Mitchell, D.L.; Britt, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    UV radiation induces two major DNA damage products, the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and, at a lower frequency, the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidinone dimer (6-4 product). Although Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae produce a CPD-specific photolyase that eliminates only this class of dimer, Arabidopsis thaliana, Drosophila melanogaster, Crotalus atrox, and Xenopus laevis have recently been shown to photoreactivate both CPDs and 6-4 products. We describe the isolation and characterization of two new classes of mutants of Arabidopsis, termed uvr2 and uvr3, that are defective in the photoreactivation of CPDs and 6-4 products, respectively. We demonstrate that the CPD photolyase mutation is genetically linked to a DNA sequence encoding a type II (metazoan) CPD photolyase. In addition, we are able to generate plants in which only CPDs or 6-4 products are photoreactivated in the nuclear genome by exposing these mutants to UV light and then allowing them to repair one or the other class of dimers. This provides us with a unique opportunity to study the biological consequences of each of these two major UV-induced photoproducts in an intact living system

  7. Isolation of New Gravitropic Mutants under Hypergravity Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Akiko; Toyota, Masatsugu; Shimada, Masayoshi; Mekata, Mika; Kurata, Tetsuya; Tasaka, Masao; Morita, Miyo T.

    2016-01-01

    Forward genetics is a powerful approach used to link genotypes and phenotypes, and mutant screening/analysis has provided deep insights into many aspects of plant physiology. Gravitropism is a tropistic response in plants, in which hypocotyls and stems sense the direction of gravity and grow upward. Previous studies of gravitropic mutants have suggested that shoot endodermal cells in Arabidopsis stems and hypocotyls are capable of sensing gravity (i.e., statocytes). In the present study, we r...

  8. Induced mutagenesis in finger-millet (Eleusine coracana Gaertn.) with gamma-rays and ethyl methane sulphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aradhya, R.S.; Madhavamenon, P.

    1979-01-01

    The seeds of CO-1 variety were treated with gamma-rays and EMS, each in 5 doses, 10 to 50 kR and 0.5 to 2.5% respectively. The chlorophyll mutation rate was characterized by linearity at low to medium doses and saturation as well as erratic behavior at high doses. As per mutation rate, estimated on the basis of M 2 plants, EMS induced as high frequency. The spectrum consisted of albina, chlorina zantha, albo-viridis, tigrina (3 types) and striata (2 types), with tigrina being predominant. The treatments varied in their spectrum, with 2.0% yielding the widest spectrum of mutants. (author)

  9. A detailed study of gerJ mutants of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburg, R J; Buchanan, C E; Parent, K; Halvorson, H O

    1986-08-01

    A total of nine gerJ mutants have now been isolated in Bacillus subtilis. All are defective in their spore germination properties, being blocked at an intermediate (phase grey) stage. The dormant spores are sensitive to heating at 90 degrees C and two of the mutants (generated by transposon insertion) produce spores sensitive at 80 degrees C. The spores of these two more extreme mutants had a visibly defective cortex when studied by electron microscopy, as did some of the other mutants. During sporulation, the acquisition of spore resistance properties and the appearance of the sporulation-specific penicillin-binding protein PBP5* were delayed. A strain probably carrying a lacZ fusion to the gerJ promoter demonstrated increased expression between t2 and t4. We propose that the gerJ locus is involved in the control of one or more sporulation-specific genes.

  10. Rescue of glaucoma-causing mutant myocilin thermal stability by chemical chaperones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J. Nicole; Orwig, Susan D.; Harris, Julia L.; Watkins, J. Derrick; Vollrath, Douglas; Lieberman, Raquel L.

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in myocilin cause an inherited form of open angle glaucoma, a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder associated with increased intraocular pressure. Myocilin forms part of the trabecular meshwork extracellular matrix presumed to regulate intraocular pressure. Missense mutations, clustered in the olfactomedin (OLF) domain of myocilin, render the protein prone to aggregation in the endoplasmic reticulum of trabecular meshwork cells, causing cell dysfunction and death. Cellular studies have demonstrated temperature-sensitive secretion of myocilin mutants, but difficulties in expression and purification have precluded biophysical characterization of wild-type (wt) myocilin and disease-causing mutants in vitro. We have overcome these limitations by purifying wt and select glaucoma-causing mutant (D380A, I477N, I477S, K423E) forms of the OLF domain (228–504) fused to maltose binding protein (MBP) from E. coli. Monomeric fusion proteins can be isolated in solution. To determine the relative stability of wt and mutant OLF domains, we developed a fluorescence thermal stability assay without removal of MBP, and provide the first direct evidence that mutated OLF is folded but less thermally stable than wt. We tested the ability of seven chemical chaperones to stabilize mutant myocilin. Only sarcosine and trimethylamine N-oxide were capable of shifting the melting temperature of all mutants tested to near that of wt OLF. Our work lays the foundation for the identification of tailored small molecules capable of stabilizing mutant myocilin and promoting secretion to the extracellular matrix, to better control intraocular pressure and ultimately delay the onset of myocilin glaucoma. PMID:20334347

  11. Bacillus subtilis mutants deficient in the adaptive response to simple alkylating agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morohoshi, F.; Munakata, N.

    1985-03-01

    Three mutant strains exhibiting hyper-sensitivity to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, but not to methyl methanesulfonate, were selected by a replica method from mutagenized spores of Bacillus subtilis. All three were totally deficient in the adaptive response to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine with regard to both lethality and mutagenesis. The activity to destroy O/sup 6/-methylguanine residues in the methylated DNA was not elevated in the mutant cells by the pretreatment with sublethal concentrations of N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. This deficiency corresponded to the persistance of O/sup 6/-methylguanine residues in the DNA of both control and pretreated mutant cells challenged with the drug. The lethal and mutagenic sensitivity of the mutant strains were observed only for methyl- or ethyl-nitroso compounds that are thought to be active as inducers and are also active in O-alkylation. Except for the insensitivity to methyl methanesulfonate, the phenotypes of these mutants look very similar to those of ada mutants isolated previously in Escherichia coli.

  12. Characteristic, inheritance and breeding application of rice mutants with greenable albino leaf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiantao; Ma Hongli; Zhao Fuyuan; Zhang Qingqi; Zhang Shubiao

    2009-01-01

    Inheritance and main agronomic traits of photo-thermo-sensitive genic male sterile line with green-revertible albino leaf were investigated. The results indicated that the mutants might be divided into three types: albino regreening type (W2, W3, W4 and W10), albino to kelly type (W9) and abino-regreening-albino-regreening type (W1 and W7). Genetic study indicated that green-revertible albino leaf color trait of the mutants as controlled by a single recessive gene. These mutants had similar agronomic traits and fertility characteristics to the corresponding male sterile line 'Peiai 64S'. The hybrids of these mutants had similar characteristics with original-hybrids in plant type, developing of tillers and plant height. The yield components of the mutant hybrids were different depending on different mutants. The yield potential of hybrids of W1, W2 and W3 were similar to the original-hybrid. The results also indicated that W1, W2 and W3 had breeding application value. (authors)

  13. Selection of gamma-ray induced salt tolerant rice mutants by in vitro mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Sub; Chun, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyung Jun; Kim, Jin Baek; Kim, Sang Hoon; Yun, Song Jong; Kang, Si Yong

    2010-01-01

    The present study had been performed to select the salt tolerant rice mutant lines through an in vivo and in vitro mutagenesis with a gamma-ray. The physiological responses such as MDA and chlorophyll of the selected salt mutant lines were investigated under salt stress. For the selection of the salt tolerant rice mutants by in vitro mutagenesis with gamma-ray, we conducted a second selection procedure with 1,500 mutant lines induced from the original cv. Dongan (wild-type, WT): Ist, selection under a nutrient solution with 171 mM NaCI: 2nd, selection under in vitro conditions. Based on a growth comparison of the entries, out of mutant lines, the putative 2 salt tolerant rice mutant lines, ST-495 and ST-532, were selected. The 2 ST-lines had a lower malonaldehyde (MDA) contents than wild-type (WT) during salt stress. The survival rate of the WT, ST-495 and ST-532 were 36.6%, 70% and 50% in 171 mM NaCI, respectively. The chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were decreased more in a WT plant than the two selected mutant lines. These rice mutant lines will be released for cultivation at the reclaimed land and used as a control plot for genetic research about salt tolerance

  14. Selection of gamma-ray induced salt tolerant rice mutants by in vitro mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sub; Chun, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyung Jun; Kim, Jin Baek; Kim, Sang Hoon; Yun, Song Jong; Kang, Si Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The present study had been performed to select the salt tolerant rice mutant lines through an in vivo and in vitro mutagenesis with a gamma-ray. The physiological responses such as MDA and chlorophyll of the selected salt mutant lines were investigated under salt stress. For the selection of the salt tolerant rice mutants by in vitro mutagenesis with gamma-ray, we conducted a second selection procedure with 1,500 mutant lines induced from the original cv. Dongan (wild-type, WT): Ist, selection under a nutrient solution with 171 mM NaCI: 2nd, selection under in vitro conditions. Based on a growth comparison of the entries, out of mutant lines, the putative 2 salt tolerant rice mutant lines, ST-495 and ST-532, were selected. The 2 ST-lines had a lower malonaldehyde (MDA) contents than wild-type (WT) during salt stress. The survival rate of the WT, ST-495 and ST-532 were 36.6%, 70% and 50% in 171 mM NaCI, respectively. The chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were decreased more in a WT plant than the two selected mutant lines. These rice mutant lines will be released for cultivation at the reclaimed land and used as a control plot for genetic research about salt tolerance.

  15. Promissory rice mutants (Oryza sativa L.) obtained by Gamma Rays induction in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heros, E.; Gomez, L.

    2015-01-01

    To improve the available rice cultivars in Peru under irrigated conditions, it was tried the rice seed Amazonas and Capirona, cultivars adapted to irrigated conditions in highland jungle, both characterized for late maturity (140-150 days). The doses were: 150-250-350 Gy that induced mutants with different characteristics to the original cultivar like: early maturity, shorter, high yield and milling quality. In Amazonas cultivar were selected 72 mutants of the M 2 generation with agronomy value and continue in evaluation only the mutant (M35-20). There were applied the same doses of gamma rays with the cultivar Capirona, there is much radiosensitivity at high doses, they were selected two early mutants (MC 35-21 and MC 35-123-3) with an early life cycle days (15 days) than parental cultivar. Two mutants tolerant to salinity (12 dSm). Six mutants are still under evaluation, two of them (MC 25-23-1 and MC 35-45-4) have better yields with performances of 9.1 t ha -1 versus 6.6 t ha -1 . These mutants show lodging and shattering resistance. (Author)

  16. Changes in pH and NADPH regulate the DNA binding activity of neuronal PAS domain protein 2, a mammalian circadian transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Katsuhiro; Tajima, Fumihisa; Ishijima, Sumio; Sagami, Ikuko

    2015-01-20

    Neuronal PAS domain protein 2 (NPAS2) is a core clock transcription factor that forms a heterodimer with BMAL1 to bind the E-box in the promoter of clock genes and is regulated by various environmental stimuli such as heme, carbon monoxide, and NAD(P)H. In this study, we investigated the effects of pH and NADPH on the DNA binding activity of NPAS2. In an electrophoretic mobility shift (EMS) assay, the pH of the reaction mixture affected the DNA binding activity of the NPAS2/BMAL1 heterodimer but not that of the BMAL1/BMAL1 homodimer. A change in pH from 7.0 to 7.5 resulted in a 1.7-fold increase in activity in the absence of NADPH, and NADPH additively enhanced the activity up to 2.7-fold at pH 7.5. The experiments using truncated mutants revealed that N-terminal amino acids 1-61 of NPAS2 were sufficient to sense the change in both pH and NADPH. We further analyzed the kinetics of formation and DNA binding of the NPAS2/BMAL1 heterodimer at various pH values. In the absence of NADPH, a change in pH from 6.5 to 8.0 decreased the KD(app) value of the E-box from 125 to 22 nM, with an 8-fold increase in the maximal level of DNA binding for the NPAS2/BMAL1 heterodimer. The addition of NADPH resulted in a further decrease in KD(app) to 9 nM at pH 8.0. Furthermore, NPAS2-dependent transcriptional activity in a luciferase assay using NIH3T3 cells also increased with the pH of the culture medium. These results suggest that NPAS2 has a role as a pH and metabolite sensor in regulating circadian rhythms.

  17. Purification and characterization of mutant miniPlasmin for thrombolytic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xiaotao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous animal studies by us and others have indicated that catheter-administered plasmin or its des-kringle derivatives may be more appropriate alternatives to plasminogen activators for treating thrombolytic diseases, since it has a very short serum half-life and therefore does not result in hemorrhaging. We have previously produced recombinant miniPlasmin (mPlasmin that was proven suitable for treating peripheral arterial occlusion in animal models. However, our previous results showed that non-specific cleavage at position K698 of mPlasmin during activation hindered the further development of this promising therapeutic candidate. In order to minimize or eliminate the non-specific cleavage problem, we performed saturation mutagenesis at the K698 position to develop a mutant form of mPlasmin for thrombolytic therapy. Methods We changed K698 to 16 other amino acids, with preferred E. coli codons. Each of these mutants were expressed in E. coli as inclusion bodies and then refolded, purified, and subsequently characterized by detailed kinetic assays/experiments/studies which identified highly active mutants devoid of non-specific cleavage. Results Activation studies indicated that at those conditions in which the wild type enzyme is cut at the non-specific position K698, the active mutants can be activated without being cleaved at this position. Conclusions From the above results, we selected two mutants, K698Q and K698N, as our lead candidates for further thrombolytic drug developments. The selected mutants are potentially better therapeutic candidates for thrombolytic therapy.

  18. Exploring the regulatory role of isocitrate dehydrogenase mutant protein on glioma stem cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H-C; Ma, J; Zhuang, Z; Qiu, F; Cheng, H-L; Shi, J-X

    2016-08-01

    Glioma is the most lethal form of cancer that originates mostly from the brain and less frequently from the spine. Glioma is characterized by abnormal regulation of glial cell differentiation. The severity of the glioma was found to be relaxed in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutant. The present study focused on histological discrimination and regulation of cancer stem cell between IDH1 mutant and in non-IDH1 mutant glioma tissue. Histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting techniques are used to analyze the glioma nature and variation in glioma stem cells that differ between IDH1 mutant and in non-IDH1 mutant glioma tissue. The aggressive form of non-IDH1 mutant glioma shows abnormal cellular histological variation with prominent larger nucleus along with abnormal clustering of cells. The longer survival form of IDH1 mutant glioma has a control over glioma stem cell proliferation. Immunohistochemistry with stem cell markers, CD133 and EGFRvIII are used to demonstrate that the IDH1 mutant glioma shows limited dependence on cancer stem cells and it shows marked apoptotic signals in TUNEL assay to regulate abnormal cells. The non-IDH1 mutant glioma failed to regulate misbehaving cells and it promotes cancer stem cell proliferation. Our finding supports that the IDH1 mutant glioma has a regulatory role in glioma stem cells and their survival.

  19. Studies on an X-ray induced crinkled leaf mutant of Trichosanthes anguina L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Subodh Kumar

    1986-01-01

    Crinkled leaf mutant isolated in the second generation after treatment with X-ray bred true in subsequent generation. The mutant was a late flowering type with increased percentage of PMC's with chromosomal abnormality and pollen grain sterility. TLC study on phenolic compounds in leaves showed that both the mother line and the mutant had equal number of spots but they differed from each other with respect to four spots. Spot Nos. 2 and 4 of the mother line were absent in the mutant but the latter had two new spots (spot Nos. 11 and 12). The mutant and the mother line also differed from each other in pollen grain morohology. (author)

  20. PNRI mutant variety: Cordyline 'Afable'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurigue, Fernando B.

    2012-01-01

    Cordyline 'Afable', registered by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute as NSIC 2009 Or-83, is an induced mutant developed from Cordyline 'Kiwi' by treating stem cuttings with acute gamma radiation from a Cobalt-60 source. The new mutant is identical to Cordyline 'Kiwi' in growth habit but differs in foliage color, and exhibits field resistance to Phytophthora sp., a fungus that causes leaf blight and rot in Ti plants. Results of this mutation breeding experiment showed that leaf color was altered by gamma irradiation and resistance to fungal diseases was improved. It also demonstrated how mutations that occur in nature may be generated artificially. Propagation of cordyline 'Afable' is true-to-type by vegetative propagation methods, such as separation of suckers and offshoots, shoot tip cutting, and top cutting. Aside from landscaping material, terrarium or dish-garden plant, it is ideal as containerized plant for indoor and outdoor use. The leaves or shoots may be harvested as cut foliage for flower arrangements. (author)