Sample records for viral internal ribosome

  1. IRESPred: Web Server for Prediction of Cellular and Viral Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) (United States)

    Kolekar, Pandurang; Pataskar, Abhijeet; Kulkarni-Kale, Urmila; Pal, Jayanta; Kulkarni, Abhijeet


    Cellular mRNAs are predominantly translated in a cap-dependent manner. However, some viral and a subset of cellular mRNAs initiate their translation in a cap-independent manner. This requires presence of a structured RNA element, known as, Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) in their 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs). Experimental demonstration of IRES in UTR remains a challenging task. Computational prediction of IRES merely based on sequence and structure conservation is also difficult, particularly for cellular IRES. A web server, IRESPred is developed for prediction of both viral and cellular IRES using Support Vector Machine (SVM). The predictive model was built using 35 features that are based on sequence and structural properties of UTRs and the probabilities of interactions between UTR and small subunit ribosomal proteins (SSRPs). The model was found to have 75.51% accuracy, 75.75% sensitivity, 75.25% specificity, 75.75% precision and Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 0.51 in blind testing. IRESPred was found to perform better than the only available viral IRES prediction server, VIPS. The IRESPred server is freely available at PMID:27264539

  2. Nuclear Protein Sam68 Interacts with the Enterovirus 71 Internal Ribosome Entry Site and Positively Regulates Viral Protein Translation. (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Song, Lei; Cong, Haolong; Tien, Po


    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) recruits various cellular factors to assist in the replication and translation of its genome. Identification of the host factors involved in the EV71 life cycle not only will enable a better understanding of the infection mechanism but also has the potential to be of use in the development of antiviral therapeutics. In this study, we demonstrated that the cellular factor 68-kDa Src-associated protein in mitosis (Sam68) acts as an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) trans-acting factor (ITAF) that binds specifically to the EV71 5' untranslated region (5'UTR). Interaction sites in both the viral IRES (stem-loops IV and V) and the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K homology (KH) domain of Sam68 protein were further mapped using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and biotin RNA pulldown assay. More importantly, dual-luciferase (firefly) reporter analysis suggested that overexpression of Sam68 positively regulated IRES-dependent translation of virus proteins. In contrast, both IRES activity and viral protein translation significantly decreased in Sam68 knockdown cells compared with the negative-control cells treated with short hairpin RNA (shRNA). However, downregulation of Sam68 did not have a significant inhibitory effect on the accumulation of the EV71 genome. Moreover, Sam68 was redistributed from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and interacts with cellular factors, such as poly(rC)-binding protein 2 (PCBP2) and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), during EV71 infection. The cytoplasmic relocalization of Sam68 in EV71-infected cells may be involved in the enhancement of EV71 IRES-mediated translation. Since Sam68 is known to be a RNA-binding protein, these results provide direct evidence that Sam68 is a novel ITAF that interacts with EV71 IRES and positively regulates viral protein translation. The nuclear protein Sam68 is found as an additional new host factor that interacts with the EV71 IRES during infection and could potentially

  3. Ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 and internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 26, 2010 ... in some East Asian countries such as China, Korea and. *Corresponding author. E-mail: Tel: +82 33 250 6476. Fax: +82 33 250 6470. Abbreviations: nrDNA, Nuclear ribosomal DNA; ITS, internal transcribed spacer; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; BLAST, basic local alignment ...

  4. The Recombinant Maize Ribosome-Inactivating Protein Transiently Reduces Viral Load in SHIV89.6 Infected Chinese Rhesus Macaques

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    Rui-Rui Wang


    Full Text Available Ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs inhibit protein synthesis by depurinating the large ribosomal RNA and some are found to possess anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV activity. Maize ribosome inactivating protein (RIP has an internal inactivation loop which is proteolytically removed for full catalytic activity. Here, we showed that the recombinant active maize RIP protected chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV 89.6-infected macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells from lysis ex vivo and transiently reduced plasma viral load in SHIV89.6-infected rhesus macaque model. No evidence of immune dysregulation and other obvious side-effects was found in the treated macaques. Our work demonstrates the potential development of maize RIP as an anti-HIV agent without impeding systemic immune functions.

  5. Distinct roles for the IIId2 sub-domain in pestivirus and picornavirus internal ribosome entry sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willcocks, Margaret M.; Zaini, Salmah; Chamond, Nathalie


    Viral internal ribosomes entry site (IRES) elements coordinate the recruitment of the host translation machinery to direct the initiation of viral protein synthesis. Within hepatitis C virus (HCV)-like IRES elements, the sub-domain IIId(1) is crucial for recruiting the 40S ribosomal subunit...... activity, while the IIId2 sub-domains of two pestiviruses, classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and border disease virus (BDV), are required for 80S ribosomes assembly and IRES activity. Unlike in SVV, the deletion of IIId2 from the CSFV and BDV IRES elements impairs initiation of translation by inhibiting...... by clearly demonstrating that conserved RNA structures, within distantly related RNA viruses, have acquired different roles in the virus life cycles....

  6. Advancing viral RNA structure prediction: measuring the thermodynamics of pyrimidine-rich internal loops. (United States)

    Phan, Andy; Mailey, Katherine; Saeki, Jessica; Gu, Xiaobo; Schroeder, Susan J


    Accurate thermodynamic parameters improve RNA structure predictions and thus accelerate understanding of RNA function and the identification of RNA drug binding sites. Many viral RNA structures, such as internal ribosome entry sites, have internal loops and bulges that are potential drug target sites. Current models used to predict internal loops are biased toward small, symmetric purine loops, and thus poorly predict asymmetric, pyrimidine-rich loops with >6 nucleotides (nt) that occur frequently in viral RNA. This article presents new thermodynamic data for 40 pyrimidine loops, many of which can form UU or protonated CC base pairs. Uracil and protonated cytosine base pairs stabilize asymmetric internal loops. Accurate prediction rules are presented that account for all thermodynamic measurements of RNA asymmetric internal loops. New loop initiation terms for loops with >6 nt are presented that do not follow previous assumptions that increasing asymmetry destabilizes loops. Since the last 2004 update, 126 new loops with asymmetry or sizes greater than 2 × 2 have been measured. These new measurements significantly deepen and diversify the thermodynamic database for RNA. These results will help better predict internal loops that are larger, pyrimidine-rich, and occur within viral structures such as internal ribosome entry sites. © 2017 Phan et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  7. Entrapping ribosomes for viral translation: tRNA mimicry as a molecular Trojan horse. (United States)

    Barends, Sharief; Bink, Hugo H J; van den Worm, Sjoerd H E; Pleij, Cornelis W A; Kraal, Barend


    Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) has a genomic plus-strand RNA with a 5' cap followed by overlapping and different reading frames for the movement protein and polyprotein, while the distal coat protein cistron is translated from a subgenomic RNA. The 3'-untranslated region harbors a tRNA-like structure (TLS) to which a valine moiety can be added and it is indispensable for virus viability. Here, we report about a surprising interaction between TYMV-RNA-programmed ribosomes and 3'-valylated TLS that yields polyprotein with the valine N terminally incorporated by a translation mechanism resistant to regular initiation inhibitors. Disruption of the TLS exclusively abolishes polyprotein synthesis, which can be restored by adding excess TLS in trans. Our observations imply a novel eukaryotic mechanism for internal initiation of mRNA translation.

  8. A La autoantigen homologue is required for the internal ribosome entry site mediated translation of giardiavirus.

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    Srinivas Garlapati


    Full Text Available Translation of Giardiavirus (GLV mRNA is initiated at an internal ribosome entry site (IRES in the viral transcript. The IRES localizes to a downstream portion of 5' untranslated region (UTR and a part of the early downstream coding region of the transcript. Recent studies indicated that the IRES does not require a pre-initiation complex to initiate translation but may directly recruit the small ribosome subunit with the help of a number of trans-activating protein factors. A La autoantigen homologue in the viral host Giardia lamblia, GlLa, was proposed as one of the potential trans-activating factors based on its specific binding to GLV-IRES in vitro. In this study, we further elucidated the functional role of GlLa in GLV-IRES mediated translation in Giardia by knocking down GlLa with antisense morpholino oligo, which resulted in a reduction of GLV-IRES activity by 40%. An over-expression of GlLa in Giardia moderately stimulated GLV-IRES activity by 20%. A yeast inhibitory RNA (IRNA, known to bind mammalian and yeast La autoantigen and inhibit Poliovirus and Hepatitis C virus IRES activities in vitro and in vivo, was also found to bind to GlLa protein in vitro and inhibited GLV-IRES function in vivo. The C-terminal domain of La autoantigen interferes with the dimerization of La and inhibits its function. An over-expression of the C-terminal domain (200-348aa of GlLa in Giardia showed a dominant-negative effect on GLV-IRES activity, suggesting a potential inhibition of GlLa dimerization. HA tagged GlLa protein was detected mainly in the cytoplasm of Giardia, thus supporting a primary role of GlLa in translation initiation in Giardiavirus.

  9. A unique phosphorylation-dependent eIF4E assembly on 40S ribosomes co-ordinated by hepatitis C virus protein NS5A that activates internal ribosome entry site translation. (United States)

    Panda, Swarupa; Vedagiri, Dhiviya; Viveka, Thangaraj Soundara; Harshan, Krishnan Harinivas


    We previously reported that the HCV (hepatitis C virus) protein NS5A up-regulated mRNA cap binding eIF4F (eukaryotic initiation factor 4F) complex assembly through mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin)-4EBP1 (eIF4E-binding protein 1) pathway and that NS5A (non-structural protein 5A) physically interacted with translation apparatus. In the present study, we demonstrate that NS5A co-ordinates a unique assembly of the cap binding protein eIF4E and 40S ribosome to form a complex that we call ENR (eIF4E-NS5A-ribosome). Recruitment of NS5A and eIF4E to 40S ribosome was confirmed by polysome fractionation, subcellular fractionation and high-salt-wash immunoprecipitation. These observations were also confirmed in HCV-infected cells, validating its biological significance. eIF4E phosphorylation was critical for ENR assembly. 80S ribosome dissociation and RNase integrity assays revealed that, once associated, the ENR complex is stable and RNA interaction is dispensable. Both the N- and C-terminal regions of NS5A domain 1 were indispensable for this assembly and for the NS5A-induced HCV IRES (internal ribosome entry site) activation. The present study demonstrates that NS5A initially associates with phosphorylated eIF4E of eIF4F complex and subsequently recruits it to 40S ribosomes. This is the first time the interaction of viral protein with both eIF4E and ribosomes has been reported. We propose that this assembly would determine the outcome of HCV infection and pathogenesis through regulation of viral and host translation.

  10. Refractoriness of hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site to processing by Dicer in vivo

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    Boissonneault Vincent


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a positive-strand RNA virus harboring a highly structured internal ribosome entry site (IRES in the 5' nontranslated region of its genome. Important for initiating translation of viral RNAs into proteins, the HCV IRES is composed of RNA structures reminiscent of microRNA precursors that may be targeted by the host RNA silencing machinery. Results We report that HCV IRES can be recognized and processed into small RNAs by the human ribonuclease Dicer in vitro. Furthermore, we identify domains II, III and VI of HCV IRES as potential substrates for Dicer in vitro. However, maintenance of the functional integrity of the HCV IRES in response to Dicer overexpression suggests that the structure of the HCV IRES abrogates its processing by Dicer in vivo. Conclusion Our results suggest that the HCV IRES may have evolved to adopt a structure or a cellular context that is refractory to Dicer processing, which may contribute to viral escape of the host RNA silencing machinery.

  11. A Sequence-Independent, Unstructured Internal Ribosome Entry Site Is Responsible for Internal Expression of the Coat Protein of Turnip Crinkle Virus. (United States)

    May, Jared; Johnson, Philip; Saleem, Huma; Simon, Anne E


    To maximize the coding potential of viral genomes, internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) can be used to bypass the traditional requirement of a 5' cap and some/all of the associated translation initiation factors. Although viral IRES typically contain higher-order RNA structure, an unstructured sequence of about 84 nucleotides (nt) immediately upstream of the Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) coat protein (CP) open reading frame (ORF) has been found to promote internal expression of the CP from the genomic RNA (gRNA) both in vitro and in vivo An absence of extensive RNA structure was predicted using RNA folding algorithms and confirmed by selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) RNA structure probing. Analysis of the IRES region in vitro by use of both the TCV gRNA and reporter constructs did not reveal any sequence-specific elements but rather suggested that an overall lack of structure was an important feature for IRES activity. The CP IRES is A-rich, independent of orientation, and strongly conserved among viruses in the same genus. The IRES was dependent on eIF4G, but not eIF4E, for activity. Low levels of CP accumulated in vivo in the absence of detectable TCV subgenomic RNAs, strongly suggesting that the IRES was active in the gRNA invivo Since the TCV CP also serves as the viral silencing suppressor, early translation of the CP from the viral gRNA is likely important for countering host defenses. Cellular mRNA IRES also lack extensive RNA structures or sequence conservation, suggesting that this viral IRES and cellular IRES may have similar strategies for internal translation initiation.IMPORTANCE Cap-independent translation is a common strategy among positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses for bypassing the host cell requirement of a 5' cap structure. Viral IRES, in general, contain extensive secondary structure that is critical for activity. In contrast, we demonstrate that a region of viral RNA devoid of extensive secondary

  12. Leishmania donovani complex: genotyping with the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and the mini-exon


    Mauricio, IL; Stothard, JR; Miles, MA


    Intergenic region typing by restriction analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and mini-exon provide diagnostic markers for some Leishmania. Here, we evaluate restriction analysis of these targets for genotyping and phylogenetic analysis within the Leishmania donovani complex (agents of visceral leishmaniasis). Each method was useful for genotyping of both L. donovani complex strains and Old World Leishmania species. The targets produced less robust groups than gp63 inter...

  13. Hepatitis-C-virus-like internal ribosome entry sites displace eIF3 to gain access to the 40S subunit (United States)

    Hashem, Yaser; Des Georges, Amedee; Dhote, Vidya; Langlois, Robert; Liao, Hstau Y.; Grassucci, Robert A.; Pestova, Tatyana V.; Hellen, Christopher U. T.; Frank, Joachim


    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) messenger RNAs contain related (HCV-like) internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) that promote 5'-end independent initiation of translation, requiring only a subset of the eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) needed for canonical initiation on cellular mRNAs. Initiation on HCV-like IRESs relies on their specific interaction with the 40S subunit, which places the initiation codon into the P site, where it directly base-pairs with eIF2-bound initiator methionyl transfer RNA to form a 48S initiation complex. However, all HCV-like IRESs also specifically interact with eIF3 (refs 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12), but the role of this interaction in IRES-mediated initiation has remained unknown. During canonical initiation, eIF3 binds to the 40S subunit as a component of the 43S pre-initiation complex, and comparison of the ribosomal positions of eIF3 and the HCV IRES revealed that they overlap, so that their rearrangement would be required for formation of ribosomal complexes containing both components. Here we present a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of a 40S ribosomal complex containing eIF3 and the CSFV IRES. Remarkably, although the position and interactions of the CSFV IRES with the 40S subunit in this complex are similar to those of the HCV IRES in the 40S-IRES binary complex, eIF3 is completely displaced from its ribosomal position in the 43S complex, and instead interacts through its ribosome-binding surface exclusively with the apical region of domain III of the IRES. Our results suggest a role for the specific interaction of HCV-like IRESs with eIF3 in preventing ribosomal association of eIF3, which could serve two purposes: relieving the competition between the IRES and eIF3 for a common binding site on the 40S subunit, and reducing formation of 43S complexes, thereby favouring translation of viral mRNAs.

  14. The picornavirus avian encephalomyelitis virus possesses a hepatitis C virus-like internal ribosome entry site element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhshesh, M.; Groppelli, E.; Willcocks, M.A.


    evidence that the 494-nucleotide-long 5' untranslated region of the AEV genome contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element that functions efficiently in vitro and in mammalian cells. Unlike the HAV IRES, the AEV IRES is relatively short and functions in the presence of cleaved eIF4G...

  15. Ribosomal internal transcribed spacer of Prototheca wickerhamii has characteristic structure useful for identification and genotyping.

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    Noriyuki Hirose

    Full Text Available Prototheca species are achlorophyllous algae ubiquitous in nature and known to cause localized and systemic infection both in humans and animals. Although identification of the Prototheca species in clinical specimens is a challenge, there are an increasing number of cases in which molecular techniques have successfully been used for diagnosis of protothecosis. In this study, we characterized nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA of a strain of Prototheca (FL11-0001 isolated from a dermatitis patient in Japan for its species identification. When nuclear rDNA of FL11-0001 and that of various other Prototheca strains were compared by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, the results indicated that the sizes of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS were different in a species-dependent manner, suggesting that the variation might be useful for differentiation of Prototheca spp. Especially, ITS of P. wickerhamii, the most common cause of human protothecosis, was distinctively larger than that of other Prototheca spp. FL11-0001, whose ITS was comparably large, could easily be identified as P. wickerhamii. The usefulness of the PCR analysis of ITS was also demonstrated by the discovery that one of the clinical isolates that had previously been designated as P. wickerhamii was likely a novel species. Furthermore, our data demonstrated that nucleotide sequences of P. wickerhamii ITS are heterogenous between different rDNA copies in each strain and also polymorphic between strains. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the ITS sequences could be classified to four clades, based on which P. wickerhamii strains might be grouped into at least two genotypes. Comprehensive characterization of Prototheca rDNA may provide valuable insights into diagnosis and epidemiology of protothecosis, as well as evolution and taxonomy of Prototheca and related organisms.

  16. La Autoantigen Induces Ribosome Binding Protein 1 (RRBP1 Expression through Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES-Mediated Translation during Cellular Stress Condition

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    Wenqing Gao


    Full Text Available The function of ribosome binding protein 1 (RRBP1 is regulating the transportation and secretion of some intracellular proteins in mammalian cells. Transcription of RRBP1 is induced by various cytokines. However, few studies focused on the process of RRPB1 mRNA translation. The RRBP1 mRNA has a long 5′ untranslated region that potentially formed a stable secondary structure. In this study, we show that the 5′ UTR of RRBP1 mRNA contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES. Moreover, the RRBP1 expression is induced by chemotherapeutic drug paclitaxel or adriamycin in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and accompanied with the increased expression of La autoantigen (La, which binds to RRBP1 IRES element and facilitates translation initiation. Interestingly, we found IRES-mediated RRBP1 translation is also activated during serum-starvation condition which can induce cytoplasmic localization of La. After mapping the entire RRBP1 5′ UTR, we determine the core IRES activity is located between nt-237 and -58. Furthermore, two apical GARR loops within the functional RRBP1 IRES elements may be important for La binding. These results strongly suggest an important role for IRES-dependent translation of RRBP1 mRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma cells during cellular stress conditions.

  17. Analysis of the activity of virus internal ribosome entry site in silkworm Bombyx mori. (United States)

    Ye, Lupeng; Zhuang, Lanfang; Li, Jisheng; You, Zhengying; Liang, Jianshe; Wei, Hao; Lin, Jianrong; Zhong, Boxiong


    Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) has been widely used in genetic engineering; however, the application in silkworm (Bombyx mori) has hardly been reported. In this study, the biological activity of partial sequence of Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) IRES, Rhopalosiphum padi virus (RhPV) IRES, and the hybrid of IRES of EMCV and RhPV were investigated in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cell line and silkworm tissues. The hybrid IRES of EMCV and RhPV showed more effective than EMCV IRES or RhPV IRES in promoting downstream gene expression in insect and silkworm. The activities of all IRESs in middle silk gland of silkworm were higher than those in the fat body and posterior silk gland. The hybrid IRES of EMCV and RhPV was integrated into silkworm genome by transgenic technology to test biological activity of IRES. Each of the positive transgenic individuals had significant expression of report gene EGFP. These results suggested that IRES has a potential to be used in the genetic engineering research of silkworm.

  18. The internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA in the gymnosperm Gnetum. (United States)

    Won, Hyosig; Renner, Susanne S


    We analyze the structure of the internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS2 of the nuclear ribosomal DNA in the gymnosperm Gnetum, using a phylogenetic framework derived mainly from an intron in the nuclear low-copy LEAFY gene. Gnetum comprises 25-35 species in South America, Africa, and Asia, of which we sampled 16, each with two to six clones. Criteria used to assess ITS functionality were highly divergent nucleotide substitution, GC content, secondary structure, and incongruent phylogenetic placement of presumed paralogs. The length of ITS1 ranged from 225 to 986 bp and that of ITS2 from 259 to 305 bp, the largest ranges so far reported from seed plants. Gnetum ITS1 contains two informative sequence motifs, but different from other gymnosperms, there are only few and short (7-13 bp) tandem repeats. Gnetum ITS2 contains two structural motifs, modified in different clades by shortening of stems and loops. Conspecific sequences grouped together except for two recombinant pseudogenes that had ITS1 of one clade and ITS2 of another. Most of the pseudogenic ITS copies, paralogs, and putative chimeras occurred in a clade that according to a fossil-calibrated chloroplast-DNA clock has an age of a few million years. Based on morphology and chromosome numbers, the most plausible causes of the observed high levels of ITS polymorphism are hybridization, allopolyploidy, and introgression.

  19. Origin and relationships of Saintpaulia (Gesneriaceae) based on ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. (United States)

    Moller, M; Cronk, Q


    Phylogenetic relationships of eight species of Saintpaulia H. Wendl., 19 species of Streptocarpus Lindl. (representing all major growth forms within the genus), and two outgroups (Haberlea rhodopensis Friv., Chirita spadiciformis W. T. Wang) were examined using comparative nucleotide sequences from the two internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The length of the ITS 1 region ranged from 228 to 249 base pairs (bp) and the ITS 2 region from 196 to 245 bp. Pairwise sequence divergence across both spacers for ingroup and outgroup species ranged from 0 to 29%. Streptocarpus is not monophyletic, and Saintpaulia is nested within Streptocarpus subgenus Streptocarpella. Streptocarpus subgenus Streptocarpus is monophyletic. The ITS sequence data demonstrate that the unifoliate Streptocarpus species form a clade, and are also characterized by a unique 47-bp deletion in ITS 2. The results strongly support the monophyly of (1) Saintpaulia, and (2) Saintpaulia plus the African members of the subgenus Streptocarpella of Streptocarpus. The data suggest the evolution of Saintpaulia from Streptocarpus subgenus Streptocarpella. The differences in flower and vegetative characters are probably due to ecological adaptation leading to a relatively rapid radiation of Saintpaulia.

  20. The interaction between endogenous 30S ribosomal subunit protein S11 and Cucumber mosaic virus LS2b protein affects viral replication, infection and gene silencing suppressor activity.

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    Ruilin Wang

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV is a model virus for plant-virus protein interaction and mechanism research because of its wide distribution, high-level of replication and simple genome structure. The 2b protein is a multifunctional protein encoded by CMV that suppresses RNA silencing-based antiviral defense and contributes to CMV virulence in host plants. In this report, 12 host proteins were identified as CMV LS2b binding partners using the yeast two-hybrid screen system from the Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library. Among the host proteins, 30S ribosomal subunit protein S11 (RPS11 was selected for further studies. The interaction between LS2b and full-length RPS11 was confirmed using the yeast two-hybrid system. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BIFC assays observed by confocal laser microscopy and Glutathione S-transferase (GST pull-down assays were used to verify the interaction between endogenous NbRPS11 and viral CMVLS2b both in vivo and in vitro. TRV-based gene silencing vector was used to knockdown NbRPS11 transcription, and immunoblot analysis revealed a decline in infectious viral RNA replication and a decrease in CMV infection in RPS11 down-regulated Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Thus, the knockdown of RPS11 likely inhibited CMV replication and accumulation. The gene silencing suppressor activity of CMV2b protein was reduced by the RPS11 knockdown. This study demonstrated that the function of viral LS2b protein was remarkably affected by the interaction with host RPS11 protein.

  1. Molecular phylogeny of Oncaeidae (Copepoda using nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA.

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    Iole Di Capua

    Full Text Available Copepods belonging to the Oncaeidae family are commonly and abundantly found in marine zooplankton. In the Mediterranean Sea, forty-seven oncaeid species occur, of which eleven in the Gulf of Naples. In this Gulf, several Oncaea species were morphologically analysed and described at the end of the XIX century by W. Giesbrecht. In the same area, oncaeids are being investigated over seasonal and inter-annual scales at the long-term coastal station LTER-MC. In the present work, we identified six oncaeid species using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS rDNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI. Phylogenetic analyses based on these two genomic regions validated the sisterhood of the genera Triconia and the Oncaea sensu stricto. ITS1 and ITS2 phylogenies produced incongruent results about the position of Oncaea curta, calling for further investigations on this species. We also characterised the ITS2 region by secondary structure predictions and found that all the sequences analysed presented the distinct eukaryotic hallmarks. A Compensatory Base Change search corroborated the close relationship between O. venusta and O. curta and between O. media and O. venusta already identified by ITS phylogenies. The present results, which stem from the integration of molecular and morphological taxonomy, represent an encouraging step towards an improved knowledge of copepod biodiversity: The two complementary approaches, when applied to long-term copepod monitoring, will also help to better understanding their genetic variations and ecological niches of co-occurring species.

  2. Establishment and Application of a High Throughput Screening System Targeting the Interaction between HCV Internal Ribosome Entry Site and Human Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 3

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    Yuying Zhu


    Full Text Available Viruses are intracellular obligate parasites and the host cellular machinery is usually recruited for their replication. Human eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3 could be directly recruited by the hepatitis C virus (HCV internal ribosome entry site (IRES to promote the translation of viral proteins. In this study, we establish a fluorescence polarization (FP based high throughput screening (HTS system targeting the interaction between HCV IRES and eIF3. By screening a total of 894 compounds with this HTS system, two compounds (Mucl39526 and NP39 are found to disturb the interaction between HCV IRES and eIF3. And these two compounds are further demonstrated to inhibit the HCV IRES-dependent translation in vitro. Thus, this HTS system is functional to screen the potential HCV replication inhibitors targeting human eIF3, which is helpful to overcome the problem of viral resistance. Surprisingly, one compound HP-3, a kind of oxytocin antagonist, is discovered to significantly enhance the interaction between HCV IRES and eIF3 by this HTS system. HP-3 is demonstrated to directly interact with HCV IRES and promote the HCV IRES-dependent translation both in vitro and in vivo, which strongly suggests that HP-3 has potentials to promote HCV replication. Therefore, this HTS system is also useful to screen the potential HCV replication enhancers, which is meaningful for understanding the viral replication and screening novel antiviral drugs. To our knowledge, this is the first HTS system targeting the interaction between eIF3 and HCV IRES, which could be applied to screen both potential HCV replication inhibitors and enhancers.


    Odoyevskaya, I M; Spiridonov, S E


    The results of testing several primer combinations were used to choose an optimal pair for the amplification of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of ribosomal DNA (direct: Tri58s F 5 CGG TGG ATC RCT TGG CTC GTA CG and reverse: AB28 Rr (CGA CCG CTT ATT GAT ATG C). This pair of primers yields a 900 bp PCR product. Comparative analysis of obtained ITS2 sequences, for 8 Trichinella isolates from different regions of the Russian Federation permits different species and individual genotypes of these parasitic nematodes to be validly distinguished.

  4. An internal ribosomal entry signal in the rat VL30 region of the Harvey murine sarcoma virus leader and its use in dicistronic retroviral vectors. (United States)

    Berlioz, C; Torrent, C; Darlix, J L


    The genetic organization of the 5' genomic RNA domain of the highly oncogenic Harvey murine sarcoma virus appears to be unusual in that a multifunctional untranslated leader precedes the v-ras oncogene. This 5' leader is 1,076 nucleotides in length and is formed of independent regions involved in key steps of the viral life cycle: (i) the Moloney murine leukemia virus 5' repeat, untranslated 5' region, and primer binding site sequences necessary for the first steps of proviral DNA synthesis, (ii) the virus-like 30S (VL30)-derived sequence containing a functional dimerization-packaging signal (E/DLS) directing viral RNA dimerization and packaging into MLV virions, and (iii) an Alu-like sequence preceding the 5' untranslated sequence of v-rasH which contains the initiation codon of the p21ras oncoprotein. These functional features, the unusual length of this leader (1,076 nucleotides), and the presence of stable secondary structures between the cap and the v-ras initiation codon might well cause a premature stop of the scanning ribosomes and thus inhibit v-ras translation. In order to understand how Harvey murine sarcoma virus achieves a high level of expression of the ras oncogene, we asked whether the rat VL30 sequence, 5' to v-ras, could contribute to an efficient synthesis of the ras oncoprotein. The implications of the VL30 sequence in the translation initiation of Ha-ras were investigated in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system and in murine cells. Results show that the rat VL30 sequence allows a cap-independent translation of a downstream reporter gene both in vitro and in murine cells. Additional experiments performed with dicistronic neo.VL30.lacZ mRNAs indicate that the 5' VL30 sequence (positions 380 to 794) contains an internal ribosomal entry signal. This finding led us to construct a new dicistronic retroviral vector with which the rat VL30 sequence was able to direct the efficient expression of a 3' cistron and packaging of recombinant dicistronic RNA

  5. Internal ribosome entry site-mediated translational regulation of ATF4 splice variant in mammalian unfolded protein response. (United States)

    Chan, Ching-Ping; Kok, Kin-Hang; Tang, Hei-Man Vincent; Wong, Chi-Ming; Jin, Dong-Yan


    Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is a master regulator of genes involved in unfolded protein response (UPR) and its translation is regulated through reinitiation at upstream open reading frames. Here, we demonstrate internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated translation of an alternatively spliced variant of human ATF4. This variant that contains four upstream open reading frames in the 5' leader region was expressed in leukocytes and other tissues. mRNA and protein expression of this variant was activated in the UPR. Its translation was neither inhibited by steric hindrance nor affected by eIF4G1 inactivation, indicating a cap-independent and IRES-dependent mechanism not mediated by ribosome scanning-reinitiation. The IRES activity mapped to a highly structured region that partially overlaps with the third and fourth open reading frames was unlikely attributed to cryptic promoter or splicing, but was activated by PERK-induced eIF2α phosphorylation. Taken together, our findings reveal a new mechanism for translational regulation of ATF4 in mammalian UPR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of internal controls for the Luminex instrument as part of a multiplex seven-analyte viral respiratory antibody profile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martins, Thomas B


    .... During the development of a seven-analyte serologic viral respiratory antibody profile, internal controls for detecting sample addition and interfering rheumatoid factor (RF) were investigated...

  7. Unexpected high intragenomic variation in two of three major pest thrips species does not affect ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2)utility for thrips identification (United States)

    The mitochondrial gene mtCO1 and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA are among the most widely used molecular markers for insect taxonomic characterization. Three economically important species of thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis, Thrips palmi, and Frankliniella occidental...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. U. Hikmah


    Full Text Available Durian adalah salah satu jenis buah-buahan tropis yang memiliki nilai ekonomi tinggi. Durian memiliki bermacam-macam kultivar dengan morfologi yang sulit untuk membedakan. jaminan identitas penting bagi informasi mendasar dalam meningkatkan efisiensi pemuliaan dan pengembangan durian. identifikasi molekuler dianggap lebih akurat dibandingkan dengan karakter morfologi. Polymerase Chain Reaction Restriction Fragment Length Polimorfism (PCR-RFLP adalah metode untuk menganalisis hasil DNA fragmen panjang perbedaan yang mencerna menggunakan enzim restriksi dengan endonuklease. Sampel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah aksesi durian diambil secara acak di kecamatan Gunungpati, Semarang. Genomik DNA diisolasi berdasarkan protokol Kit nukleon Phytopure dengan modifikasi. ITS wilayah ribosom DNA diamplifikasi menggunakan teknik PCR-RFLP mengeksploitasi primer spesifik L ITS dan ITS 4 menghasilkan ITS panjang fragmen pada 800 bp. Amplikon yang dicerna menggunakan enam enzim restriksi AluI, Eco471, Bsp1431, BsuRI, Mph11301 dan Ade1. Hasil penelitian dari 11 aksesi durian yang diperiksa menunjukkan bahwa enzim Bsp1431 memiliki dua situs tertentu yang dipotong pada ukuran 550 bp dan 120 bp. enzim BsuR1 memiliki luka situs tertentu dalam ukuran 600 bp. Sedangkan enzim Eco471 telah mencerna situs spesifik pada ukuran 450 bp. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah durian nomor aksesi ke-12, 15, dan 17 memiliki hubungan genetik dekat dan diduga berada di salah satu spesies.Durian is one of the types of tropical fruits that has high economic value. Durian has an assortment of cultivars with morphology that are difficult to distinguish. Identity assurance is important for the fundamental information in increasing the efficiency of breeding and development of durian. Molecular identification is considered to be more accurate than the morphological characters. Polymerase Chain Reaction Restriction Fragment Length Polimorfism (PCR-RFLP is a method to analyze

  9. Replicating viral vectors as HIV vaccines: Summary report from IAVI Sponsored Satellite Symposium, International AIDS Society Conference, July 22, 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koff, W. C.; Parks, C. L.; Berkhout, B.; Ackland, J.; Noble, S.; Gust, I. D.


    At the International AIDS Society Conference oil Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention held in Sydney, Australia, in July 2007, the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) convened a satellite symposium entitled 'Accelerating the Development of Replicating Viral Vectors for AIDS Vaccines.' Its

  10. Translation mechanisms involving long-distance base pairing interactions between the 5' and 3' non-translated regions and internal ribosomal entry are conserved for both genomic RNAs of Blackcurrant reversion nepovirus. (United States)

    Karetnikov, Alexey; Lehto, Kirsi


    One of the mechanisms of functioning for viral cap-independent translational enhancers (CITEs), located in 3' non-translated regions (NTRs), is 3' NTR-5' leader long-distance base pairing. Previously, we have demonstrated that the RNA2 3' NTR of Blackcurrant reversion nepovirus (BRV) contains a CITE, which must base pair with the 5' NTR to facilitate translation. Here we compared translation strategies employed by BRV RNA1 and RNA2, by using mutagenesis of the BRV NTRs in firefly luciferase reporter mRNA, in plant protoplasts. Translation mechanisms, based on 3' CITEs, 5' NTR-3' NTR base pairing and poly(A) tail-stimulation, were found conserved between RNA1 and RNA2. The 40S ribosomal subunit entry at the RNA1 leader occurred, at least partly, via an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES). Two RNA1 leader segments complementary to plant 18S rRNA enhanced translation. A model for BRV RNAs translation, involving IRES-dependent 40S subunit recruitment and long-distance 5' NTR-3' NTR base pairing, is discussed.

  11. 1st International Symposium on Stress-Associated RNA Granules in Human Disease and Viral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce W. Banfield


    Full Text Available In recent years, important linkages have been made between RNA granules and human disease processes. On June 8-10 of this year, we hosted a new symposium, dubbed the 1st International Symposium on Stress-Associated RNA Granules in Human Disease and Viral Infection. This symposium brought together experts from diverse research disciplines ranging from cancer and neuroscience to infectious disease. This report summarizes speaker presentations and highlights current challenges in the field.

  12. Artificial OFF-Riboswitches That Downregulate Internal Ribosome Entry without Hybridization Switches in a Eukaryotic Cell-Free Translation System. (United States)

    Ogawa, Atsushi; Masuoka, Hiroki; Ota, Tsubasa


    We constructed novel artificial riboswitches that function in a eukaryotic translation system (wheat germ extract), by rationally implanting an in vitro-selected aptamer into the intergenic internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of Plautia stali intestine virus. These eukaryotic OFF-riboswitches (OFF-eRSs) ligand-dose-dependently downregulate IRES-mediated translation without hybridization switches, which typical riboswitches utilize for gene regulation. The hybridization-switch-free mechanism not only allows for easy design but also requires less energy for regulation, resulting in a higher switching efficiency than hybridization-switch-based OFF-eRSs provide. In addition, even a small ligand such as theophylline can induce satisfactory repression, in contrast to other types of OFF-eRSs that modulate the 5' cap-dependent canonical translation. Because our proposed hybridization-switch-free OFF-eRSs are based on a versatile IRES that functions well in many types of eukaryotic translation systems, they would be widely usable elements for synthetic gene circuits in both cell-free and cell-based synthetic biology.

  13. Internal Ribosome Entry Site-Based Bicistronic In Situ Reporter Assays for Discovery of Transcription-Targeted Lead Compounds. (United States)

    Lang, Liwei; Ding, Han-Fei; Chen, Xiaoguang; Sun, Shi-Yong; Liu, Gang; Yan, Chunhong


    Although transgene-based reporter gene assays have been used to discover small molecules targeting expression of cancer-driving genes, the success is limited due to the fact that reporter gene expression regulated by incomplete cis-acting elements and foreign epigenetic environments does not faithfully reproduce chemical responses of endogenous genes. Here, we present an internal ribosome entry site-based strategy for bicistronically co-expressing reporter genes with an endogenous gene in the native gene locus, yielding an in situ reporter assay closely mimicking endogenous gene expression without disintegrating its function. This strategy combines the CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome-editing tool with the recombinase-mediated cassette-exchange technology, and allows for rapid development of orthogonal assays for excluding false hits generated from primary screens. We validated this strategy by developing a screening platform for identifying compounds targeting oncogenic eIF4E, and demonstrated that the novel reporter assays are powerful in searching for transcription-targeted lead compounds with high confidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of Rhopalosiphum Padi Virus 5′ Untranslated Region Sequences Required for Cryptic Promoter Activity and Internal Ribosome Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Kun Liu


    Full Text Available The 579-nucleotide 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR of the Rhopalosiphum padi virus (RhPV possesses a cross-kingdom internal ribosome entry site (IRES activity that functions in insect, mammalian, and plant-derived in vitro translation systems, and six TAAG motifs within the DNA fragment encoding the RhPV 5′UTR were previously found to confer the RhPV 5′UTR with late promoter activity in baculovirus. In the present study, various truncated RhPV 5′UTR sequences were produced, and among them, a fragment of 110 bp ranging from nucleotides 309 to 418 was identified to be the shortest fragment responsible for the late promoter activity in baculovirus infected Sf21 cells. This 110 bp fragment contains a TAAG tandem repeat that retains more than 60% of the late promoter activity of the full length RhPV 5′UTR sequence. Further, IRES activity remained unchanged in all truncated RhPV 5′UTR constructs. Taken together, this novel 110 bp fragment having late promoter activity in baculovirus as well as IRES activity in mammalian cell, renders it a useful tool for the development of a “shuttle” bi-cistronic baculovirus gene expression and/or delivery vector.

  15. Identification of Rhopalosiphum Padi Virus 5′ Untranslated Region Sequences Required for Cryptic Promoter Activity and Internal Ribosome Entry (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Kun; Lin, Jie-Zue; Jinn, Tzyy-Rong; Chan, Hong-Lin; Wu, Tzong-Yuan


    The 579-nucleotide 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) of the Rhopalosiphum padi virus (RhPV) possesses a cross-kingdom internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity that functions in insect, mammalian, and plant-derived in vitro translation systems, and six TAAG motifs within the DNA fragment encoding the RhPV 5′UTR were previously found to confer the RhPV 5′UTR with late promoter activity in baculovirus. In the present study, various truncated RhPV 5′UTR sequences were produced, and among them, a fragment of 110 bp ranging from nucleotides 309 to 418 was identified to be the shortest fragment responsible for the late promoter activity in baculovirus infected Sf21 cells. This 110 bp fragment contains a TAAG tandem repeat that retains more than 60% of the late promoter activity of the full length RhPV 5′UTR sequence. Further, IRES activity remained unchanged in all truncated RhPV 5′UTR constructs. Taken together, this novel 110 bp fragment having late promoter activity in baculovirus as well as IRES activity in mammalian cell, renders it a useful tool for the development of a “shuttle” bi-cistronic baculovirus gene expression and/or delivery vector. PMID:26184188

  16. Identification of Rhopalosiphum Padi Virus 5' Untranslated Region Sequences Required for Cryptic Promoter Activity and Internal Ribosome Entry. (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Kun; Lin, Jie-Zue; Jinn, Tzyy-Rong; Chan, Hong-Lin; Wu, Tzong-Yuan


    The 579-nucleotide 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of the Rhopalosiphum padi virus (RhPV) possesses a cross-kingdom internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity that functions in insect, mammalian, and plant-derived in vitro translation systems, and six TAAG motifs within the DNA fragment encoding the RhPV 5'UTR were previously found to confer the RhPV 5'UTR with late promoter activity in baculovirus. In the present study, various truncated RhPV 5'UTR sequences were produced, and among them, a fragment of 110 bp ranging from nucleotides 309 to 418 was identified to be the shortest fragment responsible for the late promoter activity in baculovirus infected Sf21 cells. This 110 bp fragment contains a TAAG tandem repeat that retains more than 60% of the late promoter activity of the full length RhPV 5'UTR sequence. Further, IRES activity remained unchanged in all truncated RhPV 5'UTR constructs. Taken together, this novel 110 bp fragment having late promoter activity in baculovirus as well as IRES activity in mammalian cell, renders it a useful tool for the development of a "shuttle" bi-cistronic baculovirus gene expression and/or delivery vector.

  17. Authentication of medicinal Dendrobium species by the internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA. (United States)

    Lau, D T; Shaw, P C; Wang, J; But, P P


    Herba Dendrobii (Shihu) is a commonly used Chinese medicine derived from the stem of several orchid species belonging to the genus Dendrobium. It is rather expensive and adulteration is frequent. Proper authentication of the medicinal species is necessary to protect consumers and support conservation measures. DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS 2) of 16 Dendrobium species were shown to be significantly different from one another by an average of 12.4% and from non-orchids and Pholidota (an adulterant of Shihu) by 29.8% and 18.8%, respectively. The intra-specific variation among the Dendrobium species studied was only about 1%. Therefore, ITS 2 regions could be adopted as a molecular marker for differentiating medicinal Dendrobium species from one another and also from non-orchids and adulterants.

  18. Extensive Pyrosequencing Reveals Frequent Intra-Genomic Variations of Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions of Nuclear Ribosomal DNA (United States)

    Li, Dezhu; Sun, Yongzhen; Niu, Yunyun; Chen, Zhiduan; Luo, Hongmei; Pang, Xiaohui; Sun, Zhiying; Liu, Chang; Lv, Aiping; Deng, Youping; Larson-Rabin, Zachary; Wilkinson, Mike; Chen, Shilin


    Background Internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) is already one of the most popular phylogenetic and DNA barcoding markers. However, the existence of its multiple copies has complicated such usage and a detailed characterization of intra-genomic variations is critical to address such concerns. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we used sequence-tagged pyrosequencing and genome-wide analyses to characterize intra-genomic variations of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) regions from 178 plant species. We discovered that mutation of ITS2 is frequent, with a mean of 35 variants per species. And on average, three of the most abundant variants make up 91% of all ITS2 copies. Moreover, we found different congeneric species share identical variants in 13 genera. Interestingly, different species across different genera also share identical variants. In particular, one minor variant of ITS2 in Eleutherococcus giraldii was found identical to the ITS2 major variant of Panax ginseng, both from Araliaceae family. In addition, DNA barcoding gap analysis showed that the intra-genomic distances were markedly smaller than those of the intra-specific or inter-specific variants. When each of 5543 variants were examined for its species discrimination efficiency, a 97% success rate was obtained at the species level. Conclusions Identification of identical ITS2 variants across intra-generic or inter-generic species revealed complex species evolutionary history, possibly, horizontal gene transfer and ancestral hybridization. Although intra-genomic multiple variants are frequently found within each genome, the usage of the major variants alone is sufficient for phylogeny construction and species determination in most cases. Furthermore, the inclusion of minor variants further improves the resolution of species identification. PMID:22952830

  19. Assessment of phylogenetic relationship of rare plant species collected from Saudi Arabia using internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. (United States)

    Al-Qurainy, F; Khan, S; Nadeem, M; Tarroum, M; Alaklabi, A


    The rare and endangered plants of any country are important genetic resources that often require urgent conservation measures. Assessment of phylogenetic relationships and evaluation of genetic diversity is very important prior to implementation of conservation strategies for saving rare and endangered plant species. We used internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA for the evaluation of sequence identity from the available taxa in the GenBank database by using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST). Two rare plant species viz, Heliotropium strigosum claded with H. pilosum (98% branch support) and Pancratium tortuosum claded with P. tenuifolium (61% branch support) clearly. However, some species, viz Scadoxus multiflorus, Commiphora myrrha and Senecio hadiensis showed close relationships with more than one species. We conclude that nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequences are useful markers for phylogenetic study of these rare plant species in Saudi Arabia.

  20. A magnesium-induced RNA conformational switch at the internal ribosome entry site of hepatitis C virus genome visualized by atomic force microscopy


    García-Sacristán, Ana; Moreno Molina, Miguel; Ariza-Mateos, Ascensión; López-Camacho, Elena; Jáudenes, Rosa M.; Vázquez, Luis; Gómez, Jordi; Martín-Gago, José A.; Briones, Carlos


    The 5? untranslated region of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genomic RNA contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element, composed of domains II?IV, which is required for cap-independent translation initiation. Little information on the 3D structure of the whole functional HCV IRES is still available. Here, we use atomic force microscopy to visualize the HCV IRES conformation in its natural sequence context, which includes the upstream domain I and the essential, downstream domains V and VI....

  1. Ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers to estimate the proportion of Pisolithus tinctorius and Eucalyptus RNAs in ectomycorrhiza. (United States)

    Diaz, E C; Tagu, D; Martin, F


    Ectomycorrhiza is a complex association of several types of plant and fungal cells. Differentiation of symbiotic structures is correlated with large changes in mRNA synthesis, leading to novel protein patterns. Quantification of up- and down-regulated specific transcripts is complicated by the intermingling of root and hyphal components. Determination of steady-state levels of symbiosis-regulated mRNA requires a normalization to the housekeeping RNA content of each partner. In this study, the usefulness of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-5.8S ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) as molecular markers of the root colonization by fungal mycelium was assayed. The rDNA ITSs of Pisolithus tinctorius and Eucalyptus globulus were cloned by PCR amplification, and their sequences were determined. They contained the 5.8S rDNAs, and these two probes did not cross-hybridize. Steady-state levels of the ITS-5.8S rRNAs in the vegetative mycelium, in the noninfected root, and in ectomycorrhizas of E. globulus-P. tinctorius 441 were estimated at different stages of development. Colonization of roots by the mycelium provoked a large decrease in the proportion of root rRNAs. At the end of mycorrhiza formation, about 80% of the ectomycorrhizal RNA belonged to the mycobiont. The ITS-5.8S can be used as a specific probe for the estimation of fungal or plant rRNA in the symbiotic tissues and to determine whether an mRNA is down- or up-regulated in ectomycorrhiza.

  2. Genetic diversity of Ephedra plants in mongolia inferred from internal transcribed spacer sequence of nuclear ribosomal DNA. (United States)

    Kitani, Yuki; Zhu, Shu; Batkhuu, Javzan; Sanchir, Chinbat; Komatsu, Katsuko


    Ephedrae herba has been used for treating colds, relieving coughs and asthma from ancient times. We previously reported the distribution of Ephedra sinica, E. equisetina, E. przewalskii, E. regeliana, E. monosperma and Ephedra sp. in Mongolia, and among them E. sinica and E. equisetina were potential new resources of Ephedrae herba of Japanese pharmacopoeia grade, based on our field survey and subsequent molecular and chemical assessments. However, the Ephedra population in southwestern areas showed a high possibility of having hybrid origins. Further field surveys in southwestern areas, and sequence analysis of the partial nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region, besides trnK and 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene regions, were conducted in order to obtain detailed evidence of hybridization status. As a result, the distribution of E. glauca in western area and E. lomatolepis in western-most area was confirmed. The ITS sequences from all 8 Ephedra species collected in Mongolia were roughly divided into 5 types (types I-V). Type II sequence, having several additive nucleotides, was found in Ephedra sp., E. glauca, E. regeliana and E. sinica, which provided useful information for tracing hybrid origins. Morphological, genetic and distribution evidence suggested that the hybridization of Ephedra species occurred widely in southwestern Mongolia, and several Ephedra species including E. przewalkskii and E. intermedia were involved in these events. Integrated with our previous report, trnK-, 18S- and ITS-types from pure lines of each species are proposed. In addition, we propose a practicable method for detecting additive peaks on a direct sequencing electropherogram.

  3. Internalization of novel non-viral vector TAT-streptavidin into human cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulomaa Markku S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cell-penetrating peptide derived from the Human immunodeficiency virus-1 transactivator protein Tat possesses the capacity to promote the effective uptake of various cargo molecules across the plasma membrane in vitro and in vivo. The objective of this study was to characterize the uptake and delivery mechanisms of a novel streptavidin fusion construct, TAT47–57-streptavidin (TAT-SA, 60 kD. SA represents a potentially useful TAT-fusion partner due to its ability to perform as a versatile intracellular delivery vector for a wide array of biotinylated molecules or cargoes. Results By confocal and immunoelectron microscopy the majority of internalized TAT-SA was shown to accumulate in perinuclear vesicles in both cancer and non-cancer cell lines. The uptake studies in living cells with various fluorescent endocytic markers and inhibiting agents suggested that TAT-SA is internalized into cells efficiently, using both clathrin-mediated endocytosis and lipid-raft-mediated macropinocytosis. When endosomal release of TAT-SA was enhanced through the incorporation of a biotinylated, pH-responsive polymer poly(propylacrylic acid (PPAA, nuclear localization of TAT-SA and TAT-SA bound to biotin was markedly improved. Additionally, no significant cytotoxicity was detected in the TAT-SA constructs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that TAT-SA-PPAA is a potential non-viral vector to be utilized in protein therapeutics to deliver biotinylated molecules both into cytoplasm and nucleus of human cells.

  4. Novel viral translation strategies. (United States)

    Au, Hilda H T; Jan, Eric


    Viral genomes are compact and encode a limited number of proteins. Because they do not encode components of the translational machinery, viruses exhibit an absolute dependence on the host ribosome and factors for viral messenger RNA (mRNA) translation. In order to recruit the host ribosome, viruses have evolved unique strategies to either outcompete cellular transcripts that are efficiently translated by the canonical translation pathway or to reroute translation factors and ribosomes to the viral genome. Furthermore, viruses must evade host antiviral responses and escape immune surveillance. This review focuses on some recent major findings that have revealed unconventional strategies that viruses utilize, which include usurping the host translational machinery, modulating canonical translation initiation factors to specifically enhance or repress overall translation for the purpose of viral production, and increasing viral coding capacity. The discovery of these diverse viral strategies has provided insights into additional translational control mechanisms and into the viral host interactions that ensure viral protein synthesis and replication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Identification of planorbids from Venezuela by polymerase chain reaction amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism of internal transcriber spacer of the RNA ribosomal gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldeira Roberta L


    Full Text Available Snails of the genus Biomphalaria from Venezuela were subjected to morphological assessment as well as polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis. Morphological identification was carried out by comparison of characters of the shell and the male and female reproductive apparatus. The PCR-RFLP involved amplification of the internal spacer region ITS1 and ITS2 of the RNA ribosomal gene and subsequent digestion of this fragment by the restriction enzymes DdeI, MnlI, HaeIII and MspI. The planorbids were compared with snails of the same species and others reported from Venezuela and present in Brazil, Cuba and Mexico. All the enzymes showed a specific profile for each species, that of DdeI being the clearest. The snails were identified as B. glabrata, B. prona and B. kuhniana.

  6. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) variation in the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae) of the Andean region (United States)

    Sutton, Bruce D.; Steck, Gary J.; Norrbom, Allen L.; Rodriguez, Erick J.; Srivastava, Pratibha; Alvarado, Norma Nolazco; Colque, Fredy; Landa, Erick Yábar; Sánchez, Juan José Lagrava; Quisberth, Elizabeth; Peñaranda, Emilio Arévalo; Clavijo, P. A. Rodriguez; Alvarez-Baca, Jeniffer K.; Zapata, Tito Guevara; Ponce, Patricio


    Abstract The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was sequenced for Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) originating from 85 collections from the northern and central Andean countries of South America including Argentina (Tucumán), Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. The ITS1 regions of additional specimens (17 collections) from Central America (México, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Panamá), Brazil, Caribbean Colombia, and coastal Venezuela were sequenced and together with published sequences (Paraguay) provided context for interpretation. A total of six ITS1 sequence variants were recognized in the Andean region comprising four groups. Type I predominates in the southernmost range of Anastrepha fraterculus. Type II predominates in its northernmost range. In the central and northern Andes, the geographic distributions overlap and interdigitate with a strong elevational effect. A discussion of relationships between observed ITS1 types and morphometric types is included. PMID:26798259

  7. Structural Features of the Seneca Valley Virus Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) Element: a Picornavirus with a Pestivirus-Like IRES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willcocks, Margaret M.; Locker, Nicolas; Gomwalk, Zarmwa


    The RNA genome of Seneca Valley virus (SVV), a recently identified picornavirus, contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element which has structural and functional similarity to that from classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and hepatitis C virus, members of the FLAVIVIRIDAE: The SVV IRES...... has an absolute requirement for the presence of a short region of virus-coding sequence to allow it to function either in cells or in rabbit reticulocyte lysate. The IRES activity does not require the translation initiation factor eIF4A or intact eIF4G. The predicted secondary structure indicates...... that the SVV IRES is more closely related to the CSFV IRES, including the presence of a bipartite IIId domain. Mutagenesis of the SVV IRES, coupled to functional assays, support the core elements of the IRES structure model, but surprisingly, deletion of the conserved IIId2 domain had no effect on IRES...

  8. Stability of Retroviral Vectors Against Ultracentrifugation Is Determined by the Viral Internal Core and Envelope Proteins Used for Pseudotyping. (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Hyun; Lim, Kwang-Il


    Retroviral and lentiviral vectors are mostly pseudotyped and often purified and concentrated via ultracentrifugation. In this study, we quantified and compared the stabilities of retroviral [murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based] and lentiviral [human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-based] vectors pseudotyped with relatively mechanically stable envelope proteins, vesicular stomatitis virus glycoproteins (VSVGs), and the influenza virus WSN strain envelope proteins against ultracentrifugation. Lentiviral genomic and functional particles were more stable than the corresponding retroviral particles against ultracentrifugation when pseudotyped with VSVGs. However, both retroviral and lentiviral particles were unstable when pseudotyped with the influenza virus WSN strain envelope proteins. Therefore, the stabilities of pseudotyped retroviral and lentiviral vectors against ultracentrifugation process are a function of not only the type of envelope proteins, but also the type of viral internal core (MLV or HIV-1 core). In addition, the fraction of functional viral particles among genomic viral particles greatly varied at times during packaging, depending on the type of envelope proteins used for pseudotyping and the viral internal core.

  9. Sequence variation in nuclear ribosomal small subunit, internal transcribed spacer and large subunit regions of Rhizophagus irregularis and Gigaspora margarita is high and isolate-dependent. (United States)

    Thiéry, Odile; Vasar, Martti; Jairus, Teele; Davison, John; Roux, Christophe; Kivistik, Paula-Ann; Metspalu, Andres; Milani, Lili; Saks, Ülle; Moora, Mari; Zobel, Martin; Öpik, Maarja


    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are known to exhibit high intra-organism genetic variation. However, information about intra- vs. interspecific variation among the genes commonly used in diversity surveys is limited. Here, the nuclear small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene portions were sequenced from 3 to 5 individual spores from each of two isolates of Rhizophagus irregularis and Gigaspora margarita. A total of 1482 Sanger sequences (0.5 Mb) from 239 clones were obtained, spanning ~4370 bp of the ribosomal operon when concatenated. Intrasporal and intra-isolate sequence variation was high for all three regions even though variant numbers were not exhausted by sequencing 12-40 clones per isolate. Intra-isolate nucleotide variation levels followed the expected order of ITS > LSU > SSU, but the values were strongly dependent on isolate identity. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) densities over 4 SNP/kb in the ribosomal operon were detected in all four isolates. Automated operational taxonomic unit picking within the sequence set of known identity overestimated species richness with almost all cut-off levels, markers and isolates. Average intraspecific sequence similarity values were 99%, 96% and 94% for amplicons in SSU, LSU and ITS, respectively. The suitability of the central part of the SSU as a marker for AM fungal community surveys was further supported by its level of nucleotide variation, which is similar to that of the ITS region; its alignability across the entire phylum; its appropriate length for next-generation sequencing; and its ease of amplification in single-step PCR. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The internal initiation of translation in bovine viral diarrhea virus RNA depends on the presence of an RNA pseudoknot upstream of the initiation codon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moes Lorin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is the prototype representative of the pestivirus genus in the Flaviviridae family. It has been shown that the initiation of translation of BVDV RNA occurs by an internal ribosome entry mechanism mediated by the 5' untranslated region of the viral RNA 1. The 5' and 3' boundaries of the IRES of the cytopathic BVDV NADL have been mapped and it has been suggested that the IRES extends into the coding of the BVDV polyprotein 2. A putative pseudoknot structure has been recognized in the BVDV 5'UTR in close proximity to the AUG start codon. A pseudoknot structure is characteristic for flavivirus IRESes and in the case of the closely related classical swine fever virus (CSFV and the more distantly related Hepatitis C virus (HCV pseudoknot function in translation has been demonstrated. Results To characterize the BVDV IRESes in detail, we studied the BVDV translational initiation by transfection of dicistronic expression plasmids into mammalian cells. A region coding for the amino terminus of the BVDV SD-1 polyprotein contributes considerably to efficient initiation of translation. The translation efficiency mediated by the IRES of BVDV strains NADL and SD-1 approximates the poliovirus type I IRES directed translation in BHK cells. Compared to the poliovirus IRES increased expression levels are mediated by the BVDV IRES of strain SD-1 in murine cell lines, while lower levels are observed in human cell lines. Site directed mutagenesis revealed that a RNA pseudoknot upstream of the initiator AUG is an important structural element for IRES function. Mutants with impaired ability to base pair in stem I or II lost their translational activity. In mutants with repaired base pairing either in stem 1 or in stem 2 full translational activity was restored. Thus, the BVDV IRES translation is dependent on the pseudoknot integrity. These features of the pestivirus IRES are reminiscent of those of the classical

  11. Validation and clinical use of a sensitive HIV-2 viral load assay that uses a whole virus internal control. (United States)

    Styer, Linda M; Miller, Thomas T; Parker, Monica M


    Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) is distantly related to the more widespread HIV-1. Although HIV-2 infection is rare in the U.S., cases are concentrated in the Northeast. No FDA-approved HIV-2 viral load assays exist. A clinically validated laboratory-developed assay is currently available in the U.S., however it is not currently approved for use on New York State patients. To develop a sensitive viral load assay to quantify HIV-2 RNA in plasma and to validate it for clinical use. The real-time RT-PCR assay simultaneously amplifies HIV-2 and a whole virus internal control, added during the lysis step. Two extraction volumes can be used. Results are reported in HIV-2 RNA International Units (IU). The assay has a limit of detection of 7 IU/mL and a lower limit of quantification of 29 IU/mL. The assay detects multiple strains of HIV-2 group A and B and generates reproducible results. Samples exchanged with a comparator laboratory produced similar viral load results, with 74% of positives differing by loads (range: 1.63-5.14 log10 IU/mL), 10 (19%) were positive but not quantifiable, and 14 were negative. HIV-2 RNA was detected in at least one specimen from 19 of 25 (76%) individuals tested. We developed a sensitive and accurate HIV-2 viral load assay. Validation data indicate the assay is suitable for clinical use and its availability in New York State will improve clinical monitoring of HIV-2 infected patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development and evaluation of specific PCR primers targeting the ribosomal DNA-internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of peritrich ciliates in environmental samples (United States)

    Su, Lei; Zhang, Qianqian; Gong, Jun


    Peritrich ciliates are highly diverse and can be important bacterial grazers in aquatic ecosystems. Morphological identifications of peritrich species and assemblages in the environment are time-consuming and expertise-demanding. In this study, two peritrich-specific PCR primers were newly designed to amplify a fragment including the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal rDNA from environmental samples. The primers showed high specificity in silico, and in tests with peritrich isolates and environmental DNA. Application of these primers in clone library construction and sequencing yielded exclusively sequences of peritrichs for water and sediment samples. We also found the ITS1, ITS2, ITS, D1 region of 28S rDNA, and ITS+D1 region co-varied with, and generally more variable than, the V9 region of 18S rDNA in peritrichs. The newly designed specific primers thus provide additional tools to study the molecular diversity, community composition, and phylogeography of these ecologically important protists in different systems.

  13. The 5' leader of the mRNA encoding the mouse neurotrophin receptor TrkB contains two internal ribosomal entry sites that are differentially regulated.

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    Stephanie L Timmerman


    Full Text Available A single internal ribosomal entry site (IRES in conjunction with IRES transactivating factors (ITAFs is sufficient to recruit the translational machinery to a eukaryotic mRNA independent of the cap structure. However, we demonstrate that the mouse TrkB mRNA contains two independent IRESes. The mouse TrkB mRNA consists of one of two 5' leaders (1428 nt and 448 nt, both of which include the common 3' exon (Ex2, 344 nt. Dicistronic RNA transfections and in vitro translation of monocistronic RNA demonstrated that both full-length 5' leaders, as well as Ex2, exhibit IRES activity indicating the IRES is located within Ex2. Additional analysis of the upstream sequences demonstrated that the first 260 nt of exon 1 (Ex1a also contains an IRES. Dicistronic RNA transfections into SH-SY5Y cells showed the Ex1a IRES is constitutively active. However, the Ex2 IRES is only active in response to retinoic acid induced neural differentiation, a state which correlates with the synthesis of the ITAF polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB1. Correspondingly, addition or knock-down of PTB1 altered Ex2, but not Ex1a IRES activity in vitro and ex vivo, respectively. These results demonstrate that the two functionally independent IRESes within the mouse TrkB 5' leader are differentially regulated, in part by PTB1.

  14. Hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site RNA contains a tertiary structural element in a functional domain of stem–loop II (United States)

    Lyons, Alita J.; Lytle, J. Robin; Gomez, Jordi; Robertson, Hugh D.


    The internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA contains >300 bases of highly conserved 5′-terminal sequence, most of it in the uncapped 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) upstream from the single AUG initiator triplet at which translation of the HCV polyprotein begins. Although progress has been made in defining singularities like the RNA pseudoknot near this AUG, the sequence and structural features of the HCV IRES which stimulate accurate and efficient initiation of protein synthesis are only partially defined. Here we report that a region further upstream from the AUG, stem–loop II of the HCV IRES, also contains an element of local tertiary structure which we have detected using RNase H cleavage and have mapped using the singular ability of two bases therein to undergo covalent intra-chain crosslinking stimulated by UV light. This pre-existing element maps to two non-contiguous stretches of the HCV IRES sequence, residues 53–68 and 103–117. Several earlier studies have shown that the correct sequence between bases 45 and 70 of the HCV IRES stem–loop II domain is required for initiation of protein synthesis. Because features of local tertiary structure like the one we report here are often associated with protein binding, we propose that the HCV stem–loop II element is directly involved in IRES action. PMID:11410661

  15. Mapping of internal monophosphate 5' ends of Bacillus subtilis messenger RNAs and ribosomal RNAs in wild-type and ribonuclease-mutant strains. (United States)

    DiChiara, Jeanne M; Liu, Bo; Figaro, Sabine; Condon, Ciarán; Bechhofer, David H


    The recent findings that the narrow-specificity endoribonuclease RNase III and the 5' exonuclease RNase J1 are not essential in the Gram-positive model organism,Bacillus subtilis, facilitated a global analysis of internal 5' ends that are generated or acted upon by these enzymes. An RNA-Seq protocol known as PARE (Parallel Analysis of RNA Ends) was used to capture 5' monophosphorylated RNA ends in ribonuclease wild-type and mutant strains. Comparison of PARE peaks in strains with RNase III present or absent showed that, in addition to its well-known role in ribosomal (rRNA) processing, many coding sequences and intergenic regions appeared to be direct targets of RNase III. These target sites were, in most cases, not associated with a known antisense RNA. The PARE analysis also revealed an accumulation of 3'-proximal peaks that correlated with the absence of RNase J1, confirming the importance of RNase J1 in degrading RNA fragments that contain the transcription terminator structure. A significant result from the PARE analysis was the discovery of an endonuclease cleavage just 2 nts downstream of the 16S rRNA 3' end. This latter observation begins to answer, at least for B. subtilis, a long-standing question on the exonucleolytic versus endonucleolytic nature of 16S rRNA maturation. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Water extract of Cinnamomum cassia Blume inhibited human respiratory syncytial virus by preventing viral attachment, internalization, and syncytium formation. (United States)

    Yeh, Chia Feng; Chang, Jung San; Wang, Kuo Chih; Shieh, Den En; Chiang, Lien Chai


    Cinnamomum cassia Blume is a popular traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used to manage respiratory tract disease, including common cold and chronic bronchitis for thousand years. Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is one of the leading causes of severe lower respiratory tract illness worldwide. No effective therapeutic modality against HRSV infection has been proved. It is unknown whether Cinnamomum cassia is effective against HRSV. This study tested the hypothesis that Cinnamomum cassia can effectively decrease HRSV-induced plaque formation and syncytium formation in respiratory mucosal cell lines. Antiviral activity of the hot water extract of Cinnamomum cassia against HRSV was tested by plaque reduction assay in both human upper (HEp-2) and low (A549) respiratory tract cell lines. Its ability to inhibit the synthesis of viral fusion (F) protein was examined by Western blot assay. Cinnamomum cassia dose-dependently inhibited HRSV-induced plaque formation in both HEp-2 and A549 cell lines (pCinnamomum cassia was more effective when given before viral infection (pCinnamomum cassia could inhibit F protein production and syncytium formation to interfere with HRSV spreading. Cinnamomum cassia prevented airway epithelia from HRSV infection through inhibiting viral attachment, internalization and syncytium formation. Cinnamomum cassia could be a candidate to develop therapeutic modalities to manage HRSV infection in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Polymorphism in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS of the ribosomal DNA of 26 isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi

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    Gomes Eliane A.


    Full Text Available Inter- and intraspecific variation among 26 isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to 8 genera and 19 species were evaluated by analysis of the internal transcribed sequence (ITS of the rDNA region using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. The ITS region was first amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR with specific primers and then cleaved with different restriction enzymes. Amplification products, which ranged between 560 and 750 base pairs (bp, were obtained for all the isolates analyzed. The degree of polymorphism observed did not allow proper identification of most of the isolates. Cleavage of amplified fragments with the restriction enzymes Alu I, Hae III, Hinf I, and Hpa II revealed extensive polymorphism. All eight genera and most species presented specific restriction patterns. Species not identifiable by a specific pattern belonged to two genera: Rhizopogon (R. nigrescens, R. reaii, R. roseolus, R. rubescens and Rhizopogon sp., and Laccaria (L. bicolor and L. amethystea. Our data confirm the potential of ITS region PCR-RFLP for the molecular characterization of ectomycorrhizal fungi and their identification and monitoring in artificial inoculation programs.

  18. Comparison of internal ribosome entry site (IRES and Furin-2A (F2A for monoclonal antibody expression level and quality in CHO cells.

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    Steven C L Ho

    Full Text Available Four versions of tricistronic vectors expressing IgG1 light chain (LC, IgG1 heavy chain (HC, and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR in one transcript were designed to compare internal ribosome entry site (IRES and furin-2A (F2A for their influence on monoclonal antibody (mAb expression level and quality in CHO DG44 cells. LC and HC genes are arranged as either the first or the second cistron. When using mAb quantification methods based on the detection antibodies against HC Fc region, F2A-mediated tricistronic vectors appeared to express mAb at higher levels than the IRES-mediated tricistronic vectors in both transient and stable transfections. Further analysis revealed that more than 40% of products detected in stably transfected pools generated using the two F2A-mediated tricistronic vectors were aggregates. LC and HC from the F2A stably transfected pools were not properly processed, giving rise to LC+F2A+HC or HC+F2A+LC fusion proteins, LC and HC polypeptides with F2A remnants, and incorrectly cleaved signal peptides. Both IRES-mediated tricistronic vectors express mAb with correct sizes and signal peptide cleavage. Arrangement of LC as the first cistron in the IRES-mediated tricistronic vectors exhibits increased mAb expression level, better growth, and minimized product aggregation, while arrangement of HC as first cistron results in low expression, slower growth, and high aggregation. The results obtained will be beneficial for designing vectors that enhance mAb expression level and quality in mammalian cells.

  19. Potential Natural Products for Alzheimer’s Disease: Targeted Search Using the Internal Ribosome Entry Site of Tau and Amyloid-β Precursor Protein

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    Yun-Chieh Tasi


    Full Text Available Overexpression of the amyloid precursor protein (APP and the hyperphosphorylation of the tau protein are vital in the understanding of the cause of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. As a consequence, regulation of the expression of both APP and tau proteins is one important approach in combating AD. The APP and tau proteins can be targeted at the levels of transcription, translation and protein structural integrity. This paper reports the utilization of a bi-cistronic vector containing either APP or tau internal ribosome entry site (IRES elements flanked by β-galactosidase gene (cap-dependent and secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP (cap-independent to discern the mechanism of action of memantine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist. Results indicate that memantine could reduce the activity of both the APP and tau IRES at a concentration of ~10 μM (monitored by SEAP activity without interfering with the cap-dependent translation as monitored by the β-galactosidase assay. Western blot analysis of the tau protein in neuroblastoma (N2A and rat hippocampal cells confirmed the halting of the expression of the tau proteins. We also employed this approach to identify a preparation named NB34, extracts of Boussingaultia baselloides (madeira-vine fermented with Lactobacillus spp., which can function similarly to memantine in both IRES of APP and Tau. The water maze test demonstrated that NB34 could improve the spatial memory of a high fat diet induced neurodegeneration in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE−/− mice. These results revealed that the bi-cistronic vector provided a simple, and effective platform in screening and establishing the mechanistic action of potential compounds for the treatment and management of AD.

  20. Unexpected High Intragenomic Variation in Two of Three Major Pest Thrips Species Does Not Affect Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2 Utility for Thrips Identification

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    Vivek Kumar


    Full Text Available The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (mtCO1 and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 region (ITS2 are among the most widely used molecular markers for insect taxonomic characterization. Three economically important species of thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis, Thrips palmi, and Frankliniella occidentalis were selected to examine the extent of intragenomic variation within these two marker regions in the family Thripidae, and determine if this variation would affect the utility of markers in thrips molecular diagnostics. For each species, intragenomic (within individual variation and intergenomic (among individuals variation was assessed by cloning and sequencing PCR-amplified copies. Intergenomic variation was generally higher than intragenomic variation except in cases where intergenomic variation was very low, as in mtCO1 from S. dorsalis and F. occidentalis. Intragenomic variation was detected in both markers in all three of the thrips species, however, 2–3 times more intragenomic variation was observed for ITS2 than mtCO1 in both S. dorsalis and T. palmi. Furthermore, levels of intragenomic variation were low for both of the genes in F. occidentalis. In all of the three thrips species, no sex-based clustering of haplotypes was observed in either marker. Unexpected high intragenomic variation in ITS2 for two of three thrips species did not interfere with thrips diagnostics. However, caution should be taken in applying ITS2 to certain studies of S. dorsalis and T. palmi when high levels of intragenomic variation could be problematic or confounding. In such studies, mtCO1 may be a preferable marker. Possible reasons for discrepancies in intragenomic variation among genomic regions are discussed.

  1. The Modular Adaptive Ribosome.

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    Anupama Yadav

    Full Text Available The ribosome is an ancient machine, performing the same function across organisms. Although functionally unitary, recent experiments suggest specialized roles for some ribosomal proteins. Our central thesis is that ribosomal proteins function in a modular fashion to decode genetic information in a context dependent manner. We show through large data analyses that although many ribosomal proteins are essential with consistent effect on growth in different conditions in yeast and similar expression across cell and tissue types in mice and humans, some ribosomal proteins are used in an environment specific manner. The latter set of variable ribosomal proteins further function in a coordinated manner forming modules, which are adapted to different environmental cues in different organisms. We show that these environment specific modules of ribosomal proteins in yeast have differential genetic interactions with other pathways and their 5'UTRs show differential signatures of selection in yeast strains, presumably to facilitate adaptation. Similarly, we show that in higher metazoans such as mice and humans, different modules of ribosomal proteins are expressed in different cell types and tissues. A clear example is nervous tissue that uses a ribosomal protein module distinct from the rest of the tissues in both mice and humans. Our results suggest a novel stratification of ribosomal proteins that could have played a role in adaptation, presumably to optimize translation for adaptation to diverse ecological niches and tissue microenvironments.

  2. Assessment of Ribosomal Large-Subunit D1-D2, Internal Transcribed Spacer 1, and Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 Regions as Targets for Molecular Identification of Medically Important Aspergillus Species (United States)

    Hinrikson, Hans P.; Hurst, Steven F.; Lott, Timothy J.; Warnock, David W.; Morrison, Christine J.


    Molecular approaches are now being developed to provide a more rapid and objective identification of fungi compared to traditional phenotypic methods. Ribosomal targets, especially the large-subunit RNA gene (D1-D2 region) and internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2 regions), have shown particular promise for the molecular identification of some fungi. We therefore conducted an assessment of these regions for the identification of 13 medically important Aspergillus species: Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus (Eurotium) chevalieri, Aspergillus (Fennellia) flavipes, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus granulosus, Aspergillus (Emericella) nidulans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus restrictus, Aspergillus sydowii, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus ustus, and Aspergillus versicolor. The length of ribosomal regions could not be reliably used to differentiate among all Aspergillus species examined. DNA alignment and pairwise nucleotide comparisons demonstrated 91.9 to 99.6% interspecies sequence identities in the D1-D2 region, 57.4 to 98.1% in the ITS1 region, and 75.6 to 98.3% in the ITS2 region. Comparative analysis using GenBank reference data showed that 10 of the 13 species examined exhibited a ≤1-nucleotide divergence in the D1-D2 region from closely related but different species. In contrast, only 5 of the species examined exhibited a ≤1-nucleotide divergence from sibling species in their ITS1 or ITS2 sequences. Although the GenBank database currently lacks ITS sequence entries for some species, and major improvement in the quality and accuracy of GenBank entries is needed, current identification of medically important Aspergillus species using GenBank reference data seems more reliable using ITS query sequences than D1-D2 sequences, especially for the identification of closely related species. PMID:15872227

  3. Isolation of Plastid Ribosomes. (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kenichi


    Plastid ribosomes are responsible for a large part of the protein synthesis in plant leaves, green algal cells, and the vast majority in the thalli of red algae. Plastid translation is necessary not only for photosynthesis but also for development/differentiation of plants and algae. While some isolated plastid ribosomes from a few green lineages have been characterized by biochemical and proteomic approaches, in-depth proteomics including analyses of posttranslational modifications and processing, comparative proteomics of plastid ribosomes isolated from the cells grown under different conditions, and those from different taxa are still to be carried out. Establishment of isolation methods for pure plastid ribosomes from a wider range of species would be beneficial to study the relationship between structure, function, and evolution of plastid ribosomes. Here I describe methodologies and provide example protocols for extraction and isolation of plastid ribosomes from a unicellular green alga (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii), a land plant (Arabidopsis thaliana), and a marine red macroalga (Pyropia yezoensis).

  4. Ribosome Profiling in Maize. (United States)

    Chotewutmontri, Prakitchai; Stiffler, Nicholas; Watkins, Kenneth P; Barkan, Alice


    Ribosome profiling (also known as Ribo-seq) provides a genome-wide, high-resolution, and quantitative accounting of mRNA segments that are occupied by ribosomes in vivo. The method has been used to address numerous questions in bacteria, yeast, and metazoa, but its application to questions in plant biology is just beginning. This chapter provides a detailed protocol for profiling ribosomes in plant leaf tissue. The method was developed and optimized with maize, but it has been used successfully with Arabidopsis and tobacco as well. The method captures ribosome footprints from the chloroplast and cytosol in the same preparation, but it is not optimal for detecting the footprints of mitochondrial ribosomes. The protocol is robust and simpler than many of the methods reported previously for ribosome profiling in plants.

  5. Influence of Internal Capsid Pressure on Viral Infection by Phage λ


    Köster, Sarah; Evilevitch, Alex; Jeembaeva, Meerim; Weitz, David A


    Ejection of the genome from the virus, phage λ, is the initial step in the infection of its host bacterium. In vitro, the ejection depends sensitively on internal pressure within the virus capsid; however, the in vivo effect of internal pressure on infection of bacteria is unknown. Here, we use microfluidics to monitor individual cells and determine the temporal distribution of lysis due to infection as the capsid pressure is varied. The lysis probability decreases markedly with decreased cap...

  6. Ribosome biogenesis and cancer. (United States)

    Derenzini, Massimo; Montanaro, Lorenzo; Trerè, Davide


    There is growing evidence indicating that the human pathological conditions characterized by an up-regulated ribosome biogenesis are at an increased risk of cancer onset. At the basis of this relationship is the close interconnection between the ribosome biogenesis and cell proliferation. Cell proliferation-stimulating factors also stimulate ribosome production, while the ribosome biogenesis rate controls the cell cycle progression. The major tumour suppressor, the p53 protein, plays an important balancing role between the ribosome biogenesis rate and the cell progression through the cell cycle phases. The perturbation of ribosome biogenesis stabilizes and activates p53, with a consequent cell cycle arrest and/or apoptotic cell death, whereas an up-regulated ribosome production down-regulates p53 expression and activity, thus facilitating neoplastic transformation. In the present review we describe the interconnection between ribosome biogenesis and cell proliferation, while highlighting the mechanisms by which quantitative changes in ribosome biogenesis may induce cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Ebolavirus is internalized into host cells via macropinocytosis in a viral glycoprotein-dependent manner. (United States)

    Nanbo, Asuka; Imai, Masaki; Watanabe, Shinji; Noda, Takeshi; Takahashi, Kei; Neumann, Gabriele; Halfmann, Peter; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro


    Ebolavirus (EBOV) is an enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus that causes severe hemorrhagic fever with mortality rates of up to 90% in humans and nonhuman primates. Previous studies suggest roles for clathrin- or caveolae-mediated endocytosis in EBOV entry; however, ebolavirus virions are long, filamentous particles that are larger than the plasma membrane invaginations that characterize clathrin- or caveolae-mediated endocytosis. The mechanism of EBOV entry remains, therefore, poorly understood. To better understand Ebolavirus entry, we carried out internalization studies with fluorescently labeled, biologically contained Ebolavirus and Ebolavirus-like particles (Ebola VLPs), both of which resemble authentic Ebolavirus in their morphology. We examined the mechanism of Ebolavirus internalization by real-time analysis of these fluorescently labeled Ebolavirus particles and found that their internalization was independent of clathrin- or caveolae-mediated endocytosis, but that they co-localized with sorting nexin (SNX) 5, a marker of macropinocytosis-specific endosomes (macropinosomes). Moreover, the internalization of Ebolavirus virions accelerated the uptake of a macropinocytosis-specific cargo, was associated with plasma membrane ruffling, and was dependent on cellular GTPases and kinases involved in macropinocytosis. A pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus possessing the Ebolavirus glycoprotein (GP) also co-localized with SNX5 and its internalization and infectivity were affected by macropinocytosis inhibitors. Taken together, our data suggest that Ebolavirus is internalized into cells by stimulating macropinocytosis in a GP-dependent manner. These findings provide new insights into the lifecycle of Ebolavirus and may aid in the development of therapeutics for Ebolavirus infection.

  8. Ebolavirus is internalized into host cells via macropinocytosis in a viral glycoprotein-dependent manner.

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    Asuka Nanbo


    Full Text Available Ebolavirus (EBOV is an enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus that causes severe hemorrhagic fever with mortality rates of up to 90% in humans and nonhuman primates. Previous studies suggest roles for clathrin- or caveolae-mediated endocytosis in EBOV entry; however, ebolavirus virions are long, filamentous particles that are larger than the plasma membrane invaginations that characterize clathrin- or caveolae-mediated endocytosis. The mechanism of EBOV entry remains, therefore, poorly understood. To better understand Ebolavirus entry, we carried out internalization studies with fluorescently labeled, biologically contained Ebolavirus and Ebolavirus-like particles (Ebola VLPs, both of which resemble authentic Ebolavirus in their morphology. We examined the mechanism of Ebolavirus internalization by real-time analysis of these fluorescently labeled Ebolavirus particles and found that their internalization was independent of clathrin- or caveolae-mediated endocytosis, but that they co-localized with sorting nexin (SNX 5, a marker of macropinocytosis-specific endosomes (macropinosomes. Moreover, the internalization of Ebolavirus virions accelerated the uptake of a macropinocytosis-specific cargo, was associated with plasma membrane ruffling, and was dependent on cellular GTPases and kinases involved in macropinocytosis. A pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus possessing the Ebolavirus glycoprotein (GP also co-localized with SNX5 and its internalization and infectivity were affected by macropinocytosis inhibitors. Taken together, our data suggest that Ebolavirus is internalized into cells by stimulating macropinocytosis in a GP-dependent manner. These findings provide new insights into the lifecycle of Ebolavirus and may aid in the development of therapeutics for Ebolavirus infection.

  9. When ribosomes go bad: diseases of ribosome biogenesis. (United States)

    Freed, Emily F; Bleichert, Franziska; Dutca, Laura M; Baserga, Susan J


    Ribosomes are vital for cell growth and survival. Until recently, it was believed that mutations in ribosomes or ribosome biogenesis factors would be lethal, due to the essential nature of these complexes. However, in the last few decades, a number of diseases of ribosome biogenesis have been discovered. It remains a challenge in the field to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying them.

  10. A ribosome without RNA

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    Harold S Bernhardt


    Full Text Available It was Francis Crick who first asked why the ribosome contains so much RNA, and discussed the implications of this for the direct flow of genetic information from DNA to protein. Remarkable advances in our understanding of the ribosome and protein synthesis, including the recent publication of two mammalian mitochondrial ribosome structures, have shed new light on this intriguing aspect of evolution in molecular biology. We examine here whether RNA is indispensable for coded protein synthesis, or whether an all-protein ‘ribosome’ (or ‘synthosome’ might be possible, with a protein enzyme catalyzing peptide synthesis, and release factor-like protein adaptors able to read a message composed of deoxyribonucleotides. We also compare the RNA world hypothesis with the alternative ‘proteins first’ hypothesis in terms of their different understandings of the evolution of the ribosome, and whether this might have been preceded by an ancestral form of nonribosomal peptide synthesis catalyzed by protein enzymes.

  11. Commandeering the Ribosome: Lessons Learned from Dicistroviruses about Translation. (United States)

    Kerr, Craig H; Jan, Eric


    To replicate, all viruses depend entirely on the enslavement of host cell ribosomes for their own advantage. To this end, viruses have evolved a multitude of translational strategies to usurp the ribosome. RNA-based structures known as internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) are among the most notable mechanisms employed by viruses to seize host ribosomes. In this article, we spotlight the intergenic region IRES from the Dicistroviridae family of viruses and its importance as a model for IRES-dependent translation and in understanding fundamental properties of translation. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. The ribosomal protein Rpl22 controls ribosome composition by directly repressing expression of its own paralog, Rpl22l1.

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    Monique N O'Leary

    Full Text Available Most yeast ribosomal protein genes are duplicated and their characterization has led to hypotheses regarding the existence of specialized ribosomes with different subunit composition or specifically-tailored functions. In yeast, ribosomal protein genes are generally duplicated and evidence has emerged that paralogs might have specific roles. Unlike yeast, most mammalian ribosomal proteins are thought to be encoded by a single gene copy, raising the possibility that heterogenous populations of ribosomes are unique to yeast. Here, we examine the roles of the mammalian Rpl22, finding that Rpl22(-/- mice have only subtle phenotypes with no significant translation defects. We find that in the Rpl22(-/- mouse there is a compensatory increase in Rpl22-like1 (Rpl22l1 expression and incorporation into ribosomes. Consistent with the hypothesis that either ribosomal protein can support translation, knockdown of Rpl22l1 impairs growth of cells lacking Rpl22. Mechanistically, Rpl22 regulates Rpl22l1 directly by binding to an internal hairpin structure and repressing its expression. We propose that ribosome specificity may exist in mammals, providing evidence that one ribosomal protein can influence composition of the ribosome by regulating its own paralog.

  13. Viral Hepatitis (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis Viral hepatitis > A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis (PDF, 90 ... liver. Source: National Cancer Institute Learn more about hepatitis Watch a video. Learn who is at risk ...

  14. The 100S ribosome: ribosomal hibernation induced by stress. (United States)

    Yoshida, Hideji; Wada, Akira


    One of the most important cellular events in all organisms is protein synthesis (translation), which is catalyzed by ribosomes. The regulation of translational activity is dependent on the environmental situation of the cell. A decrease in overall translation under stress conditions is mainly accompanied by the formation of functionally inactive 100S ribosomes in bacteria. The 100S ribosome is a dimer of two 70S ribosomes that is formed through interactions between their 30S subunits. Two mechanisms of 100S ribosome formation are known: one involving ribosome modulation factor (RMF) and short hibernation promoting factor (HPF) in a part of Gammaproteobacteria including Escherichia coli, and the other involving only long HPF in the majority of bacteria. The expression of RMF is regulated by ppGpp and cyclic AMP-cAMP receptor protein (cAMP-CRP) induced by amino acid starvation and glucose depletion, respectively. When stress conditions are removed, the 100S ribosome immediately dissociates into the active 70S ribosomes by releasing RMF. The stage in the ribosome cycle at which the ribosome loses translational activity is referred to as 'Hibernation'. The lifetime of cells that cannot form 100S ribosomes by deletion of the rmf gene is shorter than that of parental cells under stress conditions in E. coli. This fact indicates that the interconversion system between active 70S ribosomes and inactive 100S ribosomes is an important survival strategy for bacteria. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Quality Control Assessment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 (HIV-2) Viral Load Quantification Assays: Results from an International Collaboration on HIV-2 Infection in 2006▿ (United States)

    Damond, Florence; Benard, Antoine; Ruelle, Jean; Alabi, Abraham; Kupfer, Bernd; Gomes, Perpetua; Rodes, Berta; Albert, Jan; Böni, Jürg; Garson, Jeremy; Ferns, Bridget; Matheron, Sophie; Chene, Geneviève; Brun-Vezinet, Françoise


    Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) RNA quantification assays used in nine laboratories of the ACHIEV2E (A Collaboration on HIV-2 Infection) study group were evaluated. In a blinded experimental design, laboratories quantified three series of aliquots of an HIV-2 subtype A strain, each at a different theoretical viral load. Quantification varied between laboratories, and international standardization of quantification assays is strongly needed. PMID:18434556

  16. Ribosomal genes in focus (United States)

    Koberna, Karel; Malínský, Jan; Pliss, Artem; Mašata, Martin; Večeřová, Jaromíra; Fialová, Markéta; Bednár, Jan; Raška, Ivan


    T he organization of transcriptionally active ribosomal genes in animal cell nucleoli is investigated in this study in order to address the long-standing controversy with regard to the intranucleolar localization of these genes. Detailed analyses of HeLa cell nucleoli include direct localization of ribosomal genes by in situ hybridization and their indirect localization via nascent ribosomal transcript mappings. On the light microscopy (LM) level, ribosomal genes map in 10–40 fluorescence foci per nucleus, and transcription activity is associated with most foci. We demonstrate that each nucleolar focus observed by LM corresponds, on the EM level, to an individual fibrillar center (FC) and surrounding dense fibrillar components (DFCs). The EM data identify the DFC as the nucleolar subcompartment in which rRNA synthesis takes place, consistent with detection of rDNA within the DFC. The highly sensitive method for mapping nascent transcripts in permeabilized cells on ultrastructural level provides intense and unambiguous clustered immunogold signal over the DFC, whereas very little to no label is detected over the FC. This signal is strongly indicative of nascent “Christmas trees” of rRNA associated with individual rDNA genes, sampled on the surface of thin sections. Stereological analysis of the clustered transcription signal further suggests that these Christmas trees may be contorted in space and exhibit a DNA compaction ratio on the order of 4–5.5. PMID:12034768

  17. Ribosomal Antibiotics: Contemporary Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Auerbach-Nevo


    Full Text Available Most ribosomal antibiotics obstruct distinct ribosomal functions. In selected cases, in addition to paralyzing vital ribosomal tasks, some ribosomal antibiotics are involved in cellular regulation. Owing to the global rapid increase in the appearance of multi-drug resistance in pathogenic bacterial strains, and to the extremely slow progress in developing new antibiotics worldwide, it seems that, in addition to the traditional attempts at improving current antibiotics and the intensive screening for additional natural compounds, this field should undergo substantial conceptual revision. Here, we highlight several contemporary issues, including challenging the common preference of broad-range antibiotics; the marginal attention to alterations in the microbiome population resulting from antibiotics usage, and the insufficient awareness of ecological and environmental aspects of antibiotics usage. We also highlight recent advances in the identification of species-specific structural motifs that may be exploited for the design and the creation of novel, environmental friendly, degradable, antibiotic types, with a better distinction between pathogens and useful bacterial species in the microbiome. Thus, these studies are leading towards the design of “pathogen-specific antibiotics,” in contrast to the current preference of broad range antibiotics, partially because it requires significant efforts in speeding up the discovery of the unique species motifs as well as the clinical pathogen identification.

  18. Ubiquitination of stalled ribosome triggers ribosome-associated quality control. (United States)

    Matsuo, Yoshitaka; Ikeuchi, Ken; Saeki, Yasushi; Iwasaki, Shintaro; Schmidt, Christian; Udagawa, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Fumiya; Tsuchiya, Hikaru; Becker, Thomas; Tanaka, Keiji; Ingolia, Nicholas T; Beckmann, Roland; Inada, Toshifumi


    Translation arrest by polybasic sequences induces ribosome stalling, and the arrest product is degraded by the ribosome-mediated quality control (RQC) system. Here we report that ubiquitination of the 40S ribosomal protein uS10 by the E3 ubiquitin ligase Hel2 (or RQT1) is required for RQC. We identify a RQC-trigger (RQT) subcomplex composed of the RNA helicase-family protein Slh1/Rqt2, the ubiquitin-binding protein Cue3/Rqt3, and yKR023W/Rqt4 that is required for RQC. The defects in RQC of the RQT mutants correlate with sensitivity to anisomycin, which stalls ribosome at the rotated form. Cryo-electron microscopy analysis reveals that Hel2-bound ribosome are dominantly the rotated form with hybrid tRNAs. Ribosome profiling reveals that ribosomes stalled at the rotated state with specific pairs of codons at P-A sites serve as RQC substrates. Rqt1 specifically ubiquitinates these arrested ribosomes to target them to the RQT complex, allowing subsequent RQC reactions including dissociation of the stalled ribosome into subunits.Several protein quality control mechanisms are in place to trigger the rapid degradation of aberrant polypeptides and mRNAs. Here the authors describe a mechanism of ribosome-mediated quality control that involves the ubiquitination of ribosomal proteins by the E3 ubiquitin ligase Hel2/RQT1.

  19. Viral encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Tulius T Silva


    Full Text Available While systemic viral infections are exceptionally common, symptomatic viral infections of the brain parenchyma itself are very rare, but a serious neurologic condition. It is estimated that viral encephalitis occurs at a rate of 1.4 cases per 100.000 inhabitants. Geography is a major determinant of encephalitis caused by vector-borne pathogens. A diagnosis of viral encephalitis could be a challenge to the clinician, since almost 70% of viral encephalitis cases are left without an etiologic agent identified. In this review, the most common viral encephalitis will be discussed, with focus on ecology, diagnosis, and clinical management.

  20. Ribosome Assembly as Antimicrobial Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Nikolay


    Full Text Available Many antibiotics target the ribosome and interfere with its translation cycle. Since translation is the source of all cellular proteins including ribosomal proteins, protein synthesis and ribosome assembly are interdependent. As a consequence, the activity of translation inhibitors might indirectly cause defective ribosome assembly. Due to the difficulty in distinguishing between direct and indirect effects, and because assembly is probably a target in its own right, concepts are needed to identify small molecules that directly inhibit ribosome assembly. Here, we summarize the basic facts of ribosome targeting antibiotics. Furthermore, we present an in vivo screening strategy that focuses on ribosome assembly by a direct fluorescence based read-out that aims to identify and characterize small molecules acting as primary assembly inhibitors.

  1. Structural insights into ribosome translocation. (United States)

    Ling, Clarence; Ermolenko, Dmitri N


    During protein synthesis, tRNA and mRNA are translocated from the A to P to E sites of the ribosome thus enabling the ribosome to translate one codon of mRNA after the other. Ribosome translocation along mRNA is induced by the universally conserved ribosome GTPase, elongation factor G (EF-G) in bacteria and elongation factor 2 (EF-2) in eukaryotes. Recent structural and single-molecule studies revealed that tRNA and mRNA translocation within the ribosome is accompanied by cyclic forward and reverse rotations between the large and small ribosomal subunits parallel to the plane of the intersubunit interface. In addition, during ribosome translocation, the 'head' domain of small ribosomal subunit undergoes forward- and back-swiveling motions relative to the rest of the small ribosomal subunit around the axis that is orthogonal to the axis of intersubunit rotation. tRNA/mRNA translocation is also coupled to the docking of domain IV of EF-G into the A site of the small ribosomal subunit that converts the thermally driven motions of the ribosome and tRNA into the forward translocation of tRNA/mRNA inside the ribosome. Despite recent and enormous progress made in the understanding of the molecular mechanism of ribosome translocation, the sequence of structural rearrangements of the ribosome, EF-G and tRNA during translocation is still not fully established and awaits further investigation. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:620-636. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1354 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 The Authors. WIREs RNA published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Viral marketing


    Bláhová, Adéla


    The aim of my thesis is to provide a comprehensive overview of the viral marketing and to analyze selected viral campaigns. There is a description of advantages and disadvantages of this marketing tool. In the end I suggest for which companies viral marketing is an appropriate form of the promotion.

  3. Viral phylodynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik M Volz

    Full Text Available Viral phylodynamics is defined as the study of how epidemiological, immunological, and evolutionary processes act and potentially interact to shape viralphylogenies. Since the coining of the term in 2004, research on viral phylodynamics has focused on transmission dynamics in an effort to shed light on how these dynamics impact viral genetic variation. Transmission dynamics can be considered at the level of cells within an infected host, individual hosts within a population, or entire populations of hosts. Many viruses, especially RNA viruses, rapidly accumulate genetic variation because of short generation times and high mutation rates. Patterns of viral genetic variation are therefore heavily influenced by how quickly transmission occurs and by which entities transmit to one another. Patterns of viral genetic variation will also be affected by selection acting on viral phenotypes. Although viruses can differ with respect to many phenotypes, phylodynamic studies have to date tended to focus on a limited number of viral phenotypes. These include virulence phenotypes, phenotypes associated with viral transmissibility, cell or tissue tropism phenotypes, and antigenic phenotypes that can facilitate escape from host immunity. Due to the impact that transmission dynamics and selection can have on viral genetic variation, viral phylogenies can therefore be used to investigate important epidemiological, immunological, and evolutionary processes, such as epidemic spread[2], spatio-temporal dynamics including metapopulation dynamics[3], zoonotic transmission, tissue tropism[4], and antigenic drift[5]. The quantitative investigation of these processes through the consideration of viral phylogenies is the central aim of viral phylodynamics.

  4. Ribosome recycling induces optimal translation rate at low ribosomal availability. (United States)

    Marshall, E; Stansfield, I; Romano, M C


    During eukaryotic cellular protein synthesis, ribosomal translation is made more efficient through interaction between the two ends of the messenger RNA (mRNA). Ribosomes reaching the 3' end of the mRNA can thus recycle and begin translation again on the same mRNA, the so-called 'closed-loop' model. Using a driven diffusion lattice model of translation, we study the effects of ribosome recycling on the dynamics of ribosome flow and density on the mRNA. We show that ribosome recycling induces a substantial increase in ribosome current. Furthermore, for sufficiently large values of the recycling rate, the lattice does not transition directly from low to high ribosome density, as seen in lattice models without recycling. Instead, a maximal current phase becomes accessible for much lower values of the initiation rate, and multiple phase transitions occur over a wide region of the phase plane. Crucially, we show that in the presence of ribosome recycling, mRNAs can exhibit a peak in protein production at low values of the initiation rate, beyond which translation rate decreases. This has important implications for translation of certain mRNAs, suggesting that there is an optimal concentration of ribosomes at which protein synthesis is maximal, and beyond which translational efficiency is impaired. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. [Obtaining ribosome crystals in homogenates]. (United States)

    Bersani, F; Longo, I; Fanti, M; Pettazzoni, P


    Chick embryos are homogenized in order to analyse ribosome crystallization. Ribosome crystallization has been induced by hypothermic treatment in chick embryos homogenate. Tetramers and crystals were produced by gradually inducing the temperature over a span of 10 h to 4 degrees C. It has been observed that the concentration of KCl in the buffer is a critical point. It is suggested that the nuclear fraction is engaged in ribosome crystallization.

  6. Nucleolus: The ribosome factory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cmarko, Dušan; Šmigová, J.; Minichová, L.; Popov, Alexey


    Roč. 23, č. 10 (2008), s. 1291-1298 ISSN 0213-3911 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/06/1691 Grant - others:Wellcome Trust(XE) 075834/04/Z; GA MŠk(CZ) LC535; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/06/1662 Program:LC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : nucleolus * nucleolar architecture * ribosome biogenesis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.194, year: 2008

  7. Generation of HIV-1 and Internal Control Transcripts as Standards for an In-House Quantitative Competitive RT-PCR Assay to Determine HIV-1 Viral Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anny Armas Cayarga


    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 viral load is useful for monitoring disease progression in HIV-infected individuals. We generated RNA standards of HIV-1 and internal control (IC by in vitro transcription and evaluated its performance in a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR assay. HIV-1 and IC standards were obtained at high RNA concentrations, without DNA contamination. When these transcripts were included as standards in a qRT-PCR assay, it was obtained a good accuracy (±0.5 log10 unit of the expected results in the quantification of the HIV-1 RNA international standard and controls. The lower limit detection achieved using these standards was 511.0 IU/mL. A high correlation (=0.925 was obtained between the in-house qRT-PCR assay and the NucliSens easyQ HIV-1 test (bioMerieux for HIV-1 RNA quantitation with clinical samples (=14. HIV-1 and IC RNA transcripts, generated in this study, proved to be useful as standards in an in-house qRT-PCR assay for determination of HIV-1 viral load.

  8. Exploring Ribosome Positioning on Translating Transcripts with Ribosome Profiling. (United States)

    Spealman, Pieter; Wang, Hao; May, Gemma; Kingsford, Carl; McManus, C Joel


    Recent technological advances (e.g., microarrays and massively parallel sequencing) have facilitated genome-wide measurement of many aspects of gene regulation. Ribosome profiling is a high-throughput sequencing method used to measure gene expression at the level of translation. This is accomplished by quantifying both the number of translating ribosomes and their locations on mRNA transcripts. The inventors of this approach have published several methods papers detailing its implementation and addressing the basics of ribosome profiling data analysis. Here we describe our lab's procedure, which differs in some respects from those published previously. In addition, we describe a data analysis pipeline, Ribomap, for ribosome profiling data. Ribomap allocates sequence reads to alternative mRNA isoforms, normalizes sequencing bias along transcripts using RNA-seq data, and outputs count vectors of per-codon ribosome occupancy for each transcript.

  9. The HCMV gH/gL/UL128-131 complex triggers the specific cellular activation required for efficient viral internalization into target monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej T Nogalski

    Full Text Available We have established that HCMV acts as a specific ligand engaging and activating cellular integrins on monocytes. As a result, integrin signaling via Src activation leads to the functional activation of paxillin required for efficient viral entry and for the biological changes in monocytes needed for viral dissemination. These biological/molecular changes allow HCMV to use monocytes as "vehicles" for systemic spread and the establishment of lifelong persistence. However, it remains unresolved how HCMV specifically induces this observed monocyte activation. It was previously demonstrated that the HCMV gH/gL/UL128-131 glycoprotein complex facilitates viral entry into biologically relevant cell types. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which the gH/gL/UL128-131 complex promotes this process is unknown. We now show that only HCMV virions possessing the gH/gL/UL128-131 complex are capable of activating integrin/Src/paxillin-signaling in monocytes. In fibroblasts, this signaling is reversed, such that virus lacking the gH/gL/UL128-131 complex is the only virus able to induce the paxillin activation cascade. The presence of the gH/gL/UL128-131 complex also may have an inhibitory effect on integrin-mediated signaling pathway in fibroblasts. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the presence of the gH/gL/UL128-131 complex on the viral envelope, through its activation of the integrin/Src/paxillin pathway, is necessary for efficient HCMV internalization into monocytes and that appropriate actin and dynamin regulation is critical for this entry process. Importantly, productive infection in monocyte-derived macrophages was seen only in cells exposed to HCMV expressing the gH/gL/UL128-131 complex. From our data, the HCMV gH/gL/U128-131 complex emerges as the specific ligand driving the activation of the receptor-mediated signaling required for the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and, consequently, for efficient and productive internalization of HCMV into monocytes

  10. High frequency of +1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting in Euplotes octocarinatus


    Wang, Ruanlin; Xiong, Jie; Wang, Wei; Miao, Wei; Liang, Aihua


    Programmed ?1 ribosomal frameshifting (?1 PRF) has been identified as a mechanism to regulate the expression of many viral genes and some cellular genes. The slippery site of ?1 PRF has been well characterized, whereas the +1 PRF signal and the mechanism involved in +1 PRF remain poorly understood. Previous study confirmed that +1 PRF is required for the synthesis of protein products in several genes of ciliates from the genus Euplotes. To accurately assess the frequency of genes requiring fr...

  11. Development of a multiple detection technique for fungi by DNA microarray with the simultaneous use of internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal RNA gene and β-tubulin gene probes. (United States)

    Isshiki, Atsunori; Takeharu, Hitoshi; Aoki, Shunsuke; Kokaji, Mami; Tanabe, Suguru; Kasetani, Taisuke; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro


    We offer the first description of the development of a multiple detection technique for fungi by DNA microarray with the simultaneous use of internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of ribosomal RNA gene and β-tubulin gene probes. The assay uses 12 oligonucleotide probes and multiplex amplification to detect fungal species belonging to various sections of Aspergillus, the Eurotium genus, and the Penicillium genus. The specificity of each probe was tested using 231 reference fungal strains, including 79 target and 152 non-target strains in 102 species of 24 genera. We determined the optimum concentration of the primer pairs for multiplex PCR to be 0.5 μM for the β-tubulin gene and 0.125 μM for the ITS region. In the field trial using 76 specimens containing 323 fungi (up to five fungal strains were included in one specimen), the concordance rate between the DNA microarray and the DNA sequencing results was 97.4% at the species or genus levels.

  12. Pemasaran ViralViral Marketing


    Situmorang, James Rianto


    Viral marketing is an extremely powerful and effective form of internet marketing. Itis a new form of word-of-mouth through internet. In viral marketing, someone passeson a marketing message to someone else and so on. Viral marketing proposes thatmessages can be rapidly disseminated from consumer to consumer leading to largescale market acceptance. The analogy of a virus is used to described the exponentialdiffusion of information in an electronic environment and should not be confusedwith th...

  13. Trans-kingdom mimicry underlies ribosome customization by a poxvirus kinase. (United States)

    Jha, Sujata; Rollins, Madeline G; Fuchs, Gabriele; Procter, Dean J; Hall, Elizabeth A; Cozzolino, Kira; Sarnow, Peter; Savas, Jeffrey N; Walsh, Derek


    Ribosomes have the capacity to selectively control translation through changes in their composition that enable recognition of specific RNA elements. However, beyond differential subunit expression during development, evidence for regulated ribosome specification within individual cells has remained elusive. Here we report that a poxvirus kinase phosphorylates serine/threonine residues in the human small ribosomal subunit protein, receptor for activated C kinase (RACK1), that are not phosphorylated in uninfected cells or cells infected by other viruses. These modified residues cluster in an extended loop in RACK1, phosphorylation of which selects for translation of viral or reporter mRNAs with 5' untranslated regions that contain adenosine repeats, so-called polyA-leaders. Structural and phylogenetic analyses revealed that although RACK1 is highly conserved, this loop is variable and contains negatively charged amino acids in plants, in which these leaders act as translational enhancers. Phosphomimetics and inter-species chimaeras have shown that negative charge in the RACK1 loop dictates ribosome selectivity towards viral RNAs. By converting human RACK1 to a charged, plant-like state, poxviruses remodel host ribosomes so that adenosine repeats erroneously generated by slippage of the viral RNA polymerase confer a translational advantage. Our findings provide insight into ribosome customization through trans-kingdom mimicry and the mechanics of species-specific leader activity that underlie poxvirus polyA-leaders.

  14. Re-mind the gap! Insertion - deletion data reveal neglected phylogenetic potential of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS of fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László G Nagy

    Full Text Available Rapidly evolving, indel-rich phylogenetic markers play a pivotal role in our understanding of the relationships at multiple levels of the tree of life. There is extensive evidence that indels provide conserved phylogenetic signal, however, the range of phylogenetic depths for which gaps retain tree signal has not been investigated in detail. Here we address this question using the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS, which is central in many phylogenetic studies, molecular ecology, detection and identification of pathogenic and non-pathogenic species. ITS is repeatedly criticized for indel-induced alignment problems and the lack of phylogenetic resolution above species level, although these have not been critically investigated. In this study, we examined whether the inclusion of gap characters in the analyses shifts the phylogenetic utility of ITS alignments towards earlier divergences. By re-analyzing 115 published fungal ITS alignments, we found that indels are slightly more conserved than nucleotide substitutions, and when included in phylogenetic analyses, improved the resolution and branch support of phylogenies across an array of taxonomic ranges and extended the resolving power of ITS towards earlier nodes of phylogenetic trees. Our results reconcile previous contradicting evidence for the effects of data exclusion: in the case of more sophisticated indel placement, the exclusion of indel-rich regions from the analyses results in a loss of tree resolution, whereas in the case of simpler alignment methods, the exclusion of gapped sites improves it. Although the empirical datasets do not provide to measure alignment accuracy objectively, our results for the ITS region are consistent with previous simulations studies alignment algorithms. We suggest that sophisticated alignment algorithms and the inclusion of indels make the ITS region and potentially other rapidly evolving indel-rich loci valuable sources of phylogenetic information

  15. Ribosomal Chamber Music: Toward an Understanding of IRES Mechanisms. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Unbehaun, Anett; Spahn, Christian M T


    Internal initiation is a 5'-end-independent mode of translation initiation engaged by many virus- and putatively some cell-encoded templates. Internal initiation is facilitated by specific RNA tertiary folds, called internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs), in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the respective transcripts. In this review we discuss recent structural insight into how established IRESs first capture and then manipulate the eukaryotic translation machinery through non-canonical interactions and by guiding the intrinsic conformational flexibility of the eukaryotic ribosome. Because IRESs operate with reduced complexity and constitute minimal systems of initiation, comparison with canonical initiation may allow common mechanistic principles of the ribosome to be delineated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ribosomes as molecular energy machines. (United States)

    Kremen, A


    The idea that ribosomes operate as biological molecular energy machines offers an alternative description to that based on the assumption that the functionally important motions in ribosomes are only coupled to thermal degrees of freedom. The alternative model assumes that the energy gained in GTP cleavage generates in the ribosomal complex a localized metastable region temporarily not interacting with thermal motions. The metastable region may move along a definite pathway and in distinct sites promote irreversible logical operations involved in polypeptide biosynthesis. The new alternative represents a more complex and advanced algorithm offering advantages in speed, accuracy, more sophisticated control, and better resistance to various kinds of noise.

  17. Multicenter Evaluation of Whole-Blood Epstein-Barr Viral Load Standardization Using the WHO International Standard. (United States)

    Semenova, Touyana; Lupo, Julien; Alain, Sophie; Perrin-Confort, Gwladys; Grossi, Laurence; Dimier, Julie; Epaulard, Olivier; Morand, Patrice; Germi, Raphaële


    The first WHO international standard for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (WHO EBV standard) for nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT)-based assays was commercialized in January 2012 by the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control. In the study reported here, we compared whole-blood EBV DNA load (EDL) results from 12 French laboratories for seven samples (Quality Controls for Molecular Diagnostics 2013 proficiency panel) in order to determine whether expression in international units reduces interlaboratory variability in whole-blood EDLs. Each testing laboratory used a conversion factor to convert EDL results from copies per milliliter to international units per milliliter. This conversion factor was calculated from the WHO EBV standard according to the protocol described in this study (nine laboratories) or the recommendations of the PCR kit suppliers (three laboratories). The interlaboratory variability in whole-blood EDL results was reduced after standardization of the results using the WHO EBV standard. For the seven samples tested, standard deviations (SD) ranged from 0.41 to 0.55 when the results were expressed in log copies per milliliter, whereas the SD ranged from 0.17 to 0.32 when results were given in log international units per milliliter. Comparing the variance data (F test), we showed that the dispersion of whole-blood EDL results was significantly lower when they were expressed in log international units per milliliter (P blood EDL results between laboratories as well as the monitoring of patients at high risk of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders or other EBV-associated diseases. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Viral Hepatitis (United States)

    ... Us FAQs Ask a Question Toll Free Numbers Homeless Veterans Chat VA » Health Care » Viral Hepatitis » Veterans and ... Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless Veterans Returning Service Members Rural Veterans Seniors & Aging Veterans ...

  19. Translational control of human acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 mRNA is mediated by an internal ribosome entry site in response to ER stress, serum deprivation or hypoxia mimetic CoCl2. (United States)

    Damiano, Fabrizio; Testini, Mariangela; Tocci, Romina; Gnoni, Gabriele V; Siculella, Luisa


    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) is a cytosolic enzyme catalyzing the rate limiting step in de novo fatty acid biosynthesis. There is mounting evidence showing that ACC1 is susceptible to dysregulation and that it is over-expressed in liver diseases associated with lipid accumulation and in several cancers. In the present study, ACC1 regulation at the translational level is reported. Using several experimental approaches, the presence of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) has been established in the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) of the ACC1 mRNA. Transfection experiments with the ACC1 5' UTR inserted in a dicistronic reporter vector show a remarkable increase in the downstream cistron translation, through a cap-independent mechanism. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress condition and the related unfolded protein response (UPR), triggered by treatment with thapsigargin and tunicamycin, cause an increase of the cap-independent translation of ACC1 mRNA in HepG2 cells, despite the overall reduction in global protein synthesis. Other stress conditions, such as serum starvation and incubation with hypoxia mimetic agent CoCl2, up-regulate ACC1 expression in HepG2 cells at the translational level. Overall, these findings indicate that the presence of an IRES in the ACC1 5' UTR allows ACC1 mRNA translation in conditions that are inhibitory to cap-dependent translation. A potential involvement of the cap-independent translation of ACC1 in several pathologies, such as obesity and cancer, has been discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Ribosome dynamics and the evolutionary history of ribosomes (United States)

    Fox, George E.; Paci, Maxim; Tran, Quyen; Petrov, Anton S.; Williams, Loren D.


    The ribosome is a dynamic nanomachine responsible for coded protein synthesis. Its major subsystems were essentially in place at the time of the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). Ribosome evolutionary history thus potentially provides a window into the pre- LUCA world. This history begins with the origins of the peptidyl transferase center where the actual peptide is synthesized and then continues over an extended timeframe as additional functional centers including the GTPase center are added. The large ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) have grown over time by an accretion process and a model exists that proposes a relative age of each accreted element. We have compared atomic resolution ribosome structures before and after EF-G bound GTP hydrolysis and thereby identified the location of 23 pivot points in the large rRNAs that facilitate ribosome dynamics. Pivots in small subunit helices h28 and h44 appear to be especially central to the process and according to the accretion model significantly older than the other helices containing pivots. Overall, the results suggest that ribosomal dynamics occurred in two phases. In the first phase, an inherently mobile h28/h44 combination provided the flexibility needed to create a dynamic ribosome that was essentially a Brownian machine. This addition likely made coded peptide synthesis possible by facilitating movement of a primitive mRNA. During the second phase, addition of pivoting elements and the creation of a factor binding site allowed the regulation of the inherent motion created by h28/h44. All of these events likely occurred before LUCA.

  1. Heterogeneous Ribosomes Preferentially Translate Distinct Subpools of mRNAs Genome-wide. (United States)

    Shi, Zhen; Fujii, Kotaro; Kovary, Kyle M; Genuth, Naomi R; Röst, Hannes L; Teruel, Mary N; Barna, Maria


    Emerging studies have linked the ribosome to more selective control of gene regulation. However, an outstanding question is whether ribosome heterogeneity at the level of core ribosomal proteins (RPs) exists and enables ribosomes to preferentially translate specific mRNAs genome-wide. Here, we measured the absolute abundance of RPs in translating ribosomes and profiled transcripts that are enriched or depleted from select subsets of ribosomes within embryonic stem cells. We find that heterogeneity in RP composition endows ribosomes with differential selectivity for translating subpools of transcripts, including those controlling metabolism, cell cycle, and development. As an example, mRNAs enriched in binding to RPL10A/uL1-containing ribosomes are shown to require RPL10A/uL1 for their efficient translation. Within several of these transcripts, this level of regulation is mediated, at least in part, by internal ribosome entry sites. Together, these results reveal a critical functional link between ribosome heterogeneity and the post-transcriptional circuitry of gene expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuron-Like Networks Between Ribosomal Proteins Within the Ribosome (United States)

    Poirot, Olivier; Timsit, Youri


    From brain to the World Wide Web, information-processing networks share common scale invariant properties. Here, we reveal the existence of neural-like networks at a molecular scale within the ribosome. We show that with their extensions, ribosomal proteins form complex assortative interaction networks through which they communicate through tiny interfaces. The analysis of the crystal structures of 50S eubacterial particles reveals that most of these interfaces involve key phylogenetically conserved residues. The systematic observation of interactions between basic and aromatic amino acids at the interfaces and along the extension provides new structural insights that may contribute to decipher the molecular mechanisms of signal transmission within or between the ribosomal proteins. Similar to neurons interacting through “molecular synapses”, ribosomal proteins form a network that suggest an analogy with a simple molecular brain in which the “sensory-proteins” innervate the functional ribosomal sites, while the “inter-proteins” interconnect them into circuits suitable to process the information flow that circulates during protein synthesis. It is likely that these circuits have evolved to coordinate both the complex macromolecular motions and the binding of the multiple factors during translation. This opens new perspectives on nanoscale information transfer and processing.

  3. Structures and Ribosomal Interaction of Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins. (United States)

    Shi, Wei-Wei; Mak, Amanda Nga-Sze; Wong, Kam-Bo; Shaw, Pang-Chui


    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) including ricin, Shiga toxin, and trichosanthin, are RNA N-glycosidases that depurinate a specific adenine residue (A-4324 in rat 28S ribosomal RNA, rRNA) in the conserved α-sarcin/ricin loop (α-SRL) of rRNA. RIPs are grouped into three types according to the number of subunits and the organization of the precursor sequences. RIPs are two-domain proteins, with the active site located in the cleft between the N- and C-terminal domains. It has been found that the basic surface residues of the RIPs promote rapid and specific targeting to the ribosome and a number of RIPs have been shown to interact with the C-terminal regions of the P proteins of the ribosome. At present, the structural basis for the interaction of trichosanthin and ricin-A chain toward P2 peptide is known. This review surveys the structural features of the representative RIPs and discusses how they approach and interact with the ribosome.

  4. In vitro integration of ribosomal RNA synthesis, ribosome assembly, and translation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jewett, Michael C; Fritz, Brian R; Timmerman, Laura E; Church, George M

    ...‐step co‐activation of rRNA transcription, assembly of transcribed rRNA with native ribosomal proteins into functional ribosomes, and synthesis of active protein by these ribosomes in the same compartment...

  5. HIV internalization into oral and genital epithelial cells by endocytosis and macropinocytosis leads to viral sequestration in the vesicles. (United States)

    Yasen, Aizezi; Herrera, Rossana; Rosbe, Kristina; Lien, Kathy; Tugizov, Sharof M


    Recently, we showed that HIV-1 is sequestered, i.e., trapped, in the intracellular vesicles of oral and genital epithelial cells. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of HIV-1 sequestration in vesicles of polarized tonsil, foreskin and cervical epithelial cells. HIV-1 internalization into epithelial cells is initiated by multiple entry pathways, including clathrin-, caveolin/lipid raft-associated endocytosis and macropinocytosis. Inhibition of HIV-1 attachment to galactosylceramide and heparan sulfate proteoglycans, and virus endocytosis and macropinocytosis reduced HIV-1 sequestration by 30-40%. T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) were expressed on the apical surface of polarized tonsil, cervical and foreskin epithelial cells. However, TIM-1-associated HIV-1 macropinocytosis and sequestration were detected mostly in tonsil epithelial cells. Sequestered HIV-1 was resistant to trypsin, pronase, and soluble CD4, indicating that the sequestered virus was intracellular. Inhibition of HIV-1 intraepithelial sequestration and elimination of vesicles containing virus in the mucosal epithelium may help in the prevention of HIV-1 mucosal transmission. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Valuable Virality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akpinar, E.; Berger, Jonah


    Given recent interest in social media, many brands now create content that they hope consumers will view and share with peers. While some campaigns indeed go “viral,” their value to the brand is limited if they do not boost brand evaluation or increase purchase. Consequently, a key question is how

  7. Viral Gastroenteritis (United States)

    ... help relieve the symptoms of viral gastroenteritis in adults: drinking plenty of liquids such as fruit juices, sports ... as the child is hungry giving infants breast milk or full strength ... solutions Older adults and adults with weak immune systems should also ...

  8. Nuclear ribosomal DNA diversity of a cotton pest ( Rotylenchulus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) has emerged as a major cotton pest in the United States. A recent analysis of over 20 amphimictic populations of this pest from the US and three other countries has shown no sequence variation at the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) despite the region's ...

  9. HIV-1 infection causes a down-regulation of genes involved in ribosome biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia L Kleinman

    Full Text Available HIV-1 preferentially infects CD4+ T cells, causing fundamental changes that eventually lead to the release of new viral particles and cell death. To investigate in detail alterations in the transcriptome of the CD4+ T cells upon viral infection, we sequenced polyadenylated RNA isolated from Jurkat cells infected or not with HIV-1. We found a marked global alteration of gene expression following infection, with an overall trend toward induction of genes, indicating widespread modification of the host biology. Annotation and pathway analysis of the most deregulated genes showed that viral infection produces a down-regulation of genes associated with the nucleolus, in particular those implicated in regulating the different steps of ribosome biogenesis, such as ribosomal RNA (rRNA transcription, pre-rRNA processing, and ribosome maturation. The impact of HIV-1 infection on genes involved in ribosome biogenesis was further validated in primary CD4+ T cells. Moreover, we provided evidence by Northern Blot experiments, that host pre-rRNA processing in Jurkat cells might be perturbed during HIV-1 infection, thus strengthening the hypothesis of a crosstalk between nucleolar functions and viral pathogenesis.

  10. Properties of 70S and 80S ribosomes from tobacco leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.


    1. The interaction of exogenous messengers with 70 S chloroplast and 80 S cytoplasmic tobacco ribosomes in vitro was studied. The isolation of an amino acid incorporating system from tobacco leaves should enable us to study some aspects of viral protein synthesis. Tobacco 70

  11. Viral pathogens. (United States)

    Ragni, M V; Sherman, K E; Jordan, J A


    Despite continuous improvement in safety and purity of blood products for individuals with haemophilia, transmissible agents continue to affect individuals with haemophilia. This chapter addresses three viral pathogens with significant clinical impact: HIV, hepatitis C and parvovirus B19. Hepatitis C is the leading cause of chronic hepatitis and the major co-morbid complication of haemophilia treatment. Clinically, asymptomatic intermittent alanine aminotransferase elevation is typical, with biopsy evidence of advanced fibrosis currently in 25%. Current treatment is effective in up to 70%, and many new agents are in development. For those progressing to end-stage liver disease, liver transplantation outcomes are similar to those in non-haemophilia subjects, although pretransplant mortality is higher. HIV infection, the second leading co-morbid condition in haemophilia, is managed as a chronic infection with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). HAART also slows hepatitis C virus (HCV) progression in those with HIV/HCV co-infection. Viral inactivation and recombinant technologies have effectively prevented transfusion-transmitted viral pathogens in haemophilia. Human parvovirus B19 infection, typically associated with anaemia or, rarely severe aplastic crisis, is a non-lipid enveloped virus, for which standard inactivation techniques are ineffective. Thus, nucleic acid testing (NAT) to screen the blood supply for B19 DNA is currently under consideration by the Food and Drug Administration. To the extent, viral inactivation, recombinant, and NAT technologies are available worldwide, and the lifespan for those with haemophilia is approaching that of the normal population. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an update on three clinically significant transfusion-transmitted viral pathogens.

  12. Architecture of the E.coli 70S ribosome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burkhardt, N.; Diedrich, G.; Nierhaus, K.H.


    The 70S ribosome from E.coli was analysed by neutron scattering focusing on the shape and the internal protein-RNA-distribution of the complex. Measurements on selectively deuterated 70S particles and free 30S and 50S subunits applying conventional contrast variation and proton-spin contrast......-variation resulted in a total of 42 scattering curves. Processing the data on the basis of the spherical harmonic technique, a four-phase model for the 70S ribosome could be generated, which describes the shape of the particle as well as the protein- and the RNA-moieties of each subunit at about 35 Angstrom...

  13. Challenges in describing ribosome dynamics (United States)

    Nguyen, Kien; Whitford, Paul Charles


    For decades, protein folding and functional dynamics have been described in terms of diffusive motion across an underlying energy landscape. With continued advances in structural biology and high-performance computing, the field is positioned to extend these approaches to large biomolecular assemblies. Through the application of energy landscape techniques to the ribosome, one may work towards establishing a comprehensive description of the dynamics, which will bridge theoretical concepts and experimental observations. In this perspective, we discuss a few of the challenges that will need to be addressed as we extend the application of landscape principles to the ribosome.

  14. A new StaRT-PCR approach to detect and quantify fish Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv): enhanced quality control with internal standards. (United States)

    Pierce, Lindsey R; Willey, James C; Crawford, Erin L; Palsule, Vrushalee V; Leaman, Douglas W; Faisal, Mohamed; Kim, Robert K; Shepherd, Brian S; Stanoszek, Lauren M; Stepien, Carol A


    Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv) causes one of the world's most important finfish diseases, killing >80 species across Eurasia and North America. A new and especially virulent strain (IVb) emerged in the North American Great Lakes in 2003, threatening fisheries, baitfish, and aquaculture industries. Weeks-long and costly cell culture is the OIE and USDA-APHIS approved diagnostic. A new Standardized Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (StaRT-PCR) assay that uniquely incorporates internal standards to improve accuracy and prevent false negatives was developed and evaluated for its ability to detect and quantify VHSv. Results from StaRT-PCR, SYBR(®) green real time qRT-PCR, and cell culture were compared, as well as the effects of potential PCR inhibitors (EDTA and high RNA). Findings show that StaRT-PCR is sensitive, detecting a single molecule, with 100% accuracy at six molecules, and had no false negatives. In comparison, false negatives ranged from 14 to 47% in SYBR(®) green real time qRT-PCR tests, and 47-70% with cell culture. StaRT-PCR uniquely controlled for EDTA and RNA interference. Range of VHSv quantitation by StaRT-PCR was 1.0×10(0)-1.2×10(5) VHSv/10(6)actb1 molecules in wild caught fishes and 1.0×10(0)-8.4×10(5) molecules in laboratory challenged specimens. In the latter experiments, muskellunge with skin lesions had significantly more viral molecules (mean=1.9×10(4)) than those without (1.1×10(3)) (p<0.04). VHSv infection was detected earlier in injection than in immersion challenged yellow perch (two versus three days), with molecule numbers in both being comparable and relatively consistent over the remaining course of the experiment. Our results show that the StaRT-PCR test accurately and reliably detects and quantifies VHSv. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Specialized ribosomes: a new frontier in gene regulation and organismal biology (United States)

    Xue, Shifeng; Barna, Maria


    Historically, the ribosome has been viewed as a complex ribozyme with constitutive rather than intrinsic regulatory capacity in mRNA translation. However, emerging studies reveal that ribosome activity may be highly regulated. Heterogeneity in ribosome composition resulting from differential expression and post-translational modifications of ribosomal proteins, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) diversity and the activity of ribosome-associated factors may generate ‘specialized ribosomes’ that have a substantial impact on how the genomic template is translated into functional proteins. Moreover, constitutive components of the ribosome may also exert more specialized activities by virtue of their interactions with specific mRNA regulatory elements such as internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) or upstream open reading frames (uORFs). Here we discuss the hypothesis that intrinsic regulation by the ribosome acts to selectively translate subsets of mRNAs harbouring unique cis-regulatory elements, thereby introducing an additional level of regulation in gene expression and the life of an organism. PMID:22617470

  16. [Viral hepatitis in travellers]. (United States)

    Abreu, Cândida


    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  17. Studies on Pea Ribosomal Proteins (United States)

    Lin, Chu-Yung; Chia, Subrina Li-Li; Travis, Robert L.; Key, Joe L.


    Ribosomal subunits prepared by NH4Cl dissociation (0.5 m) of the monomeric ribosomes were much less active in in vitro protein synthesis than those prepared by KCl dissociation. The decrease in activity correlated with a detachment of some proteins (L2 and L9 as shown by gel electrophoresis) within the 60S ribosomal subunits. Subunits prepared with 0.3 m NH4Cl retained L2 and L9, but the activity remained low. Incubation of these 60S subunits in TKM buffer (50 mm tris [pH 7.5], 20 mm KCl, and 5 mm MgCl2) for 20 min at 37 C restored the activity almost to the level of those obtained by KCl dissociation. Treatment of the 0.3 m NH4Cl-derived 60S subunits with a protein reagent, Procion brilliant blue, prior to extraction of the ribosomal proteins resulted in the loss of L2 and L9, showing that these proteins were made accessible for dye binding. These observations suggest that a considerable degree of unfolding of the 60S subunit occurs at 0.3 m NH4Cl (this apparently leads to a preferential detachment of L2 and L9 at 0.5 m NH4Cl) and that the activity of the purified subunits depends not only on the presence of L2 and L9 but also on the organization of these proteins within the 60S subunits. Images PMID:16659254


    This book chapter offers an overview of the use of ribosomal RNA sequences. A history of the technology traces the evolution of techniques to measure bacterial phylogenetic relationships and recent advances in obtaining rRNA sequence information. The manual also describes procedu...

  19. The ribosome modulation factor (RMF) binding site on the 100S ribosome of Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Yoshida, Hideji; Maki, Yasushi; Kato, Hisako; Fujisawa, Hisao; Izutsu, Kaori; Wada, Chieko; Wada, Akira


    During the stationary growth phase, Escherichia coli 70S ribosomes are converted to 100S ribosomes, and translational activity is lost. This conversion is caused by the binding of the ribosome modulation factor (RMF) to 70S ribosomes. In order to elucidate the mechanisms by which 100S ribosomes form and translational inactivation occurs, the shape of the 100S ribosome and the RMF ribosomal binding site were investigated by electron microscopy and protein-protein cross-linking, respectively. We show that (i) the 100S ribosome is formed by the dimerization of two 70S ribosomes mediated by face-to-face contacts between their constituent 30S subunits, and (ii) RMF binds near the ribosomal proteins S13, L13, and L2. The positions of these proteins indicate that the RMF binding site is near the peptidyl transferase center or the P site (peptidyl-tRNA binding site). These observations are consistent with the translational inactivation of the ribosome by RMF binding. After the "Recycling" stage, ribosomes can readily proceed to the "Initiation" stage during exponential growth, but during stationary phase, the majority of 70S ribosomes are stored as 100S ribosomes and are translationally inactive. We suggest that this conversion of 70S to 100S ribosomes represents a newly identified stage of the ribosomal cycle in stationary phase cells, and we have termed it the "Hibernation" stage.

  20. The NS1 Protein from Influenza Virus Stimulates Translation Initiation by Enhancing Ribosome Recruitment to mRNAs. (United States)

    Panthu, Baptiste; Terrier, Olivier; Carron, Coralie; Traversier, Aurélien; Corbin, Antoine; Balvay, Laurent; Lina, Bruno; Rosa-Calatrava, Manuel; Ohlmann, Théophile


    The non-structural protein NS1 of influenza A viruses exerts pleiotropic functions during infection. Among these functions, NS1 was shown to be involved in the control of both viral and cellular translation; however, the mechanism by which this occurs remains to be determined. Thus, we have revisited the role of NS1 in translation by using a combination of influenza infection, mRNA reporter transfection, and in vitro functional and biochemical assays. Our data show that the NS1 protein is able to enhance the translation of virtually all tested mRNAs with the exception of constructs bearing the Dicistroviruses Internal ribosome entry segment (IRESes) (DCV and CrPV), suggesting a role at the level of translation initiation. The domain of NS1 required for translation stimulation was mapped to the RNA binding amino-terminal motif of the protein with residues R38 and K41 being critical for activity. Although we show that NS1 can bind directly to mRNAs, it does not correlate with its ability to stimulate translation. This activity rather relies on the property of NS1 to associate with ribosomes and to recruit them to target mRNAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Viral epigenetics. (United States)

    Milavetz, Barry I; Balakrishnan, Lata


    DNA tumor viruses including members of the polyomavirus, adenovirus, papillomavirus, and herpes virus families are presently the subject of intense interest with respect to the role that epigenetics plays in control of the virus life cycle and the transformation of a normal cell to a cancer cell. To date, these studies have primarily focused on the role of histone modification, nucleosome location, and DNA methylation in regulating the biological consequences of infection. Using a wide variety of strategies and techniques ranging from simple ChIP to ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq to identify histone modifications, nuclease digestion to genome wide next generation sequencing to identify nucleosome location, and bisulfite treatment to MeDIP to identify DNA methylation sites, the epigenetic regulation of these viruses is slowly becoming better understood. While the viruses may differ in significant ways from each other and cellular chromatin, the role of epigenetics appears to be relatively similar. Within the viral genome nucleosomes are organized for the expression of appropriate genes with relevant histone modifications particularly histone acetylation. DNA methylation occurs as part of the typical gene silencing during latent infection by herpesviruses. In the simple tumor viruses like the polyomaviruses, adenoviruses, and papillomaviruses, transformation of the cell occurs via integration of the virus genome such that the virus's normal regulation is disrupted. This results in the unregulated expression of critical viral genes capable of redirecting cellular gene expression. The redirected cellular expression is a consequence of either indirect epigenetic regulation where cellular signaling or transcriptional dysregulation occurs or direct epigenetic regulation where epigenetic cofactors such as histone deacetylases are targeted. In the more complex herpersviruses transformation is a consequence of the expression of the viral latency proteins and RNAs which again can

  2. Comparison of sequencing the D2 region of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (MicroSEQ®) versus the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions using two public databases for identification of common and uncommon clinically relevant fungal species. (United States)

    Arbefeville, S; Harris, A; Ferrieri, P


    Fungal infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Rapid and accurate identification of fungi is essential to guide accurately targeted antifungal therapy. With the advent of molecular methods, clinical laboratories can use new technologies to supplement traditional phenotypic identification of fungi. The aims of the study were to evaluate the sole commercially available MicroSEQ® D2 LSU rDNA Fungal Identification Kit compared to the in-house developed internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions assay in identifying moulds, using two well-known online public databases to analyze sequenced data. 85 common and uncommon clinically relevant fungi isolated from clinical specimens were sequenced for the D2 region of the large subunit (LSU) of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene with the MicroSEQ® Kit and the ITS regions with the in house developed assay. The generated sequenced data were analyzed with the online GenBank and MycoBank public databases. The D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene identified 89.4% or 92.9% of the 85 isolates to the genus level and the full ITS region (f-ITS) 96.5% or 100%, using GenBank or MycoBank, respectively, when compared to the consensus ID. When comparing species-level designations to the consensus ID, D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene aligned with 44.7% (38/85) or 52.9% (45/85) of these isolates in GenBank or MycoBank, respectively. By comparison, f-ITS possessed greater specificity, followed by ITS1, then ITS2 regions using GenBank or MycoBank. Using GenBank or MycoBank, D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene outperformed phenotypic based ID at the genus level. Comparing rates of ID between D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and the ITS regions in GenBank or MycoBank at the species level against the consensus ID, f-ITS and ITS2 exceeded performance of the D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene, but ITS1 had similar performance to the D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene using MycoBank. Our results indicated that the MicroSEQ® D2 LSU r

  3. Structure of Ribosomal Silencing Factor Bound to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ribosome. (United States)

    Li, Xiaojun; Sun, Qingan; Jiang, Cai; Yang, Kailu; Hung, Li-Wei; Zhang, Junjie; Sacchettini, James C


    The ribosomal silencing factor RsfS slows cell growth by inhibiting protein synthesis during periods of diminished nutrient availability. The crystal structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) RsfS, together with the cryo-electron microscopy (EM) structure of the large subunit 50S of Mtb ribosome, reveals how inhibition of protein synthesis by RsfS occurs. RsfS binds to the 50S at L14, which, when occupied, blocks the association of the small subunit 30S. Although Mtb RsfS is a dimer in solution, only a single subunit binds to 50S. The overlap between the dimer interface and the L14 binding interface confirms that the RsfS dimer must first dissociate to a monomer in order to bind to L14. RsfS interacts primarily through electrostatic and hydrogen bonding to L14. The EM structure shows extended rRNA density that it is not found in the Escherichia coli ribosome, the most striking of these being the extended RNA helix of H54a. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Viral bronchiolitis. (United States)

    Florin, Todd A; Plint, Amy C; Zorc, Joseph J


    Viral bronchiolitis is a common clinical syndrome affecting infants and young children. Concern about its associated morbidity and cost has led to a large body of research that has been summarised in systematic reviews and integrated into clinical practice guidelines in several countries. The evidence and guideline recommendations consistently support a clinical diagnosis with the limited role for diagnostic testing for children presenting with the typical clinical syndrome of viral upper respiratory infection progressing to the lower respiratory tract. Management is largely supportive, focusing on maintaining oxygenation and hydration of the patient. Evidence suggests no benefit from bronchodilator or corticosteroid use in infants with a first episode of bronchiolitis. Evidence for other treatments such as hypertonic saline is evolving but not clearly defined yet. For infants with severe disease, the insufficient available data suggest a role for high-flow nasal cannula and continuous positive airway pressure use in a monitored setting to prevent respiratory failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 5S rRNA and ribosome. (United States)

    Gongadze, G M


    5S rRNA is an integral component of the ribosome of all living organisms. It is known that the ribosome without 5S rRNA is functionally inactive. However, the question about the specific role of this RNA in functioning of the translation apparatus is still open. This review presents a brief history of the discovery of 5S rRNA and studies of its origin and localization in the ribosome. The previously expressed hypotheses about the role of this RNA in the functioning of the ribosome are discussed considering the unique location of 5S rRNA in the ribosome and its intermolecular contacts. Based on analysis of the current data on ribosome structure and its functional complexes, the role of 5S rRNA as an intermediary between ribosome functional domains is discussed.

  6. Ribosomal targets for antibiotic drug discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, Scott C.; Feldman, Michael Brian; Wang, Leyi; Doudna Cate, James H.; Pulk, Arto; Altman, Roger B.; Wasserman, Michael R


    The present invention relates to methods to identify molecules that binds in the neomycin binding pocket of a bacterial ribosome using structures of an intact bacterial ribosome that reveal how the ribosome binds tRNA in two functionally distinct states, determined by x-ray crystallography. One state positions tRNA in the peptidyl-tRNA binding site. The second, a fully rotated state, is stabilized by ribosome recycling factor (RRF) and binds tRNA in a highly bent conformation in a hybrid peptidyl/exit (P/E) site. Additionally, the invention relates to various assays, including single-molecule assay for ribosome recycling, and methods to identify compounds that interfere with ribosomal function by detecting newly identified intermediate FRET states using known and novel FRET pairs on the ribosome. The invention also provides vectors and compositions with an N-terminally tagged S13 protein.

  7. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by balsamin, a ribosome inactivating protein of Momordica balsamina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderdeep Kaur

    Full Text Available Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs are endowed with several medicinal properties, including antiviral activity. We demonstrate here that the recently identified type I RIP from Momordica balsamina also possesses antiviral activity, as determined by viral growth curve assays and single-round infection experiments. Importantly, this activity is at play even as doses where the RIP has no cytotoxic effect. In addition, balsamin inhibits HIV-1 replication not only in T cell lines but also in human primary CD4(+ T cells. This antiviral compound exerts its activity at a viral replicative step occurring later than reverse-transcription, most likely on viral protein translation, prior to viral budding and release. Finally, we demonstrate that balsamin antiviral activity is broad since it also impedes influenza virus replication. Altogether our results demonstrate that type I RIP can exert a potent anti-HIV-1 activity which paves the way for new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of viral infections.

  8. The ribosome regulates flavodoxin folding


    Houwman, Joseline A.


    During and after their translation by the ribosome, folding of polypeptides to biologically active proteins is of vital importance for all living organisms. Gaining knowledge about nascent chain folding is required to enhance our understanding of protein folding in the cell. This in turn allows us to obtain insights into factors responsible for protein misfolding, aggregation, and, potentially, for numerous devastating pathologies. In Chapter 1 the model protein flavodoxin is introduced. Also...

  9. Translational Maintenance of Frame: Mutants of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae with Altered -1 Ribosomal Frameshifting Efficiences


    Dinman, J. D.; Wickner, R. B.


    A special site on the (+) strand of the L-A dsRNA virus induces about 2% of ribosomes translating the gag open reading frame to execute a -1 frameshift and thus produce the viral gag-pol fusion protein. Using constructs in which a -1 ribosomal frameshift at this site was necessary for expression of lacZ we isolated chromosomal mutants in which the efficiency of frameshifting was increased. These mutants comprise eight genes, named mof (maintenance of frame). The mof1-1, mof2-1, mof4-1, mof5-1...

  10. Repurposing ribosomes for synthetic biology. (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Kim, Do Soon; Jewett, Michael C


    The translation system is the cell's factory for protein biosynthesis, stitching together hundreds to thousands of amino acids into proteins, which are required for the structure, function, and regulation of living systems. The extraordinary synthetic capability of this system, which includes the ribosome and its associated factors required for polymerization, has driven extensive efforts to harness it for societal use in areas as diverse as energy, materials, and medicine. A powerful example is recombinant protein production, which has impacted the lives of patients through the synthesis of biopharmaceuticals such as insulin. In nature, however, only limited sets of monomers are utilized, thereby resulting in limited sets of biopolymers (i.e., proteins). Expanding nature's repertoire of ribosomal monomers could yield new classes of enzymes, therapeutics, materials, and chemicals with diverse, genetically encoded chemistry. Here, we discuss recent progress towards engineering ribosomes both in vivo and in vitro. These fundamental and technical breakthroughs open doors for advanced applications in biotechnology and synthetic biology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Interrelationships between yeast ribosomal protein assembly events and transient ribosome biogenesis factors interactions in early pre-ribosomes. (United States)

    Jakob, Steffen; Ohmayer, Uli; Neueder, Andreas; Hierlmeier, Thomas; Perez-Fernandez, Jorge; Hochmuth, Eduard; Deutzmann, Rainer; Griesenbeck, Joachim; Tschochner, Herbert; Milkereit, Philipp


    Early steps of eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis require a large set of ribosome biogenesis factors which transiently interact with nascent rRNA precursors (pre-rRNA). Most likely, concomitant with that initial contacts between ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) and ribosome precursors (pre-ribosomes) are established which are converted into robust interactions between pre-rRNA and r-proteins during the course of ribosome maturation. Here we analysed the interrelationship between r-protein assembly events and the transient interactions of ribosome biogenesis factors with early pre-ribosomal intermediates termed 90S pre-ribosomes or small ribosomal subunit (SSU) processome in yeast cells. We observed that components of the SSU processome UTP-A and UTP-B sub-modules were recruited to early pre-ribosomes independently of all tested r-proteins. On the other hand, groups of SSU processome components were identified whose association with early pre-ribosomes was affected by specific r-protein assembly events in the head-platform interface of the SSU. One of these components, Noc4p, appeared to be itself required for robust incorporation of r-proteins into the SSU head domain. Altogether, the data reveal an emerging network of specific interrelationships between local r-protein assembly events and the functional interactions of SSU processome components with early pre-ribosomes. They point towards some of these components being transient primary pre-rRNA in vivo binders and towards a role for others in coordinating the assembly of major SSU domains.

  12. High heterogeneity within the ribosomal proteins of the Arabidopsis thaliana 80S ribosome. (United States)

    Giavalisco, Patrick; Wilson, Daniel; Kreitler, Thomas; Lehrach, Hans; Klose, Joachim; Gobom, Johan; Fucini, Paola


    Proteomic studies have addressed the composition of plant chloroplast ribosomes and 70S ribosomes from the unicellular organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii But comprehensive characterization of cytoplasmic 80S ribosomes from higher plants has been lacking. We have used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS) to analyse the cytoplasmic 80S ribosomes from the model flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Of the 80 ribosomal protein families predicted to comprise the cytoplasmic 80S ribosome, we have confirmed the presence of 61; specifically, 27 (84%) of the small 40S subunit and 34 (71%) of the large 60S subunit. Nearly half (45%) of the ribosomal proteins identified are represented by two or more distinct spots in the 2-DE gel indicating that these proteins are either post-translationally modified or present as different isoforms. Consistently, MS-based protein identification revealed that at least one-third (34%) of the identified ribosomal protein families showed expression of two or more family members. In addition, we have identified a number of non-ribosomal proteins that co-migrate with the plant 80S ribosomes during gradient centrifugation suggesting their possible association with the 80S ribosomes. Among them, RACK1 has recently been proposed to be a ribosome-associated protein that promotes efficient translation in yeast. The study, thus provides the basis for further investigation into the function of the other identified non-ribosomal proteins as well as the biological meaning of the various ribosomal protein isoforms.

  13. Ribosome engineering to promote new crystal forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selmer, Maria, E-mail: [Uppsala University, Box 596, SE-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden); MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom); Gao, Yong-Gui; Weixlbaumer, Albert; Ramakrishnan, V., E-mail: [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom); Uppsala University, Box 596, SE-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden)


    Truncation of ribosomal protein L9 in T. thermophilus allows the generation of new crystal forms and the crystallization of ribosome–GTPase complexes. Crystallographic studies of the ribosome have provided molecular details of protein synthesis. However, the crystallization of functional complexes of ribosomes with GTPase translation factors proved to be elusive for a decade after the first ribosome structures were determined. Analysis of the packing in different 70S ribosome crystal forms revealed that regardless of the species or space group, a contact between ribosomal protein L9 from the large subunit and 16S rRNA in the shoulder of a neighbouring small subunit in the crystal lattice competes with the binding of GTPase elongation factors to this region of 16S rRNA. To prevent the formation of this preferred crystal contact, a mutant strain of Thermus thermophilus, HB8-MRCMSAW1, in which the ribosomal protein L9 gene has been truncated was constructed by homologous recombination. Mutant 70S ribosomes were used to crystallize and solve the structure of the ribosome with EF-G, GDP and fusidic acid in a previously unobserved crystal form. Subsequent work has shown the usefulness of this strain for crystallization of the ribosome with other GTPase factors.

  14. Ribosomes in the sea: a window on taxon-specific lysis (United States)

    Suttle, C.; Zhong, X.; Wirth, J.


    Microbes are estimated to comprise more than 90% of the biomass in the world's oceans, are major drivers of biogeochemical cycles, and have turnover rates ranging from hours to days. Despite the central role that microbes play in marine ecosystems, there is no robust method to evaluate taxon-specific mortality rates. Here, we report a method that employs extracellular free-ribosomes as a proxy to evaluate taxon-specific microbial lysis. The method was validated with laboratory cultures of the marine heterotrophic bacterium Vibrio natriegens strain PWH3a and the photoautotroph Synechococcus strain DC2, with and without grazers or viruses, to identify the origin and fate of the extracellular free-ribosomes. Our results showed both viral lysis and programmed-cell-death (PCD) contribute to free-ribosome production. Ribosomes were not released when cells were grazed, but grazers could consume free-ribosomes. We show that extracellular free-ribosomes can be used to evaluate microbial mortality caused by viral lysis and PCD. This approach was applied to environmental samples by examining the taxonomic composition and relative abundance of free 16S-ribosomes in seawater samples collected from the Strait of Georgia and Saanich Inlet, British Columbia, Canada. Based on the presence of free ribosomes, lysis was detected in 2198 out of 4013 prokaryotic taxa, representing 22 bacterial and three archaeal phyla. Of these, lysis of 140 taxa could be detected in all nine samples. Based on the ratio of free ribosomes to cellular ribosomes, some taxa associated with specific ecological niches appeared to be subject to high rates of lysis, including the genera Achromobacter, Chryseobacterium, Clostridium, Delftia, Ferruginibacter, Lactobacillus, Marinomonas, Massilia, Microbacterium, Ochrobactrum, Paenibacillus, Phyllobacterium, Pseudomonas, Rhodobacter, and Stenotrophomonas. Our results showed high-lysis coupled with low-abundance, suggesting that taxa in lower abundance are subject

  15. Nonreplicative RNA Recombination of an Animal Plus-Strand RNA Virus in the Absence of Efficient Translation of Viral Proteins. (United States)

    Kleine Büning, Maximiliane; Meyer, Denise; Austermann-Busch, Sophia; Roman-Sosa, Gleyder; Rümenapf, Tillmann; Becher, Paul


    RNA recombination is a major driving force for the evolution of RNA viruses and is significantly implicated in the adaptation of viruses to new hosts, changes of virulence, as well as in the emergence of new viruses including drug-resistant and escape mutants. However, the molecular details of recombination in animal RNA viruses are only poorly understood. In order to determine whether viral RNA recombination depends on translation of viral proteins, a nonreplicative recombination system was established which is based on cotransfection of cells with synthetic bovine viral diarrhea virus (family Flaviviridae) RNA genome fragments either lacking the internal ribosome entry site required for cap-independent translation or lacking almost the complete polyprotein coding region. The emergence of a number of recombinant viruses demonstrated that IRES-mediated translation of viral proteins is dispensable for efficient recombination and suggests that RNA recombination can occur in the absence of viral proteins. Analyses of 58 independently emerged viruses led to the detection of recombinant genomes with duplications, deletions and insertions in the 5' terminal region of the open reading frame, leading to enlarged core fusion proteins detectable by Western blot analysis. This demonstrates a remarkable flexibility of the pestivirus core protein. Further experiments with capped and uncapped genome fragments containing a luciferase gene for monitoring the level of protein translation revealed that even a ∼1,000-fold enhancement of translation of viral proteins did not increase the frequency of RNA recombination. Taken together, this study highlights that nonreplicative RNA recombination does not require translation of viral proteins. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  16. Structural Basis for Ribosome Rescue in Bacteria. (United States)

    Huter, Paul; Müller, Claudia; Arenz, Stefan; Beckert, Bertrand; Wilson, Daniel N


    Ribosomes that translate mRNAs lacking stop codons become stalled at the 3' end of the mRNA. Recycling of these stalled ribosomes is essential for cell viability. In bacteria three ribosome rescue systems have been identified so far, with the most ubiquitous and best characterized being the trans-translation system mediated by transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) and small protein B (SmpB). The two additional rescue systems present in some bacteria employ alternative rescue factor (Arf) A and release factor (RF) 2 or ArfB. Recent structures have revealed how ArfA mediates ribosome rescue by recruiting the canonical termination factor RF2 to ribosomes stalled on truncated mRNAs. This now provides us with the opportunity to compare and contrast the available structures of all three bacterial ribosome rescue systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ribosomes are optimized for autocatalytic production (United States)

    Reuveni, Shlomi; Ehrenberg, Måns; Paulsson, Johan


    Many fine-scale features of ribosomes have been explained in terms of function, revealing a molecular machine that is optimized for error-correction, speed and control. Here we demonstrate mathematically that many less well understood, larger-scale features of ribosomes—such as why a few ribosomal RNA molecules dominate the mass and why the ribosomal protein content is divided into 55-80 small, similarly sized segments—speed up their autocatalytic production.

  18. Ribosome biogenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Woolford, John L; Baserga, Susan J


    Ribosomes are highly conserved ribonucleoprotein nanomachines that translate information in the genome to create the proteome in all cells. In yeast these complex particles contain four RNAs (>5400 nucleotides) and 79 different proteins. During the past 25 years, studies in yeast have led the way to understanding how these molecules are assembled into ribosomes in vivo. Assembly begins with transcription of ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus, where the RNA then undergoes complex pathways of folding, coupled with nucleotide modification, removal of spacer sequences, and binding to ribosomal proteins. More than 200 assembly factors and 76 small nucleolar RNAs transiently associate with assembling ribosomes, to enable their accurate and efficient construction. Following export of preribosomes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, they undergo final stages of maturation before entering the pool of functioning ribosomes. Elaborate mechanisms exist to monitor the formation of correct structural and functional neighborhoods within ribosomes and to destroy preribosomes that fail to assemble properly. Studies of yeast ribosome biogenesis provide useful models for ribosomopathies, diseases in humans that result from failure to properly assemble ribosomes.

  19. Apigenin Restricts FMDV Infection and Inhibits Viral IRES Driven Translational Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhong Qian


    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants that is caused by FMD virus (FMDV. FMD outbreaks have occurred in livestock-containing regions worldwide. Apigenin, which is a flavonoid naturally existing in plant, possesses various pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant and antiviral activities. Results show that apigenin can inhibit FMDV-mediated cytopathogenic effect and FMDV replication in vitro. Further studies demonstrate the following: (i apigenin inhibits FMDV infection at the viral post-entry stage; (ii apigenin does not exhibit direct extracellular virucidal activity; and (iii apigenin interferes with the translational activity of FMDV driven by internal ribosome entry site. Studies on applying apigein in vivo are required for drug development and further identification of potential drug targets against FDMV infection.

  20. Stepwise assembly of the earliest precursors of large ribosomal subunits in yeast (United States)

    Chen, Wu; Xie, Zhensheng; Yang, Fuquan


    Abstract Small ribosomal subunits are co-transcriptionally assembled on the nascent precursor rRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It is unknown how the highly intertwined structure of 60S large ribosomal subunits is initially formed. Here, we affinity purified and analyzed a series of pre-60S particles assembled in vivo on plasmid-encoded pre-rRNA fragments of increasing lengths, revealing a spatiotemporal assembly map for 34 trans-acting assembly factors (AFs), 30 ribosomal proteins and 5S rRNA. The gradual association of AFs and ribosomal proteins with the pre-rRNA fragments strongly supports that the pre-60S is co-transcriptionally, rather than post-transcriptionally, assembled. The internal and external transcribed spacers ITS1, ITS2 and 3΄ ETS in pre-rRNA must be processed in pre-60S. We show that the processing machineries for ITS1 and ITS2 are primarily recruited by the 5΄ and 3΄ halves of pre-27S RNA, respectively. Nevertheless, processing of both ITS1 and ITS2 requires a complete 25S region. The 3΄ ETS plays a minor role in ribosome assembly, but is important for efficient rRNA processing and ribosome maturation. We also identified a distinct pre-60S state occurring before ITS2 processing. Our data reveal the elusive co-transcriptional assembly pathway of large ribosomal subunit. PMID:28402444

  1. Chaperone binding at the ribosomal exit tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ole; Gajhede, Michael


    The exit tunnel region of the ribosome is well established as a focal point for interaction between the components that guide the fate of nascent polypeptides. One of these, the chaperone trigger factor (TF), associates with the 50S ribosomal subunit through its N-terminal domain. Targeting of TF...

  2. Ribosome evolution: Emergence of peptide synthesis machinery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    remains unclear and many studies need to be performed. However, the crystal structure of the large ribosomal subunit of. Deinococcus ... radiodurans.rrnC.pdf/) (Cannone et al. 2002; Doshi et al. 2004). The following modifications were ... experimentally in future studies. In the evolutionary process from proto-ribosomes to.

  3. SARS coronavirus nsp1 protein induces template-dependent endonucleolytic cleavage of mRNAs: viral mRNAs are resistant to nsp1-induced RNA cleavage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Huang


    Full Text Available SARS coronavirus (SCoV nonstructural protein (nsp 1, a potent inhibitor of host gene expression, possesses a unique mode of action: it binds to 40S ribosomes to inactivate their translation functions and induces host mRNA degradation. Our previous study demonstrated that nsp1 induces RNA modification near the 5'-end of a reporter mRNA having a short 5' untranslated region and RNA cleavage in the encephalomyocarditis virus internal ribosome entry site (IRES region of a dicistronic RNA template, but not in those IRES elements from hepatitis C or cricket paralysis viruses. By using primarily cell-free, in vitro translation systems, the present study revealed that the nsp1 induced endonucleolytic RNA cleavage mainly near the 5' untranslated region of capped mRNA templates. Experiments using dicistronic mRNAs carrying different IRESes showed that nsp1 induced endonucleolytic RNA cleavage within the ribosome loading region of type I and type II picornavirus IRES elements, but not that of classical swine fever virus IRES, which is characterized as a hepatitis C virus-like IRES. The nsp1-induced RNA cleavage of template mRNAs exhibited no apparent preference for a specific nucleotide sequence at the RNA cleavage sites. Remarkably, SCoV mRNAs, which have a 5' cap structure and 3' poly A tail like those of typical host mRNAs, were not susceptible to nsp1-mediated RNA cleavage and importantly, the presence of the 5'-end leader sequence protected the SCoV mRNAs from nsp1-induced endonucleolytic RNA cleavage. The escape of viral mRNAs from nsp1-induced RNA cleavage may be an important strategy by which the virus circumvents the action of nsp1 leading to the efficient accumulation of viral mRNAs and viral proteins during infection.

  4. Structural view on recycling of archaeal and eukaryotic ribosomes after canonical termination and ribosome rescue. (United States)

    Franckenberg, Sibylle; Becker, Thomas; Beckmann, Roland


    Ribosome recycling usually occurs after canonical termination triggered by a stop codon. Additionally, ribosomes that are stalled by aberrant mRNAs need to be recognized and subsequently recycled. In eukaryotes and archaea, the factors involved in canonical termination and ribosome rescue are structurally and functionally related. Both termination and ribosome rescue are mediated by class I release factors (eRF1/aRF1 in eukaryotic/archaeal termination) or their paralogs (Pelota/aPelota for ribosome rescue) and homologs of translational GTPases (eRF3/aEF1α in termination, Hbs1/aEF1α in ribosome rescue). These events are followed by recycling of the ribosome. Recently the ATPase ABCE1 was shown to be the main ribosome recycling factor. In concert with eRF1 or Pelota, ABCE1 dissociates the ribosome into subunits. During the past two years, several structures of ribosome rescue and ribosome recycling complexes have been solved by cryo-electron microscopy and crystallography. These structures along with recent functional data make it possible to propose a molecular model of these late translation events in termination and recycling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of ribosome biogenesis factor-modules in yeast cells depleted from pre-ribosomes. (United States)

    Merl, Juliane; Jakob, Steffen; Ridinger, Katrin; Hierlmeier, Thomas; Deutzmann, Rainer; Milkereit, Philipp; Tschochner, Herbert


    Formation of eukaryotic ribosomes requires more than 150 biogenesis factors which transiently interact with the nascent ribosomal subunits. Previously, many pre-ribosomal intermediates could be distinguished by their protein composition and rRNA precursor (pre-rRNA) content. We purified complexes of ribosome biogenesis factors from yeast cells in which de novo synthesis of rRNA precursors was down-regulated by genetic means. We compared the protein composition of these largely pre-rRNA free assemblies with the one of analogous pre-ribosomal preparations by semi-quantitative mass spectrometry. The experimental setup minimizes the possibility that the analysed pre-rRNA free protein modules were derived from (partially) disrupted pre-ribosomal particles and provides thereby strong evidence for their pre-ribosome independent existence. In support of the validity of this approach (i) the predicted composition of the analysed protein modules was in agreement with previously described rRNA-free complexes and (ii) in most of the cases we could identify new candidate members of reported protein modules. An unexpected outcome of these analyses was that free large ribosomal subunits are associated with a specific set of ribosome biogenesis factors in cells where neo-production of nascent ribosomes was blocked. The data presented strengthen the idea that assembly of eukaryotic pre-ribosomal particles can result from transient association of distinct building blocks.

  6. In vitro integration of ribosomal RNA synthesis, ribosome assembly, and translation. (United States)

    Jewett, Michael C; Fritz, Brian R; Timmerman, Laura E; Church, George M


    Purely in vitro ribosome synthesis could provide a critical step towards unraveling the systems biology of ribosome biogenesis, constructing minimal cells from defined components, and engineering ribosomes with new functions. Here, as an initial step towards this goal, we report a method for constructing Escherichia coli ribosomes in crude S150 E. coli extracts. While conventional methods for E. coli ribosome reconstitution are non-physiological, our approach attempts to mimic chemical conditions in the cytoplasm, thus permitting several biological processes to occur simultaneously. Specifically, our integrated synthesis, assembly, and translation (iSAT) technology enables one-step co-activation of rRNA transcription, assembly of transcribed rRNA with native ribosomal proteins into functional ribosomes, and synthesis of active protein by these ribosomes in the same compartment. We show that iSAT makes possible the in vitro construction of modified ribosomes by introducing a 23S rRNA mutation that mediates resistance against clindamycin. We anticipate that iSAT will aid studies of ribosome assembly and open new avenues for making ribosomes with altered properties.

  7. Differential Stoichiometry among Core Ribosomal Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Slavov


    Full Text Available Understanding the regulation and structure of ribosomes is essential to understanding protein synthesis and its dysregulation in disease. While ribosomes are believed to have a fixed stoichiometry among their core ribosomal proteins (RPs, some experiments suggest a more variable composition. Testing such variability requires direct and precise quantification of RPs. We used mass spectrometry to directly quantify RPs across monosomes and polysomes of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC and budding yeast. Our data show that the stoichiometry among core RPs in wild-type yeast cells and ESC depends both on the growth conditions and on the number of ribosomes bound per mRNA. Furthermore, we find that the fitness of cells with a deleted RP-gene is inversely proportional to the enrichment of the corresponding RP in polysomes. Together, our findings support the existence of ribosomes with distinct protein composition and physiological function.

  8. Differential Stoichiometry among Core Ribosomal Proteins (United States)

    Slavov, Nikolai; Semrau, Stefan; Airoldi, Edoardo; Budnik, Bogdan; van Oudenaarden, Alexander


    Summary Understanding the regulation and structure of ribosomes is essential to understanding protein synthesis and its dysregulation in disease. While ribosomes are believed to have a fixed stoichiometry among their core ribosomal proteins (RPs), some experiments suggest a more variable composition. Testing such variability requires direct and precise quantification of RPs. We used mass spectrometry to directly quantify RPs across monosomes and polysomes of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) and budding yeast. Our data show that the stoichiometry among core RPs in wild-type yeast cells and ESC depends both on the growth conditions and on the number of ribosomes bound per mRNA. Furthermore, we find that the fitness of cells with a deleted RP-gene is inversely proportional to the enrichment of the corresponding RP in polysomes. Together, our findings support the existence of ribosomes with distinct protein composition and physiological function. PMID:26565899

  9. Monocistronic mRNAs containing defective hepatitis C virus-like picornavirus internal ribosome entry site elements in their 5 ' untranslated regions are efficiently translated in cells by a cap-dependent mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Nielsen, Inge; Normann, Preben


    secondary structure and multiple upstream AUG codons. These features can be expected to inhibit cap-dependent initiation of translation. However, we have now shown that certain mutant hepatitis C virus-like picornavirus IRES elements (from porcine teschovirus-1 and avian encephalomyelitis virus), which...... cleavage of eIF4G) and is also inhibited by hippuristanol, a specific inhibitor of eIF4A function, in contrast to their parental wild-type IRES elements. These results provide a possible basis for the evolution of viral IRES elements within the context of functional mRNAs that are translated by a cap...

  10. Identification of Disease-Transmitting Mosquitoes: Development of Species-Specific Probes for DNA Chip Assay Using Mitochondrial COI and ND2 Genes and Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer 2. (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Tu, Wu-Chun; Huang, En-Jiong; Chen, Yen-Hou; Chen, Jia-Hua; Yeh, Wen-Bin


    Mosquitoes, which transmit infectious diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever, are harmful to human health. Thus, accurate and rapid identification of vectors is a critical step for the control of mosquito-borne diseases. However, phenotypic variations in adults, lack of recognizable features of the immature, and fragility of mosquitoes make identification difficult. Molecular approaches have been widely applied to identify mosquitoes, yet these methods have been focused only on the identification of a few species. This study used sequences of two mitochondrial genes, COI and ND2, and a ribosomal gene, ITS2, to design species-specific probes. Biochips thus developed were able to provide simultaneous identification of nine important medical and veterinary species, including the immature, from genera of Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, and Culex. This chip was also applied to samples collected from the field. Despite its inability to resolve the close affinity species of Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens molestus, pertinent biochips are expected to be applied to a mass screening method. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  11. [Viral superantigens]. (United States)

    Us, Dürdal


    , expression of endogenous SAgs leads to thymic deletion of responding T cells (bearing Vβ6-9+ TCR) due to self-tolerance induction during the fetal life, and protects the host against future exogenous MMTV infections. The SAg of rabies virus is the N protein found in nucleocapsid structure and stimulates Vβ8+TCR-bearing T cells. The SAg-induced polyclonal activation of T cells leads to turn-off the specific immune response, to enhance the immunopathogenesis and facilitates viral transmission from the initial site of infection (the muscle tissue) to the nerve endings. In case of EBV-associated SAg that activates Vβ13+TCR-bearing T cells, it was detected that the SAg activity was not encoded by EBV itself, but instead was due to the transactivation of HERV-K18 by EBV latent membrane proteins, whose env gene encodes the SAg (Sutkowski, et al. 2001). It has been denoted that EBV-induced SAg expression plays a role in the long-term persistence and latency of virus in memory B cells, in the development of autoimmune diseases and in the oncogenesis mechanisms. The proteins which are identified as SAgs of HIV are Nef and gp120. It is believed that, the massive activation of CD4+ T cells (selectively with Vβ-12+, Vβ-5.3+ and Vβ-18+ TCRs) in early stages of infection and clonal deletion, anergy and apoptosis of bystander T cells in the late stages may be due to SAg property of Nef protein, as well as the other mechanisms. However there are some studies indicating that Nef does not act as a SAg (Lapatschek, et al. 2001). HIV gp120 glycoprotein is a B-cell SAg that binds to VH3-expressing B cell receptors and causes polyclonal B cell activation. In addition, binding of gp120 to IgE on the surface of basophiles and mast cells causes activation of those cells, secretion of high level proinflammatory mediators leading to allergic reactions and tissue damage. In a recent study, the depletion (anergy or deletion) of T cell populations bearing Vβ12+, Vβ13+ and Vβ17+ TCR have been

  12. An x-ray diffraction study of ribosome structure. (United States)

    Dolgov, A D; Ivanov, D A; Kapitonova, K A; Mokul'skii, M A


    Dense gels of E. coli 70 S ribosomes, their 50 S subunits, CM-like particles, RNP strands and their fragments, 38 S particles obtained from RNP strand folding upon addition of Mg2+ ions, and of unoriented salt-free and free rRNA sodium and magnesium salts were studied by X-ray diffraction. It was shown that under dense gel conditions RNA molecules contained in ribosomes unfolded by desalting, like all other particles considered here, have helical regions. Under these conditions free desalted RNA has no helical regions. Experimental data on X-ray scattering at medium angles were compared with the diffraction curves calculated for homogeneous prolate and oblate ellipsoids, for various ellipsoids containing a dense region or an internal cavity, and for ellipsoids containing internal periodic regions. The results indicate that the internal structure of the 50 S ribosome is periodic, i. e., its components form a periodic lattice. The lattice spacings are approximately 42 and 28 A with a 0.8g/g dry weight sample water content. When the 50 S particle water content drops below 0.2 g/g dry weight the periodic structure is disrupted. This disruption is reversible. It was shown that CM-like particles at high ionic strenght (2 M LiCl) have approximately the same internal periodicity as the 50 S particles, but in contrast they lose this periodicity at low ionic strength (10-2M tris-HCl and 5-10-3 M MgCl2).

  13. Viral Skin Diseases. (United States)

    Ramdass, Priya; Mullick, Sahil; Farber, Harold F


    In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Is The Ribosome Targeted By Adaptive Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez Fernandez, Alicia; Molin, Søren; Johansen, Helle Krogh


    degree of evolutionary conservation of the cellular MMSM tend to support this view. However, under certain selective conditions the machinery itself may be targeted by adaptive mutations, which result in fitness-increasing phenotypic changes. Here we investigate and characterize the role of ribosomal...... mutations in adaptive evolution. Methods: Several mutations in ribosomal genes have been identified in the genome analysis of nearly 700 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from infected cystic fibrosis patients. Among these mutations we have repeatedly identified insertions, deletions and substitutions...... in specific ribosomal genes. The bacterial phenotypes of the mutated strains will be investigated. Results: Preliminary assays show that mutant strains have reduced growth rate and an altered antibiotic resistance pattern. The selection for mutations in ribosomal protein genes is partly explainable...

  15. Probing the interaction between NatA and the ribosome for co-translational protein acetylation. (United States)

    Magin, Robert S; Deng, Sunbin; Zhang, Haibo; Cooperman, Barry; Marmorstein, Ronen


    N-terminal acetylation is among the most abundant protein modifications in eukaryotic cells. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in elucidating the function of N-terminal acetylation for a number of diverse systems, involved in a wide variety of biological processes. The enzymes responsible for the modification are the N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). The NATs are a highly conserved group of enzymes in eukaryotes, which are responsible for acetylating over 80% of the soluble proteome in human cells. Importantly, many of these NATs act co-translationally; they interact with the ribosome near the exit tunnel and acetylate the nascent protein chain as it is being translated. While the structures of many of the NATs have been determined, the molecular basis for the interaction with ribosome is not known. Here, using purified ribosomes and NatA, a very well-studied NAT, we show that NatA forms a stable complex with the ribosome in the absence of other stabilizing factors and through two conserved regions; primarily through an N-terminal domain and an internal basic helix. These regions may orient the active site of the NatA to face the peptide emerging from the exit tunnel. This work provides a framework for understanding how NatA and potentially other NATs interact with the ribosome for co-translational protein acetylation and sets the foundation for future studies to decouple N-terminal acetyltransferase activity from ribosome association.

  16. Implications of electrostatic potentials on ribosomal proteins. (United States)

    Kliber, J S; Hoa, G H; Douzou, P; Graffe, M; Grunberg-Manago, M


    Potentiometric studies of ribosomal particles 30S, 50S, and 70S, were designed to investigate possible implications of the electrostatic potentials developed by the 16S and 23S rRNA fractions. Release of protons and proton titrations of these ribosomal fractions were examined as a function of Mg2+ and K+ concentrations. The effects of these cations fit the polyelectrolyte theory remarkably well and are discussed accordingly. PMID:12498

  17. Ribosomal studies on the 70S ribosome of E.coli by means of neutron scattering; Strukturuntersuchungen am 70S-Ribosom von E.coli unter Anwendung von Neutronenstreuung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhardt, N. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung


    Ribosomes are ribonucleo-protein complexes, which catalyse proteinbiosynthesis in all living organisms. Currently, most of the structural models of the prokaryotic 70S ribosome rely on electron microscopy and describe mainly the outer shape of the particle. Neutron scattering can provide information on the internal structure of the ribosome. Parts of the structure can be contrasted for neutrons by means of an isotopic exchange of the naturally occurring hydrogen ({sup 1}H) for deuterium ({sup 2}H), allowing direct measurements in situ. Specifically deuterium-labeled ribosomes (E. coli) were prepared and analysed with neutron scattering. The biochemical methods were established and combined to a generally applicable preparation system. This allows labeling of all ribosomal components in any combination. A systematic analysis of the protein and RNA phases resulted in the development of a new model for the 70S ribosome. This model describes not only the outer shape of the particle, but displays also an experimentally determined internal protein-RNA distribution and the border of subunits for the first time (four-phase model; resolution: 50A). Models of the 70S ribosome from other studies were evaluated and ranked according to consistency with the measured scattering data. Applying a new neutron scattering technique of particular sensitivity, the proton-spin contrast-variation, single proteins could be measured and localized. The positions of the proteins S6 and S10 were determined, providing the first coordinates of protein mass centers within the 70S ribosome. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ribosomen sind Ribonukleinsaeure-Protein Komplexe, die in allen lebenden Organismen die Proteinbiosynthese katalysieren. Strukturmodelle fuer das prokaryontische 70S-Ribosom beruhen derzeit vorwiegend auf elektronenmikroskopischen Untersuchungen und beschreiben im wesentlichen die aeussere Oberflaeche des Partikels. Informationen ueber die innere Struktur des Ribosoms koennen Messungen mit

  18. Structure of the human 80S ribosome. (United States)

    Khatter, Heena; Myasnikov, Alexander G; Natchiar, S Kundhavai; Klaholz, Bruno P


    Ribosomes are translational machineries that catalyse protein synthesis. Ribosome structures from various species are known at the atomic level, but obtaining the structure of the human ribosome has remained a challenge; efforts to address this would be highly relevant with regard to human diseases. Here we report the near-atomic structure of the human ribosome derived from high-resolution single-particle cryo-electron microscopy and atomic model building. The structure has an average resolution of 3.6 Å, reaching 2.9 Å resolution in the most stable regions. It provides unprecedented insights into ribosomal RNA entities and amino acid side chains, notably of the transfer RNA binding sites and specific molecular interactions with the exit site tRNA. It reveals atomic details of the subunit interface, which is seen to remodel strongly upon rotational movements of the ribosomal subunits. Furthermore, the structure paves the way for analysing antibiotic side effects and diseases associated with deregulated protein synthesis.

  19. Viral lysis of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lønborg, C.; Middelboe, M.; Brussaard, C.P.D.


    The viral mediated transformation of phytoplankton organic carbon to dissolved forms (“viral shunt”) has been suggested as a major source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in marine systems. Despite the potential implications of viral activity on the global carbon fluxes, studies investigating

  20. Microtubule-dependent ribosome localization in C. elegans neurons (United States)

    Noma, Kentaro; Goncharov, Alexandr; Ellisman, Mark H


    Subcellular localization of ribosomes defines the location and capacity for protein synthesis. Methods for in vivo visualizing ribosomes in multicellular organisms are desirable in mechanistic investigations of the cell biology of ribosome dynamics. Here, we developed an approach using split GFP for tissue-specific visualization of ribosomes in Caenorhabditis elegans. Labeled ribosomes are detected as fluorescent puncta in the axons and synaptic terminals of specific neuron types, correlating with ribosome distribution at the ultrastructural level. We found that axonal ribosomes change localization during neuronal development and after axonal injury. By examining mutants affecting axonal trafficking and performing a forward genetic screen, we showed that the microtubule cytoskeleton and the JIP3 protein UNC-16 exert distinct effects on localization of axonal and somatic ribosomes. Our data demonstrate the utility of tissue-specific visualization of ribosomes in vivo, and provide insight into the mechanisms of active regulation of ribosome localization in neurons. PMID:28767038

  1. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit E binds to classical swine fever virus NS5A and facilitates viral replication. (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Qian; Luo, Mingyang; Guo, Huancheng; Gong, Wenjie; Tu, Changchun; Sun, Jinfu


    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) NS5A protein is a multifunctional protein, playing critical roles in viral RNA replication, translation and assembly. To further explore its functions in viral replication, interaction of NS5A with host factors was assayed using a his-tag "pull down" assay coupled with shotgun LC-MS/MS. Host protein translation initiation factor 3 subunit E was identified as a binding partner of NS5A, and confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization analysis. Overexpression of eIF3E markedly enhanced CSFV genomic replication, viral protein expression and production of progeny virus, and downregulation of eIF3E by siRNA significantly decreased viral proliferation in PK-15 cells. Luciferase reporter assay showed an enhancement of translational activity of the internal ribosome entry site of CSFV by eIF3E and a decrease in cellular translation by NS5A. These data indicate that eIF3E plays an important role in CSFV replication, thereby identifying it as a potential target for inhibition of the virus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative evaluation of novel African swine fever virus (ASF) antibody detection techniques derived from specific ASF viral genotypes with the OIE internationally prescribed serological tests. (United States)

    Gallardo, C; Soler, A; Nieto, R; Carrascosa, A L; De Mia, G M; Bishop, R P; Martins, C; Fasina, F O; Couacy-Hymman, E; Heath, L; Pelayo, V; Martín, E; Simón, A; Martín, R; Okurut, A R; Lekolol, I; Okoth, E; Arias, M


    The presence of antibodies against African swine fever (ASF), a complex fatal notifiable OIE disease of swine, is always indicative of previous infection, since there is no vaccine that is currently used in the field. The early appearance and subsequent long-term persistence of antibodies combined with cost-effectiveness make antibody detection techniques essential in control programmes. Recent reports appear to indicate that the serological tests recommended by the OIE for ASF monitoring are much less effective in East and Southern Africa where viral genetic and antigenic diversity is the greatest. We report herein an extensive analysis including more than 1000 field and experimental infection sera, in which the OIE recommended tests are compared with antigen-specific ELISAs and immuno-peroxidase staining of cells (IPT). The antibody detection results generated using new antigen-specific tests, developed in this study, which are based on production of antigen fractions generated by infection and virus purification from COS-1 cells, showed strong concordance with the OIE tests. We therefore conclude that the lack of success is not attributable to antigenic polymorphism and may be related to the specific characteristics of the local breeds African pigs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Viral Marketing Past Present Future


    Nessipbekova, Zarina


    The work studies the viral marketing. These are past viral campaigns, viral campaigns today, and evaluates their actuality. The work tries to predict the development of viral marketing on the basis of the research done by the author.

  4. The Potential of Targeting Ribosome Biogenesis in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunfei Yan


    Full Text Available Overall survival for patients with ovarian cancer (OC has shown little improvement for decades meaning new therapeutic options are critical. OC comprises multiple histological subtypes, of which the most common and aggressive subtype is high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC. HGSOC is characterized by genomic structural variations with relatively few recurrent somatic mutations or dominantly acting oncogenes that can be targeted for the development of novel therapies. However, deregulation of pathways controlling homologous recombination (HR and ribosome biogenesis has been observed in a high proportion of HGSOC, raising the possibility that targeting these basic cellular processes may provide improved patient outcomes. The poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitor olaparib has been approved to treat women with defects in HR due to germline BRCA mutations. Recent evidence demonstrated the efficacy of targeting ribosome biogenesis with the specific inhibitor of ribosomal RNA synthesis, CX-5461 in v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC-driven haematological and prostate cancers. CX-5461 has now progressed to a phase I clinical trial in patients with haematological malignancies and phase I/II trial in breast cancer. Here we review the currently available targeted therapies for HGSOC and discuss the potential of targeting ribosome biogenesis as a novel therapeutic approach against HGSOC.

  5. Promotion of Viral IRES-Mediated Translation Initiation under Mild Hypothermia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Licursi

    Full Text Available Internal ribosome entry site (IRES-mediated translation is an essential replication step for certain viruses. As IRES-mediated translation is regulated differently from cap-dependent translation under various cellular conditions, we sought to investigate whether temperature influences efficiency of viral IRES-mediated translation initiation by using bicistronic reporter constructs containing an IRES element of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, human rhinovirus (HRV or poliovirus (PV. Under mild hypothermic conditions (30 and 35°C, we observed increases in the efficiency of translation initiation by HCV and HRV IRES elements compared to translation initiation at 37°C. The promotion of HRV IRES activity was observed as early as 2 hours after exposure to mild hypothermia. We also confirmed the promotion of translation initiation by HRV IRES under mild hypothermia in multiple cell lines. The expression levels and locations of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB and upstream of N-Ras (unr, the IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs of HCV and HRV IRES elements, were not modulated by the temperature shift from 37°C to 30°C. Taken together, this study demonstrates that efficiency of translation initiation by some viral IRES elements is temperature dependent.

  6. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses: a review of viral genomes, viral induced host immune responses, genotypic distributions and worldwide epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Saeed


    Full Text Available Hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (HCV are frequently propagating blood borne pathogens in global community. Viral hepatitis is primarily associated with severe health complications, such as liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic fibrosis and steatosis. A literature review was conducted on hepatitis B virus (HBV, HBV genome, genotypic distribution and global epidemiology of HBV, HCV, HCV genome, HCV and host immune responses, HCV genotypic distribution and global epidemiology. The valued information was subjected for review. HBV has strict tissue tropism to liver. The virus infecting hepatocytes produces large amount of hepatitis B surface antigen particles which lack the DNA. It has capability to integrate into host genome. It has been found that genotype C is most emerging genotype associated with more severe liver diseases (cirrhosis. The approximate prevalence rate of genotype C is 27.7% which represents a major threat to future generations. Approximately 8% of population is chronic carrier of HBV in developing countries. The chronic carrier rate of HBV is 2%-7% in Middle East, Eastern and Southern Europe, South America and Japan. Among HCV infected individuals, 15% usually have natural tendency to overcome acute viral infection, where as 85% of individuals were unable to control HCV infection. The internal ribosomal entry site contains highly conserved structures important for binding and appropriate positioning of viral genome inside the host cell. HCV infects only in 1%-10% of hepatocytes, but production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (from CD8+ cells and interferon-gamma cause destruction of both infected cells and non-infected surrounding cells. Almost 11 genotypes and above 100 subtypes of HCV exists worldwide with different geographical distribution. Many efforts are still needed to minimize global burden of these infections. For the complete eradication of HBV (just like small pox and polio via vaccination strategies

  7. The ribosomal DNA transcription unit of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus. (United States)

    Ware, J L; Sharp, Z D; Cave, M D


    A composite map representing a single ribosomal DNA repeat unit of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus, was constructed from overlapping cloned fragments. Sites in the repeat unit for nine restriction enzymes were mapped. R-loop mapping of sequences coding for 18 S and 28 S RNA demonstrates that the 58-kb ribosomal DNA repeat unit contains a novel-sized internal transcribed spacer of 8.4 kb. The existence of this large spacer was confirmed in genomic DNA, most if not all of the genomic repeat units containing such a spacer. A 15- to 17-kb ribosomal RNA precursor transcript is synthesized as predicted on the basis of the size of the internal transcribed spacer. The 5.8 S RNA gene is localized to a 1-kb sequence immediately 5' to the 28 S gene. The coding regions examined contain no intervening sequences analogous to those described within ribosomal DNA of other eukaryotes. Only 11% of the repeat unit codes for mature ribosomal RNA, while the remainder is nontranscribed (71%) and transcribed (18%) spacer DNA.

  8. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ribosomal Protein L26 Is Not Essential for Ribosome Assembly and Function (United States)

    Babiano, Reyes; Gamalinda, Michael


    Ribosomal proteins play important roles in ribosome biogenesis and function. Here, we study the evolutionarily conserved L26 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which assembles into pre-60S ribosomal particles in the nucle(ol)us. Yeast L26 is one of the many ribosomal proteins encoded by two functional genes. We have disrupted both genes; surprisingly, the growth of the resulting rpl26 null mutant is apparently identical to that of the isogenic wild-type strain. The absence of L26 minimally alters 60S ribosomal subunit biogenesis. Polysome analysis revealed the appearance of half-mers. Analysis of pre-rRNA processing indicated that L26 is mainly required to optimize 27S pre-rRNA maturation, without which the release of pre-60S particles from the nucle(ol)us is partially impaired. Ribosomes lacking L26 exhibit differential reactivity to dimethylsulfate in domain I of 25S/5.8S rRNAs but apparently are able to support translation in vivo with wild-type accuracy. The bacterial homologue of yeast L26, L24, is a primary rRNA binding protein required for 50S ribosomal subunit assembly in vitro and in vivo. Our results underscore potential differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosome assembly. We discuss the reasons why yeast L26 plays such an apparently nonessential role in the cell. PMID:22688513

  9. Structural diversity in bacterial ribosomes: mycobacterial 70S ribosome structure reveals novel features. (United States)

    Shasmal, Manidip; Sengupta, Jayati


    Here we present analysis of a 3D cryo-EM map of the 70S ribosome from Mycobacterium smegmatis, a saprophytic cousin of the etiological agent of tuberculosis in humans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In comparison with the 3D structures of other prokaryotic ribosomes, the density map of the M. smegmatis 70S ribosome reveals unique structural features and their relative orientations in the ribosome. Dramatic changes in the periphery due to additional rRNA segments and extra domains of some of the peripheral ribosomal proteins like S3, S5, S16, L17, L25, are evident. One of the most notable features appears in the large subunit near L1 stalk as a long helical structure next to helix 54 of the 23S rRNA. The sharp upper end of this structure is located in the vicinity of the mRNA exit channel. Although the M. smegmatis 70S ribosome possesses conserved core structure of bacterial ribosome, the new structural features, unveiled in this study, demonstrates diversity in the 3D architecture of bacterial ribosomes. We postulate that the prominent helical structure related to the 23S rRNA actively participates in the mechanisms of translation in mycobacteria.

  10. Distribution of dwell times of a ribosome: effects of infidelity, kinetic proofreading and ribosome crowding (United States)

    Sharma, Ajeet K.; Chowdhury, Debashish


    Ribosome is a molecular machine that polymerizes a protein where the sequence of the amino acid residues, the monomers of the protein, is dictated by the sequence of codons (triplets of nucleotides) on a messenger RNA (mRNA) that serves as the template. The ribosome is a molecular motor that utilizes the template mRNA strand also as the track. Thus, in each step the ribosome moves forward by one codon and, simultaneously, elongates the protein by one amino acid. We present a theoretical model that captures most of the main steps in the mechanochemical cycle of a ribosome. The stochastic movement of the ribosome consists of an alternating sequence of pause and translocation; the sum of the durations of a pause and the following translocation is the time of dwell of the ribosome at the corresponding codon. We derive the analytical expression for the distribution of the dwell times of a ribosome in our model. Wherever experimental data are available, our theoretical predictions are consistent with those results. We suggest appropriate experiments to test the new predictions of our model, particularly the effects of the quality control mechanism of the ribosome and that of their crowding on the mRNA track.

  11. Precursors of ribosomal RNA in yeast nucleus : Biosynthesis and relation to cytoplasmic ribosomal RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillevis Smitt, W.W.; Vlak, J.M.; Schiphof, R.; Rozijn, Th.H.

    In vivo methylated precursors of ribosomal RNA in yeast have been characterized on acrylamide gels. The initial ribosomal precursor in the yeast nucleus is a 37S RNA component, which is processed to a nuclear 28S RNA. Both the 37S and the 28S RNA components are important constituents of the yeast

  12. HflX is a ribosome-splitting factor rescuing stalled ribosomes under stress conditions. (United States)

    Zhang, Yanqing; Mandava, Chandra Sekhar; Cao, Wei; Li, Xiaojing; Zhang, Dejiu; Li, Ningning; Zhang, Yixiao; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Qin, Yan; Mi, Kaixia; Lei, Jianlin; Sanyal, Suparna; Gao, Ning


    Adverse cellular conditions often lead to nonproductive translational stalling and arrest of ribosomes on mRNAs. Here, we used fast kinetics and cryo-EM to characterize Escherichia coli HflX, a GTPase with unknown function. Our data reveal that HflX is a heat shock-induced ribosome-splitting factor capable of dissociating vacant as well as mRNA-associated ribosomes with deacylated tRNA in the peptidyl site. Structural data demonstrate that the N-terminal effector domain of HflX binds to the peptidyl transferase center in a strikingly similar manner as that of the class I release factors and induces dramatic conformational changes in central intersubunit bridges, thus promoting subunit dissociation. Accordingly, loss of HflX results in an increase in stalled ribosomes upon heat shock. These results suggest a primary role of HflX in rescuing translationally arrested ribosomes under stress conditions.

  13. The ribosome can prevent aggregation of partially folded protein intermediates: studies using the Escherichia coli ribosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bani Kumar Pathak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular chaperones that support de novo folding of proteins under non stress condition are classified as chaperone 'foldases' that are distinct from chaperone' holdases' that provide high affinity binding platform for unfolded proteins and prevent their aggregation specifically under stress conditions. Ribosome, the cellular protein synthesis machine can act as a foldase chaperone that can bind unfolded proteins and release them in folding competent state. The peptidyl transferase center (PTC located in the domain V of the 23S rRNA of Escherichia coli ribosome (bDV RNA is the chaperoning center of the ribosome. It has been proposed that via specific interactions between the RNA and refolding proteins, the chaperone provides information for the correct folding of unfolded polypeptide chains. RESULTS: We demonstrate using Escherichia coli ribosome and variants of its domain V RNA that the ribosome can bind to partially folded intermediates of bovine carbonic anhydrase II (BCAII and lysozyme and suppress aggregation during their refolding. Using mutants of domain V RNA we demonstrate that the time for which the chaperone retains the bound protein is an important factor in determining its ability to suppress aggregation and/or support reactivation of protein. CONCLUSION: The ribosome can behave like a 'holdase' chaperone and has the ability to bind and hold back partially folded intermediate states of proteins from participating in the aggregation process. Since the ribosome is an essential organelle that is present in large numbers in all living cells, this ability of the ribosome provides an energetically inexpensive way to suppress cellular aggregation. Further, this ability of the ribosome might also be crucial in the context that the ribosome is one of the first chaperones to be encountered by a large nascent polypeptide chains that have a tendency to form partially folded intermediates immediately following their synthesis.

  14. Functional Importance of Mobile Ribosomal Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Chun Chang


    Full Text Available Although the dynamic motions and peptidyl transferase activity seem to be embedded in the rRNAs, the ribosome contains more than 50 ribosomal proteins (r-proteins, whose functions remain largely elusive. Also, the precise forms of some of these r-proteins, as being part of the ribosome, are not structurally solved due to their high flexibility, which hinders the efforts in their functional elucidation. Owing to recent advances in cryo-electron microscopy, single-molecule techniques, and theoretical modeling, much has been learned about the dynamics of these r-proteins. Surprisingly, allosteric regulations have been found in between spatially separated components as distant as those in the opposite sides of the ribosome. Here, we focus on the functional roles and intricate regulations of the mobile L1 and L12 stalks and L9 and S1 proteins. Conformational flexibility also enables versatile functions for r-proteins beyond translation. The arrangement of r-proteins may be under evolutionary pressure that fine-tunes mass distributions for optimal structural dynamics and catalytic activity of the ribosome.

  15. Revealing −1 Programmed Ribosomal Frameshifting Mechanisms by Single-Molecule Techniques and Computational Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Chun Chang


    Full Text Available Programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF serves as an intrinsic translational regulation mechanism employed by some viruses to control the ratio between structural and enzymatic proteins. Most viral mRNAs which use PRF adapt an H-type pseudoknot to stimulate −1 PRF. The relationship between the thermodynamic stability and the frameshifting efficiency of pseudoknots has not been fully understood. Recently, single-molecule force spectroscopy has revealed that the frequency of −1 PRF correlates with the unwinding forces required for disrupting pseudoknots, and that some of the unwinding work dissipates irreversibly due to the torsional restraint of pseudoknots. Complementary to single-molecule techniques, computational modeling provides insights into global motions of the ribosome, whose structural transitions during frameshifting have not yet been elucidated in atomic detail. Taken together, recent advances in biophysical tools may help to develop antiviral therapies that target the ubiquitous −1 PRF mechanism among viruses.

  16. Characterization of North American Armillaria species: Genetic relationships determined by ribosomal DNA sequences and AFLP markers (United States)

    M. -S. Kim; N. B. Klopfenstein; J. W. Hanna; G. I. McDonald


    Phylogenetic and genetic relationships among 10 North American Armillaria species were analysed using sequence data from ribosomal DNA (rDNA), including intergenic spacer (IGS-1), internal transcribed spacers with associated 5.8S (ITS + 5.8S), and nuclear large subunit rDNA (nLSU), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Based on rDNA sequence data,...

  17. Ribosome stalling regulates IRES-mediated translation in eukaryotes, a parallel to prokaryotic attenuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, James; Yaman, Ibrahim; Huang, Charles; Liu, Haiyan; Lopez, Alex B.; Komar, Anton A.; Caprara, Mark G.; Merrick, William C.; Snider, Martin D.; Kaufman, Randal J.; Lamers, Wouter H.; Hatzoglou, Maria


    It was previously shown that the mRNA for the cat-1 Arg/Lys transporter is translated from an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that is regulated by cellular stress. Amino acid starvation stimulated cat-1 translation via a mechanism that requires translation of an ORF in the mRNA leader and

  18. Detection and Quantification of Ribosome Inhibition by Aminoglycoside Antibiotics in Living Bacteria Using an Orthogonal Ribosome-Controlled Fluorescent Reporter. (United States)

    Huang, Shijie; Zhu, Xuechen; Melançon, Charles E


    The ribosome is the quintessential antibacterial drug target, with many structurally and mechanistically distinct classes of antibacterial agents acting by inhibiting ribosome function. Detecting and quantifying ribosome inhibition by small molecules and investigating their binding modes and mechanisms of action are critical to antibacterial drug discovery and development efforts. To develop a ribosome inhibition assay that is operationally simple, yet provides direct information on the drug target and the mechanism of action, we have developed engineered E. coli strains harboring an orthogonal ribosome-controlled green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter that produce fluorescent signal when the orthogonal ribosome is inhibited. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate that these strains, when coexpressing homogeneous populations of aminoglycoside resistant ribosomes, act as sensitive and quantitative detectors of ribosome inhibition by a set of 12 structurally diverse aminoglycoside antibiotics. We suggest that this strategy can be extended to quantifying ribosome inhibition by other drug classes.

  19. Modified ribosome profiling reveals high abundance of ribosome protected mRNA fragments derived from 3' untranslated regions. (United States)

    Miettinen, Teemu P; Björklund, Mikael


    Ribosome profiling identifies ribosome positions on translated mRNAs. A prominent feature of published datasets is the near complete absence of ribosomes in 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR) although substantial ribosome density can be observed on non-coding RNAs. Here we perform ribosome profiling in cultured Drosophila and human cells and show that different features of translation are revealed depending on the nuclease and the digestion conditions used. Most importantly, we observe high abundance of ribosome protected fragments in 3'UTRs of thousands of genes without manipulation of translation termination. Affinity purification of ribosomes indicates that the 3'UTR reads originate from ribosome protected fragments. Association of ribosomes with the 3'UTR may be due to ribosome migration through the stop codon or 3'UTR mRNA binding to ribosomes on the coding sequence. This association depends primarily on the relative length of the 3'UTR and may be related to translational regulation or ribosome recycling, for which the efficiency is known to inversely correlate with 3'UTR length. Together our results indicate that ribosome profiling is highly dependent on digestion conditions and that ribosomes commonly associate with the 3'UTR, which may have a role in translational regulation. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Modified ribosome profiling reveals high abundance of ribosome protected mRNA fragments derived from 3′ untranslated regions (United States)

    Miettinen, Teemu P.; Björklund, Mikael


    Ribosome profiling identifies ribosome positions on translated mRNAs. A prominent feature of published datasets is the near complete absence of ribosomes in 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTR) although substantial ribosome density can be observed on non-coding RNAs. Here we perform ribosome profiling in cultured Drosophila and human cells and show that different features of translation are revealed depending on the nuclease and the digestion conditions used. Most importantly, we observe high abundance of ribosome protected fragments in 3′UTRs of thousands of genes without manipulation of translation termination. Affinity purification of ribosomes indicates that the 3′UTR reads originate from ribosome protected fragments. Association of ribosomes with the 3′UTR may be due to ribosome migration through the stop codon or 3′UTR mRNA binding to ribosomes on the coding sequence. This association depends primarily on the relative length of the 3′UTR and may be related to translational regulation or ribosome recycling, for which the efficiency is known to inversely correlate with 3′UTR length. Together our results indicate that ribosome profiling is highly dependent on digestion conditions and that ribosomes commonly associate with the 3′UTR, which may have a role in translational regulation. PMID:25550424

  1. Viral Entry into Cells (United States)

    D'Orsogna, Maria R.


    Successful viral infection of a healthy cell requires complex host-pathogen interactions. In this talk we focus on the dynamics specific to the HIV virus entering a eucaryotic cell. We model viral entry as a stochastic engagement of receptors and coreceptors on the cell surface. We also consider the transport of virus material to the cell nucleus by coupling microtubular motion to the concurrent biochemical transformations that render the viral material competent for nuclear entry. We discuss both mathematical and biological consequences of our model, such as the formulation of an effective integrodifferential boundary condition embodying a memory kernel and optimal timing in maximizing viral probabilities.

  2. Large-scale mass spectrometry-based analysis of Euplotes octocarinatus supports the high frequency of +1 programmed ribosomal frameshift


    Wang, Ruanlin; Zhang, Zhiyun; Du, Jun; Fu, Yuejun; Liang, Aihua


    Programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) is commonly used to express many viral and some cellular genes. We conducted a genome-wide investigation of +1 PRF in ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus through genome and transcriptome sequencing and our results demonstrated that approximately 11.4% of genes require +1 PRF to produce complete gene products. While nucleic acid-based evidence for candidate genes with +1 PRF is strong, only very limited information is available at protein levels to date. In ...

  3. Effects of intercistronic length on the efficiency of reinitiation by eucaryotic ribosomes. (United States)

    Kozak, M


    Simian virus 40-based plasmids that direct the synthesis of preproinsulin during short-term transfection of COS cells have been used to probe the mechanism of reinitiation by eucaryotic ribosomes. Earlier studies from several laboratories had established that the ability of ribosomes to reinitiate translation at an internal AUG codon depends on having a terminator codon in frame with the preceding AUG triplet and upstream from the intended restart site. In the present studies, the position of the upstream terminator codon relative to the preproinsulin restart site has been systematically varied. The efficiency of reinitiation progressively improved as the intercistronic sequence was lengthened. When the upstream "minicistron" terminated 79 nucleotides before the preproinsulin start site, the synthesis of proinsulin was as efficient as if there were no upstream AUG codons. A mechanism is postulated that might account for this result, which is somewhat surprising inasmuch as bacterial ribosomes reinitiate less efficiently as the intercistronic gap is widened. Images PMID:3683388

  4. Insulated Foamy Viral Vectors (United States)

    Browning, Diana L.; Collins, Casey P.; Hocum, Jonah D.; Leap, David J.; Rae, Dustin T.; Trobridge, Grant D.


    Retroviral vector-mediated gene therapy is promising, but genotoxicity has limited its use in the clinic. Genotoxicity is highly dependent on the retroviral vector used, and foamy viral (FV) vectors appear relatively safe. However, internal promoters may still potentially activate nearby genes. We developed insulated FV vectors, using four previously described insulators: a version of the well-studied chicken hypersensitivity site 4 insulator (650cHS4), two synthetic CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-based insulators, and an insulator based on the CCAAT box-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor I (7xCTF/NF1). We directly compared these insulators for enhancer-blocking activity, effect on FV vector titer, and fidelity of transfer to both proviral long terminal repeats. The synthetic CTCF-based insulators had the strongest insulating activity, but reduced titers significantly. The 7xCTF/NF1 insulator did not reduce titers but had weak insulating activity. The 650cHS4-insulated FV vector was identified as the overall most promising vector. Uninsulated and 650cHS4-insulated FV vectors were both significantly less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors. Integration sites were evaluated in cord blood CD34+ cells and the 650cHS4-insulated FV vector had fewer hotspots compared with an uninsulated FV vector. These data suggest that insulated FV vectors are promising for hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. PMID:26715244

  5. Dom34 Rescues Ribosomes in 3´ Untranslated Regions (United States)

    Guydosh, Nicholas R.; Green, Rachel


    SUMMARY Ribosomes that stall before completing peptide synthesis must be recycled and returned to the cytoplasmic pool. The protein Dom34 and cofactors Hbs1 and Rli1 can dissociate stalled ribosomes in vitro, but the identity of targets in the cell is unknown. Here we extend ribosome profiling methodology to reveal a high-resolution molecular characterization of Dom34 function in vivo. Dom34 removes stalled ribosomes from truncated mRNAs, but, in contrast, does not generally dissociate ribosomes on coding sequences known to trigger stalling, such as polyproline. We also show that Dom34 targets arrested ribosomes near the ends of 3´ UTRs. These ribosomes appear to gain access to the 3 UTR via a mechanism that does not require decoding of the mRNA. These results suggest that ribosomes frequently enter downstream noncoding regions and that Dom34 carries out the important task of rescuing them. PMID:24581494

  6. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank


    This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.......This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus....

  7. Ribosomes Dance to a Daily Rhythm. (United States)

    Iyer, Aishwarya; Grummt, Ingrid


    Sinturel et al. demonstrate that feeding-fasting rhythms and light-dark cycles direct daily changes in liver mass and cell size. These feeding-fasting- and light-dark-driven diurnal fluctuations are controlled by an unconventional mechanism that affects ribosome assembly and protein levels during the active phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling Interactions of Erythromycin Derivatives with Ribosomes. (United States)

    Shishkina, A V; Makarova, T M; Tereshchenkov, A G; Makarov, G I; Korshunova, G A; Bogdanov, A A


    Using a method of static simulation, a series of erythromycin A analogs was designed with aldehyde functions introduced instead of one of the methyl substituents in the 3'-N-position of the antibiotic that was potentially capable of forming a covalent bond with an amino group of one of the nucleotide residues of the 23S rRNA in the ribosomal exit tunnel. Similar interaction is observed for antibiotics of the tylosin series, which bind tightly to the large ribosomal subunit and demonstrate high antibacterial activity. Binding of novel erythromycin derivatives with the bacterial ribosome was investigated with the method of fluorescence polarization. It was found that the erythromycin analog containing a 1-methyl-3-oxopropyl group in the 3'-N-position demonstrates the best binding. Based on the ability to inhibit protein biosynthesis, it is on the same level as erythromycin, and it is significantly better than desmethyl-erythromycin. Molecular dynamic modeling of complexes of the derivatives with ribosomes was conducted to explain the observed effects.

  9. Ribosome display for improved biotherapeutic molecules. (United States)

    Rothe, Achim; Hosse, Ralf J; Power, Barbara E


    Ribosome display presents an innovative in vitro technology for the rapid isolation and evolution of high-affinity peptides or proteins. Displayed proteins are bound to and recovered from target molecules in multiple rounds of selection in order to enrich for specific binding proteins. No transformation step is necessary, which could lead to a loss of library diversity. A cycle of display and selection can be performed in one day, enabling the existing gene repertoire to be rapidly scanned. Proteins isolated from the panning rounds can be further modified through random or directed molecular evolution for affinity maturation, as well as selected for characteristics such as protein stability, folding and functional activity. Recently, the field of display technologies has become more prominent due to the generation of new scaffolds for ribosome display, isolation of high-affinity human antibodies by phage display, and their implementation in the discovery of novel protein-protein interactions. Applications for this technology extend into the broad field of antibody engineering, proteomics, and synthetic enzymes for diagnostics and therapeutics in cancer, autoimmune and infectious diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and inflammatory disorders. This review highlights the role of ribosome display in drug discovery, discusses advantages and disadvantages of the system, and attempts to predict the future impact of ribosome display technology on the development of novel engineered biopharmaceutical products for biological therapies.

  10. Evaluation of a ribosomal vaccine against pertussis. (United States)

    Field, L H; Parker, C D; Manclark, C R; Berry, L J


    A crude ribosomal vaccine derived from Bordetella pertussis administered to ICR and N:NIH (SW) strains of mice protected them effectively against a standardized intracranial challenge. The dose of vaccine that protected half the mice was less for N:NIH (SW) than for ICR mice and compared favorably with a killed reference vaccine. Ribosomes prepared from bacteria ground with washed sea sand were more immunogenic than those obtained by rupture with alumina or with a Braun homogenizer. The protective effect of the crude ribosomes was not an innate part of the organelle but was due to a substance or substances that could be removed from them by a 1 M NH4Cl wash. The material in the wash was highly immunogenic and retained both the histamine-sensitizing and leukocytosis-promoting properties. It lost much of the dermonecrotic activity and was poorly pyrogenic in rabbits. The most potent pyrogen was present in the washed ribosomes, which apparently, retained the endotoxic components of the cell wall. The best vaccines permitted acceptable weight gain in the immunized mice. PMID:222684

  11. Control of Ribosome Synthesis in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, Søren; Meyenburg, K. von; Måløe, O.


    The rate of ribosome synthesis and accumulation in Escherichia coli during the transition after an energy source shift-down was analyzed. The shift was imposed on cultures of stringent and relaxed strains growing in glucose minimal medium by the addition of the glucose analogue {alpha...

  12. Diamond-Blackfan anemia, ribosome and erythropoiesis. (United States)

    Da Costa, L; Moniz, H; Simansour, M; Tchernia, G; Mohandas, N; Leblanc, T


    Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a rare inherited bone marrow failure syndrome (five to seven cases per million live births) characterized by an aregenerative, usually macrocytic anemia with an absence or less than 5% of erythroid precursors (erythroblastopenia) in an otherwise normal bone marrow. The platelet and the white cell counts are usually normal but neutropenia, thrombopenia or thrombocytosis have been noted at diagnosis. In 40 to 50% of DBA patients, congenital abnormalities mostly in the cephalic area and in thumbs and upper limbs have been described. Recent analysis did show a phenotype/genotype correlation. Congenital erythroblastopenia of DBA is the first human disease identified to result from defects in ribosomal biogenesis. The first ribosomal gene involved in DBA, ribosomal protein (RP) gene S19 (RPS19 gene), was identified in 1999. Subsequently, mutations in 12 other RP genes out of a total of 78 RP genes have been identified in DBA. All RP gene mutations described to date are heterozygous and dominant inheritance has been documented in 40 to 45% of affected individuals. As RP mutations are yet to be identified in approximately 50% of DBA cases, it is likely that other yet to be identified genes involved in ribosomal biogenesis or other pathways may be responsible for DBA phenotype. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Discovering hidden viral piracy. (United States)

    Kim, Eddo; Kliger, Yossef


    Viruses and developers of anti-inflammatory therapies share a common interest in proteins that manipulate the immune response. Large double-stranded DNA viruses acquire host proteins to evade host defense mechanisms. Hence, viral pirated proteins may have a therapeutic potential. Although dozens of viral piracy events have already been identified, we hypothesized that sequence divergence impedes the discovery of many others. We developed a method to assess the number of viral/human homologs and discovered that at least 917 highly diverged homologs are hidden in low-similarity alignment hits that are usually ignored. However, these low-similarity homologs are masked by many false alignment hits. We therefore applied a filtering method to increase the proportion of viral/human homologous proteins. The homologous proteins we found may facilitate functional annotation of viral and human proteins. Furthermore, some of these proteins play a key role in immune modulation and are therefore therapeutic protein candidates.

  14. The use of a viral 2A sequence for the simultaneous over-expression of both the vgf gene and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in vitro and in vivo. (United States)

    Lewis, Jo E; Brameld, John M; Hill, Phil; Barrett, Perry; Ebling, Francis J P; Jethwa, Preeti H


    The viral 2A sequence has become an attractive alternative to the traditional internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) for simultaneous over-expression of two genes and in combination with recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAV) has been used to manipulate gene expression in vitro. To develop a rAAV construct in combination with the viral 2A sequence to allow long-term over-expression of the vgf gene and fluorescent marker gene for tracking of the transfected neurones in vivo. Transient transfection of the AAV plasmid containing the vgf gene, viral 2A sequence and eGFP into SH-SY5Y cells resulted in eGFP fluorescence comparable to a commercially available reporter construct. This increase in fluorescent cells was accompanied by an increase in VGF mRNA expression. Infusion of the rAAV vector containing the vgf gene, viral 2A sequence and eGFP resulted in eGFP fluorescence in the hypothalamus of both mice and Siberian hamsters, 32 weeks post infusion. In situ hybridisation confirmed that the location of VGF mRNA expression in the hypothalamus corresponded to the eGFP pattern of fluorescence. The viral 2A sequence is much smaller than the traditional IRES and therefore allowed over-expression of the vgf gene with fluorescent tracking without compromising viral capacity. The use of the viral 2A sequence in the AAV plasmid allowed the simultaneous expression of both genes in vitro. When used in combination with rAAV it resulted in long-term over-expression of both genes at equivalent locations in the hypothalamus of both Siberian hamsters and mice, without any adverse effects. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Induction of viral, 7-methyl-guanosine cap-independent translation and oncolysis by mitogen-activated protein kinase-interacting kinase-mediated effects on the serine/arginine-rich protein kinase. (United States)

    Brown, Michael C; Bryant, Jeffrey D; Dobrikova, Elena Y; Shveygert, Mayya; Bradrick, Shelton S; Chandramohan, Vidyalakshmi; Bigner, Darell D; Gromeier, Matthias


    Protein synthesis, the most energy-consuming process in cells, responds to changing physiologic priorities, e.g., upon mitogen- or stress-induced adaptations signaled through the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The prevailing status of protein synthesis machinery is a viral pathogenesis factor, particularly for plus-strand RNA viruses, where immediate translation of incoming viral RNAs shapes host-virus interactions. In this study, we unraveled signaling pathways centered on the ERK1/2 and p38α MAPK-interacting kinases MNK1/2 and their role in controlling 7-methyl-guanosine (m(7)G) "cap"-independent translation at enterovirus type 1 internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs). Activation of Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 signals induced viral IRES-mediated translation in a manner dependent on MNK1/2. This effect was not due to MNK's known functions as eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4G binding partner or eIF4E(S209) kinase. Rather, MNK catalytic activity enabled viral IRES-mediated translation/host cell cytotoxicity through negative regulation of the Ser/Arg (SR)-rich protein kinase (SRPK). Our investigations suggest that SRPK activity is a major determinant of type 1 IRES competency, host cell cytotoxicity, and viral proliferation in infected cells. We are targeting unfettered enterovirus IRES activity in cancer with PVSRIPO, the type 1 live-attenuated poliovirus (PV) (Sabin) vaccine containing a human rhinovirus type 2 (HRV2) IRES. A phase I clinical trial of PVSRIPO with intratumoral inoculation in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) is showing early promise. Viral translation proficiency in infected GBM cells is a core requirement for the antineoplastic efficacy of PVSRIPO. Therefore, it is critically important to understand the mechanisms controlling viral cap-independent translation in infected host cells. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. The characterization of cytoplasmic ribosomal protein genes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microsporidia are obligate intracellular, eukaryotic parasites of medical and commercial importance, which can infect almost all animals including humans. However, their ribosomes are not of the 80S type as other eukaryotes, but like the prokaryotic 70S ribosome. In order to get the global composition of ribosomal protein ...

  17. Presence of Two Sets of Ribosomal Genes in Phytopathogenic Mollicutes (United States)

    Schneider, B.; Seemüller, E.


    DNA from 28 strains of phytopathogenic mycoplasmalike organisms that represented five primary taxonomic clusters was digested with restriction endonucleases and hybridized with several ribosomal probes. The results indicate the presence of two sets of ribosomal genes in all strains examined. Restriction maps of the two ribosomal operons for a group of 12 aster yellows mycoplasmalike organisms were constructed. Images PMID:16349389

  18. Treatment of Acute Viral Bronchiolitis (United States)

    Eber, Ernst


    Acute viral bronchiolitis represents the most common lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Respiratory syncytial virus is the most frequently identified virus, but many other viruses may also cause acute bronchiolitis. There is no common definition of acute viral bronchiolitis used internationally, and this may explain part of the confusion in the literature. Most children with bronchiolitis have a self limiting mild disease and can be safely managed at home with careful attention to feeding and respiratory status. Criteria for referral and admission vary between hospitals as do clinical practice in the management of acute viral bronchiolitis, and there is confusion and lack of evidence over the best treatment for this condition. Supportive care, including administration of oxygen and fluids, is the cornerstone of current treatment. The majority of infants and children with bronchiolitis do not require specific measures. Bronchodilators should not be routinely used in the management of acute viral bronchiolitis, but may be effective in some patients. Most of the commonly used management modalities have not been shown to have a clear beneficial effect on the course of the disease. For example, inhaled and systemic corticosteroids, leukotriene receptor antagonists, immunoglobulins and monoclonal antibodies, antibiotics, antiviral therapy, and chest physiotherapy should not be used routinely in the management of bronchiolitis. The potential effect of hypertonic saline on the course of the acute disease is promising, but further studies are required. In critically ill children with bronchiolitis, today there is little justification for the use of surfactant and heliox. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure may be beneficial in children with severe bronchiolitis but a large trial is needed to determine its value. Finally, very little is known on the effect of the various

  19. Viral marketing on the Internet


    Štverák, Martin


    Thesis provides an overview of viral marketing. It describes the process by which you can be inspired to implement viral campaign. The thesis includes analysis of specific viral Web project. The aim of this thesis is to create a breakdown of the various components of viral marketing, to establish conditions that should be satisfied for the viral marketing to success, suggesting how to use viral marketing on social network Facebook and evaluate the various components of this service for the pr...

  20. GTPases and the origin of the ribosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Temple F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is an attempt to trace the evolution of the ribosome through the evolution of the universal P-loop GTPases that are involved with the ribosome in translation and with the attachment of the ribosome to the membrane. The GTPases involved in translation in Bacteria/Archaea are the elongation factors EFTu/EF1, the initiation factors IF2/aeIF5b + aeIF2, and the elongation factors EFG/EF2. All of these GTPases also contain the OB fold also found in the non GTPase IF1 involved in initiation. The GTPase involved in the signal recognition particle in most Bacteria and Archaea is SRP54. Results 1 The Elongation Factors of the Archaea based on structural considerations of the domains have the following evolutionary path: EF1→ aeIF2 → EF2. The evolution of the aeIF5b was a later event; 2 the Elongation Factors of the Bacteria based on the topological considerations of the GTPase domain have a similar evolutionary path: EFTu→ IF→2→EFG. These evolutionary sequences reflect the evolution of the LSU followed by the SSU to form the ribosome; 3 the OB-fold IF1 is a mimic of an ancient tRNA minihelix. Conclusion The evolution of translational GTPases of both the Archaea and Bacteria point to the evolution of the ribosome. The elongation factors, EFTu/EF1, began as a Ras-like GTPase bringing the activated minihelix tRNA to the Large Subunit Unit. The initiation factors and elongation factor would then have evolved from the EFTu/EF1 as the small subunit was added to the evolving ribosome. The SRP has an SRP54 GTPase and a specific RNA fold in its RNA component similar to the PTC. We consider the SRP to be a remnant of an ancient form of an LSU bound to a membrane. Reviewers This article was reviewed by George Fox, Leonid Mirny and Chris Sander.

  1. Regulation of bacterial gene expression by ribosome stalling and rescuing. (United States)

    Jin, Yongxin; Jin, Shouguang; Wu, Weihui


    Ribosome is responsible for protein synthesis and is able to monitor the sequence and structure of the nascent peptide. Such ability plays an important role in determining overall gene expression profile of the bacteria through ribosome stalling and rescuing. In this review, we briefly summarize our current understanding of the regulation of gene expression through ribosome stalling and rescuing in bacteria, as well as mechanisms that modulate ribosome activity. Understanding the mechanisms of how bacteria modulate ribosome activity will provide not only fundamental insights into bacterial gene regulation, but also new candidate targets for the development of novel antimicrobial agents.

  2. Ribosomal frameshifting and transcriptional slippage: From genetic steganography and cryptography to adventitious use. (United States)

    Atkins, John F; Loughran, Gary; Bhatt, Pramod R; Firth, Andrew E; Baranov, Pavel V


    Genetic decoding is not 'frozen' as was earlier thought, but dynamic. One facet of this is frameshifting that often results in synthesis of a C-terminal region encoded by a new frame. Ribosomal frameshifting is utilized for the synthesis of additional products, for regulatory purposes and for translational 'correction' of problem or 'savior' indels. Utilization for synthesis of additional products occurs prominently in the decoding of mobile chromosomal element and viral genomes. One class of regulatory frameshifting of stable chromosomal genes governs cellular polyamine levels from yeasts to humans. In many cases of productively utilized frameshifting, the proportion of ribosomes that frameshift at a shift-prone site is enhanced by specific nascent peptide or mRNA context features. Such mRNA signals, which can be 5' or 3' of the shift site or both, can act by pairing with ribosomal RNA or as stem loops or pseudoknots even with one component being 4 kb 3' from the shift site. Transcriptional realignment at slippage-prone sequences also generates productively utilized products encoded trans-frame with respect to the genomic sequence. This too can be enhanced by nucleic acid structure. Together with dynamic codon redefinition, frameshifting is one of the forms of recoding that enriches gene expression. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Ribosome Mediated Quinary Interactions Modulate In-Cell Protein Activities. (United States)

    DeMott, Christopher M; Majumder, Subhabrata; Burz, David S; Reverdatto, Sergey; Shekhtman, Alexander


    Ribosomes are present inside bacterial cells at micromolar concentrations and occupy up to 20% of the cell volume. Under these conditions, even weak quinary interactions between ribosomes and cytosolic proteins can affect protein activity. By using in-cell and in vitro NMR spectroscopy, and biophysical techniques, we show that the enzymes, adenylate kinase and dihydrofolate reductase, and the respective coenzymes, ATP and NADPH, bind to ribosomes with micromolar affinity, and that this interaction suppresses the enzymatic activities of both enzymes. Conversely, thymidylate synthase, which works together with dihydrofolate reductase in the thymidylate synthetic pathway, is activated by ribosomes. We also show that ribosomes impede diffusion of green fluorescent protein in vitro and contribute to the decrease in diffusion in vivo. These results strongly suggest that ribosome-mediated quinary interactions contribute to the differences between in vitro and in vivo protein activities and that ribosomes play a previously under-appreciated nontranslational role in regulating cellular biochemistry.

  4. Viral pathogenesis in diagrams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tremblay, Michel; Berthiaume, Laurent; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang


    .... The 268 diagrams in Viral Pathogenesis in Diagrams were selected from over 800 diagrams of English and French virological literature, including one derived from a famous drawing by Leonardo da Vinci...

  5. Viral Gastroenteritis (Stomach Flu) (United States)

    ... Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu) Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  6. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (United States)

    Batts, William N.; Winton, James R.


    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) is one of the most important viral diseases of finfish worldwide. In the past, VHS was thought to affect mainly rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss reared at freshwater facilities in Western Europe where it was known by various names including Egtved disease and infectious kidney swelling and liver degeneration (Wolf 1988). Today, VHS is known as an important source of mortality for cultured and wild fish in freshwater and marine environments in several regions of the northern hemisphere (Dixon 1999; Gagné et al. 2007; Kim and Faisal 2011; Lumsden et al. 2007; Marty et al. 1998, 2003; Meyers and Winton 1995; Skall et al. 2005b; Smail 1999; Takano et al. 2001). Viral hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by the fish rhabdovirus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a member of the genus Novirhabdovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae

  7. HIV Viral Load (United States)

    ... Chains Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle ... used each time. Will exercise, nutrition, and other lifestyle modifications help decrease my HIV viral load? There ...

  8. Translational control of ribosomal protein S15. (United States)

    Portier, C; Philippe, C; Dondon, L; Grunberg-Manago, M; Ebel, J P; Ehresmann, B; Ehresmann, C


    The expression of ribosomal protein S15 is shown to be translationally and negatively autocontrolled using a fusion within a reporter gene. Isolation and characterization of several deregulated mutants indicate that the regulatory site (the translational operator site) overlaps the ribosome loading site of the S15 messenger. In this region, three domains, each exhibiting a stem-loop structure, were determined using chemical and enzymatic probes. The most downstream hairpin carries the Shine-Dalgarno sequence and the initiation codon. Genetic and structural data derived from mutants constructed by site-directed mutagenesis show that the operator is a dynamic structure, two domains of which can form a pseudoknot. Binding of S15 to these two domains suggests that the pseudoknot could be stabilized by S15. A model is presented in which two alternative structures would explain the molecular basis of the S15 autocontrol.

  9. Expanding the Entamoeba Universe: New Hosts Yield Novel Ribosomal Lineages. (United States)

    Jacob, Alison S; Busby, Eloise J; Levy, Abigail D; Komm, Natasha; Clark, C Graham


    Removing the requirement for cell culture has led to a substantial increase in the number of lineages of Entamoeba recognized as distinct. Surveying the range of potential host species for this parasite genus has barely been started and it is clear that additional sampling of the same host in different locations often identifies additional diversity. In this study, using small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, we identify four new lineages of Entamoeba, including the first report of Entamoeba from an elephant, and extend the host range of some previously described lineages. In addition, examination of microbiome data from a number of host animals suggests that substantial Entamoeba diversity remains to be uncovered. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  10. Treatment of viral encephalitis. (United States)

    Domingues, Renan Barros


    Several viruses may cause central nervous system diseases with a broad range of clinical manifestations. The time course of the viral encephalitis can be acute, subacute, or chronic. Pathologically there are encephalitis with direct viral entry into the CNS in which brain parenchyma exhibits neuronal damaging and viral antigens and there are postinfectious autoimmune encephalitis associated with systemic viral infections with brain tissue presenting perivascular aggregation of immune cells and myelin damaging. Some virus affect previously healthy individuals while others produce encephalitis among imunocompromised ones. Factors such evolving lifestyles and ecological changes have had a considerable impact on the epidemiology of some viral encephalitis [e.g. West-Nile virus, and Japanese B virus]. Citomegalovirus and JC virus are examples of infections of the brain that have been seen more frequently because they occur in immunocompromised patients. In the other hand many scientific achievements in neuroimaging, molecular diagnosis, antiviral therapy, immunomodulatory treatments, and neurointensive care have allowed more precise and earlier diagnoses and more efficient treatments, resulting in improved outcomes. In this article, we will present the current drug options in the management of the main acute and chronic viral infection of the central nervous system of immunocompetent and immunocompromised adults, focusing on drugs mechanisms of action, efficacy, and side effects. The early diagnosis and correct management of such diseases can reduce mortality and neurological sequelae; however, even with recent treatment advances, potentially devastating outcomes are still possible.

  11. Universal real-time PCR assay for quantitation and size evaluation of residual cell DNA in human viral vaccines. (United States)

    André, Murielle; Reghin, Sylviane; Boussard, Estelle; Lempereur, Laurent; Maisonneuve, Stéphane


    Residual host cellular DNA (rcDNA) is one of the principal risk associated with continuous cell lines derived medicines such as viral vaccines. To assess rcDNA degradation, we suggest two quantitative real-time PCR assays designed to separately quantify target sequences shorter and longer than the 200 bp risk limit, the relative abundance of both targets reflecting the extent of rcDNA fragmentation. The conserved multicopy ribosomal 18S RNA gene was targeted to detect host cell templates from most mammalian cell substrates commonly used in the manufacture of human viral vaccines. The detection range of the method was assessed on purified DNA templates from different animal origins. The standard calibrator origin and structural conformation were shown crucial to achieve accurate quantification. Artificial mixtures of PCR products shorter and longer than 200 bp were used as a model to check the ability of the assay to estimate the fragment size distribution. The method was successfully applied to a panel of Vero cell derived vaccines and could be used as a universal method for determination of both content and size distribution of rcDNA in vaccines. Copyright © 2016 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The ribosome challenge to the RNA world. (United States)

    Bowman, Jessica C; Hud, Nicholas V; Williams, Loren Dean


    An RNA World that predated the modern world of polypeptide and polynucleotide is one of the most widely accepted models in origin of life research. In this model, the translation system shepherded the RNA World into the extant biology of DNA, RNA, and protein. Here, we examine the RNA World Hypothesis in the context of increasingly detailed information available about the origins, evolution, functions, and mechanisms of the translation system. We conclude that the translation system presents critical challenges to RNA World Hypotheses. Firstly, a timeline of the RNA World is problematic when the ribosome is incorporated. The mechanism of peptidyl transfer of the ribosome appears distinct from evolved enzymes, signaling origins in a chemical rather than biological milieu. Secondly, we have no evidence that the basic biochemical toolset of life is subject to substantive change by Darwinian evolution, as required for the transition from the RNA world to extant biology. Thirdly, we do not see specific evidence for biological takeover of ribozyme function by protein enzymes. Finally, we can find no basis for preservation of the ribosome as ribozyme or the universality of translation, if it were the case that other information transducing ribozymes, such as ribozyme polymerases, were replaced by protein analogs and erased from the phylogenetic record. We suggest that an updated model of the RNA World should address the current state of knowledge of the translation system.

  13. Structural snapshots of actively translating human ribosomes. (United States)

    Behrmann, Elmar; Loerke, Justus; Budkevich, Tatyana V; Yamamoto, Kaori; Schmidt, Andrea; Penczek, Pawel A; Vos, Matthijn R; Bürger, Jörg; Mielke, Thorsten; Scheerer, Patrick; Spahn, Christian M T


    Macromolecular machines, such as the ribosome, undergo large-scale conformational changes during their functional cycles. Although their mode of action is often compared to that of mechanical machines, a crucial difference is that, at the molecular dimension, thermodynamic effects dominate functional cycles, with proteins fluctuating stochastically between functional states defined by energetic minima on an energy landscape. Here, we have used cryo-electron microscopy to image ex-vivo-derived human polysomes as a source of actively translating ribosomes. Multiparticle refinement and 3D variability analysis allowed us to visualize a variety of native translation intermediates. Significantly populated states include not only elongation cycle intermediates in pre- and post-translocational states, but also eEF1A-containing decoding and termination/recycling complexes. Focusing on the post-translocational state, we extended this assessment to the single-residue level, uncovering striking details of ribosome-ligand interactions and identifying both static and functionally important dynamic elements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Disassembly of yeast 80S ribosomes into subunits is a concerted action of ribosome-assisted folding of denatured protein. (United States)

    Chakraborty, Biprashekhar; Bhakta, Sayan; Sengupta, Jayati


    It has been shown by several groups that ribosome can assist folding of denatured protein in vitro and the process is conserved across the species. Domain V of large ribosomal rRNA which occupies the intersubunit side of the large subunit was identified as the key player responsible for chaperoning the folding process. Thus, it is conceivable that denatured protein needs to access the intersubunit space of the ribosome in order to get folded. In this study, we have investigated the mechanism of release of the protein from the eukaryotic ribosome following reactivation. We have observed significant splitting of yeast 80S ribosome when incubated with the denatured BCAII protein. Energy-free disassembly mechanism functions in low Mg(+2) ion concentration for prokaryotic ribosomes. Eukaryotic ribosomes do not show significant splitting even at low Mg(+2) ion concentration. In this respect, denatured protein-induced disassembly of eukaryotic ribosome without the involvement of any external energy source is intriguing. For prokaryotic ribosomes, it was reported that the denatured protein induces ribosome splitting into subunits in order to access domain V-rRNA. In contrast, our results suggest an alternative mechanism for eukaryotic ribosomal rRNA-mediated protein folding and subsequent separation of the subunits by which release of the activated-protein occurs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C


    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  16. Quantifying ribosome dynamics in Escherichia coli using fluorescence. (United States)

    Failmezger, Jurek; Ludwig, Julian; Nieß, Alexander; Siemann-Herzberg, Martin


    Ribosomes are a crucial component of the physiological state of a cell. Therefore, we aimed to monitor ribosome dynamics using a fast and easy fluorescence readout. Using fluorescent-labeled ribosomal proteins, the dynamics of ribosomes during batch cultivation and during nutritional shift conditions was investigated. The fluorescence readout was compared to the cellular rRNA content determined by capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection during exponentially accelerating and decelerating growth. We found a linear correlation between the observed fluorescence and the extracted rRNA content throughout cultivation, demonstrating the applicability of this method. Moreover, the results show that ribosome dynamics, as a result of slowing growth, are accompanied by the passive effect of dilution of preexisting ribosomes, de novo ribosome synthesis and ribosome degradation. In light of the challenging task of deciphering ribosome regulatory mechanisms, our approach of using fluorescence to follow ribosome dynamics will allow more comprehensive studies of biological systems. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  17. Ribosomal history reveals origins of modern protein synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajith Harish

    Full Text Available The origin and evolution of the ribosome is central to our understanding of the cellular world. Most hypotheses posit that the ribosome originated in the peptidyl transferase center of the large ribosomal subunit. However, these proposals do not link protein synthesis to RNA recognition and do not use a phylogenetic comparative framework to study ribosomal evolution. Here we infer evolution of the structural components of the ribosome. Phylogenetic methods widely used in morphometrics are applied directly to RNA structures of thousands of molecules and to a census of protein structures in hundreds of genomes. We find that components of the small subunit involved in ribosomal processivity evolved earlier than the catalytic peptidyl transferase center responsible for protein synthesis. Remarkably, subunit RNA and proteins coevolved, starting with interactions between the oldest proteins (S12 and S17 and the oldest substructure (the ribosomal ratchet in the small subunit and ending with the rise of a modern multi-subunit ribosome. Ancestral ribonucleoprotein components show similarities to in vitro evolved RNA replicase ribozymes and protein structures in extant replication machinery. Our study therefore provides important clues about the chicken-or-egg dilemma associated with the central dogma of molecular biology by showing that ribosomal history is driven by the gradual structural accretion of protein and RNA structures. Most importantly, results suggest that functionally important and conserved regions of the ribosome were recruited and could be relics of an ancient ribonucleoprotein world.



    Ivančica Strunjak-Perović; Mato Hacmanjek; Rozelinda Čož-Rakovac; Emin Teskeredžić


    Adequate knowledge on fish diseases caused by viruses is still lacking. Up until now, in fish which live their entire life cycle or part of it in the sea, some viral diseases have been determined (lymphoeytis, viral necrosis of crythrocytes, ciravosti cod syndrome, encephalitis, viral hemoragic septichemistry, viral hematopoetic necrosis, viral gusteraca necrosis, chum renviral infection, branchionephritis, rabdociral eel infection). Some of these diseases primarily occur in the freshwater ph...

  19. Clusters of basic amino acids contribute to RNA binding and nucleolar localization of ribosomal protein L22.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Houmani

    Full Text Available The ribosomal protein L22 is a component of the 60S eukaryotic ribosomal subunit. As an RNA-binding protein, it has been shown to interact with both cellular and viral RNAs including 28S rRNA and the Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNA, EBER-1. L22 is localized to the cell nucleus where it accumulates in nucleoli. Although previous studies demonstrated that a specific amino acid sequence is required for nucleolar localization, the RNA-binding domain has not been identified. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that the nucleolar accumulation of L22 is linked to its ability to bind RNA. To address this hypothesis, mutated L22 proteins were generated to assess the contribution of specific amino acids to RNA binding and protein localization. Using RNA-protein binding assays, we demonstrate that basic amino acids 80-93 are required for high affinity binding of 28S rRNA and EBER-1 by L22. Fluorescence localization studies using GFP-tagged mutated L22 proteins further reveal that basic amino acids 80-93 are critical for nucleolar accumulation and for incorporation into ribosomes. Our data support the growing consensus that the nucleolar accumulation of ribosomal proteins may not be mediated by a defined localization signal, but rather by specific interaction with established nucleolar components such as rRNA.

  20. ZNF598 and RACK1 Regulate Mammalian Ribosome-Associated Quality Control Function by Mediating Regulatory 40S Ribosomal Ubiquitylation. (United States)

    Sundaramoorthy, Elayanambi; Leonard, Marilyn; Mak, Raymond; Liao, Jeffrey; Fulzele, Amitkumar; Bennett, Eric J


    Ribosomes that experience terminal stalls during translation are resolved by ribosome-associated quality control (QC) pathways that oversee mRNA and nascent chain destruction and recycle ribosomal subunits. The proximal factors that sense stalled ribosomes and initiate mammalian ribosome-associated QC events remain undefined. We demonstrate that the ZNF598 ubiquitin ligase and the 40S ribosomal protein RACK1 help to resolve poly(A)-induced stalled ribosomes. They accomplish this by regulating distinct and overlapping regulatory 40S ribosomal ubiquitylation events. ZNF598 primarily mediates regulatory ubiquitylation of RPS10 and RPS20, whereas RACK1 regulates RPS2, RPS3, and RPS20 ubiquitylation. Gain or loss of ZNF598 function or mutations that block RPS10 or RPS20 ubiquitylation result in defective resolution of stalled ribosomes and subsequent readthrough of poly(A)-containing stall sequences. Together, our results indicate that ZNF598, RACK1, and 40S regulatory ubiquitylation plays a pivotal role in mammalian ribosome-associated QC pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Vasculitis and viral infection]. (United States)

    Martínez Aguilar, N E; Guido Bayardo, R; Vargas Camaño, M E; Compañ González, D; Miranda Feria, A J


    Viruses have been implicated in vasculitis. To determine activity of viral infection associated with vasculitis. 17 patients with vasculitis had been in immunological and antiviral antibodies evaluation. Twenty five healthy controls sex and age matched with hematic biometry (BH) and AA. All subjects were negative to HIV and HBV. Viral activity was demonstrated in eight patients; vascular purpura (5), Takayasu disease (1), polyarteritis nodosa (1), erythema nodosum (1). None subject of control group had IgM activity. Antibodies response of IgG in patients were of lesser intensity than in control group. 14 abnormalities in BH were found in patients and 4 in control group. Immune response in patients, measured by lymphocyte subpopulations and circulating immune complexes was abnormal. In conclusion 47% showed viral activity, but the dominant feature was abnormal immune response in 82%.

  2. Modeling Viral Capsid Assembly (United States)


    I present a review of the theoretical and computational methodologies that have been used to model the assembly of viral capsids. I discuss the capabilities and limitations of approaches ranging from equilibrium continuum theories to molecular dynamics simulations, and I give an overview of some of the important conclusions about virus assembly that have resulted from these modeling efforts. Topics include the assembly of empty viral shells, assembly around single-stranded nucleic acids to form viral particles, and assembly around synthetic polymers or charged nanoparticles for nanotechnology or biomedical applications. I present some examples in which modeling efforts have promoted experimental breakthroughs, as well as directions in which the connection between modeling and experiment can be strengthened. PMID:25663722

  3. Neutron scattering and the 30 S ribosomal subunit of E. coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, P.B.; Engelman, D.M.; Langer, J.A.; Ramakrishnan, V.R.; Schindler, D.G.; Schoenborn, B.P.; Sillers, I.Y.; Yabuki, S.


    This paper reviews the progress made in the study of the internal organization of the 30 S ribosomal subunit of E. coli by neutron scattering since 1975. A map of that particle showing the position of 14 of the subunit's 21 proteins is presented, and the methods currently used for collecting and analyzing such data are discussed. Also discussed is the possibility of extending the interpretation of neutron mapping data beyond the limits practical today. 30 references, 5 figures.

  4. Neutron Scattering and the 30 S Ribosomal Subunit of E. Coli (United States)

    Moore, P. B.; Engelman, D. M.; Langer, J. A.; Ramakrishnan, V. R.; Schindler, D. G.; Schoenborn, B. P.; Sillers, I. Y.; Yabuki, S.


    This paper reviews the progress made in the study of the internal organization of the 30 S ribosomal subunit of E. coli by neutron scattering since 1975. A map of that particle showing the position of 14 of the subunit's 21 proteins is presented, and the methods currently used for collecting and analyzing such data are discussed. Also discussed is the possibility of extending the interpretation of neutron mapping data beyond the limits practical today.

  5. A 5.8S nuclear ribosomal RNA gene sequence database: applications to ecology and evolution (United States)

    Cullings, K. W.; Vogler, D. R.


    We complied a 5.8S nuclear ribosomal gene sequence database for animals, plants, and fungi using both newly generated and GenBank sequences. We demonstrate the utility of this database as an internal check to determine whether the target organism and not a contaminant has been sequenced, as a diagnostic tool for ecologists and evolutionary biologists to determine the placement of asexual fungi within larger taxonomic groups, and as a tool to help identify fungi that form ectomycorrhizae.

  6. Active yeast ribosome preparation using monolithic anion exchange chromatography. (United States)

    Munoz, Antonio M; Yourik, Paul; Rajagopal, Vaishnavi; Nanda, Jagpreet S; Lorsch, Jon R; Walker, Sarah E


    In vitro studies of translation provide critical mechanistic details, yet purification of large amounts of highly active eukaryotic ribosomes remains a challenge for biochemists and structural biologists. Here, we present an optimized method for preparation of highly active yeast ribosomes that could easily be adapted for purification of ribosomes from other species. The use of a nitrogen mill for cell lysis coupled with chromatographic purification of the ribosomes results in 10-fold-increased yield and less variability compared with the traditional approach, which relies on sedimentation through sucrose cushions. We demonstrate that these ribosomes are equivalent to those made using the traditional method in a host of in vitro assays, and that utilization of this new method will consistently produce high yields of active yeast ribosomes.

  7. Chemical modulators of ribosome biogenesis as biological probes. (United States)

    Stokes, Jonathan M; Brown, Eric D


    Small-molecule inhibitors of protein biosynthesis have been instrumental in the dissection of the complexities of ribosome structure and function. Ribosome biogenesis, on the other hand, is a complex and largely enigmatic process for which there is a paucity of chemical probes. Indeed, ribosome biogenesis has been studied almost exclusively using genetic and biochemical approaches without the benefit of small-molecule inhibitors of this process. Here, we provide a perspective on the promise of chemical inhibitors of ribosome assembly for future research. We explore key obstacles that complicate the interpretation of studies aimed at perturbing ribosome biogenesis in vivo using genetic methods, and we argue that chemical inhibitors are especially powerful because they can be used to induce perturbations in a manner that obviates these difficulties. Thus, in combination with leading-edge biochemical and structural methods, chemical probes offer unique advantages toward elucidating the molecular events that define the assembly of ribosomes.

  8. Immigration and viral hepatitis. (United States)

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J; Janssen, Harry L A


    WHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly originate from the developing countries of the south, into the developed economies of North America and Western Europe. This mass migration of individuals from areas of high-prevalence of viral hepatitis poses a unique challenge to the healthcare systems of the host nations. Due to a lack of universal standards for screening, vaccination and treatment of viral hepatitis, the burden of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase among migrant populations globally. Efforts to increase case identification and treatment among migrants have largely been limited to small outreach programs in urban centers, such that the majority of migrants with viral hepatitis continue to remain unaware of their infection. This review summarizes the data on prevalence of viral hepatitis and burden of chronic liver disease among migrants, current standards for screening and treatment of immigrants and refugees, and efforts to improve the identification and treatment of viral hepatitis among migrants. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Viral meningitis and encephalitis. (United States)

    Tuppeny, Misti


    Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, whereas encephalitis is inflammation of the parenchymal brain tissue. The single distinguishing element between the 2 diagnoses is the altered state of consciousness, focal deficits, and seizures found in encephalitis. Consequently meningoencephalitis is a term used when both findings are present in the patient. Viral meningitis is not necessarily reported as it is often underdiagnosed, whereas encephalitis cases are on the increase in various areas of North America. Improved imaging and viral diagnostics, as well as enhanced neurocritical care management, have improved patient outcomes to date. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The architecture of mammalian ribosomal protein promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Robert P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian ribosomes contain 79 different proteins encoded by widely scattered single copy genes. Coordinate expression of these genes at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels is required to ensure a roughly equimolar accumulation of ribosomal proteins. To date, detailed studies of only a very few ribosomal protein (rp promoters have been made. To elucidate the general features of rp promoter architecture, I made a detailed sequence comparison of the promoter regions of the entire set of orthologous human and mouse rp genes. Results A striking evolutionarily conserved feature of most rp genes is the separation by an intron of the sequences involved in transcriptional and translational regulation from the sequences with protein encoding function. Another conserved feature is the polypyrimidine initiator, which conforms to the consensus (Y2C+1TY(T2(Y3. At least 60 % of the rp promoters contain a largely conserved TATA box or A/T-rich motif, which should theoretically have TBP-binding capability. A remarkably high proportion of the promoters contain conserved binding sites for transcription factors that were previously implicated in rp gene expression, namely upstream GABP and Sp1 sites and downstream YY1 sites. Over 80 % of human and mouse rp genes contain a transposable element residue within 900 bp of 5' flanking sequence; very little sequence identity between human and mouse orthologues was evident more than 200 bp upstream of the transcriptional start point. Conclusions This analysis has provided some valuable insights into the general architecture of mammalian rp promoters and has identified parameters that might coordinately regulate the transcriptional activity of certain subsets of rp genes.

  11. Placeholder factors in ribosome biogenesis: please, pave my way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Espinar-Marchena


    Full Text Available The synthesis of cytoplasmic eukaryotic ribosomes is an extraordinarily energy-demanding cellular activity that occurs progressively from the nucleolus to the cytoplasm. In the nucleolus, precursor rRNAs associate with a myriad of trans-acting factors and some ribosomal proteins to form pre-ribosomal particles. These factors include snoRNPs, nucleases, ATPases, GTPases, RNA helicases, and a vast list of proteins with no predicted enzymatic activity. Their coordinate activity orchestrates in a spatiotemporal manner the modification and processing of precursor rRNAs, the rearrangement reactions required for the formation of productive RNA folding intermediates, the ordered assembly of the ribosomal proteins, and the export of pre-ribosomal particles to the cytoplasm; thus, providing speed, directionality and accuracy to the overall process of formation of translation-competent ribosomes. Here, we review a particular class of trans-acting factors known as “placeholders”. Placeholder factors temporarily bind selected ribosomal sites until these have achieved a structural context that is appropriate for exchanging the placeholder with another site-specific binding factor. By this strategy, placeholders sterically prevent premature recruitment of subsequently binding factors, premature formation of structures, avoid possible folding traps, and act as molecular clocks that supervise the correct progression of pre-ribosomal particles into functional ribosomal subunits. We summarize the current understanding of those factors that delay the assembly of distinct ribosomal proteins or subsequently bind key sites in pre-ribosomal particles. We also discuss recurrent examples of RNA-protein and protein-protein mimicry between rRNAs and/or factors, which have clear functional implications for the ribosome biogenesis pathway.

  12. Ribosomal RNA gene functioning in avian oogenesis. (United States)

    Koshel, Elena; Galkina, Svetlana; Saifitdinova, Alsu; Dyomin, Alexandr; Deryusheva, Svetlana; Gaginskaya, Elena


    Despite long-term exploration into ribosomal RNA gene functioning during the oogenesis of various organisms, many intriguing problems remain unsolved. In this review, we describe nucleolus organizer region (NOR) activity in avian oocytes. Whereas oocytes from an adult avian ovary never reveal the formation of the nucleolus in the germinal vesicle (GV), an ovary from juvenile birds possesses both nucleolus-containing and non-nucleolus-containing oocytes. The evolutionary diversity of oocyte NOR functioning and the potential non-rRNA-related functions of the nucleolus in oocytes are also discussed.

  13. Molecular dynamics simulation of ribosome jam

    KAUST Repository

    Matsumoto, Shigenori


    We propose a coarse-grained molecular dynamics model of ribosome molecules to study the dependence of translation process on environmental parameters. We found the model exhibits traffic jam property, which is consistent with an ASEP model. We estimated the influence of the temperature and concentration of molecules on the hopping probability used in the ASEP model. Our model can also treat environmental effects on the translation process that cannot be explained by such cellular automaton models. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ribosomal DNA polymorphisms in the yeast Geotrichum candidum. (United States)

    Alper, Iraz; Frenette, Michel; Labrie, Steve


    The dimorphic yeast Geotrichum candidum (teleomorph: Galactomyces candidus) is commonly used to inoculate washed-rind and bloomy-rind cheeses. However, little is known about the phylogenetic lineage of this microorganism. We have sequenced the complete 18S, 5.8S, 26S ribosomal RNA genes and their internal transcribed spacers (ITS1) and ITS2 regions (5126 nucleotides) from 18 G. candidum strains from various environmental niches, with a focus on dairy strains. Multiple sequence alignments revealed the presence of 60 polymorphic sites, which is generally unusual for ribosomal DNA (rDNA) within a given species because of the concerted evolution mechanism. This mechanism drives genetic homogenization to prevent the divergent evolution of rDNA copies within individuals. While the polymorphisms observed were mainly substitutions, one insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphism was detected in ITS1. No polymorphic sites were detected downstream from this indel site, that is, in 5.8S and ITS2. More surprisingly, many sequence electrophoregrams generated during the sequencing of the rDNA had dual peaks, suggesting that many individuals exhibited intragenomic rDNA variability. The ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions of four strains were cloned. The sequence analysis of 68 clones revealed 32 different ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 variants within these four strains. Depending on the strain, from four to twelve variants were detected, indicating that multiple rDNA copies were present in the genomes of these G. candidum strains. These results contribute to the debate concerning the use of the ITS region for barcoding fungi and suggest that community profiling techniques based on rDNA should be used with caution. Copyright © 2011 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ribosome Footprint Profiling of Translation throughout the Genome (United States)

    Ingolia, Nicholas T.


    Ribosome profiling has emerged as a technique for measuring translation comprehensively and quantitatively by deep sequencing of ribosome-protected mRNA fragments. By identifying the precise positions of ribosomes, footprinting experiments have unveiled key insights into the composition and regulation of the expressed proteome, including delineating potentially functional micropeptides, revealing pervasive translation on cytosolic RNAs, and identifying differences in elongation rates driven by codon usage or other factors. This Primer looks at important experimental and analytical concerns for executing ribosome profiling experiments and surveys recent examples where the approach was developed to explore protein biogenesis and homeostasis. PMID:27015305

  16. Dynamic Behavior of Trigger Factor on the Ribosome. (United States)

    Deeng, J; Chan, K Y; van der Sluis, E O; Berninghausen, O; Han, W; Gumbart, J; Schulten, K; Beatrix, B; Beckmann, R


    Trigger factor (TF) is the only ribosome-associated chaperone in bacteria. It interacts with hydrophobic segments in nascent chain (NCs) as they emerge from the ribosome. TF binds via its N-terminal ribosome-binding domain (RBD) mainly to ribosomal protein uL23 at the tunnel exit on the large ribosomal subunit. Whereas earlier structural data suggested that TF binds as a rigid molecule to the ribosome, recent comparisons of structural data on substrate-bound, ribosome-bound, and TF in solution from different species suggest that this chaperone is a rather flexible molecule. Here, we present two cryo-electron microscopy structures of TF bound to ribosomes translating an mRNA coding for a known TF substrate from Escherichia coli of a different length. The structures reveal distinct degrees of flexibility for the different TF domains, a conformational rearrangement of the RBD upon ribosome binding, and an increase in rigidity within TF when the NC is extended. Molecular dynamics simulations agree with these data and offer a molecular basis for these observations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Complete kinetic mechanism for recycling of the bacterial ribosome. (United States)

    Borg, Anneli; Pavlov, Michael; Ehrenberg, Måns


    How EF-G and RRF act together to split a post-termination ribosomal complex into its subunits has remained obscure. Here, using stopped-flow experiments with Rayleigh light scattering detection and quench-flow experiments with radio-detection of GTP hydrolysis, we have clarified the kinetic mechanism of ribosome recycling and obtained precise estimates of its kinetic parameters. Ribosome splitting requires that EF-G binds to an already RRF-containing ribosome. EF-G binding to RRF-free ribosomes induces futile rounds of GTP hydrolysis and inhibits ribosome splitting, implying that while RRF is purely an activator of recycling, EF-G acts as both activator and competitive inhibitor of RRF in recycling of the post-termination ribosome. The ribosome splitting rate and the number of GTPs consumed per splitting event depend strongly on the free concentrations of EF-G and RRF. The maximal recycling rate, here estimated as 25 sec(-1), is approached at very high concentrations of EF-G and RRF with RRF in high excess over EF-G. The present in vitro results, suggesting an in vivo ribosome recycling rate of ∼5 sec(-1), are discussed in the perspective of rapidly growing bacterial cells. © 2015 Borg et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  18. Ribosome hibernation factor promotes Staphylococcal survival and differentially represses translation. (United States)

    Basu, Arnab; Yap, Mee-Ngan F


    In opportunistic Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, a small protein called hibernation-promoting factor (HPFSa) is sufficient to dimerize 2.5-MDa 70S ribosomes into a translationally inactive 100S complex. Although the 100S dimer is observed in only the stationary phase in Gram-negative gammaproteobacteria, it is ubiquitous throughout all growth phases in S. aureus The biological significance of the 100S ribosome is poorly understood. Here, we reveal an important role of HPFSa in preserving ribosome integrity and poising cells for translational restart, a process that has significant clinical implications for relapsed staphylococcal infections. We found that the hpf null strain is severely impaired in long-term viability concomitant with a dramatic loss of intact ribosomes. Genome-wide ribosome profiling shows that eliminating HPFSa drastically increased ribosome occupancy at the 5' end of specific mRNAs under nutrient-limited conditions, suggesting that HPFSa may suppress translation initiation. The protective function of HPFSa on ribosomes resides at the N-terminal conserved basic residues and the extended C-terminal segment, which are critical for dimerization and ribosome binding, respectively. These data provide significant insight into the functional consequences of 100S ribosome loss for protein synthesis and stress adaptation. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Primary role for endoplasmic reticulum-bound ribosomes in cellular translation identified by ribosome profiling. (United States)

    Reid, David W; Nicchitta, Christopher V


    In eukaryotic cells, the spatial regulation of protein expression is frequently conferred through the coupling of mRNA localization and the local control of translation. mRNA localization to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a prominent example of such regulation and serves a ubiquitous role in segregating the synthesis of secretory and integral membrane proteins to the ER. Recent genomic and biochemical studies have now expanded this view to suggest a more substantial role for the ER cellular protein synthesis. We have utilized cell fractionation and ribosome profiling to obtain a genomic survey of the subcellular organization of mRNA translation and report that ribosomal loading of mRNAs, a proxy for mRNA translation, is biased to the ER. Notably, ER-associated mRNAs encoding both cytosolic and topogenic signal-encoding proteins display similar ribosome loading densities, suggesting that ER-associated ribosomes serve a global role in mRNA translation. We propose that the partitioning of mRNAs and their translation between the cytosol and ER compartments may represent a novel mechanism for the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.

  20. Transition state analogues rescue ribosomes from saporin-L1 ribosome inactivating protein. (United States)

    Sturm, Matthew B; Tyler, Peter C; Evans, Gary B; Schramm, Vern L


    Ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) catalyze the hydrolytic depurination of one or more adenosine residues from eukaryotic ribosomes. Depurination of the ribosomal sarcin-ricin tetraloop (GAGA) causes inhibition of protein synthesis and cellular death. We characterized the catalytic properties of saporin-L1 from Saponaria officinalis (soapwort) leaves, and it demonstrated robust activity against defined nucleic acid substrates and mammalian ribosomes. Transition state analogue mimics of small oligonucleotide substrates of saporin-L1 are powerful, slow-onset inhibitors when adenosine is replaced with the transition state mimic 9-deazaadenine-9-methylene-N-hydroxypyrrolidine (DADMeA). Linear, cyclic, and stem-loop oligonucleotide inhibitors containing DADMeA and based on the GAGA sarcin-ricin tetraloop gave slow-onset tight-binding inhibition constants (K(i)*) of 2.3-8.7 nM under physiological conditions and bind up to 40000-fold tighter than RNA substrates. Saporin-L1 inhibition of rabbit reticulocyte translation was protected by these inhibitors. Transition state analogues of saporin-L1 have potential in cancer therapy that employs saporin-L1-linked immunotoxins.

  1. A Molecular Titration System Coordinates Ribosomal Protein Gene Transcription with Ribosomal RNA Synthesis. (United States)

    Albert, Benjamin; Knight, Britta; Merwin, Jason; Martin, Victoria; Ottoz, Diana; Gloor, Yvonne; Bruzzone, Maria Jessica; Rudner, Adam; Shore, David


    Cell growth potential is determined by the rate of ribosome biogenesis, a complex process that requires massive and coordinated transcriptional output. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ribosome biogenesis is highly regulated at the transcriptional level. Although evidence for a system that coordinates ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and ribosomal protein gene (RPG) transcription has been described, the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we show that an interaction between the RPG transcriptional activator Ifh1 and the rRNA processing factor Utp22 serves to coordinate RPG transcription with that of rRNA. We demonstrate that Ifh1 is rapidly released from RPG promoters by a Utp22-independent mechanism following growth inhibition, but that its long-term dissociation requires Utp22. We present evidence that RNA polymerase I activity inhibits the ability of Utp22 to titrate Ifh1 from RPG promoters and propose that a dynamic Ifh1-Utp22 interaction fine-tunes RPG expression to coordinate RPG and rRNA transcription. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Phosphorylation of acidic ribosomal proteins from rabbit reticulocytes by a ribosome-associated casein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G


    Two acidic proteins from 80-S ribosomes were isolated and purified to homogeneity. The purified acidic proteins could be phosphorylated by casein kinase using [gamma-32P]ATP and [gamma-32P]GTP as a phosphoryl donor. The proteins became phosphorylated in situ, too. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacryl...

  3. Viral IRES prediction system - a web server for prediction of the IRES secondary structure in silico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie Hong

    Full Text Available The internal ribosomal entry site (IRES functions as cap-independent translation initiation sites in eukaryotic cells. IRES elements have been applied as useful tools for bi-cistronic expression vectors. Current RNA structure prediction programs are unable to predict precisely the potential IRES element. We have designed a viral IRES prediction system (VIPS to perform the IRES secondary structure prediction. In order to obtain better results for the IRES prediction, the VIPS can evaluate and predict for all four different groups of IRESs with a higher accuracy. RNA secondary structure prediction, comparison, and pseudoknot prediction programs were implemented to form the three-stage procedure for the VIPS. The backbone of VIPS includes: the RNAL fold program, aimed to predict local RNA secondary structures by minimum free energy method; the RNA Align program, intended to compare predicted structures; and pknotsRG program, used to calculate the pseudoknot structure. VIPS was evaluated by using UTR database, IRES database and Virus database, and the accuracy rate of VIPS was assessed as 98.53%, 90.80%, 82.36% and 80.41% for IRES groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. This advance useful search approach for IRES structures will facilitate IRES related studies. The VIPS on-line website service is available at

  4. Dual transgene expression in murine cerebellar Purkinje neurons by viral transduction in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie K Bosch

    Full Text Available Viral-vector mediated gene transfer to cerebellar Purkinje neurons in vivo is a promising avenue for gene therapy of cerebellar ataxias and for genetic manipulation in functional studies of animal models of cerebellar disease. Here, we report the results of experiments designed to identify efficient methods for viral transduction of adult murine Purkinje neurons in vivo. For these analyses, several lentiviral and an adeno-associated virus (AAV, serotype 1, vector with various promoter combinations were generated and compared for in situ transduction efficiency, assayed by fluorescent reporter protein expression in Purkinje neurons. Additional experiments were also conducted to identify the optimal experimental strategy for co-expression of two proteins in individual Purkinje neurons. Of the viruses tested, AAV1 with a CAG promoter exhibited the highest specificity for Purkinje neurons. To deliver two proteins to the same Purkinje neuron, several methods were tested, including: an internal ribosome entry site (IRES, a 2A sequence, a dual promoter vector, and co-injection of two viruses. Efficient expression of both proteins in the same Purkinje neuron was only achieved by co-injecting two AAV1-CAG viruses. We found that use of an AAV1-CAG virus outperformed similar lentivirus vectors and that co-injection of two AAV1-CAG viruses could be used to efficiently deliver two proteins to the same Purkinje neuron in adult mice. AAV1 with a CAG promoter is highly efficient and selective at transducing adult cerebellar Purkinje neurons and two AAV-CAG viruses can be used to efficiently express two proteins in the same neuron in vivo.

  5. Dual transgene expression in murine cerebellar Purkinje neurons by viral transduction in vivo. (United States)

    Bosch, Marie K; Nerbonne, Jeanne M; Ornitz, David M


    Viral-vector mediated gene transfer to cerebellar Purkinje neurons in vivo is a promising avenue for gene therapy of cerebellar ataxias and for genetic manipulation in functional studies of animal models of cerebellar disease. Here, we report the results of experiments designed to identify efficient methods for viral transduction of adult murine Purkinje neurons in vivo. For these analyses, several lentiviral and an adeno-associated virus (AAV), serotype 1, vector with various promoter combinations were generated and compared for in situ transduction efficiency, assayed by fluorescent reporter protein expression in Purkinje neurons. Additional experiments were also conducted to identify the optimal experimental strategy for co-expression of two proteins in individual Purkinje neurons. Of the viruses tested, AAV1 with a CAG promoter exhibited the highest specificity for Purkinje neurons. To deliver two proteins to the same Purkinje neuron, several methods were tested, including: an internal ribosome entry site (IRES), a 2A sequence, a dual promoter vector, and co-injection of two viruses. Efficient expression of both proteins in the same Purkinje neuron was only achieved by co-injecting two AAV1-CAG viruses. We found that use of an AAV1-CAG virus outperformed similar lentivirus vectors and that co-injection of two AAV1-CAG viruses could be used to efficiently deliver two proteins to the same Purkinje neuron in adult mice. AAV1 with a CAG promoter is highly efficient and selective at transducing adult cerebellar Purkinje neurons and two AAV-CAG viruses can be used to efficiently express two proteins in the same neuron in vivo.

  6. HIV and Viral Hepatitis (United States)

    ... get some forms of viral hepatitis the same way you get HIV—through unprotected sexual contact and injection drug use. HAV, which causes a short-term but occasionally severe illness, is usually spread when the virus is ingested from contact with ...

  7. Immigration and viral hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Sharma (Suraj); M. Carballo (Manuel); J.J. Feld (Jordan J.); H.L.A. Janssen (Harry)


    textabstractWHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and



    Shilpa Anand Hakki


    BACKGROUND There is an alarming increase in the incidence of fever with thrombocytopenia especially during monsoon and peri-monsoon period. Infections with protozoa, bacteria and viruses can cause thrombocytopenia with or without disseminated intravascular coagulation. Commonly, dengue, malaria, scrub typhus and other rickettsial infections, meningococci, Leptospira and certain viral infections present as fever with thrombocytopenia. Occasionally, these patients can go on to devel...

  9. In Profile: Models of Ribosome Biogenesis Defects and Regulation of Protein Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, P.B.M.


    Ribosomes are the mediators of protein synthesis in the cell and therefore crucial to proper cell function. In addition, ribosomes are highly abundant, with ribosomal RNA making up 80% of the RNA in the cell. A large amount of resources go into maintaining this pool of ribosomes, so ribosome

  10. Transcription analysis and small non-protein coding RNAs associated with bacterial ribosomal protein operons. (United States)

    Khayrullina, G A; Raabe, C A; Hoe, C H; Becker, K; Reinhardt, R; Tang, T H; Rozhdestvensky, T S; Kopylov, A M


    For decades ribosome biogenesis and translation represent key targets in the antimicrobial drug development to combat bacterial infections. Here we report a survey of various small non-protein coding (ncRNAs) associated with ribosomal protein (r-protein) operons in the bacterial pathogens S. aureus, V. cholerae, S. Typhi and M. tuberculosis. We identified four ncRNA candidates that overlap with important structural regions involved in translational feedback regulation. Most notable are the ncRNA 55 family containing the unique recognition site of the L10-(L12)4 complex that consequently might be involved in L10 operon regulation, and ncRNA StyR 337 that resembles the pseudoknot secondary structure of the S4 regulatory region. These findings potentially implicate the candidate ncRNAs in translational regulation of the corresponding operons. In total we report 28 intergenically encoded ncRNAs that map in sense orientation to 14 ribosomal protein operons and 13 cis-antisense encoded ncRNAs transcribed complementary to nine r-protein mRNAs. All ncRNA candidates were independently validated by extensive Northern blot hybridizations to account for growth-stage specific ncRNA transcription and to check ncRNA integrity. In addition we revisited the str-operon as experimental model to monitor internal initiation of transcription in the operon throughout bacterial growth by real-time PCR. Our data indicate additional facets of ribosomal protein operons transcription, and might lead to novel insights of ribosome biogenesis, as well as exploration of strategies involving differential drug development.

  11. Ribosome Flow Model on a Ring. (United States)

    Raveh, Alon; Zarai, Yoram; Margaliot, Michael; Tuller, Tamir


    The asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) is an important model from statistical physics describing particles that hop randomly from one site to the next along an ordered lattice of sites, but only if the next site is empty. ASEP has been used to model and analyze numerous multiagent systems with local interactions including the flow of ribosomes along the mRNA strand. In ASEP with periodic boundary conditions a particle that hops from the last site returns to the first one. The mean field approximation of this model is referred to as the ribosome flow model on a ring (RFMR). The RFMR may be used to model both synthetic and endogenous gene expression regimes. We analyze the RFMR using the theory of monotone dynamical systems. We show that it admits a continuum of equilibrium points and that every trajectory converges to an equilibrium point. Furthermore, we show that it entrains to periodic transition rates between the sites. We describe the implications of the analysis results to understanding and engineering cyclic mRNA translation in-vitro and in-vivo.

  12. Defining the bacteroides ribosomal binding site. (United States)

    Wegmann, Udo; Horn, Nikki; Carding, Simon R


    The human gastrointestinal tract, in particular the colon, hosts a vast number of commensal microorganisms. Representatives of the genus Bacteroides are among the most abundant bacterial species in the human colon. Bacteroidetes diverged from the common line of eubacterial descent before other eubacterial groups. As a result, they employ unique transcription initiation signals and, because of this uniqueness, they require specific genetic tools. Although some tools exist, they are not optimal for studying the roles and functions of these bacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract. Focusing on translation initiation signals in Bacteroides, we created a series of expression vectors allowing for different levels of protein expression in this genus, and we describe the use of pepI from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis as a novel reporter gene for Bacteroides. Furthermore, we report the identification of the 3' end of the 16S rRNA of Bacteroides ovatus and analyze in detail its ribosomal binding site, thus defining a core region necessary for efficient translation, which we have incorporated into the design of our expression vectors. Based on the sequence logo information from the 5' untranslated region of other Bacteroidales ribosomal protein genes, we conclude that our findings are relevant to all members of this order.

  13. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C


    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  14. Cap- and initiator tRNA-dependent initiation of TYMV polyprotein synthesis by ribosomes: Evaluation of the Trojan horse model for TYMV RNA translation


    Matsuda, Daiki; Dreher, Theo W.


    Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) RNA directs the translation of two overlapping open reading frames. Competing models have been previously published to explain ribosome access to the downstream polyprotein cistron. The Trojan horse model, based on cell-free experiments, proposes noncanonical cap-independent initiation in which the 3′-terminal tRNA-like structure (TLS) functionally replaces initiator tRNA, and the valine bound to the TLS becomes cis-incorporated into viral protein. The initia...

  15. Activities of Escherichia coli ribosomes in IF3 and RMF change to prepare 100S ribosome formation on entering the stationary growth phase. (United States)

    Yoshida, Hideji; Ueta, Masami; Maki, Yasushi; Sakai, Akiko; Wada, Akira


    The canonical ribosome cycle in bacteria consists of initiation, elongation, termination, and recycling stages. After the recycling stage, initiation factor 3 (IF3) stabilizes ribosomal dissociation by binding to 30S subunits for the next round of translation. On the other hand, during the stationary growth phase, it has been elucidated that Escherichia coli ribosomes are dimerized (100S ribosome formation) by binding ribosome modulation factor (RMF) and hibernation promoting factor (HPF), leading to a hibernation stage. This indicates that 100S ribosomes are formed after these factors are scrambled for ribosomes concomitantly with transition from the log phase to the stationary phase. In this study, to elucidate the ribosomal events before 100S ribosome formation, the relationships between protein factors (RMF and HPF) involved in 100S ribosome formation and IF3 involved in initiation complex formation were examined. As a result of in vitro assays, it was found that ribosomal dissociation activity by IF3 fell, and that ribosomal dimerization activity by RMF and HPF was elevated more when using stationary-phase ribosomes than when using log-phase ribosomes. This suggests that ribosomes change into forms which are hard to bind with IF3 and easy to form 100S ribosomes by RMF and HPF concomitantly with transition from the log phase to the stationary phase.

  16. Viral Marketing and Academic Institution


    Koktová, Silvie


    This bachelor thesis examines modern and constantly developing kind of internet marketing -- the so called viral marketing. It deals with its origin, principle, process, advantages and disadvantages, types of viral marketing and presumptions of creating successful viral campaign. The aim of the theoretical part is especially the understanding of viral marketing as one of the effective instruments of contemporary marketing. In this theoretical part the thesis also elaborates a marketing school...

  17. Real-Time In-Cell Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Ribosome-Targeted Antibiotics Modulate Quinary Protein Interactions. (United States)

    Breindel, Leonard; DeMott, Christopher; Burz, David S; Shekhtman, Alexander


    How ribosome antibiotics affect a wide range of biochemical pathways is not well understood; changes in RNA-mediated protein quinary interactions and consequent activity inside the crowded cytosol may provide one possible mechanism. We developed real-time (RT) in-cell nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to monitor temporal changes in protein quinary structure, for ≥24 h, in response to external and internal stimuli. RT in-cell NMR consists of a bioreactor containing gel-encapsulated cells inside a 5 mm NMR tube, a gravity siphon for continuous exchange of medium, and a horizontal drip irrigation system to supply nutrients to the cells during the experiment. We showed that adding antibiotics that bind to the small ribosomal subunit results in more extensive quinary interactions between thioredoxin and mRNA. The results substantiate the idea that RNA-mediated modulation of quinary protein interactions may provide the physical basis for ribosome inhibition and other regulatory pathways.

  18. An intron in a ribosomal protein gene from Tetrahymena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik; Andreasen, Per Hove; Dreisig, Hanne


    of hybrid-selected mRNA and authentic ribosomal proteins. The proteins show strong homology to ribosomal protein S12 from Escherichia coli. The coding region of the gene is interrupted by a 979-bp intron 68 bp downstream of the translation start. This is the first intron in a protein encoding gene...

  19. Close sequence identity between ribosomal DNA episomes of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba histolytica are now recognized as two distinct species – the former being nonpathogenic to humans. We had earlier studied the organization of ribosomal RNA genes in E. histolytica. Here we report the analysis of ribosomal RNA genes in E. dispar. The rRNA genes of E. dispar, like their ...

  20. Association of ribosomal anti-P antibodies with different parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antibodies with neuropsychiatric lupus manifestations and to find out the relationship of ribosomal anti-P antibodies with other autoimmune parameters of lupus. Ribosomal anti-P antibodies were evaluated in the serum of 41 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients as well as ANA, dsDNA, anti- Sm, anti-SSA, anti-SSB, ...

  1. Kinetic modeling predicts a stimulatory role for ribosome collisions at elongation stall sites in bacteria. (United States)

    Ferrin, Michael A; Subramaniam, Arvind R


    Ribosome stalling on mRNAs can decrease protein expression. To decipher ribosome kinetics at stall sites, we induced ribosome stalling at specific codons by starving the bacterium Escherichia coli for the cognate amino acid. We measured protein synthesis rates from a reporter library of over 100 variants that encoded systematic perturbations of translation initiation rate, the number of stall sites, and the distance between stall sites. Our measurements are quantitatively inconsistent with two widely-used kinetic models for stalled ribosomes: ribosome traffic jams that block initiation, and abortive (premature) termination of stalled ribosomes. Rather, our measurements support a model in which collision with a trailing ribosome causes abortive termination of the stalled ribosome. In our computational analysis, ribosome collisions selectively stimulate abortive termination without fine-tuning of kinetic rate parameters at ribosome stall sites. We propose that ribosome collisions serve as a robust timer for translational quality control pathways to recognize stalled ribosomes.

  2. Structures of eukaryotic ribosomal stalk proteins and its complex with trichosanthin, and their implications in recruiting ribosome-inactivating proteins to the ribosomes. (United States)

    Choi, Andrew K H; Wong, Eddie C K; Lee, Ka-Ming; Wong, Kam-Bo


    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIP) are RNA N-glycosidases that inactivate ribosomes by specifically depurinating a conserved adenine residue at the α-sarcin/ricin loop of 28S rRNA. Recent studies have pointed to the involvement of the C-terminal domain of the eukaryotic stalk proteins in facilitating the toxic action of RIPs. This review highlights how structural studies of eukaryotic stalk proteins provide insights into the recruitment of RIPs to the ribosomes. Since the C-terminal domain of eukaryotic stalk proteins is involved in specific recognition of elongation factors and some eukaryote-specific RIPs (e.g., trichosanthin and ricin), we postulate that these RIPs may have evolved to hijack the translation-factor-recruiting function of ribosomal stalk in reaching their target site of rRNA.

  3. Translation with frameshifting of ribosome along mRNA transcript

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jingwei


    Translation is an important process for prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells to produce necessary proteins for cell growth. Numerious experiments have been performed to explore the translational properties. Diverse models have also been developed to determine the biochemical mechanism of translation. However, to simplify the majority of the existing models, the frameshifting of ribosome along the mRNA transcript is neglected, which actually occurs in real cells and has been extensively experimentally studied. The frameshifting of ribosome evidently influences the efficiency and speed of translation, considering that the peptide chains synthesized by shifted ribosomes will not fold into functional proteins and will degrade rapidly. In this study, a theoretical model is presented to describe the translational process based on the model for totally asymmetric simple exclusion process. In this model, the frameshifting of the ribosome along the mRNA transcript and the attachment/detachment of the ribosome to/from the ...

  4. The Complete Structure of the Mycobacterium smegmatis 70S Ribosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jendrik Hentschel


    Full Text Available The ribosome carries out the synthesis of proteins in every living cell. It consequently represents a frontline target in anti-microbial therapy. Tuberculosis ranks among the leading causes of death worldwide, due in large part to the combination of difficult-to-treat latency and antibiotic resistance. Here, we present the 3.3-Å cryo-EM structure of the 70S ribosome of Mycobacterium smegmatis, a close relative to the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure reveals two additional ribosomal proteins and localizes them to the vicinity of drug-target sites in both the catalytic center and the decoding site of the ribosome. Furthermore, we visualized actinobacterium-specific rRNA and protein expansions that extensively remodel the ribosomal surface with implications for polysome organization. Our results provide a foundation for understanding the idiosyncrasies of mycobacterial translation and reveal atomic details of the structure that will facilitate the design of anti-tubercular therapeutics.

  5. Dengue viral infections


    Malavige, G; Fernando, S; Fernando, D; Seneviratne, S


    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Kishan


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Viral conjunctivitis is most commonly seen in the outpatient department. A variety of viruses which are responsible for conjunctival infection , of which Adenovirus is the most common. It is highly contagious during the first 2 weeks of infection. It can cause corneal involvement within 4 - 5 days after the onset of symptoms. Corneal lesions range from SPK (Superficial Punctat e Keratitis to epithelial defects. These corneal lesions may cause intense photophobia and impairment of vision. AIM : To find out the commonest etiological agent , to study the clinical features and complications related to it. METHODOLOGY : This study was carried out prospectively. 100 patients who came to outpatient department between October 2013 to October 2014 were enrolled in the study. All the age groups and both the genders were included. Patients underwent slit lamp examination and were diagnosed cl inically. 25 cases were submitted for Gram staining and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR study to know the type of virus and serotype . RESULT : 100 patients were diagnosed with viral conjunctivitis and were kept on follow up. 21percent of patients developed SPK. Adenovirus 8 was found to be more common than other viruses. CONCLUSION : The present study showed Adeno virus to be the most common etiological agent causing viral conjunctivitis and complications like subepithelial opacities and diminished vision


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Orlova


    Full Text Available An influence of ribosomal-proteoglycan complex (Ribomunyl on respiratory system in treatment and rehabilitation of 40 children with recurrent stenosing laryngotracheitis developed on the basis of respiratory viral infections was studied. Inclusion of this drug into complex of treatment and rehabilitation resulted in normalization of lungs’ ventilation and threshold sensitivity of airways, decreasing of common IgE and nitric oxide in these patients. The effect means significant decrease of persistent infectious-allergic inflammation. Treatment with this drug resulted in prolongation of remission in increase of children’s quality of life. Key words: children, recurrent stenosing laryngotracheitis, hypersensitivity of airways, Rybomunyl, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(5:36-41

  8. Orsay virus utilizes ribosomal frameshifting to express a novel protein that is incorporated into virions

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    Jiang, Hongbing; Franz, Carl J.; Wu, Guang; Renshaw, Hilary; Zhao, Guoyan [Departments of Molecular Microbiology and Pathology and Immunology, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Firth, Andrew E. [Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QP (United Kingdom); Wang, David, E-mail: [Departments of Molecular Microbiology and Pathology and Immunology, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States)


    Orsay virus is the first identified virus that is capable of naturally infecting Caenorhabditis elegans. Although it is most closely related to nodaviruses, Orsay virus differs from nodaviruses in its genome organization. In particular, the Orsay virus RNA2 segment encodes a putative novel protein of unknown function, termed delta, which is absent from all known nodaviruses. Here we present evidence that Orsay virus utilizes a ribosomal frameshifting strategy to express a novel fusion protein from the viral capsid (alpha) and delta ORFs. Moreover, the fusion protein was detected in purified virus fractions, demonstrating that it is most likely incorporated into Orsay virions. Furthermore, N-terminal sequencing of both the fusion protein and the capsid protein demonstrated that these proteins must be translated from a non-canonical initiation site. While the function of the alpha–delta fusion remains cryptic, these studies provide novel insights into the fundamental properties of this new clade of viruses. - Highlights: • Orsay virus encodes a novel fusion protein by a ribosomal frameshifting mechanism. • Orsay capsid and fusion protein is translated from a non-canonical initiation site. • The fusion protein is likely incorporated into Orsay virions.

  9. Tombusvirus-yeast interactions identify conserved cell-intrinsic viral restriction factors

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    Zsuzsanna eSasvari


    Full Text Available To combat viral infections, plants possess innate and adaptive immune pathways, such as RNA silencing, R gene and recessive gene-mediated resistance mechanisms. However, it is likely that additional cell-intrinsic restriction factors (CIRF are also involved in limiting plant virus replication. This review discusses novel CIRFs with antiviral functions, many of them RNA-binding proteins or affecting the RNA binding activities of viral replication proteins. The CIRFs against tombusviruses have been identified in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is developed as an advanced model organism. Grouping of the identified CIRFs based on their known cellular functions and subcellular localization in yeast reveals that TBSV replication is limited by a wide variety of host gene functions. Yeast proteins with the highest connectivity in the network map include the well-characterized Xrn1p 5’-3’ exoribonuclease, Act1p actin protein and Cse4p centromere protein. The protein network map also reveals an important interplay between the pro-viral Hsp70 cellular chaperone and the antiviral co-chaperones, and possibly key roles for the ribosomal or ribosome-associated factors. We discuss the antiviral functions of selected CIRFs, such as the RNA binding nucleolin, ribonucleases, WW-domain proteins, single- and multi-domain cyclophilins, TPR-domain co-chaperones and cellular ion pumps. These restriction factors frequently target the RNA-binding region in the viral replication proteins, thus interfering with the recruitment of the viral RNA for replication and the assembly of the membrane-bound viral replicase. Although many of the characterized CIRFs act directly against TBSV, we propose that the TPR-domain co-chaperones function as guardians of the cellular Hsp70 chaperone system, which is subverted efficiently by TBSV for viral replicase assembly in the absence of the TPR-domain co-chaperones.

  10. SUMO Ubc9 enzyme as a viral target. (United States)

    Varadaraj, Archana; Mattoscio, Domenico; Chiocca, Susanna


    Viruses alter specific host cell targets to counteract possible defense mechanisms aimed at eliminating infectivity and viral propagation. The SUMO conjugating enzyme Ubc9 functions as a hub for protein sumoylation, whilst also providing an interactive surface for sumoylated proteins through noncovalent interactions. The targeting of Ubc9 by viruses and viral proteins is thus highly beneficial for the disruption of both protein modification and protein-protein interaction mechanisms with which proteins increase their functional repertoire in cells. This review explores some of the clever mechanisms adopted by viruses to deregulate Ubc9, influence effector pathways and positively impact viral persistence consequently. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  11. Structure of the chloroplast ribosome: novel domains for translation regulation.

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    Andrea L Manuell


    Full Text Available Gene expression in chloroplasts is controlled primarily through the regulation of translation. This regulation allows coordinate expression between the plastid and nuclear genomes, and is responsive to environmental conditions. Despite common ancestry with bacterial translation, chloroplast translation is more complex and involves positive regulatory mRNA elements and a host of requisite protein translation factors that do not have counterparts in bacteria. Previous proteomic analyses of the chloroplast ribosome identified a significant number of chloroplast-unique ribosomal proteins that expand upon a basic bacterial 70S-like composition. In this study, cryo-electron microscopy and single-particle reconstruction were used to calculate the structure of the chloroplast ribosome to a resolution of 15.5 A. Chloroplast-unique proteins are visualized as novel structural additions to a basic bacterial ribosome core. These structures are located at optimal positions on the chloroplast ribosome for interaction with mRNAs during translation initiation. Visualization of these chloroplast-unique structures on the ribosome, combined with mRNA cross-linking, allows us to propose a model for translation initiation in chloroplasts in which chloroplast-unique ribosomal proteins interact with plastid-specific translation factors and RNA elements to facilitate regulated translation of chloroplast mRNAs.

  12. Post-transcriptional regulation of ribosome biogenesis in yeast

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    Isabelle C. Kos-Braun


    Full Text Available Most microorganisms are exposed to the constantly and often rapidly changing environment. As such they evolved mechanisms to balance their metabolism and energy expenditure with the resources available to them. When resources become scarce or conditions turn out to be unfavourable for growth, cells reduce their metabolism and energy usage to survive. One of the major energy consuming processes in the cell is ribosome biogenesis. Unsurprisingly, cells encountering adverse conditions immediately shut down production of new ribosomes. It is well established that nutrient depletion leads to a rapid repression of transcription of the genes encoding ribosomal proteins, ribosome biogenesis factors as well as ribosomal RNA (rRNA. However, if pre-rRNA processing and ribosome assembly are regulated post-transcriptionally remains largely unclear. We have recently uncovered that the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae rapidly switches between two alternative pre-rRNA processing pathways depending on the environmental conditions. Our findings reveal a new level of complexity in the regulation of ribosome biogenesis.

  13. PURE ribosome display and its application in antibody technology. (United States)

    Kanamori, Takashi; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Ueda, Takuya


    Ribosome display utilizes formation of the mRNA-ribosome-polypeptide ternary complex in a cell-free protein synthesis system to link genotype (mRNA) to phenotype (polypeptide). However, the presence of intrinsic components, such as nucleases in the cell-extract-based cell-free protein synthesis system, reduces the stability of the ternary complex, which would prevent attainment of reliable results. We have developed an efficient and highly controllable ribosome display system using the PURE (Protein synthesis Using Recombinant Elements) system. The mRNA-ribosome-polypeptide ternary complex is highly stable in the PURE system, and the selected mRNA can be easily recovered because activities of nucleases and other inhibitory factors are very low in the PURE system. We have applied the PURE ribosome display to antibody engineering approaches, such as epitope mapping and affinity maturation of antibodies, and obtained results showing that the PURE ribosome display is more efficient than the conventional method. We believe that the PURE ribosome display can contribute to the development of useful antibodies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Recent advances in molecular engineering of antibody. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. HSV usurps eukaryotic initiation factor 3 subunit M for viral protein translation: novel prevention target.

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    Natalia Cheshenko


    Full Text Available Prevention of genital herpes is a global health priority. B5, a recently identified ubiquitous human protein, was proposed as a candidate HSV entry receptor. The current studies explored its role in HSV infection. Viral plaque formation was reduced by approximately 90% in human cells transfected with small interfering RNA targeting B5 or nectin-1, an established entry receptor. However, the mechanisms were distinct. Silencing of nectin-1 prevented intracellular delivery of viral capsids, nuclear transport of a viral tegument protein, and release of calcium stores required for entry. In contrast, B5 silencing had no effect on these markers of entry, but inhibited viral protein translation. Specifically, viral immediate early genes, ICP0 and ICP4, were transcribed, polyadenylated and transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, but the viral transcripts did not associate with ribosomes or polysomes in B5-silenced cells. In contrast, immediate early gene viral transcripts were detected in polysome fractions isolated from control cells. These findings are consistent with sequencing studies demonstrating that B5 is eukaryotic initiation factor 3 subunit m (eIF3m. Although B5 silencing altered the polysome profile of cells, silencing had little effect on cellular RNA or protein expression and was not cytotoxic, suggesting that this subunit is not essential for host cellular protein synthesis. Together these results demonstrate that B5 plays a major role in the initiation of HSV protein translation and could provide a novel target for strategies to prevent primary and recurrent herpetic disease.

  15. Immigration and viral hepatitis


    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J.; Janssen, Harry


    textabstractWHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly or...

  16. Understanding Image Virality (United States)


    of images that is most similar to ours is the concurrently introduced viral meme generator of Wang et al., that combines NLP and Computer Vision (low...from what we might expect at a first glance. An analogous scenario researched in NLP is understanding the semantics of “That’s what she said!” jokes...and will require NLP and Computer Vision for understanding. 4.1. Intrinsic context We first examine whether humans and machines can pre- dict just by

  17. Intra- and intergenomic variation of ribosomal RNA operons in concurrent Alteromonas macleodii strains. (United States)

    López-Pérez, Mario; Gonzaga, Aitor; Martin-Cuadrado, Ana-Belen; López-García, Purificación; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Kimes, Nikole E


    Biodiversity estimates based on ribosomal operon sequence diversity rely on the premise that a sequence is characteristic of a single specific taxon or operational taxonomic unit (OTU). Here, we have studied the sequence diversity of 14 ribosomal RNA operons (rrn) contained in the genomes of two isolates (five operons in each genome) and four metagenomic fosmids, all from the same seawater sample. Complete sequencing of the isolate genomes and the fosmids establish that they represent strains of the same species, Alteromonas macleodii, with average nucleotide identity (ANI) values >97 %. Nonetheless, we observed high levels of intragenomic heterogeneity (i.e., variability between operons of a single genome) affecting multiple regions of the 16S and 23S rRNA genes as well as the internally transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) region. Furthermore, the ribosomal operons exhibited intergenomic heterogeneity (i.e., variability between operons located in separate genomes) in each of these regions, compounding the variability. Our data reveal the extensive heterogeneity observed in natural populations of A. macleodii at a single point in time and support the idea that distinct lineages of A. macleodii exist in the deep Mediterranean. These findings highlight the potential of rRNA fingerprinting methods to misrepresent species diversity while simultaneously failing to recognize the ecological significance of individual strains.

  18. Ribosomal DNA ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequence comparisons as a tool for predicting genetic relatedness. (United States)

    Coleman, A W; Mai, J C


    The determination of the secondary structure of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions separating nuclear ribosomal RNA genes of Chlorophytes has improved the fidelity of alignment of nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences from related organisms. Application of this information to sequences from green algae and plants suggested that a subset of the ITS-2 positions is relatively conserved. Organisms that can mate are identical at all of these 116 positions, or differ by at most, one nucleotide change. Here we sequenced and compared the ITS-1 and ITS-2 of 40 green flagellates in search of the nearest relative to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The analysis clearly revealed one unique candidate, C. incerta. Several ancillary benefits of the analysis included the identification of mislabelled cultures, the resolution of confusion concerning C. smithii, the discovery of misidentified sequences in GenBank derived from a green algal contaminant, and an overview of evolutionary relationships among the Volvocales, which is congruent with that derived from rDNA gene sequence comparisons but improves upon its resolution. The study further delineates the taxonomic level at which ITS sequences, in comparison to ribosomal gene sequences, are most useful in systematic and other studies.

  19. Cisplatin Targeting of Bacterial Ribosomal RNA Hairpins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayani N. P. Dedduwa-Mudalige


    Full Text Available Cisplatin is a clinically important chemotherapeutic agent known to target purine bases in nucleic acids. In addition to major deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA intrastrand cross-links, cisplatin also forms stable adducts with many types of ribonucleic acid (RNA including siRNA, spliceosomal RNAs, tRNA, and rRNA. All of these RNAs play vital roles in the cell, such as catalysis of protein synthesis by rRNA, and therefore serve as potential drug targets. This work focused on platination of two highly conserved RNA hairpins from E. coli ribosomes, namely pseudouridine-modified helix 69 from 23S rRNA and the 790 loop of helix 24 from 16S rRNA. RNase T1 probing, MALDI mass spectrometry, and dimethyl sulfate mapping revealed platination at GpG sites. Chemical probing results also showed platination-induced RNA structural changes. These findings reveal solvent and structural accessibility of sites within bacterial RNA secondary structures that are functionally significant and therefore viable targets for cisplatin as well as other classes of small molecules. Identifying target preferences at the nucleotide level, as well as determining cisplatin-induced RNA conformational changes, is important for the design of more potent drug molecules. Furthermore, the knowledge gained through studies of RNA-targeting by cisplatin is applicable to a broad range of organisms from bacteria to human.

  20. A process yields large quantities of pure ribosome subunits (United States)

    Friedman, M.; Lu, P.; Rich, A.


    Development of process for in-vitro protein synthesis from living cells followed by dissociation of ribosomes into subunits is discussed. Process depends on dialysis or use of chelating agents. Operation of process and advantages over previous methods are outlined.

  1. Crystal structures of ribosome anti-association factor IF6. (United States)

    Groft, C M; Beckmann, R; Sali, A; Burley, S K


    Ribosome anti-association factor eIF6 (originally named according to translation initiation terminology as eukaryotic initiation factor 6) binds to the large ribosomal subunit, thereby preventing inappropriate interactions with the small subunit during initiation of protein synthesis. We have determined the X-ray structures of two IF6 homologs, Methanococcus jannaschii archaeal aIF6 and Sacchromyces cerevisiae eIF6, revealing a phylogenetically conserved 25 kDa protein consisting of five quasi identical alpha/beta subdomains arrayed about a five-fold axis of pseudosymmetry. Yeast eIF6 prevents ribosomal subunit association. Comparative protein structure modeling with other known archaeal and eukaryotic homologs demonstrated the presence of two conserved surface regions, one or both of which may bind the large ribosomal subunit.

  2. Organization of Replication of Ribosomal DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Linskens, Maarten H.K.; Huberman, Joel A.


    Using recently developed replicon mapping techniques, we have analyzed the replication of the ribosomal DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results show that (i) the functional origin of replication colocalizes with an autonomously replicating sequence element previously mapped to the

  3. Structure of plant nuclear and ribosomal DNA containing chromatin. (United States)

    Leber, B; Hemleben, V


    Digestion of plant chromatin from Brassica pekinensis and Matthiola incana with staphylococcus nuclease leads to a DNA repeat of 175 plus or minus 8 and a core size of 140 base pairs. DNase I digestion results in multiples of 10 bases. Ribosomal RNN genes were studied as a model system for active plant chromatin because of their great redundancy and their high transcriptional activity in growing and differentiating tissues. The actively transcribed genes were identified by nascent RNA of ribosomal origin still attached to its matrix DNA. Hybridization techniques were used to demonstrate that even transcriptionally active gene sequences are present in nuclease generated chromatin subunits. Comparison of the DNase I kinetics of chromatin digestion with the amount of ribosomal RNA genes which is available for hybridization at the given times indicated that ribosomal RNA genes are digested, but not preferentially degraded by DNase I.

  4. A Genome-Wide Analysis of RNA Pseudoknots That Stimulate Efficient −1 Ribosomal Frameshifting or Readthrough in Animal Viruses

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    Xiaolan Huang


    Full Text Available Programmed −1 ribosomal frameshifting (PRF and stop codon readthrough are two translational recoding mechanisms utilized by some RNA viruses to express their structural and enzymatic proteins at a defined ratio. Efficient recoding usually requires an RNA pseudoknot located several nucleotides downstream from the recoding site. To assess the strategic importance of the recoding pseudoknots, we have carried out a large scale genome-wide analysis in which we used an in-house developed program to detect all possible H-type pseudoknots within the genomic mRNAs of 81 animal viruses. Pseudoknots are detected downstream from ~85% of the recoding sites, including many previously unknown pseudoknots. ~78% of the recoding pseudoknots are the most stable pseudoknot within the viral genomes. However, they are not as strong as some designed pseudoknots that exhibit roadblocking effect on the translating ribosome. Strong roadblocking pseudoknots are not detected within the viral genomes. These results indicate that the decoding pseudoknots have evolved to possess optimal stability for efficient recoding. We also found that the sequence at the gag-pol frameshift junction of HIV1 harbors potential elaborated pseudoknots encompassing the frameshift site. A novel mechanism is proposed for possible involvement of the elaborated pseudoknots in the HIV1 PRF event.

  5. Ribosome heterogeneity in tumorigenesis: the rRNA point of view


    Marcel, Virginie; Catez, Fr?d?ric; Diaz, Jean-Jacques


    The "specialized ribosome" concept proposes that ribosome variants are produced and differentially regulate translation. Examples supporting this notion demonstrated heterogeneity of ribosomal protein composition. However, ribosome translational activity is carried out by rRNA. We, and others, recently showed that rRNA heterogeneity regulates translation to generate distinct translatomes promoting tumorigenesis.

  6. Interaction of Pleuromutilin Derivatives with the Ribosomal Peptidyl Transferase Center


    Long, Katherine S.; Hansen, Lykke H.; Jakobsen, Lene; Vester, Birte


    Tiamulin is a pleuromutilin antibiotic that is used in veterinary medicine. The recently published crystal structure of a tiamulin-50S ribosomal subunit complex provides detailed information about how this drug targets the peptidyl transferase center of the ribosome. To promote rational design of pleuromutilin-based drugs, the binding of the antibiotic pleuromutilin and three semisynthetic derivatives with different side chain extensions has been investigated using chemical footprinting. The ...

  7. Comparison of genes fragments coding for ribosomal protein in sugarcane

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    María I. Oloriz


    Full Text Available Partial sequences of sugarcane genes, obtained by means of a subtractive library were identified by BLAST alignment against all sequences available in the databases. During the homology search, five genes were identified as chloroplast or citosol ribosomal proteins. The biggest homology obtained among the identified sequences as ribosomal proteins of sugarcane was with the corn genome. Key words: consensus domain, Saccharum spp., subtractive library

  8. A Next-Generation Sequencing Approach Uncovers Viral Transcripts Incorporated in Poxvirus Virions

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    Marica Grossegesse


    Full Text Available Transcripts are known to be incorporated in particles of DNA viruses belonging to the families of Herpesviridae and Mimiviridae, but the presence of transcripts in other DNA viruses, such as poxviruses, has not been analyzed yet. Therefore, we first established a next-generation-sequencing (NGS-based protocol, enabling the unbiased identification of transcripts in virus particles. Subsequently, we applied our protocol to analyze RNA in an emerging zoonotic member of the Poxviridae family, namely Cowpox virus. Our results revealed the incorporation of 19 viral transcripts, while host identifications were restricted to ribosomal and mitochondrial RNA. Most viral transcripts had an unknown and immunomodulatory function, suggesting that transcript incorporation may be beneficial for poxvirus immune evasion. Notably, the most abundant transcript originated from the D5L/I1R gene that encodes a viral inhibitor of the host cytoplasmic DNA sensing machinery.

  9. Bayesian prediction of RNA translation from ribosome profiling. (United States)

    Malone, Brandon; Atanassov, Ilian; Aeschimann, Florian; Li, Xinping; Großhans, Helge; Dieterich, Christoph


    Ribosome profiling via high-throughput sequencing (ribo-seq) is a promising new technique for characterizing the occupancy of ribosomes on messenger RNA (mRNA) at base-pair resolution. The ribosome is responsible for translating mRNA into proteins, so information about its occupancy offers a detailed view of ribosome density and position which could be used to discover new translated open reading frames (ORFs), among other things. In this work, we propose Rp-Bp, an unsupervised Bayesian approach to predict translated ORFs from ribosome profiles. We use state-of-the-art Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques to estimate posterior distributions of the likelihood of translation of each ORF. Hence, an important feature of Rp-Bp is its ability to incorporate and propagate uncertainty in the prediction process. A second novel contribution is automatic Bayesian selection of read lengths and ribosome P-site offsets (BPPS). We empirically demonstrate that our read length selection technique modestly improves sensitivity by identifying more canonical and non-canonical ORFs. Proteomics- and quantitative translation initiation sequencing-based validation verifies the high quality of all of the predictions. Experimental comparison shows that Rp-Bp results in more peptide identifications and proteomics-validated ORF predictions compared to another recent tool for translation prediction. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Dual effect of chloramphenicol peptides on ribosome inhibition. (United States)

    Bougas, Anthony; Vlachogiannis, Ioannis A; Gatos, Dimitrios; Arenz, Stefan; Dinos, George P


    Chloramphenicol peptides were recently established as useful tools for probing nascent polypeptide chain interaction with the ribosome, either biochemically, or structurally. Here, we present a new 10mer chloramphenicol peptide, which exerts a dual inhibition effect on the ribosome function affecting two distinct areas of the ribosome, namely the peptidyl transferase center and the polypeptide exit tunnel. According to our data, the chloramphenicol peptide bound on the chloramphenicol binding site inhibits the formation of both acetyl-phenylalanine-puromycin and acetyl-lysine-puromycin, showing, however, a decreased peptidyl transferase inhibition compared to chloramphenicol-mediated inhibition per se. Additionally, we found that the same compound is a strong inhibitor of green fluorescent protein synthesis in a coupled in vitro transcription-translation assay as well as a potent inhibitor of lysine polymerization in a poly(A)-programmed ribosome, showing that an additional inhibitory effect may exist. Since chemical protection data supported the interaction of the antibiotic with bases A2058 and A2059 near the entrance of the tunnel, we concluded that the extra inhibition effect on the synthesis of longer peptides is coming from interactions of the peptide moiety of the drug with residues comprising the ribosomal tunnel, and by filling up the tunnel and blocking nascent chain progression through the restricted tunnel. Therefore, the dual interaction of the chloramphenicol peptide with the ribosome increases its inhibitory effect and opens a new window for improving the antimicrobial potency of classical antibiotics or designing new ones.

  11. Equine viral arteritis

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    Kosec Marjan


    Full Text Available Equine viral arteritis (EVA is a contagious disease of equids caused by equine artheritis virus (EAV, widespread in most countries in the world, where patients are diagnosed. The infection usually starts asymptomatic. Clinical signs indicate respiratory infection of different intensity and also abortions are present at different stages of gestation. Large prevalence of this disease in the world has become a growing economic problem. The disease is specific to a particular kind of animals, and it affects only equids (horses, donkeys, mules, mule and zebras. In countries where the infection has been confirmed, the percentage of positive animals differ. Likewise, there is difference in percentage among certain animal kinds. The highest percentage of positive animals has been found in totters and the lowest in cold-blooded.

  12. Viral gene therapy. (United States)

    Mancheño-Corvo, P; Martín-Duque, P


    Cancer is a multigenic disorder involving mutations of both tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. A large body of preclinical data, however, has suggested that cancer growth can be arrested or reversed by treatment with gene transfer vectors that carry a single growth inhibitory or pro-apoptotic gene or a gene that can recruit immune responses against the tumor. Many of these gene transfer vectors are modified viruses. The ability for the delivery of therapeutic genes, made them desirable for engineering virus vector systems. The viral vectors recently in laboratory and clinical use are based on RNA and DNA viruses processing very different genomic structures and host ranges. Particular viruses have been selected as gene delivery vehicles because of their capacities to carry foreign genes and their ability to efficiently deliver these genes associated with efficient gene expression. These are the major reasons why viral vectors derived from retroviruses, adenovirus, adeno-associated virus, herpesvirus and poxvirus are employed in more than 70% of clinical gene therapy trials worldwide. Because these vector systems have unique advantages and limitations, each has applications for which it is best suited. Retroviral vectors can permanently integrate into the genome of the infected cell, but require mitotic cell division for transduction. Adenoviral vectors can efficiently deliver genes to a wide variety of dividing and nondividing cell types, but immune elimination of infected cells often limits gene expression in vivo. Herpes simplex virus can deliver large amounts of exogenous DNA; however, cytotoxicity and maintenance of transgene expression remain as obstacles. AAV also infects many non-dividing and dividing cell types, but has a limited DNA capacity. This review discusses current and emerging virusbased genetic engineering strategies for the delivery of therapeutic molecules or several approaches for cancer treatment.

  13. Simple and inexpensive ribosome profiling analysis of mRNA translation. (United States)

    Reid, David W; Shenolikar, Shirish; Nicchitta, Christopher V


    The development and application of ribosome profiling has markedly advanced our understanding of ribosomes and mRNA translation. The experimental approach, which relies on deep sequencing of ribosome-protected mRNA fragments generated by treatment of polyribosomes with exogenous nucleases, provides a transcriptome-wide assessment of translation. The broad application of ribosome profiling has been slowed by the complexity and expense of the protocol. Here, we provide a simplified ribosome profiling method that uses micrococcal nuclease to generate ribosome footprints in crude cellular extracts, which are then purified simply by size selection via polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This simplification removes the laborious or expensive purification of ribosomes that has typically been used. This direct extraction method generates gene-level ribosome profiling data that are similar to a method that includes ribosome purification. This protocol should significantly ease the barrier to entry for research groups interested in employing ribosome profiling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Structure of the 100S ribosome in the hibernation stage revealed by electron cryomicroscopy. (United States)

    Kato, Takayuki; Yoshida, Hideji; Miyata, Tomoko; Maki, Yasushi; Wada, Akira; Namba, Keiichi


    In the stationary growth phase of bacteria, protein biosynthesis on ribosomes is suppressed, and the ribosomes are preserved in the cell by the formation of the 100S ribosome. The 100S ribosome is a dimer of the 70S ribosome and is formed by the binding of the ribosome modulation factor and the hibernation promoting factor. However, the binding mode between the two 70S ribosomes and the mechanism of complex formation are still poorly understood. Here, we report the structure of the 100S ribosome by electron cryomicroscopy and single-particle image analysis. The 100S ribosome purified from the cell in the stationary growth phase is composed of two transfer RNA-free 70S ribosomes, has two-fold symmetry, and is formed through interactions between their 30S subunits, where interactions between small subunit proteins, S2, S3 and S5, appear to be critical for the dimerization.

  15. Neurodegeneration-associated instability of ribosomal DNA. (United States)

    Hallgren, Justin; Pietrzak, Maciej; Rempala, Grzegorz; Nelson, Peter T; Hetman, Michal


    Homologous recombination (HR)-mediated instability of the repetitively organized ribosomal DNA (rDNA) has been proposed as a mediator of cell senescence in yeast triggering the DNA damage response. High individual variability in the content of human rDNA suggests that this genomic region remained relatively unstable throughout evolution. Therefore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the genomic content of rDNA in post mortem samples of parietal cortex from 14 young and 9 elderly individuals with no diagnosis of a chronic neurodegenerative/neurological disease. In addition, rDNA content in that brain region was compared between 10 age-matched control individuals and 10 patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) which involves neurodegeneration of the cerebral cortex. Probing rRNA-coding regions of rDNA revealed no effects of aging on the rDNA content. Elevated rDNA content was observed in DLB. Conversely, in the DLB pathology-free cerebellum, lower genomic content of rDNA was present in the DLB group. In the parietal cortex, such a DLB-associated instability of rDNA was not accompanied by any major changes of cytosine-phosphate-guanine methylation of the rDNA promoter. As increased cerebro-cortical rDNA content was previously reported in Alzheimer's disease, neurodegeneration appears to be associated with instability of rDNA. The hypothetical origins and consequences of this phenomenon are discussed including possibilities that the DNA damage-induced recombination destabilizes rDNA and that differential content of rDNA affects heterochromatin formation, gene expression and/or DNA damage response. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Role of the Nucleolus in Human Disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in chloroplastic and cytoplasmic ribosomal protein after GA3-treatment of Zea mays leaves

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    P. Masłowski


    Full Text Available Protein was isolated from chioroplastic and cytoplasmic ribosomes of 14-day-old maize leaves subjected to the action of gibberellic acid. The proteins were separated electrophoretically on polyacrylamide gel. Fourteen fractions of ribosomal protein were obtained exhibiting wide electrophoretic differences. Qualitative differences were found between the chloroplastic and cytoplasmic ribosomes. Gibberellic acid caused the appearance of an additional protein Traction in cytoplasmic ribosomes. It did not, however, affect the qualitative composition of ribosome proteins from chloroplasts.

  17. Increased ribosome density associated to positively charged residues is evident in ribosome profiling experiments performed in the absence of translation inhibitors. (United States)

    Requião, Rodrigo D; de Souza, Henrique José Araujo; Rossetto, Silvana; Domitrovic, Tatiana; Palhano, Fernando L


    It has been proposed that polybasic peptides cause slower movement of ribosomes through an electrostatic interaction with the highly negative ribosome exit tunnel. Ribosome profiling data-the sequencing of short ribosome-bound fragments of mRNA-is a powerful tool for the analysis of mRNA translation. Using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model, we showed that reduced translation efficiency associated with polybasic protein sequences could be inferred from ribosome profiling. However, an increase in ribosome density at polybasic sequences was evident only when the commonly used translational inhibitors cycloheximide and anisomycin were omitted during mRNA isolation. Since ribosome profiling performed without inhibitors agrees with experimental evidence obtained by other methods, we conclude that cycloheximide and anisomycin must be avoided in ribosome profiling experiments.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Strunjak-Perović


    Full Text Available Adequate knowledge on fish diseases caused by viruses is still lacking. Up until now, in fish which live their entire life cycle or part of it in the sea, some viral diseases have been determined (lymphoeytis, viral necrosis of crythrocytes, ciravosti cod syndrome, encephalitis, viral hemoragic septichemistry, viral hematopoetic necrosis, viral gusteraca necrosis, chum renviral infection, branchionephritis, rabdociral eel infection. Some of these diseases primarily occur in the freshwater phase of host development, although recordings exist that the virus is carried on in surving samples which succeed in making it to the sea. As the number of sea fish species increases in controlled culture a increasing number of pathological cases are observed, which is caused by viruses. Therefore, in this area it is necessary to emphasize future investigations.

  19. Viral entry pathways: the example of common cold viruses. (United States)

    Blaas, Dieter


    For infection, viruses deliver their genomes into the host cell. These nucleic acids are usually tightly packed within the viral capsid, which, in turn, is often further enveloped within a lipid membrane. Both protect them against the hostile environment. Proteins and/or lipids on the viral particle promote attachment to the cell surface and internalization. They are likewise often involved in release of the genome inside the cell for its use as a blueprint for production of new viruses. In the following, I shall cursorily discuss the early more general steps of viral infection that include receptor recognition, uptake into the cell, and uncoating of the viral genome. The later sections will concentrate on human rhinoviruses, the main cause of the common cold, with respect to the above processes. Much of what is known on the underlying mechanisms has been worked out by Renate Fuchs at the Medical University of Vienna.

  20. Cryo-EM structure of Hepatitis C virus IRES bound to the human ribosome at 3.9-Å resolution (United States)

    Quade, Nick; Boehringer, Daniel; Leibundgut, Marc; van den Heuvel, Joop; Ban, Nenad


    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a widespread human pathogen, is dependent on a highly structured 5'-untranslated region of its mRNA, referred to as internal ribosome entry site (IRES), for the translation of all of its proteins. The HCV IRES initiates translation by directly binding to the small ribosomal subunit (40S), circumventing the need for many eukaryotic translation initiation factors required for mRNA scanning. Here we present the cryo-EM structure of the human 40S ribosomal subunit in complex with the HCV IRES at 3.9 Å resolution, determined by focused refinement of an 80S ribosome-HCV IRES complex. The structure reveals the molecular details of the interactions between the IRES and the 40S, showing that expansion segment 7 (ES7) of the 18S rRNA acts as a central anchor point for the HCV IRES. The structural data rationalizes previous biochemical and genetic evidence regarding the initiation mechanism of the HCV and other related IRESs.

  1. GTP-independent tRNA delivery to the ribosomal P-site by a novel eukaryotic translation factor. (United States)

    Dmitriev, Sergey E; Terenin, Ilya M; Andreev, Dmitri E; Ivanov, Pavel A; Dunaevsky, Jacov E; Merrick, William C; Shatsky, Ivan N


    During translation, aminoacyl-tRNAs are delivered to the ribosome by specialized GTPases called translation factors. Here, we report the tRNA binding to the P-site of 40 S ribosomes by a novel GTP-independent factor eIF2D isolated from mammalian cells. The binding of tRNA(i)(Met) occurs after the AUG codon finds its position in the P-site of 40 S ribosomes, the situation that takes place during initiation complex formation on the hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site or on some other specific RNAs (leaderless mRNA and A-rich mRNAs with relaxed scanning dependence). Its activity in tRNA binding with 40 S subunits does not require the presence of the aminoacyl moiety. Moreover, the factor possesses the unique ability to deliver non-Met (elongator) tRNAs into the P-site of the 40 S subunit. The corresponding gene is found in all eukaryotes and includes an SUI1 domain present also in translation initiation factor eIF1. The versatility of translation initiation strategies in eukaryotes is discussed.

  2. Cap- and initiator tRNA-dependent initiation of TYMV polyprotein synthesis by ribosomes: evaluation of the Trojan horse model for TYMV RNA translation. (United States)

    Matsuda, Daiki; Dreher, Theo W


    Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) RNA directs the translation of two overlapping open reading frames. Competing models have been previously published to explain ribosome access to the downstream polyprotein cistron. The Trojan horse model, based on cell-free experiments, proposes noncanonical cap-independent initiation in which the 3'-terminal tRNA-like structure (TLS) functionally replaces initiator tRNA, and the valine bound to the TLS becomes cis-incorporated into viral protein. The initiation coupling model, based on in vivo expression and ribosome toe-printing studies, proposes a variation of canonical leaky scanning. Here, we have re-examined the wheat germ extract experiments that led to the Trojan horse model, incorporating a variety of controls. We report that (1) translation in vitro from the polyprotein AUG of TYMV RNA is unchanged after removal of the 3' TLS but is stimulated by the presence of a 5'-cap; (2) the presence of free cap analog or edeine (which interferes with initiation at the ribosomal P site and its tRNA(i) (Met) involvement) inhibits translation from the polyprotein AUG; (3) the toe-prints of immediately post-initiation ribosomes on TYMV RNA are similar with and without an intact TLS; and (4) significant deacylation of valyl-TYMV RNA in wheat germ extract can complicate the detection of cis-incorporation. These results favor the initiation coupling model.

  3. The role of GTP in transient splitting of 70S ribosomes by RRF (ribosome recycling factor) and EF-G (elongation factor G). (United States)

    Hirokawa, Go; Iwakura, Nobuhiro; Kaji, Akira; Kaji, Hideko


    Ribosome recycling factor (RRF), elongation factor G (EF-G) and GTP split 70S ribosomes into subunits. Here, we demonstrated that the splitting was transient and the exhaustion of GTP resulted in re-association of the split subunits into 70S ribosomes unless IF3 (initiation factor 3) was present. However, the splitting was observed with sucrose density gradient centrifugation (SDGC) without IF3 if RRF, EF-G and GTP were present in the SDGC buffer. The splitting of 70S ribosomes causes the decrease of light scattering by ribosomes. Kinetic constants obtained from the light scattering studies are sufficient to account for the splitting of 70S ribosomes by RRF and EF-G/GTP during the lag phase for activation of ribosomes for the log phase. As the amount of 70S ribosomes increased, more RRF, EF-G and GTP were necessary to split 70S ribosomes. In the presence of a physiological amount of polyamines, GTP and factors, even 0.6 microM 70S ribosomes (12 times higher than the 70S ribosomes for routine assay) were split. Spermidine (2 mM) completely inhibited anti-association activity of IF3, and the RRF/EF-G/GTP-dependent splitting of 70S ribosomes.

  4. Tight Junctions Go Viral!

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    Jesús M. Torres-Flores


    Full Text Available Tight junctions (TJs are highly specialized membrane domains involved in many important cellular processes such as the regulation of the passage of ions and macromolecules across the paracellular space and the establishment of cell polarity in epithelial cells. Over the past few years there has been increasing evidence that different components of the TJs can be hijacked by viruses in order to complete their infectious cycle. Viruses from at least nine different families of DNA and RNA viruses have been reported to use TJ proteins in their benefit. For example, TJ proteins such as JAM-A or some members of the claudin family of proteins are used by members of the Reoviridae family and hepatitis C virus as receptors or co-receptors during their entry into their host cells. Reovirus, in addition, takes advantage of the TJ protein Junction Adhesion Molecule-A (JAM-A to achieve its hematogenous dissemination. Some other viruses are capable of regulating the expression or the localization of TJ proteins to induce cell transformation or to improve the efficiency of their exit process. This review encompasses the importance of TJs for viral entry, replication, dissemination, and egress, and makes a clear statement of the importance of studying these proteins to gain a better understanding of the replication strategies used by viruses that infect epithelial and/or endothelial cells.

  5. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond (United States)

    Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused ...

  6. The epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bener Abdulbari


    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in many countries all over the world and especially in Middle East, Asia, East-Europe, and Africa. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of viral hepatitis A, B and C in Qatar and compare it with other countries. This is a retrospective cohort study, which was conducted at Hamad General Hospital, State of Qatar from 2002-2006. Patients who were screened and diagnosed with viral hepatitis were included in this study. The diagnostic classification of definite viral hepatitis was made in accordance with criteria based on the International Classification of Disease tenth revision (ICD-10. A total of 527 cases of hepatitis C, 396 cases of hepatitis B, 162 cases of hepatitis A and 108 cases of unspecified were reported during the year 2006. Reported incidence rate per 10,000 populations during the year 2006 for hepatitis A was 1.9, hepatitis B 4.7, and Hepatitis C 6.3. The proportion of hepatitis B and C was significantly higher in male population than females across the years (2002-2006. Hepatitis A was more prevalent in children below 15 years (72.3%, hepatitis B in adults aged above 15 years, and hepatitis C in the population above 35 years of age. The incidence of hepatitis A has been declining in Qataris and increasing in expatriates. There was a significant relationship in gender and age group of the patients with hepatitis A, B and C. We conclude that hepatitis has become a national health issue in Qatar. The incidence rate of hepatitis in Qatar is comparable to its neighboring countries, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on hepatitis and the associated risk factors.

  7. The epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Qatar. (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Al-Kaabi, Saad; Derbala, Moutaz; Al-Marri, Ajayeb; Rikabi, Ammar


    Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in many countries all over the world and especially in Middle East, Asia, East-Europe, and Africa. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of viral hepatitis A, B and C in Qatar and compare it with other countries. This is a retrospective cohort study, which was conducted at Hamad General Hospital, State of Qatar from 2002-2006. Patients who were screened and diagnosed with viral hepatitis were included in this study. The diagnostic classification of definite viral hepatitis was made in accordance with criteria based on the International Classification of Disease tenth revision (ICD-10). A total of 527 cases of hepatitis C, 396 cases of hepatitis B, 162 cases of hepatitis A and 108 cases of unspecified were reported during the year 2006. Reported incidence rate per 10,000 populations during the year 2006 for hepatitis A was 1.9, hepatitis B 4.7, and Hepatitis C 6.3. The proportion of hepatitis B and C was significantly higher in male population than females across the years (2002-2006). Hepatitis A was more prevalent in children below 15 years (72.3%), hepatitis B in adults aged above 15 years, and hepatitis C in the population above 35 years of age. The incidence of hepatitis A has been declining in Qataris and increasing in expatriates. There was a significant relationship in gender and age group of the patients with hepatitis A, B and C. We conclude that hepatitis has become a national health issue in Qatar. The incidence rate of hepatitis in Qatar is comparable to its neighboring countries, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on hepatitis and the associated risk factors.

  8. Phylogenetic study on the 5'-untranslated region of bovine viral diarrhoea virus isolates from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Esmaelizad


    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhoea virus is a pathogen of bovids associated with reproduction system, causing in infected animals a range of ailments, from abortion to congenital defects. In this article, the nucleotide structure of the 5'-untranslated region (5-UTR from 7 Iranian bovine diarrhoea virus (BVDV isolates was characterized and subjected to comparative analysis against a panel of BVDV isolates from different sources. To this end, a 288 bp-long stretch of the internal ribosome entry site was amplified by RT-PCR. The PCR products subsequently cloned into PTZ57T vector and sequenced using T7 promoter primers. This resulted in detection of 3 new point mutations G→A and G→T in 2 isolates. When these findings were phylogenetically assessed, all the examined Iranian isolates were deemed to belong to the type1 of BVDV. Besides, 2 subtypes were identified among these isolates. In group A, a high level of similarity (99.2% between Iranian isolates with a cytopathic Australian strain of BVDV-1c was detected; while in group B, the 4 Iranian isolates proved to be very similar to NADL-like BVDV-1a strains. We believe that the surprisingly high level of similarity between group A Iranian isolates and their corresponding Australian strain is likely to be an indication of a shared common ancestor. If correct, the most likely explanation of this observation is the introduction of such strains from Australia to Iran, possibly through exportation of infected live animals or animal productions (e.g. semen and meat at some points in the past. Nevertheless, this hypothesis remains to be proved as further epidemiological work at genomic level is required to understand population of BVDV in Iran.

  9. Rrp15p, a novel component of pre-ribosomal particles required for 60S ribosome subunit maturation (United States)



    In eukaryotes ribosome biogenesis required that rRNAs primary transcripts are assembled in pre-ribosomal particles and processed. Protein factors and pre-ribosomal complexes involved in this complex pathway are not completely depicted. The essential ORF YPR143W encodes in yeast for an uncharacterized protein product, named here Rrp15p. Cellular function of Rrp15p has not so far defined even if nucleolar location was referred. With the aim to define the possible role of this orphan gene, we performed TAP-tagging of Rrp15p and investigated its molecular association with known pre-ribosomal complexes. Comparative sucrose gradient sedimentation analyses of yeast lysates expressing the TAP-tagged Rrp15p, strongly indicated that this protein is a component of the pre-60S particles. Northern hybridization, primer extension and functional proteomics on TAP-affinity isolated complexes proved that Rrp15p predominately associated with pre-rRNAs and proteins previously characterized as components of early pre-60S ribosomal particles. Finally, depletion of Rrp15p inhibited the accumulation of 27S and 7S pre-rRNAs and 5.8S and 25S mature rRNA. These results provide the first indication that Rrp15p is a novel factor involved in the early maturation steps of the 60S subunits. Moreover, the identification of the protein kinase CK2 in the Rrp15p-containing pre-ribosomal particles here reported, sustains the link between ribosome synthesis and cell cycle progression. PMID:15769876

  10. Transcriptome-wide measurement of translation by ribosome profiling. (United States)

    McGlincy, Nicholas J; Ingolia, Nicholas T


    Translation is one of the fundamental processes of life. It comprises the assembly of polypeptides whose amino acid sequence corresponds to the codon sequence of an mRNA's ORF. Translation is performed by the ribosome; therefore, in order to understand translation and its regulation we must be able to determine the numbers and locations of ribosomes on mRNAs in vivo. Furthermore, we must be able to examine their redistribution in different physiological contexts and in response to experimental manipulations. The ribosome profiling method provides us with an opportunity to learn these locations, by sequencing a cDNA library derived from the short fragments of mRNA covered by the ribosome. Since its original description, the ribosome profiling method has undergone continuing development; in this article we describe the method's current state. Important improvements include: the incorporation of sample barcodes to enable library multiplexing, the incorporation of unique molecular identifiers to enable to removal of duplicated sequences, and the replacement of a gel-purification step with the enzymatic degradation of unligated linker. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Epigenetic engineering of ribosomal RNA genes enhances protein production.

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    Raffaella Santoro

    Full Text Available Selection of mammalian high-producer cell lines remains a major challenge for the biopharmaceutical manufacturing industry. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA genes encode the major component of the ribosome but many rRNA gene copies are not transcribed due to epigenetic silencing by the nucleolar remodelling complex (NoRC [6], which may limit the cell's full production capacity. Here we show that the knockdown of TIP5, a subunit of NoRC, decreases the number of silent rRNA genes, upregulates rRNA transcription, enhances ribosome synthesis and increases production of recombinant proteins. However, general enhancement of rRNA transcription rate did not stimulate protein synthesis. Our data demonstrates that the number of transcriptionally competent rRNA genes limits efficient ribosome synthesis. Epigenetic engineering of ribosomal RNA genes offers new possibilities for improving biopharmaceutical manufacturing and provides novel insights into the complex regulatory network which governs the translation machinery in normal cellular processes as well as in pathological conditions like cancer.

  12. Neuroanatomy goes viral!

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    Jonathan eNassi


    Full Text Available The nervous system is complex not simply because of the enormous number of neurons it contains but by virtue of the specificity with which they are connected. Unraveling this specificity is the task of neuroanatomy. In this endeavor, neuroanatomists have traditionally exploited an impressive array of tools ranging from the Golgi method to electron microscopy. An ideal method for studying anatomy would label neurons that are interconnected, and, in addition, allow expression of foreign genes in these neurons. Fortuitously, nature has already partially developed such a method in the form of neurotropic viruses, which have evolved to deliver their genetic material between synaptically connected neurons while largely eluding glia and the immune system. While these characteristics make some of these viruses a threat to human health, simple modifications allow them to be used in controlled experimental settings, thus enabling neuroanatomists to trace multi-synaptic connections within and across brain regions. Wild-type neurotropic viruses, such as rabies and alpha-herpes virus, have already contributed greatly to our understanding of brain connectivity, and modern molecular techniques have enabled the construction of recombinant forms of these and other viruses. These newly engineered reagents are particularly useful, as they can target genetically defined populations of neurons, spread only one synapse to either inputs or outputs, and carry instructions by which the targeted neurons can be made to express exogenous proteins, such as calcium sensors or light-sensitive ion channels, that can be used to study neuronal function. In this review, we address these uniquely powerful features of the viruses already in the neuroanatomist's toolbox, as well as the aspects of their biology that currently limit their utility. Based on the latter, we consider strategies for improving viral tracing methods by reducing toxicity, improving control of transsynaptic

  13. Identification of the binding site of Rlp7 on assembling 60S ribosomal subunits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (United States)

    Dembowski, Jill A.; Ramesh, Madhumitha; McManus, C. Joel; Woolford, John L.


    Eukaryotic ribosome assembly requires over 200 assembly factors that facilitate rRNA folding, ribosomal protein binding, and pre-rRNA processing. One such factor is Rlp7, an essential RNA binding protein required for consecutive pre-rRNA processing steps for assembly of yeast 60S ribosomal subunits: exonucleolytic processing of 27SA3 pre-rRNA to generate the 5′ end of 5.8S rRNA and endonucleolytic cleavage of the 27SB pre-rRNA to initiate removal of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2). To better understand the functions of Rlp7 in 27S pre-rRNA processing steps, we identified where it crosslinks to pre-rRNA. We found that Rlp7 binds at the junction of ITS2 and the ITS2-proximal stem, between the 3′ end of 5.8S rRNA and the 5′ end of 25S rRNA. Consistent with Rlp7 binding to this neighborhood during assembly, two-hybrid and affinity copurification assays showed that Rlp7 interacts with other assembly factors that bind to or near ITS2 and the proximal stem. We used in vivo RNA structure probing to demonstrate that the proximal stem forms prior to Rlp7 binding and that Rlp7 binding induces RNA conformational changes in ITS2 that may chaperone rRNA folding and regulate 27S pre-rRNA processing. Our findings contradict the hypothesis that Rlp7 functions as a placeholder for ribosomal protein L7, from which Rlp7 is thought to have evolved in yeast. The binding site of Rlp7 is within eukaryotic-specific RNA elements, which are not found in bacteria. Thus, we propose that Rlp7 coevolved with these RNA elements to facilitate eukaryotic-specific functions in ribosome assembly and pre-rRNA processing. PMID:24129494

  14. Interaction of tRNA with Eukaryotic Ribosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri Graifer


    Full Text Available This paper is a review of currently available data concerning interactions of tRNAs with the eukaryotic ribosome at various stages of translation. These data include the results obtained by means of cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography applied to various model ribosomal complexes, site-directed cross-linking with the use of tRNA derivatives bearing chemically or photochemically reactive groups in the CCA-terminal fragment and chemical probing of 28S rRNA in the region of the peptidyl transferase center. Similarities and differences in the interactions of tRNAs with prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes are discussed with concomitant consideration of the extent of resemblance between molecular mechanisms of translation in eukaryotes and bacteria.

  15. Structural basis for precursor protein-directed ribosomal peptide macrocyclization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kunhua; Condurso, Heather L.; Li, Gengnan; Ding, Yousong; Bruner, Steven D. (Florida)


    Macrocyclization is a common feature of natural product biosynthetic pathways including the diverse family of ribosomal peptides. Microviridins are architecturally complex cyanobacterial ribosomal peptides that target proteases with potent reversible inhibition. The product structure is constructed via three macrocyclizations catalyzed sequentially by two members of the ATP-grasp family, a unique strategy for ribosomal peptide macrocyclization. Here we describe in detail the structural basis for the enzyme-catalyzed macrocyclizations in the microviridin J pathway of Microcystis aeruginosa. The macrocyclases MdnC and MdnB interact with a conserved α-helix of the precursor peptide using a novel precursor-peptide recognition mechanism. The results provide insight into the unique protein–protein interactions that are key to the chemistry, suggest an origin for the natural combinatorial synthesis of microviridin peptides, and provide a framework for future engineering efforts to generate designed compounds.

  16. 5SRNAdb: an information resource for 5S ribosomal RNAs. (United States)

    Szymanski, Maciej; Zielezinski, Andrzej; Barciszewski, Jan; Erdmann, Volker A; Karlowski, Wojciech M


    Ribosomal 5S RNA (5S rRNA) is the ubiquitous RNA component found in the large subunit of ribosomes in all known organisms. Due to its small size, abundance and evolutionary conservation 5S rRNA for many years now is used as a model molecule in studies on RNA structure, RNA-protein interactions and molecular phylogeny. 5SRNAdb ( is the first database that provides a high quality reference set of ribosomal 5S RNAs (5S rRNA) across three domains of life. Here, we give an overview of new developments in the database and associated web tools since 2002, including updates to database content, curation processes and user web interfaces. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Architecture of the 90S Pre-ribosome: A Structural View on the Birth of the Eukaryotic Ribosome. (United States)

    Kornprobst, Markus; Turk, Martin; Kellner, Nikola; Cheng, Jingdong; Flemming, Dirk; Koš-Braun, Isabelle; Koš, Martin; Thoms, Matthias; Berninghausen, Otto; Beckmann, Roland; Hurt, Ed


    The 90S pre-ribosome is an early biogenesis intermediate formed during co-transcriptional ribosome formation, composed of ∼70 assembly factors and several small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) that associate with nascent pre-rRNA. We report the cryo-EM structure of the Chaetomium thermophilum 90S pre-ribosome, revealing how a network of biogenesis factors including 19 β-propellers and large α-solenoid proteins engulfs the pre-rRNA. Within the 90S pre-ribosome, we identify the UTP-A, UTP-B, Mpp10-Imp3-Imp4, Bms1-Rcl1, and U3 snoRNP modules, which are organized around 5'-ETS and partially folded 18S rRNA. The U3 snoRNP is strategically positioned at the center of the 90S particle to perform its multiple tasks during pre-rRNA folding and processing. The architecture of the elusive 90S pre-ribosome gives unprecedented structural insight into the early steps of pre-rRNA maturation. Nascent rRNA that is co-transcriptionally folded and given a particular shape by encapsulation within a dedicated mold-like structure is reminiscent of how polypeptides use chaperone chambers for their protein folding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural basis for the rescue of stalled ribosomes: structure of YaeJ bound to the ribosome. (United States)

    Gagnon, Matthieu G; Seetharaman, Sai V; Bulkley, David; Steitz, Thomas A


    In bacteria, the hybrid transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) rescues ribosomes stalled on defective messenger RNAs (mRNAs). However, certain gram-negative bacteria have evolved proteins that are capable of rescuing stalled ribosomes in a tmRNA-independent manner. Here, we report a 3.2 angstrom-resolution crystal structure of the rescue factor YaeJ bound to the Thermus thermophilus 70S ribosome in complex with the initiator tRNA(i)(fMet) and a short mRNA. The structure reveals that the C-terminal tail of YaeJ functions as a sensor to discriminate between stalled and actively translating ribosomes by binding in the mRNA entry channel downstream of the A site between the head and shoulder of the 30S subunit. This allows the N-terminal globular domain to sample different conformations, so that its conserved GGQ motif is optimally positioned to catalyze the hydrolysis of peptidyl-tRNA. This structure gives insights into the mechanism of YaeJ function and provides a basis for understanding how it rescues stalled ribosomes.

  19. Structural Basis for the Rescue of Stalled Ribosomes: Structure of YaeJ Bound to the Ribosome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, Matthieu G.; Seetharaman, Sai V.; Bulkley, David; Steitz, Thomas A. (Yale)


    In bacteria, the hybrid transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) rescues ribosomes stalled on defective messenger RNAs (mRNAs). However, certain gram-negative bacteria have evolved proteins that are capable of rescuing stalled ribosomes in a tmRNA-independent manner. Here, we report a 3.2 angstrom-resolution crystal structure of the rescue factor YaeJ bound to the Thermus thermophilus 70S ribosome in complex with the initiator tRNA{sub i}{sup fMet} and a short mRNA. The structure reveals that the C-terminal tail of YaeJ functions as a sensor to discriminate between stalled and actively translating ribosomes by binding in the mRNA entry channel downstream of the A site between the head and shoulder of the 30S subunit. This allows the N-terminal globular domain to sample different conformations, so that its conserved GGQ motif is optimally positioned to catalyze the hydrolysis of peptidyl-tRNA. This structure gives insights into the mechanism of YaeJ function and provides a basis for understanding how it rescues stalled ribosomes.

  20. Small subunit ribosomal metabarcoding reveals extraordinary trypanosomatid diversity in Brazilian bats.

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    Maria Augusta Dario


    Full Text Available Bats are a highly successful, globally dispersed order of mammals that occupy a wide array of ecological niches. They are also intensely parasitized and implicated in multiple viral, bacterial and parasitic zoonoses. Trypanosomes are thought to be especially abundant and diverse in bats. In this study, we used 18S ribosomal RNA metabarcoding to probe bat trypanosome diversity in unprecedented detail.Total DNA was extracted from the blood of 90 bat individuals (17 species captured along Atlantic Forest fragments of Espírito Santo state, southeast Brazil. 18S ribosomal RNA was amplified by standard and/or nested PCR, then deep sequenced to recover and identify Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs for phylogenetic analysis. Blood samples from 34 bat individuals (13 species tested positive for infection by 18S rRNA amplification. Amplicon sequences clustered to 14 OTUs, of which five were identified as Trypanosoma cruzi I, T. cruzi III/V, Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma rangeli, and Trypanosoma dionisii, and seven were identified as novel genotypes monophyletic to basal T. cruzi clade types of the New World. Another OTU was identified as a trypanosome like those found in reptiles. Surprisingly, the remaining OTU was identified as Bodo saltans-closest non-parasitic relative of the trypanosomatid order. While three blood samples featured just one OTU (T. dionisii, all others resolved as mixed infections of up to eight OTUs.This study demonstrates the utility of next-generation barcoding methods to screen parasite diversity in mammalian reservoir hosts. We exposed high rates of local bat parasitism by multiple trypanosome species, some known to cause fatal human disease, others non-pathogenic, novel or yet little understood. Our results highlight bats as a long-standing nexus among host-parasite interactions of multiple niches, sustained in part by opportunistic and incidental infections of consequence to evolutionary theory as much as to

  1. Viral marketing as epidemiological model

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia


    In epidemiology, an epidemic is defined as the spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. In the marketing context, a message is viral when it is broadly sent and received by the target market through person-to-person transmission. This specific marketing communication strategy is commonly referred as viral marketing. Due to this similarity between an epidemic and the viral marketing process and because the understanding of the critical factors to this communications strategy effectiveness remain largely unknown, the mathematical models in epidemiology are presented in this marketing specific field. In this paper, an epidemiological model SIR (Susceptible- Infected-Recovered) to study the effects of a viral marketing strategy is presented. It is made a comparison between the disease parameters and the marketing application, and simulations using the Matlab software are performed. Finally, some conclusions are given and their marketing impli...

  2. FastStats: Viral Hepatitis (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Viral Hepatitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Morbidity Number of new hepatitis A cases: 1,239 (2014) Number of new ...

  3. Aseptic meningitis and viral myelitis. (United States)

    Irani, David N


    Meningitis and myelitis represent common and very infrequent viral infections of the central nervous system, respectively. The number of cases of viral meningitis that occurs annually exceeds the total number of meningitis cases caused by all other etiologies combined. Focal central nervous system infections, such as occur in the spinal cord with viral myelitis, are much less common and may be confused with noninfectious disorders that cause acute flaccid paralysis. This article reviews some of the important clinical features, epidemiology, diagnostic approaches, and management strategies for patients with aseptic meningitis and viral myelitis. Particular focus is placed on the diseases caused by enteroviruses, which as a group account for most aseptic meningitis cases and many focal infections of the spinal cord.

  4. Viral Evolution Core | FNLCR Staging (United States)

    Brandon F. Keele, Ph.D. PI/Senior Principal Investigator, Retroviral Evolution Section Head, Viral Evolution Core Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc. Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Frederick, MD 21702-1201 Tel: 301-846-173

  5. Viral hepatitis in minority America. (United States)

    Rawls, Renard A; Vega, Kenneth J


    Viral hepatitis continues as an important public health concern in the United States. Available data indicate that acute and chronic viral hepatitis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in this country despite the availability of immunization for hepatitis A and B and pharmacologic therapy for chronic hepatitis B and C. Minority populations within the United States are disproportionately affected by acute and chronic viral hepatitis. Many diseases, for example, Barrett's esophagus, affect ethnic groups differently. Viral hepatitis A, B, and C may demonstrate ethnic variation with regard to their epidemiology, natural history, clinicopatholgic findings, complications, and treatment outcomes. This report will review the literature regarding these areas in hepatitis A, B, and C among the African American, Hispanic American, and Native American populations of the United States.

  6. Label-Free Quantitation of Ribosomal Proteins from Bacillus subtilis for Antibiotic Research. (United States)

    Schäkermann, Sina; Prochnow, Pascal; Bandow, Julia E


    Current research is focusing on ribosome heterogeneity as a response to changing environmental conditions and stresses, such as antibiotic stress. Altered stoichiometry and composition of ribosomal proteins as well as association of additional protein factors are mechanisms for shaping the protein expression profile or hibernating ribosomes. Here, we present a method for the isolation of ribosomes to analyze antibiotic-induced changes in the composition of ribosomes in Bacillus subtilis or other bacteria. Ribosomes and associated proteins are isolated by ultracentrifugation and proteins are identified and quantified using label-free mass spectrometry.

  7. Protein-protein interactions within late pre-40S ribosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody G Campbell


    Full Text Available Ribosome assembly in eukaryotic organisms requires more than 200 assembly factors to facilitate and coordinate rRNA transcription, processing, and folding with the binding of the ribosomal proteins. Many of these assembly factors bind and dissociate at defined times giving rise to discrete assembly intermediates, some of which have been partially characterized with regards to their protein and RNA composition. Here, we have analyzed the protein-protein interactions between the seven assembly factors bound to late cytoplasmic pre-40S ribosomes using recombinant proteins in binding assays. Our data show that these factors form two modules: one comprising Enp1 and the export adaptor Ltv1 near the beak structure, and the second comprising the kinase Rio2, the nuclease Nob1, and a regulatory RNA binding protein Dim2/Pno1 on the front of the head. The GTPase-like Tsr1 and the universally conserved methylase Dim1 are also peripherally connected to this second module. Additionally, in an effort to further define the locations for these essential proteins, we have analyzed the interactions between these assembly factors and six ribosomal proteins: Rps0, Rps3, Rps5, Rps14, Rps15 and Rps29. Together, these results and previous RNA-protein crosslinking data allow us to propose a model for the binding sites of these seven assembly factors. Furthermore, our data show that the essential kinase Rio2 is located at the center of the pre-ribosomal particle and interacts, directly or indirectly, with every other assembly factor, as well as three ribosomal proteins required for cytoplasmic 40S maturation. These data suggest that Rio2 could play a central role in regulating cytoplasmic maturation steps.

  8. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis


    HASDEMİR, Ufuk


    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  9. Control of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Ruminants (United States)

    This document is a consensus statement, produced at the request of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine that reflects the opinion of an expert panel regarding the prevalence and host range, clinical manifestations, and the potential for ultimate eradication of bovine viral diarrhea v...

  10. Ribosomal crystallography: from crystal growth to initial phasing (United States)

    Thygesen, J.; Krumbholz, S.; Levin, I.; Zaytzev-Bashan, A.; Harms, J.; Bartels, H.; Schlünzen, F.; Hansen, H. A. S.; Bennett, W. S.; Volkmann, N.; Agmon, I.; Eisenstein, M.; Dribin, A.; Maltz, E.; Sagi, I.; Morlang, S.; Fua, M.; Franceschi, F.; Weinstein, S.; Böddeker, N.; Sharon, R.; Anagnostopoulos, K.; Peretz, M.; Geva, M.; Berkovitch-Yellin, Z.; Yonath, A.


    Preliminary phases were determined by the application of the isomorphous replacement method at low and intermediate resolution for structure factor amplitudes collected from crystals of large and small ribosomal subunits from halophilic and thermophilic bacteria. Derivatization was performed with dense heavy atom clusters, either by soaking or by specific covalent binding prior to the crystallization. The resulting initial electron density maps contain features comparable in size to those expected for the corresponding particles. The packing arrangements of these maps have been compared with motifs observed by electron microscopy in positively stained thin sections of embedded three-dimensional crystals, as well as with phase sets obtained by ab-initio computations. Aimed at higher resolution phasing, procedures are being developed for multi-site binding of relatively small dense metal clusters at selected locations. Potential sites are being inserted either by mutagenesis or by chemical modifications to facilitate cluster binding to the large halophilic and the small thermophilic ribosomal subunits which yield crystals diffracting to the highest resolution obtained so far for ribosomes, 2.9 and 7.3 Å, respectively. For this purpose the surfaces of these ribosomal particles have been characterized and conditions for quantitative reversible detachment of selected ribosomal proteins have been found. The corresponding genes are being cloned, sequenced, mutated to introduce the reactive side-groups (mainly cysteines) and overexpressed. To assist the interpretation of the anticipated electron density maps, sub-ribosomal stable complexes were isolated from H50S. One of these complexes is composed of two proteins and the other is made of a stretch of the rRNA and a protein. For exploiting the exposed parts of the surface of these complexes for heavy atom binding and for attempting the determination of their three-dimensional structure, their components are being produced

  11. Combined Effect of the Cfr Methyltransferase and Ribosomal Protein L3 Mutations on Resistance to Ribosome-Targeting Antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakula, Kevin K; Hansen, Lykke H; Vester, Birte


    Several groups of antibiotics inhibit bacterial growth by binding to bacterial ribosomes. Mutations in ribosomal protein L3 have been associated with resistance to linezolid and tiamulin, which both bind at the peptidyl transferase center in the ribosome. Resistance to these and other antibiotics...... also occurs through methylation of 23S rRNA at position A2503 by the methyltransferase Cfr. The mutations in L3 and the cfr gene have been found together in clinical isolates, raising the question of whether they have a combined effect on antibiotic resistance or growth. We transformed a plasmid...... seen. This study underscores the complex interplay between various resistance mechanisms and cross-resistance, even from antibiotics with overlapping binding sites....

  12. Nomenclature of homodetic cyclic peptides produced from ribosomal precursors: An IUPAC task group interim report. (United States)

    Craik, David J; Young Shim, Youn; Göransson, Ulf; Moss, Gerard P; Tan, Ninghua; Jadhav, Pramodkumar D; Shen, Jianheng; Reaney, Martin J T


    In 2015, an International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Task Group was formed to develop nomenclature recommendations for homodetic cyclic peptides produced from ribosomal precursors. Delegates of the 2015 International Conference on Circular Proteins (ICCP) were presented with the strengths and weaknesses of four published approaches to homodetic cyclic peptide nomenclature, and a summary of the ensuing discussion is presented here. This interim report presents a potentially novel suggestion-the use of Cahn-Ingold-Prelog rules to specify amino acid priority in homodetic peptides for consistent numbering. Indeed, this might be the first extension of the Cahn-Ingold-Prelog rules in five decades. The authors invite interested parties to contact the corresponding author with suggestions for the improvement of the proposed nomenclature; these ideas will be discussed and considered for inclusion in the final report. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Neuropsychiatric sequelae of viral meningitis in adults]. (United States)

    Damsgaard, Jesper; Hjerrild, Simon; Renvillard, Signe Groth; Leutscher, Peter Derek Christian


    Viral meningitis is considered to be a benign illness with only mild symptoms. In contrast to viral encephalitis and bacterial meningitis, the prognosis is usually good. However, retrospective studies have demonstrated that patients suffering from viral meningitis may experience cognitive impairment following the acute course of infection. Larger controlled studies are needed to elucidate the potential neuropsychiatric adverse outcome of viral meningitis.

  14. Interaction between Bacillus subtilis YsxC and ribosomes (or rRNAs). (United States)

    Wicker-Planquart, Catherine; Jault, Jean-Michel


    YsxC is an essential P-loop GTPase, that binds to the 50S ribosomal subunit, and is required for the proper assembly of the ribosome. The aim of this study was to characterize YsxC ribosome interactions. The stoichiometry of YsxC ribosome subunit complex was evaluated. We showed that YsxC binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit is not affected by GTP, but in the presence of GDP the stoichiometry of YsxC-ribosome is decreased. YsxC GTPase activity was stimulated upon 50S ribosomal subunit binding. In addition, it is shown for the first time that YsxC binds both 16S and 23S ribosomal RNAs. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cryo-EM structure of the archaeal 50S ribosomal subunit in complex with initiation factor 6 and implications for ribosome evolution. (United States)

    Greber, Basil J; Boehringer, Daniel; Godinic-Mikulcic, Vlatka; Crnkovic, Ana; Ibba, Michael; Weygand-Durasevic, Ivana; Ban, Nenad


    Translation of mRNA into proteins by the ribosome is universally conserved in all cellular life. The composition and complexity of the translation machinery differ markedly between the three domains of life. Organisms from the domain Archaea show an intermediate level of complexity, sharing several additional components of the translation machinery with eukaryotes that are absent in bacteria. One of these translation factors is initiation factor 6 (IF6), which associates with the large ribosomal subunit. We have reconstructed the 50S ribosomal subunit from the archaeon Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus in complex with archaeal IF6 at 6.6 Å resolution using cryo-electron microscopy (EM). The structure provides detailed architectural insights into the 50S ribosomal subunit from a methanogenic archaeon through identification of the rRNA expansion segments and ribosomal proteins that are shared between this archaeal ribosome and eukaryotic ribosomes but are mostly absent in bacteria and in some archaeal lineages. Furthermore, the structure reveals that, in spite of highly divergent evolutionary trajectories of the ribosomal particle and the acquisition of novel functions of IF6 in eukaryotes, the molecular binding of IF6 on the ribosome is conserved between eukaryotes and archaea. The structure also provides a snapshot of the reductive evolution of the archaeal ribosome and offers new insights into the evolution of the translation system in archaea. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Pathology and viral metagenomics, a recent history]. (United States)

    Bernardo, Pauline; Albina, Emmanuel; Eloit, Marc; Roumagnac, Philippe


    Human, animal and plant viral diseases have greatly benefited from recent metagenomics developments. Viral metagenomics is a culture-independent approach used to investigate the complete viral genetic populations of a sample. During the last decade, metagenomics concepts and techniques that were first used by ecologists progressively spread into the scientific field of viral pathology. The sample, which was first for ecologists a fraction of ecosystem, became for pathologists an organism that hosts millions of microbes and viruses. This new approach, providing without a priori high resolution qualitative and quantitative data on the viral diversity, is now revolutionizing the way pathologists decipher viral diseases. This review describes the very last improvements of the high throughput next generation sequencing methods and discusses the applications of viral metagenomics in viral pathology, including discovery of novel viruses, viral surveillance and diagnostic, large-scale molecular epidemiology, and viral evolution. © 2013 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  17. The characterization of cytoplasmic ribosomal protein genes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 17, 2012 ... genomics' characteristics, a genome-wide survey in N. bombycis genome was performed. From the results, we ... bombycis ESTs, and they have the same structure among microsporidia. The novel arrangements of ...... chromosome and ribosomal DNA organization in the context of the complete genome ...

  18. The fluctuating ribosome: thermal molecular dynamics characterized by neutron scattering (United States)

    Zaccai, Giuseppe; Natali, Francesca; Peters, Judith; Řihová, Martina; Zimmerman, Ella; Ollivier, J.; Combet, J.; Maurel, Marie-Christine; Bashan, Anat; Yonath, Ada


    Conformational changes associated with ribosome function have been identified by X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy. These methods, however, inform poorly on timescales. Neutron scattering is well adapted for direct measurements of thermal molecular dynamics, the ‘lubricant’ for the conformational fluctuations required for biological activity. The method was applied to compare water dynamics and conformational fluctuations in the 30 S and 50 S ribosomal subunits from Haloarcula marismortui, under high salt, stable conditions. Similar free and hydration water diffusion parameters are found for both subunits. With respect to the 50 S subunit, the 30 S is characterized by a softer force constant and larger mean square displacements (MSD), which would facilitate conformational adjustments required for messenger and transfer RNA binding. It has been shown previously that systems from mesophiles and extremophiles are adapted to have similar MSD under their respective physiological conditions. This suggests that the results presented are not specific to halophiles in high salt but a general property of ribosome dynamics under corresponding, active conditions. The current study opens new perspectives for neutron scattering characterization of component functional molecular dynamics within the ribosome.

  19. cDNA, genomic sequence cloning and overexpression of ribosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RPS16 of eukaryote is a component of the 40S small ribosomal subunit encoded by RPS16 gene and is also a homolog of prokaryotic RPS9. The cDNA and genomic sequence of RPS16 was cloned successfully for the first time from the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain ...

  20. cDNA, genomic sequence cloning and overexpression of ribosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 2, 2009 ... RPS20 is a component of the 40S small ribosomal subunit encoded by RPS20 gene, which is conserved between eukaryotes, prokaryotes and archaebacteria. The cDNA and the genomic sequence of RPS20 were cloned successfully from the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) using RT-PCR ...

  1. The putative E. histolytica orthologue of the human ribosomal RNA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Feb 4, 2016 ... similarity (Altschul et al. 1997). The transcription, processing, and assembly of pre- ribosomal particles takes place in the nucleolus (Venema and Tollervey 1999). Ultrastructural studies on. E. histolytica nucleus by electron microscopy showed that chromatin, apart from being diffusely distributed in the nu-.

  2. The ribosome-associated complex antagonizes prion formation in yeast. (United States)

    Amor, Alvaro J; Castanzo, Dominic T; Delany, Sean P; Selechnik, Daniel M; van Ooy, Alex; Cameron, Dale M


    The number of known fungal proteins capable of switching between alternative stable conformations is steadily increasing, suggesting that a prion-like mechanism may be broadly utilized as a means to propagate altered cellular states. To gain insight into the mechanisms by which cells regulate prion formation and toxicity we examined the role of the yeast ribosome-associated complex (RAC) in modulating both the formation of the [PSI(+)] prion - an alternative conformer of Sup35 protein - and the toxicity of aggregation-prone polypeptides. The Hsp40 RAC chaperone Zuo1 anchors the RAC to ribosomes and stimulates the ATPase activity of the Hsp70 chaperone Ssb. We found that cells lacking Zuo1 are sensitive to over-expression of some aggregation-prone proteins, including the Sup35 prion domain, suggesting that co-translational protein misfolding increases in Δzuo1 strains. Consistent with this finding, Δzuo1 cells exhibit higher frequencies of spontaneous and induced prion formation. Cells expressing mutant forms of Zuo1 lacking either a C-terminal charged region required for ribosome association, or the J-domain responsible for Ssb ATPase stimulation, exhibit similarly high frequencies of prion formation. Our findings are consistent with a role for the RAC in chaperoning nascent Sup35 to regulate folding of the N-terminal prion domain as it emerges from the ribosome.

  3. Expression of a ribosome inactivating protein (curcin 2) in Jatropha ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Expression of a ribosome inactivating protein (curcin 2) in Jatropha curcas is induced by stress ... In addition, the 32 kDa band is nearly the molecular weight of curcin 2. ... curcin 2. The presence of this protein molecular marker under stresses may provide an experimental foundation to study the stress proteins in J. curcas.

  4. Cloning and expression of antiviral/ribosome-inactivating protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Feb 2, 2008 ... The ORF was cloned into an expression vector and expressed in E. coli as a fusion protein of ∼78 kDa. The cleaved and purified recombinant BBAP1 exhibited ribosome-inhibiting rRNA -glycosidase activity, and imparted a high level of resistance against the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV).

  5. PCR primers for metazoan mitochondrial 12S ribosomal DNA sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuji J Machida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Assessment of the biodiversity of communities of small organisms is most readily done using PCR-based analysis of environmental samples consisting of mixtures of individuals. Known as metagenetics, this approach has transformed understanding of microbial communities and is beginning to be applied to metazoans as well. Unlike microbial studies, where analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA sequence is standard, the best gene for metazoan metagenetics is less clear. In this study we designed a set of PCR primers for the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal DNA sequence based on 64 complete mitochondrial genomes and then tested their efficacy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of the 64 complete mitochondrial genome sequences representing all metazoan classes available in GenBank were downloaded using the NCBI Taxonomy Browser. Alignment of sequences was performed for the excised mitochondrial 12S ribosomal DNA sequences, and conserved regions were identified for all 64 mitochondrial genomes. These regions were used to design a primer pair that flanks a more variable region in the gene. Then all of the complete metazoan mitochondrial genomes available in NCBI's Organelle Genome Resources database were used to determine the percentage of taxa that would likely be amplified using these primers. Results suggest that these primers will amplify target sequences for many metazoans. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Newly designed 12S ribosomal DNA primers have considerable potential for metazoan metagenetic analysis because of their ability to amplify sequences from many metazoans.

  6. The HIV Tat protein affects processing of ribosomal RNA precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellenchi Gian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inside the cell, the HIV Tat protein is mainly found in the nucleus and nucleolus. The nucleolus, the site of ribosome biogenesis, is a highly organized, non-membrane-bound sub-compartment where proteins with a high affinity for nucleolar components are found. While it is well known that Tat accumulates in the nucleolus via a specific nucleolar targeting sequence, its function in this compartment it still unknown. Results To clarify the significance of the Tat nucleolar localization, we induced the expression of the protein during oogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster strain transgenic for HIV-tat gene. Here we show that Tat localizes in the nucleoli of Drosophila oocyte nurse cells, where it specifically co-localizes with fibrillarin. Tat expression is accompanied by a significant decrease of cytoplasmic ribosomes, which is apparently related to an impairment of ribosomal rRNA precursor processing. Such an event is accounted for by the interaction of Tat with fibrillarin and U3 snoRNA, which are both required for pre-rRNA maturation. Conclusion Our data contribute to understanding the function of Tat in the nucleolus, where ribosomal RNA synthesis and cell cycle control take place. The impairment of nucleolar pre-rRNA maturation through the interaction of Tat with fibrillarin-U3snoRNA complex suggests a process by which the virus modulates host response, thus contributing to apoptosis and protein shut-off in HIV-uninfected cells.

  7. Mechanism of recycling of post-termination ribosomal complexes in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    participate in this crucial process to free the ribosomal subunits for a new round of translation. We discuss the over- all pathway of ... uled translation reinitiation downstream of the stop codon. (Janosi et al 1998). RRF has also ..... Clearly, such knowledge would be important in exploiting. RRF as a target for newer drugs.

  8. mRNA pseudoknot structures can act as ribosomal roadblocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Tholstrup; Oddershede, Lene Broeng; Sørensen, Michael Askvad


    Several viruses utilize programmed ribosomal frameshifting mediated by mRNA pseudoknots in combination with a slippery sequence to produce a well defined stochiometric ratio of the upstream encoded to the downstream-encoded protein. A correlation between the mechanical strength of mRNA pseudoknots...

  9. A streamlined ribosome profiling protocol for the characterization of microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latif, Haythem; Szubin, Richard; Tan, Justin


    Ribosome profiling is a powerful tool for characterizing in vivo protein translation at the genome scale, with multiple applications ranging from detailed molecular mechanisms to systems-level predictive modeling. Though highly effective, this intricate technique has yet to become widely used...... fraction of informative reads, all while retaining the high quality standards of the existing protocol....

  10. Mechanism of recycling of post-termination ribosomal complexes in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We discuss the overall pathway of ribosome recycling in eubacteria with especial reference to the important role of the initiation factor 3 (IF3) in this process. Depending on the step(s) at which IF3 function is implicated, three models have been proposed. In model 1, RRF and EFG dissociate the post-TCs into the 50S and ...

  11. Structure based hypothesis of a mitochondrial ribosome rescue mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huynen Martijn A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background mtRF1 is a vertebrate mitochondrial protein with an unknown function that arose from a duplication of the mitochondrial release factor mtRF1a. To elucidate the function of mtRF1, we determined the positions that are conserved among mtRF1 sequences but that are different in their mtRF1a paralogs. We subsequently modeled the 3D structure of mtRF1a and mtRF1 bound to the ribosome, highlighting the structural implications of these differences to derive a hypothesis for the function of mtRF1. Results Our model predicts, in agreement with the experimental data, that the 3D structure of mtRF1a allows it to recognize the stop codons UAA and UAG in the A-site of the ribosome. In contrast, we show that mtRF1 likely can only bind the ribosome when the A-site is devoid of mRNA. Furthermore, while mtRF1a will adopt its catalytic conformation, in which it functions as a peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase in the ribosome, only upon binding of a stop codon in the A-site, mtRF1 appears specifically adapted to assume this extended, peptidyl-tRNA hydrolyzing conformation in the absence of mRNA in the A-site. Conclusions We predict that mtRF1 specifically recognizes ribosomes with an empty A-site and is able to function as a peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase in those situations. Stalled ribosomes with empty A-sites that still contain a tRNA bound to a peptide chain can result from the translation of truncated, stop-codon less mRNAs. We hypothesize that mtRF1 recycles such stalled ribosomes, performing a function that is analogous to that of tmRNA in bacteria. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. Eugene Koonin, Prof. Knud H. Nierhaus (nominated by Dr. Sarah Teichmann and Dr. Shamil Sunyaev.

  12. Viral O-GalNAc peptide epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olofsson, Sigvard; Blixt, Klas Ola; Bergström, Tomas


    Viral envelope glycoproteins are major targets for antibodies that bind to and inactivate viral particles. The capacity of a viral vaccine to induce virus-neutralizing antibodies is often used as a marker for vaccine efficacy. Yet the number of known neutralization target epitopes is restricted...... variations at glycosylation sites. In conclusion, the viral O-glycosyl peptide epitopes may be of relevance for development of subunit vaccines and for improved serodiagnosis of viral diseases. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  13. RNA helicase DDX21 coordinates transcription and ribosomal RNA processing. (United States)

    Calo, Eliezer; Flynn, Ryan A; Martin, Lance; Spitale, Robert C; Chang, Howard Y; Wysocka, Joanna


    DEAD-box RNA helicases are vital for the regulation of various aspects of the RNA life cycle, but the molecular underpinnings of their involvement, particularly in mammalian cells, remain poorly understood. Here we show that the DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX21 can sense the transcriptional status of both RNA polymerase (Pol) I and II to control multiple steps of ribosome biogenesis in human cells. We demonstrate that DDX21 widely associates with Pol I- and Pol II-transcribed genes and with diverse species of RNA, most prominently with non-coding RNAs involved in the formation of ribonucleoprotein complexes, including ribosomal RNA, small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and 7SK RNA. Although broad, these molecular interactions, both at the chromatin and RNA level, exhibit remarkable specificity for the regulation of ribosomal genes. In the nucleolus, DDX21 occupies the transcribed rDNA locus, directly contacts both rRNA and snoRNAs, and promotes rRNA transcription, processing and modification. In the nucleoplasm, DDX21 binds 7SK RNA and, as a component of the 7SK small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) complex, is recruited to the promoters of Pol II-transcribed genes encoding ribosomal proteins and snoRNAs. Promoter-bound DDX21 facilitates the release of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) from the 7SK snRNP in a manner that is dependent on its helicase activity, thereby promoting transcription of its target genes. Our results uncover the multifaceted role of DDX21 in multiple steps of ribosome biogenesis, and provide evidence implicating a mammalian RNA helicase in RNA modification and Pol II elongation control.

  14. DNA replication stress restricts ribosomal DNA copy number. (United States)

    Salim, Devika; Bradford, William D; Freeland, Amy; Cady, Gillian; Wang, Jianmin; Pruitt, Steven C; Gerton, Jennifer L


    Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) in budding yeast are encoded by ~100-200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how "normal" copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen a yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes. Our screen revealed that low rDNA copy number is associated with compromised DNA replication. Further, subculturing yeast under two separate conditions of DNA replication stress selected for a contraction of the rDNA array independent of the replication fork blocking protein, Fob1. Interestingly, cells with a contracted array grew better than their counterparts with normal copy number under conditions of DNA replication stress. Our data indicate that DNA replication stresses select for a smaller rDNA array. We speculate that this liberates scarce replication factors for use by the rest of the genome, which in turn helps cells complete DNA replication and continue to propagate. Interestingly, tumors from mini chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2)-deficient mice also show a loss of rDNA repeats. Our data suggest that a reduction in rDNA copy number may indicate a history of DNA replication stress, and that rDNA array size could serve as a diagnostic marker for replication stress. Taken together, these data begin to suggest the selective pressures that combine to yield a "normal" rDNA copy number.

  15. DNA replication stress restricts ribosomal DNA copy number.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devika Salim


    Full Text Available Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs in budding yeast are encoded by ~100-200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how "normal" copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen a yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes. Our screen revealed that low rDNA copy number is associated with compromised DNA replication. Further, subculturing yeast under two separate conditions of DNA replication stress selected for a contraction of the rDNA array independent of the replication fork blocking protein, Fob1. Interestingly, cells with a contracted array grew better than their counterparts with normal copy number under conditions of DNA replication stress. Our data indicate that DNA replication stresses select for a smaller rDNA array. We speculate that this liberates scarce replication factors for use by the rest of the genome, which in turn helps cells complete DNA replication and continue to propagate. Interestingly, tumors from mini chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2-deficient mice also show a loss of rDNA repeats. Our data suggest that a reduction in rDNA copy number may indicate a history of DNA replication stress, and that rDNA array size could serve as a diagnostic marker for replication stress. Taken together, these data begin to suggest the selective pressures that combine to yield a "normal" rDNA copy number.

  16. Requirement of Neuronal Ribosome Synthesis for Growth and Maintenance of the Dendritic Tree* (United States)

    Slomnicki, Lukasz P.; Pietrzak, Maciej; Vashishta, Aruna; Jones, James; Lynch, Nicholas; Elliot, Shane; Poulos, Eric; Malicote, David; Morris, Bridgit E.; Hallgren, Justin; Hetman, Michal


    The nucleolus serves as a principal site of ribosome biogenesis but is also implicated in various non-ribosomal functions, including negative regulation of the pro-apoptotic transcription factor p53. Although disruption of the nucleolus may trigger the p53-dependent neuronal death, neurotoxic consequences of a selective impairment of ribosome production are unclear. Here, we report that in rat forebrain neuronal maturation is associated with a remarkable expansion of ribosomes despite postnatal down-regulation of ribosomal biogenesis. In cultured rat hippocampal neurons, inhibition of the latter process by knockdowns of ribosomal proteins S6, S14, or L4 reduced ribosome content without disrupting nucleolar integrity, cell survival, and signaling responses to the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Moreover, reduced general protein synthesis and/or formation of RNA stress granules suggested diminished ribosome recruitment to at least some mRNAs. Such a translational insufficiency was accompanied by impairment of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated dendritic growth. Finally, RNA stress granules and smaller dendritic trees were also observed when ribosomal proteins were depleted from neurons with established dendrites. Thus, a robust ribosomal apparatus is required to carry out protein synthesis that supports dendritic growth and maintenance. Consequently, deficits of ribosomal biogenesis may disturb neurodevelopment by reducing neuronal connectivity. Finally, as stress granule formation and dendritic loss occur early in neurodegenerative diseases, disrupted homeostasis of ribosomes may initiate and/or amplify neurodegeneration-associated disconnection of neuronal circuitries. PMID:26757818

  17. Ribosome profiling: a Hi-Def monitor for protein synthesis at the genome-wide scale (United States)

    Michel, Audrey M; Baranov, Pavel V


    Ribosome profiling or ribo-seq is a new technique that provides genome-wide information on protein synthesis (GWIPS) in vivo. It is based on the deep sequencing of ribosome protected mRNA fragments allowing the measurement of ribosome density along all RNA molecules present in the cell. At the same time, the high resolution of this technique allows detailed analysis of ribosome density on individual RNAs. Since its invention, the ribosome profiling technique has been utilized in a range of studies in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Several studies have adapted and refined the original ribosome profiling protocol for studying specific aspects of translation. Ribosome profiling of initiating ribosomes has been used to map sites of translation initiation. These studies revealed the surprisingly complex organization of translation initiation sites in eukaryotes. Multiple initiation sites are responsible for the generation of N-terminally extended and truncated isoforms of known proteins as well as for the translation of numerous open reading frames (ORFs), upstream of protein coding ORFs. Ribosome profiling of elongating ribosomes has been used for measuring differential gene expression at the level of translation, the identification of novel protein coding genes and ribosome pausing. It has also provided data for developing quantitative models of translation. Although only a dozen or so ribosome profiling datasets have been published so far, they have already dramatically changed our understanding of translational control and have led to new hypotheses regarding the origin of protein coding genes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23696005

  18. Conservation of two distinct types of 100S ribosome in bacteria. (United States)

    Ueta, Masami; Wada, Chieko; Daifuku, Takashi; Sako, Yoshihiko; Bessho, Yoshitaka; Kitamura, Aya; Ohniwa, Ryosuke L; Morikawa, Kazuya; Yoshida, Hideji; Kato, Takayuki; Miyata, Tomoko; Namba, Keiichi; Wada, Akira


    In bacteria, 70S ribosomes (consisting of 30S and 50S subunits) dimerize to form 100S ribosomes, which were first discovered in Escherichia coli. Ribosome modulation factor (RMF) and hibernation promoting factor (HPF) mediate this dimerization in stationary phase. The 100S ribosome is translationally inactive, but it dissociates into two translationally active 70S ribosomes after transfer from starvation to fresh medium. Therefore, the 100S ribosome is called the 'hibernating ribosome'. The gene encoding RMF is found widely throughout the Gammaproteobacteria class, but is not present in any other bacteria. In this study, 100S ribosome formation in six species of Gammaproteobacteria and eight species belonging to other bacterial classes was compared. There were several marked differences between the two groups: (i) Formation of 100S ribosomes was mediated by RMF and short HPF in Gammaproteobacteria species, similar to E. coli, whereas it was mediated only by long HPF in the other bacterial species; (ii) RMF/short HPF-mediated 100S ribosome formation occurred specifically in stationary phase, whereas long HPF-mediated 100S ribosome formation occurred in all growth phases; and (iii) 100S ribosomes formed by long HPF were much more stable than those formed by RMF and short HPF. © 2013 The Authors Genes to Cells © 2013 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. A general mechanism of ribosome dimerization revealed by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, Linda; Oostergetel, Gerrit; Pijning, Tjaard; Puri, Pranav; Arkhipova, Valentina Ivanovna; Boekema, Egbert; Poolman, Berend; Guskov, Albert


    Bacteria downregulate their ribosomal activity through dimerization of 70S ribosomes, yielding inactive 100S complexes. In Escherichia coli, dimerization is mediated by the hibernation promotion factor (HPF) and ribosome modulation factor. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy study on 100S

  20. The Ribosomal RNA Genes on Neurospora crassa Mitochrondrial DNA Are Adjacent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, P.; Holtrop, M.


    Hybridization of separated 24 S and 17 S ribosomal RNA from Neurospora crassa mitochondrial ribosomes to restriction fragments of mitochondrial DNA leads to the conclusion that the large and small ribosomal RNA are adjacent on the restriction endonuclease cleavage map of the DNA. The distance

  1. Purification and properties of a ribosomal casein kinase from rabbit reticulocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G


    A casein kinase was isolated and purifed from rabbit reticulocytes. About 90% of the enzyme activity co-sedimented with the ribosomal fraction, whereas about 10% of the enzyme activity was found in the ribosome-free supernatant. Both casein kinases (the ribosome-bound enzyme as well as the free...

  2. Lactococcus lactis YfiA is necessary and sufficient for ribosome dimerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puri, Pranav; Eckhardt, Thomas H; Franken, Linda E; Fusetti, Fabrizia; Stuart, Marc C A; Boekema, Egbert J; Kuipers, Oscar P; Kok, Jan; Poolman, Berend

    Dimerization and inactivation of ribosomes in Escherichia coli is a two-step process that involves the binding of ribosome modulation factor (RMF) and hibernation promotion factor (HPF). Lactococcus lactisMG1363 expresses a protein, YfiA(Ll), which associates with ribosomes in the stationary phase

  3. Regulatory RNPs: a novel class of ribonucleoproteins that potentially contribute to ribosome heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron R. Poole


    Full Text Available Many ribonucleoproteins (RNPs, which are comprised of noncoding RNA and associated proteins, are involved in essential cellular processes such as translation and pre-mRNA splicing. One class of RNP is the small Cajal body-specific RNP (scaRNP, which contributes to the biogenesis of small nuclear RNPs (snRNPs that are central components of the spliceosome. Three scaRNAs are internally processed, generating stable nucleolus-enriched RNAs of unknown function. Here, we provide data that show that these RNAs become part of RNPs we term regulatory RNPs (regRNPs. Most modifications within rRNA (predominantly pseudouridylation and ribose 2′-O-methylation are conducted by small nucleolar RNPs (snoRNPs, and we provide evidence that the activity of at least some of these snoRNPs is under the control of regRNPs. Because modifications within rRNA can vary in different physiological or pathological situations, rRNA modifications are thought to be the major source of ribosome heterogeneity. Our identification of regRNPs thus provides a potential mechanism for how ribosome heterogeneity may be accomplished. This work also provides additional functional connections between the Cajal body and the nucleolus.

  4. Characterization of Penicillium species by ribosomal DNA sequencing and BOX, ERIC and REP-PCR analysis. (United States)

    Redondo, Cristina; Cubero, Jaime; Melgarejo, Paloma


    The genus Penicillium is one of the largest and widely distributed fungal genera described to date. As a result, its taxonomic classification and species discrimination within this genus has become complicated. In this study, 52 isolates that belonged to the Penicillum genus and other related genera were characterized using two DNA-based methods: (i) analysis of the nucleotide sequences of internal transcribed spacers in ribosomal DNA and (ii) analysis of DNA fingerprints that were generated by polymerase chain reactions with specific primers for enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) and repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) sequences, and BOX elements. Using both methods, Penicillium species were discriminated from other fungal genera. Furthermore, Penicillium species that include strains which are used as biocontrol agents, such as P. glabrum, P. purpurogenum, and P. oxalicum, could be distinguished from other Penicillium species using these techniques. Based on our findings, we propose that a polyphasic approach that includes analysis of the nucleotide sequences of ribosomal DNA and detecting the presence of highly conserved, repeated nucleotide sequences can be used to determine the genetic relationships between different Penicillium species. Furthermore, we propose that our results can be used as a start point to develop a strategy to monitor the environmental presence of particular strains of Penicillium species when they are used as biocontrol agents.

  5. 18S Ribosomal RNA Evaluation as Preanalytical Quality Control for Animal DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory Ann Leonard


    Full Text Available The 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene is present in all eukaryotic cells. In this study, we evaluated the use of this gene to verify the presence of PCR-amplifiable host (animal DNA as an indicator of sufficient sample quality for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR analysis. We compared (i samples from various animal species, tissues, and sample types, including swabs; (ii multiple DNA extraction methods; and (iii both fresh and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE samples. Results showed that 18S ribosomal RNA gene amplification was possible from all tissue samples evaluated, including avian, reptile, and FFPE samples and most swab samples. A single swine rectal swab, which showed sufficient DNA quantity and the demonstrated lack of PCR inhibitors, nonetheless was negative by 18S qPCR. Such a sample specifically illustrates the improvement of determination of sample integrity afforded by inclusion of 18S rRNA gene qPCR analysis in addition to spectrophotometric analysis and the use of internal controls for PCR inhibition. Other possible applications for the described 18S rRNA qPCR are preselection of optimal tissue specimens for studies or preliminary screening of archived samples prior to acceptance for biobanking projects.

  6. Viral diseases affecting the pleura. (United States)

    Nestor, Jennings; Huggins, Terrill; Kummerfeldt, Carlos; DiVietro, Matthew; Walters, Kenneth; Sahn, Steven


    Viruses affect the human body in multiple ways producing various disease states. The infections of the pulmonary parenchyma have been well described. However, there has been no current review of the literature pertaining to the pleura. To review the available literature pertaining to diseases of the pleura that are caused by viral infections. A Medline search was performed and available research and review articles relating to viral infections that resulted in pleural effusions, pleural masses, pleural thickening, and pleural nodularity were reviewed. There are numerous viruses that cause diseases of the pleura. Pleural effusions and lesions within the pleura are the most common presentation of the disease state. Polymerase chain reaction has the potential to further diagnose viral infections and expand our knowledge base in this field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Acute bacterial and viral meningitis. (United States)

    Bartt, Russell


    Most cases of acute meningitis are infectious and result from a potentially wide range of bacterial and viral pathogens. The organized approach to the patient with suspected meningitis enables the prompt administration of antibiotics, possibly corticosteroids, and diagnostic testing with neuroimaging and spinal fluid analysis. Acute meningitis is infectious in most cases and caused by a potentially wide range of bacterial and viral pathogens. Shifts in the epidemiology of bacterial pathogens have been influenced by changes in vaccines and their implementation. Seasonal and environmental changes influence the likely viral and rickettsial pathogens. The organized approach to the patient with suspected meningitis enables the prompt administration of antibiotics, possibly corticosteroids, and diagnostic testing with neuroimaging and spinal fluid analysis. Pertinent testing and treatment can vary with the clinical presentation, season, and possible exposures. This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of acute meningitis.

  8. Beyond viral suppression of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Barton, Simon E


    BACKGROUND: In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a new Global Health Sector Strategy on HIV for 2016-2021. It establishes 15 ambitious targets, including the '90-90-90' target calling on health systems to reduce under-diagnosis of HIV, treat a greater number of those diagnosed......, and ensure that those being treated achieve viral suppression. DISCUSSION: The WHO strategy calls for person-centered chronic care for people living with HIV (PLHIV), implicitly acknowledging that viral suppression is not the ultimate goal of treatment. However, it stops short of providing an explicit target...... for health-related quality of life. It thus fails to take into account the needs of PLHIV who have achieved viral suppression but still must contend with other intense challenges such as serious non-communicable diseases, depression, anxiety, financial stress, and experiences of or apprehension about HIV...

  9. Escherichia coli ribosomal protein S1 unfolds structured mRNAs onto the ribosome for active translation initiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélodie Duval


    Full Text Available Regulation of translation initiation is well appropriate to adapt cell growth in response to stress and environmental changes. Many bacterial mRNAs adopt structures in their 5' untranslated regions that modulate the accessibility of the 30S ribosomal subunit. Structured mRNAs interact with the 30S in a two-step process where the docking of a folded mRNA precedes an accommodation step. Here, we used a combination of experimental approaches in vitro (kinetic of mRNA unfolding and binding experiments to analyze mRNA-protein or mRNA-ribosome complexes, toeprinting assays to follow the formation of ribosomal initiation complexes and in vivo (genetic to monitor the action of ribosomal protein S1 on the initiation of structured and regulated mRNAs. We demonstrate that r-protein S1 endows the 30S with an RNA chaperone activity that is essential for the docking and the unfolding of structured mRNAs, and for the correct positioning of the initiation codon inside the decoding channel. The first three OB-fold domains of S1 retain all its activities (mRNA and 30S binding, RNA melting activity on the 30S subunit. S1 is not required for all mRNAs and acts differently on mRNAs according to the signals present at their 5' ends. This work shows that S1 confers to the ribosome dynamic properties to initiate translation of a large set of mRNAs with diverse structural features.

  10. The Role of Disordered Ribosomal Protein Extensions in the Early Steps of Eubacterial 50 S Ribosomal Subunit Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youri Timsit


    Full Text Available Although during the past decade research has shown the functional importance of disorder in proteins, many of the structural and dynamics properties of intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUPs remain to be elucidated. This review is focused on the role of the extensions of the ribosomal proteins in the early steps of the assembly of the eubacterial 50 S subunit. The recent crystallographic structures of the ribosomal particles have revealed the picture of a complex assembly pathway that condenses the rRNA and the ribosomal proteins into active ribosomes. However, little is know about the molecular mechanisms of this process. It is thought that the long basic r-protein extensions that penetrate deeply into the subunit cores play a key role through disorder-order transitions and/or co-folding mechanisms. A current view is that such structural transitions may facilitate the proper rRNA folding. In this paper, the structures of the proteins L3, L4, L13, L20, L22 and L24 that have been experimentally found to be essential for the first steps of ribosome assembly have been compared. On the basis of their structural and dynamics properties, three categories of extensions have been identified. Each of them seems to play a distinct function. Among them, only the coil-helix transition that occurs in a phylogenetically conserved cluster of basic residues of the L20 extension appears to be strictly required for the large subunit assembly in eubacteria. The role of a helix-coil transitions in 23 S RNA folding is discussed in the light of the calcium binding protein calmodulin that shares many structural and dynamics properties with L20.

  11. Pseudo-nitzschia challenged with co-occurring viral communities display diverse infection phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Curtis Grier Carlson


    Full Text Available Viruses are catalysts of biogeochemical cycling, architects of microbial community structure, and terminators of phytoplankton blooms. Viral lysis of diatoms, a key group of eukaryotic phytoplankton, has the potential to impact carbon export and marine food webs. However, the impact of viruses on diatom abundance and community composition is unknown. Diatom-virus dynamics were explored by sampling every month at 2 coastal and estuarine locations in Washington state, USA resulting in 41 new isolates of the pennate diatom Pseudo-nitzschia and 20 environmental virus samples. We conducted a total of 820 pair-wise crosses of the Pseudo-nitzschia isolates and viral communities. Viral communities infected Pseudo-nitzschia isolates in 8% of the crosses overall and 16% of crosses when the host and viral communities were isolated from the same sample. Isolates ranged in their permissivity to infection with some isolates not infected by any viral samples and others infected by up to 10 viral communities. Isolates that were infected by the most viral communities also had the highest maximum observed viral titers (as high as 16000 infectious units ml-1. Titers of the viral communities were host dependent, as titers for one viral sample on 8 different hosts spanned 4 orders of magnitude. Sequencing of the Pseudo-nitzschia Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1 of the revealed multiple subgroups of hosts with 100% ITS1 identity that were infected by different viral communities. Indeed, we repeatedly isolated groups of isolates with identical ITS1 sequences from the same water sample that displayed different viral infection phenotypes. The interactions between Pseudo-nitzschia and the viral communities highlight the diversity of diatoms and emphasize the complexity and variability of diatom-virus dynamics in the ocean.

  12. Plant Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins: Progesses, Challenges and Biotechnological Applications (and a Few Digressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Serena Fabbrini


    Full Text Available Plant ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP toxins are EC3.2.2.22 N-glycosidases, found among most plant species encoded as small gene families, distributed in several tissues being endowed with defensive functions against fungal or viral infections. The two main plant RIP classes include type I (monomeric and type II (dimeric as the prototype ricin holotoxin from Ricinus communis that is composed of a catalytic active A chain linked via a disulphide bridge to a B-lectin domain that mediates efficient endocytosis in eukaryotic cells. Plant RIPs can recognize a universally conserved stem-loop, known as the α-sarcin/ ricin loop or SRL structure in 23S/25S/28S rRNA. By depurinating a single adenine (A4324 in 28S rat rRNA, they can irreversibly arrest protein translation and trigger cell death in the intoxicated mammalian cell. Besides their useful application as potential weapons against infected/tumor cells, ricin was also used in bio-terroristic attacks and, as such, constitutes a major concern. In this review, we aim to summarize past studies and more recent progresses made studying plant RIPs and discuss successful approaches that might help overcoming some of the bottlenecks encountered during the development of their biomedical applications.

  13. Differential requirement of ribosomal protein S6 by plant RNA viruses with different translation initiation strategies. (United States)

    Yang, Chunling; Zhang, Chunquan; Dittman, Jaime D; Whitham, Steven A


    Potyvirus infection has been reported to cause an increase in the mRNA transcripts of many plant ribosomal proteins (r-proteins). In this study, increased expression of r-protein mRNA transcripts was determined to occur in Nicotiana benthamiana during infection by potyviruses as well as a tobamovirus demonstrating that this response is not unique to potyviruses. Five r-protein genes, RPS6, RPL19, RPL13, RPL7, and RPS2, were silenced in N. benthamiana to test their roles in viral infection. The accumulation of both Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), a potyvirus, and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), a tobamovirus, was dependent on RPL19, RPL13, RPL7, and RPS2. However, TMV was able to accumulate in RPS6-silenced plants while accumulation of TuMV and Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) was abolished. These results demonstrate that cap-independent TuMV and TBSV require RPS6 for their accumulation, whereas accumulation of TMV is independent of RPS6.

  14. YaeJ is a novel ribosome-associated protein in Escherichia coli that can hydrolyze peptidyl-tRNA on stalled ribosomes. (United States)

    Handa, Yoshihiro; Inaho, Noriyuki; Nameki, Nobukazu


    In bacteria, ribosomes often become stalled and are released by a trans-translation process mediated by transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA). In the absence of tmRNA, however, there is evidence that stalled ribosomes are released from non-stop mRNAs. Here, we show a novel ribosome rescue system mediated by a small basic protein, YaeJ, from Escherichia coli, which is similar in sequence and structure to the catalytic domain 3 of polypeptide chain release factor (RF). In vitro translation experiments using the E. coli-based reconstituted cell-free protein synthesis system revealed that YaeJ can hydrolyze peptidyl-tRNA on ribosomes stalled by both non-stop mRNAs and mRNAs containing rare codon clusters that extend downstream from the P-site and prevent Ala-tmRNA•SmpB from entering the empty A-site. In addition, YaeJ had no effect on translation of a normal mRNA with a stop codon. These results suggested a novel tmRNA-independent rescue system for stalled ribosomes in E. coli. YaeJ was almost exclusively found in the 70S ribosome and polysome fractions after sucrose density gradient sedimentation, but was virtually undetectable in soluble fractions. The C-terminal basic residue-rich extension was also found to be required for ribosome binding. These findings suggest that YaeJ functions as a ribosome-attached rescue device for stalled ribosomes.

  15. Structural variation of the ribosomal gene cluster within the class Insecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukha, D.V.; Sidorenko, A.P.; Lazebnaya, I.V. [Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others


    General estimation of ribosomal DNA variation within the class Insecta is presented. It is shown that, using blot-hybridization, one can detect differences in the structure of the ribosomal gene cluster not only between genera within an order, but also between species within a genera, including sibling species. Structure of the ribosomal gene cluster of the Coccinellidae family (ladybirds) is analyzed. It is shown that cloned highly conservative regions of ribosomal DNA of Tetrahymena pyriformis can be used as probes for analyzing ribosomal genes in insects. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Viral Infections and Febrile Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available The incidence of febrile seizures (FS in a cohort of children, ages 3 months to 5 years, living in a Netherlands province was compared with the incidence of common viral infections reported to a national registry and the results reported from the Department of Medical Microbiology, Public Health Laboratory Friesland, Leeuwarden, The Netherlands.

  17. Viral Infection and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Li (Juan)


    markdownabstractMuch of liver pathology is related to infection with HBV and HCV and it is important to define factors associated with clinical behavior of disease following infection with these viruses. Thus in this thesis I first focus on the natural history of chronic viral diseases associated

  18. Viral hepatitis B- an overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Aug 8, 1994 ... Hepatitis B e antigen. (HBeAg) is a soluble non-structural, enigmatic antigen which is often detected in the blood of patients infected with replicating HBV which results in massive viral load in the blood. Both HBe and HBc are derived from the same section of HBV DNA but the HBe transcript contains an.

  19. Detection of Ribosomal DNA Sequence Polymorphisms in the Protist Plasmodiophora brassicae for the Identification of Geographical Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawnak Laila


    Full Text Available Clubroot is a soil-borne disease caused by the protist Plasmodiophora brassicae (P. brassicae. It is one of the most economically important diseases of Brassica rapa and other cruciferous crops as it can cause remarkable yield reductions. Understanding P. brassicae genetics, and developing efficient molecular markers, is essential for effective detection of harmful races of this pathogen. Samples from 11 Korean field populations of P. brassicae (geographic isolates, collected from nine different locations in South Korea, were used in this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from the clubroot-infected samples to sequence the ribosomal DNA. Primers and probes for P. brassicae were designed using a ribosomal DNA gene sequence from a Japanese strain available in GenBank (accession number AB526843; isolate NGY. The nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA sequence of P. brassicae, comprising 6932 base pairs (bp, was cloned and sequenced and found to include the small subunits (SSUs and a large subunit (LSU, internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2, and a 5.8s. Sequence variation was observed in both the SSU and LSU. Four markers showed useful differences in high-resolution melting analysis to identify nucleotide polymorphisms including single- nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, oligonucleotide polymorphisms, and insertions/deletions (InDels. A combination of three markers was able to distinguish the geographical isolates into two groups.

  20. Superresolution Imaging of Ribosomes and RNA Polymerase in Live Escherichia coli Cells (United States)

    Bakshi, Somenath; Siryaporn, Albert; Goulian, Mark; Weisshaar, James C.


    Summary Quantitative spatial distributions of ribosomes (S2-YFP) and RNA polymerase (β′-yGFP) in live E. coli are measured by superresolution fluorescence microscopy. In moderate growth conditions, Nucleoid-ribosome segregation is strong, and RNAP localizes to the nucleoid lobes. The mean copy numbers per cell are 4600 RNAPs and 55,000 ribosomes. Only 10–15% of the ribosomes lie within the densest part of the nucleoid lobes, and at most 4% of the RNAPs lie in the two ribosome-rich endcaps. The predominant observed diffusion coefficient of ribosomes is Dribo = 0.04 μm2/s, attributed to free mRNA being translated by one or more 70S ribosomes. We find no clear evidence of sub-diffusion, as would arise from tethering of ribosomes. The degree of DNA-ribosome segregation strongly suggests that in E. coli most translation occurs on free mRNA transcripts that have diffused into the ribosome-rich regions. Both RNAP and ribosome radial distributions extend to the cytoplasmic membrane, consistent with the transertion hypothesis. However, few if any RNAP copies lie near the membrane of the endcaps. This suggests that if transertion occurs, it exerts a direct radially expanding force on the nucleoid, but not a direct axially expanding force. PMID:22624875

  1. The impact of transcriptional tuning on in vitro integrated rRNA transcription and ribosome construction (United States)

    Fritz, Brian R.; Jewett, Michael C.


    In vitro ribosome construction could enable studies of ribosome assembly and function, provide a route toward constructing minimal cells for synthetic biology, and permit the construction of ribosome variants with new functions. Toward these long-term goals, we recently reported on an integrated, one-pot ribosomal RNA synthesis (rRNA), ribosome assembly, and translation technology (termed iSAT) for the construction of Escherichia coli ribosomes in crude ribosome-free S150 extracts. Here, we aimed to improve the activity of iSAT through transcriptional tuning. Specifically, we increased transcriptional efficiency through 3′ modifications to the rRNA gene sequences, optimized plasmid and polymerase concentrations, and demonstrated the use of a T7-promoted rRNA operon for stoichiometrically balanced rRNA synthesis and native rRNA processing. Our modifications produced a 45-fold improvement in iSAT protein synthesis activity, enabling synthesis of 429 ± 15 nmol/l green fluorescent protein in 6 h batch reactions. Further, we show that the translational activity of ribosomes purified from iSAT reactions is about 20% the activity of native ribosomes purified directly from E. coli cells. Looking forward, we believe iSAT will enable unique studies to unravel the systems biology of ribosome biogenesis and open the way to new methods for making and studying ribosomal variants. PMID:24792158

  2. Using the Ribodeblur pipeline to recover A-sites from yeast ribosome profiling data. (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Kingsford, Carl; McManus, C Joel


    Ribosome profiling has emerged as a powerful technique to study mRNA translation. Ribosome profiling has the potential to determine the relative quantities and locations of ribosomes on mRNA genome wide. Taking full advantage of this approach requires accurate measurement of ribosome locations. However, experimental inconsistencies often obscure the positional information encoded in ribosome profiling data. Here, we describe the Ribodeblur pipeline, a computational analysis tool that uses a maximum likelihood framework to infer ribosome positions from heterogeneous datasets. Ribodeblur is simple to install, and can be run on an average modern Mac or Linux-based laptop. We detail the process of applying the pipeline to high-coverage ribosome profiling data in yeast, and discuss important considerations for potential extension to other organisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. In vivo labelling of functional ribosomes reveals spatial regulation during starvation in Podospora anserina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silar Philippe


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, in eukaryotes, ribosomal protein expression is known to be regulated at the transcriptional and/or translational levels. But other forms of regulation may be possible. Results Here, we report the successful tagging of functional ribosomal particles with a S7-GFP chimaeric protein, making it possible to observe in vivo ribosome dynamics in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. Microscopic observations revealed a novel kind of ribosomal protein regulation during the passage between cell growth and stationary phases, with a transient accumulation of ribosomal proteins and/or ribosome subunits in the nucleus, possibly the nucleolus, being observed at the beginning of stationary phase. Conclusion Nuclear sequestration can be another level of ribosomal protein regulation in eukaryotic cells.This may contribute to the regulation of cell growth and division.

  4. Mast cells in viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Witczak


    Full Text Available  There are some premises suggesting that mast cells are involved in the mechanisms of anti-virus defense and in viral disease pathomechanisms. Mast cells are particularly numerous at the portals of infections and thus may have immediate and easy contact with the external environment and invading pathogens. These cells express receptors responsible for recognition of virus-derived PAMP molecules, mainly Toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9, but also RIG-I-like and NOD-like molecules. Furthermore, mast cells generate various mediators, cytokines and chemokines which modulate the intensity of inflammation and regulate the course of innate and adaptive anti-viral immunity. Indirect evidence for the role of mast cells in viral infections is also provided by clinical observations and results of animal studies. Currently, more and more data indicate that mast cells can be infected by some viruses (dengue virus, adenoviruses, hantaviruses, cytomegaloviruses, reoviruses, HIV-1 virus. It is also demonstrated that mast cells can release pre formed mediators as well as synthesize de novo eicosanoids in response to stimulation by viruses. Several data indicate that virus-stimulated mast cells secrete cytokines and chemokines, including interferons as well as chemokines with a key role in NK and Tc lymphocyte influx. Moreover, some information indicates that mast cell stimulation via TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9 can affect their adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins and chemotaxis, and influence expression of some membrane molecules. Critical analysis of current data leads to the conclusion that it is not yet possible to make definitive statements about the role of mast cells in innate and acquired defense mechanisms developing in the course of viral infection and/or pathomechanisms of viral diseases.

  5. Autistic disorder and viral infections. (United States)

    Libbey, Jane E; Sweeten, Thayne L; McMahon, William M; Fujinami, Robert S


    Autistic disorder (autism) is a behaviorally defined developmental disorder with a wide range of behaviors. Although the etiology of autism is unknown, data suggest that autism results from multiple etiologies with both genetic and environmental contributions, which may explain the spectrum of behaviors seen in this disorder. One proposed etiology for autism is viral infection very early in development. The mechanism, by which viral infection may lead to autism, be it through direct infection of the central nervous system (CNS), through infection elsewhere in the body acting as a trigger for disease in the CNS, through alteration of the immune response of the mother or offspring, or through a combination of these, is not yet known. Animal models in which early viral infection results in behavioral changes later in life include the influenza virus model in pregnant mice and the Borna disease virus model in newborn Lewis rats. Many studies over the years have presented evidence both for and against the association of autism with various viral infections. The best association to date has been made between congenital rubella and autism; however, members of the herpes virus family may also have a role in autism. Recently, controversy has arisen as to the involvement of measles virus and/or the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine in the development of autism. Biological assays lend support to the association between measles virus or MMR and autism whereas epidemiologic studies show no association between MMR and autism. Further research is needed to clarify both the mechanisms whereby viral infection early in development may lead to autism and the possible involvement of the MMR vaccine in the development of autism.

  6. Interaction of pleuromutilin derivatives with the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, K. S.; Hansen, L. K.; Jakobsen, L.


    of pleuromutilin-based drugs, the binding of the antibiotic pleuromutilin and three semisynthetic derivatives with different side chain extensions has been investigated using chemical footprinting. The nucleotides A2058, A2059, G2505, and U2506 are affected in all of the footprints, suggesting that the drugs...... are similarly anchored in the binding pocket by the common tricyclic mutilin core. However, varying effects are observed at U2584 and U2585, indicating that the side chain extensions adopt distinct conformations within the cavity and thereby affect the rRNA conformation differently. An Escherichia coli L3......Tiamulin is a pleuromutilin antibiotic that is used in veterinary medicine. The recently published crystal structure of a tiamulin-50S ribosomal subunit complex provides detailed information about how this drug targets the peptidyl transferase center of the ribosome. To promote rational design...

  7. Expression of protein-coding genes embedded in ribosomal DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Steinar D; Haugen, Peik; Nielsen, Henrik


    Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is a specialised chromosomal location that is dedicated to high-level transcription of ribosomal RNA genes. Interestingly, rDNAs are frequently interrupted by parasitic elements, some of which carry protein genes. These are non-LTR retrotransposons and group II introns...... that encode reverse transcriptase-like genes, and group I introns and archaeal introns that encode homing endonuclease genes (HEGs). Although rDNA-embedded protein genes are widespread in nuclei, organelles and bacteria, there is surprisingly little information available on how these genes are expressed....... Exceptions include a handful of HEGs from group I introns. Recent studies have revealed unusual and essential roles of group I and group I-like ribozymes in the endogenous expression of HEGs. Here we discuss general aspects of rDNA-embedded protein genes and focus on HEG expression from group I introns...

  8. Dodecandrin, a new ribosome-inhibiting protein from Phytolacca dodecandra. (United States)

    Ready, M P; Adams, R P; Robertus, J D


    Dodecandrin, a newly discovered ribosome-inhibiting protein, has been isolated and purified from the leaves of the African endod plant, Phytolacca dodecandra. Dodecandrin has a molecular weight of approx. 29 000. It cross-reacts with antiserum prepared against pokeweed antiviral protein from Phytolacca americana and exhibits similar requirements for antiribosomal activity. It is more basic than pokeweed antiviral protein, and comparison of the first 30 amino-terminal residues of the two proteins reveals 83% homology. This level of homology is greater than that between pokeweed antiviral protein and pokeweed antiviral protein S, another antiviral protein found in P. americana. Such conservatism in sequence, coupled with the high efficiency of the proteins in deactivating ribosomes and with their abundance in plant tissue, suggests that they serve an important function in the life of the plant, probably as a defense against infection.

  9. Nuclear ribosomal DNA phylogeny and its implications for evolutionary trends in Mexican Bursera (Burseraceae). (United States)

    Becerra, J X; Venable, D L


    The genus Bursera (Burseraceae) is one of the most diversified and abundant groups of plants of the tropical dry forests of Mexico. In order to provide a basis for better understanding of its evolutionary biology, we reconstructed a phylogeny of 57 species and varieties using the nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2) of 18S-26S and the 5.8S coding region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. We used four species of the allied genera Commiphora and Boswellia and one species of Spondias (Anacardiaceae) as outgroups. Our results support the views that Bursera is monophyletic and more closely related to Commiphora than to Boswellia. The division of Bursera into sections Bullockia and Bursera is also strongly supported by our phylogeny. Several other subclades also had high bootstrap values, especially within section Bursera. We use the phylogeny as a basis for discussing evolutionary tendencies in bark, leaves, breeding systems, and fruits.

  10. Mechanisms of In Vivo Ribosome Maintenance Change in Response to Nutrient Signals. (United States)

    Mathis, Andrew D; Naylor, Bradley C; Carson, Richard H; Evans, Eric; Harwell, Justin; Knecht, Jared; Hexem, Eric; Peelor, Fredrick F; Miller, Benjamin F; Hamilton, Karyn L; Transtrum, Mark K; Bikman, Benjamin T; Price, John C


    Control of protein homeostasis is fundamental to the health and longevity of all organisms. Because the rate of protein synthesis by ribosomes is a central control point in this process, regulation, and maintenance of ribosome function could have amplified importance in the overall regulatory circuit. Indeed, ribosomal defects are commonly associated with loss of protein homeostasis, aging, and disease (1-4), whereas improved protein homeostasis, implying optimal ribosomal function, is associated with disease resistance and increased lifespan (5-7). To maintain a high-quality ribosome population within the cell, dysfunctional ribosomes are targeted for autophagic degradation. It is not known if complete degradation is the only mechanism for eukaryotic ribosome maintenance or if they might also be repaired by replacement of defective components. We used stable-isotope feeding and protein mass spectrometry to measure the kinetics of turnover of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and 71 ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) in mice. The results indicate that exchange of individual proteins and whole ribosome degradation both contribute to ribosome maintenance in vivo In general, peripheral r-proteins and those with more direct roles in peptide-bond formation are replaced multiple times during the lifespan of the assembled structure, presumably by exchange with a free cytoplasmic pool, whereas the majority of r-proteins are stably incorporated for the lifetime of the ribosome. Dietary signals impact the rates of both new ribosome assembly and component exchange. Signal-specific modulation of ribosomal repair and degradation could provide a mechanistic link in the frequently observed associations among diminished rates of protein synthesis, increased autophagy, and greater longevity (5, 6, 8, 9). © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Viral and Cellular mRNA Translation in Coronavirus-Infected Cells. (United States)

    Nakagawa, K; Lokugamage, K G; Makino, S


    Coronaviruses have large positive-strand RNA genomes that are 5' capped and 3' polyadenylated. The 5'-terminal two-thirds of the genome contain two open reading frames (ORFs), 1a and 1b, that together make up the viral replicase gene and encode two large polyproteins that are processed by viral proteases into 15-16 nonstructural proteins, most of them being involved in viral RNA synthesis. ORFs located in the 3'-terminal one-third of the genome encode structural and accessory proteins and are expressed from a set of 5' leader-containing subgenomic mRNAs that are synthesized by a process called discontinuous transcription. Coronavirus protein synthesis not only involves cap-dependent translation mechanisms but also employs regulatory mechanisms, such as ribosomal frameshifting. Coronavirus replication is known to affect cellular translation, involving activation of stress-induced signaling pathways, and employing viral proteins that affect cellular mRNA translation and RNA stability. This chapter describes our current understanding of the mechanisms involved in coronavirus mRNA translation and changes in host mRNA translation observed in coronavirus-infected cells. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ribosome signatures aid bacterial translation initiation site identification. (United States)

    Giess, Adam; Jonckheere, Veronique; Ndah, Elvis; Chyżyńska, Katarzyna; Van Damme, Petra; Valen, Eivind


    While methods for annotation of genes are increasingly reliable, the exact identification of translation initiation sites remains a challenging problem. Since the N-termini of proteins often contain regulatory and targeting information, developing a robust method for start site identification is crucial. Ribosome profiling reads show distinct patterns of read length distributions around translation initiation sites. These patterns are typically lost in standard ribosome profiling analysis pipelines, when reads from footprints are adjusted to determine the specific codon being translated. Utilising these signatures in combination with nucleotide sequence information, we build a model capable of predicting translation initiation sites and demonstrate its high accuracy using N-terminal proteomics. Applying this to prokaryotic translatomes, we re-annotate translation initiation sites and provide evidence of N-terminal truncations and extensions of previously annotated coding sequences. These re-annotations are supported by the presence of structural and sequence-based features next to N-terminal peptide evidence. Finally, our model identifies 61 novel genes previously undiscovered in the Salmonella enterica genome. Signatures within ribosome profiling read length distributions can be used in combination with nucleotide sequence information to provide accurate genome-wide identification of translation initiation sites.

  13. On ribosome load, codon bias and protein abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Klumpp

    Full Text Available Different codons encoding the same amino acid are not used equally in protein-coding sequences. In bacteria, there is a bias towards codons with high translation rates. This bias is most pronounced in highly expressed proteins, but a recent study of synthetic GFP-coding sequences did not find a correlation between codon usage and GFP expression, suggesting that such correlation in natural sequences is not a simple property of translational mechanisms. Here, we investigate the effect of evolutionary forces on codon usage. The relation between codon bias and protein abundance is quantitatively analyzed based on the hypothesis that codon bias evolved to ensure the efficient usage of ribosomes, a precious commodity for fast growing cells. An explicit fitness landscape is formulated based on bacterial growth laws to relate protein abundance and ribosomal load. The model leads to a quantitative relation between codon bias and protein abundance, which accounts for a substantial part of the observed bias for E. coli. Moreover, by providing an evolutionary link, the ribosome load model resolves the apparent conflict between the observed relation of protein abundance and codon bias in natural sequences and the lack of such dependence in a synthetic gfp library. Finally, we show that the relation between codon usage and protein abundance can be used to predict protein abundance from genomic sequence data alone without adjustable parameters.

  14. A new version of the RDP (Ribosomal Database Project) (United States)

    Maidak, B. L.; Cole, J. R.; Parker, C. T. Jr; Garrity, G. M.; Larsen, N.; Li, B.; Lilburn, T. G.; McCaughey, M. J.; Olsen, G. J.; Overbeek, R.; hide


    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP-II), previously described by Maidak et al. [ Nucleic Acids Res. (1997), 25, 109-111], is now hosted by the Center for Microbial Ecology at Michigan State University. RDP-II is a curated database that offers ribosomal RNA (rRNA) nucleotide sequence data in aligned and unaligned forms, analysis services, and associated computer programs. During the past two years, data alignments have been updated and now include >9700 small subunit rRNA sequences. The recent development of an ObjectStore database will provide more rapid updating of data, better data accuracy and increased user access. RDP-II includes phylogenetically ordered alignments of rRNA sequences, derived phylogenetic trees, rRNA secondary structure diagrams, and various software programs for handling, analyzing and displaying alignments and trees. The data are available via anonymous ftp (ftp.cme.msu. edu) and WWW ( The WWW server provides ribosomal probe checking, approximate phylogenetic placement of user-submitted sequences, screening for possible chimeric rRNA sequences, automated alignment, and a suggested placement of an unknown sequence on an existing phylogenetic tree. Additional utilities also exist at RDP-II, including distance matrix, T-RFLP, and a Java-based viewer of the phylogenetic trees that can be used to create subtrees.

  15. Dynamic evolution of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins in Holozoa. (United States)

    Scheel, Bettina M; Hausdorf, Bernhard


    We studied the highly dynamic evolution of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPs) in Holozoa. Most major clades within Holozoa are characterized by gains and/or losses of MRPs. The usefulness of gains of MRPs as rare genomic changes in phylogenetics is undermined by the high frequency of secondary losses. However, phylogenetic analyses of the MRP sequences provide evidence for the Acrosomata hypothesis, a sister group relationship between Ctenophora and Bilateria. An extensive restructuring of the mitochondrial genome and, as a consequence, of the mitochondrial ribosomes occurred in the ancestor of metazoans. The last MRP genes encoded in the mitochondrial genome were either moved to the nuclear genome or were lost. The strong decrease in size of the mitochondrial genome was probably caused by selection for rapid replication of mitochondrial DNA during oogenesis in the metazoan ancestor. A phylogenetic analysis of MRPL56 sequences provided evidence for a horizontal gene transfer of the corresponding MRP gene between metazoans and Dictyostelidae (Amoebozoa). The hypothesis that the requisition of additional MRPs compensated for a loss of rRNA segments in the mitochondrial ribosomes is corroborated by a significant negative correlation between the number of MRPs and length of the rRNA. Newly acquired MRPs evolved faster than bacterial MRPs and positions in eukaryote-specific MRPs were more strongly affected by coevolution than positions in prokaryotic MRPs in accordance with the necessity to fit these proteins into the pre-existing structure of the mitoribosome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Ribosome Restrains Molten Globule Formation in Stalled Nascent Flavodoxin. (United States)

    Houwman, Joseline A; André, Estelle; Westphal, Adrie H; van Berkel, Willem J H; van Mierlo, Carlo P M


    Folding of proteins usually involves intermediates, of which an important type is the molten globule (MG). MGs are ensembles of interconverting conformers that contain (non-)native secondary structure and lack the tightly packed tertiary structure of natively folded globular proteins. Whereas MGs of various purified proteins have been probed to date, no data are available on their presence and/or effect during protein synthesis. To study whether MGs arise during translation, we use ribosome-nascent chain (RNC) complexes of the electron transfer protein flavodoxin. Full-length isolated flavodoxin, which contains a non-covalently bound flavin mononucleotide (FMN) as cofactor, acquires its native α/β parallel topology via a folding mechanism that contains an off-pathway intermediate with molten globular characteristics. Extensive population of this MG state occurs at physiological ionic strength for apoflavodoxin variant F44Y, in which a phenylalanine at position 44 is changed to a tyrosine. Here, we show for the first time that ascertaining the binding rate of FMN as a function of ionic strength can be used as a tool to determine the presence of the off-pathway MG on the ribosome. Application of this methodology to F44Y apoflavodoxin RNCs shows that at physiological ionic strength the ribosome influences formation of the off-pathway MG and forces the nascent chain toward the native state. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. The Ribosome Restrains Molten Globule Formation in Stalled Nascent Flavodoxin* (United States)

    Houwman, Joseline A.; André, Estelle; Westphal, Adrie H.; van Berkel, Willem J. H.; van Mierlo, Carlo P. M.


    Folding of proteins usually involves intermediates, of which an important type is the molten globule (MG). MGs are ensembles of interconverting conformers that contain (non-)native secondary structure and lack the tightly packed tertiary structure of natively folded globular proteins. Whereas MGs of various purified proteins have been probed to date, no data are available on their presence and/or effect during protein synthesis. To study whether MGs arise during translation, we use ribosome-nascent chain (RNC) complexes of the electron transfer protein flavodoxin. Full-length isolated flavodoxin, which contains a non-covalently bound flavin mononucleotide (FMN) as cofactor, acquires its native α/β parallel topology via a folding mechanism that contains an off-pathway intermediate with molten globular characteristics. Extensive population of this MG state occurs at physiological ionic strength for apoflavodoxin variant F44Y, in which a phenylalanine at position 44 is changed to a tyrosine. Here, we show for the first time that ascertaining the binding rate of FMN as a function of ionic strength can be used as a tool to determine the presence of the off-pathway MG on the ribosome. Application of this methodology to F44Y apoflavodoxin RNCs shows that at physiological ionic strength the ribosome influences formation of the off-pathway MG and forces the nascent chain toward the native state. PMID:27784783

  18. Single Molecule Fluorescence Measurements of Ribosomal Translocation Dynamics (United States)

    Chen, Chunlai; Stevens, Benjamin; Kaur, Jaskarin; Cabral, Diana; Liu, Hanqing; Wang, Yuhong; Zhang, Haibo; Rosenblum, Gabriel; Smilansky, Zeev; Goldman, Yale E.; Cooperman, Barry S.


    We employ single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) to study structural dynamics over the first two elongation cycles of protein synthesis, using ribosomes containing either Cy3-labeled ribosomal protein L11 and A- or P-site Cy5-labeled tRNA or Cy3 and Cy5 labeled tRNAs. Pre-translocation (PRE) complexes demonstrate fluctuations between classical and hybrid forms, with concerted motions of tRNAs away from L11 and from each other when classical complex converts to hybrid complex. EF-G·GTP binding to both hybrid and classical PRE complexes halts these fluctuations prior to catalyzing translocation to form the post-translocation (POST) complex. EF-G dependent translocation from the classical PRE complex proceeds via transient formation of a short-lived hybrid intermediate. A-site binding of either EF-G to the PRE complex or of aminoacyl-tRNA·EF-Tu ternary complex to the POST complex markedly suppresses ribosome conformational lability. PMID:21549313

  19. Non-random patterns in viral diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthony, Simon J.; Islam, Ariful; Johnson, Christine


    It is currently unclear whether changes in viral communities will ever be predictable. Here we investigate whether viral communities in wildlife are inherently structured (inferring predictability) by looking at whether communities are assembled through deterministic (often predictable) or stocha...

  20. Faktor Risiko Non Viral Pada Karsinoma Nasofaring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukri Rahman


    Full Text Available Abstrak           Latar belakang: Karsinoma nasofaring adalah tumor ganas epitel nasofaring yang sampai saat ini penyebabnya belum diketahui, infeksi virus Epstein Barr dilaporkan sebagai faktor dominan terjadinya karsinoma nasofaring tetapi faktor non viral juga berperan untuk timbulnya keganasan nasofaring. Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui faktor non viral  yang dapat meningkatkan kejadian karsinoma nasofaring sehingga dapat mencegah dan menghindari faktor-faktor non viral tersebut. Tinjauan Pustaka: Karsinoma nasofaring merupakan tumor ganas epitel nasofaring yang penyebabnya berhubungan dengan faktor viral dan non viral diantaranya asap rokok, ikan asin, formaldehid, genetik, asap kayu bakar , debu kayu, infeksi kronik telinga hidung tenggorok, alkohol dan obat tradisional. Kesimpulan: Pembuktian secara klinis dan ilmiah terhadap faktor non viral sebagai penyebab timbulnya karsinoma nasofaring masih belum dapat dijelaskan secara pasti. Faktor non viral merupakan salah satu faktor risiko yang dapat meningkatkan angka kejadian timbulnya keganasan nasofaring Kata kunci: karsinoma nasofaring, faktor risiko, non viral AbstractBackground: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a malignant epithelial nasopharyngeal tumor that until now the cause still unknown, Epstein barr virus infection had reported as predominant occurance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma but non viral factors may also contribute to the onset of the incidence of nasopharyngeal malignancy. Purpose: To find non viral factors that may increase the incidence of nasopharyngel carcinoma in order to prevent and avoid non-viral factors Literature: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a malignant tumor that causes nasopharyngeal epithelium associated with viral and non-viral factors such as cigarette smoke, salt fish, formaldehyde, genetic, wood smoke ,wood dust, ear nose throat chronic infections, alcohol, and traditional medicine. Conclusion: Clinically and scientifically proving the non-viral factors as

  1. Yeast ribosomal protein L7 and its homologue Rlp7 are simultaneously present at distinct sites on pre-60S ribosomal particles (United States)

    Babiano, Reyes; Badis, Gwenael; Saveanu, Cosmin; Namane, Abdelkader; Doyen, Antonia; Díaz-Quintana, Antonio; Jacquier, Alain; Fromont-Racine, Micheline; de la Cruz, Jesús


    Ribosome biogenesis requires >300 assembly factors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ribosome assembly factors Imp3, Mrt4, Rlp7 and Rlp24 have sequence similarity to ribosomal proteins S9, P0, L7 and L24, suggesting that these pre-ribosomal factors could be placeholders that prevent premature assembly of the corresponding ribosomal proteins to nascent ribosomes. However, we found L7 to be a highly specific component of Rlp7-associated complexes, revealing that the two proteins can bind simultaneously to pre-ribosomal particles. Cross-linking and cDNA analysis experiments showed that Rlp7 binds to the ITS2 region of 27S pre-rRNAs, at two sites, in helix III and in a region adjacent to the pre-rRNA processing sites C1 and E. However, L7 binds to mature 25S and 5S rRNAs and cross-linked predominantly to helix ES7Lb within 25S rRNA. Thus, despite their predicted structural similarity, our data show that Rlp7 and L7 clearly bind at different positions on the same pre-60S particles. Our results also suggest that Rlp7 facilitates the formation of the hairpin structure of ITS2 during 60S ribosomal subunit maturation. PMID:23945946

  2. SuhB is a novel ribosome associated protein that regulates expression of MexXY by modulating ribosome stalling in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Jin, Yongxin; Bian, Ting; Li, Kewei; Sun, Ziyu; Cheng, Zhihui; Jin, Shouguang; Wu, Weihui


    Translation elongation is modulated by various ribosome-binding proteins. Environmental stresses, such as starvation and antibiotics, can cause stalling of bacterial ribosomes, which may alter gene expression through a transcription or translation attenuation mechanism. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the expression of MexXY multidrug efflux system, which plays a significant role in resistance against aminoglycoside antibiotics, is controlled by a translation surveillance mechanism. Stalling of ribosome at the PA5471 leader peptide (PA5471.1) mRNA leads to transcription of PA5471, which subsequently up-regulates the expression of MexXY. In this study, we found that mutation in a suhB gene leads to decreased susceptibility to aminoglycosides. Transcriptomic analysis revealed an up-regulation of MexXY and PA5471, which were demonstrated to be responsible for the decreased susceptibility of the suhB mutant. We further demonstrated that PA5471.1 is essential for the up-regulation of PA5471 in the suhB mutant. Co-immunoprecipitation assay revealed an interaction between SuhB and ribosome, suggesting a role of SuhB in translation. Indeed, higher amount of PA5471.1 mRNA was found to associate with ribosome isolated from the suhB mutant, indicating increased ribosome stalling. Therefore, this study identified SuhB as a novel ribosome associated protein that is involved in modulating ribosome activity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Investigating the effective factors on electronic trade by viral marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ghane


    Full Text Available This paper performs an investigation to explore a number of strategies underpinning virtual marketing. The study also provides several suggestions for marketers seeking to use viral marketing to position brands or to change a brand’s image, to encourage new product trials and to increase product uptake rates. In this article, we investigate the effect of external factors such as capturing the imagination, targeting credible sources, leveraging combinations of technology and easy to use product on virtual marketing. In addition, the study considers internal factors such as inclusion (the need to be part of a group, the need to be different and affection on viral marketing. The survey has been accomplished among 140 Iranian people, who were familiar with virtual marketing and they are selected, randomly. Using Pearson correlation as well as regression analysis, the study provides some evidences that there were some positive and meaningful relationship between some internal/external factors and virtual marketing.

  4. Mechanisms of influenza viral membrane fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijleven, Jelle S; Boonstra, Sander; Onck, Patrick R; van der Giessen, Erik; van Oijen, Antoine M


    Influenza viral particles are enveloped by a lipid bilayer. A major step in infection is fusion of the viral and host cellular membranes, a process with large kinetic barriers. Influenza membrane fusion is catalyzed by hemagglutinin (HA), a class I viral fusion protein activated by low pH. The exact

  5. Viral commercials: the consumer as marketeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Lucassen, P.; Kregting, G.H.J.


    Research into the reasons why consumers pass along viral commercials: their motives, the content characteristics of viral commercials and the medium context in which viral commercials appear. Based on the uses and gratifications perspective this study has determined which motives of consumers,

  6. Virale commercials: De consument als marketeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Lucassen, P.; Kregting, G.H.J.


    Research into the reasons why consumers pass along viral commercials: their motives, the content characteristics of viral commercials and the medium context in which viral commercials appear. Based on the uses and gratifications perspective this study has determined which motives of consumers,

  7. Viral ecology of a shallow eutrophic lake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, M.


    This thesis aims to give an insight into the ecology of the viral community in a shallow eutrophic lake. To achieve this, the population dynamics, diversity and control of the viral community in Lake Loosdrecht were studied, as well as the impact of the viral community on plankton mortality and

  8. Replication-competent infectious hepatitis B virus vectors carrying substantially sized transgenes by redesigned viral polymerase translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zihua Wang

    Full Text Available Viral vectors are engineered virus variants able to deliver nonviral genetic information into cells, usually by the same routes as the parental viruses. For several virus families, replication-competent vectors carrying reporter genes have become invaluable tools for easy and quantitative monitoring of replication and infection, and thus also for identifying antivirals and virus susceptible cells. For hepatitis B virus (HBV, a small enveloped DNA virus causing B-type hepatitis, such vectors are not available because insertions into its tiny 3.2 kb genome almost inevitably affect essential replication elements. HBV replicates by reverse transcription of the pregenomic (pg RNA which is also required as bicistronic mRNA for the capsid (core protein and the reverse transcriptase (Pol; their open reading frames (ORFs overlap by some 150 basepairs. Translation of the downstream Pol ORF does not involve a conventional internal ribosome entry site (IRES. We reasoned that duplicating the overlap region and providing artificial IRES control for translation of both Pol and an in-between inserted transgene might yield a functional tricistronic pgRNA, without interfering with envelope protein expression. As IRESs we used a 22 nucleotide element termed Rbm3 IRES to minimize genome size increase. Model plasmids confirmed its activity even in tricistronic arrangements. Analogous plasmids for complete HBV genomes carrying 399 bp and 720 bp transgenes for blasticidin resistance (BsdR and humanized Renilla green fluorescent protein (hrGFP produced core and envelope proteins like wild-type HBV; while the hrGFP vector replicated poorly, the BsdR vector generated around 40% as much replicative DNA as wild-type HBV. Both vectors, however, formed enveloped virions which were infectious for HBV-susceptible HepaRG cells. Because numerous reporter and effector genes with sizes of around 500 bp or less are available, the new HBV vectors should become highly useful tools to

  9. Replication-competent infectious hepatitis B virus vectors carrying substantially sized transgenes by redesigned viral polymerase translation. (United States)

    Wang, Zihua; Wu, Li; Cheng, Xin; Liu, Shizhu; Li, Baosheng; Li, Haijun; Kang, Fubiao; Wang, Junping; Xia, Huan; Ping, Caiyan; Nassal, Michael; Sun, Dianxing


    Viral vectors are engineered virus variants able to deliver nonviral genetic information into cells, usually by the same routes as the parental viruses. For several virus families, replication-competent vectors carrying reporter genes have become invaluable tools for easy and quantitative monitoring of replication and infection, and thus also for identifying antivirals and virus susceptible cells. For hepatitis B virus (HBV), a small enveloped DNA virus causing B-type hepatitis, such vectors are not available because insertions into its tiny 3.2 kb genome almost inevitably affect essential replication elements. HBV replicates by reverse transcription of the pregenomic (pg) RNA which is also required as bicistronic mRNA for the capsid (core) protein and the reverse transcriptase (Pol); their open reading frames (ORFs) overlap by some 150 basepairs. Translation of the downstream Pol ORF does not involve a conventional internal ribosome entry site (IRES). We reasoned that duplicating the overlap region and providing artificial IRES control for translation of both Pol and an in-between inserted transgene might yield a functional tricistronic pgRNA, without interfering with envelope protein expression. As IRESs we used a 22 nucleotide element termed Rbm3 IRES to minimize genome size increase. Model plasmids confirmed its activity even in tricistronic arrangements. Analogous plasmids for complete HBV genomes carrying 399 bp and 720 bp transgenes for blasticidin resistance (BsdR) and humanized Renilla green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) produced core and envelope proteins like wild-type HBV; while the hrGFP vector replicated poorly, the BsdR vector generated around 40% as much replicative DNA as wild-type HBV. Both vectors, however, formed enveloped virions which were infectious for HBV-susceptible HepaRG cells. Because numerous reporter and effector genes with sizes of around 500 bp or less are available, the new HBV vectors should become highly useful tools to better

  10. Viral diseases and human evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leal Élcio de Souza


    Full Text Available The interaction of man with viral agents was possibly a key factor shaping human evolution, culture and civilization from its outset. Evidence of the effect of disease, since the early stages of human speciation, through pre-historical times to the present suggest that the types of viruses associated with man changed in time. As human populations progressed technologically, they grew in numbers and density. As a consequence different viruses found suitable conditions to thrive and establish long-lasting associations with man. Although not all viral agents cause disease and some may in fact be considered beneficial, the present situation of overpopulation, poverty and ecological inbalance may have devastating effets on human progress. Recently emerged diseases causing massive pandemics (eg., HIV-1 and HCV, dengue, etc. are becoming formidable challenges, which may have a direct impact on the fate of our species.

  11. Interaction network of the ribosome assembly machinery from a eukaryotic thermophile. (United States)

    Baßler, Jochen; Ahmed, Yasar Luqman; Kallas, Martina; Kornprobst, Markus; Calviño, Fabiola R; Gnädig, Marén; Thoms, Matthias; Stier, Gunter; Ismail, Sherif; Kharde, Satyavati; Castillo, Nestor; Griesel, Sabine; Bastuck, Sonja; Bradatsch, Bettina; Thomson, Emma; Flemming, Dirk; Sinning, Irmgard; Hurt, Ed


    Ribosome biogenesis in eukaryotic cells is a highly dynamic and complex process innately linked to cell proliferation. The assembly of ribosomes is driven by a myriad of biogenesis factors that shape pre-ribosomal particles by processing and folding the ribosomal RNA and incorporating ribosomal proteins. Biochemical approaches allowed the isolation and characterization of pre-ribosomal particles from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which lead to a spatiotemporal map of biogenesis intermediates along the path from the nucleolus to the cytoplasm. Here, we cloned almost the entire set (∼180) of ribosome biogenesis factors from the thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum in order to perform an in-depth analysis of their protein-protein interaction network as well as exploring the suitability of these thermostable proteins for structural studies. First, we performed a systematic screen, testing about 80 factors for crystallization and structure determination. Next, we performed a yeast 2-hybrid analysis and tested about 32,000 binary combinations, which identified more than 1000 protein-protein contacts between the thermophilic ribosome assembly factors. To exemplary verify several of these interactions, we performed biochemical reconstitution with the focus on the interaction network between 90S pre-ribosome factors forming the ctUTP-A and ctUTP-B modules, and the Brix-domain containing assembly factors of the pre-60S subunit. Our work provides a rich resource for biochemical reconstitution and structural analyses of the conserved ribosome assembly machinery from a eukaryotic thermophile. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  12. Lactococcus lactis YfiA is necessary and sufficient for ribosome dimerization. (United States)

    Puri, Pranav; Eckhardt, Thomas H; Franken, Linda E; Fusetti, Fabrizia; Stuart, Marc C A; Boekema, Egbert J; Kuipers, Oscar P; Kok, Jan; Poolman, Bert


    Dimerization and inactivation of ribosomes in Escherichia coli is a two-step process that involves the binding of ribosome modulation factor (RMF) and hibernation promotion factor (HPF). Lactococcus lactis MG1363 expresses a protein, YfiA(L) (l) , which associates with ribosomes in the stationary phase of growth and is responsible for dimerization of ribosomes. We show that full-length YfiA(L) (l) is necessary and sufficient for ribosome dimerization in L. lactis but also functions heterologously in vitro with E. coli ribosomes. Deletion of the yfiA gene has no effect on the growth rate but diminishes the survival of L. lactis under energy-starving conditions. The N-terminal domain of YfiA(L) (l) is homologous to HPF from E. coli, whereas the C-terminal domain has no counterpart in E. coli. By assembling ribosome dimers in vitro, we could dissect the roles of the N- and C-terminal domains of YfiA(L) (l) . It is concluded that the dimerization and inactivation of ribosomes in L. lactis and E. coli differ in several cellular and molecular aspects. In addition, two-dimensional maps of dimeric ribosomes from L. lactis obtained by single particle electron microscopy show a marked structural difference in monomer association in comparison to the ribosome dimers in E. coli. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Reduced ribosomes of the apicoplast and mitochondrion of Plasmodium spp. and predicted interactions with antibiotics. (United States)

    Gupta, Ankit; Shah, Priyanka; Haider, Afreen; Gupta, Kirti; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Ralph, Stuart A; Habib, Saman


    Apicomplexan protists such as Plasmodium and Toxoplasma contain a mitochondrion and a relic plastid (apicoplast) that are sites of protein translation. Although there is emerging interest in the partitioning and function of translation factors that participate in apicoplast and mitochondrial peptide synthesis, the composition of organellar ribosomes remains to be elucidated. We carried out an analysis of the complement of core ribosomal protein subunits that are encoded by either the parasite organellar or nuclear genomes, accompanied by a survey of ribosome assembly factors for the apicoplast and mitochondrion. A cross-species comparison with other apicomplexan, algal and diatom species revealed compositional differences in apicomplexan organelle ribosomes and identified considerable reduction and divergence with ribosomes of bacteria or characterized organelle ribosomes from other organisms. We assembled structural models of sections of Plasmodium falciparum organellar ribosomes and predicted interactions with translation inhibitory antibiotics. Differences in predicted drug-ribosome interactions with some of the modelled structures suggested specificity of inhibition between the apicoplast and mitochondrion. Our results indicate that Plasmodium and Toxoplasma organellar ribosomes have a unique composition, resulting from the loss of several large and small subunit proteins accompanied by significant sequence and size divergences in parasite orthologues of ribosomal proteins.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cudillo


    Liver histology is characterized by T cell infiltrating the parenchyma as reported in acute hepatitis. Recently in HAA it has been demonstrated intrahepatic  and blood lymphocytes with  T cell repertoire similar to that of confirmed viral acute hepatitis. The expanded T cell clones return to a normal distribution after response to immunosuppressive treatment, suggesting the antigen or T cell clearance. Therapeutic options are the same as acquired aplastic anemia.

  15. Viral exanthems in the tropics. (United States)

    Carneiro, Sueli Coelho da Silva; Cestari, Tania; Allen, Samuel H; Ramos e-Silva, Marcia


    Viral exanthems are a common problem in tropical regions, particularly affecting children. Most exanthems are transient and harmless, but some are potentially very dangerous. Pregnant women and malnourished or immunocompromised infants carry the greatest risk of adverse outcome. In this article, parvovirus B19; dengue and yellow fever; West Nile, Barmah Forest, Marburg, and Ebola viruses, and human herpesviruses; asymmetric periflexural exanthema of childhood; measles; rubella; enteroviruses; Lassa fever; and South American hemorrhagic fevers will be discussed.

  16. Mechanism of membranous tunnelling nanotube formation in viral genome delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Peralta


    Full Text Available In internal membrane-containing viruses, a lipid vesicle enclosed by the icosahedral capsid protects the genome. It has been postulated that this internal membrane is the genome delivery device of the virus. Viruses built with this architectural principle infect hosts in all three domains of cellular life. Here, using a combination of electron microscopy techniques, we investigate bacteriophage PRD1, the best understood model for such viruses, to unveil the mechanism behind the genome translocation across the cell envelope. To deliver its double-stranded DNA, the icosahedral protein-rich virus membrane transforms into a tubular structure protruding from one of the 12 vertices of the capsid. We suggest that this viral nanotube exits from the same vertex used for DNA packaging, which is biochemically distinct from the other 11. The tube crosses the capsid through an aperture corresponding to the loss of the peripentonal P3 major capsid protein trimers, penton protein P31 and membrane protein P16. The remodeling of the internal viral membrane is nucleated by changes in osmolarity and loss of capsid-membrane interactions as consequence of the de-capping of the vertices. This engages the polymerization of the tail tube, which is structured by membrane-associated proteins. We have observed that the proteo-lipidic tube in vivo can pierce the gram-negative bacterial cell envelope allowing the viral genome to be shuttled to the host cell. The internal diameter of the tube allows one double-stranded DNA chain to be translocated. We conclude that the assembly principles of the viral tunneling nanotube take advantage of proteo-lipid interactions that confer to the tail tube elastic, mechanical and functional properties employed also in other protein-membrane systems.

  17. RMF inactivates ribosomes by covering the peptidyl transferase centre and entrance of peptide exit tunnel. (United States)

    Yoshida, Hideji; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Uchiumi, Toshio; Wada, Akira


    In gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, protein synthesis is suppressed by the formation of 100S ribosomes under stress conditions. The 100S ribosome, a dimer of 70S ribosomes, is formed by ribosome modulation factor (RMF) binding to the 70S ribosomes. During the stationary phase, most of the 70S ribosomes turn to 100S ribosomes, which have lost translational activity. This 100S formation is called the hibernation process in the ribosome cycle of the stationary phase. If stationary phase cells are transferred to fresh medium, the 100S ribosomes immediately go back to active 70S ribosomes, showing that inactive 100S active 70S interconversion is a major system regulating translation activity in stationary phase cells. To elucidate the mechanisms of translational inactivation, the binding sites of RMF on 23S rRNA in 100S ribosome of E. coli were examined by a chemical probing method using dimethyl sulphate (DMS). As the results, the nine bases in 23S rRNA were protected from DMS modifications and the modification of one base was enhanced. Interestingly A2451 is included among the protected bases, which is thought to be directly involved in peptidyl transferase activity. We conclude that RMF inactivates ribosomes by covering the peptidyl transferase (PTase) centre and the entrance of peptide exit tunnel. It is surprising that the cell itself produces a protein that seems to inhibit protein synthesis in a similar manner to antibiotics and that it can reversibly bind to and release from the ribosome in response to environmental conditions.

  18. Recycling Endosomes and Viral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Vale-Costa


    Full Text Available Many viruses exploit specific arms of the endomembrane system. The unique composition of each arm prompts the development of remarkably specific interactions between viruses and sub-organelles. This review focuses on the viral–host interactions occurring on the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC, and mediated by its regulatory Ras-related in brain (Rab GTPase Rab11. This protein regulates trafficking from the ERC and the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. Such transport comprises intricate networks of proteins/lipids operating sequentially from the membrane of origin up to the cell surface. Rab11 is also emerging as a critical factor in an increasing number of infections by major animal viruses, including pathogens that provoke human disease. Understanding the interplay between the ERC and viruses is a milestone in human health. Rab11 has been associated with several steps of the viral lifecycles by unclear processes that use sophisticated diversified host machinery. For this reason, we first explore the state-of-the-art on processes regulating membrane composition and trafficking. Subsequently, this review outlines viral interactions with the ERC, highlighting current knowledge on viral-host binding partners. Finally, using examples from the few mechanistic studies available we emphasize how ERC functions are adjusted during infection to remodel cytoskeleton dynamics, innate immunity and membrane composition.

  19. Maternal immunization against viral disease. (United States)

    Englund, J; Glezen, W P; Piedra, P A


    The protective effect of maternal antibody against many viral diseases has been recognized. The use of maternal immunization has been considered as a means to augment this protection in the young infant against disease. Advantages of maternal immunization include the fact that young infants are most susceptible to infections but least responsive to vaccines, that pregnant women are accessible to medical care and respond well to vaccines, that IgG antibodies cross the placenta well during the third trimester, and that immunization of the pregnant woman has the potential to benefit both the mother and the infant. Disadvantages include the potential inhibition of an infant's response to active immunization or natural infection and liability issues with pharmaceutical companies and physicians. Immunization of pregnant women with viral vaccines for poliovirus, influenza viruses, and rubella has been described and maternal vaccination with these vaccines has been found to be safe for both the mother and the fetus. An open-label study of post-partum women immunized with the purified fusion protein of RSV (PFP-2, Wyeth-Lederle Pediatrics and Vaccines, Inc., Pearl River, NY) demonstrated that the vaccine was non-reactogenic and immunogenic; RSV-specific antibody was detected in breast milk. Immunization of pregnant women with purified protein or subunit vaccines could be considered against neonatal viral pathogens, such as respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, herpes group viruses, and human immunodeficiency virus. Further studies are needed to define the safety and efficacy of maternal immunization.

  20. Pediatric Asthma and Viral Infection. (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, M Luz; Calvo Rey, Cristina; Del Rosal Rabes, Teresa


    Respiratory viral infections, particularly respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus, are the most importance risk factors for the onset of wheezing in infants and small children. Bronchiolitis is the most common acute respiratory infection in children under 1year of age, and the most common cause of hospitalization in this age group. RSV accounts for approximately 70% of all these cases, followed by rhinovirus, adenovirus, metapneumovirus and bocavirus. The association between bronchiolitis caused by RSV and the development of recurrent wheezing and/or asthma was first described more than 40years ago, but it is still unclear whether bronchiolitis causes chronic respiratory symptoms, or if it is a marker for children with a genetic predisposition for developing asthma in the medium or long term. In any case, sufficient evidence is available to corroborate the existence of this association, which is particularly strong when the causative agent of bronchiolitis is rhinovirus. The pathogenic role of respiratory viruses as triggers for exacerbations in asthmatic patients has not been fully characterized. However, it is clear that respiratory viruses, and in particular rhinovirus, are the most common causes of exacerbation in children, and some type of respiratory virus has been identified in over 90% of children hospitalized for an episode of wheezing. Changes in the immune response to viral infections in genetically predisposed individuals are very likely to be the main factors involved in the association between viral infection and asthma. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Disruption of ribosome assembly in yeast blocks cotranscriptional pre-rRNA processing and affects the global hierarchy of ribosome biogenesis. (United States)

    Talkish, Jason; Biedka, Stephanie; Jakovljevic, Jelena; Zhang, Jingyu; Tang, Lan; Strahler, John R; Andrews, Philip C; Maddock, Janine R; Woolford, John L


    In higher eukaryotes, pre-rRNA processing occurs almost exclusively post-transcriptionally. This is not the case in rapidly dividing yeast, as the majority of nascent pre-rRNAs are processed cotranscriptionally, with cleavage at the A2 site first releasing a pre-40S ribosomal subunit followed by release of a pre-60S ribosomal subunit upon transcription termination. Ribosome assembly is driven in part by hierarchical association of assembly factors and r-proteins. Groups of proteins are thought to associate with pre-ribosomes cotranscriptionally during early assembly steps, whereas others associate later, after transcription is completed. Here we describe a previously uncharacterized phenotype observed upon disruption of ribosome assembly, in which normally late-binding proteins associate earlier, with pre-ribosomes containing 35S pre-rRNA. As previously observed by many other groups, we show that disruption of 60S subunit biogenesis results in increased amounts of 35S pre-rRNA, suggesting that a greater fraction of pre-rRNAs are processed post-transcriptionally. Surprisingly, we found that early pre-ribosomes containing 35S pre-rRNA also contain proteins previously thought to only associate with pre-ribosomes after early pre-rRNA processing steps have separated maturation of the two subunits. We believe the shift to post-transcriptional processing is ultimately due to decreased cellular division upon disruption of ribosome assembly. When cells are grown under stress or to high density, a greater fraction of pre-rRNAs are processed post-transcriptionally and follow an alternative processing pathway. Together, these results affirm the principle that ribosome assembly occurs through different, parallel assembly pathways and suggest that there is a kinetic foot-race between the formation of protein binding sites and pre-rRNA processing events. © 2016 Talkish et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  2. A Nucleolar Protein, Ribosomal RNA Processing 1 Homolog B (RRP1B), Enhances the Recruitment of Cellular mRNA in Influenza Virus Transcription. (United States)

    Su, Wen-Chi; Hsu, Shih-Feng; Lee, Yi-Yuan; Jeng, King-Song; Lai, Michael M C


    Influenza A virus (IAV) undergoes RNA transcription by a unique capped-mRNA-dependent transcription, which is carried out by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), consisting of the viral PA, PB1, and PB2 proteins. However, how the viral RdRp utilizes cellular factors for virus transcription is not clear. Previously, we conducted a genome-wide pooled short hairpin RNA (shRNA) screen to identify host factors important for influenza A virus replication. Ribosomal RNA processing 1 homolog B (RRP1B) was identified as one of the candidates. RRP1B is a nucleolar protein involved in ribosomal biogenesis. Upon IAV infection, part of RRP1B was translocated from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm, where viral RNA synthesis likely takes place. The depletion of RRP1B significantly reduced IAV mRNA transcription in a minireplicon assay and in virus-infected cells. Furthermore, we showed that RRP1B interacted with PB1 and PB2 of the RdRp and formed a coimmunoprecipitable complex with RdRp. The depletion of RRP1B reduced the amount of capped mRNA in the RdRp complex. Taken together, these findings indicate that RRP1B is a host factor essential for IAV transcription and provide a target for new antivirals. Influenza virus is an important human pathogen that causes significant morbidity and mortality and threatens the human population with epidemics and pandemics every year. Due to the high mutation rate of the virus, antiviral drugs targeting viral proteins might ultimately lose their effectiveness. An alternative strategy that explores the genetic stability of host factors indispensable for influenza virus replication would thus be desirable. Here, we characterized the rRNA processing 1 homolog B (RRP1B) protein as an important cellular factor for influenza A virus transcription. We showed that silencing RRP1B hampered viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity, which is responsible for virus transcription and replication. Furthermore, we reported that RRP1B is

  3. Involvement of ribosomal protein L6 in assembly of functional 50S ribosomal subunit in Escherichia coli cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigeno, Yuta [Division of Applied Biology, Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, Ueda 386-8567 (Japan); Uchiumi, Toshio [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Nomura, Takaomi, E-mail: [Division of Applied Biology, Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, Ueda 386-8567 (Japan)


    Ribosomal protein L6, an essential component of the large (50S) subunit, primarily binds to helix 97 of 23S rRNA and locates near the sarcin/ricin loop of helix 95 that directly interacts with GTPase translation factors. Although L6 is believed to play important roles in factor-dependent ribosomal function, crucial biochemical evidence for this hypothesis has not been obtained. We constructed and characterized an Escherichia coli mutant bearing a chromosomal L6 gene (rplF) disruption and carrying a plasmid with an arabinose-inducible L6 gene. Although this ΔL6 mutant grew more slowly than its wild-type parent, it proliferated in the presence of arabinose. Interestingly, cell growth in the absence of arabinose was biphasic. Early growth lasted only a few generations (LI-phase) and was followed by a suspension of growth for several hours (S-phase). This suspension was followed by a second growth phase (LII-phase). Cells harvested at both LI- and S-phases contained ribosomes with reduced factor-dependent GTPase activity and accumulated 50S subunit precursors (45S particles). The 45S particles completely lacked L6. Complete 50S subunits containing L6 were observed in all growth phases regardless of the L6-depleted condition, implying that the ΔL6 mutant escaped death because of a leaky expression of L6 from the complementing plasmid. We conclude that L6 is essential for the assembly of functional 50S subunits at the late stage. We thus established conditions for the isolation of L6-depleted 50S subunits, which are essential to study the role of L6 in translation. - Highlights: • We constructed an in vivo functional assay system for Escherichia coli ribosomal protein L6. • Growth of an E. coli ΔL6 mutant was biphasic when L6 levels were depleted. • The ΔL6 mutant accumulated 50S ribosomal subunit precursors that sedimented at 45S. • L6 is a key player in the late stage of E. coli 50S subunit assembly.

  4. Viral Hepatitis: Information for Gay and Bisexual Men (United States)

    VIRAL HEPATITIS Information for Gay and Bisexual Men What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection of the liver caused by ... United States, the most common types of viral hepatitis are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. ...

  5. Theoretical estimate of the effect of thermal agitation on ribosome motion generated by stochastic microswimming. (United States)

    González-García, José S


    The effect of thermal agitation on ribosome motion is evaluated through the Péclet number, assuming that the ribosome is self-propelled along the mRNA during protein synthesis by a swimming stroke consisting of a cycle of stochastically-generated ribosome configurations involving its two subunits. The ribosome velocity probability distribution function is obtained, giving an approximately normal distribution. Its mean and variance together with an estimate of the in vivo free diffusion coefficient of the ribosome and using only configuration changes of small size, give a Péclet number similar to motor proteins and microorganisms. These results suggest the feasibility of the stochastic microswimming hypothesis to explain ribosome motion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Control of ribosome traffic by position-dependent choice of synonymous codons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitarai, Namiko; Pedersen, Steen


    Messenger RNA (mRNA) encodes a sequence of amino acids by using codons. For most amino acids, there are multiple synonymous codons that can encode the amino acid. The translation speed can vary from one codon to another, thus there is room for changing the ribosome speed while keeping the amino...... acid sequence and hence the resulting protein. Recently, it has been noticed that the choice of the synonymous codon, via the resulting distribution of slow- and fast-translated codons, affects not only on the average speed of one ribosome translating the mRNA but also might have an effect on nearby...... ribosomes by affecting the appearance of 'traffic jams' where multiple ribosomes collide and form queues. To test this 'context effect' further, we here investigate the effect of the sequence of synonymous codons on the ribosome traffic by using a ribosome traffic model with codon-dependent rates, estimated...

  7. Requirement of Neuronal Ribosome Synthesis for Growth and Maintenance of the Dendritic Tree. (United States)

    Slomnicki, Lukasz P; Pietrzak, Maciej; Vashishta, Aruna; Jones, James; Lynch, Nicholas; Elliot, Shane; Poulos, Eric; Malicote, David; Morris, Bridgit E; Hallgren, Justin; Hetman, Michal


    The nucleolus serves as a principal site of ribosome biogenesis but is also implicated in various non-ribosomal functions, including negative regulation of the pro-apoptotic transcription factor p53. Although disruption of the nucleolus may trigger the p53-dependent neuronal death, neurotoxic consequences of a selective impairment of ribosome production are unclear. Here, we report that in rat forebrain neuronal maturation is associated with a remarkable expansion of ribosomes despite postnatal down-regulation of ribosomal biogenesis. In cultured rat hippocampal neurons, inhibition of the latter process by knockdowns of ribosomal proteins S6, S14, or L4 reduced ribosome content without disrupting nucleolar integrity, cell survival, and signaling responses to the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Moreover, reduced general protein synthesis and/or formation of RNA stress granules suggested diminished ribosome recruitment to at least some mRNAs. Such a translational insufficiency was accompanied by impairment of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated dendritic growth. Finally, RNA stress granules and smaller dendritic trees were also observed when ribosomal proteins were depleted from neurons with established dendrites. Thus, a robust ribosomal apparatus is required to carry out protein synthesis that supports dendritic growth and maintenance. Consequently, deficits of ribosomal biogenesis may disturb neurodevelopment by reducing neuronal connectivity. Finally, as stress granule formation and dendritic loss occur early in neurodegenerative diseases, disrupted homeostasis of ribosomes may initiate and/or amplify neurodegeneration-associated disconnection of neuronal circuitries. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Trends in the management of viral meningitis at United States children's hospitals. (United States)

    Nigrovic, Lise E; Fine, Andrew M; Monuteaux, Michael C; Shah, Samir S; Neuman, Mark I


    To determine trends in the diagnosis and management of children with viral meningitis at US children's hospitals. We performed a multicenter cross sectional study of children presenting to the emergency department (ED) across the 41 pediatric tertiary-care hospitals participating in the Pediatric Health Information System between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011. A case of viral meningitis was defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, discharge diagnosis, and required performance of a lumbar puncture. We examined trends in diagnosis, antibiotic use, and resource utilization for children with viral meningitis over the study period. We identified 7618 children with viral meningitis (0.05% of ED visits during the study period). Fifty-two percent of patients were viral meningitis declined from 0.98 cases per 1000 ED visits in 2005 to 0.25 cases in 2011 (P viral meningitis received a parenteral antibiotic (85%), and were hospitalized (91%). Overall costs for children for children with viral meningitis remain substantial (median cost per case $5056, interquartile range $3572-$7141). Between 2005 and 2011, viral meningitis diagnoses at US children's hospitals declined. However, most of these children are hospitalized, and the cost for caring for these children remains considerable.

  9. Ribosomal Competence and Spore Germination in Fusarium solani (United States)

    Rado, Thomas A.; Cochrane, Vincent W.


    Extracts prepared from macroconidia of Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli are capable, under defined conditions, of incorporating phenylalanine into polypeptide with exogenous polyuridylic acid as messenger. Extracts from ungerminated and germinated spores have approximately the same activity. With endogenous template, leucine incorporation occurs, but in this reaction extracts from germinated spores have about 10 times more activity than do those from ungerminated spores. It is suggested that the low rate in ungerminated spores is attributable to a relative deficiency in the number of ribosomes which are organized into polysomes. PMID:5573727

  10. Specialized yeast ribosomes: a customized tool for selective mRNA translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann W Bauer

    Full Text Available Evidence is now accumulating that sub-populations of ribosomes - so-called specialized ribosomes - can favour the translation of subsets of mRNAs. Here we use a large collection of diploid yeast strains, each deficient in one or other copy of the set of ribosomal protein (RP genes, to generate eukaryotic cells carrying distinct populations of altered 'specialized' ribosomes. We show by comparative protein synthesis assays that different heterologous mRNA reporters based on luciferase are preferentially translated by distinct populations of specialized ribosomes. These mRNAs include reporters carrying premature termination codons (PTC thus allowing us to identify specialized ribosomes that alter the efficiency of translation termination leading to enhanced synthesis of the wild-type protein. This finding suggests that these strains can be used to identify novel therapeutic targets in the ribosome. To explore this further we examined the translation of the mRNA encoding the extracellular matrix protein laminin β3 (LAMB3 since a LAMB3-PTC mutant is implicated in the blistering skin disease Epidermolysis bullosa (EB. This screen identified specialized ribosomes with reduced levels of RP L35B as showing enhanced synthesis of full-length LAMB3 in cells expressing the LAMB3-PTC mutant. Importantly, the RP L35B sub-population of specialized ribosomes leave both translation of a reporter luciferase carrying a different PTC and bulk mRNA translation largely unaltered.

  11. Role of the yeast Rrp1 protein in the dynamics of pre-ribosome maturation (United States)



    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene RRP1 encodes an essential, evolutionarily conserved protein necsessary for biogenesis of 60S ribosomal subunits. Processing of 27S pre-ribosomal RNA to mature 25S rRNA is blocked and 60S subunits are deficient in the temperature-sensitive rrp1-1 mutant. We have used recent advances in proteomic analysis to examine in more detail the function of Rrp1p in ribosome biogenesis. We show that Rrp1p is a nucleolar protein associated with several distinct 66S pre-ribosomal particles. These pre-ribosomes contain ribosomal proteins plus at least 28 nonribosomal proteins necessary for production of 60S ribosomal subunits. Inactivation of Rrp1p inhibits processing of 27SA3 to 27SBS pre-rRNA and of 27SB pre-rRNA to 7S plus 25.5S pre-rRNA. Thus, in the rrp1-1 mutant, 66S pre-ribosomal particles accumulate that contain 27SA3 and 27SBL pre-ribosomal RNAs. PMID:15100437

  12. Modeling of ribosome dynamics on a ds-mRNA under an external load (United States)

    Shakiba, Bahareh; Dayeri, Maryam; Mohammad-Rafiee, Farshid


    Protein molecules in cells are synthesized by macromolecular machines called ribosomes. According to the recent experimental data, we reduce the complexity of the ribosome and propose a model to express its activity in six main states. Using our model, we study the translation rate in different biological relevant situations in the presence of external force and the translation through the RNA double stranded region in the absence or presence of the external force. In the present study, we give a quantitative theory for translation rate and show that the ribosome behaves more like a Brownian Ratchet motor. Our findings could shed some light on understanding behaviors of the ribosome in biological conditions.

  13. Modeling of Ribosome Dynamics on a ds-mRNA under an External Load

    CERN Document Server

    Shakiba, Bahareh; Mohammad-Rafiee, Farshid


    Protein molecules in cells are synthesized by macromolecular machines called ribosomes. According to recent experimental data, we reduce the complexity of the ribosome and propose a model to express its activity in six main states. Using our model, we study the translation rate in different biological relevant situations in the presence of external force, and translation through the RNA double stranded region in the absence or presence of the external force. In the present study, we give a quantitative theory for translation rate and show that the ribosome behaves more like a Brownian Ratchet motor. Our findings could shed some light on understanding behaviors of the ribosome in biological conditions.

  14. Modeling of ribosome dynamics on a ds-mRNA under an external load. (United States)

    Shakiba, Bahareh; Dayeri, Maryam; Mohammad-Rafiee, Farshid


    Protein molecules in cells are synthesized by macromolecular machines called ribosomes. According to the recent experimental data, we reduce the complexity of the ribosome and propose a model to express its activity in six main states. Using our model, we study the translation rate in different biological relevant situations in the presence of external force and the translation through the RNA double stranded region in the absence or presence of the external force. In the present study, we give a quantitative theory for translation rate and show that the ribosome behaves more like a Brownian Ratchet motor. Our findings could shed some light on understanding behaviors of the ribosome in biological conditions.

  15. Ribosome dynamics and tRNA movement by time-resolved electron cryomicroscopy. (United States)

    Fischer, Niels; Konevega, Andrey L; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang; Rodnina, Marina V; Stark, Holger


    The translocation step of protein synthesis entails large-scale rearrangements of the ribosome-transfer RNA (tRNA) complex. Here we have followed tRNA movement through the ribosome during translocation by time-resolved single-particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). Unbiased computational sorting of cryo-EM images yielded 50 distinct three-dimensional reconstructions, showing the tRNAs in classical, hybrid and various novel intermediate states that provide trajectories and kinetic information about tRNA movement through the ribosome. The structures indicate how tRNA movement is coupled with global and local conformational changes of the ribosome, in particular of the head and body of the small ribosomal subunit, and show that dynamic interactions between tRNAs and ribosomal residues confine the path of the tRNAs through the ribosome. The temperature dependence of ribosome dynamics reveals a surprisingly flat energy landscape of conformational variations at physiological temperature. The ribosome functions as a Brownian machine that couples spontaneous conformational changes driven by thermal energy to directed movement.

  16. Single molecule imaging of the trans-translation entry process via anchoring of the tagged ribosome. (United States)

    Zhou, Zhan-Ping; Shimizu, Yoshihiro; Tadakuma, Hisashi; Taguchi, Hideki; Ito, Koichi; Ueda, Takuya


    Trans-translation is an eubacterial quality control system to rescue the stalled ribosome, in which multiple components such as transfer messenger RNA (tmRNA) and Small protein B (SmpB) are involved. However, how these molecules interact with ribosome remains elusive. Here, we report the single molecule analysis of the trans-translation process. We developed a new method to label the functional ribosome, in which a tag protein (the HaloTag protein of 297 amino acids) was fused to the 30S ribosomal protein S2 and covalently labelled with specific ligand (HaloTag ligand), resulting in the stable and specific labelling of ribosome. Ribosomes were anchored onto the glass surface using biotinylated derivative of the Cy3 HaloTag ligand (i.e. biotin-Cy3-ligand), and real-time interactions of Cy5-tmRNA/SmpB/EF-Tu ternary complexes with anchored ribosomes are observed as a model of the trans-translation entry. Statistical analysis revealed that Cy5-tmRNA/SmpB/EF-Tu ternary complexes bind to the anchored ribosome with the second-order rate constant of 2.6 × 10(6) (1/M/s) and tmRNAs undergo multi-modal pathway before release from ribosome. The methods presented here are also applicable to the analysis for general translation processes.

  17. Tagging of functional ribosomes in living cells by HaloTag® technology. (United States)

    Gallo, Simone; Beugnet, Anne; Biffo, Stefano


    Ribosomal proteins and ribosomal associated proteins are complicated subjects to target and study because of their high conservation through evolution which led to highly structured and regulated proteins. Tagging of ribosomal proteins may allow following of protein synthesis in vivo and isolating translated mRNAs. HaloTag® is a new technology which allows detection in living cells, biochemical purification, and localization studies. In the present work, we tested HaloTag®-based ribosomal tagging. We focused on eIF6 (eukaryotic Initiation Factor 6 free 60S ribosomal marker), RACK1 (Receptor for Activated C Kinase 1; 40S and polysomes, not nuclear), and rpS9 (40S ribosomes, both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm). Experiments performed on HEK293 cells included ribosomal profiles and Western blot on the fractions, purification of HaloTag® proteins, and fluorescence with time-lapse microscopy. We show that tagged proteins can be incorporated on ribosomes and followed by time-lapse microscopy. eIF6 properly accumulates in the nucleolus, and it is redistributed upon actinomycin D treatment. RACK1 shows a specific cytoplasmic localization, whereas rpS9 is both nucleolar and cytoplasmic. However, efficiency of purification varies due to steric hindrances. In addition, the level of overexpression and degradation may vary upon different constructs. In summary, HaloTag® technology is highly suitable to ribosome tagging, but requires prior characterization for each construct.

  18. Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins in the nucleolus: multitasking tools for a ribosome factory. (United States)

    Shcherbik, Natalia; Pestov, Dimitri G


    Synthesis of new ribosomes is an essential process upregulated during cell growth and proliferation. Here, we review our current understanding of the role that ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs) play in ribosome biogenesis, with a focus on mammalian cells. One important function of the nuclear ubiquitin-proteasome system is to control the supply of ribosomal proteins for the assembly of new ribosomal subunits in the nucleolus. Mutations in ribosomal proteins or ribosome assembly factors, stress, and many anticancer drugs have been shown to disrupt normal ribosome biogenesis, triggering a p53-dependent response. We discuss how p53 can be activated by the aberrant ribosome formation, centering on the current models of the interaction between ribosomal proteins released from the nucleolus and the ubiquitin ligase Mdm2. Recent studies also revealed multiple ubiquitin- and UBL-conjugated forms of nucleolar proteins with largely unknown functions, indicating that many new details about the role of these modifications in the nucleolus await to be discovered.

  19. Encefalitis virales en la infancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monserrat Téllez de Meneses


    Full Text Available La encefalitis viral es una enfermedad grave que implica el compromiso inflamatorio del parénquima cerebral. Las infecciones virales del SNC ocurren con frecuencia como complicación de infecciones virales sistémicas. Más de 100 virus están implicados como agentes causales, entre los cuales el virus Herpes simplex tipo I, es el agente causal más frecuente de encefalitis no epidémica en todos los grupos poblacionales del mundo; es el responsable de los casos más graves en todas las edades. Muchos de los virus para los cuales existe vacunas también pueden causar encefalitis como: sarampión, paperas, polio, rabia, rubéola, varicela. El virus produce una inflamación del tejido cerebral, la cual puede evolucionar a una destrucción de neuronas, provocar hemorragia y daño cerebral, dando lugar a encefalitis graves, como la encefalitis necrotizante o hemorrágica, con mucho peor pronóstico, produciendo secuelas graves, incluso la muerte. El cuadro clínico, incluye la presencia de cefalea, fiebre y alteración de la conciencia, de rápida progresión. El pronóstico de las encefalitis víricas es variable, algunos casos son leves, con recuperación completa, sin embargo existen casos graves que pueden ocasionar secuelas importantes a nivel cerebral. Es fundamental realizar un diagnóstico lo antes posible, a través de pruebas de laboratorio (bioquímica, PCR, cultivos y de neuroimagen (TAC, RM y ante todo, la instauración de un tratamiento precoz para evitar la evolución del proceso y sus posibles complicaciones. El pronóstico empeora si se retrasa la instauración del tratamiento.

  20. Evaluation of Viral Meningoencephalitis Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Ilhan


    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate retrospectively adult cases of viral encephalitis. METHOD: Fifteen patients described viral encephalitis hospitalized between the years 2006-2011 follow-up and treatment at the infectious diseases clinic were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Most of the patients (%60 had applied in the spring. Fever (87%, confusion (73%, neck stiffness (73%, headache (73%, nausea-vomiting (33%, loss of consciousness (33%, amnesia (33%, agitation (20%, convulsion (%20, focal neurological signs (13%, Brudzinski-sign (13% were most frequently encountered findings. Electroencephalography test was applied to 13 of 14 patients, and pathological findings compatible with encephalitis have been found. Radiological imaging methods such as CT and MRI were performed in 9 of the 14 patients, and findings consistent with encephalitis were reported. All of initial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples were abnormal. The domination of the first examples was lymphocytes in 14 patients; only one patient had an increase in neutrophilic cells have been found. CSF protein level was high in nine patients, and low glucose level was detected in two patients. Herpes simplex virus polymerized chain reaction (PCR analyze was performed to fourteen patients CSF. Only two of them (14% were found positive. One of the patients sample selectively examined was found to be Parvovirus B19 (+, the other patient urine sample Jacobs-creutzfeld virus PCR was found to be positively. Empiric acyclovir therapy was given to all patients. Neuropsychiatric squeal developed at the one patient. CONCLUSION: The cases in the forefront of change in mental status viral meningoencephalitis should be considered and empirical treatment with acyclovir should be started. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(4.000: 447-452

  1. Non-Viral Deoxyribonucleoside Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Louise Slot; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte; Knecht, Wolfgang


    to be valuable in studying the evolution of enzymes. Some of these newly discovered enzymes have been useful in numerous practical applications in medicine and biotechnology, and have contributed to our understanding of the structural basis of nucleoside and nucleoside analogue activation....... of great medical interest. However, during the last 20 years, research on dNKs has gone into non-mammalian organisms. In this review, we focus on non-viral dNKs, in particular their diversity and their practical applications. The diversity of this enzyme family in different organisms has proven...

  2. Bacterial ribonuclease binase exerts an intra-cellular anti-viral mode of action targeting viral RNAs in influenza a virus-infected MDCK-II cells. (United States)

    Shah Mahmud, Raihan; Mostafa, Ahmed; Müller, Christin; Kanrai, Pumaree; Ulyanova, Vera; Sokurenko, Yulia; Dzieciolowski, Julia; Kuznetsova, Irina; Ilinskaya, Olga; Pleschka, Stephan


    Influenza is a severe contagious disease especially in children, elderly and immunocompromised patients. Beside vaccination, the discovery of new anti-viral agents represents an important strategy to encounter seasonal and pandemic influenza A virus (IAV) strains. The bacterial extra-cellular ribonuclease binase is a well-studied RNase from Bacillus pumilus. Treatment with binase was shown to improve survival of laboratory animals infected with different RNA viruses. Although binase reduced IAV titer in vitro and in vivo, the mode of action (MOA) of binase against IAV at the molecular level has yet not been studied in depth and remains elusive. To analyze whether binase impairs virus replication by direct interaction with the viral particle we applied a hemagglutination inhibition assay and monitored the integrity of the viral RNA within the virus particle by RT-PCR. Furthermore, we used Western blot and confocal microscopy analysis to study whether binase can internalize into MDCK-II cells. By primer extension we examined the effect of binase on the integrity of viral RNAs within the cells and using a mini-genome system we explored the effect of binase on the viral expression. We show that (i) binase does not to attack IAV particle-protected viral RNA, (ii) internalized binase could be detected within the cytosol of MDCK-II cells and that (iii) binase impairs IAV replication by specifically degrading viral RNA species within the infected MDCK-II cells without obvious effect on cellular mRNAs. Our data provide novel evidence suggesting that binase is a potential anti-viral agent with specific intra-cellular MOA.

  3. Analysis of ribosomal protein gene structures: implications for intron evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Many spliceosomal introns exist in the eukaryotic nuclear genome. Despite much research, the evolution of spliceosomal introns remains poorly understood. In this paper, we tried to gain insights into intron evolution from a novel perspective by comparing the gene structures of cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins (CRPs and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPs, which are held to be of archaeal and bacterial origin, respectively. We analyzed 25 homologous pairs of CRP and MRP genes that together had a total of 527 intron positions. We found that all 12 of the intron positions shared by CRP and MRP genes resulted from parallel intron gains and none could be considered to be "conserved," i.e., descendants of the same ancestor. This was supported further by the high frequency of proto-splice sites at these shared positions; proto-splice sites are proposed to be sites for intron insertion. Although we could not definitively disprove that spliceosomal introns were already present in the last universal common ancestor, our results lend more support to the idea that introns were gained late. At least, our results show that MRP genes were intronless at the time of endosymbiosis. The parallel intron gains between CRP and MRP genes accounted for 2.3% of total intron positions, which should provide a reliable estimate for future inferences of intron evolution.

  4. Ribosomal DNA Organization Before and After Magnification in Drosophila melanogaster (United States)

    Bianciardi, Alessio; Boschi, Manuela; Swanson, Ellen E.; Belloni, Massimo; Robbins, Leonard G.


    In all eukaryotes, the ribosomal RNA genes are stably inherited redundant elements. In Drosophila melanogaster, the presence of a Ybb− chromosome in males, or the maternal presence of the Ribosomal exchange (Rex) element, induces magnification: a heritable increase of rDNA copy number. To date, several alternative classes of mechanisms have been proposed for magnification: in situ replication or extra-chromosomal replication, either of which might act on short or extended strings of rDNA units, or unequal sister chromatid exchange. To eliminate some of these hypotheses, none of which has been clearly proven, we examined molecular-variant composition and compared genetic maps of the rDNA in the bb2 mutant and in some magnified bb+ alleles. The genetic markers used are molecular-length variants of IGS sequences and of R1 and R2 mobile elements present in many 28S sequences. Direct comparison of PCR products does not reveal any particularly intensified electrophoretic bands in magnified alleles compared to the nonmagnified bb2 allele. Hence, the increase of rDNA copy number is diluted among multiple variants. We can therefore reject mechanisms of magnification based on multiple rounds of replication of short strings. Moreover, we find no changes of marker order when pre- and postmagnification maps are compared. Thus, we can further restrict the possible mechanisms to two: replication in situ of an extended string of rDNA units or unequal exchange between sister chromatids. PMID:22505623

  5. Interaction of pleuromutilin derivatives with the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center. (United States)

    Long, Katherine S; Hansen, Lykke H; Jakobsen, Lene; Vester, Birte


    Tiamulin is a pleuromutilin antibiotic that is used in veterinary medicine. The recently published crystal structure of a tiamulin-50S ribosomal subunit complex provides detailed information about how this drug targets the peptidyl transferase center of the ribosome. To promote rational design of pleuromutilin-based drugs, the binding of the antibiotic pleuromutilin and three semisynthetic derivatives with different side chain extensions has been investigated using chemical footprinting. The nucleotides A2058, A2059, G2505, and U2506 are affected in all of the footprints, suggesting that the drugs are similarly anchored in the binding pocket by the common tricyclic mutilin core. However, varying effects are observed at U2584 and U2585, indicating that the side chain extensions adopt distinct conformations within the cavity and thereby affect the rRNA conformation differently. An Escherichia coli L3 mutant strain is resistant to tiamulin and pleuromutilin, but not valnemulin, implying that valnemulin is better able to withstand an altered rRNA binding surface around the mutilin core. This is likely due to additional interactions made between the valnemulin side chain extension and the rRNA binding site. The data suggest that pleuromutilin drugs with enhanced antimicrobial activity may be obtained by maximizing the number of interactions between the side chain moiety and the peptidyl transferase cavity.

  6. The Expanding Toolkit of Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification. (United States)

    Dougherty, Joseph D


    Translating ribosome affinity purification is a method initially developed for profiling mRNA from genetically defined cell types in complex tissues. It has been applied both to identify target molecules in cell types that are important for controlling a variety of behaviors in the brain, and to understand the molecular consequences on those cells due to experimental manipulations, ranging from drugs of abuse to disease-causing mutations. Since its inception, a variety of methodological advances are opening new avenues of investigation. These advances include a variety of new methods for targeting cells for translating ribosome affinity purification by features such as their projections or activity, additional tags and mouse reagents increasing the flexibility of the system, and new modifications of the method specifically focused on studying the regulation of translation. The latter includes methods to assess cell type-specific regulation of translation in specific subcellular compartments. Here, I provide a summary of these recent advances and resources, highlighting both new experimental opportunities and areas for future technical development. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/3712079-09$15.00/0.

  7. Translational autocontrol of the Escherichia coli ribosomal protein S15. (United States)

    Portier, C; Dondon, L; Grunberg-Manago, M


    When rpsO, the gene encoding the ribosomal protein S15 in Escherichia coli, is carried by a multicopy plasmid, the mRNA synthesis rate of S15 increases with the gene dosage but the rate of synthesis of S15 does not rise. A translational fusion between S15 and beta-galactosidase was introduced on the chromosome in a delta lac strain and the expression of beta-galactosidase studied under different conditions. The presence of S15 in trans represses the beta-galactosidase level five- to sixfold, while the synthesis rate of the S15-beta-galactosidase mRNA decreases by only 30 to 50%. These data indicate that S15 is subject to autogenous translational control. Derepressed mutants were isolated and sequenced. All the point mutations map in the second codon of S15, suggesting a location for the operator site that is very near to the translation initiation codon. However, the creation of deletion mutations shows that the operator extends into the 5' non-coding part of the message, thus overlapping the ribosome loading site.

  8. Genetic diversity of Entamoeba: Novel ribosomal lineages from cockroaches (United States)

    Kawano, Tetsuro; Imada, Mihoko; Chamavit, Pennapa; Kobayashi, Seiki; Hashimoto, Tetsuo


    Our current taxonomic perspective on Entamoeba is largely based on small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes (SSU rDNA) from Entamoeba species identified in vertebrate hosts with minor exceptions such as E. moshkovskii from sewage water and E. marina from marine sediment. Other Entamoeba species have also been morphologically identified and described from non-vertebrate species such as insects; however, their genetic diversity remains unknown. In order to further disclose the diversity of the genus, we investigated Entamoeba spp. in the intestines of three cockroach species: Periplaneta americana, Blaptica dubia, and Gromphadorhina oblongonota. We obtained 134 Entamoeba SSU rDNA sequences from 186 cockroaches by direct nested PCR using the DNA extracts of intestines from cockroaches, followed by scrutinized BLASTn screening and phylogenetic analyses. All the sequences identified in this study were distinct from those reported from known Entamoeba species, and considered as novel Entamoeba ribosomal lineages. Furthermore, they were positioned at the base of the clade of known Entamoeba species and displayed remarkable degree of genetic diversity comprising nine major groups in the three cockroach species. This is the first report of the diversity of SSU rDNA sequences from Entamoeba in non-vertebrate host species, and should help to understand the genetic diversity of the genus Entamoeba. PMID:28934335

  9. Genetic diversity of Entamoeba: Novel ribosomal lineages from cockroaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Kawano

    Full Text Available Our current taxonomic perspective on Entamoeba is largely based on small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes (SSU rDNA from Entamoeba species identified in vertebrate hosts with minor exceptions such as E. moshkovskii from sewage water and E. marina from marine sediment. Other Entamoeba species have also been morphologically identified and described from non-vertebrate species such as insects; however, their genetic diversity remains unknown. In order to further disclose the diversity of the genus, we investigated Entamoeba spp. in the intestines of three cockroach species: Periplaneta americana, Blaptica dubia, and Gromphadorhina oblongonota. We obtained 134 Entamoeba SSU rDNA sequences from 186 cockroaches by direct nested PCR using the DNA extracts of intestines from cockroaches, followed by scrutinized BLASTn screening and phylogenetic analyses. All the sequences identified in this study were distinct from those reported from known Entamoeba species, and considered as novel Entamoeba ribosomal lineages. Furthermore, they were positioned at the base of the clade of known Entamoeba species and displayed remarkable degree of genetic diversity comprising nine major groups in the three cockroach species. This is the first report of the diversity of SSU rDNA sequences from Entamoeba in non-vertebrate host species, and should help to understand the genetic diversity of the genus Entamoeba.

  10. Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins from Plants: A Historical Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bolognesi


    Full Text Available This review provides a historical overview of the research on plant ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs, starting from the first studies at the end of eighteenth century involving the purification of abrin and ricin, as well as the immunological experiments of Paul Erlich. Interest in these plant toxins was revived in 1970 by the observation of their anticancer activity, which has given rise to a large amount of research contributing to the development of various scientific fields. Biochemistry analyses succeeded in identifying the enzymatic activity of RIPs and allowed for a better understanding of the ribosomal machinery. Studies on RIP/cell interactions were able to detail the endocytosis and intracellular routing of ricin, thus increasing our knowledge of how cells handle exogenous proteins. The identification of new RIPs and the finding that most RIPs are single-chain polypeptides, together with their genetic sequencing, has aided in the development of new phylogenetic theories. Overall, the biological properties of these proteins, including their abortifacient, anticancer, antiviral and neurotoxic activities, suggest that RIPs could be utilized in agriculture and in many biomedical fields, including clinical drug development.

  11. Structure and RNA recognition of ribosome assembly factor Utp30. (United States)

    Hu, Jianfei; Zhu, Xing; Ye, Keqiong


    The 90S preribosomes are gigantic early assembly intermediates of small ribosomal subunits. Cryo-EM structures of 90S were recently determined, but many of its components have not been accurately modeled. Here we determine the crystal structure of yeast Utp30, a ribosomal L1 domain-containing protein in 90S, at 2.65 Å resolution, revealing a classic two-domain fold. The structure of Utp30 fits well into the cryo-EM density of 90S, confirming its previously assigned location. Utp30 binds to the rearranged helix 41 of 18S rRNA and helix 4 of 5' external transcribed spacer in 90S. Comparison of RNA-binding modes of different L1 domains illustrates that they consistently recognize a short RNA duplex with the concaved surface of domain I, but are versatile in RNA recognition outside the core interface. Cic1 is a paralog of Utp30 associating with large subunit preribosomes. Utp30 and Cic1 share similar RNA-binding modes, suggesting that their distinct functions may be executed by a single protein in other organisms. Deletion of Utp30 does not affect the composition of 90S. The nonessential role of Utp30 could be ascribed to its peripheral localization and redundant interactions in 90S. © 2017 Hu et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  12. Viral organization of human proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Wuchty


    Full Text Available Although maps of intracellular interactions are increasingly well characterized, little is known about large-scale maps of host-pathogen protein interactions. The investigation of host-pathogen interactions can reveal features of pathogenesis and provide a foundation for the development of drugs and disease prevention strategies. A compilation of experimentally verified interactions between HIV-1 and human proteins and a set of HIV-dependency factors (HDF allowed insights into the topology and intricate interplay between viral and host proteins on a large scale. We found that targeted and HDF proteins appear predominantly in rich-clubs, groups of human proteins that are strongly intertwined among each other. These assemblies of proteins may serve as an infection gateway, allowing the virus to take control of the human host by reaching protein pathways and diversified cellular functions in a pronounced and focused way. Particular transcription factors and protein kinases facilitate indirect interactions between HDFs and viral proteins. Discerning the entanglement of directly targeted and indirectly interacting proteins may uncover molecular and functional sites that can provide novel perspectives on the progression of HIV infection and highlight new avenues to fight this virus.

  13. Sequencing Needs for Viral Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, S N; Lam, M; Mulakken, N J; Torres, C L; Smith, J R; Slezak, T


    We built a system to guide decisions regarding the amount of genomic sequencing required to develop diagnostic DNA signatures, which are short sequences that are sufficient to uniquely identify a viral species. We used our existing DNA diagnostic signature prediction pipeline, which selects regions of a target species genome that are conserved among strains of the target (for reliability, to prevent false negatives) and unique relative to other species (for specificity, to avoid false positives). We performed simulations, based on existing sequence data, to assess the number of genome sequences of a target species and of close phylogenetic relatives (''near neighbors'') that are required to predict diagnostic signature regions that are conserved among strains of the target species and unique relative to other bacterial and viral species. For DNA viruses such as variola (smallpox), three target genomes provide sufficient guidance for selecting species-wide signatures. Three near neighbor genomes are critical for species specificity. In contrast, most RNA viruses require four target genomes and no near neighbor genomes, since lack of conservation among strains is more limiting than uniqueness. SARS and Ebola Zaire are exceptional, as additional target genomes currently do not improve predictions, but near neighbor sequences are urgently needed. Our results also indicate that double stranded DNA viruses are more conserved among strains than are RNA viruses, since in most cases there was at least one conserved signature candidate for the DNA viruses and zero conserved signature candidates for the RNA viruses.

  14. Community-driven demand creation for the use of routine viral load testing: a model to scale up routine viral load testing. (United States)

    Killingo, Bactrin M; Taro, Trisa B; Mosime, Wame N


    HIV treatment outcomes are dependent on the use of viral load measurement. Despite global and national guidelines recommending the use of routine viral load testing, these policies alone have not translated into widespread implementation or sufficiently increased access for people living with HIV (PLHIV). Civil society and communities of PLHIV recognize the need to close this gap and to enable the scale up of routine viral load testing. The International Treatment Preparedness Coalition (ITPC) developed an approach to community-led demand creation for the use of routine viral load testing. Using this Community Demand Creation Model, implementers follow a step-wise process to capacitate and empower communities to address their most pressing needs. This includes utlizing a specific toolkit that includes conducting a baseline assessment, developing a treatment education toolkit, organizing mobilization workshops for knowledge building, provision of small grants to support advocacy work and conducting benchmark evaluations. The Community Demand Creation Model to increase demand for routine viral load testing services by PLHIV has been delivered in diverse contexts including in the sub-Saharan African, Asian, Latin American and the Caribbean regions. Between December 2015 and December 2016, ITPC trained more than 240 PLHIV activists, and disbursed US$90,000 to network partners in support of their national advocacy work. The latter efforts informed a regional, community-driven campaign calling for domestic investment in the expeditious implementation of national viral load testing guidelines. HIV treatment education and community mobilization are critical components of demand creation for access to optimal HIV treatment, especially for the use of routine viral load testing. ITPC's Community Demand Creation Model offers a novel approach to achieving this goal. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of the International AIDS Society published by John Wiley & sons Ltd on behalf of

  15. The subcellular distribution of the human ribosomal "stalk" components: P1, P2 and P0 proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tchórzewski, Marek; Krokowski, Dawid; Rzeski, Wojciech


    The ribosomal "stalk" structure is a distinct lateral protuberance located on the large ribosomal subunit in prokaryotic, as well as in eukaryotic cells. In eukaryotes, this ribosomal structure is composed of the acidic ribosomal P proteins, forming two hetero-dimers (P1/P2) attached......-proteins that are not actively transported into the nucleus; moreover, this might imply that the "stalk" constituents are assembled onto the ribosomal particle at the very last step of ribosomal maturation, which takes part in the cell cytoplasm....

  16. T Cell Exhaustion During Persistent Viral Infections (United States)

    Kahan, Shannon M.; Wherry, E. John; Zajac, Allan J.


    Although robust and highly effective anti-viral T cells contribute to the clearance of many acute infections, viral persistence is associated with the development of functionally inferior, exhausted, T cell responses. Exhaustion develops in a step-wise and progressive manner, ranges in severity, and can culminate in the deletion of the anti-viral T cells. This disarming of the response is consequential as it compromises viral control and potentially serves to dampen immune-mediated damage. Exhausted T cells are unable to elaborate typical anti-viral effector functions. They are characterized by the sustained upregulation of inhibitory receptors and display a gene expression profile that distinguishes them from prototypic effector and memory T cell populations. In this review we discuss the properties of exhausted T cells; the virological and immunological conditions that favor their development; the cellular and molecular signals that sustain the exhausted state; and strategies for preventing and reversing exhaustion to favor viral control. PMID:25620767

  17. Viral Infection in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Cukuranovic


    Full Text Available Viruses are among the most common causes of opportunistic infection after transplantation. The risk for viral infection is a function of the specific virus encountered, the intensity of immune suppression used to prevent graft rejection, and other host factors governing susceptibility. Although cytomegalovirus is the most common opportunistic pathogen seen in transplant recipients, numerous other viruses have also affected outcomes. In some cases, preventive measures such as pretransplant screening, prophylactic antiviral therapy, or posttransplant viral monitoring may limit the impact of these infections. Recent advances in laboratory monitoring and antiviral therapy have improved outcomes. Studies of viral latency, reactivation, and the cellular effects of viral infection will provide clues for future strategies in prevention and treatment of viral infections. This paper will summarize the major viral infections seen following transplant and discuss strategies for prevention and management of these potential pathogens.

  18. Pokeweed antiviral protein inactivates pokeweed ribosomes; implications for the antiviral mechanism. (United States)

    Bonness, M S; Ready, M P; Irvin, J D; Mabry, T J


    Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) and other ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) had previously been thought to be incapable of attacking conspecific ribosomes, thus having no effect on endogenous processes. This assertion conflicts with a model for PAP's in vivo antiviral mechanism in which PAP (a cell wall protein) selectively enters virus-infected cells and disrupts protein synthesis, thus causing local suicide and preventing virus replication. We show here that pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) ribosomes, as well as endod (Phytolacca dodecandra) ribosomes, are indeed highly sensitive to inactivation by conspecific RIPs. Ribosomes isolated from RIP-free pokeweed and endod suspension culture cells were found to be highly active in vitro, as measured by poly(U)-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis. Phytolacca ribosomes challenged with conspecific RIPs generated dose-response curves (IC50 of 1 nM PAP or dodecandrin) very similar to those from wheat germ ribosomes. To determine if Phytolacca cells produce a cytosolic 'anti-RIP' protective element, ribosomes were combined with Phytolacca postribosomal supernatant factors from culture cells, then challenged with conspecific RIPs. Resulting IC50 values of 3-7 nM PAP, PAP-II, PAP-S or dodecandrin indicate that supernatants from these Phytolacca cells lack a ribosomal protective element. This research demonstrates that PAP inactivates pokeweed ribosomes (and is therefore potentially toxic to pokeweed cells) and supports the local suicide model for PAP's in vivo antiviral mechanism. The importance of spatial separation between PAP and ribosomes of cells producing this RIP is emphasized, particularly if crop plants are transformed with the PAP gene to confer antiviral protection.

  19. Virion-targeted viral inactivation: new therapy against viral infection. (United States)

    Okui, N; Kitamura, Y; Kobayashi, N; Sakuma, R; Ishikawa, T; Kitamura, T


    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is resistant to all current therapy. Gene therapy is an attractive alternative or additive to current, unsatisfactory AIDS therapy. To develop an antiviral molecule targeting viral integrase (HIV IN), we generated a single-chain antibody, termed scAb, which interacted with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) IN and inhibited virus replication at the integration step when expressed intracellularly. To reduce infectivity from within the virus particles, we made expression plasmids (pC-scAbE-Vpr, pC-scAbE-CA, and pC-scAbE-WXXF), which expressed the anti-HIV IN scAb fused to the N-terminus of HIV-1-associated accessory protein R (Vpr), capsid protein (CA), and specific binding motif to Vpr (WXXF), respectively. All fusion proteins were tagged with a nine-amino acid peptide derived from influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) at the C terminus. The fusion molecules, termed scAbE-Vpr, scAbE-CA, and scAbE-WXXF, interacted specifically with HIV IN immobilized on a nitrocellulose membrane. Immunoblot analysis showed that scAbE-Vpr, scAbE-CA, and scAbE-WXXF were incorporated into the virions produced by cotransfection of 293T cells with HIV-1 infectious clone DNA (pLAI) and pC-scAbE-Vpr, pC-scAbE-WXXF. A multinuclear activation galactosidase indicator (MAGI) assay revealed that the virions released from 293T cells cotransfected with pLAI and pC-scAbE-Vpr, pC-scAbE-WXXF had as little 1000-fold of the infectivity of the control wild-type virions, which were produced from the 293T cells transfected with pLAI alone. Furthermore, the virions produced from the 293T cells cotransfected with pLAI and an scAb expression vector (pC-scAb) showed only 1% of the infectivity of the control HIV-1 in a MAGI assay, although scAb was not incorporated into the virions. In either instance, the total quantity of the progeny virions released from the transfected 293T cells and the patterns of the virion proteins were hardly affected by the presence of

  20. Exploring Viral Genomics at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilpatrick, K; Hiddessen, A


    This summer I had the privilege of working at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under the Nonproliferation, Homeland and International Security Directorate in the Chemical and Biological Countermeasures Division. I worked exclusively on the Viral Identification and Characterization Initiative (VICI) project focusing on the development of multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. The goal of VICI is to combine several disciplines such as molecular biology, microfluidics, and bioinformatics in order to detect viruses and identify them in order to effectively and quickly counter infectious disease, natural or engineered. The difficulty in such a countermeasure is that little is known about viral diversity due to the ever changing nature of these organisms. In response, VICI is developing a new microfluidic bioanalytical platform to detect known and unknown viruses by analyzing every virus in a sample by isolating them into picoliter sized droplets on a microchip and individually analyzing them. The sample will be injected into a channel of oil to form droplets that will contain viral nucleic acids that will be amplified using PCR. The multiplexed PCR assay will produce a series of amplicons for a particular virus genome that provides an identifying signature. A device will then detect whether or not DNA is present in the droplet and will sort the empty droplets from the rest. From this point, the amplified DNA is released from the droplets and analyzed using capillary gel electrophoresis in order to read out the series of amplicons and thereby determine the identity of each virus. The following figure depicts the microfluidic process. For the abovementioned microfluidic process to work, a method for detecting amplification of target viral nucleic acids that does not interfere with the multiplexed biochemical reaction is required for downstream sorting and analysis. In this report, the successful development of a multiplexed PCR assay using SYBR Green I

  1. Visualizing viral transport and host infection (United States)

    Son, Kwangmin; Guasto, Jeffrey; Cubillos-Ruiz, Andres; Sullivan, Matthew; Stocker, Roman; MIT Team


    A virus is a non-motile infectious agent that can only replicate inside a living host. They consist of a virus-host encounter/adsorption dynamics and subsequently the effectiveness of various tail morphologies for viral infection. Viral transport and the role of viral morphology in host-virus interactions are critical to our understanding of both ecosystem dynamics and human health, as well as to the evolution of virus morphology.

  2. Viral Advertising on Facebook in Vietnam


    Tran, Phuong


    The purpose of this thesis is to explore which factors affect the effectiveness of viral advertising on Facebook in Vietnam. The quantitative research method is applied in this research and the sample is Vietnamese Facebook users. After the data analysis stage using SPSS, it became clear that weak ties, perceptual affinity and emotions have an impact on the effectiveness of viral advertising. The results provide a pratical implication of how to make an Ad which can go viral on Facebook. Moreo...

  3. Viral Advertising: Branding Effects from Consumers’ Perspectives


    Jiang, Yueqing


    Viral advertising is popular for its high viral transmission results online. Its increased impacts on the social media users have been noticed by the author. At the same time, viewers’ negative attitudes toward traditional advertisements become obvious which can be regarded as the phenomenon of advertisement avoidance. It arouses author’s interests to know how the viral advertising reduces the viewers’ negative emotions and its performances in branding online. This paper is going to look into...

  4. [Workshop on Molecular Epidemiology of Viral Diseases]. (United States)

    Gómez, B; Cabrera, L; Arias, C F


    A workshop on viral epidemiology was held on September 29, 1995 at the Medical School of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico. The aim of this workshop was to promote interaction among scientists working in viral epidemiology. Eighteen scientists from ten institutions presented their experiences and work. General aspects of the epidemiology of meaningful viral diseases in the country were discussed, and lectures presented on the rota, polio, respiratory syncytial, dengue, papiloma, rabies, VIH and hepatitis viruses.

  5. Viral Subversion of the Nuclear Pore Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Le Sage


    Full Text Available The nuclear pore complex (NPC acts as a selective barrier between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and is responsible for mediating communication by regulating the transport of RNA and proteins. Numerous viral pathogens have evolved different mechanisms to hijack the NPC in order to regulate trafficking of viral proteins, genomes and even capsids into and out of the nucleus thus promoting virus replication. The present review examines the different strategies and the specific nucleoporins utilized during viral infections as a means of promoting their life cycle and inhibiting host viral defenses.

  6. Late presentation of chronic viral hepatitis for medical care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauss, Stefan; Pol, Stanislas; Buti, Maria


    , and relevant stakeholders including patient advocacy groups, health policy-makers, international health organisations and surveillance experts, met in 2014 and 2015 to develop a draft consensus definition of late presentation with viral hepatitis for medical care. This was refined through subsequent......INTRODUCTION: We present two consensus definitions of advanced and late stage liver disease being used as epidemiological tools. These definitions can be applied to assess the morbidity caused by liver diseases in different health care systems. We focus is on hepatitis B and C virus infections......, because effective and well tolerated treatments for both of these infections have greatly improved our ability to successfully treat and prevent advanced and late stage disease, especially if diagnosed early. A consensus definition of late presentation with viral hepatitis is important to create...

  7. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Frölich


    Full Text Available This paper describes viral diseases reported in northern ungulates and those that are a potential threat to these species. The following diseases are discussed: bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD, alphaherpesvirus infections, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF, poxvirus infections, parainfluenza type 3 virus infection, Alvsborg disease, foot-and-mouth disease, epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer and bluetongue disease, rabies, respiratory syncytial virus infection, adenovirus infection, hog-cholera, Aujeszky's disease and equine herpesvirus infections. There are no significant differences in antibody prevalence to BVDV among deer in habitats with high, intermediate and low density of cattle. In addition, sequence analysis from the BVDV isolated from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus showed that this strain was unique within BVDV group I. Distinct BVDV strains might circulate in free-ranging roe deer populations in Germany and virus transmission may be independent of domestic livestock. Similar results have been obtained in a serological survey of alpha-herpesviruses in deer in Germany. Malignant catarrhal fever was studied in fallow deer (Cervus dama in Germany: the seroprevalence and positive PCR results detected in sheep originating from the same area as the antibody-positive deer might indicate that sheep are the main reservoir animals. Contagious ecthyma (CE is a common disease in domestic sheep and goats caused by the orf virus. CE has been diagnosed in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus, Dall sheep (Ovis dalli, chamois (Rupkapra rupi-capra, muskox {Ovibos moschatus and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. Most parainfluenza type 3 virus infections are mild or clinically undetectable. Serological surveys in wildlife have been successfully conducted in many species. In 1985, a new disease was identified in Swedish moose (Alces alces, designated as Alvsborg disease. This wasting syndrome probably

  8. Novel mRNA-specific effects of ribosome drop-off on translation rate and polysome profile. (United States)

    Bonnin, Pierre; Kern, Norbert; Young, Neil T; Stansfield, Ian; Romano, M Carmen


    The well established phenomenon of ribosome drop-off plays crucial roles in translational accuracy and nutrient starvation responses during protein translation. When cells are under stress conditions, such as amino acid starvation or aminoacyl-tRNA depletion due to a high level of recombinant protein expression, ribosome drop-off can substantially affect the efficiency of protein expression. Here we introduce a mathematical model that describes the effects of ribosome drop-off on the ribosome density along the mRNA and on the concomitant protein synthesis rate. Our results show that ribosome premature termination may lead to non-intuitive ribosome density profiles, such as a ribosome density which increases from the 5' to the 3' end. Importantly, the model predicts that the effects of ribosome drop-off on the translation rate are mRNA-specific, and we quantify their resilience to drop-off, showing that the mRNAs which present ribosome queues are much less affected by ribosome drop-off than those which do not. Moreover, among those mRNAs that do not present ribosome queues, resilience to drop-off correlates positively with the elongation rate, so that sequences using fast codons are expected to be less affected by ribosome drop-off. This result is consistent with a genome-wide analysis of S. cerevisiae, which reveals that under favourable growth conditions mRNAs coding for proteins involved in the translation machinery, known to be highly codon biased and using preferentially fast codons, are highly resilient to ribosome drop-off. Moreover, in physiological conditions, the translation rate of mRNAs coding for regulatory, stress-related proteins, is less resilient to ribosome drop-off. This model therefore allows analysis of variations in the translational efficiency of individual mRNAs by accounting for the full range of known ribosome behaviours, as well as explaining mRNA-specific variations in ribosome density emerging from ribosome profiling studies.

  9. Surveillance of nuclear-restricted pre-ribosomes within a subnucleolar region of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (United States)

    Dez, Christophe; Houseley, Jonathan; Tollervey, David


    We previously hypothesized that HEAT-repeat (Huntington, elongation A subunit, TOR) ribosome synthesis factors function in ribosome export. We report that the HEAT-repeat protein Sda1p is a component of late 60S pre-ribosomes and is required for nuclear export of both ribosomal subunits. In strains carrying the ts-lethal sda1–2 mutation, pre-60S particles were rapidly degraded following transfer to 37°C. Polyadenylated forms of the 27S pre-rRNA and the 25S rRNA were detected, suggesting the involvement of the Trf4p/Air/Mtr4p polyadenylation complex (TRAMP). The absence of Trf4p suppressed polyadenylation and stabilized the pre-rRNA and rRNA. The absence of the nuclear exosome component Rrp6p also conferred RNA stabilization, with some hyperadenylation. We conclude that the nuclear-restricted pre-ribosomes are polyadenylated by TRAMP and degraded by the exosome. In sda1–2 strains at 37°C, pre-40S and pre-60S ribosomes initially accumulated in the nucleoplasm, but then strongly concentrated in a subnucleolar focus, together with exosome and TRAMP components. Localization of pre-ribosomes to this focus was lost in sda1–2 strains lacking Trf4p or Rrp6p. We designate this nucleolar focus the No-body and propose that it represents a site of pre-ribosome surveillance. PMID:16541108

  10. Structures and dynamics of hibernating ribosomes from Staphylococcus aureus mediated by intermolecular interactions of HPF. (United States)

    Khusainov, Iskander; Vicens, Quentin; Ayupov, Rustam; Usachev, Konstantin; Myasnikov, Alexander; Simonetti, Angelita; Validov, Shamil; Kieffer, Bruno; Yusupova, Gulnara; Yusupov, Marat; Hashem, Yaser


    In bacteria, ribosomal hibernation shuts down translation as a response to stress, through reversible binding of stress-induced proteins to ribosomes. This process typically involves the formation of 100S ribosome dimers. Here, we present the structures of hibernating ribosomes from human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus containing a long variant of the hibernation-promoting factor (SaHPF) that we solved using cryo-electron microscopy. Our reconstructions reveal that the N-terminal domain (NTD) of SaHPF binds to the 30S subunit as observed for shorter variants of HPF in other species. The C-terminal domain (CTD) of SaHPF protrudes out of each ribosome in order to mediate dimerization. Using NMR, we characterized the interactions at the CTD-dimer interface. Secondary interactions are provided by helix 26 of the 16S ribosomal RNA We also show that ribosomes in the 100S particle adopt both rotated and unrotated conformations. Overall, our work illustrates a specific mode of ribosome dimerization by long HPF, a finding that may help improve the selectivity of antimicrobials. © 2017 The Authors.

  11. Implications of macromolecular crowding and reducing conditions for in vitro ribosome construction (United States)

    Fritz, Brian R.; Jamil, Osman K.; Jewett, Michael C.


    In vitro construction of Escherichia coli ribosomes could elucidate a deeper understanding of these complex molecular machines and make possible the production of synthetic variants with new functions. Toward this goal, we recently developed an integrated synthesis, assembly and translation (iSAT) system that allows for co-activation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription and ribosome assembly, mRNA transcription and protein translation without intact cells. Here, we discovered that macromolecular crowding and reducing agents increase overall iSAT protein synthesis; the combination of 6% w/v Ficoll 400 and 2 mM DTBA yielded approximately a five-fold increase in overall iSAT protein synthesis activity. By utilizing a fluorescent RNA aptamer, fluorescent reporter proteins and ribosome sedimentation analysis, we showed that crowding agents increase iSAT yields by enhancing translation while reducing agents increase rRNA transcription and ribosome assembly. Finally, we showed that iSAT ribosomes possess ∼70% of the protein synthesis activity of in vivo-assembled E. coli ribosomes. This work improves iSAT protein synthesis through the addition of crowding and reducing agents, provides a thorough understanding of the effect of these additives within the iSAT system and demonstrates how iSAT allows for manipulation and analysis of ribosome biogenesis in the context of an in vitro transcription-translation system. PMID:25897121

  12. Organization of Ribosomes and Nucleoids in Escherichia coli Cells during Growth and in Quiescence* (United States)

    Chai, Qian; Singh, Bhupender; Peisker, Kristin; Metzendorf, Nicole; Ge, Xueliang; Dasgupta, Santanu; Sanyal, Suparna


    We have examined the distribution of ribosomes and nucleoids in live Escherichia coli cells under conditions of growth, division, and in quiescence. In exponentially growing cells translating ribosomes are interspersed among and around the nucleoid lobes, appearing as alternative bands under a fluorescence microscope. In contrast, inactive ribosomes either in stationary phase or after treatment with translation inhibitors such as chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and streptomycin gather predominantly at the cell poles and boundaries with concomitant compaction of the nucleoid. However, under all conditions, spatial segregation of the ribosomes and the nucleoids is well maintained. In dividing cells, ribosomes accumulate on both sides of the FtsZ ring at the mid cell. However, the distribution of the ribosomes among the new daughter cells is often unequal. Both the shape of the nucleoid and the pattern of ribosome distribution are also modified when the cells are exposed to rifampicin (transcription inhibitor), nalidixic acid (gyrase inhibitor), or A22 (MreB-cytoskeleton disruptor). Thus we conclude that the intracellular organization of the ribosomes and the nucleoids in bacteria are dynamic and critically dependent on cellular growth processes (replication, transcription, and translation) as well as on the integrity of the MreB cytoskeleton. PMID:24599955

  13. cDNA, genomic cloning and sequence analysis of ribosomal protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 13, 2012 ... Ribosomal protein S4X (RPS4X) is one of the 40S ribosomal proteins encoded by the RPS4X gene. The. cDNA and the genomic sequence of RPS4X were cloned successfully from giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and touchdown- ...

  14. cDNA, genomic cloning and sequence analysis of ribosomal protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ribosomal protein S4X (RPS4X) is one of the 40S ribosomal proteins encoded by the RPS4X gene. The cDNA and the genomic sequence of RPS4X were cloned successfully from giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and touchdown-PCR technology ...

  15. Large facilities and the evolving ribosome, the cellular machine for genetic-code translation. (United States)

    Yonath, Ada


    Well-focused X-ray beams, generated by advanced synchrotron radiation facilities, yielded high-resolution diffraction data from crystals of ribosomes, the cellular nano-machines that translate the genetic code into proteins. These structures revealed the decoding mechanism, localized the mRNA path and the positions of the tRNA molecules in the ribosome and illuminated the interactions of the ribosome with initiation, release and recycling factors. They also showed that the ribosome is a ribozyme whose active site is situated within a universal symmetrical region that is embedded in the otherwise asymmetric ribosome structure. As this highly conserved region provides the machinery required for peptide bond formation and for ribosome polymerase activity, it may be the remnant of the proto-ribosome, a dimeric pre-biotic machine that formed peptide bonds and non-coded polypeptide chains. Synchrotron radiation also enabled the determination of structures of complexes of ribosomes with antibiotics targeting them, which revealed the principles allowing for their clinical use, revealed resistance mechanisms and showed the bases for discriminating pathogens from hosts, hence providing valuable structural information for antibiotics improvement.

  16. Ribosomal protein mutations induce autophagy through S6 kinase inhibition of the insulin pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, Harry F; van Wijk, Richard; Pereboom, Tamara C; Goos, Yvonne J; Seinen, Cor W; van Oirschot, Brigitte A; van Dooren, Rowie; Gastou, Marc; Giles, Rachel H; van Solinge, Wouter; Kuijpers, Taco W; Gazda, Hanna T; Bierings, Marc B; Da Costa, Lydie; MacInnes, Alyson W


    Mutations affecting the ribosome lead to several diseases known as ribosomopathies, with phenotypes that include growth defects, cytopenia, and bone marrow failure. Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), for example, is a pure red cell aplasia linked to the mutation of ribosomal protein (RP) genes. Here we

  17. A comparative genomics study on the effect of individual amino acids on ribosome stalling (United States)


    Background During protein synthesis, the nascent peptide chain emerges from the ribosome through the ribosomal exit tunnel. Biochemical interactions between the nascent peptide and the tunnel may stall the ribosome movement and thus affect the expression level of the protein being synthesized. Earlier studies focused on one model organism (S. cerevisiae), have suggested that certain amino acid sequences may be responsible for ribosome stalling; however, the stalling effect at the individual amino acid level across many organisms has not yet been quantified. Results By analyzing multiple ribosome profiling datasets from different organisms (including prokaryotes and eukaryotes), we report for the first time the organism-specific amino acids that significantly lead to ribosome stalling. We show that the identity of the stalling amino acids vary across the tree of life. In agreement with previous studies, we observed a remarkable stalling signal of proline and arginine in S. cerevisiae. In addition, our analysis supports the conjecture that the stalling effect of positively charged amino acids is not universal and that in certain conditions, negative charge may also induce ribosome stalling. Finally, we show that the beginning part of the tunnel tends to undergo more interactions with the translated amino acids than other positions along the tunnel. Conclusions The reported results support the conjecture that the ribosomal exit tunnel interacts with various amino acids and that the nature of these interactions varies among different organisms. Our findings should contribute towards better understanding of transcript and proteomic evolution and translation elongation regulation. PMID:26449596

  18. Surveillance of nuclear-restricted pre-ribosomes within a subnucleolar region of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Dez, Christophe; Houseley, Jonathan; Tollervey, David


    We previously hypothesized that HEAT-repeat (Huntington, elongation A subunit, TOR) ribosome synthesis factors function in ribosome export. We report that the HEAT-repeat protein Sda1p is a component of late 60S pre-ribosomes and is required for nuclear export of both ribosomal subunits. In strains carrying the ts-lethal sda1-2 mutation, pre-60S particles were rapidly degraded following transfer to 37 degrees C. Polyadenylated forms of the 27S pre-rRNA and the 25S rRNA were detected, suggesting the involvement of the Trf4p/Air/Mtr4p polyadenylation complex (TRAMP). The absence of Trf4p suppressed polyadenylation and stabilized the pre-rRNA and rRNA. The absence of the nuclear exosome component Rrp6p also conferred RNA stabilization, with some hyperadenylation. We conclude that the nuclear-restricted pre-ribosomes are polyadenylated by TRAMP and degraded by the exosome. In sda1-2 strains at 37 degrees C, pre-40S and pre-60S ribosomes initially accumulated in the nucleoplasm, but then strongly concentrated in a subnucleolar focus, together with exosome and TRAMP components. Localization of pre-ribosomes to this focus was lost in sda1-2 strains lacking Trf4p or Rrp6p. We designate this nucleolar focus the No-body and propose that it represents a site of pre-ribosome surveillance.

  19. Implementation of communication-mediating domains for non-ribosomal peptide production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siewers, Verena; San-Bento, Rita; Nielsen, Jens


    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has in several cases been proven to be a suitable host for the production of natural products and was recently exploited for the production of non-ribosomal peptides. Synthesis of non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs) is mediated by NRP synthetases (NRPSs), modular enzymes, which...

  20. Stochastic theory of protein synthesis and polysome: ribosome profile on a single mRNA transcript. (United States)

    Sharma, Ajeet K; Chowdhury, Debashish


    The process of polymerizing a protein by a ribosome, using a messenger RNA (mRNA) as the corresponding template, is called translation. Ribosome may be regarded as a molecular motor for which the mRNA template serves also as the track. Often several ribosomes may translate the same (mRNA) simultaneously. The ribosomes bound simultaneously to a single mRNA transcript are the members of a polyribosome (or, simply, polysome). Experimentally measured polysome profile gives the distribution of polysome sizes. Recently a breakthrough in determining the instantaneous positions of the ribosomes on a given mRNA track has been achieved and the technique is called ribosome profiling (Ingolia et al., 2009; Guo et al., 2010). Motivated by the success of these techniques, we have studied the spatio-temporal organization of ribosomes by extending a theoretical model that we have reported elsewhere (Sharma and Chowdhury, 2011). This extended version of our model incorporates not only (i) mechano-chemical cycle of individual ribomes, and (ii) their steric interactions, but also (iii) the effects of (a) kinetic proofreading, (b) translational infidelity, (c) ribosome recycling, and (d) sequence inhomogeneities. The theoretical framework developed here will serve in guiding further experiments and in analyzing the data to gain deep insight into various kinetic processes involved in translation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Long Noncoding RNA on the Ribosome Is Required for Lifespan Extension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, Paul B.; Nonnekens, Julie; Goos, Yvonne J.; Betist, Marco C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304073202; Viester, Marjon D.; Mossink, Britt; Lansu, Nico; Korswagen, Hendrik C.; Jelier, Rob; Brenkman, Arjan B.; MacInnes, Alyson W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338681388


    The biogenesis of ribosomes and their coordination of protein translation consume an enormous amount of cellular energy. As such, it has been established that the inhibition of either process can extend eukaryotic lifespan. Here, we used next-generation sequencing to compare ribosome-associated RNAs

  2. UtpA and UtpB chaperone nascent pre-ribosomal RNA and U3 snoRNA to initiate eukaryotic ribosome assembly (United States)

    Hunziker, Mirjam; Barandun, Jonas; Petfalski, Elisabeth; Tan, Dongyan; Delan-Forino, Clémentine; Molloy, Kelly R.; Kim, Kelly H.; Dunn-Davies, Hywel; Shi, Yi; Chaker-Margot, Malik; Chait, Brian T.; Walz, Thomas; Tollervey, David; Klinge, Sebastian


    Early eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis involves large multi-protein complexes, which co-transcriptionally associate with pre-ribosomal RNA to form the small subunit processome. The precise mechanisms by which two of the largest multi-protein complexes--UtpA and UtpB--interact with nascent pre-ribosomal RNA are poorly understood. Here, we combined biochemical and structural biology approaches with ensembles of RNA-protein cross-linking data to elucidate the essential functions of both complexes. We show that UtpA contains a large composite RNA-binding site and captures the 5' end of pre-ribosomal RNA. UtpB forms an extended structure that binds early pre-ribosomal intermediates in close proximity to architectural sites such as an RNA duplex formed by the 5' ETS and U3 snoRNA as well as the 3' boundary of the 18S rRNA. Both complexes therefore act as vital RNA chaperones to initiate eukaryotic ribosome assembly.

  3. Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems (United States)

    Villarreal, Luis P.


    All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the ‘Big Bang’ theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features. PMID:22069523

  4. Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis P. Villarreal


    Full Text Available All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the ‘Big Bang’ theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features.

  5. Viral ancestors of antiviral systems. (United States)

    Villarreal, Luis P


    All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the 'Big Bang' theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features.

  6. Viral Innovation, Sustainability, and Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    for these models include Biophysical/Environmental, Business/Economic, and Societal dimensions with the BEST model adding a Technological dimension that refers predominantly to infrastructure, that is, to the built-environment. Integration across these sustainability dimensions is challenging, but can......Enterprises strive to be economically sustainable. In doing so, they either contribute to or detract from environmental and social sustainability. Sustainability is hence multi-dimensional with formulations that include the familiar triple-bottom-line and BEST models. Any assessment regimen...... what is henceforth called “viral innovation”. Evidence of growing global emphasis on environmental and social sustainability is provided by the United Nations Global Compact (, the Pearl Initiative in the Middle East (http...

  7. The cytoplasmic structure hypothesis for ribosome assembly, vertical inheritance, and phylogeny. (United States)

    Thaler, David S


    Fundamental questions in evolution concern deep divisions in the living world and vertical versus horizontal information transfer. Two contrasting views are: (i) three superkingdoms Archaea, Eubacteria, and Eukarya based on vertical inheritance of genes encoding ribosomes; versus (ii) a prokaryotic/eukaryotic dichotomy with unconstrained horizontal gene transfer (HGT) among prokaryotes. Vertical inheritance implies continuity of cytoplasmic and structural information whereas HGT transfers only DNA. By hypothesis, HGT of the translation machinery is constrained by interaction between new ribosomal gene products and vertically inherited cytoplasmic structure made largely of preexisting ribosomes. Ribosomes differentially enhance the assembly of new ribosomes made from closely related genes and inhibit the assembly of products from more distal genes. This hypothesis suggests experiments for synthetic biology: the ability of synthetic genomes to "boot," i.e., establish hereditary continuity, will be constrained by the phylogenetic closeness of the cell "body" into which genomes are placed.

  8. Crystal structure of elongation factor 4 bound to a clockwise ratcheted ribosome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, M. G.; Lin, J.; Bulkley, D.; Steitz, T. A.


    Elongation factor 4 (EF4/LepA) is a highly conserved guanosine triphosphatase translation factor. It was shown to promote back-translocation of tRNAs on posttranslocational ribosome complexes and to compete with elongation factor G for interaction with pretranslocational ribosomes, inhibiting the elongation phase of protein synthesis. Here, we report a crystal structure of EF4–guanosine diphosphate bound to the Thermus thermophilus ribosome with a P-site tRNA at 2.9 angstroms resolution. The C-terminal domain of EF4 reaches into the peptidyl transferase center and interacts with the acceptor stem of the peptidyl-tRNA in the P site. The ribosome is in an unusual state of ratcheting with the 30S subunit rotated clockwise relative to the 50S subunit, resulting in a remodeled decoding center. The structure is consistent with EF4 functioning either as a back-translocase or a ribosome sequester.

  9. The Contributions of the Ribosome Biogenesis Protein Utp5/WDR43 to Craniofacial Development (United States)

    Sondalle, S.B.; Baserga, S.J.; Yelick, P.C.


    Fairly recently, it was recognized that human ribosomopathies—developmental defects caused by mutations in ribosome biogenesis proteins—can exhibit tissue-specific defects rather than the expected global defects. This apparent anomaly—that seemingly ubiquitously expressed and required ribosomal proteins can have distinct functions in cell and tissue differentiation—has spurred new areas of research focused on better understanding translational mechanisms, biogenesis, and function in diverse cell types. This renewed appreciation for, and need to better understand, roles for ribosomal proteins in human development and disease has identified surprising similarities and differences in a variety of human ribosomopathies. Here, we discuss ribosomal protein functions in health and disease, focusing on the ribosome biogenesis protein Utp5/WDR43. New and exciting research in this field is anticipated to provide insight into a variety of previously understudied craniofacial dysostoses and result in significantly improved knowledge and understanding of roles for translational machinery in human craniofacial development and disease. PMID:27221611

  10. Use of Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins from Sambucus for the Construction of Immunotoxins and Conjugates for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Jiménez


    Full Text Available The type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs isolated from some species belonging to the Sambucus genus, have the characteristic that although being even more active than ricin inhibiting protein synthesis in cell-free extracts, they lack the high toxicity of ricin and related type 2 RIPs to intact cells and animals. This is due to the fact that after internalization, they follow a different intracellular pathway that does not allow them to reach the cytosolic ribosomes. The lack of toxicity of type 2 RIPs from Sambucus make them good candidates as toxic moieties in the construction of immunotoxins and conjugates directed against specific targets. Up to now they have been conjugated with either transferrin or anti-CD105 to target either transferrin receptor- or endoglin-overexpressing cells, respectively.

  11. Involvement of Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein in Regulation of the rmf Gene Encoding the Ribosome Modulation Factor in Escherichia coli

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomohiro Shimada; Hideji Yoshida; Akira Ishihama


      The decrease in overall translation in stationary-phase Escherichia coli is accompanied with the formation of functionally inactive 100S ribosomes mediated by the ribosome modulation factor (RMF...

  12. Radical SAM-Mediated Methylation of Ribosomal RNA (United States)

    Stojkovic, Vanja; Fujimori, Danica Galonić


    Post-transcriptional modifications of RNA play an important role in a wide range of biological processes. In ribosomal RNA (rRNA), methylation of nucleotide bases is the predominant modification. In recent years, methylation of adenosine 2503 (A2503) in bacterial 23S rRNA has attracted significant attention due to both the unusual regioselectivity of the methyl group incorporation, as well as the pathophysiological roles of the resultant methylations. Specifically, A2503 is methylated at the C2 and C8 positions of the adenine ring, and the introduced modifications have a profound impact on translational fidelity and antibiotic resistance, respectively. These modifications are performed by RlmN and Cfr, two members, of the recently discovered class of radical S-adenosylmethionine (radical SAM) methylsynthases. Here, we present several methods that can be used to evaluate the activity of these enzymes, under both in vivo and in vitro conditions. PMID:26253978

  13. The Evolution of the Ribosome and the Genetic Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyman Hartman


    Full Text Available The evolution of the genetic code is mapped out starting with the aminoacyl tRNA-synthetases and their interaction with the operational code in the tRNA acceptor arm. Combining this operational code with a metric based on the biosynthesis of amino acids from the Citric acid, we come to the conclusion that the earliest genetic code was a Guanine Cytosine (GC code. This has implications for the likely earliest positively charged amino acids. The progression from this pure GC code to the extant one is traced out in the evolution of the Large Ribosomal Subunit, LSU, and its proteins; in particular those associated with the Peptidyl Transfer Center (PTC and the nascent peptide exit tunnel. This progression has implications for the earliest encoded peptides and their evolutionary progression into full complex proteins.

  14. Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins: From Plant Defense to Tumor Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Serena Fabbrini


    Full Text Available Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs are EC3.2.32.22 N-glycosidases that recognize a universally conserved stem-loop structure in 23S/25S/28S rRNA, depurinating a single adenine (A4324 in rat and irreversibly blocking protein translation, leading finally to cell death of intoxicated mammalian cells. Ricin, the plant RIP prototype that comprises a catalytic A subunit linked to a galactose-binding lectin B subunit to allow cell surface binding and toxin entry in most mammalian cells, shows a potency in the picomolar range. The most promising way to exploit plant RIPs as weapons against cancer cells is either by designing molecules in which the toxic domains are linked to selective tumor targeting domains or directly delivered as suicide genes for cancer gene therapy. Here, we will provide a comprehensive picture of plant RIPs and discuss successful designs and features of chimeric molecules having therapeutic potential.

  15. The emerging roles of ribosome biogenesis in craniofacial development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam P Ross


    Full Text Available Neural crest cells are a transient, migratory cell population, which originates during neurulation at the neural folds and contributes to the majority of tissues, including the mesenchymal structures of the craniofacial skeleton. The deregulation of the complex developmental processes that guide migration, proliferation, and differentiation of neural crest cells may result in a wide range of pathological conditions grouped together as neurocristopathies. Recently, due to their multipotent properties neural crest stem cells have received considerable attention as a possible source for stem cell based regenerative therapies. This exciting prospect underlines the need to further explore the developmental programs that guide neural crest cell differentiation. This review explores the particular importance of ribosome biogenesis defects in this context since a specific interface between ribosomopathies and neurocristopathies exists as evidenced by disorders such as Treacher-Collins-Franceschetti syndrome and Diamond-Blackfan anemia.

  16. Ribosome dimerization is essential for the efficient regrowth of Bacillus subtilis. (United States)

    Akanuma, Genki; Kazo, Yuka; Tagami, Kazumi; Hiraoka, Hirona; Yano, Koichi; Suzuki, Shota; Hanai, Ryo; Nanamiya, Hideaki; Kato-Yamada, Yasuyuki; Kawamura, Fujio


    Ribosome dimers are a translationally inactive form of ribosomes found in Escherichia coli and many other bacterial cells. In this study, we found that the 70S ribosomes of Bacillus subtilis dimerized during the early stationary phase and these dimers remained in the cytoplasm until regrowth was initiated. Ribosome dimerization during the stationary phase required the hpf gene, which encodes a homologue of the E. coli hibernation-promoting factor (Hpf). The expression of hpf was induced at an early stationary phase and its expression was observed throughout the rest of the experimental period, including the entire 6 h of the stationary phase. Ribosome dimerization followed the induction of hpf in WT cells, but the dimerization was impaired in cells harbouring a deletion in the hpf gene. Although the absence of ribosome dimerization in these Hpf-deficient cells did not affect their viability in the stationary phase, their ability to regrow from the stationary phase decreased. Thus, following the transfer of stationary-phase cells to fresh LB medium, Δhpf mutant cells grew slower than WT cells. This observed lag in growth of Δhpf cells was probably due to a delay in restoring their translational activity. During regrowth, the abundance of ribosome dimers in WT cells decreased with a concomitant increase in the abundance of 70S ribosomes and growth rate. These results suggest that the ribosome dimers, by providing 70S ribosomes to the cells, play an important role in facilitating rapid and efficient regrowth of cells under nutrient-rich conditions.

  17. Ribosomal proteins: toward a next generation standard for prokaryotic systematics? (United States)

    Ramulu, Hemalatha Golaconda; Groussin, Mathieu; Talla, Emmanuel; Planel, Remi; Daubin, Vincent; Brochier-Armanet, Céline


    The seminal work of Carl Woese and co-workers has contributed to promote the RNA component of the small subunit of the ribosome (SSU rRNA) as a "gold standard" of modern prokaryotic taxonomy and systematics, and an essential tool to explore microbial diversity. Yet, this marker has a limited resolving power, especially at deep phylogenetic depth and can lead to strongly biased trees. The ever-larger number of available complete genomes now calls for a novel standard dataset of robust protein markers that may complement SSU rRNA. In this respect, concatenation of ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) is being growingly used to reconstruct large-scale prokaryotic phylogenies, but their suitability for systematic and/or taxonomic purposes has not been specifically addressed. Using Proteobacteria as a case study, we show that amino acid and nucleic acid r-protein sequences contain a reliable phylogenetic signal at a wide range of taxonomic depths, which has not been totally blurred by mutational saturation or horizontal gene transfer. The use of accurate evolutionary models and reconstruction methods allows overcoming most tree reconstruction artefacts resulting from compositional biases and/or fast evolutionary rates. The inferred phylogenies allow clarifying the relationships among most proteobacterial orders and families, along with the position of several unclassified lineages, suggesting some possible revisions of the current classification. In addition, we investigate the root of the Proteobacteria by considering the time-variation of nucleic acid composition of r-protein sequences and the information carried by horizontal gene transfers, two approaches that do not require the use of an outgroup and limit tree reconstruction artefacts. Altogether, our analyses indicate that r-proteins may represent a promising standard for prokaryotic taxonomy and systematics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. (Npro) protein of bovine viral d

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle and sheep, and causes significant respiratory and reproductive disease worldwide. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2 along with the border disease virus (BDV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) belong to the genus ...

  19. Influence of dendritic cells on viral pathogenicity. (United States)

    Freer, Giulia; Matteucci, Donatella


    Although most viral infections cause minor, if any, symptoms, a certain number result in serious illness. Viral disease symptoms result both from direct viral replication within host cells and from indirect immunopathological consequences. Dendritic cells (DCs) are key determinants of viral disease outcome; they activate immune responses during viral infection and direct T cells toward distinct T helper type responses. Certain viruses are able to skew cytokine secretion by DCs inducing and/or downregulating the immune system with the aim of facilitating and prolonging release of progeny. Thus, the interaction of DCs with viruses most often results in the absence of disease or complete recovery when natural functions of DCs prevail, but may lead to chronic illness or death when these functions are outmanoeuvred by viruses in the exploitation of DCs.

  20. Influence of dendritic cells on viral pathogenicity.

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    Giulia Freer


    Full Text Available Although most viral infections cause minor, if any, symptoms, a certain number result in serious illness. Viral disease symptoms result both from direct viral replication within host cells and from indirect immunopathological consequences. Dendritic cells (DCs are key determinants of viral disease outcome; they activate immune responses during viral infection and direct T cells toward distinct T helper type responses. Certain viruses are able to skew cytokine secretion by DCs inducing and/or downregulating the immune system with the aim of facilitating and prolonging release of progeny. Thus, the interaction of DCs with viruses most often results in the absence of disease or complete recovery when natural functions of DCs prevail, but may lead to chronic illness or death when these functions are outmanoeuvred by viruses in the exploitation of DCs.