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Sample records for violence stability co-occurrence

  1. Youth Exposed to Violence: Stability, Co-Occurrence, and Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Gayla; Vickerman, Katrina A.; Ramos, Michelle C.; Serrano, Sarah Duman; Gordis, Elana B.; Iturralde, Esti; Oliver, Pamella H.; Spies, Lauren A.

    2009-01-01

    With considerable literature establishing how separate types of violence disrupt the lives of children, there is emerging interest in examining violence across multiple interpersonal domains. This article examines four commonly occurring and frequently researched domains of violence exposure: marital physical aggression, mother-to-youth…

  2. Alcohol and Marital Violence: Bond Style According its Co-Occurrence in Couples at Bogota City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Jimena Perdomo Escobar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to analyze the bond style according to the co-occurrence of alcohol consumption and violence in marital dyads of women who belong to middle and low socioeconomic status. A factorial 2x2 non-experimental cross sectional design was applied to a sample of 101 women who participated voluntarily. The questionnaire of Alcohol and Couple Violence Co-occurrence and the Adults’ Bond Scale were used. Moreover, the c2, the OR and the c2 tests by Mantel & Haenszel were applied. It was found that 79% of women and 89,9% of their husbands were regular consumers. Marital violence towards women occurred in 31,6% of the cases, meanwhile this type of violence was suffered by men in 25% of the cases. Co-occurrence of consumption and maltreatment was found in 22 cases. So, consumption would be a risk factor for marital violence. However, there was not a significant correlation between these aspects and women’s bond style. Mantel y Haenszel’s c2 showed significantly (p=0,036 that this kind of bond was only affected by OH consumptionif it co-occurs with marital violence. But, if the last factor does not occur, bond style behaves orthogonally to the OH consumption. It was concluded that there is an interdependence relationship between bond style according to differential occurrence of alcohol consumption and marital violence.

  3. The co-occurrence of physical and cyber dating violence and bullying among teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahner, Jennifer; Dank, Meredith; Zweig, Janine M; Lachman, Pamela

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the overlap in teen dating violence and bullying perpetration and victimization, with regard to acts of physical violence, psychological abuse, and-for the first time ever-digitally perpetrated cyber abuse. A total of 5,647 youth (51% female, 74% White) from 10 schools participated in a cross-sectional anonymous survey. Results indicated substantial co-occurrence of all types of teen dating violence and bullying. Youth who perpetrated and/or experienced physical, psychological, and cyber bullying were likely to have also perpetrated/experienced physical and sexual dating violence, and psychological and cyber dating abuse. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Prevalence and co-occurrence of violence against children in the Quebec population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourigny, Marc; Hébert, Martine; Joly, Jacques; Cyr, Mireille; Baril, Karine

    2008-08-01

    A literature review on the incidence of different forms of child maltreatment revealed that rates in Australia and Quebec (Canada) were similar. This study sought to determine the prevalence and co-occurrence of various forms of violence (physical, sexual and psychological) and explore gender and age difference. A telephone inquiry was conducted with a representative sample of 1,002 adults from the province of Quebec. More than one in three adults (37%) reported having experienced at least one of three forms of violence in childhood. Twelve per cent (12%) of the adults experienced two forms of violence while 4% of the respondents reported having experienced all three forms of violence in childhood. Psychological violence (22%) was the form most frequently reported, followed by physical violence (19%) and sexual violence (16%). The different prevalence rates did not vary as a function of age. However, regarding gender, women were more likely to report having been sexually victimised (rape and fondling) and less likely to report having experienced physical violence. A lower percentage of women reported having sustained no form of childhood victimisation and a higher percentage of women reported have experienced both sexual and psychological violence compared to men. These results, including both the global rates and those particular to each gender, are comparable to findings in similar North American studies. The co-occurrence rates noted are salient enough to necessitate particular attention to diverse clinical clientele and need to be considered in future research exploring the risk factors of violence and its subsequent repercussions.

  5. [Co-occurrence of physical and psychological violence among dating adolescents in Recife, Brazil: prevalence and associated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Alice Kelly; Lima, Maria Luiza Carvalho de; Avanci, Joviana Quintes

    2013-01-01

    The scope of this study was to assess the prevalence of physical and psychological violence among dating adolescents from Recife, Brazil, to identify associated factors and the co-occurrence of both types of violence. 302 adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years in public and private schools who were in a relationship in the last year filled out the questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression statistical analysis were performed and the sample weight and the complex sample design were entered. The prevalence was 19.9% of physical violence 82.8% of psychological violence and 18.9% for the co-occurrence of both. Adolescents who have experienced violence in the community and who were in dating relationships of more than one year duration were more likely to perpetrate psychological violence. For the co-occurrence of physical and psychological violence, the variables that increased the chance of perpetration were suffering physical violence from the father, violence among siblings, physical violence and the perpetration of verbal violence in previous relationships. The conclusion reached is that psychological violence and the co-occurrence of physical and psychological violence have a distinct dynamics from physical violence in dating relationships.

  6. Prevalence, co-occurrence and decennial trends of family violence toward children in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Marie-Ève; Chamberland, Claire; Bouchard, Camil

    2016-03-14

    In Quebec, three population-based surveys have documented the prevalence of psychological aggression, and minor and severe physical violence toward children. This paper aims to present 1) the results of the 2012 survey with regard to the frequency and annual prevalence of violence, and 2) the trends in all three forms of violence between 1999 and 2012 according to children's age. The three independent surveys were all conducted through telephone interviews in 1999, 2004 and 2012 by the Institut de la Statistique du Québec and reached a total sample of 9,646 children living with a mother figure. Psychological aggression, and minor and severe physical violence were measured using the Parent Child Conflict Tactics Scales. The results show that repeated psychological aggression, after having increased between 1999 (48%) and 2004 (53%), slightly decreased in 2012 (49%). Minor physical violence decreased steadily between 1999 and 2012, from 48% to 35%, and severe physical violence remained stable (6%). These three forms of violence varied by the age category of the children. Finally, the results show that the co-occurrence of the use of physical and psychological violence remained high in all three surveys. The results are consistent with trends in North America and are discussed in terms of services to support families.

  7. [Sexual violence and co-occurrences suffered by children and adolescents: study of incidents over a decade].

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    de Oliveira, Jacqueline Reiter; Costa, Maria Conceição Oliveira; Amaral, Magali Teresópolis Reis; Santos, Clarice Alves; de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; do Nascimento, Ohana Cunha

    2014-03-01

    The study analyzes the evolution of the incidence of sexual violence (SV) and co-occurrences between 2001 and 2010. The records of the Guardianship Councils in Feira de Santana, State of Bahia, Brazil were used and the incidence rates and graphs of the events during the period were calculated. Of the total of the different types of violence, 21.8 % involved co-occurrences, the majority being female, most frequently during adolescence. There was a high proportion of abuse in male children, with most offenders bring family members or acquaintances. The incidence of SV revealed an increasing trend in both sexes during the decade, more significantly in females in 2002 and 2009. The age groups indicated the same trend, with a higher proportion of cases in adolescence. The record of co-occurrences with SV was more pronounced in the second half of the decade, namely psychological violence in 2008, neglect in 2008 and physical violence in 2009. The conclusion is that the increase in the coefficients of sexual violence and co-occurrences may indicate an improvement of the reporting system of instances in reference, as well as greater citizen participation through the Dial 100 complaint hotline. The indicators help to prevent and control violence against children.

  8. The Co-Occurrence of Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adult Sexual Assault, Intimate Partner Violence, and Sexual Harassment: A Mediational Model of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Physical Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rebecca; Greeson, Megan R.; Bybee, Deborah; Raja, Sheela

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the co-occurrence of childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, intimate partner violence, and sexual harassment in a predominantly African American sample of 268 female veterans, randomly sampled from an urban Veterans Affairs hospital women's clinic. A combination of hierarchical and iterative cluster analysis was used to…

  9. Lifetime co-occurrence of violence victimisation and symptoms of psychological ill health: a cross-sectional study of Swedish male and female clinical and population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Johanna; Wijma, Barbro; Swahnberg, Katarina

    2015-09-28

    Lifetime co-occurrence of violence victimisation is common. A large proportion of victims report being exposed to multiple forms of violence (physical, sexual, emotional violence) and/or violence by multiple kinds of perpetrators (family members, intimate partners, acquaintances/strangers). Yet much research focuses on only one kind of victimisation. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between symptoms of psychological ill health, and A) exposure to multiple forms of violence, and B) violence by multiple perpetrators. Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data previously collected for prevalence studies on interpersonal violence in Sweden was used. Respondents were recruited at hospital clinics (women n = 2439, men n = 1767) and at random from the general population (women n = 1168, men n = 2924). Multinomial regression analysis was used to estimate associations between exposure to violence and symptoms of psychological ill health. Among both men and women and in both clinical and population samples, exposure to multiple forms of violence as well as violence by multiple perpetrators were more strongly associated with symptoms of psychological ill health than reporting one form of violence or violence by one perpetrator. For example, in the female population sample, victims reporting all three forms of violence were four times more likely to report many symptoms of psychological ill health compared to those reporting only one form of violence (adj OR: 3.8, 95 % CI 1.6-8.8). In the male clinical sample, victims reporting two or three kind of perpetrators were three times more likely to report many symptoms of psychological ill health than those reporting violence by one perpetrator (adj OR 3.3 95 % CI 1.9-5.9). The strong association found between lifetime co-occurrence of violence victimisation and symptoms of psychological ill-health is important to consider in both research and clinic work. If only the effect of one form of

  10. The prevalence of exposure to domestic violence and the factors associated with co-occurrence of psychological and physical violence exposure: a sample from primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selic, Polona; Pesjak, Katja; Kersnik, Janko

    2011-08-04

    Since many health problems are associated with abuse and neglect at all ages, domestic violence victims may be considered as a group of primary care patients in need of special attention. The aim of this multi-centre study was to assess the prevalence of domestic violence in primary care patients, and to identify those factors which influence the co-occurrence of psychological and physical violence exposure and their consequences (physical, sexual and reproductive and psychological) as obtained from medical records.A study was carried out in 28 family practices in Slovenia in 2009. Twenty-eight family physicians approached every fifth family practice attendee, regardless of gender, to be interviewed about their exposure to domestic violence and asked to specify the perpetrator and the frequency. Out of 840 patients asked, 829 individuals, 61.0% women (n = 506) and 39.0% men (n = 323) were assessed (98.7% response rate). They represented a randomised sample of general practice attendees, aged 18 years and above, who had visited their physician for health problems and who were given a physical examination. Visits for administrative purposes were excluded.Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with exposure to both psychological and physical violence. Of 829 patients, 15.3% reported some type of domestic violence experienced during the previous five years; 5.9% reported physical and 9.4% psychological violence; of these 19.2% of men and 80.8% of women had been exposed to psychological violence, while 22.4% of men and 77.6% of women had been exposed to physical violence. The domestic violence victims were mostly women (p psychological violence was more prevalent than exposure to physical violence. Of the women, 20.0% were exposed to either type of violence, compared to 8.0% of male participants, who reported they were rarely exposed to physical violence, while women reported often or constant exposure to physical

  11. The prevalence of exposure to domestic violence and the factors associated with co-occurrence of psychological and physical violence exposure: a sample from primary care patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Since many health problems are associated with abuse and neglect at all ages, domestic violence victims may be considered as a group of primary care patients in need of special attention. Methods The aim of this multi-centre study was to assess the prevalence of domestic violence in primary care patients, and to identify those factors which influence the co-occurrence of psychological and physical violence exposure and their consequences (physical, sexual and reproductive and psychological) as obtained from medical records. A study was carried out in 28 family practices in Slovenia in 2009. Twenty-eight family physicians approached every fifth family practice attendee, regardless of gender, to be interviewed about their exposure to domestic violence and asked to specify the perpetrator and the frequency. Out of 840 patients asked, 829 individuals, 61.0% women (n = 506) and 39.0% men (n = 323) were assessed (98.7% response rate). They represented a randomised sample of general practice attendees, aged 18 years and above, who had visited their physician for health problems and who were given a physical examination. Visits for administrative purposes were excluded. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with exposure to both psychological and physical violence. Results Of 829 patients, 15.3% reported some type of domestic violence experienced during the previous five years; 5.9% reported physical and 9.4% psychological violence; of these 19.2% of men and 80.8% of women had been exposed to psychological violence, while 22.4% of men and 77.6% of women had been exposed to physical violence. The domestic violence victims were mostly women (p violence was more prevalent than exposure to physical violence. Of the women, 20.0% were exposed to either type of violence, compared to 8.0% of male participants, who reported they were rarely exposed to physical violence, while women reported often or constant

  12. Assessing the co-occurrence of intimate partner violence domains across the life-course: relating typologies to mental health

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    Cherie Armour

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The inter-generational transmission of violence (ITV hypothesis and polyvictimisation have been studied extensively. The extant evidence suggests that individuals from violent families are at increased risk of subsequent intimate partner violence (IPV and that a proportion of individuals experience victimisation across multiple rather than single IPV domains. Both ITV and polyvictimisation are shown to increase the risk of psychiatric morbidity, alcohol use, and anger expression. Objective: The current study aimed to 1 ascertain if underlying typologies of victimisation across the life-course and over multiple victimisation domains were present and 2 ascertain if groupings differed on mean scores of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression, alcohol use, and anger expression. Method: University students (N=318 were queried in relation to victimisation experiences and psychological well-being. Responses across multiple domains of IPV spanning the life-course were used in a latent profile analysis. ANOVA was subsequently used to determine if profiles differed in their mean scores on PTSD, depression, alcohol use, and anger expression. Results: Three distinct profiles were identified; one of which comprised individuals who experienced “life-course polyvictimisation,” another showing individuals who experienced “witnessing parental victimisation,” and one which experienced “psychological victimisation only.” Life-course polyvictims scored the highest across most assessed measures. Conclusion: Witnessing severe physical aggression and injury in parental relationships as a child has an interesting impact on the ITV into adolescence and adulthood. Life-course polyvictims are shown to experience increased levels of psychiatric morbidity and issues with alcohol misuse and anger expression.

  13. Assessing the co-occurrence of intimate partner violence domains across the life-course: relating typologies to mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Sleath, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Background The inter-generational transmission of violence (ITV) hypothesis and polyvictimisation have been studied extensively. The extant evidence suggests that individuals from violent families are at increased risk of subsequent intimate partner violence (IPV) and that a proportion of individuals experience victimisation across multiple rather than single IPV domains. Both ITV and polyvictimisation are shown to increase the risk of psychiatric morbidity, alcohol use, and anger expression. Objective The current study aimed to 1) ascertain if underlying typologies of victimisation across the life-course and over multiple victimisation domains were present and 2) ascertain if groupings differed on mean scores of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, alcohol use, and anger expression. Method University students (N=318) were queried in relation to victimisation experiences and psychological well-being. Responses across multiple domains of IPV spanning the life-course were used in a latent profile analysis. ANOVA was subsequently used to determine if profiles differed in their mean scores on PTSD, depression, alcohol use, and anger expression. Results Three distinct profiles were identified; one of which comprised individuals who experienced “life-course polyvictimisation,” another showing individuals who experienced “witnessing parental victimisation,” and one which experienced “psychological victimisation only.” Life-course polyvictims scored the highest across most assessed measures. Conclusion Witnessing severe physical aggression and injury in parental relationships as a child has an interesting impact on the ITV into adolescence and adulthood. Life-course polyvictims are shown to experience increased levels of psychiatric morbidity and issues with alcohol misuse and anger expression. PMID:25279106

  14. Associations of Dating Violence Victimization with Lifetime Participation, Co-Occurrence, and Early Initiation of Risk Behaviors among U.S. High School Students

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    Eaton, Danice K.; Davis, Kristen S.; Barrios, Lisa; Brener, Nancy D.; Noonan, Rita K.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the association of victimization in a physically violent dating relationship with risk behaviors, age of risk behavior initiation, and co-occurrence of risk behaviors among students in grades 9 through 12 in the United States. Data were from the 2003 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Nearly 9% of students reported…

  15. Intimate Partner Violence and Cigarette Smoking: Association Between Smoking Risk and Psychological Abuse With and Without Co-Occurrence of Physical and Sexual Abuse

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    Jun, Hee-Jin; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between psychological abuse in a current relationship and current cigarette smoking among women, with and without the co-occurrence of physical or sexual abuse. Methods. Women’s experience of psychological abuse, experience of physical or sexual abuse, and smoking status were ascertained through a survey of female nurses. A score of 20 or more on the Women’s Experience With Battering scale defined psychological abuse. We used logistic regression to predict current smoking, adjusting for demographic and social covariates. Analyses included women in a current relationship (n=54200). Results. Adjusted analyses demonstrated that women experiencing only psychological abuse alone were 33% (95% confidence interval [CI]=13%, 57%) more likely to smoke than nonabused women. Compared with nonabused women, psychologically abused women’s risk of smoking was greater if they reported a single co-occurrence of physical or sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR]=1.5; 95% CI=1.3, 1.8) or multiple co-occurrences (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.7, 2.3). Conclusions. Psychological abuse in a current relationship was associated with an increased risk of smoking in this cohort of largely White, well-educated, and employed women. The co-occurrence of physical or sexual abuse enhanced that risk. Further research is needed to see if these associations hold for other groups. PMID:17600272

  16. Models of Co-occurrence

    CERN Document Server

    Melamed, I D

    1998-01-01

    A model of co-occurrence in bitext is a boolean predicate that indicates whether a given pair of word tokens co-occur in corresponding regions of the bitext space. Co-occurrence is a precondition for the possibility that two tokens might be mutual translations. Models of co-occurrence are the glue that binds methods for mapping bitext correspondence with methods for estimating translation models into an integrated system for exploiting parallel texts. Different models of co-occurrence are possible, depending on the kind of bitext map that is available, the language-specific information that is available, and the assumptions made about the nature of translational equivalence. Although most statistical translation models are based on models of co-occurrence, modeling co-occurrence correctly is more difficult than it may at first appear.

  17. Developmental stability and human violence.

    OpenAIRE

    Furlow, B; Gangestad, S W; Armijo-Prewitt, T

    1998-01-01

    Developmental stability (the precision with which genotypes are translated into phenotypes under physically stressful developmental conditions), is a major source of phenotypic and behavioural variation, yet researchers have largely ignored its potential role in the ontogeny of individual propensities toward human aggression and violence. In this study, we measured fluctuating asymmetry of the body and administered aggression and fighting history questionnaires to 229 college students (139 fe...

  18. Developmental stability and human violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlow, B; Gangestad, S W; Armijo-Prewitt, T

    1998-01-07

    Developmental stability (the precision with which genotypes are translated into phenotypes under physically stressful developmental conditions), is a major source of phenotypic and behavioural variation, yet researchers have largely ignored its potential role in the ontogeny of individual propensities toward human aggression and violence. In this study, we measured fluctuating asymmetry of the body and administered aggression and fighting history questionnaires to 229 college students (139 female and 90 male undergraduates). Among males, but not females, fluctuating asymmetry correlated negatively and significantly with the participants' number of fights and propensity to escalate agonistic encounters to physical violence. Principal components analyses and scree tests suggested that two psychometric factors underlie observed correlations between self-report measures of aggressive tendencies. The first factor, 'aggressive negative affect', reflected verbal aggression and hostility toward others, while the second factor, 'self-assessed fighting ability', reflected physical violence and a tendency to win fights. The two factors correlated minimally. For both males and females, the second factor correlated with number of fights while the first factor did not. Fluctuating asymmetry did not significantly correlate with either factor for either sex, but for both sexes, psychometric intelligence (IQ) correlated positively with the first factor.

  19. Co-ocorrência de violência física conjugal e contra filhos em serviços de saúde Co-occurrence of physical violence against partners and their children in health services

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    Michael Eduardo Reichenheim

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar um perfil de ocorrência e co-ocorrência de violência física conjugal e contra filhos em uma população atendida em serviço de saúde, segundo diferentes características socioeconômicas e demográficas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal sobre violência familiar e prematuridade, realizado na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, em 2000. Foram elegíveis para a análise os domicílios contendo mulheres vivendo com companheiro e nos quais coabitavam com pelo menos um filho (ou enteado de até 18 anos (n=205. Condições socioeconômicas, demográficas e relativas aos hábitos de vida da mulher e do companheiro foram consideradas como potenciais preditores de violência. A variável de desfecho foi analisada em quatro níveis: ausência de violência física no domicílio; ocorrência de violência física no casal; contra pelo menos um filho; e coocorrência. Utilizou-se um modelo logito-multinomial para as projeções de prevalências desses matizes de violência segundo os descritores selecionados. RESULTADOS: Os fatores associados ao maior risco do desfecho foram: idade materna >25 anos; companheiro com primeiro grau incompleto, presença de >2 crianças menores de cinco anos no domicílio; e abuso de álcool e drogas ilícitas pelo companheiro. Em domicílios com todas essas características, a estimativa conjunta de prevalência projetada de violência no casal e contra filhos chegou a 90,2%, sendo de 60,6% a de coocorrência. Na ausência desses fatores, as estimativas foram consideravelmente menores (18,9% e 0,2%, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: Profissionais de saúde não devem somente atentar à presença de um gradiente situacional, mas também ao fato de que existe paulatinamente mais chance dos agravos violentos acontecerem como um fenômeno englobando todo o grupo familiar.OBJECTIVE: To profile the co-occurrence of physical violence against partners and their children in a population attending a health care service

  20. Developmental stability and human violence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bryant Furlow; Steven W. Gangestad; Tara Armijo-Prewitt

    1998-01-01

    ...), is a major source of phenotypic and behavioural variation, yet researchers have largely ignored its potential role in the ontogeny of individual propensities toward human aggression and violence...

  1. Coocorrência de violência física e psicológica entre adolescentes namorados do recife, Brasil: prevalência e fatores associados Co-occurrence of physical and psychological violence among dating adolescents in Recife, Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

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    Alice Kelly Barreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos foram estimar a prevalência de perpetração de violência física e psicológica entre adolescentes namorados de Recife, identificar fatores associados e a coocorrência de ambos os tipos de violência. Participaram do estudo 302 adolescentes de escolas públicas e particulares, com idade entre 15 e 19 anos, que tiveram algum relacionamento amoroso no último ano e esses preencheram o questionário. Foram realizadas análise univariada e regressão logística e todas as análises estatísticas incorporaram o peso amostral e o desenho da amostra complexa. A prevalência de violência física foi de 19,9%, de 82,8% para violência psicológica e de 18,9% para a coocorrência de violência física e psicológica. Os adolescentes que vivenciaram violência na comunidade e em relacionamentos de mais de um ano de duração apresentaram maiores chances de perpetrar violência psicológica. Enquanto, sofrer violência física do pai, entre irmãos e em namoros anteriores, além de ter perpetrado violência verbal em relacionamentos anteriores, foram variáveis que aumentaram a chance de perpetração de violência física e psicológica no namoro. Conclui-se que a violência psicológica e a coocorrência de violência física e psicológica possuem uma dinâmica distinta da violência física no namoro.The scope of this study was to assess the prevalence of physical and psychological violence among dating adolescents from Recife, Brazil, to identify associated factors and the co-occurrence of both types of violence. 302 adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years in public and private schools who were in a relationship in the last year filled out the questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression statistical analysis were performed and the sample weight and the complex sample design were entered. The prevalence was 19.9% of physical violence 82.8% of psychological violence and 18.9% for the co-occurrence of both. Adolescents

  2. Evolutionary cores of domain co-occurrence networks

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    Almaas Eivind

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The modeling of complex systems, as disparate as the World Wide Web and the cellular metabolism, as networks has recently uncovered a set of generic organizing principles: Most of these systems are scale-free while at the same time modular, resulting in a hierarchical architecture. The structure of the protein domain network, where individual domains correspond to nodes and their co-occurrences in a protein are interpreted as links, also falls into this category, suggesting that domains involved in the maintenance of increasingly developed, multicellular organisms accumulate links. Here, we take the next step by studying link based properties of the protein domain co-occurrence networks of the eukaryotes S. cerevisiae, C. elegans, D. melanogaster, M. musculus and H. sapiens. Results We construct the protein domain co-occurrence networks from the PFAM database and analyze them by applying a k-core decomposition method that isolates the globally central (highly connected domains in the central cores from the locally central (highly connected domains in the peripheral cores protein domains through an iterative peeling process. Furthermore, we compare the subnetworks thus obtained to the physical domain interaction network of S. cerevisiae. We find that the innermost cores of the domain co-occurrence networks gradually grow with increasing degree of evolutionary development in going from single cellular to multicellular eukaryotes. The comparison of the cores across all the organisms under consideration uncovers patterns of domain combinations that are predominately involved in protein functions such as cell-cell contacts and signal transduction. Analyzing a weighted interaction network of PFAM domains of Yeast, we find that domains having only a few partners frequently interact with these, while the converse is true for domains with a multitude of partners. Combining domain co-occurrence and interaction information, we observe

  3. Co-occurrence Models in Music Genre Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrendt, Peter; Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Music genre classification has been investigated using many different methods, but most of them build on probabilistic models of feature vectors x\\_r which only represent the short time segment with index r of the song. Here, three different co-occurrence models are proposed which instead consider...... the whole song as an integrated part of the probabilistic model. This was achieved by considering a song as a set of independent co-occurrences (s, x\\_r) (s is the song index) instead of just a set of independent (x\\_r)'s. The models were tested against two baseline classification methods on a difficult 11...

  4. Community Stabilization and Violence Reduction: Lessons from Darfur

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    Zurab Elzarov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ravaged by years of conflict and environmental decline, Darfur’s economy has been unable to create sufficient opportunities for youth, creating a link between social instability and high concentration of youth without productive employment. In 2011, the United Nations-African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID designed a community stabilization and violence reduction programme to bridge a critical gap between the increasing ‘youth bulge’ and the government's capacity to deliver youth empowerment and job creation solutions to youth in Darfur, leading to militarization of youth. The programme offers vocational skills training and temporary employment of youth through implementation of community-based labour intensive projects (CLIPs. Youth are targeted in particular, since they are an essential part of the solution to resolving the conflict in Darfur. Youth tend to be directly involved in hostilities and are seen to be most likely to return to the battlefield. At the same time, youth are often the community members most open to engaging in post-conflict recovery and peacebuilding activities. Since the conception of the programme in 2011, a total of 58 projects were implemented in 45 communities, and directly targeted over 9,000 youth. In a situation where the peace agreement is non-inclusive and the level of violence against unarmed civilians is high, CLIPs have played an important role in community stabilization and violence reduction in Darfur, building trust, contributing to a secure environment and helping build the foundation for longer term peace and development. As recognition of its contribution to peace and stability in Darfur, in October 2014, UNAMID’s CLIPs programme received the UN 21 Award for Outstanding Vision.

  5. Lexical co-occurrence and lexical inheritance. emotion lexemes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present paper, we tackle the problem of the compact and efficient representation of restricted lexical co-occurrence information in the lexicon along semantic lines. The theoretical framework for this study is the Meaning Text Theory (MTT) and, more specifically, the lexicographic part of MIT --- the Explanatory ...

  6. Co-Occurrence of Diabetes and Hypertension: Pattern and Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background : There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of diabetes and hypertension all over the world. Such association results in higher rate of cardiovascular complications. It is however not clear whether the order of occurrence distinguishes two different groups of patients and the implications of this on morbidity and ...

  7. cooccur: Probabilistic Species Co-Occurrence Analysis in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Griffith

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The observation that species may be positively or negatively associated with each other is at least as old as the debate surrounding the nature of community structure which began in the early 1900's with Gleason and Clements. Since then investigating species co-occurrence patterns has taken a central role in understanding the causes and consequences of evolution, history, coexistence mechanisms, competition, and environment for community structure and assembly. This is because co-occurrence among species is a measurable metric in community datasets that, in the context of phylogeny, geography, traits, and environment, can sometimes indicate the degree of competition, displacement, and phylogenetic repulsion as weighed against biotic and environmental effects promoting correlated species distributions. Historically, a multitude of different co-occurrence metrics have been developed and most have depended on data randomization procedures to produce null distributions for significance testing. Here we improve upon and present an R implementation of a recently published model that is metric-free, distribution-free, and randomization-free. The R package, cooccur, is highly accessible, easily integrates into common analyses, and handles large datasets with high performance. In the article we develop the package's functionality and demonstrate aspects of co-occurrence analysis using three sample datasets.

  8. Exploring lexical co-occurrence space using HiDEx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaoul, Cyrus; Westbury, Chris

    2010-05-01

    Hyperspace analog to language (HAL) is a high-dimensional model of semantic space that uses the global co-occurrence frequency of words in a large corpus of text as the basis for a representation of semantic memory. In the original HAL model, many parameters were set without any a priori rationale. We have created and publicly released a computer application, the High Dimensional Explorer (HiDEx), that makes it possible to systematically alter the values of these parameters to examine their effect on the co-occurrence matrix that instantiates the model. We took an empirical approach to understanding the influence of the parameters on the measures produced by the models, looking at how well matrices derived with different parameters could predict human reaction times in lexical decision and semantic decision tasks. New parameter sets give us measures of semantic density that improve the model's ability to predict behavioral measures. Implications for such models are discussed.

  9. Logo detection using wavelet co-occurrence histograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, Ali; Androutsos, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a retrieval system for logo and trademark images. One technique that has been proposed in the past employs the histogram of edge direction angles to index an image in a database of images. The histogram is called the Edge Directional Histogram (EDH). Our proposed technique is based on using the wavelet decomposition coefficients of an image to build a co-occurrence histogram. We call this histogram the wavelet co-occurrence histogram (WCH). By capturing the edge information and intensity variations in an image, as well as the spatial separation of these variations, the WCH presents a more accurate representation of the image features than the EDH. Results demonstrate that our retrieval system performs better than the EDH.

  10. Co-occurrence network analysis of modern Chinese poems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei; Wang, Yanli; Shi, Yuming; Chen, Guanrong

    2015-02-01

    A total of 606 co-occurrence networks of Chinese characters and words are constructed from rhymes, free verses, and prose poems. It is found that 98.5 % of networks have scale-free properties, while 19.8 % of networks do not have small-world features, especially the clustering coefficients in 5.6 % of networks are zero. In addition, 61.4 % of networks have significant hierarchical structures, and 98 % of networks are disassortative. For the above observed phenomena, analysis is provided with interpretation from a linguistic perspective.

  11. Combating Conflict Related Sexual Violence: More Than a Stability Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    that the male soldier’s construction of their masculinity and militarization are a primary influence of their use of sexual violence to satisfy their...Sexual violence used by the armed group can reinforce feelings of masculinity , and signal to fellow soldiers that they are loyal to the group...soldiers rape? Masculinity , violence , and sexuality in the armed forces in the Congo (DRC). International Studies Quarterly 53, no. 2: 495-518. doi

  12. Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Europe Forum, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Highlighting the issue of violence, this Forum issue contains 12 essays. Titles and authors are: "Passivity in the Face of Violence" (Henri Laborit); "Democratisation without Violence?" (Friedrich Hacker); "Ritualised Violence in Sport" (Christian Bromberger); "Violence in Prisons" (Luige Daga); "Racial Aggression" (Geoffrey Bindman); "Violence in…

  13. Co-occurrence network analysis of Chinese and English poems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei; Wang, Yanli; Shi, Yuming; Chen, Guanrong

    2015-02-01

    A total of 572 co-occurrence networks of Chinese characters and words as well as English words are constructed from both Chinese and English poems. It is found that most of the networks have small-world features; more Chinese networks have scale-free properties and hierarchical structures as compared with the English networks; all the networks are disassortative, and the disassortativeness of the Chinese word networks is more prominent than those of the English networks; the spectral densities of the Chinese word networks and English networks are similar, but they are different from those of the ER, BA, and WS networks. For the above observed phenomena, analysis is provided with interpretation from a linguistic perspective.

  14. Co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and lumbar disc herniation with lumbosacral nerve root anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Tevfik; Turan, Yahya; Gülşen, İsmail; Dalbayrak, Sedat

    2014-01-01

    Lumbosacral nerve root anomalies are the leading cause of lumbar surgery failures. Although co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation is common, it is very rare to observe that a nerve root anomaly accompanies these lesions. A 49-year-old male patient presented with sudden-onset right leg pain. Examinations revealed L5/S1 lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation. At preoperative period, he was also diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly. Following discectomy and root decompression, stabilization was performed. The complaints of the patient diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly at intraoperative period were improved at postoperative period. It should be remembered that in patients with lumbar disc herniation and spondylolysis, lumbar root anomalies may coexist when clinical and neurological picture is severe. Preoperative and perioperative assessments should be made meticulously to prevent neurological injury. PMID:25210343

  15. Co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and lumbar disc herniation with lumbosacral nerve root anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevfik Yilmaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbosacral nerve root anomalies are the leading cause of lumbar surgery failures. Although co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation is common, it is very rare to observe that a nerve root anomaly accompanies these lesions. A 49-year-old male patient presented with sudden-onset right leg pain. Examinations revealed L5/S1 lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation. At preoperative period, he was also diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly. Following discectomy and root decompression, stabilization was performed. The complaints of the patient diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly at intraoperative period were improved at postoperative period. It should be remembered that in patients with lumbar disc herniation and spondylolysis, lumbar root anomalies may coexist when clinical and neurological picture is severe. Preoperative and perioperative assessments should be made meticulously to prevent neurological injury.

  16. Co-occurrence of risk behaviors among Spanish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meneses, Carmen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the co-occurrence of risk behaviors among Spanish adolescents. The analyzed behaviors were sexual activity, the use of alcohol and other drugs, violent conduct and behaviors related to driving mopeds or scooters. The sample consisted of 4,091 adolescents between the ages of 13 to 18, all of them enrolled in one of the four compulsory years of secondary education, the approximate equivalents of the 7th to 10th grades in the US educational system. Cluster analysis indicates that there are four risk profiles, one of which is the profile with the greatest risk and the highest co-occurrence of risk behaviors. This group represents 13% of the sample and is noteworthy for using illegal drugs, driving under the influence of drugs and other activities carried out under the influence of alcohol. Differences have been found among the various profiles according to sociodemographic characteristics such as sex, grade, perception of the family’s economic situation and ethnicity. The findings are discussed and some suggestions are given for prevention intervention.

    Este trabajo examina la concurrencia de comportamientos de riesgo en adolescentes españoles. Los comportamientos analizados fueron la actividad sexual, el consumo de alcohol y otras drogas, conductas violentas y comportamientos en la conducción de ciclomotores o motocicletas. La muestra incluye 4.091 adolescentes de 13 a 18 años, perteneciente a educación secundaria obligatoria. Los resultados obtenidos muestran cuatro perfiles de riesgo, siendo uno de ellos el perfil de más alto riesgo y concurrencia de comportamientos arriesgados. Este grupo supone el 13% en el que destacan las conductas de consumo de drogas lícitas, conducir bajo los efectos de droga y otras conductas realizadas bajo los efectos del alcohol. Se encuentran diferencias entre estos perfiles y las características sociodemográficas como el sexo, el curso, la percepción sobre la economía familiar y

  17. Corpus Linguistics, Network Analysis and Co-occurrence Matrices Corpus Linguistics, Network Analysis and Co-occurrence Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Stuart

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes research undertaken in order to design a methodology for the reticular representation of knowledge of a specific discourse community. To achieve this goal, a representative corpus of the scientific production of the members of this discourse community (Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, UPV was created. The article presents the practical analysis (frequency, keyword, collocation and cluster analysis that was carried out in the initial phases of the study aimed at establishing the theoretical and practical background and framework for our matrix and network analysis of the scientific discourse of the UPV. In the methodology section, the processes that have allowed us to extract from the corpus the linguistic elements needed to develop co-occurrence matrices, as well as the computer tools used in the research, are described. From these co-occurrence matrices, semantic networks of subject and discipline knowledge were generated. Finally, based on the results obtained, we suggest that it may be viable to extract and to represent the intellectual capital of an academic institution using corpus linguistics methods in combination with the formulations of network theory.En este artículo describimos la investigación que se ha desarrollado en el diseño de una metodología para la representación reticular del conocimiento que se genera en el seno de una institución a partir de un corpus representativo de la producción científica de los integrantes de dicha comunidad discursiva, la Universidad Politécnica de Valencia.. Para ello, presentamos las acciones que se realizaron en las fases iniciales del estudio encaminadas a establecer el marco teórico y práctico en el que se inscribe nuestro análisis. En la sección de metodología se describen las herramientas informáticas utilizadas, así como los procesos que nos permitieron disponer de aquellos elementos presentes en el corpus, que nos llevarían al desarrollo de

  18. The Impact of Gender Based Violence on Stability and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    Resources/costsandimpactsofgbv.pdf (accessed November 4, 2010). 4 Gender Secretariat, Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency ( SIDA ...Action Plan for Sida’s Work Against Gender-Based Violence, 2008-2010 ( SIDA , Department of Democracy and Development). 5 Inger Skjelsbaek and Dan Smith

  19. The reflection of hierarchical cluster analysis of co-occurrence matrices in SPSS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Q.; Leng, F.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss the problems arising from hierarchical cluster analysis of co-occurrence matrices in SPSS, and the corresponding solutions. Design/methodology/approach: We design different methods of using the SPSS hierarchical clustering module for co-occurrence matrices in order to compare

  20. Co-occurrence and associations of pain and fatigue in a community sample of Dutch adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creavin, S.T.; Dunn, K.M.; Mallen, C.D.; Nijrolder, I.; Windt, D.A.W.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    Widespread pain and chronic fatigue are common in the general population. Previous research has demonstrated co-occurrence of syndromes that are associated with pain and fatigue (fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome), but there is limited existing data on the co-occurrence of these symptoms in

  1. The Effects of Domestic Violence on the Stability of Attachment from Infancy to Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levendosky, Alytia A.; Bogat, G. Anne; Huth-Bocks, Alissa C.; Rosenblum, Katherine; von Eye, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesized that trajectories of domestic violence (DV), maternal depression, and household income (from pregnancy to age 4) would be differentially associated with instability and stability of attachment, as measured by the Strange Situation at ages 1 and 4. Participants were 150 women and children. Women were first assessed during pregnancy…

  2. Clustering of Adolescent Dating Violence, Peer Violence, and Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossarte, Robert M.; Simon, Thomas R.; Swahn, Monica H.

    2008-01-01

    To understand the co-occurrence of multiple types of violence, the authors developed a behavioral typology based on self-reports of suicidal behaviors, physical violence, and psychological abuse. Using a sample of dating adolescents from a high-risk school district, they identified five clusters of behaviors among the 1,653 students who reported…

  3. The Effects of Daily Co-Occurrence of Affect on Older Adults’ Reactivity to Health Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jennifer L.; Neupert, Shevaun D.; Mroczek, Daniel K.; Spiro, Avron

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study examined age differences among older adults in the daily co-occurrence of affect and its potential role in buffering the negative effects of health stressors. Design Participants were from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study (NAS) and included 249 young-old adults (age = 60–79 years, M=71.6) and 64 old-old adults (age = 80–89, M = 82.9) who completed questionnaires assessing stressors, physical health symptoms, and positive and negative affect on eight consecutive days. Results An independent samples t-test showed young-old and old-old adults did not significantly differ in their mean levels of daily co-occurrence of affect. The between-person relationships among stressors, health, and daily co-occurrence of affect revealed that neither stressors nor health were significantly related to daily co-occurrence of affect. However, results from a multilevel model revealed a three-way cross-level interaction (Health Stressor X Age Group X Co-Occurrence of Affect) where old-old adults with higher levels of co-occurrence of affect were less emotionally reactive to health stressors than young-old adults. Conclusion These findings provide support for the assertion that co-occurrence of affect functions in an adaptive capacity and highlight the importance of examining domain specific stressors. PMID:26518259

  4. The effects of daily co-occurrence of affect on older adults' reactivity to health stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jennifer L; Neupert, Shevaun D; Mroczek, Daniel K; Spiro, Avron

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined age differences among older adults in the daily co-occurrence of affect and its potential role in buffering the negative effects of health stressors. Participants were from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study and included 249 young-old adults (age = 60-79 years, M = 71.6) and 64 old-old adults (age = 80-89, M = 82.9) who completed questionnaires assessing stressors, physical health symptoms, and positive and negative affect for eight consecutive days. An independent samples t-test showed young-old and old-old adults did not significantly differ in their mean levels of daily co-occurrence of affect. The between-person relationships among stressors, health and daily co-occurrence of affect revealed that neither stressors nor health were significantly related to daily co-occurrence of affect. However, results from a multilevel model revealed a three-way cross-level interaction (health stressor × age group × co-occurrence of affect) where old-old adults with higher levels of co-occurrence of affect were less emotionally reactive to health stressors than young-old adults. These findings provide support for the assertion that co-occurrence of affect functions in an adaptive capacity and highlight the importance of examining domain-specific stressors.

  5. Modeling Patterns of Activity and Detecting Abnormal Events with Low-Level Co-occurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benezeth, Yannick; Jodoin, Pierre-Marc; Saligrama, Venkatesh

    We explore in this chapter a location-based approach for behavior modeling and abnormality detection. In contrast to conventional object-based approaches for which objects are identified, classified, and tracked to locate objects with suspicious behavior, we proceed directly with event characterization and behavior modeling using low-level features. Our approach consists of two-phases. In the first phase, co-occurrence of activity between temporal sequences of motion labels are used to build a statistical model for normal behavior. This model of co-occurrence statistics is embedded within a co-occurrence matrix which accounts for spatio-temporal co-occurrence of activity. In the second phase, the co-occurrence matrix is used as a potential function in a Markov-Random Field framework to describe, as the video streams in, the probability of observing new volumes of activity. The co-occurrence matrix is thus used for detecting moving objects whose behavior differs from the ones observed during the training phase. Interestingly, the Markov-Random Field distribution implicitly accounts for speed, direction, as well as the average size of the objects without any higher-level intervention. Furthermore, when the spatio-temporal volume is large enough, the co-occurrence distribution contains the average normal path followed by moving objects. Our method has been tested on various outdoor videos representing various challenges.

  6. Spatial heterogeneity and co-occurrence patterns of human mucosal-associated intestinal microbiota

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Zhigang; Geng, Jiawei; Tang, Xiaodan; Fan, Hong; Xu, Jinchao; Wen, Xiujun; Ma, Zhanshan Sam; Shi, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Human gut microbiota shows high inter-subject variations, but the actual spatial distribution and co-occurrence patterns of gut mucosa microbiota that occur within a healthy human instestinal tract...

  7. Spatial heterogeneity and co-occurrence patterns of human mucosal-associated intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhigang; Geng, Jiawei; Tang, Xiaodan; Fan, Hong; Xu, Jinchao; Wen, Xiujun; Ma, Zhanshan Sam; Shi, Peng

    2014-04-01

    Human gut microbiota shows high inter-subject variations, but the actual spatial distribution and co-occurrence patterns of gut mucosa microbiota that occur within a healthy human instestinal tract remain poorly understood. In this study, we illustrated a model of this mucosa bacterial communities' biogeography, based on the largest data set so far, obtained via 454-pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rDNAs associated with 77 matched biopsy tissue samples taken from terminal ileum, ileocecal valve, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum of 11 healthy adult subjects. Borrowing from macro-ecology, we used both Taylor's power law analysis and phylogeny-based beta-diversity metrics to uncover a highly heterogeneous distribution pattern of mucosa microbial inhabitants along the length of the intestinal tract. We then developed a spatial dispersion model with an R-squared value greater than 0.950 to map out the gut mucosa-associated flora's non-linear spatial distribution pattern for 51.60% of the 188 most abundant gut bacterial species. Furthermore, spatial co-occurring network analysis of mucosa microbial inhabitants together with occupancy (that is habitat generalists, specialists and opportunist) analyses implies that ecological relationships (both oppositional and symbiotic) between mucosa microbial inhabitants may be important contributors to the observed spatial heterogeneity of mucosa microbiota along the human intestine and may even potentially be associated with mutual cooperation within and functional stability of the gut ecosystem.

  8. Factors mediating co-occurrence of an economically valuable introduced fish and its native frog prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Rosemary; Pope, Karen; Lawler, Sharon

    2014-06-01

    Habitat characteristics mediate predator-prey coexistence in many ecological systems but are seldom considered in species introductions. When economically important introduced predators are stocked despite known negative impacts on native species, understanding the role of refuges, landscape configurations, and community interactions can inform habitat management plans. We measured these factors in basins with introduced trout (Salmonidae) and the Cascades frog (Rana cascadae) to determine, which are responsible for observed patterns of co-occurrence of this economically important predator and its native prey. Large, vegetated shallows were strongly correlated to co-occurrence, and R. cascadae larvae occur in shallower water when fish are present, presumably to escape predation. The number of nearby breeding sites of R. cascadae was also correlated to co-occurrence, but only when the western toad (Anaxyrus boreas) was present. Because A. boreas larvae are unpalatable to fish and resemble R. cascadae, they may provide protection from trout via Batesian mimicry. Although rescue-effect dispersal from nearby populations may maintain co-occurrence, within-lake factors proved more important for predicting co-occurrence. Learning which factors allow co-occurrence between economically important introduced species and their native prey enables managers to make better-informed stocking decisions. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Analysis of co-occurrence toponyms in web pages based on complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiang; Liu, Jiajun; Gao, Yong; Wu, Lun

    2017-01-01

    A large number of geographical toponyms exist in web pages and other documents, providing abundant geographical resources for GIS. It is very common for toponyms to co-occur in the same documents. To investigate these relations associated with geographic entities, a novel complex network model for co-occurrence toponyms is proposed. Then, 12 toponym co-occurrence networks are constructed from the toponym sets extracted from the People's Daily Paper documents of 2010. It is found that two toponyms have a high co-occurrence probability if they are at the same administrative level or if they possess a part-whole relationship. By applying complex network analysis methods to toponym co-occurrence networks, we find the following characteristics. (1) The navigation vertices of the co-occurrence networks can be found by degree centrality analysis. (2) The networks express strong cluster characteristics, and it takes only several steps to reach one vertex from another one, implying that the networks are small-world graphs. (3) The degree distribution satisfies the power law with an exponent of 1.7, so the networks are free-scale. (4) The networks are disassortative and have similar assortative modes, with assortative exponents of approximately 0.18 and assortative indexes less than 0. (5) The frequency of toponym co-occurrence is weakly negatively correlated with geographic distance, but more strongly negatively correlated with administrative hierarchical distance. Considering the toponym frequencies and co-occurrence relationships, a novel method based on link analysis is presented to extract the core toponyms from web pages. This method is suitable and effective for geographical information retrieval.

  10. Recognition of the script in Serbian documents using frequency occurrence and co-occurrence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodić, Darko; Milivojević, Zoran N; Maluckov, Cedomir A

    2013-01-01

    Any document in Serbian language can be written in two different scripts: Latin or Cyrillic. Although characteristics of these scripts are similar, some of their statistical measures are quite different. The paper proposed a method for the extraction of certain script from document according to the occurrence and co-occurrence of the script types. First, each letter is modeled with the certain script type according to characteristics concerning its position in baseline area. Then, the frequency analysis of the script types occurrence is performed. Due to diversity of Latin and Cyrillic script, the occurrence of modeled letters shows substantial statistics dissimilarity. Furthermore, the co-occurrence matrix is computed. The analysis of the co-occurrence matrix draws a strong margin as a criteria to distinguish and recognize the certain script. The proposed method is analyzed on the case of a database which includes different types of printed and web documents. The experiments gave encouraging results.

  11. Initializing the VA medication reference terminology using UMLS metathesaurus co-occurrences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John S; Brown, Steven H; Erlbaum, Mark S; Gregg, William; Elkin, Peter L; Speroff, Ted; Tuttle, Mark S

    2002-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a UMLS Metathesaurus Co-occurrence mining algorithm to connect medications and diseases they may treat. Based on 16 years of co-occurrence data, we created 977 candidate drug-disease pairs for a sample of 100 ingredients (50 commonly prescribed and 50 selected at random). Our evaluation showed that more than 80% of the candidate drug-disease pairs were rated "APPROPRIATE" by physician raters. Additionally, there was a highly significant correlation between the overall frequency of citation and the likelihood that the connection was rated "APPROPRIATE." The drug-disease pairs were used to initialize term definitions in an ongoing effort to build a medication reference terminology for the Veterans Health Administration. Co-occurrence mining is a valuable technique for initializing term definitions in a large-scale reference terminology creation project.

  12. Co-occurrence frequency evaluated with large language corpora boosts semantic priming effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunellière, Angèle; Perre, Laetitia; Tran, ThiMai; Bonnotte, Isabelle

    2017-09-01

    In recent decades, many computational techniques have been developed to analyse the contextual usage of words in large language corpora. The present study examined whether the co-occurrence frequency obtained from large language corpora might boost purely semantic priming effects. Two experiments were conducted: one with conscious semantic priming, the other with subliminal semantic priming. Both experiments contrasted three semantic priming contexts: an unrelated priming context and two related priming contexts with word pairs that are semantically related and that co-occur either frequently or infrequently. In the conscious priming presentation (166-ms stimulus-onset asynchrony, SOA), a semantic priming effect was recorded in both related priming contexts, which was greater with higher co-occurrence frequency. In the subliminal priming presentation (66-ms SOA), no significant priming effect was shown, regardless of the related priming context. These results show that co-occurrence frequency boosts pure semantic priming effects and are discussed with reference to models of semantic network.

  13. Using species co-occurrence networks to assess the impacts of climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastos Araujo, Miguel; Rozenfeld, Alejandro; Rahbek, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    on species have mainly focused on measuring changes in climate suitability. Complex interactions among species have rarely been explored in such studies. We extend network theory to the analysis of complex patterns of co-occurrence among species. The framework is used to explore the robustness of networks...... under climate change. With our data, we show that networks describing the geographic pattern of co-occurrence among species display properties shared by other complex networks, namely that most species are poorly connected to other species in the network and only a few are highly connected. In our...... example, species more exposed to climate change tended to be poorly connected to other species within the network, while species more connected tended to be less exposed. Such high connectance would make the co-occurrence networks more robust to climate change. The proposed framework illustrates how...

  14. Co-Occurrence of ADHD and High IQ: A Case Series Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Mara L.; Farias, Antonio C.; Cunha, Alexandre; Benko, Cassia R.; Farias, Lucilene G.; Costa, Maria T.; Martins, Leandra F.; McCracken, James T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The validity of a diagnosis of ADHD in children with a high intelligence quotient (IQ) remains controversial. Using a multidisciplinary approach, rigorous diagnostic criteria, and worldwide-validated psychometric instruments, we identified a group of children attending public schools in southern Brazil for co-occurrence of high IQ and…

  15. Type and Degree of Co-Occurrence of the Educational Communication in a Community of Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Santiuste, Elba; Gallego-Arrufat, María-Jesús

    2017-01-01

    The study analyzes the type and quantity of co-occurrence of social, cognitive, and teaching presence in a Community of Inquiry (CoI). Content analysis of the virtual educational communication shows units of analysis that must be assigned to more than one category. By crossing the categories of the CoI model, we observe that Social Presence is…

  16. The Influence of Label Co-occurrence and Semantic Similarity on Children’s Inductive Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan J Matlen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Semantically-similar labels that co-occur in child-directed speech (e.g., bunny-rabbit are more likely to promote inductive generalization in preschoolers than non-co-occurring labels (e.g., lamb-sheep. However, it remains unclear whether this effect stems from co-occurrence or other factors, and how co-occurrence contributes to generalization. To address these issues, preschoolers were exposed to a stream of semantically-similar labels that don’t co-occur in natural language, but were arranged to co-occur in the experimental setting. In Experiment 1, children exposed to the co-occurring stream were more likely to make category-consistent inferences than children in two control conditions. Experiment 2 replicated this effect and provided evidence that co-occurrence training influenced generalization only when the trained labels were categorically-similar. These findings suggest that both co-occurrence information and semantic representations contribute to preschool-age children’s inductive generalization. The findings are discussed in relation to the developmental accounts of inductive generalization.

  17. Where Is the Syndrome? Examining Co-Occurrence among Multiple Problem Behaviors in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Busseri, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined co-occurrence among a wide range of adolescent problem behaviors: alcohol, smoking, marijuana, hard drugs, sexual activity, major and minor delinquency, direct and indirect aggression, and gambling. Using a large self-report survey of high school students, confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the problem syndrome…

  18. Building a phonological inventory : feature co-occurrence constraints in acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, Burght Marinus van ’t

    2015-01-01

    The Feature Co-occurrence Constraint theory proposed in this dissertation provides a means to capture the development of the language-learning child's segment inventory. It does this by combining a growing set of features with constraints that are automatically activated as soon as these features

  19. PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs co-occurrence in TiO2 nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ctistis, Georgios; Schön, Peter Manfred; Bakker, W.; Luthe, G.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we report on the co-occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) adsorbed on nanoparticular titanium dioxide (TiO2). We report on the finding of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the

  20. Drunkorexia: Understanding the Co-Occurrence of Alcohol Consumption and Eating/Exercise Weight Management Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E.; Piazza-Gardner, Anna K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine the co-occurrence of alcohol consumption, physical activity, and disordered eating behaviors via a drunkorexia perspective. Participants: Nationally representative sample (n = 22,488) of college students completing the Fall 2008 National College Health Assessment. Methods: Hierarchical logistic regression was employed to…

  1. Fixed versus dynamic co-occurrence windows in TextRank term weights for information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Wei; Cheng, Qikai; Lioma, Christina

    2012-01-01

    this, and considers dynamically adjusted windows of term co-occurrence that follow the document structure on a sentence- and paragraph-level. The resulting TextRank term weights are used in a ranking function that re-ranks 1000 initially returned search results in order to improve the precision...

  2. Visualizing the Structure of Medical Informatics Using Term Co-Occurrence Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Theodore Allan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the structure of medical informatics and the relationship between biomedicine and information science and information technology. Uses co-occurrence analysis of subject headings assigned to items indexed for MEDLINE as well as multidimensional scaling to show seven to eight broad multidisciplinary subject clusters. (Contains 28…

  3. Visualizing the Structure of Medical Informatics Using Term Co-Occurrence Analysis: II. INSPEC Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Theodore

    2001-01-01

    Term co-occurrence analysis of INSPEC classification codes and thesaurus terms used to index Medical Informatics literature reveals an information science and technology perspective on the field, to accompany the biomedical perspective previously reported. This study continues the search for a better understanding of the structure of Medical…

  4. Substance Use, Aggression Perpetration, and Victimization: Temporal Co-Occurrence in College Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Gayla; Ramos, Michelle C.; Baucom, Brian R.; Bennett, Diana C.; Guran, Elyse L.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have documented associations of substance use with aggression perpetration and aggression victimization; however, little is known about the co-occurrence of these problem behaviors within the same day in college students. The present study investigated whether substance use and aggression increase the likelihood of each other and…

  5. The role of environment, dispersal and competition in explaining reduced co-occurrence among related species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben G Weinstein

    Full Text Available The composition of ecological assemblages depends on a variety of factors including environmental filtering, biotic interactions and dispersal limitation. By evaluating the phylogenetic pattern of assemblages, we gain insight into the relative contribution of these mechanisms to generating observed assemblages. We address some limitations in the field of community phylogenetics by using simulations, biologically relevant null models, and cost distance analysis to evaluate simultaneous mechanisms leading to observed patterns of co-occurrence. Building from past studies of phylogenetic community structure, we applied our approach to hummingbird assemblages in the Northern Andes. We compared the relationship between relatedness and co-occurrence among predicted assemblages, based on estimates of suitable habitat and dispersal limitation, and observed assemblages. Hummingbird co-occurrence peaked at intermediate relatedness and decreased when a closely-related species was present. This result was most similar to simulations that included simultaneous effects of phylogenetic conservatism and repulsion. In addition, we found older sister taxa were only weakly more separated by geographic barriers, suggesting that time since dispersal is unlikely to be the sole factor influencing co-occurrence of closely related species. Our analysis highlights the role of multiple mechanisms acting simultaneously, and provides a hypothesis for the potential importance of competition at regional scales.

  6. Drug Use Risk Behavior Co-Occurrence among United States High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bona, Vito Lorenzo; Erausquin, Jennifer Toller

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Prevalence estimates for drug use health risk behaviors among high school students are widely available, but relatively few studies describe how and to what extent these risk behaviors occur together. Furthermore, little research has examined whether the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors varies by key demographic characteristics such…

  7. The role of environment, dispersal and competition in explaining reduced co-occurrence among related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Ben G; Graham, Catherine H; Parra, Juan Luis

    2017-01-01

    The composition of ecological assemblages depends on a variety of factors including environmental filtering, biotic interactions and dispersal limitation. By evaluating the phylogenetic pattern of assemblages, we gain insight into the relative contribution of these mechanisms to generating observed assemblages. We address some limitations in the field of community phylogenetics by using simulations, biologically relevant null models, and cost distance analysis to evaluate simultaneous mechanisms leading to observed patterns of co-occurrence. Building from past studies of phylogenetic community structure, we applied our approach to hummingbird assemblages in the Northern Andes. We compared the relationship between relatedness and co-occurrence among predicted assemblages, based on estimates of suitable habitat and dispersal limitation, and observed assemblages. Hummingbird co-occurrence peaked at intermediate relatedness and decreased when a closely-related species was present. This result was most similar to simulations that included simultaneous effects of phylogenetic conservatism and repulsion. In addition, we found older sister taxa were only weakly more separated by geographic barriers, suggesting that time since dispersal is unlikely to be the sole factor influencing co-occurrence of closely related species. Our analysis highlights the role of multiple mechanisms acting simultaneously, and provides a hypothesis for the potential importance of competition at regional scales.

  8. [Prevalence and factors associated with the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Brito, Anísio Luiz; Hardman, Carla Meneses; de Barros, Mauro Virgílio Gomes

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed with a sample of high school students from state public schools in Pernambuco, Brazil (n=4,207, 14-19 years old). Data were obtained using a questionnaire. The co-occurrence of health risk behaviors was established based on the sum of five behavioral risk factors (low physical activity, sedentary behavior, low consumption of fruits/vegetables, alcohol consumption and tobacco use). The independent variables were gender, age group, time of day attending school, school size, maternal education, occupational status, skin color, geographic region and place of residence. Data were analyzed by ordinal logistic regression with proportional odds model. Approximately 10% of adolescents were not exposed to health risk behaviors, while 58.5% reported being exposed to at least two health risk behaviors simultaneously. There was a higher likelihood of co-occurrence of health risk behaviors among adolescents in the older age group, with intermediate maternal education (9-11 years of schooling), and who reported living in the driest (semi-arid) region of the state of Pernambuco. Adolescents who reported having a job and living in rural areas had a lower likelihood of co-occurrence of risk behaviors. The findings suggest a high prevalence of co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in this group of adolescents, with a higher chance in five subgroups (older age, intermediate maternal education, the ones that reported not working, those living in urban areas and in the driest region of the state). Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. The co-occurrence of aggression and self-harm: systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Orla; House, Allan; Waterman, Mitch

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological research supports an association between aggression and self-harm through data on the frequency with which individuals exhibit both behaviours. Unbiased evidence, however, is needed to draw conclusions about the nature and extent of co-occurrence. Systematic review of published studies was undertaken to evaluate whether or not the frequency with which aggression and self-harm co-occur is beyond that which would be expected by chance. Outcome measures included: (a) between-group differences on a standardised aggression/self-harm measure - the groups defined by scores on a measure of the other behaviour; (b) correlations between the two behaviours; (c) co-occurrence rates in populations defined by the presence of either behaviour; (d) co-occurrence rates in populations not defined by either behaviour. Odds ratios were calculated for studies presenting complete frequency data. 123 studies, some yielding more than one type of result, met the inclusion criteria. Most case-control studies found elevated levels of aggression in self-harming populations (or self-harm in aggressive populations) compared to controls. The majority of correlational, co-occurrence rate, and odds ratio data found aggression and self-harm to be associated. Results were subject to descriptive synthesis only and thus, unable to report an overall effect size. Evidence suggests that aggression and self-harm frequently co-occur. Such evidence necessitates more theoretical discussion and associated research on the source and nature of co-occurrence. Nonetheless, individuals who present with one behaviour may be considered an 'at-risk' group in terms of exhibiting the other. Such evidence holds implications for practice (e.g. risk assessment). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Review of relationships between grey-tone co-occurrence, semivariance, and autocorrelation based image texture analysis approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanden, van der J.J.; Hoekman, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper we review relationships between commonly used statistical approaches to analysis of image texture. The approaches considered characterize image texture by means of the statistics of grey- tone co- occurrence contrast, grey- tone co- occurrence correlation, semivariance, and

  11. ‘High-co-occurrence genera’: weak but consistent relationships with global richness, niche partitioning, hybridization and decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinzing, Andreas; Powrie, Leslie W.; Hennekens, S.M.; Bartish, Igor V.; Ozinga, W.A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Many biologists explain the global richness of lineages and local co-occurrence of lineage members by distinct processes: speciation/extinction versus ecological interactions. Moreover, allopatric distribution, rarity and local competition limit local co-occurrence of species even within

  12. The normalization of occurrence and Co-occurrence matrices in bibliometrics using Cosine similarities and Ochiai coefficients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Q.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2016-01-01

    We prove that Ochiai similarity of the co-occurrence matrix is equal to cosine similarity in the underlying occurrence matrix. Neither the cosine nor the Pearson correlation should be used for the normalization of co-occurrence matrices because the similarity is then normalized twice, and therefore

  13. Affect and Health Behavior Co-Occurrence: The Emerging Roles of Transdiagnostic Factors and Sociocultural Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-01-01

    The majority of scientific work addressing relations among affective states and health correlates has focused primarily on their co-occurrence and a limited range of health conditions. We have developed a Special Issue to highlight recent advances in this emerging field of work that addresses the nature and interplay between affective states and disorders, in terms of their impact and consequences from health status and behavior. This Special Issue is organized into three parts classified as (a) co-occurrence and interplay between (b) transdiagnostic factors and (c) sociocultural factors. It is hoped that this issue will (a) alert readers to the significance of this work at different levels of analysis, (b) illustrate the many domains currently being explored via innovative approaches, and (c) identify fecund areas for future systematic study. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. What do we know about child abuse and neglect patterns of co-occurrence? A systematic review of profiling studies and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debowska, Agata; Willmott, Dominic; Boduszek, Daniel; Jones, Adele D

    2017-08-01

    Latent class (LCA) and latent profile (LPA) analysis represent methodological approaches to identify subgroups of maltreated individuals. Although research examining child abuse and neglect (CAN) profiles is still rare, the application of person-centered techniques to clarify CAN types co-occurrence has substantially increased in recent years. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to provide a summary and critical evaluation of the findings of LCA/LPA child maltreatment research to: (a) systemize the current understanding of patterns of maltreatment across populations and (b) elucidate interactive effects of CAN types on psychosocial functioning. A search in PsychInfo, Eric, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct, and Google Scholar was performed. Sixteen studies examining the co-occurrence between child physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and/or exposure to domestic violence were identified. A critical review of the studies revealed inconsistent findings as to the number of CAN classes, but most research uncovered a poly-victimized and a low abuse group. Further, multiple victimization was associated with most adverse internalizing and externalizing outcomes, especially when sexual abuse was present. Exposure to physical and emotional abuse was frequently reported to lead to behavioural problems. Based on the present study results, we provide a set of recommendations for surpassing the current methodological and conceptual limitations in future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Continuous-Time Model of Topic Co-occurrence Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Pachinko Allocation model (PAM), which captures arbitrary topic correlations with a directed acyclic graph (DAG), and (2) the Topics over Time model (TOT...recently inrtoduced the Pachinko Allocation model (PAM), an exten- sion to LDA that assumes a directed acyclic graph (DAG) to capture arbitrary topic...co-occurrences, not the changes in the word distribution of each topic. The Model In this section, we first present the Pachinko allocation model (PAM

  16. Co-occurrence of protective health behaviours and perceived psychosocial job characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Carthy, Vera J.C.; Perry, Ivan J; Harrington, Janas M.; Greiner, Birgit A.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the association between positive job characteristics of older workers and the co-occurrence of protective health behaviours. This study aims to investigate the association between perceived psychosocial job characteristics and the adoption of protective health behaviours. A population-based cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 1025 males and females (age-range 50–69-years) attending a primary healthcare clinic. Perceived job characteristics (job demands: qu...

  17. Co-occurrence of binge eating disorder with psychiatric and medical disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaras, Kristin N; Pope, Harrison G; Lalonde, Justine K; Roberts, Jacqueline L; Nillni, Yael I; Laird, Nan M; Bulik, Cynthia M; Crow, Scott J; McElroy, Susan L; Walsh, B Timothy; Tsuang, Ming T; Rosenthal, Norman R; Hudson, James I

    2008-02-01

    Prior studies suggest that certain psychiatric and medical disorders co-occur with binge eating disorder (BED). However, there has been no large, community-based study with diagnoses made by clinician interviewers. We used data from that type of study to assess the co-occurrence of various psychiatric and medical disorders with DSM-IV BED and with subthreshold BED. From October 2002 to July 2004, we interviewed 150 probands with BED, 150 probands without BED, and 888 of their first-degree relatives (135 of whom had BED, and 54 of whom met specific partial criteria for BED that we defined as subthreshold BED). Study participants were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV to assess BED and other psychiatric disorders and a supplemental structured interview to assess certain medical disorders; participants also completed a self-report questionnaire, the Bad Things Scale. For each psychiatric and medical disorder, we calculated the age- and sex-adjusted co-occurrence odds ratio: the odds of having that disorder in one's lifetime among individuals with (full or subthreshold) lifetime BED compared to individuals without lifetime BED. We also used subjects' responses to the Bad Things Scale to adjust for adversity over-reporting, a type of response bias that could result in spurious findings of co-occurrence. Full BED co-occurred significantly with bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, bulimia nervosa but not anorexia nervosa, most anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, kleptomania, irritable bowel syndrome, and fibromyalgia. These results changed little after correcting for adversity over-reporting. Subthreshold BED co-occurred significantly with many, but not all, of the significantly co-occurring disorders for full BED. BED and, to a lesser degree, subthreshold BED exhibit substantial lifetime co-occurrence with psychiatric and medical disorders.

  18. Spatial heterogeneity and co-occurrence patterns of human mucosal-associated intestinal microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhigang; Geng, Jiawei; Tang, Xiaodan; Fan, Hong; Xu, Jinchao; Wen, Xiujun; Ma, Zhanshan (Sam); Shi, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Human gut microbiota shows high inter-subject variations, but the actual spatial distribution and co-occurrence patterns of gut mucosa microbiota that occur within a healthy human instestinal tract remain poorly understood. In this study, we illustrated a model of this mucosa bacterial communities' biogeography, based on the largest data set so far, obtained via 454-pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rDNAs associated with 77 matched biopsy tissue samples taken from terminal ileum, ileocecal valv...

  19. Non-random co-occurrence of native and exotic plant species in Mediterranean grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, José M.; Martín-Forés, Irene; Acosta-Gallo, Belén; del Pozo, Alejandro; Ovalle, Carlos; Sánchez-Jardón, Laura; Castro, Isabel; Casado, Miguel A.

    2016-11-01

    Invasion by exotic species in Mediterranean grasslands has determined assembly patterns of native and introduced species, knowledge of which provides information on the ecological processes underlying these novel communities. We considered grasslands from Spain and Chile. For each country we considered the whole grassland community and we split species into two subsets: in Chile, species were classified as natives or colonizers (i.e. exotics); in Spain, species were classified as exclusives (present in Spain but not in Chile) or colonizers (Spanish natives and exotics into Chile). We used null models and co-occurrence indices calculated in each country for each one of 15 sites distributed along a precipitation gradient and subjected to similar silvopastoral exploitation. We compared values of species co-occurrence between countries and between species subsets (natives/colonizers in Chile; exclusives/colonizers in Spain) within each country and we characterised them according to climatic variables. We hypothesized that: a) the different coexistence time of the species in both regions should give rise to communities presenting a spatial pattern further from random in Spain than in Chile, b) the co-occurrence patterns in the grasslands are affected by mesoclimatic factors in both regions. The patterns of co-occurrence are similar in Spain and Chile, mostly showing a spatial pattern more segregated than expected by random. The colonizer species are more segregated in Spain than in Chile, possibly determined by the longer residence time of the species in the source area than in the invaded one. The segregation of species in Chile is related to water availability, being species less segregated in habitat with greater water deficit; in Spain no relationship with climatic variables was found. After an invasion process, our results suggest that the possible process of alteration of the original Chilean communities has not prevented the assembly between the native and

  20. On the relationship between positive and negative affect: Their correlation and their co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jeff T; Hershfield, Hal E; Stastny, Bradley J; Hester, Neil

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the nature of emotional experience requires understanding the relationship between positive and negative affect. Two particularly important aspects of that relationship are the extent to which positive and negative affect are correlated with one another and the extent to which they co-occur. Some researchers have assumed that weak negative correlations imply greater co-occurrence (i.e., more mixed emotions) than do strong negative correlations, but others have noted that correlations may imply very little about co-occurrence. We investigated the relationship between the correlation between positive and negative affect and co-occurrence. Participants in each of 2 samples provided moment-to-moment happiness and sadness ratings as they watched an evocative film and listened to music. Results indicated (a) that 4 measures of the correlation between positive and negative affect were quite highly related to 1 another; (b) that the strength of the correlation between measures of mixed emotions varied considerably; (c) that correlational measures were generally (but not always) weakly correlated with mixed emotion measures; and (d) that bittersweet stimuli consistently led to elevations in mixed emotion measures but did not consistently weaken the correlation between positive and negative affect. Results highlight that the correlation between positive and negative affect and their co-occurrence are distinct aspects of the relationship between positive and negative affect. Such insight helps clarify the implications of existing work on age-related and cultural differences in emotional experience and sets the stage for greater understanding of the experience of mixed emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Extraction of temporal networks from term co-occurrences in online textual sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Popović

    Full Text Available A stream of unstructured news can be a valuable source of hidden relations between different entities, such as financial institutions, countries, or persons. We present an approach to continuously collect online news, recognize relevant entities in them, and extract time-varying networks. The nodes of the network are the entities, and the links are their co-occurrences. We present a method to estimate the significance of co-occurrences, and a benchmark model against which their robustness is evaluated. The approach is applied to a large set of financial news, collected over a period of two years. The entities we consider are 50 countries which issue sovereign bonds, and which are insured by Credit Default Swaps (CDS in turn. We compare the country co-occurrence networks to the CDS networks constructed from the correlations between the CDS. The results show relatively small, but significant overlap between the networks extracted from the news and those from the CDS correlations.

  2. Co-occurrence Vectors from Corpora vs. Distance Vectors from Dictionaries

    CERN Document Server

    Niwa, Y; Niwa, Yoshiki; Nitta, Yoshihiko

    1995-01-01

    A comparison was made of vectors derived by using ordinary co-occurrence statistics from large text corpora and of vectors derived by measuring the inter-word distances in dictionary definitions. The precision of word sense disambiguation by using co-occurrence vectors from the 1987 Wall Street Journal (20M total words) was higher than that by using distance vectors from the Collins English Dictionary (60K head words + 1.6M definition words). However, other experimental results suggest that distance vectors contain some different semantic information from co-occurrence vectors. From no-reply@xxx.lanl.gov Fri Nov 12 12:25 MET 1999 Received: from newmint.cern.ch (newmint.cern.ch [137.138.26.94]) by sundh98.cern.ch (8.8.5/8.8.5) with ESMTP id MAA10923 for ; Fri, 12 Nov 1999 12:25:47 +0100 (MET) Received: from uuu.lanl.gov (uuu.lanl.gov [204.121.6.59]) by newmint.cern.ch (8.9.3/8.9.3) with ESMTP id MAA18850 for ; Fri, 12 Nov 1999 12:25:46 +0100 (MET) Received: from xxx.lanl.gov (xxx.lanl.gov [204.121.6.57]) by uu...

  3. Positive emotion, appraisal, and the role of appraisal overlap in positive emotion co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Eddie M W; Jia, Lile

    2017-02-01

    Appraisal research has traditionally focused on negative emotions but has not addressed issues concerning the relationships between several positive emotions and appraisals in daily life and the extent to which co-occurrence of positive emotions can be explained by overlap in appraisals. Driven by a priori hypotheses on appraisal-emotion relationships, this study investigated 12 positive emotions and 13 appraisal dimensions using Ecological Momentary Assessment. The results provide strong evidence that positive emotions and appraisals correlate significantly in daily life. Importantly, we found that the positive emotions' overlap on theoretically relevant, as compared to irrelevant, appraisals was stronger and more predictive of their co-occurrence. Furthermore, appraisal overlap on theoretically relevant appraisals predicted the co-occurrence of positive emotions even when the appraisal of pleasantness was excluded, indicating that positive emotions do not co-occur just by virtue of their shared valence. Our findings affirmed and refined the appraisal profiles of positive emotions and underscore the importance of appraisals in accounting for the commonality and differences among positive emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. A Mutual Hostility Explanation for the Co-Occurrence of Delinquency and Depressive Mood in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ferrer, Belén; Stattin, Håkan

    2017-10-01

    Different interpersonal experiences are related to delinquency and depressive mood. In many studies, delinquency has been associated with exposing others to hostility, while depressive mood has been associated with being a victim of others' hostility. In this study, we proposed that adolescents with a co-occurrence of high delinquency and depressive mood may be both perpetrators and victims in their relations with parents at home, peers and teachers at school, and other people encountered in leisure time. We studied a normative sample of 1452 mid-adolescents (50.61% boys and 49.38% girls). Cluster analyses found a group with a co-occurrence of high delinquency and high depressive mood. Adolescents in this cluster group were highest on being exposed to hostility, exposing others to hostility, and being involved in mutually hostile interactions with others in different everyday contexts. The findings were especially strong when we examined being a victim and a perpetrator across contexts. The results were similar for boys and girls. We conclude that the co-occurrence of high delinquency and depressive mood among some adolescents is intimately linked to the mutually hostile interactions that these adolescents experience in their everyday interpersonal contexts.

  5. Leveraging output term co-occurrence frequencies and latent associations in predicting medical subject headings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuluru, Ramakanth; Lu, Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Trained indexers at the National Library of Medicine (NLM) manually tag each biomedical abstract with the most suitable terms from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terminology to be indexed by their PubMed information system. MeSH has over 26,000 terms and indexers look at each article's full text while assigning the terms. Recent automated attempts focused on using the article title and abstract text to identify MeSH terms for the corresponding article. Most of these approaches used supervised machine learning techniques that use already indexed articles and the corresponding MeSH terms. In this paper, we present a new indexing approach that leverages term co-occurrence frequencies and latent term associations computed using MeSH term sets corresponding to a set of nearly 18 million articles already indexed with MeSH terms by indexers at NLM. The main goal of our study is to gauge the potential of output label co-occurrences, latent associations, and relationships extracted from free text in both unsupervised and supervised indexing approaches. In this paper, using a novel and purely unsupervised approach, we achieve a micro-F-score that is comparable to those obtained using supervised machine learning techniques. By incorporating term co-occurrence and latent association features into a supervised learning framework, we also improve over the best results published on two public datasets.

  6. Genome composition and phylogeny of microbes predict their co-occurrence in the environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga K Kamneva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The genomic information of microbes is a major determinant of their phenotypic properties, yet it is largely unknown to what extent ecological associations between different species can be explained by their genome composition. To bridge this gap, this study introduces two new genome-wide pairwise measures of microbe-microbe interaction. The first (genome content similarity index quantifies similarity in genome composition between two microbes, while the second (microbe-microbe functional association index summarizes the topology of a protein functional association network built for a given pair of microbes and quantifies the fraction of network edges crossing organismal boundaries. These new indices are then used to predict co-occurrence between reference genomes from two 16S-based ecological datasets, accounting for phylogenetic relatedness of the taxa. Phylogenetic relatedness was found to be a strong predictor of ecological associations between microbes which explains about 10% of variance in co-occurrence data, but genome composition was found to be a strong predictor as well, it explains up to 4% the variance in co-occurrence when all genomic-based indices are used in combination, even after accounting for evolutionary relationships between the species. On their own, the metrics proposed here explain a larger proportion of variance than previously reported more complex methods that rely on metabolic network comparisons. In summary, results of this study indicate that microbial genomes do indeed contain detectable signal of organismal ecology, and the methods described in the paper can be used to improve mechanistic understanding of microbe-microbe interactions.

  7. Co-occurrence of Trichomonas vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis and vaginal shedding of HIV-1 RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastring, Danielle R; Amedee, Angela; Gatski, Megan; Clark, Rebecca A; Mena, Leandro A; Levison, Judy; Schmidt, Norine; Rice, Janet; Gustat, Jeanette; Kissinger, Patricia

    2014-03-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) are independently associated with increased risk of vaginal shedding in HIV-positive women. Because these 2 conditions commonly co-occur, this study was undertaken to examine the association between TV/BV co-occurrence and vaginal shedding of HIV-1 RNA. HIV-positive women attending outpatient HIV clinics in 3 urban US cities underwent a clinical examination; were screened for TV, BV, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and vulvovaginal candidiasis; and completed a behavioral survey. Women shedding HIV-1 RNA vaginally (≥50 copies/mL) were compared with women who had an undetectable (<50 copies/mL) vaginal viral load to determine if women who were TV positive and BV positive or had co-occurrence of TV/BV had higher odds of shedding vaginally when compared with women who did not have these conditions. In this sample of 373 HIV-positive women, 43.1% (n = 161) had co-occurrence of TV/BV and 33.2% (n = 124) were shedding HIV-1 RNA vaginally. The odds of shedding HIV vaginally in the presence of TV alone or BV alone and when TV/BV co-occurred were 4.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.78-9.37), 5.65 (95% CI, 2.64-12.01), and 18.63 (95% CI, 6.71-51.72), respectively, when compared with women with no diagnosis of TV or BV, and after adjusting for age, antiretroviral therapy status, and plasma viral load. T. vaginalis and BV were independently and synergistically related to vaginal shedding of HIV-1 RNA. Screening and prompt treatment of these 2 conditions among HIV-positive women are important not only clinically but for HIV prevention, as well.

  8. Worldwide Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Cereals and Cereal-Derived Food Products: Public Health Perspectives of Their Co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Ryu, Dojin

    2017-08-23

    Cereal grains and their processed food products are frequently contaminated with mycotoxins. Among many, five major mycotoxins of aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone are of significant public health concern as they can cause adverse effects in humans. Being airborne or soilborne, the cosmopolitan nature of mycotoxigenic fungi contribute to the worldwide occurrence of mycotoxins. On the basis of the global occurrence data reported during the past 10 years, the incidences and maximum levels in raw cereal grains were 55% and 1642 μg/kg for aflatoxins, 29% and 1164 μg/kg for ochratoxin A, 61% and 71,121 μg/kg for fumonisins, 58% and 41,157 μg/kg, for deoxynivalenol, and 46% and 3049 μg/kg for zearalenone. The concentrations of mycotoxins tend to be lower in processed food products; the incidences varied depending on the individual mycotoxins, possibly due to the varying stability during processing and distribution of mycotoxins. It should be noted that more than one mycotoxin, produced by a single or several fungal species, may occur in various combinations in a given sample or food. Most studies reported additive or synergistic effects, suggesting that these mixtures may pose a significant threat to public health, particularly to infants and young children. Therefore, information on the co-occurrence of mycotoxins and their interactive toxicity is summarized in this paper.

  9. Familial co-occurrence of congenital heart defects follows distinct patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellesøe, Sabrina G; Workman, Christopher T; Bouvagnet, Patrice; Loffredo, Christopher A; McBride, Kim L; Hinton, Robert B; van Engelen, Klaartje; Gertsen, Emma C; Mulder, Barbara J M; Postma, Alex V; Anderson, Robert H; Hjortdal, Vibeke E; Brunak, Søren; Larsen, Lars A

    2017-07-02

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) affect almost 1% of all live born children and the number of adults with CHD is increasing. In families where CHD has occurred previously, estimates of recurrence risk, and the type of recurring malformation are important for counselling and clinical decision-making, but the recurrence patterns in families are poorly understood. We aimed to determine recurrence patterns, by investigating the co-occurrences of CHD in 1163 families with known malformations, comprising 3080 individuals with clinically confirmed diagnosis. We calculated rates of concordance and discordance for 41 specific types of malformations, observing a high variability in the rates of concordance and discordance. By calculating odds ratios for each of 1640 pairs of discordant lesions observed between affected family members, we were able to identify 178 pairs of malformations that co-occurred significantly more or less often than expected in families. The data show that distinct groups of cardiac malformations co-occur in families, suggesting influence from underlying developmental mechanisms. Analysis of human and mouse susceptibility genes showed that they were shared in 19% and 20% of pairs of co-occurring discordant malformations, respectively, but none of malformations that rarely co-occur, suggesting that a significant proportion of co-occurring lesions in families is caused by overlapping susceptibility genes. Familial CHD follow specific patterns of recurrence, suggesting a strong influence from genetically regulated developmental mechanisms. Co-occurrence of malformations in families is caused by shared susceptibility genes.

  10. Co-Occurrence of Language and Behavioural Change in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Harris

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the co-occurrence of language and behavioural impairment in patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD spectrum pathology. Methods: Eighty-one dementia patients with pathological confirmation of FTLD were identified. Anonymized clinical records from patients' first assessment were rated for language and behavioural features from frontotemporal dementia consensus criteria, primary progressive aphasia (PPA criteria and 1998 FTLD criteria. Results: Over 90% of patients with FTLD pathology exhibited a combination of at least one behavioural and one language feature. Changes in language, in particular, were commonly accompanied by behavioural change. Notably, the majority of patients who displayed language features characteristic of semantic variant PPA exhibited ‘early perseverative, stereotyped or compulsive/ritualistic behaviour'. Moreover, ‘executive/generation deficits with relative sparing of memory and visuospatial functions' occurred in most patients with core features of non-fluent variant PPA. Conclusion: Behavioural and language symptoms frequently co-occur in patients with FTLD pathology. Current classifications, which separate behavioural and language syndromes, do not reflect this co-occurrence.

  11. The Incidence of Co-occurrence of Chlamydial Cervicitis with Bacterial Vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusefi S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Bacterial vaginosis is caused by an imbalance in normal vaginal bacterial flora mainly caused by the introduction of pathogenic bacteria. Failure to properly treat this condition can not only induce abortion but also increase the chance of acquiring other serious infections such as AIDS, gonorrhea and chlamydiosis. Chlamydia trchomatis is one of the causative agents of cervicitis of which 70% is totally asymptomatic. Untreated cases can lead to salpengititis, pelvic inflammatory diseases, infertility, pelvic area pains and other complications. The purpose of this study was to determine the co-occurrence of these two conditions.Methods: A total of 137 patients were examined for both Chlamydial cervicitis and for bacterial vaginosis. Gram stain was used to detect bacterial vaginosis and anti-chlamydial antibodies were titered by microimmunofluoresence (MIF assay. Results: According to the MIF results, 10 patients(7.3% had elevated anti-chlamydial IgG and 3 patients (2.2% showed high IgM titers. Gardnerella vaginalis was detected in 6 patients(4.7% as the causative agent of vaginosis. There were 3 cases of co-occurrence of chlamydial cervicitis and bacterial vaginosis (30%. Conclusion: Due to the fact that bacterial vaginosis can provide the pre-disposing conditions for cervicitis and its chronicity and the similarity of the cilinical singns of these two conditions, Infections with Chlamydia are often overlooked. It therefore seems necessary to check any patient with bacterial vaginosis for chlamydial co-infection.

  12. Bullying and cyberbullying: overlapping and predictive value of the co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rey, Rosario; Elipe, Paz; Ortega-Ruiz, Rosario

    2012-11-01

    Several studies show certain co-occurrence of the traditional bullying and the cyberbullying. However, the results about relation and homogeneity among the roles of each of them are not unanimous. The present study intends to advance in the knowledge about the above-mentioned co-occurrence by exploring the dimensions of victimization and traditional aggression and cyber-victimization and cyber-aggression and by identifying its eventual directionality. A short-term longitudinal design was developed. The sample was formed by 274 adolescents, aging 12 to 18 years-old, belonging to 2 schools of Andalusia (South of Spain). In order to value the impact of bullying and cyberbullying the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (ECIPQ) and the European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (EBIPQ) were used. The results show important simultaneity among both phenomena and suggest that although in cyberbullying -cyber-victimization and cyber-aggression- may be predicted because of previous involvement of the subject in traditional bullying, on the contrary it does not happen. In addition, previous victimization is a risk factor for traditional bullying and for cyberbullying. Results are discussed in relation to the process and socio-group dynamics arising from the bullying and cyberbullying phenomena, and in terms of their prevention.

  13. Using co-occurrence to evaluate belief coherence in a large non clinical sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Pechey

    Full Text Available Much of the recent neuropsychological literature on false beliefs (delusions has tended to focus on individual or single beliefs, with few studies actually investigating the relationship or co-occurrence between different types of co-existing beliefs. Quine and Ullian proposed the hypothesis that our beliefs form an interconnected web in which the beliefs that make up that system must somehow "cohere" with one another and avoid cognitive dissonance. As such beliefs are unlikely to be encapsulated (i.e., exist in isolation from other beliefs. The aim of this preliminary study was to empirically evaluate the probability of belief co-occurrence as one indicator of coherence in a large sample of subjects involving three different thematic sets of beliefs (delusion-like, paranormal & religious, and societal/cultural. Results showed that the degree of belief co-endorsement between beliefs within thematic groupings was greater than random occurrence, lending support to Quine and Ullian's coherentist account. Some associations, however, were relatively weak, providing for well-established examples of cognitive dissonance.

  14. Patterns and correlates of co-occurrence among multiple types of child maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kihyun; Mennen, Ferol E.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the patterns and correlates of the types of maltreatment experienced by adolescents aged 9–12, participating in an ongoing longitudinal study on the impact of neglect on children’s development. Using case record abstraction, the study compared the child protection classification and findings from the case record abstraction with regard to the rates of four types of maltreatment (i.e. physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect) as well as co-occurrence across multiple types of maltreatment. Next, the study examined the frequently observed patterns of child maltreatment. Finally, the study investigated whether aspects of caretaker functioning and the detailed incident characteristics in the cases of neglect differed by the number of different types of maltreatment the children experienced. Results showed significant discrepancies between the Child Protective Service classification and case record abstraction. Child Protective Service classification considerably underestimated the rate of co-occurrence across multiple types of maltreatment. Neglect accompanied by physical and emotional abuse was the most common form. Some of the caretaker functioning variables distinguished the number of types of maltreatment. Based on the findings, future-research directions and practice implication were discussed. PMID:29225485

  15. Mycotoxigenic fungi and natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mariana; Pardo, Alejandro; Pose, Graciela

    2015-11-05

    Samples of rainbow trout feed were analyzed with the aim to determine the mycobiota composition and the co-occurrence of mycotoxins. A total of 28 samples of finished rainbow trout feed from hatcheries in the provinces of Río Negro and Neuquén, Argentina, were studied. Fungal counts were obtained on three culture media in the ranges of Eurotium (frequency (Fr) 25.0%), followed by Penicillium (Fr 21.4%) and Aspergillus (Fr 3.6%). The most prevalent mycotoxigenic species were E. repens (Fr 21.4%) and E. rubrum (Fr 14.3%). All samples were contaminated with mycotoxins: 64% samples were contaminated with T-2 toxin (median 70.08 ppb), 50% samples with zearalenone (median 87.97 ppb) and aflatoxins (median 2.82 ppb), 25% with ochratoxin A (median 5.26 ppb) and 3.57% samples with deoxynivalenol (median 230 ppb). Eight samples had a fumonisins contamination level below the limit of detection. Co-occurrence of six mycotoxins was determined in 7% of the samples.

  16. Mycotoxigenic Fungi and Natural Co-Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Greco

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Samples of rainbow trout feed were analyzed with the aim to determine the mycobiota composition and the co-occurrence of mycotoxins. A total of 28 samples of finished rainbow trout feed from hatcheries in the provinces of Río Negro and Neuquén, Argentina, were studied. Fungal counts were obtained on three culture media in the ranges of <10 to 4.2 × 104 CFU/g on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC, <10 to 5.1 × 104 CFU/g on Dichloran Chloramphenicol Peptone Agar (DCPA and <10 to 3.6 × 104 CFU/g on Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG18. The most frequent mycotoxigenic fungi were Eurotium (frequency (Fr 25.0%, followed by Penicillium (Fr 21.4% and Aspergillus (Fr 3.6%. The most prevalent mycotoxigenic species were E. repens (Fr 21.4% and E. rubrum (Fr 14.3%. All samples were contaminated with mycotoxins: 64% samples were contaminated with T-2 toxin (median 70.08 ppb, 50% samples with zearalenone (median 87.97 ppb and aflatoxins (median 2.82 ppb, 25% with ochratoxin A (median 5.26 ppb and 3.57% samples with deoxynivalenol (median 230 ppb. Eight samples had a fumonisins contamination level below the limit of detection. Co-occurrence of six mycotoxins was determined in 7% of the samples.

  17. Severity and Co-occurrence of Oral and Verbal Apraxias in Left Brain Damaged Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Yadegari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oral and verbal apraxias represent motor programming deficits of nonverbal and verbal movements respectively. Studying their properties may shed light on speech motor control processes. This study was focused on identifying cases with oral or verbal apraxia, their co–occurrences and severities. Materials & Methods: In this non-experimental study, 55 left adult subjects with left brain lesion including 22 women and 33 men with age range of 23 to 84 years, were examined and videotaped using oral apraxia and verbal apraxia tasks. Three speech and language pathologists independently scored apraxia severities. Data were analyzed by independent t test, Pearson, Phi and Contingency coefficients using SPSS 12. Results: Mean score of oral and verbal apraxias in patients with and without oral and verbal apraxias were significantly different (P<0.001. Forty- two patients had simultaneous oral and verbal apraxias, with significant correlation between their oral and verbal apraxia scores (r=0.75, P<0.001. Six patients showed no oral or verbal apraxia and 7 had just one type of apraxia. Comparison of co-occurrence of two disorders (Phi=0.59 and different oral and verbal intensities (C=0.68 were relatively high (P<0.001. Conclusion: The present research revealed co-occurrence of oral and verbal apraxias to a great extent. It appears that speech motor control is influenced by a more general verbal and nonverbal motor control.

  18. Extracting semantic representations from word co-occurrence statistics: stop-lists, stemming, and SVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullinaria, John A; Levy, Joseph P

    2012-09-01

    In a previous article, we presented a systematic computational study of the extraction of semantic representations from the word-word co-occurrence statistics of large text corpora. The conclusion was that semantic vectors of pointwise mutual information values from very small co-occurrence windows, together with a cosine distance measure, consistently resulted in the best representations across a range of psychologically relevant semantic tasks. This article extends that study by investigating the use of three further factors--namely, the application of stop-lists, word stemming, and dimensionality reduction using singular value decomposition (SVD)--that have been used to provide improved performance elsewhere. It also introduces an additional semantic task and explores the advantages of using a much larger corpus. This leads to the discovery and analysis of improved SVD-based methods for generating semantic representations (that provide new state-of-the-art performance on a standard TOEFL task) and the identification and discussion of problems and misleading results that can arise without a full systematic study.

  19. Comparison of co-occurrence networks of the Chinese and English languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei; Shi, Yuming; Tse, Chi K.; Liu, Jing; Wang, Yanli; Cui, Xunqiang

    2009-12-01

    Co-occurrence networks of Chinese characters and words, and of English words, are constructed from collections of Chinese and English articles, respectively. Four types of collections are considered, namely, essays, novels, popular science articles, and news reports. Statistical parameters of the networks are studied, including diameter, average degree, degree distribution, clustering coefficient, average shortest path length, as well as the number of connected subnetworks. It is found that the character and word networks of each type of article in the Chinese language, and the word network of each type of article in the English language all exhibit scale-free and small-world features. The statistical parameters of these co-occurrence networks are compared within the same language and across the two languages. This study reveals some commonalities and differences between Chinese and English languages, and among the four types of articles in each language from a complex network perspective. In particular, it is shown that expressions in English are briefer than those in Chinese in a certain sense.

  20. Metacognitive interpersonal therapy for co-occurrent avoidant personality disorder and substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaggio, Giancarlo; D'Urzo, Maddalena; Pasinetti, Manuela; Salvatore, Giampaolo; Lysaker, Paul H; Catania, Dario; Popolo, Raffaele

    2015-02-01

    Many patients with substance abuse problems present with co-occurrent cluster C personality disorders. Focusing on both disorders disrupts the maintenance mechanisms and the vicious cycle between the 2 conditions; however, treatment teams often neglect this issue. In this work, we describe the features of metacognitive interpersonal therapy as applied to a man with avoidant and depressive personality disorders and heroin, cocaine, and alcohol abuse. Psychotherapy proceeded through the following steps: (a) conducting drug therapy to deal with symptoms of abstinence from heroin; (b) forming a therapeutic bond to overcome the patient's severe emotional withdrawal; (c) fostering basic metacognitive capacities such as awareness of emotions and their triggers; (d) sharing formulations of maladaptive interpersonal schemas and descriptions of the associated states of mind; (e) conveying an understanding of the link between interpersonal events (recent ones and traumatic memories) and substance abuse; (f) facilitating the acquisition of critical distance from maladaptive schemas; and (g) promoting the use of adaptive coping skills instead of resorting to substance abuse. Implications for generalizing these procedures to the treatment of other patients with co-occurrent personality disorders and substance abuse are described. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Nearshore and offshore co-occurrence of marine heatwaves and cold-spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Robert W.; Oliver, Eric C. J.; Wernberg, Thomas; Smit, Albertus J.

    2017-02-01

    A changing global climate places shallow water ecosystems at more risk than those in the open ocean as their temperatures may change more rapidly and dramatically. To this end, it is necessary to identify the occurrence of extreme ocean temperature events - marine heatwaves (MHWs) and marine cold-spells (MCSs) - in the nearshore (<400 m from the coastline) environment as they can have lasting ecological effects. The occurrence of MHWs have been investigated regionally, but no investigations of MCSs have yet to be carried out. A recently developed framework that defines these events in a novel way was applied to ocean temperature time series from (i) a nearshore in situ dataset and (ii) 1/4 ° NOAA Optimally Interpolated sea surface temperatures. Regional drivers due to nearshore influences (local-scale) and the forcing of two offshore ocean currents (broad-scale) on MHWs and MCSs were taken into account when the events detected in these two datasets were used to infer the links between offshore and nearshore temperatures in time and space. We show that MHWs and MCSs occur at least once a year on average but that proportions of co-occurrence of events between the broad- and local scales are low (0.20-0.50), with MHWs having greater proportions of co-occurrence than MCSs. The low rates of co-occurrence between the nearshore and offshore datasets show that drivers other than mesoscale ocean temperatures play a role in the occurrence of at least half of nearshore events. Significant differences in the duration and intensity of events between different coastal sections may be attributed to the effects of the interaction of oceanographic processes offshore, as well as with local features of the coast. The decadal trends in the occurrence of MHWs and MCSs in the offshore dataset show that generally MHWs are increasing there while MCSs are decreasing. This study represents an important first step in the analysis of the dynamics of events in nearshore environments, and

  2. ECO: A Framework for Entity Co-Occurrence Exploration with Faceted Navigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliday, K. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-20

    Even as highly structured databases and semantic knowledge bases become more prevalent, a substantial amount of human knowledge is reported as written prose. Typical textual reports, such as news articles, contain information about entities (people, organizations, and locations) and their relationships. Automatically extracting such relationships from large text corpora is a key component of corporate and government knowledge bases. The primary goal of the ECO project is to develop a scalable framework for extracting and presenting these relationships for exploration using an easily navigable faceted user interface. ECO uses entity co-occurrence relationships to identify related entities. The system aggregates and indexes information on each entity pair, allowing the user to rapidly discover and mine relational information.

  3. Spectral analysis of Chinese language: Co-occurrence networks from four literary genres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei; Chen, Guanrong

    2016-05-01

    The eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the adjacency matrix of a network contain essential information about its topology. For each of the Chinese language co-occurrence networks constructed from four literary genres, i.e., essay, popular science article, news report, and novel, it is found that the largest eigenvalue depends on the network size N, the number of edges, the average shortest path length, and the clustering coefficient. Moreover, it is found that their node-degree distributions all follow a power-law. The number of different eigenvalues, Nλ, is found numerically to increase in the manner of Nλ ∝ log N for novel and Nλ ∝ N for the other three literary genres. An ;M; shape or a triangle-like distribution appears in their spectral densities. The eigenvector corresponding to the largest eigenvalue is mostly localized to a node with the largest degree. For the above observed phenomena, mathematical analysis is provided with interpretation from a linguistic perspective.

  4. Enhanced Living by Assessing Voice Pathology Using a Co-Occurrence Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Ghulam; Alhamid, Mohammed F; Hossain, M Shamim; Almogren, Ahmad S; Vasilakos, Athanasios V

    2017-01-29

    A large number of the population around the world suffers from various disabilities. Disabilities affect not only children but also adults of different professions. Smart technology can assist the disabled population and lead to a comfortable life in an enhanced living environment (ELE). In this paper, we propose an effective voice pathology assessment system that works in a smart home framework. The proposed system takes input from various sensors, and processes the acquired voice signals and electroglottography (EGG) signals. Co-occurrence matrices in different directions and neighborhoods from the spectrograms of these signals were obtained. Several features such as energy, entropy, contrast, and homogeneity from these matrices were calculated and fed into a Gaussian mixture model-based classifier. Experiments were performed with a publicly available database, namely, the Saarbrucken voice database. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system in light of its high accuracy and speed. The proposed system can be extended to assess other disabilities in an ELE.

  5. Familial co-occurrence of congenital heart defects follows distinct patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellesøe, Sabrina G.; Workman, Christopher T.; Bouvagnet, Patrice

    2017-01-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) affect almost 1% of all live born children and the number of adults with CHD is increasing. In families where CHD has occurred previously, estimates of recurrence risk, and the type of recurring malformation are important for counselling and clinical decision......-making, but the recurrence patterns in families are poorly understood. We aimed to determine recurrence patterns, by investigating the co-occurrences of CHD in 1163 families with known malformations, comprising 3080 individuals with clinically confirmed diagnosis. We calculated rates of concordance and discordance for 41...... specific types of malformations, observing a high variability in the rates of concordance and discordance. By calculating odds ratios for each of 1640 pairs of discordant lesions observed between affected family members, we were able to identify 178 pairs of malformations that co-occurred significantly...

  6. Rare co-occurrence of osteogenesis imperfecta type I and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefele, Julia; Mayer, Karin; Marschall, Christoph; Alberer, Martin; Klein, Hanns-Georg; Kirschstein, Martin

    2016-11-01

    There are several clinical reports about the co-occurrence of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and connective tissue disorders. A simultaneous occurrence of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type I and ADPKD has not been observed so far. This report presents the first patient with OI type I and ADPKD. Mutational analysis of PKD1 and COL1A1 in the index patient revealed a heterozygous mutation in each of the two genes. Mutational analysis of the parents indicated the mother as a carrier of the PKD1 mutation and the father as a carrier of the COL1A1 mutation. The simultaneous occurrence of both disorders has an estimated frequency of 3.5:100 000 000. In singular cases, ADPKD can occur in combination with other rare disorders, e.g. connective tissue disorders.

  7. Responding to Anxiety with Rumination and Hopelessness: Mechanism of Anxiety-Depression Symptom Co-Occurrence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Lisa R; Davila, Joanne

    2012-08-01

    The current research proposes that certain anxiety response styles (specifically, responding to anxiety symptoms with rumination or hopeless cognitions) may increase risk of depressive symptoms, contributing to anxiety-depression comorbidity. We delineate preliminary evidence for this model in three studies. In Study 1, controlling for anxiety response styles significantly reduced the association between anxiety and depressive symptoms in an undergraduate sample. In Study 2, these findings were replicated controlling for conceptually related variables, and anxiety interacted with anxiety response styles to predict greater depressive symptoms. In Study 3, anxiety response styles moderated the prospective association between anxiety and later depression in a generalized anxiety disorder sample. Results support a role for anxiety response styles in anxiety-depression co-occurrence, and show that hopeless/ruminative anxiety response styles can be measured with high reliability and convergent and divergent validity.

  8. Natural co-occurrence of aflatoxins and deoxynivalenol in poultry feed in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shar, Z H; Sumbal, G A; Sherazi, S T H; Bhanger, M I; Nizamani, S M

    2014-01-01

    Two hundred and fifteen broiler poultry feed samples were analysed over the time period of one year for the co-occurrence of aflatoxins and deoxynivalenol (DON). These were determined by GC-MS and ELISA, respectively. LOD values for aflatoxins and DON were 0.5 and 5 µg/kg, respectively. From all investigated 215 poultry feed samples, aflatoxins and DON co-occurred in 100 samples (46%). DON was detected in 114 samples while 100 samples also were positive for aflatoxins. Mean concentrations of positive samples for aflatoxins and DON were 18 and 807 µg/kg, respectively. Twenty-one DON-positive and 42 aflatoxin positive samples were contaminated above the EU maximum legal limits of 1000 µg/kg and 20 µg/kg, respectively. The present study provided useful data on aflatoxin and DON contamination, which may be helpful for future strategies to control contamination and to formulate standards in poultry feeds.

  9. In vivo skin capacitive imaging analysis by using grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Xiang; Pan, Wei; Xiao, Perry

    2014-01-02

    We present our latest work on in vivo skin capacitive imaging analysis by using grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). The in vivo skin capacitive images were taken by a capacitance based fingerprint sensor, the skin capacitive images were then analysed by GLCM. Four different GLCM feature vectors, angular second moment (ASM), entropy (ENT), contrast (CON) and correlation (COR), are selected to describe the skin texture. The results show that angular second moment increases as age increases, and entropy decreases as age increases. The results also suggest that the angular second moment values and the entropy values reflect more about the skin texture, whilst the contrast values and the correlation values reflect more about the topically applied solvents. The overall results shows that the GLCM is an effective way to extract and analyse the skin texture information, which can potentially be a valuable reference for evaluating effects of medical and cosmetic treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Using co-occurrence network structure to extract synonymous gene and protein names from MEDLINE abstracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spackman K

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Text-mining can assist biomedical researchers in reducing information overload by extracting useful knowledge from large collections of text. We developed a novel text-mining method based on analyzing the network structure created by symbol co-occurrences as a way to extend the capabilities of knowledge extraction. The method was applied to the task of automatic gene and protein name synonym extraction. Results Performance was measured on a test set consisting of about 50,000 abstracts from one year of MEDLINE. Synonyms retrieved from curated genomics databases were used as a gold standard. The system obtained a maximum F-score of 22.21% (23.18% precision and 21.36% recall, with high efficiency in the use of seed pairs. Conclusion The method performs comparably with other studied methods, does not rely on sophisticated named-entity recognition, and requires little initial seed knowledge.

  11. Co-Occurrence of ASD and ADHD Traits in an Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotidi, Maria; Overton, Paul G; Stafford, Tom

    2017-08-01

    ADHD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be viewed as the extreme end of traits found in the general population. Clinical and genetic studies suggest that ADHD and ASD often co-occur and share genetic susceptibility. The aim of this study was to examine co-occurrence of ADHD and ASD traits in the general population. In total, 334 participants were recruited from a population-based sample. Four questionnaires assessing current and retrospective ADHD and ASD traits were administered online: the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Symptom Checklist, the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS-25), the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ), and the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). A significant correlation was found between ADHD and autistic traits. In particular, higher inattention and overall ADHD scores were associated with self-reported deficits in communication and social skills. Our findings are similar to results from studies on clinical populations, suggesting that ADHD and ASD might share common etiology.

  12. Co-occurrence of intraoral hemangioma and port wine stain: A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiomas are neoplastic proliferations of endothelial cells, characterized by a period of growth after birth, and eventual spontaneous involution. The course can be uneventful with spontaneous resolution; or it may be marked by complications such as infection, bleeding, ulceration, visual defects and feeding difficulties. Apart from these, rare life-threatening complications such as congestive heart failure and consumption coagulopathy may also be seen. Although hemangiomas commonly occur in the head and neck region, intraoral occurrence is relatively rare. A port wine stain is defined as a macular telangiectatic patch which is present at birth and remains throughout life. They may be localized or extensive, affecting a whole limb. This article reports a rare case of co-occurrence of port wine stain with intraoral hemangioma.

  13. TelCoVis: Visual Exploration of Co-occurrence in Urban Human Mobility Based on Telco Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenchao; Xu, Jiayi; Zeng, Haipeng; Zheng, Yixian; Qu, Huamin; Ni, Bing; Yuan, Mingxuan; Ni, Lionel M

    2016-01-01

    Understanding co-occurrence in urban human mobility (i.e. people from two regions visit an urban place during the same time span) is of great value in a variety of applications, such as urban planning, business intelligence, social behavior analysis, as well as containing contagious diseases. In recent years, the widespread use of mobile phones brings an unprecedented opportunity to capture large-scale and fine-grained data to study co-occurrence in human mobility. However, due to the lack of systematic and efficient methods, it is challenging for analysts to carry out in-depth analyses and extract valuable information. In this paper, we present TelCoVis, an interactive visual analytics system, which helps analysts leverage their domain knowledge to gain insight into the co-occurrence in urban human mobility based on telco data. Our system integrates visualization techniques with new designs and combines them in a novel way to enhance analysts' perception for a comprehensive exploration. In addition, we propose to study the correlations in co-occurrence (i.e. people from multiple regions visit different places during the same time span) by means of biclustering techniques that allow analysts to better explore coordinated relationships among different regions and identify interesting patterns. The case studies based on a real-world dataset and interviews with domain experts have demonstrated the effectiveness of our system in gaining insights into co-occurrence and facilitating various analytical tasks.

  14. [Co-occurrence of soil fauna communities with changes in altitude on the northern slope of Changbai Mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Fuchun; Jin, Zhedong; Wang, Qingli; Xiao, Yihua

    2003-10-01

    The co-occurrence of soil fauna communities at different altitudes may reflect at some extent the relationships among communities, their coexistence, and the replacement of species along the altitude gradient. The continuous or disjunctive distribution of different species along altitude gradient not only reflected the environment variation at altitude gradient, but also the biological and ecological spatiality as well as the adaptability of species. The northern slope of Changbai Moutain has not only a high diversity in soil fauna types and species, but also a high variation of diversity pattern along the altitude gradient, which is a perfect transect for the research of biodiversity and gradient patterns. From 550 m to 2,560 m on the northern slope of Changbai Mountain, twenty-two plots were investigated with an interval of 100 m in altitude. By using Jaccard index, the co-occurrence of soil fauna communities at different altitudes was analyzed. For the species of different life forms or for all the species as a whole, the co-occurrence of soil faunae between neighboring communities was the highest, except for that between different soil fauna types. The peak and valley values of the co-occurrence of soil fauna communities along altitude gradient were matched with their gradient patterns, and the co-occurrence of soil faunae at different layers or all of the soil fauna communities were decreased with increasing altitude difference.

  15. Discovering Multi-scale Co-occurrence Patterns of Asthma and Influenza with the Oak Ridge Bio-surveillance Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind eRamanathan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe a data-driven unsupervised machine learning approach to extract geo-temporal co-occurrence patterns of asthma and the flu from large-scale electronic healthcare reimbursement claims (eHRC datasets. Specifically, we examine the eHRC data from the 2009-2010 pandemic H1N1 influenza season and analyze whether different geographic regions within the United States (US showed an increase in co-occurrence patterns of the flu and asthma. Our analyses reveal that the temporal patterns extracted from the eHRC data show a distinct lag time between the peak incidence of the asthma and the flu. While the increased occurrence of asthma contributed to increased flu incidence during the pandemic, this co-occurrence is predominant for female patients. The geo-temporal patterns reveal that the co-occurrence of the flu and asthma are typically concentrated within the south-east US. Further, in agreement with previous studies, large urban areas (such as New York, Miami and Los Angeles exhibit co-occurrence patterns that suggest a peak incidence of asthma and flu significantly early in the spring and winter seasons. Together, our data-analytic approach, integrated within the Oak Ridge Bio-surveillance Toolkit platform, demonstrates how eHRC data can provide novel insights into co-occurring disease patterns.

  16. [Co-occurrence of anxiety and autism. The social error and allostatic load hypotheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula-Perez, Isabel

    2013-02-22

    INTRODUCTION. The concept of comorbidity in neurodevelopmental disorders like autism is sometimes ambiguous. The co-occurrence of anxiety and autism is clinically significant, yet it is not always easy to determine whether it is a 'real' comorbidity, where the two comorbid conditions are phenotypically and aetiologically identical to what that anxiety would mean in persons with a neurotypical development, whether it is an anxiety that has been phenotypically modified by the pathological processes of the autism spectrum disorders, thus resulting in a specific variant of these latter, or whether we are dealing with a false comorbidity resulting from rather inaccurate differential diagnoses. DEVELOPMENT. The article puts forward two hypotheses to explain this co-occurrence, which provide each other with feedback and are little more than our reflections on the scientific evidence we have available today, but expressed aloud. The first is the 'social error' hypothesis, which considers that the maladjustments in the social behaviour of persons with autism (which arises from alterations affecting the processes involved in social cognition) help to aggravate anxiety in autism. The second hypothesis, referring to allostatic load, holds that anxiety is a response to chronic stress, wear or exhaustion that is produced by the hyperactivation of certain structures in the limbic system. CONCLUSIONS. The prototypical manifestations of anxiety present in the person with autism are not always related with the same biopsychosocial variables as those observed in persons without autism. Evidence points to hyper-reactive flee-or-fight responses (hypervigilance) when the person finds him or herself outside their comfort zone, and supports the hypotheses of 'social error' and of decompensation of the allostatic mechanism that makes it possible to cope with stress.

  17. The co-occurrence of maternal depressive symptoms and smoking in a national survey of mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Megan; McMillen, Robert C; Pascoe, John M; Hill Southward, Linda; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Weitzman, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Both maternal smoking and depression are common and can adversely impact child health and functioning, yet few studies have explored their co-occurrence among mothers. To determine the prevalence and associations of depression and smoking among mothers in the United States. Random-digit-dial national telephone survey of 1530 households conducted in 2002. Respondents were asked about their sociodemographic characteristics, smoking status, and their children's receipt of Medicaid. A validated 3-item depression screen was administered. Bivariate and multiple regression analyses for maternal smoking and a positive depression screen were performed. National sample. Seven hundred two mothers with children aged less than 19 years living in their homes. The response rate was 61%. Among mothers, 24.3% were smokers, 24.4% had a positive depression screen, 8.1% had both, and 40.6% were smokers and/or had a positive depression screen. All rates were greater among mothers whose children receive Medicaid (37.6%, 47.5%, 20.6%, and 64.5%) than those whose children do not receive Medicaid (21.1%, 19.0%, 4.8%, and 35.3%) (P maternal smoking was independently associated with a 70% increased risk of depressive symptoms (odds radio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.6). This study highlights both the frequency and the co-occurrence of maternal smoking and maternal depressive symptoms, two negative influences on children's health and development, as well as their increased prevalence among mothers whose children receive Medicaid, thereby highlighting the economic disparities associated with both. These findings have significant implications for our nation's children, health care clinicians, and health care payers.

  18. [Language and eating problems in children: co-occurrences or coincidences?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Ruth Ramalho Ruivo; Cunha, Maria Claudia; Souza, Luiz Augusto de Paula

    2007-01-01

    Relationship between language problems and eating disorders in children. To analyze the possible co-occurrence of these disorders taking into consideration a relationship that has structural implications, the reciprocal influences between language, body and physique. Clinical quantitative-qualitative, based on free observations of non intentional samples of 35 children (between 1:4 and 7:0 years of age), presenting oral language problems and who were seen at a school clinic during the period of one year. One case study (J., 4:0 years old) was highlighted from the group of participants, with the importance of an emblematic scenario regarding the theoretical paradigm used in the discussion of the results. The evaluation procedure of each participant consisted of two interviews with the families, a language analysis in the dialogical context and in a play situation, and an evaluation of the oral performance. Language problems and eating disorders co-occurred in 100% of the cases. These were sub-divided according to age due to similarities of the symptoms. Group A (1:4 to 3:0 years of age) was composed by 10 participants (28.7%) presenting: delay in oral language development, restrictions in interaction, dysphagia or hypophagia. Group B (3:1 to 5:0 years of age) composed by 20 participants presenting: from the absence of oral language to a discursive weakness; articulatory disturbance; mastication and swallowing problems; eating idiosyncrasies and obesity. Group C (5:1 to 7:0 years of age) composed by 5 participants (14,28%) presenting: severe discursive alterations; articulatory disturbances; mastication and swallowing problems and the refusal of certain foods. The co-occurrence of oral language problems and eating disorders is not just a coincidence. Both disorders configure themselves as oral disturbances. It is suggested that speech-language pathologists investigate eating difficulties during the diagnostic process of clients with complaints and/or symptoms that

  19. Investigating microbial co-occurrence patterns based on metagenomic compositional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Yuguang; An, Lingling; Jiang, Hongmei

    2015-10-15

    The high-throughput sequencing technologies have provided a powerful tool to study the microbial organisms living in various environments. Characterizing microbial interactions can give us insights into how they live and work together as a community. Metagonomic data are usually summarized in a compositional fashion due to varying sampling/sequencing depths from one sample to another. We study the co-occurrence patterns of microbial organisms using their relative abundance information. Analyzing compositional data using conventional correlation methods has been shown prone to bias that leads to artifactual correlations. We propose a novel method, regularized estimation of the basis covariance based on compositional data (REBACCA), to identify significant co-occurrence patterns by finding sparse solutions to a system with a deficient rank. To be specific, we construct the system using log ratios of count or proportion data and solve the system using the l1-norm shrinkage method. Our comprehensive simulation studies show that REBACCA (i) achieves higher accuracy in general than the existing methods when a sparse condition is satisfied; (ii) controls the false positives at a pre-specified level, while other methods fail in various cases and (iii) runs considerably faster than the existing comparable method. REBACCA is also applied to several real metagenomic datasets. The R codes for the proposed method are available at http://faculty.wcas.northwestern.edu/∼hji403/REBACCA.htm hongmei@northwestern.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Prevalence and co-occurrence of addictive behaviors among former alternative high school youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Arpawong, Thalida Em; Sun, Ping; Tsai, Jennifer; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Recent work has studied multiple addictions using a matrix measure, which taps multiple addictions through single responses for each type. Methods: The present study investigated use of a matrix measure approach among former alternative high school youth (average age = 19.8 years) at risk for addictions. Lifetime and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of 11 addictions reviewed in other work (Sussman, Lisha & Griffiths, 2011) was the primary focus (i.e., cigarettes, alcohol, other/hard drugs, eating, gambling, Internet, shopping, love, sex, exercise, and work). Also, the co-occurrence of two or more of these 11 addictive behaviors was investigated. Finally, the latent class structure of these addictions, and their associations with other measures, was examined. Results: We found that ever and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of these addictions was 79.2% and 61.5%, respectively. Ever and last 30-day co-occurrence of two or more of these addictions was 61.5% and 37.7%, respectively. Latent Class Analysis suggested two groups: a generally Non-addicted Group (67.2% of the sample) and a “Work Hard, Play Hard”-addicted Group that was particularly invested in addiction to love, sex, exercise, the Internet, and work. Supplementary analyses suggested that the single-response type self-reports may be measuring the addictions they intend to measure. Discussion and Conclusions: We suggest implications of these results for future studies and the development of prevention and treatment programs, though much more validation research is needed on the use of this type of measure. PMID:24701344

  1. Prevalence and co-occurrence of addictive behaviors among former alternative high school youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Arpawong, Thalida Em; Sun, Ping; Tsai, Jennifer; Rohrbach, Louise A; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2014-04-01

    Recent work has studied multiple addictions using a matrix measure, which taps multiple addictions through single responses for each type. The present study investigated use of a matrix measure approach among former alternative high school youth (average age = 19.8 years) at risk for addictions. Lifetime and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of 11 addictions reviewed in other work (Sussman, Lisha & Griffiths, 2011) was the primary focus (i.e., cigarettes, alcohol, other/hard drugs, eating, gambling, Internet, shopping, love, sex, exercise, and work). Also, the co-occurrence of two or more of these 11 addictive behaviors was investigated. Finally, the latent class structure of these addictions, and their associations with other measures, was examined. We found that ever and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of these addictions was 79.2% and 61.5%, respectively. Ever and last 30-day co-occurrence of two or more of these addictions was 61.5% and 37.7%, respectively. Latent Class Analysis suggested two groups: a generally Non-addicted Group (67.2% of the sample) and a "Work Hard, Play Hard"-addicted Group that was particularly invested in addiction to love, sex, exercise, the Internet, and work. Supplementary analyses suggested that the single-response type self-reports may be measuring the addictions they intend to measure. We suggest implications of these results for future studies and the development of prevention and treatment programs, though much more validation research is needed on the use of this type of measure.

  2. Double HEVC Compression Detection with Different Bitrates Based on Co-occurrence Matrix of PU Types and DCT Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhao-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of double video compression is of particular importance in video forensics, as it reveals partly the video processing history. In this paper, a double compression method is proposed for HEVC–the latest video coding standard. Firstly, four 5×5 co-occurrence matrixes were derived from DCT coefficients along four directions respectively, i.e., horizontal, vertical, main diagonal and minor diagonal. Then four 4×4 co-occurrence matrixes were derived from PU types which are innovative features of HEVC and rarely been utilized by researchers. Finally, these two feature set are combined and sent to support vector machine (SVM to detect re-compressed videos. In order to reduce the feature dimension, only the co-occurrence matrixes of DCT coefficients and PU types in horizontal direction are adopted to identify whether the video has undergone double compression. Experimental results show the effectiveness and the robustness against frame deletion of the proposed scheme.

  3. Does job stability mediate the relationship between intimate partner violence and mental health among low-income women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Adrienne E; Bybee, Deborah; Tolman, Richard M; Sullivan, Cris M; Kennedy, Angie C

    2013-10-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has detrimental consequences for women's mental health. To effectively intervene, it is essential to understand the process through which IPV influences women's mental health. The current study used data from 5 waves of the Women's Employment Study, a prospective study of single mothers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), to empirically investigate the extent to which job stability mediates the relationship between IPV and adverse mental health outcomes. The findings indicate that IPV significantly negatively affects women's job stability and mental health. Further, job stability is at least partly responsible for the damaging mental health consequences of abuse, and the effects can last up to 3 years after the IPV ends. This study demonstrates the need for interventions that effectively address barriers to employment as a means of enhancing the mental health of low-income women with abusive partners. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  4. Longitudinal Study on the Co-Occurrence of Peer Problems at Daycare Centre, in Preschool and First Grade of School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Kaarina; Neitola, Marita; Auremaa, Jatta; Laakkonen, Eero

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal research was designed to examine the prevalence and co-occurrence of peer problems such as rejection, withdrawal, loneliness, bullying, and victimization experienced by children (99 boys, 80 girls) in their everyday lives at daycare, in preschool and first grade of school--each successive spring--at the ages of 5, 6, and 7.…

  5. The co-occurrence of autistic and ADHD dimensions in adults: an etiological study in 17,770 twins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, T.J.C.; Hoekstra, R.A.; Posthuma, D.; Larsson, H.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often occur together. To obtain more insight in potential causes for the co-occurrence, this study examined the genetic and environmental etiology of the association between specific ASD and ADHD disorder dimensions.

  6. Co-occurrence of victimization from five subtypes of bullying: physical, verbal, social exclusion, spreading rumors, and cyber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J; Luk, Jeremy W; Nansel, Tonja R

    2010-01-01

    To examine co-occurrence of five subtypes of peer victimization. Data were obtained from a national sample of 7,475 US adolescents in grades 6 through 10 in the 2005/2006 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study...

  7. Optimal use of multi-informant data on co-occurrence of internalizing and externalizing problems : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordhof, Arjen; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.

    Strong between-informant discrepancies are found in ratings of (pre)adolescent problems and in co-occurrence rates between different domains of psychopathology. These discrepancies can be caused by differences in the context of measurement and the perspective of informants. The aim of this study was

  8. Investigating the Co-Occurrence of Self-Mutilation and Suicide Attempts among Opioid-Dependent Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Elizabeth; Degenhardt, Louisa; Darke, Shane; Nelson, Elliot C.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence and risk factors associated with self-mutilation among opioid dependent cases and controls were determined, and the co-occurrence of self-mutilation and attempted suicide was examined. The prevalence of self-mutilation among cases and controls did not differ significantly (25% vs. 23%, respectively), with gender differences…

  9. Fire modifies the phylogenetic structure of soil bacterial co-occurrence networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Valera, Eduardo; Goberna, Marta; Faust, Karoline; Raes, Jeroen; García, Carlos; Verdú, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Fire alters ecosystems by changing the composition and community structure of soil microbes. The phylogenetic structure of a community provides clues about its main assembling mechanisms. While environmental filtering tends to reduce the community phylogenetic diversity by selecting for functionally (and hence phylogenetically) similar species, processes like competitive exclusion by limiting similarity tend to increase it by preventing the coexistence of functionally (and phylogenetically) similar species. We used co-occurrence networks to detect co-presence (bacteria that co-occur) or exclusion (bacteria that do not co-occur) links indicative of the ecological interactions structuring the community. We propose that inspecting the phylogenetic structure of co-presence or exclusion links allows to detect the main processes simultaneously assembling the community. We monitored a soil bacterial community after an experimental fire and found that fire altered its composition, richness and phylogenetic diversity. Both co-presence and exclusion links were more phylogenetically related than expected by chance. We interpret such a phylogenetic clustering in co-presence links as a result of environmental filtering, while that in exclusion links reflects competitive exclusion by limiting similarity. This suggests that environmental filtering and limiting similarity operate simultaneously to assemble soil bacterial communities, widening the traditional view that only environmental filtering structures bacterial communities. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Sex allocation promotes the stable co-occurrence of competitive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuya

    2017-03-01

    Biodiversity has long been a source of wonder and scientific curiosity. Theoretically, the co-occurrence of competitive species requires niche differentiation, and such differences are well known; however, the neutral theory, which assumes the equivalence of all individuals regardless of the species in a biological community, has successfully recreated observed patterns of biodiversity. In this research, the evolution of sex allocation is demonstrated to be the key to resolving why the neutral theory works well, despite the observed species differences. The sex allocation theory predicts that female-biased allocation evolves in species in declining density and that this allocation improves population growth, which should lead to an increase in density. In contrast, when the density increases, a less biased allocation evolves, which reduces the population growth rate and leads to decreased density. Thus, sex allocation provides a buffer against species differences in population growth. A model incorporating this mechanism demonstrates that hundreds of species can co-occur over 10,000 generations, even in homogeneous environments, and reproduces the observed patterns of biodiversity. This study reveals the importance of evolutionary processes within species for the sustainability of biodiversity. Integrating the entire biological process, from genes to community, will open a new era of ecology.

  11. Spinal pain and co-occurrence with stress and general well-being among young adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, Sandra Elkjær; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Hestbæk, Lise

    2017-01-01

    % CI 2.08–2.30) and 4.73 (95% CI 4.28–5.23), respectively, of reporting spinal pain (adjusted for age, gender, and maternal education). Adolescents who reported poor general well-being had an OR of 2.50 (95% CI 2.31–2.72) for reporting spinal pain compared to adolescents with good general well......This study aims to describe the patterns in low back, mid back, and neck pain complaints in young adolescents from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) and to investigate the co-occurrence of spinal pain and stress and general well-being, respectively. Cross-sectional data from the 11-year...... follow-up of DNBC were used. As part of a web-based survey, a total of 45,371 young adolescents between 10 and 14 years old completed the Young Spine Questionnaire, the Stress in Children Questionnaire, and a one-item question on general well-being. Associations between spinal pain and, respectively...

  12. Formal Models of the Network Co-occurrence Underlying Mental Operations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Bzdok

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Systems neuroscience has identified a set of canonical large-scale networks in humans. These have predominantly been characterized by resting-state analyses of the task-unconstrained, mind-wandering brain. Their explicit relationship to defined task performance is largely unknown and remains challenging. The present work contributes a multivariate statistical learning approach that can extract the major brain networks and quantify their configuration during various psychological tasks. The method is validated in two extensive datasets (n = 500 and n = 81 by model-based generation of synthetic activity maps from recombination of shared network topographies. To study a use case, we formally revisited the poorly understood difference between neural activity underlying idling versus goal-directed behavior. We demonstrate that task-specific neural activity patterns can be explained by plausible combinations of resting-state networks. The possibility of decomposing a mental task into the relative contributions of major brain networks, the "network co-occurrence architecture" of a given task, opens an alternative access to the neural substrates of human cognition.

  13. Formal Models of the Network Co-occurrence Underlying Mental Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdok, Danilo; Varoquaux, Gaël; Grisel, Olivier; Eickenberg, Michael; Poupon, Cyril; Thirion, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Systems neuroscience has identified a set of canonical large-scale networks in humans. These have predominantly been characterized by resting-state analyses of the task-unconstrained, mind-wandering brain. Their explicit relationship to defined task performance is largely unknown and remains challenging. The present work contributes a multivariate statistical learning approach that can extract the major brain networks and quantify their configuration during various psychological tasks. The method is validated in two extensive datasets (n = 500 and n = 81) by model-based generation of synthetic activity maps from recombination of shared network topographies. To study a use case, we formally revisited the poorly understood difference between neural activity underlying idling versus goal-directed behavior. We demonstrate that task-specific neural activity patterns can be explained by plausible combinations of resting-state networks. The possibility of decomposing a mental task into the relative contributions of major brain networks, the "network co-occurrence architecture" of a given task, opens an alternative access to the neural substrates of human cognition. PMID:27310288

  14. Co-occurrence of addictive behaviours: personality factors related to substance use, gambling and computer gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Birte; Morgenstern, Matthis; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    To investigate co-occurrence and shared personality characteristics of problematic computer gaming, problematic gambling and substance use. Cross-sectional survey data were collected from 2,553 German students aged 12-25 years. Self-report measures of substance use (alcohol, tobacco and cannabis), problematic gambling (South Oaks Gambling Screen - Revised for Adolescents, SOGS-RA), problematic computer gaming (Video Game Dependency Scale, KFN-CSAS-II), and of twelve different personality characteristics were obtained. Analyses revealed positive correlations between tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use and a smaller positive correlation between problematic gambling and problematic computer gaming. Problematic computer gaming co-occurred only with cannabis use, whereas problematic gambling was associated with all three types of substance use. Multivariate multilevel analyses showed differential patterns of personality characteristics. High impulsivity was the only personality characteristic associated with all five addictive behaviours. Depression and extraversion were specific to substance users. Four personality characteristics were specifically associated with problematic computer gaming: irritability/aggression, social anxiety, ADHD, and low self-esteem. Problematic gamblers seem to be more similar to substance users than problematic computer gamers. From a personality perspective, results correspond to the inclusion of gambling in the same DSM-V category as substance use and question a one-to-one proceeding for computer gaming. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Text Authorship Identified Using the Dynamics of Word Co-Occurrence Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimushkin, Camilo; Amancio, Diego Raphael; Oliveira, Osvaldo Novais

    2017-01-01

    Automatic identification of authorship in disputed documents has benefited from complex network theory as this approach does not require human expertise or detailed semantic knowledge. Networks modeling entire books can be used to discriminate texts from different sources and understand network growth mechanisms, but only a few studies have probed the suitability of networks in modeling small chunks of text to grasp stylistic features. In this study, we introduce a methodology based on the dynamics of word co-occurrence networks representing written texts to classify a corpus of 80 texts by 8 authors. The texts were divided into sections with equal number of linguistic tokens, from which time series were created for 12 topological metrics. Since 73% of all series were stationary (ARIMA(p, 0, q)) and the remaining were integrable of first order (ARIMA(p, 1, q)), probability distributions could be obtained for the global network metrics. The metrics exhibit bell-shaped non-Gaussian distributions, and therefore distribution moments were used as learning attributes. With an optimized supervised learning procedure based on a nonlinear transformation performed by Isomap, 71 out of 80 texts were correctly classified using the K-nearest neighbors algorithm, i.e. a remarkable 88.75% author matching success rate was achieved. Hence, purely dynamic fluctuations in network metrics can characterize authorship, thus paving the way for a robust description of large texts in terms of small evolving networks. PMID:28125703

  16. Traditional and cyberbullying co-occurrence and its relationship to psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tural Hesapcioglu, Selma; Ercan, Filiz

    2017-01-01

    The effect of cyberbullying accompanied by traditional bullying on mental health has been less studied. In this study, the frequency, co-occurrence, and the relationship to psychiatric symptoms of traditional bullying and cyberbullying among bullies and victims are examined. All of the high schools in the province of Mus, Turkey were stratified according to Placement Test for High Schools admission points for 2014-2015. By choosing schools using simple random sampling, 1276 students were reached. Students were given the Brief Symptom Inventory and three separate scale assessments: peer bullying rating, cybervictimization, and cyberbullying scales. High scores in all subscale scores of bullying and victimization were significantly related to higher depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, somatization, and hostility scores. For people who were exposed to cyberbullying in addition to traditional bullying, the severity of the psychiatric symptoms was significantly higher. For all psychiatric symptoms, major predictors were gender, total victimization score, and total cybervictimization score. Moreover, the bullying total score was among the predictors of low self-esteem and hostility. Cybervictimization and cyberbullying occur less often than traditional bullying and victimization, but people who were exposed to or performed cyberbullying were also exposed to or performed traditional bullying. The addition of cyberbullying to traditional bullying is associated with more intense psychiatric symptoms. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  17. Supervised and Unsupervised Aspect Category Detection for Sentiment Analysis With Co-Occurrence Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Kim; van der Weijde, Onne; Frasincar, Flavius; Dekker, Rommert

    2017-04-14

    Using online consumer reviews as electronic word of mouth to assist purchase-decision making has become increasingly popular. The Web provides an extensive source of consumer reviews, but one can hardly read all reviews to obtain a fair evaluation of a product or service. A text processing framework that can summarize reviews, would therefore be desirable. A subtask to be performed by such a framework would be to find the general aspect categories addressed in review sentences, for which this paper presents two methods. In contrast to most existing approaches, the first method presented is an unsupervised method that applies association rule mining on co-occurrence frequency data obtained from a corpus to find these aspect categories. While not on par with state-of-the-art supervised methods, the proposed unsupervised method performs better than several simple baselines, a similar but supervised method, and a supervised baseline, with an ₁-score of 67%. The second method is a supervised variant that outperforms existing methods with an F₁-score of 84%.

  18. Current Situation of Mycotoxin Contamination and Co-occurrence in Animal Feed—Focus on Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle P. Oswald

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi especially those belonging to the genus Aspergillus, Penicillum and Fusarium. Mycotoxin contamination can occur in all agricultural commodities in the field and/or during storage, if conditions are favourable to fungal growth. Regarding animal feed, five mycotoxins (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins and ochratoxin A are covered by EU legislation (regulation or recommendation. Transgressions of these limits are rarely observed in official monitoring programs. However, low level contamination by Fusarium toxins is very common (e.g., deoxynivalenol (DON is typically found in more than 50% of the samples and co-contamination is frequently observed. Multi-mycotoxin studies reported 75%–100% of the samples to contain more than one mycotoxin which could impact animal health at already low doses. Co-occurrence of mycotoxins is likely to arise for at least three different reasons (i most fungi are able to simultaneously produce a number of mycotoxins, (ii commodities can be contaminated by several fungi, and (iii completed feed is made from various commodities. In the present paper, we reviewed the data published since 2004 concerning the contamination of animal feed with single or combinations of mycotoxins  and highlighted the occurrence of these co-contaminations.

  19. Current situation of mycotoxin contamination and co-occurrence in animal feed--focus on Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Elisabeth; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Tassis, Panagiotis; Tzika, Eleni; Marin, Daniela; Taranu, Ionelia; Tabuc, Cristina; Nicolau, Anca; Aprodu, Iuliana; Puel, Olivier; Oswald, Isabelle P

    2012-10-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi especially those belonging to the genus Aspergillus, Penicillum and Fusarium. Mycotoxin contamination can occur in all agricultural commodities in the field and/or during storage, if conditions are favourable to fungal growth. Regarding animal feed, five mycotoxins (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins and ochratoxin A) are covered by EU legislation (regulation or recommendation). Transgressions of these limits are rarely observed in official monitoring programs. However, low level contamination by Fusarium toxins is very common (e.g., deoxynivalenol (DON) is typically found in more than 50% of the samples) and co-contamination is frequently observed. Multi-mycotoxin studies reported 75%-100% of the samples to contain more than one mycotoxin which could impact animal health at already low doses. Co-occurrence of mycotoxins is likely to arise for at least three different reasons (i) most fungi are able to simultaneously produce a number of mycotoxins, (ii) commodities can be contaminated by several fungi, and (iii) completed feed is made from various commodities. In the present paper, we reviewed the data published since 2004 concerning the contamination of animal feed with single or combinations of mycotoxins and highlighted the occurrence of these co-contaminations.

  20. Current Situation of Mycotoxin Contamination and Co-occurrence in Animal Feed—Focus on Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Elisabeth; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Tassis, Panagiotis; Tzika, Eleni; Marin, Daniela; Taranu, Ionelia; Tabuc, Cristina; Nicolau, Anca; Aprodu, Iuliana; Puel, Olivier; Oswald, Isabelle P.

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi especially those belonging to the genus Aspergillus, Penicillum and Fusarium. Mycotoxin contamination can occur in all agricultural commodities in the field and/or during storage, if conditions are favourable to fungal growth. Regarding animal feed, five mycotoxins (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins and ochratoxin A) are covered by EU legislation (regulation or recommendation). Transgressions of these limits are rarely observed in official monitoring programs. However, low level contamination by Fusarium toxins is very common (e.g., deoxynivalenol (DON) is typically found in more than 50% of the samples) and co-contamination is frequently observed. Multi-mycotoxin studies reported 75%–100% of the samples to contain more than one mycotoxin which could impact animal health at already low doses. Co-occurrence of mycotoxins is likely to arise for at least three different reasons (i) most fungi are able to simultaneously produce a number of mycotoxins, (ii) commodities can be contaminated by several fungi, and (iii) completed feed is made from various commodities. In the present paper, we reviewed the data published since 2004 concerning the contamination of animal feed with single or combinations of mycotoxins and highlighted the occurrence of these co-contaminations. PMID:23162698

  1. Network analysis of named entity co-occurrences in written texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amancio, Diego Raphael

    2016-06-01

    The use of methods borrowed from statistics and physics to analyze written texts has allowed the discovery of unprecedent patterns of human behavior and cognition by establishing links between models features and language structure. While current models have been useful to unveil patterns via analysis of syntactical and semantical networks, only a few works have probed the relevance of investigating the structure arising from the relationship between relevant entities such as characters, locations and organizations. In this study, we represent entities appearing in the same context as a co-occurrence network, where links are established according to a null model based on random, shuffled texts. Computational simulations performed in novels revealed that the proposed model displays interesting topological features, such as the small world feature, characterized by high values of clustering coefficient. The effectiveness of our model was verified in a practical pattern recognition task in real networks. When compared with traditional word adjacency networks, our model displayed optimized results in identifying unknown references in texts. Because the proposed representation plays a complementary role in characterizing unstructured documents via topological analysis of named entities, we believe that it could be useful to improve the characterization of written texts (and related systems), specially if combined with traditional approaches based on statistical and deeper paradigms.

  2. Co-occurrence of psychiatric and medical morbidity in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, L G; Tessler, R C; Nycz, G R

    1983-02-01

    This study examines the co-occurrence of psychiatric and medical morbidity in primary care patients utilizing a health care clinic in Marshfield, Wisconsin. Previous research has shown that individuals with psychiatric disorders have higher rates of medical illness than people without psychiatric illness, but most prior studies have tended to confound the measures of psychiatric and medical morbidity. In addition, appropriate controls for bias resulting from different medical utilization patterns have sometimes been absent. The present study reports the medical diagnoses of persons who had been assessed for psychiatric disorder with a standardized psychiatric interview using research diagnostic criteria independent of their medical assessment. Psychiatric diagnoses are analyzed in relation to medical diagnoses at the time of the interview and for a one-year period--six months before and six months after that date. The results indicate that persons with mental disorder diagnoses have significantly more morbidity for the one-year study period. Although considerable congruence exists in the physical diagnoses recorded for both groups, those with mental disorders are more likely to have diagnoses of the digestive and genitourinary systems. Some sex differences are also explored.

  3. Design-based texture feature fusion using Gabor filters and co-occurrence probabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausi, David A; Deng, Huang

    2005-07-01

    A design-based method to fuse Gabor filter and grey level co-occurrence probability (GLCP) features for improved texture recognition is presented. The fused feature set utilizes both the Gabor filter's capability of accurately capturing lower and mid-frequency texture information and the GLCP's capability in texture information relevant to higher frequency components. Evaluation methods include comparing feature space separability and comparing image segmentation classification rates. The fused feature sets are demonstrated to produce higher feature space separations, as well as higher segmentation accuracies relative to the individual feature sets. Fused feature sets also outperform individual feature sets for noisy images, across different noise magnitudes. The curse of dimensionality is demonstrated not to affect segmentation using the proposed the 48-dimensional fused feature set. Gabor magnitude responses produce higher segmentation accuracies than linearly normalized Gabor magnitude responses. Feature reduction using principal component analysis is acceptable for maintaining the segmentation performance, but feature reduction using the feature contrast method dramatically reduced the segmentation accuracy. Overall, the designed fused feature set is advocated as a means for improving texture segmentation performance.

  4. Co-occurrence of protective health behaviours and perceived psychosocial job characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera J.C. Mc Carthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the association between positive job characteristics of older workers and the co-occurrence of protective health behaviours. This study aims to investigate the association between perceived psychosocial job characteristics and the adoption of protective health behaviours. A population-based cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 1025 males and females (age-range 50–69-years attending a primary healthcare clinic. Perceived job characteristics (job demands: quantitative and cognitive demands; resources: possibility for development and influence at work were determined using the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. Each scale is presented in tertiles. Protective health behaviours were; consumption of five or more portions of fruit and vegetables a day, moderate alcohol, non/ex-smoker, and high and moderate physical activity. Each participant was scored 0–4 protective health behaviours. The majority of the sample had three protective health behaviours. Higher levels of influence at work and cognitive demands were associated with higher self-reported physical activity, but not with any number of protective health behaviours. Conversely, higher quantitative and higher cognitive demands were associated with reporting any number of protective health behaviours or above average number of protective health behaviours respectively. The findings on protective health behaviours were inconsistent in relation to the different measures of perceived psychosocial job characteristics and were largely confined to physical activity and diet.

  5. Social Location, social integration, and the co-occurrence of substance abuse and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio, Kimberly A; Lo, Celia C

    2011-07-01

    In the United States, social stratification has generally led individuals occupying lower social locations to have more health problems than other individuals, even acknowledging that social groups are distinguished by their particular manifestations of health problems. This study examined whether two social integration factors, marriage and religiosity, mediate the relationship between social location and co-occurrence of substance abuse and psychological distress and the nature of this relationship. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted on data from a national sample of 34,650 adults mostly between the ages of 18 to 35, collected through the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. White males who were lesser educated and living in poverty were more likely to exhibit co-occuring substance abuse and psychological distress than their demographically similar counterparts. Additionally, being married and religious appeared to be protective factors within the overall study cohort with fewer co-occurring behaviors reported. The data generally confirm the hypothesis concerning mediating roles for religiosity and marriage. Confirmation that marriage and religiosity can protect adults against co-occurring substance abuse and psychological distress potentially provides the information necessary to better target health policy and interventions that serve to further enhance the population?s mental health.

  6. DETEKSI GERAK OTOT FRONTALIS BERBASIS CITRA 3 DIMENSI MENGGUNAKAN GRAY LEVEL CO-OCCURRENCE MATRIX (GLCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardianto wibowo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ekspresi wajah atau mimik merupakan salah satu dari hasil gerak otot pada wajah. Dalam kamus besar bahasa Indonesia, ekspresi merupakan pengungkapan atau proses menyatakan, yaitu memperlihatkan atau menyatakan maksud, gagasan perasaan dan lain sebagainya. Ekspresi wajah atau mimik dipengaruhi oleh saraf tujuh atau nervuse facialis. Dalam penelitian yang dilakukan paul ekman didapat sebuah standarisasi ekspresi dalam format pergerakkan yang disebut dengan Facial Action Coding System (FACS. Dalam penelitiannya paul ekman menyatakan enam ekspresi dasar yaitu bahagia, sedih, terkejut, takut, marah dan jijik. Dalam anatomy otot, bahwa setiap otot yang bergerak pasti terjadi kontraksi, dan pada saat terjadi kontraksi, otot akan mengembang atau mengelembung. Otot dibagai menjadi tiga bagian yaitu origo dan insersio sebagai ujung otot dan belly sebagai titik tengah otot, jadi setiap terjadi gerakkan maka otot bagian beli akan mengembang atau menggelembung. Teknik pengambilan data yaitu dengan merekam data dalam bentuk 3D, setiap terjadi kontraksi maka otot bagian beli akan mengelembung dan data inilah yang akan diolah dan dibandingkan. Dari pengolahan data ini akan didapat kekuatan maksimum kontraksi yang akan dipakai sebagai acuan untuk besaran pergeseran otot khususnya pada otot frontalis. Dalam deteksi pergerakkan akan menggunakan metode gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM, dan akan didapatkan pula besaran pergeseran otot secara maksimal. Dari hasil pengujian didapatkan nilai pergeseran pergerakkan otot sebesar 1,367 – 4,460.

  7. Extended gray level co-occurrence matrix computation for 3D image volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Nurulazirah M.; Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti Octorina

    2017-02-01

    Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) is one of the main techniques for texture analysis that has been widely used in many applications. Conventional GLCMs usually focus on two-dimensional (2D) image texture analysis only. However, a three-dimensional (3D) image volume requires specific texture analysis computation. In this paper, an extended 2D to 3D GLCM approach based on the concept of multiple 2D plane positions and pixel orientation directions in the 3D environment is proposed. The algorithm was implemented by breaking down the 3D image volume into 2D slices based on five different plane positions (coordinate axes and oblique axes) resulting in 13 independent directions, then calculating the GLCMs. The resulted GLCMs were averaged to obtain normalized values, then the 3D texture features were calculated. A preliminary examination was performed on a 3D image volume (64 x 64 x 64 voxels). Our analysis confirmed that the proposed technique is capable of extracting the 3D texture features from the extended GLCMs approach. It is a simple and comprehensive technique that can contribute to the 3D image analysis.

  8. Co-Occurrence of ODD and CD in Preschool Children With Symptoms of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendiksen, Bothild; Svensson, Elisabeth; Aase, Heidi; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Friis, Svein; Myhre, Anne M; Zeiner, Pål

    2017-07-01

    Patterns of co-occurrence between ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Conduct Disorder (CD) were examined in a sample of non-referred preschool children. ADHD subtypes and sex differences were also explored. Children aged 3.5 years ( n = 1,048) with high scores on ADHD characteristics were recruited from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study and clinically assessed, including a semi-structured psychiatric interview. In children with ADHD, concurrent ODD was present more often than CD (31% vs. 10%), but having ADHD gave higher increase in the odds of CD than of ODD (ODD: odds ratio [OR] = 6.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [4.2, 10.8]; CD: OR = 17.6, 95% CI = [5.9, 52.9]). We found a greater proportion of children having the combined ADHD subtype as well as more severe inattentiveness among children with co-occurring CD compared with ODD. Sex differences were minor. There are important differences in co-occurring patterns of ODD and CD in preschool children with ADHD.

  9. Comparison of directed and weighted co-occurrence networks of six languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuyang; Liang, Wei; Shi, Yuming; Huang, Qiuling

    2014-01-01

    To study commonalities and differences among different languages, we select 100 reports from the documents of the United Nations, each of which was written in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish languages, separately. Based on these corpora, we construct 6 weighted and directed word co-occurrence networks. Besides all the networks exhibit scale-free and small-world features, we find several new non-trivial results, including connections among English words are denser, and the expression of English language is more flexible and powerful; the connection way among Spanish words is more stringent and this indicates that the Spanish grammar is more rigorous; values of many statistical parameters of the French and Spanish networks are very approximate and this shows that these two languages share many commonalities; Arabic and Russian words have many varieties, which result in rich types of words and a sparse connection among words; connections among Chinese words obey a more uniform distribution, and one inclines to use the least number of Chinese words to express the same complex information as those in other five languages. This shows that the expression of Chinese language is quite concise. In addition, several topics worth further investigating by the complex network approach have been observed in this study.

  10. A novel method for morphological pleomorphism and heterogeneity quantitative measurement: Named cell feature level co-occurrence matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Akira; Numata, Yasushi; Hamada, Takuya; Horisawa, Tomoyoshi; Cosatto, Eric; Graf, Hans-Peter; Kuroda, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in molecular pathology and genetic/epigenetic analysis of cancer tissue have resulted in a marked increase in objective and measurable data. In comparison, the traditional morphological analysis approach to pathology diagnosis, which can connect these molecular data and clinical diagnosis, is still mostly subjective. Even though the advent and popularization of digital pathology has provided a boost to computer-aided diagnosis, some important pathological concepts still remain largely non-quantitative and their associated data measurements depend on the pathologist's sense and experience. Such features include pleomorphism and heterogeneity. In this paper, we propose a method for the objective measurement of pleomorphism and heterogeneity, using the cell-level co-occurrence matrix. Our method is based on the widely used Gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), where relations between neighboring pixel intensity levels are captured into a co-occurrence matrix, followed by the application of analysis functions such as Haralick features. In the pathological tissue image, through image processing techniques, each nucleus can be measured and each nucleus has its own measureable features like nucleus size, roundness, contour length, intra-nucleus texture data (GLCM is one of the methods). In GLCM each nucleus in the tissue image corresponds to one pixel. In this approach the most important point is how to define the neighborhood of each nucleus. We define three types of neighborhoods of a nucleus, then create the co-occurrence matrix and apply Haralick feature functions. In each image pleomorphism and heterogeneity are then determined quantitatively. For our method, one pixel corresponds to one nucleus feature, and we therefore named our method Cell Feature Level Co-occurrence Matrix (CFLCM). We tested this method for several nucleus features. CFLCM is showed as a useful quantitative method for pleomorphism and heterogeneity on histopathological image

  11. Stay for the Children? Husband Violence, Marital Stability, and Children's Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Clifton R.

    2009-01-01

    Much research has argued for the existence of a marriage benefit to men, women, and children. Although the commonly suggested current response to a husband's violence has been for the couple to separate, traditionally women were often told to "stay for the children." This paper uses the Project on Human Development in Chicago…

  12. Co-occurrence of methanogenesis and N{sub 2} fixation in oil sands tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, C.E. Victoria [Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G7 (Canada); Foght, Julia M. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E9 (Canada); Siddique, Tariq, E-mail: tariq.siddique@ualberta.ca [Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G7 (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    Oil sands tailings ponds in northern Alberta, Canada have been producing biogenic gases via microbial metabolism of hydrocarbons for decades. Persistent methanogenic activity in tailings ponds without any known replenishment of nutrients such as fixed nitrogen (N) persuaded us to investigate whether N{sub 2} fixation or polyacrylamide (PAM; used as a tailings flocculant) could serve as N sources. Cultures comprising mature fine tailings (MFT) plus methanogenic medium supplemented with or deficient in fixed N were incubated under an N{sub 2} headspace. Some cultures were further amended with citrate, which is used in oil sands processing, as a relevant carbon source, and/or with PAM. After an initial delay, N-deficient cultures with or without PAM produced methane (CH{sub 4}) at the same rate as N-containing cultures, indicating a mechanism of overcoming apparent N-deficiency. Acetylene reduction and {sup 15}N{sub 2} incorporation in all N-deficient cultures (with or without PAM) suggested active N{sub 2} fixation concurrently with methanogenesis but inability to use PAM as a N source. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing revealed little difference between archaeal populations regardless of N content. However, bacterial sequences in N-deficient cultures showed enrichment of Hyphomicrobiaceae and Clostridium members that might contain N{sub 2}-fixing species. The results are important in understanding long-term production of biogenic greenhouse gases in oil sands tailings. - Highlights: • Methanogenesis in oil sands tailings can occur under nitrogen depleted conditions. • {sup 15}N{sub 2} isotopic analysis reveals that indigenous microbes can fix N{sub 2} for microbial metabolism and methanogenesis. • 16S rRNA gene analysis suggests that members of Hyphomicrobiaceae and Clostridium may be involved in N{sub 2} fixation. • This is the first report that describes co-occurrence of methanogenesis and nitrogen fixation in oil sands tailings.

  13. Snake co-occurrence patterns are best explained by habitat and hypothesized effects of interspecific interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, David A; McClure, Christopher J W; Brock, Jean C; Craig Rudolph, D; Pierce, Josh B; Lee, James R; Jeffrey Humphries, W; Gregory, Beau B; Sutton, William B; Smith, Lora L; Baxley, Danna L; Stevenson, Dirk J; Guyer, Craig

    2014-01-01

    affected by landscape-scale habitat features. Furthermore, we suggest that current interspecific interactions may influence snake occupancy, challenging the paradigm that contemporary patterns of snake co-occurrence are largely a function of diet partitioning that arose over evolutionary time. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  14. A Multichannel Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix for Multi/Hyperspectral Image Texture Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Huang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a novel method for multichannel image gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM texture representation. It is well known that the standard procedure for the automatic extraction of GLCM textures is based on a mono-spectral image. In real applications, however, the GLCM texture feature extraction always refers to multi/hyperspectral images. The widely used strategy to deal with this issue is to calculate the GLCM from the first principal component or the panchromatic band, which do not include all the useful information. Accordingly, in this study, we propose to represent the multichannel textures for multi/hyperspectral imagery by the use of: (1 clustering algorithms; and (2 sparse representation, respectively. In this way, the multi/hyperspectral images can be described using a series of quantized codes or dictionaries, which are more suitable for multichannel texture representation than the traditional methods. Specifically, K-means and fuzzy c-means methods are adopted to generate the codes of an image from the clustering point of view, while a sparse dictionary learning method based on two coding rules is proposed to produce the texture primitives. The proposed multichannel GLCM textural extraction methods were evaluated with four multi/hyperspectral datasets: GeoEye-1 and QuickBird multispectral images of the city of Wuhan, the well-known AVIRIS hyperspectral dataset from the Indian Pines test site, and the HYDICE airborne hyperspectral dataset from the Washington DC Mall. The results show that both the clustering-based and sparsity-based GLCM textures outperform the traditional method (extraction based on the first principal component in terms of classification accuracies in all the experiments.

  15. The core populations and co-occurrence patterns of prokaryotic communities in household biogas digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Junpeng; Li, Jiabao; Zhang, Shiheng; Yan, Xuefeng; Wang, Yuanpeng; Li, Xiangzhen

    2015-01-01

    Household biogas digesters are widely used to harvest energy in rural areas of developing countries. Understanding core prokaryotic communities, their co-occurrence patterns, and their relationships to environmental factors is important to manage these small-scale anaerobic digestion systems effectively. In this study, 43 household biogas digesters were collected across eight provinces in China. Prokaryotic communities were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Fourteen core genera and ten core OTUs were identified in household biogas digesters. They were mainly affiliated with the phylum Firmicutes, Synergistetes, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Spirochaetes. Core prokaryotic genera were mainly composed of Clostridium, Clostridium XI, Syntrophomonas, Cloacibacillus, Sedimentibacter, and Turicibacter. Prokaryotic communities in the 43 samples were clearly divided into two clusters. Cluster I was dominated by Clostridium, while Cluster II was dominated by members of Spirochaetes, Bacteroidales, Clostridia, and abundant syntrophs and methanogens. NH4 (+)-N and COD contributed significantly to the assembly of the prokaryotic community in Cluster I, while NH4 (+)-N, pH, and phosphate contributed significantly to Cluster II. Correlation-based network analysis showed that the prokaryotic communities in the biogas digesters were dominated by some functional modules. Cluster I was dominated by acetotrophic methanogenic modules and the Clostridium-driven primary fermentation module, while the network of Cluster II was dominated by hydrogenotrophic and acetogenic methanogenesis modules and multi-group-driven (Spirochaetes, Bacteroidales, and Clostridia) primary fermentation modules. The network of Cluster II was more complex and functionally redundant. Prokaryotic communities identified in the household biogas digesters varied significantly and were affected by environmental factors, such as NH4 (+)-N, pH, and COD. However, core prokaryotic communities

  16. The Co-Occurrence of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Parents of Children with ASD or ASD with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steijn, Daphne J.; Richards, Jennifer S.; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; de Ruiter, Saskia W.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan. K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share about 50-72% of their genetic factors, which is the most likely explanation for their frequent co-occurrence within the same patient or family. An additional or alternative explanation for the co-occurrence may be (cross-)assortative mating, e.g.,…

  17. The Co- Occurrence of Autism and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children-what do we know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael eLeitner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD often co-occur. The DSM IV had specified that an ASD diagnosis is an exclusion criterion for ADHD, thereby limiting research of this common clinical co-occurrence. As neurodevelopmental disorders, both ASD and ADHD share some phenotypic similarities, but are characterized by distinct diagnostic criteria. The present review will examine the frequency and implications of this clinical co-occurrence in children, with an emphasis on the available data regarding preschool age. The review will highlight possible etiologies explaining it, and suggest future research directions necessary to enhance our understanding of both etiology and therapeutic interventions, in light of the new DSM V criteria , allowing for a dual diagnosis.

  18. Antibiotic resistance genes and human bacterial pathogens: Co-occurrence, removal, and enrichment in municipal sewage sludge digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Feng; Li, Bing; Ma, Liping; Wang, Yubo; Huang, Danping; Zhang, Tong

    2016-03-15

    Understanding which/how antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) contribute to increased acquisition of resistance by pathogens in aquatic environments are challenges of profound significance. We explored the co-occurrence and removal versus enrichment of ARGs and human bacterial pathogens (HBPs) in municipal sewage sludge digesters. We combined metagenomic detection of a wide spectrum of 323 ARGs and 83 HBPs with a correlation-based statistical approach and charted a network of their co-occurrence relationships. The results indicate that most ARGs and a minor proportion of HBPs (mainly Collinsella aerofaciens, Streptococcus salivarius and Gordonia bronchialis) could not be removed by anaerobic digestion, revealing a biological risk of post-digestion sludge in disseminating antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity. Moreover, preferential co-occurrence patterns were evident within one ARG type (e.g., multidrug, beta-lactam, and aminoglycoside) and between two different ARG types (i.e., aminoglycoside and beta-lactam), possibly implicating co-effects of antibiotic selection pressure and co-resistance on shaping antibiotic resistome in sewage sludge. Unlike beta-lactam resistance genes, ARGs of multidrug and macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin tended to co-occur more with HBPs. Strikingly, we presented evidence that the most straightforward biological origin of an ARG-species co-occurring event is a hosting relationship. Furthermore, a significant and robust HBP-species co-occurrence correlation provides a proper scenario for nominating HBP indicators (e.g., Bifidobacterium spp. are perfect indicators of C. aerofaciens; r = 0.92-0.99 and P-values < 0.01). Combined, this study demonstrates a creative and effective network-based metagenomic approach for exploring ARG hosts and HBP indicators and assessing ARGs acquisition by HBPs in human-impacted environments where ARGs and HBPs may co-thrive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Co-occurrence of resistance genes to antibiotics, biocides and metals reveals novel insights into their co-selection potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Chandan; Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Kristiansson, Erik; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2015-11-17

    Antibacterial biocides and metals can co-select for antibiotic resistance when bacteria harbour resistance or tolerance genes towards both types of compounds. Despite numerous case studies, systematic and quantitative data on co-occurrence of such genes on plasmids and chromosomes is lacking, as is knowledge on environments and bacterial taxa that tend to carry resistance genes to such compounds. This effectively prevents identification of risk scenarios. Therefore, we aimed to identify general patterns for which biocide/metal resistance genes (BMRGs) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) that tend to occur together. We also aimed to quantify co-occurrence of resistance genes in different environments and taxa, and investigate to what extent plasmids carrying both types of genes are conjugative and/or are carrying toxin-antitoxin systems. Co-occurrence patterns of resistance genes were derived from publicly available, fully sequenced bacterial genomes (n = 2522) and plasmids (n = 4582). The only BMRGs commonly co-occurring with ARGs on plasmids were mercury resistance genes and the qacE∆1 gene that provides low-level resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds. Novel connections between cadmium/zinc and macrolide/aminoglycoside resistance genes were also uncovered. Several clinically important bacterial taxa were particularly prone to carry both BMRGs and ARGs. Bacteria carrying BMRGs more often carried ARGs compared to bacteria without (p genes. This is the first large-scale identification of compounds, taxa and environments of particular concern for co-selection of resistance against antibiotics, biocides and metals. Genetic co-occurrences suggest that plasmids provide limited opportunities for biocides and metals to promote horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance through co-selection, whereas ample possibilities exist for indirect selection via chromosomal BMRGs. Taken together, the derived patterns improve our understanding of co-selection potential

  20. Positive Association of Fibroadenomatoid Change with HER2-Negative Invasive Breast Cancer: A Co-Occurrence Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqin Chen

    Full Text Available Risk assessment of a benign breast disease/lesion (BBD for invasive breast cancer (IBC is typically done through a longitudinal study. For an infrequently-reported BBD, the shortage of occurrence data alone is a limiting factor to conducting such a study. Here we present an approach based on co-occurrence analysis, to help address this issue. We focus on fibroadenomatoid change (FAC, an under-studied BBD, as our preliminary analysis has suggested its previously unknown significant co-occurrence with IBC.A cohort of 1667 female patients enrolled in the Clinical Breast Care Project was identified. A single experienced breast pathologist reviewed all pathology slides for each case and recorded all observed lesions, including FAC. Fibroadenoma (FA was studied for comparison since FAC had been speculated to be an immature FA. FA and Fibrocystic Changes (FCC were used for method validation since they have been comprehensively studied. Six common IBC and BBD risk/protective factors were also studied. Co-occurrence analyses were performed using logistic regression models.Common risk/protective factors were associated with FA, FCC, and IBC in ways consistent with the literature in general, and they were associated with FAC, FA, and FCC in distinct patterns. Age was associated with FAC in a bell-shape curve so that middle-aged women were more likely to have FAC. We report for the first time that FAC is positively associated with IBC with odds ratio (OR depending on BMI (OR = 6.78, 95%CI = 3.43-13.42 at BMI25 kg/m2. This association is only significant with HER2-negative IBC subtypes.We conclude that FAC is a candidate risk factor for HER2-negative IBCs, and it is a distinct disease from FA. Co-occurrence analysis can be used for initial assessment of the risk for IBC from a BBD, which is vital to the study of infrequently-reported BBDs.

  1. Positive Association of Fibroadenomatoid Change with HER2-Negative Invasive Breast Cancer: A Co-Occurrence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovatich, Albert J.; Hooke, Jeffrey A.; Liu, Jianfang; Kvecher, Leonid; Fantacone-Campbell, J. Leigh; Mitchell, Edith P.; Rui, Hallgeir; Shriver, Craig D.; Hu, Hai

    2015-01-01

    Background Risk assessment of a benign breast disease/lesion (BBD) for invasive breast cancer (IBC) is typically done through a longitudinal study. For an infrequently-reported BBD, the shortage of occurrence data alone is a limiting factor to conducting such a study. Here we present an approach based on co-occurrence analysis, to help address this issue. We focus on fibroadenomatoid change (FAC), an under-studied BBD, as our preliminary analysis has suggested its previously unknown significant co-occurrence with IBC. Methods A cohort of 1667 female patients enrolled in the Clinical Breast Care Project was identified. A single experienced breast pathologist reviewed all pathology slides for each case and recorded all observed lesions, including FAC. Fibroadenoma (FA) was studied for comparison since FAC had been speculated to be an immature FA. FA and Fibrocystic Changes (FCC) were used for method validation since they have been comprehensively studied. Six common IBC and BBD risk/protective factors were also studied. Co-occurrence analyses were performed using logistic regression models. Results Common risk/protective factors were associated with FA, FCC, and IBC in ways consistent with the literature in general, and they were associated with FAC, FA, and FCC in distinct patterns. Age was associated with FAC in a bell-shape curve so that middle-aged women were more likely to have FAC. We report for the first time that FAC is positively associated with IBC with odds ratio (OR) depending on BMI (OR = 6.78, 95%CI = 3.43-13.42 at BMI25 kg/m2). This association is only significant with HER2-negative IBC subtypes. Conclusions We conclude that FAC is a candidate risk factor for HER2-negative IBCs, and it is a distinct disease from FA. Co-occurrence analysis can be used for initial assessment of the risk for IBC from a BBD, which is vital to the study of infrequently-reported BBDs. PMID:26098961

  2. The incidence, co-occurrence, and predictors of dysphagia, dysarthria, and aphasia after first-ever acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Heather L; Silver, Frank L; Fang, Jiming; Rochon, Elizabeth; Martino, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Dysphagia, dysarthria and aphasia occur frequently following stroke. Our purpose was to identify the incidence, co-occurrence, and predictors of these impairments after first-ever ischemic stroke. We used the Registry of the Canadian Stroke Network's database (2003-2008) from one stroke center to identify a random sample of 250 patients with acute ischemic stroke confirmed by MR imaging. We further conducted a retrospective medical chart review. We established reliable data capture and identified the presence of the three impairments. We derived incidence and co-occurrence estimates along with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dysphagia, dysarthria, and aphasia. We then computed odds ratios (OR) through logistic regression to identify predictors. Twenty-nine patient charts were not available for review. Estimates of the incidence of dysphagia, dysarthria, and aphasia were 44% (95% CI, 38-51), 42% (95% CI, 35-48) and 30% (95% CI, 25-37), respectively. The highest co-occurrence of any two impairments was 28% (95% CI, 23-34) for the presence of both dysphagia and dysarthria. Ten percent of all 221 patients had all three impairments. The highest predictors were non-alert level of consciousness for dysphagia (OR 2.6, CI 1.03-6.5), symptoms of weakness for dysarthria (OR 5.3, CI 2.4-12.0), and right-sided symptoms for aphasia (OR 7.1, CI 3.1-16.6). These findings are a first step toward identifying the incidence and predictors of multiple co-occurring impairments in a homogenous stroke sample. Learning outcomes: Readers will be able to (1) RECOGNIZE the need for research in stroke, whereby outcomes are reported according to stroke etiology and recurrence patterns, (2) identify the incidence and co-occurrence of dysphagia, dysarthria, and aphasia after a first-ever acute ischemic stroke, and (3) describe clinical precursors of these impairments in the acute stage of stroke. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigating the Co-Occurrence of Self-Mutilation and Suicide Attempts among Opioid-Dependent Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Maloney, Elizabeth; Degenhardt, Louisa; Darke, Shane; Nelson, Elliot C.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence and risk factors associated with self-mutilation among opioid dependent cases and controls were determined, and the co-occurrence of self-mutilation and attempted suicide was examined. The prevalence of self-mutilation among cases and controls did not differ significantly (25% vs. 23%, respectively), with gender differences identified among cases only. A number of risk factors were found to be associated with self-mutilation, including borderline personality disorder, alcohol d...

  4. Evaluation of Likelihood of Co-Occurrence of Erwinia amylovora with Mature Fruit of Winter Pear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Todd N; Stockwell, Virginia O; Pusey, P Lawrence; Johnson, Kenneth B

    2007-10-01

    ABSTRACT Phytosanitary concerns about fire blight prohibit export of U.S.-grown pears to some countries without this disease. To examine these concerns, we evaluated the potential for co-occurrence of Erwinia amylovora with mature, symptomless winter pear fruit by inoculation experiments and by survey of commercial orchards. Immature pear and apple fruit were inoculated in orchards with E. amylovora strain 153N as resuspended lyophilized cells or as ooze from diseased tissues. Regardless of inoculum source, population size of Ea153N on fruit declined by an order of magnitude every 3 to 4 days during the first 2 weeks after inoculation; at 56 days after inoculation, Ea153N was not detected, except on 1 of 450 fruit with 4 colony forming units (CFU). After inoculation of flowers, calyx-end survival of Ea153N on pear and apple fruit declined from high populations at petal fall to a few cells at harvest, with no detection of the pathogen after a 7-week cold storage. Migration of Ea153N into symptomless pear fruit from diseased branches was evaluated by enrichment assay and nested polymerase chain reaction of internal fruit core tissues; these assays failed to detect the pathogen in healthy fruit from diseased trees. At harvest, E. amylovora could not be detected on 5,599 of 5,600 fruit of d'Anjou pear sampled from commercial orchards in major production areas of the Pacific Northwest; one fruit yielded 32 CFU of the pathogen. Postharvest, mature pear fruit contaminated with Ea153N and subsequently wounded required a dose of >10,000 cells at the wound site to allow for persistence of the pathogen through a 7-week-cold storage. We conclude that epiphytic E. amylovora shows similar survival characteristics on both pear and apple fruit, this pathogen is not an endophyte within mature symptomless pear fruit, its presence is exceptionally rare on commercially produced fruit, and that epiphytic survival of E. amylovora through a postharvest chilling period is unlikely given

  5. Transdiagnostic Treatment of Co-occurrence of Anxiety and Depressive Disorders based on Repetitive Negative Thinking: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Akbari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: The transdiagnostic cognitive behavioral treatments for treating the coexistence of anxiety and mood disorders received useful empirical supports in the recent years. However, these treatments still have moderate efficacy. Following the improvements and developments in transdiagnostic protocols and considering the importance of repetitive negative thinking as a core transdiagnostic factor in emotional disorders, this study examined a new form of transdiagnostic treatment based on Repetitive Negative Thinking (TTRNT of co-occurrence of anxiety and depressive disorders.  Methods:Treatment efficacy was assessed using single case series with multiple baselines. Three patients meeting the criteria for co-occurrence of anxiety and depressive disorders were selected using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV. The patients were treated individually for 12 weekly sessions. Participants completed the standardized outcome measures during the baseline, treatment and one-month follow-up. Results:At post-treatment, all participants showed significant clinical changes on a range of standardized outcome measures, and these gains were largely maintained through the one-month follow-up both in the principle and co-principal diagnosis. Conclusions:Although the results of this preliminary investigation indicated that TTRNT could be a time effective and efficient treatment for individuals with co-occurrence of anxiety and depressive disorders, further controlled clinical trials are necessary to examine this new treatment approach.

  6. A primer on the use of cluster analysis or factor analysis to assess co-occurrence of risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Hedwig; Dusseldorp, Elise; van Empelen, Pepijn; Paulussen, Theo W G M

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a guideline to a universal understanding of the analysis of co-occurrence of risk behaviors. The use of cluster analysis and factor analysis was clarified. A theoretical introduction to cluster analysis and factor analysis and examples from literature were provided. A representative sample (N=4395) of the Dutch population, aged 16-40 and participating from fall 2005 to spring 2006, was used to illustrate the use of both techniques in assessing the co-occurrence of risk behaviors. Whereas cluster analysis techniques serve to focus on particular clusters of individuals showing the same behavioral pattern, factor analysis techniques are used to assess possible groups of interrelated health-risk behaviors that can be explained by an unknown common source. Choice between the techniques partly depends on the research question and the aim of the research, and has different implications for inferences and policy. By integrating theory and results from an illustrative example, a guideline has been provided that contributes towards a systematic approach in the assessment of co-occurrence of risk behaviors. Following this guideline, a better comparison between outcomes from various studies is expected, leading to improved effectiveness of multiple behavior change interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Co-occurrence patterns along a regional aridity gradient of the subtropical Andes do not support stress gradient hypotheses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Pablo López

    Full Text Available The stress gradient hypothesis posits that facilitation and stress are positively correlated. The hump-shaped hypothesis, on the contrary, proposes that facilitation is greater at intermediate stress levels. The relationship between facilitation and environmental stress is commonly studied at small spatial scales and/or considering few species; thus, the implications of facilitation at a community level remain poorly understood. Here, we analyzed local co-occurrence patterns of all plant species at 25 sites within the subtropical Andes to evaluate the role of facilitation and competition as drivers of community structure. We considered a wide latitudinal gradient (19-26°S that incorporates great variation in aridity. No previous studies have attempted to study these patterns across such a broad scale in warm deserts. Each locality was sampled at two scales (quadrat and patch, and co-occurrence was analyzed via null models. Furthermore, we tested for a relationship between plant co-occurrences and environmental aridity. Resulting patterns depended on life form. When all species were considered, negative associations were found, indicating competition. Woody/cactus life forms tended to be associated across communities, suggesting that there is facilitation between these life forms. Additionally, and unlike previous studies, we found positive associations among shrubs. The strength of the association between woody species changed non-monotonically with aridity. Herbs showed an inverted hump-shaped relationship, albeit ranging mostly among neutral values. Independent of the association type exhibited by different life forms, our community level results do not support current stress gradient hypotheses.

  8. Co-occurrence analysis of microbial taxa in the Atlantic Ocean reveals high connectivity in the free-living bacterioplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias eMilici

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We determined the taxonomic composition of the bacterioplankton of the epipelagic zone of the Atlantic Ocean along a latitudinal transect (51°S – 47°N using Illumina sequencing of the V5-V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene and inferred co-occurrence networks. Bacterioplankon community composition was distinct for Longhurstian provinces and water depth. Free-living microbial communities (between 0.22-3 µm were dominated by highly abundant and ubiquitous taxa with streamlined genomes (e.g. SAR11, SAR86, OM1, Prochlorococcus and could clearly be separated from particle-associated communities which were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Planktomycetes, Verrucomicrobia and Roseobacters. From a total of 369 different communities we then inferred co-occurrence networks for each size fraction and depth layer of the plankton between bacteria and between bacteria and phototrophic micro-eukaryotes. The inferred networks showed a reduction of edges in the deepest layer of the photic zone. Networks comprised of free-living bacteria had a larger amount of connections per OTU when compared to the particle associated communities throughout the water column. Negative correlations accounted for roughly one third of the total edges in the free-living communities at all depths, while they decreased with depth in the particle associated communities where they amounted for roughly 10% of the total in the last part of the epipelagic zone. Co-occurrence networks of bacteria with phototrophic micro-eukaryotes were not taxon-specific, and dominated by mutual exclusion (~60%. The data show a high degree of specialization to micro-environments in the water column and highlight the importance of interdependencies particularly between free-living bacteria in the upper layers of the epipelagic zone.

  9. Review: Prevalence and co-occurrence of addictions in US ethnic/racial groups: Implications for genetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Susan E; Khoddam, Rubin; Yu, Sheila; Wall, Tamara L; Schwartz, Anna; Sussman, Steve

    2017-08-01

    We conducted a review of the prevalence and co-occurrence of 12 types of addictions in US ethnic/racial groups and discuss the implications of the results for genetic research on addictions. We utilized MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases to review the literature on alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, illicit drugs, gambling, eating/food, internet, sex, love, exercise, work, and shopping. We present results for each addiction based on total US prevalence, prevalence within ethnic groups, and co-occurrence of addictions among ethnic groups when available. This review indicates very little research has examined the interrelationships of addictive behaviors among US ethnic groups. The studies that exist have focused nearly exclusively on comorbidity of substances and gambling behaviors. Overall findings suggest differences among US ethnic groups in prevalence of addictions and in prevalence of addiction among those who use substances or engage in gambling. Almost no ethnic group comparisons of other addictive behaviors including eating/food, internet, love, sex, exercise, work, and shopping were identified in the literature. Despite large-scale research efforts to examine alcohol and substance use disorders in the United States, few studies have been published that examine these addictive behaviors among ethnic groups, and even fewer examine co-occurrence and comorbidity with other addictions. Even with the limited studies, these findings have implications for genetic research on addictive behaviors. We include a discussion of these implications, including issues of population stratification, disaggregation, admixture, and the interplay between genetic and environmental factors in understanding the etiology and treatment of addictions. (Am J Addict 2017;26:424-436). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  10. Alcohol use, smoking and their co-occurrence during pregnancy among Canadian women, 2003 to 2011/12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Shannon; Probst, Charlotte; Quere, Mathilde; Rehm, Jürgen; Popova, Svetlana

    2015-11-01

    The co-occurrence of alcohol use and smoking during pregnancy has been shown to have a negative synergistic effect on fetal and perinatal risks. The objectives were to: 1) obtain an estimate of the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in Canada by province and territory from 2003 to 2011/12; 2) determine if the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy has increased or decreased over time; 3) investigate whether smoking status is differentially associated with alcohol use during pregnancy; and 4) examine the risk factors predictive of alcohol use only, smoking only, and the co-occurrence of alcohol use and smoking during pregnancy. Secondary data analysis was conducted using five cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS; 2003, 2005, 2007/08, 2009/10 and 2011/12). The prevalence of smoking during pregnancy, and 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated by province and territory and by year. The likelihood ratio test was used to determine if the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy has increased or decreased over time. The relationship between smoking status and alcohol use during pregnancy was explored using a quasi-Poisson regression model. A multinomial logistic regression model was utilized to determine which factors were predictive of alcohol use only, smoking only, and the co-occurrence of alcohol use and smoking during pregnancy. In Canada, between 2003 and 2011/12, the weighted pooled prevalence of smoking during pregnancy was 14.3% (95% CI: 13.6%-15.0%). Women who smoked daily during pregnancy, occasionally during pregnancy, or had a lifetime history of smoking (but did not smoke while pregnant) were 2.54 (95% CI: 2.11-3.06, P woman consumed alcohol while pregnant. Ascertaining smoking status among pregnant women and women of childbearing age could be a useful screening method for identifying those at-risk of consuming alcohol during pregnancy, and vice versa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Co-occurrence of Victimization from Five Subtypes of Bullying: Physical, Verbal, Social Exclusion, Spreading Rumors, and Cyber

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Luk, Jeremy W.; Nansel, Tonja R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine co-occurrence of five subtypes of peer victimization. Methods Data were obtained from a national sample of 7,475 US adolescents in grades 6 through 10 in the 2005/2006 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study. Latent class analyses (LCA) were conducted on victimization by physical, verbal, social exclusion, spreading rumors, and cyber bullying. Results Three latent classes were identified, including an all-types victims class (9.7% of males and 6.2% of females...

  12. Gambling and Substance Use: Co-occurrence among Adults in a Recent General Population Study in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Grace M.; Welte, John W.; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile O.; Hoffman, Joseph H.

    2015-01-01

    This study is an up-to-date examination of gambling behaviors as well as gambling problems and their relationships to substance use and abuse. Further, the co-occurrence between problem gambling and substance abuse is studied using a large-scale, representative sample of adults aged 18 years and older in the United States. This random-digit-dial national survey was carried out in 2011–2013 with completed interviews from 2,963 respondents. Of the four gambling and substance use behaviors consi...

  13. [Case report of rare co-occurrence of renal cell carcinoma and crossed renal dystopia (L-shaped kidney)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakov, V N; Los, M S

    2017-10-01

    L-shaped kidney refers to a rare anomaly of the relative kidney positioning. Due to low prevalence, the literature on the co-occurrence of this anomaly with malignancy is lacking. And, if the diagnosis of a renal anomaly does not present difficulties, if a tumor is detected in such a kidney, even MSCT does not always help differentiate a pelvic tumor from a tumor of the renal parenchyma spreading to the pelvicalyceal system. This has important implications for choosing an appropriate surgical strategy. A feature of the presented clinical observation is the co-occurrence of the rare anomaly of kidney position and locally advanced renal cell carcinoma spreading to the renal pelvis. Due to the massive spread of the tumor, an organ-sparing surgery was not feasible. Due to the suspicion of tumor spread to the renal pelvis, the patient underwent nephrureterectomy of the L-shaped kidney. Introduction to renoprival state with transfer to chronic hemodialysis became the only option to maintain homeostasis and extend the patients life. Histological examination revealed clear cell renal cell carcinoma with invasion of the pelvis and renal capsule, with no clear demarcation between the fused kidneys.

  14. Feature extraction using gray-level co-occurrence matrix of wavelet coefficients and texture matching for batik motif recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciati, Nanik; Herumurti, Darlis; Wijaya, Arya Yudhi

    2017-02-01

    Batik is one of Indonesian's traditional cloth. Motif or pattern drawn on a piece of batik fabric has a specific name and philosopy. Although batik cloths are widely used in everyday life, but only few people understand its motif and philosophy. This research is intended to develop a batik motif recognition system which can be used to identify motif of Batik image automatically. First, a batik image is decomposed into sub-images using wavelet transform. Six texture descriptors, i.e. max probability, correlation, contrast, uniformity, homogenity and entropy, are extracted from gray-level co-occurrence matrix of each sub-image. The texture features are then matched to the template features using canberra distance. The experiment is performed on Batik Dataset consisting of 1088 batik images grouped into seven motifs. The best recognition rate, that is 92,1%, is achieved using feature extraction process with 5 level wavelet decomposition and 4 directional gray-level co-occurrence matrix.

  15. Co-occurrence of early gut colonization in neonatal piglets with microbiota in the maternal and surrounding delivery environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue; Xu, Jumei; Ren, Erdou; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2017-12-06

    The early development of gut microbiota plays a fundamental role in host health; so far, the main origins of the first colonization in newborn piglets are largely unclear. This study aimed to investigate the early development of gut microbiota in newborn piglets during lactation and their co-occurrence with microbes in the maternal and surrounding environments by Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes. The results showed that the microbial richness and diversity in piglets' feces (PF) significantly increased from birth to weaning (21 d). The composition and function of microbiota in the feces of piglets after birth tended to be similar to those from the slatted floor (FL), sow's milk (SM) and nipple surface (SN), and lacter, the fecal microbial communities of piglets later during lactation were more similar to their mother's. SourceTracker analysis showed that the microbiota from the FL, SM and SN were most likely the earliest passengers to the neonatal gastrointestinal tract, but did not have a long stay during lactation. The sow's fecal microbiota were easier to colonize in newborn piglet's guts via the co-occurrence effect with former settlers. This study suggests that microbes from the maternal and surrounding environments may play an important role in the microbial succession of newborn piglets after birth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Natural co-occurrence of fungi and mycotoxins in poultry feeds from Entre Ríos, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, M P; Dalcero, A M; Magnoli, C E; Chiacchiera, S M

    2013-01-01

    A total of 120 pelleted poultry feed samples from Entre Ríos Province, Argentina, were evaluated. The aims were to investigate (1) the presence of relevant toxigenic fungi, as well as to determine the ability to produce aflatoxins (AFs) by Aspergillus section Flavi isolated strains; and (2) the natural co-occurrence of AFs, fumonisins (FBs), gliotoxin, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), HT-2 and T-2 toxin by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Total fungal counts were below the established value (1 × 10⁴ CFU g⁻¹). Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus were the only aflatoxigenic species isolated. Co-occurrence of fumonisin B₁ (FB₁), HT-2 and T-2 toxin was detected in 100% of the feeds, with mean levels from 4502 to 5813; 6.7 to 21.6 and 19.6 to 30.3 µg kg⁻¹, respectively. A large number of starter samples were co-contaminated with aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁), FB₁, HT-2 and T-2 toxins. Gliotoxin and DAS were not found in this survey.

  17. Genetic alterations in mesiodens as revealed by targeted next-generation sequencing and gene co-occurrence network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y Y; Hwang, J; Kim, H-S; Kwon, H J; Kim, S; Lee, J H; Lee, J H

    2017-10-01

    Mesiodens is the most common type of supernumerary tooth which includes a population prevalence of 0.15%-1.9%. Alongside evidence that the condition is heritable, mutations in single genes have been reported in few human supernumerary tooth cases. Gene sequencing methods in tradition way are time-consuming and labor-intensive, whereas next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics are cost-effective for large samples and target sizes. We describe the application of a targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) and bioinformatics approach to samples from 17 mesiodens patients. Subjects were diagnosed on the basis of panoramic radiograph. A total of 101 candidate genes which were captured custom genes were sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq 2500. Multistep bioinformatics processing was performed including variant identification, base calling, and in silico analysis of putative disease-causing variants. Targeted capture identified 88 non-synonymous, rare, exonic variants involving 42 of the 101 candidate genes. Moreover, we investigated gene co-occurrence relationships between the genomic alterations and identified 88 significant relationships among 18 most recurrent driver alterations. Our search for co-occurring genetic alterations revealed that such alterations interact cooperatively to drive mesiodens. We discovered a gene co-occurrence network in mesiodens patients with functionally enriched gene groups in the sonic hedgehog (SHH), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), and wingless integrated (WNT) signaling pathways. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Co-occurrence of victimization from five subtypes of bullying: physical, verbal, social exclusion, spreading rumors, and cyber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J; Luk, Jeremy W; Nansel, Tonja R

    2010-11-01

    To examine co-occurrence of five subtypes of peer victimization. Data were obtained from a national sample of 7,475 US adolescents in grades 6 through 10 in the 2005/2006 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study. Latent class analyses (LCA) were conducted on victimization by physical, verbal, social exclusion, spreading rumors, and cyber bullying. Three latent classes were identified, including an all-types victims class (9.7% of males and 6.2% of females), a verbal/relational victims class (28.1% of males and 35.1% of females), and a nonvictim class (62.2% of males and 58.7% of females). Males were more likely to be all-type victims. There was a graded relationship between the three latent classes and level of depression, frequency of medically attended injuries, and medicine use, especially among females. Increased co-occurrence of victimization types put adolescents at greater risks for poorer physical and psychological outcomes.

  19. Content-based image retrieval using scale invariant feature transform and gray level co-occurrence matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Prashant; Khare, Manish; Khare, Ashish

    2017-06-01

    The rapid growth of different types of images has posed a great challenge to the scientific fraternity. As the images are increasing everyday, it is becoming a challenging task to organize the images for efficient and easy access. The field of image retrieval attempts to solve this problem through various techniques. This paper proposes a novel technique of image retrieval by combining Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Co-occurrence matrix. For construction of feature vector, SIFT descriptors of gray scale images are computed and normalized using z-score normalization followed by construction of Gray-Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) of normalized SIFT keypoints. The constructed feature vector is matched with those of images in database to retrieve visually similar images. The proposed method is tested on Corel-1K dataset and the performance is measured in terms of precision and recall. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms some of the other state-of-the-art methods.

  20. The co-occurrence of mental disorders in children and adolescents with intellectual disability/intellectual developmental disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Kerim M

    2016-03-01

    The study summarizes supportive epidemiological data regarding the true co-occurrence (comorbidity) and course of mental disorders in children with intellectual disability/intellectual developmental disorders (ID/IDD) across the lifespan. Published studies involving representative populations of children and adolescents with ID/IDD have demonstrated a three to four-fold increase in prevalence of co-occurring mental disorders. The effect of age, sex, and severity (mild, moderate, severe, and profound) and socioeconomic status on prevalence is currently not clearly understood. To date there are no prevalence estimates of co-occurring mental disorders in youth identified using the new DSM-5 (and proposed ICD-11) definition of ID/IDD using measures of intellectual functions and deficits in adaptive functioning with various severity levels defined on the basis of adaptive functioning, and not intellectual quotient scores. The true relationship between two forms of morbidity remains complex and causal relationships that may be true for one disorder may not apply to another. The new conceptualization of ID/IDD offers a developmentally better informed psychobiological approach that can help distinguish co-occurrence of mental disorders within the neurodevelopmental section with onset during the developmental period as well as the later onset of other mental disorders.

  1. The long-term co-occurrence of psychiatric illness and behavioral problems following child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Nina L; Luebbers, Stefan; Ogloff, James Rp; Cutajar, Margaret; Mullen, Paul E

    2017-06-01

    There is a growing body of research investigating the relationship between child sexual abuse and a range of adverse outcomes. However, very little is known about the long-term co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders and behavioral problems among this vulnerable population, or the interaction between characteristics of the abuse, such as the nature and timing of the child sexual abuse, and the extent of subsequent adversities. This study aimed to determine the rate and co-occurrence of mental health morbidity, criminal justice system contact, and fatal self-harm among medically confirmed victims of child sexual abuse, and to identify abuse variables associated with a greater likelihood of cumulative adverse experiences. The forensic medical records of 2759 cases of child sexual abuse assessed between 1964 and 1995 were linked with public psychiatric, criminal justice and coronial administrative databases between 13 and 44 years following abuse. Cases were compared to 2677 matched comparisons from the general population. Abuse victims were more likely (odds ratio = 7.2, 95% confidence interval = [4.9, 10.4], p mental illness. Relative to comparisons, female victims demonstrated the largest increase in odds for cumulative outcomes (odds ratio = 9.8, 95% confidence interval = [5.8, 16.8], p Sexual abuse, particularly during adolescence (ages 12-16 years), appears to be a risk factor for co-occurring adverse experiences. This study identifies particular groups of child sexual abuse victims as at-risk and requiring targeted intervention.

  2. Gender differences in factors influencing smoking, drinking, and their co-occurrence among adolescents in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, JongSerl; Chung, Ick-Joong

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to examine gender differences in the influence of social, attitudinal, and intrapersonal factors on the onset of smoking, drinking, and the co-occurrence of tobacco and alcohol use among adolescents in South Korea. Using time-dependent Cox regression, the study analyzed the Korean Youth Panel Study conducted by the Korean National Youth Policy Institute. The study sample was middle-school second-graders (n = 3,188) in South Korea. This study found gender differences between Korean male and female adolescents in models of smoking and alcohol uptake; the co-occurrence model was identical, however. At first, parental supervision, attachment to friends, drinking friends, self-control, and aggression were common factors in the onset of drinking among Korean adolescents. Stress was shown to be significantly correlated with the onset of male adolescent drinking, whereas family income was a significant factor just for females. In the smoking model, attachment to friends, smoking friends, stigma, and self-control were identified as common factors related to the onset of smoking in both male and female adolescents. Attachment to parents was found to be a significant factor for male adolescents and aggression for females. The study findings indicate influences on the commencement of smoking, drinking, and concurrent tobacco and alcohol use among Korean male and female adolescents. Culturally sensitive interventions focusing on common risk factors with several differentiated strategies for both boys and girls should be developed and provided for Korean adolescents.

  3. Natural Co-Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Foods and Feeds and Their in vitro Combined Toxicological Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marie-Caroline; Madec, Stéphanie; Coton, Emmanuel; Hymery, Nolwenn

    2016-03-26

    Some foods and feeds are often contaminated by numerous mycotoxins, but most studies have focused on the occurrence and toxicology of a single mycotoxin. Regulations throughout the world do not consider the combined effects of mycotoxins. However, several surveys have reported the natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins from all over the world. Most of the published data has concerned the major mycotoxins aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FUM) and trichothecenes (TCTs), especially deoxynivalenol (DON). Concerning cereals and derived cereal product samples, among the 127 mycotoxin combinations described in the literature, AFs+FUM, DON+ZEA, AFs+OTA, and FUM+ZEA are the most observed. However, only a few studies specified the number of co-occurring mycotoxins with the percentage of the co-contaminated samples, as well as the main combinations found. Studies of mycotoxin combination toxicity showed antagonist, additive or synergic effects depending on the tested species, cell model or mixture, and were not necessarily time- or dose-dependent. This review summarizes the findings on mycotoxins and their co-occurrence in various foods and feeds from all over the world as well as in vitro experimental data on their combined toxicity.

  4. The impact of intimate partner violence on low-income women's economic well-being: the mediating role of job stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Adrienne E; Tolman, Richard M; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M; Kennedy, Angie C

    2012-12-01

    This study sought to extend our understanding of the mechanisms by which intimate partner violence (IPV) harms women economically. We examined the mediating role of job instability on the IPV-economic well-being relationship among 503 welfare recipients. IPV had significant negative effects on women's job stability and economic well-being. Job stability was at least partly responsible for the deleterious economic consequences of IPV, and the effects lasted up to three years after the IPV ended. This study demonstrates the need for services and policies that address barriers to employment as a means of improving the economic well-being of low-income women with abusive partners.

  5. Individual, school-related and family characteristics distinguish co-occurrence of drinking and depressive symptoms in very young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salom, Caroline L; Kelly, Adrian B; Alati, Rosa; Williams, Gail M; Patton, George C; Williams, Joanne W

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol misuse and depressed mood are common during early adolescence, and comorbidity of these conditions in adulthood is associated with poorer health and social outcomes, yet little research has examined the co-occurrence of these problems at early adolescence. This study assessed risky and protective characteristics of pre-teens with concurrent depressed mood/early alcohol use in a large school-based sample. School children aged 10-14 years (n = 7289) from late primary and early secondary school classes in government, Catholic and independent sectors participated with parental consent in the cross-sectional Healthy Neighbourhoods Study. Key measures included depressed mood, recent alcohol use, school mobility, family relationship quality, school engagement and coping style. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to identify school and family-related factors that distinguished those with co-occurring drinking and depressive symptoms from those with either single condition. Gender and school-level interactions for each factor were evaluated. Co-occurring conditions were reported by 5.7% of students [confidence interval (CI)95 5.19, 6.19]. Recent drinkers were more likely than non-drinkers to have symptoms consistent with depression (odds ratio 1.80; CI95 1.58, 2.03). Low school commitment was associated with co-occurring drinking/depressive symptoms (odds ratio 2.86; CI95 2.25, 3.65 compared with null condition). This association appeared to be weaker in the presence of adaptive stress-coping skills (odds ratio 0.18; CI95 0.14, 0.23). We have identified factors that distinguish pre-teens with very early co-occurrence of drinking and depressed mood, and protective factors with potential utility for school-based prevention programmes targeting these conditions. [Salom CL, Kelly AB, Alati R, Williams GM, Patton GC, Williams JW. Individual, school-related and family characteristics distinguish co-occurrence of drinking and depressive symptoms in very

  6. Corpus-based estimates of word association predict biases in judgment of word co-occurrence likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paperno, Denis; Marelli, Marco; Tentori, Katya; Baroni, Marco

    2014-11-01

    This paper draws a connection between statistical word association measures used in linguistics and confirmation measures from epistemology. Having theoretically established the connection, we replicate, in the new context of the judgments of word co-occurrence, an intriguing finding from the psychology of reasoning, namely that confirmation values affect intuitions about likelihood. We show that the effect, despite being based in this case on very subtle statistical insights about thousands of words, is stable across three different experimental settings. Our theoretical and empirical results suggest that factors affecting traditional reasoning tasks are also at play when linguistic knowledge is probed, and they provide further evidence for the importance of confirmation in a new domain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Definition of Typical Textures of Sedimentary Grains Using Co-occurrence Features And K-means Clustering Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Křupka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a definition of typicalstructure forms, which can be extracted from the surface of sedimentary grains. The co-occurrence features are used for this purpose. To find typical patterns, the K-means clustering technique is used to group related data in feature space. Then,it is visually investigated if related data in feature space are also related when being perceived by human. The scheme for a specific grain texture definition is proposed and three models of grain textures are experimentally created. The first model involves especially significant grain corners and edges, the second model involves homogeneous parts of a grain, the third model can be used for coarse and abraded surface recognition.

  8. Co-occurrence patterns of common and rare leaf-litter frogs, epiphytic ferns and dung beetles across a gradient of human disturbance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan A Oldekop

    Full Text Available Indicator taxa are commonly used to identify priority areas for conservation or to measure biological responses to environmental change. Despite their widespread use, there is no general consensus about the ability of indicator taxa to predict wider trends in biodiversity. Many studies have focused on large-scale patterns of species co-occurrence to identify areas of high biodiversity, threat or endemism, but there is much less information about patterns of species co-occurrence at local scales. In this study, we assess fine-scale co-occurrence patterns of three indicator taxa (epiphytic ferns, leaf litter frogs and dung beetles across a remotely sensed gradient of human disturbance in the Ecuadorian Amazon. We measure the relative contribution of rare and common species to patterns of total richness in each taxon and determine the ability of common and rare species to act as surrogate measures of human disturbance and each other. We find that the species richness of indicator taxa changed across the human disturbance gradient but that the response differed among taxa, and between rare and common species. Although we find several patterns of co-occurrence, these patterns differed between common and rare species. Despite showing complex patterns of species co-occurrence, our results suggest that species or taxa can act as reliable indicators of each other but that this relationship must be established and not assumed.

  9. The effects of biome and spatial scale on the Co-occurrence patterns of a group of Namibian beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzalis, Monica; Montalto, Francesca; Amore, Valentina; Luiselli, Luca; Bologna, Marco A.

    2017-08-01

    Co-occurrence patterns (studied by C-score, number of checkerboard units, number of species combinations, and V-ratio, and by an empirical Bayes approach developed by Gotelli and Ulrich, 2010) are crucial elements in order to understand assembly rules in ecological communities at both local and spatial scales. In order to explore general assembly rules and the effects of biome and spatial scale on such rules, here we studied a group of beetles (Coleoptera, Meloidae), using Namibia as a case of study. Data were gathered from 186 sampling sites, which allowed collection of 74 different species. We analyzed data at the level of (i) all sampled sites, (ii) all sites stratified by biome (Savannah, Succulent Karoo, Nama Karoo, Desert), and (iii) three randomly selected nested areas with three spatial scales each. Three competing algorithms were used for all analyses: (i) Fixed-Equiprobable, (ii) Fixed-Fixed, and (iii) Fixed-Proportional. In most of the null models we created, co-occurrence indicators revealed a non-random structure in meloid beetle assemblages at the global scale and at the scale of biomes, with species aggregation being much more important than species segregation in determining this non-randomness. At the level of biome, the same non-random organization was uncovered in assemblages from Savannah (where the aggregation pattern was particularly strong) and Succulent Karoo, but not in Desert and Nama Karoo. We conclude that species facilitation and similar niche in endemic species pairs may be particularly important as community drivers in our case of study. This pattern is also consistent with the evidence of a higher species diversity (normalized according to biome surface area) in the two former biomes. Historical patterns were perhaps also important for Succulent Karoo assemblages. Spatial scale had a reduced effect on patterning our data. This is consistent with the general homogeneity of environmental conditions over wide areas in Namibia.

  10. Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons against the background of the synoptic situations in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępalska, Danuta; Myszkowska, Dorota; Katarzyna, Leśkiewicz; Katarzyna, Piotrowicz; Katarzyna, Borycka; Kazimiera, Chłopek; Łukasz, Grewling; Idalia, Kasprzyk; Barbara, Majkowska-Wojciechowska; Małgorzata, Malkiewicz; Małgorzata, Nowak; Krystyna, Piotrowska-Weryszko; Małgorzata, Puc; Elżbieta, Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2017-04-01

    The Asteraceae family is one of the largest families, comprising 67 genera and 264 species in Poland. However, only a few genera, including Artemisia and Ambrosia are potential allergenic sources. The aim of the study was to estimate how often and to what degree Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons co-occur intensifying human health risk, and how synoptic situations influence frequency of days with high pollen concentrations of both taxa. Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen data were collected, using the volumetric method, at 8 sites in Poland. Daily concentrations of Artemisia pollen equal to 30 grains or more and Ambrosia pollen equal to 10 grains or more were accepted as high values. Concentrations of more than 10 pollen grains were defined as high in the case of Ambrosia because its allergenicity is considered higher. High concentrations were confronted with synoptic situations. Analysis was performed on the basis of two calendars on circulation types of atmosphere in Poland (Niedźwiedź, 2006, 2015). Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons is being found most often, when Ambrosia pollen season starts in the first half of August. If it happens in the last 10 days of August high pollen concentrations of Artemisia and Ambrosia do not occur at the same days. At three sites (Sosnowiec, Rzeszów, Lublin) high Ambrosia pollen concentrations during the Artemisia pollen season appear more often than in other sites under question. The high Artemisia pollen concentrations occur, when continental or polar maritime old air masses inflow into Poland. The impact of air masses on high Ambrosia pollen concentrations depends on site localizations. It is likely, that in the south-eastern part of Poland high Ambrosia pollen concentrations result from the pollen transport from east-south-south-westerly directions and the local sources. Co-occurrence of both taxa pollen seasons depends on the air masses inflow and appears more often in a south-eastern part of Poland.

  11. Co-occurrence of viruses and mosquitoes at the vectors' optimal climate range: An underestimated risk to temperate regions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Marcus S C; Caminade, Cyril; Waldmann, Elisabeth; Sutton, Elizabeth R; Wardeh, Maya; Baylis, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    Mosquito-borne viruses have been estimated to cause over 100 million cases of human disease annually. Many methodologies have been developed to help identify areas most at risk from transmission of these viruses. However, generally, these methodologies focus predominantly on the effects of climate on either the vectors or the pathogens they spread, and do not consider the dynamic interaction between the optimal conditions for both vector and virus. Here, we use a new approach that considers the complex interplay between the optimal temperature for virus transmission, and the optimal climate for the mosquito vectors. Using published geolocated data we identified temperature and rainfall ranges in which a number of mosquito vectors have been observed to co-occur with West Nile virus, dengue virus or chikungunya virus. We then investigated whether the optimal climate for co-occurrence of vector and virus varies between "warmer" and "cooler" adapted vectors for the same virus. We found that different mosquito vectors co-occur with the same virus at different temperatures, despite significant overlap in vector temperature ranges. Specifically, we found that co-occurrence correlates with the optimal climatic conditions for the respective vector; cooler-adapted mosquitoes tend to co-occur with the same virus in cooler conditions than their warmer-adapted counterparts. We conclude that mosquitoes appear to be most able to transmit virus in the mosquitoes' optimal climate range, and hypothesise that this may be due to proportionally over-extended vector longevity, and other increased fitness attributes, within this optimal range. These results suggest that the threat posed by vector-competent mosquito species indigenous to temperate regions may have been underestimated, whilst the threat arising from invasive tropical vectors moving to cooler temperate regions may be overestimated.

  12. Oral human Papillomavirus DNA detection in HIV-positive men: prevalence, predictors, and co-occurrence at anal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergori, Alessandra; Garbuglia, Anna Rosa; Piselli, Pierluca; Del Nonno, Franca; Sias, Catia; Lupi, Federico; Lapa, Daniele; Baiocchini, Andrea; Cimaglia, Claudia; Gentile, Marco; Antinori, Andrea; Capobianchi, Maria; Ammassari, Adriana

    2018-01-08

    HIV-positive patients carry an increased risk of HPV infection and associated cancers. Therefore, prevalence and patterns of HPV infection at different anatomical sites, as well as theoretical protection of nonavalent vaccine should be investigated. Aim was to describe prevalence and predictors of oral HPV detection in HIV-positive men, with attention to nonavalent vaccine-targeted HPV types. Further, co-occurrence of HPV DNA at oral cavity and at anal site was assessed. This cross-sectional, clinic-based study included 305 HIV-positive males (85.9% MSM; median age 44.7 years; IQR: 37.4-51.0), consecutively observed within an anal cancer screening program, after written informed consent. Indication for anal screening was given by the HIV physician during routine clinic visit. Paired oral rinse and anal samples were processed for the all HPV genotypes with QIASYMPHONY and a PCR with MY09/MY11 primers for the L1 region. At the oral cavity, HPV DNA was detected in 64 patients (20.9%), and in 28.1% of these cases multiple HPV infections were found. Prevalence of oral HPV was significantly lower than that observed at the anal site (p anal HPV than in those without (p = 0.08). Out of 265 HPV DNA-positive men regardless anatomic site, 59 cases (19.3%) had detectable HPV at both sites, and 51 of these showed completely different HPV types. At least one nonavalent vaccine-targeted HPV type was found in 17/64 (26.6%) of patients with oral and 199/260 (76.5%) with anal infection. At multivariable analysis, factors associated with positive oral HPV were: CD4 cells 200/μL, p = 0.005) and >5 sexual partners in the previous 12 months (versus 0-1 partner, p = 0.008). In this study on Italian HIV-positive men (predominantly MSM), oral HPV DNA was detected in approximately one fifth of tested subjects, but prevalence was significantly lower than that observed at anal site. Low CD4 cell count and increasing number of recent sexual partners significantly increased the

  13. Changing ASD-ADHD symptom co-occurrence across the lifespan with adolescence as crucial time window: Illustrating the need to go beyond childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, C.A.; Geurts, H.M.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Rommelse, N.N.

    2016-01-01

    Literature on the co-occurrence between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is strongly biased by a focus on childhood age. A review of the adolescent and adult literature was made on core and related symptoms of ADHD and ASD. In addition, an empirical

  14. Changing ASD-ADHD symptom co-occurrence across the lifespan with adolescence as crucial time window : Illustrating the need to go beyond childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Catharina A.; Geurts, Hilde M.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2016-01-01

    Literature on the co-occurrence between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is strongly biased by a focus on childhood age. A review of the adolescent and adult literature was made on core and related symptoms of ADHD and ASD. In addition, an empirical

  15. A refined method for molecular typing reveals that co-occurrence of PrPSc types in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is not the rule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notari, S.; Capellari, S.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Giese, A.; Strammiello, R.; Gambetti, P.; Kretzschmar, H.A.; Parchi, P.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular typing in Creutzfeldt¿Jakob disease (CJD) relies on the detection of distinct protease-resistant prion protein (PrPSc) core fragments, which differ in molecular mass or glycoform ratio. However, the definition and correct identification of CJD cases with a co-occurrence of PrPSc types

  16. Peer Substance Use Associated with the Co-Occurrence of Borderline Personality Disorder Features and Drug Use Problems in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzarello, Scott; Taylor, Jeanette

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine if the substance use patterns of one's close friends and romantic partners would be a significant contributor to the co-occurrence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) features and drug use problems above and beyond impulsivity and negative emotionality. Participants: Participants were 2,202 undergraduates who attended…

  17. The Co-Occurrence of Adolescent Boys' and Girls' Use of Psychologically, Physically, and Sexually Abusive Behaviours in Their Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Heather A.; Sandra Byers, E.; Lisa Price, E.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the co-occurrence of and risk factors for adolescent boys' and girls' self-reported use of psychologically, physically, and sexually abusive behaviours in their dating relationships. The participants were 324 boys and 309 girls in grades 7, 9, or 11 who completed surveys at school. Descriptive analyses showed that 19% of boys and 26%…

  18. The Roles of Ecological and Evolutionary Processes in Plant Community Assembly: The Environment, Hybridization, and Introgression Influence Co-occurrence of Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Laura J; Bayly, Michael J; Vesk, Peter A

    2015-06-01

    Introgressive hybridization is increasingly recognized as having influenced the gene pools of large genera of plants, yet it is rarely invoked as an explanation for why closely related plant species do not co-occur. Here, we asked how the environment and tendency to interbreed relate to neighborhood co-occurrence patterns for Eucalyptus species in the Grampians National Park, Victoria, Australia. We identified species pairs that have experienced ongoing hybridization and introgression on the basis of the extent of incongruence between chloroplast DNA (JLA+ region) and nuclear ribosomal DNA (internal transcribed spacer region) phylogenies, geographic patterns of gene sharing, and field observation of intermediate morphologies. Co-occurrence, trait data (specific leaf area [SLA], maximum height, and seed mass), and environmental data were measured in plots distributed along environmental gradients. Trait and habitat similarity influenced species co-occurrence the most overall (e.g., co-occurring species had similar SLA). Reproductively compatible species were an exception; they rarely co-occurred despite being functionally similar. The negative effect of reproductive compatibility was stronger than the positive effect of SLA on co-occurrence. Our results emphasize the dominant roles of the environment and the importance of evolution in structuring local assemblages. We argue that the mechanism responsible for preventing closely related species from co-occurring in this system is reproductive interference rather than competitive exclusion. Reproductive interference should be considered more generally as a potential cause of phylogenetic overdispersion.

  19. The co-occurrence of autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in parents of children with ASD or ASD with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijn, D.J. van; Richards, J.S.; Oerlemans, A.M.; Ruiter, S.W. de; Aken, M.A. van; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Lambregts-Rommelse, N.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share about 50-72% of their genetic factors, which is the most likely explanation for their frequent co-occurrence within the same patient or family. An additional or alternative explanation for the

  20. Structure, Variation, and Co-occurrence of Soil Microbial Communities in Abandoned Sites of a Rare Earth Elements Mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yuanqing; Liu, Wenshen; Chen, Yanmei; Chen, Wenhui; Zhao, Lihua; Ding, Qiaobei; Wang, Shizhong; Tang, Ye-Tao; Zhang, Tong; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2016-11-01

    Mining activity for rare earth elements (REEs) has caused serious environmental pollution, particularly for soil ecosystems. However, the effects of REEs on soil microbiota are still poorly understood. In this study, soils were collected from abandoned sites of a REEs mine, and the structure, diversity, and co-occurrence patterns of soil microbiota were evaluated by Illumina high-throughput sequencing targeting 16S rRNA genes. Although microbiota developed significantly along with the natural restoration, the microbial structure on the site abandoned for 10 years still significantly differed from that on the unmined site. Potential plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) were identified by comparing 16S sequences against a self-constructed PGPB database via BLAST, and it was found that siderophore-producing and phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria were more abundant in the studied soils than in reference soils. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that species richness of plant community was the prime factor affecting microbial structure, followed by limiting nutrients (total carbon and total nitrogen) and REEs content. Further co-occurring network analysis revealed nonrandom assembly patterns of microbiota in the studied soils. These results increase our understanding of microbial variation and assembly pattern during natural restoration in REE contaminated soils.

  1. Application of fractal and grey level co-occurrence matrix analysis in evaluation of brain corpus callosum and cingulum architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantic, Igor; Dacic, Sanja; Brkic, Predrag; Lavrnja, Irena; Pantic, Senka; Jovanovic, Tomislav; Pekovic, Sanja

    2014-10-01

    This aim of this study was to assess the discriminatory value of fractal and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) analysis methods in standard microscopy analysis of two histologically similar brain white mass regions that have different nerve fiber orientation. A total of 160 digital micrographs of thionine-stained rat brain white mass were acquired using a Pro-MicroScan DEM-200 instrument. Eighty micrographs from the anterior corpus callosum and eighty from the anterior cingulum areas of the brain were analyzed. The micrographs were evaluated using the National Institutes of Health ImageJ software and its plugins. For each micrograph, seven parameters were calculated: angular second moment, inverse difference moment, GLCM contrast, GLCM correlation, GLCM variance, fractal dimension, and lacunarity. Using the Receiver operating characteristic analysis, the highest discriminatory value was determined for inverse difference moment (IDM) (area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve equaled 0.925, and for the criterion IDM≤0.610 the sensitivity and specificity were 82.5 and 87.5%, respectively). Most of the other parameters also showed good sensitivity and specificity. The results indicate that GLCM and fractal analysis methods, when applied together in brain histology analysis, are highly capable of discriminating white mass structures that have different axonal orientation.

  2. Co-occurrence of musk fragrances and UV-filters in seafood and macroalgae collected in European hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, S C; Fernandes, J O; Vallecillos, L; Cano-Sancho, G; Domingo, J L; Pocurull, E; Borrull, F; Maulvault, A L; Ferrari, F; Fernandez-Tejedor, M; Van den Heuvel, F; Kotterman, M

    2015-11-01

    In the last decades, awareness regarding personal care products (PCP), i.e. synthetic organic chemicals frequently used in cosmetic and hygienic products, has become a forward-looking issue, due to their persistency in the environment and their potential multi-organ toxicity in both human and wildlife. Seafood is one of the most significant food commodities in the world and, certainly, one of the most prone to bioaccumulation of PCP, what can consequently lead to human exposure, especially for coastal population, where its consumption is more marked. The aim of this work was to evaluate the co-occurrence of musk fragrances and UV-filters in both seafood and macroalgae collected in different European hotspots (areas with high levels of pollution, highly populated and near wastewater treatment plants). Despite the fact that UV-filters were detected in three different kind of samples (mussel, mullet, and clam), in all cases they were below the limit of quantification. Galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) were the musk fragrances most frequently detected and quantified in samples from the European hotspots. Cashmeran (DPMI) was also detected in most samples but only quantified in two of them (flounder/herring and mullet). The highest levels of HHCB and AHTN were found in mussels from Po estuary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic Fuzzy System (GFS based wavelet co-occurrence feature selection in mammogram classification for breast cancer diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi M. Pawar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is significant health problem diagnosed mostly in women worldwide. Therefore, early detection of breast cancer is performed with the help of digital mammography, which can reduce mortality rate. This paper presents wrapper based feature selection approach for wavelet co-occurrence feature (WCF using Genetic Fuzzy System (GFS in mammogram classification problem. The performance of GFS algorithm is explained using mini-MIAS database. WCF features are obtained from detail wavelet coefficients at each level of decomposition of mammogram image. At first level of decomposition, 18 features are applied to GFS algorithm, which selects 5 features with an average classification success rate of 39.64%. Subsequently, at second level it selects 9 features from 36 features and the classification success rate is improved to 56.75%. For third level, 16 features are selected from 54 features and average success rate is improved to 64.98%. Lastly, at fourth level 72 features are applied to GFS, which selects 16 features and thereby increasing average success rate to 89.47%. Hence, GFS algorithm is the effective way of obtaining optimal set of feature in breast cancer diagnosis.

  4. 3D texture analysis of solitary pulmonary nodules using co-occurrence matrix from volumetric lung CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, Ashis Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we have investigated a new approach for texture features extraction using co-occurrence matrix from volumetric lung CT image. Traditionally texture analysis is performed in 2D and is suitable for images collected from 2D imaging modality. The use of 3D imaging modalities provide the scope of texture analysis from 3D object and 3D texture feature are more realistic to represent 3D object. In this work, Haralick's texture features are extended in 3D and computed from volumetric data considering 26 neighbors. The optimal texture features to characterize the internal structure of Solitary Pulmonary Nodules (SPN) are selected based on area under curve (AUC) values of ROC curve and p values from 2-tailed Student's t-test. The selected texture feature in 3D to represent SPN can be used in efficient Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) design plays an important role in fast and accurate lung cancer screening. The reduced number of input features to the CAD system will decrease the computational time and classification errors caused by irrelevant features. In the present work, SPN are classified from Ground Glass Nodule (GGN) using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classifier considering top five 3D texture features and top five 2D texture features separately. The classification is performed on 92 SPN and 25 GGN from Imaging Database Resources Initiative (IDRI) public database and classification accuracy using 3D texture features and 2D texture features provide 97.17% and 89.1% respectively.

  5. Gray-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix Texture Analysis of Breast Tumor Images in Prognosis of Distant Metastasis Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujasinovic, Tijana; Pribic, Jelena; Kanjer, Ksenija; Milosevic, Nebojsa T; Tomasevic, Zorica; Milovanovic, Zorka; Nikolic-Vukosavljevic, Dragica; Radulovic, Marko

    2015-06-01

    Owing to exceptional heterogeneity in the outcome of invasive breast cancer it is essential to develop highly accurate prognostic tools for effective therapeutic management. Based on this pressing need, we aimed to improve breast cancer prognosis by exploring the prognostic value of tumor histology image analysis. Patient group (n=78) selection was based on invasive breast cancer diagnosis without systemic treatment with a median follow-up of 147 months. Gray-level co-occurrence matrix texture analysis was performed retrospectively on primary tumor tissue section digital images stained either nonspecifically with hematoxylin and eosin or specifically with a pan-cytokeratin antibody cocktail for epithelial malignant cells. Univariate analysis revealed stronger association with metastasis risk by texture analysis when compared with clinicopathological parameters. The combination of individual clinicopathological and texture variables into composite scores resulted in further powerful enhancement of prognostic performance, with an accuracy of up to 90%, discrimination efficiency by the area under the curve [95% confidence interval (CI)] of 0.94 (0.87-0.99) and hazard ratio (95% CI) of 20.1 (7.5-109.4). Internal validation was successfully performed by bootstrap and split-sample cross-validation, suggesting that the models are generalizable. Whereas further validation is needed on an external set of patients, this preliminary study indicates the potential use of primary breast tumor histology texture as a highly accurate, simple, and cost-effective prognostic indicator of distant metastasis risk.

  6. Diffusion Patterns in Convergence among High-Technology Industries: A Co-Occurrence-Based Analysis of Newspaper Article Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeokseong Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Firms in high-technology industries have faced great technological and market uncertainty and volatility in the past few decades. In order to be competitive and sustainable in this environment, firms have been pursuing technological innovation, product differentiation, vertical integration, and alliances, which eventually drive industry convergence, defined as the process of blurring boundaries between previously distinct industries. Although industry convergence has greatly affected industrial structure and the economy, little research has investigated this phenomenon, especially its diffusion patterns; thus, it is still unclear which industries are converging more rapidly or have a higher potential for convergence. This paper explores these issues by investigating industry convergence in U.S. high-technology industries, using a large set of newspaper articles from 1987 to 2012. We perform a co-occurrence-based analysis to obtain information on industry convergence and estimate its diffusion patterns using an internal-influence logistic model. We find heterogeneous diffusion patterns, depending on convergent-industry pairs and their wide dispersion. In addition, we find that the potential degree of industry convergence is significantly negatively associated with its growth rate, which indicates that a great deal of time will be required for industry convergence between high-technology industries with this high potential to achieve a high degree of convergence.

  7. Co-occurrence of communication disorder and psychiatric disorders in maltreated children and adolescents: relationship with global functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivanin, Luciene; Oliveira, Christian C de; Santos, Fernanda P Dos; Santos, Bernardo Dos; Scivoletto, Sandra

    2016-03-01

    To study the co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders (PD) and communication disorders (CD) and their relationship with global functioning in maltreated children and adolescents. The sample comprised 143 maltreated children and adolescents (55.8% male). All underwent clinical communication and psychiatric evaluations, as well as global functioning assessment using the Children's Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS). Four groups emerged from evaluation: Group 1 (n=7, 4.9%) did not exhibit any disorders; Group 2 (n=26, 18.2%) exhibited PD; Group 3 (n=34, 23.8%) exhibited CD; and Group 4 (n=76, 53.1%) exhibited both PD and CD on evaluation. Significant differences in global functioning scores were found between G1 and G2, G1 and G4, G2 and G4, and G3 and G4, with the highest C-GAS scores found in G1 and the lowest in G4. Rates of PD and CD are high in this maltreated population. The presence of PD has a major impact on C-GAS score, and the simultaneous presence of CD increases the already impaired function of PD. Demonstration of the additive effects of PD and CD on youth functioning suggests that professionals should be alert to the presence of both disorders to better act preventively and therapeutically in a high-risk population.

  8. Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia albertii: Co-occurrence of β-Lactamase and MCR-1 Encoding Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia albertii is an emerging member of the Enterobacteriaceae causing human and animal enteric infections. Antimicrobial resistance among enteropathogens has been reported to be increasing in the past years. The purpose of this study was to investigate antibiotic resistance and resistance genes in E. albertii isolated from Zigong city, Sichuan province, China. The susceptibility to 21 antimicrobial agents was determined by Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method. The highest prevalence was tetracycline resistance with a rate of 62.7%, followed by resistance to nalidixic acid and streptomycin with a rate of 56.9 and 51.0%, respectively. All isolates were sensitive or intermediate susceptible to imipenem, meropenem, amoxicillin–clavulanic acid, and levofloxacin. Among 51 E. albertii isolates, 15 were extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing as confirmed by the double disk test. The main β-lactamase gene groups, i.e., blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M, were detected in17, 20, and 22 isolates, respectively. Furthermore, four colistin-resistant isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 8 mg/L were identified. The colistin-resistant isolates all harbored mcr-1 and blaCTX-M-55. Genome sequencing showed that E. albertii strain SP140150 carried mcr-1 and blaCTX-M-55 in two different plasmids. This study provided significant information regarding antibiotic resistance profiles and identified the co-occurrence of β-lactamase and MCR-1 encoding genes in E. albertii isolates.

  9. Self-Control Capacity as a Predictor of Borderline Personality Disorder Features, Problematic Drinking, and Their Co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Benjamin N; Ashe, Melinda L; Wilson, Stephen J

    2017-06-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) share impulsivity as an etiological factor. However, impulsivity is ill-defined, often overlapping with self-control capacity. This study attempts to disentangle these constructs and their associations with alcohol use and BPD. Undergraduates (n = 192) completed the Five Factor Model Rating Form, which generated two-dimensional scales of BPD, the Self-Control Scale, the UPPS-P (self-reported impulsivity), and the stop-signal and delay discounting tasks (laboratory-measured impulsivity). Self-control appeared as a major predictor of BPD features and drinking, explaining as much or more variance in outcome than impulsivity. Co-occurrence of elevated BPD features and problem drinking was also best explained by self-control. Laboratory measures of impulsivity were not correlated with BPD scales or alcohol use. Self-regulatory capacity may be an important but overlooked factor in BPD and alcohol use and should be considered alongside impulsivity in future research.

  10. Mycoflora and Co-Occurrence of Fumonisins and Aflatoxins in Freshly Harvested Corn in Different Regions of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Liliana O.; Nakai, Viviane K.; Braghini, Raquel; Reis, Tatiana A.; Kobashigawa, Estela; Corrêa, Benedito

    2009-01-01

    Natural mycoflora and co-occurrence of fumonisins (FB1, FB2) and aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) in freshly harvested corn grain samples from four regions of Brazil were investigated. Fusarium verticillioides was predominant in all samples. Analysis of fumonisins showed that 98% of the samples were contaminated with FB1 and 74.5% with FB1 + FB2, with toxin levels ranging from 0.015 to 9.67 μg/g for FB1 and from 0.015 to 3.16 μg/g for FB2. Twenty-one (10.5%) samples were contaminated with AFB1, seven (3.5%) with AFB2 and only one (0.5%) with AFG1 and AFG2 Co-contamination with aflatoxins and fumonisins was observed in 7% of the samples. The highest contamination of fumonisins and aflatoxins was observed in Nova Odessa (SP) and Várzea Grande (MT), respectively. The lowest contamination of these mycotoxins was found in Várzea Grande and Nova Odessa, respectively. PMID:20087478

  11. Fractal analysis and Gray level co-occurrence matrix method for evaluation of reperfusion injury in kidney medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantic, Igor; Nesic, Zorica; Paunovic Pantic, Jovana; Radojević-Škodrić, Sanja; Cetkovic, Mila; Basta Jovanovic, Gordana

    2016-05-21

    Fractal analysis and Gray level co-occurrence matrix method represent two novel mathematical algorithms commonly used in medical sciences as potential parts of computer-aided diagnostic systems. In this study, we tested the ability of these methods to discriminate the kidney medullar tissue suffering from reperfusion injury, from normal tissue. A total of 320 digital micrographs of Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) - stained kidney medulla from 16 Wistar albino mice (20 per animal), were analyzed using National Institutes of Health ImageJ software (NIH, Bethesda, MD) and its plugins. 160 micrographs were obtained from the experimental group with induced reperfusion injury, and another 160 were obtained from the controls. For each micrograph we calculated the values of fractal dimension, lacunarity, as well as five GLCM features: angular second moment, entropy, inverse difference moment, GLCM contrast, and GLCM correlation. Discriminatory value of the parameters was tested using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, by measuring the area below ROC curve. The results indicate that certain features of GLCM algorithm have excellent discriminatory ability in evaluation of damaged kidney tissue. Fractal dimension and lacunarity as parameters of fractal analysis also had a relatively good discriminatory value in differentiation of injured from the normal tissue. Both methods have potentially promising application in future design of novel techniques applicable in cell physiology, histology and pathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Discriminatory ability of fractal and grey level co-occurrence matrix methods in structural analysis of hippocampus layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantic, Igor; Dacic, Sanja; Brkic, Predrag; Lavrnja, Irena; Jovanovic, Tomislav; Pantic, Senka; Pekovic, Sanja

    2015-04-07

    Fractal and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) analysis represent two mathematical computer-assisted algorithms that are today thought to be able to accurately detect and quantify changes in tissue architecture during various physiological and pathological processes. However, despite their numerous applications in histology and pathology, their sensitivity, specificity and validity regarding evaluation of brain tissue remain unclear. In this article we present the results indicating that certain parameters of fractal and GLCM analysis have high discriminatory ability in distinguishing two morphologically similar regions of rat hippocampus: stratum lacunosum-moleculare and stratum radiatum. Fractal and GLCM algorithms were performed on a total of 240 thionine-stained hippocampus micrographs of 12 male Wistar albino rats. 120 digital micrographs represented stratum lacunosum-moleculare, and another 120 stratum radiatum. For each image, 7 parameters were calculated: fractal dimension, lacunarity, GLCM angular second moment, GLCM contrast, inverse difference moment, GLCM correlation, and GLCM variance. GLCM variance (VAR) resulted in the largest area under the Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.96, demonstrating an outstanding discriminatory power in analysis of stratum lacunosum-moleculare (average VAR equaled 478.1 ± 179.8) and stratum radiatum (average VAR of 145.9 ± 59.2, p fractal and textural analysis. GLCM algorithm as an image analysis method has potentially high applicability in structural analysis of brain tissue cytoarcitecture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic and environmental contributions to the co-occurrence of depressive personality disorder and DSM-IV personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ørstavik, Ragnhild E; Kendler, Kenneth S; Røysamb, Espen; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Tambs, Kristian; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2012-06-01

    One of the main controversies with regard to depressive personality disorder (DPD) concerns the co-occurrence with the established DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs). The main aim of this study was to examine to what extent DPD and the DSM-IV PDs share genetic and environmental risk factors, using multivariate twin modeling. The DSM-IV Structured Interview for Personality was applied to 2,794 young adult twins. Paranoid PD from Cluster A, borderline PD from Cluster B, and all three PDs from Cluster C were independently and significantly associated with DPD in multiple regression analysis. The genetic correlations between DPD and the other PDs were strong (.53-.83), while the environmental correlations were moderate (.36-.40). Close to 50% of the total variance in DPD was disorder specific. However, only 5% was due to disorder-specific genetic factors, indicating that a substantial part of the genetic vulnerability to DPD also increases the vulnerability to other PDs.

  14. Inter-dog aggression in a UK owner survey: prevalence, co-occurrence in different contexts and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, R A; Loftus, B; Bolster, C; Richards, G J; Blackwell, E J

    2013-02-02

    Aggression between dogs is common and can result in injury. The aims of this study were to estimate prevalence, evaluate co-occurrence with human-directed aggression, and investigate potential risk factors, using a cross-sectional convenience sample of dog owners. Aggression (barking, lunging, growling or biting) towards unfamiliar dogs was reported to currently occur, by 22 per cent of owners, and towards other dogs in the household, by 8 per cent. A low level of concordance between dog and human-directed aggression suggested most dogs were not showing aggression in multiple contexts. Aggression towards other dogs in the household was associated with increasing dog age, use of positive punishment/negative reinforcement training techniques, and attending ring-craft classes. Aggression towards other dogs on walks was associated with location of questionnaire distribution, owner age, age of dog, origin of dog, dog breed type, use of positive punishment/negative reinforcement training techniques and attending obedience classes for more than four weeks. In both, the amount of variance explained by models was low (aggression, but also highlight that these are relatively minor predictors.

  15. Co-occurrence of citrinin and ochratoxin A in rice in Asia and its implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nurshad

    2017-09-12

    Citrinin (CIT) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are nephrotoxic mycotoxins, produced by several Aspergillus and Penicillium species and their co-occurrence in rice may cause health effects in humans. Rice is an important food crop worldwide and is a major staple food in Asia which may be invaded by CIT and OTA producing fungal spores in the field, during harvest and storage. Humans are exposed to these mycotoxins through ingestion of contaminated rice and other food commodities. Yet, data on the combined presence to these food contaminants are still insufficient to estimate human exposure in Asia. This review describes the prevalence of CIT and OTA in rice in Asia and its implications on human health, which may help in establishing and carrying out proper management strategies against mould development on rice. From the health point of view, combined exposition of CIT and OTA should be a public concern as both are nephrotoxic and long-term exposure can pose detrimental health effects. Thus, it is necessary for local farmers and food factories to implement strict measures and to improve methods for rice preservation during the distribution to consumers, particularly in the markets. Moreover, regular surveys for CIT and OTA occurrence in rice and human biomonitoring are recommended to reduce the health effects in Asian population. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Quantitative distinction of the morphological characteristic of erythrocyte precursor cells with texture analysis using gray level co-occurrence matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Keigo; Hayata, Ruka; Murakami, Satoru; Yamamoto, Mai; Kuroki, Maiko; Nanato, Kana; Takahashi, Kazuto; Miwa, Keiko; Tsutsumi, Yutaka; Okada, Kazunori; Kaga, Sanae; Mikami, Taisei; Masauzi, Nobuo

    2017-02-21

    Morphological characteristics of blood cells are still qualitatively defined. So a texture analysis (Tx) method using gray level co-occurrence matrices (GLCMs; CM-Tx method) was applied to images of erythrocyte precursor cells (EPCs) for quantitatively distinguishing four types of EPC stages: proerythroblast, basophilic erythroblast, polychromatic erythroblast, and orthochromatic erythroblast. Fifty-five images of four types of EPCs were downloaded from an atlas uploaded by the Blood Cell Morphology Standardization Subcommittee (BCMSS) of the Japanese Society of Laboratory Hematology (JSLH). Using in-house programs, two types of GLCMs-(R: d=1, θ=0°) and (U: d=1, θ=270°)-and nine types of texture distinction index (TDI) were calculated with images removed outer part of cell. Three binary decision trees were sequentially divided among four types of EPC with the sum average of GLCM (U), the contrast of GLCM (R), and the sum average of GLCM (U). The average concordance rate (sensitivity) of CM-Tx method with the judgments of eleven experts in the BCMSS of the JSLH was 95.8% (87.5-100.0), and the average specificity was 97.6% (92.5-100.0). The CM-Tx method is an effective tool for quantitative distinction of EPC with their morphological features. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Somatic Symptoms: Prevalence, Co-Occurrence and Associations with Self-Perceived Health and Limitations Due To Physical Health - A Danish Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasen, Marie; Kreiner, Svend; Ebstrup, Jeanette F; Poulsen, Chalotte H; Lau, Cathrine J; Skovbjerg, Sine; Fink, Per K; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    A high number of somatic symptoms have been associated with poor health status and increased health care use. Previous studies focused on number of symptoms without considering the specific symptoms. The aim of the study was to investigate 1) the prevalence of 19 somatic symptoms, 2) the associations between the symptoms, and 3) the associations between the somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health accounting for the co-occurrence of symptoms. Information on 19 somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health was achieved from a population-based questionnaire survey of 36,163 randomly selected adults in the Capital Region of Denmark in 2006/07. Chain graph models were used to transparently identify and describe the associations between symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health. In total, 94.9% of the respondents were bothered by one or more of the 19 somatic symptoms. The symptoms were associated in a complex structure. Still, recognisable patterns were identified within organ systems/body parts. When accounting for symptom co-occurrence; dizziness, pain in legs, respiratory distress and tiredness were all strongly directly associated with both of the outcomes (γ>0.30). Chest pain was strongly associated with self-perceived health, and other musculoskeletal symptoms and urinary retention were strongly associated with limitations due to physical health. Other symptoms were either moderate or not statistically associated with the health status outcomes. Opposite, almost all the symptoms were strongly associated with the two outcomes when not accounting for symptom co-occurrence. In conclusion, we found that somatic symptoms were frequent and associated in a complex structure. The associations between symptoms and health status measures differed between the symptoms and depended on the co-occurrence of symptoms. This indicates an importance of considering both the specific

  18. Risk of self-reported symptoms or diagnosis of active tuberculosis in relationship to low body mass index, diabetes and their co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, L; Andrews, J R; Basu, S; Goldhaber-Fiebert, J D

    2016-10-01

    Globally, tuberculosis prevalence has declined, but its risk factors have varied across place and time - low body mass index (BMI) has persisted while diabetes has increased. Using India's National Family Health Survey (NFHS), wave 3 and World Health Survey (WHS) data, we examined their relationships to support projection of future trends and targeted control efforts. Multivariate logistic regressions at the individual level with and without diabetes/BMI interactions assessed the relationship between tuberculosis, diabetes and low BMI and the importance of risk factor co-occurrence. Population-level analyses examined how tuberculosis incidence and prevalence varied with diabetes/low BMI co-occurrence. In NFHS, diabetic individuals had higher predicted tuberculosis risks (diabetic vs. non-diabetic: 2.50% vs. 0.63% at low BMI; 0.81% vs. 0.20% at normal BMI; 0.37% vs. 0.09% at high BMI), which were not significantly different when modelled independently or allowing for risk modification with diabetes/low BMI co-occurrence. WHS findings were generally consistent. Population-level analysis found that diabetes/low BMI co-occurrence may be associated with elevated tuberculosis risk, although its predicted effect on tuberculosis incidence/prevalence was generally ≤0.2 percentage points and not robustly statistically significant. Concerns about the additional elevation of tuberculosis risk from diabetes/low BMI co-occurrence and hence the need to coordinate tuberculosis control efforts around the nexus of co-occurring diabetes and low BMI may be premature. However, study findings robustly support the importance of individually targeting low BMI and diabetes as part of ongoing tuberculosis control efforts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Comparison of Monofractal, Multifractal and gray level Co-occurrence matrix algorithms in analysis of Breast tumor microscopic images for prognosis of distant metastasis risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajković, Nemanja; Kolarević, Daniela; Kanjer, Ksenija; Milošević, Nebojša T; Nikolić-Vukosavljević, Dragica; Radulovic, Marko

    2016-10-01

    Breast cancer prognosis is a subject undergoing intense study due to its high clinical relevance for effective therapeutic management and a great patient interest in disease progression. Prognostic value of fractal and gray level co-occurrence matrix texture analysis algorithms has been previously established on tumour histology images, but without any direct performance comparison. Therefore, this study was designed to compare the prognostic power of the monofractal, multifractal and co-occurrence algorithms on the same set of images. The investigation was retrospective, with 51 patients selected on account of non-metastatic IBC diagnosis, stage IIIB. Image analysis was performed on digital images of primary tumour tissue sections stained with haematoxylin/eosin. Bootstrap-corrected Cox proportional hazards regression P-values indicated a significant association with metastasis outcome of at least one of the features within each group. AUC values were far better for co-occurrence (0.66-0.77) then for fractal features (0.60-0.64). Correction by the split-sample cross-validation likewise indicated the generalizability only for the co-occurrence features, with their classification accuracies ranging between 67 and 72 %, while accuracies of monofractal and multifractal features were reduced to nearly random 52-55 %. These findings indicate for the first time that the prognostic value of texture analysis of tumour histology is less dependent on the morphological complexity of the image as measured by fractal analysis, but predominantly on the spatial distribution of the gray pixel intensities as calculated by the co-occurrence features.

  20. Evolutionary features of academic articles co-keyword network and keywords co-occurrence network: Based on two-mode affiliation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huajiao; An, Haizhong; Wang, Yue; Huang, Jiachen; Gao, Xiangyun

    2016-05-01

    Keeping abreast of trends in the articles and rapidly grasping a body of article's key points and relationship from a holistic perspective is a new challenge in both literature research and text mining. As the important component, keywords can present the core idea of the academic article. Usually, articles on a single theme or area could share one or some same keywords, and we can analyze topological features and evolution of the articles co-keyword networks and keywords co-occurrence networks to realize the in-depth analysis of the articles. This paper seeks to integrate statistics, text mining, complex networks and visualization to analyze all of the academic articles on one given theme, complex network(s). All 5944 ;complex networks; articles that were published between 1990 and 2013 and are available on the Web of Science are extracted. Based on the two-mode affiliation network theory, a new frontier of complex networks, we constructed two different networks, one taking the articles as nodes, the co-keyword relationships as edges and the quantity of co-keywords as the weight to construct articles co-keyword network, and another taking the articles' keywords as nodes, the co-occurrence relationships as edges and the quantity of simultaneous co-occurrences as the weight to construct keyword co-occurrence network. An integrated method for analyzing the topological features and evolution of the articles co-keyword network and keywords co-occurrence networks is proposed, and we also defined a new function to measure the innovation coefficient of the articles in annual level. This paper provides a useful tool and process for successfully achieving in-depth analysis and rapid understanding of the trends and relationships of articles in a holistic perspective.

  1. Dating violence and interpersonal victimization among a national sample of Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Carlos A; Sabina, Chiara; Bell, Kristin A

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this analysis was (1) to provide the rates of dating violence victimization among a national sample of Latino adolescents, (2) to determine the degree to which different forms of dating violence victimization co-occurred for this sample, and (3) to determine how much dating violence victimization overlapped with other forms of non-partner-perpetrated victimization. This analysis used data from the Dating Violence Among Latinos Study, which surveyed 1,525 Latino adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years about past-year dating violence and non-partner-perpetrated victimization. We calculated victimization rates and relative risk ratios to evaluate the co-occurrence among different forms of dating violence victimization as well as the co-occurrence of dating violence and other forms of victimization. Results show elevated rates of dating violence victimization compared with previous studies, which is primarily accounted for by psychological dating violence. The rate of dating violence appears to precipitously increase starting around ages 13 and 14 years and is consistently higher for boys. Each type of dating violence was significantly associated with other forms of dating violence (e.g., physical and psychological). Dating violence was significantly associated with experiencing conventional crime, peer or sibling victimization, and nonpartner sexual victimization as well as being a polyvictim. The results support the importance of early prevention efforts with Latino youth and addressing dating violence with both sexes. Furthermore, dating violence should be seen as a potential risk marker for youth who are experiencing multiple forms of victimization. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Impact of Violence on Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Barbara R.; Beauchesne, Michelle A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the effects of violence on today's children and adolescents, focusing on: risk factors for violence (age, gender, and personal characteristics); family violence; violence beyond the family (in the media, in the community, and among peers); effects of exposure to violence related to school functioning, emotional stability, and orientation…

  3. Development of Denitrifying and Nitrifying Bacteria and Their Co-occurrence in Newly Created Biofilms in Urban Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaessen, T. N.; Martí Roca, E.; Pinay, G.; Merbt, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    Biofilms play a pivotal role on nutrient cycling in streams, which ultimately dictates the export of nutrients to downstream ecosystems. The extent to which biofilms influence the concentration of dissolved nutrients, oxygen and pH in the water column may be determined by the composition of the microbial assemblages and their activity. Evidence of biological interactions among bacteria and algae are well documented. However, the development, succession and co-occurence of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria remain poorly understood. These bacteria play a relevant role on the biogeochemical process associated to N cycling, and their relative abundance can dictate the fate of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in streams. In particular, previous studies indicated that nitrifiers are enhanced in streams receiving inputs from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents due to both increases in ammonium concentration and inputs of nitrifiers. However, less is known about the development of denitrifiers in receiving streams, although environmental conditions seem to favor it. We conducted an in situ colonization experiment in a stream receiving effluent from a WWTP to examine how this input influences the development and co-occurrence of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. We placed artificial substrata at different locations relative to the effluent and sampled them over time to characterize the developed biofilm in terms of bulk measurements (organic matter content and algae) as well as in terms of abundance of nitrifiers and denitrifiers (using qPCR). The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of the temporal dynamics of denitrifiers and nitrifiers in relation to the developed organic matter, dissolved oxygen and pH and the biomass accrual in stream biofilms under the influence of nutrients inputs from WWTP effluent. Ultimately, the results provide insights on the potential role of nitrifiers and denitrifiers on N cycling in WWTP effluent receiving

  4. Reading problems and major mental disorders - co-occurrences and familial overlaps in a Swedish nationwide cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederlöf, Martin; Maughan, Barbara; Larsson, Henrik; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Plomin, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Reading problems often co-occur with ADHD and conduct disorder. However, the patterns of co-occurrence and familial overlap between reading problems and other psychiatric disorders have not been systematically explored. We conducted a register-based cohort study including 8719 individuals with reading problems and their siblings, along with matched comparison individuals. Conditional logistic regressions estimated risks for ADHD, autism, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anorexia nervosa, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, substance use disorder, and violent/non-violent criminality in individuals with reading problems and their siblings. Diagnoses of psychiatric disorders were physician-assigned and ascertained from the Swedish National Patient Register, and crime convictions from the Swedish National Crime Register. We found that individuals with reading problems had excess risks for all psychiatric disorders (except anorexia nervosa) and criminality, with risk ratios between 1.34 and 4.91. Siblings of individuals with reading problems showed excess risks for ADHD, autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, substance use disorder, and non-violent criminality, with risk ratios between 1.14 and 1.70. In summary, individuals with reading problems had increased risks of virtually all psychiatric disorders, and criminality. The origin of most of these overlaps was familial, in that siblings of individuals with reading problems also had elevated risks of ADHD, autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, substance use disorder, and non-violent criminality. These findings have implications for gene-searching efforts, and suggest that health care practitioners should be alert for signs of psychiatric disorders in families where reading problems exist. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hidden biodiversity in entomological collections: The overlooked co-occurrence of dipteran and hymenopteran ant parasitoids in stored biological material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela; Lachaud, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Biological collections around the world are the repository of biodiversity on Earth; they also hold a large quantity of unsorted, unidentified, or misidentified material and can house behavioral information on species that are difficult to access or no longer available to science. Among the unsorted, alcohol-preserved material stored in the Formicidae Collection of the 'El Colegio de la Frontera Sur' Research Center (Chetumal, Mexico), we found nine colonies of the ponerine ant Neoponera villosa, that had been collected in bromeliads at Calakmul (Campeche, Mexico) in 1999. Ants and their brood were revised for the presence of any sign of parasitism. Cocoons were dissected and their content examined under a stereomicroscope. Six N. villosa prepupae had been attacked by the ectoparasitoid syrphid fly Hypselosyrphus trigonus Hull (Syrphidae: Microdontinae), to date the only known dipteran species of the Microdontinae with a parasitoid lifestyle. In addition, six male pupae from three colonies contained gregarious endoparasitoid wasps. These were specialized in parasitizing this specific host caste as no gyne or worker pupae displayed signs of having been attacked. Only immature stages (larvae and pupae) of the wasp could be obtained. Due to the long storage period, DNA amplification failed; however, based on biological and morphological data, pupae were placed in the Encyrtidae family. This is the first record of an encyrtid wasp parasitizing N. villosa, and the second example of an encyrtid as a primary parasitoid of ants. Furthermore, it is also the first record of co-occurrence of a dipteran ectoparasitoid and a hymenopteran endoparasitoid living in sympatry within the same population of host ants. Our findings highlight the importance of biological collections as reservoirs of hidden biodiversity, not only at the taxonomic level, but also at the behavioral level, revealing complex living networks. They also highlight the need for funding in order to carry out

  6. Hidden biodiversity in entomological collections: The overlooked co-occurrence of dipteran and hymenopteran ant parasitoids in stored biological material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud

    Full Text Available Biological collections around the world are the repository of biodiversity on Earth; they also hold a large quantity of unsorted, unidentified, or misidentified material and can house behavioral information on species that are difficult to access or no longer available to science. Among the unsorted, alcohol-preserved material stored in the Formicidae Collection of the 'El Colegio de la Frontera Sur' Research Center (Chetumal, Mexico, we found nine colonies of the ponerine ant Neoponera villosa, that had been collected in bromeliads at Calakmul (Campeche, Mexico in 1999. Ants and their brood were revised for the presence of any sign of parasitism. Cocoons were dissected and their content examined under a stereomicroscope. Six N. villosa prepupae had been attacked by the ectoparasitoid syrphid fly Hypselosyrphus trigonus Hull (Syrphidae: Microdontinae, to date the only known dipteran species of the Microdontinae with a parasitoid lifestyle. In addition, six male pupae from three colonies contained gregarious endoparasitoid wasps. These were specialized in parasitizing this specific host caste as no gyne or worker pupae displayed signs of having been attacked. Only immature stages (larvae and pupae of the wasp could be obtained. Due to the long storage period, DNA amplification failed; however, based on biological and morphological data, pupae were placed in the Encyrtidae family. This is the first record of an encyrtid wasp parasitizing N. villosa, and the second example of an encyrtid as a primary parasitoid of ants. Furthermore, it is also the first record of co-occurrence of a dipteran ectoparasitoid and a hymenopteran endoparasitoid living in sympatry within the same population of host ants. Our findings highlight the importance of biological collections as reservoirs of hidden biodiversity, not only at the taxonomic level, but also at the behavioral level, revealing complex living networks. They also highlight the need for funding in order

  7. Prokaryotes in subsoil – evidence for spatial separation of oligotrophs and copiotrophs by co-occurrence networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eSchloter

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil microbial communities provide a wide range of soil functions including nutrient cycling, soil formation, and plant growth promotion. On the small scale, nutrient rich soil hotspots developed from soil animal or plant activity are important drivers for microbial communities and their activity pattern. Nevertheless, in subsoil, the spatial heterogeneity of microbes with diverging lifestyles has been barely considered so far. In this study, the phylogenetic composition of the bacterial and archaeal microbiome based on 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was investigated in the soil compartments bulk soil, drilosphere, and rhizosphere in topsoil and in the subsoil of an agricultural field. With co-occurrence network analysis, the spatial separation of typically oligotrophs and heterotrophs in subsoil and hotspots was assessed. Four co-occurring bacterial communities were identified and attributed to bulk topsoil, bulk subsoil, drilosphere, and rhizosphere. The bacterial phyla Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, which represent many copiotrophic bacteria, are affiliated to the hotspot communities – the rhizosphere and drilosphere – both in topsoil and subsoil. Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia with many oligotrophic bacteria, are the abundant groups of the bulk subsoil community. The bacterial core microbiome in this soil was estimated and only covers 7.6% of the bacterial sequencing reads but includes both oligotrophic and copiotrophic bacteria. Instead, the archaeal core microbiome includes 56% of the overall archaeal diversity and comprises only the ammonium oxidizing Nitrososphaera. Thus, the spatial variability of nutrient quality and quantity strongly shapes the bacterial community composition and their interaction in subsoil, whereas archaea are a stable backbone of the soil prokaryotes.

  8. Co-occurrence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in dried fruits in Iran: Dietary exposure risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmati, Ali; Zohrevand, Tahereh; Khaneghah, Amin Mousavi; Mozaffari Nejad, Amir Sasan; Sant'Ana, Anderson S

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the contamination levels of aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in 88 collected samples from Iran's market including dried mulberry, date, fig, and apricot were evaluated. The margin of exposure (MOE) was estimated to assess the risk of dietary intake of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and OTA. The incidence of AFB1 in dried mulberry, date, fig and apricot samples was 45.5, 40.9, 59.1, and 81.8%, respectively. Although the mean total AFs content in contaminated samples of date (2.61 μg/kg), fig (3.43 μg/kg) and apricot (2.91 μg/kg) was lower than the maximum limit set in the European Union (EU) (4 μg/kg), dried mulberry samples showed a higher contamination level (4.12 μg/kg). The co-occurrence of OTA and AFs were noted in 4 (18.9%), 2 (9.1%), 4 (18.2%), and 10 (45.5%) in the dried mulberry, date, fig and apricot samples, respectively. Based on the calculated MOE, the dietary exposure to AFs through the consumption of dried fruit in Iran poses a potential risk to consumer health. OTA was detected in 45.45%, 22.72%, 45.45%, and 50% of mulberry, date, fig and apricot samples, respectively. However, OTA levels in all types of dried fruit were below recommended level in EU regulation (10 μg/kg) and MOE >10000, representing no toxicological concerns for consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Co-Occurrence and Predictors of Three Commonly Occurring Behavioral Symptoms in Dementia: Agitation, Aggression, and Rejection of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Scott Seung W; Budhathoki, Chakra; Gitlin, Laura N

    2017-05-01

    To investigate co-occurrences of agitation, aggression, and rejection of care in community-dwelling families living with dementia. Cross-sectional, secondary analysis from a randomized controlled trial testing a nonpharmacological intervention to reduce behavioral symptoms. We examined frequency of occurrence of presenting behaviors at baseline and their combination. Omnibus tests compared those exhibiting combinations of behaviors on contributory factors. Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined relationships of contributory factors to combinations of behaviors. Of 272 persons with dementia (PwDs), 41 (15%) had agitation alone (Agi), 3 (1%) had aggression alone, 5 (2%) had rejection of care alone. For behavioral combinations, 65 (24%) had agitation and aggression (Agi+Aggr), 35 (13%) had agitation and rejection (Agi+Rej), 1 (0%) had aggression and rejection, and 106 (39%) had all three behaviors (All). Four behavioral subgroups (Agi, Agi+Aggr, Agi+Rej, and All) were examined. Kruskal-Wallis tests showed that there were significant group differences in PwD cognition, functional dependence, and caregiver frustration. PwDs in Agi+Rej and All were more cognitively impaired than those in Agi and Agi+Aggr. Also, caregivers in All were more frustrated than those in Agi. In logistic regression analyses, compared with Agi, greater cognitive impairment was a significant predictor of Agi+Rej and All, but not Agi+Aggr. In contrast, greater caregiver frustration was a significant predictor of Agi+Aggr and All, but not Agi+Rej. We found that agitation, aggression, and rejection are common but distinct behaviors. Combinations of these behaviors have different relationships with contributory factors, suggesting the need for targeting treatment approaches to clusters. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Alcohol use and bipolar disorders: Risk factors associated with their co-occurrence and sequence of onsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorin, Jean-Michel; Perret, Léa C; Fakra, Eric; Tassy, Sébastien; Simon, Nicolas; Adida, Marc; Belzeaux, Raoul

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about the sequence of onsets in patients affected by comorbid alcohol use and bipolar disorder. This study examines the risk factors associated with their co-occurrence and order of onset. The demographic, clinical, and temperament characteristics as well as the course of illness were analyzed within our sample of 1090 DSM-IV bipolar I manic patients. Our sample was categorized according to the presence of comorbid alcohol use disorder and the sequence of onsets of bipolar and alcohol use disorders i.e., alcohol first (AUD-BD) and bipolar first (BD-AUD). Regression analyses revealed that alcohol use disorder (52.5%) was associated with the male gender, additional substance use disorders, as well as an irritable and a hyperthymic temperament. The AUD-BD group (6.6%) was older than the BD-AUD group (45.8%) and showed higher rates of comorbid sedative use, organic, and anxiety disorders with higher levels of irritable temperament, and a bipolar subtype characterized by depressive polarity at onset. The BD-AUD group had high levels of hyperthymic temperament with higher rates of comorbid stimulant use disorder and a manic polarity at onset. In the AUD-BD group, alcohol might have been used to reduce stress and tension caused by the presence of an irritable temperament as well as anxious and organic disorders, leading to first depressive episode. In the BD-AUD group, stimulant use might have triggered the first manic episode, and alcohol abuse result from mania severity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Co-Occurrence and Habitat Use of Fin Whales, Striped Dolphins and Atlantic Bluefin Tuna in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Robert Klaus; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Demarcq, Hervé; Brisset, Blandine; Bonhommeau, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Different dolphin and tuna species have frequently been reported to aggregate in areas of high frontal activity, sometimes developing close multi-species associations to increase feeding success. Aerial surveys are a common tool to monitor the density and abundance of marine mammals, and have recently become a focus in the search for methods to provide fisheries-independent abundance indicators for tuna stock assessment. In this study, we present first density estimates corrected for availability bias of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) and striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Golf of Lions (GoL), compared with uncorrected estimates of Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT; Thunnus thynnus) densities from 8 years of line transect aerial surveys. The raw sighting data were further used to analyze patterns of spatial co-occurrence and density of these three top marine predators in this important feeding ground in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. These patterns were investigated regarding known species-specific feeding preferences and environmental characteristics (i. e. mesoscale activity) of the survey zone. ABFT was by far the most abundant species during the surveys in terms of schools and individuals, followed by striped dolphins and fin whales. However, when accounted for availability bias, schools of dolphins and fin whales were of equal density. Direct interactions of the species appeared to be the exception, but results indicate that densities, presence and core sighting locations of striped dolphins and ABFT were correlated. Core sighting areas of these species were located close to an area of high mesoscale activity (oceanic fronts and eddies). Fin whales did not show such a correlation. The results further highlight the feasibility to coordinate research efforts to explore the behaviour and abundance of the investigated species, as demanded by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD).

  12. Co-Occurrence and Habitat Use of Fin Whales, Striped Dolphins and Atlantic Bluefin Tuna in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Klaus Bauer

    Full Text Available Different dolphin and tuna species have frequently been reported to aggregate in areas of high frontal activity, sometimes developing close multi-species associations to increase feeding success. Aerial surveys are a common tool to monitor the density and abundance of marine mammals, and have recently become a focus in the search for methods to provide fisheries-independent abundance indicators for tuna stock assessment. In this study, we present first density estimates corrected for availability bias of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus and striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba from the Golf of Lions (GoL, compared with uncorrected estimates of Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT; Thunnus thynnus densities from 8 years of line transect aerial surveys. The raw sighting data were further used to analyze patterns of spatial co-occurrence and density of these three top marine predators in this important feeding ground in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. These patterns were investigated regarding known species-specific feeding preferences and environmental characteristics (i. e. mesoscale activity of the survey zone. ABFT was by far the most abundant species during the surveys in terms of schools and individuals, followed by striped dolphins and fin whales. However, when accounted for availability bias, schools of dolphins and fin whales were of equal density. Direct interactions of the species appeared to be the exception, but results indicate that densities, presence and core sighting locations of striped dolphins and ABFT were correlated. Core sighting areas of these species were located close to an area of high mesoscale activity (oceanic fronts and eddies. Fin whales did not show such a correlation. The results further highlight the feasibility to coordinate research efforts to explore the behaviour and abundance of the investigated species, as demanded by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD.

  13. Co-Occurrence and Habitat Use of Fin Whales, Striped Dolphins and Atlantic Bluefin Tuna in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Robert Klaus; Demarcq, Hervé; Brisset, Blandine

    2015-01-01

    Different dolphin and tuna species have frequently been reported to aggregate in areas of high frontal activity, sometimes developing close multi-species associations to increase feeding success. Aerial surveys are a common tool to monitor the density and abundance of marine mammals, and have recently become a focus in the search for methods to provide fisheries-independent abundance indicators for tuna stock assessment. In this study, we present first density estimates corrected for availability bias of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) and striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Golf of Lions (GoL), compared with uncorrected estimates of Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT; Thunnus thynnus) densities from 8 years of line transect aerial surveys. The raw sighting data were further used to analyze patterns of spatial co-occurrence and density of these three top marine predators in this important feeding ground in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. These patterns were investigated regarding known species-specific feeding preferences and environmental characteristics (i. e. mesoscale activity) of the survey zone. ABFT was by far the most abundant species during the surveys in terms of schools and individuals, followed by striped dolphins and fin whales. However, when accounted for availability bias, schools of dolphins and fin whales were of equal density. Direct interactions of the species appeared to be the exception, but results indicate that densities, presence and core sighting locations of striped dolphins and ABFT were correlated. Core sighting areas of these species were located close to an area of high mesoscale activity (oceanic fronts and eddies). Fin whales did not show such a correlation. The results further highlight the feasibility to coordinate research efforts to explore the behaviour and abundance of the investigated species, as demanded by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). PMID:26458254

  14. Joint estimation of habitat dynamics and species interactions: Disturbance reduces co-occurrence of non-native predators with an endangered toad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David A.W.; Brehme, Cheryl S.; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    1. Ecologists have long been interested in the processes that determine patterns of species occurrence and co-occurrence. Potential short-comings of many existing empirical approaches that address these questions include a reliance on patterns of occurrence at a single time point, failure to account properly for imperfect detection and treating the environment as a static variable.2. We fit detection and non-detection data collected from repeat visits using a dynamic site occupancy model that simultaneously accounts for the temporal dynamics of a focal prey species, its predators and its habitat. Our objective was to determine how disturbance and species interactions affect the co-occurrence probabilities of an endangered toad and recently introduced non-native predators in stream breeding habitats. For this, we determined statistical support for alternative processes that could affect co-occurrence frequency in the system.3. We collected occurrence data at stream segments in two watersheds where streams were largely ephemeral and one watershed dominated by perennial streams. Co-occurrence probabilities of toads with non-native predators were related to disturbance frequency, with low co-occurrence in the ephemeral watershed and high co-occurrence in the perennial watershed. This occurred because once predators were established at a site, they were rarely lost from the site except in cases when the site dried out. Once dry sites became suitable again, toads colonized them much more rapidly than predators, creating a period of predator-free space.4. We attribute the dynamics to a storage effect, where toads persisting outside the stream environment during periods of drought rapidly colonized sites when they become suitable again. Our results support that even in highly connected stream networks, temporal disturbance can structure frequencies with which breeding amphibians encounter non-native predators.5. Dynamic multi-state occupancy models are a powerful

  15. Prevalence, Co-Occurrence and Associations with Self-Perceived Health and Limitations Due To Physical Health - A Danish Population-Based Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Kreiner, Svend; Ebstrup, Jeanette F

    2016-01-01

    A high number of somatic symptoms have been associated with poor health status and increased health care use. Previous studies focused on number of symptoms without considering the specific symptoms. The aim of the study was to investigate 1) the prevalence of 19 somatic symptoms, 2......) the associations between the symptoms, and 3) the associations between the somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health accounting for the co-occurrence of symptoms. Information on 19 somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health was achieved from...... or not statistically associated with the health status outcomes. Opposite, almost all the symptoms were strongly associated with the two outcomes when not accounting for symptom co-occurrence. In conclusion, we found that somatic symptoms were frequent and associated in a complex structure. The associations between...

  16. Seasonal Changes in a Maize-Based Polyculture of Central Mexico Reshape the Co-occurrence Networks of Soil Bacterial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollar, Eria A; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Roessler, Kyria; Gaut, Brandon S; Alcaraz, Luis D; Benítez, Mariana; Escalante, Ana E

    2017-01-01

    The milpa is a traditional maize-based polyculture in Mexico that is typically practiced as rainfed agriculture. Because milpa cultivation has been practiced over a vast range of environmental and cultural conditions, this agroecosystem is recognized as an important repository of biological and cultural diversity. As for any agroecosystem, the relationship between plant development and the biogeochemical processes of the soil is critical. Although the milpa has been studied from different perspectives, the diversity and structure of microbial communities within milpa soils remain largely unexplored. In this study, we surveyed a milpa system in Central Mexico across cropping season: before planting (dry season; t1), during the early growth of plants (onset of the rainy season; t2), and before harvest (end of the rainy season; t3). In order to examine changes in community structure through time, we characterized bacterial diversity through high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and recorded the nutrient status of multiple (5-10) soil samples from our milpa plots. We estimated microbial diversity from a total of 90 samples and constructed co-occurrence networks. Although we did not find significant changes in diversity or composition of bacterial communities across time, we identified significant rearrangements in their co-occurrence network structure. We found particularly drastic changes between the first and second time points. Co-occurrence analyses showed that the bacterial community changed from a less structured network at (t1) into modules with a non-random composition of taxonomic groups at (t2). We conclude that changes in bacterial communities undetected by standard diversity analyses can become evident when performing co-occurrence network analyses. We also postulate possible functional associations among keystone groups suggested by biogeochemical processes. This study represents the first contribution on soil microbial diversity of a maize

  17. Seasonal Changes in a Maize-Based Polyculture of Central Mexico Reshape the Co-occurrence Networks of Soil Bacterial Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eria A. Rebollar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The milpa is a traditional maize-based polyculture in Mexico that is typically practiced as rainfed agriculture. Because milpa cultivation has been practiced over a vast range of environmental and cultural conditions, this agroecosystem is recognized as an important repository of biological and cultural diversity. As for any agroecosystem, the relationship between plant development and the biogeochemical processes of the soil is critical. Although the milpa has been studied from different perspectives, the diversity and structure of microbial communities within milpa soils remain largely unexplored. In this study, we surveyed a milpa system in Central Mexico across cropping season: before planting (dry season; t1, during the early growth of plants (onset of the rainy season; t2, and before harvest (end of the rainy season; t3. In order to examine changes in community structure through time, we characterized bacterial diversity through high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and recorded the nutrient status of multiple (5–10 soil samples from our milpa plots. We estimated microbial diversity from a total of 90 samples and constructed co-occurrence networks. Although we did not find significant changes in diversity or composition of bacterial communities across time, we identified significant rearrangements in their co-occurrence network structure. We found particularly drastic changes between the first and second time points. Co-occurrence analyses showed that the bacterial community changed from a less structured network at (t1 into modules with a non-random composition of taxonomic groups at (t2. We conclude that changes in bacterial communities undetected by standard diversity analyses can become evident when performing co-occurrence network analyses. We also postulate possible functional associations among keystone groups suggested by biogeochemical processes. This study represents the first contribution on soil microbial

  18. Post-traumatic stress disorder and depression co-occurrence: Structural relations among disorder constructs and trait and symptom dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Loren M; Feeny, Norah C; Zoellner, Lori A; Connell, Arin M

    2016-12-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) in response to trauma co-occur at high rates. A better understanding of the nature of this co-occurrence is critical to developing an accurate conceptualization of the disorders. This study examined structural relations among the PTSD and MDD constructs and trait and symptom dimensions within the framework of the integrative hierarchical model of anxiety and depression. Study participants completed clinician-rated and self-report measures during a pre-treatment assessment. The sample consisted of 200 treatment-seeking individuals with a primary DSM-IV PTSD diagnosis. Structural equation modelling was used to examine the relationship between the constructs. The trait negative affect/neuroticism construct had a direct effect on both PTSD and MDD. The trait positive affect/extraversion construct had a unique, negative direct effect on MDD, and PTSD had a unique, direct effect on the physical concerns symptoms construct. An alternative model with the PTSD and MDD constructs combined into an overall general traumatic stress construct produced a decrement in model fit. These findings provide a clearer understanding of the relationship between co-occurring PTSD and MDD as disorders with shared trait negative affect/neuroticism contributing to the overlap between them and unique trait positive affect/extraversion and physical concerns differentiating them. Therefore, PTSD and MDD in response to trauma may be best represented as two distinct, yet strongly related constructs. In assessing individuals who have been exposed to trauma, practitioners should recognize that co-occurring PTSD and MDD appears to be best represented as two distinct, yet strongly related constructs. Negative affect may be the shared vulnerability directly influencing both PTSD and MDD; however, in the presence of both PTSD and MDD, low positive affect appears to be more specifically related to MDD and fear of physical

  19. Patulin and ochratoxin A co-occurrence and their bioaccessibility in processed cereal-based foods: A contribution for Portuguese children risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ricardo; Martins, Carla; Dupont, Didier; Alvito, Paula

    2016-10-01

    Patulin (PAT) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are well known enteropathogenic mycotoxins that are present in several foodstuffs. Processed cereal-based foods are among the first solid foods eaten by children, a particularly vulnerable population group. There is a lack of knowledge related to the co-occurrence of PAT and OTA in food intended for children consumption and their potential interactions during the digestion process. The present study aims to evaluate, for the first time, the co-occurrence of PAT and OTA in processed cereal-based foods for children consumption, the bioaccessibility of these two mycotoxins, and the contribution of the bioaccessibility data for human health risk assessment. PAT and OTA incidence were 75% and 50%, respectively. These mycotoxins co-occurred in 40% of analysed samples. Bioaccessibility assays revealed mean values of 52% and 56% for PAT, alone and combined with OTA; and 100% and 106% for OTA, alone and combined with PAT. Considering the human health risk assessment, and taking into account the co-occurrence and the bioaccessibility results, this study indicates a tolerable exposure to these mycotoxins representing a low risk for Portuguese children. The present work reinforces the importance of a holistic approach for risk assessment which gathers data from occurrence, exposure and bioaccessibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also ... a child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  1. A model of co-occurrence: segregation and aggregation patterns in the mycoflora of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii in Lake Trasimeno (central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia C. Elia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although attention on crayfish diseases has recently proliferated, the focus is mainly on a single host-parasite relationship rather than analyzing the entire mycoflora, probably due to the fact that (1 some diseases are occasional (pathogens of which are of difficult collection and (2 economic impact is more relevant in aquaculture (i.e., a controlled environment where only few parasites occur than in natural conditions. Contrary to this viewpoint, fungal ectoparasites assume a great importance since they are integral components in shaping community, ecosystem structure, and energy flow. Here we described the fungal species co-occurrence patterns (species segregation/ aggregation using null models comparing the occurrence frequencies of ectosymbiots through host individuals with those expected by chance. Non-indigenous crayfish species like Procambarus clarkii allow to observe phenomena of competitive exclusion (segregation or mutualism (aggregation amongst fungi. We analyzed the fungal species occurrence on 86 host crayfish monthly collected from June 2007 to June 2008 in the Lake Trasimeno (Central Italy. A total of 29 fungal taxa were detected. Taxa showed a particular fungal assemblage with a great species variation depending on sampling month and crayfish sex, size, and body region. In particular, fungal species showed different occurrence patterns in both richness and segregation/ aggregation. The fungal community shows a non-random structure not in all cases, with the majority of tests indicating segregation, not aggregation of ectosymbiontic species on hosts. The non-random patterns of fungal co-occurrence in some cases suggest that some temporally or spatially variable factors are responsible for the establishment of the mycoflora community assemblage. We also detected temporal differences in fungal co-occurrences patterns. Regarding seasonal samples, the same analyses showed a competitive structure only in the sub-communities found on

  2. Trivializing violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ann-Karina Eske; Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes narratives of violence based on interviews with 43 marginalized young Danish people. Their narratives reveal that violence is not only experienced as singular, dramatic encounters; violence is also trivialized in their everyday lives. By drawing on anthropological perspectives...... criminology research concerned with the everyday experiences of living with violence....

  3. Geographic variation and socio-demographic determinants of the co-occurrence of risky health behaviours in 27 European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidis, F T; Agaku, I T; Vardavas, C I

    2016-06-01

    Risky health behaviours such as tobacco and alcohol abuse, physical inactivity and poor diet may play an important role in disease development. The aim of the present study was to assess the geographical distribution and socio-demographic determinants of risky health-related behaviours in 27 member states (MSs) of the European Union (EU). Data from the 2009 Eurobarometer survey (wave 72.3; n = 26 788) were analysed. Tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity and fruit consumption were assessed through a self-reported questionnaire provided to participants from 27 EU MSs. Within the analyses, participants with three or more lifestyle risk factors were classified as individuals with co-occurrence of risk factors. Among respondents aged 15 or older, 28.2% had none of the aforementioned behavioural risk factors, whereas 9.9% had three or more lifestyle risk factors. Males [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.50; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.17-2.88] and respondents of middle (aOR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.36-1.89) or lower income (aOR = 2.63; 95% CI: 2.12-3.26) were more likely to report co-occurrence of behavioural risk factors, as well as respondents in Northern (aOR = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.14-1.78), Western (aOR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.06-1.56) and Eastern Europe (aOR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.06-1.55), when compared with Southern European respondents. The above analyses indicate significant geographical and social variation in the distribution of the co-occurrence of behavioural risk factors for disease development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Effects of habitat characteristics and interspecific interactions on co-occurrence patterns of saproxylic beetles breeding in tree boles after forest fire: null model analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeria, Ermias T; Ibarzabal, Jacques; Hébert, Christian

    2012-04-01

    It is often suggested that habitat attributes and interspecific interactions can cause non-random species co-occurrence patterns, but quantifying their contributions can be difficult. Null models that systematically exclude and include habitat effects can give information on the contribution of these factors to community assembly. In the boreal forest, saproxylic beetles are known to be attracted to recently burned forests where they breed in dead and dying trees. We examined whether species co-occurrences of saproxylic beetles that develop in, and emerge from, boles of recently burned trees show non-random patterns. We also estimated the extent to which both the post-fire habitat attributes and interspecific interactions among beetles contribute to such patterns. We sampled tree boles encompassing key attributes (tree species, tree size/dbh and burn severity) that are thought to characterize species-habitat associations of saproxylic beetles, a proposition that we tested using indicator species analysis. Two null models with no habitat constraints ("unconstrained") indicated that a total of 29.4% of the species pairs tested had significant co-occurrence patterns. Habitat-constrained null models indicated that most of the detected species aggregations (72%) and segregations (59%) can be explained by shared and distinct species-habitat relationships, respectively. The assembly pattern was also driven by interspecific interactions, of which some were modulated by habitat; for example, predator and prey species tended to co-occur in large-sized trees (a proxy of available bark/wood food resource primarily for the prey). In addition, some species segregation suggesting antagonistic, competitive, or prey-predator interactions were evident after accounting for the species' affinities for the same tree species. Overall, our results suggest that an intimate link between habitat and interspecific interactions can have important roles for community assembly of saproxylic

  5. Co-occurrence patterns of trees along macro-climatic gradients and their potential influence on the present and future distribution of Fagus sylvatica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, E.S.; Edwards, T.C.; Kienast, Felix; Dobbertin, M.; Zimmermann, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    Aim During recent and future climate change, shifts in large-scale species ranges are expected due to the hypothesized major role of climatic factors in regulating species distributions. The stress-gradient hypothesis suggests that biotic interactions may act as major constraints on species distributions under more favourable growing conditions, while climatic constraints may dominate under unfavourable conditions. We tested this hypothesis for one focal tree species having three major competitors using broad-scale environmental data. We evaluated the variation of species co-occurrence patterns in climate space and estimated the influence of these patterns on the distribution of the focal species for current and projected future climates.Location Europe.Methods We used ICP Forest Level 1 data as well as climatic, topographic and edaphic variables. First, correlations between the relative abundance of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and three major competitor species (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris and Quercus robur) were analysed in environmental space, and then projected to geographic space. Second, a sensitivity analysis was performed using generalized additive models (GAM) to evaluate where and how much the predicted F. sylvatica distribution varied under current and future climates if potential competitor species were included or excluded. We evaluated if these areas coincide with current species co-occurrence patterns.Results Correlation analyses supported the stress-gradient hypothesis: towards favourable growing conditions of F. sylvatica, its abundance was strongly linked to the abundance of its competitors, while this link weakened towards unfavourable growing conditions, with stronger correlations in the south and at low elevations than in the north and at high elevations. The sensitivity analysis showed a potential spatial segregation of species with changing climate and a pronounced shift of zones where co-occurrence patterns may play a major role

  6. MapReduce in the Cloud: A Use Case Study for Efficient Co-Occurrence Processing of MEDLINE Annotations with MeSH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzthaler, Markus; Miñarro-Giménez, Jose Antonio; Schulz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Big data resources are difficult to process without a scaled hardware environment that is specifically adapted to the problem. The emergence of flexible cloud-based virtualization techniques promises solutions to this problem. This paper demonstrates how a billion of lines can be processed in a reasonable amount of time in a cloud-based environment. Our use case addresses the accumulation of concept co-occurrence data in MEDLINE annotation as a series of MapReduce jobs, which can be scaled and executed in the cloud. Besides showing an efficient way solving this problem, we generated an additional resource for the scientific community to be used for advanced text mining approaches.

  7. Behavioral health risks in perinatally HIV-exposed youth: co-occurrence of sexual and drug use behavior, mental health problems, and nonadherence to antiretroviral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellins, Claude A; Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Malee, Kathleen; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Patton, Doyle; Smith, Renee; Usitalo, Ann; Allison, Susannah M; Van Dyke, Russell; Seage, George R

    2011-07-01

    In a sample of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) and perinatally HIV-exposed, uninfected (PHEU) adolescents, we examined the co-occurrence of behavioral health risks including mental health problems, onset of sexual and drug use behaviors, and (in PHIV+ youth) nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Participants, recruited from 2007 to 2010, included 349 youth, ages 10-16 years, enrolled in a cohort study examining the impact of HIV infection and ART. Measures of the above behavioral health risks were administered to participants and primary caregivers. Nearly half the participants met study criteria for at least one behavioral health risk, most frequently, mental health problems (28%), with the onset of sexual activity and substance use each reported by an average of 16%. Among the sexually active, 65% of PHIV+ and 50% of PHEU youth reported unprotected sex. For PHIV +youth, 34% reported recent ART nonadherence, of whom 45% had detectable HIV RNA levels. Between 16% (PHIV+) and 11% (PHEU) of youth reported at least two behavioral health risks. Older age, but not HIV status, was associated with having two or more behavioral health risks versus none. Among PHIV+ youth, living with a birth mother (versus other caregivers) and detectable viral load were associated with co-occurrence of behavioral health risks. In conclusion, this study suggests that for both PHIV+ and PHEU youth, there are multiple behavioral health risks, particularly mental health problems, which should be targeted by service systems that can integrate prevention and treatment efforts.

  8. Co-occurrence of arsenic and fluoride in groundwater of semi-arid regions in Latin America: genesis, mobility and remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Herrera, María Teresa; Bundschuh, Jochen; Nath, Bibhash; Nicolli, Hugo B; Gutierrez, Melida; Reyes-Gomez, Victor M; Nuñez, Daniel; Martín-Dominguez, Ignacio R; Sracek, Ondra

    2013-11-15

    Several million people around the world are currently exposed to excessive amounts of arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) in their drinking water. Although the individual toxic effects of As and F have been analyzed, there are few studies addressing their co-occurrences and water treatment options. Several studies conducted in arid and semi-arid regions of Latin America show that the co-occurrences of As and F in drinking water are linked to the volcaniclastic particles in the loess or alluvium, alkaline pH, and limited recharge. The As and F contamination results from water-rock interactions and may be accelerated by geothermal and mining activities, as well as by aquifer over-exploitation. These types of contamination are particularly pronounced in arid and semi-arid regions, where high As concentrations often show a direct relationship with high F concentrations. Enrichment of F is generally related to fluorite dissolution and it is also associated with high Cl, Br, and V concentrations. The methods of As and F removal, such as chemical precipitation followed by filtration and reverse osmosis, are currently being used at different scales and scenarios in Latin America. Although such technologies are available in Latin America, it is still urgent to develop technologies and methods capable of monitoring and removing both of these contaminants simultaneously from drinking water, with a particular focus towards small-scale rural operations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. P2X7 Receptors as a Transducer in the Co-Occurrence of Neurological/Psychiatric and Cardiovascular Disorders: A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D. Skaper

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Over-stimulation of the purinergic P2X7 receptor may bring about cellular dysfunction and injury in settings of neurodegeneration, chronic inflammation, as well as in psychiatric and cardiovascular diseases. Here we speculate how P2X7 receptor over-activation may lead to the co-occurrence of neurological and psychiatric disorders with cardiovascular disorders. Presentation. We hypothesize that proinflammatory cytokines, in particular interleukin-1, are key players in the pathophysiology of neurological, psychiatric, and cardiovascular diseases. Critically, this premise is based on a role for the P2X7 receptor in triggering a rise in these cytokines. Given the broad distribution of P2X7 receptors in nervous, immune, and vascular tissue cells, this receptor is proposed as central in linking the nervous, immune, and cardiovascular systems. Testing. Investigate, retrospectively, whether a bidirectional link can be established between illnesses with a proinflammatory component (e.g., inflammatory and chronic neuropathic pain and cardiovascular disease, for example, hypertension, and whether patients treated with anti-inflammatory drugs have a lower incidence of disease complications. Positive outcome would indicate a prospective study to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of P2X7 receptor antagonists. Implications. It should be stressed that sufficient direct evidence does not exist at present supporting our hypothesis. However, a positive outcome would encourage the further development of P2X7 receptor antagonists and their application to limit the co-occurrence of neurological, psychiatric, and cardiovascular disorders.

  10. PENGENALAN PENY AKIT NODA PADA CITRA DAUN TEBU BERDASARKAN CIRI TEKSTUR FRACTAL DIMENSION CO-OCCURRENCE MATRIX DAN L*a*b* COLOR MOMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Kamilah Ratnasari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Penyakit yang menyerang tebu dapat disebabkan oleh bakteri, jamur maupun virus. Penyakit noda merupakan penyakit pada tanaman tebu yang disebabkan oleh jamur dengan menampakkan lesi atau bercak pada permukaan daun. Penyakit noda tersebut dapat menghambat proses fotosintesis yang akan berakibat menurunkan produksi gula karena mempengaruhi pertumbuhan tebu. Upaya pengendalian dini dapat dilakukan dengan mengenali jenis penyakit melalui lesinya yang bermanfaat dalam menentukan tindakan penanganan yang tepat. Lesi yang disebabkan oleh penyakit noda masing-masing dapat dikenali secara visual karena memiliki ciri warna dan tekstur yang unik. Tetapi pengamatan secara visual memiliki beberapa kekurangan seperti subjektifitas dan kurang akurat. Penelitian ini mengusulkan pengenalan penyakit noda tanaman tebu yang terdiri dari noda cincin, noda karat, dan noda kuning berdasarkan fitur tekstur yang merupakan kombinasi dari konsep Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM dan dimensi fraktal yang dinamakan Fractal Dimension Co-Occurrence Matrix (FDCM. Sedangkan fitur warna didapatkan dari perhitungan statistik col or moments pada citra L*a*b*. Kombinasi fitur tersebut menghasilkan 12 fitur warna dan 6 fitur tekstur yang kemudian digunakan sebagai masukan klasifikasi k-Nearest Neighbor (KNN. Pengenalan penyakit noda pada tanaman tebu menggunakan metode tersebut dapat menghasilkan akurasi tertinggi 90%.

  11. A Study for Texture Feature Extraction of High-Resolution Satellite Images Based on a Direction Measure and Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix Fusion Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Cui, Jintian; Wang, Weisheng; Lin, Chao

    2017-01-01

    To address the problem of image texture feature extraction, a direction measure statistic that is based on the directionality of image texture is constructed, and a new method of texture feature extraction, which is based on the direction measure and a gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) fusion algorithm, is proposed in this paper. This method applies the GLCM to extract the texture feature value of an image and integrates the weight factor that is introduced by the direction measure to obtain the final texture feature of an image. A set of classification experiments for the high-resolution remote sensing images were performed by using support vector machine (SVM) classifier with the direction measure and gray level co-occurrence matrix fusion algorithm. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were applied to assess the classification results. The experimental results demonstrated that texture feature extraction based on the fusion algorithm achieved a better image recognition, and the accuracy of classification based on this method has been significantly improved. PMID:28640181

  12. Species co-occurrence affects the trophic interactions of two juvenile reef shark species in tropical lagoon nurseries in Moorea (French Polynesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matich, Philip; Kiszka, Jeremy J; Mourier, Johann; Planes, Serge; Heithaus, Michael R

    2017-06-01

    Food web structure is shaped by interactions within and across trophic levels. As such, understanding how the presence and absence of predators, prey, and competitors affect species foraging patterns is important for predicting the consequences of changes in species abundances, distributions, and behaviors. Here, we used plasma δ 13 C and δ 15 N values from juvenile blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) and juvenile sicklefin lemon sharks (Negaprion acutidens) to investigate how species co-occurrence affects their trophic interactions in littoral waters of Moorea, French Polynesia. Co-occurrence led to isotopic niche partitioning among sharks within nurseries, with significant increases in δ 15 N values among sicklefin lemon sharks, and significant decreases in δ 15 N among blacktip reef sharks. Niche segregation likely promotes coexistence of these two predators during early years of growth and development, but data do not suggest coexistence affects life history traits, such as body size, body condition, and ontogenetic niche shifts. Plasticity in trophic niches among juvenile blacktip reef sharks and sicklefin lemon sharks also suggests these predators are able to account for changes in community structure, resource availability, and intra-guild competition, and may fill similar functional roles in the absence of the other species, which is important as environmental change and human impacts persist in coral reef ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Female intimate partner violence perpetration: stability and predictors of mutual and nonmutual aggression across the first year of college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Maria; Hoffman, Joseph H; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2011-01-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal predictors of mutual and nonmutual intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration were identified in a sample of female college freshmen (N = 499). Using female reports, couples were classified as to whether the relationship included no IPV, female-only IPV, or mutual IPV (male-only IPV was too rare to analyze). Mutual IPV was more common than asymmetrical IPV, and women in mutually violent relationships perpetrated more frequent acts of physical aggression than those in female-only violent relationships. In cross-sectional analyses of IPV in the first semester of college, only partner antisocial behavior and psychological aggression distinguished female-only IPV from no IPV; witnessing mother-to-father aggression, higher psychological aggression, more frequent partner marijuana use, partner antisocial behavior, and, surprisingly, higher relationship satisfaction, discriminated mutual IPV from no IPV. Contrary to hypothesis, first semester (T1) IPV did not predict having a new partner in the second semester (T2); however, women who reported more frequent heavy episodic drinking and lower relationship satisfaction at T1 were more likely to be in a different relationship at T2. Prospective prediction of T2 IPV category failed to support the hypothesis that female-only IPV would escalate to mutual IPV. The majority of couples with female-only IPV reported no IPV at T2. After accounting for T1 IPV, the only significant predictor of T2 IPV category was T1 psychological aggression, suggesting that this may be an appropriate target for IPV prevention efforts among college dating couples. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Inpatient Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kayla

    2016-12-01

    Inpatient violence constitutes a major concern for staff, patients, and administrators. Violence can cause physical injury and psychological trauma. Although violence presents a challenge to inpatient clinicians, it should not be viewed as inevitable. By looking at history of violence, in addition to clinical and other historical factors, clinicians can identify which patients present the most risk of exhibiting violent behavior and whether the violence would most likely flow from psychosis, impulsivity, or predatory characteristics. With that information, clinicians can provide environmental and treatment modifications to lessen the likelihood of violence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexual Violence Facts at a Glance 2012 Adults In a nationally representative survey of adults: 1 • Nearly 1 in ... 5.6% and 5.3%, respectively) experienced sexual violence other than rape, such as being made to ...

  16. Teen Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teen violence refers to harmful behaviors that can start early and continue into young adulthood. The young person can ... victim, an offender, or a witness to the violence. Violent acts can include Bullying Fighting, including punching, ...

  17. Domestic Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Domestic violence is a problem that affects the lives of many women both in urban and rural areas. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder are the most prevalent mental health problems related with domestic violence. Children of battered women are also affected from the domestic violence. Children who grow up in families with intimate partner violence may suffer from a range of behavioral and emotional disturbances that can be associated with the perpetration or experiencing of violence later in life. The mental health care sector can have a significant impact on publicizing and addressing violence against women and children and on reducing the mental health problems related to abuse. This review focuses on domestic violence victims, most of whom are women and children victimized by their spouses or parents, along with the causes and cycle of domestic violence.

  18. Domestic violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intimate partner violence; Spousal abuse; Elder abuse; Child abuse; Sexual abuse - domestic violence ... biting, slapping, choking, or attacking with a weapon. Sexual abuse, forcing someone to have any type of sexual ...

  19. Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ083 WOMEN’S HEALTH Domestic Violence • What is domestic violence? • What are the types of abuse? • How can I tell if my partner is abusive? • What is the ...

  20. Trypanosoma cruzi reservoir—triatomine vector co-occurrence networks reveal meta-community effects by synanthropic mammals on geographic dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos N. Ibarra-Cerdeña

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary patterns of land use and global climate change are modifying regional pools of parasite host species. The impact of host community changes on human disease risk, however, is difficult to assess due to a lack of information about zoonotic parasite host assemblages. We have used a recently developed method to infer parasite-host interactions for Chagas Disease (CD from vector-host co-occurrence networks. Vector-host networks were constructed to analyze topological characteristics of the network and ecological traits of species’ nodes, which could provide information regarding parasite regional dispersal in Mexico. Twenty-eight triatomine species (vectors and 396 mammal species (potential hosts were included using a data-mining approach to develop models to infer most-likely interactions. The final network contained 1,576 links which were analyzed to calculate centrality, connectivity, and modularity. The model predicted links of independently registered Trypanosoma cruzi hosts, which correlated with the degree of parasite-vector co-occurrence. Wiring patterns differed according to node location, while edge density was greater in Neotropical as compared to Nearctic regions. Vectors with greatest public health importance (i.e., Triatoma dimidiata, T. barberi, T. pallidipennis, T. longipennis, etc, did not have stronger links with particular host species, although they had a greater frequency of significant links. In contrast, hosts classified as important based on network properties were synanthropic mammals. The latter were the most common parasite hosts and are likely bridge species between these communities, thereby integrating meta-community scenarios beneficial for long-range parasite dispersal. This was particularly true for rodents, >50% of species are synanthropic and more than 20% have been identified as T. cruzi hosts. In addition to predicting potential host species using the co-occurrence networks, they reveal regions with

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi reservoir-triatomine vector co-occurrence networks reveal meta-community effects by synanthropic mammals on geographic dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N; Valiente-Banuet, Leopoldo; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Stephens, Christopher R; Ramsey, Janine M

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary patterns of land use and global climate change are modifying regional pools of parasite host species. The impact of host community changes on human disease risk, however, is difficult to assess due to a lack of information about zoonotic parasite host assemblages. We have used a recently developed method to infer parasite-host interactions for Chagas Disease (CD) from vector-host co-occurrence networks. Vector-host networks were constructed to analyze topological characteristics of the network and ecological traits of species' nodes, which could provide information regarding parasite regional dispersal in Mexico. Twenty-eight triatomine species (vectors) and 396 mammal species (potential hosts) were included using a data-mining approach to develop models to infer most-likely interactions. The final network contained 1,576 links which were analyzed to calculate centrality, connectivity, and modularity. The model predicted links of independently registered Trypanosoma cruzi hosts, which correlated with the degree of parasite-vector co-occurrence. Wiring patterns differed according to node location, while edge density was greater in Neotropical as compared to Nearctic regions. Vectors with greatest public health importance (i.e., Triatoma dimidiata, T. barberi, T. pallidipennis, T. longipennis, etc), did not have stronger links with particular host species, although they had a greater frequency of significant links. In contrast, hosts classified as important based on network properties were synanthropic mammals. The latter were the most common parasite hosts and are likely bridge species between these communities, thereby integrating meta-community scenarios beneficial for long-range parasite dispersal. This was particularly true for rodents, >50% of species are synanthropic and more than 20% have been identified as T. cruzi hosts. In addition to predicting potential host species using the co-occurrence networks, they reveal regions with greater expected

  2. Trypanosoma cruzi reservoir—triatomine vector co-occurrence networks reveal meta-community effects by synanthropic mammals on geographic dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente-Banuet, Leopoldo; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Stephens, Christopher R.

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary patterns of land use and global climate change are modifying regional pools of parasite host species. The impact of host community changes on human disease risk, however, is difficult to assess due to a lack of information about zoonotic parasite host assemblages. We have used a recently developed method to infer parasite-host interactions for Chagas Disease (CD) from vector-host co-occurrence networks. Vector-host networks were constructed to analyze topological characteristics of the network and ecological traits of species’ nodes, which could provide information regarding parasite regional dispersal in Mexico. Twenty-eight triatomine species (vectors) and 396 mammal species (potential hosts) were included using a data-mining approach to develop models to infer most-likely interactions. The final network contained 1,576 links which were analyzed to calculate centrality, connectivity, and modularity. The model predicted links of independently registered Trypanosoma cruzi hosts, which correlated with the degree of parasite-vector co-occurrence. Wiring patterns differed according to node location, while edge density was greater in Neotropical as compared to Nearctic regions. Vectors with greatest public health importance (i.e., Triatoma dimidiata, T. barberi, T. pallidipennis, T. longipennis, etc), did not have stronger links with particular host species, although they had a greater frequency of significant links. In contrast, hosts classified as important based on network properties were synanthropic mammals. The latter were the most common parasite hosts and are likely bridge species between these communities, thereby integrating meta-community scenarios beneficial for long-range parasite dispersal. This was particularly true for rodents, >50% of species are synanthropic and more than 20% have been identified as T. cruzi hosts. In addition to predicting potential host species using the co-occurrence networks, they reveal regions with greater

  3. A probabilistic approach for estimating the spatial extent of pesticide agricultural use sites and potential co-occurrence with listed species for use in ecological risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budreski, Katherine; Winchell, Michael; Padilla, Lauren; Bang, JiSu; Brain, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    A crop footprint refers to the estimated spatial extent of growing areas for a specific crop, and is commonly used to represent the potential "use site" footprint for a pesticide labeled for use on that crop. A methodology for developing probabilistic crop footprints to estimate the likelihood of pesticide use and the potential co-occurrence of pesticide use and listed species locations was tested at the national scale and compared to alternative methods. The probabilistic aspect of the approach accounts for annual crop rotations and the uncertainty in remotely sensed crop and land cover data sets. The crop footprints used historically are derived exclusively from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Cultivated Crops and/or Pasture/Hay classes. This approach broadly aggregates agriculture into 2 classes, which grossly overestimates the spatial extent of individual crops that are labeled for pesticide use. The approach also does not use all the available crop data, represents a single point in time, and does not account for the uncertainty in land cover data set classifications. The probabilistic crop footprint approach described herein incorporates best available information at the time of analysis from the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) Cropland Data Layer (CDL) for 5 y (2008-2012 at the time of analysis), the 2006 NLCD, the 2007 NASS Census of Agriculture, and 5 y of NASS Quick Stats (2008-2012). The approach accounts for misclassification of crop classes in the CDL by incorporating accuracy assessment information by state, year, and crop. The NLCD provides additional information to improve the CDL crop probability through an adjustment based on the NLCD accuracy assessment data using the principles of Bayes' Theorem. Finally, crop probabilities are scaled at the state level by comparing against NASS surveys (Census of Agriculture and Quick Stats) of reported planted acres by crop. In an example application of the new method, the probabilistic

  4. The co-occurrence of autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in parents of children with ASD or ASD with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Richards, Jennifer S; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2012-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share about 50-72% of their genetic factors, which is the most likely explanation for their frequent co-occurrence within the same patient or family. An additional or alternative explanation for the co-occurrence may be (cross-)assortative mating, e.g., the tendency to choose a partner that is similar or dissimilar to oneself. Another issue is that of parent-of-origin effect which refers to the possibility of parents differing in the relative quantity of risk factors they transmit to the offspring. The current study sets out to examine (cross-)assortative mating and (cross-)parent-of-origin effects of ASD and ADHD in parents of children with either ASD or ASD with ADHD diagnosis. In total, 121 families were recruited in an ongoing autism-ADHD family genetics project. Participating families consisted of parents and at least one child aged between 2 and 20 years, with either autistic disorder, Asperger disorder or PDD-NOS, and one or more biological siblings. All children and parents were carefully screened for the presence of ASD and ADHD. No correlations were found between maternal and paternal ASD and ADHD symptoms. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were predictive for similar symptoms in the offspring, but with maternal hyperactive-impulsive symptoms, but not paternal symptoms, predicting similar symptoms in daughters. ASD pathology in the parents was not predictive for ADHD pathology in the offspring, but mother's ADHD pathology was predictive for offspring ASD pathology even when corrected for maternal ASD pathology. Cross-assortative mating for ASD and ADHD does not form an explanation for the frequent co-occurrence of these disorders within families. Given that parental ADHD is predictive of offspring' ASD but not vice versa, risk factors underlying ASD may overlap to a larger degree with risk factors underlying ADHD than vice versa. However, future research is needed to clarify

  5. Media violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, J

    2000-08-01

    Research on the effects of media violence is not well understood by the general public. Despite this fact, there is an overwhelming consensus in the scientific literature about the unhealthy effects of media violence. Meta-analyses show that media-violence viewing consistently is associated with higher levels of antisocial behavior, ranging from the trivial (imitative violence directed against toys) to the serious (criminal violence), with many consequential outcomes in between (acceptance of violence as a solution to problems, increased feelings of hostility, and the apparent delivery of painful stimulation to another person). Desensitization is another well-documented effect of viewing violence, which is observable in reduced arousal and emotional disturbance while witnessing violence, the reduced tendency to intervene in a fight, and less sympathy for the victims of violence. Although there is evidence that youth who are already violent are more likely to seek out violent entertainment, there is strong evidence that the relationship between violence viewing and antisocial behavior is bidirectional. There is growing evidence that media violence also engenders intense fear in children which often lasts days, months, and even years. The media's potential role in solutions to these problems is only beginning to be explored, in investigations examining the uses and effects of movie ratings, television ratings, and the V-chip, and the effects of media literacy programs and public education efforts. Future research should explore important individual differences in responses to media violence and effective ways to intervene in the negative effects.

  6. Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad H. Al-Malack

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel oil flyash (FFA produced in power and water desalination plants firing crude oils in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is being disposed in landfills, which increases the burden on the environment, therefore, FFA utilization must be encouraged. In the current research, the effect of adding FFA on the engineering properties of two indigenous soils, namely sand and marl, was investigated. FFA was added at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% to both soils with and without the addition of Portland cement. Mixtures of the stabilized soils were thoroughly evaluated using compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, unconfined compressive strength (USC and durability tests. Results of these tests indicated that stabilized sand mixtures could not attain the ACI strength requirements. However, marl was found to satisfy the ACI strength requirement when only 5% of FFA was added together with 5% of cement. When the FFA was increased to 10% and 15%, the mixture’s strength was found to decrease to values below the ACI requirements. Results of the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP, which was performed on samples that passed the ACI requirements, indicated that FFA must be cautiously used in soil stabilization.

  7. Externalizing pathology and the five-factor model: a meta-analysis of personality traits associated with antisocial personality disorder, substance use disorder, and their co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Mark A; Pincus, Aaron L; Schinka, John A

    2008-08-01

    In this meta-analysis we examined Five-Factor Model of personality (FFM) characteristics of externalizing disorders. Two pathologies, Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) and Substance Use Disorder (SUD), have significant levels of co-occurrence that may be due to shared personality traits. Results from 63 samples (N = 15,331) were analyzed in order to summarize and compare five-factor results for APD, SUD, and co-occurring APD/SUD. Shared and unique personality features were identified at both the domain and the facet level of the FFM. Moderation analyses indicated that sample source (clinical versus community) and diagnosis (psychopathy versus DSM-based APD) accounted for some of the variability at the domain level. Results are discussed with respect to personality and externalizing disorders.

  8. The co-occurrence of non-suicidal self-injury and attempted suicide among adolescents: distinguishing risk factors and psychosocial correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andover Margaret S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although attempted suicide and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI are distinct behaviors differing in intent, form, and function, the behaviors co-occur at a high rate in both adults and adolescents. Researchers have begun to investigate the association between attempted suicide and NSSI among adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to present current research on this association. First, we discuss definitional issues associated with self-injurious behaviors. Next, we present research on the co-occurrence of attempted suicide and NSSI, including prevalence and associations with self-injury characteristics. We then discuss psychosocial variables associated with engaging in both NSSI and attempted suicide or one type of self-injury alone. Finally, we present the research to date on risk factors uniquely associated with either attempted suicide or NSSI. Implications for mental health professionals and future avenues of research are discussed.

  9. Co-occurrence of point mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel of pyrethroid-resistant Aedes aegypti populations in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Oo, Sai Zaw Min; Thaung, Sein; Kawashima, Emiko; Maung, Yan Naung Maung; Thu, Hlaing Myat; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Minakawa, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    Single amino acid substitutions in the voltage-gated sodium channel associated with pyrethroid resistance constitute one of the main causative factors of knockdown resistance in insects. The kdr gene has been observed in several mosquito species; however, point mutations in the para gene of Aedes aegypti populations in Myanmar have not been fully characterized. The aim of the present study was to determine the types and frequencies of mutations in the para gene of Aedes aegypti collected from used tires in Yangon City, Myanmar. We determined high pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti larvae at all collection sites in Yangon City, by using a simplified knockdown bioassay. We showed that V1016G and S989P mutations were widely distributed, with high frequencies (84.4% and 78.8%, respectively). By contrast, we were unable to detect I1011M (or I1011V) or L1014F mutations. F1534C mutations were also widely distributed, but with a lower frequency than the V1016G mutation (21.2%). High percentage of co-occurrence of the homozygous V1016G/S989P mutations was detected (65.7%). Additionally, co-occurrence of homozygous V1016G/F1534C mutations (2.9%) and homozygous V1016G/F1534C/S989P mutations (0.98%) were detected in the present study. Pyrethroid insecticides were first used for malaria control in 1992, and have since been constantly used in Myanmar. This intensive use may explain the strong selection pressure toward Aedes aegypti, because this mosquito is generally a domestic and endophagic species with a preference for indoor breeding. Extensive use of DDT for malaria control before the use of this chemical was banned may also explain the development of pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti.

  10. Co-occurrence of point mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel of pyrethroid-resistant Aedes aegypti populations in Myanmar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Kawada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Single amino acid substitutions in the voltage-gated sodium channel associated with pyrethroid resistance constitute one of the main causative factors of knockdown resistance in insects. The kdr gene has been observed in several mosquito species; however, point mutations in the para gene of Aedes aegypti populations in Myanmar have not been fully characterized. The aim of the present study was to determine the types and frequencies of mutations in the para gene of Aedes aegypti collected from used tires in Yangon City, Myanmar. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined high pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti larvae at all collection sites in Yangon City, by using a simplified knockdown bioassay. We showed that V1016G and S989P mutations were widely distributed, with high frequencies (84.4% and 78.8%, respectively. By contrast, we were unable to detect I1011M (or I1011V or L1014F mutations. F1534C mutations were also widely distributed, but with a lower frequency than the V1016G mutation (21.2%. High percentage of co-occurrence of the homozygous V1016G/S989P mutations was detected (65.7%. Additionally, co-occurrence of homozygous V1016G/F1534C mutations (2.9% and homozygous V1016G/F1534C/S989P mutations (0.98% were detected in the present study. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Pyrethroid insecticides were first used for malaria control in 1992, and have since been constantly used in Myanmar. This intensive use may explain the strong selection pressure toward Aedes aegypti, because this mosquito is generally a domestic and endophagic species with a preference for indoor breeding. Extensive use of DDT for malaria control before the use of this chemical was banned may also explain the development of pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti.

  11. Taxon abundance, diversity, co-occurrence and network analysis of the ruminal microbiota in response to dietary changes in dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilma Tapio

    Full Text Available The ruminal microbiome, comprising large numbers of bacteria, ciliate protozoa, archaea and fungi, responds to diet and dietary additives in a complex way. The aim of this study was to investigate the benefits of increasing the depth of the community analysis in describing and explaining responses to dietary changes. Quantitative PCR, ssu rRNA amplicon based taxa composition, diversity and co-occurrence network analyses were applied to ruminal digesta samples obtained from four multiparous Nordic Red dairy cows fitted with rumen cannulae. The cows received diets with forage:concentrate ratio either 35:65 (diet H or 65:35 (L, supplemented or not with sunflower oil (SO (0 or 50 g/kg diet dry matter, supplied in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments and four 35-day periods. Digesta samples were collected on days 22 and 24 and combined. QPCR provided a broad picture in which a large fall in the abundance of fungi was seen with SO in the H but not the L diet. Amplicon sequencing showed higher community diversity indices in L as compared to H diets and revealed diet specific taxa abundance changes, highlighting large differences in protozoal and fungal composition. Methanobrevibacter ruminantium and Mbb. gottschalkii dominated archaeal communities, and their abundance correlated negatively with each other. Co-occurrence network analysis provided evidence that no microbial domain played a more central role in network formation, that some minor-abundance taxa were at nodes of highest centrality, and that microbial interactions were diet specific. Networks added new dimensions to our understanding of the diet effect on rumen microbial community interactions.

  12. Genetic insights into family group co-occurrence in Cryptocercus punctulatus, a sub-social woodroach from the southern Appalachian Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C. Garrick

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The wood-feeding cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus Scudder (Blattodea: Cryptocercidae is an important member of the dead wood (saproxylic community in montane forests of the southeastern United States. However, its population biology remains poorly understood. Here, aspects of family group co-occurrence were characterized to provide basic information that can be extended by studies on the evolution and maintenance of sub-sociality. Broad sampling across the species’ range was coupled with molecular data (mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences. The primary questions were: (1 what proportion of rotting logs contain two or more different mtDNA haplotypes and how often can this be attributed to multiple families inhabiting the same log, (2 are multi-family logs spatially clustered, and (3 what levels of genetic differentiation among haplotypes exist within a log, and how genetically similar are matrilines of co-occurring family groups? Multi-family logs were identified on the premise that three different mtDNA haplotypes, or two different haplotypes among adult females, is inconsistent with a single family group founded by one male–female pair. Results showed that of the 88 rotting logs from which multiple adult C. punctulatus were sampled, 41 logs (47% contained two or more mtDNA haplotypes, and at least 19 of these logs (22% overall were inferred to be inhabited by multiple families. There was no strong evidence for spatial clustering of the latter class of logs. The frequency distribution of nucleotide differences between co-occurring haplotypes was strongly right-skewed, such that most haplotypes were only one or two mutations apart, but more substantial divergences (up to 18 mutations, or 1.6% uncorrected sequence divergence do occasionally occur within logs. This work represents the first explicit investigation of family group co-occurrence in C. punctulatus, providing a valuable baseline for follow-up studies.

  13. Prevalence, co-occurrence, and clustering of health-risk behaviors among people with different socio-economic trajectories: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkstedt, Daniel; Möller, Jette; Zeebari, Zangin; Engström, Karin

    2016-12-01

    Only a few previously published studies have investigated the co-occurrence and clustering of health-risk behaviors in people with different socio-economic trajectories from childhood to adulthood. This study was based on data collected through the Stockholm County Council's public health surveys. We selected the 24,241 participants aged 30 to 65years, who responded to a postal questionnaire in 2010. Information on parents' and participants' educational levels was used for classification of four socio-economic trajectories, from childhood to adulthood: the 'stable high', the 'upwardly mobile', the 'downwardly mobile', and the 'stable low'. Information on daily smoking, risky drinking, physical inactivity, and poor diet was used for assessment of health-risk behaviors: their prevalence, co-occurrence, and clustering. We found all health-risk behaviors to be more prevalent among women and men with a downwardly mobile or stable low socio-economic trajectory. Accordingly, having three or four co-occurring health-risk behaviors were much more likely (up to 4 times, in terms of odds ratios) in these groups as compared to the women and men with an upwardly mobile or a stable high socio-economic trajectory. However, clustering of the health-risk behaviors was not found to be stronger in those with a downwardly mobile or stable low socio-economic trajectory. Thus, the fact that women and men with a disadvantageous socio-economic career were found to have co-occurring health-risk behaviors more often than people with an advantageous socio-economic career seemed to be generated by differences in prevalence of the health-risk behaviors, not by differences in clustering of the behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Three-level prediction of protein function by combining profile-sequence search, profile-profile search, and domain co-occurrence networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Cao, Renzhi; Cheng, Jianlin

    2013-01-01

    Predicting protein function from sequence is useful for biochemical experiment design, mutagenesis analysis, protein engineering, protein design, biological pathway analysis, drug design, disease diagnosis, and genome annotation as a vast number of protein sequences with unknown function are routinely being generated by DNA, RNA and protein sequencing in the genomic era. However, despite significant progresses in the last several years, the accuracy of protein function prediction still needs to be improved in order to be used effectively in practice, particularly when little or no homology exists between a target protein and proteins with annotated function. Here, we developed a method that integrated profile-sequence alignment, profile-profile alignment, and Domain Co-Occurrence Networks (DCN) to predict protein function at different levels of complexity, ranging from obvious homology, to remote homology, to no homology. We tested the method blindingly in the 2011 Critical Assessment of Function Annotation (CAFA). Our experiments demonstrated that our three-level prediction method effectively increased the recall of function prediction while maintaining a reasonable precision. Particularly, our method can predict function terms defined by the Gene Ontology more accurately than three standard baseline methods in most situations, handle multi-domain proteins naturally, and make ab initio function prediction when no homology exists. These results show that our approach can combine complementary strengths of most widely used BLAST-based function prediction methods, rarely used in function prediction but more sensitive profile-profile comparison-based homology detection methods, and non-homology-based domain co-occurrence networks, to effectively extend the power of function prediction from high homology, to low homology, to no homology (ab initio cases).

  15. Genetic insights into family group co-occurrence in Cryptocercus punctulatus, a sub-social woodroach from the southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The wood-feeding cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus Scudder (Blattodea: Cryptocercidae) is an important member of the dead wood (saproxylic) community in montane forests of the southeastern United States. However, its population biology remains poorly understood. Here, aspects of family group co-occurrence were characterized to provide basic information that can be extended by studies on the evolution and maintenance of sub-sociality. Broad sampling across the species’ range was coupled with molecular data (mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences). The primary questions were: (1) what proportion of rotting logs contain two or more different mtDNA haplotypes and how often can this be attributed to multiple families inhabiting the same log, (2) are multi-family logs spatially clustered, and (3) what levels of genetic differentiation among haplotypes exist within a log, and how genetically similar are matrilines of co-occurring family groups? Multi-family logs were identified on the premise that three different mtDNA haplotypes, or two different haplotypes among adult females, is inconsistent with a single family group founded by one male–female pair. Results showed that of the 88 rotting logs from which multiple adult C. punctulatus were sampled, 41 logs (47%) contained two or more mtDNA haplotypes, and at least 19 of these logs (22% overall) were inferred to be inhabited by multiple families. There was no strong evidence for spatial clustering of the latter class of logs. The frequency distribution of nucleotide differences between co-occurring haplotypes was strongly right-skewed, such that most haplotypes were only one or two mutations apart, but more substantial divergences (up to 18 mutations, or 1.6% uncorrected sequence divergence) do occasionally occur within logs. This work represents the first explicit investigation of family group co-occurrence in C. punctulatus, providing a valuable baseline for follow-up studies. PMID:28348934

  16. Neighborhood socioeconomic circumstances and the co-occurrence of unhealthy lifestyles: evidence from 206,457 Australians in the 45 and up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Astell-Burt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Research on the co-occurrence of unhealthy lifestyles has tended to focus mainly upon the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of individuals. This study investigated the relevance of neighborhood socioeconomic circumstance for multiple unhealthy lifestyles. An unhealthy lifestyle index was constructed for 206,457 participants in the 45 and Up Study (2006-2009) by summing binary responses on smoking, alcohol, physical activity and five diet-related variables. Higher scores indicated the co-occurrence of unhealthy lifestyles. Association with self-rated health, quality of life; and risk of psychological distress was investigated using multilevel logistic regression. Association between the unhealthy lifestyle index with neighborhood characteristics (local affluence and geographic remoteness) were assessed using multilevel linear regression, adjusting for individual-level characteristics. Nearly 50% of the sample reported 3 or 4 unhealthy lifestyles. Only 1.5% reported zero unhealthy lifestyles and 0.2% had all eight. Compared to people who scored zero, those who scored 8 (the 'unhealthiest' group) were 7 times more likely to rate their health as poor (95%CI 3.6, 13.7), 5 times more likely to report poor quality of life (95%CI 2.6, 10.1), and had a 2.6 times greater risk of psychological distress (95%CI 1.8, 3.7). Higher scores among men decreased with age, whereas a parabolic distribution was observed among women. Neighborhood affluence was independently associated with lower scores on the unhealthy lifestyle index. People on high incomes scored higher on the unhealthy lifestyle index if they were in poorer neighborhoods, while those on low incomes had fewer unhealthy lifestyles if living in more affluent areas. Residents of deprived neighborhoods tend to report more unhealthy lifestyles than their peers in affluent areas, regardless of their individual demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Future research should investigate the trade-offs of

  17. Seasonal fluctuation in the population of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae and co-occurrence with other Coccinellids in the Federal District of Brazil

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    Érica Sevilha Harterreiten-Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773, was first recorded in Brazil in 2002 in Paraná state and subsequently observed in Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul and Minas Gerais. This species can spread to new areas and become dominant in the local community, reducing the density and diversity of native species, mainly Coccinellidae. The objective of this work was to record for the first time the occurrence of H. axyridis in the Federal District and its co-occurrence with other Coccinellidae species. The individuals were collected directly from plants at an organic farm in Taguatinga and in experimental fields of Embrapa Hortaliças, located in the Federal District, from August 2008 to January 2010. We collected 881 Coccinelids, and of these, 110 belong to the species H. axyridis. These were found exclusively on the following plants of the succinea group: maize, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, kale, cucumber, cotton, tomato and coriander. We also observed its co-occurrence with the following lady beetle species: Cycloneda sanguine (Linnaeus, 1763, Hippodamia convergens (Guerin-Meneville 1842, Eriopis connexa (German, 1824, Scymnus sp., Nephaspis sp., Azya luteipes (Mulsant, 1850, Hyperaspis festiva (Mulsant, 1850, Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant, 1866, Psyllobora sp. and Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer, 1775. So far, we have not found any negative interactions between H. axyridis and these species. This is the northernmost H. axyridis record in Brazil. Moreover, the region was previously considered to have a low probability of occurrence for this species. Therefore, this record confirms that H. axyridis presents great adaptive plasticity to new habitats.

  18. Adolescent health in rural Ghana: A cross-sectional study on the co-occurrence of infectious diseases, malnutrition and cardio-metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicke, Marie; Boakye-Appiah, Justice K; Abdul-Jalil, Inusah; Henze, Andrea; van der Giet, Markus; Schulze, Matthias B; Schweigert, Florian J; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Bedu-Addo, George; Danquah, Ina

    2017-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diseases and malnutrition constitute the main health problems in children, while adolescents and adults are increasingly facing cardio-metabolic conditions. Among adolescents as the largest population group in this region, we investigated the co-occurrence of infectious diseases, malnutrition and cardio-metabolic risk factors (CRFs), and evaluated demographic, socio-economic and medical risk factors for these entities. In a cross-sectional study among 188 adolescents in rural Ghana, malarial infection, common infectious diseases and Body Mass Index were assessed. We measured ferritin, C-reactive protein, retinol, fasting glucose and blood pressure. Socio-demographic data were documented. We analyzed the proportions (95% confidence interval, CI) and the co-occurrence of infectious diseases (malaria, other common diseases), malnutrition (underweight, stunting, iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency [VAD]), and CRFs (overweight, obesity, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension). In logistic regression, odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs were calculated for the associations with socio-demographic factors. In this Ghanaian population (age range, 14.4-15.5 years; males, 50%), the proportions were for infectious diseases 45% (95% CI: 38-52%), for malnutrition 50% (43-57%) and for CRFs 16% (11-21%). Infectious diseases and malnutrition frequently co-existed (28%; 21-34%). Specifically, VAD increased the odds of non-malarial infectious diseases 3-fold (95% CI: 1.03, 10.19). Overlap of CRFs with infectious diseases (6%; 2-9%) or with malnutrition (7%; 3-11%) was also present. Male gender and low socio-economic status increased the odds of infectious diseases and malnutrition, respectively. Malarial infection, chronic malnutrition and VAD remain the predominant health problems among these Ghanaian adolescents. Investigating the relationships with evolving CRFs is warranted.

  19. The co-occurrence of adverse childhood experiences among children investigated for child maltreatment: A latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Samantha M; Rienks, Shauna; McCrae, Julie S; Watamura, Sarah E

    2017-11-22

    Children investigated for maltreatment are particularly vulnerable to experiencing multiple adversities. Few studies have examined the extent to which experiences of adversity and different types of maltreatment co-occur in this most vulnerable population of children. Understanding the complex nature of childhood adversity may inform the enhanced tailoring of practices to better meet the needs of maltreated children. Using cross-sectional data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II (N=5870), this study employed latent class analysis to identify subgroups of children who had experienced multiple forms of maltreatment and associated adversities among four developmental stages: birth to 23 months (infants), 2-5 (preschool age), 6-10 (school age), and 11-18 years-old (adolescents). Three latent classes were identified for infants, preschool-aged children, and adolescents, and four latent classes were identified for school-aged children. Among infants, the groups were characterized by experiences of (1) physical neglect/emotional abuse/caregiver treated violently, (2) physical neglect/household dysfunction, and (3) caregiver divorce. For preschool-aged children, the groups included (1) physical neglect/emotional abuse/caregiver treated violently, (2) physical neglect/household dysfunction, and (3) emotional abuse. Children in the school-age group clustered based on experiencing (1) physical neglect/emotional neglect and abuse/caregiver treated violently, (2) physical neglect/household dysfunction, (3) emotional abuse, and (4) emotional abuse/caregiver divorce. Finally, adolescents were grouped based on (1) physical neglect/emotional abuse/household dysfunction, (2) physical abuse/emotional abuse/household dysfunction, and (3) emotional abuse/caregiver divorce. The results indicate distinct classes of adversity experienced among children investigated for child maltreatment, with both stability across developmental periods and unique age

  20. Global patterns and environmental controls of perchlorate and nitrate co-occurrence in arid and semi-arid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W Andrew; Böhlke, John Karl; Andraski, Brian J.; Fahlquist, Lynne S.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Eckardt, Frank D.; Gates, John B.; Davila, Alfonso F.; McKay, Christopher P.; Rao, Balaji; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Rajagopalan, Srinath; Estrada, Nubia; Sturchio, Neil C.; Hatzinger, Paul B.; Anderson, Todd A.; Orris, Greta J.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Stonestrom, David A.; Latorre, Claudio; Li, Yanhe; Harvey, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Natural perchlorate (ClO4−) is of increasing interest due to its wide-spread occurrence on Earth and Mars, yet little information exists on the relative abundance of ClO4− compared to other major anions, its stability, or long-term variations in production that may impact the observed distributions. Our objectives were to evaluate the occurrence and fate of ClO4− in groundwater and soils/caliche in arid and semi-arid environments (southwestern United States, southern Africa, United Arab Emirates, China, Antarctica, and Chile) and the relationship of ClO4− to the more well-studied atmospherically deposited anions NO3−and Cl− as a means to understand the prevalent processes that affect the accumulation of these species over various time scales. ClO4− is globally distributed in soil and groundwater in arid and semi-arid regions on Earth at concentrations ranging from 10−1to 106 μg/kg. Generally, the ClO4− concentration in these regions increases with aridity index, but also depends on the duration of arid conditions. In many arid and semi-arid areas, NO3− and ClO4− co-occur at molar ratios (NO3−/ClO4−) that vary between ∼104and 105. We hypothesize that atmospheric deposition ratios are largely preserved in hyper-arid areas that support little or no biological activity (e.g. plants or bacteria), but can be altered in areas with more active biological processes including N2 fixation, N mineralization, nitrification, denitrification, and microbial ClO4− reduction, as indicated in part by NO3− isotope data. In contrast, much larger ranges of Cl−/ClO4− and Cl−/NO3−ratios indicate Cl− varies independently from both ClO4− and NO3−. The general lack of correlation between Cl− and ClO4− or NO3− implies that Cl− is not a good indicator of co-deposition and should be used with care when interpreting oxyanion cycling in arid systems. The Atacama Desert appears to be unique compared to all other terrestrial locations having a

  1. Risk and protective factors for sexual aggression and dating violence: common themes and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Martie P

    2014-10-01

    The primary aims of this article are to expand on three themes from the conference articles on risk and protective factors for dating and sexual violence and to offer suggestions that can guide future research. The first theme is the co-occurrence of sexual and dating violence with other forms of violence and other campus health issues. A second topic is the value of prospective studies in revealing temporal patterns of victimization and perpetration. A third theme is the role of peer norms in violence among college students. Suggestions for translating these ideas into research and action are discussed and include the need for comprehensive prevention approaches, more longitudinal research spanning the years before, during, and after college, and the application of social media technology in our interventions strategies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. The co-occurrence of chronic pain and psychological distress and its associations with salient socio-demographic characteristics among long-term social assistance recipients in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løyland, Borghild

    2016-04-01

    While lower socioeconomic status increases individual's risk for chronic conditions, little is known about how long-term social assistance recipients (LTRs) with multiple chronic health problems experience chronic pain and/or psychological distress. Social assistance is the last safety net in the Norwegian welfare system and individuals have a legal right to economic assistance if they are unable to support themselves or are entitled to other types of benefits. The purposes of this study were to determine the co-occurrence of both chronic pain and psychological distress and to evaluate for differences in demographic and social characteristics, as well as health-related quality of life, among LTRs. This descriptive, cross-sectional study surveyed people receiving long-term social assistance in Norway about their health and social functioning from January-November 2005. The social welfare authority offices in each of 14 municipalities in Norway were responsible to locate the LTRs who met the study's inclusion criteria. The selected municipalities provided geographic variability including both rural and urban municipalities in different parts of the country. LTRs were included in this study if they: had received social assistance as their main source of income for at least 6 of the last 12 months; were between 18 and 60 years of age; and were able to complete the study questionnaire. In this study, 405 LTRs were divided into four groups based on the presence or absence of chronic pain and/or psychological distress. (1) Neither chronic pain nor psychological distress (32%, n=119), (2) only chronic pain (12%, n=44), (3) only psychological distress and (24%, n=87), (4) both chronic pain and psychological distress (32%, n=119). Except for age and marital status, no differences were found between groups in demographic characteristics. Significant differences were found among the four groups on all of the items related to childhood difficulties before the age of 16, except

  3. The unexpected co-occurrence of GRN and MAPT p.A152T in Basque families: Clinical and pathological characteristics.

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    Fermin Moreno

    Full Text Available The co-occurrence of the c.709-1G>A GRN mutation and the p.A152T MAPT variant has been identified in 18 Basque families affected by frontotemporal dementia (FTD. We aimed to investigate the influence of the p.A152T MAPT variant on the clinical and neuropathological features of these Basque GRN families.We compared clinical characteristics of 14 patients who carried the c.709-1G>A GRN mutation (GRN+/A152T- with 21 patients who carried both the c.709-1G>A GRN mutation and the p.A152T MAPT variant (GRN+/A152T+. Neuropsychological data (n = 17 and plasma progranulin levels (n = 23 were compared between groups, and 7 subjects underwent neuropathological studies. We genotyped six short tandem repeat markers in the two largest families. By the analysis of linkage disequilibrium decay in the haplotype block we estimated the time when the first ancestor to carry both genetic variants emerged. GRN+/A152T+ and GRN+/A152T- patients shared similar clinical and neuropsychological features and plasma progranulin levels. All were diagnosed with an FTD disorder, including behavioral variant FTD or non fluent / agrammatic variant primary progressive aphasia, and shared a similar pattern of neuropsychological deficits, predominantly in executive function, memory, and language. All seven participants with available brain autopsies (6 GRN+/A152T+, 1 GRN+/A152T- showed frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions (type A classification, which is characteristic of GRN carriers. Additionally, all seven showed mild to moderate tau inclusion burden: five cases lacked β-amyloid pathology and two cases had Alzheimer's pathology. The co-occurrence of both genes within one individual is recent, with the birth of the first GRN+/A152T+ individual estimated to be within the last 50 generations (95% probability.In our sample, the p.A152T MAPT variant does not appear to show a discernible influence on the clinical phenotype of GRN carriers. Whether p.A152T confers a

  4. CO-OCCURRENCE OF ALCOHOL, DRUG USE, DSM-5 ALCOHOL USE DISORDER AND SYMPTOMS OF DRUG USE DISORDER ON BOTH SIDES OF THE U.S.-MEXICO BORDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Zemore, Sarah; Orozco, Ricardo; Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Ye, Yu; Bond, Jason; Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Wallisch, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Background The U.S.-Mexico border displays elevated rates of hazardous alcohol and drug use. Whether the co-occurrence of alcohol and drug use and disorders is also high in the border area is unknown. Methods Data are from the U.S.-Mexico Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected respondents interviewed from 2011–2013. Participants included 1,690 Mexican Americans from Texas (572 in an off-border city and 1,118 from 3 border cities) and 1,293 Mexicans from Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas (415 in an off-border city and 878 from 3 Mexican cities bordering Texas) who reported drinking in the last 12 months. Participants were interviewed regarding the prevalence of and risk factors for: a) co-occurring hazardous alcohol use (5+/4+ at least monthly) and drug use (medical and illicit), and b) co-occurring presence of a DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) and 2 symptoms (hazardous use and quit/control) of drug use disorders (DUD symptoms). Results Co-occurring hazardous alcohol and drug use was more common in the U.S. border cities (14.7%) than off-border (7.2%), but similar for Mexican border (1.2%) and off-border (1.4%) cities. Co-occurrence of AUD and DUD symptoms was likewise more common at the U.S. border (6.8%) than off-border (3.3%), as well as at the Mexican border (1.3%), compared to off-border (0.6%), but not statistically significant for Mexico. In models adjusting for demographics, mobility factors and exposure to the U.S. culture, border residence in both countries related to a nearly two-fold increase in prevalence ratios (PR) of co-occurring AUD and DUD symptoms (PR=1.97, 95%CI=1.36–2.85). Conclusions Increased rates of co-occurring alcohol and drug use disorders suggest an added negative impact on already difficult conditions of the border population. PMID:25833029

  5. Co-occurrence of alcohol, drug use, DSM-5 alcohol use disorder, and symptoms of drug use disorder on both sides of the U.S.-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Zemore, Sarah; Orozco, Ricardo; Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Ye, Yu; Bond, Jason; Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Wallisch, Lynn

    2015-04-01

    The U.S.-Mexico border displays elevated rates of hazardous alcohol and drug use. Whether the co-occurrence of alcohol and drug use and disorders is also high in the border area is unknown. Data are from the U.S.-Mexico Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected respondents interviewed from 2011 to 2013. Participants included 1,690 Mexican Americans from Texas (572 in an off-border city and 1,118 from 3 border cities) and 1,293 Mexicans from Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas (415 in an off-border city and 878 from 3 Mexican cities bordering Texas) who reported drinking in the last 12 months. Participants were interviewed regarding the prevalence of and risk factors for: (i) co-occurring hazardous alcohol use (5+/4+ at least monthly) and drug use (medical and illicit) and (ii) co-occurring presence of a DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) and 2 symptoms (hazardous use and quit/control) of drug use disorder (DUD symptoms). Co-occurring hazardous alcohol and drug use was more common in the U.S. border cities (14.7%) than off-border (7.2%), but similar for Mexican border (1.2%) and off-border (1.4%) cities. Co-occurrence of AUD and DUD symptoms was likewise more common at the U.S. border (6.8%) than off-border (3.3%), as well as at the Mexican border (1.3%), compared to off-border (0.6%), but not statistically significant for Mexico. In models adjusting for demographics, mobility factors and exposure to the U.S. culture, border residence in both countries related to a nearly twofold increase in prevalence ratios (PRs) of co-occurring AUD and DUD symptoms (PR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.36 to 2.85). Increased rates of co-occurring AUDs and DUDs suggest an added negative impact on already difficult conditions of the border population. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  6. Co-occurrence of IBS and symptoms of anxiety or depression, among Norwegian twins, is influenced by both heredity and intrauterine growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, May-Bente; Aamodt, Geir; Vatn, Morten H; Harris, Jennifer R

    2015-02-05

    Environmental and genetic factors contribute to variation in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), anxiety and depression. Comorbidity between these disorders is high. A previous investigation of our population-based twin cohort revealed that low birth weight increased the risk for development of IBS, with environmental influences in utero as the most relevant contributing factor. We hypothesise that both intrauterine and genetic factors influence the co-occurrence of IBS and symptoms of anxiety and depression. A postal questionnaire sent to 12700 Norwegian twins born between 1967 and 1979 comprised a checklist of 31 illnesses and symptoms, including IBS and symptoms of anxiety and depression. The influence of genetic factors and intrauterine growth on comorbidity between these disorders were analysed in the full sample and compared to those based on only monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs discordant for IBS (95 pairs) in birth weight group < 2500 g and ≥ 2500 g. In the co-twin analyses restricted growth (birth weight < 2500 g) was significantly associated with anxiety and depression (average birth weight difference of 181.0 g (p <0.0001) and 249.9 g (p < 0.0001), respectively). The analysis of the full sample revealed that IBS was significantly associated with symptoms of anxiety (adjusted OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.9, 3.3) and depression (adjusted OR = 2.3. 95% CI: 1.8, 3.0). Analyses of MZ pairs discordant for IBS indicated significant associations between IBS and symptoms of anxiety (OR = 3.7, 95% CI: 1.3, 10.5) and between IBS and symptoms of depression (OR = 4.2, 95% CI: 1.7, 9.9) only in the birth weight group below 2500 g. Our findings suggest that genetic factors partly explain the association between IBS and symptoms of anxiety and depression. In the low range of birth weight (<2500 g), restricted fetal growth seems to be a common contributing factor to the co-occurrence between these disorders.

  7. Students with (suspicion of) IG+ASD : A study aimed at understanding the phenomenon of Intellectual Giftedness in co-occurrence with Autism Spectrum Disorder in relation to (needs-based) assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltmeijer, Agnes Elisabeth Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon ‘Intellectual Giftedness in co-occurrence with Autism Spectrum Disorder’ (IG+ASD) was explored in relation to psycho-educational assessment praxis. A systematic literature review revealed the absence of well-grounded theories of IG+ASD, and some converging tendencies concerning

  8. Co-occurrence between mental distress and poly-drug use: a ten year prospective study of patients from substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdzovic Andreas, Jasmina; Lauritzen, Grethe; Nordfjaern, Trond

    2015-09-01

    Longitudinal research investigating psychiatric trajectories among patients with poly-drug use patterns remains relatively scant, even though this specific population is at elevated risk for multiple negative outcomes. The present study examined temporal associations between poly-drug use (i.e. heroin, cannabis, tranquilizers, and amphetamines) and mental distress over a 10-year period. A clinical cohort of 481 patients was recruited from substance use treatment facilities in Norway, and prospectively interviewed 1, 2, 7 and 10years after the initial data collection at treatment admission. At each assessment participants completed a questionnaire addressing their substance use and mental distress. Longitudinal growth models were used to examine whether, and if so, how, levels of drug use were associated with the level and rate of change in mental distress over time. Results from the longitudinal growth models showed a co-occurrence between active poly-drug use and mental distress, such that there was a dose-response effect where mental distress increased both in magnitude and over time with the number of drugs used. Reduction in mental distress during the 10-year study period was evident only in the no-drug use condition. Use of multiple drugs and mental distress appear strongly co-related over time. Pre-treatment assessment should carefully identify individuals manifesting poly-drug use and mental disorders. Treatment and follow-up services should be tailored to their specific needs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gray-level co-occurrence matrix analysis of several cell types in mouse brain using resolution-enhanced photothermal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Sundaram, Durga; Nakata, Kazuaki; Tsurui, Hiromichi

    2017-03-01

    Qualifications of intracellular structure were performed for the first time using the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) method for images of cells obtained by resolution-enhanced photothermal imaging. The GLCM method has been used to extract five parameters of texture features for five different types of cells in mouse brain; pyramidal neurons and glial cells in the basal nucleus (BGl), dentate gyrus granule cells, cerebellar Purkinje cells, and cerebellar granule cells. The parameters are correlation, contrast, angular second moment (ASM), inverse difference moment (IDM), and entropy for the images of cells of interest in a mouse brain. The parameters vary depending on the pixel distance taken in the analysis method. Based on the obtained results, we identified that the most suitable GLCM parameter is IDM for pyramidal neurons and BGI, granule cells in the dentate gyrus, Purkinje cells and granule cells in the cerebellum. It was also found that the ASM is the most appropriate for neurons in the basal nucleus.

  10. Changing ASD-ADHD symptom co-occurrence across the lifespan with adolescence as crucial time window: Illustrating the need to go beyond childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Catharina A; Geurts, Hilde M; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2016-12-01

    Literature on the co-occurrence between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is strongly biased by a focus on childhood age. A review of the adolescent and adult literature was made on core and related symptoms of ADHD and ASD. In addition, an empirical approach was used including 17,173 ASD-ADHD symptom ratings from participants aged 0 to 84 years. Results indicate that ASD/ADHD constellations peak during adolescence and are lower in early childhood and old age. We hypothesize that on the border of the expected transition to independent adulthood, ASD and ADHD co-occur most because social adaptation and EF skills matter most. Lower correlations in childhood and older age may be due to more diffuse symptoms reflecting respectively still differentiating and de-differentiating EF functions. We plea for a strong research focus in adolescence which may -after early childhood- be a second crucial time window for catching-up pattern explaining more optimal outcomes. We discuss obstacles and oppportunities of a full lifespan approach into old age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Coupled X-ray computed tomography and grey level co-occurrence matrices as a method for quantification of mineralogy and texture in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, M. A.; Miller, J. A.; Becker, M.

    2018-02-01

    Texture is one of the most basic descriptors used in the geological sciences. The value derived from textural characterisation extends into engineering applications associated with mining, mineral processing and metal extraction where quantitative textural information is required for models predicting the response of the ore through a particular process. This study extends the well-known 2D grey level co-occurrence matrices methodology into 3D as a method for image analysis of 3D x-ray computed tomography grey scale volumes of drill core. Subsequent interrogation of the information embedded within the grey level occurrence matrices (GLCM) indicates they are sensitive to changes in mineralogy and texture of samples derived from a magmatic nickel sulfide ore. The position of the peaks in the GLCM is an indication of the relative density (specific gravity, SG) of the minerals and when interpreted using a working knowledge of the mineralogy of the ore presented a means to determine the relative abundance of the sulfide minerals (SG > 4), dense silicate minerals (SG > 3), and lighter silicate minerals (SG texture in 3D.

  12. Data from camera surveys identifying co-occurrence and occupancy linkages between fishers (Pekania pennanti, rodent prey, mesocarnivores, and larger predators in mixed-conifer forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick A. Sweitzer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available These data provide additional information relevant to the frequency of fisher detections by camera traps, and single-season occupancy and local persistence of fishers in small patches of forest habitats detailed elsewhere, “Landscape Fuel Reduction, Forest Fire, and Biophysical Linkages to Local Habitat Use and Local Persistence of Fishers (Pekania pennanti in Sierra Nevada Mixed-conifer Forests” [10]. The data provides insight on camera trap detections of 3 fisher predators (bobcat [Lynx rufus]. Coyote [Canis latrans], mountain lion [Puma concolor], 5 mesocarnivores in the same foraging guild as fishers (gray fox [Urocyon cinereoargenteus] ringtail [Bassariscus astutus], marten [Martes americana], striped skunk [Mephitis mephitis] spotted skunk [Spilogale gracilis], and 5 Sciuridae rodents that fishers consume as prey (Douglas squirrel [Tamiasciurus douglasii], gray squirrel [Sciurus griseus], northern flying squirrel [Glaucomys sabrinus], long-eared chipmunk [Neotamias quadrimaculatus], California ground squirrel [Spermophilus beecheyi]. We used these data to identify basic patterns of co-occurrence with fishers, and to evaluate the relative importance of presence of competing mesocarnivores, rodent prey, and predators for fisher occupancy of small, 1 km2 grid cells of forest habitat.

  13. Co-occurrence of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and citrinin in "egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) seeds consumed in Ireland and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somorin, Yinka; Akinyemi, Adeyemi; Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Pietri, Amedeo

    2016-09-01

    The natural co-occurrence of aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CIT) in melon seed samples obtained from retailers and households in Ireland and the United Kingdom (UK) was evaluated. AFs and OTA were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection while CIT was analysed by HPLC-MS/MS. AFB1 was detected in all (100%) samples (mean = 9.7 μg kg(-1); range = 0.2-66.5 μg kg(-1)). Mean total AFs was 12.0 μg kg(-1) (range = 0.3-82 μg kg(-1)). Commercially retailed samples showed a significantly higher AFB1 contamination (p < 0.05) than the household samples. OTA occurred in 3 (13.6%) samples, while 4 (18.2%) were contaminated with CIT at very low levels. In this study, 68% of the melon seed samples were contaminated above the 2 μg kg(-1) EU limit for AFB1 in oilseeds. These results highlight the need for the development of strategies to reduce AF contamination in "egusi" for human consumption.

  14. Exploring the microbial origins of p-cresol and its co-occurrence pattern in the Chinese liquor-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hai; Liu, Bo; Wang, Xueshan; Xu, Yan

    2017-11-02

    The compound p-cresol is the major off-odor and toxic component of strong aroma-type Chinese liquor. To trace its origin, the p-cresol contents in the liquor-making process were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The prokaryotic communities involved in the process were revealed by 16S rRNA gene MiSeq sequencing. The results showed that the microbial diversity and concentration of p-cresol in pit mud significantly increased with increased pit depth. Canonical correspondence analysis further revealed that p-cresol was positively correlated with the genera Aminobacterium, Clostridium, Sedimentibacter and Syntrophomonas. On investigating potential p-cresol producers, we obtained 11 species from pit mud samples using selective culture media. Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium tyrobutyricum, Clostridium aminovalericum and Eubacterium contortum were confirmed to possess the capacity for p-cresol production. Moreover, based on volatile compounds data, these strains were assigned to the same clusters characterized by the high abundance of butanoic acid and p-cresol. Furthermore, 24 pairs of significant correlations were identified from 14 genera using co-occurrence network analysis. Clostridium was the hub in pit mud and could be inhibited by increasing levels of Lactobacillus. These findings represented a step forward for controlling p-cresol in a complex microbial community of Chinese liquor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cultivation-dependent and high-throughput sequencing approaches studying the co-occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal sewage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, An-Dong; Ma, Liping; Jiang, Xiao-Tao; Zhang, Tong

    2017-11-01

    During the past years, antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) leading for the spreading of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) became a global problem, especially multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are considered the prime culprit of antibiotic resistance. However, the correlation between the antibiotic-resistant phenotype and the ARG profiles remains poorly understood. In the present study, metagenomic functional screening and metagenomic analysis of coliforms were combined to explore the phenotype and genotype of the ARBs from municipal sewage. Our results showed that the ARG co-occurrence was widespread in the municipal sewage. The present study also highlighted the high abundance of ARGs from antibiotic resistance coliforms especially the MDR coliforms with ARG level of 33.8 ± 4.2 copies per cell. The ARG profiles and the antibiotic resistance phenotypes of the isolated antibiotic resistant coliforms were also correlated and indicated that the resistance to the related antibiotic (ampicillin, kanamycin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline) was mostly contributed by the ARGs belonging to the subtypes of β-lactamase, aminoglycoside 3-phosphotransferase, phosphotransferase type 2, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, tetA, etc.

  16. CO-OCCURRENCE OF PRIMARY MICROCEPHALY CAUSED BY A NOVEL HOMOZYGOUS ASPM MUTATION ALONG WITH X-LINKED ICHTHYOSIS IN THE SAME PATIENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hamid, M S; Ismail, M F; Darwish, H A; Effat, L K; Zaki, M S; Abdel-Salam, G M H

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly is a heterogeneous genetic disorder caused by genes that affect neurogenesis. This form of microcephaly has not been associated with other congenital anomalies. ASPM mutations have been identified as the major cause implicated in autosomal recessive primary microcephaly. X-linked recessive ichthyosis, is an inborn error of steroid sulfatase metabolism characterized by dark and adhesive scaly skin. Here, we examined an Egyptian boy presenting with microcephaly and simplified gyral pattern. Additionally, he had ichthyosis that goes with the X-linked type. Mutation analyses of the ASPM gene for autosomal recessive primary microcephaly and STS gene of X-linked recessive ichthyosis were conducted revealing a co-occurrence of a novel homozygous splice site mutation of ASPM gene (c.2936+1G>A) and a partial deletion of STS spanning from exon 7-10. We propose that the phenotype of our patient results from the combined effects of mutations in both ASPM and STS that account for the neurological signs and skin manifestations, respectively. The association of isolated X-linked recessive ichthyosis and autosomal recessive primary microcephaly has never been reported in the literature. Careful clinical and genetic assessment of patients with atypical clinical phenotypes is crucial for detecting such rare double mutations and thus proper genetic counseling.

  17. Changes in Co-Occurrence of Smoking and Harmful Drinking among Youth: a Study from the Chi Linh Demographic - Epidemiological Surveillance System in Vietnam, 2006-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Duong Minh; Vui, Le Thi; Quynh, Nguyen Thuy; Minh, Hoang Van

    2016-01-01

    Smoking and harmful drinking dramatically increase health risks but little is known about their cooccurrence and factors that influence this co-habit, limiting development and implementation of appropriately targeted prevention interventions. This study was conducted among youth aged 10-24 years old in the Chi Linh Demographic - Epidemiological Surveillance System (CHILILAB DESS). The total numbers in the first, second and third rounds in 2006, 2009 and 2013 were 12,406, 10,211, and 7,654, respectively. A random-effects logit model controlling for both time-variant and time-invariant variables was applied to explore factors associated with current smoking, harmful drinking, and occurrence of smoking and harmful drinking together. We found dramatically increasing trends in current smoking, harmful drinking and co-occurrence among youth. Our results indicate similar health problems among youth in peri-urban areas in Vietnam. Demographic characteristics (older age, being male, being unmarried, and having informal work) appeared to be predictors for smoking and drinking behaviour. Besides, peer and family members had significant influence on smoking, whereas having a close-friend who was smoking was the most important variable. The results suggested that smoking and harmful drinking should not be solved with separate, stand-alone interventions but rather with integrated efforts.

  18. Core Sulphate-Reducing Microorganisms in Metal-Removing Semi-Passive Biochemical Reactors and the Co-Occurrence of Methanogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rezadehbashi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical reactors (BCRs based on the stimulation of sulphate-reducing microorganisms (SRM are emerging semi-passive remediation technologies for treatment of mine-influenced water. Their successful removal of metals and sulphate has been proven at the pilot-scale, but little is known about the types of SRM that grow in these systems and whether they are diverse or restricted to particular phylogenetic or taxonomic groups. A phylogenetic study of four established pilot-scale BCRs on three different mine sites compared the diversity of SRM growing in them. The mine sites were geographically distant from each other, nevertheless the BCRs selected for similar SRM types. Clostridia SRM related to Desulfosporosinus spp. known to be tolerant to high concentrations of copper were members of the core microbial community. Members of the SRM family Desulfobacteraceae were dominant, particularly those related to Desulfatirhabdium butyrativorans. Methanogens were dominant archaea and possibly were present at higher relative abundances than SRM in some BCRs. Both hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic types were present. There were no strong negative or positive co-occurrence correlations of methanogen and SRM taxa. Knowing which SRM inhabit successfully operating BCRs allows practitioners to target these phylogenetic groups when selecting inoculum for future operations.

  19. Unilateral vestibular schwannoma and meningiomas in a patient with PIK3CA-related segmental overgrowth: Co-occurrence of mosaicism for 2 rare disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, J R; Moyer, A M; Kipp, B R; Poplawski, A B; Messiaen, L M; Babovic-Vuksanovic, D

    2018-01-01

    A 28-year-old female with PIK3CA-related segmental overgrowth presented with headaches. She also had a unilateral vestibular schwannoma (VS), as well as 3 small (A (p.Gly914Arg) mutation, confirming the diagnosis of PIK3CA-related overgrowth, but no mutations in NF2 were detected. Although VS has not previously been reported in PIK3CA-related segmental overgrowth, meningiomas have, raising the question of whether this patient's VS and meningiomas represent coincidental NF2 or phenotypic extension of her overgrowth syndrome. Genetic analysis of the VS revealed a heterozygous NF2 mutation c.784C>T (p.Arg262Ter) and loss of a portion of 22q, including NF2, SMARCB1, and LZTR1 genes. These results suggest that the patient has 2 different mosaic disorders, NF2 and PIK3CA-related overgrowth. The PIK3CA mutation was also present in the VS. Confirmation of the clinical diagnosis of mosaic NF2 in this patient has implications for monitoring and highlights the possibility of co-occurrence of mosaicism for multiple rare disorders in a single patient. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Pyrosequencing characterization of the microbiota from Atlantic intertidal marine sponges reveals high microbial diversity and the lack of co-occurrence patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Anoop; Antunes, Agostinho

    2015-01-01

    Sponges are ancient metazoans that host diverse and complex microbial communities. Sponge-associated microbial diversity has been studied from wide oceans across the globe, particularly in subtidal regions, but the microbial communities from intertidal sponges have remained mostly unexplored. Here we used pyrosequencing to characterize the microbial communities in 12 different co-occurring intertidal marine sponge species sampled from the Atlantic coast, revealing a total of 686 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 97% sequence similarity. Taxonomic assignment of 16S ribosomal RNA tag sequences estimated altogether 26 microbial groups, represented by bacterial (75.5%) and archaeal (22%) domains. Proteobacteria (43.4%) and Crenarchaeota (20.6%) were the most dominant microbial groups detected in all the 12 marine sponge species and ambient seawater. The Crenarchaeota microbes detected in three Atlantic Ocean sponges had a close similarity with Crenarchaeota from geographically separated subtidal Red Sea sponges. Our study showed that most of the microbial communities observed in sponges (73%) were also found in the surrounding ambient seawater suggesting possible environmental acquisition and/or horizontal transfer of microbes. Beyond the microbial diversity and community structure assessments (NMDS, ADONIS, ANOSIM), we explored the interactions between the microbial communities coexisting in sponges using the checkerboard score (C-score). Analyses of the microbial association pattern (co-occurrence) among intertidal sympatric sponges revealed the random association of microbes, favoring the hypothesis that the sponge-inhabiting microbes are recruited from the habitat mostly by chance or influenced by environmental factors to benefit the hosts.

  1. Co-Occurrence of Regulated, Masked and Emerging Mycotoxins and Secondary Metabolites in Finished Feed and Maize-An Extensive Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalsky, Paula; Kos, Gregor; Nährer, Karin; Schwab, Christina; Jenkins, Timothy; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf

    2016-12-06

    Global trade of agricultural commodities (e.g., animal feed) requires monitoring for fungal toxins. Also, little is known about masked and emerging toxins and metabolites. 1926 samples from 52 countries were analysed for toxins and metabolites. Of 162 compounds detected, up to 68 metabolites were found in a single sample. A subset of 1113 finished feed, maize and maize silage samples containing 57 compounds from 2012 to 2015 from 44 countries was investigated using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN) and fumonisins showed large increases of annual medians in Europe. Within a region, distinct trends were observed, suggesting importance of local meteorology and cultivars. In 2015, median DON concentrations increased to 1400 μ g·kg - 1 in Austria, but were stable in Germany at 350 μ g·kg - 1 . In 2014, enniatins occurred at median concentrations of 250 μ g·kg - 1 in Europe, at levels similar to DON and ZEN. The latter were frequently correlated with DON-3-glucoside and ZEN-14-sulfate. Co-occurrence of regulated toxins was frequent with e.g., enniatins, and moniliformin. Correlation was observed between DON and DON-3-glucoside and with beauvericin. Results indicate that considerably more than 25% of agricultural commodities could be contaminated with mycotoxins as suggested by FAO, although this is at least partly due to the lower limits of detection in the current survey. Observed contamination percentages ranged from 7.1 to 79% for B trichothecenes and 88% for ZEN.

  2. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stader, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Dating violence is a form of student-on-student victimization and is a serious school safety issue. Research indicates that at a minimum, 10 percent of high school students are victims of dating violence in one form or another. Among female high school students that date, some data indicate that as many as 30 percent may be victims of dating…

  3. Workplace violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, S. van den

    2014-01-01

    Workplace violence refers to incidents where workers are abused, threatened or assaulted, either by people from within or outside their workplace. Workplace violence may have severe negative consequences for the workers affected, their co-workers and families; as well as for organisations and the

  4. Virtual Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    In the United States, exposure to media violence is becoming an inescapable component of children's lives. With the rise in new technologies, such as tablets and new gaming platforms, children and adolescents increasingly are exposed to what is known as "virtual violence." This form of violence is not experienced physically; rather, it is experienced in realistic ways via new technology and ever more intense and realistic games. The American Academy of Pediatrics continues to be concerned about children's exposure to virtual violence and the effect it has on their overall health and well-being. This policy statement aims to summarize the current state of scientific knowledge regarding the effects of virtual violence on children's attitudes and behaviors and to make specific recommendations for pediatricians, parents, industry, and policy makers. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. The differential effects of forms and settings of exposure to violence on adolescents' adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Man Yee; Cheung, Fanny M

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the link between exposure to violence and psychosocial adjustment for 442 Chinese secondary school students in Form 1-3. The students completed an inventory assessing exposure to violence through witnessing and through direct victimization in different settings (community, school, and home). Multiple measures and informants (i.e., self-report, teacher report, and school report) were used to assess emotional, behavioral, and cognitive functioning in adolescents. The results of this study showed that overall exposure to violence was related to emotional and behavior problems. High rates of exposure to violence across multiple contexts were found in this sample. After controlling for the co-occurrence of risk factors (e.g., exposure to violence in other settings), both witnessing school violence and being victimized by domestic violence were associated with emotional problems, whereas being victimized by community violence was related to behavior problems. These results suggest that there are differential effects of risks associated with different forms and settings of exposure.

  6. Containing violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beehler, Rodger

    1982-07-01

    The use of behavior modification techniques to control criminal violence has been condemned as a violation of human rights because it destroys the possibility of moral choice, an important component of personality. Beehler examines the conditioning used on Alex in Anthony Burgess's book and film A Clockwork Orange and concludes that Alex was left still capable of moral choice except where acts of violence were involved. He argues that behavior modification to control violence is preferable to imprisonment, psychosurgery, or electronic surveillance, and counters objections that its use destroys autonomy, violates privacy and trust, and depersonalizes offenders.

  7. Co occurrence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Autoimmune Hepatitis with Marked Hepatitis B Virus Replication Following Treatment of Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi I

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children have different natural history of Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. They commonly develop asymptomatic chronic carrier state which is less frequently seen in adults. We describe a rare case of acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF in the course of concurrent autoimmune hepatitis (AIH and HBV infection and replication of HBV following the treatment for autoimmune hepatitis. Case Report: A 15 year old male child presented with jaundice and altered sensorium. Physical examination showed hepatosplenomegaly. The liver function tests were markedly altered. Serology was positive for anti liver kidney microsomal antibody (LKM, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and immunoglobulin M (IgM anti hepatitis B core antigen (HBc Ag. Liver biopsy showed chronic hepatitis with features of acute exacerbation. Patient was started on treatment with azathioprine and prednisolone for AIH following which clinical and biochmemical improvement was noted. After two years of continued treatment a repeat biopsy performed showed fairly reduced histological activity, but marked replication of the HBV (immunohistochemistry for HBsAg and anti HBcAg showed diffuse cytoplasmic and nuclear positivity respectively. These findings suggest viral replication although the patient was clinically stable. At six months follow-up after the second biopsy and cessation of azathioprine and prednisolone, there were raised liver enzymes and viral load, hence the patient was started on antiviral drug Entecavir to which there was good response and the patient is presently doing well. Conclusion: We describethe rare co occurrence of HBV infection and AIH with marked HBV replication following the treatment for AIH

  8. Co-occurrence of Myeloproliferative Neoplasms and Solid Tumors Is Attributed to a Synergism Between Cytoreductive Therapy and the Common TERT Polymorphism rs2736100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahling, Tunde; Balassa, Katalin; Kiss, Katalin Piroska; Bors, Andras; Batai, Arpad; Halm, Gabriella; Egyed, Miklos; Fekete, Sandor; Remenyi, Peter; Masszi, Tamas; Tordai, Attila; Andrikovics, Hajnalka

    2016-01-01

    The germline telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) rs2736100_C variant was identified as a susceptibility factor for a variety of solid tumors and recently for myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). LightCycler melting curve analysis was applied to detect risk alleles of TERT rs2736100_C and Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) rs12343867_C tagging 46/1 haplotype in 584 BCR-ABL1-negative MPN, 308 acute, and 86 chronic myeloid leukemia (AML and CML) patients and 400 healthy individuals. TERT rs2736100_C showed an increased allele frequency in BCR-ABL1-negative MPN patients compared with controls (62.7%±2.8% vs. 48.8%±3.5%, P < 0.0001) regardless of molecular background or disease type, but not in CML or AML. Combined TERT and JAK2 hetero- or homozygosity conferred even higher risk for classic MPN. Common complications (thrombosis, myelofibrosis, or leukemia) were not associated with the TERT variant; however, adverse survival was noted in TERT variant carrier polycythemia vera patients. MPN patients with the TERT CC genotype had a higher probability (44.4%) to die from solid tumors compared with TERT AC/AA individuals (5.3%; P = 0.004). TERT rs2736100_C carriers had increased risk of solid tumors independently from cytoreductive treatment [3.08 (1.03-9.26), P = 0.045]. TERT rs2736100_C polymorphism predisposes to the development of BCR-ABL1-negative MPN with the co-occurrence of solid tumors, especially with the usage of cytoreductive treatment. The high frequency of TERT variant in the classic MPN population highlights the importance of the avoidance of long-term cytoreductive treatment in MPN patients. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Incidence and spectrum of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease variants with mixed phenotype and co-occurrence of PrPSc types: an updated classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchi, Piero; Strammiello, Rosaria; Notari, Silvio; Giese, Armin; Langeveld, Jan P M; Ladogana, Anna; Zerr, Inga; Roncaroli, Federico; Cras, Patrich; Ghetti, Bernardino; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Kretzschmar, Hans; Capellari, Sabina

    2009-11-01

    Six subtypes of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with distinctive clinico-pathological features have been identified largely based on two types of the abnormal prion protein, PrP(Sc), and the methionine (M)/valine (V) polymorphic codon 129 of the prion protein. The existence of affected subjects showing mixed phenotypic features and concurrent PrP(Sc) types has been reported but with inconsistencies among studies in both results and their interpretation. The issue currently complicates diagnosis and classification of cases and also has implications for disease pathogenesis. To explore the issue in depth, we carried out a systematic regional study in a large series of 225 cases. PrP(Sc) types 1 and 2 concurrence was detected in 35% of cases and was higher in MM than in MV or VV subjects. The deposition of either type 1 or 2, when concurrent, was not random and always characterized by the coexistence of phenotypic features previously described in the pure subtypes. PrP(Sc) type 1 accumulation and related pathology predominated in MM and MV cases, while the type 2 phenotype prevailed in VVs. Neuropathological examination best identified the mixed types 1 and 2 features in MMs and most MVs, and also uniquely revealed the co-occurrence of pathological variants sharing PrP(Sc) type 2. In contrast, molecular typing best detected the concurrent PrP(Sc) types in VV subjects and MV cases with kuru plaques. The present data provide an updated disease classification and are of importance for future epidemiologic and transmission studies aimed to identify etiology and extent of strain variation in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

  10. Co-occurrence of carbapenem and aminoglycoside resistance genes among multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii from Cracow, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Paweł; Paluchowska, Paulina Maria; Budak, Alicja

    2014-01-27

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a significant hospital pathogen, possessing a considerable degree of antimicrobial resistance. A. baumannii resistance to carbapenems and aminoglycosides is mostly conferred by class D OXA carbapenemases and aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes, respectively. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of selected genes encoding OXA carbapenemases and aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes in multidrug-resistant strains of A. baumannii. The study included 61 carbapenem-resistant and aminoglycoside-nonsusceptible A. baumannii isolates, collected between 2009 and 2011 in Cracow, Poland. Selected resistance genes, including: blaOXA-51-like, blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-40-like, blaOXA-58-like, aac(6')-Ih, aac(3)-Ia, aac(3)-IIa, aac(6')-Ib, aph(3')-Ia and aph(3')-VI, were detected by PCR method. The blaOXA-51-like genes were detected in all isolates, while acquired carbapenemase encoding genes were found in 96.7% of tested strains. Presence of blaOXA-40-like and blaOXA-23-like genes was observed among 65.6% and 27.9% of isolates, respectively. Assayed aminoglycoside resistance genes were found to harbor 98.4% of isolates. Among tested strains, we observed the following percentages of resistance determinants: aac(3)-Ia - 78.7%, aph(3')-VI - 78.7% and aph(3')-Ia - 27.9%. Analysis of co-occurrence of carbapenem and aminoglycoside resistance genes revealed the highest percentage of strains possessing blaOXA-40-like, aac(3)-Ia, and aph(3')-VI genes (44.3%). The blaOXA-40-like and aac(3)-Ia/aph(3')-VI were the most prevalent genes encoding acquired OXA carbapenemases and aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes, respectively, among A. baumannii strains in Cracow, Poland. Genes conferring resistance to carbapenems and aminoglycosides coexisted in the clinical strains of A. baumannii. The phenomenon of A. baumannii resistance indicates the necessity of monitoring for the presence of the resistance genes.

  11. Reliability of texture analysis using co-occurrence matrices (glcm) on photographic image in the assessment of cellulite in a Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Casa Almeida, M; Suárez Serrano, C; Jiménez Rejano, J J; Ríos Díaz, J; Benitez Lugo, M L; Rebollo Roldán, J R

    2015-02-01

    Despite the existence of diverse instruments to assess cellulite, its high prevalence and the continuous advances in its treatment makes the development of new, more objective methods for evaluation necessary. To study intraobserver validity and reliability (test-retest) of textural analysis using co-occurrence matrices on photographic images in the evaluation of cellulite in a Spanish population and its possible relationship to the degree of cellulite. Twenty-seven women were selected for this reliability study (mean age 26.41 SD = 6.16). Digital photographs were taken under standardized conditions in contraction and relaxation of the femoral gluteus region. The areas of interest of the photographs were selected at two different times a month apart. Textural parameters studied were energy (ASM), entropy, contrast, Homogeneity (IDM) and textural correlation. Reliability was analysed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Differences between laterality and between contraction and relaxation were performed by analysis of variance for repeated measurements. Correlation between Cellulite Severity Scale (CSS) and the textural parameters by means of the Pearson correlation coefficient was studied. CSS was re-coded to a binary variable, performing a differentiate analysis for each laterality with this variable and the textural parameters. In the intraobserver reliability analysis ICC was high (≥0.80) in seven parameters and excellent (≥0.90) in 35 parameters. In general, CSS and textural parameters showed more cellulite severity in right areas than in left ones. Correlation coefficients showed a moderate correlation between textural parameters and CSS score. The multivariate discriminant model obtained with textural parameters classified a high percentage of images (96% right side and 82% left side). Textural analysis used to assess cellulite on the backs of thighs and buttocks proved to be an instrument that has excellent reliability, moderate correlation

  12. The melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r) variants do not account for the co-occurrence of Parkinson's disease and malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elincx-Benizri, Sandra; Inzelberg, Rivka; Greenbaum, Lior; Cohen, Oren S; Yahalom, Gilad; Laitman, Yael; Djaldetti, Ruth; Orlev, Yael; Scope, Alon; Azizi, Esther; Friedman, Eitan; Hassin-Baer, Sharon

    2014-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by loss of melanin-positive dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Malignant melanoma (MM), a melanocyte-derived neoplasm, occurs with higher than expected frequency among PD patients. Red-haired individuals exhibit a threefold risk for developing MM than dark-haired people; PD risk also increases with lighter hair color. One plausible explanation for the associations between MM, hair color, and PD is the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene that plays a key role in hair and skin pigmentation as well as in MM predisposition. We hypothesized that specific MC1R variants may predispose to both MM and PD. Genotyping of the MC1R gene was performed for 16 PD patients with MM (PD+ MM+) and for three sets of age, sex, and ethnically matched controls, including 36 patients with PD (PD+ MM-), 37 with MM (PD- MM+) and 37 with neither diagnosis (PD- MM-). No association was found between MC1R variants and the co-occurrence of PD and MM. The risk for MM was higher in carriers of two MC1R variants versus with no MC1R variant (odds ratio (OR)=5.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-14.4, p=0.003). The risk for PD in carriers of two MC1R variants was markedly lower (OR=0.213, 95% CI 0.063-0.725) compared with individuals with no MC1R variant (p=0.013). In this study, MC1R variants were not associated with both MM and PD. Further studies in larger cohorts are necessary to confirm these preliminary results.

  13. GenCLiP: a software program for clustering gene lists by literature profiling and constructing gene co-occurrence networks related to custom keywords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yi-Bo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical researchers often want to explore pathogenesis and pathways regulated by abnormally expressed genes, such as those identified by microarray analyses. Literature mining is an important way to assist in this task. Many literature mining tools are now available. However, few of them allows the user to make manual adjustments to zero in on what he/she wants to know in particular. Results We present our software program, GenCLiP (Gene Cluster with Literature Profiles, which is based on the methods presented by Chaussabel and Sher (Genome Biol 2002, 3(10:RESEARCH0055 that search gene lists to identify functional clusters of genes based on up-to-date literature profiling. Four features were added to this previously described method: the ability to 1 manually curate keywords extracted from the literature, 2 search genes and gene co-occurrence networks related to custom keywords, 3 compare analyzed gene results with negative and positive controls generated by GenCLiP, and 4 calculate probabilities that the resulting genes and gene networks are randomly related. In this paper, we show with a set of differentially expressed genes between keloids and normal control, how implementation of functions in GenCLiP successfully identified keywords related to the pathogenesis of keloids and unknown gene pathways involved in the pathogenesis of keloids. Conclusion With regard to the identification of disease-susceptibility genes, GenCLiP allows one to quickly acquire a primary pathogenesis profile and identify pathways involving abnormally expressed genes not previously associated with the disease.

  14. Co-Occurrence of Regulated, Masked and Emerging Mycotoxins and Secondary Metabolites in Finished Feed and Maize—An Extensive Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Kovalsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Global trade of agricultural commodities (e.g., animal feed requires monitoring for fungal toxins. Also, little is known about masked and emerging toxins and metabolites. 1926 samples from 52 countries were analysed for toxins and metabolites. Of 162 compounds detected, up to 68 metabolites were found in a single sample. A subset of 1113 finished feed, maize and maize silage samples containing 57 compounds from 2012 to 2015 from 44 countries was investigated using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Deoxynivalenol (DON, zearalenone (ZEN and fumonisins showed large increases of annual medians in Europe. Within a region, distinct trends were observed, suggesting importance of local meteorology and cultivars. In 2015, median DON concentrations increased to 1400 μ g·kg − 1 in Austria, but were stable in Germany at 350 μ g·kg − 1 . In 2014, enniatins occurred at median concentrations of 250 μ g·kg − 1 in Europe, at levels similar to DON and ZEN. The latter were frequently correlated with DON-3-glucoside and ZEN-14-sulfate. Co-occurrence of regulated toxins was frequent with e.g., enniatins, and moniliformin. Correlation was observed between DON and DON-3-glucoside and with beauvericin. Results indicate that considerably more than 25% of agricultural commodities could be contaminated with mycotoxins as suggested by FAO, although this is at least partly due to the lower limits of detection in the current survey. Observed contamination percentages ranged from 7.1 to 79% for B trichothecenes and 88% for ZEN.

  15. The co-occurrence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and unipolar depression in children and adolescents: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Michael C; Pettit, Jeremy W; Viswesvaran, Chockalingam

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews the empirical literature on the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression (i.e., unipolar depressive disorders and symptoms) among children and adolescents. Findings from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies published on the co-occurrence of ADHD and depression were summarized and subjected to a meta-analysis. Results (k=29, N=8755; rbar=0.22) indicated that ADHD and depression were positively related, but substantial variability existed across the studies. Subgroup analyses indicated medium positive effects for cross-sectional studies, studies that operationalized ADHD based on DSM-III or DSM-IV diagnostic criteria, and studies that did not include teacher report in the assessment of ADHD. Subgroup analyses showed a large positive effect for studies that operationalized ADHD based on DSM-III-R criteria and studies using clinic referred samples. In contrast, subgroup analyses indicated a small negative and/or unreliable association between ADHD and depression for longitudinal studies, studies using DSM-II diagnostic criteria for hyperkinetic reaction of childhood or used a dichotomous motor hyperactivity criterion, studies that used nonreferred samples, and studies including teacher report in the assessment of ADHD. When studies that used DSM-II diagnostic criteria were removed, a reliable medium effect was found for studies that included teacher report. Similarly when the study that used idiosyncratic methods of diagnosing ADHD was excluded, a reliable medium effect was found for studies that used nonreferred samples. Potential explanations for the findings are discussed, including explanations based on sampling and base rates, artifacts of diagnostic criteria, inaccurate diagnostic boundaries, and etiological relationships. Directions for future research and clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pyrosequencing characterization of the microbiota from Atlantic intertidal marine sponges reveals high microbial diversity and the lack of co-occurrence patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Alex

    Full Text Available Sponges are ancient metazoans that host diverse and complex microbial communities. Sponge-associated microbial diversity has been studied from wide oceans across the globe, particularly in subtidal regions, but the microbial communities from intertidal sponges have remained mostly unexplored. Here we used pyrosequencing to characterize the microbial communities in 12 different co-occurring intertidal marine sponge species sampled from the Atlantic coast, revealing a total of 686 operational taxonomic units (OTUs at 97% sequence similarity. Taxonomic assignment of 16S ribosomal RNA tag sequences estimated altogether 26 microbial groups, represented by bacterial (75.5% and archaeal (22% domains. Proteobacteria (43.4% and Crenarchaeota (20.6% were the most dominant microbial groups detected in all the 12 marine sponge species and ambient seawater. The Crenarchaeota microbes detected in three Atlantic Ocean sponges had a close similarity with Crenarchaeota from geographically separated subtidal Red Sea sponges. Our study showed that most of the microbial communities observed in sponges (73% were also found in the surrounding ambient seawater suggesting possible environmental acquisition and/or horizontal transfer of microbes. Beyond the microbial diversity and community structure assessments (NMDS, ADONIS, ANOSIM, we explored the interactions between the microbial communities coexisting in sponges using the checkerboard score (C-score. Analyses of the microbial association pattern (co-occurrence among intertidal sympatric sponges revealed the random association of microbes, favoring the hypothesis that the sponge-inhabiting microbes are recruited from the habitat mostly by chance or influenced by environmental factors to benefit the hosts.

  17. Co-occurrence of anxiety and depression amongst older adults in low- and middle-income countries: findings from the 10/66 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prina, A M; Ferri, C P; Guerra, M; Brayne, C; Prince, M

    2011-10-01

    There is relative little information about the prevalence and risk factors of co-morbid anxiety and depression in later life. These disorders are often associated with worse response to treatment than either condition alone, and researching their epidemiology in diverse settings is vital to policy makers. We therefore investigated the co-occurrence of anxiety and depressive syndromes amongst older adults living in developing countries and measured the separate and joint effect of these two disorders on levels of associated disability. The 10/66 study carried out cross-cultural surveys of all residents aged 65 years or over (n=15021) in 11 sites in seven countries (People's Republic of China, India, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico and Peru). Anxiety was measured by using the Geriatric Mental State Examination and the Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy diagnostic system. Depression was assessed according to International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10) and EURO-D criteria. Disability was measured by using the World Health Organization's Disablement Assessment Scale Version II. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were used to investigate the association of common mental disorders and disability. The prevalence of co-occurring anxiety and depression (with the exclusion of subthreshold disorders) ranged between 0.9% and 4.2% across sites. Gender, socio-economic status, urbanicity and physical co-morbidities were associated with the different co-morbid states. Having both disorders was linked to higher disability scores than having anxiety or depression alone. Given the close association of co-morbid anxiety and depression with disability, new policies to improve prevention, recognition and treatment will be needed to adapt to ageing populations and their mental health needs.

  18. Conjugal violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Mihaiu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific knowledge of different aspects related to conjugal violence is highly important for people directly involved, such as researchers, practitioners and the entire society. In this respect, globally, specialised studies continue to advance, offer correct definitions, clear descriptions, convincing assessments to certain issues, encouraging thus long-term research, since some specialists have managed to overcome restrictive or ideological methods and explanations. Moreover, in practice, debates reach almost all social, political and legal dimensions regarding appropriate and efficient forms of preventing conjugal violence. Unfortunately, in Romania there are fewer research and prevention approaches of this social problem. In general, attention is directed to domestic violence and conjugal violence is dealt with only implicitly. Considering the given context, the aim of the paper is to outline, by analysing specialised literature, a new research direction and implicitly, social intervention. I specify that this article represents a stage in the ongoing postdoctoral research project, entitled "Conjugal homicide. Aggressors and victims".

  19. [Collective violence: neurobiological, psychosocial and sociological condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller-Leimkühler, A M; Bogerts, B

    2013-11-01

    Collective violence, despite its often disastrous consequences has widely been disregarded by psychiatry, as was the case for individual violence. Physical violence is not only an individual, mostly male phenomenon but manifests mainly as collective violence among men in multiple forms. Due to the plentitude of theories and findings on collective violence the present article is limited to a few relevant sociological and neurobiological aspects of collective violence as a group and intergroup phenomenon. A special focus is given to the association of the phylogenetic disposition to group violence and constructions of masculinity, to the potential relevance of mirror neurons for social contagion and to the influence of sociostructural factors for male adolescents joining violence-prone groups. In this context group dynamics such as in-group overevaluation and out-group devaluation are of central importance by stabilizing the male sense of self-worth and legitimizing, normalizing and internalizing violent behavior. Instead of mythologizing, biologizing or banalizing violence, transdisciplinary approaches are necessary to improve violence prevention on different ecological levels being obligated to a culture of nonviolent conflict management.

  20. Spinal pain and co-occurrence with stress and general well-being among young adolescents: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallknecht, Sandra Elkjær; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Hestbæk, Lise; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to describe the patterns in low back, mid back, and neck pain complaints in young adolescents from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) and to investigate the co-occurrence of spinal pain and stress and general well-being, respectively. Cross-sectional data from the 11-year follow-up of DNBC were used. As part of a web-based survey, a total of 45,371 young adolescents between 10 and 14 years old completed the Young Spine Questionnaire, the Stress in Children Questionnaire, and a one-item question on general well-being. Associations between spinal pain and, respectively, stress and general well-being were estimated by means of multiple logistic regression models. Almost one fifth of boys and one quarter of girls reported spinal pain. Compared with adolescents who reported no stress, adolescents reporting medium and high values of stress had odds ratios (OR) of 2.19 (95% CI 2.08-2.30) and 4.73 (95% CI 4.28-5.23), respectively, of reporting spinal pain (adjusted for age, gender, and maternal education). Adolescents who reported poor general well-being had an OR of 2.50 (95% CI 2.31-2.72) for reporting spinal pain compared to adolescents with good general well-being. Spinal pain is a common complaint among young adolescents and co-occurs with stress and poor general well-being. The mutual dependency between the factors remained to be explained. What is Known: • The prevalence of spinal pain increases rapidly during childhood and adolescence, but different measurement instruments result in great variation in the estimates of spinal pain in children and adolescents. • Some studies have shown that different psychosocial measures are associated with spinal pain in children and adolescents. What is New: • Spinal pain, as measured by the newly developed and validated Young Spine Questionnaire, is a common complaint in young adolescents aged 10-14 years. • Spinal pain in young adolescents co-occurs with stress and poor general well-being.

  1. Quantitative Distinction of Morphological Characteristics of White Blood Cells in Peripheral Blood Through Texture Analysis Using Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mai; Kono, Keigo; Kuroki, Maiko; Murakami, Satoru; Hayata, Ruka; Nanato, Kana; Shao, Minrong; Miwa, Keiko; Tsutsumi, Yutaka; Okada, Kazunori; Kaga, Sanae; Masauzi, Nobuo

    2017-11-01

    Texture features are valuable clues for skilled technicians to differentiate peripheral blood (PB) white blood cells (WBCs). Some studies have tried to distinguish WBCs automatically by using texture analysis. However, no study so far has applied a gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) to images of PB WBCs. Here, we developed a new GLCM method, called the CM-Tx method, for automatically distinguishing PB WBCs. We used a total of 199 images of six different types of PB WBCs, taken from PB smears of 12 healthy volunteers, as objective standard images for the analysis. The six types were band form neutrophil, segmented form neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte. Using in-house FORTRAN programs, three types of GLCM (R: distance (d) = 1, direction (θ) = 0°), (U: d = 1, θ = 270°) and (AE: d = 1, θ = 15° x q: q = 0, ..., 23), the mean intensity (MI) of each image and nine different texture distinction indexes (TDIs) for each GLCM were calculated. Then, a threshold value (TV) for distinguishing the type of PB WBC was selected from the dot plots of all TDIs and the MI. In total, we made 1,194 GLCMs. Using the selected TVs of the TDI, four sequential binary divisions could distinguish five types of PB WBCs. First, monocytes were distinguished (sensitivity 100%, specificity 100%, p < 0.0001) with the TV of the inverse difference moment of the GLCM (U). Then, segmented and band form neutrophils were distinguished from the remaining (100%, 99%, p < 0.0001) with the TV of the contrast of the GLCM (AE). Next, lymphocytes were distinguished (100%, 98%, p < 0.0001) with the TV of the entropy of the GLCM (AE). Finally, basophils were distinguished (82.4%, 100%, p < 0.0001) from eosinophils with the TV of the summed entropy of the GLCM (R). Band form neutrophils could not be distinguished from segmented form neutrophils. The average sensitivity of the CM-Tx method for the five types was 95.6%, and its average specificity was 99.3%. The CM-Tx method can

  2. Domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlow, Bryant

    2010-01-01

    Domestic violence is a neglected epidemic in the United States that affects millions of children and adults and leads to a sizable proportion of emergency department visits--and possibly the majority of nonfatal injuries among women. Health care encounters represent the most promising opportunities for identifying victims and intervening in patterns of abuse, and all health care professionals have an ethical obligation to help identify cases of abuse. In this Directed Reading, the epidemiology and outcomes of domestic violence are introduced, screening methods and reporting requirements are reviewed, and the roles of diagnostic imaging in detecting and characterizing frequently neglected but common domestic violence injuries are discussed. This article is a Directed Reading. Your access to Directed Reading quizzes for continuing education credit is determined by your area of interest. For access to other quizzes, go to www.asrt.org/store.

  3. Violence today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Wieviorka

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author seeks to approach contemporary violence in its most different expressions, including the use of the most recent developments in biology, bacteriology, chemistry and nuclear physics. The central idea is that violence changes, and with it the way it is perceived and how we react to it. The text, besides putting violence into a historical context, analyzes 1 the big transformation(s in the world: the end of the cold war, the new industrial structure and its consequences for the decline of the labor movement, globalization and the new forms of victimization; 2 in the second part, the author points to new approaches and characterizes novel contemporary subjects.

  4. Effort-reward imbalance at work and the co-occurrence of lifestyle risk factors: cross-sectional survey in a sample of 36,127 public sector employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elovainio Marko

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In occupational life, a mismatch between high expenditure of effort and receiving few rewards may promote the co-occurrence of lifestyle risk factors, however, there is insufficient evidence to support or refute this hypothesis. The aim of this study is to examine the extent to which the dimensions of the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI model – effort, rewards and ERI – are associated with the co-occurrence of lifestyle risk factors. Methods Based on data from the Finnish Public Sector Study, cross-sectional analyses were performed for 28,894 women and 7233 men. ERI was conceptualized as a ratio of effort and rewards. To control for individual differences in response styles, such as a personal disposition to answer negatively to questionnaires, occupational and organizational -level ecological ERI scores were constructed in addition to individual-level ERI scores. Risk factors included current smoking, heavy drinking, body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, and physical inactivity. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate the likelihood of having one risk factor, two risk factors, and three or four risk factors. The associations between ERI and single risk factors were explored using binary logistic regression models. Results After adjustment for age, socioeconomic position, marital status, and type of job contract, women and men with high ecological ERI were 40% more likely to have simultaneously ≥3 lifestyle risk factors (vs. 0 risk factors compared with their counterparts with low ERI. When examined separately, both low ecological effort and low ecological rewards were also associated with an elevated prevalence of risk factor co-occurrence. The results obtained with the individual-level scores were in the same direction. The associations of ecological ERI with single risk factors were generally less marked than the associations with the co-occurrence of risk factors. Conclusion This study suggests that a high

  5. Television Violence: Implications for Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N.; Hasbrouck, Jan E.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the scientific and public-opinion debate on the impact television violence in America has on aggression and violence. Research supports the view that television violence contributes to children's level of aggressiveness and subsequent violence and criminality. Describes attempts to improve the quality of television programming for children…

  6. Student Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Edward

    This report discusses student violence within the framework of causes, issues, and false and true solutions. The author decries the abdication of responsibilities by both college administrators, who have permitted students to "do their thing," and leftwing students, who crusade thoughtlessly against educational institutions. Some true solutions…

  7. Sexual Violence

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-04

    This podcast discusses sexual violence - what it is, the long-term health problems it can contribute to, and tips to stop it before it begins.  Created: 4/4/2011 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 4/4/2011.

  8. The connection between animal abuse and interpersonal violence: A review from the veterinary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsalve, Stefany; Ferreira, Fernando; Garcia, Rita

    2017-10-01

    Several studies have reported a connection between animal abuse and interpersonal violence. The importance of veterinarians in recognizing and intervening in the cycle of violence has been debated in different articles. This review outlines the findings about this connection around the world and describes the role veterinarians play in this field. We looked up electronic databases and analyzed articles published between 1960 and 2016. Publications were classified into three categories: area of publication, topic of the study and continent where the study had been conducted. Out of the 96 articles included, 76 (79.2%) were from North America. None were from South America or Africa. Ninety-four articles (97.9%) found some association between animal abuse and violence against people. The rates of co-occurrence between domestic violence and animal abuse reported varied between 25% and 86%. Furthermore, children who were abused, exposed to domestic violence, or animal abuse were at risk of developing criminal behavior. Veterinarians play an important role in public health and animal welfare. Yet, only seven articles (7.3%) were published in the field of veterinary medicine. Studies report that between 42.8% and 86% of veterinarians know about the "Link". However, most veterinarians not being trained to intervene in cases of animal abuse and human violence. This emphasizes the importance of educating veterinarians about this topic and their participation in this area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Conjugal violence

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Mihaiu

    2015-01-01

    Scientific knowledge of different aspects related to conjugal violence is highly important for people directly involved, such as researchers, practitioners and the entire society. In this respect, globally, specialised studies continue to advance, offer correct definitions, clear descriptions, convincing assessments to certain issues, encouraging thus long-term research, since some specialists have managed to overcome restrictive or ideological methods and explanations. Moreover, in practice,...

  10. An exploratory analysis of intimate partner violence and postpartum depression in an impoverished urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabold, Nicole; Waldrop, Deborah P; Nochajski, Thomas H; Cerulli, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Research on the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and postpartum depression (PPD) is limited. Numerous antecedents and consequences of both IPV and PPD are noted in the literature; however, understanding the mechanisms by which intimate partner violence impacts the postpartum mood are not clearly understood. This study utilized retrospective chart reviews from a pediatric/perinatal social work outreach program to explore urban minority women experiences with IPV and depression both during pregnancy and after. Findings do not suggest a direct relationship between IPV and PPD; however, there was a high co-occurrence of prenatal depression and PPD. The severity of IPV appears to influence the occurrence and acuity of prenatal depression suggesting an indirect relationship. Implications for health and social work practitioners are discussed.

  11. Family Violence: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS/OHDS), Washington, DC.

    Family violence is a widespread problem; research has shown multiple factors are associated with family violence. Types of family violence include spouse abuse; elder abuse and neglect; child abuse and neglect; parent abuse; and sibling abuse. There are three types of spouse abuse: physical abuse, sexual violence, and psychological/emotional…

  12. Child and adolescent violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daane, Diane M

    2003-01-01

    Although the juvenile violent crime rate has decreased steadily during the past 5 years, the problem of violence and violence-related behaviors in the lives of our children and adolescents remains. The incidence of violent victimization against children and violence and violence-related behavior by today's youth is related to a variety of factors. Exposure to violence in the home, school, community, or video games and other entertainment significantly influences aggressive behaviors among children and adolescents. Other childhood violence predictors include alcohol and drug use, gender, and low self-esteem. The childhood violence risk indicators have implications for child and adolescent violence prevention and intervention programs. Nurses who recognize dangerous and potentially dangerous behavior in children and adolescents are better able to provide violence prevention and intervention services and referrals to children at risk or in danger. Because orthopaedic nurses often see adolescents who have already sustained injury from violence, identification of those at risk is particularly important.

  13. Explaining electoral violence in Africa's 'new' democracies | Omotola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The electoral process in many of Africa's 'new' democracies has been characterised by violence. However, recent manifestations of electoral violence have assumed an unprecedented magnitude and changing form and character, with negative implications for democratic stability and consolidation. This paper analyses ...

  14. Domestic violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Mihić Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.

  15. Intimate Partner Violence Victimization in the Cyber and Real World: Examining the Extent of Cyber Aggression Experiences and Its Association With In-Person Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marganski, Alison; Melander, Lisa

    2015-11-25

    This study explores the extent of cyber aggression victimization in intimate relationships and its co-occurrence with in-person experiences of psychological, physical, and sexual partner violence. Data were collected from 540 college students who reported being in a dating relationship in the past 12 months. Participants were asked to complete an online questionnaire that included measures assessing intimate partner victimization experiences in differing social contexts (through socially interactive technology and in face-to-face encounters). Findings indicated that intimate partner cyber aggression victimization is not uncommon, as nearly three quarters of respondents reported having experienced some form of it in the past year. Multivariate analyses also indicate that such aggression may be part of a larger violence nexus given its relation to in-person psychological, physical, and sexual partner violence victimization experiences. In light of these findings, it is recommended that longitudinal research encompassing multiple violence victimization experiences in varying social contexts is completed to determine whether online experiences foreshadow offline ones and, if so, consider interaction effects on outcomes as well as potential intervention strategies to reduce harm associated with such negative experiences. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Violence against women: theoretical reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Casique Casique,Leticia; Furegato,Antonia Regina Ferreira

    2006-01-01

    Violence appears in different forms and circumstances and involves distinct kinds of violent acts against children, women, elderly and other defenseless persons. This serious problem, which degrades women's integrity, is denoted by terms like domestic violence, gender violence and violence against women. Gender violence can appear as physical, psychological, sexual, economic violence, as well as violence at work. Violence against women committed by their intimate partners can be analyzed thro...

  17. [Clinical forensic valuation of school violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, Y; Tournel, G; Tonnel, C; Turck, D; Hedouin, V; Gosset, D

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, the National Education in France has developed tools to identify acts of violence in schools. This has allowed adjusting government policies for the care of victims. School violence can also be measured from the perspective of clinical forensic medicine, a special discipline for observing a society's violence. This study summarized and compared three similar single-center, prospective, and descriptive studies conducted in 1992, 2002, and 2012 in the Department of Forensic Medicine, University Hospital of Lille, via an evaluation form completed during consultations requested by victims in cases of school violence. The purpose was to identify the characteristics of victims, those of their perpetrators, the circumstances and reasons for school assaults, as well as their medical and administrative consequences. Each study had identified about 160 such attacks annually. The victims were younger, especially boys (the average age decreased from 14.8 to 13.6). The gender distribution showed an increase in female victims (the sex ratio decreased from 2.9/1 to 2.3/1). The location of attacks changed, with a marked increase of attacks on the way to school (from 10% to 27%). Recurrence of attacks also rose: victims with a previous history of attacks increased from 18.5% to 32.2% with a high proportion of violence resulting in a strong psychological impact, increasingly requiring psychological support (from 9 to 16%). The duration of school cases rose sharply, from 20 to 53% in 2012. The grade level of the perpetrator showed a significant increase in cases of violence at junior high school (from 40 to 67%), with a relative stability of violence in elementary and high schools. The parameters measured to characterize the aggressors remained stable: they were known to their victims in approximately 80% of cases and these attacks were for the most part related to previous disagreements. Since the 1990s, government policies for the prevention, measurement, and

  18. Domestic violence in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozu, J

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally, domestic violence in Japan referred to children's physical and emotional violence against their parents. However, in recent years, the general public's awareness of and actions toward other types of domestic violence, especially violence against women and children, has increased. Following a brief description of filial violence and elderly abuse, both spousal abuse and child abuse are discussed in terms of their prevalence and cultural and historical backgrounds. The article concludes with current and future challenges in the intervention of violence, particularly against women and children, in the Japanese family.

  19. Gender Considerations in Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Renee; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Hall, Ryan

    2016-12-01

    The role of gender in violence is poorly understood. Research has shown that gender has an important and, at times, distinct role in the prediction of violence. However, this gender disparity diminishes in the setting of mental illness. The risk assessment of violence in women is largely based on research in violent men. There are distinct characteristics in female violence compared with male violence. Attention to these characteristics may lead to the development of gender-dependent tools that can be used to evaluate violence risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Co-occurrence of tobacco product use, substance use, and mental health problems among youth: Findings from wave 1 (2013-2014) of the population assessment of tobacco and health (PATH) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Kevin P; Green, Victoria R; Kasza, Karin A; Silveira, Marushka L; Borek, Nicolette; Kimmel, Heather L; Sargent, James D; Stanton, Cassandra A; Lambert, Elizabeth; Hilmi, Nahla; Reissig, Chad J; Jackson, Kia J; Tanski, Susanne E; Maklan, David; Hyland, Andrew J; Compton, Wilson M

    2018-01-01

    Cigarette use is associated with substance use and mental health problems among youth, but associations are unknown for non-cigarette tobacco product use, as well as the increasingly common poly-tobacco use. The current study examined co-occurrence of substance use and mental health problems across tobacco products among 13,617 youth aged 12-17years from Wave 1 (2013-2014) of the nationally representative Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. Participants self-reported ever cigarette, e-cigarette, smokeless tobacco, traditional cigar, cigarillo, filtered cigar, hookah, and other tobacco product use; alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs; and lifetime substance use, internalizing and externalizing problems. In multivariable regression analyses, use of each tobacco product was associated with substance use, particularly cigarillos and marijuana (AOR=18.9, 95% CI: 15.3-23.4). Cigarette (AOR=14.7, 95% CI: 11.8-18.2) and cigarillo (AOR=8.1, 95% CI: 6.3-10.3) use were strongly associated with substance use problems and tobacco users were more likely to report internalizing (AOR=1.6, 95% CI: 1.4-1.8) and externalizing (AOR=1.4, 95% CI: 1.3-1.6) problems. Female tobacco users were more likely to have internalizing problems than male tobacco users. Poly-tobacco users were more likely than exclusive users to use substances (AOR=3.4, 95% CI: 2.7-4.3) and have mental health (AOR=1.2, 95% CI: 1.0-1.5) and substance use (AOR=4.7, 95% CI: 3.4-6.6) problems. Regardless of the tobacco product used, findings reveal high co-occurrence of substance use and mental health problems among youth tobacco users, especially poly-tobacco users. These findings suggest the need to address comorbidities among high risk youth in prevention and treatment settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Male violence or patriarchal violence? Global Trends in Men and Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Policies and research have focused recently on men's use of violence against women, and the terms "gender-based violence" or "domestic violence" have often been used rather than "patriarchal violence." This article argues that instead of talking about "male violence," or gender-based violence, a more useful analytical framework is "patriarchal violence." Applying this lens examines how violence is based in complex power relations - with low-income men and men in specific groups, such...

  2. Children and TV Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families Guide Facts for Families - Vietnamese TV Violence and Children No. 13; Updated December 2014 American ... Hundreds of studies of the effects of TV violence on children and teenagers have found that children ...

  3. Destins de violence

    OpenAIRE

    Fonteneau, Françoise

    2017-01-01

    Le lien entre la violence et l’irreprésentable, la présence de la violence dans le discours comme événement dans le texte, sont des questions qui se découpent derrière les « Figures de la violence ». Mais qui fait violence ? Qui fait violence à qui ? Quel est le destin de cette violence inhérente à un discours, quel en est le destinataire ? De quel sujet vient-elle ? Violence et pulsion « Violence » est un terme peu usité en psychanalyse. Pourtant c’est ce terme que Freud choisit d’employer l...

  4. Defining gratuitous violence.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    empathy deficits' might be a characteristic of many perpetrators of violence. * Senior researcher at the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation. The author is indebted to two anonymous reviewers whose comments were invaluable.

  5. [Family violence and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, A; Bost, M; Abadie, F; Boucharlat, J

    1993-01-01

    Intrafamilial violence represents a vast topic, even if one limits the subject to the nuclear family. Indeed it includes violence from parents to the child, violence between brothers and sisters, conjugal violence and violence exercised by the child to his parents. Although one can differentiate the types of violence (physical, sexual, and psychological), they often coexist within the same family. Adolescence favors the onset or the reactivation of familial violence; this violence often has repercussion on the psychological equilibrium of the adolescent. Very little is written about parents abused by one of their children (usually an adolescent). This phenomenon is relatively unrecognized and its frequency probably under-estimated. It points to a distortion in parent to child relationship. Therapeutic and/or socio-educational approach must be directed toward both the victim and the aggressor.

  6. Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Youth.gov Office on Women’s Health: Violence Against Women topics and resources Office for Victims of Crime Hotlines National Domestic Violence Hotline Love is Respect National Sexual Assault Hotline ...

  7. Is Gun Violence Contagious?

    OpenAIRE

    Loeffler, Charles; Flaxman, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Existing theories of gun violence predict stable spatial concentrations and contagious diffusion of gun violence into surrounding areas. Recent empirical studies have reported confirmatory evidence of such spatiotemporal diffusion of gun violence. However, existing tests cannot readily distinguish spatiotemporal clustering from spatiotemporal diffusion. This leaves as an open question whether gun violence actually is contagious or merely clusters in space and time. Compounding this problem, g...

  8. Borders, Violence, Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER DE LUCAS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between violence, law and borders by analyzing both the violence at the borders and the violence of the borders. In both cases, the author states that violence exerted by means of law, as well as migratory and asylum policies, threaten the universal human rights of the most vulnerable people and cannot be seen as exercising the legitimate monopoly of force, resulting in the destruction of the Rule of Law.

  9. Violence in Peru 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Garmendia Lorena, Fausto; Médico-Cirujano, Doctor en Medicina; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas “Fausto Garmendia Lorena”, Programa Permanente de Capacitación para la Atención Integral de las Víctimas de la Violencia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Académico Honorario, Academia Nacional de Medicina

    2016-01-01

    The most frequent types of violence occurring currently in Peru, including the political, self-inflicted, interpersonal within the family, produced to women, adolescents and older adults are reviewed. A historical reference to Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy is made as to its contents on violence and its perspectives for today. It highlights emerging forms of economic, criminal, labor and ecological types of violence. A new classification of violence taking into account the new modalities is ...

  10. Animal violence demystified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior

  11. Violence against women: theoretical reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casique, Leticia Casique; Furegato, Antonia Regina Ferreira

    2006-01-01

    Violence appears in different forms and circumstances and involves distinct kinds of violent acts against children, women, elderly and other defenseless persons. This serious problem, which degrades women's integrity, is denoted by terms like domestic violence, gender violence and violence against women. Gender violence can appear as physical, psychological, sexual, economic violence, as well as violence at work. Violence against women committed by their intimate partners can be analyzed through the Ecological Model, which explains the close relation between individuals and their environment. Factors influencing people's behavior towards this violence should be analyzed with a view to establishing help programs.

  12. The Evolution of Topics and Leading Trends over the Past 15 Years of Research on the Quality of Higher Education in China: Based on Keyword Co-Occurrence Knowledge Map Analysis of the Research Papers Published from 2000 to 2014 in the CSSCI Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xia; Yang, Xiaotong

    2016-01-01

    Using CiteSpace to draw a keyword co-occurrence knowledge map for 1,048 research papers on the quality of higher education from 2000 to 2014 in the Chinese Social Sciences Citation Index database, we found that over the past 15 years, research on the quality of Chinese higher education was clearly oriented toward policies, and a good interactive…

  13. Educational inequalities in the co-occurrence of mental health and substance use problems, and its adult socio-economic consequences: a longitudinal study of young adults in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J O; Herrenkohl, T I; Kosterman, R; Small, C M; Hawkins, J D

    2013-08-01

    To examine the relationship between the co-occurrence of mental health and substance use problems and socio-economic status (SES). A prospective longitudinal study of 808 males and females followed to age 30. Survey data were used to derive latent classes (profiles) of mental health (depression, anxiety) and substance use (alcohol, nicotine, and marijuana [cannabis]) problems at age 27. Analyses examined the associations of these profiles with earlier educational attainment (high school diploma) and indicators of SES at age 30. Latent Class Analysis produced four profiles: a low disorder symptoms group, a licit substance use disorder symptoms group (alcohol and nicotine), a mental health disorder symptoms group, and a comorbid group. Earning a high school diploma by age 21 decreased the odds of belonging to the comorbid group or the licit substance use disorder symptoms group when compared to the low disorder symptoms group. These disorder profiles also were found to adversely impact subsequent adult SES. The adverse impact was more evident in income maintenance and wealth accumulation by age 30 than market or non-market labour force participation. Earning a high school diploma lessens the risk of co-occurring mental health and substance use problems which contribute to economic instability in young adulthood. Findings underscore the importance of public health programmes to reduce the incidence of mental health and substance use problems and their associated high costs to individuals and to society. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Novel Technique Based on the Combination of Labeled Co-Occurrence Matrix and Variogram for the Detection of Built-up Areas in High-Resolution SAR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interests in synthetic aperture radar (SAR data analysis is driven by the constantly increased spatial resolutions of the acquired images, where the geometries of scene objects can be better defined than in lower resolution data. This paper addresses the problem of the built-up areas extraction in high-resolution (HR SAR images, which can provide a wealth of information to characterize urban environments. Strong backscattering behavior is one of the distinct characteristics of built-up areas in a SAR image. However, in practical applications, only a small portion of pixels characterizing the built-up areas appears bright. Thus, specific texture measures should be considered for identifying these areas. This paper presents a novel texture measure by combining the proposed labeled co-occurrence matrix technique with the specific spatial variability structure of the considered land-cover type in the fuzzy set theory. The spatial variability is analyzed by means of variogram, which reflects the spatial correlation or non-similarity associated with a particular terrain surface. The derived parameters from the variograms are used to establish fuzzy functions to characterize the built-up class and non built-up class, separately. The proposed technique was tested on TerraSAR-X images acquired of Nanjing (China and Barcelona (Spain, and on a COSMO-SkyMed image acquired of Hangzhou (China. The obtained classification accuracies point out the effectiveness of the proposed technique in identifying and detecting built-up areas.

  15. Domestic violence and violence against children in Ghana 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Catherine; Tranchant, Jean-Pierre; Oosterhoff, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how domestic violence relates to violence against children, including severe corporal punishment. The literature suggests a link between intimate partner violence in the household and child abuse and maltreatment. Studies are, however, limited by the use of narrowly defined measures of violence against children, data availability, and a lack of characterization of domestic violence. In this paper we use original data on domestic violence and child disciplining methods ...

  16. CO-OCCURRENCE OF DIABETES AND HYPERTENSION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    people with diabetes than in the general population.1-3. Both diseases .... with mean age of 61.1 (SD 11.1) years. The median .... in their age, gender distribution, BMI, hip/waist ratio, ... example, in the US population, Movahed and co- workers ...

  17. CO-OCCURRENCE OF DIABETES AND HYPERTENSION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Diabetes and hypertension are two non-communicable diseases that frequently co-exist. Several studies have shown that raised blood pressure is commoner among people with diabetes than in the general population.1-3. Both diseases are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and ...

  18. Domestic Violence against Men: Know the Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.womenshealth.gov/violence-against-women/types-of-violence/domestic-intimate-partner-violence.html. Accessed Jan. 7, 2017. ... al. Cell phone location, privacy and intimate partner violence. Domestic Violence Report. 2013;18:1. Same-sex relationship ...

  19. Veto Violence - Violence Education Tools Online

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — VetoViolence.cdc.gov has been developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to provide grantees and partners with access to training and tools...

  20. Violence exposure and teen dating violence among African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Key Injury and Violence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Key Injury and Violence Data Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Injuries ... of death among persons 1-44. Injury- and violence-related deaths are only part of the problem ...

  2. War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    2015-01-01

    The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts....... In this introductory article we present four key themes in this field and discuss perspectives and challenges for the study of violence, war and masculinities....

  3. Narratives of Domestic Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Second wave feminists in Australia brought the social issue of domestic violence out of the suburban shadows and into the activist and policy spotlight in the 1970s. Subsequent feminist-inspired law reforms around domestic violence included the introduction of state domestic violence order regimes in the 1980s, and amendments to the Family Law Act 1975 (Cth) in 1995 to specify family violence as one of the matters to be taken into account by the Family Court in\\ud determining the best interes...

  4. Media violence and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresin, E V

    1999-06-01

    This column reviews the literature on violence in the media and its effects on youth. The author summarizes the findings of naturalistic, longitudinal, and population-based studies conducted over the last 30 years. The literature provides compelling evidence that exposure of media violence to children plays a major role in the etiology of aggressive behavior. Psychiatrists can facilitate primary prevention of violence in our society by discussing the problem of media violence with parents, medical students, residents, and allied health and school professionals.

  5. Stalking and Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermeyer, Britta; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Sorrentino, Renee; Booth, Brad D

    2016-12-01

    The three widely known stalker classifications assist in categorizing stalkers, which allows for better management of violence risk. Although 80% of stalking is done by men, women also engage in stalking, and their violence risk should not be underestimated. Juvenile stalkers do exist and juvenile stalking is also associated with violence. Clinicians can become a victim of stalking and may become victims of stalking by proxy, a special type of stalking behavior where the stalker involves other people or agencies to communicate with or track their victim. A careful stalking violence risk assessment is essential in the intervention and risk management process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Violence in stalking situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, T E; Mullen, P E; MacKenzie, R D; Ogloff, J R P

    2009-09-01

    Stalking is often viewed as a precursor to violence, but determining which stalkers might attack is a difficult task. This study overcomes shortfalls in previous investigations by adopting a pseudo-prospective design and examining potential risk factors for different types of stalker. Demographic, behavioural and diagnostic information was collected from stalkers referred to a community forensic mental health service (n=211). Potential risk factors for stalking violence were identified using odds ratios and chi2 tests, and entered into logistic regression models. Model utility was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curves. Amongst Rejected ex-intimate stalkers, violence was best predicted by previous violence, making threats and being employed (area under the curve=0.75), while for stalkers with other motives and relationships to the victim, being aged less than 30 years, substance use at the time of stalking and prior violence best predicted stalking violence (area under the curve=0.80). Stalkers at increased risk of violence can be accurately identified by examining motivational and relationship type in conjunction with specific relevant risk factors. Previous violence is a particularly important risk factor, as are threats amongst ex-intimate stalkers. Approach behaviours and psychosis were shown to be less useful in predicting violence.

  7. Violence in Venezuela: oil rent and political crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the changes in violence in Venezuela during the last forty years. It links the ups and downs of the oil revenues and the political crisis of the country to the changes in the homicide rates, which increased from 7 per 100 thousand inhabitants in 1970 to 12 in 1990, 19 in 1998 and 50 in 2003. The article characterizes Venezuela as a rentist society and shows its trajectory from rural violence to the beginning of urban violence, the guerilla movements of the 60s, the delinquent violence related to the abundance of oil revenues and the violence during the popular revolt and the sackings of 1989 in Caracas. After this, we analyze the coups d'état of 1992 and the influence the political violence exerted upon criminal violence. We describe the political and party changes in the country, their influence upon the stabilization of homicide rates since the mid-90s and their remarkable increase during the H. Chávez government. The article finishes with an analysis of the current situation, the official prohibition to publish statistics on homicides and with some thoughts about the perspective of greater violence in Venezuela.

  8. Recurrent headache and interpersonal violence in adolescence: the roles of psychological distress, loneliness and family cohesion: the HUNT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensland, Synne Oien; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Zwart, John-Anker; Dyb, Grete

    2014-06-10

    Recurrent headache is the most common and disabling pain condition in adolescence. Co-occurrence of psychosocial adversity is associated with increased risk of chronification and functional impairment. Exposure to interpersonal violence seems to constitute an important etiological factor. Thus, knowledge of the multiple pathways linking interpersonal violence to recurrent headache could help guide preventive and clinical interventions. In the present study we explored a hypothetical causal model where the link between exposure to interpersonal violence and recurrent headache is mediated in parallel through loneliness and psychological distress. Higher level of family cohesion and male sex is hypothesized to buffer the adverse effect of exposure to interpersonal violence on headache. The model was assessed using data from the cross-sectional, population-based Young-HUNT 3 study of Norwegian adolescents, conducted from 2006-2008. A cohort of 10 464 adolescents were invited. The response rate was 73% (7620), age ranged from 12 and 20 years, and 50% (3832) were girls. The study comprised self-report measures of exposure to interpersonal violence, loneliness, psychological distress and family cohesion, in addition to a validated interview on headache, meeting the International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria. Recurrent headache was defined as headache recurring at least monthly during the past year, and sub-classified into monthly and weekly headache, which served as separate outcomes. In Conditional Process Analysis, loneliness and psychological distress consistently posed as parallel mediating mechanisms, indirectly linking exposure to interpersonal violence to recurrent headache. We found no substantial moderating effect of family cohesion or sex. Loneliness and psychological distress seem to play crucial roles in the relationship between exposure to interpersonal violence and recurrent headache. To facilitate coping and recovery, it may be helpful to

  9. Self- and other-directed forms of violence and their relationship with lifetime DSM-5 psychiatric disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harford, Thomas C; Chen, Chiung M; Kerridge, Bradley T; Grant, Bridget F

    2017-09-13

    A combined history of violence toward self and others has been reported in clinical and incarcerated populations. Psychiatric disorders have been implicated as risk factors. This study examines the lifetime prevalence of this combined violence in the general population and its associations with DSM-5 psychiatric disorders in comparison with other- and self-directed violence. Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III) were analyzed, including 36,309 U.S. adults ages 18 and older. Violent behavior was defined by suicide attempts; recurrent suicidal behavior; gestures, threats, or self-mutilating behavior (self-directed); and multiple items of violence toward others (other-directed) in four categories: none, self-directed only, other-directed only, and combined self-/other-directed. Multinomial logistic regression examined these violence categories in association with sociodemographics and lifetime DSM-5 psychiatric disorders. Results show that approximately 18.1% of adults reported violent behavior, including self-directed only (4.4%), other-directed only (10.9%), and combined self- and other-directed violence (2.8%). DSM-5 psychiatric disorders significantly associated with the violence typology include alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and other drug use disorders; mood disorders; posttraumatic stress disorder; and schizotypal, antisocial, and borderline personality disorders. Findings extend the clinical literature regarding the co-occurrence of self- and other-directed violent behaviors to the general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Understanding Youth Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... public health problems like youth violence. Step 1: Define the problem Before we can prevent youth violence, we need ... and who it affects. CDC learns about a problem by gathering and studying ... and supports research to answer this question. We can then develop ...

  11. Understanding Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... public health problems like dating violence. Step 1: Define the problem Before we can prevent dating violence, we need ... and who it affects. CDC learns about a problem by gathering and studying ... and supports research to answer this question. Step 3: Develop and ...

  12. Understanding Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... public health problems like sexual violence. Step 1: Define the problem Before we can prevent sexual violence, we need ... and who it affects. CDC learns about a problem by gathering and studying ... and supports research to answer this question. We can then develop ...

  13. Violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, M

    1999-01-01

    In India, violence against women is increasing and takes many forms while laws to protect women are ignored. Despite this fact, the new reproductive and child health program ignores sexual violence. Health personnel can respond by: 1) accepting the magnitude of the problem; 2) investigating the deaths of young women; 3) documenting findings; 4) ensuring that sexual abuse is recognized as a public health problem; 5) disseminating findings; 6) ensuring the protection of female field workers; 7) recognizing violence as an occupational health hazard; 8) facilitating the empowerment of women; 9) training women in self-defense; 10) ensuring that colleges and training institutes address violence as a women's health concern; 11) studying the psychological effects of violence; 12) collaborating with the National Commission for Women and the National Human Rights Commission; and 13) advocating for incorporation of sexual violence as a reproductive health issue in the national reproductive health program. In particular, domestic violence is a pervasive violation of women's human rights and has been resistant to social advances because of its "hidden" nature. Domestic violence exists because husbands believe they have an absolute right over the sexuality of their wives. Abusive husbands also abuse their daughters while sons learn violent behavior from their fathers. Crimes must be considered irrespective of whether they are committed outside or inside the home.

  14. Preventing Classroom Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druck, Ken; Kaplowitz, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    Violence affects one in every five teenagers. Everyday 160,000 students miss school because they fear attack, intimidation, or bullying. While tragedies such as school shootings are rare, many youngsters feel threatened. School officials and administrators take steps to make school safer, yet many teachers remain frustrated. Violence prevention…

  15. Violence in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    XXIV, Nos. 1 & 2, 1999. Politics and violence are like Siamese twins in Nigeria. Polítical activity has always featured a notable degree of violence, in both the colonial and .... why initial reaction to news of the annulment was more truculent in the. Western ... inveterate intolerance of dissent manifested in the contraction of the.

  16. [Violence in Sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degelman, Charles, Ed.; Hayes, Bill, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This teaching resource presents articles that draw on young people's natural interest in sports to stimulate their involvement in law-related education. An article on violence in sports explores the causes of this violence--the physical contact inherent in many sports, the desire to win at all costs, the urging of coaches, and the negligence of…

  17. The Worst School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendtro, Larry K.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author recalls many acts of school violence. He states that while the dramatic school killings at Colorado's Columbine High School in 1999 and at Minnesota's Red Lake Reservation in 2005 were tragic, the most horrific school violence in history, measured by loss of life, occurred nearly a half century ago at Our Lady of the…

  18. School Violence. Web Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constitutional Rights Foundation, Los Angeles, CA.

    In answer to the concerns about school violence in the United States (especially since the tragedy in 1999 at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado), this Internet curriculum offers lessons and resources that address the topic of school violence and its causes, as well as the search for solutions. The curriculum presents four world wide web…

  19. Violence in Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Donald L.

    Increasing violence in sports is deplored, and a warning is issued on an apparent trend toward antisocial behavior. Contact sports such as hockey and football are cited as typically engendering aggression among athletes, but spectator sports (boxing, car racing, basketball, and baseball) are also singled out as eliciting increasing violence on the…

  20. Various Viewpoints on Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Bonita; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents four articles addressing various aspects of violence in the context of children's everyday life: video game violence, gun play, violent children's television programming, and war play. Proposes possible developmentally appropriate solutions. Urges teachers, parents, and the community in general to actively work to provide a safer, saner…

  1. [Violence against children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegenhain, Ute; Künster, Anne Katrin; Besier, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Violence against children is a widespread phenomenon. Interpersonal violence within the family context is typical in childhood, whereas violence occurs more frequently in the leisure and peer context during adolescence, often involving new media. The risk for experiencing violence is associated with many different factors, for example the age, psychosocial context, and cultural background of a child. Data on the prevalence of violence vary by country, depending on the available documentation systems. It is estimated that the number of unreported cases is high. Meta-analyses comprising mainly retrospective self-report studies indicate prevalence estimates between 12 and 19% for neglect, physical, and sexual abuse. Emotional child abuse is reported far more often, with a prevalence as high as 36.3%. German studies, however, weren't able to replicate these international findings. Here, child emotional abuse is reported less often. Violence against children has many negative consequences for physical, emotional, and psychosocial development. Violence prevention therefore comprises different international and national programs and strategies, which are able to successfully reduce violence against children. Programs focusing on the promotion of adequate parenting behavior show especially promising results.

  2. The War on Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinnon, Richard

    1970-01-01

    Controversial article that attempts to cover everything from the definition of violence ( violence is not gentleness; it is not friendly persuasion;...") to the Warren Commission Report ( Study of this chapter..suggests that they might as well have consulted the entrials of sheep.") (MF)

  3. Media Violence and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groebel, Jo

    1998-01-01

    Presents the results of the UNESCO global study on media violence and children which was conducted between 1996 and 1997. Highlights include the role of the media, media heroes as role models, media violence and aggression, differences by gender, rural versus urban environments, the pervasiveness of television, and recommendations. (Author/LRW)

  4. Media Violence: Q & A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock; Strasburger

    1993-10-01

    In a question-and-answer format, the authors survey the problem of violence in American television and movies. Central themes include the extent of violent content, the manner in which violence is portrayed, research methodology for studying the effects of violent content on children and adolescents, common myths related to the issue, and strategies for effecting change.

  5. Researching Television Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtzel, Alan; Lometti, Guy

    1984-01-01

    Two officals from the American Broadcasting Companies (ABC) (1) review a 1982 National Institute of Mental Health Study on television and violence, and (2) summarize the broadcast standards, practices, policies, and procedures employed by the network regarding the depiction of violence. (GC)

  6. Witnessing Interparental Violence and Acceptance of Dating Violence as Predictors for Teen Dating Violence Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Marie E; Temple, Jeff R; Weston, Rebecca; Le, Vi Donna

    2016-04-01

    We examined the association between witnessing interparental violence, attitudes about dating violence, and physical and psychological teen dating violence (TDV) victimization. Participants were 918 teens with dating experience. Witnessing interparental violence and acceptance of dating violence were significant predictors of TDV victimization. Acceptance of dating violence was also a partial mediator between witnessing interparental violence and TDV victimization. Witnessing mother-to-father violence and acceptance of female-perpetrated violence were the most consistent predictors. TDV programs aiming to prevent victimization could benefit from targeting youth exposed to father-to-mother and mother-to-father violence, targeting attitudes about violence, and tailoring interventions to gender-specific risk factors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Pathways between childhood trauma, intimate partner violence, and harsh parenting: findings from the UN Multi-country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulu, Emma; Miedema, Stephanie; Roselli, Tim; McCook, Sarah; Chan, Ko Ling; Haardörfer, Regine; Jewkes, Rachel

    2017-05-01

    partner violence, harsh parenting, and other factors. The data point to both a co-occurrence and a cycle of abuse, with childhood trauma leading to violence against women and further child maltreatment, which in turn increases the risk of experience or perpetration of violence during adulthood. Efforts to prevent both forms of violence would benefit from a meaningful integrated approach. Interventions should promote positive parenting, address inequality and the normalisation of violence across the life course, and transform men's power over women and children. Partners for Prevention. National studies were funded by the UN Population Fund in Bangladesh and China, UN Women in Cambodia and Indonesia, UN Develoment Programme in Papua New Guinea, and CARE in Sri Lanka. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Violence and Cardiovascular Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira F.; Sapra, Katherine J.; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2014-01-01

    Context Violence, experienced in either childhood or adulthood, has been associated with physical health outcomes including cardiovascular disease. However, the consistency of the existing literature has not been evaluated. Evidence acquisition In 2013, the authors conducted a PubMed and Web of Science review of peer reviewed articles published prior to August 2013 on the relation between violence exposure, experienced in either childhood or adulthood, and cardiovascular outcomes. To meet inclusion criteria, articles had to present estimates for the relation between violence exposure and cardiovascular outcomes (hypertension, blood pressure, stroke, coronary disease, or myocardial infarction) adjusted for demographic factors. Articles focusing on violence from TV, video games, natural disasters, terrorism, or war were excluded. Evidence synthesis The initial search yielded 2,273 articles; after removing duplicates and applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 30 articles were selected for review. A consistent positive relation was noted on the association between violence experienced during childhood and cardiovascular outcomes in adulthood (i.e., hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction). Associations across genders with varying types of violence exposure were also noted. By contrast, findings were mixed on the relation between adult violence exposure and cardiovascular outcome. Conclusions Despite varying definitions of violence exposure and cardiovascular endpoints, a consistent relation exists between childhood violence exposure, largely assessed retrospectively, and cardiovascular endpoints. Findings are mixed for the adult violence–cardiovascular health relation. The cross-sectional nature of most adult studies and the reliance of self-reported outcomes can potentially be attributed to the lack of findings among adult violence exposure studies. PMID:25599905

  9. Symbolic Violence and Gendered Sexualised Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    individualising and pathologising gendered sexualised violence and personal difficulties connected hereto, consequently disregarding the important involvement of gendered and gendering societal processes (S. Ronkainen 2001). Also, its focus on the symbolic points to the central position of mass media......It has been suggested, that Bourdieu ´s concept of symbolic violence is useful in explaining gendered phenomena of late modern western societies, which can no longer simply be understood as classic patriarchies (B. Krais 1993). In these societies, and in spite of the existence of gendered...... sexualised phenomena such as rape and prostitution, it is often assumed that full equality of the sexes has been achieved. The concept of symbolic violence implies the participation of both men and women in aspects of discourses and other social practices related to gendering and thus to gendered sexualised...

  10. Accountability Issues in School Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bataineh, Adel T.

    This paper examines various reasons that would account for school violence and considers ways educators can help eliminate violence from schools. The negative impact of violence in the media and easy access to guns are mentioned as probable causes of violence in youth. Students who do not feel part of the school community often resort to violence…

  11. The Othering of Domestic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montoya, Celeste; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2013-01-01

    Violence against women is a universal problem, affecting women at all levels of society; however, differently situated women have unique experiences with violence. Theoretically, this calls for the necessity to balance universality with intersectionality. Analyzing EU policy texts, we argue...... that the recognition of different forms of violence has led to an increased tendency toward culturalization, i.e. articulating culture as the only explanation behind certain forms of violence or focusing exclusively on culturalized forms of violence. While largely ignoring the gendered nature of violence, cultural...... framings of violence also create a dichotomy between “insiders” (non-violent Europeans) and “outsiders” (violent others)....

  12. THE DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ON CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    SAVCA Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Any form of domestic violence leaves its mark on minority's personality forma¬tion and generates dysfunctions in the behavioral, cognitive and emotional sphere. The study found that in the modern family up to 30% of children suffer from physical violence and up to 45% by psychological violence. Sexual violence, unlike other forms of violence, is more difficult to discover. It has more dramatic consequences and re¬quires a longer time for psychological recovery. In this study, are described a ...

  13. “What are my chances of developing COPD if one of my parents has the disease?” A systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence of co-occurrence of COPD diagnosis in parents and offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li LSK

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lok Sze Katrina Li,1 Catherine Paquet,2 Kylie Johnston,1 Marie T Williams3 1School of Health Sciences, Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, 2Center for Population Health Research, Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, 3Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA, Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaIntroduction: Intergenerational associations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD have been well recognized and may result from genetic, gene environment, or exposure to life course factors. Consequently, adult offspring of parents with COPD may be at a greater risk of developing COPD. The aim of this study was to review the prevalence of co-occurrence of COPD in adult offspring with one or both parents having COPD independent of specific genetic variations.Methods: In total, five databases were searched for original studies in which prevalence of COPD was reported in both offspring (children and one or both parents. Studies were excluded if COPD was not clearly defined, COPD was linked to specific genetic variations, COPD was combined with other chronic respiratory conditions, or estimates included other first-degree relatives. Data extraction (ie, sample characteristics, prevalence of COPD, and odds ratio [OR] if reported was completed by two independent reviewers. A meta-analysis of prevalence and OR was conducted, where possible. Results: Of the 3,382 citations, 129 full texts were reviewed to include eight studies (six case–control, one cross-sectional, and one cohort reflecting either prevalence of COPD in offspring of parents with COPD (descendent approach, n=3, which ranged from 0% to 17.3%, or prevalence of people with COPD reporting positive parental history of COPD (antecedent approach, n=5, for which the pooled prevalence

  14. Immigration and violence: the offsetting effects of immigrant concentration on Latino violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmeyer, Ben

    2009-09-01

    Despite longstanding interest in the effects of immigration on American society, there are few studies that examine the relationship between immigration and crime. Drawing from social disorganization theory and community resource/social capital perspectives, this study examines the effects of Latino immigration on Latino violence. Data on violence (i.e., homicide, robbery, and Violent Index) and the structural conditions of Latino populations are drawn from the California Arrest Data (CAL), New York State Arrest Data (NYSAD), and U.S. Census data for approximately 400 census places during the 1999-2001 period. Findings suggest that immigrant concentration has no direct effect on Latino homicide or Violent Index rates but may reduce Latino robbery. Immigration also appears to have multiple, offsetting indirect effects on Latino violence that work through social disorganization and community resource measures. These results suggest that (1) immigrant concentration does not contribute to Latino violence and may even reduce some forms of violence, (2) immigration simultaneously stabilizes and destabilizes structural conditions in Latino populations, and (3) it is useful to examine both the direct and indirect effects of immigration on crime.

  15. Domestic Violence: Protecting Yourself and Your Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Domestic Violence Hotline, 1-800-799-7233Office on Women’s Health, Violence Against WomenThe United States Department of Justice, Domestic ViolenceU.S. National Library of Medicine, Domestic Violence Last ...

  16. MARITIME VIOLENCE : IMPLICATIONS TO MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurulizwan Ahmad Zubir

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Maritime Piracy has been a serious threat to the international community especially in the SoutheastAsia region. This threat has caused tremendous implications towards the world economy, environment,political stability of the nations involved because 45% of the shipping company passes through theSoutheast Asia. The worrying fact is that these attacks were committed by terrorists as well as traditionalmaritime pirates. This paper examines on the implications of maritime crime in Malaysia and discusseswhether the definition of piracy under the International Law could be applied to these attacks. Thispaper concludes that cooperation between the region’s states and the enhancement of a good securitysystem of one state are needed to combat maritime violence. Thus it is imperative that the internationallaw need to be changed in order to enhance the meaning of piracy and also to include sea terrorism. Key words: piracy, maritime, terrorist

  17. Ethnic Violence in Moldolva

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barclay, Keith

    2002-01-01

    The Moldovan Transdniester War of 1992 is illustrative of modern day ethno-national violence and yields unique lessons on the role and use of military power in dealing with and resolving such crises...

  18. Sports Violence: Caveat Vendor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jean

    1978-01-01

    Violence at sporting events is a self-feeding stimulus, not a useful cathartic for natural aggression; in the final analysis, it should be realized that athletic contests are games, not struggles for survival. (MM)

  19. Time, violence and transmission

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    André Oliveira Costa

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present, based on the reading of essays on psychoanalytic theory by Sigmund Freud, an understanding of the psychic processes of the subject in a situation of violence...

  20. Violence and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueve, Marie E; Welton, Randon S

    2008-05-01

    Violence attracts attention in the news media, in the entertainment business, in world politics, and in countless other settings. Violence in the context of mental illness can be especially sensationalized, which only deepens the stigma that already permeates our patients' lives. Are violence and mental illness synonymous, connected, or just coincidental phenomena? This article reviews the literature available to address this fundamental question and to investigate other vital topics, including etiology, comorbidity, risk factor management, and treatment. A psychiatrist who is well versed in the recognition and management of violence can contribute to the appropriate management of dangerous behaviors and minimize risk to patients, their families, mental health workers, and the community as a whole.

  1. Islam and Political Violence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John L Esposito

    2015-01-01

      The global threat of Al Qaeda post 9/11 and ISIL, increased Sunni-Shia conflicts, and violence in the Middle East and Pakistan dominate headlines and challenge governments in the region and globally...

  2. Political Power and Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Mitu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Political violence plays a huge role in public affairs and people's behavior, requiring both knowledge and rigorous research in many of its occurrences and its consequences for the proper management, organization and functioning of a society as a whole. Although political violence is a problem of a particular importance in our social life it is not analyzed and investigated in the scientific literature. Political violence it is a subject that usually passes into oblivion. This study presents some ideas and themes about the role and functions of political power, displaying the types of political violence and their consequences for the management and functioning of a society, which can be subject to wider debates and researchs.

  3. The video violence debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, R G

    1993-04-01

    Some researchers and theorists are convinced that graphic scenes of violence on television and in movies are inextricably linked to human aggression. Others insist that a link has not been conclusively established. This paper summarizes scientific studies that have informed these two perspectives. Although many instances of children and adults imitating video violence have been documented, no court has imposed liability for harm allegedly resulting from a video program, an indication that considerable doubt still exists about the role of video violence in stimulating human aggression. The author suggests that a small group of vulnerable viewers are probably more impressionable and therefore more likely to suffer deleterious effects from violent programming. He proposes that research on video violence be narrowed to identifying and describing the vulnerable viewer.

  4. Ethnicities and violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    as violence and what meanings do we attribute to it? What meanings does gender and ethnicities have for diverse participants in violent relations? What are their societal consequences and how do we study these? Central is also how we conceptualise and study questions concerning violence in minorised as well...... as against ethnic communities. On one hand our research should allow for conceptualising and studying specific practices in these communities. On the other hand - risking repeating and supporting dominant discourses of gendered violence as characteristic for them – we do not intend to represent them...... approaches/methodology so they may to be discussed and developed further in our forum. Such issues will touch upon the preceding ones and may contribute to inspire research on gendered violence in general....

  5. School Violence: Data & Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data Sources Risk and Protective Factors Essentials for Childhood Violence against Children Surveys Our Methods Key Partners Country ... Communities United with States (DELTA FOCUS) Essentials for Childhood National ... About Accomplishments Resources The National Intimate ...

  6. Introduction: Visualizing Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitson, M.

    2017-01-01

    The Introduction explores the relationship between visual and literary representations of modern warfare. What impact have paintings, cartoons, films and television had on the reporting of conflicts? How has the visual imagery of military violence – as the most extensive and damaging form of violence – changed? Here, Susan Sontag's 2003 essay Regarding the Pain of Others is used as a starting point for a wider discussion of what it means to portray, and to witness portrayals of, wartime viole...

  7. Factors affecting conjugal violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, K H; Weinman, M L; Hsi, B P

    1980-07-01

    This study presents information on 30 couples involved in marital violence within a sample of 60 couples who were seeking psychiatric assistance for marital conflict. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were used in data analysis. Key variables identifying battered wives were frequent alcohol use by their husbands, frequent marital arguments, a low educational level, and frequent legal drug use. Abusing husbands were characterized by backgrounds of family violence, frequent alcohol use, a low education level, and frequent marital arguments.

  8. Victims of peer violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents facts on peer violence victims, committed by minor perpetrators against other minors. The author analyses four main characteristics of peer violence: imbalance of power between perpetrators and victims, identified intention to cause injuries, permanent treats of repeated violence and afraidness of the victims. Otherness and weakness (physical and social of the victims are identified as the main motives of the perpetrators who decide to attack, and these characteristics form the basis of the victim typology. Due to the fact that the research is phenomenologically based mostly on media report on peer violence cases in the period between September 2011 and the end of 2012, the author illustrates all main statements with the real cases which took place in the focused period. Measures to combat peer violence are presented, like the already established such as the school without violence program, and those recently proposed, such as the so called Aleksa’s class. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije: Društvene transformacije u procesu evropskih integracija - multidisciplinarni pristup

  9. The Grammar of Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: This paper explores the Danish keyword vold ‘violence, abuse’ and its associated ethno-syntax. Calling into attention (i) the differences and similarities of violence-related concepts in ethnolinguistic communities, and (ii) the key role played by ethnosyntax in the elaboration of viole......Abstract: This paper explores the Danish keyword vold ‘violence, abuse’ and its associated ethno-syntax. Calling into attention (i) the differences and similarities of violence-related concepts in ethnolinguistic communities, and (ii) the key role played by ethnosyntax in the elaboration...... of violence, vold, and similar concepts, the paper aims to open a new ethnolinguistic research agenda for the study of negative sociality constructs and the positive value system hidden in such concepts. The Danish ethnosyntax of vold ‘violence, abuse’ hidden in compound morphology is scrutinized. Focusing...... on the compounds hustruvold ‘wife vold’ and politivold ‘police vold’, the paper explores the hidden conceptual syntax embedded in such coinages. Exploring more recent constructs, such as forældrevold ‘parent vold’, it is argued that Danish ethnosyntax embodies a view of the world in which traditional authority...

  10. THE DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ON CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAVCA Lucia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Any form of domestic violence leaves its mark on minority's personality forma¬tion and generates dysfunctions in the behavioral, cognitive and emotional sphere. The study found that in the modern family up to 30% of children suffer from physical violence and up to 45% by psychological violence. Sexual violence, unlike other forms of violence, is more difficult to discover. It has more dramatic consequences and re¬quires a longer time for psychological recovery. In this study, are described a few cases of sexual violence in the family literally

  11. The evolutionary psychology of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Aaron T

    2010-02-01

    This paper reviews theory and research on the evolutionary psychology of violence. First, I examine evidence suggesting that humans have experienced an evolutionary history of violence. Next, I discuss violence as a context-sensitive strategy that might have provided benefits to our ancestors under certain circumstances. I then focus on the two most common forms of violence that plague humans -violence over status contests and intimate partner violence- outlining psychological mechanisms involved in each. Finally, I suggest that greater progress will be made by shifting the study from contexts to mechanisms.

  12. Domestic Violence against Women: Recognize Patterns, Seek Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this sounds familiar, you might be experiencing domestic violence. Domestic violence — also called intimate partner violence — occurs between ... www.womenshealth.gov/violence-against-women/types-of-violence/domestic-intimate-partner-violence.html. Accessed Jan. 7, 2016. ...

  13. Risk of violence by inmates with childhood trauma and mental health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael S; Eljdupovic, Gordana; McKenzie, Kwame; Colman, Ian

    2015-12-01

    Inmates who experienced childhood trauma have higher rates of institutional violence. However, the potential intermediate roles of co-occurring mental health and substance use needs and early justice involvement have not previously been considered. The current study examined the relationships between trauma, mental health, substance abuse, youth criminal charges, and institutional violence during the first 180 days of incarceration. As secondary aims, we explored whether these associations differed by sex or differed for inmates of Aboriginal ethnicity. Secondary data from prison records for all 5,154 inmates admitted to a federal prison during 2011 were collected. Path analysis was used to estimate the direct and indirect associations between trauma and institutional violence. Approximately 45% of inmates reported childhood trauma, which was associated with a higher prevalence of co-occurring mental health and substance abuse needs, and youth criminal charges. Although mental health, substance abuse, and youth criminal charges interacted with one another in predicting violence, their associations were similar for those with and without histories of trauma. A direct association between trauma and institutional incidents remained (Relative Risk [RR] = 1.38, 95% CI [1.07, 1.78]) after accounting for indirect associations through these co-occurring risk factors. There was insufficient evidence to suggest that these associations differed between men and women or between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal inmates. Given the high co-occurrence of multiple health and behavioral risk factors for inmates with traumatic histories, clarifying which factors are causally associated and reversible is needed to inform effective trauma informed care. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Understanding sexual violence as a form of caste violence

    OpenAIRE

    Prachi Patil

    2016-01-01

    The paper attempts to understand narratives of sexual violence anchored within the dynamics of social location of caste and gender. Apparent caste-patriarchy and gender hierarchies which are at play in cases of sexual violence against lower-caste and dalit women speak about differential experiences of rape and sexual abuse that women have in India. The paper endeavours to establish that sexual violence is also a form of caste violence by rereading the unfortunate cases of Bhanwari Devi, Khair...

  15. Violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, T

    1996-01-01

    This essay opens its discussion of violence against women by referring to the 1994 television broadcast of a 10-year-old Egyptian girl undergoing female genital mutilation (FGM) without benefit of infection control measures or anesthesia at the hands of a local barber. After presenting a brief description of FGM, its various justifications, and its impacts on its victims, the official Egyptian policy is described as ambiguous, and the broadcast is shown to have caused influential religious leaders and medical personnel to defend FGM and, thus, led to postponement of a bill to outlaw FGM. The next section of the essay shows that Egypt's response to FGM reflects the international debate on all forms of violence against women emerging from and reinforcing the social relationships that give men power over women. These forms of violence include domestic violence in almost all societies; the dowry-related, bride-burning homicides that claim 5000-12,000 lives each year in India; son preference that leads to abortion of female fetuses and female infanticide; and crimes such as rape, sexual abuse, and forced prostitution. The essay continues with a look at the costs of violence hidden in the damage to women that increases health care costs substantially and reduces economic productivity. Violence towards women, which occurs throughout the world and can prevent women from participating in public life or from controlling their fertility, is a male tool to inhibit women from gaining autonomy outside the home. The essay concludes that victims of violence are beginning to break the silence that surrounded these deeds and are seeking legislative protection. Laws may not result in real-life changes, but the movement to eliminate FGM may prove to be the first success in women's efforts to achieve human rights. An example is the important precedent being set in the US by a woman seeking asylum to avoid facing an arranged marriage and FGM in her native Togo.

  16. Animal violence demystified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Natarajan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/ biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent’s body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent. Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. To begin with, we address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely 1. Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. 2. Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent’s submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. 3. Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. 4. Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding 5. Low pre-frontal serotonin (5-HT levels upon repeated aggression. 6. Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL mice suggesting a qualitative

  17. Horizontal violence in Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsimoulaki Evangelia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One’s effort to clarify the definition of horizontal labour violence is of great importance, due to the variety of definitions that are mentioned in the worldwide scientific literature. Furthermore, the reference of multiple forms of such violence herein the nurse professional group is challenging, as well. Another fact of great importance is that, any form of professional violence (horizontal violence, horizontal mobbing in the work place environment can be possibly escalated and include even physical abuse (Bullying, besides the psychological and emotional impact for the victim. The definitions of Horizontal violence, Mobbing and Bullying, include a repeated negative behaviour emanating from at least one “predator” towards at least one “victim”, with work status differences and the existence or lack of physical abuse (Bullying. Horizontal violence is a hostile, aggressive and harmful behaviour which is either overt or concealed and is pointed from an individual to another individual of the same working rank and causes intense emotional pain at the victim. The manifestations vary from humiliating tasks assignment or the victim’s efforts undermining to clearly aggressive behaviors (criticism, intimidation, sarcasm etc.. The reason behind this phenomenon is multifactorial extended not only towards the working environment but also to the personal characteristics of the “predator” as well as the possible “victim”. The researchers emphasize the high incidence of the phenomenon, as well as the cost that is induced by the violent behaviors to both the health professionals and the hospital. Finally, they point out the paradox of the presence of violence inside a system that is designed to promote health.

  18. Know Your Rights: Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... YOUR RIGHTS Domestic Violence CONOZCA SUS DERECHOS La violencia doméstica For immediate help call National Domestic Violence ... must specifically request custody and visitation restrictions or “no contact” orders. You must call the police every ...

  19. Alcohol Use and Firearm Violence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Branas, Charles C; Han, SeungHoon; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Although the misuse of firearms is necessary to the occurrence of firearm violence, there are other contributing factors beyond simply firearms themselves that might also be modified to prevent firearm violence...

  20. Sexual violence in the media

    OpenAIRE

    Judith Matloff

    2007-01-01

    Reporting on sexual violence is a challenge even for seasoned war journalists. How should correspondents, news editors and producers report the impact of sexual violence on individuals and communities without causing further distress or danger?

  1. Sexual violence in the media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Matloff

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Reporting on sexual violence is a challenge even for seasoned war journalists. How should correspondents, news editors and producers report the impact of sexual violence on individuals and communities without causing further distress or danger?

  2. Violence as a Vicious Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Gulec

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the conclusion that the violence as a behavior is not (cannot be determined within an absolute genetic determinism has been reached for long years, environmental factors are increasingly examined. We witness that human behavior in society can easily convert into coping with stressful events with violence. Individual or social violence as a behavior has a similar pattern with violence committed in primitive society and by children. After a brief review of violence, its description, etiological theories and types, this article majorly focuses on children and their early and late response to violence. The purpose here is to draw attention to the individuals who were previously exposed to violence (either directly or indirectly resort to violence, perpetuating a vicious cycle.

  3. Children, Youth, and Gun Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This collection of articles summarizes knowledge and research about how gun violence affects children and youth and discusses which policies hold promise for reducing youth gun violence. The papers are: (1) "Statement of Purpose" (Richard E. Behrman); "Children, Youth, and Gun Violence: Analysis and Recommendations" (Kathleen…

  4. Democracy, globalization and ethnic violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, D.J.; Jong-A-Pin, R.

    Bezemer, Dirk, and Jong-A-Pin, Richard Democracy, globalization and ethnic violence Do democratization and globalization processes combine to increase the incidence of violence in developing and emerging economies? The present paper examines this hypothesis by a study of internal violence in

  5. Understanding sexual violence as a form of caste violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Patil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to understand narratives of sexual violence anchored within the dynamics of social location of caste and gender. Apparent caste-patriarchy and gender hierarchies which are at play in cases of sexual violence against lower-caste and dalit women speak about differential experiences of rape and sexual abuse that women have in India. The paper endeavours to establish that sexual violence is also a form of caste violence by rereading the unfortunate cases of Bhanwari Devi, Khairlanji, Lalasa Devi and Delta Meghwal Keywords: caste-patriarchy, Dalit women, POA Act, rape, sexual violence

  6. The Semantics of "Violence"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    counterparts in many (most) languages, and thatPinker’s claims are Anglocentric in nature. My papir studies the intricate details of vaeolens, as a new word that has attracted a number ofother English-based phraseologies such as vaeolens againsem woman ‘violence against women’,and vaeolens againsem pikinini...... ‘violence against children’. Semantic explications of “violence/vaeolens”, kilim and faetem will be provided and based on these explications, two different culturalmodels will be articulated, based on two radically different ways of co-conceptualizing the humanbody, personhood, sociality, and power......This paper presents a semantic analysis of “violence” – a word around which Anglo-internationaldiscourses revolve. Many ethnolinguistic communities around the world are currently adapting thisEnglish lexical concept into their linguistic systems, and, presumably also, the view of the worldembodied...

  7. Violence in society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Pedro de Andrade Dores

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent interest in the sociology of violence has arisen at the same time that western societies are being urged to consider the profound social crisis provoked by global financial turmoil. Social changes demand the evo- lution of sociological practices. The analysis herein proposed, based on the studies of M. Wieviorka, La Violence (2005, and of R. Collins, Violence: A Micro-sociological Theory (2008, concludes that violence is subject to sociological treatments cen- tered on the aggressors, on the struggles for power and on male gender. There is a lack of connection between prac- tical proposals for violence prevention and the sociol- ogy of violence. It is accepted that violence as a subject of study has the potential, as well as the theoretical and social centrality, to promote the debate necessary to bring social theory up to date. This process is more likely to oc- cur in periods of social transformation, when sociology is open to considering subjects that are still taboo in its study of violence, such as the female gender and the state. The rise of the sociology of violence confronts us with a dilemma. We can either collaborate with the construc- tion of a sub discipline that reproduces the limitations and taboos of current social theory, or we can use the fact that violence has become a “hot topic” as an opportunity to open sociology to themes that are taboo in social the- ory (such as the vital and harmonious character of the biological aspects of social mechanisms or the normative aspects of social settings. ResumenEl interés reciente en la sociología de la violencia ha surgido al mismo tiempo que las sociedades occidenta- les están requiriendo considerar la profunda crisis social provocada por la agitación financiera global. Los cambios sociales demandan la evolución de las prácticas socioló- gicas. El análisis aquí expuesto, basado en los estudios de M. Wieviorka, La Violence (2005, and of R. Collins

  8. Problems and perspectives of domestic violence prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Kasperskis, Darius

    2009-01-01

    This paper will analyze the domestic violence prevention problems and perspectives. The goal of this work is to discuss the main domestic violence characteristics, analyze Lithuanian and international prevention means and offer suggestions to improve Lithuanian domestic violence prevention. This work consentrates on mens violence over women. The conseption of violence is analyzed – the general violence features in criminology and law literature are discussed, the main domestic violence forms ...

  9. Violence in childhood, attitudes about partner violence, and partner violence perpetration among men in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yount, K.M.; Huyen, T.P.; Tran, H.M.; Krause, K.H.; Schuler, S.R.; Hoang, T.A.; VanderEnde, K.; Kramer, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We assess the association of men’s exposure to violence in childhood—witnessing physical violence against one’s mother and being hit or beaten by a parent or adult relative—with their attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. We explore whether men’s perpetration of IPV

  10. Stand together against violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Most gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, or HIV-positive individuals have been subjected to hatred or violence. The New York City Gay & Lesbian Anti-Violence Project (AVP) urges all who are victimized to report the crime. AVP documented a 14 percent increase in hate crimes in New York last year. The severity and intensity of the assaults are increasing, and the most common weapon used in these crimes is a bat or a club. AVP is working with police departments to sensitize them to instances of homophobia. Phone numbers for confidential or anonymous support for people who have been victimized are provided.

  11. Rethinking Gun Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Mark; Litman, Harry

    2010-01-01

    This working paper develops the argument of "Gun Violence and Gun Control" (also posted on SSRN), a short piece commissioned by the London Review of Books. We decided not to publish either paper, in part because we felt there were empirical issues that we were not in a position to assess. We welcome comments on either paper. In this Article, we propose a new way of approaching the problem of gun violence, synthesizing features of a number of successful initiatives. We begin, in Pa...

  12. Taking out violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loafmann, B

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of how consequences impact your company from inside or outside will enable you to prevent the situations that can build up until they explode into violence. Specific skill enhancement on the use of feedback and consequences will broaden the base of involvement and foster early intervention opportunities before things get out of control. Understanding how consequences influence behavior also can improve self-management efforts. When these strategies are coupled with security hardware and appropriate policies, we can once again help our managers and employees work without fear of violence.

  13. Prescription drugs associated with reports of violence towards others.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Moore

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Violence towards others is a seldom-studied adverse drug event and an atypical one because the risk of injury extends to others. OBJECTIVE: To identify the primary suspects in adverse drug event reports describing thoughts or acts of violence towards others, and assess the strength of the association. METHODOLOGY: From the Food and Drug Administration (FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS data, we extracted all serious adverse event reports for drugs with 200 or more cases received from 2004 through September 2009. We identified any case report indicating homicide, homicidal ideation, physical assault, physical abuse or violence related symptoms. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Disproportionality in reporting was defined as a 5 or more violence case reports, b at least twice the number of reports expected given the volume of overall reports for that drug, c a χ2 statistic indicating the violence cases were unlikely to have occurred by chance (p<0.01. RESULTS: We identified 1527 cases of violence disproportionally reported for 31 drugs. Primary suspect drugs included varenicline (an aid to smoking cessation, 11 antidepressants, 6 sedative/hypnotics and 3 drugs for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The evidence of an association was weaker and mixed for antipsychotic drugs and absent for all but 1 anticonvulsant/mood stabilizer. Two or fewer violence cases were reported for 435/484 (84.7% of all evaluable drugs suggesting that an association with this adverse event is unlikely for these drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Acts of violence towards others are a genuine and serious adverse drug event associated with a relatively small group of drugs. Varenicline, which increases the availability of dopamine, and antidepressants with serotonergic effects were the most strongly and consistently implicated drugs. Prospective studies to evaluate systematically this side effect are needed to establish the incidence, confirm differences among drugs and

  14. Sensation Seeking in Street Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    Sensation seeking leads to violence—runs an influential hypothesis in the social scientific study of violent behavior. Although studies confirm that violence is sometimes structured by sensation-seeking motives, the literature seldom comments on the limits to this explanation of violence....... The present study examines the scale of violence motivated by sensation seeking and the degree to which there are several distinct forms of sensation seeking motives operative in violence, rather than a sensation-seeking motive in the singular. The study draws on a sample of situations from Copenhagen...... involving street violence, which are coded quantitatively and qualitatively. Our analysis shows that sensation seeking only seldom seems to play a role in the structuring of street violence. Moreover, the data indicate that sensation seeking finds expression in street violence situations in two different...

  15. Violence and Asthma: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Fujiwara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows that exposure to community violence is, directly and indirectly, associated with asthma. This article reviews the findings on the impact of violence on asthma, and the pathways for the association of violence and asthma are suggested: 1 exposure to violence is directly associated with asthma, mainly through dysregulation of sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, 2 exposure to violence is associated with the change of susceptibility of outdoor air pollution on asthma, probably through the change of an immune response, and 3 behavioral change due to exposure to violence (e.g. keeping children indoors leads to more exposure to indoor pollutants. The suggested framework may be useful to develop health policy on asthma in high-violence communities.

  16. The Prevalence of Violence Against Iranian Women and Its Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Abbasi, Nahid Hossein; Mehrdad, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Domestic violence against women is a public health problem with negative consequences, and it is an intractable and widespread problem. This type of violence affects the stability of the family. Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of any violence against women referring to health centers and explore the associated risk factors with violence in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly chosen samples of 368 married women aged between 15-55 years in 2013. The samples were divided to two groups, with abused experience and without abused experience. The data were amassed by questionnaire form. Results: The prevalence of violence against women was found to be around 63.8%, among them 58.8% were emotional abuse. The majority of women (84%) had never gone to a counseling center. Findings show 47% of women were silent, 27% got in a fight, 7% screamed, 6% abused their children, and 5% threw things when occurred violence against them. Experience of violence in women correlated with the marriage age of woman, numbers of children, and difference of marriage age between couple, marriage age of men, employed women, uneducated women and the rate of drugs use in their husbands. Conclusions: Nurses and other health care providers can and should play a major role in empowering women living with violence and promote education, social policies and attitudes that proactively prevent violence. PMID:25948434

  17. Intimate partner violence (IPV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Van, Toan Ngo; Nguyen, Hanh Thi Thuy

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global problem that affects one-third of all women. The present study aims to develop and determine the validity of a screening instrument for the detection of IPV in pregnant women in Tanzania and Vietnam and to determine the minimum number...

  18. Violence and Community Capabilities:

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    nature and causes of violence in the five communities and its effects on the everyday lives of residents. We then ... people globally, yet the region accounts for roughly seven of every 165 homicides. (UNODC, 2013). ... and forced recruitment of youth are additional gang-driven phenomena that gener- ate widespread and ...

  19. Islam and Political Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Esposito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The global threat of Al Qaeda post 9/11 and ISIL, increased Sunni-Shia conflicts, and violence in the Middle East and Pakistan dominate headlines and challenge governments in the region and globally. Both Muslim extremists and some Western experts and observers speak of a clash of civilizations or a culture war in Muslim-West relations. Both the discourse and violence yet again raise questions about the relationship of Islam to violence and terrorism: is Islam a particularly violent religion? Critics cite Quranic passages, doctrines like jihad and events in Muslim history as strong indicators and proof that Islam is the primary driver of Muslim extremism and terrorism. What do the Quran and Islamic law have to say about violence, jihad and warfare? What are the primary drivers of terrorism in the name of Islam today? This article will address these questions in the context of development of global jihadist movements, in particular Al Qaeda and ISIL, their roots, causes, ideology and agenda.

  20. Violence in Children's Cartoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Sue

    A British 12-year-old boy died while imitating the heroic leaps of the cartoon character Batman. Tragic incidents stemming from cartoon imitation such as this one occur with alarming frequency. Still, many people choose to ignore violence in children's cartoons. Even some experts don't recognize that cartoons may be harmful. Researcher Wilbur…

  1. Confronting Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Raymond J.; Heller, Daniel A.; Binet, Tracy

    1997-01-01

    To be safe havens for children, schools cannot address the intellect only. Brattleboro (Vermont) Union High School went beyond academics by sponsoring a performance of "The Yellow Dress," a powerful one-woman play about a teenage victim of dating violence. The production challenged participants to unite school and community, intellect…

  2. Sexual violence in Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lisanne; Thurman, Tonya; Bloem, Jeanette; Kendall, Carl

    2006-12-01

    The magnitude and characteristics of sexual violence in two urban areas of Lesotho are described based on a random household survey of 939 sexually active women aged 18-35. Sexual violence is defined as nonconsensual sex ranging from the use of threats and intimidation to unwanted touching and forced sex. Twenty-five percent of women surveyed reported ever being physically forced to have sex; 13 percent reported that forced sex was attempted; 31 percent said that they were touched against their will; and 11 percent reported being forced to touch a man's genitals. Boyfriends were the most common perpetrators of actual and attempted forced sex (66 percent and 44 percent, respectively); known community members were the most common perpetrators of touching the respondent against her will (52 percent). Currently married women and those with more education were less likely than others to report that sex was forced upon them by an intimate partner or by another type of perpetrator. Women living in areas where a program raising awareness about sexual violence was ongoing were more likely to report a history of sexual violence. Given the high prevalence of HIV in Lesotho, programs should address women's right to control their sexuality.

  3. Violence, xenophobia and crime

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    criminals.'5 This attempt to distinguish between. 'xenophobia' and 'crime' is characteristic of multiple statements that the minister and others have made on the issue. These statements were made in the context of prominent domestic and international media coverage of threats of xenophobic violence, predicted to start soon ...

  4. The Semantics of "Violence"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    counterparts in many (most) languages, and thatPinker’s claims are Anglocentric in nature. My papir studies the intricate details of vaeolens, as a new word that has attracted a number ofother English-based phraseologies such as vaeolens againsem woman ‘violence against women’,and vaeolens againsem pikinini...

  5. Framing Youth Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, John; Dorfman, Lori

    Have quality newspapers incorporated what scholars have learned over the last quarter century about making news more useful as a resource for civic participation? A year-long analysis of reporting about youth violence in three California newspapers provides a schizophrenic conclusion: After the Columbine massacre, newspapers provided rich context,…

  6. Preventing Youth Violence: Opportunities for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Simon, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    All forms of violence, including youth violence, suicidal behavior, child maltreatment, sexual violence, intimate partner violence, and elder abuse, negatively affect the health and well-being of this country. Youth violence, in particular, is a significant public health problem. Many young people and communities view the grim facts about youth…

  7. Dating Violence among High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Libby

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed students (n=631) from rural, suburban, and inner-city high schools regarding sexual, physical, and verbal dating violence. Proportion of females reporting sexual violence was 15.5%; proportion reporting physical violence was same. Proportion of males reporting violence was lower. Significant correlates of violence included dating…

  8. Violence, Interpersonal Trust and Gullibility in HIV Risk in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study surveyed forms of violence prevalent in Africa that can make people vulnerable to HIV infection. The forms of violence discussed in this paper are: political violence, intimate partner violence, violence against minority groups, domestic violence, violence against orphaned and vulnerable children, and violence ...

  9. Violence on canadian television networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Guy

    2004-02-01

    Over the past twenty years, the question of the effects of violence on television has figured prominently in public opinion and hundreds of studies have been devoted to this subject. Many researchers have determined that violence has a negative impact on behavior. The public, broadcasters and political figures all support the idea of reducing the total amount of violence on television - in particular in shows for children. A thousand programs aired between 1993 and 2001 on major non-specialty television networks in Canada were analyzed: TVA, TQS, as well as CTV and Global, private French and English networks, as well as the English CBC Radio and French Radio-Canada for the public networks. The methodology consists of a classic analysis of content where an act of violence constitutes a unit of analysis. The data collected revealed that the amount of violence has increased regularly since 1993 despite the stated willingness on the part of broadcasters to produce programs with less violence. The total number of violent acts, as well as the number of violent acts per hour, is increasing. Private networks deliver three times more violence than public networks. Researchers have also noted that a high proportion of violence occurs in programs airing before 21:00 hours, thereby exposing a large number of children to this violence. Psychological violence is taking on a more significant role in Canadian Television.

  10. Violence in the Street, Violence of the Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    While in his early and general theory of interaction rituals Randall Collins emphasised that social situations are both ’symbolic’ and ’material’, the latter dimension is largely absent from Collins’ theory of violence(Collins 2004; 1993: 214). Compared with criminology’s more recent situational...... studies of violence, it is noticeable that the analytical success of these studies is closely linked with understanding street violence as a spatial-situational phenomenon (Clarke 1997; Eck & Weisburd 1995; Bragand & Weisburd; 2010; Wikström et al. 2012; Sampson et al. 1997). In light of evidence...... for the spatial concentration of street violence, this paper takes its point of departure in a large study of Street Violence among youth in Copenhagen, Denmark (combining quantitative data from filed police reports (N = 501), data from CCTV (N=100) and qualitative analysis of selected cases of street violence...

  11. Community interventions concerning homophobic violence and partner violence against lesbians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Suzanna M

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY Homophobic violence and same-sex domestic violence against lesbians are described in this paper based on survey research and hotline calls conducted by a community anti-violence project. A community survey of 229 lesbians indicated that during a one-year period, about fifteen percent had been the target of homophobic violence and twelve percent had been the victim of same-sex partner violence. Violence was defined as including assault with a weapon, physical assault, sexual assault, stalking, and property destruction. The prevalence study was contrasted with actual hotline calls from lesbians during a five-year period. Examples illustrate how interventions based on these findings were used to influence police response, victim services, and legislation.

  12. Depression, alcohol use, and intimate partner violence among outpatients in rural Uganda: vulnerabilities for HIV, STIs and high risk sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, Susan M; Lule, Haruna; Sileo, Katelyn M; Silmi, Kazi Priyanka; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2017-01-19

    Intimate partner violence (IPV), alcohol use, and depression are key vulnerabilities for HIV in Uganda, and taken together may have a synergistic effect on risk. Our objective was to investigate the associations between depression, IPV, and alcohol use and HIV-risk indicators among a sample of outpatients in rural Uganda, and the effect of co-occurrence of these factors on HIV-risk indicators. In a structured interview we collected data on high-risk sexual behavior, depression symptoms, emotional and physical IPV, and alcohol use, as well as a blood sample for HIV and syphilis tests and a urine sample for chlamydia and gonorrhea tests from 325 male and female outpatients receiving provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) at a public hospital outpatient clinic in rural Uganda. We used logistic regression and generalized linear modeling to test independent associations between depression, IPV, and alcohol use and HIV-risk indicators, as well as the effect of co-occurrence on HIV-risk indicators. Twelve percent of men and 15% of women had two or more of the following conditions: depression, IPV, and alcohol use; another 29% of men and 33% of women had 1 condition. Each condition was independently associated with HIV risk behavior for men and women, and for women, depression was associated with testing positive for HIV or a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Men with one condition (AOR 2.32, 95% CI 1.95-2.77) and two or more conditions (AOR 12.77, 95% CI 7.97-20.47) reported more high risk sex acts compared to those with no potential co-occurring conditions. For men, experiencing two or more conditions increased risky sex more than one alone (χ 2 24.68, p Women experiencing one condition (AOR 3.33, 95% CI 137-8.08) and two co-occurring conditions (AOR 5.87, 95% CI 1.99-17.35) were more likely to test positive for HIV or an STI and women with two co-occurring conditions were also at increased risk for risky sex (AOR 2.18, 95% CI 1.64-2.91). We also

  13. VIOLENCE DRESSED IN HUMOR: COMEDIC VIOLENCE IN ADVERTISING

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia Gradinaru

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the concepts of humor and violence and their complex relationships contextualised in the advertising domain. Thus, the main theories of humor and the most important elements from media violence paradigms are critically pointed out. The effects of comedic violence in advertising may be positive (great involvement with the ad message, retention of brand information, higher pass-along probability), and also negative (offending the audience, desensitization, damaging the r...

  14. Gaming Against Violence: A Grassroots Approach to Teen Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crecente, Drew

    2014-08-01

    Teen dating violence is a pervasive problem that affects millions of adolescents worldwide. Although there have been various approaches to addressing this problem, using videogames had not been employed before 2008, when Jennifer Ann's Group, an Atlanta, GA-based nonprofit organization, created an annual competition. The Life.Love. Game Design Challenge rewards game developers for creating videogames about teen dating violence without using any violence in the games themselves. The resulting videogames have increased awareness about teen dating violence and provided educational information to assist adolescents, parents, and teachers in identifying abusive relationships.

  15. Exploring Variations Within Situational Couple Violence and Comparisons With Coercive Controlling Violence and No Violence/No Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Samantha K; Hardesty, Jennifer L; Raffaelli, Marcela

    2016-02-01

    We examined variations within situational couple violence among 23 divorcing mothers and compared them with mothers with coercive controlling violence and no violence/no control. Situational couple violence had great variability in frequency and severity of violence, fear, harassment, and protective strategies. In some cases, situational couple violence was frequent and severe and resembled coercive controlling violence in its consequences. The dynamics of fear and harassment in situational couple violence and in the divorce process in general warrant attention. Finally, mothers reported mental health symptoms that did not differ by group, which is likely due to the stresses of divorce. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Obstetricians and violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Sonya

    2011-12-01

    I argue that the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), as an organization and through its individual members, can and should be a far greater ally in the prevention of violence against women. Specifically, I argue that we need to pay attention to obstetrical practices that inadvertently contribute to the problem of violence against women. While intimate partner violence is a complex phenomenon, I focus on the coercive control of women and adherence to oppressive gender norms. Using physician response to alcohol use during pregnancy and court-ordered medical treatment as examples, I show how some obstetrical practices mirror the attitudes of abusive men insofar as they try to coercively control women's behavior through manipulation and violence. To be greater allies in the prevention of violence against women, obstetricians should stop participating in practices that inadvertently perpetuate violence against women.

  17. Sociology of gender violence in Spain. A proposed analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mercedes Alcañiz

    2015-01-01

    Johan Galtung coined the concept of «triangle of violence» to explain the dynamics of the generation of violence in social conflicts. According to this author, violence is like an iceberg in which the visible violence (or direct violence) is only a part of the conflict, with other more invisible types of violence such as structural violence and cultural violence. Understanding violence, in this case against women, means taking into account the three types of violence. Likewise, in the feminis...

  18. The Perception of Violence of Children

    OpenAIRE

    Havelková, Šárka

    2013-01-01

    1. ABSTRACT  Key words: violence, conflict, aggression, cruelty, abuse, neglect, bullying, the perpetrator, the victim, children, adults, seniors, self-harm, suicid, media In this thesis I would like to focus on how children define violence, what violence includes, how to represent both the offender and victim, what is the difference in the perception of violence against various age groups and how to prevent possible violence. The theoretical part is firstly devoted to the notion of violence...

  19. Children's experiences of domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Callaghan, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the key findings of a two year project focused on children's experiences of domestic violence. It draws on 107 interviews with children in Greece, Italy, Spain and the UK. The paper explores children's capacity to articulate their experiences, and highlights that they are not 'witnesses' to intimate partner violence, but experience it directly and make meaning of it, as members of a family affected by violence. I argue that children need to be recognised as direct victims...

  20. [Domestic violence: any progress?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrion, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Since the publication of the French national survey of violence against women in 2000, the fight against domestic violence has made steady progress. Knowledge of the phenomenon has significantly improved. A nationwide study of murders and manslaughters perpetrated by one partner of a couple against the other has been published annually since 2006. In 2012, domestic violence resulted in the deaths of 314 persons: 166 women, 31 men, 25 children, 9 collateral victims, 14 rivals, and two former spouses killed by their ex-fathers in law. In addition, 67 perpetrators committed suicide (51 men and3 women). The number of victims fluctuates from year to year but has remained fairly stable since 2006 (n=168). Legislation has improved significantly: eight new laws have been passed since 2004, all designed to protect women and to ensure that violent men are restrained and treated. New measures to inform and protect women have been implemented and others have been improved, such as the anonymous helpline (phone no 3919, "domestic violence information"). An inter-ministerial committee on the protection of women from violence and the prevention of human trafficking (MIPROF) was created on 3 January 2013. A website entitled "Stop violence against women " (Stop violences faites aux femmes) is now available. The "Imminent Danger" mobile phone system, designed to alert police if a suspected or known perpetrator breaches restraint conditions, will be extended to the entire country from January 2014. Referees charged with coordinating comprehensive long-tern care of women victims have been deployed at the county level. Information centers on the rights of women and families (CIDFF) now form a local nationwide network. Routine interviews with a midwife during the fourth month of pregnancy, focusing on the woman's emotional, economic and social conditions, have been implemented in 21 % of maternity units and should gradually be generalized. The authorities who have enforced the law have

  1. Alcohol, aggression, and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Škrila

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between alcohol and aggression has long been recognized, but the systematic research to understand the causal basis for this relationship and the processes that underlie it has only been undertaken in the past 25 years. In the article the most important mechanisms, by which alcohol affects behavior, are explained. Aggression in persons with alcohol dependence and the connection between antisocial (dissocial personality disorder, alcohol and aggression are described. In addition different forms of aggression or violence, that have been committed under the influence of alcohol, such as inter-partner violence, sexual assault, child abuse, crime and traffic accidents are described.Conclusions: The research findings can be used in the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related aggression.

  2. Pervasive media violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooler, C; Flora, J A

    1996-01-01

    In this review, we focus our discussion on studies examining effects on children and young adults. We believe that the current epidemic of youth violence in the United States justifies a focus on this vulnerable segment of society. We consider media effects on individual children's behaviors, such as imitating aggressive acts. In addition, we examine how the media influence young people's perceptions of norms regarding interpersonal relationships. Next, we assess mass media effects on societal beliefs, or what children and adolescents think the "real world" is like. We suggest these media influences are cumulative and mutually reinforcing, and discuss the implications of repeated exposure to prominent and prevalent violent media messages. Finally, we catalog multiple intervention possibilities ranging from education to regulation. From a public health perspective, therefore, we evaluate the effects that pervasive media messages depicting violence have on young people and present multiple strategies to promote more healthful outcomes.

  3. Investigating gender violence in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiring, Fred

    2014-01-01

    As Jamaica moves through implementation of their National Policy on Gender Equality and develops harassment legislation, this article attempts to investigate current levels and trends of gender-based violence in Jamaica. All analyses make use of existing data and data formats in developing performance indicators that illustrate the current state of gender violence in Jamaica. The analyses provide a baseline for the future assessment and comparison with internationally accepted gender-based violence indicators. All source data has been included to facilitate comparisons and discussions regarding related levels and trends of violence as well as addressing performance indicator effectiveness.

  4. Children's exposure to community violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenema, T G

    2001-01-01

    To analyze the effects of exposure to chronic community violence on children and adolescents. An integrative review of the literature was conducted on reports of studies about children's exposure to community violence. Studies for analysis were identified through a literature search of relevant topics in Medline, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. Exposure to community violence is related to significant stress and depression in children. Evidence on how exposure to violence affects children's growth patterns, intellectual growth, school performance, decision-making ability, or their hope for a future is needed.

  5. [Forensic assessment of violence risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol Robinat, Amadeo; Mohíno Justes, Susana; Gómez-Durán, Esperanza L

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 20 years there have been steps forward in the field of scientific research on prediction and handling different violent behaviors. In this work we go over the classic concept of "criminal dangerousness" and the more current of "violence risk assessment". We analyze the evolution of such assessment from the practice of non-structured clinical expert opinion to current actuarial methods and structured clinical expert opinion. Next we approach the problem of assessing physical violence risk analyzing the HCR-20 (Assessing Risk for Violence) and we also review the classic and complex subject of the relation between mental disease and violence. One of the most problematic types of violence, difficult to assess and predict, is sexual violence. We study the different actuarial and sexual violence risk prediction instruments and in the end we advise an integral approach to the problem. We also go through partner violence risk assessment, describing the most frequently used scales, especially SARA (Spouse Assault Risk Assessment) and EPV-R. Finally we give practical advice on risk assessment, emphasizing the importance of having maximum information about the case, carrying out a clinical examination, psychopathologic exploration and the application of one of the described risk assessment scales. We'll have to express an opinion about the dangerousness/risk of future violence from the subject and some recommendations on the conduct to follow and the most advisable treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. SCHOOL VIOLENCE: A COMPLEX PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rosario Ayala-Carrillo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available School violence is one type of violence that reflects the breakdown of current society. It is impossible to speak of school violence as an isolated phenomenon without establishing nexuses between public and private life, between collective and individual behaviors, between family and community aspects, without making reference to differences in gender and the life stories of those who are the aggressors or the victims, and without considering the patriarchal culture and interpersonal relationships. When all these factor are interrelated, they make the problem of violence a very complex one that requires us to know the different factors in order to understand it and deal with it.

  7. Masculinity, War and Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    Addressing the relationship between masculinity, war and violence, the book covers these themes broadly and across disciplines. The ten contributions encompass four recurring themes: violent masculinities and how contemporary societies and regimes cope with them; popular written and visual fiction...... about war and masculine rationalties; gender relations in social movements of rebellion and national transformation; and masculinity in civil society under conditions of war and post-war....

  8. Honour, Violence and Heteronormativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Asquith

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Popular representations of Honour Based Violence (HBV and honour killings construct this violence as an artefact of an uncivilised code of morality. Here ird, sharaf or izzat and shame are adhered to particular moral codes that are more likely to be found in the Quran. This clichéd version of HBV frames Muslim women’s sexual autonomy as exceptionally regulated, most commonly by male family members with the complicity of female relatives. In its most extreme (and publicly known form, HBV is epitomised by the ‘honour’ killings that come to the attention of the criminal justice system and, as a consequence, the media. Yet emerging research shows that HBV unfolds through increasingly punitive systems of social punishment, which is neither unique to Islam, nor religious communities more generally. In this paper, it is argued that the construction of HBV as a matter of deviant and antiquated Muslim honour codes is Islamophobic and that a more productive lens through which to understand collective familial violence may lie in the conceptual framework of heteronormativity.

  9. Policing violence in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, E

    1999-03-01

    This article is an excerpted summary of a speech on female police and domestic violence. The speech was given by a woman affiliated with the Association of Women Workers at an Oxfam workshop in northern Brazil. This organization successfully lobbied for female police, which resulted in more reports of domestic violence, especially rape. The organization is active in 13 counties. Female police are trained and usually given respect by police chiefs. In one city, in 1997, the appointment of female police resulted in registered reports of 387 cases of violence and hospital reports of 503 cases, of which 14% were child rape. During January-April 1998, there were 126 registered cases and 168 hospital cases. Policewomen formed a partnership over the past 2 years with the Human Rights Group and other popular political groups to train female police about laws. The compulsory course focused on four areas: legal concepts, penalties, and procedures on registration of complaints; the Brazilian Penal Code; civil law; and world judicial bureaucracies. Training includes a 1 month internship with the program's lawyer. Over 20 women have completed the course to date. Training in some cases resulted in greater expertise among the female police than their Police Chiefs. Female police have experienced harassment by local authorities.

  10. Heavy Alcohol Use and Dating Violence Perpetration During Adolescence: Family, Peer and Neighborhood Violence as Moderators

    OpenAIRE

    McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating viol...

  11. Political Violence, Domestic Violence, and Children's Health: The Case of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Parlow, Anton

    2017-01-01

    I estimate the impact of political violence (i.e. terrorism) and domestic violence (i.e. intimate partner violence) on child health outcomes. Given that there is a strand of literature showing that armed conflicts, and thus, political violence, increase the likelihood of violence within a household, I test for this possible link as well as the combined effect of these two types of violence on children's height. I find a separate negative effect of both violence outcomes on children'...

  12. An Identity of Violence: Exploring the Origins of Political Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    accessed May 14, 2011) 44 However, economic measures of poverty , income inequality, and globalization fail to fully account for why Algeria’s...maximum 200 words) The United States Department of Defense and development agencies often attribute political violence and instability to poverty and a...SUBJECT TERMS Political Violence, Morocco, Algeria, Maghreb, Terrorism, Islamism, Poverty , Political Access, Relative Deprivation, Resource Curse 15

  13. Violence Breeds Violence: Childhood Exposure and Adolescent Conduct Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Chelsea M.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 88 primiparous adolescent mothers and their children. Regression analyses revealed that witnessing violence and victimization prior to age 10 predicted delinquency and violent behaviors, even after controlling for prenatal maternal and early childhood externalizing problems. Social competency and depression during middle childhood moderated the relationship between victimi...

  14. Violence Breeds Violence: Childhood Exposure and Adolescent Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Chelsea M.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 88 primiparous adolescent mothers and their children. Regression analyses revealed that witnessing violence and victimization prior to age 10 predicted delinquency and violent behaviors, even after controlling for prenatal…

  15. Understanding sexual and reproductive violence: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzelatto, J

    1998-12-01

    International agreements recognizing different forms of violence as violations of human rights and the definition provided by the 1993 UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women are taken as a starting point and its implications analyzed, emphasizing gender roles and stereotypes. Violence against women is related to violence in general, to the so-called culture of violence. Factors influencing a culture of violence are discussed, as well as the differences between public and private violence, emphasizing the need to understand their interaction to be effective in preventing violence against women. It is concluded that all violence stems from unbalanced exercise of power, creating injustice and lack of real democratic interaction. When left unchallenged such situations become part of the culture of individuals and societies, reinforcing the use of violence to solve conflicts. Hence, preventing violence against women requires cultural, social, economic, and political changes that are only possible by mobilizing society as a whole.

  16. Effects of intimate partner violence, PTSD, and alcohol use on cigarette smoking in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Julianne C; Hakes, Jahn K; McClure, Erin A; Snead, Alexandra L; Back, Sudie E

    2016-06-01

    Separate literatures indicate that intimate partner violence (IPV), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and alcohol use are independently associated with increased risk for cigarette smoking. No previous studies have examined the co-occurrence of these problems on smoking quantity and potential gender-specific relationships. This study will address this gap in the literature. Data from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were examined. Variables were assessed during the past year. Individuals (N = 25,604) who reported being married, dating, or involved in a romantic relationship were included. Among men, PTSD and alcohol use were associated with more cigarettes smoked per day. Among women, PTSD, alcohol use, and IPV victimization were associated with more cigarettes smoked per day. Women who experienced IPV victimization smoked approximately three additional cigarettes per day. IPV victimization, PTSD, and alcohol use were associated with cigarettes smoked among women, while IPV experiences were not associated with smoking risk among men. These findings represent an important contribution to the existing literature in that it elucidates the compounding relationship between a common and complex comorbidity and cigarette smoking. Findings indicate a critical need to implement routine smoking screening and intervention in venues where intimate partner violence is commonly encountered, such as advocacy and substance use treatment settings. (Am J Addict 2016;25:283-290). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  17. Cutting the Roots of Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziey, Paul W.

    1996-01-01

    Violence is rooted in obedience to authority and in comparisons--foundations of our institutions of parenting and schooling. Obedience brings reward and punishment, comparison perpetuates a cycle of competition and conflict. Television violence is especially harmful because children easily understand visual images. The Reality Research approach to…

  18. violence in South African society

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    My Smile: An exploration into the causes of youth violence in South Africa,4 and Youth Violence: Sources and Solutions in South Africa.5 It is also reflected in popular concerns about ..... experts, widely substantiated by global research and supported by international best practice, simply had no traction against popular ...

  19. Domestic Violence as Everyday Terrorism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Cunningham, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society.......Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society....

  20. Predicting and Controlling School Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, John Martin

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the extent to which violence can be accurately predicted, suggesting interventions, control, and remediation. The educator's role in reducing violence includes dealing with the school, parents, media, and community. Educators need conflict resolution skills for defusing aggression and establishing better relations. (SM)

  1. TV Violence: Myth and Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Mary A.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, with an average national television viewing time of more than seven hours daily, the prevalence of violence in broadcasts is a serious concern. Summarizes research on the effects of television violence on children. Includes eight suggested student activities to develop critical media skills. (CFR)

  2. Dating Violence among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconis, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Dating violence is a significant problem on college campuses. More than one-fifth of the undergraduate dating population are physically abused by their dating partners and an even greater percentage are psychologically abused. Researchers have identified risk factors for college student dating violence. Preventive interventions are strongly…

  3. Partner violence and abortion characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarossi, Lisa; Dean, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective cohort study using randomly selected medical charts of women reporting a history of partner violence and women with no history of partner violence at the time of a family planning or abortion appointment (n = 6,564 per group). We analyzed lifetime history of partner violence for odds of lifetime history of abortion and miscarriage number, and birth control problems. To more closely match timing, we analyzed a subsample of 2,186 women reporting current violence versus not at the time of an abortion appointment for differences in gestational age, medical versus surgical method choice, and return for follow-up visit. After adjusting for years at risk and demographic characteristics, women with a past history of partner violence were not more likely to have ever had one abortion, but they were more likely to have had problems with birth control, repeat abortions, and miscarriages than women with no history of violence. Women with current partner violence were also more likely to be receiving an abortion at a later gestational age. We found no differences between the groups in return for abortion follow-up visit or choice of surgical versus medication abortion. Findings support screening for the influence of partner violence on reproductive health and related safety planning.

  4. Violence in Adolescent Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Platt, Cora; McDonald, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Beginning with a definition of dating and dating violence among adolescents, this article explores the factors which impact such violence. It concludes with a review of two school-based prevention/intervention programs (Safe Dates and The Youth Relationships Project). (Contains 1 table.)

  5. Media Violence and Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaks, Harold R.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the possibility of a connection between violence in the media and actual adolescent behavior. Explores the nature of the connection, why it exists, and possible courses of action to correct the problem. States that 3,000 studies have explored the link between media violence and adolescent behavior. Concludes that the media should show…

  6. Guns and Violence. Current Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Henny H., Ed.

    This book focuses on gun violence and gun control, presenting both sides of arguments about firearms ownership and gun control. Each of five chapters poses a question about gun control and provides answers for both sides of the question. The following essays are included: (1) "Gun Violence Is Becoming an Epidemic" (Bob Herbert); (2) "Gun Violence…

  7. VIOLENCE, INTIMIDATION AND PROTEST. DESEGREGATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEESON, JIM

    THIS ARTICLE IS A SHORT ANECDOTAL COLLECTION OF SCHOOL DESEGREGATION INCIDENTS WHERE VIOLENCE HAS BEEN EITHER PRESENT OR THREATENED. THE VIOLENCE HAS INCLUDED THE BEATING OF NEGRO CHILDREN, BOMBINGS AND SHOOTINGS, AND NUMEROUS TELEPHONE THREATS AND KU KLUX KLAN INTIMIDATIONS. NEGRO TEACHERS IN PREVIOUSLY WHITE SCHOOLS HAVE BEEN TARGETS OF VIOLENCE…

  8. Studies in Violence and Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Melvin S.; Polsky, Samuel

    The complete reports of the research efforts on the effects of televised violence on children sponsored by the American Broadcasting Company in the past five years are presented. Ten research projects on aggression and violence are described which examined primarily the effect of television on children who were emotionally disturbed, came from…

  9. The Dynamics of Violence and Homelessness among Young Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin James

    2008-01-01

    Violence is one of the most prevalent elements in the lives of homeless families with young children. This violence may come in various forms: domestic violence, street violence, violence in one's childhood, witnessing violence, and other avenues and modes. Violence disrupts the normal bonding between parent and child. It isolates and degrades…

  10. The Relationship between Violence in the Family of Origin and Dating Violence among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, Angela R.; Kaukinen, Catherine; Fox, Kathleen A.

    2008-01-01

    Prior research has established that violence in dating relationships is a serious social problem among adolescents and young adults. Exposure to violence during childhood has been linked to dating violence victimization and perpetration. Also known as the intergenerational transmission of violence, the link between violence during childhood and…

  11. 78 FR 64245 - AG Survey of Transitional Housing Assistance for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Survey of Transitional Housing Assistance for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Stalking, or... notice. The Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) will be submitting the... Transitional Housing Assistance Program Grant for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Stalking, or...

  12. Eastern Orthodox perspectives on violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton Saggau, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In the post-communist era, the contemporary national Eastern Orthodox churches have often been accused of taking either direct or ideological part in violence across Eastern Europe. In several scholarly analyses, the churches have been linked with ethnic and national violence. They have...... thus been identified as an ideological root for a distinctive ethno-religious nationalism either blocking the way for a pluralistic society or simply defying it. These cases of violence and conflicts, as well as their subsequent analysis, only point to a practical and visible manifestation of conflicts......, and they therefore don’t answer a broader theological question, namely the question of the general position of the Eastern Orthodox churches regarding violence. This article will address this broader question of what the Orthodox churches’ position is on violence and discuss the co-relation and intersection between...

  13. Media violence: advice for parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscari, Mary

    2002-01-01

    By the time they reach age 18, American children will have seen 16,000 simulated murders and 200,000 acts of violence (American Psychiatric Association, 1998). Media violence can be hazardous to children's health, and studies point overwhelmingly to a causal connection between media violence and aggressive attitudes, values and behaviors in some children (Congressional Public Health Summit, 2000). Through education in clinics, schools, and primary care offices, pediatric nurses can minimize the impact of media violence. They can obtain comprehensive media histories on children and families. They can teach children and parents about the effects of media violence and advise them how to avoid exposure. Nurses can also encourage the entertainment industry to exercise more responsibility in the ways they entertain children.

  14. Evaluating Common Hypotheses for Violence in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Rocha Gómez, “The Political Economy of Nicaragua’s Institutional and Organisational Framework for Dealing with Youth Violence,” Crisis States... Organisational Framework,” 5. 194 Stephen Johnson, Samuel Kareff, and Siremorn Asvapromtada, “Nicaragua: Lessons from a Country with a Low Crime...stability of the Nicaraguan police force. Nicaraguan government institutions have worked to foster consensus -seeking forums for policy coordination and

  15. Medicolegal characteristics of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antović Aleksandra R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Domestic violence is a phenomenon as old as the history of human civilization, present in all cultures, epochs and social systems. Despite the fact that domestic violence represents a dangerous and unacceptable social phenomenon, as well as a significant medical problem, there are still no precise data on the prevalence of this phenomenon in our country. This study aims to determine the elementary forensic characteristics of domestic violence that would represented the basis for future medical research in this field. Methods. A total of 4,593 records of forensic autopsy (n = 3,120 and clinical forensic medical examinations (n = 1,473 were analyzed in the 1996–2005 period in order to determine the cases of domestic violence. Results. The analysis encompassed 300 cases (6.5% of clinically examined (n = 211; 70.3% and autopsied (n = 89; 29.7% victims of domestic violence. A statistically significant increase in domestic violence cases (χ2 = 12.74; p = 0.00036 was determined in the observed period. The victims were mostly females (78%, with the mean age of 45.8 years (min = 0.3; max = 85; SD = 17.7, married (45%, with personal income (74.4%, and urban residence (66.3%. The majority of abusers were males (89.3%. Intimate partner violence was present in 58.3% of the cases. Physical abuse was the most common form of violence (97.7%, while sexual violence (2.3% and child abuse (4.3% were rarely recorded. Conclusion. The results of this research indicate that forensic medicine can be of great help in designing appropriate standards for conducting clinical medical examination, preventive programs, and strategies in fighting domestic violence.

  16. Can we compare violence data across countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundaram, Vanita; Curtis, Tine; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2004-01-01

    The paper aims to explore what knowledge can be obtained about violence through population-based data and additionally, through inter-country comparisons of violence data.......The paper aims to explore what knowledge can be obtained about violence through population-based data and additionally, through inter-country comparisons of violence data....

  17. TV Violence: What's All the Fuss About?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Dorothy G.; Singer, Jerome L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses problems posed by television violence; how behavioral and social scientists became interested in television violence and its effects on children; how psychologists study relationships between television violence and behavior; how television violence can be counteracted by television industry, parents, and educators; and results from the…

  18. Media Violence: The Search for Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoman, Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the influence of mass media depictions of violence on children and provides suggestions for media literacy education. Calls for reducing children's exposure to media violence; changing the impact of violent images; stressing alternatives to violence for resolving conflicts; challenging the social supports for media violence; and…

  19. What Can We Do about the Violence?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Margie

    1995-01-01

    Discusses incidents of violence in communities and describes the relationship between poverty, media violence, easy access to handguns, violence at home and on the streets, and neglect and abuse of children. Advocates living nonviolently and viewing the prevention of violence as a multifaceted task. (DR)

  20. Conflict, Power, and Violence in Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristin L.

    2010-01-01

    Research on conflict, power, and violence in families in the 2000s developed a promising focus on the interconnections between types of violence and between the experience of violence and locations in larger structures of power and inequality. I examine research on poly-victimization, typologies of violence, dyadic research, and links between…