WorldWideScience

Sample records for violence prevention programs

  1. Teen Dating Violence Prevention Program Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Quincy Arrianna Rose

    2013-01-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) has identified the prevention of and intervention in relationship violence as a top priority (APA, n.d.). According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's 2012 Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet, dating violence is a serious problem in the United States. In accordance with Foshee et al. (1998):…

  2. A review of the literature on dating violence prevention programs

    OpenAIRE

    蓮井, 江利香

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the previous studies on dating violence prevention programs. Recent researches on Japanese dating violence and the prevalence rates for Japanese dating violence were discussed before the review of literature on prevention programs for dating violence. The search strategy began with electronic databases such as Journals@Ovid, PsycARTICLES, and CiNii (Citation Information by NII,) etc. The review revealed that there were few studies on dating violence pre...

  3. Dating Violence Prevention Programming: Directions for Future Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Zucosky, Heather; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Cornelius, Tara L; Sage, Chelsea; Stuart, Gregory L

    2012-07-01

    Dating violence among college students is a widespread and destructive problem. The field of dating violence has seen a substantial rise in research over the past several years, which has improved our understanding of factors that increase risk for perpetration. Unfortunately, there has been less attention paid to dating violence prevention programming, and existing programs have been marred with methodological weaknesses and a lack of demonstrated effectiveness in reducing aggression. In hopes of sparking new research on dating violence prevention programs, the current review examines possible new avenues for dating violence prevention programming among college students. We discuss clinical interventions that have shown to be effective in reducing a number of problematic behaviors, including motivational interventions, dialectical behavior therapy, mindfulness, and bystander interventions, and how they could be applied to dating violence prevention. We also discuss methodological issues to consider when implementing dating violence prevention programs.

  4. The Efficacy of Sexual Violence Prevention Programs: Implications for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Jeannie

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decade researchers have begun to explore the prevalence, incidence, short and long term effects, and prevention of sexual violence. The purpose of this article was to provide a review of the literature related to the efficacy of sexual violence prevention programs. The review showed that there are many prevention programs yet few…

  5. Participation in Prevention Programs for Dating Violence: Beliefs about Relationship Violence and Intention to Participate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Tara L.; Sullivan, Kieran T.; Wyngarden, Nicole; Milliken, Jennifer C.

    2009-01-01

    This study utilizes the Health Belief Model (HBM) to examine the factors related to the intention to participate in prevention programming for dating violence. Perceptions of susceptibility to future violence and the benefits of prevention programming appear to be the strongest predictors of participation in prevention programs. Perceptions of the…

  6. Factors Related to Teenage Dating Violence Prevention Programming in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M.; Hawley, Alicia; Hoefer, Richard; Barnett, Tracey M.

    2017-01-01

    The Children's Safety Network has identified teenage dating violence (TDV) as a public health problem and called for effective prevention programs to address the issue. This study used resource dependence theory to examine factors that relate to domestic violence shelters' in-school efforts to prevent TDV. A national survey was sent to domestic…

  7. Dating Violence Prevention Programming: Directions for Future Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Zucosky, Heather; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Cornelius, Tara L.; Sage, Chelsea; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Dating violence among college students is a widespread and destructive problem. The field of dating violence has seen a substantial rise in research over the past several years, which has improved our understanding of factors that increase risk for perpetration. Unfortunately, there has been less attention paid to dating violence prevention programming, and existing programs have been marred with methodological weaknesses and a lack of demonstrated effectiveness in reducing aggression. In hop...

  8. Using a Domestic and Sexual Violence Prevention Advocate to Implement a Dating Violence Prevention Program with Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, M. C. D.; Stocking, M.; Freire, K.; Perkinson, L.; Ciaravino, S.; Miller, E.

    2016-01-01

    "Coaching Boys into Men" is an evidence-based dating violence prevention program for coaches to implement with male athletes. A common adaptation of this program is delivery by domestic violence and sexual violence prevention advocates instead of coaches. We explored how this implementer adaptation may influence athlete uptake of program…

  9. Strength at Home Couples Program to Prevent Military Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0374 TITLE: Strength at Home Couples Program to Prevent Military Partner Violence PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Casey T...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Strength at Home Couples Program to Prevent Military Partner Violence 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0374 5c. PROGRAM...Health 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC a. REPORT U b

  10. Measures and programs for preventing violence in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašić-Pavišić Slobodanka Ž.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In many countries across the world schools are no longer a safe place for both students and school staff. Violence in school is an issue scarcely studied in Serbia and there are few articles in domestic professional literature. At national and local level there are not developed strategies nor programs for preventing violence among students in our schools. There are no data about planned, systematic and organized prevention of violence in the practice of our schools. The data obtained by investigations indicate that it is necessary to apply adequate programs for preventing violence among students in our schools, despite the finding that violence in school is not that much conspicuous and serious problem like in other countries (USA Israel, Japan, Austria, Germany. On the basis of relevant literature review the present paper high­lights some very popular and less notorious measures and prevention programs applied in various countries. The aim of the paper is to transmit basic and essential pieces of information so as to gain insight into diverse existing approaches to prevention of violent behavior in school hopefully to encourage our schools to pay more attention to preventing violence in school as soon as possible before it is too late.

  11. Trauma Center Based Youth Violence Prevention Programs: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, Judy Nanette; Nemeth, Lynne Sheri

    2016-12-01

    Youth violence recidivism remains a significant public health crisis in the United States. Violence prevention is a requirement of all trauma centers, yet little is known about the effectiveness of these programs. Therefore, this systematic review summarizes the effectiveness of trauma center-based youth violence prevention programs. A systematic review of articles from MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO databases was performed to identify eligible control trials or observational studies. Included studies were from 1970 to 2013, describing and evaluating an intervention, were trauma center based, and targeted youth injured by violence (tertiary prevention). The social ecological model provided the guiding framework, and findings are summarized qualitatively. Ten studies met eligibility requirements. Case management and brief intervention were the primary strategies, and 90% of the studies showed some improvement in one or more outcome measures. These results held across both social ecological level and setting: both emergency department and inpatient unit settings. Brief intervention and case management are frequent and potentially effective trauma center-based violence prevention interventions. Case management initiated as an inpatient and continued beyond discharge was the most frequently used intervention and was associated with reduced rearrest or reinjury rates. Further research is needed, specifically longitudinal studies using experimental designs with high program fidelity incorporating uniform direct outcome measures. However, this review provides initial evidence that trauma centers can intervene with the highest of risk patients and break the youth violence recidivism cycle. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Strength at Home Couples Program to Prevent Military Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    occurring in military families and to develop skills to build resilience with respect to the impacts of trauma on relationships. 15. SUBJECT TERMS- 16...Couples Program to Prevent Military Partner Violence PT140092, Psychological Health/Traumatic Brain Injury Research Program W81XWH-14-PHTBI-PHRA PI

  13. A Quasi-Experimental Analysis of Schoolwide Violence Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Tia Navelene; Leite, Walter; Smith, Stephen W.

    2017-01-01

    Violence prevention programs are commonplace in today's schools, though reviews of the literature reveal mixed empirical findings on their effectiveness. Often, these programs include a variety of components such as social skills training, student mentoring, and activities designed to build a sense of school community that have not been tested for…

  14. Understanding small business engagement in workplace violence prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Rebecca A; Strazza, Karen; Nocera, Maryalice; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Casteel, Carri

    2015-01-01

    Worksite wellness, safety, and violence prevention programs have low penetration among small, independent businesses. This study examined barriers and strategies influencing small business participation in workplace violence prevention programs (WVPPs). A semistructured interview guide was used in 32 telephone interviews. The study took place at the University of North Carolina Injury Prevention Research Center. Participating were a purposive sample of 32 representatives of small business-serving organizations (e.g., business membership organizations, regulatory agencies, and economic development organizations) selected for their experience with small businesses. This study was designed to inform improved dissemination of Crime Free Business (CFB), a WVPP for small, independent retail businesses. Thematic qualitative data analysis was used to identify key barriers and strategies for promoting programs and services to small businesses. Three key factors that influence small business engagement emerged from the analysis: (1) small businesses' limited time and resources, (2) low salience of workplace violence, (3) influence of informal networks and source credibility. Identified strategies include designing low-cost and convenient programs, crafting effective messages, partnering with influential organizations and individuals, and conducting outreach through informal networks. Workplace violence prevention and public health practitioners may increase small business participation in programs by reducing time and resource demands, addressing small business concerns, enlisting support from influential individuals and groups, and emphasizing business benefits of participating in the program.

  15. Workplace violence against K-12 teachers: implementation of preventive programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Jill M; Gerding, Gail; Hong, OiSaeng

    2004-05-01

    Decreasing both workplace and school violence needs to be a priority of individuals, families, communities, and workplaces for the effort to be successful. Key factors associated with school and workplace violence such as parental influences, school staff and police involvement, peer pressure, student influences such as drug and alcohol abuse and a preoccupation with weapons, and the mass media have all been identified as possible factors associated with violence against teachers. In addition, individual student characteristics such as gender, socioeconomic status, and a history of prior violence may play a role. However, none of these factors can be identified or singled out as the reason for violence. Violence against teachers occurs as a result of a combination of these factors. Understanding how these factors interact should be a goal of every community and school. Occupational health nurses have the unique opportunity to partner with communities, school nurses, and the school system to develop effective violence prevention programs. Working in schools is an area of expansion for occupational health nurses. They have the expertise to perform worksite assessments and to identify key areas of weakness throughout the facility. Their expertise in reviewing and analyzing workplace injury data and developing cost effectiveness analysis for proposed interventions is unique. Occupational health nurses also have the skills to network with school officials and other key stakeholders to develop interventions to impact the substantial implications of violence in the schools.

  16. Interrupting violence: how the CeaseFire Program prevents imminent gun violence through conflict mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Jennifer M; Webster, Daniel W; Frattaroli, Shannon; Parker, Elizabeth M

    2014-02-01

    Cities are increasingly adopting CeaseFire, an evidence-based public health program that uses specialized outreach workers, called violence interrupters (VIs), to mediate potentially violent conflicts before they lead to a shooting. Prior research has linked conflict mediation with program-related reductions in homicides, but the specific conflict mediation practices used by effective programs to prevent imminent gun violence have not been identified. We conducted case studies of CeaseFire programs in two inner cities using qualitative data from focus groups with 24 VIs and interviews with eight program managers. Study sites were purposively sampled to represent programs with more than 1 year of implementation and evidence of program effectiveness. Staff with more than 6 months of job experience were recruited for participation. Successful mediation efforts were built on trust and respect between VIs and the community, especially high-risk individuals. In conflict mediation, immediate priorities included separating the potential shooter from the intended victim and from peers who may encourage violence, followed by persuading the parties to resolve the conflict peacefully. Tactics for brokering peace included arranging the return of stolen property and emphasizing negative consequences of violence such as jail, death, or increased police attention. Utilizing these approaches, VIs are capable of preventing gun violence and interrupting cycles of retaliation.

  17. Educational program for the prevention and management of school violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viriam Leiva Díaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the main results of the implementation of an educational program for the preventionand management of violence in public schools by teachers of first and second cycle, the program was taught bythe School of Nursing at the University of Costa Rica, with a total of 40 hours from January to February 2011. Weused various teaching strategies based on the educational needs of this group of teachers, which were shown in aprevious study and application of a needs assessment. Attended by 33 teachers, 32 women and one man. Of theparticipants, 30 completed the program. The main results are as follows: participants were able to acquire, buildor improve their knowledge about the prevention and treatment of school violence, and also learned varioustechniques and strategies for prevention and control of violence in schools. It is concluded that success inachieving the goals set for each of the sessions is directly related to the fact that the entire educational programstuck to the educational needs expressed by the participating population and its characteristics as teachers, usingprinciples of andragogy, which allowed understanding learning as a knowledge sharing among stakeholders

  18. THE EARLY VIOLENCE PREVENTION: REVISION OF PROGRAMS AND INTERVENTION MODALITIES

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    JUANITA HENAO ESCOBAR

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a review of different kinds of international early violence prevention-intervention programs,which have shown effectiveness in the reduction of preschooler’s aggression, and in some cases, in the prevention ofviolent behavior during adolescence and youth. The central matter of this article is what we can learn from theexperiences on this field of knowledge around the world. First, the target intervention problem is presented andframed in the colombian context. After presenting the main research findings about aggressive behavior in childrenand the risk factors associated with it, the related intervention modalities will be analyzed and described. Finally, thearticle derives some pragmatic conclusions and recommendations.

  19. Implementation and Evaluation of a Youth Violence Prevention Program for Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Mary Elana

    2009-01-01

    Youth violence in the city of Philadelphia, PA, has reached epidemic proportions. The majority of homicides related to gun violence is most prevalent among African American males aged 19 to 24 years. Therefore, it is essential to implement youth violence prevention programs to a target population several years younger than this age group to…

  20. Examining the Preliminary Efficacy of a Dating Violence Prevention Program for Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Guerra, Jessica E.; Cummings, Amanda A.; Pino, Karen; Becerra, Maria M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the preliminary efficacy of a dating violence (DV) prevention program for Cuban American adolescents ("JOVEN"/YOUTH: "Juntos Opuestos a la Violence Entre Novios"/Together Against Dating Violence). A randomized-controlled experimental design with a delayed condition was used to evaluate…

  1. Barriers to Effective Implementation of Programs for the Prevention of Workplace Violence in Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blando, James; Ridenour, Marilyn; Hartley, Daniel; Casteel, Carri

    2015-01-01

    Effective workplace violence (WPV) prevention programs are essential, yet challenging to implement in healthcare. The aim of this study was to identify major barriers to implementation of effective violence prevention programs. After reviewing the related literature, the authors describe their research methods and analysis and report the following seven themes as major barriers to effective implementation of workplace violence programs: a lack of action despite reporting; varying perceptions of violence; bullying; profit-driven management models; lack of management accountability; a focus on customer service; and weak social service and law enforcement approaches to mentally ill patients. The authors discuss their findings in light of previous studies and experiences and offer suggestions for decreasing WPV in healthcare settings. They conclude that although many of these challenges to effective implementation of workplace violence programs are both within the program itself and relate to broader industry and societal issues, creative innovations can address these issues and improve WPV prevention programs.

  2. Performing Gender: A Discourse Analysis of Theatre-Based Sexual Violence Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Susan V.

    2006-01-01

    Among the numerous approaches that are employed to prevent sexual violence, the performance of scenarios has become one of the "promising practices" in U.S. postsecondary education. This article describes findings from a pilot study to analyze scripts used for theatre-based sexual violence prevention programs. Employing the method of…

  3. Effects of an emotional intelligence program in variables related to the prevention of violence

    OpenAIRE

    Maite eGaraigordobil; Ainize ePeña-Sarrionandia

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, numerous studies have shown a significant increase in violence during childhood and adolescence. These data suggest the importance of implementing programs to prevent and reduce violent behavior. The study aimed to design a program of emotional intelligence (El) for adolescents and to assess its effects on variables related to violence prevention. The possible differential effect of the program on both genders was also examined. The sample comprised 148 adolescents aged fro...

  4. Universal violence and child maltreatment prevention programs for parents: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Rachel Pisani Altafim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to review recent literature on universal violence and child maltreatment prevention programs for parents. The following databases were used: Web of Science, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO. The keywords included the following: (Parenting Program or Parent Training or Parent Intervention and (Maltreatment or Violence or Violence Prevention. For inclusion in this review, the programs had to be structured, working in groups of parents aiming to improve parenting practices. Twenty-three studies were included, and 16 different types of parenting programs were identified. Ninety-one percent of the studies were conducted in developed countries. All the programs focused on the prevention of violence and maltreatment by promoting positive parenting practices. Only seven studies were randomized controlled trials. All studies that evaluated parenting strategies (n = 18, reported after the interventions. The programs also effectively improved child behavior in 90% of the studies that assessed this outcome. In conclusion, parenting educational programs appear to be an important strategy for the universal prevention of violence and maltreatment against children. Future studies should assess the applicability and effectiveness of parenting programs for the prevention of violence against children in developing countries. Further randomized control trials are also required.

  5. Training Needs Assessment to Design Empowerment Programs for Preventing Domestic Violence Against Iranian Married Women

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    Leila Kianfard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The World Health Organization declared violence against women a top priority for health and emphasized the importance of the world's attention to the prevention and control programs. This study was conducted aimed to identify the training needs of married women referring to health centers in Ahvaz with the objective of enabling the design of a program to prevent violence. Methodology: This sectional study consisted of two qualitative and quantitative studies. In qualitative study, the opinions of 30 married women residing in Ahvaz were collected and analyzed in four focus group discussions. using a validated and reliable questionnaire, the knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy and performance of 320 married women in area of domestic violence were identified Findings: 79% of the women surveyed had adequate awareness about violence against women. 34% of the target group in the field of domestic violence against women has had the right attitude and more than 80% of them stated that violence by men is considered inevitable and natural. 89% of the target group expressed lack of efficacy for the prevention of domestic violence against women. The findings also suggest that there is significant relationship between education and early marriage with violent behavior. Conclusion: providing proper education and awareness to women and group discussion and clarification in order to change attitudes and increase efficacy in abused women against domestic violence are the necessary strategies which result in changing attitudes of women and increasing empowerment of women against domestic violence.

  6. Constructing ?Packages? of Evidence-Based Programs to Prevent Youth Violence: Processes and Illustrative Examples From the CDC?s Youth Violence Prevention Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Kingston, Beverly; Bacallao, Martica; Smokowski, Paul; Sullivan, Terri; Sutherland, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the strategic efforts of six National Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention (YVPC), funded by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, to work in partnership with local communities to create comprehensive evidence-based program packages to prevent youth violence. Key components of a comprehensive evidence-based approach are defined and examples are provided from a variety of community settings (rural and urban) across the nation that illustrate at...

  7. Predicting Improvement After a Bystander Program for the Prevention of Sexual and Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Denise A; Palm Reed, Kathleen M

    2015-07-01

    Although evidence suggests that bystander prevention programs are promising interventions for decreasing sexual violence and dating violence on college campuses, there have been no studies to date evaluating moderators of bystander program effectiveness. The current study evaluates whether different demographic characteristics, attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors at pretest predict change over a 6-month follow-up for students who participated in a bystander prevention program. Participants in the three assessments (pretest, posttest, 6-month follow-up) included 296 college students who were mandated to attend a bystander program during their first year orientation. Analyses showed that with few exceptions, the bystander program worked best for students who were most at risk given their pretest demographics and levels of attitudes condoning dating violence and sexual violence, bystander efficacy, and bystander behaviors. Results are discussed in terms of suggestions for future research. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  8. A Second's Chance: Gang Violence Task Force prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, K Michael; Griner, Devan; Guarino, Michelle; Drabik-Medeiros, Bernie; Williams, Kristy

    2012-01-01

    We describe a gang violence intervention and define targets for prevention. At-risk youths were identified through courts, public schools, and law enforcement regarding gang-related activities. They participated in "A Second's Chance," a true-to-life mock emergency department resuscitation and death of a gang member provided over an 18-month period. A questionnaire was completed by each participant. Forty-nine youths identified as at risk for gang involvement participated (37 male and 12 female, P criminal drug activity (P activities. Family and neighborhood characteristics should be included in development of intervention scenarios.

  9. Case Study of a School-Based Universal Dating Violence Prevention Program

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    Michele Cascardi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of universal dating violence prevention programs has rapidly expanded in the past two decades. Many programs demonstrate change in attitudes supportive of dating violence, and a few show evidence of behavior change; however, detailed analysis of process and fidelity of program implementation is generally neglected. An important goal of prevention research is to identify successful initiatives that can be replicated and disseminated in the field. The purpose of the current case study is to document the implementation process of a middle school–based dating violence prevention curriculum in economically disadvantaged urban neighborhoods. Particular attention is given to the school context, such as the process of school and teacher recruitment, the program model, and classroom implementation of the dating violence prevention program in four areas: teacher training, student outcomes, program fidelity, and student engagement. Nine health and physical education teachers from six urban middle schools participated. Results describe effective strategies to secure school participation and engagement, and provide evidence regarding methods to train health and physical education teachers in low-income, urban neighborhoods. Furthermore, classroom observations demonstrate that teachers successfully implemented the five-lesson curriculum, which resulted in positive student outcomes to prevent dating violence. This case study represents an important step in deepening our understanding of the mechanisms of program delivery.

  10. Associations between Gun Violence Exposure, Gang Associations, and Youth Aggression: Implications for Prevention and Intervention Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Forster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using cross-sectional data collected from three middle schools in Southeast Los Angeles, we assessed the association of neighborhood violence exposure, gang associations, and social self-control with past week aggression in a sample of minority youth (n=164. Results from Poisson and logistic regression models showed that direct exposure to gun violence, having friends in gangs, and low social self control were all positively associated with past week aggression. Among girls, having gang affiliated family members was positively associated with aggression, whereas among boys having friends in gangs was associated with past week aggression. Subjective expectations of engagement in future interpersonal violence were associated with being male, having friends in gangs, and fear of neighborhood gun violence. We recommend that youth violence prevention and intervention programs address the impact of family, peers, and gun violence on student coping and identify students with low social self-control who could benefit from social and emotional skills training.

  11. A Meta-Analysis of Empirically Tested School-Based Dating Violence Prevention Programs

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    Sarah R. Edwards

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Teen dating violence prevention programs implemented in schools and empirically tested were subjected to meta-analysis. Eight studies met criteria for inclusion, consisting of both within and between designs. Overall, the weighted mean effect size (ES across studies was significant, ESr = .11; 95% confidence interval (CI = [.08, .15], p < .0001, showing an overall positive effect of the studied prevention programs. However, 25% of the studies showed an effect in the negative direction, meaning students appeared to be more supportive of dating violence after participating in a dating violence prevention program. This heightens the need for thorough program evaluation as well as the need for decision makers to have access to data about the effectiveness of programs they are considering implementing. Further implications of the results and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  12. The Fourth R: A School-Based Adolescent Dating Violence Prevention Program

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    David A. Wolfe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a school-based primary prevention program (The Fourth R to prevent adolescent dating violence, and related risk behaviors. The cornerstone of The Fourth R is a 21-lesson skillbased curriculum delivered by teachers who receive specialized training, that promotes healthy relationships, and targets violence, high-risk sexual behavior, and substance use among adolescents. The Fourth R was evaluated in a cluster randomized trial in 20 schools. Results indicated that teaching youth healthy relationships and skills as part of their curriculum reduced physical dating violence, and increased condom use 2.5 years later.

  13. An Evaluation of Two Dating Violence Prevention Programs on a College Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kerry; Sharps, Phyllis; Banyard, Victoria; Powers, Ráchael A; Kaukinen, Catherine; Gross, Deborah; Decker, Michele R; Baatz, Carrie; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2016-03-13

    Dating violence is a serious and prevalent public health problem that is associated with numerous negative physical and psychological health outcomes, and yet there has been limited evaluation of prevention programs on college campuses. A recent innovation in campus prevention focuses on mobilizing bystanders to take action. To date, bystander programs have mainly been compared with no treatment control groups raising questions about what value is added to dating violence prevention by focusing on bystanders. This study compared a single 90-min bystander education program for dating violence prevention with a traditional awareness education program, as well as with a no education control group. Using a quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design with follow-up at 2 months, a sample of predominately freshmen college students was randomized to either the bystander (n = 369) or traditional awareness (n = 376) dating violence education program. A non-randomized control group of freshmen students who did not receive any education were also surveyed (n = 224). Students completed measures of attitudes, including rape myth acceptance, bystander efficacy, and intent to help as well as behavioral measures related to bystander action and victimization. Results showed that the bystander education program was more effective at changing attitudes, beliefs, efficacy, intentions, and self-reported behaviors compared with the traditional awareness education program. Both programs were significantly more effective than no education. The findings of this study have important implications for future dating violence prevention educational programming, emphasizing the value of bystander education programs for primary dating violence prevention among college students. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Evaluation of a gender-based violence prevention program for student athletes in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Das, Madhumita; Tancredi, Daniel J; McCauley, Heather L; Virata, Maria Catrina D; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; O'Connor, Brian; Ghosh, Sancheeta; Verma, Ravi

    2014-03-01

    Gender-based violence, which includes sexual and intimate partner violence against women, is prevalent worldwide, prompting calls for primary prevention programs which engage men and boys in changing social norms that condone violence against women. Bystander intervention efforts which encourage males to say something to stop peers from enacting disrespectful and abusive behaviors toward females are a promising strategy for promoting non-violent, gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors. An evaluation of "Parivartan"--a U.S. program called "Coaching Boys Into Men" adapted for urban India cricket teams--was conducted in Mumbai, India. Baseline and 12 month follow-up surveys were administered to 309 male cricket athletes aged 10 to 16 years in 46 urban middle schools in Mumbai, India (27 intervention, 19 control). Athletes whose coaches were trained in the program demonstrated greater improvements in gender-equitable attitudes compared to athletes whose coaches provided standard coaching only. Marginally significant improvements were seen in reduction of negative bystander behavior. Violence prevention programs which utilize coaches as positive messengers for respect and non-violence may be a useful addition to global prevention efforts to reduce violence against women.

  15. Living Peace: An Exploration of Experiential Peace Education, Conflict Resolution and Violence Prevention Programs for Youth

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    Hettler, Shannon; Johnston, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors review the types of experiential peace education programs available to teens in the US and provide a classification guide for educators, parents, other concerned adults and teens who may be interested in developing conflict, peace and/or violence prevention knowledge, skills and attitudes. The authors identify experiential programs in…

  16. Preventing violence against children in schools: Contributions from the Be Safe program in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Steven; Zwart, Christine; Chahal, Inem; Lane, David; Cummings, Harry

    2018-02-01

    Violence against children is a global public health issue with serious social, economic, physical, and emotional impacts. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a school-based program aimed to prevent and respond to physical, sexual, and psychological violence against children in Sri Lanka from the perspective of parents. A cross-sectional retrospective study design was used. A total of 835 parents of children who participated in the program were surveyed across seven districts in Sri Lanka. Dose-response analyses were conducted to assess for correlations between program exposure and perceived prevention of violence against children. Low to moderate correlations were found between exposure to the program and perceived child safety in schools, school policies, and in the community. The findings provide preliminary evidence of program effectiveness; however, more efforts are needed to validate and sustain outcomes. Implications for future violence prevention programming, along with the use of dose-response evaluations, are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Impact of Violence Prevention Programs on School Based Violent Behaviors

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    Reed-Reynolds, Shelly

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation study focused on the potential effect that various violence prevention program strategies implemented within the k-12 school setting have on the frequency of school based violent behaviors. The 2005-06 and 2003-04 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS:2006 & SSOCS:2004) was utilized as the secondary data source for this…

  18. Counseling with Heart: A Relationship Violence Prevention Program for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Danica G.; Michel, Rebecca E.; Bayne, Hannah B.; Neuer Colburn, Anita A.; Smith Myers, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Relationship violence is a salient concern on college campuses today, and psychoeducational groups may be an appropriate prevention format. This article describes a study measuring the impact of college student participation in the HEART (Help End Abusive Relationships Today) program, a series of group sessions designed to increase knowledge and…

  19. Effects of an emotional intelligence program in variables related to the prevention of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Peña-Sarrionandia, Ainize

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, numerous studies have shown a significant increase in violence during childhood and adolescence. These data suggest the importance of implementing programs to prevent and reduce violent behavior. The study aimed to design a program of emotional intelligence (EI) for adolescents and to assess its effects on variables related to violence prevention. The possible differential effect of the program on both genders was also examined. The sample comprised 148 adolescents aged from 13 to 16 years. The study used an experimental design with repeated pretest-posttest measures and control groups. To measure the variables, four assessment instruments were administered before and after the program, as well as in the follow-up phase (1 year after the conclusion of the intervention). The program consisted of 20 one-hour sessions. The pretest-posttest ANCOVAs showed that the program significantly increased: (1) EI (attention, clarity, emotional repair); (2) assertive cognitive social interaction strategies; (3) internal control of anger; and (4) the cognitive ability to analyze negative feelings. In the follow-up phase, the positive effects of the intervention were generally maintained and, moreover, the use of aggressive strategies as an interpersonal conflict-resolution technique was significantly reduced. Regarding the effect of the program on both genders, the change was very similar, but the boys increased assertive social interaction strategies, attention, and emotional clarity significantly more than the girls. The importance of implementing programs to promote socio-emotional development and prevent violence is discussed.

  20. Effects of an Emotional Intelligence program in variables related to the prevention of violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite eGaraigordobil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, numerous studies have shown a significant increase in violence during childhood and adolescence. These data suggest the importance of implementing programs to prevent and reduce violent behavior. The study aimed to design a program of emotional intelligence for adolescents and to assess its effects on variables related to violence prevention. The possible differential effect of the program on both genders was also examined. The sample comprised 148 adolescents aged from 13 to 16 years. The study used an experimental design with repeated pretest-posttest measures and control groups. To measure the variables, 4 assessment instruments were administered before and after the program, as well as in the follow-up phase (one year after the conclusion of the intervention. The program consisted of 20 one-hour sessions. The pretest-posttest ANCOVAs showed that the program significantly increased: (1 emotional intelligence (attention, clarity, emotional repair; (2 assertive cognitive social interaction strategies; (3 internal control of anger; and (4 the cognitive ability to analyze negative feelings. In the follow-up phase, the positive effects of the intervention were generally maintained and, moreover, the use of aggressive strategies as an interpersonal conflict-resolution technique was significantly reduced. Regarding the effect of the program on both genders, the change was very similar, but the boys increased assertive social interaction strategies, attention, and emotional clarity significantly more than the girls. The importance of implementing programs to promote socio-emotional development and prevent violence is discussed.

  1. Violence in Brazilian schools: Analysis of the effect of the #Tamojunto prevention program for bullying and physical violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmões, Júlia D S P; Sañudo, Adriana; Valente, Juliana Y; Sanchez, Zila M

    2018-02-01

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 6637 7th- and 8th-grade students in 72 public schools in 6 Brazilian cities to evaluate the effects of the European drug prevention program Unplugged, called #Tamojunto in Brazil. This article evaluates the effects of #Tamojunto on the prevention of bullying and physical violence. Baseline data were collected from both intervention and control groups prior to program implementation. Follow-up data collection was performed 9 and 21 months later. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate changes in the reporting of receiving or practicing bullying and physical violence over time. The program was found to reduce the likelihood of receiving bullying, particularly in the stratum of girls aged 13-15 years at the 9-month follow-up time point. The effect was not sustained at 21 months. There was no significant effect for practicing bullying and for receiving or practicing physical violence. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of the evidence-based Safe Dates dating abuse prevention program on other youth violence outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; Reyes, Luz McNaughton; Agnew-Brune, Christine B; Simon, Thomas R; Vagi, Kevin J; Lee, Rosalyn D; Suchindran, Chiravath

    2014-12-01

    In response to recent calls for programs that can prevent multiple types of youth violence, the current study examined whether Safe Dates, an evidence-based dating violence prevention program, was effective in preventing other forms of youth violence. Using data from the original Safe Dates randomized controlled trial, this study examined (1) the effectiveness of Safe Dates in preventing peer violence victimization and perpetration and school weapon carrying 1 year after the intervention phase was completed and (2) moderation of program effects by the sex or race/ethnicity of the adolescent. Ninety percent (n = 1,690) of the eighth and ninth graders who completed baseline questionnaires completed the 1-year follow-up assessment. The sample was 51 % female and 26 % minority (of whom 69 % was black and 31 % was of another minority race/ethnicity). There were no baseline treatment group differences in violence outcomes. Treatment condition was significantly associated with peer violence victimization and school weapon carrying at follow-up; there was 12 % less victimization and 31 % less weapon carrying among those exposed to Safe Dates than those among controls. Treatment condition was significantly associated with perpetration among the minority but not among white adolescents; there was 23 % less violence perpetration among minority adolescents exposed to Safe Dates than that among controls. The observed effect sizes were comparable with those of other universal school-based youth violence prevention programs. Implementing Safe Dates may be an efficient way of preventing multiple types of youth violence.

  3. Constructing "Packages" of Evidence-Based Programs to Prevent Youth Violence: Processes and Illustrative Examples From the CDC's Youth Violence Prevention Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Beverly; Bacallao, Martica; Smokowski, Paul; Sullivan, Terri; Sutherland, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the strategic efforts of six National Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention (YVPC), funded by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, to work in partnership with local communities to create comprehensive evidence-based program packages to prevent youth violence. Key components of a comprehensive evidence-based approach are defined and examples are provided from a variety of community settings (rural and urban) across the nation that illustrate attempts to respond to the unique needs of the communities while maintaining a focus on evidence-based programming and practices. At each YVPC site, the process of selecting prevention and intervention programs addressed the following factors: (1) community capacity, (2) researcher and community roles in selecting programs, (3) use of data in decision-making related to program selection, and (4) reach, resources, and dosage. We describe systemic barriers to these efforts, lessons learned, and opportunities for policy and practice. Although adopting an evidence-based comprehensive approach requires significant upfront resources and investment, it offers great potential for preventing youth violence and promoting the successful development of children, families and communities.

  4. Reducing Youth Gun Violence. Part One--An Overview [and] Part Two--Prevention and Intervention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Alan, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This document contains two issues of a journal on reducing youth gun violence, reprinted from a report by the U.S. Department of Justice. The first issue, part one, provides an overview of programs and initiatives. The second issue, part two, describes prevention and intervention programs. To reduce violence and build healthy communities requires…

  5. Listening to women: culturally tailoring the violence prevention guidelines from the put prevention into practice program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoultz, Jan; Phillion, Nancy; Noone, Joanne; Tanner, Barbara

    2002-07-01

    To develop five reliable and valid (culturally tailored) guidelines focused on the prevention of violence as presented in the violence prevention guideline of the Put Prevention into Practice Clinician's Handbook on Preventative Services (PPIP). The data collection for this qualitative, descriptive design of naturalistic inquiry was focus group interviews with five different ethnic groups of women (Caucasian, Filipino, Hawaiian, Japanese and Hispanic) using a semi-structured interview guide. The women interviewed provided a variety of suggestions for adaptations to the guideline. Cultural similarities and differences are presented. Development of a nonjudgmental and trusting relationship is key to disclosure. Violence against women is recognized as a major public health problem. Little is known about the effectiveness of standardized interventions such as those contained in the PPIP Handbook. Even less is known about the efficacy of such protocols within culturally diverse populations. Providers should consider adaptation of the guideline based on the individual relationship with the client. The next phase of this research is to implement the culturally tailored adaptations of these guidelines and test their effectiveness.

  6. Using community-based participatory research to develop the PARTNERS youth violence prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Stephen S; Thomas, Duane E; Vaughn, Nicole A; Thomas, Nicole A; MacEvoy, Julie Paquette; Freedman, Melanie A; Abdul-Kabir, Saburah; Woodlock, Joseph; Guerra, Terry; Bradshaw, Ayana S; Woodburn, Elizabeth M; Myers, Rachel K; Fein, Joel A

    2010-01-01

    School-based violence prevention programs have shown promise for reducing aggression and increasing children's prosocial behaviors. Prevention interventions within the context of urban after-school programs provide a unique opportunity for academic researchers and community stakeholders to collaborate in the creation of meaningful and sustainable violence prevention initiatives. This paper describes the development of a collaborative between academic researchers and community leaders to design a youth violence prevention/leadership promotion program (PARTNERS Program) for urban adolescents. Employing a community-based participatory research (CBPR) model, this project addresses the needs of urban youth, their families, and their community. Multiple strategies were used to engage community members in the development and implementation of the PARTNERS Program. These included focus groups, pilot testing the program in an after-school venue, and conducting organizational assessments of after-school sites as potential locations for the intervention. Community members and academic researchers successfully worked together in all stages of the project development. Community feedback helped the PARTNERS team redesign the proposed implementation and evaluation of the PARTNERS Program such that the revised study design allows for all sites to obtain the intervention over time and increases the possibility of building community capacity and sustainability of programs. Despite several challenges inherent to CBPR, the current study provides a number of lessons learned for the continued development of relationships and trust among researchers and community members, with particular attention to balancing the demand for systematic implementation of community-based interventions while being responsive to the immediate needs of the community.

  7. Adoption, adaptation, and fidelity of implementation of sexual violence prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Rita K; Emshoff, James G; Mooss, Angela; Armstrong, Michael; Weinberg, Joanna; Ball, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Little research examines the organizational and contextual dynamics that affect decisions to adopt evidence-based programs as well as the feasibility of implementation with fidelity to the original model when new users adopt established programs. To understand how promising strategies can be disseminated widely, this study examines the adoption and implementation of two sexual violence prevention programs in new settings. Interviews were conducted with stake-holders to investigate the factors and dynamics related to the adoption and implementation of these programs. Additionally, the research team worked with the program developers to create measures of the fidelity of implementation, which were then administered at each site. The findings suggest that adoption decisions were based on perceived fit between the program and the adopting organization's values, goals, and local setting. After adoption, new sites were able to implement the program with fairly high levels of fidelity, given moderate investments in training and technical assistance.

  8. A Qualitative Meta-Synthesis of Interpersonal Violence Prevention Programs Focused on Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliep, Naiema; Lazarus, Sandy; Naidoo, Anthony V

    2017-12-01

    Exceptionally high levels of interpersonal violence have triggered a call by many experts for the need to determine effective ways to address the onset and effects of exposure to interpersonal violence. The specific aim of this study was to identify and draw on existing promising practices to make a more informed decision on strategies to develop a contextually relevant intervention that focused on the promotion of positive forms of masculinity to create safety and peace. This study used a qualitative meta-synthesis (QMS) technique to integrate and interpret findings from various intervention studies that focused on males and/or gender. An in-depth literature search yielded a total of 827 papers that met the search criteria. After removal of duplicates, abstract review, and review of the full texts, the subsequent sample for this meta-synthesis included 12 intervention programs and 23 studies. This QMS revealed the value of a comprehensive approach, using multiple strategies, employing participatory and interactive methods, and promoting social mobilization to address interpersonal violence. The promotion of positive forms of masculinity as an interpersonal violence prevention strategy is a much-needed, relatively untapped approach to generating safety and peace for both males and females.

  9. Television Violence: Implications for Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N.; Hasbrouck, Jan E.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the scientific and public-opinion debate on the impact television violence in America has on aggression and violence. Research supports the view that television violence contributes to children's level of aggressiveness and subsequent violence and criminality. Describes attempts to improve the quality of television programming for children…

  10. Preventing violence against children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Andra Teten; Simon, Thomas R; Saul, Janet

    2012-09-01

    The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC) has a focus on preventing interpersonal violence against children and youth. Prevention of violence against children and youth involves fostering healthy relationships and building healthy environments in which young people can flourish. We review NCIPC's work over the past 20 years that has contributed to this goal by highlighting surveillance systems that identify the magnitude of violence, etiological research that identifies risk and protective factors that are associated with violence, evaluation research that has expanded the evidence base of what works to prevent violence, and comprehensive, broad-based programs that engage and empower communities to prevent violence. NCIPC's work demonstrates that violence is preventable and the Center is working to move the promise of effective prevention into practice. These efforts all work toward protecting the health and well-being of children and youth and set the stage for NCIPC's future work. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Program content of teaching physical education in order to prevent violence in educational institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sretenović Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to show the capacity of the program content of physical education in the implementation of the third specific objective of the Framework Action Plan for the Prevention of Violence in Educational Institutions. Ministry of Education brought this plan in January 2009. The third specific objective of the Framework Action Plan: Provide preventive and protective role of school sport and sporting activities of students. This paper examines the extent to which this goal is achieved, trough regular classes, after-school and extracurricular activities of physical education; indicates the capacity of the teaching field in the creation and development of a safe and supportive environment in the institution; sees level of participation by experts, council and teams in the design and implementation of sports activities in school and the extent to which these activities are implemented in the institution documents, plans and programs of experts, and larger teams; it is the sustainability of these activities achieved in school practices and also to strengthen the competence of teachers in supporting the development of students personality, communication and collaboration. In order to complete document association of council, experts and teams in the institution, there has been an insight into the school curriculum, the development plan, annual plan of the institution, protection program community of students, the curriculum of a school parliament, council of parents, higher vocational and physical education teachers and report on the implementation of the protection program. In order to document by empirical data the capacity of the teaching areas in the function of preventing violence, a sample of 46 primary schools in Sumadija area, evaluation of the implementation of sports and sports activities students in programming classes of physical education, was executed. By these results, it can be concluded that in teaching methods

  12. A qualitative evaluation of the 2005-2011 National Academic Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Kristin M; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Dela Cruz, Jason; Massetti, Greta M; Mahendra, Reshma

    2015-12-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division of Violence Prevention (DVP) funded eight National Academic Centers of Excellence (ACEs) in Youth Violence Prevention from 2005 to 2010 and two Urban Partnership Academic Centers of Excellence (UPACEs) in Youth Violence Prevention from 2006 to 2011. The ACEs and UPACEs constitute DVP's 2005-2011 ACE Program. ACE Program goals include partnering with communities to promote youth violence (YV) prevention and fostering connections between research and community practice. This article describes a qualitative evaluation of the 2005-2011 ACE Program using an innovative approach for collecting and analyzing data from multiple large research centers via a web-based Information System (ACE-IS). The ACE-IS was established as an efficient mechanism to collect and document ACE research and programmatic activities. Performance indicators for the ACE Program were established in an ACE Program logic model. Data on performance indicators were collected through the ACE-IS biannually. Data assessed Centers' ability to develop, implement, and evaluate YV prevention activities. Performance indicator data demonstrate substantial progress on Centers' research in YV risk and protective factors, community partnerships, and other accomplishments. Findings provide important lessons learned, illustrate progress made by the Centers, and point to new directions for YV prevention research and programmatic efforts. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. [Lessons learned from an early intervention violence prevention program in Medellín, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Luis Fernando; Orduz, José Fernando; Sandoval, Juan de Jesús; Caicedo, Beatriz Elena; Klevens, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    To describe the components and development of the Early Prevention of Violence Program in the city of Medellín, Colombia, and to evaluate the results of its first phase, three years after implementation. A before (2001) and after (2004) study of four variables--direct aggression, indirect aggression, prosocial behavior, and scholastic achievement--was conducted among a convenience sample of 339 program participants and their families. Several program benefits were noted. Decreases in both direct and indirect aggression were observed, though the latter was reduced only in girls and in those over 12 years old. Prosocial behavior increased among children of all ages and both genders, including those who exhibited low levels of prosocial behavior in 2001. In addition, improved school performance was seen in the group as a whole. Results may have been affected by some changes to the prevention program's implementation and by the dangerous nature of the neighborhood, which limited the home visits. The program seems to be an effective intervention for highly aggressive children, among whom a decline in direct aggression was observed. It also offers preventive benefits, as evidenced by the rise of prosocial behaviors in less aggressive children.

  14. The effects of moms and teens for safe dates: a dating abuse prevention program for adolescents exposed to domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; Benefield, Thad; Dixon, Kimberly S; Chang, Ling-Yin; Senkomago, Virginia; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Michael Bowling, J

    2015-05-01

    Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at high risk for dating abuse. This randomized controlled trial evaluated a dating abuse prevention program designed specifically for this risk group. Moms and Teens for Safe Dates consisted of six mailed booklets of dating abuse prevention information and interactive activities. Mothers who had been victims of domestic violence but no longer lived with the abuser delivered the program to their adolescents who had been exposed to the abuse. Mother and adolescent pairs (N = 409) were recruited through community advertising; the adolescents ranged from 12 to 16 years old and 64 % were female. Mothers and adolescents completed baseline and 6-month follow-up telephone interviews. Booklet completion in the treatment group ranged from 80 % for the first to 62 % for the last booklet. The analyses first tested whether program effects on dating abuse varied by four a priori identified moderators (mother's psychological health, the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence, and adolescent sex and race/ethnicity). Main effects of the program were examined when there were no differential program effects. Program effects on psychological and physical victimization and psychological and cyber perpetration were moderated by the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence; there were significant favorable program effects for adolescents with higher, but not lower levels of exposure to domestic violence. There were no moderated or main effects on sexual violence victimization and perpetration or cyber victimization. The findings suggest that a dating abuse prevention program designed for adolescents exposed to domestic violence can have important positive effects.

  15. Formative Research With College Men to Inform Content and Messages for a Web-Based Sexual Violence Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Laura F; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana; McGroarty-Koon, Kira

    2017-09-01

    To combat the high rates of sexual violence on college campuses, prevention programming should be theoretically driven, persuasive, and salient, and should provide messages that counter negative normative beliefs supportive of sexual violence. We describe qualitative formative research that identifies themes as a means to inform messages and content for a Web-based sexual violence prevention program. To illustrate the process, we used qualitative analysis of eight focus groups (N = 48) with male undergraduates from a large urban, public, Southeastern university. Analyses focused on how men interpret sexual interest, the meaning and methods of obtaining effective consent for sex, sexual encounters that involve alcohol, barriers to and facilitators of bystander intervention, and intervening techniques. We demonstrate how positive and negative themes identified in the analysis can be incorporated into programming segments.

  16. Effectiveness of Interventions, Programs and Strategies for Gender-based Violence Prevention in Refugee Populations: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappis, Hannah; Freeman, Jeffrey; Glass, Nancy; Doocy, Shannon

    2016-04-19

    Gender based violence (GBV) remains one of the most serious threats to the health and safety of women and girls worldwide. The problem is even more pronounced in refugee populations where women and girls are at increased risk of violence. In 2015, UNHCR reported the highest number of forcibly displaced people in recorded history. Despite growing need, there have been few rigorous evaluations of interventions aimed at primary GBV prevention and no systematic reviews of GBV prevention efforts specifically focused on refugee populations; reviews to date have primarily examined prevention of conflict related sexual violence, with very limited focus on other forms of GBV such as intimate partner violence Methods: This study reviewed the scientific literature addressing strategies for primary prevention of GBV and their effectiveness among refugee populations over the past ten years (2006 to 2015). Narrative content analysis methods were used to extract findings related to prevention activities/programs recommended by the global humanitarian community, such as sociocultural norms change, rebuilding family and community support structures, improving accountability systems, designing effective services and facilities, working with formal and traditional legal systems, monitoring and documenting GBV, and/or engaging men and boys in GBV prevention and response. Study findings indicate that a range of GBV prevention activities recommended by the global humanitarian community are currently being applied in a variety of settings. However, there remains a limited body of evidence on the effectiveness of GBV prevention programs, interventions, and strategies, especially among refugee populations. Commonly agreed upon standards or guidelines for evaluation of GBV prevention programming, and publication of evaluations conducted using these guidelines, could assist humanitarian stakeholders to build and disseminate an evidence base of effective GBV prevention interventions, programs

  17. Teacher Adherence and Its Relation to Teacher Attitudes and Student Outcomes in an Elementary School-Based Violence Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Bridget K.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Twemlow, Stuart W.; Fonagy, Peter; Dill, Edward J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined variability in teachers' reported adherence to a school-based violence prevention program, Creating a Peaceful School Learning Environment, and investigated the relations of teacher adherence to teachers' attitudes related to the intervention and students' attitudes about and responses to bullying. The results provide evidence…

  18. Workplace violence prevention for nurses on-line course: Program development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Daniel; Ridenour, Marilyn; Craine, John; Morrill, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Many entry-level and experienced healthcare professionals have not received training in workplace violence prevention strategies. This paper describes the development, content, and initial qualitative evaluation of an on-line course designed to give healthcare workers an opportunity to acquire free workplace violence prevention training while earning free continuing education units. A group of healthcare violence prevention researchers worked via email and face-to-face meetings to decide appropriate content for the course. Educational strategies used in the course include: text; video re-enactments of real-life workplace violence incidents; and videos of nurses discussing incidents of violence. Initial evaluation involved a focus group of nurses to discuss the course content and navigation. The on-line course has thirteen units that take approximately 15 minutes each to complete. The focus group participants liked the ``resume-where-you-left-off'' technology that enables the user to complete any portion of the course, leave to do something, and return to the course where they left off. Participants viewed the ``Nurses' Voices'' videos as relevant illustrations of violence that nurses face in their workplaces. The focus group participants considered the course to be an effective learning tool for people new to the profession and for those with seniority.

  19. Workplace violence prevention for nurses on-line course: Program development1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Daniel; Ridenour, Marilyn; Craine, John; Morrill, Allison

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many entry-level and experienced healthcare professionals have not received training in workplace violence prevention strategies. OBJECTIVE This paper describes the development, content, and initial qualitative evaluation of an on-line course designed to give healthcare workers an opportunity to acquire free workplace violence prevention training while earning free continuing education units. METHODS A group of healthcare violence prevention researchers worked via email and face-to-face meetings to decide appropriate content for the course. Educational strategies used in the course include: text; video re-enactments of real-life workplace violence incidents; and videos of nurses discussing incidents of violence. Initial evaluation involved a focus group of nurses to discuss the course content and navigation. RESULTS The on-line course has thirteen units that take approximately 15 minutes each to complete. The focus group participants liked the “resume-where-you-left-off” technology that enables the user to complete any portion of the course, leave to do something, and return to the course where they left off. Participants viewed the “Nurses’ Voices” videos as relevant illustrations of violence that nurses face in their workplaces. CONCLUSIONS The focus group participants considered the course to be an effective learning tool for people new to the profession and for those with seniority. PMID:24939112

  20. "Coaching boys into men": a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a dating violence prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Tancredi, Daniel J; McCauley, Heather L; Decker, Michele R; Virata, Maria Catrina D; Anderson, Heather A; Stetkevich, Nicholas; Brown, Ernest W; Moideen, Feroz; Silverman, Jay G

    2012-11-01

    Dating violence (DV)--physical, sexual, and psychological aggression in adolescent romantic relationships--is prevalent among youth. Despite broad calls for primary prevention, few programs with demonstrated effectiveness exist. This cluster-randomized trial examined the effectiveness of a DV perpetration prevention program targeting coaches and high school male athletes. The unit of randomization was the high school (16 schools), and the unit of analysis was the athlete (N = 2,006 students). Primary outcomes were intentions to intervene, recognition of abusive behaviors, and gender-equitable attitudes. Secondary outcomes explored bystander behaviors and abuse perpetration. Regression models for clustered, longitudinal data assessed between-arm differences in over-time changes in mean levels of continuous outcomes in 1,798 athletes followed up at 3 months. Intervention athletes' changes in intentions to intervene were positive compared with control subjects, resulting in an estimated intervention effect of .12 (95% CI: .003, .24). Intervention athletes also reported higher levels of positive bystander intervention behavior than control subjects (.25, 95% CI: .13, .38). Changes in gender-equitable attitudes, recognition of abusive behaviors, and DV perpetration were not significant. Secondary analyses estimated intervention impacts according to intensity of program implementation. Compared with control subjects, athletes exposed to full-intensity implementation of the intervention demonstrated improvements in intentions to intervene (.16, 95% CI: .04, .27), recognition of abusive behaviors (.13, 95% CI: .003, .25), and positive bystander intervention (.28, 95% CI: .14, .41). This cluster-randomized controlled trial supports the effectiveness of a school athletics-based prevention program as one promising strategy to reduce DV perpetration. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Retrospective evaluation of Project Envision: A community mobilization pilot program to prevent sexual violence in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Lily; Fidler, Laura; O'Connor, Meghan; Haviland, Mary; Fry, Deborah; Pollak, Tamara; Frye, Victoria

    2018-02-01

    Sexual violence is a public health problem associated with short- and long-term physical and mental health consequences. Most interventions that aim to prevent sexual violence before it occurs target individual-level change or promote bystander training. Community-level interventions, while increasingly recommended in the sexual violence prevention field, are rarely documented in peer-reviewed literature. This paper is a targeted process evaluation of Project Envision, a 6-year pilot initiative to address social norms at the root of sexual violence through coalition building and community mobilization in three New York City neighborhoods, and reflects the perspectives of those charged with designing and implementing the program. Evaluation methods included a systematic literature review, archival source document review, and key informant interviews. Three themes emerged from the results: community identity and implications for engagement; capacity and readiness for community mobilization and consequences for implementation; and impacts on participants. Lessons learned include the limitations of using geographic boundaries to structure community interventions in urban settings; carefully considering whether communities should be mobilized around an externally-identified issue; translating theoretical frameworks into concrete tasks; assessing all coalition partners and organizations for readiness; critically evaluating available resources; and recognizing that community organizing is a skill that requires investment from funders. We conclude that Project Envision showed promise for shifting institutional norms towards addressing root causes of sexual violence in addition to providing victim services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Preventing youth violence perpetration among girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massetti, Greta M; Vivolo, Alana M; Brookmeyer, Kathryn; Degue, Sarah; Holland, Kristin M; Holt, Melissa K; Matjasko, Jennifer L

    2011-10-01

    In the last 10 years, several reviews of research on violence among girls have been conducted. This research helps to determine the extent of girls' use of violence however, it has not been translated into effective prevention programs for girls. This article reviews the research on risk and protective factors associated with violence, with particular attention on factors unique to girls or shared between boys and girls. Individual risk factors for youth violence include hyperactivity/inattention/impulsivity, risk taking/sensation seeking, low academic achievement, exposure to stress and victimization, and early puberty. Parent-child relationships/parental monitoring and supervision, parent criminal and antisocial behavior, and family conflicts and instability have been found to be relationship-level risk factors. Peer risk factors include deviant peer affiliation and gang membership. Risk factors at the community level include economic deprivation; community disorganization; the availability of drugs, alcohol, and firearms; and neighborhood crime. This review also includes a description of program effects for girls within the Model and Promising Blueprints for Violence Prevention Initiative programs. Very few evaluations have examined program effectiveness in preventing violence among girls. More evaluation research is needed to determine if evidence-based programs have positive impact on reducing violence and related risk factors among girls.

  3. One-year follow-up of a coach-delivered dating violence prevention program: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Tancredi, Daniel J; McCauley, Heather L; Decker, Michele R; Virata, Maria Catrina D; Anderson, Heather A; O'Connor, Brian; Silverman, Jay G

    2013-07-01

    Perpetration of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse is prevalent in adolescent relationships. One strategy for reducing such violence is to increase the likelihood that youth will intervene when they see peers engaging in disrespectful and abusive behaviors. This 12-month follow-up of a cluster RCT examined the longer-term effectiveness of Coaching Boys Into Men, a dating violence prevention program targeting high school male athletes. This cluster RCT was conducted from 2009 to 2011. The unit of randomization was the school, and the unit of analysis was the athlete. Data were analyzed in 2012. Participants were male athletes in Grades 9-11 (N=1513) participating in athletics in 16 high schools. The intervention consisted of training athletic coaches to integrate violence prevention messages into coaching activities through brief, weekly, scripted discussions with athletes. Primary outcomes were intentions to intervene, recognition of abusive behaviors, and gender-equitable attitudes. Secondary outcomes included bystander behaviors and abuse perpetration. Intervention effects were expressed as adjusted mean between-arm differences in changes in outcomes over time, estimated via regression models for clustered, longitudinal data. Perpetration of dating violence in the past 3 months was less prevalent among intervention athletes relative to control athletes, resulting in an estimated intervention effect of -0.15 (95% CI=-0.27, -0.03). Intervention athletes also reported lower levels of negative bystander behaviors (i.e., laughing and going along with peers' abusive behaviors) compared to controls (-0.41, 95% CI=-0.72, -0.10). No differences were observed in intentions to intervene (0.04, 95% CI=-0.07, 0.16); gender-equitable attitudes (-0.04, 95% CI=-0.11, 0.04); recognition of abusive behaviors (-0.03, 95% CI=-0.15, 0.09); or positive bystander behaviors (0.04, 95% CI=-0.11, 0.19). This school athletics-based dating violence prevention program is a promising

  4. A Community-Supported Clinic-Based Program for Prevention of Violence against Pregnant Women in Rural Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M. Turan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Pregnant women are especially vulnerable to adverse outcomes related to HIV infection and gender-based violence (GBV. We aimed at developing a program for prevention and mitigation of the effects of GBV among pregnant women at an antenatal clinic in rural Kenya. Methods. Based on formative research with pregnant women, male partners, and service providers, we developed a GBV program including comprehensive clinic training, risk assessments in the clinic, referrals supported by community volunteers, and community mobilization. To evaluate the program, we analyzed data from risk assessment forms and conducted focus groups (n=2 groups and in-depth interviews (n=25 with healthcare workers and community members. Results. A total of 134 pregnant women were assessed during a 5-month period: 49 (37% reported violence and of those 53% accepted referrals to local support resources. Qualitative findings suggested that the program was acceptable and feasible, as it aided pregnant women in accessing GBV services and raised awareness of GBV. Community collaboration was crucial in this low-resource setting. Conclusion. Integrating GBV programs into rural antenatal clinics has potential to contribute to both primary and secondary GBV prevention. Following further evaluation, this model may be deemed applicable for rural communities in Kenya and elsewhere in East Africa.

  5. Problems and perspectives of domestic violence prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Kasperskis, Darius

    2009-01-01

    This paper will analyze the domestic violence prevention problems and perspectives. The goal of this work is to discuss the main domestic violence characteristics, analyze Lithuanian and international prevention means and offer suggestions to improve Lithuanian domestic violence prevention. This work consentrates on mens violence over women. The conseption of violence is analyzed – the general violence features in criminology and law literature are discussed, the main domestic violence forms ...

  6. Effectiveness of "shifting boundaries" teen dating violence prevention program for subgroups of middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bruce G; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Stein, Nan D

    2015-02-01

    We examine whether the Shifting Boundaries (SB) intervention, a primary intervention to prevent youth dating violence and sexual harassment (DV/H), is differentially effective for girls compared with boys or for youth with a history of DV/H experiences. We randomly assigned SB to 30 public middle schools in New York City, enrolling 117 sixth and seventh grade classes to receive a classroom, building, combined, or neither intervention. The SB classroom intervention included six sessions emphasizing the laws/consequences of DV/H, establishing boundaries and safe relationships. The SB schoolwide/building intervention included the use of school-based restraining orders, greater faculty/security presence in unsafe "hot spots" mapped by students, and posters to increase DV/H awareness and reporting. Student surveys were implemented at baseline, immediately after intervention, and 6 months after intervention. At 6 months after intervention, the SB building-level intervention was associated with significant reductions in the frequency of sexual harassment (SH) perpetration and victimization; the prevalence and frequency of sexual dating violence victimization; and the frequency of total dating violence victimization and perpetration. We also had one anomalous finding that the interventions were associated with an increase in the prevalence of SH victimization. These results were consistent for girls and boys, and those with or without a history of DV/H, with the one exception for those exposed to the SB building condition who had earlier reported perpetrating SH had a significantly lower frequency of perpetrating SH at the follow-up than those without such a history. SB can provide effective universal prevention of middle school DV/H experiences, regardless of students' prior exposure histories, and for boys and girls. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Teen Dating Violence Prevention: Cluster-Randomized Trial of Teen Choices, an Online, Stage-Based Program for Healthy, Nonviolent Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Deborah A; Johnson, Janet L; Welch, Carol A; Prochaska, Janice M; Paiva, Andrea L

    2016-07-01

    Teen dating violence is a serious public health problem. A cluster-randomized trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of Teen Choices, a 3-session online program that delivers assessments and individualized guidance matched to dating history, dating violence experiences, and stage of readiness for using healthy relationship skills. For high risk victims of dating violence, the program addresses readiness to keep oneself safe in relationships. Twenty high schools were randomly assigned to the Teen Choices condition (n=2,000) or a Comparison condition (n=1,901). Emotional and physical dating violence victimization and perpetration were assessed at 6 and 12 months in the subset of participants (total n=2,605) who reported a past-year history of dating violence at baseline, and/or who dated during the study. The Teen Choices program was associated with significantly reduced odds of all four types of dating violence (adjusted ORs ranging from .45 to .63 at 12 months follow-up). For three of the four violence outcomes, participants with a past-year history of that type of violence benefited significantly more from the intervention than students without a past-year history. The Teen Choices program provides an effective and practicable strategy for intervention for teen dating violence prevention.

  8. Preventing Interpersonal Violence in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Sethi

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSION: Community surveys can play an important role to better understand the scale and risk factors of different types of interpersonal violence. Readers are called upon to support a coordinated public health response to prevent this societal and health threat.

  9. Violence in the Schools: Programs and Policies for Prevention. A Report from the Canadian Education Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Jyl

    This publication offers some insight into the problem of violence in Canadian schools and provides examples of ways to reduce it. The forms of violent activities examined include youth/youth-gang violence, violence against teachers, bullying, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. Each chapter presents research findings and examples of programs…

  10. Preventing Classroom Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druck, Ken; Kaplowitz, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    Violence affects one in every five teenagers. Everyday 160,000 students miss school because they fear attack, intimidation, or bullying. While tragedies such as school shootings are rare, many youngsters feel threatened. School officials and administrators take steps to make school safer, yet many teachers remain frustrated. Violence prevention…

  11. A cluster-randomized trial of a middle school gender violence prevention program: Design, rationale, and sample characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Kaleab Z; Jones, Kelley A; Ciaravino, Samantha; Ripper, Lisa; Paglisotti, Taylor; Morrow, Sarah Elizabeth; Grafals, Melanie; Van Dusen, Courtney; Miller, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    High rates of adolescent relationship abuse (ARA) and sexual violence (SV) reported among adolescents point to the need for prevention among middle school-age youth. This is a cluster randomized controlled trial to test an athletic coach-delivered ARA/SV prevention program in 41 middle schools (38 clusters). Trained coaches talk to their male athletes about 1) what constitutes harmful vs. respectful relationship behaviors, 2) dispelling myths that glorify male sexual aggression and promoting more gender-equitable attitudes, and 3) positive bystander intervention when aggressive male behaviors toward females are witnessed. A total of 973 male athletes (ages 11-14, grades 6-8) are participating. Athletes complete surveys at the beginning and end of sports season (Time 2), and one year later (Time 3). The primary outcome is an increase in positive bystander behaviors (i.e., intervening in peers' disrespectful or harmful behaviors); secondary outcomes are changes in recognition of what constitutes abusive behavior, intentions to intervene, and gender equitable attitudes (Time 2 and 3) as well as reduction in abuse perpetration (Time 3). Participating schools have a greater proportion of non-White students and students on free/reduced lunch compared to schools that declined participation. Participants' self-reported ethnicities are 54.5% White, 29.0% Black, 1.4% Hispanic and the remainder, multi-racial, other, or not reported. This study will evaluate the effectiveness of a coach-delivered ARA/SV prevention program for middle school male athletes. Findings will add to the evidence base regarding developmentally appropriate violence prevention programs as well as the role of coaches in adolescent health promotion. Clinical Trials #: NCT02331238. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Violence Prevention in Middle School: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIllam, Wendy K.; Roland, Catherine B.; Weber, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Violence in schools continues reflecting violence within society. There is a growing need for violence prevention programs within the schools that provide students with the skills needed to cope with interpersonal and relationship is-sues effectively. This study was conducted at a middle school and there were 345 middle school students (6th to 8th…

  13. A High School-Based Evaluation of TakeCARE, a Video Bystander Program to Prevent Adolescent Relationship Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Kelli S; Jouriles, Ernest N; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee

    2017-03-01

    Although bystander programs to prevent relationship and sexual violence have been evaluated with college students, few evaluations have been conducted with high school students. This study evaluated the effectiveness of TakeCARE, a brief video bystander program designed to promote helpful bystander behavior in situations involving relationship violence among high school students. Students (N = 1295; 52.5% female; 72.3% Hispanic) reported their bystander behavior at a baseline assessment. Classrooms (N = 66) were randomized to view TakeCARE or to a control condition, and high school counselors administered the video in the classrooms assigned to view TakeCARE. Students again reported their bystander behavior at a follow-up assessment approximately 3 months afterward. Results indicate that students who viewed TakeCARE reported more helpful bystander behavior at the follow-up assessment than students in the control condition. Results of exploratory analyses of the likelihood of encountering and intervening upon specific situations calling for bystander behavior are also reported. TakeCARE is efficacious when implemented in an urban high school by high school counselors.

  14. Violence prevention: reaching adolescents with the message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, J B; Barone, J E; Stewart, J; Hogan, R J; Sarnelle, J A; Blackwood, M M

    1999-12-01

    To identify an effective medium for communicating with adolescents in a large-scale, cost-effective violence prevention program. A set of youth violence prevention programs was established at The Stamford Hospital, a level II trauma center. The traveling version of the program was presented to middle school students in four parts: 1) a rap music video created by our violence prevention staff, 2) a facilitated discussion about dealing with anger, 3) a video of a trauma resuscitation in our emergency department, and 4) a commercial video of a teenage boy paralyzed after a gunshot wound. A written questionnaire with a five-point rating scale (1 to 5) was used to survey the audience 1 month after the program. The survey assessed the respondents' recall of each part of the program and the perceptions of the value of each part in identifying the problem of violence and reducing violent behavior. Of 99 respondents, the highest ratings for retention, problem identification, and impact were given to the commercial video (combined average category ranking of 11.394) and the rap music video (11.182). The trauma resuscitation video and the discussion of anger were ranked as being less effective (10.253 and 9.383, respectively). The audience seemed to comprehend the main point of the program and ranked the program, as a whole, higher than any of the parts when measured by success at problem identification and impact. Effective communication with adolescents is possible through many avenues. Children of the video age respond well to visual material. A violence prevention program should incorporate effective multimedia presentations. A variety of methods in combination proves to be most effective.

  15. [Violence prevention in childhood and adolescence--a brief overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawils, Silke; Metzner, Franka

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents can be associated with physical and psychological health effects continuing into adulthood. Early programs for violence prevention in childhood and adolescence are intended to prevent or reduce aggressive behaviour in order to decrease the risk for short- and long-term developmental impairments. In a literature review, research findings on prevalence, typical courses of development, and predictors of violent behavior in childhood are first summarized and compared with findings on the frequency, developmental course, and consequences of youth violence. International and German programs for violence prevention in children and adolescents are presented in the context of various settings (family, school, community), target groups (primary vs. secondary prevention) as well as target variables (universal vs. specific). Empirical findings on efficacy testing of violence prevention programs are described and discussed. The presented findings stress the relevance and potential of services for violence prevention for children and adolescents, but also demonstrate the challenges and gaps.

  16. A Study of a University-Based Men-Only Prevention Program (Men Care): Effect on Attitudes and Behaviors Related to Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, En-Hsien

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the correlations of participation in a prevention program, Men Creating Attitudes for Rape-free Environments (Men CARE), and participants' attitudes and behavior toward sexual violence. The t-tests were used to determine the association, either by the intervention or the cohort, on attitudes and behaviors between the groups,…

  17. The effectiveness of a trauma-focused psycho-educational secondary prevention program for children exposed to interparental violence: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, M.M.; de Schipper, J.C.; Lamers-Winkelman, F.; Schuengel, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children who witness interparental violence are at a heightened risk for developing psychosocial, behavioral and cognitive problems, as well as posttraumatic stress symptoms. For these children the psycho-educational secondary prevention program 'En nu ik...!' ('It's my turn now!') has

  18. Global status report on violence prevention, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Butchart, A.; Mikton, C.

    2014-01-01

    The Global status report on violence prevention 2014, which reflects data from 133 countries, is the first report of its kind to assess national efforts to address interpersonal violence, namely child maltreatment, youth violence, intimate partner and sexual violence, and elder abuse.\\ud \\ud Jointly published by WHO, the United Nations Development Programme, and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, the report reviews the current status of violence prevention efforts in countries, and...

  19. Developing measures of community-relevant outcomes for violence prevention programs: a community-based participatory research approach to measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, Alice J; Baker, Courtney N; Komaroff, Eugene; Thomas, Nicole; Guerra, Terry; Hohl, Bernadette C; Leff, Stephen S

    2013-12-01

    Community-Based Participatory Research is a research paradigm that encourages community participation in designing and implementing evaluation research, though the actual outcome measures usually reflect the "external" academic researchers' view of program effect and the policy-makers' needs for decision-making. This paper describes a replicable process by which existing standardized psychometric scales commonly used in youth-related intervention programs were modified to measure indicators of program success defined by community partners. This study utilizes a secondary analysis of data gathered in the context of a community-based youth violence prevention program. Data were retooled into new measures developed using items from the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, the Hare Area Specific Self-Esteem Scale, and the Youth Asset Survey. These measures evaluated two community-defined outcome indicators, "More Parental Involvement" and "Showing Kids Love." Results showed that existing scale items can be re-organized to create measures of community-defined outcomes that are psychometrically reliable and valid. Results also show that the community definitions of parent or parenting caregivers exemplified by the two indicators are similar to how these constructs have been defined in previous research, but they are not synonymous. There are nuanced differences that are important and worthy of better understanding, in part through better measurement.

  20. Violence prevention and early childhood development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focuses on the intersection between early childhood development services and primary violence prevention interventions. It encourages a developmental approach to violence prevention by promoting healthy physical and social development and preventing direct and indirect exposure to violence during early ...

  1. Efficacy of a School-Based Primary Prevention Program for Coping with Exposure to Political Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2008-01-01

    A paradigm conceptualizing resilience as factors moderating between political violence exposure and psychological distress administered in a 7-year research project yielded a profile of factors promoting Israeli children's coping in conflict conditions. Three factors--social support mobilization, self-efficacy, and meaning attribution--were…

  2. Building Community Capacity for Violence Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabol, William J.; Coulton, Claudia J.; Korbin, Jill E.

    2004-01-01

    The capacity of communities to prevent violence is examined from three perspectives: youth violence, child maltreatment, and intimate partner violence. The analysis suggests that community social control and collective efficacy are significant protective factors for all three types of violence, but these need to be further distinguished for their…

  3. Gender-Based Violence Prevention. Issues in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on gender-based violence prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Preventing Gender-Based Violence: An Overview (Linda Langford); (2) Q&A With Amelia Cobb; (3) Denim Day at HBCUs; (4) Dear Colleague Letter; (5) ED Grants for Violence Prevention; and (6) Higher Education Center…

  4. Impact of participation in a community-based intimate partner violence prevention program on medical students: a multi-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovic, Cindy S; Guiton, Gretchen; Chirra, Annapoorna; Núñez, Ana E; Bigby, Judyann; Stahl, Christiane; Robertson, Candace; Thul, Elizabeth C; Miller, Elizabeth; Sims, Abigail; Sachs, Carolyn J; Pregler, Janet P

    2008-07-01

    Physicians are generally poorly trained to recognize, treat or refer adolescents at risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). Participation in community programs may improve medical students' knowledge, skills, and attitudes about IPV prevention. To determine whether the experience of serving as educators in a community-based adolescent IPV prevention program improves medical students' knowledge, skills, and attitudes toward victims of IPV, beyond that of didactic training. One hundred and seventeen students attending 4 medical schools. Students were randomly assigned to didactic training in adolescent IPV prevention with or without participation as educators in a community-based adolescent IPV prevention program. Students assigned to didactic training alone served as community educators after the study was completed. Knowledge, self-assessment of skills and attitudes about intimate partner violence and future plans to pursue outreach work. The baseline mean knowledge score of 10.25 improved to 21.64 after didactic training (p violence, (mean = 41.91) than did students in the "didactic only" group (mean = 38.94) after controlling for initial levels of confidence (p program to prevent adolescent IPV improved medical students' confidence and attitudes in recognizing and taking action in situations of adolescent IPV, whereas participation in didactic training alone significantly improved students' knowledge.

  5. Shifting Boundaries: an experimental evaluation of a dating violence prevention program in middle schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bruce G; Stein, Nan D; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Woods, Daniel

    2013-02-01

    We randomly assigned the Shifting Boundaries interventions to 30 public middle schools in New York City, enrolling 117 sixth and seventh grade classes (over 2,500 students) to receive a classroom, a building, a combined, or neither intervention. The classroom intervention included a six-session curriculum emphasizing the laws and consequences for perpetrators of dating violence and sexual harassment (DV/H), the social construction of gender roles, and healthy relationships. The building-based intervention included the use of building-based restraining orders, higher levels of faculty/security presence in safe/unsafe "hot spots" mapped by students, and posters to increase DV/H awareness and reporting. Student surveys were implemented at baseline, immediately after the intervention, and 6-months post-intervention. As hypothesized, behaviors improved as a result of the interventions. The building-only and the combined interventions were effective in reducing sexual violence victimization involving either peers or dating partners at 6-months post-intervention. This was mirrored by reductions in sexual violence perpetration by peers in the building-only intervention. While the preponderance of results indicates that the interventions were effective, an anomalous result (increase in sexual harassment victimization reports that was contradicted by lower frequency estimates) did emerge. However, after analysis these anomalous results were deemed to be most likely spurious. The success of the building-only intervention alone is important because it can be implemented with very few extra costs to schools.

  6. Differential Impacts of an Intimate Partner Violence Prevention Program Based on Child Marriage Status in Rural Côte d’Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falb, Kathryn L.; Annan, Jeannie; Kpebo, Denise; Cole, Heather; Willie, Tiara; Xuan, Ziming; Raj, Anita; Gupta, Jhumka

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about whether effectiveness of intimate partner violence prevention programming varies for women who were married as child brides, given their additional social vulnerabilities. This subanalysis sought to assess treatment heterogeneity based on child marriage status for an intervention seeking to reduce intimate partner violence. Methods A randomized controlled trial assessing the incremental effectiveness of gender dialogue groups in addition to group savings on changing past-year intimate partner violence was conducted in Côte d’Ivoire (2010–2012). Stratified models were constructed based on child marriage status to assess for effect modification. Analysis was restricted to married women with data on age at marriage (n=682). Results For child brides (N = 202), there were no statistically or marginally significant decreases in physical and/or sexual violence, physical violence, or sexual violence. The odds of reporting economic abuse in the past year were lower in the intervention arm for child brides relative to control group child brides (odds ratio [OR] = .33; 95% confidence interval [CI] = .13–.85; p = .02). For nonchild brides (N =480), women were less likely to report physical and/or sexual violence (OR =.54; 95% CI =.28–1.04; p = .06), emotional violence (OR = .44; 95% CI = .25–.77; p = .004), and economic abuse (OR = .36; 95% CI = .20–.66; p = .001) in the combined intervention arm than their group savings–only counterparts. Conclusions Findings suggest that intervention participants with a history of child marriage may have greater difficulty benefiting from interventions that seek to reduce intimate partner violence. PMID:26372368

  7. Differential Impacts of an Intimate Partner Violence Prevention Program Based on Child Marriage Status in Rural Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falb, Kathryn L; Annan, Jeannie; Kpebo, Denise; Cole, Heather; Willie, Tiara; Xuan, Ziming; Raj, Anita; Gupta, Jhumka

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about whether effectiveness of intimate partner violence prevention programming varies for women who were married as child brides, given their additional social vulnerabilities. This subanalysis sought to assess treatment heterogeneity based on child marriage status for an intervention seeking to reduce intimate partner violence. A randomized controlled trial assessing the incremental effectiveness of gender dialogue groups in addition to group savings on changing past-year intimate partner violence was conducted in Côte d'Ivoire (2010-2012). Stratified models were constructed based on child marriage status to assess for effect modification. Analysis was restricted to married women with data on age at marriage (n = 682). For child brides (N = 202), there were no statistically or marginally significant decreases in physical and/or sexual violence, physical violence, or sexual violence. The odds of reporting economic abuse in the past year were lower in the intervention arm for child brides relative to control group child brides (odds ratio [OR] = .33; 95% confidence interval [CI] = .13-.85; p = .02). For nonchild brides (N = 480), women were less likely to report physical and/or sexual violence (OR = .54; 95% CI = .28-1.04; p = .06), emotional violence (OR = .44; 95% CI = .25-.77; p = .004), and economic abuse (OR = .36; 95% CI = .20-.66; p = .001) in the combined intervention arm than their group savings-only counterparts. Findings suggest that intervention participants with a history of child marriage may have greater difficulty benefiting from interventions that seek to reduce intimate partner violence. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Conflict and Violence Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2008-01-01

    Preventing and handling aggressive or potentially violent situations in the hospitality industry and especially in bars and nightclubs is unfortunately a common area of concern for operators and staff

  9. Evaluation of an Education and Training Program to Prevent and Manage Patients’ Violence in a Mental Health Setting: A Pretest-Posttest Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Stéphane; Goncalves, Jane; Boyer, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Workplace violence can lead to serious consequences for victims, organizations, and society. Most workplace violence prevention programs aim to train staff to better recognize and safely manage at-risk situations. The Omega education and training program was developed in Canada in 1999, and has since been used to teach healthcare and mental health workers the skills needed to effectively intervene in situations of aggression. The present study was designed to assess the impact of Omega on employee psychological distress, confidence in coping, and perceived exposure to violence. This program was offered to 105 employees in a psychiatric hospital in Montreal, Canada. Eighty-nine of them accepted to participate. Questionnaires were completed before the training, after a short period of time (M = 109 days) and at follow-up (M = 441 days). Repeated-measures ANOVAs and Cohen’s d effect sizes were calculated. Results demonstrated statistically significant improvements in short-term and follow-up posttest scores of psychological distress, confidence in coping, and in levels of exposure to violence. This study is one of very few to demonstrate the positive impact of this training program. Further research is needed to understand how to improve the effectiveness of the program, especially among participants resistant to change. PMID:27490582

  10. "Like a family but better because you can actually trust each other": the Expect Respect dating violence prevention program for at-risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Barbara; Kerig, Patricia K; Rosenbluth, Barri

    2009-01-01

    Expect Respect, a teen dating violence prevention program, was among four programs selected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to participate in an empowerment evaluation project. As one aspect of this project, a qualitative study was designed to investigate the effects of Expect Respect support groups for at-risk youth. The goal was to understand the "how and why" of the program's impact on participants. Group interviews were conducted with five boys' and five girls' support groups after completion of the program. Settings included public middle and high schools and alternative schools in juvenile detention. Participants were asked to describe significant learning experiences in support groups as well as changes in their relationships resulting from program participation. Youths across all groups reported learning new skills including improved communication, anger control, and alternatives to violence. They reported increased knowledge about healthy relationships and warning signs of dating violence and expanded awareness of their own and others' abusive behaviors. Changed relationship norms were uniquely expressed by a boys' group in juvenile detention. Findings indicate that the experience of emotional safety in groups and positive relationships among group members were instrumental in the learning process.

  11. The effectiveness of a trauma-focused psycho-educational secondary prevention program for children exposed to interparental violence: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Children who witness interparental violence are at a heightened risk for developing psychosocial, behavioral and cognitive problems, as well as posttraumatic stress symptoms. For these children the psycho-educational secondary prevention program 'En nu ik...!' ('It's my turn now!') has been developed. This program includes specific therapeutic factors focused on emotion awareness and expression, increasing feelings of emotional security, teaching specific coping strategies, developing a trauma narrative, improving parent-child interaction and psycho-education. The main study aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of the specific therapeutic factors in the program. A secondary objective is to study mediating and moderating factors. Methods/design This study is a prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial across cities in the Netherlands. Participants (N = 140) are referred to the secondary preventive intervention program by police, social work, women shelters and youth (mental health) care. Children, aged 6-12 years, and their parents, who experienced interparental violence are randomly assigned to either the intervention program or the control program. The control program is comparable on nonspecific factors by offering positive attention, positive expectations, recreation, distraction, warmth and empathy of the therapist, and social support among group participants, in ways that are similar to the intervention program. Primary outcome measures are posttraumatic stress symptoms and emotional and behavioral problems of the child. Mediators tested are the ability to differentiate and express emotions, emotional security, coping strategies, feelings of guilt and parent-child interaction. Mental health of the parent, parenting stress, disturbances in parent-child attachment, duration and severity of the domestic violence and demographics are examined for their moderating effect. Data are collected one week before the program starts (T1), and one week

  12. The effectiveness of a trauma-focused psycho-educational secondary prevention program for children exposed to interparental violence: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Overbeek Mathilde M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children who witness interparental violence are at a heightened risk for developing psychosocial, behavioral and cognitive problems, as well as posttraumatic stress symptoms. For these children the psycho-educational secondary prevention program 'En nu ik...!' ('It's my turn now!' has been developed. This program includes specific therapeutic factors focused on emotion awareness and expression, increasing feelings of emotional security, teaching specific coping strategies, developing a trauma narrative, improving parent-child interaction and psycho-education. The main study aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of the specific therapeutic factors in the program. A secondary objective is to study mediating and moderating factors. Methods/design This study is a prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial across cities in the Netherlands. Participants (N = 140 are referred to the secondary preventive intervention program by police, social work, women shelters and youth (mental health care. Children, aged 6-12 years, and their parents, who experienced interparental violence are randomly assigned to either the intervention program or the control program. The control program is comparable on nonspecific factors by offering positive attention, positive expectations, recreation, distraction, warmth and empathy of the therapist, and social support among group participants, in ways that are similar to the intervention program. Primary outcome measures are posttraumatic stress symptoms and emotional and behavioral problems of the child. Mediators tested are the ability to differentiate and express emotions, emotional security, coping strategies, feelings of guilt and parent-child interaction. Mental health of the parent, parenting stress, disturbances in parent-child attachment, duration and severity of the domestic violence and demographics are examined for their moderating effect. Data are collected one week before the program

  13. Preventing Youth Violence in a Multicultural Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Nancy G., Ed.; Smith, Emilie Phillips, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Preventing Youth Violence in a Multicultural Society" highlights the importance of creating culturally compatible interventions to stop violence among the youngest members of diverse populations. Chapters explore how ethnicity and culture can increase or decrease risk for violence among youth depending on contextual factors such as a…

  14. Measuring implementation of a school-based violence prevention program : Fidelity and teachers' responsiveness as predictors of proximal outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultes, Marie Therese; Stefanek, Elisabeth; van de Schoot, Rens|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833207; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Spiel, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    When school-based prevention programs are put into practice, evaluation studies commonly only consider one indicator of program implementation. The present study investigates how two different aspects of program implementation - fidelity and participant responsiveness - jointly influence proximal

  15. A labor perspective of workplace violence prevention. Identifying research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, J

    2001-02-01

    During the past decade, labor unions have contributed to efforts to increase awareness of the importance of workplace violence as an occupational hazard. Research by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and the U.S. Department of Justice have bolstered these efforts. This research revealed that workplace violence is the second leading cause of traumatic-injury death on the job for men, the leading cause of traumatic-injury death on the job for women, and accounts for some 2 million nonfatal injuries each year in the United States. Ten years ago, the debate focused on whether workplace violence is an occupational hazard or strictly a police and criminal justice issue. Labor unions have joined with occupational safety and health professionals in recognizing that workplace violence is a serious occupational hazard that is often predictable and preventable. They have advocated that employers establish multidimensional violence-prevention programs. Although the nature of workplace violence varies from industry to industry, implementation of the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Violence Prevention Guidelines for Health Care and Social Service Workers and for Late-Night Retail Establishments is a high priority to unions in the affected industries. Labor wants employers to invest in protecting workers from violence through voluntary programs and state legislation, and it supports the promulgation of a mandatory federal OSHA standard. To that end, intervention research can play a key role in demonstrating effective, technically and economically feasible prevention strategies

  16. School-based violence prevention strategy: a pilot evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakore, Rachel V; Apfeld, Jordan C; Johnson, Ronald K; Sathiyakumar, Vasanth; Jahangir, A Alex; Sethi, Manish K

    2015-07-01

    Violence has recently been reported among a primarily young, minority population in Nashville, Tennessee. School-based programs have been proven as effective methods of reducing violent behavior, beliefs, and actions that lead to violence among adolescents. Investigators implemented a rigorous search for an appropriate school-based violence prevention program for Metropolitan Nashville middle school students utilizing a systematic review and discussion group with victims of violence. 27 programs nation-wide were reviewed and 2 discussion groups with African American males under the age of 25 admitted to a level 1 trauma center for assault-related injuries were conducted. Our findings led to a single, evidence-based conflict resolution program. In conjunction with educators, we evaluated the program's effectiveness in a pilot study in a Nashville middle school with high rates of violence. 122 students completed the conflict resolution program and described their behavior and experiences with violence in a pre-test/post-test self-rate questionnaire. Results showed a significant decrease in violent behavior and an increase in students' competencies to deal with violence (p less than 0.05). This study shows that a reduction in violent behavior and beliefs among middle school students can be achieved through the implementation of a targeted violence intervention program. A larger-scale intervention is needed to develop more conclusive evidence of effectiveness. © 2015 KUMS, All rights reserved.

  17. Sexual Violence on Campus: Strategies for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fraternity men to learn positive, healthy norms about masculinity to prevent perpetration and learn how to support survivors in their community. Teach Skills to Prevent Sexual Violence n Campuses are teaching students about healthy sexuality ...

  18. After Columbine: A Schoolplace Violence Prevention Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinna, Kelly A.

    Using the violent events that took place at Columbine High School in 1999 as an example, this book serves to inform teachers, administrators, school resource officers, and concerned parents about school violence. It can be used to help develop a response and prevention plan to handle threats and violence in schools. This book is a guidance manual…

  19. From Pennsylvania's Front Line against Crime: A School and Youth Violence Prevention Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Based on findings that high-quality early care and education, youth development programs for after-school and summer hours, child abuse and neglect prevention, and intervention programs can help to prevent violence crime, this document presents a violence prevention plan for the schools and youth of Pennsylvania. Four actions are proposed to…

  20. Mediation: A Violence Prevention Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conflict Resolution Unlimited, Inc., Bellevue, WA.

    Young people need help in learning alternative dispute resolution skills. A program that aims to do this, set in a context of preventing violent behavior, is presented here. It is structured into sixteen 45-minute sessions which can be presented by one teacher. The training is organized around the following seven themes: The Mediation Process,…

  1. Incoming College Students' Bystander Behaviors to Prevent Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah; Banyard, Victoria L.; McMahon, Sheila M.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluations of bystander intervention education programs demonstrate that this approach results in students' increased willingness to intervene in prosocial ways to prevent sexual violence (e.g., Moynihan, Banyard, Arnold, Eckstein, & Stapleton, 2010). These programs often focus on first-year college students, though theories and research on…

  2. Commentary: evidence to guide gun violence prevention in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Daniel W

    2015-03-18

    Gun violence is a major threat to the public's health and safety in the United States. The articles in this volume's symposium on gun violence reveal the scope of the problem and new trends in mortality rates from gunfire. Leading scholars synthesize research evidence that demonstrates the ability of numerous policies and programs-each consistent with lessons learned from successful efforts to combat public health problems-to prevent gun violence. Each approach presents challenges to successful implementation. Future research should inform efforts to assess which approaches are most effective and how to implement evidence-based interventions most effectively.

  3. Preventing violence while reducing poverty | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ​​Can a poverty-reduction program also help reduce crime and violence? New findings from IDRC-supported research in South Africa suggest that it might, if it is implemented in the right way. In a new article for the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR), David Bruce traces one of the ways South ...

  4. Violence Prevention, Access to Justice, and Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This is particularly true given the deep socio-economic inequalities and the alarmingly high levels of violence that women face. These problems are deeply rooted. They need complex policy approaches and practices. Economic opportunities and violence Governments have increasingly introduced special programs and ...

  5. Multi-College Bystander Intervention Evaluation for Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Ann L; Bush, Heather M; Fisher, Bonnie S; Swan, Suzanne C; Williams, Corrine M; Clear, Emily R; DeGue, Sarah

    2016-03-01

    The 2013 Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act requires U.S. colleges to provide bystander-based training to reduce sexual violence, but little is known about the efficacy of such programs for preventing violent behavior. This study provides the first multiyear evaluation of a bystander intervention's campus-level impact on reducing interpersonal violence victimization and perpetration behavior on college campuses. First-year students attending three similarly sized public university campuses were randomly selected and invited to complete online surveys in the spring terms of 2010-2013. On one campus, the Green Dot bystander intervention was implemented in 2008 (Intervention, n=2,979) and two comparison campuses had no bystander programming at baseline (Comparison, n=4,132). Data analyses conducted in 2014-2015 compared violence rates by condition over the four survey periods. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate violence risk on Intervention relative to Comparison campuses, adjusting for demographic factors and time (2010-2013). Interpersonal violence victimization rates (measured in the past academic year) were 17% lower among students attending the Intervention (46.4%) relative to Comparison (55.7%) campuses (adjusted rate ratio=0.83; 95% CI=0.79, 0.88); a similar pattern held for interpersonal violence perpetration (25.5% in Intervention; 32.2% in Comparison; adjusted rate ratio=0.79; 95% CI=0.71, 0.86). Violence rates were lower on Intervention versus Comparison campuses for unwanted sexual victimization, sexual harassment, stalking, and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration (pSexual Violence Elimination Act bystander training requirements. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. Scaling Up a Multifaceted Violence Prevention Package: County-Level Impact of the North Carolina Youth Violence Prevention Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Cotter, Katie L; Guo, Shenyang; Evans, Caroline Bill Robertson

    2017-01-01

    Multifaceted approaches to youth-violence prevention package evidence-based programs into initiatives that yield large-scale impact. This study assessed the impact of a package of evidence-based violence prevention programs, implemented as part of the North Carolina Youth Violence Prevention Center, on county-level violence indicators. Using growth-curve modeling, the target county was compared to all other counties in North Carolina and a comparison county. Results reveal downward trends on several county-level indicators (i.e., undisciplined/delinquent complaints, total delinquent complaints, juvenile arrests-aggravated assaults, and short-term suspensions) throughout the intervention period. However, statistical tests were unable to confirm that intervention-period scores on youth-violence indicators were significantly different than expected scores given the relationship between pretest and intervention-period scores in other North Carolina counties. Although additional administrative data points are needed to support the hypotheses, this study provides preliminary evidence of the effectiveness of North Carolina Youth Violence Prevention Center interventions.

  7. Intimate partner violence: causes and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel

    2002-04-20

    Unlike many health problems, there are few social and demographic characteristics that define risk groups for intimate partner violence. Poverty is the exception and increases risk through effects on conflict, women's power, and male identity. Violence is used as a strategy in conflict. Relationships full of conflict, and especially those in which conflicts occur about finances, jealousy, and women's gender role transgressions are more violent than peaceful relationships. Heavy alcohol consumption also increases risk of violence. Women who are more empowered educationally, economically, and socially are most protected, but below this high level the relation between empowerment and risk of violence is non-linear. Violence is frequently used to resolve a crisis of male identity, at times caused by poverty or an inability to control women. Risk of violence is greatest in societies where the use of violence in many situations is a socially-accepted norm. Primary preventive interventions should focus on improving the status of women and reducing norms of violence, poverty, and alcohol consumption.

  8. [Preventing violence in schizophrenia with cognitive remediation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmedru, C; Demily, C; Franck, N

    2017-06-19

    of the violent and aggressive behaviors of these patients. Various cognitive remediation programs have shown their feasibility in people with schizophrenia and neurocognitive deficits with a history of violence as well as their effectiveness in reducing violence, mainly by reducing impulsivity. Similarly, specific programs dedicated to social cognitive training such as Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT), Reasoning and Rehabilitation Mental Health Program (R&R2 MHP) and Metacognitive Training (MCT) have shown their positive impact on the control and reduction of global aggressive attitudes and on the numbers of physical and verbal aggressive incidents in schizophrenia. The improvement of social cognition would be achieved through the amendment of interpersonal relationships and social functioning. These interventions are effective at different stages of disease progression, in patients with varied profiles, on violent attitudes in general and on the number of verbal and physical attacks, whether for in-patients or out-patients. Beneficial effects can last up to 12months after termination of the study program. The interest of these interventions is preventive if the subject never entered in a violent register or curative in case of a personal history of violence. This type of care can be considered from a symptomatic point of view by limiting downstream the heavy consequences of such acts, but also etiologically by acting on one of the causes of violent behavior. Compliance with the eligibility criteria, carrying out a prior functional analysis and confirmation of the major impulsive part of the patient's violence are prerequisites for the use of these programs. Similarly, the early introduction of such therapies, their repetition over time and the integration of the patient into a comprehensive process of psychosocial rehabilitation will ensure the best chance of success. Some cognitive impairments appear to have their place in the genesis, progression

  9. Doorways III: Teacher Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). Teachers can play a central role in violence prevention, and they can also help…

  10. Parents' Views of the Relevance of a Violence Prevention Program in High, Medium, and Low Human Development Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, Joan; Plateau, Dominique Pierre; Ateah, Christine A.; Holden, George W.; Barker, Leslie A.; Stewart-Tufescu, Ashley; Jones, Alysha D.; Ly, Gia; Ahmed, Rashid

    2017-01-01

    Every day, almost one billion children around the world experience violent punishment. Eliminating all violence against children is a key target of the United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This is a monumental challenge due to the diversity of cultural, economic and social contexts in which children live. Violence-prevention…

  11. Multi–College Bystander Intervention Evaluationon for Violence Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Ann L.; Bush, Heather M.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Swan, Suzanne C.; Williams, Corrine M.; Clear, Emily R.; DeGue, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The 2013 Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act requires U.S. colleges to provide bystander-based training to reduce sexual violence, but little is known about the efficacy of such programs for preventing violent behavior. This study provides the first multiyear evaluation of a bystander intervention’s campus-level impact on reducing interpersonal violence victimization and perpetration behavior on college campuses. Methods First-year students attending three similarly sized public university campuses were randomly selected and invited to complete online surveys in the spring terms of 2010–2013. On one campus, the Green Dot bystander intervention had been implemented since 2008 (Intervention, n=2,979) and two Comparison campuses had no bystander programming at baseline (Comparison, n=4,132). Data analyses conducted in 2014–2015 compared violence rates by condition over the four survey periods. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate violence risk on Intervention relative to Comparison campuses adjusting for demographic factors and time (2010–2013). Results Interpersonal violence victimization rates (measured in the past academic year) were 17% lower among students attending the Intervention (46.4%) relative to Comparison (55.7%) campuses (adjusted rate ratio, 0.83; 95% CI=0.79, 0.88); a similar pattern held for interpersonal violence perpetration (25.5% in Intervention; 32.2% in Comparison; adjusted rate ratio, 0.79; 95% CI=0.71, 0.86). Violence rates were lower on Intervention versus Comparison campuses for unwanted sexual victimization, sexual harassment, stalking, and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration (pviolence at the community-level and meet Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act bystander training requirements. PMID:26541099

  12. Adolescent violence prevention: a case presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Hatim; Griffith, Joan

    2003-01-01

    Violence in adolescence has seen an increase since the 1990s with dramatic statistics on violent death and risk behaviors. School violence has been focused upon by a huge media coverage of especially violent cases that could have had some endemic consequences worldwide. We present a case of a 14 year old white male with change in school behavior, strategies for the case investigation, its results, and long term prevention. Other research has shown that preventive measures during pregnancy, infancy and childhood can prevent adolescent and adult delinquency.

  13. The Leadership Program’s Violence Prevention Project: Infusing the Arts into Conflict Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Chauveron

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available While the demand for youth violence prevention programs increases, the ability of the traditional school day schedule to accommodate violence prevention program time requirements has diminished. School reforms, such as No Child Left Behind, have pressed schools to focus more tightly on academics, often to the exclusion of subjects such as physical education and the arts. Viable violence prevention programs must offer components that supplement classroom curriculum as well as reduce violence and strike a balance between brevity and effectiveness. The Leadership Program’s (TLP universal Violence Prevention Project (VPP meets this call with a conflict resolution model for students in urban schools. The curriculum is based on a conceptual framework derived from prevention science and positive youth development delivered through the vehicle of the arts. Utilizing an engaging hybrid prevention program, this high quality 12 session model melds fidelity and adaptation to yield effective evaluation outcomes.

  14. Preventing youth violence and delinquency through a universal school-based prevention approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvin, Gilbert J; Griffin, Kenneth W; Nichols, Tracy Diaz

    2006-12-01

    Violence is an important public health problem among adolescents in the United States. Substance use and violence tend to co-occur among adolescents and appear to have similar etiologies. The present study examined the extent to which a comprehensive prevention approach targeting an array of individual-level risk and protective factors and previously found effective in preventing tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use is capable of decreasing violence and delinquency. Schools (N=41) were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions. Participants in the 20 intervention schools received the Life Skills Training prevention program including material focusing on violence and the media, anger management, and conflict resolution skills. Survey data were collected from 4,858 sixth grade students prior to the intervention and three months later after the intervention. Findings showed significant reductions in violence and delinquency for intervention participants relative to controls. Stronger prevention effects were found for students who received at least half of the preventive intervention. These effects include less verbal and physical aggression, fighting, and delinquency. The results of this study indicate that a school-based prevention approach previously found to prevent tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use can also prevent violence and delinquency.

  15. Procedures for Preventing Juvenile Violence in Switzerland: The Zurich Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrass, Jerome; Rossegger, Astrid; Urbaniok, Frank; Laubacher, Arja; Pierce, Christine Schnyder; Moskvitin, Konstantin

    2011-01-01

    The Swiss legal system places strong emphasis on risk assessment and treatment of potentially violent offenders. Especially after the 2001 Zug massacre, there is close cooperation between the judicial and mental health systems to prevent violence through early detection and intervention. A case study of a risk management program for a dangerous…

  16. How culture impacts the dissemination and implementation of innovation: a case study of the Families and Schools Together program (FAST) for preventing violence with immigrant Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Nancy G; Knox, Lyndee

    2008-06-01

    We consider how culture impacts the translation of research into practice, focusing on the culture of the client and the culture of the agency implementing selected programs. We build on lessons learned from a pilot study of an evidence-based family-school partnership, Families and Schools Together (FAST), to prevent youth violence with low-income, immigrant Latino families in Southern California. We examine the impact of cultural characteristics on the translation of this innovation into practice at the community level, relying on an interactive systems framework developed recently by Wandersman and colleagues (2008, American Journal of Community Psychology, 41(3-4), in press) discussed in this issue. As we point out, the culture of the client and the culture of the agency can facilitate or impede connections within and across these interactive systems.

  17. Violence prevention among HIV-positive women with histories of violence: healing women in their communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Gail E; Hamilton, Alison B; Myers, Hector F; Ullman, Jodie B; Chin, Dorothy; Sumner, Lekeisha A; Loeb, Tamra B; Carmona, Jennifer V; Zhang, Muyu; Liu, Honghu

    2011-11-01

    Experiences of past and current gender-based violence are common among HIV-positive women in the United States, who are predominantly from ethnic minority groups. However, culturally congruent, feasible interventions for HIV-positive women who have experienced past and/or current violence are not widely available. The Office on Women's Health Gender Forum has made several recommendations for responding to the National HIV/AIDS Strategy Implementation Plan, including recommendations to incorporate gender-based violence prevention into a comprehensive, gender-responsive national strategy. This paper draws on an example of a community-based project for HIV-positive women, the Healing Our Women Project, to illustrate how violence prevention can be achieved within peer-led and community-based programming. Strong community partnerships, responsiveness to community needs and local cultural norms, a trained workforce, and culturally competent care are programmatic cornerstones of gender-responsive services. HIV-positive women with histories of gender-based violence and risk factors for current and future violence deserve the highest quality gender-responsive services to ensure that they can address their health needs within contexts of safety and respect. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Childhood Violence Prevention Education Using Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Leonard; Beckerman, Adela

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project that incorporated interactive technology to teach violence prevention knowledge and skills to second grade students. The educational video games presented lessons consisting of animated characters in a story, accompanied by a number of exercises. The research issue was whether students would develop an appreciation…

  19. Social Disorganisation, Social Capital and Violence Prevention in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social Disorganisation, Social Capital and Violence Prevention in South Africa. ... African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention ... The article concludes with a discussion of some of the potential implications that a social capital perspective might hold for violence prevention and safety promotion.

  20. First Steps: Taking Action Early To Prevent Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel; Nageer, Sherlina; Cohen, Larry; Tepperman, Jean; Biderman, Fran; Henkle, Gretchen

    This report pulls together what is known about the intersection of early childhood development and violence prevention into a coherent strategy. It presents essential information about key risk and resiliency factors relevant to early development and violence prevention, research on a broad range of violence prevention issues, and recommendations…

  1. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... minimize the trauma to the child victim, to define and specify each party's responsibilities, and to... and regulations that provide for the care and protection of children and families on Indian... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How may Indian child protection and family violence...

  2. Eliciting behavior change in a US sexual violence and intimate partner violence prevention program through utilization of Freire and discussion facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Atiba; Lewy, Robin; Ricardo, Francine; Dovydaitis, Tiffany; Hunter, Amber; Mitchell, Ashley; Loe, Claire; Kugel, Candace

    2010-09-01

    Designed by Migrant Clinicians Network, the Hombres Unidos Contra La Violencia Familiar (Men United Against Family Violence) Project used facilitated discussion groups as the method to encourage self-reflection and behavior change. Male participants were not taught to rectify any past sexual or intimate partner violence (SV/IPV) 'tendencies', rather the discussion facilitation allowed them to reflect on the SV/IPV that was present in their lives and in the Hispanic community. Subsequently, the sessions and self-reflection, coupled with the discussions with other participating males, empowered several participants to have further interactions about SV/IPV with individuals in their community. The discussions led participants to realize that SV/IPV existed in their community, but that there were males within their community that wanted to change. The Hombres Unidos Contra La Violencia Familiar project demonstrated that behavior change does not need to be actively persuaded, but that self-reflection, which elicits behavior change, can be achieved through facilitated discussion and by permitting the facilitators to become participants. By creating sessions that allow participants to construct their own understanding of the perceived problem while reflecting on their past behavior, true behavior change that is initiated by the participant can be achieved. Through discussion facilitation, a targeted and structured behavior change intervention can assist participants in realizing that their past actions were damaging to themselves and their community, while aiding the participant in employing self-initiated responses, learned within the discussions, to alter their behaviors.

  3. Commentary on Foubert, Godin, & Tatum (2010): The Evolution of Sexual Violence Prevention and the Urgency for Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Andra Teten; DeGue, Sarah; Lang, Karen; Valle, Linda Anne; Massetti, Greta; Holt, Melissa; Matjasko, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Foubert, Godin, and Tatum describe qualitative effects among college men of The Men's Program, a one-session sexual violence prevention program. This article and the program it describes are representative of many sexual violence prevention programs that are in practice and provide an opportunity for a brief discussion of the development and…

  4. Meta-Analysis on Dating Violence Prevention among Middle and High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Siu-Man Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Meta-analysis was applied to study the empirical research from 1990-2007 regarding the effectiveness of the dating violence prevention programs in middle and high schools on students' knowledge and attitudes. The results show that overall the program participants improved their knowledge and attitudes towards dating violence. Implications for…

  5. The role of the pediatrician in youth violence prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Ki Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available School bullying has become a major social problem in Korea after the emergence of media reports on children who committed suicide after being victimized by bullies. In this article, we review the characteristics of bullying, and investigate the role of the pediatrician in the prevention of and intervention against bullying and school violence. Bullying can take on many forms such as physical threat, verbal humiliation, malicious rumors, and social ostracism. The prevalence of bullying in various countries is approximately 10% to 20%. In Korea, the prevalence of school violence is similar but seems to be more intense because of the highly competitive environment. From our review of literature, we found that children who were bullied had a significantly higher risk of developing psychosomatic and psychosocial problems such as headache, abdominal pain, anxiety, and depression than those who were not bullied. Hence, it is important for health practitioners to detect these signs in a child who was bullied by questioning and examining the child, and to determine whether bullying plays a contributing role when a child exhibits such signs. Pediatricians can play an important role in the prevention of or intervention against school violence along with school authorities, parents, and community leaders. Moreover, guidelines to prevent school violence, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa of the Finish Ministry of Education, and Connected Kids: Safe, Strong, Secure of the American Academy Pediatrics, should be implemented.

  6. The role of the pediatrician in youth violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon Ki; Kim, Nam Su

    2013-01-01

    School bullying has become a major social problem in Korea after the emergence of media reports on children who committed suicide after being victimized by bullies. In this article, we review the characteristics of bullying, and investigate the role of the pediatrician in the prevention of and intervention against bullying and school violence. Bullying can take on many forms such as physical threat, verbal humiliation, malicious rumors, and social ostracism. The prevalence of bullying in various countries is approximately 10% to 20%. In Korea, the prevalence of school violence is similar but seems to be more intense because of the highly competitive environment. From our review of literature, we found that children who were bullied had a significantly higher risk of developing psychosomatic and psychosocial problems such as headache, abdominal pain, anxiety, and depression than those who were not bullied. Hence, it is important for health practitioners to detect these signs in a child who was bullied by questioning and examining the child, and to determine whether bullying plays a contributing role when a child exhibits such signs. Pediatricians can play an important role in the prevention of or intervention against school violence along with school authorities, parents, and community leaders. Moreover, guidelines to prevent school violence, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa of the Finish Ministry of Education, and Connected Kids: Safe, Strong, Secure of the American Academy Pediatrics, should be implemented.

  7. Urban upgrading for violence prevention in South Africa: Does it ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Violence Prevention through Urban Upgrading (VPUU) project, funded jointly by the German Development Bank and the City of Cape Town in South Africa, is a prime example of an evidence-based intervention for violence prevention that was designed to address all urban violence determining factors. The VPUU ...

  8. Community asset mapping for violence prevention: A comparison of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This constitutes an important challenge in relation to violence prevention in both South Africa and the USA. Keywords: community-based participatory research, community asset mapping, interpersonal violence, violence prevention, positive forms of masculinity, peace and safety, religious assets, spiritual capacity ...

  9. Dating Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention with African American Middle Schoolers: Does Group Gender Composition Impact Dating Violence Attitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M.; Weisz, Arlene N.; Jayasundara, Dheeshana S.

    2012-01-01

    A dating violence and sexual assault prevention program was presented to 396, predominately African American, middle schoolers in two inner city schools in the United States. In one school the program was offered with a same-gender group composition; in the other school, the same program was offered with mixed-gender group composition. A…

  10. [Violence prevention in secondary schools: the Faustlos-curriculum for middle school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Andreas; Cierpka, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Schools and kindergartens are particularly suitable for the implementation of violence prevention programs. Many German schools and kindergartens have securely established the violence prevention curriculum Faustlos. The Faustlos programs for kindergartens and elementary schools are now complemented with the version for middle schools. As the kindergarten- and elementary school versions the middle school program too focuses on the theoretically profound, age group-tailored promotion of empathy, impulse control and anger management. These dimensions are subdivided into the five themes "understanding the problem" "training for empathy"; "anger management", "problem solving" and "applying skills" and taught stepwise, highly structured and based on several video sequences in 31 lessons. US-American evaluation studies proof the effectiveness and the violence prevention potential of the program. With the curriculum for middle schools a comprehensive Faustlos program package is now made available to sustainably promote core violence prevention competences of children and adolescents on a developmentally appropriate level and with a consistent didactic approach.

  11. Efectividad de Estrategias de Prevención de Violencia Escolar: La Experiencia del Programa Recoleta en Buena Effectiveness of Prevention Strategies for School Violence: The Experience of the Program Recoleta en Buena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Varela

    2011-11-01

    Students and Observer of Violence From Students to Teachers show a reduction. The results show effectiveness of the program in preventive and promotional matters, but not in more serious violent behaviors. The importance to progress in the evaluation of school violence programs is highlighted.

  12. From Illinois' Front Line against Crime: A School and Youth Violence Prevention Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003

    Noting that one of the most powerful weapons to prevent crime are programs such as quality educational child care, after-school and summer programs, and child abuse prevention, this brief presents the school and youth violence prevention plan of an organization of Illinois law enforcement officers, state's attorneys, crime survivors, and leaders…

  13. Effectively engaging stakeholders and the public in developing violence prevention messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Jennifer A; Wathen, C Nadine; Kothari, Anita

    2017-05-11

    Preventing family violence requires that stakeholders and the broader public be involved in developing evidence-based violence prevention strategies. However, gaps exist in between what we know (knowledge), what we do (action), and the structures supporting practice (policy). We discuss the broad challenge of mobilizing knowledge-for-action in family violence, with a primary focus on the issue of how stakeholders and the public can be effectively engaged when developing and communicating evidence-based violence prevention messages. We suggest that a comprehensive approach to stakeholder and public engagement in developing violence prevention messages includes: 1) clear and consistent messaging; 2) identifying and using, as appropriate, lessons from campaigns that show evidence of reducing specific types of violence; and 3) evidence-informed approaches for communicating to specific groups. Components of a comprehensive approach must take into account the available research evidence, implementation feasibility, and the context-specific nature of family violence. While strategies exist for engaging stakeholders and the public in messaging about family violence prevention, knowledge mobilization must be informed by evidence, dialogue with stakeholders, and proactive media strategies. This paper will be of interest to public health practitioners or others involved in planning and implementing violence prevention programs because it highlights what is known about the issue, potential solutions, and implementation considerations.

  14. 75 FR 14596 - Family Violence Prevention and Services/Grants for Domestic Violence Shelters/Grants to Native...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... credit, employment and financial instability, homelessness, substance abuse, chronic illnesses, and a... discriminate on the basis of age, handicap, sex, race, color, national origin or religion (See 42 U.S.C. 10406... prevention of substance abuse), domestic violence prevention programs for school-age children, family...

  15. Play for Peace as a Violence Prevention Model: Achieving "Voluntad y Convivencia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Michael; Gough, Sarah; Armas, Andres; Dolcino, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Violence prevention is a key focus for many intervention programs, yet little is known about how or why certain programs are able to successfully produce effective prevention efforts. The purpose of this study was to identify the essential elements of the Play for Peace (PFP) program, how it creates change in participants, and how it is…

  16. A Live Threat Violence Simulation Exercise for Psychiatric Outpatient Departments: A Valuable Aid to Training in Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Robert E; Yager, Joel

    2017-10-30

    Violence in psychiatric outpatient settings is a ubiquitous concern. This article describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a live threat violence simulation exercise, designed to reduce the risk of future outpatient clinic violence and minimize the effects of future incidents on staff. The psychiatric outpatient clinic at the University of Colorado Hospital developed, implemented, and evaluated a 4-hour live violence threat simulation exercise as a companion to a 7-hour violence prevention program. The simulation includes an orientation, two threat simulation scenarios, three debriefings, satisfaction surveys, problem identification, action plans, and annual safety and process improvements. The authors have conducted live violence simulation exercises from 2011-2016, and have collected survey data about our annual simulation exercise from 2014-2016. Each year ≥ 52% of participants responded, and each year ≥ 90% of respondents rated the simulation as "very helpful/helpful", ≥ 86% believed themselves to be "much better/better" prepared to deal with violent episodes, and simulation side effects such as worries about past trauma; anxiety; sleep problems; increase in workplace concerns. From 2011-2016, the clinic experienced 4 major violent episodes and 36 episodes of potential violence with no staff injuries and minimal psychological sequelae to one staff member. Violence prevention efforts and the development of close police/staff relationships may have contributed to these fortunate outcomes. Satisfaction surveys suggest that the simulations are very helpful/helpful, with participants feeling much better/ better prepared to manage violence. The exercises led the authors to initiate staff safety related behavioral changes as well as physical space and safety processes improvements. The violence prevention program and simulation exercises have promoted excellent relationships with police and a consistent safety record over six years. This

  17. [Epidemiologic surveillance for the prevention and control urban violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha-Eastman, A; Guerrero, R

    1999-01-01

    Violence prevention policies should be based on information, follow-up, research, and analysis, all of which increase the chances of success and make it easier to evaluate interventions. This implies, in turn, that there is a need to create surveillance, research, and prevention models for violence within the sphere of public health and epidemiology, a task that constitutes an integral part of the Pan American Health Organization's Regional Plan of Action Health and Violence. This article describes the objectives of epidemiologic surveillance systems and explains their purpose and scope, along with the barriers that stand in the way of their implementation. It also examines a number of variables and their definitions, the types of analyses and reports that should be generated, and the decisions that can be made on the basis of these reports. Finally, it discusses ethical criteria and describes the experiences of the program known as Desarrollo, Seguridad y Paz (DESEPAZ) in Cali and Santa Fe de Bogota, Colombia, where an epidemiologic surveillance system against violence has been implemented.

  18. [Drama therapy for the prevention of workplace violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermoso Lloret, Diana; Cervantes Ortega, Genís; Blanch, Josep Maria; Ochoa Pacheco, Paola

    2012-01-01

    To achieve, through a training and preventive intervention, a significant change in the emotional experience of a group of health care professionals at risk of exposure to workplace violence. 143 Catalonian health professionals participated in a training course on occupational risk prevention that incorporated theatrical staging techniques and psychotherapeutic strategies, focused on the interpretation of emotional experiences associated with violence in the workplace. They participated voluntarily in the program and were selectedaccording to type of healthcare delivered and professional diversity. A pre- and post-course questionnaire was administered. Ninety-two percent of respondents claimed to have witnessed, and 85% had personally experienced, a violent episode in the previous five years. The comparison of mean scores before and after the training intervention revealed anincrease in the positive assessment of the effectiveness of one's own performance and communication skills (pteamwork and professional stress itself. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Seguretat i Medicina del Treball.

  19. Cultural context of school communities in rural Hawaii to inform youth violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affonso, Dyanne D; Mayberry, Linda; Shibuya, June Y; Archambeau, Olga G; Correa, Mary; Deliramich, Aimee N; Frueh, B Christopher

    2010-03-01

    Escalation of youth violence within a large geographic school-complex area in southeastern rural Hawaii became a major problem in 2006. How cultural forces impact the problem was an impetus to examine youth violence from perspectives of adults and children in rural communities. Gathering these data was an essential first step toward school-based youth violence prevention program development. Eight focus groups involving 86 community stakeholders included 51 adults (parent, teachers, school staff, community leaders) and 35 children aged 8-15 years old (3rd- to 10-th grade). Qualitative narrative analysis elicited major themes. Five themes emerged: (1) School-community violence takes on many forms that become entrenched in local culture. (2) Disintegration of community resources and a sense of learned helplessness underlie the escalation of youth violence. (3) Inadequate role modeling coupled with behavioral ambivalence among adults has sustained a climate of local cultural acceptance with youth violence. (4) Connection to cultural values has diminished, leading to a sense of loss in cultural identity among students. (5) Cultural values and practices are potential strategies for youth violence prevention. Cultural and community contextual factors contributed to youth violence in rural Hawaiian communities. Study implications include the need to further investigate the impact of vigilant, community involvement of stakeholders in school-based youth violence prevention program development. Cultural revitalization at family, school, and community levels may be critical success factors of such programs.

  20. ACT against Violence Parents Raising Safe Kids Program: Effects on Maltreatment-Related Parenting Behaviors and Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Michele S.; Burkhart, Kimberly; Hunter, Kimberly E.

    2011-01-01

    The ACT Against Violence Parents Raising Safe Kids program (ACT-PRSK) is an interactive violence prevention program developed by the American Psychological Association for parents of young children. The program teaches and supports parents in the areas of child development, roots and consequences of violence, anger management for adults and…

  1. Preventing Youth Violence: Opportunities for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Simon, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    All forms of violence, including youth violence, suicidal behavior, child maltreatment, sexual violence, intimate partner violence, and elder abuse, negatively affect the health and well-being of this country. Youth violence, in particular, is a significant public health problem. Many young people and communities view the grim facts about youth…

  2. Workplace Violence Training Programs for Health Care Workers: An Analysis of Program Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbury, Sheila; Hodgson, Michael; Zankowski, Donna; Lipscomb, Jane

    2017-06-01

    Commercial workplace violence (WPV) prevention training programs differ in their approach to violence prevention and the content they present. This study reviews 12 such programs using criteria developed from training topics in the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Guidelines for Preventing Workplace Violence for Healthcare and Social Service Workers and a review of the WPV literature. None of the training programs addressed all the review criteria. The most significant gap in content was the lack of attention to facility-specific risk assessment and policies. To fill this gap, health care facilities should supplement purchased training programs with specific training in organizational policies and procedures, emergency action plans, communication, facility risk assessment, and employee post-incident debriefing and monitoring. Critical to success is a dedicated program manager who understands risk assessment, facility clinical operations, and program management and evaluation.

  3. Communications and technology for violence prevention: workshop summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blakeslee, Katherine M; Patel, Deepali; Simon, Melissa A

    2012-01-01

    .... At the same time, new communications technologies and distribution channels have altered traditional means of communications, and have made community-based efforts to prevent violence possible...

  4. Empowering Peers To Prevent Youth Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazler, Richard J.; Carney, JoLynn V.

    2002-01-01

    An examination of peer-on-peer abuse (e.g., bullying, harassment) and peer-on-self abuse (e.g., suicide, self-mutilation) prevention programs identified more effective ways to involve youth in similar programs. Stronger programs emphasized youth empowerment through active roles in program development and reaching out with understanding and support…

  5. Preventing violence in developing countries: a framework for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercy, James A; Butchart, Alexander; Rosenberg, Mark L; Dahlberg, Linda; Harvey, Alison

    2008-12-01

    Violence is an enormous global public health problem that increases the risk of injury, disease and poor mental health while also impeding economic and social development. This paper articulates a framework for violence prevention in developing countries that is grounded in the knowledge gained from research and programmatic efforts in rich and in poor countries over several decades. This framework can be used by countries and funding agencies as a guide to building strong foundations for ongoing violence prevention efforts and for identifying violence prevention strategies most likely to be effective. The world has learned a lot about preventing violence and, without a doubt, there is a great deal more to learn. As a global community, however, it is not possible to wait for perfect solutions to these problems to act. The obligation is to act now to use the valuable knowledge that has been gained about violence prevention to improve the world.

  6. Prevention of Injury and Violence in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegerich, Tamara M; Dahlberg, Linda L; Simon, Thomas R; Baldwin, Grant T; Sleet, David A; Greenspan, Arlene I

    2015-01-01

    In the first three decades of life, more individuals in the USA die from injuries and violence than from any other cause. Millions more people survive and are left with physical, emotional, and financial problems. Injuries and violence are not accidents; they are preventable. Prevention has a strong scientific foundation, yet efforts are not fully implemented or integrated into clinical and community settings. In this Series paper, we review the burden of injuries and violence in the USA, note effective interventions, and discuss methods to bring interventions into practice. Alliances between the public health community and medical care organisations, health-care providers, states, and communities can reduce injuries and violence. We encourage partnerships between medical and public health communities to consistently frame injuries and violence as preventable, identify evidence-based interventions, provide scientific information to decision makers, and strengthen the capacity of an integrated health system to prevent injuries and violence. PMID:24996591

  7. Violence against Women on the College Campus: Evaluating Anti-Violence Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Roberta E.

    2010-01-01

    Violence against women is a significant problem on America's college campuses. In response to this violence, many universities have developed direct service programs to assist the survivors of violence as well as educational programs to raise awareness about and/or reduce the likelihood of such violence. There has been no scholarly inquiry…

  8. The Relationship of Abortion and Violence Against Women: Violence Prevention Strategies and Research Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Catherine T; Shuping, Martha W; Speckhard, Anne; Brightup, Jennie E

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of peace psychology, the role of abortion in acts of violence against women is explored, with a focus on violence-prevention strategies. Setting aside the political debate, this task force report takes the conflict-transformation approach of considering all perspectives that have concern for the right of women to avoid being victims of violence. The evidence that victims of Intimate Partner Violence are disproportionately represented in women presenting for abortion suggests a need for screening at clinics. Coerced abortion is a form of violence and has occurred by government policy in China and as a result of other violence against women: sex trafficking and war situations. Sex-selection abortion of female fetuses, referred to as "gendercide," has reached pandemic proportions and caused a gender imbalance in some countries. Psychology, through empirical research, can make unique contributions to understanding the relationship between abortion and violence and in developing prevention strategies.

  9. International Society for Violence and Injury Prevention International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Society for Violence and Injury Prevention (ISVIP) hosted the International Conference on “Children and Injuries” in Cape Town, South Africa from 31 August to 3 September 2008. ISVIP's mission is to establish global commitment to violence and injury prevention through advocacy and public policy action, ...

  10. What do we know about preventing school violence? A systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Soraya; Lawrence, Cayleigh; Ward, Catherine L

    2017-03-01

    Many children across the world are exposed to school violence, which undermines their right to education and adversely affects their development. Studies of interventions for school violence suggest that it can be prevented. However, this evidence base is challenging to navigate. We completed a systematic review of interventions to reduce four types of school violence: (a) peer violence; (b) corporal punishment; (c) student-on-teacher violence and (d) teacher-on-student violence. Reviewers independently searched databases and journals. Included studies were published between 2005 and 2015; in English; considered school-based interventions for children and measured violence as an outcome. Many systematic reviews were found, thus we completed a systematic review of systematic reviews. Only systematic reviews on interventions for intimate partner violence (IPV) and peer aggression were found. These reviews were generally of moderate quality. Research on both types of violence was largely completed in North America. Only a handful of programmes demonstrate promise in preventing IPV. Cognitive behavioral, social-emotional and peer mentoring/mediation programmes showed promise in reducing the levels of perpetration of peer aggression. Further research needs to determine the long-term effects of interventions, potential moderators and mediators of program effects, program effects across different contexts and key intervention components.

  11. Burgeoning directions for the prevention of youth violence. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Cheryl Anne; Robinson, W Lavome; Richards, Maryse H

    2011-01-01

    Despite focused efforts toward the prevention of youth violence within the United States, it continues to adversely affect the lives of children and families within our communities and society at large. The articles in this issue address risk and protective factors that affect violence among urban youth to inform prevention and treatment. Pathways to youth violence are complex and may begin early. Prevention efforts in school, family, and community settings that address risk and protective factors within a socially, culturally, and ecologically valid context early in human development are crucial. While challenges remain for the prevention of youth violence, research suggests opportunities to improve our efforts. Federal agency initiatives in partnership with communities are currently underway to increase the knowledge base and advance prevention of youth violence among diverse populations.

  12. Reducing Youth Gun Violence: An Overview of Programs and Initiatives. Program Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

    This report discusses a wide array of violence prevention strategies used across the United States, ranging from school-based prevention to gun market interception. Relevant research, evaluation, and legislation are included to ground these programs and provide a context for their successful implementation. The first section of the report is an…

  13. Building relationships and resilience in the prevention of youth violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, R M; Hopson, T; Haskins, M; Powell, K E

    1996-01-01

    Self Enhancement, Inc., is a grassroots, community-service organization working in the most disadvantaged high-risk community in Portland, Oregon. Its violence-prevention program targets middle-school and high-school students by providing classroom and community activities to these young people. These activities are designed to enhance protective factors and build resilience in youths to enable them to attain healthy and productive lives and to resist the threats of gangs, violence, and drugs. RMC Research Corporation works in partnership with Self Enhancement, Inc., to conduct research and evaluation on the effectiveness of its programs. The Self Enhancement, Inc., program works primarily at the individual student and interpersonal relationship levels. Resilience Theory and its culturally specific Relationship Model drive the formulation of specific strategies and activities. Program staff mentor each student through his or her preadolescent and adolescent years, promoting positive, prosocial norms and expectations for behavior through their peer group activities. The Self Enhancement, Inc., program consists of three major components: classroom, exposure, and proactive education. Classroom education focuses on anger management, conflict resolution, and problem solving. Exposure education consists of quarterly field trips to agencies and organizations in the Portland area that deal with the causes and consequences of violence in the community. Proactive education includes newsletters, student-run assemblies and conferences, and radio/ television public service announcements that communicate antiviolence messages. The evaluation plan is a longitudinal matched comparison group designed to assess the outcomes of the violence-prevention program. Key outcomes are protective factors, health-risk behaviors, and academic measures. Standardized assessment instruments (the Individual Protective Factors Index and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey) were administered to all

  14. Are universities preventing violence against women?

    OpenAIRE

    Mott, H. L.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual harassment of women students is rife and violence against women in universities is commonplace. Are universities reflecting cultural norms of violence against women instead of shaping new norms?

  15. Interventions for preventing or reducing domestic violence against pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanfar, Shayesteh; Howard, Louise M; Medley, Nancy

    2014-11-12

    Abuse Score for partner abuse in the first three months was also similar between groups (MD -0.12 lower, 95% CI -0.31 lower to 0.07 higher, one study, 191 women, very low quality). Evidence for the outcomes episodes of partner abuse during pregnancy or episodes during the first three months postpartum was not significant (respectively, RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.25 to 1.02, one study with 220 women, very low quality; and RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.35 to 1.04, one study, 271 women, very low quality). Finally, the risk for low birthweight (domestic violence on pregnancy outcomes. There is a need for high-quality, RCTs with adequate statistical power to determine whether intervention programs prevent or reduce domestic violence episodes during pregnancy, or have any effect on maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity outcomes.

  16. The impact of culturally relevant violence prevention models on school-age youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Laxley W; Johnson, Dana L; Srivastava, Rameshwar P

    2005-09-01

    The Family and Community Violence Prevention (FCVP) Program was established in 1994 to address the escalation of youth violence among ethnic minorities. This federally funded program adapted the public health model and organized Family Life Centers throughout the country to serve youth who were considered to be at risk for violence and other abusive behaviors. The purpose of this three-year study, 1999-2002, was to determine the effectiveness of the FCVP Program's six-component curriculum in reducing violence among participants. Results from posttest scores of 2,315 youth showed girls 12 and over to be most at risk for deviant behaviors; the program was most effective with boys under age 12. Academic performance and bonding to school were protective factors whereas exposure to violence was a risk factor for all four ethnic groups studied--African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Native Hawaiians. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: Cultural anthropologists, public health specialists, and school officials should know that prevention programs can be designed to reflect the unique, culturally appropriate norms of specific ethnic minority groups, even as these programs address shared risk factors. The authors discuss the promising strategy of enhancing academic performance and school bonding to serve as protective factors against school violence, but they also describe age, gender, and cultural differences that must be addressed in future research.

  17. Practicing school psychologists' perceived role in prevention of school violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Vincent J; Burns, Matthew K

    2004-02-01

    School psychologists have been called upon to take a leadership role in school-violence prevention, but little is known about their involvement in this issue, especially in states where school shootings have occurred. The current study surveyed 258 Michigan school psychologists about their role in prevention of school violence. Analysis suggested respondents felt prepared to address violence prevention but do not have a leadership role and are not sought for advice about prevention. The number of annual special education evaluations was significantly associated with frequency of being sought for advice on violence prevention but was not related to perceptions of leadership or preparedness. Modest relationships were noted between feeling prepared, knowledge of risk factors, and self-perceptions of a leadership role. Suggestions for research are included.

  18. Creating Safe and Healthy Futures: Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Reischl, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Youth are in the cross-fire of gun violence, and the highest rate in the nation is in Flint, Michigan. This article highlights six innovative strategies that prepare youth to solve problems at home and in their communities in peaceful ways. The Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center (MI-YVPC) works with community groups to strengthen…

  19. Emergency Protocol and Violence Prevention in a University Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Dylan

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed the emergency protocol and violence prevention methods utilized at an American university. The four research questions were: (1) What are the sources of violence at the university? a. How has the university addressed these sources? (2) What constitutes an emergency in the eyes of the university? (3) How do emergency protocols…

  20. SCHOOL VIOLENCE: PREVENTION TOOLS AND RESOURCES. YOUTH’S EXPERIENCES, BASED ON THE BOOK “I STOPPED THE SCHOOL VIOLENCE. YOU CAN DO THE SAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Juknienė

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available School violence can be prevented. Research shows that prevention efforts by teachers, administrators, parents, community members, and even students can reduce violence and improve the overall school environment. Prevention efforts should ultimately reduce risk factors and promote protective factors at these multiple levels of influence. This article reviews the experience preventing school violence, based on the school psychologists practical and theoretical findings. School SMURTO PREVENCIJOS GALIMYBĖS MOKYKLOJE. JAUNIMO PATIRTYS KNYGOJE 103 „AŠ ĮVEIKIAU, NEBIJOK KOVOTI“ Violence: Prevention tools and resources were reviewed in this article. Based on the real school experience, it was described Olweus, Selezian and other violence prevention, educational programs. Based on the book “I stopped the school violence. You can do the same” were reviewed youths real experiences reducing the risk for violence. Were reviewed implications for crisis intervention and given recommendations for brief treatment practices, how to stop the violence in the school settings, strengthening young people’s abilities effectively solve difficulties.

  1. Doorways I: Student Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). "Doorways I: Student Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence…

  2. Doorways III: Teacher Reference Materials. On School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways III: Teacher Reference Materials on School-Related…

  3. How social inclusion is preventing violence and crime in South Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-11-26

    Nov 26, 2015 ... ​IDRC-supported researchers are learning how a public-sector employment program in South Africa is helping to prevent crime and violence in ... This work includes school and early childhood development programming, and caring for the local environment by cleaning, clearing drains, and planting trees.

  4. Connecting youth violence prevention, positive youth development, and community mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kevin W; Edmonds, Torey; Wilson, Karen; Pope, Michell; Farrell, Albert D

    2011-09-01

    Several disconnects serve to weaken the use of evidence based programming in community settings. Communities face the need to address the challenges of multiple risk behaviors faced by adolescents in their communities, but must also work to support successful transitions to adulthood and the broader positive development of their youth. The stronger integration of positive youth development and prevention of youth risk at the community level may offer an opportunity to support the implementation and ongoing development of evidence-based practices (EBPs). This article provides an overview of the VCU Clark-Hill Institute for Positive Youth Development Institute's community mobilization effort in Richmond, Virginia and reports preliminary findings from our integrated mobilization efforts. First, we review the role of our Community Advisory Council in their collaborative work to support positive youth development and reduce risk for youth violence. Next, we present examples of institute efforts in providing technical assistance relevant to supporting the use and development of EBPs. We then discuss the adaptation of an evidence-based program to target positive youth development. We also present overviews from qualitative investigations examining barriers and supports that inform and are relevant to the implementation of EBPs. Finally, we consider ways in which community efforts inform and shape institute efforts to develop EPBs. Taken together, these activities provide examples of how community-based mobilization efforts can integrate and inform the implementation of EBPs and the role and use of prevention science as a tool in supporting effective programming to promote positive youth development and prevent youth violence.

  5. PROFILE VICTIMS OF NOTIFIED IN CORE AND VIOLENCE PREVENTION TO HEALTH PROMOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliete Tasca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Study aiming to identify the profile of the victims reported in the core of violence prevention and health promotion, in a city in the extreme south of Santa Catarina. Research of quali-quantitative methodological approach, descriptive-exploratory documentary and field. The survey was conducted from the analysis of notifications from SINAN-information system of reportable diseases-from 2010 to October 2012 and realization of interview with the nurse program participant. In the data analysis phase, the information were quantified through Microsoft Office Excel and presented by means of quantitative analysis. Organized analysis and interpretation of qualitative data from the categorization of data. In relation to the types of violence, 40.92 was characterised with physical violence; 16.47 auto injury caused; 13.07 neglect and abandonment; 10.29 disability or mental disorder; 6.71; moral psychological violence; 6.07 violence with a firearm; 3.24 sexual violence; 1.81 violence related to work; 1.02 torture; 0.26 legal intervention; 0.07 sexual O perfil das vítimas da violência exploitation; 0.07 trafficking human beings. The violence is considered a public health problem of multiple dimensions requiring increasingly in-depth studies and public policies involving beyond theme of violence, security, education and culture for peace.

  6. Profile victims of notified in Core and Violence Prevention to Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliete Tasca

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Study aiming to identify the profile of the victims reported in the core of violence prevention and health promotion, in a city in the extreme south of Santa Catarina. Research of quali-quantitative methodological approach, descriptive-exploratory documentary and field. The survey was conducted from the analysis of notifications from SINAN-information system of reportable diseases-from 2010 to October 2012 and realization of interview with the nurse program participant. In the data analysis phase, the information were quantified through Microsoft Office Excel and presented by means of quantitative analysis. Organized analysis and interpretation of qualitative data from the categorization of data. In relation to the types of violence, 40.92 was characterised with physical violence; 16.47 auto injury caused; 13.07 neglect and abandonment; 10.29 disability or mental disorder; 6.71; moral psychological violence; 6.07 violence with a firearm; 3.24 sexual violence; 1.81 violence related to work; 1.02 torture; 0.26 legal intervention; 0.07 sexual exploitation; 0.07 trafficking human beings. The violence is considered a public health problem of multiple dimensions requiring increasingly in-depth studies and public policies involving beyond theme of violence, security, education and culture for peace.

  7. THRIVES: Using the best evidence to prevent violence against children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, Susan; Mercy, James; Saul, Janet; Gleckel, Jessie; Abad, Neetu; Kress, Howard

    2016-09-01

    More than 1 billion children - half the children in the world - are victims of violence every year. As part of the Post-2015 sustainable development agenda, the UN has issued a global call-to-action: to eliminate violence against children. Essential to preventing violence against children is guidance to countries on using the best available evidence to address this problem. THRIVES provides this evidence. It represents a framework of complementary strategies that, taken together, have potential to achieve and sustain efforts to prevent violence against children. These strategies, which span health, social services, education, and justice sectors, include Training in parenting, Household economic strengthening, Reduced violence through legislative protection, Improved services, Values and norms that protect children, Education and life skills, and Surveillance and evaluation. For each THRIVES area, we review evidence for effectiveness and identify programmatic or policy examples. This framework will facilitate commitments to effective, sustainable, and scalable action.

  8. 78 FR 20443 - Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... program (FAP) and domestic violence intervention and prevention staff shall direct coordination when a...- 0482. The System of Records Notice for the rule is located at http://www.sapr.mil/media/pdf/dsaid/DSAID.../705006p.pdf ; (10) U.S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women, ``A National Protocol for...

  9. School Violence: Preventative, Restorative, and Educative Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmore, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    Recently in many Canadian schools, escalated violence presents an evident threat. Rates of severe youth violence are considerably lower than sensational media coverage would have people believe, but at the same time, many young people, as well as adults, do not feel safe, respected, or constructively engaged as they should be. While schools cannot…

  10. School-based secondary prevention programmes for preventing violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytton, J; DiGuiseppi, C; Gough, D; Taylor, R; Logan, S

    2006-07-19

    Early aggressive behaviour is a risk factor for later violence and criminal behaviour. Despite over 20 years of violence prevention interventions being delivered in the school setting, questions remain regarding the effectiveness of different interventions for children exhibiting aggressive behaviour. To examine the effect of school based violence prevention programmes for children identified as aggressive or at risk of being aggressive. We searched CENTRAL, Cochrane Injuries Group specialised register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, other specialised databases and reference lists of articles. We also contacted authors and organisations to identify any further studies. We included trials meeting the following criteria; 1) participants were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups; 2) outcome data were collected concurrently; 3) participants comprised children in mandatory education identified as exhibiting, or at risk of, aggressive behaviour; 4) interventions designed to reduce aggression, violence, bullying, conflict or anger; 5) school based interventions; 6) outcomes included aggressive behaviour, school and agency responses to acts of aggression, or violent injuries. Data were collected on design, participants, interventions, outcomes and indicators of study quality. Results of any intervention to no intervention were compared immediately post-intervention and at 12 months using meta-analysis where appropriate. Of 56 trials identified, none reported data on violent injuries. Aggressive behaviour was significantly reduced in intervention groups compared to no intervention groups immediately post intervention in 34 trials with data, (Standardised Mean Difference (SMD) = -0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.56 to -0.26). This effect was maintained in the seven studies reporting 12 month follow-up (SMD = -0.40, (95% CI -0.73 to -0.06)). School or agency disciplinary actions in response to aggressive behaviour were reduced in intervention groups for nine trials

  11. Effect of Education on Prevention of Domestic Violence against Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Noughani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: Family violence, specifically domestic violence, has been identified by the medical community as a serious, no remitting epidemic with adverse health consequences. World Health Organization(WHO has stated that violence against women is a priority issue in the fields of health and human rights. A quasi experimental study were conducted in different faculties of Tehran University of Medical Sciences to determine the effect of teaching on prevention of domestic violence against female employees. "nMethods: Forty four women working in various faculties of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2004 were selected. A designed questionnaire was given to the participants to identify kinds, causes and consequences of domestic violence. Then an educational booklet was given to subjects. This booklet contained information about kinds, causes  and consequences of domestic violence and how to manage them. To compare the impact of teaching, the same questionnaires were distributed among the subjects after six months. The questionnaire was specifically tested for content validity. "nResults:The results indicated that the incidence rate of domestic violence pre test and post test education was 5.17%. "nConclusion: Our study showed that education had no effect on domestic violence. Solving problems relating to domestic violence due to cardinal roots in short time seems to be impossible and impracticable.

  12. Involuntary Outpatient Commitment and the Elusive Pursuit of Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Marvin S; Bhattacharya, Sayanti; Robertson, Allison G; Swanson, Jeffrey W

    2017-02-01

    Involuntary outpatient commitment (OPC)-also referred to as 'assisted outpatient treatment' or 'community treatment orders'-are civil court orders whereby persons with serious mental illness and repeated hospitalisations are ordered to adhere to community-based treatment. Increasingly, in the United States, OPC is promoted to policy makers as a means to prevent violence committed by persons with mental illness. This article reviews the background and context for promotion of OPC for violence prevention and the empirical evidence for the use of OPC for this goal. Relevant publications were identified for review in PubMed, Ovid Medline, PsycINFO, personal communications, and relevant Internet searches of advocacy and policy-related publications. Most research on OPC has focussed on outcomes such as community functioning and hospital recidivism and not on interpersonal violence. As a result, research on violence towards others has been limited but suggests that low-level acts of interpersonal violence such as minor, noninjurious altercations without weapon use and arrests can be reduced by OPC, but there is no evidence that OPC can reduce major acts of violence resulting in injury or weapon use. The impact of OPC on major violence, including mass shootings, is difficult to assess because of their low base rates. Effective implementation of OPC, when combined with intensive community services and applied for an adequate duration to take effect, can improve treatment adherence and related outcomes, but its promise as an effective means to reduce serious acts of violence is unknown.

  13. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) Page Content On this page: ... increased risk of developing diabetes. [ Top ] Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes Type 2 diabetes is a disorder ...

  14. Male Veteran Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Program Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Bradley J

    2016-01-01

    The prominence and incidence of intimate partner violence (IPV) with male military veterans vary, but generally there is consensus that screening and intervention does help reduce IPV. Intervention is generally provided in the community via Batterer Intervention Programs. However, at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) intervention is provided via the Domestic Relations Clinic. Nationally the VA has limited treatment for male IPV. An aggregate sample (n = 178) of participants was assessed using the Domestic Violence/Abuse Screen to measure covariate pre-test and post-test outcomes, program failure, and recidivism. The treatment approach is psycho-educationally based to meet the challenging and unique needs of the military veteran population. The results contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of IPV and highlight the need for more intervention and prevention approaches.

  15. School health guidelines to prevent unintentional injuries and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-07

    Approximately two thirds of all deaths among children and adolescents aged 5-19 years result from injury-related causes: motor-vehicle crashes, all other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Schools have a responsibility to prevent injuries from occurring on school property and at school-sponsored events. In addition, schools can teach students the skills needed to promote safety and prevent unintentional injuries, violence, and suicide while at home, at work, at play, in the community, and throughout their lives. This report summarizes school health recommendations for preventing unintentional injury, violence, and suicide among young persons. These guidelines were developed by CDC in collaboration with specialists from universities and from national, federal, state, local, and voluntary agencies and organizations. They are based on an in-depth review of research, theory, and current practice in unintentional injury, violence, and suicide prevention; health education; and public health. Every recommendation is not appropriate or feasible for every school to implement. Schools should determine which recommendations have the highest priority based on the needs of the school and available resources. The guidelines include recommendations related to the following eight aspects of school health efforts to prevent unintentional injury, violence, and suicide: a social environment that promotes safety; a safe physical environment; health education curricula and instruction; safe physical education, sports, and recreational activities; health, counseling, psychological, and social services for students; appropriate crisis and emergency response; involvement of families and communities; and staff development to promote safety and prevent unintentional injuries, violence, and suicide.

  16. Parents' Expectations of High Schools in Firearm Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Erica; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H

    2017-12-01

    Firearm violence remains a significant problem in the US (with 2787 adolescents killed in 2015). However, the research on school firearm violence prevention practices and policies is scant. Parents are major stakeholders in relation to firearm violence by youths and school safety in general. The purpose of this study was to examine what parents thought schools should be doing to reduce the risk of firearm violence in schools. A valid and reliable questionnaire was mailed to a national random sample of 600 parents who had at least one child enrolled in a public secondary school (response rate = 47%). Parents perceived inadequate parental monitoring/rearing practices (73%), peer harassment and/or bullying (58%), inadequate mental health care services for youth (54%), and easy access to guns (51%) as major causes of firearm violence in schools. The school policies perceived to be most effective in reducing firearm violence were installing an alert system in schools (70%), working with law enforcement to design an emergency response plan (70%), creating a comprehensive security plan (68%), requiring criminal background checks for all school personnel prior to hiring (67%), and implementing an anonymous system for students to report peer concerns regarding potential violence (67%). Parents seem to have a limited grasp of potentially effective interventions to reduce firearm violence.

  17. CDC grand rounds: preventing youth violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Simon, Thomas R; Spivak, Howard; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Savannah, Sheila B; Listenbee, Robert L; Iskander, John

    2015-02-27

    Youth violence occurs when persons aged 10-24 years, as victims, offenders, or witnesses, are involved in the intentional use of physical force or power to threaten or harm others. Youth violence typically involves young persons hurting other young persons and can take different forms. Examples include fights, bullying, threats with weapons, and gang-related violence. Different forms of youth violence can also vary in the harm that results and can include physical harm, such as injuries or death, as well as psychological harm. Youth violence is a significant public health problem with serious and lasting effects on the physical, mental, and social health of youth. In 2013, 4,481 youths aged 10-24 years (6.9 per 100,000) were homicide victims. Homicide is the third leading cause of death among persons aged 10-24 years (after unintentional injuries and suicide) and is responsible for more deaths in this age group than the next seven leading causes of death combined. Males and racial/ethnic minorities experience the greatest burden of youth violence. Rates of homicide deaths are approximately six times higher among males aged 10-24 years (11.7 per 100,000) than among females (2.0). Rates among non-Hispanic black youths (27.6 per 100,000) and Hispanic youths (6.3) are 13 and three times higher, respectively, than among non-Hispanic white youths (2.1). The number of young persons who are physically harmed by violence is more than 100 times higher than the number killed. In 2013, an estimated 547,260 youths aged 10-24 years (847 per 100,000) were treated in U.S. emergency departments for nonfatal physical assault-related injuries.

  18. Scientific foundation of in-service training for prevention of peer violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Miroslav V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the compatibility of the continuous in-service teacher training for prevention of peer violence and modern scientific knowledge in this area. The first part of the paper summarizes the results of 12 systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the effectiveness of the studies of antibullying programs published since 2000. which relate to the effects of uni-modal and multi-modal programs, and the efficacy of interventions used in anti-bullying programs. The second part of the paper analyses the approved programs of in-service teacher training, in which priority is given to the prevention of violence, abuse and negligence. We analyzed 39 programs of continuous in-service teacher training, and focused on the empirical bases of the programs (researches which confirm the effectiveness of a program and the contents of the training (the level of preventive activity, modality, field, and interventions. The results of the analysis of the programs of continuous in-service training for peer violence prevention are discussed in the context of modern scientific knowledge of effectiveness of anti-bullying programs and of professional development of teachers and counsellors.

  19. African American legislators' perceptions of firearm violence prevention legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Erica; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph A

    2015-06-01

    Firearm mortality is the leading cause of death for young African American males, however, few studies have focused on racial/ethnic minority populations and firearm violence. The National Black Caucus of State Legislators advocates for legislation that promotes the health of African Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect baseline data on African American legislators' perceptions regarding firearm violence in the African American community. A cross-sectional study of African American legislators (n = 612) was conducted to investigate the research questions. Of the 612 questionnaires mailed, 12 were not deliverable, and 170 were returned (28%). Utilizing a three wave mailing process, African American legislators were invited to participate in the study. The majority (88%) of respondents perceived firearm violence to be very serious among African Americans. Few (10%) legislators perceived that addressing legislative issues would be an effective strategy in reducing firearm violence among African Americans. The majority (72%) of legislators perceived the most effective strategy to reducing firearm violence in the African American community should focus on addressing societal issues (e.g. crime and poverty). After adjusting for the number of perceived barriers, the number of perceived benefits was a significant predictor of legislators' perceived effectiveness of firearm violence prevention legislation for 8 of the 24 potential firearm violence prevention legislative bills.

  20. African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention (ASP) is a forum for discussion and debate among scholars, policy-makers and practitioners active in the field of injury prevention and safety promotion. ASP seeks to promote research and dialogue around a central public health issue that affects Africa, ...

  1. Preventing violence through primary care intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C; Quillian, J

    1992-08-01

    Homicide was the United States' second leading cause of death among people aged 15 to 24 in 1988; non-fatal assaults occur 100 times more frequently. Yet as a society, we have ignored the problem. Risk factors for violent injuries comprise sociological, developmental/psychological and neurophysiological elements. Providers of primary care for children, young adults and their families can help parents develop healthy parenting techniques in child-rearing, help the grade-school-aged child develop non-violent conflict-resolution skills, and help young people learn to avoid violence and potentially violent activities and situations. Health care providers are able to reduce the incidence of violent injuries by addressing the issue of violence in periodic examination visits with both parents and children. Familiarity with risk indicators enables the health care provider to intervene early when needed. An anticipatory guidance outline and a violence-induced injury-visit form are included.

  2. Preventing Interpersonal Violence among Youth: An Introduction to School, Community, and Mass Media Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, William

    The United States is a violent nation. This report reviews current school, community, and mass media strategies; describes promising programs now in operation; and offers recommendations for how police and other criminal justice professionals can get involved. By introducing the basic concepts and strategies of violence prevention, the report…

  3. Empowerment and programs designed to address domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasturirangan, Aarati

    2008-12-01

    Programs designed to address domestic violence often name empowerment of women as a major program goal. However, programs do not necessarily define what empowerment for survivors of domestic violence entails. This review examines the literature on empowerment, including characteristics of an empowerment process and critiques of empowerment. Diversity of goals for empowerment and differences in access to resources for women experiencing domestic violence are explored as two major factors that should inform program development. Recommendations are offered for developing programs to address domestic violence that support women engaged in an empowerment process.

  4. Understanding, preventing urban violence in Kinshasa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-11-05

    Nov 5, 2015 ... ​IDRC-supported researchers from the University of Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of Congo are exploring the underlying dynamics of life in the capital city and analyzing how they interact to create cycles of violence and inequality. Their study provides a detailed overview of Kinshasa's history, ...

  5. Doorways II: Community Counselor Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). Doorways II was designed for community counselors to prevent and respond to…

  6. Integrating male sexual diversity into violence prevention efforts with men and boys: evidence from the Asia-Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedema, Stephanie S; Yount, Kathryn M; Chirwa, Esnat; Dunkle, Kristin; Fulu, Emma

    2017-02-01

    Men's perpetration of gender-based violence remains a global public health issue. Violence prevention experts call for engagement of boys and men to change social norms around masculinity in order to prevent gender-based violence. Yet, men do not comprise a homogenous category. Drawing on probability estimates of men who report same-sex practices and preferences captured in a multi-country gender-based violence prevention survey in the Asia-Pacific region, we test the effects of sexuality-related factors on men's adverse life experiences. We find that sexual minority men face statistically higher risk of lifetime adversity related to gender-based violence, stemming from gender inequitable norms in society. Sexuality is thus a key axis of differentiation among men in the Asia-Pacific region, influencing health and wellbeing and reflecting men's differential engagement with dominant norms of masculinity. Integrating awareness of male sexual diversity into gender-based violence prevention interventions, particularly those that work with boys and men, and bridging violence prevention programming between sexual minority communities and women, are essential to tackle the root drivers of violence.

  7. Involuntary Outpatient Commitment and the Elusive Pursuit of Violence Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sayanti; Robertson, Allison G.; Swanson, Jeffrey W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Involuntary outpatient commitment (OPC)—also referred to as ‘assisted outpatient treatment’ or ‘community treatment orders’—are civil court orders whereby persons with serious mental illness and repeated hospitalisations are ordered to adhere to community-based treatment. Increasingly, in the United States, OPC is promoted to policy makers as a means to prevent violence committed by persons with mental illness. This article reviews the background and context for promotion of OPC for violence prevention and the empirical evidence for the use of OPC for this goal. Method: Relevant publications were identified for review in PubMed, Ovid Medline, PsycINFO, personal communications, and relevant Internet searches of advocacy and policy-related publications. Results: Most research on OPC has focussed on outcomes such as community functioning and hospital recidivism and not on interpersonal violence. As a result, research on violence towards others has been limited but suggests that low-level acts of interpersonal violence such as minor, noninjurious altercations without weapon use and arrests can be reduced by OPC, but there is no evidence that OPC can reduce major acts of violence resulting in injury or weapon use. The impact of OPC on major violence, including mass shootings, is difficult to assess because of their low base rates. Conclusions: Effective implementation of OPC, when combined with intensive community services and applied for an adequate duration to take effect, can improve treatment adherence and related outcomes, but its promise as an effective means to reduce serious acts of violence is unknown. PMID:27777274

  8. Evaluation of DELTA PREP: A Project Aimed at Integrating Primary Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence within State Domestic Violence Coalitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Kimberley E.; Zakocs, Ronda; Le, Brenda; Hill, Jessica A.; Brown, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognized as a public health problem since the late 20th century. To spur IPV prevention efforts nationwide, the DELTA PREP Project selected 19 state domestic violence coalitions to build organizational prevention capacity and catalyze IPV primary prevention strategies within their states.…

  9. Workplace violence: theories of causation and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, N K

    1994-10-01

    1. Occupational violence is a multi-causal phenomenon that continues to escalate and significantly impact worker health and safety as well as productivity and morale. 2. The available data sources provide only a "tip of the iceberg" glimpse of the problem. The occupational health nurse can contribute to a greater understanding of workplace violence by collecting and disseminating statistics on non-fatal injuries accompanied by accurate occupational titles. 3. The occupational health nurse is the critical link between management and workers. Using the public health model of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention, the occupational health nurse can create and implement a company wide policy aimed at preventing occupational violence from all causes.

  10. Perceived Impact of a Land and Property Rights Program on Violence Against Women in Rural Kenya: A Qualitative Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Starr; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Grabe, Shelly; Lu, Tiffany; Hatcher, Abigail M; Kwena, Zachary; Mwaura-Muiru, Esther; Dworkin, Shari L

    2016-03-06

    The current study focuses on a community-led land and property rights program in two rural provinces in western Kenya. The program was designed to respond to women's property rights violations to reduce violence against women and HIV risks at the community level. Through in-depth interviews with 30 women, we examine the perceived impact that this community-level property rights program had on violence against women at the individual and community level. We also examine perceptions as to how reductions in violence were achieved. Finally, we consider how our findings may aid researchers in the design of structural violence-prevention strategies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Sexual Violence Prevention in Indiana: Toward Safer, Healthier Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cierniak, Katie; Heiman, Julia R.; Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    For roughly three decades, policymakers have sought to reduce sexual violence by reliance on a criminal justice approach in which sexually violent acts are dealt with after they occur. Recognizing that prevention efforts could be more valuable, as they work to stop the problem before it begins, researchers have begun to implement a primary…

  12. Sexual Violence Prevention: The Role of Stages of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Eckstein, Robert P.; Moynihan, Mary M.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of empirical studies and theoretical frameworks for preventing sexual violence are appearing in the research- and practice-based literatures. The consensus of this work is that although important lessons have been learned, the field is still in the early stages of developing and fully researching effective models, particularly…

  13. Training on prevention of violence against women in the medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Training on prevention of violence against women in the medical curriculum at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. ... A semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data from 109 final-year students. Results. The response rate was 85.1% and respondents' mean age was 25.2±3.1 years.

  14. Building consensus on youth violence prevention and citizen ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC's efforts in negotiation and coalition building contributed to a high-level dialogue that engaged high-level officials and reaffirmed their commitment to preventing violence particularly among youth in Central America. At a meeting held at the Earth University in Costa Rica´s Limon Province in early February, Luis Fallas, ...

  15. Editorial: Violence can be prevented | Dartnall | South African Crime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Crime Quarterly. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 51 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editorial: Violence can be prevented. E Dartnall, A Gevers ...

  16. A 'best buy' for violence prevention: Evaluating parenting skills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective parenting programmes are central to successful violence prevention efforts. Although parenting programmes are available in South Africa, few are evidence-based. This lack of evaluation makes it impossible to know whether programmes are helpful or harmful and whether they use resources efficiently. This article ...

  17. Partnerships for preventing violence: a locally-led satellite training model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Marci Feldman; De Vos, Edward; Cohen, Larry; Davis, Rachel; Prothrow-Stith, Deborah

    2008-03-01

    Local face-to-face provider training has the benefit of enabling participants to network with people in their communities who are working on similar issues, to engage in interactive discussions, and to learn from local experts and local program examples. However, face-to-face training has considerable costs (labor and expense) and provides limited exposure to national experts. In recent years, technology has allowed training methods to expand to include distance learning methods (satellite and web-based). The newer methods can decrease per-person training costs, provide exposure to national experts, and result in wide dissemination of information. Yet these distance learning methods often limit the ability of participants to interact and network with each other and substantially reduce opportunities to apply the learning objectives to local circumstances. To maximize the benefits of both models, the Harvard School of Public Health, the Prevention Institute, and the Education Development Center developed, implemented, and evaluated Partnerships for Preventing Violence (PPV), an innovative six-part satellite training series on the public health approach to preventing youth violence. Using a unique hybrid methodology that combines satellite training with local, face-to-face facilitation by trained experts, PPV trained over 13,000 people, generated youth violence prevention activities across the country, and created a national cadre of youth violence prevention leaders.

  18. 77 FR 14393 - Family Violence Prevention and Services/Grants to State Domestic Violence Coalitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... violence (Section 311 of the FVPSA, as amended by Section 201 of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment... discriminate on the basis of age, disability, sex, race, color, national origin, or religion (Section 306(c)(2... is present and child abuse is present (Section 311(d)(6)) unless the applicant coalition satisfies...

  19. New Technology and the Prevention of Violence and Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Mancini; Marie O'Reilly

    2013-01-01

    Amid unprecedented growth in access to information communication technologies (ICTs), particularly in the developing world, how can international actors, governments, and civil society organizations leverage ICTs and the data they generate to more effectively prevent violence and conflict? New research shows that there is huge potential for innovative technologies to inform conflict prevention efforts, particularly when technology is used to help information flow horizontally between citizens...

  20. Physical Violence Detection for Preventing School Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available School bullying is a serious problem among teenagers, causing depression, dropping out of school, or even suicide. It is thus important to develop antibullying methods. This paper proposes a physical bullying detection method based on activity recognition. The architecture of the physical violence detection system is described, and a Fuzzy Multithreshold classifier is developed to detect physical bullying behaviour, including pushing, hitting, and shaking. Importantly, the application has the capability of distinguishing these types of behaviour from such everyday activities as running, walking, falling, or doing push-ups. To accomplish this, the method uses acceleration and gyro signals. Experimental data were gathered by role playing school bullying scenarios and by doing daily-life activities. The simulations achieved an average classification accuracy of 92%, which is a promising result for smartphone-based detection of physical bullying.

  1. New Technology and the Prevention of Violence and Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mancini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Amid unprecedented growth in access to information communication technologies (ICTs, particularly in the developing world, how can international actors, governments, and civil society organizations leverage ICTs and the data they generate to more effectively prevent violence and conflict? New research shows that there is huge potential for innovative technologies to inform conflict prevention efforts, particularly when technology is used to help information flow horizontally between citizens and when it is integrated into existing civil society initiatives.1 However, new technologies are not a panacea for preventing and reducing violence and conflict. In fact, failure to consider the possible knock-on effects of applying a specific technology can lead to fatal outcomes in violent settings. In addition, employing new technologies for conflict prevention can produce very different results depending on the context in which they are applied and whether or not those using the technology take that context into account. This is particularly true in light of the dramatic changes underway in the landscapes of violence and conflict on a global level. As such, instead of focusing on supply-driven technical fixes, those undertaking prevention initiatives should let the context inform what kind of technology is needed and what kind of approach will work best.

  2. Protective mechanisms and prevention of violence and aggression in veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbogen, Eric B; Johnson, Sally C; Newton, Virginia M; Timko, Christine; Vasterling, Jennifer J; Van Male, Lynn M; Wagner, H Ryan; Beckham, Jean C

    2014-05-01

    Although a subset of Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans show aggression toward others after they return home from military service, little is known about protective mechanisms that could be bolstered to prevent violence. A national longitudinal survey was conducted between 2009 and 2011 using a random sample of veterans who served in Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation Enduring Freedom. One thousand and ninety veterans, from 50 states representing all military branches, completed 2 waves of data collection, 1 year apart (retention rate = 79%). The final sample resembled the U.S. military post 9/11 in terms of age, sex, ethnicity, geography, and service branch. Protective mechanisms in socioeconomic (money to cover basic needs, stable employment), psychosocial (resilience, perceiving control over one's life, social support), and physical (healthy sleep, no physical pain) domains were examined. We found these protective mechanisms predicted decreased aggression and violence at follow-up, particularly among higher risk veterans. Multivariable analyses confirmed that protective mechanisms lowered violence through their interaction with risk factors. This study identifies protective mechanisms related to decreased community violence in veterans and indicates that rehabilitation aimed at improving socioeconomic, psychosocial, and physical well-being has potential promise to reduce aggression and violence among veterans after returning home from military service. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. An overview of Tennessee state legislation affecting violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBerry, L M

    1995-01-01

    Homicide is the number one cause of death among African American youth, both male and female. Largely to blame for Black-on-Black violence is the sense of alienation our youth feel from society. To counter this phenomenon of violence it is essential to empower youth. Through education and community-based programs we can draw them away from the materialistic to the realistic. By banding together as mentors to our youth we can provide them with a sense of history and heritage, and thereby equip them with the self-identity originating from self-respect.

  4. Getting behind closed doors : Reflections on legislation to prevent domestic violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römkens, R.; Lünnemann, K.

    2008-01-01

    The call for preventive interventions to curb domestic violence is becoming stronger. The barring order has been launched as an innovative approach to preventing domestic violence. It allows the police to temporarily bar the perpetrator of domestic violence from entering his or her home, as a way to

  5. Violence against female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India: impact on health, and reductions in violence following an intervention program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Violence against female sex workers (FSWs) can impede HIV prevention efforts and contravenes their human rights. We developed a multi-layered violence intervention targeting policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, lawyers, media), and primary stakeholders (FSWs), as part of wider HIV prevention programming involving >60,000 FSWs in Karnataka state. This study examined if violence against FSWs is associated with reduced condom use and increased STI/HIV risk, and if addressing violence against FSWs within a large-scale HIV prevention program can reduce levels of violence against them. Methods FSWs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth surveys (PBS 2006-2008; short behavioural questionnaires administered anonymously) and integrated behavioural-biological assessments (IBBAs 2005-2009; administered face-to-face). Results 3,852 FSWs participated in the IBBAs and 7,638 FSWs participated in the PBS. Overall, 11.0% of FSWs in the IBBAs and 26.4% of FSWs in the PBS reported being beaten or raped in the past year. FSWs who reported violence in the past year were significantly less likely to report condom use with clients (zero unprotected sex acts in previous month, 55.4% vs. 75.5%, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.3 to 0.5, p violence compared with baseline (IBBA 13.0% vs. 9.0%, AOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.9 p = 0.01; PBS 27.3% vs. 18.9%, crude OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.5, p violence can be effectively delivered at scale. Addressing violence against FSWs is important for the success of HIV prevention programs, and for protecting their basic human rights. PMID:20701791

  6. Violence against female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India: impact on health, and reductions in violence following an intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Tara S H; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Ramesh, B M; Gurnani, Vandana; Anthony, John; Isac, Shajy; Mohan, H L; Ramakrishnan, Aparajita; Wheeler, Tisha; Bradley, Janet; Blanchard, James F; Moses, Stephen

    2010-08-11

    Violence against female sex workers (FSWs) can impede HIV prevention efforts and contravenes their human rights. We developed a multi-layered violence intervention targeting policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, lawyers, media), and primary stakeholders (FSWs), as part of wider HIV prevention programming involving >60,000 FSWs in Karnataka state. This study examined if violence against FSWs is associated with reduced condom use and increased STI/HIV risk, and if addressing violence against FSWs within a large-scale HIV prevention program can reduce levels of violence against them. FSWs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth surveys (PBS 2006-2008; short behavioural questionnaires administered anonymously) and integrated behavioural-biological assessments (IBBAs 2005-2009; administered face-to-face). 3,852 FSWs participated in the IBBAs and 7,638 FSWs participated in the PBS. Overall, 11.0% of FSWs in the IBBAs and 26.4% of FSWs in the PBS reported being beaten or raped in the past year. FSWs who reported violence in the past year were significantly less likely to report condom use with clients (zero unprotected sex acts in previous month, 55.4% vs. 75.5%, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.3 to 0.5, p violence compared with baseline (IBBA 13.0% vs. 9.0%, AOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.9 p = 0.01; PBS 27.3% vs. 18.9%, crude OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.5, p violence can be effectively delivered at scale. Addressing violence against FSWs is important for the success of HIV prevention programs, and for protecting their basic human rights.

  7. An Examination of Strategies for the Prevention of Gender-Based Violence at Four-Year Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafonek, Katherine; Richards, Tara N.

    2017-01-01

    Although gender-based violence prevention programs at institutions of higher education (IHEs) are mandated by federal legislation, research focusing on the prevalence or content of programming is limited. The present exploratory research examines campus websites for a nationally representative sample of Title IX eligible IHEs that offer at least a…

  8. Doorways II: Community Counselor Reference Materials. On School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways II: Community Counselor Reference Materials on…

  9. [Violence in families and its prevention. Also a plea for abolishing the parental right to inflict physical punishment. A report of the "Violence Commission" of the federal government].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remschmidt, H; Schmidt, M H; Strunk, P

    1990-01-01

    Violence in families is rather frequent. Different forms of violent acts can be distinguished: violence between partners, violence between parents and children, violence among siblings, and violence against elder family members. This report gives an overview--with the emphasis on violence in families--of the work of the "Violence Commission" of the Federal Government. This commission worked out proposals for intervention in the case of intrafamiliar violence as well as for prevention. Two proposals of the commission are explained in detail: (1) Rejection of violence and prohibition of corporal punishment in education and (2) punishability of conjugal violation.

  10. A Retrospective Program Evaluation of a Domestic Violence Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakaryan, Hasmik

    2013-01-01

    Domestic Violence (DV) continues to be a worldwide public health problem. Research in the area indicates that domestic violence has damaging, long-term serious mental, emotional, as well as physiological consequences both for the partners of the perpetrators and for their children. Even though various programs focused on treatments of the damaging…

  11. The role of the pediatrician in youth violence prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Soon Ki Kim; Nam Su Kim

    2013-01-01

    School bullying has become a major social problem in Korea after the emergence of media reports on children who committed suicide after being victimized by bullies. In this article, we review the characteristics of bullying, and investigate the role of the pediatrician in the prevention of and intervention against bullying and school violence. Bullying can take on many forms such as physical threat, verbal humiliation, malicious rumors, and social ostracism. The prevalence of bullying in vari...

  12. Indicators for Evaluating Community- and Societal-Level Risk and Protective Factors for Violence Prevention: Findings From a Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstead, Theresa L; Wilkins, Natalie; Doreson, Amanda

    Programs geared toward preventing violence before it occurs at the community and societal levels of the social ecology are particularly challenging to evaluate. These programs are often focused on impacting the antecedents (or risk and protective factors) to violence, making it difficult to determine program success when solely relying on measures of violence reduction. The goal of this literature review is to identify indicators to measure risk and protective factors for violence that are accessible and measured at the community level. Indicators of community- and societal-level risk and protective factors from 116 articles are identified. These indicators strengthen violence prevention researchers' and practitioners' ability to detect proximal effects of violence prevention programs, practices, and policies, and provide timely feedback on the impact of their work. Thus, opportunities exist for violence prevention researchers to further study the associations between various indicators and different violent outcomes and to inform practitioner, evaluator, and funder developed logic models that include indicators of relevant risk and protective factors for crosscutting violence prevention measures and outcomes.

  13. Violence against female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India: impact on health, and reductions in violence following an intervention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beattie Tara SH

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence against female sex workers (FSWs can impede HIV prevention efforts and contravenes their human rights. We developed a multi-layered violence intervention targeting policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, lawyers, media, and primary stakeholders (FSWs, as part of wider HIV prevention programming involving >60,000 FSWs in Karnataka state. This study examined if violence against FSWs is associated with reduced condom use and increased STI/HIV risk, and if addressing violence against FSWs within a large-scale HIV prevention program can reduce levels of violence against them. Methods FSWs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth surveys (PBS 2006-2008; short behavioural questionnaires administered anonymously and integrated behavioural-biological assessments (IBBAs 2005-2009; administered face-to-face. Results 3,852 FSWs participated in the IBBAs and 7,638 FSWs participated in the PBS. Overall, 11.0% of FSWs in the IBBAs and 26.4% of FSWs in the PBS reported being beaten or raped in the past year. FSWs who reported violence in the past year were significantly less likely to report condom use with clients (zero unprotected sex acts in previous month, 55.4% vs. 75.5%, adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.3 to 0.5, p Conclusions This program demonstrates that a structural approach to addressing violence can be effectively delivered at scale. Addressing violence against FSWs is important for the success of HIV prevention programs, and for protecting their basic human rights.

  14. An Evaluation of the Adults and Children Together (ACT) against Violence Parents Raising Safe Kids Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portwood, Sharon G.; Lambert, Richard G.; Abrams, Lyndon P.; Nelson, Ellissa Brooks

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Adults and Children Together (ACT) Against Violence Parents Raising Safe Kids program, developed by the American Psychological Association in collaboration with the National Association for the Education of Young Children, as an economical primary prevention intervention for child maltreatment. Using…

  15. The impact of training program on nurses' attitudes toward workplace violence in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ali, Nahla Mansour; Al Faouri, Ibrahim; Al-Niarat, Tahany Fareed

    2016-05-01

    Nurses' attitudes toward workplace violence are still inadequately explored, and possess an impact in preventing, and managing the violent incidents and the quality of nursing care. Creating a demand for an effective intervention program to improve nurses' knowledge of and attitudes toward workplace violence. To study the impact of the training program on nurses' attitudes toward workplace violence in a military hospital in Jordan. One group before-after design was employed. A stratified random sample of 100 nurses working in three shifts was recruited. Data were collected earlier and after the preparation program using the Attitudes Toward Patient Physical Assault Questionnaire. "The Framework Guidelines for addressing workplace violence in the health sector", was adopted in this work. The preparation sessions were for one day each week over five weeks. The post-test assessment was over five weeks using the same questionnaire. A total of 97 nurses completed the survey. The outcomes demonstrated the significant impact of the training program on nurses' attitudes towards workplace violence (t=6. 62, df=96, p=0.000). The prevalence of verbal abuse by patients and visitors was 63.9% and for physical abuse, 7.2% were from patients and 3.1% of visitors. Most violent incidents occurred during day duty and during delivering nursing care (40.2% and 32%, respectively). Major source of emotional support for abused nurses was from the nursing team (88.7%), while the legal support was from nursing management (48.5%). The study highlights a general concern among nursing staff about workplace violence. Confirming that violence prevention education for staff is a necessary step forward to deescalate the problem. A significant effect of the training program was evident in this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sexual Offender Laws and Prevention of Sexual Violence or Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Sexual violence is a significant public health problem in the United States. In an effort to decrease the incidence of sexual assault, legislators have passed regulatory laws aimed at reducing recidivism among convicted sexual offenders. As a result, sex offenders living in the United States are bound by multiple policies, including registration, community notification, monitoring via a global positioning system, civil commitment, and residency, loitering, and Internet restrictions. These policies have led to multiple collateral consequences, creating an ominous environment that inhibits successful reintegration and may contribute to an increasing risk for recidivism. In fact, evidence on the effectiveness of these laws suggests that they may not prevent recidivism or sexual violence and result in more harm than good. PMID:20075329

  17. What Works in Youth Violence Prevention: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Abigail A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Given the high rates at which adolescents engage in violence, the strong link between adolescent and adult violence, and the financial and social costs of violence, the prevention of violent behavior is a national priority. Methods: The authors conducted a comprehensive review of evaluations utilizing quasi-experimental or experimental…

  18. The Challenge. Preventing Youth Violence. A Report from the Black Community Crusade for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Brenda

    A wave of youth violence in America is hitting African American communities hard. This report highlights some efforts across the country to prevent and stop youth violence. People in Oakland (California), Pine Bluff (Arkansas), and Washington, D.C. were asked about youth violence in their communities. Of the adults surveyed, 77% were afraid that…

  19. 78 FR 4295 - Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Prevention of Gun Violence Memorandum for the Secretary of Health and Human Services In addition to being a law enforcement challenge, gun violence is also a serious public health issue that affects thousands... strides can be made by assessing the causes of gun violence and the successful efforts in place for...

  20. Violence Goes to College: The Authoritative Guide to Prevention and Intervention. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, John; Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Bollinger, Christopher M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to examine violence on college campuses and prepare campus practitioners to both prevent and respond to violence. Since the first edition was published, major violence has redefined the landscape, most notably the experiences of 9/11 and the tragedy of the Virginia Tech massacre. On the positive side, however, great…

  1. Child and adolescent violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daane, Diane M

    2003-01-01

    Although the juvenile violent crime rate has decreased steadily during the past 5 years, the problem of violence and violence-related behaviors in the lives of our children and adolescents remains. The incidence of violent victimization against children and violence and violence-related behavior by today's youth is related to a variety of factors. Exposure to violence in the home, school, community, or video games and other entertainment significantly influences aggressive behaviors among children and adolescents. Other childhood violence predictors include alcohol and drug use, gender, and low self-esteem. The childhood violence risk indicators have implications for child and adolescent violence prevention and intervention programs. Nurses who recognize dangerous and potentially dangerous behavior in children and adolescents are better able to provide violence prevention and intervention services and referrals to children at risk or in danger. Because orthopaedic nurses often see adolescents who have already sustained injury from violence, identification of those at risk is particularly important.

  2. Schools Must Include Faculty and Staff in Sexual Violence Prevention Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Jessica; Krause, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Creating a normative campus environment intolerant to sexual violence is important for prevention. While prevention initiatives focusing on students are vital, faculty and staff have a central role in supporting and sustaining a comprehensive strategy for preventing campus sexual violence. Nationwide, colleges and universities recently implemented…

  3. Sisterhood may be powerful for reducing sexual and intimate partner violence: an evaluation of the Bringing in the Bystander in-person program with sorority members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Mary M; Banyard, Victoria L; Arnold, Julie S; Eckstein, Robert P; Stapleton, Jane G

    2011-06-01

    Sorority members may be at greater risk than other college women for sexual violence and intimate partner violence (IPV). We evaluated the Bringing in the Bystander in-person program with sorority members who participated in the program (n = 30) compared with those who did not (n = 18). Results indicate that program participants showed increased bystander efficacy, likelihood to help, and responsibility for ending violence without unintended "backlash" effects. Implications include a call for future programming with more diverse sorority members over longer time. In addition, we discuss what the findings might mean for formal campus policies and practices for preventing sexual violence and IPV.

  4. New Technology Tools: Using Social Media for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…

  5. A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Interventions Aimed to Prevent or Reduce Violence in Teen Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rue, Lisa; Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Pigott, Terri D.

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of violence in dating relationships has a significant impact on young people, including decreased mental and physical health. This review is the first to provide a quantitative synthesis of empirical evaluations of school-based programs implemented in middle and high schools that sought to prevent or reduce incidents of dating…

  6. Mobilizing communities to implement evidence-based practices in youth violence prevention: the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, Thomas E; Guerra, Nancy G

    2011-09-01

    Community mobilization can increase the effective implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in youth violence prevention. These strategies bring together people and organizations in a community to try to solve or reduce a problem. They help communities address the challenges of identifying EBPs, disseminating them to local decision-makers, and then implementing and sustaining them if they are successful. Science-based systems for implementing EBPs such as PROSPER and Communities That Care can help to integrate this complex work in communities. Further insight about implementing EBPs in youth violence prevention is being developed through the CDC-funded Academic Centers for Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention. Community mobilization approaches for seven of these programs are discussed, highlighting successful approaches and challenges encountered.

  7. Automated preventive maintenance program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cea, E. J.; Grieger, T. H.

    1971-01-01

    Maintenance program which is concise and inexpensive to operate adapts to almost any system that has a FORTRAN compiler. Program operates on a stored data base with an output consisting of scheduling information and various management reports.

  8. Impacting the problem of inner-city youth violence: "Educating Kids About Gun Violence" program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Thomas Z; Simons, Clark J; St John, Wendy; Waymire, Michelle; Stucky, Thomas D

    2011-04-01

    The Educating Kids Against Gun Violence (EKG) program was developed in response to high levels of gun violence in an urban inner-city county through a partnership between the county prosecutor's office, local law enforcement, and a Level 1 trauma center. This program incorporates short video clips and interactive presentations, which address legal and medical consequences of gun violence. The program was presented to youths varying in age and degree of prior contact with the criminal justice system. Pre and post surveys were used to evaluate the short-term impact of the EKG program on the legal and medical knowledge and attitudes of youth participants. There were 130 pre and post surveys that could be exactly matched. Sixty-three per cent of participants had been arrested and 35 per cent had been convicted of a crime. On the post survey, 79 per cent stated that "the program will help keep me out of trouble" and 69 per cent stated that "in the future because of this program I will be less likely to carry a gun". The EKG program seemed to have positive short-term impacts on youth knowledge of legal and medical consequences and attitudes regarding gun violence.

  9. Lecciones del programa de prevención temprana de la violencia, Medellín, Colombia Lessons learned from an early intervention violence prevention program in Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Duque

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir las características y la evolución del Programa de Prevención Temprana de la Violencia del Municipio de Medellín, Colombia, y evaluar los resultados de la primera etapa tres años después de su implementación. MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo un análisis anterior (año 2001 y posterior (año 2004 de cinco variables -síntomas de agresión directa, síntomas de agresión indirecta, síntomas de prosocialidad y rendimiento escolar- en una muestra por conveniencia de 339 niños y sus familias que habían participado en el programa. RESULTADOS: Se evidenciaron varios efectos positivos del programa. Se observó una disminución de los síntomas de agresión directa y de los de agresión indirecta, pero en este último caso sólo en niñas y en mayores de 12 años. Se evidenció asimismo un aumento en la prosocialidad en niños de todas las edades y de ambos sexos, incluso en los que presentaban menor grado de prosocialidad en 2001. También se observó en todo el grupo una mejora del rendimiento escolar. Estos resultados pueden haber sido afectados por algunas modificaciones en la implementación del programa de prevención y por la gran peligrosidad del barrio, que ocasionó una disminución de la frecuencia de las visitas domiciliarias a las familias. CONCLUSIONES: El programa parece tener efectos preventivos, puesto que se observa una disminución de la agresión directa en los niños con mayor nivel de agresión, y un efecto protector en el aumento de la prosocialidad en los niños menos agresivos.OBJECTIVE: To describe the components and development of the Early Prevention of Violence Program in the city of Medellín, Colombia, and to evaluate the results of its first phase, three years after implementation. METHODS: A before (2001 and after (2004 study of four variables-direct aggression, indirect aggression, prosocial behavior, and scholastic achievement-was conducted among a convenience sample of 339 program participants

  10. Teen dating violence: building a research program through collaborative insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulford, Carrie F; Blachman-Demner, Dara R

    2013-06-01

    The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) has an emerging portfolio of research in the area of teen dating violence (also known as adolescent relationship abuse). This article begins with a discussion of the developments that prompted NIJ to focus on teen dating violence. Next, the article highlights specific accomplishments and contributions that NIJ has made to helping develop knowledge and scientific understanding of adolescent relationship abuse, particularly around the prevention of teen dating violence perpetration and victimization. This is followed by a presentation of some of the key findings from NIJ-funded research. We then move to a discussion of some of the complex issues around definition, measurement and research methods and how NIJ has been involved in addressing those issues. The article concludes with some thoughts about the intersection of teen dating violence research, policy, and practice and highlights several research gaps that are in need of additional attention.

  11. Violence exposure and teen dating violence among African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Youth violence prevention comes of age: research, training and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kara; Rivera, Lourdes; Neighbours, Robert; Reznik, Vivian

    2007-01-01

    Youth violence is recognized as a major public health problem in the United States and the world. Over the past ten years, progress has been made in documenting the factors that contribute to violent behavior. Emerging research is deepening our understanding of the individual and societal influences that contribute to and protect against youth violence. However, much work still remains to be done in this field, both in examining potential causes and in designing effective intervention strategies. This chapter highlights specific dimensions of youth violence prevention selected by the authors because these dimensions are the focus of public attention, are emerging as critical issues in the study of youth violence, or have a unique place in the current political and social context. We focus on the developmental pathways to violence, factors that mediate and moderate youth violence, the role of culture and media in youth violence, school-based violence such as school shootings and bullying, and the training of health care professionals.

  13. 77 FR 14378 - Family Violence Prevention and Services/Grants for Domestic Violence Shelters and Supportive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... dependents; and (3) to provide specialized services for children exposed to family violence, domestic... Confidentiality In order to ensure the safety of adult, youth, and child victims of family violence, domestic... including trauma-informed services for children exposed to family violence, domestic violence, or dating...

  14. Preventing workplace incivility, lateral violence and bullying between nurses A narrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambi, Stefano; Guazzini, Andrea; De Felippis, Christian; Lucchini, Alberto; Rasero, Laura

    2017-11-30

     Introduction: according to available literature workplace incivility, lateral violence and bullying among nurses are widely diffused. Their negative consequences and the outcomes on nurses and healthcare organizations have been well described. However, real pro-active and reactive actions to manage these issues, seem to be poorly recognized and investigated. to summarize the results of international studies regarding the prevention of individual and collective reactions towards workplace incivility, lateral violence, and bullying between nurses. a narrative literature review was performed. 7 original papers were included in this review. The implementation of zero tolerance policies and passive dissemination of information about these phenomena showed to be clearly ineffective. The limited number of evidence based studies and the typologies of interventions (mainly educational rather than team building programs and assertive communication) show inadequate effectiveness plus a lacking in the scientific evidence-based support. The need to find out innovative and "creative" solutions to face these problems has been suggested by different authors.

  15. Project SAFE: an Armed Forces cooperative initiative for the prevention and treatment of family violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNelis, P J; Awalt, S J

    1986-01-01

    About one out of every eight persons residing in the State of Hawaii is either active duty military or a military family member. In the late 1970s, it became apparent that neither the military nor the state could meet a growing obligation to provide responsive protective services to abused and neglected children of military families. Inspired by a first-ever congressional appropriation for the development of military child abuse and neglect and spouse abuse programs, the Department of Defense funded a 3-year joint-Service family violence project. Operational since 1982, Project SAFE (Services Assisting Family Environments) consists of a family violence shelter, clinical outreach teams, and a prenatal prevention project. This paper chronicles the history of Project SAFE, provides retrospective commentary on planning and implementation, and identifies key evaluation questions yet to be answered.

  16. A Preventative Child Abuse Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Bette Unger; And Others

    This article describes the Child Development and Parenting Program (CDP), a preventative child abuse program that assists single women who are pregnant or have preschool children to cope constructively with the problems of single parenting. The short-term goals of the program, i.e., providing education in child development and parenting skills and…

  17. Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Europe Forum, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Highlighting the issue of violence, this Forum issue contains 12 essays. Titles and authors are: "Passivity in the Face of Violence" (Henri Laborit); "Democratisation without Violence?" (Friedrich Hacker); "Ritualised Violence in Sport" (Christian Bromberger); "Violence in Prisons" (Luige Daga); "Racial Aggression" (Geoffrey Bindman); "Violence in…

  18. Re-education of Perpetrators of gender Violence: An Intervention Program with Gender Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Expósito

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gender violence is one of the major issues that society faces. During the last few years, important legislative and interventional changes have been carried out, in order to adapt to with the specific nature of this type of crime. Because of the increase in the number of men that have been convicted of gender violence, and taking into account their general characteristics (in most of the cases it is their first crime, penal law offers an opportunity for intervention. One of the most novel measures imposed by the judges for these types of crimes is that, instead of giving jail sentences, they sentence the offenders to attend psychological treatment programs that deal with gender violence. This paper describes the experience with the application of a psycho-social intervention program with a gender perspective. We analyze the sample’s sociodemographic profile, and, in order to evaluate the program, we also use scales that measure gender ideology, beliefs about intimate relationships, and attitudes towards gender violence. Results showed that it is important to support and promote the intervention with this type of offender as a way to prevent new episodes of gender violence.

  19. Preventing Interpersonal Violence on College Campuses: The Effect of One Act Training on Bystander Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría-Flores, Kei; Raker, Kelli; Pleasants, Robert K; Weaver, Mark A; Weinberger, Morris

    2015-05-22

    Sexual assault, stalking, dating violence, and intimate partner violence, herein collectively termed interpersonal violence (IV), are public health problems affecting 20% to 25% of female college students. Currently, One Act is one of the few IV prevention training programs at universities that teach students bystander skills to intervene in low- and high-risk IV situations. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate One Act's effects on date rape attitudes and behaviors, and bystanders' confidence, willingness to help, and behavior, and 2) to compare the effects on bystander skills between One Act and Helping Advocates for Violence Ending Now (HAVEN), an IV response training program with similar participants. Data were collected over 2 years, before and after One Act and HAVEN trainings. We measured outcomes with four scales: College Date Rape Attitudes and Behaviors, Bystander Confidence, Willingness to Help, and Bystander Behavior. The analysis compared within- and between-group mean differences in scale scores pre- and post-trainings using linear mixed models. One Act showed improvements for date rape attitudes and behaviors (p bystander's confidence (p bystander confidence improved more (p = .006), on average, than HAVEN's. The differences in the two trainings' effects on bystander willingness to help and behavior had similar patterns but were not statistically significant. We found a larger positive impact on bystander confidence among students who participated in the bystander prevention training compared with the response training. Further research is needed to improve the measures for bystander behavior and measure the bystander trainings' larger impact on the community. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Conceptualizing the Engaging Bystander Approach to Sexual Violence Prevention on College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah; Postmus, Judy L.; Koenick, Ruth Anne

    2011-01-01

    Bystander intervention offers promise as a sexual violence prevention tool for student affairs administrators on college campuses, but the conceptualization and definition of the approach is in its infancy and needs further development. In an effort to emphasize the potential role of bystanders in the primary prevention of sexual violence, we put…

  1. Revealing a Hidden Curriculum of Black Women's Erasure in Sexual Violence Prevention Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Sara Carrigan

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to challenge the framework by which rape and sexual assault prevention in higher education are being constituted by centring Black women's experiences of sexual violence within a prevention and response policy framework. Numerous research studies exist in the literature regarding the specific experience of sexual violence for…

  2. Workplace violence in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo City, Mozambique : Extent, causes, consequences and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Couto, Maria Tereza

    2011-01-01

    Background: Every year millions of workers around the world are victims of workplace violence (WPV). Globally, WPV is a major occupational health and safety hazard, and it has been regarded as a public health problem. There is no WPV preventive program specifically designed for low-income countries (LICs). WPV preventive intervention models usually come from highincome countries (HICs), and they may not be sustainable, feasible or effective in other settings. With regard to WP...

  3. Impact of a program to prevent incivility towards and assault of healthcare staff in an ophtalmological emergency unit: study protocol for the PREVURGO On/Off trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Touzet, Sandrine; Cornut, Pierre-Loïc; Fassier, Jean-Baptiste; Le Pogam, Marie-Annick; Burillon, Carole; Duclos, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    .... Our study aims to assess the impact of a quality improvement multi-faceted program aiming at preventing incivility and violence against healthcare professionals working at the ophthalmological...

  4. The impact of a middle school program to reduce aggression, victimization, and sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Low, Sabina; Polanin, Joshua R; Brown, Eric C

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the impact of the Second Step: Student Success Through Prevention (SS-SSTP) Middle School Program on reducing youth violence including peer aggression, peer victimization, homophobic name calling, and sexual violence perpetration and victimization among middle school sixth-grade students. The study design was a nested cohort (sixth graders) longitudinal study. We randomly assigned 18 matched pairs of 36 middle schools to the SS-SSTP or control condition. Teachers implemented 15 weekly lessons of the sixth-grade curriculum that focused on social emotional learning skills, including empathy, communication, bully prevention, and problem-solving skills. All sixth graders (n = 3,616) in intervention and control conditions completed self-report measures assessing verbal/relational bullying, physical aggression, homophobic name calling, and sexual violence victimization and perpetration before and after the implementation of the sixth-grade curriculum. Multilevel analyses revealed significant intervention effects with regard to physical aggression. The adjusted odds ratio indicated that the intervention effect was substantial; individuals in intervention schools were 42% less likely to self-report physical aggression than students in control schools. We found no significant intervention effects for verbal/relational bully perpetration, peer victimization, homophobic teasing, and sexual violence. Within a 1-year period, we noted significant reductions in self-reported physical aggression in the intervention schools. Results suggest that SS-SSTP holds promise as an efficacious prevention program to reduce physical aggression in adolescent youth. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. The Potential Role of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math Programs in Reducing Teen Dating Violence and Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Inverno, Ashley Schappell; Kearns, Megan C; Reidy, Dennis E

    2016-12-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) are growing fields that provide job stability, financial security, and health prosperity for professionals in these fields. Unfortunately, females are underrepresented in STEM, which is potentially both a consequence and precipitant of gender inequity in the United States. In addition to the financial and health benefits, increasing the number of girls and women in STEM fields may also indirectly prevent and/or reduce teen dating violence and intimate partner violence by: (1) increasing women's financial independence, thereby reducing dependence on potentially abusive partners; (2) decreasing household poverty and financial stress, which may lead to reductions in relationship discord; and (3) increasing attitudes and beliefs about women as equals, thereby increasing gender equity. In this commentary, we discuss the potential role of primary and secondary school STEM programs in reducing violence against women. We review the literature on existing evaluations of STEM programs for educational outcomes, discuss the limitations of these evaluations, and offer suggestions for future research.

  6. 45 CFR 1370.4 - State domestic violence coalition grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State domestic violence coalition grants. 1370.4... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES PROGRAMS FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES PROGRAMS § 1370.4 State domestic violence coalition grants. Each...

  7. Towards a framework for preventing community violence among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, Thomas P

    2017-03-01

    This article, in an effort to assist the selection and deployment of evidence-informed strategies, proposes a new conceptual framework for responding to community violence among youth. First, the phenomenon of community violence is understood in context using a new violence typology organized along a continuum. Second, the need for a new anti-community violence framework is established. Third, a framework is developed, blending concepts from the fields of public safety and public health. Fourth, evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses concerning community violence is summarized and categorized. Finally, an anti-violence framework populated with evidence-informed strategies is presented and discussed.

  8. Urban African American youth exposed to community violence: a school-based anxiety preventive intervention efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley-Strickland, Michele R; Griffin, Robert S; Darney, Dana; Otte, Katherine; Ko, Jean

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a school-based anxiety prevention program among urban children exposed to community violence. Students who attended Title 1 public elementary schools were screened. Ninety-eight 3rd-5th-grade students (ages 8-12; 48% female; 92% African American) were randomized into preventive intervention versus wait list comparison groups. Students attended 13 biweekly one-hour group sessions of a modified version of FRIENDS, a cognitive-behavioral anxiety intervention program. Results indicated that both intervention and control groups manifested significant reductions in anxiety symptomatology and total exposure to community violence, along with improved standardized reading achievement scores. Additional gains observed only in the intervention group were increased standardized mathematics achievement scores, decreased life stressors, and reduced victimization by community violence. The intervention was equally efficacious for both genders and for children exposed to higher, compared to lower, levels of community violence. Implications for comprehensive, culturally and contextually relevant prevention programs and research are discussed.

  9. Communities are not all created equal: Strategies to prevent violence affecting youth in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Larry; Davis, Rachel; Realini, Anna

    2016-09-01

    We describe violence in the United States (US) and solutions the Urban Networks to Increase Thriving Youth (UNITY) Initiative has developed, led by Prevention Institute, a US non-governmental organization (NGO) and authors of this article, with initial funding from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Safety distribution across populations is unequal, while public health research has identified aspects of community environments that affect the likelihood of violence, or risk and resilience factors. An overwhelming number of risk factors have accumulated in some US communities, disproportionately impacting young people of color. US policies, systems, and institutions powerfully shape how and where these factors manifest. Violence is preventable, not inevitable. We argue that comprehensive strategies for improving community environments can reduce violence and promote health equity. We present lessons, tools, and frameworks that UNITY cities use to adapt for international application, including multi-sector collaboration, strategies for influencing policy and legislation, and strengthening local violence prevention efforts.

  10. Psychoeducational programs for reducing prison violence: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Auty, Katherine Mary; Cope, A; Liebling, A

    2017-01-01

    Institutional violence presents significant challenges to the accomplishment of legitimate social order in prison. This systematic review examines the effect of psychoeducational programs on violent behaviour in prison. Comprehensive searches of the empirical research literature were conducted to identify randomized and non-randomized studies carried out in the last two decades (1996–2016) that compared psychoeducational programs with treatment as usual (TAU). The content of programs was anal...

  11. The prevalence of trauma and childhood adversity in an urban, hospital-based violence intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Theodore J; Purtle, Jonathan; Rich, Linda J; Rich, John A; Adams, Erica J; Yee, Garrett; Bloom, Sandra L

    2013-08-01

    Hospitals represent a promising locus for preventing recurrent interpersonal violence and its psychological sequella. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to assess the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among victims of interpersonal violence participating in a hospital-based violence intervention program. Participants completed PTSD and ACE screenings four to six weeks after violent injury, and data were exported from a case management database for analysis. Of the 35 program participants who completed the ACE and/or PTSD screenings, 75.0% met full diagnostic criteria for PTSD, with a larger proportion meeting diagnostic criteria for symptom-specific clusters. For the ACE screening, 56.3% reported three or more ACEs, 34.5% reported five or more ACEs, and 18.8% reported seven or more ACEs. The median ACE score was 3.5. These findings underscore the importance of trauma-informed approaches to violence prevention in urban hospitals and have implications for emergency medicine research and policy.

  12. An Innovative Program For Domestic Violence Victims: A University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also found that women students not eligible for welfare receipt needed program services, and those students using welfare had barriers interconnected with domestic violence issues. Several recommendations are made that will enable caseworkers / counselors working in universities and in the larger community ...

  13. A Review of Teen Dating Violence Prevention Research: What About Hispanic Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Krithika; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Mitchell, Emma M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a critical review of the literature on evidence-based teen dating violence (TDV) prevention programs with a particular focus on highlighting gaps in the literature with regard to prevention efforts targeting Hispanic teens. The target populations, characteristics, designs, and results of TDV prevention studies reported in the scientific literature for the last 20 years were reviewed and analyzed according to cultural and contextual factors associated with TDV among Hispanic teens. To date, three studies have focused on a predominantly Hispanic population with only one study looking at the long-term effects of a TDV intervention. There is a growing need to develop and evaluate immediate and long-term effects of TDV prevention programs that address ethnic pride, acculturation and acculturative stress, familism, and gender norms within the context of Hispanic communities (e.g., machismo and marianismo). The authors discuss the implications for research, prevention practice, and policy regarding TDV prevention for Hispanic teens. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Inter-ethnic Cooperation Revisited: Why mobile phones can help prevent discrete events of violence, using the Kenyan case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Patrick Martin-Shields

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper will critically explore why mobile phones have drawn so much interest from the conflict management community in Kenya, and develop a general set of factors to explain why mobile phones can have a positive effect on conflict prevention efforts generally. Focusing on theories of information asymmetry and security dilemmas, collective action problems, and the role of third party actors in conflict prevention, it aims to continue the discussion around Pierskalla and Hollenbach’s recent research on mobile phones and conflict risk. Given the successful, high profile uses of mobile phone-based violence prevention in Kenya I will identify a set of political and social factors that contribute to the success of crowdsourcing programs that use mobile phones, and explain what makes them transferable across cases for conflict prevention in other countries. The primary findings are that a population must prefer non-violence since technology is a magnifier of human intent, that the events of violence start and stop relative to specific events, the population knows to use their phones to share information about potential violence, and that there are third party actors involved in collecting and validating the crowdsourced data.

  15. 28 CFR 501.3 - Prevention of acts of violence and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... terrorism. 501.3 Section 501.3 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION SCOPE OF RULES § 501.3 Prevention of acts of violence and terrorism. (a) Upon... violence or terrorism. The authority of the Director under this paragraph may not be delegated below the...

  16. How do ex-offenders in the CWP contribute to violence prevention in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-08-03

    Aug 3, 2016 ... Research shows that ex-offenders enrolled in South Africa's Community Work Programme (CWP) contribute to violence prevention because job opportunities and reintegration have minimized their chances of relapsing into a life of crime. The investigation by the Centre for the Study of Violence and ...

  17. Recurrent Issues in Efforts to Prevent Homicidal Youth Violence in Schools: Expert Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Karen E.; Redding, Richard E.; Smith, Peter K.; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a…

  18. Preparing to Prevent: Conflict-Related Sexual Violence Mitigation Scenario-Based Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-26

    families, unwanted pregnancies, infant mortality and deaths from childbirth, and the spread of sexually - transmitted diseases . It can break down the...Discrimination against Women , women and girls are frequently victims of rape, sexual molestation, culturally-sanctioned oppression, domestic violence...to protect women and girls from sexual violence in armed conflicts, prevent impunity, and prosecute those responsible for sexual and other violent

  19. A Comprehensive Needs Assessment To Facilitate Prevention of School Drop Out and Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Mary Ellen; Meyers, Joel; Davies, Gwen; Meyers, Barbara; Grogg, Kathryn Rogers; Neel, John

    2002-01-01

    Study addresses school violence and dropout and proposes that the underlying factor of school connectedness/school climate should guide preventive and intervention efforts. Principal components analysis revealed five distinct factors: school connectedness/positive school climate, causes of violence, causes of school dropout, interventions for drop…

  20. Reconstructing Masculinity in the Locker Room: The Mentors in Violence Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jackson

    1995-01-01

    The Mentors in Violence Prevention Project seeks to reduce violence against women by inspiring male athletes and other models of traditional masculinity to challenge norms that equate strength in men with dominance over women and to use their influence for positive behavior change. (SK)

  1. Preventing and Coping with School Violence. A Resource Manual for Washington School Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Education Association, Federal Way.

    This handbook was designed to serve as a resource guide for Washington State school employees. It provides a beginning framework for addressing violence in schools, districts, and communities. It outlines Washington State laws regarding school violence, suggests curriculum resources for preventing violent acts and dealing constructively with…

  2. Building a Peaceful Society: Origins, Prevention, and Reconciliation after Genocide and Other Group Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, Ervin

    2013-01-01

    The 20th century was a century of genocide and other great violence between groups within societies. Already at the beginning of the 21st century, there have been mass killings, civil wars, violent conflict, and terrorism. This article summarizes influences that tend to lead to intense group violence. It then considers prevention, stressing early…

  3. Prevention interventions for human immunodeficiency virus in drug-using women with a history of partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stockman JK

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Jamila K Stockman1, Natasha Ludwig-Barron1, Monica A Hoffman2, Monica D Ulibarri3, Typhanye V Penniman Dyer41Division of Global Public Health, Department of Medicine; 2Department of Communication and Science Studies; 3Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA; 4Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, MD, USAAbstract: The intersecting epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and partner violence disproportionately affect women who use drugs. Despite accumulating evidence throughout the world linking these epidemics, HIV prevention efforts focused on these synergistic issues as well as underlying determinants that contribute to the HIV risk environment (eg, housing instability, incarceration, policing practices, survival sex are lacking. This article highlights selected behavior change theories and biomedical approaches that have been used or could be applied in HIV prevention interventions for drug-using women with histories of partner violence and in existing HIV prevention interventions for drug-using women that have been gender-focused while integrating histories of partner violence and/or relationship power dynamics. To date, there is a paucity of HIV prevention interventions designed for drug-using women (both in and outside of drug treatment programs with histories of partner violence. Of the few that exist, they have been theory-driven, culture-specific, and address certain aspects of gender-based inequalities (eg, gender-specific norms, relationship power and control, partner violence through assessment of personal risk and safety planning. However, no single intervention has addressed all of these issues. Moreover, HIV prevention interventions for drug-using women with histories of partner violence are not widespread and do not address multiple components of the risk environment. Efficacious interventions should target individuals

  4. The mediation as an apt tool for the prevention of crime as result of gender violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaíma Águila Gutiérrez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Violence based in gender is an actual, social, historical and cultural matter. It affects to million persons around the world in the personal, familiar and social ambit. Violence based in gender could damage relationships and also could become in a crime. Mediation is an apt tool to use before the intervention of law for solving gender violence´s conflicts which could need the intervention of criminal law. Those reasons show that is necessary the prevention of gender violence so is important the intervention of criminology.

  5. Preventing violence against women by challenging gender stereotypes in Scottish primary schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary

    2016-01-01

    Gender violence is a major public health issue in Europe; it is normalized and partly legitimized by gender stereotypes. An example of a primary prevention education programme designed to challenge the attitudes that underpin gender violence, particularly violence against women, is the Zero...... as a right and a responsibility, and empathy for others and an awareness of the potentially discriminatory effects of difference in society are underlined. Facts and figures help pupils challenge prevailing myths of gendered violence, and a gendered perspective on history is also indicated. ZTR material...

  6. Environmental and contextual influences on school violence and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Marci R; Conkling, Martha; Emshoff, James; Blakely, Craig; Gorman, Dennis

    2006-05-01

    School violence has received unprecedented attention in recent years, particularly since the infamous events unfolded in Littleton, Colorado at Columbine High School. For many Americans, such events were not imagined possible while for others, they confirmed the need for urgent and careful examination of the nature and scope of school violence. It appears, however, that school violence research has been relegated to the individual level of analysis. In this introduction to the special issue about the environmental and contextual factors related to school violence, the authors examine what we know about school violence, how school violence has been addressed, and argue that environmental factors must be part of research and intervention in this area. Finally, the contributions of the articles included in this special issue are discussed.

  7. The impact of educational intervention based on empowerment model in preventing violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Estebsari, Fatemeh; Dastoorpour, Maryam; Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Jamalzadeh, Fiesal; Latifi, Marzieh

    2014-07-01

    One of the most obvious forms of violence in today's society is violence against women. In Iran, along with other countries, violence against women has become a problematic issue. The present research aims to investigate the impact of educational intervention based on empowerment model in preventing violent behaviors against women. The present study is an intervention research done through the random selection of 91 women under the aegis of Imam Khomeini Relief Foundation in Gorgan. Tools for data gathering included demographics checklist, Rosenberg Self-Esteem, general self-efficacy, awareness and attitude questionnaires. Three ninety-minute educational sessions were held for each group to enhance their awareness, change their attitudes, and train them life skills to increase self-esteem so that they can express their vicarious experiences to increase their self-efficacy toward violent behavior. Following the post-test, data were analyzed with SPSS software (version 20). Tests for analyzing data included descriptive and analytical tests (chi-square, Pearson's correlation, independent samples t-test, One-way ANOVA and paired t test). Results indicated that the frequency of domestic violence against participating women was significant after educational intervention, as compared to pre-intervention period. Paired t-test showed that average scores of awareness, attitude, self-esteem, and self-efficacy constructs, and total power were statistically higher after educational intervention as compared to the period prior to intervention. As one of the manifestations and the moving force of empowerment, education is the first major strategy in codifying, designing, and implementing empowerment programs. For women to be empowered, the active participation of all people in education is required.

  8. 75 FR 66245 - HUD Programs: Violence Against Women Act Conforming Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... men from domestic violence and not only women. The commenter added that VAWA 2005 should cover housing... Housing and Urban Development 24 CFR Parts 5, 91, 880, et al. HUD Programs: Violence Against Women Act..., 883, 884, 886, 891, 903, 960, 966, 982, and 983 RIN 2577-AC65 HUD Programs: Violence Against Women Act...

  9. Effects of Baltimore's Safe Streets Program on gun violence: a replication of Chicago's CeaseFire Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Daniel W; Whitehill, Jennifer Mendel; Vernick, Jon S; Curriero, Frank C

    2013-02-01

    Chicago's CeaseFire program is an evidence-based public health approach to preventing gun violence. Baltimore is one of many US cities attempting to replicate the program. We compared changes in the number of homicide and nonfatal shooting incidents per month in four intervention neighborhoods with changes in high-crime comparison areas (police posts) without the intervention, while controlling for several measures of police activity and baseline levels of homicide and nonfatal shootings. In South Baltimore there were large program-related reductions in homicide and nonfatal shooting incidents. Among three East Baltimore program sites, the program was associated with a reduction of homicides in one area, a reduction in nonfatal shootings in another area, and a simultaneous increase in homicides and decrease in nonfatal shootings in another area. In some instances, program effects extended to neighborhoods bordering the intervention areas. Program-related reductions in homicides appear to be linked with conflict mediations conducted by program outreach workers.

  10. Witnessing Interparental Violence and Acceptance of Dating Violence as Predictors for Teen Dating Violence Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Marie E; Temple, Jeff R; Weston, Rebecca; Le, Vi Donna

    2016-04-01

    We examined the association between witnessing interparental violence, attitudes about dating violence, and physical and psychological teen dating violence (TDV) victimization. Participants were 918 teens with dating experience. Witnessing interparental violence and acceptance of dating violence were significant predictors of TDV victimization. Acceptance of dating violence was also a partial mediator between witnessing interparental violence and TDV victimization. Witnessing mother-to-father violence and acceptance of female-perpetrated violence were the most consistent predictors. TDV programs aiming to prevent victimization could benefit from targeting youth exposed to father-to-mother and mother-to-father violence, targeting attitudes about violence, and tailoring interventions to gender-specific risk factors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Activating College Men to Prevent Sexual Violence: A Qualitative Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, M. Candace

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the experiences of male college students who participated in a theatre-based, peer-education, sexual assault prevention presentation. The program was established through the use of Pedagogy of the Oppressed and Theatre of the Oppressed, as well as multicultural feminist theory and approaches. These models emphasize subverting…

  12. Establishing a Suicide Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, John A.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines important considerations for establishing suicide prevention programs in high schools. Teenage suicide rate has doubled since 1970. To deal with this crisis schools must develop procedures for detecting potential victims and for helping students and staff cope after a suicide. Schools must not be afraid to talk about suicide; avoiding the…

  13. Automated System Programs Preventive Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Richard C.

    1987-01-01

    A preventive maintenance system provides for the monitoring and inspection of school building elements in a programmed way through an automatic checklist. Utility cost savings are expected along with reduction of travel and wait time, and measurable standards of performance for all maintenance and repair work. (MLF)

  14. The invisibility of men in South African violence prevention policy: national prioritization, male vulnerability, and framing prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley van Niekerk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa has a significant violence problem. The exposure of girls and women to interpersonal violence is widespread, and the victimization of men, especially to severe and homicidal forms of aggression, is of considerable concern, with male homicide eight times the global rate. In the last two decades, there have been a plethora of South African policies to promote safety. However, indications suggest that the policy response to violence is not coherently formulated, comprehensive, or evenly implemented. Objective: This study examines selected South African national legislative instruments in terms of their framing and definition of violence and its typology, vulnerable populations, and prevention. Design: This study comprises a directed content analysis of selected legislative documents from South African ministries mandated to prevent violence and its consequences or tasked with the prevention of key contributors to violence. Documents were selected using an electronic keyword search method and analyzed independently by two researchers. Results: The legislative documents recognized the high levels of violence, confirmed the prioritization of selected vulnerable groups, especially women, children, disabled persons, and rural populations, and above all drew on criminological perspectives to emphasize tertiary prevention interventions. There is a policy focus on the protection and support of victims and the prosecution of perpetrators, but near absent recognition of men as victims. Conclusions: There is a need to broaden the policy framework from primarily criminological and prosecutorial perspectives to include public health contributions. It is likewise important to enlarge the conceptions of vulnerability to include men alongside other vulnerable groups. These measures are important for shaping and resourcing prevention decisions and strengthening primary prevention approaches to violence.

  15. The invisibility of men in South African violence prevention policy: national prioritization, male vulnerability, and framing prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niekerk, Ashley; Tonsing, Susanne; Seedat, Mohamed; Jacobs, Roxanne; Ratele, Kopano; McClure, Roderick

    2015-01-01

    Background South Africa has a significant violence problem. The exposure of girls and women to interpersonal violence is widespread, and the victimization of men, especially to severe and homicidal forms of aggression, is of considerable concern, with male homicide eight times the global rate. In the last two decades, there have been a plethora of South African policies to promote safety. However, indications suggest that the policy response to violence is not coherently formulated, comprehensive, or evenly implemented. Objective This study examines selected South African national legislative instruments in terms of their framing and definition of violence and its typology, vulnerable populations, and prevention. Design This study comprises a directed content analysis of selected legislative documents from South African ministries mandated to prevent violence and its consequences or tasked with the prevention of key contributors to violence. Documents were selected using an electronic keyword search method and analyzed independently by two researchers. Results The legislative documents recognized the high levels of violence, confirmed the prioritization of selected vulnerable groups, especially women, children, disabled persons, and rural populations, and above all drew on criminological perspectives to emphasize tertiary prevention interventions. There is a policy focus on the protection and support of victims and the prosecution of perpetrators, but near absent recognition of men as victims. Conclusions There is a need to broaden the policy framework from primarily criminological and prosecutorial perspectives to include public health contributions. It is likewise important to enlarge the conceptions of vulnerability to include men alongside other vulnerable groups. These measures are important for shaping and resourcing prevention decisions and strengthening primary prevention approaches to violence. PMID:26228996

  16. The invisibility of men in South African violence prevention policy: national prioritization, male vulnerability, and framing prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niekerk, Ashley; Tonsing, Susanne; Seedat, Mohamed; Jacobs, Roxanne; Ratele, Kopano; McClure, Roderick

    2015-01-01

    South Africa has a significant violence problem. The exposure of girls and women to interpersonal violence is widespread, and the victimization of men, especially to severe and homicidal forms of aggression, is of considerable concern, with male homicide eight times the global rate. In the last two decades, there have been a plethora of South African policies to promote safety. However, indications suggest that the policy response to violence is not coherently formulated, comprehensive, or evenly implemented. This study examines selected South African national legislative instruments in terms of their framing and definition of violence and its typology, vulnerable populations, and prevention. This study comprises a directed content analysis of selected legislative documents from South African ministries mandated to prevent violence and its consequences or tasked with the prevention of key contributors to violence. Documents were selected using an electronic keyword search method and analyzed independently by two researchers. The legislative documents recognized the high levels of violence, confirmed the prioritization of selected vulnerable groups, especially women, children, disabled persons, and rural populations, and above all drew on criminological perspectives to emphasize tertiary prevention interventions. There is a policy focus on the protection and support of victims and the prosecution of perpetrators, but near absent recognition of men as victims. There is a need to broaden the policy framework from primarily criminological and prosecutorial perspectives to include public health contributions. It is likewise important to enlarge the conceptions of vulnerability to include men alongside other vulnerable groups. These measures are important for shaping and resourcing prevention decisions and strengthening primary prevention approaches to violence.

  17. Violence Towards Health Care Staff: Risk Factors, Aftereffects, Evaluation and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Annagur

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in violence against physicians and healthcare staff in the health-care environment in recent years. The risk of violence remains stronger in people working in health institutions than the ones working in other businesses. Results of previous studies in this issue consistently confirmed the fact that violence in health care business is quite higher in frequency than the violence reported in other business environments. However it has also been reported that only attacks resulting in serious injuries have been considered as incidents of violence and other violence attempts are inclined not to be reported to legal authorities resulting in a much lower official rates. Not only patients but also the relatives of patients have been reported to expose violence against healthcare workers. Verbal violence were found to be more common than physical violence. Violence incidents happen most commonly in the emergency room settings, and psychiatric clinic settings. Health care staff exposed to violence usually suffer from anxiety and restlessness as psychological after-effects. Health care workers are not sufficiently trained about how to cope with acute and chronic effects of violent behavior. This issue should be handled within the framework of medical faculty and related schools’ curriculum. All health care staff including physicians should get sufficient education to take immediate actions on such incidents. Unfortunately in Turkey, there is no specific legal regulation related to violence towards health employees. The verbal attacks, injuries, assault and murder of health workers are subject to general legal provisions. Both rapid changes in health care services, facilities and shortcomings in legal regulations cause gaps in violence prevention and employing safety issues in hospitals and related health care facilities. Training employees and hospital managers, and considering the creation and application of present and

  18. Impact of a Rural Domestic Violence Prevention Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, Anne M.; Tripp, Maria; Wolff, Debra A.; Lewis, Carol; Jenkins, Paul

    2001-01-01

    A 7-month public health information campaign used radio advertising, mass media articles, mailings, and posters to address attitudes and behavioral intentions toward domestic violence in a rural county. The campaign raised public awareness, particularly among men; increased stated intentions to intervene in a neighbor's domestic violence; and…

  19. Urban upgrading for violence prevention in South Africa: Does it ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The VPUU approach centres on three main interventions: -improving urban environments and public spaces; -providing services to victims of violence, including greater access to justice, neighbourhood watches, and educational opportunities; and, -creating ... Articles. Using psychology to reduce violence in South Africa ...

  20. The Importance of Challenging Hegemonic Masculinity in Preventing School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragowski, Eliza A.; Scharrón-del Río, María R.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we argue that efforts to eradicate school violence should include an understanding of the complex social, cultural, and historical contexts in which violence is perpetrated. Specifically, we assert that the production and perpetuation of hegemonic/dominant masculinity plays a pivotal role in various forms of aggression and violence…

  1. Homicidal violence during foreign military missions - prevention and legal issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G T Okulate

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The study involved Nigerian soldiers engaged in peacekeeping missions in Liberia and Yugoslavia. Using case illustrations, the study sought to describe patterns of homicidal violence among soldiers from the same country or soldiers from allied forces, and to suggest possible reasons for the attacks. Design and setting. Nigeria was actively involved in peacekeeping missions in Liberia between 1990 and 1996. During this period, intentional homicidal attacks occurred among the Nigerian military personnel. Post- homicidal interviews conducted among the perpetrators were combined with evidence obtained at military courts to produce the case studies. Subjects. Six Nigerian military personnel who attacked other Nigerians or soldiers from allied forces, with homicidal intent. Results. Possible predisposing and precipitating factors for these attacks were highlighted. The possibility of recognising these factors before embarking on overseas missions was discussed, so that preventive measures could be instituted as far as possible. Finally, medico-legal implications of homicide in the military were discussed. Conclusions. A certain degree of pre-combat selection is essential to exclude soldiers with definite severe psychopathology. A clearly defined length of duty in the mission areas and adequate communication with home could reduce maladjustment. Health personnel deployed to mission areas should be very conversant with mental health issues so that early recognition of psychological maladjustment is possible.

  2. School Programming for the Prevention of Addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Marilyn A.

    1992-01-01

    Defines "addiction" and discusses models of addiction. Discusses implications for school prevention programs. Discusses role of school counselor in implementation of a comprehensive addiction prevention program, including assessment, curricular components, intervention programs, and staff development. Presents questions and criteria to…

  3. Before Dreams Disappear: Preventing Youth Violence. Hearing on Examining Certain Provisions Establishing Programs To Prevent Youth Violence as Contained in the Proposed Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act before the Subcommittee on Children, Feamily, Drugs and Alcoholism, of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred and Third Congress, Second Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This report presents verbatim, a hearing before the Subcommittee on Children, Family, Drugs and Alcoholism. The hearing featured a series of testimonies and stories on violence among young people in the United States. It opened with remarks by Subcommittee Chairman, Christopher Dodd. He was followed by numerous statements on the nature of violence…

  4. Preventing violence and reinforcing human security: a rights-based framework for top-down and bottom-up action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaerulf, Finn; Barahona, Rodrigo

    2010-05-01

    This article explores the violence reduction potential in the intersection between health, criminal justice, and development. It emphasizes public health, rule of law, and equality-driven socioeconomic development as principal concerns in preventing violence. In parts of Latin America, violence has become a serious public health and security problem. Prior studies have explored the risk factors associated with violence as well as experiences in its prevention. These studies and existing approaches to violence prevention provide evidence on where to direct attention and build prevention efforts. This article argues for integrated community-driven and national interventions to create cooperative national- local linkages and embed international human rights law at the national and local levels. Nations struggling with violence should be encouraged to apply an integrated framework to prevent violence and reinforce human security.

  5. Fresh Start: a multilevel community mobilization plan to promote youth development and prevent violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cordero, Lourdes J; Ortiz, Angelo; Trinidad, Tomas; Link, Bruce

    2011-09-01

    While much has been written about community mobilization for health, few detailed expositions of the formation of community mobilization, especially focused on youth violence prevention exist. The Columbia Center for Youth Violence Prevention, in collaboration with the UNIDOS Inwood Coalition, developed a Community mobilization plan to guide youth violence prevention in Inwood. The plan was developed within the context of an evidence-based organizing framework-Communities that Care (CTC) and takes a multi-level approach to service coordination that includes activities at the Individual, Family, Block, Organizational and Built Environment levels. This article describes how the Community mobilization plan was created, illustrates the use of evidence-based practices to lead to the development of the plan, outlines the plan's community/organizational activities, and summarizes the principles and processes that can be replicated in other communities seeking to start their own community mobilization efforts to reduce youth violence.

  6. Effects of the It's Your Game . . . Keep It Real program on dating violence in ethnic-minority middle school youths: a group randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskin, Melissa F; Markham, Christine M; Shegog, Ross; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Addy, Robert C; Tortolero, Susan R

    2014-08-01

    We examined whether It's Your Game . . . Keep It Real (IYG) reduced dating violence among ethnic-minority middle school youths, a population at high risk for dating violence. We analyzed data from 766 predominantly ethnic-minority students from 10 middle schools in southeast Texas in 2004 for a group randomized trial of IYG. We estimated logistic regression models, and the primary outcome was emotional and physical dating violence perpetration and victimization by ninth grade. Control students had significantly higher odds of physical dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20, 1.92), emotional dating violence victimization (AOR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.36, 2.24), and emotional dating violence perpetration (AOR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.11, 2.26) than did intervention students. The odds of physical dating violence perpetration were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Program effects varied by gender and race/ethnicity. IYG significantly reduced 3 of 4 dating violence outcomes among ethnic-minority middle school youths. Although further study is warranted to determine if IYG should be widely disseminated to prevent dating violence, it is one of only a handful of school-based programs that are effective in reducing adolescent dating violence behavior.

  7. Effects of the It’s Your Game . . . Keep It Real Program on Dating Violence in Ethnic-Minority Middle School Youths: A Group Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Christine M.; Shegog, Ross; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Addy, Robert C.; Tortolero, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether It’s Your Game . . . Keep It Real (IYG) reduced dating violence among ethnic-minority middle school youths, a population at high risk for dating violence. Methods. We analyzed data from 766 predominantly ethnic-minority students from 10 middle schools in southeast Texas in 2004 for a group randomized trial of IYG. We estimated logistic regression models, and the primary outcome was emotional and physical dating violence perpetration and victimization by ninth grade. Results. Control students had significantly higher odds of physical dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20, 1.92), emotional dating violence victimization (AOR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.36, 2.24), and emotional dating violence perpetration (AOR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.11, 2.26) than did intervention students. The odds of physical dating violence perpetration were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Program effects varied by gender and race/ethnicity. Conclusions. IYG significantly reduced 3 of 4 dating violence outcomes among ethnic-minority middle school youths. Although further study is warranted to determine if IYG should be widely disseminated to prevent dating violence, it is one of only a handful of school-based programs that are effective in reducing adolescent dating violence behavior. PMID:24922162

  8. A Primer for Preventing Teen Dating Violence? The Representation of Teen Dating Violence in Young Adult Literature and Its Implications for Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Heather L; Strohl, Katyayani R

    2016-09-18

    Teen dating violence (TDV) is a significant public health issue. Preventing TDV requires attention to risk and protective factors across ecological system levels. The media is one of the primary cultural drivers of societal-level social scripts about the causes of TDV. Framing theory asserts that the media's portrayal of social issues, including what contextual information is included and/or excluded, affects individual-level attitudes about TDV and potential policy responses. This study investigates the representation of TDV in young adult (YA) literature, a media genre that is marketed to adolescent audiences. Data include all YA novels (N = 8) that have a primary focus on TDV. Texts were analyzed systematically using thematic content analysis methods. Results indicate that the antecedents of TDV were portrayed as being related to victim personal characteristics such as inexperience in relationships and low self-esteem. Rather than underscoring how societal-level factors contribute to TDV, perpetration was seen as stemming from family dysfunction and mental health issues. These results underscore how the structural determinants of TDV have been overshadowed in the media's portrayal of TDV, in favor of narrow portrayals of victimization and perpetration. Implications for TDV prevention programs including the importance of media literacy are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Hospital-centered violence intervention programs: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Vincent E; Smith, Randi; Garcia, Arturo; Lee, Wayne S; Ashley, Linnea; Marks, Anne; Liu, Terrence H; Victorino, Gregory P

    2015-04-01

    Hospital-centered violence intervention programs (HVIPs) reduce violent injury recidivism. However, dedicated cost analyses of such programs have not yet been published. We hypothesized that the HVIP at our urban trauma center is a cost-effective means for reducing violent injury recidivism. We conducted a cost-utility analysis using a state-transition (Markov) decision model, comparing participation in our HVIP with standard risk reduction for patients injured because of firearm violence. Model inputs were derived from our trauma registry and published literature. The 1-year recidivism rate for participants in our HVIP was 2.5%, compared with 4% for those receiving standard risk reduction resources. Total per-person costs of each violence prevention arm were similar: $3,574 for our HVIP and $3,515 for standard referrals. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio for our HVIP was $2,941. Our HVIP is a cost-effective means of preventing recurrent episodes of violent injury in patients hurt by firearms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Need to Consider Ethnocultural Context in Prevention Programming: A Case Example from Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Susana; Baker, Charlene K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This article highlights the importance of incorporating ethnocultural contexts in prevention research and programming. We provide a case example from our research in youth violence prevention in Hawai'i. Methods: Data were collected in multiethnic communities on O'ahu. Focus groups were conducted with high school-aged youths of Native…

  11. Family Violence: Effects of a Film Program for Alcohol Dependent Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Robert J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared film programs on family violence and alcoholism, in an alcohol rehabilitation program. Patients (N=77) were evaluated for their reactions to the two film programs. A majority of patients rated the film program on family violence very highly, indicating a need for such interventions in alcohol rehabilitation. (JAC)

  12. 40 CFR 68.170 - Prevention program/Program 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention program/Program 2. 68.170 Section 68.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.170 Prevention program/Program...

  13. 40 CFR 68.175 - Prevention program/Program 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention program/Program 3. 68.175 Section 68.175 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.175 Prevention program/Program...

  14. J.U.M.P.: Join Us Make Peace. 16 Power Plays for Preventing Youth Violence. California Attorney General's Youth Council on Violence Prevention 1998 Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

    In an attempt to create more youth and adult partnerships to prevent violence throughout California, the California Attorney General's Office, the California Youth Authority, and the California Department of Health Services joined together on this community action research project. The members of the Attorney General's Youth Council on Violence…

  15. Television Violence: the Negative Effect on Children and Its Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alfredas Kiskis

    2004-01-01

      The article analyses prevalence of television violence and its effect on children, theories of the effect and the existing research results, types of impact, factors of the influence and suggestible...

  16. Perceptions of adolescents, parents, and school personnel from a predominantly Cuban American community regarding dating and teen dating violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Cummings, Amanda M; Pino, Karen; Malhotra, Krithika; Becerra, Maria M; Lopez, Jessica E

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of dating relationships and teen dating violence prevention within a predominantly Cuban American community in Miami-Dade County. Eight focus groups (n = 74 participants) with adolescents of Hispanic origin (n = 29), their parents (n = 29), and school personnel (n = 16) were conducted and analyzed using content analysis. Four themes characterized the nature and context of dating relationships among adolescents of Hispanic origin: YOLO -You Only Live Once, cultural unity but social division, dating is not going out, and the social environment challenges healthy relationships. The information generated from this study can be used to develop culturally tailored teen dating violence prevention programs targeting youth of Hispanic origin. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Schools must include faculty and staff in sexual violence prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Jessica; Krause, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Creating a normative campus environment intolerant to sexual violence is important for prevention. While prevention initiatives focusing on students are vital, faculty and staff have a central role in supporting and sustaining a comprehensive strategy for preventing campus sexual violence. Nationwide, colleges and universities recently implemented campus climate surveys. At Emory, we decided to survey faculty and staff as well as students, motivated by our use of an ecological framing of campus sexual violence. Faculty and staff are long-term members of the community, and can provide stability and continuity that reinforces prevention efforts prioritized for students. We recommend that schools use a trauma-informed approach to guide the involvement of faculty and staff in prevention. We encourage colleges and universities to consider the experiences and needs of their faculty and staff, as professionals who serve as leaders on campus and as those who guide students through their academic experiences.

  18. Training on prevention of violence against women in the medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p=0.003) and to have better attitudes (aOR 4.55; p=0.008) towards victims of violence. Male students had more knowledge of VAW, and female students had better attitudes to victims. Students who reported prior training on violence were more likely to have adequate knowledge (aOR1.64; p=0.33), and better attitudes (aOR ...

  19. Monitoring the multi-faceted problem of youth violence: the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center's surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle J; Hishinuma, Earl S; Momohara, Christie-Brianna K; Rehuher, Davis; Soli, Fa'apisa M; Bautista, Randy Paul M; Chang, Janice Y

    2012-10-01

    Youth violence (YV) is a complex public health issue that spans geographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic lines. The Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center conducts qualitative and quantitative research on YV in Hawai'i. A critical element in YV prevention involves measuring YV and its risk-protective factors to determine the scope of the problem and to monitor changes across time. Under the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center's (APIYVPC's) surveillance umbrella, a variety of methodologies are utilized. The major forms of active surveillance are a School-Wide Survey for youth, and a Safe Community Household Survey for adults. A variety of secondary data sources are accessed, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System), the Hawai'i State Department of the Attorney General, the Hawai'i State Department of Education, and the Hawai'i State Department of Health. State data are especially important for the Center, because most of these sources disaggregate ethnicity data for Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders. This paper details the surveillance methodologies utilized by the APIYVPC to monitor YV in one specific community and in Hawai'i, in comparison to the rest of the State and nation. Empirical results demonstrate the utility of each methodology and how they complement one another. Individually, each data source lends valuable information to the field of YV prevention; however, collectively, the APIYVPC's surveillance methods help to paint a more complete picture regarding violence rates and the relationship between YV and its risk-protective factors, particularly for minority communities.

  20. Community mobilization and community-based participatory research to prevent youth violence among Asian and immigrant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thao N; Arifuku, Isami; Vuong, Linh; Tran, Gianna; Lustig, Deborah F; Zimring, Franklin

    2011-09-01

    Many community mobilization activities for youth violence prevention involve the researchers assisting communities in identifying, adapting, and/or tailoring evidence-based programs to fit the community needs, population, and cultural and social contexts. This article describes a slightly different framework in which the collaborative research/evaluation project emerged from the community mobilization activities. As will be discussed, this collaborative, sustained partnership was possible in the context of the Center on Culture, Immigration and Youth Violence Prevention's (UC Berkeley ACE) community mobilization activities that brought the issue of youth violence, particularly among immigrant and minority populations, to the forefront of many of the community partners' agendas. The East Bay Asian Youth Center (EBAYC) was one of the partners that came to the table, which facilitated the community-based engagement/mobilization. UC Berkeley ACE collaborated with EBAYC to evaluate an after-school program and an alternative probation program serving a diverse youth and immigrant population, including African Americans, Asians, and Hispanics. This article describes UC Berkeley ACE's community mobilization activity and the collaborative partnership with EBAYC, discusses how the evaluations incorporated community-based principles in design and practice, and presents some findings from the evaluations.

  1. Beyond Bullying: Consideration of Additional Research for the Assessment and Prevention of Potential Rampage School Violence in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evonn Welton

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For approximately 15 years there have been a number of episodes of rampage school violence in elementary/high school and higher education in the United States. Initial responses included implementation of antibullying programs, disciplinary measures, and increased law security measures. As the incidences have continued, it has become apparent that a more collaborative and interdisciplinary approach is needed for prevention. This paper offers a review of research literature as it applies to proposed innovative strategies for collaborative research, prevention, and intervention in the school setting.

  2. Preventing the Onset of Child Sexual Abuse by Targeting Young Adolescents With Universal Prevention Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Feder, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a serious public health problem that increases risk for physical and mental health problems across the life course. Young adolescents are responsible for a substantial portion of CSA offending, yet to our knowledge, no validated prevention programs that target CSA perpetration by youth exist. Most existing efforts to address CSA rely on reactive criminal justice policies or programs that teach children to protect themselves; neither approach is well validated. Given the high rates of desistance from sexual offending following a youth’s first CSA-related adjudication, it seems plausible that many youth could be prevented from engaging in their first offense. The goal of this article is to examine how school-based universal prevention programs might be used to prevent CSA perpetrated by adolescents. We review the literature on risk and protective factors for CSA perpetration and identify several promising factors to target in an intervention. We also summarize the literature on programs that have been effective at preventing adolescent dating violence and other serious problem behaviors. Finally, we describe a new CSA prevention program under development and early evaluation and make recommendations for program design characteristics, including unambiguous messaging, parental involvement, multisession dosage, skills practice, and bystander considerations. PMID:28413921

  3. Preventing the Onset of Child Sexual Abuse by Targeting Young Adolescents With Universal Prevention Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J; Schaeffer, Cindy M; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Feder, Kenneth A

    2017-05-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a serious public health problem that increases risk for physical and mental health problems across the life course. Young adolescents are responsible for a substantial portion of CSA offending, yet to our knowledge, no validated prevention programs that target CSA perpetration by youth exist. Most existing efforts to address CSA rely on reactive criminal justice policies or programs that teach children to protect themselves; neither approach is well validated. Given the high rates of desistance from sexual offending following a youth's first CSA-related adjudication, it seems plausible that many youth could be prevented from engaging in their first offense. The goal of this article is to examine how school-based universal prevention programs might be used to prevent CSA perpetrated by adolescents. We review the literature on risk and protective factors for CSA perpetration and identify several promising factors to target in an intervention. We also summarize the literature on programs that have been effective at preventing adolescent dating violence and other serious problem behaviors. Finally, we describe a new CSA prevention program under development and early evaluation and make recommendations for program design characteristics, including unambiguous messaging, parental involvement, multisession dosage, skills practice, and bystander considerations.

  4. Exposure to interparental violence and psychosocial maladjustment in the adult life course: advocacy for early prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roustit, C; Renahy, E; Guernec, G; Lesieur, S; Parizot, I; Chauvin, P

    2009-01-01

    Background: Early family-level and social-level stressors are both assumed to be the components of two main path models explaining the association between exposure to interparental violence in childhood and its long-term consequences on mental health explored through life-course epidemiological studies. Aims: To investigate the association between exposure to interparental violence in childhood and mental health outcomes in adulthood when taking into account early family and social stressors. Methods: A retrospective French cohort study of 3023 adults representative of the general population in the Paris metropolitan area was conducted in 2005 through at-home, face-to-face interviews. The outcomes measures were current depression and lifetime suicide attempt, intimate partner violence, violence against children and alcohol dependence. Results: The adults exposed to interparental violence during childhood had a higher risk of psychosocial maladjustment. After adjusting for family- and social-level stressors in childhood, this risk was, respectively, 1.44 (95% CI 1.03 to 2.00) for depression, 3.17 (1.75 to 5.73) for conjugal violence, 4.75 (1.60 to 14.14) for child maltreatment and 1.75 (1.19 to 2.57) for alcohol dependence. Conclusions: The adult consequences of parental violence in childhood—and this independently of the other forms of domestic violence and the related psychosocial risks—should lead to intensifying the prevention of and screening for this form of maltreatment of children. PMID:19477880

  5. Exposure to interparental violence and psychosocial maladjustment in the adult life course: advocacy for early prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roustit, C; Renahy, E; Guernec, G; Lesieur, S; Parizot, I; Chauvin, P

    2009-07-01

    Early family-level and social-level stressors are both assumed to be the components of two main path models explaining the association between exposure to interparental violence in childhood and its long-term consequences on mental health explored through life-course epidemiological studies. To investigate the association between exposure to interparental violence in childhood and mental health outcomes in adulthood when taking into account early family and social stressors. A retrospective French cohort study of 3023 adults representative of the general population in the Paris metropolitan area was conducted in 2005 through at-home, face-to-face interviews. The outcomes measures were current depression and lifetime suicide attempt, intimate partner violence, violence against children and alcohol dependence. The adults exposed to interparental violence during childhood had a higher risk of psychosocial maladjustment. After adjusting for family- and social-level stressors in childhood, this risk was, respectively, 1.44 (95% CI 1.03 to 2.00) for depression, 3.17 (1.75 to 5.73) for conjugal violence, 4.75 (1.60 to 14.14) for child maltreatment and 1.75 (1.19 to 2.57) for alcohol dependence. The adult consequences of parental violence in childhood-and this independently of the other forms of domestic violence and the related psychosocial risks-should lead to intensifying the prevention of and screening for this form of maltreatment of children.

  6. A latent transition model of the effects of a teen dating violence prevention initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jason; Miller, Shari; Cutbush, Stacey; Gibbs, Deborah; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Jones, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    Patterns of physical and psychological teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration, victimization, and related behaviors were examined with data from the evaluation of the Start Strong: Building Healthy Teen Relationships initiative, a dating violence primary prevention program targeting middle school students. Latent class and latent transition models were used to estimate distinct patterns of TDV and related behaviors of bullying and sexual harassment in seventh grade students at baseline and to estimate transition probabilities from one pattern of behavior to another at the 1-year follow-up. Intervention effects were estimated by conditioning transitions on exposure to Start Strong. Latent class analyses suggested four classes best captured patterns of these interrelated behaviors. Classes were characterized by elevated perpetration and victimization on most behaviors (the multiproblem class), bullying perpetration/victimization and sexual harassment victimization (the bully-harassment victimization class), bullying perpetration/victimization and psychological TDV victimization (bully-psychological victimization), and experience of bully victimization (bully victimization). Latent transition models indicated greater stability of class membership in the comparison group. Intervention students were less likely to transition to the most problematic pattern and more likely to transition to the least problem class. Although Start Strong has not been found to significantly change TDV, alternative evaluation models may find important differences. Latent transition analysis models suggest positive intervention impact, especially for the transitions at the most and the least positive end of the spectrum. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Prevention of violence against women and girls: what does the evidence say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsberg, Mary; Arango, Diana J; Morton, Matthew; Gennari, Floriza; Kiplesund, Sveinung; Contreras, Manuel; Watts, Charlotte

    2015-04-18

    In this Series paper, we review evidence for interventions to reduce the prevalence and incidence of violence against women and girls. Our reviewed studies cover a broad range of intervention models, and many forms of violence--ie, intimate partner violence, non-partner sexual assault, female genital mutilation, and child marriage. Evidence is highly skewed towards that from studies from high-income countries, with these evaluations mainly focusing on responses to violence. This evidence suggests that women-centred, advocacy, and home-visitation programmes can reduce a woman's risk of further victimisation, with less conclusive evidence for the preventive effect of programmes for perpetrators. In low-income and middle-income countries, there is a greater research focus on violence prevention, with promising evidence on the effect of group training for women and men, community mobilisation interventions, and combined livelihood and training interventions for women. Despite shortcomings in the evidence base, several studies show large effects in programmatic timeframes. Across different forms of violence, effective programmes are commonly participatory, engage multiple stakeholders, support critical discussion about gender relationships and the acceptability of violence, and support greater communication and shared decision making among family members, as well as non-violent behaviour. Further investment in intervention design and assessment is needed to address evidence gaps. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pollution prevention program plan 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This plan serves as the principal crosscutting guidance to Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Operations Office, laboratory, and contractor management to fully implement pollution prevention programs within the DOE complex between now and 2000. To firmly demonstrate DOE`s commitment to pollution prevention, the Secretary of Energy has established goals, to be achieved by December 31, 1999, that will aggressively reduce DOE`s routine generation of radioactive, mixed, and hazardous wastes, and total releases and offsite transfers of toxic chemicals. The Secretary also has established sanitary waste reduction, recycling, and affirmative procurement goals. Site progress in meeting these goals will be reported annually to the Secretary in the Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, using 1993 as the baseline year. Implementation of this plan will represent a major step toward reducing the environmental risks and costs associated with DOE operations.

  9. Integration of Behavioral Threat Management into Fusion Center Operations to Prevent Mass or Targeted Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Gang Violence , Masculinity and Hip Hop,” Computers in Human Behavior 29, no. 5 (September 2013): A54, doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2012.12.035. 105 Ibid. 106...Internet Banging: New Trends in Social Media, Gang Violence , Masculinity and Hip Hop.” Computers in Human Behavior 29, no. 5 (September 2013): A54–A59. doi...BEHAVIORAL THREAT MANAGEMENT INTO FUSION CENTER OPERATIONS TO PREVENT MASS OR TARGETED VIOLENCE by W. Payne Marks December 2016 Thesis

  10. AIDS Prevention Programs and Sexual Behaviour Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS Prevention Programs and Sexual Behaviour Among Secondary School Adolescents in Delta State, Nigeria. ... AIDS prevention programs should place greater emphasis on encouraging abstinence, fidelity, reducing the number of sexual partners, the use of condoms, and economic empowerment of adolescents.

  11. Educators' views of eating disorder prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnado-Sullivan, Paula J; Parr, Francoise; O'Grady, Megan A; Savoy, Sarah

    2013-06-01

    Further understanding of educators' views of eating disorder prevention can further engage them in this effort. No previous studies of educators have used acceptability methodology or compared eating disorder prevention to other prevention efforts. Educators (n = 135) rated the acceptability of five sample programs and provided their opinions about eating disorder and other prevention programs. The results indicated primarily psychoeducational and general well-being programs were most acceptable. Educators-specified trained professionals should implement programs during school hours to male and female junior high students. Although eating disorder prevention was perceived as important, it was not rated as vital as other programs, such as substance abuse prevention.

  12. Primary Prevention Is? A Global Perspective on How Organizations Engaging Men in Preventing Gender-Based Violence Conceptualize and Operationalize Their Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Heather L; Casey, Erin A; Carlson, Juliana; Edleson, Jeffrey L; Tolman, Richard M

    2016-02-01

    Engaging men in addressing violence against women (VAW) has become a strategy in the global prevention of gender-based violence. Concurrently, Western public health frameworks have been utilized to guide prevention agendas worldwide. Using qualitative methods, this study describes how global anti-violence organizations that partner with men conceptualize primary prevention in their work. Findings suggest that "primary prevention" is not a fixed term in the context of VAW and that front-line prevention work challenges rigidly delineated distinctions between levels of prevention. Much can be learned from global organizations' unique and contextualized approaches to the prevention of VAW. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. State-of-the-science on prevention of elder abuse and lessons learned from child abuse and domestic violence prevention: Toward a conceptual framework for research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresi, Jeanne A.; Burnes, David; Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Dutton, Mary Ann; Mosqueda, Laura; Lachs, Mark S.; Pillemer, Karl

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this review is to discuss the state-of-the-science in elder abuse prevention. Findings from evidence-based programs to reduce elder abuse are discussed, drawing from findings and insights from evidence-based programs for child maltreatment and domestic/ intimate partner violence. A conceptual measurement model for the study of elder abuse is presented, and linked to possible measures of risk factors and outcomes. Advances in neuroscience in child maltreatment and novel measurement strategies for outcome assessment are presented. PMID:27676289

  14. A Preventive Intervention Program for Urban African American Youth Attending an Alternative Education Program: Background, Implementation, and Feasibility

    OpenAIRE

    Carswell, Steven B.; Hanlon, Thomas E.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Watts, Amy M.; Pothong, Pattarapan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents background, implementation, and feasibility findings associated with planning and conducting an after-school intervention program in an alternative education setting designed to prevent the initiation and escalation of violence and substance abuse among urban African American youth at high risk for life-long problem behaviors. Evolving from earlier preventive interventions implemented in clinic and school settings, the program, entitled The Village Model of Care, consisted...

  15. Reducing Violence in Non-Controlling Ways: A Change Program Based on Self Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assor, Avi; Feinberg, Ofra; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Kaplan, Haya

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents and examines the first school change program focusing on violence and caring based on self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2012). The program aimed at promoting teachers' capacity to cope with violence and enhance caring without becoming more controlling. Comparisons of the effects of a 22-month-long program in three…

  16. Raising a Red Flag on Dating Violence: Evaluation of a Low-Resource, College-Based Bystander Behavior Intervention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsky, Amanda E; McDonnell, Karen; Turner, Monique Mitchell; Rimal, Rajiv

    2016-03-09

    Encouraging bystanders to intervene safely and effectively in situations that could escalate to violence-known as bystander behavior programs-is a growing yet largely untested strategy to prevent dating violence. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluate a low-resource, low-intensity intervention aimed at preventing dating violence among college students. The integrated behavioral model (IBM) was used to guide the evaluation. We also assess which IBM variables were most strongly associated with bystander behaviors. Participants were drawn from two Virginia colleges that predominantly train females in the health profession sciences. The intervention group (n = 329) participated in a university-wide bystander behavior intervention consisting of a 30-min presentation on dating violence at new-student orientation and a week-long "red flag" social marketing campaign on campus to raise awareness of dating violence. Controlling for changes at the comparison university, results showed an increase in bystander behaviors, such as encouraging a friend who may be in an abusive relationship to get help, after the intervention and adjusting for potential confounders (increase of 1.41 bystander behaviors, p = .04). However, no significant changes were found for bystander intentions, self-efficacy, social norms, or attitudes related to dating violence from pre- to post-intervention. Self-efficacy had a direct relationship with bystander behaviors. Results suggest that low-resource interventions have a modest effect on increasing bystander behaviors. However, higher resource interventions likely are needed for a larger impact, especially among students who already demonstrate strong baseline intentions to intervene and prevent dating violence. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Homicidal violence during foreign military missions prevention and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. The study involved Nigerian soldiers engaged in peacekeeping missions in Liberia and Yugoslavia. Using case illustrations, the study sought to describe patterns of homicidal violence among soldiers from the same country or soldiers from allied forces, and to suggest possible reasons for the attacks.

  18. Preventing interpersonal violence in emergency departments: practical applications of criminology theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Billy

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two decades, rates of violence in the workplace have grown significantly. Such growth has been more prevalent in some fields than others, however. Research shows that rates of violence against healthcare workers are continuously among the highest of any career field. Within the healthcare field, the overwhelming majority of victims of workplace violence are hospital employees, with those working in emergency departments (EDs) experiencing the lion's share of violent victimization. Though this fact is well-known by medical researchers and practitioners, it has received relatively little attention from criminal justice researchers or practitioners. Unfortunately, this oversight has severely limited the use of effective crime prevention techniques in hospital EDs. The goal of this analysis is to utilize techniques of situational crime prevention to develop an effective and easily applicable crime prevention strategy for hospital EDs.

  19. Marital violence: the beliefs of professionals directly involved in their response and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Cabral

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an investigation about the problem of marital violence, whose primary objective was to characterize the beliefs of professionals and future professionals directly involved in their response and prevention. In order to identify the beliefs about the dimension of the phenomenon of conjugal violence and the legal perception regarding it and the beliefs and legitimating attitudes of violence in marital relations, a descriptive quantitative study was developed, applying the Beliefs of Violence Scale Conjugal - ECVC (Machado, Matos & Gonçalves, 2006. The total sum of the scale measures the level of tolerance / adaptation in relation to physical and psychological violence in the context of marital relationships. The sum of each factor allows to understand the specific beliefs / attitudes of this type of violence. In this context, another objective was to evaluate the reliability of the ECVC, using the Kolmogorov-Sminov test, and the results obtained show that the model originally proposed does not have a good fit to the data. We also observe and discuss the gender differential analysisKey Words: Intimate partner violence; beliefs; gender; famile life

  20. Violence and injuries in South Africa: prioritising an agenda for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedat, Mohamed; Van Niekerk, Ashley; Jewkes, Rachel; Suffla, Shahnaaz; Ratele, Kopano

    2009-09-19

    Violence and injuries are the second leading cause of death and lost disability-adjusted life years in South Africa. The overall injury death rate of 157.8 per 100,000 population is nearly twice the global average, and the rate of homicide of women by intimate partners is six times the global average. With a focus on homicide, and violence against women and children, we review the magnitude, contexts of occurrence, and patterns of violence, and refer to traffic-related and other unintentional injuries. The social dynamics that support violence are widespread poverty, unemployment, and income inequality; patriarchal notions of masculinity that valourise toughness, risk-taking, and defence of honour; exposure to abuse in childhood and weak parenting; access to firearms; widespread alcohol misuse; and weaknesses in the mechanisms of law enforcement. Although there have been advances in development of services for victims of violence, innovation from non-governmental organisations, and evidence from research, there has been a conspicuous absence of government stewardship and leadership. Successful prevention of violence and injury is contingent on identification by the government of violence as a strategic priority and development of an intersectoral plan based on empirically driven programmes and policies.

  1. A Preventive Intervention Program for Urban African American Youth Attending an Alternative Education Program: Background, Implementation, and Feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, Steven B.; Hanlon, Thomas E.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Watts, Amy M.; Pothong, Pattarapan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents background, implementation, and feasibility findings associated with planning and conducting an after-school intervention program in an alternative education setting designed to prevent the initiation and escalation of violence and substance abuse among urban African American youth at high risk for life-long problem behaviors.…

  2. The role of mental health in primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aník Gevers

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV. However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.

  3. The role of mental health in primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Aník; Dartnall, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.

  4. The role of mental health in primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Aník; Dartnall, Elizabeth

    2014-12-01

    In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.

  5. Preventing the Pain” When Working with Family and Sexual Violence in Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Coles

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary care professionals (PCPs are increasingly being expected to identify and respond to family and sexual violence as the chronic nature and severity of the long-term health impacts are increasingly recognized. This discussion paper reports the authors’ expert opinion from their experiences running international workshops to prevent trauma among those who work and research sexual violence. It describes the burnout and secondary traumatic stress literature which provides the evidence supporting their work. Implications for practicing basic training in response to trauma and ongoing education are a key area for responding to family violence and preventing professional stress. A professional culture that supports and values caring well for those who have experienced family violence as well as “caring for the carer” is needed. Working in teams and having more support systems in place are likely to protect PCPs from secondary traumatic stress and burnout. Undergraduate and postgraduate training of PCPs to develop trauma knowledge and the skills to ask about and respond to family violence safely are essential. In addition, the healthcare system, workplace, and the individual practitioner support structures need to be in place to enable PCPs to provide safe and effective long-term care and access to other appropriate services for those who have experienced family violence.

  6. Nursing student evaluation of NIOSH workplace violence prevention for nurses online course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brann, Maria; Hartley, Dan

    2017-02-01

    As primary targets of workplace violence in health care settings, nurses may suffer negative physical and psychological consequences. NIOSH created an online course to educate nurses about violence prevention techniques. A mixed-methods approach assessed workplace violence awareness and knowledge among nursing students. A pre/post/post-test survey and focus group discussions evaluated participant awareness and knowledge, assessed course design, and solicited recommendations for increasing participation and strategies for improving message retention. The mean awareness scores differed significantly between pre-course and both post-course time points (Wilk's λ=0.319, F(2, 46)=49.01, pnursing curriculums. Incorporating the course early in the nursing educational experience will better prepare students to deal with workplace violence when they enter health care professions. The results indicate that NIOSH and its partners created an effective online workplace violence awareness and prevention course. Practical applications: Nursing students and professionals can be effectively educated about workplace violence using an online format. Copyright © 2016 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The need for changes in administrative law from the aspect of prevention of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrvić-Petrović Nataša

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The author points out some practical consequences of non-coherence of penal system such as: incomplete legal protection of domestic violence victims and inefficiency of prevention measures regarding domestic violence. Therefore author advocates for changes of administrative law of the Republic of Serbia. Those changes will, on one hand, clarify conception, place and function of misdemeanor in the penal system and, on the other hand improve protection of domestic violence victims. This second goal could be achieved through new misdemeanor offences (applicable to cases of domestic violence and broader, to people living in the same household, and new protective orders, which could be imposed individually or as supplementary to existing penalties. The content of protection orders should be a warning to a perpetrator or supervision of his behaviour.

  8. Preventing violence against women by challenging gender stereotypes in Scottish primary schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary

    2016-01-01

    Gender violence is a major public health issue in Europe; it is normalized and partly legitimized by gender stereotypes. An example of a primary prevention education programme designed to challenge the attitudes that underpin gender violence, particularly violence against women, is the Zero...... as a right and a responsibility, and empathy for others and an awareness of the potentially discriminatory effects of difference in society are underlined. Facts and figures help pupils challenge prevailing myths of gendered violence, and a gendered perspective on history is also indicated. ZTR material...... stereotypes for the individual pupil. Moreover, further attention could have been given to surrounding powerful discourses and media representations that may be at odds with the messages of the programme. The present study illustrates that the growing field of public health can be supported through an “all...

  9. Social cohesion and peace education: Alternatives for preventing child-youth violence in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhina Cabezas Valencia

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a general overview of the current situation of the phenomenon of childyouth violence in El Salvador. It describes some of the measures, both governmental and those deriving from international cooperation, that have been implemented to date, in order to seek a solution to the problem. The authors also explore more deeply the new trends in preventing the phenomenon. In this sense, the article is aimed at the prevention of violence through twospecific mechanisms: peace education and social cohesion. As the authors demonstrate, both mechanisms are potentially adaptable to the reality of El Salvador.

  10. Sexual Violence: Helping Men Become Allies. A Sexual Violence Bystander Intervention Program for Collegiate Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leacock, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    Sexual violence in the United States continues to be a growing problem. Collegiate women face some of the highest rates of sexual violence, with statistics estimating one in four women will have this unwanted experience sometime during their college career. With Title IX administrators required to provide sexual violence awareness, more colleges…

  11. Suppression of the Aggressive Impulse: Conceptual Difficulties in Anti-Violence Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Joan F.; Kitzmiller, Erika

    2010-01-01

    School anti-violence programs are united in their radical condemnation of aggression, generally equated with violence. The programs advocate its elimination by priming children's emotional and cognitive controls. What goes unrecognized is the embeddedness of aggression in human beings, as well as its positive psychological and moral functions. In…

  12. How Can We Prevent Violence Becoming a Viable Political Strategy?

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Justino

    2009-01-01

    A basic issue that conflict analysis investigates is how non-peaceful ways of living and governing become viable political strategies. Macro-level studies provide some important insights but micro-level analysis is vital to understand the mechanisms that make violence possible. This briefing outlines some preliminary findings in this respect from MICROCON, a major research programme analysing violent conflict at the micro level. It also discusses their implications for policies aimed at preve...

  13. Adapting an Evidence-Based HIV-Prevention Intervention for Women in Domestic Violence Shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Braxton, Nikia; Harvey, Jenna; Wingood, Gina

    2016-07-01

    Despite the documented intersection of intimate partner violence and HIV, there is a paucity of evidence-based HIV prevention interventions for female survivors of intimate partner violence in the United States. This paper describes the adaptation of an effective HIV prevention intervention, Sisters Informing Sisters about Topics on AIDS (SISTA), for women in domestic violence shelters and the steps taken to improve the adapted intervention's implementation. The adaptation process was guided by the ADAPT-ITT framework and data collected from directors, direct client service providers, and residents of two domestic violence shelters located in urban areas, as well as topical experts. Eleven of 12 shelter staff (92%) reported that HIV interventions had never been implemented at their shelter and 64% reported they had not provided residents with educational brochures about HIV prevention. Changes made to adapt SISTA for this population and enhance the implementation of the intervention included reducing the intervention's duration; adding education about the intersection of intimate partner violence, substance use, and HIV; and adding an HIV risk assessment and safety plan. Next steps will include implementing the adapted intervention and evaluating its perceived acceptability and efficacy, and assessing whether contextual factors influence the intervention's implementation.

  14. Effectiveness Of Interpersonal Communication In The Prevention Of Violence Against Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Rinawati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many children have become violence victim, not receive affection, protected including not attending school. Some of effort in preventing from violence is starting from the family. Therefore, this study is aimed for the effectiveness of interpersonal communication that is conducted by the parents with children in Bandung city, in order to prevent the violence against children. The case study used in this research, on the grounds that every area is different to each other because it certainly has a different culture. The respondent sample that we made a survey is 100 people. Results showed that parents in Bandung city are doing most of openness in communicating with their children, particularly related to violence that might exist in the child’s environment. In addition, they have a positive attitude towards the association of children. Empathy in children is showing from their parents in order to prevent from violence. Equality in family is done by their parents in Bandung city to open the space for child participation, so that the children will open to their parents for asking something or to tell a various things.

  15. [Domestic violence against children and prospects for intervention of the Family Health Program: the experience of the Family Doctor Program/Niterói (RJ, Brazil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Pedro Carlos Xavier da; Moraes, Claudia Leite

    2011-07-01

    This study seeks to estimate the prevalence of psychological and physical violence practiced against children in the family environment among clients of the Family Medical Program in Niterói (RJ). It also discloses some potential opportunities for action in the prevention, early detection and monitoring of families experiencing violence. This population-based survey was conducted with face-to-face interviews with parents or legal sponsors of 278 children registered in 27 teams of the Family Health Program. The population studied was randomly selected among children up to ten years of age. The Brazilian version of Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales - CTSPC was employed to assess the occurrence of this type of violence. Psychological aggression occurred in 96.7% (CI 95%: 94.7-98.8) of the households, and corporal punishment occurred in 93.8% (CI 95%: 92.0-96.7). Minor physical violence was reported by 51.4% (CI 95%: 45.5-57.3) of the respondents, and severe physical maltreatment by 19.8% (CI 95%: 15.1-24.5) of them. Although the mother was the foremost perpetrator of all kinds of maltreatment, most of the children were abused by both parents. In view of these results, domestic violence against children should be seen as a main concern for the Family Health Program.

  16. The Effects of Action and Violence in Television Programs on the Social Behavior and Imaginative Play of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston-Stein, Aletha; And Others

    The independent contributions of action and violence in television programs to children's attention and social behavior were investigated. Pairs of preschool children were assigned to one of four television conditions (1) high action-high violence, (2) high action-low violence, (3) low action-low violence, or (4) no television. Action was defined…

  17. Child and Parent Voices on a Community-Based Prevention Program (FAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie; Hill, Patricia; Gore, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Families and Schools Together (FAST) is a collaborative program involving schools, families, and community-based partners in efforts to prevent substance use, juvenile delinquency, school failure, child abuse and neglect, mental health problems, and violence. Although evaluated extensively, there remains a dearth of qualitative data on child and…

  18. Peacebuilders: a theoretically driven, school-based model for early violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embry, D D; Flannery, D J; Vazsonyi, A T; Powell, K E; Atha, H

    1996-01-01

    PeaceBuilders is a schoolwide violence-prevention program for elementary schools (K-5). A coalition of the Pima County Community Services Department, University of Arizona, and Heartsprings, Inc., (a Tucson-based company) are conducting a formal evaluation. Children who grow up to commit acts of violence show cognitive, social, and imitative differences from their peers. These characteristics can be ameliorated, most successfully through interventions that begin at an early age and involve multiple segments of the child's social experiences and interactions. PeaceBuilders activities are built into the school environment and the daily interactions among students, teachers, and administrative staff, all of whom are taught a common language and provided models of positive behavior, environmental cues to signal such behavior, opportunities to rehearse positive behavior, and rewards for practicing it. Four schools, one from each of four matched pairs, were randomly assigned to begin PeaceBuilders in Year 1. The remaining four schools begin in Year 2. Outcome assessments include student self-reports, standardized teacher reports, playground observations, and school and law enforcement records. Process assessments include school observations and surveys of teacher practices and satisfaction. Surveys were completed by 2,736 children. The sample is about 55% Hispanic, 26% Anglo, 14% Native American, and 4% African American. Among children in grades 3-5, during the past week 15% had been sent to the office for disciplinary problems, 13% tried to start a fight 27% hit someone, and 12% reported being threatened with a gun or knife. Violent behaviors and experiences are common among the studied children. A valid evaluation is underway of PeaceBuilders.

  19. Violence Prevention after Columbine: A Survey of High School Mental Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepeau-Hobson, M. Franci; Filaccio, Marylynne; Gottfried, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined changes in mental health services and violence prevention strategies in public high schools since the shootings at Columbine High School. Surveys were mailed to school mental health professionals at public high schools in Colorado. Respondents included school counselors, school psychologists, school social workers, principals,…

  20. Prevencion de la violencia en las escuelas (School Violence Prevention). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Dean

    Tactics to deal with growing violence in schools have usually relied on removal of the offender by suspension or placement outside of the mainstream classroom. However, educators and psychologists are considering the prevention of violent behavior as both a more humane and cost-effective response to the problem. The relationship between school…

  1. Research calls for preventive approach to gender-based violence in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... Despite laws and a constitution that guarantees gender equality, women in Senegal still experience high rates of violence. Critics point to an ineffective legal system that doesn't focus on prevention, where police rarely intervene, and where few cases come to trial. While several studies have been ...

  2. The Begun Center for Violence Prevention Research and Education at Case Western Reserve University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Daniel J.; Singer, Mark I.

    2015-01-01

    Established in the year 2000, the Begun Center for Violence Prevention Research and Education is a multidisciplinary center located at a school of social work that engages in collaborative, community-based research and evaluation that spans multiple systems and disciplines. The Center currently occupies 4,200 sq. ft. with multiple offices and…

  3. Experience of Violence and Cruelty Prevention among Performers of Educational Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kseniya S. Shalaginova

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the experience of violence prevention in contemporary educational environment, describes the work with performers of educational process (teachers, schoolchildren, parents, administration, aimed at tolerance, empathy, habits of structural interaction and behavior in conflict situations, acceptance set forming

  4. Review of the CDC’s “Choose Respect” Dating Violence Prevention Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie Hertzog

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview of resources developed for the Center for Disease Control’s national “Choose Respect” initiative targeting youth ages 11-14 is provided. The initiative’s goal is to prevent teen dating violence by promoting healthy relationship development. Resources include a community action kit, downloadable video, television and radio advertisements as well as educational posters.

  5. The effects of health care-based violence intervention programs on injury recidivism and costs: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Bethany L; Shipper, Andrea G; Downton, Katherine D; Lane, Wendy G

    2016-11-01

    Youth violence affects thousands annually, with homicide being the third leading cause of death for those aged 10 to 24 years. This systematic review aims to evaluate the published evidence for the effects of health care-based violence intervention programs (VIPs), which focus on reducing recurrent presentations for injury due to youth violence ("recidivism"). Health literature databases were searched. Studies were retained if peer reviewed and if programs were health care based, focused on intentional injury, addressed secondary or tertiary prevention (i.e., preventing recidivism and reducing complications), included participants aged 14 to 25 years, had greater than 1-month follow-up, and evaluated outcomes. Studies of child and sexual abuse and workplace, intimate partner, and self-inflicted violence were excluded. Extracted data subject to qualitative analysis included enrollment and retention, duration of follow-up, services provided, statistical analysis, and primary and intermediate outcomes. Of the 2,144 citations identified, 22 studies were included in the final sample. Twelve studies were randomized controlled trials representing eight VIPs. Injury recidivism was assessed in six (75%) of eight programs with a significant reduction in one (17%) of six programs. Of the randomized controlled trials showing no difference in recidivism, all were either underpowered or did not include a power analysis. Two observational studies also showed significant reduction in recidivism. Significant intermediate outcomes included increased service use, attitude change, and decreases in violence-related behavior. Reductions in injury recidivism led to reductions in health care and criminal justice system costs. Three studies showing reduced injury recidivism and several studies showing positive intermediate outcomes identify VIPs as a promising practice. Many studies were limited by poor methodological quality, including high losses to follow-up. Systematic review, level

  6. Practicas optimas para la prevencion de la violencia juvenil: Libro de referencia para la accion comunitaria (Best Practices of Youth Violence Prevention: A Sourcebook for Community Action).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Timothy N., Comp.; Craft, Carole A., Comp.; Dahlberg, Linda L., Comp.; Lynch, Barbara S., Comp.; Baer, Katie, Comp.

    The Spanish-language version of this best practices sourcebook builds on a 1993 publication, "The Prevention of Youth Violence: A Framework for Community Action." It offers insight into tested strategies to prevent violence by children and adolescents. It was developed with input from people working to prevent youth violence and people…

  7. Gender roles, physical and sexual violence prevention in primary extend to secondary school in Samutsakorn Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamroonsawasdi, Kanittha; Suparp, Jarueyporn; Kittipichai, Wirin; Khajornchaikul, Piyathida

    2010-03-01

    To enhance positive attitude and life skills on gender roles to prevent physical and sexual violence. A whole school-based participatory learning program using a quasi-experimental study with pre and post test design was conducted among 2 schools during June-September, 2005. The experimental group, were 134 students in a primary school and 179 students in a secondary school. While the control group, were 122 students in a primary school and 95 students in a secondary school. Means score of attitude toward gender roles before implementation in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group (p 0.05). Means paired different score (after-before) between the two groups was significantly different (p = 0.002). A whole school-based program on gender roles and violence prevention is suitable for youths and should be merged as school curricula and expanded as a nationwide program at all level of education. Gender equity should be taught at an early childhood. Parental involvement in school-based activities should be negotiated.

  8. The Economic Burden of Intimate Partner Violence in Ecuador: Setting the Agenda for Future Research and Violence Prevention Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaedra Corso

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intimate partner violence (IPV is a widespread social structural problem that affects a great proportion of Ecuadorian women. IPV is a sexually, psychologically, or physically coercive act against an adult or adolescent woman by a current or former intimate partner. Not-for-profit groups in Ecuador report that 70% of women experience 1 of the forms of IPV sometime during their lifetime, but population-based surveys suggest that 41% of Ecuadorian women are exposed to emotional violence, 31% physical violence, and 12% sexual violence by their spouse or partner over their lifetime. Despite the high prevalence, the response of the Ecuadorian government has been insufficient to reduce the number of victims and to provide adequate legal and health services for the prevention and treatment of IPV. Given the power of economic data to influence policy making, the goal of this study is to produce the first estimate of the economic impact of IPV in Ecuador and to identify the policy paths in which these estimates would have the greatest impact for Ecuador.Methods: Using a bottom-up method for estimating the economic burden of IPV and a national prevalence of IPV based on a population-based survey in the 2003–2004 year, the total economic burden is estimated at approximately $109 million adjusted to the 2012 United States (U.S. currency rate. Results: Based on a prevalence of 255,267 women who were victims of IPV in the 2003–2004 year, the total economic burden is estimated at approximately $109 million adjusted to the 2012 the U.S. currency rate. The largest cost category contributing to the economic burden was the costs of healthcare services to treat injuries associated with IPV events.Conclusion: The asymmetry between the economic burden of IPV and the amount of government resources devoted to IPV prevention efforts suggests the need for a greater role to be played by the government and other factors in society in the area of IPV

  9. Evaluation of a program to prevent political violence in the Basque conflict: effects on the capacity of empathy, anger management and the definition of peace Evaluación de un programa para la prevención de la violencia política en el conflicto vasco: efectos en la capacidad de empatía, el control de la ira y la definición de paz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Garaigordobil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effects of a program for the prevention of political violence on empathy, expression of feelings of anger, and the capacity to define peace-violence. Method: This study used a quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest repeated measures and a control group. The sample comprised 276 adolescents aged between 15 and 17 years (191 in the experimental group, 85 in the control group; 127 boys and 149 girls. A battery of three assessment instruments was administered before and after the intervention. The aim of the program was to increase sensitivity to the victims of political violence, promote respect for human rights, and prevent violence. The intervention consisted of 10 sessions over 3 months. Results: MANOVA analyses revealed that the program increased participants' capacity of empathy (perspective-taking, anger control in annoying situations, and capacity to define peace-violence. Conclusions: This study has practical educational implications and provides an intervention tool that enhances the development of personality during adolescence and may have a preventive effect on violent behavior.Objetivo: Evaluar los efectos de un programa para prevenir la violencia política en la capacidad de empatía, la expresión de sentimientos de ira y la definición de paz-violencia. Método: El estudio utilizó un diseño cuasiexperimental de medidas repetidas pretest-intervención-postest con grupo de control. La muestra está configurada con 276 adolescentes de 15 a 17 años de edad; de ellos, 191 son experimentales y 85 controles, 127 hombres y 149 mujeres. Se administró una batería de tres instrumentos de evaluación antes y después de aplicar el programa de intervención. El objetivo del programa fue incrementar la sensibilidad hacia las víctimas de la violencia política, promover el respeto por los derechos humanos y prevenir la violencia. La intervención consistió en 10 sesiones realizadas durante 3 meses

  10. An evaluation of the Adults and Children Together (ACT) Against Violence Parents Raising Safe Kids program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portwood, Sharon G; Lambert, Richard G; Abrams, Lyndon P; Nelson, Ellissa Brooks

    2011-08-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Adults and Children Together (ACT) Against Violence Parents Raising Safe Kids program, developed by the American Psychological Association in collaboration with the National Association for the Education of Young Children, as an economical primary prevention intervention for child maltreatment. Using an experimental design with random assignment to groups, program impact on participating parents' knowledge, behavior, and attitudes compared to those of a comparison group of parents receiving standard community-based support services was examined. As hypothesized, the ACT Parents Raising Safe Kids program achieved positive results in several areas related to effective parenting, including a reduction in the use of harsh verbal and physical discipline and an increase in nurturing behavior. Positive results were observable both at the conclusion of the ACT program and at three-month follow-up. Results further indicated a positive impact on parent expectations and social support for those parents with the greatest need in these areas. Qualitative data collected through focus groups demonstrated that parents themselves perceived numerous benefits to the ACT program, including assistance in controlling their anger, learning and implementing better parenting and discipline strategies, and recognizing when their child's behavior is developmentally appropriate. Overall, findings suggest that the ACT Parents Raising Safe Kids program is a promising primary prevention strategy that can be implemented across diverse community settings.

  11. Organizational Policies and Programs to Reduce Job Stress and Risk of Workplace Violence Among K-12 Education Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsbergis, Paul; Zoeckler, Jeanette; Kashem, Zerin; Rivera, Bianca; Alexander, Darryl; Bahruth, Amy

    2017-01-01

    We examine strategies, programs, and policies that educators have developed to reduce work stressors and thus health risks. First, we review twenty-seven empirical studies and review papers on organizational programs and policies in K-12 education published from 1990 to 2015 and find some evidence that mentoring, induction, and Peer Assistance and Review programs can increase support, skill development, decision-making authority, and perhaps job security, for teachers-and thus have the potential to reduce job stressors. Second, we describe efforts to reduce workplace violence in Oregon, especially in special education, including legislation, collective bargaining, research, and public awareness. We conclude that to reduce workplace violence, adequate resources are needed for staffing, training, equipment, injury/assault reporting, and investigation. Third, we discuss collective bargaining initiatives that led to mentoring and Peer Assistance and Review and state legislation on prevention of bullying and harassment of school staff. Finally, we present a research agenda on these issues.

  12. A 3-Component Approach Incorporating Focus Groups in Strategic Planning for Sexual Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Theresa H; Hess, Julia Meredith; Woelk, Leona; Bear, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Sexual violence is of special concern in New Mexico because of the presence of large priority populations in which its prevalence is high. This article describes a 3-component approach to developing a strategic plan to prevent sexual violence in the state that consisted of an advisory group, subject matter experts, and focus groups from geographically and demographically diverse communities. Both common and community-specific themes emerged from the focus groups and were included in the strategic plan. By incorporating community needs and experiences, this approach fosters increased investment in plan implementation.

  13. Haemoglobinopathy prevention program in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Canatan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia and abnormal haemoglobins are a serious health problem in Turkey. Very important steps for toward preventing thalassemia have been taken in Turkey by Ministry of Health (MOH, Turkish National Haemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC and Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT since 2000. In 1993, a law was issued called Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease especially for thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. The law commends to prevent haemoglobinopathies and to treat all patients with haemoglobinopathy and thalassemia. A pilot project was started and centres were created in the MOH Hospitals in the southern provinces of Turkey. In 2000, TNHC was installed to combine all centres, foundations, and associations into one organization controlled by the MOH. In 2001, the MOH and the TNHC made an inventory of all recorded patients with thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobins in Turkey, registering at least 4513 patients. In 2002, written regulations for the Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease were published. MOH and TNHC selected 33 provinces situated in the Thrace, Marmara, Aegean, Mediterranean and South Eastern regions with high birth prevalence of severe haemoglobinopathies. In 2003, the haemoglobinopathy scientific committee was set-up, a guidebook was published and a national Hemoglobinopaty Prevention Program (HPP was started in these high risk provinces . This program is running in these provinces successfully. In 2005, TFT was established as a secular society organization instead of TNHC. In 2007, National Thalassemia Prevention Campaign (NTPC was organized for public education by TFT. This campaign contributed very important supporting to HPP in Turkey, because totally 62.682 people such as health workers, students, teachers, demarches, religion officers and the other many people were educated for preventing thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. In 2009, National Thalassemia Education Seminars (NTES for health personnel have been planned in

  14. Interventions to prevent youth violence in Latin America: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atienzo, Erika E; Baxter, Susan K; Kaltenthaler, Eva

    2017-01-01

    This review aims to summarise evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to prevent youth violence in Latin America. A systematic search on 13 academic databases was conducted to locate studies evaluating a primary or secondary prevention intervention in Latin America. Studies could use any type of quantitative design to assess outcomes related to youth violence. A search of websites, references and citation searching was also carried out. The quality of each study was assessed. Nine studies were identified. Most documented positive effects of the interventions on the perception of youth violence present in the community/school. Evidence was found of a reduction in homicides and juvenile crimes in three studies, two of which evaluated a community-based intervention. There were mixed results for the self-report of participation on violent acts. The majority of the studies lacked of a rigorous design. Most of the interventions had some promising results, including the reduction of homicides within communities. Community-based programmes were the most consistent regarding an effectiveness to prevent violence. However, the evidence for Latin America is still scarce and relies on non-rigorously designed studies.

  15. Preventing Peer Violence Against Children: Methods and Baseline Data of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Judith; Karmaliani, Rozina; Maqbool Ahmed Khuwaja, Hussain; Gulzar, Saleema; Somani, Rozina; Saeed Ali, Tazeen; Somani, Yasmeen H; Shehzad Bhamani, Shireen; Krone, Ryan D; Paulson, Rene M; Muhammad, Atta; Jewkes, Rachel

    2017-03-24

    Violence against and among children is a global public health problem that annually affects 50% of youth worldwide with major impacts on child development, education, and health including increased probability of major causes of morbidity and mortality in adulthood. It is also associated with the experience of and perpetration of later violence against women. The aim of this article is to describe the intervention, study design, methods, and baseline findings of a cluster randomized controlled trial underway in Pakistan to evaluate a school-based play intervention aiming to reduce peer violence and enhance mental health. A cluster randomized controlled design is being conducted with boys and girls in grade 6 in 40 schools in Hyderabad, Pakistan, over a period of 2 years. The Multidimensional Peer-Victimization and Peer Perpetration Scales and the Children's Depression Inventory 2 (CDI 2) are being used to measure the primary outcomes while investigator-derived scales are being used to assess domestic violence within the family. Specifics of the intervention, field logistics, ethical, and fidelity management issues employed to test the program's impact on school age youth in a volatile and politically unstable country form this report. A total of 1,752 school-age youth were enrolled and interviewed at baseline. Over the preceding 4 weeks, 94% of the boys and 85% of the girls reported 1 or more occurrences of victimization, and 85% of the boys and 66% of the girls reported 1 or more acts of perpetration. Boys reported more depression compared with girls, as well as higher negative mood and self-esteem scores and more interpersonal and emotional problems. Globally, prevalence of youth violence perpetration and victimization is high and associated with poor physical and emotional health. Applying a randomized controlled design to evaluate a peer violence prevention program built on a firm infrastructure and that is ready for scale-up and sustainability will make an

  16. Evaluation of Prevention Programs for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Ernest, Jr.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    This article focuses on the formal evaluation of large-scale preventive interventions promoting positive mental health in children and adolescents, using examples of conduct problems. The state of the art in program evaluation is discussed based on quantitative evaluations of mental illness prevention programs. The article reviews current thinking…

  17. Epidemiologic Evidence to Guide the Understanding and Prevention of Gun Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Daniel W; Cerdá, Magdalena; Wintemute, Garen J; Cook, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    Gunfire from assaults, suicides, and unintentional shootings exacts an enormous burden on public health globally. The epidemiologic reviews in this special issue enhance our understanding of various forms of gun violence, inform interventions, and help chart directions for future research. The available science, however, is limited to answer many important questions necessary for mounting successful efforts to reduce gun violence. Certain data are lacking, and there are numerous analytical challenges to deriving unbiased estimates of policy impacts. Significant investments in research over the long term are warranted to answer questions central to successful prevention of gun violence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Predicting intentions versus predicting behaviors: domestic violence prevention from a theory of reasoned action perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Robin L; Southwell, Brian; Hornik, Robert

    2002-01-01

    A central assumption of many models of human behavior is that intention to perform a behavior is highly predictive of actual behavior. This article presents evidence that belies this notion. Based on a survey of 1,250 Philadelphia adults, a clear and consistent pattern emerged suggesting that beliefs related to domestic violence correlate with intentions to act with respect to domestic violence but rarely correlate with reported actions (e.g., talking to the abused woman). Numerous methodological and substantive explanations for this finding are offered with emphasis placed on the complexity of the context in which an action to prevent a domestic violence incident occurs. We conclude by arguing that despite the small, insignificant relationships between beliefs and behaviors found, worthwhile aggregate effects on behavior might still exist, thus reaffirming the role of communication campaign efforts.

  19. Prevention of violence against women: challenges in the articulation of an intersetorial network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Krieger Grossi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article has the objective of highlighting the importance of sectoriality action in the prevention of violence against women through the articulation of different social actors concerned and committed to the reduction of the violence against women rates, and consequently with a more fair and equal society. These challenges in the articulation of the network of protection services for women in domestic violence are illustrated by the managers of the social welfare policies, coordinators of women´s policies and professionals that work in Reference Centers for Women, Reference Centers of Social Welfare (CRAS and Specialized Reference Center of Social Welfare (CREAS in municipalities of the State of Rio Grande do Sul.

  20. ICDP Approach to Awareness-Raising about Children's Rights and Preventing Violence, Child Abuse, and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundeide, Karsten; Armstrong, Nicoletta

    2011-01-01

    In April 2011, the Committee on the Rights of the Child issued the General Comment No. 13 on the right of the child to freedom from all forms of violence. Its Article 19 declares that "protective measures should, as appropriate, include effective procedures for the establishment of social programs to provide necessary support for the child and for…

  1. Employee assistance programs: a workplace resource to address intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Keshia M; Austin, Whitney; Grisso, Jeane Ann

    2010-04-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem with significant impact on the workplace. Employee assistance programs (EAPs) are a confidential benefit to assist employees and their families with a variety of problems that may negatively affect their job performance. The purpose of this systematic review is to study the extant literature to identify articles that have explored the role of EAPs in addressing IPV. We searched Medline, PsychINFO, and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) for English-language papers that have explored how EAPs can address IPV. Articles published through 2008 were included. Our review yielded nine articles, mostly from EAP-centered journals. Nearly all of the studies were published before the year 2000 and primarily describe the need for EAPs to be more engaged in preventing violence against women. Most of the studies were commentaries, often using case reports to support recommendations on how EAPs could address IPV. Results from the two intervention studies revealed close connections between EAP clients being treated for alcoholism and IPV perpetration and the effectiveness of a standardized tool to identify EAP clients experiencing IPV. Research in this area is in its infancy, and more studies are needed to inform the formulation of evidence-based policies and programs that guide the role of EAPs in addressing IPV. The lack of research on how EAPs address IPV is alarming, as many employers state that they often refer employees affected by IPV to the EAP for assistance.

  2. School Violence Prevention: Climate and Moral Perspectives of Sixth through Eighth Grade Students Attending a Southern California Catholic School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Diane Diaz

    2010-01-01

    The need for U.S. teachers to better understand School Violence Prevention is growing. Evidence suggests however, that 10 years and 10 billion dollars after the Columbine High School massacre, our public schools are not safer (www.community-matters.org). There has been an "after the fact" approach to the problem of school violence. After…

  3. Programs of prevention of abuse in intimate relationships for adolescents and young adults abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makurina A.P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of the programs of work with teenagers and young people, aimed at primary prevention of violence in intimate relationships. The content models of sex education as one of the highest priorities for primary prevention. A brief description of the methodological foundations of these programs, such as the focus on changing the existing norms of violence, gender stereotypes, pathogenic skills avoiding conflicts. Describes the procedural and substantive content features of these programs. The results of studies on the effectiveness of a number of programs that have demonstrated a decrease in the level of violence, positive changes in the skills that are most scarce to training with regard to the acceptability of violence and behavioral intentions. Highlights those aspects of targeted programs that are short-term and prolonged effects. So changing views on the norms of behavior in intimate relationships, conflict resolution skills and knowledge are stored in the long term, while females exhibit more positive attitudes and behavioral intentions than men.

  4. Preventative maintenance program for bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The Kentucky Transportation Cabinets (KYTC) bridge inventory is rapidly aging. As such, the Cabinet : needs to identify and implement relevant preventative maintenance (PM) actions to extend the useful : service lives of those structures. Maintena...

  5. Gender-Based Violence Against Transgender People in the United States: A Call for Research and Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Andrea L; Poteat, Tonia C; Malik, Mannat; Glass, Nancy

    2018-01-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is an umbrella term for any harm that is perpetrated against a person's will and that results from power inequalities based on gender roles. Most global estimates of GBV implicitly refer only to the experiences of cisgender, heterosexually identified women, which often comes at the exclusion of transgender and gender nonconforming (trans) populations. Those who perpetrate violence against trans populations often target gender nonconformity, gender expression or identity, and perceived sexual orientation and thus these forms of violence should be considered within broader discussions of GBV. Nascent epidemiologic research suggests a high burden of GBV among trans populations, with an estimated prevalence that ranges from 7% to 89% among trans populations and subpopulations. Further, 165 trans persons have been reported murdered in the United States between 2008 and 2016. GBV is associated with multiple poor health outcomes and has been broadly posited as a component of syndemics, a term used to describe an interaction of diseases with underlying social forces, concomitant with limited prevention and response programs. The interaction of social stigma, inadequate laws, and punitive policies as well as a lack of effective GBV programs limits access to and use of GBV prevention and response programs among trans populations. This commentary summarizes the current body of research on GBV among trans populations and highlights areas for future research, intervention, and policy.

  6. Preventing post-traumatic stress disorder after mass exposure to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, Neil W; Ou, Alan C; Singh, Rohini

    2005-01-01

    Bioterrorism preparedness plans must take into account the psychosocial consequences of exposure to mass violence. If possible, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is associated with significant morbidity and cost, should be prevented. There are, however, no effective interventions that have been scaled up to prevent PTSD following mass exposure to violence. In fact, randomized controlled trials of the most commonly used preventive intervention, psychological debriefing, suggest no efficacy, or even potential harm. Fortunately, randomized controlled trials of cognitive behavioral therapy--that is, targeting individuals who are symptomatic in the weeks after trauma--reveal significant efficacy. Given the potential for repeated mass violence exposure, public health professionals need to refine methods for screening and tracking large numbers of casualties. At the same time, the use of telephone and internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy protocols should be further tested as strategies for bringing the only effective early intervention for PTSD to scale. Research on preventive pharmacotherapy for PTSD and on the effects of media exposure on PTSD severity is also a priority.

  7. It Could Never Happen Here: Promoting Violence Prevention Education for Emergency Department Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Lynne H

    2016-08-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ISSUE Instructions: 1.1 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded after you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. In order to obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "It Could Never Happen Here: Promoting Violence Prevention Education for Emergency Department Nurses," found on pages 356-360, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name, contact information, and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until July 31, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. OBJECTIVES Suggest strategies targeted for emergency department nurses to prevent or mitigate their exposure

  8. How to engage small retail businesses in workplace violence prevention: Perspectives from small businesses and influential organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Rebecca A; Strazza, Karen; Nocera, Maryalice; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Casteel, Carri

    2015-06-01

    Small retail businesses experience high robbery and violent crime rates leading to injury and death. Workplace violence prevention programs (WVPP) based on Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design reduce this risk, but low small business participation limits their effectiveness. Recent dissemination models of occupational safety and health information recommend collaborating with an intermediary organization to engage small businesses. Qualitative interviews with 70 small business operators and 32 representatives of organizations with small business influence were conducted to identify factors and recommendations for improving dissemination of a WVPP. Both study groups recommended promoting WVPPs through personal contacts but differed on other promotion methods and the type of influential groups to target. Small business operators indicated few connections to formal business networks. Dissemination of WVPPs to small businesses may require models inclusive of influential individuals (e.g., respected business owners) as intermediaries to reach small businesses with few formal connections. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Substance abuse issues among women in domestic violence programs: findings from North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sandra L; Moracco, Kathryn E; Chang, Judy C; Council, Carol L; Dulli, Lisa S

    2008-09-01

    This article discusses the results of a survey of North Carolina domestic violence programs that found that substance abuse problems are common among program clients, yet only half of the programs had policies concerning substance-abusing clients, and one fourth had memoranda of agreement with substance abuse treatment providers. Most programs with shelters asked clients about substance use; however, one third of the shelters would not admit women if they were noticeably under the influence of substances while seeking shelter residence, instead referring them to substance abuse programs. Approximately one tenth of the domestic violence programs did not have any staff or volunteers with training in substance abuse issues. Implications are discussed.

  10. JUSTICE DISCRETIONARY GRANTS: Byrne Program and Violence Against Women Office Grant Monitoring Should Be Better Documented

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ...) Byrne Program and the Violence Against Women Office (VAWO) within OJP. Between fiscal years 1997 and 2000, Byrne and VAWO discretionary grant awards grew, in constant 2000 dollars, about 85 percent...

  11. Establishing LA VIDA: a community-based partnership to prevent intimate violence against Latina women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciak, B J; Guzman, R; Santiago, A; Villalobos, G; Israel, B A

    1999-12-01

    LA VIDA--the Southwest Detroit Partnership to Prevent Intimate Violence Against Latina Women--evolved in response to community concern about the problem of intimate partner violence (IPV) and the lack of culturally competent preventive and support services for Latino women and men in southwest Detroit. Since 1997, diverse organizations have mobilized as a community-academic partnership to ensure the availability, accessibility, and utilization of IPV services. This article describes and analyzes the evolution of LA VIDA within a community-based participatory research framework using a case study approach that draws on multiple data sources including group and individual interviews and field notes. The challenges and lessons learned in addressing a complex multifaceted problem such as IPV in an ethnic minority community are highlighted in an examination of the process of mobilizing diverse organizations, conducting community diagnosis and needs assessment activities, establishing goals and objectives within a social ecological framework, and integrating evaluation during the development phase.

  12. What is the potential for interventions designed to prevent violence against women to reduce children's exposure to violence? Findings from the SASA! study, Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyegombe, Nambusi; Abramsky, Tanya; Devries, Karen M; Michau, Lori; Nakuti, Janet; Starmann, Elizabeth; Musuya, Tina; Heise, Lori; Watts, Charlotte

    2015-12-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment often co-occur in households and lead to negative outcomes for children. This article explores the extent to which SASA!, an intervention to prevent violence against women, impacted children's exposure to violence. Between 2007 and 2012 a cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in Kampala, Uganda. An adjusted cluster-level intention to treat analysis, compares secondary outcomes in intervention and control communities at follow-up. Under the qualitative evaluation, 82 in-depth interviews were audio recorded at follow-up, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis complemented by constant comparative methods. This mixed-methods article draws mainly on the qualitative data. The findings suggest that SASA! impacted on children's experience of violence in three main ways. First, quantitative data suggest that children's exposure to IPV was reduced. We estimate that reductions in IPV combined with reduced witnessing by children when IPV did occur, led to a 64% reduction in prevalence of children witnessing IPV in their home (aRR 0.36, 95% CI 0.06-2.20). Second, among couples who experienced reduced IPV, qualitative data suggests parenting and discipline practices sometimes also changed-improving parent-child relationships and for a few parents, resulting in the complete rejection of corporal punishment as a disciplinary method. Third, some participants reported intervening to prevent violence against children. The findings suggest that interventions to prevent IPV may also impact on children's exposure to violence, and improve parent-child relationships. They also point to potential synergies for violence prevention, an area meriting further exploration. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. School District Officials' and City Stakeholders' Perceptions Regarding School Violence and Ways to Prevent School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Rita Mabon; Maldonado, Nancy; Howe, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Violence is a problem that affects the family structure, schools, and communities. Although some violence takes place behind closed doors, the effects are devastating to society and the community. The overwhelming results are seen with the increase of visits to abuse shelters and emergency rooms. Domestic violence in households tends to continue…

  14. Challenges in research with incarcerated parents and importance in violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, B A; Powell, M J; Szubka, M H; McCool, M L; Kuntz, S

    2001-01-01

    Incarcerated parents present several risk factors for later violence by their children. This study uses comparison groups and repeated measures to evaluate an inmate parenting program. Subjects are inmates at a county detention center, their children, and primary caregivers. Challenges to program implementation and longitudinal research with inmates were identified, along with recommendations to assist future research and programming. Training material should use illustrated, basic language format. Acceptance and participation by inmates and staff require ongoing outreach and communication. Severed relationships are common and future research on inmates with stable family relationships is recommended. Because of inmate transience, integrating parent training into post-release programming is suggested.

  15. Violence in Adolescent Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Platt, Cora; McDonald, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Beginning with a definition of dating and dating violence among adolescents, this article explores the factors which impact such violence. It concludes with a review of two school-based prevention/intervention programs (Safe Dates and The Youth Relationships Project). (Contains 1 table.)

  16. Strategies to Engage Men and Boys in Violence Prevention: A Global Organizational Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, J.; Casey, E.; Edleson, JL; Tolman, RM; Walsh, TB; Kimball, E.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, The Author(s) 2015. This study presents descriptive findings from in-depth interviews with 29 representatives of organizations in Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania, and North and South America that engage men and boys in preventing gender-based violence. In particular, the findings suggest that strategies are responsive to the specific cultural, economic, and contextual concerns of the local community, with nuanced messages and appropriate messengers. In addition, respondents reported key...

  17. ¿Qué sirve en la prevención de la violencia juvenil? Youth violence prevention, what works?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Guerrero

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre los adolescentes, que representan 20.3%, y los jóvenes, que constituyen 31.6% de la población total de las Américas, la violencia alcanza proporciones epidémicas y se convierte en un serio problema de salud pública en la región. El presente trabajo es el resultado de una revisión documental sobre las intervenciones que han demostrado éxito en la prevención de este problema entre los jóvenes. De las intervenciones efectivas destaca la concesión de tiempo específico de los adultos para interactuar con niños y adolescentes, así como la aplicación de programas enfocados en el desarrollo infantil temprano y las prácticas educativas adecuadas entre los padres. Esta última es una de las intervenciones de mayor beneficio en términos del costo para la reducción de los comportamientos de riesgo entre los jóvenes. Los esfuerzos para desarmar a la población civil en periodos y espacios críticos sobresale también por su eficacia.Violence is currently considered to be both an epidemic problem and a public health problem among youth and adolescents, who represent 31.6% and 20.3% of the overall population of the Americas region, respectively. This paper analyzes the scientific literature on violence prevention as it relates to successful interventions among these populations. Some of the most successful interventions are those related to active engagement of adults with children and adolescents and programs oriented toward early child development and adequate educational practices among parents. The latter is one of the most cost-effective violence prevention interventions for children and adolescents. Efforts to disarm civilian populations during critical periods have also been shown to be effective.

  18. Satisfaction with the program of school bullying prevention and mental health promotion - cross sectional study among primary school pupils in Mostar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černi Obrdalj, Edita; Zadro, Kristina; Batić-Mujanović, Olivera; Zalihić, Amra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of experience in school bullying and family violence, satisfaction with the preventive-promotional program, knowledge about methods for opposing violence and attitudes toward the role of the family physician in bullying prevention. The project was conducted by family physicians, nurses and sixth year medical students. The target group were 5th to 8th grade pupils of two primary schools randomly selected by computer. Basic information about the presence and types of bullying, the long-term consequences of violence and methods to oppose violent behavior was given as an interactive lecture to large groups of pupils. After the lecture, pupils received questionnaires about their experience of school violence, satisfaction with the program and their opinion about the role of the family physician in bullying prevention. The results of the short term outcome evaluation of the program show that younger pupils evaluate the program better than older ones. Furthermore, we found that the frequency of experienced violence is not connected with satisfaction with the program. Most students have never experienced violence in schools and families, 5th and 6th grade students showed greater satisfaction with training, better knowledge of help in case of violence and a more positive attitude towards medical help. We found no significant differences in pupil's satisfaction with the program, knowledge about methods of opposing violence and attitudes towards the role of the family physician in bullying prevention, in relation to the frequency of experience of family violence and school violence. Copyright © 2014 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  19. Satisfaction with the program of school bullying prevention and mental health promotion – Cross sectional study among primary school pupils in Mostar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Černi Obrdalj

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of experience in school bullying and family violence, satisfaction with the preventive-promotional program, knowledge about methods for opposing violence and attitudes toward the role of the family physician in bullying prevention. Materials and methods. The project was conducted by family physicians, nurses and sixth year medical students. The target group were 5th to 8th grade pupils of two primary schools randomly selected by computer. Basic information about the presence and types of bullying, the long-term consequences of violence and methods to oppose violent behavior was given as an interactive lecture to large groups of pupils. After the lecture, pupils received questionnaires about their experience of school violence, satisfaction with the program and their opinion about the role of the family physician in bullying prevention. Results. The results of the short term outcome evaluation of the program show that younger pupils evaluate the program better than older ones. Furthermore, we found that the frequency of experienced violence is not connected with satisfaction with the program. Conclusion. Most students have never experienced violence in schools and families, 5th and 6th grade students showed greater satisfaction with training, better knowledge of help in case of violence and a more positive attitude towards medical help. We found no significant differences in pupil’s satisfaction with the program, knowledge about methods of opposing violence and attitudes towards the role of the family physician in bullying prevention, in relation to the frequency of experience of family violence and school violence.

  20. School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

  1. Program Administration | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governance Structure Recognizing the importance of an integrated approach to preventative drug development, there is a unified Governance Structure for the PREVENT Program responsible for coordinating and integrating available resources. With the goal of reaching go/no-go decisions as efficiently as possible, the purpose is to ensure a pragmatic approach to drug development and a clear path to market. |

  2. Crime, Violence, and Community-Based Prevention in Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Louis-Alexandre; Carranza, Marlon

    2015-01-01

    Violent crime has emerged as a growing development challenge, affecting large segments of societies, and taking a severe toll on economic development. In many high crime environments, weak institutions, fiscal constraints, and political resistance have undermined the effectiveness of development programs and threatened their sustainability. The World Bank has begun to confront this challen...

  3. Motivations for intimate partner violence in men and women arrested for domestic violence and court referred to batterer intervention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmquist, JoAnna; Hamel, John; Shorey, Ryan C; Labrecque, Lindsay; Ninnemann, Andrew; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-10-01

    Research has attempted to elucidate men and women's proximal motivations for perpetrating intimate partner violence (IPV). However, previous research has yet to clarify and resolve contention regarding whether motives for IPV are gender-neutral or gender specific. Thus, the purpose of this present study was to compare motives for physical IPV perpetration among a sample of men (n =90) and women (n =87) arrested for domestic violence and court-referred to batterer intervention programs. Results demonstrated that the most frequently endorsed motives for IPV by both men and women were self-defense, expression of negative emotions, and communication difficulties. With the exception of expression of negative emotions and retaliation, with women endorsing these motives more often than men, there were no significant differences between men and women's self-reported reasons for perpetrating physical aggression. The implications of these findings for future research and intervention programs are discussed.

  4. Oral cleft prevention program (OCPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wehby George L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral clefts are one of the most common birth defects with significant medical, psychosocial, and economic ramifications. Oral clefts have a complex etiology with genetic and environmental risk factors. There are suggestive results for decreased risks of cleft occurrence and recurrence with folic acid supplements taken at preconception and during pregnancy with a stronger evidence for higher than lower doses in preventing recurrence. Yet previous studies have suffered from considerable design limitations particularly non-randomization into treatment. There is also well-documented effectiveness for folic acid in preventing neural tube defect occurrence at 0.4 mg and recurrence with 4 mg. Given the substantial burden of clefting on the individual and the family and the supportive data for the effectiveness of folic acid supplementation as well as its low cost, a randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of high versus low dose folic acid for prevention of cleft recurrence is warranted. Methods/design This study will assess the effect of 4 mg and 0.4 mg doses of folic acid, taken on a daily basis during preconception and up to 3 months of pregnancy by women who are at risk of having a child with nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without palate (NSCL/P, on the recurrence of NSCL/P. The total sample will include about 6,000 women (that either have NSCL/P or that have at least one child with NSCL/P randomly assigned to the 4 mg and the 0.4 mg folic acid study groups. The study will also compare the recurrence rates of NSCL/P in the total sample of subjects, as well as the two study groups (4mg, 0.4 mg to that of a historical control group. The study has been approved by IRBs (ethics committees of all involved sites. Results will be disseminated through publications and presentations at scientific meetings. Discussion The costs related to oral clefts are high, including long term psychological and socio-economic effects. This study

  5. 78 FR 47717 - The Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013: Overview of Applicability to HUD Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT The Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013: Overview of Applicability to... overview of the applicability to HUD programs of the recently enacted Violence Against Women... date. This notice is issued to provide an overview of the Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of...

  6. Prevention of domestic violence against women and children in low-income and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Erminia; Hassan, Ghayda

    2014-09-01

    Violence against women and children is increasingly recognized as an important and urgent public health, social and human rights issue cutting across geographical, socioeconomic and cultural boundaries. There is a large and growing body of literature that demonstrates the negative impact of such violence on the victim's mental and physical health, as well as several other consequences on them, their families and communities. However, this literature for the most part comes from the so-called 'developed countries'. This review, at the opposite, focused on current literature on prevention of domestic/family violence against children and women in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Establishing effective prevention programmes for domestic violence against women and children in LMICs requires an understanding of the sociopolitical, economic and cultural settings and a multilevel collaboration among various stakeholders. This review confirms the lack of research in the so-called 'developing countries' and provides suggestions for further research and prevention efforts in this setting.

  7. Barriers and Facilitators to the Implementation of Interventions to Prevent Youth Violence in Latin America: A Systematic Review and Qualitative Evidence Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atienzo, Erika E; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Baxter, Susan K

    2016-08-12

    Youth violence in Latin America is an important public health problem. However, the evidence from preventive programs within the region to address this problem is limited. Identifying context-specific factors that facilitate or hinder the success of interventions is necessary to guarantee the successful implementation of new preventive strategies. We present a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative studies to identify factors affecting the implementation of programs to prevent youth violence in Latin America. We searched 10 electronic databases and websites of international institutions. The quality of the studies was assessed using the critical appraisal skills program checklist, while the certainty of the findings of the synthesis was assessed using the certainty of the qualitative evidence approach. We included eight papers describing five programs in Argentina, Venezuela, Peru, El Salvador, and Mexico. Most of the factors affecting the implementation of programs were aspects related to features of the programs and social/political constraints. The synthesis suggests that future programs can benefit from having a multidisciplinary and/or multisectoral approach involving different key players. At the same time, potential strategies for avoiding problems related to such active engagement should be planned via promoting effective channels for communication and supervision. The review also suggests the importance of increasing awareness and motivation toward the problem of youth violence among relevant agencies and stakeholders. While the limited volume and quality of the literature impact on the ability to draw conclusions, the results could be useful for new programs being designed and the ones seeking to be adapted from other contexts. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. The Maryland Youth Suicide Prevention School Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    The Maryland State Department of Education developed this framework for a suicide prevention program. The program framework addresses the following goals: (1) increase awareness among school personnel and community awareness among school personnel and community leaders of the incidence of teenage suicide; (2) train school personnel in individual…

  9. Setting Up a Preventive Maintenance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Michael J., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The steps of a preventive maintenance program are to determine what equipment will fall within the program; to determine what tasks are necessary to perform the required maintenance, and the frequency of each task; and to build a workable schedule. (Author/MLF)

  10. Construction principles of prevention programs for adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Bochaver

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the basic principles for the development of effective programs for prevention of substance abuse among young people employed in the United States. They are based on the model of “risk factors and protective factors” and suggest a consistent, systematic, coordinated deployment of preventive interventions for children of different ages and in different social contexts (individually, in family, at school, in community. These principles can be useful for transfer of foreign experience on the Russian reality and for development of a new generation of programs for the prevention of substance abuse in Russia. Also, these principles and ideas may be partly extrapolated to develop prevention programs for other social risks.

  11. NIJ's Program of Research on Violence Against American Indian and Alaska Native women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, Christine; Palmer, Jane; Brooks, Alison

    2013-06-01

    The Violence Against Women Act of 2005 (Public Law Number 109-162), at Title IX, Section 904(a) (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 3796gg-10 note) mandates that the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), in consultation with the U.S. Department of Justice's Office on Violence Against Women (OVW), conduct a national baseline study on violence against American Indian and Alaska Native (AI and AN) women living in tribal communities. As a result, NIJ has developed a comprehensive research program consisting of multiple projects that will be accomplished over an extended period of time to address this much needed research. The purpose of the research program is to: examine violence against AI and AN women (including domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, and murder) and identify factors that place AI and AN women at risk for victimization; evaluate the effectiveness of federal, state, tribal, and local responses to violence against AI and AN women; and propose recommendations to improve effectiveness of these responses.

  12. Politics of prevention: expanding prevention benefits in the Medicare program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Susan Bartlett; Blewett, Lynn A

    2003-01-01

    It is critical that public health advocates understand the structure of the Medicare program and the impact of the political process on Medicare's benefit set. This article provides an overview of the design of Medicare and its explicit exclusion of prevention benefits in the original legislation. We then provide a history of subsequent legislation authorizing coverage of specific prevention benefits over the last twenty years. We critique the current process in light of innovation in preventive services and the influence of politics in the decision-making. We conclude with a discussion of policy options to improve access to an appropriate range of evidence-based preventive services in Medicare within the context of new technology innovation and rising health care costs.

  13. Heavy Alcohol Use and Dating Violence Perpetration During Adolescence: Family, Peer and Neighborhood Violence as Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating violence perpetration across grades 8 through 12. The effects of heavy alcohol use on dating violence tended to diminish over time and were stronger in the spring than in the fall semesters. Consistent with hypotheses, across all grades, relations between heavy alcohol use and dating violence were stronger for teens exposed to higher levels of family violence and friend dating violence. However, neither friend peer violence nor neighborhood violence moderated relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Taken together, findings suggest that as adolescents grow older, individual and contextual moderators may play an increasingly important role in explaining individual differences in relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Implications for the design and evaluation of dating abuse prevention programs are discussed. PMID:21494801

  14. Heavy alcohol use and dating violence perpetration during adolescence: family, peer and neighborhood violence as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Foshee, Vangie A; Bauer, Daniel J; Ennett, Susan T

    2012-08-01

    We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating violence perpetration across grades 8 through 12. The effects of heavy alcohol use on dating violence tended to diminish over time and were stronger in the spring than in the fall semesters. Consistent with hypotheses, across all grades, relations between heavy alcohol use and dating violence were stronger for teens exposed to higher levels of family violence and friend dating violence. However, neither friend peer violence nor neighborhood violence moderated relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Taken together, findings suggest that as adolescents grow older, individual and contextual moderators may play an increasingly important role in explaining individual differences in relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Implications for the design and evaluation of dating abuse prevention programs are discussed.

  15. Violence Prevention in Austrian Schools: Implementation and Evaluation of a National Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Spiel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative study of Austria’s national strategy against violence in the public school system introduced in 2008. The national strategy developed by researchers consists of six activity domains with specific goals and projects defined for each. The evaluation (1 analyzes how the realized projects contributed to the six activity domains, (2 evaluates the national strategy at a general level, and (3 provides future recommendations. Eight members of the steering committee were interviewed at two points in the implementation process. The systematic interviews were coded according to the goals of the activity domains. According to the interviewees most of the projects have been satisfactorily implemented. Networking and cooperation with the different actors in the field of violence prevention and cooperation among steering committee members have been improved. However, the national strategy has not achieved the intended public recognition. The lessons learned from the evaluation and its results are discussed.

  16. Improvement courses about violence prevention: the impact on health sector professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Pereira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled intervention study that compared the effectiveness of two elective courses on Prevention and Assistance to violence victims for students and professionals of the Health Sector. The participants answered multiple-choice questions on the topic before and after the course. Statistical analyzes were performed by comparison of two proportions on STATA/IC. Regarding the overall index of correct answers,before and after, it was 54.8 and 58.4% in the 10h Course and the 69.6 and 79.2% in the 30h Course. The most effective course was the 30h Course, with strategies of case discussions and visits to assistance services to violence victims. There is a great necessity to include the discipline in the curriculum of healthcare courses permanently.

  17. An Exploratory Investigation of the Promoting Responsibility through Education and Prevention (PREP) after School Program for African American At-Risk Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Elizabeth; Weil, Virginia; Kryah, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The promoting responsibility through education and prevention (PREP) program is an after school substance abuse and violence prevention program for at-risk fourth and fifth grade youths in St. Louis, Missouri. Staffed by licensed clinical social workers and professional volunteers, PREP offers cultural cooking classes, yoga, and art as well as…

  18. Conforming STOP Violence Against Women Formula Grant Program Regulations to Statutory Change; Definitions and Confidentiality Requirements Applicable to All OVW Grant Programs. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-29

    This rule amends the regulations for the STOP (ServicesTrainingOfficersProsecutors) Violence Against Women Formula Grant Program (STOP Program) and the general provisions governing Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) programs to comply with statutory changes and reduce repetition of statutory language. Also, this rule implements statutory requirements for nondisclosure of confidential or private information relating to all OVW grant programs.

  19. Youth-violence prevention in the aftermath of the San Diego East county school shootings: a qualitative assessment of community explanatory models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Prussing, Erica; Landsverk, John; Reznik, Vivian

    2003-01-01

    In March, 2001, 2 separate incidents of school shootings occurred within the same school district in San Diego's East County. To examine community explanatory models of the causes of the school shootings and strategies for preventing such events. A qualitative study was undertaken in 4 East County communities over a 6-month period following the 2 events. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 85 community residents identified through maximum variation sampling. Interview transcripts were analyzed by coding consensus, co-occurrence and comparison, using NVivo text analysis software. Four sets of theories as to the cause of these events were identified, based on the following: 1) unique or idiosyncratic characteristics of the 2 shooters (newcomer to community who was a victim of bullying, victim of child abuse with a history of mental illness), 2) universal factors (culture of violence, violence in the media), 3) family-centered characteristics (single-parent households, dysfunctional relationships), and 4) community-specific characteristics (reputation for social intolerance, widespread access to guns). Beliefs in family-centered and community-centered theories of etiology were associated with optimism in preventing such events from occurring in the future through increased recognition and response to problem behaviors, while beliefs in idiosyncratic or universal determinants of youth violence were associated with pessimistic assessments of prevention. In this community, youth-violence-prevention programs that focus on taking responsibility for recognizing and responding to problem behaviors in at-risk youth are more likely to gain community support and participation than programs that focus on increased security, surveillance, or behavior change.

  20. 78 FR 23263 - Standing Funding Opportunity Announcement for Family Violence Prevention and Services Grants to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... emotional well-being of victims, children, youth, and families who have experienced domestic violence... provide specialized services for children exposed to family violence, domestic violence, or dating... (Section 10408(b)(1)(E)). Provision of services for children exposed to family violence, domestic violence...

  1. PROGRAMA GENER@T: Social Educational Programme for the Prevention of Dating Violence among Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Mateos Inchaurrondo, Ainoa; Amorós, Pere; Pastor Vicente, Crescencia; Cojocaru, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    The social educational program presented in this article, GENER@T, has been designed and developed as a response to the needs found in the diagnostic multimethod study descriptive which was carried out between 2008 and 2011. 701 adolescents from 5 State secondary schools in different parts of Spain took part in the study. The aim of the diagnosis was to detect social educational needs about gender based violence in adolescents of between 12 and 14. The program presented is innovative in the p...

  2. Linking research to action for youth violence prevention: Community capacity to acquire, assess, adapt and apply research evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Jennifer C D; Kothari, Anita; LeMoine, Karen; Labelle, Judith

    2013-08-20

    Community-based organizations (CBOs) are important stakeholders in the health system, providing many valuable community-based programs and services. However, limited efforts have been made to encourage CBOs to incorporate research evidence into service provision, and their capacity to do so is not well understood. Therefore, the primary goal of this research was to examine CBOs' perceptions of: 1) the frequency of using research and other forms of evidence related to youth violence prevention, and 2) their capacity to acquire, assess, adapt and apply research evidence. CBOs involved in youth violence prevention completed a survey (n=35) and/or attended a focus group (n=16). Survey questions were adapted from the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation's "Is Research Working for You?" tool. CBOs' reported use of and capacity to acquire research evidence was high. CBOs reported possessing the structures, processes, and organizational culture needed to apply research evidence in decision-making. Assessing research evidence was a challenge for CBO staff, although many have external experts who can effectively do so. Generally, CBOs reported adequate capacity to adapt (i.e., synthesize, contextualize, and present) research evidence. Adapting research evidence for use in particular populations or geographical areas presented a considerable challenge. Although many barriers and socio-political complexities make linking research to action challenging, we found that CBOs generally feel competent and well equipped. Our findings support the viability of extending the push for evidence-based health care to community contexts so that the most effective programs and services for Canadians can be offered.

  3. [Violence against children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegenhain, Ute; Künster, Anne Katrin; Besier, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Violence against children is a widespread phenomenon. Interpersonal violence within the family context is typical in childhood, whereas violence occurs more frequently in the leisure and peer context during adolescence, often involving new media. The risk for experiencing violence is associated with many different factors, for example the age, psychosocial context, and cultural background of a child. Data on the prevalence of violence vary by country, depending on the available documentation systems. It is estimated that the number of unreported cases is high. Meta-analyses comprising mainly retrospective self-report studies indicate prevalence estimates between 12 and 19% for neglect, physical, and sexual abuse. Emotional child abuse is reported far more often, with a prevalence as high as 36.3%. German studies, however, weren't able to replicate these international findings. Here, child emotional abuse is reported less often. Violence against children has many negative consequences for physical, emotional, and psychosocial development. Violence prevention therefore comprises different international and national programs and strategies, which are able to successfully reduce violence against children. Programs focusing on the promotion of adequate parenting behavior show especially promising results.

  4. Local government`s pollution prevention program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, D. [Boulder Country Pollution Prevention Program, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The pollution prevention program operated by the Health Department of Boulder County is called Business Partners for a Clean Environment (Business Partners). It is a cooperative effort among local businesses, the City of Boulder, Boulder County, and the Boulder Chamber of Commerce. This nonregulatory, incentive-based program provides industry with pollution prevention information and technical assistance necessary to reduce and/or eliminate environmental waste. This paper provides an overview of the program development, creation of partnerships and trust, and some of the results from implementation of the program. Following the first 18 months of the program, 35 businesses were recognized as Business Partners. The Business Partners program has also received an achievement award from the National Association of Counties for promoting {open_quotes}responsible, responsive, and effective government{close_quotes} and two governor`s awards from the State of Colorado. Participating businesses have demonstrated that a pollution prevention program can reduce environmental waste, increase employee safety, and decrease costs. 4 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Longitudinal evaluation of a training program to promote routine antenatal enquiry for domestic violence by midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Kathleen; Creedy, Debra K; Saito, Amornrat S; Eustace, Jennifer

    2018-01-15

    Routine enquiry about domestic violence during pregnancy is accepted best practice. Training is essential to improve knowledge and practice. Few studies have undertaken a comprehensive evaluation of training impact over time. To evaluate the longitudinal impact of a domestic violence training and support program to promote midwives' routine antenatal enquiry for domestic violence using a mixed methods design. Data sources included (1) surveys of midwives at 6 months post-training, (2) interviews with key stakeholders at 12 months, (3) chart audit data of screening, risk, and disclosure rates (for 16 months). Measures included midwives' knowledge, preparation for routine enquiry, knowledge of domestic violence and perceptions of impact of the training and support for practice change. Forty (out of 83) participant surveys could be matched and responses compared to baseline and post-training scores. Wilcoxon signed-rank test identified that all 6-month follow-up scores were significantly higher than those at baseline. Level of preparedness increased from 42.3 to 51.05 (Z=4.88, p90%) reported improved confidence to undertake routine inquiry. A chart audit of screening rates revealed that of the 6671 women presenting for antenatal care, nearly 90% were screened. Disclosure of domestic violence was low (violence declining referral. Training, support processes, and referral pathways, contributed to midwives' sustained preparedness and knowledge to conduct routine enquiry and support women disclosing domestic violence. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. 77 FR 14385 - Family Violence Prevention and Services/Grants for Domestic Violence Shelters/Grants to Native...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ....g., supportive relatives, involvement in after-school activities) and characteristics (e.g., self-esteem, relationship skills) can moderate the impacts of past and future negative experiences. These... victim of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, including: a first and last...

  7. The Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence in the Polish Social Safeguard System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Tabernacka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ratification of the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence in Poland was preceded by a heated debate. From the very beginning it was be object of political battles between the conservative and liberal circles. Culturally and socially conditioned position of women has influenced its operation and the scope of its implementation. The Convention is a universally binding tool which guarantees the protection of human rights in events of violence against the woman and children. The case of this Convention in Poland proofs the existence of a universal European understanding of human rights protection standards. The Convention thus has a protective function not only for individuals but also, in a broader context, for the common European cultural identity.

  8. Strategies to Engage Men and Boys in Violence Prevention: A Global Organizational Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Juliana; Casey, Erin; Edleson, Jeffrey L; Tolman, Richard M; Walsh, Tova B; Kimball, Ericka

    2015-11-01

    This study presents descriptive findings from in-depth interviews with 29 representatives of organizations in Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania, and North and South America that engage men and boys in preventing gender-based violence. In particular, the findings suggest that strategies are responsive to the specific cultural, economic, and contextual concerns of the local community, with nuanced messages and appropriate messengers. In addition, respondents reported key principles informing their organizational strategies to deepen men and boys' engagement. Attention is also paid to respondents' caution about the risks of framing of engagement practices as separate from both women's organizations and women and girls themselves. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Sustaining a school-based prevention program: results from the Aban Aya Sustainability Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagen, Michael C; Flay, Brian R

    2009-02-01

    Sustaining effective school-based prevention programs is critical to improving youth and population-based health. This article reports on results from the Aban Aya Sustainability Project, an effort to sustain a school-based prevention program that was tested via a randomized trial and targeted violence, drug use, and risky sex-related behaviors among a cohort of 5th-grade African American children followed through 10th grade. Sustainability project health educators trained parent educators to deliver the Aban Aya prevention curriculum in five schools, and project researchers studied the resultant curricular implementation and relations between the research and school-based teams. Study results showed uneven implementation across the five schools that we largely attributed to parent educator preparation and parent educator-health educator relations. These and related results are discussed to answer the study's primary research question: How viable was the sustainability project's parent-centered approach to sustaining a school-based prevention program?

  10. A prospective randomized study of the efficacy of "Turning Point," an inpatient violence intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland-Jones, Catherine; Ferrer, Lucas; Charles, Scott; Ramsey, Frederick; van Zandt, Andrea; Volgraf, Jill; Santora, Thomas; Pathak, Abhijit; Dujon, Jay; Sjoholm, Lars; Rappold, Joseph; Goldberg, Amy

    2016-11-01

    From 2002 to 2011, there were more than 17,000 shootings in Philadelphia. "Turning Point," Temple University Hospital's inpatient violence intervention program, takes advantage of the teachable moment that occurs after violent injury. In addition to receiving traditional social work services, Turning Point patients watch their trauma bay resuscitation video and a movie about violence, meet with a gunshot wound survivor and an outpatient case manager, and also undergo psychiatric assessment. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of Turning Point in changing attitudes toward guns and violence among victims of penetrating trauma. This prospective randomized study was conducted from January 2012 to January 2014. Patients who sustained a gunshot or stab wound were randomized to standard of care, which involved traditional social work services only, or Turning Point. The Attitudes Toward Guns and Violence Questionnaire was administered to assess attitude change. Analysis was performed with repeated-measures analysis of variance. A p violence. Turning Point is effective in changing attitudes toward guns and violence among victims of penetrating trauma. Longer follow-up is necessary to determine if this program can truly be a turning point in patients' lives. Therapeutic/care management study, level II.

  11. Declines in violence and police arrest among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India, following a comprehensive HIV prevention programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Tara S; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Isac, Shajy; Mohan, HL; Simic-Lawson, Milena; Ramesh, BM; Blanchard, James F; Moses, Stephen; Watts, Charlotte H; Heise, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Female sex workers (FSWs) frequently experience violence, harassment and arrest by the police or their clients, but there is little evidence as to the impact that such factors may have on HIV risk or whether community interventions could mitigate this impact. Methods As part of the evaluation of the Avahan programme in Karnataka, serial integrated behavioural and biological assessment (IBBA) surveys (four districts) (2005 to 2011) and anonymous polling booth surveys (PBS) (16 districts) (2007 to 2011) were conducted with random samples of FSWs. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess 1) changes in reported violence and arrests over time and 2) associations between violence by non-partners and police arrest and HIV/STI risk and prevalence. Mediation analysis was used to identify mediating factors. Results 5,792 FSWs participated in the IBBAs and 15,813 participated in the PBS. Over time, there were significant reductions in the percentages of FSWs reporting being raped in the past year (PBS) (30.0% in 2007, 10.0% in 2011, pViolence by non-partners (being raped in the past year and/or beaten in the past six months) and being arrested in the past year were both strongly associated with HIV infection [AOR 1.59 (1.18, 2.15), p=0.002; AOR 1.91 (1.17, 3.12), p=0.01, respectively]. They were also associated with drinking alcohol (during the past week) [AOR 1.98 (1.54, 2.53), pviolence or arrests and HIV prevalence. Discussion Violence by non-partners and arrest are both strongly associated with HIV infection among FSWs. Large-scale, comprehensive HIV prevention programming can reduce violence, arrests and HIV/STI infection among FSWs. PMID:26477992

  12. Development of an Intervention Map for a Parent Education Intervention to Prevent Violence Among Hispanic Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Nancy; Kelder, Steve; Parcel, Guy; Orpinas, Pamela

    1998-01-01

    Describes development of an intervention program for Hispanic parents to reduce violence by increased monitoring of their middle school students. Program development used a five-step guided intervention mapping process. Student surveys and parent interviews provided data to inform program design. Intervention mapping ensured involvement with the…

  13. 'SASA! is the medicine that treats violence'. Qualitative findings on how a community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women created change in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyegombe, Nambusi; Starmann, Elizabeth; Devries, Karen M; Michau, Lori; Nakuti, Janet; Musuya, Tina; Watts, Charlotte; Heise, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) violates women's human rights and is a serious public health concern. Historically strategies to prevent IPV have focussed on individuals and their relationships without addressing the context under which IPV occurs. Primary prevention of IPV is a relatively new focus of international efforts and what SASA!, a phased community mobilisation intervention, seeks to achieve. Conducted in Kampala, Uganda, between 2007 and 2012, the SASA! Study is a cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the community-level impact of SASA! This nested qualitative study explores pathways of individual- and community-level change as a result of SASA! Forty in-depth interviews with community members (20 women, 20 men) were conducted at follow-up, audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis complemented by constant comparative methods. SASA! influenced the dynamics of relationships and broader community norms. At the relationship level, SASA! is helping partners to explore the benefits of mutually supportive gender roles; improve communication on a variety of issues; increase levels of joint decision-making and highlight non-violent ways to deal with anger or disagreement. Not all relationships experienced the same breadth and depth of change. At the community level, SASA! has helped foster a climate of non-tolerance of violence by reducing the acceptability of violence against women and increasing individuals' skills, willingness, and sense of responsibility to act to prevent it. It has also developed and strengthened community-based structures to catalyse and support on-going activism to prevent IPV. This paper provides evidence of the ways in which community-based violence prevention interventions may reduce IPV in low-income settings. It offers important implications for community mobilisation approaches and for prevention of IPV against women. This research has demonstrated the potential of social norm change

  14. Treating Conjugal Violence in Prison Settings: Guidelines for Program Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondeau, Gilles; Brochu, Serge; Lemire, Guy; Brodeur, Normand; Schneeberger, Pascal

    1997-01-01

    Examines ways to change prisoners' violent urges. Suggests that consciousness-raising strategies be used to motivate incarcerated men to change, whereas coercion might be used with those clients who are most at risk of committing acts of family violence. Summarizes the characteristics of violent men and incarcerated populations. (RJM)

  15. Discussed Issues in Preventive Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Sakire

    2011-01-01

    The growing number of studies in the field of prevention science and related advancements in evidence based programs leads to some discussions about the fundamental issues such as efficacy, effectiveness, dissemination, adaptation, fidelity and continuity in recent years. In this article it is intended to report the common views of early childhood…

  16. Effectiveness of programs to prevent school bullying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldry, A.C.; Farrington, D.P.

    2007-01-01

    Sixteen major evaluations of programs to prevent school bullying, conducted in 11 different countries, are reviewed in detail. Of these 16 evaluations, 8 produced desirable results, 2 produced mixed results, 4 produced small or negligible effects, and 2 produced undesirable results. These varying

  17. An Empirically Supported Eating Disorder Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, LeAdelle; Sapia, Jennifer; Nathanson, David; Nelson, Linda

    2000-01-01

    An eating disorder prevention program was completed with middle school, high school, and college females. Some successful outcomes included: (1) facilitating an acknowledgement of pressures to attain a model skeletal look; (2) changing attitudes about standards of beauty; and (3) altering the participants' current and future intentional use of…

  18. Education, Perception Factors, and Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence: Empirical Research on Chinese University Students' Perceptions and Attitudes Concerning Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili

    2016-06-09

    Research on perceptions and attitudes regarding intimate partner violence (IPV), a prominent predictor of IPV, is limited, and surveys on the relationships of the influencing factors are even rarer. Using a convenience sample of 2,057 students and assessed by the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, this study explored Chinese university students' perceptions and attitudes concerning IPV to improve IPV prevention programs. It focused on the existences of the different perceptions and attitudes regarding gender, residence, major, and age under the same condition of educational attainment. Significant gender differences were found, with female students possessing better perceptions, which indicated that with the same education levels, the perceptions of females were better than those of males. Significant differences were also found for the first time in the literature between science students and arts students, with the latter holding better attitudes. No significant differences were seen between students from rural areas and students from urban areas, suggesting that with the same educational attainment, there were no perception differences between rural and urban residents. No significant perception differences were found among freshmen, sophomores, juniors, and seniors, which revealed that neither university education nor urban life had a significant effect on perceptions and attitudes concerning IPV for students who had finished high school education. In conclusion, the results of the current study indicated that among the other factors such as gender, residence, and age, education was the most powerful factor influencing perceptions and attitudes concerning IPV. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. The role of collaboration in facilitating policy change in youth violence prevention: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle J; Braun, Kathryn L

    2014-04-01

    Youth violence remains a serious public health issue nationally and internationally. The social ecological model has been recommended as a framework to design youth violence prevention initiatives, requiring interventions at the micro-, meso-, exo-, and macro-levels. However, documentation of interventions at the macro-level, particularly those that address policy issues, is limited. This study examines a recommendation in the literature that formalized collaborations play a vital role in stimulating macro-level policy change. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to examine existing youth violence prevention collaborations and evaluate their policy-related outcomes. The search found 23 unique collaborations focused on youth violence prevention. These were organized into three groups based on the "catalyst" for action for the collaboration-internal (momentum began within the community), external (sparked by an external agency), or policy (mandated by law). Findings suggest that internally catalyzed collaborations were most successful at changing laws to address youth violence, while both internally and externally catalyzed collaborations successfully attained policy change at the organizational level. A conceptual model is proposed, describing a potential pathway for achieving macro-level change via collaboration. Recommendations for future research and practice are suggested, including expansion of this study to capture additional collaborations, investigation of macro-level changes with a primary prevention focus, and improvement of evaluation, dissemination, and translation of macro-level initiatives.

  20. Ecological pathways to prevention: How does the SASA! community mobilisation model work to prevent physical intimate partner violence against women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Abramsky

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV against women is a global public health concern. While community-level gender norms and attitudes to IPV are recognised drivers of IPV risk, there is little evidence on how interventions might tackle these drivers to prevent IPV at the community-level. This secondary analysis of data from the SASA! study explores the pathways through which SASA!, a community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women, achieved community-wide reductions in physical IPV. Methods From 2007 to 2012 a cluster randomised controlled trial (CRT was conducted in eight communities in Kampala, Uganda. Cross-sectional surveys of a random sample of community members, aged 18–49, were undertaken at baseline (n = 1583 and 4 years post intervention implementation (n = 2532. We used cluster-level intention to treat analysis to estimate SASA!’s community-level impact on women’s past year experience of physical IPV and men’s past year perpetration of IPV. The mediating roles of community-, relationship- and individual-level factors in intervention effect on past year physical IPV experience (women/perpetration (men were explored using modified Poisson regression models. Results SASA! was associated with reductions in women’s past year experience of physical IPV (0.48, 95 % CI 0.16–1.39, as well as men’s perpetration of IPV (0.39, 95 % CI 0.20–0.73. Community-level normative attitudes were the most important mediators of intervention impact on physical IPV risk, with norms around the acceptability of IPV explaining 70 % of the intervention effect on women’s experience of IPV and 95 % of the effect on men’s perpetration. The strongest relationship-level mediators were men’s reduced suspicion of partner infidelity (explaining 22 % of effect on men’s perpetration, and improved communication around sex (explaining 16 % of effect on women’s experience. Reduced acceptability of IPV

  1. Integrating Reproductive Health Services Into Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Victim Service Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmelin, Theresa; Raible, Claire A; Dick, Rebecca; Kukke, Surabhi; Miller, Elizabeth

    2017-12-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of integrating reproductive health services into intimate partner violence/sexual violence (IPV/SV) programs. After a training for victim service agencies on integration of health services, we conducted semistructured interviews with IPV/SV program leadership. Leadership reported advocates were more likely to recognize the need to refer clients to health services, and revealed challenges operationalizing partnerships with health care centers. Training to integrate basic health assessment into victim services may be one way to address women's urgent health needs. Formal partnership agreements, protocols to facilitate referrals, and opportunities to cross-train are needed to nurture these cross-sector collaborations.

  2. A global comprehensive review of economic interventions to prevent intimate partner violence and HIV risk behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Andrew; Jacobson, Jessica; Kerr Wilson, Alice

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV are co-occurring global epidemics, with similar root causes of gender and economic inequalities. Economic interventions have become a central approach to preventing IPV and HIV. We undertook a comprehensive scoping review of published evaluations of economic interventions that sought to prevent IPV and/or HIV risk behaviours. Forty-five separate analyses of interventions met our criteria. Broadly, unconditional cash transfer interventions showed either flat or positive outcomes; economic strengthening interventions had mixed outcomes, with some negative, flat and positive results reported; interventions combining economic strengthening and gender transformative interventions tended to have positive outcomes. The review highlighted a number of gaps. Specifically, there were limited studies evaluating the impact of economic interventions on female sex workers, young women, and men. In addition, there were missed opportunities, with many evaluations only reporting either IPV- or HIV-related outcomes, rather than both, despite overlaps.

  3. Sexual violence in the protracted conflict of DRC programming for rape survivors in South Kivu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz K Peter

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite international acknowledgement of the linkages between sexual violence and conflict, reliable data on its prevalence, the circumstances, characteristics of perpetrators, and physical or mental health impacts is rare. Among the conflicts that have been associated with widespread sexual violence has been the one in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC. Methods From 2003 till to date Malteser International has run a medico-social support programme for rape survivors in South Kivu province, DRC. In the context of this programme, a host of data was collected. We present these data and discuss the findings within the frame of available literature. Results Malteser International registered 20,517 female rape survivors in the three year period 2005–2007. Women of all ages have been targeted by sexual violence and only few of those – and many of them only after several years – sought medical care and psychological help. Sexual violence in the DRC frequently led to social, especially familial, exclusion. Members of military and paramilitary groups were identified as the main perpetrators of sexual violence. Conclusion We have documented that in the DRC conflict sexual violence has been – and continues to be – highly prevalent in a wide area in the East of the country. Humanitarian programming in this field is challenging due to the multiple needs of rape survivors. The easily accessible, integrated medical and psycho-social care that the programme offered apparently responded to the needs of many rape survivors in this area.

  4. Interpersonal Violence Prevention : A Review of the Evidence and Emerging Lessons

    OpenAIRE

    Willman, Alys; Makisaka, Megumi

    2011-01-01

    Acknowledges how development is held back by violence, especially high levels of interpersonal violence that includes harmful acts of gangs and domestic violence. Chronic, high rates of such violence deter investment, erode social cohesion, limit access to employment and educational opportunities, drain state resources, and threaten governance at various levels. Violence is an important signal of fragility, because it indicates the breakdown of state capacity to provide basic security, and of...

  5. Gender Equality To Prevent Violence Against Women Is Mandatory: Meaning Of The Gender Equality

    OpenAIRE

    UYGUR, Gülriz

    2016-01-01

    Violence againstwomen is an important problem in our age. To combat violence against women itis necessary to provide gender equality. Women may be subjected to violence because of their gender. Certaintypes of violence, in particular, domestic violence affect womendisproportionately. Genderequlity requires social economic and political equality. For this, it isnecessary to provide distrubitive justice and a change of culturalunderstanding in terms of gender equality. In this article, the requ...

  6. The nature of occupational violence against taxicab drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    This research sought to expand evidence about the nature of occupational violence against taxicab drivers and provide further understanding of occupational violence from their perspective. Qualitative research using hermeneutic analysis was conducted. Sixteen taxicab drivers were interviewed, transcripts were analyzed, and the themes describing the nature of occupational violence were identified. Study participants reported exposure to violence, including incidents that involved money, interpersonal violence, encounters during night shift, and physical violence and weapons. Verbatim quotes illustrated violent acts that taxicab drivers experienced. The study findings reveal that taxicab drivers are commonly exposed to violence on the job. Acts that the participants reported as violence included racism, disrespect, verbal abuse, and physical violence. These incidents highlighted the perception of foreign-born drivers that their risk for violence on the job is increased because they are members of a visible minority. Community/public health nursing practice implications include actions that: (a) reduce psychosocial risks and disparities from exposure to occupational violence, (b) develop effective prevention measures that reduce exposure of taxicab drivers to violence, (c) consider this worker population when planning community violence prevention programs, and (d) influence public policy related to taxicab driver safety. The investigator advocates and offers recommendations for future research about the nature, effects, and prevention of occupational violence against taxicab drivers. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S

    2012-03-29

    This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

  8. True Love: Effectiveness of a School-Based Program to Reduce Dating Violence Among Adolescents in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Rubi, Sandra G; Saavedra-Avendano, Biani; Piras, Claudia; Van Buren, S Janae; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio

    2017-10-01

    Dating violence is a significant problem in Mexico. National survey data estimated 76 % of Mexican youth have been victims of psychological aggression in their relationships; 15.5 % have experienced physical violence; and 16.5 % of women have been the victims of sexual violence. Female adolescents perpetrate physical violence more frequently than males, while perpetration between genders of other types of violence is unclear. Furthermore, poor, marginalized youth are at a higher risk for experiencing dating violence. "Amor… pero del Bueno" (True Love) was piloted in two urban, low-income high schools in Mexico City to prevent dating violence. The intervention consisted of school-level and individual-level components delivered over 16 weeks covering topics on gender roles, dating violence, sexual rights, and strategies for coping with dating violence. The short-term impact was assessed quasi-experimentally, using matching techniques and fixed-effects models. A sample of 885 students (381 students exposed to the classroom-based curriculum of the individual-level component (SCC, IL-1) and 540 exposed only to the school climate component (SCC)) was evaluated for the following: changes in dating violence behaviors (psychological, physical and sexual), beliefs related to gender norms, knowledge, and skills for preventing dating violence. We found a 58 % (p < 0.05) and 55 % (p < 0.05) reduction in the prevalence of perpetrated and experienced psychological violence, respectively, among SCC, IL-1 males compared to males exposed only to the SCC component. We also found a significant reduction in beliefs and attitudes justifying sexism and violence in dating relationships among SCC, IL-1 females (6 %; p < 0.05) and males (7 %; p < 0.05).

  9. Educational and Skills-Based Interventions for Preventing Relationship and Dating Violence in Adolescents and Young Adults. A Systematic Review. Campbell Systematic Reviews 2013:14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellmeth, Gracia L. T.; Heffernan, Catherine; Nurse, Joanna; Habibula, Shakiba; Sethi, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Educational and skills-based interventions are often used to prevent relationship and dating violence among young people. Objectives: To assess the efficacy of educational and skills-based interventions designed to prevent relationship and dating violence in adolescents and young adults. Search Methods: We searched the Cochrane Central…

  10. Selection Effects and Prevention Program Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Laura G.; Rosenman, Robert; Tennekoon, Vidhura; Mandal, Bidisha

    2013-01-01

    A primary goal of the paper is to provide an example of an evaluation design and analytic method that can be used to strengthen causal inference in nonexperimental prevention research. We used this method in a nonexperimental multisite study to evaluate short-term outcomes of a preventive intervention, and we accounted for effects of two types of selection bias: self-selection into the program and differential dropout. To provide context for our analytic approach, we present an overview of the counterfactual model (also known as Rubin’s causal model or the potential outcomes model) and several methods derived from that model, including propensity score matching, the Heckman two-step approach, and full information maximum likelihood based on a bivariate probit model and its trivariate generalization. We provide an example using evaluation data from a community-based family intervention and a nonexperimental control group constructed from the Washington state biennial Healthy Youth risk behavior survey data (HYS) (HYS n = 68,846; intervention n = 1502). We identified significant effects of participant, program, and community attributes in self-selection into the program and program completion. Identification of specific selection effects is useful for developing recruitment and retention strategies, and failure to identify selection may lead to inaccurate estimation of outcomes and their public health impact. Counterfactual models allow us to evaluate interventions in uncontrolled settings and still maintain some confidence in the internal validity of our inferences; their application holds great promise for the field of prevention science as we scale up to community dissemination of preventive interventions. PMID:23417667

  11. Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) position statement: restore CDC funding for firearms and gun violence prevention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Pamela; Redding, Colleen A; Raja, Sheela; Newton, Tamara; Beharie, Nisha; Printz, Destiny

    2018-02-21

    The Society for Behavioral Medicine (SBM) urges restoration of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funding for firearms and gun violence prevention research. Gun violence in the United States is an important and costly public health issue in need of research attention. Unfortunately, there have been no concerted CDC-funded research efforts in this area since 1996, due to the passage of the Dickey Amendment. To remedy the information-gathering restrictions caused by the Dickey Amendment bans, it is recommended that Congress remove 'policy riders' on federal appropriations bills that limit firearms research at the CDC; expand NVDRS firearms-related data collection efforts to include all fifty states; fund CDC research on the risk and protective factors of gun use and gun violence prevention; fund research on evidence-based primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention and treatment initiatives for communities that are seriously impacted by the effects of gun violence; and support the development of evidence-based policy and prevention recommendations for gun use and ownership.

  12. Impact of pediatricians' perceived self-efficacy and confidence on violence prevention counseling: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Stacia A; Weiley, Victoria; Ip, Edward H; Barkin, Shari

    2008-01-01

    To measure impact of pediatricians' perceived self-efficacy and confidence on current practices and attitudes regarding four violence prevention (VP) topics (gun storage, gun removal, limiting exposure to media violence, discipline techniques) during health supervision for children ages 2-11. Random sample survey of American Academy of Pediatrics Fellows (n = 486; 53% response rate) providing health supervision for children ages 2-11. Participants surveyed about VP issues regarding: (1) current counseling practices for 2-5 and 6-11 year olds; (2) amount of time spent addressing; (3) confidence in addressing; and (4) perceived self-efficacy at changing patients' behaviors. Multivariate analyses explored relationships between pediatricians' perceived self-efficacy and confidence versus VP counseling frequency. VP topics were not routinely discussed during health supervision. Most pediatricians (64%) reported spending too little time addressing these topics. Although most pediatricians felt confident discussing and effective at changing behaviors regarding limiting exposure to media violence (89% vs. 50%) and discipline techniques (91% vs. 76%), they were less so for safe gun storage (54% vs. 35%) and gun removal (51% vs. 17%). Perceived self-efficacy was the mediating factor on self-reported VP counseling frequencies for all topics. Pediatricians reported spending insufficient time on VP counseling. Confidence and perceived self-efficacy levels varied by VP topic, but for all topics pediatricians felt more confident discussing than effective at changing behaviors. Since pediatricians' self-efficacy was related to counseling practices, boosting self-efficacy could ultimately improve counseling frequencies. Further research is needed to identify methods to build providers' perceived self-efficacy regarding these VP areas.

  13. Evaluation of a school-based violence prevention media literacy curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingar, Kathryn R; Jolls, Tessa

    2014-06-01

    Evaluate whether Beyond Blame, a violence prevention media literacy curriculum, is associated with improved knowledge, beliefs and behaviours related to media use and aggression. Using a quasi-experimental design, from 2007 to 2008, teachers from schools across Southern California administered the curriculum with or without training or served as controls. Students were tested before and after the curriculum was implemented, and during the fall semester of the next academic year. Multivariate hierarchical regression was used to compare changes from baseline to follow-up between the intervention and control groups. Compared with controls, at the first post-test, students in the trained and untrained groups reported increased knowledge of five core concepts/key questions of media literacy, increased self-rated exposure to media violence, as well as stronger beliefs that media violence affects viewers and that people can protect themselves by watching less. Regarding behaviours, controls were more likely to report ≥8 h of media consumption at the second post-test than at baseline (OR=2.11; 95% CI 1.13 to 3.97), pushing or shoving another student (OR=2.16; 95% CI 1.16 to 4.02) and threatening to hit or hurt someone (OR=2.32; 95% CI 1.13 to 4.78). In comparison, there was no increase in these behaviours in the trained and untrained groups. This study suggests media literacy can be feasibly integrated into schools as an approach to improving critical analysis of media, media consumption and aggression. Changing the way youth engage media may impact many aspects of health, and an important next step will be to apply this framework to other topics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Impact Of Pediatricians’ Perceived Self-Efficacy and Confidence on Violence Prevention Counseling: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiley, Victoria; Ip, Edward H.; Barkin, Shari

    2016-01-01

    Objective To measure impact of pediatricians’ perceived self-efficacy and confidence on current practices and attitudes regarding four violence prevention (VP) topics (gun storage, gun removal, limiting exposure to media violence, discipline techniques) during health supervision for children ages 2–11. Methods Random sample survey of American Academy of Pediatrics Fellows (n = 486; 53% response rate) providing health supervision for children ages 2–11. Participants surveyed about VP issues regarding: (1) current counseling practices for 2–5 and 6–11 year olds; (2) amount of time spent addressing; (3) confidence in addressing; and (4) perceived self-efficacy at changing patients’ behaviors. Multivariate analyses explored relationships between pediatricians’ perceived self-efficacy and confidence versus VP counseling frequency. Results VP topics were not routinely discussed during health supervision. Most pediatricians (64%) reported spending too little time addressing these topics. Although most pediatricians felt confident discussing and effective at changing behaviors regarding limiting exposure to media violence (89% vs. 50%) and discipline techniques (91% vs. 76%), they were less so for safe gun storage (54% vs. 35%) and gun removal (51% vs. 17%). Perceived self-efficacy was the mediating factor on self-reported VP counseling frequencies for all topics. Conclusions Pediatricians reported spending insufficient time on VP counseling. Confidence and perceived self-efficacy levels varied by VP topic, but for all topics pediatricians felt more confident discussing than effective at changing behaviors. Since pediatricians’ self-efficacy was related to counseling practices, boosting self-efficacy could ultimately improve counseling frequencies. Further research is needed to identify methods to build providers’ perceived self-efficacy regarding these VP areas. PMID:17554613

  15. [Pneumonia: Regional experience with prevention programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuchalin, A G; Onishchenko, G G; Kolosov, V P; Kurganova, O P; Tezikov, N L; Manakov, L G; Gulevich, M P; Perelman, Yu M

    to generalize the regional experience in implementing a package of organizational and methodical and antiepidemic measures for preventing pneumococcal infections. How the prevention programs were implemented using the materials and methods of the epidemiological and statistical monitoring of the incidence of pneumonia in the Amur Region was analyzed. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevenar-13) and influenza vaccines were used for immunoprophylaxis against acute respiratory viral and pneumococcal infections. Information on the incidence of acute respiratory viral infections and pneumonia over time in the period 2010 to 2015 must be taken into account. Indicators and special criteria are used to evaluate the efficiency of vaccination. The comparative statistical analysis revealed the high efficiency of regional programs using the methods for immunoprophylaxis against pneumococcal infections: the vaccination prophylactic efficiency index in terms of the incidence of pneumonia might be as high as 75-100%. Pneumonia morbidity rates became 2.3 times lower in the vaccinated population of the region. The results of the investigation suggest that the Program for the clinical and epidemiological monitoring and prevention of community-acquired pneumonias, by using the vaccine against pneumococcal infection in the Amur Region, has a high medical and socioeconomic efficiency.

  16. Examining the Presence of Congregational Programs Focused on Violence Against Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston-Kolnik, Jaclyn D; Todd, Nathan R

    2016-06-01

    Religious congregations are uniquely poised to provide programs to support survivors of violence against women; yet little is known regarding the prevalence of such programs. In this study, we used data from three waves of the National Congregation Study (N = 3334) to examine change across time in the presence of a congregational program to support survivors of sexual assault or domestic violence. We also explored results among different Christian religious traditions across time. Given the gendered nature of this violence, we also tested whether the (a) gender of the head clergy (i.e., religious leader), and (b) ability of women to serve in congregational leadership roles predicted the presence of programs. As points of comparison, we also examined the total number of congregational social service programs and food programs in particular. Overall, we found different patterns of change across religious traditions for the different programs. Moreover, clergy gender and the ability of women to serve in leadership roles predicted the presence of different types of programs. Limitations, implications, and directions for future research also are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  17. Considerations on the Improvement of the Legal Framework Necessary for Preventing and Combating Violence against Women in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tache Bocanială

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Violence against women is a common phenomenon in all social layers and in all society, regardless of their stage of development, political stability, culture or religion, with particularly negative consequences. Combating violence against women requires, besides the sanctioning, repressive measures against perpetrators, and also a series of preventive protection measures and services for victims. Reforming the criminal law of Romania, but also a number of regulations adopted by international organizations, especially the European ones, be it European Union or the Council of Europe, attest encouraging legal developments in this area. The conclusions drawn in this paper from the daily practice of judicial bodies, as well as specialized studies highlight the need for improvement and adaptation of specific legislation in order to prevent and combat crime and violence targeting women, highlighting a few directions in this regard.

  18. Community based intervention to prevent domestic violence against women in the reproductive age in Northwestern Ethiopia: a protocol for quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semahegn, Agumasie; Torpey, Kwasi; Manu, Abubakar; Assefa, Nega; Ankomah, Augustine

    2017-11-21

    Violence against women is a well understood devastating global pandemic, and human right violation. One in three women experienced intimate partner violence worldwide. In Ethiopia, the level of domestic violence against women is one of the highest in the world. However, Ethiopia is signatory for various conventions and incorporated in legal frameworks. Nevertheless, effective implementation of the existing policy documents, and engaging different stakeholders is very limited. Therefore, we aimed to pilot feasibility of implementing available research evidence and policy documents at community level to prevent domestic violence against women in Awi zone, northwestern Ethiopia. A community-based quasi-experimental study design will be employed using mixed method. Multistage stratified systematic sampling and purposive sampling will be used to recruit quantitative and qualitative study participants, respectively. A total of 1,269 women will be participated in the intervention, active comparator and control groups. Pre and post-test quantitative data will be collected using face-to-face interview. Qualitative data will be collected through in-depth, key informant interview and focus group discussions. advocacy meeting will be held to persuade local politicians and sustain the implementation of community based intervention to prevent domestic violence against women. Community representatives will be trained to enhance peer education to promote community awareness and engage stakeholders to transform the traditional gender norm within local context. Awareness creation and husband involvement will be made through integrating the intervention with community health extension program. Only husband involvement will not be promoted in the active comparator to test the role of husband involvement on the domestic violence prevention activities. Intervention progress will be monitored regularly. Gathered data will be entered in Epidata and exported to SPSS (23.0) software for

  19. School violence: prevention tools and resources. Youth’s experiences, based on the book “I stopped the school violence. You can do the same”

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Juknienė

    2016-01-01

    Straipsnyje atskleidžiama smurto prevencijos patirtis mokykloje. Remiantis mokyk-los psichologo, kaip praktiko, pastebėjimais bei įžvalgomis ir knygoje „Aš įveikiau, nebijok kovoti“ pateiktais praktiniais pavyzdžiais iš jaunimo istorijų, pristatomi smurto prevencijos metodai, kurie padeda spręsti patyčių ir smurto situacijas mokyklose. School violence can be prevented. Research shows that prevention efforts by teachers, administrators, parents, community members, and even students can redu...

  20. "It Could Affect You as a Person, Character-Wise": Promoting Character Development and Preventing Sexual Violence at West Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeit, Miriam R.

    2017-01-01

    The United States Military Academy at West Point develops cadets into "leaders of character" who will become Army officers. This focus on character presents an opportunity for the prevention of sexual violence through an emphasis on military values. Using constructivist grounded theory, this study examined how cadets experience their own…

  1. Peering into "Spaces for Change": Empowerment, Subversion and Resistance in a Gendered Violence Prevention Education Programme in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbett-Ondiek, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Changing and challenging social norms is essential to preventing gendered violence, and education is widely regarded as a key means through which this can happen. Whilst good-quality research exploring the outcomes of such educational interventions exists, very little is known about what actually happens inside educational spaces aiming to…

  2. Public Sensitization as a Tool for Preventing Domestic Violence against Women in Nsukka Education Zone, Enugu State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeoku, E. K.; Meziobi, D.; Ezegbe, N. B.; Obikwelu, C. L.

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to evolve modalities for preventing domestic violence against women in Nsukka education zone. Three research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The sample comprised 150 urban women and 450 rural women in Nsukka education zone. A 20-item questionnaire was developed, validated, and administered to…

  3. Women survivors of intimate partner violence and post-traumatic stress disorder: Prediction and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeJonghe E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A considerable body of research has demonstrated that women who are abused by their male romantic partners are at substantially elevated risk for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. This article reviews recent literature regarding intimate partner violence (IPV and resultant PTSD symptoms. The article is intended to be an introduction to the topic rather than an exhaustive review of the extensive literature in this area. Factors that enhance and reduce the risk for PTSD, including social support, coping styles, and types of abusive behavior experienced, are described. In addition, the unique risks associated with IPV for women who have children are discussed. Prevention efforts and treatment are briefly reviewed.

  4. Racial differences in treatment effect among men in a substance abuse and domestic violence program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Melanie C; Easton, Caroline J

    2010-11-01

    It is unclear whether racial differences in treatment effect exist for individuals in substance abuse and domestic violence programs. This study examined racial differences in treatment effect among substance dependent Caucasian and African-American male intimate partner violence (IPV) offenders court mandated to an integrated substance abuse and domestic violence treatment. From baseline to completion of treatment (week 12), 75 participants (39 Caucasian; 36 African-American) were assessed on demographics, substance use, legal characteristics, and use of violence (physical, verbal, and psychological). African-American men served more months incarcerated in their life than Caucasian men. Both groups showed decreases in their use of physical violence and alcohol abuse over treatment. Caucasian men also showed a decrease in their use of verbal abuse. At treatment completion, both groups showed a reduction in physical abuse and alcohol abuse. Caucasian men showed a reduction in their use of verbal abuse, but African-American men did not. Substance dependent African-American male IPV offenders may benefit from interventions that thoroughly target communication skills in addition to issues of substance abuse and IPV to reduce use of verbal abuse and improve treatment outcomes among African American men.

  5. Utilizing Peer Education Theater for the Primary Prevention of Sexual Violence on College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah; Postmus, Judy L.; Warrener, Corinne; Koenick, Ruth Anne

    2014-01-01

    To address the widespread problem of sexual assault, many colleges and universities are providing primary prevention education programs. Although a number of such programs exist and appear in the literature (for review see Vladutiu, Martin, & Macy, 2011), the role of peer education theater offers a unique approach. Peer education has been…

  6. An internet obesity prevention program for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, Robin; Jeon, Sangchoon; Grey, Margaret

    2013-04-01

    To compare the effectiveness of two school-based internet obesity prevention programs for diverse adolescents on body mass index (BMI), health behaviors, and self-efficacy, and to explore moderators of program efficacy. It was hypothesized that the addition of coping skills training to a health education and behavioral support program would further enhance health outcomes. A randomized clinical trial with cluster randomization by class and repeated measures with follow-up at 3 and 6 months was conducted (n = 384). BMI was assessed by use of standard procedures. Sedentary behavior, physical activity, nutrition behavior, self-efficacy, and satisfaction were assessed with self-report measures. Data analysis consisted of mixed model analyses with autoregressive covariance structure for repeated data by use of intent-to-treat procedures. The mean age of students was 15.31 years (±0.69), with a mean BMI of 24.69 (±5.58). The majority were girls (62%) and of diverse race/ethnicity (65% non-white). There were no significant differences between groups on any outcomes and no change in BMI over time. There were significant improvements in health behaviors (sedentary behavior, moderate and vigorous physical activity, healthy eating, fruit and vegetable intake, sugar beverages, and junk food intake) and self-efficacy. Gender and lesson completion moderated select health outcomes. There was excellent participation and high satisfaction with the programs. School-based internet obesity prevention programs are appealing to adolescents and improve health behaviors. The differential effect of coping skills training may require longer follow-up. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Men's violence against women and men are inter-related: Recommendations for simultaneous intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J.; Gruskin, Sofia; Rojo, Florencia; Dworkin, Shari L.

    2015-01-01

    Men are more likely than women to perpetrate nearly all types of interpersonal violence (e.g. intimate partner violence, murder, assault, rape). While public health programs target prevention efforts for each type of violence, there are rarely efforts that approach the prevention of violence holistically and attempt to tackle its common root causes. Drawing upon theories that explain the drivers of violence, we examine how gender norms, including norms and social constructions of masculinity, are at the root of most physical violence perpetration by men against women and against other men. We then argue that simply isolating each type of violence and constructing separate interventions for each type is inefficient and less effective. We call for recognition of the commonalities found across the drivers of different types of violence and make intervention recommendations with the goal of seeking more long-standing solutions to violence prevention. PMID:26482359

  8. Men's violence against women and men are inter-related: Recommendations for simultaneous intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J; Gruskin, Sofia; Rojo, Florencia; Dworkin, Shari L

    2015-12-01

    Men are more likely than women to perpetrate nearly all types of interpersonal violence (e.g. intimate partner violence, murder, assault, rape). While public health programs target prevention efforts for each type of violence, there are rarely efforts that approach the prevention of violence holistically and attempt to tackle its common root causes. Drawing upon theories that explain the drivers of violence, we examine how gender norms, including norms and social constructions of masculinity, are at the root of most physical violence perpetration by men against women and against other men. We then argue that simply isolating each type of violence and constructing separate interventions for each type is inefficient and less effective. We call for recognition of the commonalities found across the drivers of different types of violence and make intervention recommendations with the goal of seeking more long-standing solutions to violence prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cost effectiveness of the MDOT preventive maintenance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The Michigan Department of Transportations (MDOT) pavement preservation program dates back to 1992. MDOTs pavement preservation strategy is primarily implemented through its capital preventive maintenance (CPM) program, in which preventive main...

  10. Setting Up a Preventive Maintenance Program: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Michael J., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Outlines how a good preventive maintenance program can be scheduled and followed up to insure that the inspections have been performed. Both manually operated and computerized preventive maintenance programs are discussed. (MLF)

  11. The invisibility of men in South African violence prevention policy: national prioritization, male vulnerability, and framing prevention

    OpenAIRE

    van Niekerk, Ashley; Tonsing, Susanne; Seedat, Mohamed; Jacobs, Roxanne; Ratele, Kopano; McClure, Roderick

    2015-01-01

    Background: South Africa has a significant violence problem. The exposure of girls and women to interpersonal violence is widespread, and the victimization of men, especially to severe and homicidal forms of aggression, is of considerable concern, with male homicide eight times the global rate. In the last two decades, there have been a plethora of South African policies to promote safety. However, indications suggest that the policy response to violence is not coherently formulated, comprehe...

  12. The Athletic Prevention Programming and Leadership Education (APPLE) Model: Developing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Susan J.; Gieck, Joe; Fang, Wei Li; Freedman, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse affects every sector of society, and student-athletes are no exception. Because many factors affecting athletes do not affect other students, athletic departments commonly approach prevention through AOD education. Different educational approaches are described in this article, particularly the Athletic Prevention Programming and Leadership Education (APPLE) model. Project APPLE is designed to enable an athletic department to systematically analyze its AOD p...

  13. Juvenile Violence: An Overview of Risk Factors and Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Kathryn

    2000-01-01

    Literature review provides list of risk factors associated with violent behaviors in adolescents. Identifies protective factors that have the potential to protect youth from violent lifestyles. Suggests approaches for prevention and describes recommendations for action: early prevention; identification; individualized assessment; trained…

  14. Media violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, J

    2000-08-01

    Research on the effects of media violence is not well understood by the general public. Despite this fact, there is an overwhelming consensus in the scientific literature about the unhealthy effects of media violence. Meta-analyses show that media-violence viewing consistently is associated with higher levels of antisocial behavior, ranging from the trivial (imitative violence directed against toys) to the serious (criminal violence), with many consequential outcomes in between (acceptance of violence as a solution to problems, increased feelings of hostility, and the apparent delivery of painful stimulation to another person). Desensitization is another well-documented effect of viewing violence, which is observable in reduced arousal and emotional disturbance while witnessing violence, the reduced tendency to intervene in a fight, and less sympathy for the victims of violence. Although there is evidence that youth who are already violent are more likely to seek out violent entertainment, there is strong evidence that the relationship between violence viewing and antisocial behavior is bidirectional. There is growing evidence that media violence also engenders intense fear in children which often lasts days, months, and even years. The media's potential role in solutions to these problems is only beginning to be explored, in investigations examining the uses and effects of movie ratings, television ratings, and the V-chip, and the effects of media literacy programs and public education efforts. Future research should explore important individual differences in responses to media violence and effective ways to intervene in the negative effects.

  15. The Baltimore Youth Ammunition Initiative: A Model Application of Local Public Health Authority in Preventing Gun Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Nancy L.; Vernick, Jon S.; Beilenson, Peter L.; Mair, Julie S.; Lindamood, Melisa M.; Teret, Stephen P.; Webster, Daniel W.

    2005-01-01

    In 2002, the Baltimore City Health Department, in collaboration with the Baltimore Police Department and the Johns Hopkins Center for Gun Policy and Research, launched the Youth Ammunition Initiative. The initiative addressed Baltimore’s problem of youth gun violence by targeting illegal firearm ammunition sales to the city’s young people. The initiative included undercover “sting” investigations of local businesses and issuance of health department violation and abatement notices. Intermediate results included the passage of 2 Baltimore city council ordinances regulating ammunition sales and reducing the number of outlets eligible to sell ammunition. Although it is too early to assess effects on violent crime, the intervention could theoretically reduce youth violence by interrupting one source of ammunition to youths. More important, the initiative can serve as a policy model for health commissioners seeking to become more active in gun violence prevention efforts. PMID:15855448

  16. WHO approves three-year integrated plan of action on violence prevention and health. Women's health and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Worldwide, 20-50% of women will be victims of physical violence perpetrated by men they know and will suffer adverse health consequences. In countries suffering economic depression, young girls and children are increasingly becoming the victims of child sexual abuse or child trafficking and prostitution. In response to this situation, the 50th World Health Assembly heard a report by the World Health Organization's (WHO) Director-General that endorsed the WHO's 3-year integrated plan of action on violence prevention and health. The WHO also held a workshop in July 1997 to improve the capacity of health professionals to deal with the problem by discussing the identification, treatment, support, and counseling of women victims of violence.

  17. A Brief Review of Intimate Partner Violence in the United States: Nature, Correlates, and Proposed Preventative Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela C. Regan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aggression and violence are themes which characterize a significant proportion of many close romantic relationships. Both women and men may find themselves caught in a web of intimate terror – controlled, manipulated, and hurt by a coercive and violent partner. In this brief review article, we summarize existing literature on the form of intimate partner violence known as coercive controlling violence (CCV, domestic abuse, or intimate terrorism. We begin by discussing the nature and consequences of CCV relationships. Personal or individual (e.g., biological sex, age, immigrant status, socioeconomic status, attitudes and beliefs, mental health and psychopathology, relational or interpersonal (e.g., relationship type, relationship satisfaction, and environmental (e.g., economic strain, social isolation risk factors associated with the occurrence of domestic abuse are identified. Finally, potential preventative measures at the individual, interpersonal, and sociocultural level that may serve to reduce the likelihood of this pernicious interpersonal phenomenon are considered.

  18. Brazil's national programs targeting childhood obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A C F; Bortolini, G A; Jaime, P C

    2013-06-01

    In Brazil, overweight and obesity are increasing in all age and income groups. Currently, 7.3% of children under 5 years of age, 30% of children aged 5-9 and 20% of preadolescents aged 10-19 are overweight. In the primary health-care (PHC) environment, activities are carried out to monitor eating habits and nutrition, as well as to prevent unhealthy habits and promote healthy eating behaviors consistent with the dietary guidelines for Brazilian children. Comprehensive care is being provided to overweight individuals. The Brazilian Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding Strategy was launched in 2009 to support health teams to counsel families about healthy feeding, focused on child health and obesity prevention. Within the school environment, the School Health Program offers activities that are developed by PHC teams together with education professionals to focus on assessing health conditions, prevention and health promotion. To improve the nutritional profile of processed foods, terms of cooperation have been signed with the food industry to reduce fat and sodium content. Food industry advertising and marketing to infants and young children are now regulated by the Brazilian Regulation for the Marketing of Foods to Infants and Young Children.

  19. Violence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Steven A.; Mercy, James A.; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Hillis, Susan D.; Klevens, Joanne; Houry, Debra

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Interpersonal violence, which includes child abuse and neglect, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and elder abuse, affects millions of US residents each year. However, surveillance systems, programs, and policies to address violence often lack broad, cross-sector collaboration, and there is limited awareness of effective strategies to prevent violence. OBJECTIVES To describe the burden of interpersonal violence in the United States, explore challenges to violence prevention efforts and to identify prevention opportunities. DATA SOURCES We reviewed data from health and law enforcement surveillance systems including the National Vital Statistics System, the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reports, the US Justice Department’s National Crime Victimization Survey, the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence, the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—All Injury Program. RESULTS Homicide rates have decreased from a peak of 10.7 per 100 000 persons in 1980 to 5.1 per 100 000 in 2013. Aggravated assault rates have decreased from a peak of 442 per 100 000 in 1992 to 242 per 100 000 in 2012. Nevertheless, annually, there are more than 16 000 homicides and 1.6 million nonfatal assault injuries requiring treatment in emergency departments. More than 12 million adults experience intimate partner violence annually and more than 10 million children younger than 18 years experience some form of maltreatment from a caregiver, ranging from neglect to sexual abuse, but only a small percentage of these violent incidents are reported to law enforcement, health care clinicians, or child protective agencies. Moreover, exposure to violence increases vulnerability to a broad range of mental and physical health problems over the life course; for example

  20. The Power of Academic-Practitioner Collaboration to Enhance Science and Practice Integration: Injury and Violence Prevention Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L Shakiyla; Wilkins, Natalie; Marshall, Stephen W; Dellapenna, Alan; Pressley, Joyce C; Bauer, Michael; South, Eugenia C; Green, Keith

    One of the most substantial challenges facing the field of injury and violence prevention is bridging the gap between scientific knowledge and its real-world application to achieve population-level impact. Much synergy is gained when academic and practice communities collaborate; however, a number of barriers prevent better integration of science and practice. This article presents 3 examples of academic-practitioner collaborations, their approaches to working together to address injury and violence issues, and emerging indications of the impact on integrating research and practice. The examples fall along the spectrum of engagement with nonacademic partners as coinvestigators and knowledge producers. They also highlight the benefits of academic-community partnerships and the engaged scholarship model under which Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded Injury Control Research Centers operate to address the research-to-practice and practice-to-research gap.

  1. Coping with Workplace Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Heilongjiang Province, China: Social Supports and Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Siqi; Qu, Lijun; Liu, He; Gao, Lijun; Jiao, Mingli; Liu, Jinghua; Liang, Libo; Zhao, Yanming; Wu, Qunhong

    2016-01-01

    The study's objectives were to: 1) use social support theory to examine factors influencing healthcare workers' opinions about workplace violence (WPV) prevention strategies, and 2) to determine the types of support that general practitioners (GPs) and general nurses sought and expected to use after WPV exposure. A cross-sectional survey was used to assess a sample of 448 GPs and 412 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China. Results revealed that workers exposed to physical, psychological or both WPV types had a strong opinion about the necessity of improving diagnosis/treatment competence, developing violence prevention guidelines and plans, using protective equipment, and reinforcing staff by providing back-up support. The last two strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers in our previous study. In addition, workers with high anxiety selected the following prevention strategies as most effective: improving doctor-patient communication skills; installing cameras on wards; keeping work areas bright; improvements in violence reporting, statistics, and interventions; security patrols in the key departments; reinforcing staff; and correcting inaccurate media perspectives and reports. The last four strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers. All respondents expected to receive organisational and social support. In conclusion, these prevention strategies should be tailored to the different requirements of specific populations. Furthermore, it is necessary for organisations, the public, and policymakers to provide powerful support in WPV prevention.

  2. Coping with Workplace Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Heilongjiang Province, China: Social Supports and Prevention Strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqi Zhao

    Full Text Available The study's objectives were to: 1 use social support theory to examine factors influencing healthcare workers' opinions about workplace violence (WPV prevention strategies, and 2 to determine the types of support that general practitioners (GPs and general nurses sought and expected to use after WPV exposure. A cross-sectional survey was used to assess a sample of 448 GPs and 412 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China. Results revealed that workers exposed to physical, psychological or both WPV types had a strong opinion about the necessity of improving diagnosis/treatment competence, developing violence prevention guidelines and plans, using protective equipment, and reinforcing staff by providing back-up support. The last two strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers in our previous study. In addition, workers with high anxiety selected the following prevention strategies as most effective: improving doctor-patient communication skills; installing cameras on wards; keeping work areas bright; improvements in violence reporting, statistics, and interventions; security patrols in the key departments; reinforcing staff; and correcting inaccurate media perspectives and reports. The last four strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers. All respondents expected to receive organisational and social support. In conclusion, these prevention strategies should be tailored to the different requirements of specific populations. Furthermore, it is necessary for organisations, the public, and policymakers to provide powerful support in WPV prevention.

  3. The Power of Feminist Pedagogy in Australia: Vagina Shorts and the Primary Prevention of Violence against Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollis, Debbie

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges of using feminist pedagogies in the development of school-based interventions to address Violence Against Women in Sexuality and Relationships Education in Australia. The focus of the paper is a feminist-based classroom program developed by a group of teachers, which was piloted in three secondary schools in…

  4. Educating the community about violence through a gun turn-in program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurk, R; Jaramillo, L; Erwin, L L; Rendleman, N J

    2001-10-01

    The Ceasefire Oregon gun turn in program was initiated to educate the community regarding violence through a gun turn-in program with voluntary surrender of firearms, educational efforts about violence, and institution of public safety policies. The community board of directors was composed of multiple community leadership organizations. A multi-intervention education, outreach and media program consisting of distribution of brochures, presentations, school education programs, and workshops was implemented throughout the year in addition to the gun turn-in program held in May for two days. A survey was administered to participants in the program at the turn-in sites. The cumulative total for guns turned in years 1994 to 1999 was 4,345. Half of the respondents reported possession of a gun at home. The most common reasons for participating in the gun turn in were obtaining gift certificates and not wanting the gun any more. A successful community grassroots program, Ceasefire Oregon has shown sustainability over six years with increased participation secondary to education, advertising and incentives. Community and statewide efforts can assist with building the infrastructure for programs, however more tools for quantitative performance program evaluation would facilitate measuring the impact on the community.

  5. Family Violence and Migrant Women: Implications for Practice. Migrant Clinicians Network Clinical Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rachel; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter supplement is devoted to the theme of domestic violence affecting migrant women. It contains four articles describing programs providing violence prevention education to migrant women and children. "Family Violence and Migrant Women: Implications for Practice" (Rachel Rodriguez) discusses the social isolation of migrant women;…

  6. [Men caretakers of life: Training in gender-sensitive masculinities for the prevention of violence towards women in Medellin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Sosa, Gladys Rocío; Gaviria, Silvia L; Geldres-García, Denis A; Vargas-Romero, Rosamarina

    2015-01-01

    The training strategies targeted at men so as to reflect on the cultural patterns of patriarchy are an alternative in the promotion of human rights, the prevention of violence towards women and the mainstreaming of gender equality in public policies. With a socio-critical pedagogical approach, we conducted a Training Certification Program in gender equality and gender-sensitive masculinities, for a group of 76 male civil servants and civic leaders in the Colombian city of Medellin, for the purpose of questioning their gender socialization in the patriarchal model, directed towards the development and execution of social, educational or communications projects. The projects proposed by the participants criticize the andro-centric, sexist and discriminatory discourses regarding women that circulate in a manner predominant in their academic, workplace and family ambits, with a gender political commitment and respect for diversity. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Child maltreatment and risk patterns among participants in a child abuse prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Jennifer Y; Hughes, Marcia; Asnes, Andrea G; Leventhal, John M

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between risk factors and Child Protective Services (CPS) outcomes in families who participate in home visiting programs to prevent abuse and neglect and who are reported to CPS is largely unknown. We examined the relationship between parental risk factors and the substantiation status and number of CPS reports in families in a statewide prevention program. We reviewed CPS reports from 2006 to 2008 for families in Connecticut's child abuse prevention program. Six risk factors (histories of CPS, domestic violence [DV], mental health, sexual abuse, substance abuse, and criminal involvement) and the number of caregivers were abstracted to create risk scores for each family member. Maltreatment type, substantiation, and number of reports were recorded. Odds ratios were calculated. Of 1,125 families, 171 (15.6%) had at least one CPS report, and reports of 131 families were available for review. Families with a substantiated (25.2%) versus unsubstantiated (74.8%) first report had a high number of paternal risk factors (OR=6.13, 95% CI [1.89, 20.00]) and were more likely to have a history of maternal DV (OR=8.47, 95% CI [2.96, 24.39]), paternal DV (OR=11.23, 95% CI [3.33, 38.46]), and maternal criminal history (OR=4.55; 95% CI [1.32, 15.60]). Families with >1 report (34.4%) versus 1 report (65.6%) were more likely to have >3 caregivers, but this was not statistically significant (OR=2.53, 95% CI [0.98, 6.54]). In a prevention program for first-time families, DV, paternal risk, maternal criminal history, and an increased number of caregivers were associated with maltreatment outcomes. Targeting parental violence may impact child abuse prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sandia National Laboratories California Pollution Prevention Program Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

    2007-04-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

    2010-03-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  10. Pacific Craniofacial Team and Cleft Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolarová, Marie M; Poulton, Donald; Aubert, Maryse M; Oh, HeeSoo; Ellerhorst, Thomas; Mosby, Terezie; Tolar, Miroslav; Boyd, Robert L

    2006-10-01

    There is no doubt modern genetics have greatly influenced our professional and personal lives during the last decade. Uncovering genetic causes of many medical and dental pathologies is helping to narrow the diagnosis and select a treatment plan that would provide the best outcome. Importantly, having an understanding of multifactorial etiology helps direct our attention toward prevention. We now understand much better our own health problems. In some cases, we can modify our lifestyle and diet in order to prevent "environmental factors" from triggering the mutated genes inherited from our parents. Good examples are diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. If we realize we might have inherited genes for cardiovascular problems from several ancestors who had heart attacks, we already know that these genes will make us only "susceptible" for disease. Those who exercise, watch one's weight, diet, and carefully monitor one's lifestyle will very likely--though possessing "susceptibility genes"--stay healthier and, maybe, will never experience any cardiovascular problems. In principle, the same applies for craniofacial anomalies, especially for nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate. One needs to understand genetic and environmental causes of nonsyndromic orofacial clefts in order to prevent them. With all this in mind, the Pacific Craniofacial Team and Cleft Prevention Program have been established at the Department of Orthodontics, University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry in San Francisco. A partnership with Rotaplast International, Inc., has made it possible for the faculty, orthodontic residents, and students to participate in 27 multidisciplinary cleft medical missions in underdeveloped and developing countries by donating professional and educational services, and, last but not least, by collecting valuable data and specimens to further research. A significant number of research studies, including 15 master of science theses, have been accomplished in

  11. Access to HIV prevention services among gender based violence survivors in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mboya, Beati; Temu, Florence; Awadhi, Bayoum; Ngware, Zubeda; Ndyetabura, Elly; Kiondo, Gloria; Maridadi, Janneth

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Currently, Tanzania's HIV prevalence is 5.7%. Gender inequality and Gender Based Violence (GBV) are among factors fuelling the spread of HIV in Tanzania. This study was conducted to assess universal access to HIV prevention services among GBV survivors in Iringa and Dar-es-Salaam where HIV prevalence is as high as 14.7% and 9% respectively compared to a national average of 5.7%. Methods In 2010, a mixed methods study using triangulation model was conducted in Iringa and Dar-es-Salaam regions to represent rural and urban settings respectively. Questionnaires were administered to 283 randomly selected survivors and 37 health providers while 28 in-depth interviews and 16 focus group discussions were conducted among various stakeholders. Quantitative data was analyzed in SPSS by comparing descriptive statistics while qualitative data was analyzed using thematic framework approach. Results Counseling and testing was the most common type of HIV prevention services received by GBV survivors (29%). Obstacles for HIV prevention among GBV survivors included: stigma, male dominance culture and fear of marital separation. Bribery in service delivery points, lack of confidentiality, inadequate GBV knowledge among health providers, and fear of being involved in legal matters were mentioned to be additional obstacles to service accessibility by survivors. Reported consequences of GBV included: psychological problems, physical trauma, chronic illness, HIV infection. Conclusion GBV related stigma and cultural norms are obstacles to HIV services accessibility. Initiation of friendly health services, integration of GBV into HIV services and community based interventions addressing GBV related stigma and cultural norms are recommended. PMID:23467278

  12. Effectiveness of a mentor-implemented, violence prevention intervention for assault-injured youths presenting to the emergency department: results of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tina L; Haynie, Denise; Brenner, Ruth; Wright, Joseph L; Chung, Shang-en; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2008-11-01

    The goal was to assess the impact of a mentor-implemented, violence prevention intervention in reducing aggression, fighting, and reinjury among assault-injured youths. In a randomized, controlled trial performed in the emergency departments of 2 large urban hospitals, 10- to 15-year-old youths who presented with peer assault injuries were recruited and randomly assigned to intervention and comparison groups. In the intervention group, youths received a mentor, who implemented a 6-session problem-solving curriculum, and parents received 3 home visits with a health educator, to discuss family needs and to facilitate service use and parental monitoring. The comparison group received a list of community resources, with 2 follow-up telephone calls to facilitate service use. Youths and parents were interviewed at baseline and at 6 months, for assessment of attitudes about violence, risk factors, fighting, and repeat injury. A total of 227 families were recruited, with 23% refusing participation and 4% providing partial interview completion. A total of 166 families were enrolled, with 87 assigned to the intervention group and 79 to the comparison group; 118 (71%) completed both youth and parent follow-up interviews, and 113 had usable data. The intervention and comparison groups were not significantly different at baseline with respect to demographic features or risk factors, except for increased knife-carrying and fewer deviant peers in the intervention group. After adjustment for baseline differences, there was a trend toward significant program effects, including reduced misdemeanor activity and youth-reported aggression scores and increased youth self-efficacy. Program impact was associated with the number of intervention sessions received. A community-based, mentor-implemented program with assault-injured youths who presented to the emergency department trended in the direction of decreased violence, with reduced misdemeanors and increased self-efficacy.

  13. Programs for Preventing the Causes of Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, Peter S.; And Others

    This monograph, which reports findings from the New Jersey Governor's Council on the Prevention of Mental Retardation, discusses the scope of mental retardation (MR), its causes, identification of people at risk, and prevention methods. The Council cites several cost-effective prevention programs, such as vaccination programs and prenatal care…

  14. Connect: An Effective Community-Based Youth Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Gretchen; Baber, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention is an important public health issue. However, few prevention programs are theory driven or systematically evaluated. This study evaluated Connect, a community-based youth suicide prevention program. Analysis of pre and posttraining questionnaires from 648 adults and 204 high school students revealed significant changes in…

  15. Effectiveness of a Mentor-Implemented Violence Prevention Intervention for Assault-Injured Youth Presenting to the Emergency Department: Results of a Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tina L.; Haynie, Denise; Brenner, Ruth; Wright, Joseph L.; Chung, Shang-en; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Context The emergency department has been described as a promising setting to initiate interventions with assault-injured youth to reduce the risk of re-injury and reactive perpetration. Efforts to intervene have received little study. Objective To assess the impact of a mentor-implemented violence prevention intervention on reducing aggression, fighting and re-injury among assault-injured youth. Design Randomized controlled trial Setting Two large urban hospital emergency departments Participants Youth age 10–15 presenting with peer assault injury were recruited and randomly assigned to intervention and comparison groups. Intervention Intervention youth received a mentor who implemented a 6 session problem-solving curriculum while parents received 3 home visits with a health educator to discuss family needs and facilitate service use and parental monitoring. The comparison group received a list of community resources with 2 follow-up phone calls to facilitate service use. Main Outcome Measures Youth and parents were interviewed at baseline and 6 months to assess attitudes about violence, risk factors, fighting and repeat injury. Results 227 families were recruited with 23% refusing participation and 4% partial interview completion. 166 families were enrolled with 87 randomized to the intervention group and 79 in the comparison group; 118 (71%) completed both youth and parent follow-up interviews and 113 had usable data. Intervention and comparison groups were not significantly different at baseline on demographics or risk factors except for increased knife carrying and less deviant peers in the intervention group. After adjustment for baseline differences, there was a trend toward significant program effect including reducing misdemeanor activity (rate ratio 0.29, confidence interval 0.08–0.98), youth-reported aggression scores (rate ratio .63, 0.4–1.00) and increasing youth self efficacy (beta=2.28, p<.05). Program impact was associated with number of

  16. Bidirectional links between HIV and intimate partner violence in pregnancy: implications for prevention of mother-to-child transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Hatcher, AM; Woollett, N.; Pallitto, CC; Mokoatle, K; Stöckl, H.; C MacPhail; Delany-Moretlwe, S.; García-Moreno, C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) has the potential to eliminate new HIV infections among infants. Yet in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, PMTCT coverage remains low, leading to unacceptably high rates of morbidity among mothers and new infections among infants. Intimate partner violence (IPV) may be a structural driver of poor PMTCT uptake, but has received little attention in the literature to date. Methods: We conducted qualitative research in three Johannes...

  17. [The Effects of Violence Coping Program Based on Middle-Range Theory of Resilience on Emergency Room Nurses' Resilience, Violence Coping, Nursing Competency and Burnout].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Min; Sung, Kyung Mi

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a violence coping program (VCP) based on Polk's middle-range theory of resilience on nursing competency, resilience, burnout, and the ability to cope with violence in nurses working in emergency rooms. A quasi-experimental study, with a nonequivalent control group and a pretest-posttest design, was conducted. Participants were 36 nurses who worked in emergency rooms and had experienced violence; 18 nurses from D hospital and 18 nurses from C hospital were assigned to the experimental and control groups, respectively. The experimental group received the VCP twice per week for 8 weeks. Levels of resilience, F=59.41, pburnout, F=52.74, pburnout and improving resilience, active coping behavior, and nursing competency. Therefore, it would be a useful intervention for improving the quality of nursing care provided in emergency rooms.

  18. Effectiveness of the United Nations Security Council to Prevent Conflict Related Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    clear definition of violence against women as “any act of gender -based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual, or...free from all forms of discrimination ; The right to the highest standard attainable of physical and mental health; The right to just and favorable

  19. The Search for Meaning: The Columbine Tragedy and Recommendations To Prevent Future School Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancato, Frank A.

    This article provides a rationale to support the position that the violence at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, was driven by the attempt of Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold to choose violence, suicide, and death as an alternative to the pain caused by a negative self-concept and a lack of meaning in their attempt to resolve questions of…

  20. An Effective Approach to Violence Prevention: Traditional Martial Arts in Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivin, Gail; Hassan, Nimr R.; DePaula, Geraldine F.; Monti, Daniel A.; Harlan, Carmen; Hossain, Kashfia D.; Patterson, Ksai

    2001-01-01

    Replicated and extended the design and outcome measures of several small studies. In these studies, juveniles at high risk for violence and delinquency showed decreased violence and positive changes in psychological risk factors after being required to take a school-linked course in traditional martial arts. (Author)

  1. Framing Public Policy and Prevention of Chronic Violence in American Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2008-01-01

    Metaphors can both inspire and mislead the public. Current metaphors for youth violence are inconsistent with scientific evidence about how chronic violence develops and evoke inaccurate or harmful reactions. Popular, problematic metaphors include "superpredator", "quarantining the contagious", "corrective surgery", "man as computer", "vaccine",…

  2. 78 FR 21370 - Funding Opportunity Announcement for Family Violence Prevention and Services/Grants for Domestic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ....g., supportive relatives, involvement in after-school activities) and characteristics (e.g., self-esteem, relationship skills) can moderate the impacts of past and future negative experiences. These... information likely to disclose the location of a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault...

  3. 78 FR 8349 - National Teen Dating Violence Awareness and Prevention Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8931 of January 31, 2013 National Teen Dating Violence Awareness and... cuts across lines of age and gender, young women are disproportionately affected by both dating violence and sexual assault. This month, we stand with those who have known the pain and isolation of an...

  4. Conceptual and Methodological Considerations for Assessment and Prevention of Adolescent Dating Violence and Stalking at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriot, Matthew T.

    2008-01-01

    Although research has highlighted that dating violence is a serious and pervasive problem in many adolescent relationships, the prevalence and characteristics of such violence at schools is not fully understood. Yet, adolescents spend a great deal of time at school, and schools facilitate their relationships by providing numerous opportunities for…

  5. Preventing interpersonal violence in Panama: is a parenting intervention developed in Australia culturally appropriate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Anilena; Ulph, Fiona; Calam, Rachel

    2016-11-01

    To explore cultural appropriateness of a transported parenting intervention in Panama. Panamanian parents (n = 25) were interviewed after participation in an Australian parenting intervention. A thematic analysis was conducted to interpret qualitative data. Three themes emerged; cultural context, appropriateness of the intervention, and development of support networks. In terms of cultural context, parents described economic difficulties, living in a dangerous world, struggling to balance parenting and work, and using aggressive communication patterns. In terms of appropriateness of the intervention, they rated materials as appropriate, although suggested modifications to its delivery by including children and teachers in the training. Finally, parents commented that the intervention prompted the development of social networks within their communities. Overall, parents considered a transported parenting intervention as appropriate to their local needs. This study might be useful to local governments and international funders in charge of deciding whether transporting parenting interventions North to South as a strategy for violence prevention would be respectful of local needs. Our findings cannot be generalized beyond Panama, but the methodology can be replicated to answer this question in other settings.

  6. A National Survey of Alcohol Prevention Programs on College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Kate L.

    2010-01-01

    As alcohol-related incidents and tragedies continue to be a major concern on college campuses, researchers and college counseling center directors struggle to find the most effective alcohol prevention programs Several theories have been adapted to form the foundation of prevention programs. These programs have then been evaluated to discover…

  7. Long-term evaluation of a hospital-based violence intervention program using a regional health information exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Teresa M; Gilyan, Dannielle; Moore, Brian A; Martin, Joel; Ogbemudia, Blessing; McLaughlin, Briana E; Moore, Reilin; Simons, Clark J; Zarzaur, Ben L

    2018-01-01

    Hospital-based violence intervention programs (HVIP) aim to reduce violent-injury recidivism by providing intensive case management services to high-risk patients who were violently injured. Although HVIP have been found effective at reducing recidivism, few studies have sought to identity how long their effects last. Additionally, prior studies have been limited by the fact that HVIP typically rely on self-report or data within their own healthcare system to identify new injuries. Our aim was to quantify the long-term recidivism rate of participants in an HVIP program using more objective and comprehensive data from a regional health information exchange. The study included 328 patients enrolled in Prescription for Hope (RxH), an HVIP, between January 2009 and August 2016. We obtained RxH participants' emergency department (ED) encounter data from a regional health information exchange database from the date of hospital discharge to February 2017. Our primary outcome was violent-injury recidivism rate of the RxH program. We also examined reasons for ED visits that were unrelated to violent injury. We calculated a 4.4% recidivism rate based on 8 years of statewide data, containing 1,575 unique encounters. More than 96% of participants were matched in the state database. Of the 15 patients who recidivated, only five were admitted for their injury. More than half of new violence-related injuries were treated outside of the HVIP-affiliated trauma center. The most common reasons for ED visits were pain (718 encounters), followed by suspected complications or needing additional postoperative care (181 encounters). Substance abuse, unintentional injuries, and suicidal ideation were also frequent reasons for ED visits. The low, long-term recidivism rate for RxH indicates that HVIPs have enduring positive effects on the majority of participants. Our results suggest that HVIP may further benefit patients by partnering with organizations that work to prevent suicide

  8. Bienestar: A Diabetes Risk-Factor Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Robert P.; Pugh, Jacqueline A.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Menchaca, Velma D.; Ramirez, Robert R.; Mendoza, Monica

    1998-01-01

    The Bienestar Health Program is a diabetes risk-factor prevention program targeting Mexican American fourth graders. Program goals are to decrease overweight and dietary fats. The program is based on social cognitive theory and uses culturally relevant material. Preliminary evaluation indicates the program significantly decreases dietary fat,…

  9. Bringing trauma-informed practice to domestic violence programs: A qualitative analysis of current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Joshua M; Fauci, Jenny E; Goodman, Lisa A

    2015-11-01

    Three out of 10 women and 1 out of 10 men in the United States experience violence at the hands of an intimate partner-often with devastating costs. In response, hundreds of residential and community-based organizations have sprung up to support survivors. Over the last decade, many of these organizations have joined other human service systems in adopting trauma-informed care (TIC), an approach to working with survivors that responds directly to the effects of trauma. Although there have been various efforts to describe TIC in domestic violence (DV) programs, there is a need to further synthesize this discourse on trauma-informed approaches to better understand specific applications and practices for DV programs. This study aimed to address this gap. The authors of this study systematically identified key documents that describe trauma-informed approaches in DV services and then conducted a qualitative content analysis to identify core themes. Results yielded 6 principles (Establishing emotional safety, Restoring choice and control, Facilitating connection, Supporting coping, Responding to identity and context, and Building strengths), each of which comprised a set of concrete practices. Despite the common themes articulated across descriptions of DV-specific trauma-informed practices (TIP), we also found critical differences, with some publications focusing narrowly on individual healing and others emphasizing the broader community and social contexts of violence and oppression. Implications for future research and evaluation are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Drivers' and conductors' views on the causes and ways of preventing workplace violence in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo City, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillgren Per

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Workplace violence (WPV is an occupational health hazard in both low and high income countries. To design WPV prevention programs, prior knowledge and understanding of conditions in the targeted population are essential. This study explores and describes the views of drivers and conductors on the causes of WPV and ways of preventing it in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo City, Mozambique. Methods The design was qualitative. Participants were purposefully selected from among transport workers identified as victims of WPV in an earlier quantitative study, and with six or more years of experience in the transport sector. Data were collected in semi-structured interviews. Seven open questions covered individual views on causes of WPV and its prevention, based on the interviewees' experiences of violence while on duty. Thirty-two transport professionals were interviewed. The data were analyzed by means of qualitative content analysis. Results The triggers and causes of violence included fare evasion, disputes over revenue owing to owners, alcohol abuse, overcrowded vehicles, and unfair competition for passengers. Failures to meet passenger expectations, e.g. by-passing parts of a bus route or missing stops, were also important. There was disrespect on the part of transport workers, e.g. being rude to passengers and jumping of queues at taxi ranks, and there were also robberies. Proposals for prevention included: training for workers on conflict resolution, and for employers on passenger-transport administration; and, promoting learning among passengers and workers on how to behave when traveling collectively. Regarding control and supervision, there were expressed needs for the recording of mileage, and for the sanctioning of workers who transgress queuing rules at taxi ranks. The police or supervisors should prevent drunken passengers from getting into vehicles, and drivers should refuse to go to dangerous, secluded

  11. Key Injury and Violence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Key Injury and Violence Data Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Injuries ... of death among persons 1-44. Injury- and violence-related deaths are only part of the problem ...

  12. "What matters to someone who matters to me": using media campaigns with young people to prevent interpersonal violence and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Nicky; Ellis, Jane; Farrelly, Nicola; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Bailey, Sue; Downe, Soo

    2017-08-01

    While media campaigns are increasingly advocated as a strategy for preventing interpersonal violence and abuse, there is little evidence available regarding their effectiveness. Consultation with experts and young people was used as part of a UK scoping review to capture current thinking and practice on the use of media campaigns to address interpersonal violence and abuse among young people. Three focus groups and 16 interviews were undertaken with UK and international experts, and three focus groups were held with young people. Participants argued that, although campaigns initially needed to target whole populations of young people, subsequently, messages should be "granulated" for subgroups including young people already exposed to interpersonal violence and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender young people. It was suggested that boys, as the most likely perpetrators of interpersonal violence and abuse, should be the primary target for campaigns. Young people and experts emphasized that drama and narrative could be used to evoke an emotional response that assisted learning. Authenticity emerged as important for young people and could be achieved by delivering messages through familiar characters and relevant stories. Involving young people themselves in creating and delivering campaigns strengthened authenticity. Practice is developing rapidly, and robust research is required to identify the key conditions for effective campaigns in this field. The emotional impact of campaigns in this field appears to be as important as the transmission of learning. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Asian/Pacific Islander youth violence prevention center: interpersonal violence and deviant behaviors among youth in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeda, David T; Hishinuma, Earl S; Nishimura, Stephanie T; Garcia-Santiago, Orlando; Mark, Gregory Y

    2006-08-01

    This study investigates the prevalence rates of violent and deviant behaviors among a sample of Filipino, Hawaiian, Japanese, and Samoan public high school students residing in Hawai'i, and is the first relatively large-scale study of its kind regarding a disaggregated sample of Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) youth. Filipino, Hawaiian, and Samoan adolescents were the chosen ethnic groups for this study's focus due to their over-representation in Hawai'i's juvenile justice system. Data for this study were gathered collaboratively by researchers, community groups, and school officials who agreed that youth violence was a community concern worthy of deeper understanding and community response. The study's process included three phases: a focus group consultation phase, field-testing, and the final risk and protective factor study. For the final study, 326 randomly selected students representing three Hawai'i public high schools were surveyed on a one-on-one basis.A smaller sample of Japanese students was also included in the study, serving as a control group. Findings illustrate the importance of disaggregating specific ethnic and gender groups within the AAPI ethnic category when examining adolescent issues. As examples, Samoan youth reported significantly higher rates of violence than other ethnic groups surveyed, and Hawaiian girls reported higher rates of substance use than Hawaiian boys, which was not commensurate with other ethnic groups. Filipino, Hawaiian, and Samoan youth all reported significantly higher rates than Japanese on overall deviant behavior. Implications for further research and community development include enhancing minority youths' bicultural self-efficacy.

  14. Success and limitations in the prevention of violence: a case study of nine Brazilian experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu Gomes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes the success of Brazilian experiences engaged in prevention of violence as well as their limitations, and seeks to show ways for a solution of the problem. The investigation underlying this article consisted in a case study of nine experiences, using triangulation of methods. For this purpose, we used questionnaires and interviewed individuals and groups. Successful results were mainly: informed citizenship, work preparation, involvement of children and adolescents in recreating and educative activities, and increased self-esteem of the children and teens involved in the experiences. The greatest difficulties found were the lack of funds and of articulation of proposals with other groups and institutions. These experiences are not the only successful ones carried out in the country, but they point to a new horizon by innovating and creating a different practical approach to violence.O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar os êxitos e os limites de experiências nacionais na prevenção da violência e indicar possibilidades de enfrentamento do problema. A pesquisa que dá origem ao artigo consistiu num estudo de caso de nove experiências, seguindo princípios da triangulação de métodos. Foram aplicados questionários quantitativos e realizadas entrevistas (individuais e em grupo. Os resultados apontam que os principais êxitos relatados são: informação para a cidadania; preparação para o trabalho; envolvimento de crianças e adolescentes em atividades lúdicas e educativas; e o fortalecimento da auto-estima dos jovens e crianças participantes. As maiores dificuldades das experiências são a manutenção financeira e a articulação de suas propostas com as de outros grupos e instituições. O estudo leva a concluir que essas experiências, ainda que não sejam as únicas bem-sucedidas no país, apontam para um horizonte novo pela forma como atuam, inovando e criando uma práxis diferenciada na abordagem

  15. Development of a Parenting Support Program to Prevent Abuse of Adolescents in South Africa: Findings from a Pilot Pre-Post Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie D.; Lachman, Jamie M.; Ward, Catherine L.; Gardner, Frances; Peterson, Tshiamo; Hutchings, Judy M.; Mikton, Christopher; Meinck, Franziska; Tsoanyane, Sibongile; Doubt, Jenny; Boyes, Mark; Redfern, Alice A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Violence against children increases in adolescence, but there is a research and practice gap in research-supported child abuse prevention for the adolescent years. A pilot program for low-resource settings was developed in collaboration with nongovernmental organizations, government, and academics in South Africa, using research-supported…

  16. THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS

    OpenAIRE

    Korobeynikov G.V.; Drojjin V.U.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results...

  17. Preventing gender-based violence victimization in adolescent girls in lower-income countries: Systematic review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Kathryn M; Krause, Kathleen H; Miedema, Stephanie S

    2017-11-01

    This systematic review of reviews synthesizes evidence on the impact of interventions to prevent violence against adolescent girls and young women 10-24 years (VAWG) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Theories of women's empowerment and the social ecology of multifaceted violence frame the review. Child abuse, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGMC), child marriage, intimate partner violence (IPV), and sexual violence were focal outcomes. Our review followed the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) for the systematic review of reviews, and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) for a systematic review of recent intervention studies. Of 35 reviews identified between June 7 and July 20, 2016, 18 were non-duplicate systematic reviews of medium-to-high quality. Half of these 18 reviews focused on interventions to prevent IPV. Only four focused on adolescents, of which three focused on child marriage and one compared findings across early and late adolescence. None focused on interventions to prevent child abuse or sexual violence in adolescent/young women. From these 18 reviews and the supplemental systematic review of intervention studies, data were extracted on 34 experimental or quasi-experimental intervention studies describing 28 interventions. Almost all intervention studies measured impacts on one form of VAWG. Most studies assessed impacts on child marriage (n = 13), then IPV (n = 8), sexual violence (n = 4), child abuse (n = 3), and FGMC (n = 3). Interventions included 1-6 components, involving skills to enhance voice/agency (n = 17), social networks (n = 14), human resources like schooling (n = 10), economic incentives (n = 9), community engagement (n = 11) and community infrastructure development (n = 6). Bundled individual-level interventions and multilevel interventions had more favorable impacts on VAWG. Interventions involving community engagement, skill-building to

  18. Building Nehemiah's Wall: The North Minneapolis Faith Community's Role in the Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Jeannette L; Spencer, Rachael A; Lynch, Alice O; Clark, Cari Jo

    2016-12-01

    African American women who are victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) often rely on faith when exposed to IPV; however, the role of the faith community in the lives of IPV victims is less clear. This study uses a community-based approach to examine the role of the faith community in addressing IPV in heterosexual relationships in North Minneapolis where rates of poverty and IPV among African Americans are disproportionately high compared to other cities in Minnesota. Five focus group discussions (FGDs) were held with 34 lay and secular leaders of mixed genders in the North Minneapolis community. FGDs were evaluated using a grounded theory method of analysis. Discussions revealed that some faith leaders effectively identified IPV as a community issue and intervened but that many remained silent or were not well trained to address the issue safely. Faith-based solutions were identified to address IPV in the African American community and included the faith community speaking openly about IPV, developing programs for unmarried and adolescent couples, and coordinating services with secular IPV support organizations.

  19. Possibilities and hindrances for prevention of intimate partner violence: perceptions among professionals and decision makers in a Swedish medium-sized town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, A; von Borgstede, C; Krantz, G; Spak, F; Hensing, G

    2013-09-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem, but few evidence-based prevention programs have yet been implemented. This study explored the perceptions and beliefs of local-level decision makers, social and health-care professionals, and representatives from the police force regarding the possibilities and hindrances for prevention of IPV. An explorative qualitative approach was used, and participants were strategically selected for focus group discussions. The participants, 19 men and 23 women, were professionals or decision makers within health-care services, social welfare, municipal administration, the police force, local industry, and local politicians in a Swedish town of 54,000 inhabitants. The focus group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analyzed. A manifest content analysis was performed on the text. Preschools, schools, sports associations, workplaces, and the mass media were suggested as possible arenas for prevention measures. The proposed activities included norm building and improved social support structures. Hindrances were conceptualized as societal beliefs and attitudes, shame, silence, gender inequality, the counteracting influence of the media, and lack of resources. The participants demonstrated closeness and distance to IPV, expressed as acceptance or referral of responsibility to others regarding where and by whom prevention measures should be executed. This study gave new insights in the prevailing perceptions of professionals and decision makers of a medium-sized Swedish town, which can be a useful knowledge in future preventive work and contribute to bridge the gap between research and practice.

  20. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

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