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Sample records for vinyl chloride coated

  1. Self-assembled hemocompatible coating on poly (vinyl chloride) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Zhengbao; Ma, Yan; Yue, Xiuli; Liu, Meng; Dai, Zhifei

    2009-11-01

    A stable hemocompatible coating was fabricated by consecutive alternating adsorption of iron (III) and two kinds of polysaccharides, heparin (Hep) and dextran sulfate (DS), onto poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) surfaces via electrostatic interaction. The fluctuation of contact angles with the alternative deposition of iron (III) and polysaccharides verified the progressive buildup of the mulitilayer coating onto the PVC surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis revealed that the PVC surfaces were completely masked by iron-polysaccharides multilayer coatings. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay showed that both Hep/Fe 3+/Hep and DS/Fe 3+/Hep coated PVC were less thrombogenic than the uncoated one. Chromogenic assay for heparin activity proved definitively that the inhibition of locally produced thrombin was ascribed to the thromboresistance of the surface-bound heparin. Compared with the unmodified PVC surfaces, iron-polysaccharide multilayer coating presented a drastically reduced adhesion in vitro of platelets, polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Interestingly, the DS/Fe 3+/Hep coating was found to exhibit higher hydrophilicity and stability, hence lower non-specific protein adsorption in comparison with Hep/Fe 3+/Hep coating due to the incorporation of dextran sulfate into the multilayer coating.

  2. Self-assembled hemocompatible coating on poly (vinyl chloride) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zha Zhengbao; Ma Yan; Yue Xiuli; Liu Meng [Nanobiotechnology Division, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resources and Environment, School of Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Dai Zhifei, E-mail: zhifei.dai@hit.edu.cn [Nanobiotechnology Division, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resources and Environment, School of Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2009-11-15

    A stable hemocompatible coating was fabricated by consecutive alternating adsorption of iron (III) and two kinds of polysaccharides, heparin (Hep) and dextran sulfate (DS), onto poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) surfaces via electrostatic interaction. The fluctuation of contact angles with the alternative deposition of iron (III) and polysaccharides verified the progressive buildup of the mulitilayer coating onto the PVC surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis revealed that the PVC surfaces were completely masked by iron-polysaccharides multilayer coatings. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay showed that both Hep/Fe{sup 3+}/Hep and DS/Fe{sup 3+}/Hep coated PVC were less thrombogenic than the uncoated one. Chromogenic assay for heparin activity proved definitively that the inhibition of locally produced thrombin was ascribed to the thromboresistance of the surface-bound heparin. Compared with the unmodified PVC surfaces, iron-polysaccharide multilayer coating presented a drastically reduced adhesion in vitro of platelets, polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Interestingly, the DS/Fe{sup 3+}/Hep coating was found to exhibit higher hydrophilicity and stability, hence lower non-specific protein adsorption in comparison with Hep/Fe{sup 3+}/Hep coating due to the incorporation of dextran sulfate into the multilayer coating.

  3. New Flexible Flame Retardant Coatings Based on Siloxane Resin and Ethylene-Vinyl Chloride Copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Wesolek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the effectiveness of a phosphorus-containing flame retardant based on siloxane resin and ethylene-vinyl chloride copolymer as a back-coating of fabrics. The possibility of improving flame retardant efficiency of this composition by introducing fumed silica, montmorillonite, carbon nanotubes, and graphite was evaluated. The effect of each additive on the efficiency of the composition was examined separately. Flammability tests of flame retardant-coated fabrics (natural and synthetic were carried out using pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC, cone calorimetry, and limiting oxygen index determination. An assessment of the ignitability of upholstered furniture containing flame retardant fabric, resistance to washing, antifungal activity, and some of the utility properties of the final newly-developed flame-retardant coating was conducted.

  4. Simultaneous Bacillus anthracis Spores Detection via Aminated-Poly(vinyl chloride Coated Piezoelectric Crystal Immunosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Oztuna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis spores are a potential threat to countries in the context of biodefense. We have already seen the destructiveness of the anthrax attacks in the recent past. This study presents an aminated-poly(vinyl chloride (PVC-NH2 coated quartz crystal microbalance (QCM immunosensor for simultaneous rapid detection of B. anthracis spores. PVC-NH2, synthesized in the laboratory, was used as an adhesive layer for monoclonal antibody immobilization on gold quartz crystal. The prepared QCM sensor was tested using a pathogen field strain of B. anthracis (GenBank number: GQ375871.1 under static addition and flow through procedures with different spore concentrations. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were performed to characterize the surface of the sensor during the modification. Furthermore, a series of SEM micrographs were taken in order to investigate surface morphology and show the presence of the B. anthracis spores on the surface. It is concluded that B. anthracis spores can be accomplished by using amine functionalized polymer coated QCM sensors without requiring complicated immobilization procedures or expensive preliminary preparations.

  5. Measurement of atmospheric vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, S S

    1979-02-01

    Methods for atmospheric vinyl chloride measurement have been reviewed. The lowest detection limits and most specific measurement are achieved by scrubbing atmospheric samples with activated charcoal, desorbing the vinyl chloride, and assaying it by gas chromatography (GC). NIOSH currently recommends collecting samples using tubes packed with 150 mg of coconut shell charcoal, desorbing with carbon disulfide, and analyzing by GC equipped with flame-ionization detection (FID); the method is capable of detecting less than 1 ppm vinyl chloride and has an apparent recovery of abo the ppb level with no loss of accuracy or precision. Some field methods, such as infrared analysis and conductivity measurement, are capable of detecting 1 ppm or lower but are subject to interferences by other contaminants; th-y could be useful for evaluating sources of vinyl chloride leaks and for continuous monitoring. Permeation tubes are superior to gravimetric or volumetric methods for generating atmospheres of known vinyl chloride concentration.

  6. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  7. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Nannhein, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Altos, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2011-11-22

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  8. 21 CFR 177.1970 - Vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers. 177...-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers. The vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers identified in paragraph... section vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers consist of basic copolymers produced by the...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE TO VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Vinyl chloride (VC monomer is a wellknown carcinogenic and mutagenic substance causes liver damages, angiosarcoma of the liver, acro – osteolysis, sclerodermalike changes in workers chronically exposed to this gas. There are following VC emitors to the environment: VC production plants, polymerization facilities and planes where polyvinyl products are fabricated. Because of that, the general population is coming into VC contact through polluted air, food and water. VC concentration in all mentioned sites is very low, often not detectable. There was found any health risk for the general population. The VC air concentration in the vicinity to antropogenic emitors is always higher. Such a situation may causes undesirable health effect for residents living in the neighbourhood. Epidemiological studies are performed to detect the adverse VC effect in selected cohorts. Non of the study did not confirmed cases of angiosarcoma among residents living near a vinyl chloride sites. VC production is growing permanently, so VC emission will be higher. Because of that health monitoring of general population and especially of selected groups seems to be necessary in the future.

  10. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. 61.65 Section 61.65 Protection of Environment... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of an ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride, and/or polyvinyl chloride plant shall comply with the requirements of this section. (a...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1980 - Vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers. 177.1980... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1980 Vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers. The vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely...

  12. 21 CFR 177.1950 - Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. 177.1950... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1950 Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. The vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely...

  13. Incidence of cancer among vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldaas, S S; Langård, S L; Andersen, A

    1984-01-01

    The results of a follow up study of the incidence of cancer and the mortality in a cohort of 454 male workers producing vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride are presented. The study population was restricted to employees with more than one year's work experience in the study plant between 1950 and 1969 and the cohort was followed up from 1953 to the end of 1979. Twenty three new cases of cancer were observed compared with 20.2 expected; one case of liver angiosarcoma was found. Five cases of lung cancer were found (2.8 expected) and four cases of malignant melanoma of the skin were observed (0.8 expected). The possibility of a causal relationship between exposure to vinyl chloride and the development of malignant melanomas is discussed. PMID:6691932

  14. APPLICATION OF TRITON X-100 COATED POLY VINYL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ABSTRACT. A selective, sensitive and efficient method for preconcentration of trace amounts of Cu(II), Fe(II) and Zn(II) ions based on the uptake of their complexes with 3-((indolin-3-yl)(phenyl)methyl)indoline (IYPMI) loaded on Triton X-100 coated poly vinyl chloride has been reported. The influences of the analytical ...

  15. Application of Triton X-100 coated poly vinyl chloride as new solid phase for preconcentration of Fe3+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions and their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrorang Ghaedi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A selective, sensitive and efficient method for preconcentration of trace amounts of Cu(II, Fe(II and Zn(II ions based on the uptake of their complexes with 3-((indolin-3-yl(phenylmethylindoline (IYPMI loaded on Triton X-100 coated poly vinyl chloride has been reported. The influences of the analytical parameters including pH, ligand amount, surfactant type and concentration, eluting condition and sample volume on metal ions recovery were investigated. The method has been successfully applied for the extraction of these ions content in some real samples of soil and plants. The extraction efficiency was > 97% with low relative standard deviation (RSD < 2.4% and the preconcentration factor of 90 (5 mL elution volume for a 450 mL of sample volume.

  16. 21 CFR 178.3790 - Polymer modifiers in semirigid and rigid vinyl chloride plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... chloride plastics. 178.3790 Section 178.3790 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... modifiers in semirigid and rigid vinyl chloride plastics. The polymers identified in paragraph (a) of this... semirigid and rigid vinyl chloride plastic food-contact articles prepared from vinyl chloride homopolymers...

  17. Telomerization of Vinyl Chloride with Chloroform Initiated by Ferrous Chloride-Dimethylacetamide under Ultrasonic Conditions

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    Hua Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomerization of vinyl chloride with chloroform was investigated using ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide system, and 42.1% yield, more than four times the one reported before, was achieved. The addition of ultrasound further improved the reaction and yield was raised to 51.9% with trace byproducts at highly reduced reaction time and temperature. Ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide under ultrasonic irradiation acts as a very efficient catalyst system for the 1 : 1 telomerization.

  18. Metabolic activation and mutagenicity of 4 vinylic monomers (vinyl chloride, styrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duverger, M; Lambotte, M; Malvoisin, E; de Meester, C; Poncelet, F; Mercier, M

    1981-05-01

    The mutagenic activity and the metabolism of four vinylic monomers; vinyl chloride, styrene, acrylonitrile and butadiene are reviewed. Those chemicals are converted by the mixed function oxidases system of the endoplasmic reticulum into reactive intermediates which can interact with macromolecules within the cell. In order to examine the mutagenic activity of these compounds and their metabolites, different mutagenicity testing systems have been used: tests with S. typhimurium, E. coli, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, V79 Chinese Hamster cells, CHO cells, Drosophila melanogaster as well as evaluations of chromosome aberrations.

  19. Pathology of angiosarcoma of the liver among vinyl chloride-polyvinyl chloride workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, L B; Popper, H

    1975-01-31

    We described the histologic features of 13 hepatic angiosarcomas which developed in workers engaged in the polymerization of vinyl chloride to polyvinyl chloride. Although the histologic features varied considerably in different portions of the angiosarcoma in the same liver and in the angiosarcomas of the liver from different patients, many features were similar such as sinusoidal, papillary, and cavernous growth patterns coincident with the precursor lesions of proliferation and atypia of sinusoidal lining cells.

  20. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BLENDS OF PAMAM DENDRIMERS WITH POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) AND POLY(VINYL ACETATE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid blends of poly(amidoamine) PAMAM dendrimers with two linear high polymers, poly(vinyl chloride), PVC, and poly(vinyl acetate), PVAc, are reported. The interaction between the blend components was studied using dynamic mechanical analysis, xenon nuclear magnetic resonacne ...

  1. Cutaneous haemangioendothelioma: a possible link with chronic exposure to vinyl chloride.

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, M F; Curtis, M; Howat, J M

    1990-01-01

    A patient who worked with polyvinyl chloride developed a malignant haemangioendothelioma of a toe. This rare tumour is more commonly found in the liver where it has been reported to arise in association with exposure to the vinyl chloride monomer.

  2. Plastics piping systems for industrial applications : acrylonitrile-butadiene- styrene (ABS), unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) and chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-C) : specifications for components and the system : metric series

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Plastics piping systems for industrial applications : acrylonitrile-butadiene- styrene (ABS), unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) and chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-C) : specifications for components and the system : metric series

  3. [Headspace GC/MS analysis of residual vinyl chloride and vinylidene chloride in polyvinyl chloride and polyvinylidene chloride products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko; Suzuki, Masako; Aoyama, Taiki

    2005-02-01

    A headspace GC/MS analysis method for the simultaneous determination of residual vinyl chloride (VC) and vinylidene chloride (VDC) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) products was developed. A test sample was swelled overnight with N,N-dimethylacetamide in a sealed vial. The vial was incubated for 1 hour at 90 degrees C, then the headspace gas was analyzed by GC/MS using a PLOT capillary column. The recoveries from spiked PVC and PVDC samples were 90.0-112.3% for VC and 85.2-108.3% for VDC. The determination limits were 0.01 microg/g for VC and 0.06/microg/g for VDC, respectively. By this method, VC was detected in two PVC water supply pipes at the levels of 0.61 and 0.01 microg/g. On the other hand, VC and VDC were not detected in any of the food container-packages or toys tested.

  4. 21 CFR 178.2650 - Organotin stabilizers in vinyl chloride plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Organotin stabilizers in vinyl chloride plastics... plastics. The organotin chemicals identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safety used alone or... mercaptoacetate is derived from oxo process primary octyl alcohols. (b) The vinyl chloride plastic containers...

  5. Levels of CEA among vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, H.A. (City Univ. of New York, NY); Snyder, J.; Lewinson, T.; Woo, C.; Lilis, R.; Selikoff, I.J

    1978-09-01

    In 1974, vinyl chloride exposed workers were found to have an increased risk of malignant disease (hemangiosarcoma of the liver). We have examined 1,147 workers exposed to vinyl chloride monomer in three VC/PVC polymerization plants, and 269 workers from a PVC extrusion plant manufacturing PVC textile leather, exposed to much lower concentrations of vinyl chloride. Included among the comprehensive clinical and laboratory studies conducted was the CEA titer. We obtained, respectively, 1,115 and 248 CEA titers. Multiple factors were demonstrated which affected the distribution of CEA titers. Cigarette use had the greatest effect, followed by history of specific past illnesses and alcohol intake history. After removing these possible confounding effects, the distribution of CEA titers among the polymerization workers was significantly different from the extrusion plant group and from an unexposed comparison group. Of the six job categories analyzed, only production and maintenance workers had CEA titer distributions significantly different from the comparison group and the extrusion workers. The investigation demonstrates that occupational exposures in VC/PVC polymerization plants can cause elevations in the CEA titers of otherwise healthy individuals. Prospective follow-up is necessary before conclusions can be drawn concerning the usefulness of the CEA titer as a predictive indicator of possible increased risk.

  6. Polyphosphates as Inhibitors for Poly(vinyl Chloride Photodegradation

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    Dina S. Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Three polyphosphates were used as inhibitors for poly(vinyl chloride (PVC photodegradation. The polyphosphates were added to PVC at a concentration of 0.5% by weight. The PVC films (40 µm thickness were irradiated at room temperature with ultraviolet (UV light for up to 300 h. The changes in PVC films after irradiation were monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, weight loss, viscosity-average molecular weight determination, and atomic force microscopy. These changes were very noticeable in the blank PVC films compared to the ones obtained when additives were used. The polyphosphates can inhibit the PVC photodegradation through direct absorption of UV light, interactions with PVC chains, and acting as radical scavengers.

  7. Viscometric Studies of Poly(ethylene glycol), Poly(vinyl alcohol) and Poly(vinyl chloride) and Their Mixtures in Water and Chlorobenzene

    OpenAIRE

    Ur Rashid, Harun

    1989-01-01

    Absolute viscosities of semi-dilute solutions of polytethylene. glycol) and poly(vinyl alcohol) and their mixtures in water and of poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(vinyl chloride) and the ir mixtures in chlorobenzene have been measured at 30 C C. The viscosities of poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(vinyl chloride) increase sharply with concentration. The plots of viscosity of polymer mixtures against composition deviate from linearity. The effect of total polymer content on the ...

  8. Vinyl chloride exposure and cirrhosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frullanti, Elisa; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo; Zocchetti, Carlo

    2012-09-01

    It has been proposed that vinyl chloride exposure is associated with increased risk of death from cirrhosis, although epidemiologic evidence is limited. We analyzed the risk of death from cirrhosis by occupational vinyl chloride exposure by conducting a meta-analysis on seven available studies, including more than 40,000 workers exposed to vinyl chloride mostly in North America and Europe, with a total of 203 deaths from cirrhosis. All epidemiological studies on vinyl chloride exposure and risk of death from cirrhosis resulted in an overall relative risk of 0.73 (95% confidence interval 0.61-0.87). Thus, the epidemiologic evidence does not suggest an excess mortality from cirrhosis in vinyl chloride-exposed workers; this is consistent with histopathological observations in livers of angiosarcoma patients and of vinyl chloride-exposed rodents revealing no signs of cirrhosis. Overall, our findings indicate the absence of increased risk of death from cirrhosis in vinyl chloride-exposed workers. Copyright © 2012 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Model Approach for Finding Cleaning Solutions for Plasticized Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Surfaces of Collections Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz Landaluze, Jon; Egsgaard, Helge; Morales Munoz, Clara

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on developing a surface cleaning treatment for one type of commercially available plasticized poly(vinyl chloride). The effects of cleaning solutions on samples of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) were examined by several methods. The sample surface, prior to and after artificial...... solutions for the plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) used in the study was found. In addition, a specific method to tailor cleaning mixtures for plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) objects was developed by means of Hildebrand solubility parameters and the formulation of a Plasticizer Index calculated...... cleaning methods for plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) objects....

  10. Studies on poly (vinyl chloride/silica dioxide composite hollow fiber membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly (vinyl chloride/silica dioxide composite hollow fiber membranes were prepared by using the method of immersion-precipitation process. The influences of stretching ratio on the formation of the interfacial microporous of poly (vinyl chloride/silica dioxide composite hollow fiber membranes were specifically investigated by scanning electron microscope, dynamic mechanical analysis, and finite element method. Results show that with the stretching ratio increasing, numerous IFM appear on the surface of membranes. Finite element method actually reflects the dynamic change of microporous structure of poly (vinyl chloride/silica dioxide composite hollow fiber membranes.

  11. Extremely long latency time of hepatic angiosarcoma in a vinyl chloride autoclave worker

    OpenAIRE

    Bolt, Hermann M.

    2009-01-01

    Vinyl chloride is a human carcinogen. The characteristic tumour is the hepatic angiosarcoma, first observed in the 1970s in vinyl/polyvinyl chloride workers, especially in polymerization autoclave workers. Recent epidemiological studies demonstrate a dependence of the tumour incidence on both the duration and cumulative quantity of exposure. However, there is only limited data concerning the possible tumour latency times. Here, a case of hepatic angiosarcoma is presented that had been exposed...

  12. Carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic risks associated with vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, P F; Wagoner, J K; Waxweiler, R J

    1976-11-01

    The data presented demonstrate clearly that vinyl chloride (VC) is related to a significant excess of mortality from cancer of the liver, lung and brain among workers occupationally exposed to VC. The risk of dying from cancer of the lymphatic and hematopoietic system also appears to increase with an increase in latency. These cancer sites could have been predicted by the animal bioassay conducted by Maltoni. With regard to the liver, even the histophthologic type of cancer (angiosarcoma) was observed first in experimental animals. A study of cancer mortality among populations residing proximate to VC polymerization facilities also demonstrated an increased risk of dying from CNS and lymphatic cancer. These latter findings raise cause for concern about out-plant emmissions of VC, but without further study these cancers obviously cannot be interpreted as being related to out-plant exposure to VC. Various test systems now have elicited a positive mutagenic response to VC. Thus, our observations of a significant excess of fetal mortality among the wives of males, who were occupationally exposed to VC, raise public health concern that VC may be mutagenic in humans. With regard to the teratogenicity of VC, observations of a significant excess of children born with birth defects were reported among populations residing proximate to VC polymerization facilities. Additional epidemiologic study is needed to determine whether a repeated pattern of excessive numbers of children born with birth defects can be observed in other communities with VC polymerization facilities.

  13. Cutaneous haemangioendothelioma: a possible link with chronic exposure to vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, M F; Curtis, M; Howat, J M

    1990-01-01

    A patient who worked with polyvinyl chloride developed a malignant haemangioendothelioma of a toe. This rare tumour is more commonly found in the liver where it has been reported to arise in association with exposure to the vinyl chloride monomer. Images PMID:2310710

  14. Optimal control of batch emulsion polymerization of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damslora, Andre Johan

    1998-12-31

    The highly exothermic polymerization of vinyl chloride (VC) is carried out in large vessels where the heat removal represents a major limitation of the production rate. Many emulsion polymerization reactors are operated in such a way that a substantial part of the heat transfer capacity is left unused for a significant part of the total batch time. To increase the reaction rate so that it matches the heat removal capacity during the course of the reaction, this thesis proposes the use of a sufficiently flexible initiator system to obtain a reaction rate which is high throughout the reaction and real-time optimization to compute the addition policy for the initiator. This optimization based approach provides a basis for an interplay between design and control and between production and research. A simple model is developed for predicting the polymerization rate. The model is highly nonlinear and open-loop unstable and may serve as an interesting case for comparison of nonlinear control strategies. The model is fitted to data obtained in a laboratory scale reactor. Finally, the thesis discusses optimal control of the emulsion polymerization reactor. Reduction of the batch cycle time is of major economic importance, as long as the quality parameters are within their specifications. The control parameterization had a major influence on the performance. A differentiable spline parameterization was applied and the optimization is illustrated in a number of cases. The best performance is obtained when the reactor temperature is obtained when the optimization is combined with some form of closed-loop control of the reactor temperature. 112 refs., 48 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Structure and Electrical Study of New Chemically Modified Poly(vinyl chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ammari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the structural and electrical properties of a new polymer obtained by functionalization of a commercial poly(vinyl chloride (PVC (Mw = 48000 by grafting aminoalkyl and aminoaryl groups. Modified poly(vinyl chloride was prepared in two steps. The structural properties of the polymer were systematically investigated by varieties of techniques as differential scanning calorimetric (DSC, thermogravimetry analysis (TG, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The electrical properties of the polymer were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS.

  16. [Evaluating risk of health disorders in workers engaged into polyvinyl chloride, vinyl chloride and caustic soda production (according to data collected by polls)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'iakovich, O A

    2014-01-01

    The authors represent data of automated system for quantitative risk evaluation of main pathologic syndromes in workers engaged into polyvinyl chloride, vinyl chloride and caustic soda production. Vinyl chloride and mercury levels at the investigation time corresponded with MAC. Relationship was seen between value of arterial hypertension risk and duration of contact with both vinyl chloride and mercury. Risk values for functional disorders of liver, endocrine system and nervous system were in weak correlation with length of exposure to mercury at work. Workers exposed to mercury appeared to have lower self-estimation of health state and higher dissatisfaction with the work.

  17. Small nanosized poly(vinyl benzyl trimethylammonium chloride) based polyplexes for siRNA delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, Bo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/37052537X; Beztsinna, Nataliia|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411277928; Mountrichas, Grigoris; van den Dikkenberg, Joep B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304841420; Pispas, Stergios; Hennink, Wim E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070880409

    2017-01-01

    The success of siRNA gene therapy requires the availability of safe and efficient delivery systems. In the present study, we investigated poly(vinyl benzyl trimethylammonium chloride) (PVTC) and its block copolymer with poly(oligo(ethyleneglycol) methacrylate) (POEGMA) as delivery vector for siRNA.

  18. Ethyl vinyl chloride vapocoolant spray fails to decrease pain associated with intravenous cannulation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Mary; Ramundo, Maria; Christopher, Norman C; Powell, Keith R

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of ethyl vinyl chloride vapocoolant spray on pain reported by children undergoing intravenous cannulation. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on eligible children between the ages of 9 and 18 years seen in a pediatric emergency department and requiring intravenous cannulation. Informed consent was obtained, and children were randomized to receive ethyl vinyl chloride spray, isopropyl alcohol spray, or no spray (control group). Patient demographics and information pertaining to each intravenous cannulation were recorded. Children indicated the degree of pain associated with intravenous cannulation on a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) compared to a baseline pain score of "zero." Statistical analysis was performed by using Stata version 7. One hundred twenty-seven subjects were enrolled: 37 received ethyl vinyl chloride vapocoolant spray, 48 received isopropyl alcohol spray (placebo), and 42 received no pretreatment. Mean VAS scores for pain experienced during cannulation were 34, 33, and 31 mL for each group, respectively. Ethyl vinyl chloride vapocoolant spray failed to measurably reduce pain associated with intravenous cannulation when compared to those pretreated with isopropyl alcohol spray or receiving no intervention.

  19. The influence of physical ageing on yielding and failure of unplasticised poly(vinyl chloride) pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Roy; Bor, Teunis Cornelis; Wolters, Mannes; Govaert, Leon E.

    2009-01-01

    Physical ageing can cause significant changes of the mechanical properties of unplasticised poly(vinyl chloride) pipes during service life. A model is presented which incorporates these changes and can predict long-term failure times quantitatively, based on short term tests

  20. New insight into the formation of structural defects in poly(vinyl chloride)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purmova, J; Pauwels, KFD; van Zoelen, W; Vorenkamp, EJ; Schouten, AJ; Coote, ML; Pauwels, Kim F.D.; Coote, Michelle L.

    2005-01-01

    The monomer conversion dependence of the formation of the various types of defect structures in radical suspension polymerization of vinyl chloride was examined via both H-1 and C-13 NMR spectrometry. The rate coefficients for model propagation and intra- and intermolecular hydrogen abstraction

  1. Modeling of the Migration of Glycerol Monoester Plasticizers in Highly Plasticized Poly(vinyl chloride)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard, Rasmus; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Kristiansen, Jørgen K.

    2009-01-01

    soybean oil (ESBO) with regard to their migration from three different types of poly(vinyl chloride) into isooctane at 20, 40, and 60 degrees C. Diffusion coefficients derived from the experimental migration data were evaluated against diffusion coefficients estimated from a model based solely...

  2. ANALYSIS OF ADIPATE ESTER CONTENTS IN POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) PLASTICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.; Otero, Amalia Dopazo

    2006-01-01

    Fourier transform (FT-) Raman spectroscopy excited with a 1064 nm laser can be used to determine the content of plasticizers in commercial flexible poly vinyl chloride (PVC) products. Our previous study [T. Nørbygaard, R.W. Berg, Analysis of phthalate ester content in PVC plastics by means of FT......-Raman Spectroscopy, Appl. Spectrosc. 58 (4) (2004) 410–413]—on detection of the presence of phthalate esters in PVC by FT-Raman spectroscopy — is here extended to the similar case of adipate esters (AEs) in samples of soft poly vinyl chloride plastics. Spectra of a range of adipate ester plasticizers (11 AEs...... plastics sample does not contain significant amounts of phthalate esters because these plasticizers do have strong bands at around 1060 cm-1. Furthermore it must be remembered that bands may occur at around 1040 cm1 in a PVC sample for other reasons than phthalate ester content....

  3. Angiographic study of digital arteries in workers exposed to vinyl chloride.

    OpenAIRE

    Falappa, P; Magnavita, N; Bergamaschi, A; Colavita, N

    1982-01-01

    Five patients exposed to vinyl chloride were studied by hand angiography and other non-invasive methods, including photoplethysmography, rheography, and thermography. Raynaud's phenomenon was present in all five subjects, while acro-osteolysis affected only one. Organic vascular lesions, such as narrowing, segmentary occlusions of digital arteries and bridge collaterals, were found in angiographic studies. Only one patient did not show clear segmentary occlusions, but his vessels were crooked...

  4. Thermal, dielectric and mechanical study of poly(vinyl chloride/olive pomace composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Composites from PVC and chemically treated olive pomace have been prepared. The effect of the incorporation of virgin and benzylated olive pomace in the poly(vinyl chloride matrix on dielectric, mechanical and thermal stability properties, of /olive pomace composites was studied. The mechanical properties of the benzylated composites were improved. Furthermore, the thermal characterization of the different samples carried out by thermogravimetric analysis revealed an increase in the onset temperatures of decomposition for the treated composites. The dielectric investigation indicated that the samples containing olive pomace treated with the benzyl chloride can be used in electrical applications as insulators.

  5. Tetrachloroethylene contamination of drinking water by vinyl-coated asbestos-cement pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeham, S.G.; Davis, A.C.; Witt, R.T.; Tripp, B.W.; Frew, N.M.

    1980-10-01

    Drinking water transported in vinyl-coated asbestos-cement pipes often contains elevated concentrations of tetrachloroethylene, which is used as solvent during application of the vinyl coating. Tetrachloroethylene contamination of drinking waters flowing in vinyl-coated asbestos-cement pipes in Falmouth, Mass., is assessed. Problems encountered in trying to reduce this potential health hazard are reviewed. Flushing of the pipe sometimes leads to a reduced tetrachloroethylene level in that pipe, but after flushing is terminated, the level of contamination will gradually increase. (1 diagram, 17 references, 2 tables)

  6. Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Intranasally Administered Vinyl Polymer-Coated Lorazepam Microparticles in Rabbits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, Yanjun; Brown, Marc B; Khengar, Rajeshree H; Traynor, Matthew J; Barata, Pedro; Jones, Stuart A

    2012-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to understand how the in situ self-assembly of a mucoretentive delivery system, formed by the dissolution of vinyl polymer-coated microparticles in the nasal mucosa, would...

  7. Kinetics and Mechanism of Bulk Polymerization of Vinyl Chloride in a Polymerization Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Ibrahim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl chloride (PVC is the third most commonly produced polymer and is important because of its mechanical characteristics. The most common method of PVC manufacturing is the process of suspension. Although, there are several benefits associated with suspension, this study will focus on the bulk polymerization of vinyl chloride; highlight the physical and chemical properties of PVC, which can be changed through an estimation of the optimum ratio that exists between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts of the polymer’s surface, and propose a new mathematical model which will be helpful for the conversion of PVC into a useful form. The result will be the proposal of a new dynamic mathematical model for the three-phase structure model. All particles have been taken into account in the proposed model, which helped contribute to the reaction in gel, solid, and liquid phases, emphasizing the use of mercury (Hg as a catalyst. The proposed mathematical model considers the heat and mass transfer between the liquid, gel, and solid phases with chemical reactions that occur between the liquid and solid phases, and between the gel and solid phases. The effect of the catalyst and volumetric flow rates of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM on the system have been evaluated through the proposed mathematical model. Furthermore, the study’s experimental data have been compared with the findings of the suggested model in the context of concentration and temperature reaction. Obtained results show good agreement between the proposed mathematical model and the actual plant data.

  8. Investigation of factors affecting the accumulation of vinyl chloride in polyvinyl chloride piping used in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Ryan K; Lin, Po-Hsun; Edwards, Marc; Richardson, Ruth E

    2011-04-01

    Plastic piping made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and chlorinated PVC (CPVC), is being increasingly used for drinking water distribution lines. Given the formulation of the material from vinyl chloride (VC), there has been concern that the VC (a confirmed human carcinogen) can leach from the plastic piping into drinking water. PVC/CPVC pipe reactors in the laboratory and tap samples collected from consumers homes (n = 15) revealed vinyl chloride accumulation in the tens of ng/L range after a few days and hundreds of ng/L after two years. While these levels did not exceed the EPA's maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 2 μg/L, many readings that simulated stagnation times in homes (overnight) exceeded the MCL-Goal of 0 μg/L. Considerable differences in VC levels were seen across different manufacturers, while aging and biofilm effects were generally small. Preliminary evidence suggests that VC may accumulate not only via chemical leaching from the plastic piping, but also as a disinfection byproduct (DBP) via a chlorine-dependent reaction. This is supported from studies with CPVC pipe reactors where chlorinated reactors accumulated more VC than dechlorinated reactors, copper pipe reactors that accumulated VC in chlorinated reactors and not in dechlorinated reactors, and field samples where VC levels were the same before and after flushing the lines where PVC/CPVC fittings were contributing. Free chlorine residual tests suggest that VC may be formed as a secondary, rather than primary, DBP. Further research and additional studies need to be conducted in order to elucidate reaction mechanisms and tease apart relative contributions of VC accumulation from PVC/CPVC piping and chlorine-dependent reactions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Site-Specific Mobilization of Vinyl Chloride Respiration Islands by a Mechanism Common in Dehalococcoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Elizabeth A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vinyl chloride is a widespread groundwater pollutant and Group 1 carcinogen. A previous comparative genomic analysis revealed that the vinyl chloride reductase operon, vcrABC, of Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS is embedded in a horizontally-acquired genomic island that integrated at the single-copy tmRNA gene, ssrA. Results We targeted conserved positions in available genomic islands to amplify and sequence four additional vcrABC -containing genomic islands from previously-unsequenced vinyl chloride respiring Dehalococcoides enrichments. We identified a total of 31 ssrA-specific genomic islands from Dehalococcoides genomic data, accounting for 47 reductive dehalogenase homologous genes and many other non-core genes. Sixteen of these genomic islands contain a syntenic module of integration-associated genes located adjacent to the predicted site of integration, and among these islands, eight contain vcrABC as genetic 'cargo'. These eight vcrABC -containing genomic islands are syntenic across their ~12 kbp length, but have two phylogenetically discordant segments that unambiguously differentiate the integration module from the vcrABC cargo. Using available Dehalococcoides phylogenomic data we estimate that these ssrA-specific genomic islands are at least as old as the Dehalococcoides group itself, which in turn is much older than human civilization. Conclusions The vcrABC -containing genomic islands are a recently-acquired subset of a diverse collection of ssrA-specific mobile elements that are a major contributor to strain-level diversity in Dehalococcoides, and may have been throughout its evolution. The high similarity between vcrABC sequences is quantitatively consistent with recent horizontal acquisition driven by ~100 years of industrial pollution with chlorinated ethenes.

  10. Vinyl chloride-induced hepatic coproporphyrinuria with transition to chronic hepatic porphyria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doss, M.; Lange, C.E.; Veltman, G.

    1984-02-15

    A chronic hepatic disorder of porphyrin metabolism was found in 36 workers with vinyl chloride (VC)-induced hepatic injury following long-time industrial exposure. Pathologic porphyrinuria, especially secondary coproporphyrinuria with transition to subclinical chronic hepatic porphyria, is a consistent pathobiochemical parameter for the recognition of VC hepatic lesions. The porphyrinuria is of diagnostic value for the incipient toxic phase. Erythrocyte uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity studied in six cases with initial chronic hepatic porphyria was normal, suggesting that VC affects only this enzyme in the liver.

  11. Poly(vinyl chloride-grafted multi-walled carbon nanotubes via Friedel-Crafts alkylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach was developed for the surface modification of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs with high percentage of grafting (PG% by the grafting of polymer via the Friedel-Crafts alkylation. The graft reaction conditions, such as the amount of catalyst added, the reaction temperature, and the reaction time were optimized for the Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the MWCNTs with poly(vinyl chloride (PVC with anhydrous aluminum chloride (AlCl3 as catalyst in chloroform (CHCl3. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR, Raman, and thermogravimetric (TGA analysis showed that PVC had been successfully grafted onto MWCNTs both at the ends and on the sidewalls by the proposed Friedel-Crafts alkylation. The PVC grafted MWCNTs (PVC-MWCNTs could be dispersed well in organic solvent and the dispersion was more stable.

  12. Medical Response to a Vinyl Chloride Release From a Train Derailment: New Jersey, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumate, Alice M; Taylor, Jamille; McFarland, Elizabeth; Tan, Christina; Duncan, Mary Anne

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this investigation was to examine the health impact of and medical response to a mass casualty chemical incident caused by a vinyl chloride release. Key staff at area hospitals were interviewed about communication during the response, the number of patients treated and care required, and lessons learned. Clinical information related to the incident and medical history were abstracted from hospital charts. Hospital interviews identified a desire for more thorough and timely incident-specific information and an under-utilization of regionally available resources. Two hundred fifty-six hospital visits (96.2%) were at the facility closest to the site of the derailment. Of 237 initial visits at which the patient was examined by a physician, 231 patients (97.5%) were treated in the emergency department (ED) and 6 patients (2.5%) were admitted; 5 admitted patients (83.3%) had preexisting medical conditions. Thirteen of 14 asymptomatic ED patients were children under the age of 10 years. One hundred forty-five patients (62.8%) discharged from the ED were diagnosed solely with exposure to vinyl chloride. Continuous emergency response planning might facilitate communication and better distribution of patient surge across hospitals. Individuals with multiple medical conditions and parents and caretakers of children may serve as target groups for risk communication following acute chemical releases. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:538-544).

  13. DIELECTRIC AND PYROELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF THE COMPOSITES OF FERROELECTRIC CERAMIC AND POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Olszowy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric and pyroelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate/poly(vinyl chloride [PZT/PVC] and barium titanate/poly(vinyl chloride [BaTiO3/ PVC] composites were studied. Flexible composites were fabricated in the thin films form (200-400 μm by hot-pressed method. Powders of PZT or BaTiO3 in the shape of ≤ 75 μm ceramics particles were dispersed in a PVC matrix, providing composites with 0-3} connectivity. Distribution of the ceramic particles in the polymer phase was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The analysis of the thermally stimulated currents (TSC have also been done. The changes of dielectric and pyroelectric data on composites with different contents of ceramics up to 40% volume were investigated. The dielectric constants were measured in the frequency range from 600 Hz to 6 MHz at room temperature. The pyroelectric coefficient for BaTiO3/PVC composite at 343 K is about 35 μC/m2K which is higher than that of β-PVDF (10 μC/m2 K.

  14. Mortality and cancer morbidity in workers exposed to low levels of vinyl chloride monomer at a polyvinyl chloride processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagmar, L.; Akesson, B.; Nielsen, J.; Andersson, C.; Linden, K.; Attewell, R.; Moeller, T. (University Hospital, Lund (Sweden))

    1990-01-01

    To study whether exposure to low levels of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) causes increased risk for cancer morbidity and death from ischemic heart disease, a cohort study was performed among 2,031 male workers at a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) processing plant who had been employed for at least 3 months during the period 1945-1980. An almost significantly increased total mortality (SMR = 116, 95% CI 99-136) was found. Deaths caused by violence or intoxication were significantly increased (SMR = 153, 95% CI 109-213), but not deaths from ischemic heart disease (SMR = 100, 95% CI 73-135). A significant increase in total cancer morbidity was observed (SMR = 128, 95% CI 101-161). Respiratory cancers were significantly increased (SMR = 213, 95% CI 127-346). Furthermore, six brain tumors (vs. 2.6 expected) were observed. This increase, however, was not significant (SMR = 229, 95% CI 84-498). No liver hemangiosarcoma was observed. Applying a latency period of greater than or equal to 10 years from start of employment did not change the risk patterns. There were no significant exposure-response associations between exposure estimates for VCM, asbestos, and plasticizers and cancer morbidity.

  15. Long-term heat stabilisation by (natural) polyols in heavy metal- and zinc-free poly(vinyl chloride)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenwijk, van J.; Langerock, R.; Es, van D.S.; Haveren, van J.; Geus, J.W.; Jenneskens, L.W.

    2006-01-01

    The long-term heat stabilisation efficiency of (natural) polyol additives in heavy metal- and zinc-free poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) has been investigated. It is shown that polyols, such as sorbitol and xylitol, markedly reduce the dehydrochlorination rate and improve Congo Red values. Extraction

  16. Formation of 7-(2-oxoethyl) guanine from lipid peroxidation and vinyl chloride exposure in male sprague dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    With a development of a new sensitive LC-MS/MS method to analyze 7-(2-oxoethylguanine) (7OEG), we confirmed and differentiated 7-0EG DNA adduct formation endogenously from lipid peroxidation and exogenously from Vinyl Chloride (VC) exposure. VC is an industrial chemical that is ...

  17. The influence of Poly-Vinyl-Chloride tubing on the isolated perfused rat´s heart.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Durrer, D.

    1950-01-01

    There are types of poly-vinyl-chloride tubing sold and used for medical and biological purposes which deteriorate heart action in a few minutes. A simple method for testing P.V.C. tubing can be found in the isolated rat's he art perfused according to Langendorff.

  18. Influence of the tacticity of poly(methyl methacrylate) on the miscibility with poly(vinyl chloride)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorenkamp, E.J.; Brinke, G. ten; Meijer, J.G.; Challa, G.

    1985-01-01

    It can be concluded from earlier work that poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is more miscible with syndiotactic than with isotactic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). By choosing different molar masses for the various tactic forms of PMMA it is possible to obtain blends with PVC with similar phase

  19. Polymer-filler interactions in poly(vinyl chloride) filled with glass beads : effect of grafted poly(methyl methacrylate)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Gert; Folkersma, Rudy; Challa, Ger; Schouten, Arend Jan; Bosma, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Adhesion between filler and matrix has been studied using a model system composed of glass bead filled poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). Stress-strain and volume-strain tests and scanning electron microscopy revealed that adhesion is improved by grafting poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), which is known to

  20. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products...

  1. Analysis of phthalate ester content in poly(vinyl chloride) plastics by means of Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbygaard, Thomas; Berg, Rolf W.

    2004-01-01

    Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy is applied to a range of phthalate ester plasticizers in pure form as well as in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) samples. It is found that phthalate esters as a group can be identified by a set of six characteristic Raman bands. FT-Raman spectra of 22 phthalate...

  2. Studies of Poly(vinyl chloride) Based Endotracheal Tubes From the Microscopic to Macroscopic Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Kristin; Ortiz, Christine

    2003-03-01

    The endotracheal tube (ET) is a polymeric conduit that forms a closed system of pulmonary ventilation that is most often used to allow delivery of air to critically ill patients via intubation. Currently used ETs cause a wide variety of clinical problems including laryngeal edema (inflammation), severe morbidity, and occasionally death. To investigate the origins of this behavior, mechanical, chemical, morphological, and biocompatibility characterization of injection-molded (Endotrol) tubes of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) containing 35 wtplasticizer was conducted. Experiments included fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, differential scanning calorimetry, accelerated solvent extraction, uniaxial tensile testing, high-resolution force spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and plasticizer leaching. We intend for these studies to form the basis for future ET materials selection and design.

  3. Improved ion-selective detection method using nanopipette with poly(vinyl chloride)-based membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eun Ji; Takami, Tomohide; Deng, Xiao Long; Son, Jong Wan; Kawai, Tomoji; Park, Bae Ho

    2014-05-15

    Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) are widely used to detect targeted ions in solution selectively. Application of an ISE to a small area detection system with a nanopipette requires a special measurement method in order to avoid the enhanced background signal problem caused by a cation-rich layer near the charged inner surface of the nanopipette and the selectivity change problem due to relatively fast saturation of the ISE inside the nanopipette. We developed a novel ion-selective detection system using a nanopipette that measures an alternating current (AC) signal mediated by saturated ionophores in a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane located at the conical shank of the nanopipette to solve the above problems. Small but reliable K(+) and Na(+) ionic current passing through a PVC membrane containing saturated bis(benzo-15-crown-5) and bis(12-crown-4) ionophore, respectively, could be selectively detected using the AC signal measurement system equipped with a lock-in amplifier.

  4. Flexural properties of sugarcane bagasse pith and rind reinforced poly(vinyl chloride)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirawan, R; Sapuan, S M; Robiah, Y; Khalina, A, E-mail: riza.wirawan@gmail.com [Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-05-15

    Sugarcane bagasse is divided into two major components. They are pith and rind. Pith is the inner part of sugarcane bagasse while rind is the outer part of it. In this study, the flexural properties of pith reinforced poly (vinyl chloride) composites were compared to that of rind composites with the same matrix in variation of fibre content. The composites were produced by compression moulding method. The fibre contents were 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% in weight. Three-point bending tests were carried out to measure the flexural properties of the composites. It has been found that, in general, the addition of fibre improved the flexural modulus of the materials. Meanwhile, the rind composites were of superior flexural properties compared to the pith composites.

  5. Exposure to vinyl chloride and angiosarcoma of the liver: a report of the register of cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, D; Bennett, B; Stafford, J; Doll, R

    1985-01-01

    The Association of Plastic Manufacturers in Europe maintains a register of all cases of angiosarcoma of the liver (ASL) resulting from exposure to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). This register has recorded all known VCM related cases of the disease worldwide that have been histologically confirmed. Although likely to be incomplete, it is the most comprehensive tabulation of such cases available and, by the end of 1984, 118 men had been registered. The information from analysis of the cases currently on the register is used to make an approximate projection of the number of cases to be expected in the future. The conclusion from this projection is that the industry is reaching the halfway stage in the appearance of VCM related ASL. PMID:4063218

  6. Impact behaviour of an innovative plasticized poly(vinyl chloride for the automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasticized poly(vinyl chloride (PPVC is widely used in the automotive industry in the design of structural parts for crashworthiness applications. Thus, it is necessary to study and understand the influence of the mechanical response and mechanical properties of PPVC over a wide range of strain rate, from quasi-static to dynamic loadings. The process is also investigated using different sample thicknesses. In this work, the strain rate effect of a new PPVC is investigated over a wide range of strain rates at three temperatures and for three thicknesses. A modelling of the yield stress is also proposed. The numerical prediction is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  7. A comprehensive analysis of plausible genotoxic covariates among workers of a polyvinyl chloride plant exposed to vinyl chloride monomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Alagamuthu Karthick; Balachandar, Vellingiri; Arun, Meyyazhagan; Ahamed, Shafi Ahammed Khan Mustaq; Kumar, Shanmugam Suresh; Balamuralikrishnan, Balasubramanium; Sankar, Kathannan; Sasikala, Keshavarao

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of chromosomal aberrations-including chromatid type aberrations (CTAs), chromosomal type aberrations, micronucleus (MN) comet assay, and XRCC1 399 Arg/Gln polymorphism-in peripheral blood lymphocytes of workers occupationally exposed to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). A total of 52 workers and an equal number of controls were recruited into the study to explore the potential cytogenetic risk of occupational exposure to VCM. Questionnaires were administered to obtain details of habitual cigarette-smoking, alcohol-consumption pattern, and occupation, etc. The exposed subjects and controls were classified into two groups based on age (group I 8 and ≥8 years). CTA, MN, and comet assay frequency were significantly greater in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) factory workers (p < 0.05) with long-duration work. CTA, MN, and comet assay values were found to be increased with age in exposed subjects as well as in controls, with exposed subjects showing a statistically greater degree. An extensively greater MN frequency was observed in smokers exposed to VCM than in the control group (P < 0.05). The mean tail length of exposed subjects was greater compared with controls. The study on XRCC1 399 Arg/gln polymorphism in PVC factory workers showed less significant difference in allele frequency compared with controls. In conclusion, this results of work provides evidence for an apparent genotoxic effect associated with VCM exposure. Our results reinforce the greater sensitivity of cytogenetic assays for biomonitoring of occupationally exposed populations. Statistics indicate that workers exposed to VCM are at carcinogenic risk and should be monitored for long-term adverse effects from their exposure.

  8. Pulmonary manifestations of vinyl and polyvinyl chloride (interstitial lung disease). Newer aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordasco, E M; Demeter, S L; Kerkay, J; Van Ordstrand, H S; Lucas, E V; Chen, T; Golish, J A

    1980-12-01

    Newer varieties of occupational lung diseases primarily due to the vast increase in industrial technology have been reported recently. Preeminent among such newer agents are vinyl chloride (VC) and polyvinyl chloride. Very few cases have been reported, in Europe only, with descriptive histopathologic changes. To our knowledge, no pathologic studies of VC exposure have been described in the American literature. The biopsy abnormalities in our patients disclosed desquamation of alveolar macrophages into the alveolar lumina and minor interstitial and alveolar inflammatory changes. Pulmonary function abnormalities included restrictive insufficiency. Preventive therapy consists of the avoidance of further exposures, frequent industrial hygiene monitoring, and total avoidance of tobacco smoke, as well as associated atmospheric pollutants. Thus far, none of these patients has exhibited evidence of pulmonary neoplasms. All three patients survived their occupational injuries, and two are still disabled to varying degrees. Urine and blood levels of phthalic acid derivatives were elevated in two patients, the exact significance of which is not fully known. It probably represents a toxicologic response, but must be further pursued before conclusions can be reached.

  9. Preparation of robust braid-reinforced poly(vinyl chloride) ultrafiltration hollow fiber membrane with antifouling surface and application to filtration of activated sludge solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhuang; Rajabzadeh, Saeid; Fang, Lifeng; Miyoshi, Taro; Kakihana, Yuriko; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2017-08-01

    Braid-reinforced hollow fiber membranes with high mechanical properties and considerable antifouling surface were prepared by blending poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) with poly(vinyl chloride-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (poly(VC-co-PEGMA)) copolymer via non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS). The tensile strength of the braid-reinforced PVC hollow fiber membranes were significantly larger than those of previously reported various types of PVC hollow fiber membranes. The high interfacial bonding strength indicated the good compatibility between the coating materials and the surface of polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-braid. Owing to the surface segregation phenomena, the membrane surface PEGMA coverage increased upon increasing the poly(VC-co-PEGMA)/PVC blending ratio, resulting in higher hydrophilicities and bovine serum albumin (BSA) repulsion. To compare the fouling properties, membranes with similar PWPs were prepared by adjusting the dope solution composition to eliminate the effect of hydrodynamic conditions on the membrane fouling performance. The blend membranes surface exhibited considerable fouling resistance to the molecular adsorption from both BSA solution and activated sludge solution. In both cases, the flux recovered to almost 80% of the initial flux using only water backflush. Considering their great mechanical properties and antifouling resistance to activated sludge solution, these novel membranes show good potential for application in wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental Levels and Trends of 1,2-dichloroethane, vinyl chloride and chloroform in water, sediment and biota for the European and Arctic regions: literature study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korytar, P.; Leslie, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Data on concentrations of chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane and vinyl chloride in European and Arctic waters, sediments and biota were collected from scientific literature and monitoring programmes for the period 1980–2005 and are presented in this report.

  11. Characterization of Microbes Capable of Using Vinyl Chloride and Ethene as Sole Carbon and Energy Sources by Anaerobic Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    indigenous microbiota can convert it to ethene (Glick et al., 2007). Ethene can be produced by diverse soil bacteria (Primrose, 1979) and is found in...two next most numerous sequence types were distantly related to Spirochaetes cultured from termite guts . Treponema primitia grows acetogenically on H2...Phylogenetic and kinetic diversity of aerobic vinyl chloride-assimilating bacteria from contaminated sites. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68, 6162-6171

  12. Increased morbidity odds ratio of primary liver cancer and cirrhosis of the liver among vinyl chloride monomer workers

    OpenAIRE

    Du C., L.; Wang, J D

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine if there is an increased risk of admission to hospital for various diseases among vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) workers. METHODS: 2224 workers with occupational exposure to VCM were identified for occurrence of disease based on a search of hospital computer files on labour insurance. These data were compared with those of workers manufacturing optical equipment and motorcycles from 1 January 1985 to 31 March 1994. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were ...

  13. Interaction of vinyl chloride monomer exposure and hepatitis B viral infection on liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ruey-Hong; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Jung-Der; Du, Chung-Li; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2003-04-01

    Vinyl-chloride monomer (VCM), a human carcinogen, has caused angiosarcoma of the liver. Recent studies have shown that VCM exposure is associated with hepatocellular cancer. In Taiwanese studies, the majority of VCM-exposed workers with liver cancer had history of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. To determine the role of HBV on the development of liver cancer in the VCM-exposed workers, we conducted a case-control study from a previously established polyvinyl chloride (PVC) cohort consisting of 4096 male workers from six PVC polymerization plants. A total of 18 patients with liver cancer, and 68 control subjects matched for age and specific plant of employment were selected. Detailed history of the participants that included alcohol consumption status, cigarette use, occupation, and family history of chronic liver disease were obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. When the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative subjects without history of tank-cleaning were used as the reference, the HBsAg-negative subjects with history of tank-cleaning demonstrated a 4.0-fold greater risk of liver cancer (95% confidence interval: 95% CI = 0.2-69.1). The HBsAg carriers without history of tank-cleaning revealed a 25.7-fold greater risk of liver cancer (95% CI = 2.9-229.4). Whereas the HBsAg carriers with history of tank-cleaning revealed the greatest risk (matched odds ratio (ORm) 396.0, 95% CI = 22.6 -infinity) of developing liver cancer among subjects with different VCM-exposure status and HBsAg status categories. Further analysis showed the interaction term was significant (P < .01). Therefore, our results suggest an interaction between occupational VCM exposure and HBV infection for the development of liver cancer.

  14. Catalytic destruction of vinyl chloride over an alumina-supported platinum catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Min-Hao; Chang, Chia-Chi; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Liao, Wei-Chu; Shie, Je-Lueng; Chen, Yi-Hung; Ji, Dar-Ren; Wu, Chao-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    In this study, vinyl chloride (VC), the primary material for manufacturing polyvinyl chloride (PVC), is decomposed via catalytic oxidation (C-OX) using Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalyst. The effects of related major factors such as reaction temperature (T) and gas hourly space velocity on the conversion of VC (X) were examined. The values of T for achieving conversions of 50% and 90% are 504 and 580 K with C-OX, respectively, whereas those without Pt/γ-Al2O3 (i.e., thermal oxidation, T-OX) are 900 and 983 K, respectively, thus indicating that C-OX significantly reduces T for effective oxidation of VC to form CO2, HCl, and Cl2 when compared with T-OX. The mineralizations of carbon in VC to form CO2 are 75.5% and 38% for C-OX and T-OX, respectively, at 90% X. The conversions of chlorine atom in 1,2-dichloroenane (DCEA) to Cl in HCl and Cl2 are approximately 42% and 50.8% for C-OX and T-OX, respectively, at 90% X. These results indicate that the Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalyst exhibits remarkable performance for the mineralizations to form CO2 even though a proportion of chlorine atoms are adsorbed on the Pt surface. The Eley-Rideal model can be used to describe the experimental results, thus yielding activation energy and frequency factor values of 49.0 kJ mol(-1) and 1.77 × 10(6) s(-1), respectively. The obtained information and kinetic parameters are useful for the rational design and operation of C-OX process for the abatement of VC.

  15. Fracture inspection by BHTV logging through a vinyl chloride tube; Enbi pipe ga sonyusareta kosei deno BHTV ni yoru kiretsu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horikawa, H.; Okabe, T.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yamauchi, Y.; Imanishi, H. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    A borehole televiewer (BHTV) logging was conducted to investigate cracks in bored wells. The logging process shoots ultrasonic waves onto bore walls and utilizes reflection waves from the bore walls. If the bores are filled with muddy water, or the ultrasonic waves can pass through even if vinyl chloride tubes have been inserted after excavation, the state of the bore walls can be investigated in principle. Conventional optical scanners are, however, incapable of making this investigation. The BHTV logging can be used for identifying lithofacies from reflection intensities from bore walls (it depends on sound impedance of rocks), not to speak of finding cracks. As a result of making logging upon setting time windows from 105 to 145 {mu} sec in a bored well inserted with a vinyl chloride tube, cracks in the bore wall were identified clearly through the vinyl chloride tube. If the distance between the bore wall and the vinyl chloride tube becomes smaller, setting the time window becomes difficult, making reflection data acquisition more difficult. Impacts of decentering in the vinyl chloride tube on the data and the crack analysis result are small. The reflection intensity has decreased by about half as a result of having the circular vinyl chloride tube inserted. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Process Optimization for Spray Coating of Poly (vinyl pyrrolidone)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Sanjukta; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Boisen, Anja

    solvents [1]. Recently some studies have been published [2, 3] using micromechanical sensors to characterize thin polymer coatings under various conditions. With the final aim to deposit thin PVP film on cantilevers we studied the process optimization of PVP by spray coating on microscope glass slides....... Here, we present a study of the parameters determining the quality of the deposited film. Spray Coating was done in an Exacta Coat Ultrasonic Spraying System (Sonotek, USA) .The main components are illustrated in fig. 1. The tip of the ultrasonic atomizer nozzle was actuated at a frequency of 120 k......Hz. Nitrogen gas was connected to the inlet of the air focusing shroud. The nitrogen pressure was monitored by a pressure sensor and regulated by a valve. The gas flow and the position of the air focusing shroud allowed the control of the diameter and shape of the spray-coating beam. The movement of the nozzle...

  17. Mechanisms, Chemistry, and Kinetics of Anaerobic Biodegradation of cis-Dichloroethene and Vinyl Chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarty, P.L.; Spormann, A.M.

    2000-12-01

    Anaerobic biological processes can result in PCE and TCE destruction through conversion to cis-dichloroethene (cDCE) then to vinyl chloride (VC), and finally to ethene. Here, the chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) serve as electron acceptors in energy metabolism, requiring electron donors such as hydrogen from an external source. The purpose of this study was to learn more about the biochemistry of cDCE and VC conversion to ethene, to better understand the requirements for electron donors, and to determine factors affecting the rates of CAH degradation and organism growth. The biochemistry of reductive dehalogenation of VC was studied with an anaerobic mixed culture enriched on VC. In other studies on electron donor needs for dehalogenation of cDCE and VC, competition for hydrogen was found to occur between the dehalogenators and other microorganisms such as methanogens and homoacetogens in a benzoate-acclimated dehalogenating methanogenic mixed culture. Factors affecting the relative rates of destruction of the solvents and their intermediate products were evaluated. Studies using a mixed PCE-dehalogenating culture as well as the VC enrichment for biochemical studies suggested that the same species was involved in both cDCE and VC dechlorination, and that cDCE and VC competitively inhibited each other's dechlorination rate.

  18. Localized Plasticity in the Streamlined Genomes of Vinyl Chloride Respiring Dehalococcoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurdie, Paul J.; Behrens, Sebastien F.; Muller, Jochen A.; Goke, Jonathan; Ritalahti, Kirsti M.; Wagner, Ryan; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Holmes, Susan; Loffler, Frank E.; Spormann, Alfred M.

    2009-06-30

    Vinyl chloride (VC) is a human carcinogen and widespread priority pollutant. Here we report the first, to our knowledge, complete genome sequences of microorganisms able to respire VC, Dehalococcoides sp. strains VS and BAV1. Notably, the respective VC reductase encoding genes, vcrAB and bvcAB, were found embedded in distinct genomic islands (GEIs) with different predicted integration sites, suggesting that these genes were acquired horizontally and independently by distinct mechanisms. A comparative analysis that included two previously sequenced Dehalococcoides genomes revealed a contextually conserved core that is interrupted by two high plasticity regions (HPRs) near the Ori. These HPRs contain the majority of GEIs and strain-specific genes identified in the four Dehalococcoides genomes, an elevated number of repeated elements including insertion sequences (IS), as well as 91 of 96 rdhAB, genes that putatively encode terminal reductases in organohalide respiration. Only three core rdhA orthologous groups were identified, and only one of these groups is supported by synteny. The low number of core rdhAB, contrasted with the high rdhAB numbers per genome (up to 36 in strain VS), as well as their colocalization with GEIs and other signatures for horizontal transfer, suggests that niche adaptation via organohalide respiration is a fundamental ecological strategy in Dehalococccoides. This adaptation has been exacted through multiple mechanisms of recombination that are mainly confined within HPRs of an otherwise remarkably stable, syntenic, streamlined genome among the smallest of any free-living microorganism.

  19. Bioinert membranes prepared from amphiphilic poly(vinyl chloride)-g-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) graft copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Rajkumar [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Patel, Madhumita [Department of Life Science, Dongguk University-Seoul, 3–26 Phil-dong, Chung-gu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sung Hoon [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Yong Kiel [ReSEAT Program, Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, 206-9 Cheongyangni-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyung-Keun [Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Dae-jeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hak, E-mail: jonghak@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Jung-Suk, E-mail: sungjs@dongguk.edu [Department of Life Science, Dongguk University-Seoul, 3–26 Phil-dong, Chung-gu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane was hydrophilically modified by grafting with poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (POEM) using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The successful grafting of PVC main chain by POEM was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The molecular weight and hydrophilicity of membranes increased with the amount of POEM grafting, as characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and contact angle measurement, respectively. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis revealed the microphase-separated structure of PVC-g-POEM and the domain spacing increased from 59.3 to 86.1 nm with increasing grafting degree. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for the direct visualization of the mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell and bacteria adhesion on the membrane surface. Protein adsorption and eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell adhesion tests showed that the bioinert properties of membranes were significantly increased with POEM content. Highlights: ► TEM and SAXS analysis revealed the microphase-separated structure of graft copolymer membranes. ► Protein adsorption and eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell adhesion tests were performed on graft copolymer membranes. ► Boinert properties of membranes were significantly increased with POEM content.

  20. Study on Shape Memory of Poly(vinyl chloride/Thermoplastic Polyester Urethane Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rashidi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, shape memory effect of polycaprolactone based polyurethane/poly(vinyl chloride blends in which the PVC weight percentage are 10, 20, 30, 40, 60 and 80 were studied using DMA apparatus. The compatibility, tension and dynamic-mechanical properties of these blends have been studied by the authors and this paper specifically deals with the tests results of shape memory effect. The results of tension tests in about 20 percent showed that with increasing PVC content in the blends, recovery rate of temporary shape to permanent shape, the degree of recovery, and the fixity in quantity of temporary shape are improved. Therefore, the supplementary shape memory tests were performed on the blend with the highest PVC weight percent (80 percent. In this blend, with increasing tension in thermomechanical cycle, the amount of recovery to earlier shape is decreased due to higher plastic strain. The shape memory tests in consecutive cycles were done on this blend and the behavior of the first cycle was compared with the second and the third cycles. One small tensile handy apparatus was used in order to accomplish shape memory tests in higher tension values and the DMA results were registered. In this research the blend with 80 weight percent of PVC as the best shape memory effect was selected.

  1. The mutagenicity of chloroethylene oxide, chloroacetaldehyde, 2-chloroethanol and chloroacetic acid, conceivable metabolites of vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannug, U; Göthe, R; Wachtmeister, C A

    1976-03-01

    Previous investigations have shown that the carcinogen vinyl chloride causes base-pair substitution in the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium. The ability of four conceivable metabolites-chloroethylene oxide, chloroacetaldehyde, 2-chloroethanol and chloroacetic acid-to cause base-pair substitution directly in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 has been compared. The main comparison was performed at initial concentrations from 0.1 to 1.5 mM. In this region, however, a mutagenic effect was observed only with chloroethylene oxide and chloroacetaldehyde, the former being approximately 20 times more effective than the aldehyde when compared on a molar basis.2-Chloroethanol and chloroacetic acid were studied also at higher concentration (1 mM-1 M), and a weak mutagenic response was found with 1 M 2-chloroethanol solution. With chloroacetic acid no enhancement of the mutation frequency could be detected. Chloroethylene oxide was found to be approximately 450 times more effective as a mutagen than chloroacetaldehyde when the comparison is based on exposure doses, defined as the time-dependent concentrations of the compounds in the treatment solutions, integrated between the times of onset and termination of treatment. Similarly, chloroethylene oxide was 10,000-15,000 times more effective as a mutagen than ethylene oxide, used as a positive control.

  2. Sifat elektrik dan termal nanokomposit poly(vinyl chloride (PVC/low density polyethylene (LDPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Yuniari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious problems encountered in poly(vinyl chloride (PVC processing is due to low thermal stability of the PVC. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of LDPE and flame retardant on to the electrical and thermal nanocomposites properties The nanocomposites were prepared using a laboplastomill with (15; 20; 25 and 30 phr LDPE and (30 and 35 phr flame retardant at 215 ºC and 50 rpm rotor speed. The thermal properties of nanocomposite was evaluated by TGA/DTA and DSC, electrical properties was evaluated by volume resistivity. Thermal analysis results revealed that decomposition of nanocomposites occured at 280 ºC. DSC results show that crystalisation temperatur (Tc at 250 ºC, melting temperature (Tm at 260 ºC and glass temperature (Tg at 60 ºC. The IR spectra of nanocomposites showed that there was absorption at 1579 cm-1 formed polyene (C=C. The electrical testing of nanocomposites fullfill the quality requirements of SNI 04-6504-2001 Lampu swaballast untuk pelayanan umum-persyaratan keselamatan ≥ 4 MΩ..

  3. Effect of Nano ZnO on the Optical Properties of Poly(vinyl chloride Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasan Al-Taa’y

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical properties of pure and doped poly(vinyl chloride (PVC films, prepared by using casting technique, with different nanosize zinc oxide (ZnO concentrations (1–20 wt% have been studied. Parameters such as extinction coefficient, refractive index, real and imaginary parts, Urbach energy, optical conductivity, infinitely high frequency dielectric constant, and average refractive index were studied by using the absorbance and transmittance measurement from computerized UV-visible spectrophotometer (Shimadzu UV-1601 PC in the spectral range 200–800 nm. This study reveals that the optical properties of PVC are affected by the doping of ZnO where the absorption increases and transmission decreases as ZnO concentration increases. The extinction coefficient, refractive index, real and imaginary parts, infinitely high frequency dielectric constant, and average refractive index values were found to increase with increasing impurity percentage. The Urbach energy values are found to be decreasing with increasing ZnO concentration. The optical conductivity increased with photon energy after being doped and with the increase of ZnO concentration.

  4. Ferrocene bound poly(vinyl chloride) as ion to electron transducer in electrochemical ion sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Marcin; Grygolowicz-Pawlak, Ewa; Bakker, Eric

    2010-08-15

    We report here on the synthesis of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) covalently modified with ferrocene groups (FcPVC) and the electrochemical behavior of the resulting polymeric membranes in view of designing all solid state voltammetric ion sensors. The Huisgen cycloaddition ("click chemistry") was found to be a simple and efficient method for ferrocene attachment. A degree of PVC modification with ferrocene groups between 1.9 and 6.1 mol % was achieved. The chemical modification of the PVC backbone does not significantly affect the ion-selective properties (selectivity, mobility, and solvent casting ability) of potentiometric sensing membranes applying this polymer. Importantly, the presence of such ferrocene groups may eliminate the need for an additional redox-active layer between the membrane and the inner electric contact in all solid state sensor designs. Electrochemical doping of this system was studied in a symmetrical sandwich configuration: glassy carbon electrode |FcPVC| glassy carbon electrode. Prior electrochemical doping from aqueous solution, resulting in a partial oxidation of the ferrocene groups, was confirmed to be necessary for the sandwich configuration to pass current effectively. The results suggest that only approximately 2.3 mol % of the ferrocene groups are electrochemically accessible, likely due to surface confined electrochemical behavior in the polymer. Indeed, cyclic voltammetry of aqueous hexacyanoferrate (III) remains featureless at cathodic potentials (down to -0.5 V). This indicates that the modified membrane is not responsive to redox-active species in the sample solution, making it possible to apply this polymer as a traditional, single membrane. Yet, the redox capacity of the electrode modified with this type of membrane was more than 520 microC considering a 20 mm(2) active electrode area, which appears to be sufficient for numerous practical ion voltammetric applications. The electrode was observed to operate reproducibly, with 1

  5. Photoinitiated decomposition of substituted ethylenes: The photodissociation of vinyl chloride and acrylonitrile at 193 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, D.A.; Suits, A.G.; Lee, Y.T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Ethylene and its substituted analogues (H{sub 2}CCHX) are important molecules in hydrogen combustion. As the simplest {pi}-bonded hydrocarbons these molecules serve as prototypical systems for understanding the decomposition of this important class of compounds. The authors have used the technique of photofragment translational spectroscopy at beamline 9.0.2.1 to investigate the dissociation of vinyl chloride (X=Cl) and acrylonitrile (X=CN) following absorption at 193 nm. The technique uses a molecular beam of the reactant seeded in helium which is crossed at 90 degrees with the output of an excimer laser operating on the ArF transition, 193.3 nm. The neutral photoproducts which recoil out of the molecular beam travel 15.1 cm where they are photoionized by the VUV undulator radiation, mass selected, and counted as a function of time. The molecular beam source is rotatable about the axis of the dissociation laser. The authors have directly observed all four of the following dissociation channels for both systems: (1) H{sub 2}CCHX {r_arrow} H + C{sub 2}H{sub 2}X; (2) H{sub 2}CCHX {r_arrow} X + C{sub 2}H{sub 3}; (3) H{sub 2}CCHX {r_arrow} H{sub 2} + C{sub 2}HX; and (4) H{sub 2}CCHX {r_arrow} HX + C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. They measured translational energy distributions for all of the observed channels and measured the photoionization onset for many of the photoproducts which provided information about their chemical identity and internal energy content. In the case of acrylonitrile, selective product photoionization provided the ability to discriminate between channels 2 and 4 which result in the same product mass combination.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of foldable and magnetic field-sensitive, freestanding poly(vinyl acetate)/poly(vinyl chloride)/polyfuran composite and nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarıtaş, Sevilay; Eşsiz, Serpil; Sarı, Bekir, E-mail: bsari@gazi.edu.tr

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • In this study, ternary composite/nanocomposite films were synthesized. • Magnetic field-sensitive folding films were prepared without any elastomer. • Morphological studies show that all composite films have a smooth surface. • The ternary composites/nanocomposite show improved thermal stability compared to the pure PF. - Abstract: In this study, polyfuran and poly(vinyl acetate)/poly(vinyl chloride)/polyfuran ternary composites were synthesized via the chemical polymerization method. The temperature and magnetic field–sensitive novel composites and the nanocomposite were obtained in the form of powders and films. It was observed that the prepared novel conductive films have superior properties at a certain temperature range (25–50 °C) such as bending and folding. The structural properties, thermal behavior, surface morphology, internal structure, and surface roughness of the prepared samples were investigated by various characterization techniques. The conductivities of the samples were measured at room temperature and different temperatures by the four-point technique. X-ray Diffraction analysis results demonstrated that the PF and composites have an amorphous structure, whereas the nanocomposite is in crystalline form. The saturation magnetization (Ms) values of the magnetite and nanocomposite were found to be 58.9 and 5.3 emu g{sup −1}, respectively. It was found that magnetite-doped nanocomposite has superparamagnetic properties at room temperature.

  7. Kinetics and mechanism of the catalytic hydrochlorination of acetylene to vinyl chloride by use of a transient response technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Agnew, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    Results are presented for an experimental study of the kinetics of acetylene hydrochlorination to vinyl chloride over mercuric chloride catalyst on activated carbon by a transient response technique. Transients are produced by introducing step and pulse concentration changes in the feed stream to an internally recycled reactor. Elementary-step rate constants for a dynamic kinetic model are estimated from measured gas-phase concentration profiles. A break in the slope of the Arrhenius plot at a temperature of 140C is shown to be due to a change in reaction mechanism. Predicted transient behavior for a well-mixed reactor is closer to experimental data when the dynamic reaction is used than is the case when a steady-state kinetic model is employed.

  8. Phosphonium-based ionic liquids as modifiers for biomedical grade poly(vinyl chloride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ana M A; Marceneiro, Sofia; Braga, Mara E M; Coelho, Jorge F J; Ferreira, Abel G M; Simões, Pedro N; Veiga, Helena I M; Tomé, Liliana C; Marrucho, Isabel M; Esperança, José M S S; Matias, Ana A; Duarte, Catarina M M; Rebelo, Luís P N; de Sousa, Hermínio C

    2012-03-01

    This work reports and discusses the influence of four phosphonium-based ionic liquids (PhILs), namely trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium dicyanamide, [P(6,6,6,14)][dca]; trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [P(6,6,6,14)][Tf(2)N]; tetrabutyl phosphonium bromide, [P(4,4,4,4)][Br]; and tetrabutyl phosphonium chloride, [P(4,4,4,4)][Cl], on some of the chemical, physical and biological properties of a biomedical-grade suspension of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). The main goal of this work was to evaluate the capacity of these PhILs to modify some of the properties of neat PVC, in particular those that may allow their use as potential alternatives to traditional phthalate-based plasticizers in PVC biomedical applications. PVC films having different PhIL compositions (0, 5, 10 and 20 wt.%) were prepared (by solvent film casting) and characterised by Fourier transform infrared, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamical mechanical thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray/electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction, transmittance, permeability towards oxygen and carbon dioxide, thermal degradation, contact angle measurement, water and vapour uptake, leachability and biocompatibility (haemolytic potential, thrombogenicity and cytotoxicity). A conventional organic plasticizer (di-isononyl phthalate) was used for comparison purposes. The results obtained showed that it was possible to change the neat PVC hydrophobicity, and consequently its water uptake capacity and plasticizer leachability, just by changing the PhIL employed and its composition. It was also possible to significantly change the thermal and mechanical properties of PVC films by choosing appropriate PhIL cation/anion combinations. However, a specific PhIL may not always be capable of simultaneously keeping and/or improving both physical properties. In addition, ionic halide salts were found to promote PVC

  9. Predictive values of some atherogenic risk factors in young workers occupationally exposed to vinyl chloride and heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza Abdel Azim Saad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional risk factors do not explain all of the risk for incident coronary heart disease (CHD events. Human susceptibility to atherosclerosis and consequently coronary heart disease is maximally exhibited when the environment is unfavorable, especially in workplace. Thus, the present work was undertaken to study the relation of lipoprotein (a to the other atherogenic risk factors in young workers occupationally exposed to vinyl chloride or some heavy metals by studying the effect of exposure to these agents on the lipid profiles, immunological parameters and the antioxidant defense enzyme system. The results of this study revealed that, in metalists, the cluster features of dyslipidemia, impairment in antioxidant defense mechanism and high levels of Lp (a, CICs, C3 and C4 represent unfortunate events on their cardiovascular system. In VCW, vinyl chloride metabolites caused severe oxidative stress reflected by impairment in the antioxidant defense accompanied by propagation of lipid peroxidation. Additionally, the elevated levels of Lp (a, CICs, C3 and C4 may point out to their role as atherogenic risk factors in those workers. In conclusion, young workers occupationally exposed to VC may be at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease in spite of having normolipidemia.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of a novel hydrophobic CaCO{sub 3} grafted by hydroxylated poly(vinyl chloride) chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Lixia [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Sichuan University (China); School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University (China); Yang, Simei; Luo, Xin [School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University (China); Lei, Jingxin [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Sichuan University (China); Cao, Qiue [School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University (China); Wang, Jiliang, E-mail: jlwang@ynu.edu.cn [School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University (China)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Hydroxylated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-OH) with different molecular weight and hydroxyl value was successfully prepared by the suspension copolymerization. • PVC-OH was grafted onto the surface of CaCO{sub 3} particles by the urethane formation reaction. • The modified CaCO{sub 3} particles show excellent hydrophobicity. - Abstract: The hydroxylated PVC (PVC-OH) was successfully synthesized by a suspension polymerization of vinyl chloride (VC), butyl acrylate (BA) and hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA). Novel hydrophobic CaCO{sub 3} was then prepared by a urethane formation reaction between methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) and the −OH groups both in the PVC-OH chains and on the surface of pristine CaCO{sub 3} particles. The effect of the PVC-OH content on the grafting ratio of treated CaCO{sub 3} particles was extensively investigated. Combining the result of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) with that of water contact angle, it can be concluded that the hydrophobicity of CaCO{sub 3} had been efficiently improved by the PVC-OH segments grafted on the surface of CaCO{sub 3} particles. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravity analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were also used to study crystalline behaviors, thermal stability and surface morphology of the modified CaCO{sub 3} particles, respectively. The change of specific surface area implying surface modification was investigated as well.

  11. Catechol-derivatized poly(vinyl alcohol) as a coating molecule for magnetic nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnand, David [Adolphe Merkle Institute, University of Fribourg, Route de l' Ancienne Papéterie CP209, 1723 Marly 1 (Switzerland); Chemistry Department, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musée 9, 1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Monnier, Christophe A.; Redjem, Anthony [Adolphe Merkle Institute, University of Fribourg, Route de l' Ancienne Papéterie CP209, 1723 Marly 1 (Switzerland); Schaefer, Mark [Chemistry Department, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musée 9, 1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara [Adolphe Merkle Institute, University of Fribourg, Route de l' Ancienne Papéterie CP209, 1723 Marly 1 (Switzerland); Kilbinger, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.kilbinger@unifr.ch [Chemistry Department, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musée 9, 1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Petri-Fink, Alke, E-mail: alke.fink@unifr.ch [Adolphe Merkle Institute, University of Fribourg, Route de l' Ancienne Papéterie CP209, 1723 Marly 1 (Switzerland); Chemistry Department, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musée 9, 1700 Fribourg (Switzerland)

    2015-04-15

    Surface functionalization of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) remains indispensable in promoting colloidal stability and biocompatibility. We propose a well-defined and characterized synthesis of a new catechol-functionalized RAFT (reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer) poly(vinyl alcohol) polymer, which can be anchored onto hydrophobic SPIONs via a one-pot emulsion ligand exchange process. Both single and clustered nanoparticles are obtained and can be separated from each other. As clustered SPIONs are receiving increasing attention, this new macroligand might be of considerable interest for both basic and applied sciences. - Highlights: • We prepared well-defined polymer coated magnetic nanoparticles. • We used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as an alternative to commonly used plyethylene glycol (PEG). • We strongly anchored the polymer on the magnetic nanoparticles' surfaces. • We developed a one-pot emulsion ligand exchange process. • We obtained single coated particles and well defined magnetic clusters, which we successfully separated.

  12. Uranium Adsorbent Fibers Prepared by Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) from Poly(vinyl chloride)- co -chlorinated Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC- co -CPVC) Fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Suree; Yue, Yanfeng; Kuo, Li-Jung; Mehio, Nada; Li, Meijun; Gill, Gary; Tsouris, Costas; Mayes, Richard T.; Saito, Tomonori; Dai, Sheng

    2016-04-20

    The need to secure future supplies of energy attracts researchers in several countries to a vast resource of nuclear energy fuel: uranium in seawater (estimated at 4.5 billion tons in seawater). In this study, we developed effective adsorbent fibers for the recovery of uranium from seawater via atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from a poly- (vinyl chloride)-co-chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-co-CPVC) fiber. ATRP was employed in the surface graft polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and tert-butyl acrylate (tBA), precursors for uranium-interacting functional groups, from PVC-co-CPVC fiber. The [tBA]/[AN] was systematically varied to identify the optimal ratio between hydrophilic groups (from tBA) and uranyl-binding ligands (from AN). The best performing adsorbent fiber, the one with the optimal [tBA]/[AN] ratio and a high degree of grafting (1390%), demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities that are significantly greater than those of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) reference fiber in natural seawater tests (2.42-3.24 g/kg in 42 days of seawater exposure and 5.22 g/kg in 49 days of seawater exposure, versus 1.66 g/kg in 42 days of seawater exposure and 1.71 g/kg in 49 days of seawater exposure for JAEA). Adsorption of other metal ions from seawater and their corresponding kinetics were also studied. The grafting of alternative monomers for the recovery of uranium from seawater is now under development by this versatile technique of ATRP.

  13. FORMATION OF 7-(2-0XOETHYL)GUANINE FROM LIPID PEROXIDATION AND VINYL CHLORIDE EXPOSURE IN MALE SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinyl Chloride (VC) is a known human and animal carcinogen that induces hepatic angiosarcomas. Other than occupational exposure and smoking, VC is also found in Superfund sites at ppb concentrations. VC is metabolized to chloroethylene oxide by CYP450 2E1 to induce four major DNA...

  14. Poly (vinyl alcohol)/poly (acrylamide-co-diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride) semi-IPN hydrogels for ciprofloxacin hydrochloride drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, Siva Sankar; Boya, Vijaya Kumar Naidu

    2017-02-01

    Herein, the authors developed a new and potential semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) hydrogels of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA), acryl amide and diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride employing chemical cross-linker N, N'-methylene bisacrylamide (NNMBA) and ammonium persulphate as an initiator by radical polymerisation. To analyse the copolymer formation between two monomers and IPN cross-linking reaction, the resulting hydrogel was characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the surface morphology was analysed using scanning electron microscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction studies were also carried out for investigating drug loading and distribution and swelling experiments were carried out for the uptake of water. In vitro release of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride from hydrogel was performed at intestinal conditions. The amount of PVA, NNMBA and total monomer concentration was found to strongly control the drug release behaviour from the hydrogels.

  15. Morphology and dielectric properties of poly vinyl chloride-[multiwalled carbon nanotube-barium titanate] hybrid composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Elizabeth; Tippabattini, J.; Choi, Eun-Sik; Thomas, Sabu; Kim, Jaehwan

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, poly vinyl chloride (PVC) based nano-hybrid composites of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and barium titanate (BT) are prepared by solution casting technique and their morphology and dielectric characteristics are studied. The presence of barium titanate in hybrid composites is confirmed by X-ray Diffraction. Dielectric and morphological studies of PVC-MWCNT composites and PVC-MWCNT-BT hybrid composites also studied to verify the improvement in dielectric properties of PVC-MWCNT-BT hybrid composite compared to PVC-MWCNT composite. The hybrid composites show improved dielectric properties when BT is incorporated as dielectric filler with multi-walled carbon nanotube in PVC. PVC-MWCNT 1 %-BT 3 % hybrid composite showed the highest dielectric constant and the lowest tan δ value among the composites. This hybrid composite is useful for electromagnetic shielding and supercapacitor applications.

  16. Effect of graphite loading on the electrical and mechanical properties of Poly (Ethylene Oxide)/Poly (Vinyl Chloride) polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajar, M. D. S.; Supri, A. G.; Hanif, M. P. M.; Yazid, M. I. M.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, films consisting of a blend of poly (ethylene oxide)/poly (vinyl chloride) (PEO/PVC) and a conductive filler, graphite were prepared and characterized for their mechanical and electrical properties. Solid polymer blend films based on PEO/PVC (50/50 wt%/wt%) with different graphite loading were prepared by using solution casting technique. Electrical conductivity results discovered the conductivity increased with increasing of filler loading. However, increasing amount of graphite loading led to a decreased in tensile strength and young’s modulus of PEO/PVC/Graphite polymer films. The dispersion of graphite and mechanism of conductive path in the polymer films were also investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The morphology of the PEO/PVC/Graphite polymer films shows that agglomeration occurred to complete the connection of conductive path, thus improving the conductivity behavior of the polymer films.

  17. Fatigue characterization of Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) foam core sandwich composite using the G-control method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manca, Marcello; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results from cyclic crack propagation tests performed on sandwich specimens with glass/epoxy face sheets and Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) foam cores using the G-controlled cyclic energy release rate (ΔG) test procedure. The face material was tested in tension...... analysis was used to determine the mode-mixity of the crack loading. Experimental crack growth cyclic tests were carried out on pre-cracked mixed-mode bending sandwich specimens with H45, H100 and H160 PVC foam cores under two mode-mixities (mode I and mode II dominant). Post-mortem analysis was performed...... on tested specimens, highlighting the influence of mode mixity and foam density on the crack path. Crack propagation diagrams showing da/dN versus ΔG curves were obtained to establish the Paris-Erdogan relation for each material combination tested at the two mode-mixities. Results showed constant crack...

  18. Novel modified poly vinyl chloride blend membranes for removal of heavy metals from mixed ion feed sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, Vignesh; Jyothi, M.S. [Centre for Nano and Material Sciences, Jain University, Jain Global Campus, Kanakapura Ramanagaram, Bangalore, 562112 (India); Balakrishna, R. Geetha, E-mail: br.geetha@jainuniversity.ac.in [Centre for Nano and Material Sciences, Jain University, Jain Global Campus, Kanakapura Ramanagaram, Bangalore, 562112 (India); Padaki, Mahesh, E-mail: sp.mahesh@jainuniversity.ac.in [Centre for Nano and Material Sciences, Jain University, Jain Global Campus, Kanakapura Ramanagaram, Bangalore, 562112 (India); National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow, 119049 (Russian Federation); Deon, Sebastien [Institut UTINAM, UMR CNRS 6213, Université de Bourgogne-Franche-Comté,16 route de Gray, Besançon Cedex 25030 (France)

    2017-06-05

    Highlights: • Work reports the novel modification of poly vinyl chloride (PVC) using newly developed method. • Blend membranes were prepared using modified PVC and polysulfone in different compositions. • The prepared blend membranes were used for separation of different heavy metal ions. • The blend membranes showed improved rejection of heavy metal ions in comparison to Commercial NF 270 membrane. - Abstract: Herein, an attempt has been made to prepare a novel membrane with good efficiency for removal of heavy metal ions namely lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr). 4-amino benzoic acid (ABA) was covalently grafted onto the poly vinyl chloride (PVC) backbone by C−N bond to enhance the hydrophilicity. {sup 1}H NMR and ATR-IR spectroscopy analysis confirmed the chemical modification of PVC. Further the modified polymer was blended in different compositions with polysulfone (PSf) for optimization. Morphological changes that occurred in blend membranes, due to the incorporation of modified PVC was studied by AFM and SEM techniques. The effect on hydrophilicity and performance of blends owing to incorporation of modified PVC was evaluated by water uptake, contact angle and flux studies. The density of functional groups in blends was analyzed by its ion-exchange capacity. Batch wise filtration of metal ions was carried out and the effect of pressure, feed pH and interference of ions was thoroughly investigated. Essentially, 100% rejection was obtained for all the metal ions in acidic pH with a productivity of 2.56 l/m{sup 2} h. The results were correlated with the results of commercially available NF 270 membrane under the same operating conditions.

  19. Decreased material-activation of the complement system using low-energy plasma polymerized poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas E; Palarasah, Yaseelan; Skjødt, Mikkel-Ole

    2011-01-01

    In the current study we investigate the activation of blood complement on medical device silicone rubber and present a plasma polymerized vinyl pyrrolidone (ppVP) coating which strongly decreases surface-activation of the blood complement system. We show that uncoated silicone and polystyrene are...

  20. Separation and analysis of low molecular weight plasticizers in poly(vinyl chloride) tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Storm, Birgit Kjærside

    2005-01-01

    The separation of plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) used in medical applications was carried out in different solvents and compared by studying the remaining PVC after separation using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravime......The separation of plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) used in medical applications was carried out in different solvents and compared by studying the remaining PVC after separation using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC...

  1. Uptake of tridodecylmethylammonium chloride by PVC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Froehling, P.E.; Koenhen, D.M.; Smolders, C.A.; Bantjes, A.

    1977-01-01

    The uptake of tridodecylmethylammonium chloride (TDMAC) by poly(vinyl chloride) has been investigated to provide a more quantitative basis for the preparation of blood-compatible surfaces based on TDMAC-heparin coatings. Sorption isotherms of TDMAC from toluene-cyclohexane and toluene-methanol

  2. 21 CFR 175.365 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... polycarbonate film. 175.365 Section 175.365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film. Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings identified in this section and applied on polycarbonate film may be safely used as food-contact surfaces, in...

  3. Poly(vinyl chloride) catheters modified with pH-responsive poly(methacrylic acid) with affinity for antimicrobial agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuñiga-Zamorano, Ivette; Meléndez-Ortiz, H. Iván; Costoya, Alejandro; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Concheiro, Angel; Bucio, Emilio

    2018-01-01

    Radiation-grafting of pH-responsive methacrylic acid (MAA) onto poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was carried out by the pre-irradiation method using gamma rays, which demonstrated to be an efficient and fast procedure for obtaining PVC-g-MAA copolymers. The influence of preparation conditions, such as absorbed dose, monomer concentration, reaction time, and reaction temperature on the grafting yield was studied. The grafting of MAA onto PVC catheters was confirmed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The pH-responsiveness of the grafted copolymers (critical point 8.5) was measured by swelling under cyclic changes in the pH of the medium. Interestingly, PVC-g-MAA showed enhanced capability to immobilize benzalkonium chloride and, particularly, ciprofloxacin and to sustain the release this antimicrobial agent at both acid and alkaline pH. Tests carried out with Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus point out that the developed functionalized catheters may play a role in the prevention/management of urinary tract infections.

  4. Ion-selective detection by plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membrane in glass nanopipette with alternating voltage modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiao Long; Takami, Tomohide; Son, Jong Wan; Kang, Eun Ji; Kawai, Tomoji; Park, Bae Ho

    2013-08-01

    An alternating current (AC) voltage modulation was applied to ion-selective observations with plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membranes in glass nanopipettes. The liquid confronting the membranes in the nanopipettes, the conditioning process, and AC voltage modulation play important roles in the ion-selective detection. In the AC detection system developed by us, where distilled water was used as the liquid within the nanopipettes, potassium ions were selectively detected in the sample solution of sodium and potassium ions because sodium ions were captured at the membrane containing bis(12-crown-4) ionophores, before the saturation of the ionophores. The membrane lost the selectivity after the saturation. On using sodium chloride as the liquid within the nanopipette, the membrane selectively detected potassium and sodium ions before and after the saturation of ionophores, respectively. The ion-selective detection of our system can be explained by the ion extraction-diffusion-dissolution mechanism through the bis(12-crown-4) ionophores with AC voltage modulation.

  5. Photostabilizing Efficiency of Poly(vinyl chloride in the Presence of Organotin(IV Complexes as Photostabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa M. Ali

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Three organotin complexes containing furosemide as a ligand (L, Ph3SnL, Me2SnL2 and Bu2SnL2, were synthesized and characterized. Octahedral geometry was proposed for the Me2SnL2 and Bu2SnL2, while the Ph3SnL complex has trigonal bipyramid geometry. The synthesized organotin complexes (0.5% by weight were used as additives to improve the photostability of poly(vinyl chloride, PVC, (40 μm thickness upon irradiation. The changes imposed on functional groups, weight loss and viscosity average molecular weight of PVC films were monitored. The experimental results show that the rate of photodegradation was reduced in the presence of the organotin additives. The quantum yield of the chain scission was found to be low (9.8 × 10−7 when Ph3SnL was used as a PVC photostabilizer compared to controlled PVC (5.18 × 10−6. In addition, the atomic force microscope images for the PVC films containing Ph3SnL2 after irradiation shows a smooth surface compared to the controlled films. The rate of PVC photostabilization was found to be highest for Ph3SnL followed by Bu2SnL2 and Me2SnL2. It has been suggested that the organotin complexes could act as hydrogen chloride scavengers, ultraviolet absorbers, peroxide decomposers and/or radical scavengers.

  6. Water vapor permeation and dehumidification performance of poly(vinyl alcohol)/lithium chloride composite membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Bui, Duc Thuan

    2015-10-09

    Thin and robust composite membranes comprising stainless steel scaffold, fine and porous TiO2 and polyvinyl alcohol/lithium chloride were fabricated and studied for air dehumidification application. Higher hydrophilicity, sorption and permeation were observed for membranes with increased lithium chloride content up to 50%. The permeation and sorption properties of the membranes were investigated under different temperatures. The results provided a deeper insight into the membrane water vapor permeation process. It was specifically noted that lithium chloride significantly reduces water diffusion energy barrier, resulting in the change of permeation energy from positive to negative values. Higher water vapor permeance was observed for the membrane with higher LiCl content at lower temperature. The isothermal air dehumidification tests show that the membrane is suitable for dehumidifying air in high humid condition. Additionally, results also indicate a trade-off between the humidity ratio drop with the water vapor removal rate when varying air flowrate.

  7. Quantitative estimated exposure to vinyl chloride and risk of angiosarcoma of the liver and hepatocellular cancer in the US industry-wide vinyl chloride cohort: mortality update through 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Kenneth A; Dell, Linda D; Crawford, Lori; Gallagher, Alexa E

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate mortality risks of angiosarcoma of the liver (ASL), primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other cancers among 9951 men employed between 1942 and 1972 at 35 US vinyl chloride (VC) or polyvinyl chloride plants followed for mortality through 31 December 2013. SMR and time-dependent Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to evaluate mortality risks by cumulative VC exposure. Liver cancer mortality was elevated (SMR=2.87, 95% CI 2.40 to 3.40), and ASL and HCC were strongly associated with cumulative VC exposure ≥865 parts per million-years (ppm-years) (ASL: HR=36.3, 95% CI 13.1 to 100.5; and HCC: HR=5.3, 95% CI 1.6 to 17.7 for ≥2271 ppm-years). Excess deaths due to connective and soft tissue cancers (SMR=2.43, 95% CI 1.48 to 3.75), mesothelioma (SMR=2.29, 95% CI 1.18 to 4.00) and explosions (SMR=3.43, 95% CI 1.25 to 7.47) were seen. Mortalities due to melanoma, brain cancer, lung cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were not increased or associated with VC exposure. The association between VC and ASL first reported in this cohort 44 years ago persisted and was strongest among workers most highly exposed. VC exposure also was associated with HCC mortality, although it remains possible that misdiagnosis of early ASLs influenced findings. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Increased morbidity odds ratio of primary liver cancer and cirrhosis of the liver among vinyl chloride monomer workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, C L; Wang, J D

    1998-08-01

    To determine if there is an increased risk of admission to hospital for various diseases among vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) workers. 2224 workers with occupational exposure to VCM were identified for occurrence of disease based on a search of hospital computer files on labour insurance. These data were compared with those of workers manufacturing optical equipment and motorcycles from 1 January 1985 to 31 March 1994. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were used as reference diseases, and the age adjusted morbidity odds ratio (MOR) was calculated. A significantly increased risk of admission to hospital among VCM workers due to primary liver cancer (MOR 4.5-6.5), cirrhosis of the liver (MOR 1.7-2.1), and other chronic diseases (MOR 1.5-2.0) was found. There were eight cases of primary liver cancer, all with heavy previous exposure to VCM. Another four cases of hepatoma in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) workers were found in the death registry. Ten out of 11 cases of hepatoma, with detailed medical information, were carriers of hepatitis B virus. The average latent period (20 years) was not different from other studies. Alternative agents of primary liver cancer were largely ruled out, suggesting that the combination of hepatitis B and VCM may lead to primary liver cancer. There is an increased risk of primary liver cancer in workers exposed to VCM, although the incomplete coverage of the Labor Insurance Bureau data warrants cautious interpretation of the results. Further study exploring the synergistic effects of VCM and hepatitis B is also indicated.

  9. A novel process for separation of hazardous poly(vinyl chloride) from mixed plastic wastes by froth flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianchao; Wang, Hui; Wang, Chongqing; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Tao; Zheng, Long

    2017-11-01

    A novel method, calcium hypochlorite (CHC) treatment, was proposed for separation of hazardous poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) plastic from mixed plastic wastes (MPWs) by froth flotation. Flotation behavior of single plastic indicates that PVC can be separated from poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), poly(acrylonitrile-co-butadiene-co-styrene) (ABS), polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by froth flotation combined with CHC treatment. Mechanism of CHC treatment was examined by contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Under the optimum conditions, separation of PVC from binary plastics with different particle sizes is achieved efficiently. The purity of PC, ABS, PMMA, PS and PET is greater than 96.8%, 98.5%, 98.8%, 97.4% and 96.3%, respectively. Separation of PVC from multi-plastics was further conducted by two-stage flotation. PVC can be separated efficiently from MPWs with residue content of 0.37%. Additionally, reusing CHC solution is practical. This work indicates that separation of hazardous PVC from MPWs is effective by froth flotation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Palm Oil Bio-Based Plasticizer on the Morphological, Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Poly(Vinyl Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Min Lim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Flexible poly(vinyl chloride (PVC was fabricated using a palm oil-based alkyd as a co-plasticizer to di-octyl phthalate (DOP and di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP. The effects of the incorporation of the palm oil-based alkyd on morphological, thermal and mechanical properties of PVC compounds were studied. Results showed the incorporation of the alkyd enhanced the mechanical and thermal properties of the PVC compounds. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR results showed that the polar –OH and –C=O groups of alkyd have good interaction with the –C–Cl group in PVC via polar interaction. The morphological results showed good incorporation of the plasticizers with PVC. Improved tensile strength, elastic modulus, and elongation at break were observed with increasing amount of the alkyd, presumably due to chain entanglement of the alkyd with the PVC molecules. Thermogravimetric analysis results confirmed that the alkyd has improved the thermostability of the PVC compounds.

  11. Effect of polymer concentration on the morphology and mechanical characteristics of electrospun cellulose acetate and poly (vinyl chloride nanofiber mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethwel Tarus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose Acetate (CA and Poly (Vinyl Chloride (PVC nanofiber mats were electrospun into nanofibers. The morphology and mechanical properties of nanofiber mats were evaluated versus different solution concentrations. Solutions were prepared in mixed solvent systems of 2:1 (w/w Acetone/N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAc and 3:2 (w/w Acetone/N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF for CA and 1:1 (w/w Tetrahydrofuran/DMF for PVC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images revealed that a beaded fibrous structure could be electrospun beginning at 10% CA in both Acetone/DMAc and Acetone/DMF solvent systems. The experimental results showed that smooth fibers were achievable at 14% CA in Acetone/DMAc and at 16% CA in Acetone/DMF solvent systems. For PVC, beaded fibers were formed at 12% PVC and smooth fibers were formed beginning at 14% PVC. Tensile strength tests showed that mechanical properties of the nonaligned nanofiber mats were influenced by solution concentration. With increasing solution concentration, the tensile strengths, break strains and initial moduli of the CA nanofiber mats increased. The effect of solution concentration on the tensile strengths of nanofiber mats was quite significant while it did not have any considerable effect on the tensile properties of the cast films.

  12. Physicochemical characterization of hexetidine-impregnated endotracheal tube poly(vinyl chloride) and resistance to adherence of respiratory bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David S; McGovern, James G; Woolfson, A David; Adair, Colin G; Gorman, Sean P

    2002-06-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a frequent cause of mortality in intensive care patients. This study describes the physicochemical properties of hexetidine-impregnated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) endotracheal tube (ET) biomaterials and their resistance to microbial adherence (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). PVC emulsion was cured in the presence of hexetidine (0-20% w/w) and was characterized in terms of drug release, surface properties (i.e., microrugosity/contact angle), mechanical (tensile) properties, and resistance to microbial adherence. Under sink conditions, hexetidine release from PVC was diffusion-controlled. Increasing the concentration of hexetidine from 1% to 10% (w/w) (but not from 10% to 20% w/w) increased the subsequent rate of drug release. In general, increasing the concentration of hexetidine decreased both the tensile properties and hydrophobicity, yet increased PVC microrugosity. Following hexetidine release (21 days), the surface properties were similar to those of native PVC. The resistance of hexetidine-containing PVC (1% or 5%) to microbial adherence (following defined periods of drug release) was greater than that of native PVC and was constant over the examined period of hexetidine release. ET PVC containing 1% (w/w) hexetidine offered an appropriate balance between suitable physicochemical properties and resistance to microbial adherence. This may offer an approach with which to reduce the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia.

  13. Arsenic, vinyl chloride, viral hepatitis, and hepatic angiosarcoma: a hospital-based study and review of literature in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Neng-Chyan; Wann, Shue-Ren; Chang, Hong-Tai; Lin, Shoa-Lin; Wang, Jyh-Seng; Guo, How-Ran

    2011-12-26

    Hepatic angiosarcoma (HAS) is a rare type of liver cancer that is often fatal, and arsenic and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) are two major causal agents. Whereas Taiwan is an endemic area of liver cancer, epidemiologic data on HAS are limited. We reviewed the cases observed at a teaching hospital to evaluate the roles of VCM, arsenic, and viral hepatitis in the occurrence of HAS. We reviewed the medical records of patients with pathological proof of HAS from January 2000 to August 2010 at a teaching hospital which is adjacent to the major VCM processing area in Taiwan and nearby an endemic area of arsenic exposure from drinking water. We also conducted a literature review and included all patients of HAS reported in Taiwan. Six male and three female cases aged from 56 to 83 years (64.6 ± 8.2 years) were identified at the hospital. The differences in clinical features between men and women were not statistically significant. None of them had exposure to VCM or arsenic in drinking water. Two had evidence of hepatitis C infection, but none had evidence of hepatitis B infection. Five male and four female cases aged 30 to 82 years (58.6 ± 15.5 years) were identified in the literature, including two with arsenic exposure and one with chronic hepatitis B infection. HAS is rare in Taiwan, and we found no evidence supporting a major role of VCM, arsenic in drinking water, or viral hepatitis in its occurrence.

  14. Antimicrobial filtration with electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofibers containing benzyl triethylammonium chloride: Immersion, leaching, toxicity, and filtration tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Ann; Kim, Song-Bae

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers were synthesized by impregnating benzyl triethylammonium chloride (BTEAC) as an antimicrobial agent into PVA nanofibers. The BTEAC-PVA nanofibers were heat-methanol treated during the preparation for various tests. The BTEAC-PVA nanofibers became more hydrophilic than the PVA nanofibers due to incorporation of BTEAC. Through heat-methanol treatment, thermal property, crystallinity, and water stability of BTEAC-PVA nanofibers were improved considerably. The immersion test shows that heat-methanol treatment has an advantage over heat treatment to maintain BTEAC content in BTEAC-PVA nanofibers. The acute toxicity test demonstrates that the 24-h EC50 and 48-h EC50 values (EC50 = median effective concentration) of BTEAC to Daphnia magna were 113 and 90 mg/L, respectively. The leaching test indicates that the BTEAC concentration leached from BTEAC-PVA nanofibers was far below the concentration affecting the immobilization of D. magna. For antimicrobial filtration tests, the BTEAC-PVA nanofibers were deposited onto glass fiber filter. The antimicrobial filtration test was conducted against bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus) and bacteriophages (MS2, PhiX174), demonstrating that the BTEAC-PVA nanofibers could enhance the removal of E. coli and S. aureus considerably but not the removal of MS2 and PhiX174 under dynamic flow conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ruthenium oxides supported on heterostructured CoPO-MCF materials for catalytic oxidation of vinyl chloride emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Tian, Chengcheng; Guo, Yanglong; Zhang, Zhendong; Hua, Wenchao; Zhan, Wangcheng; Guo, Yun; Wang, Li; Lu, Guanzhong

    2018-01-15

    A novel heterostructured material, cobalt phosphate-SiO2 mesostructured cellular foams (CoPO-MCF), was successfully synthesized by in situ growth. The material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen sorption, temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR and CO-TPR), temperature-programmed desorption of NH3 (NH3-TPD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A ruthenium precursor was readily introduced and highly dispersed on the CoPO nanophases of the CoPO-MCF through an impregnation method. The resulting Ru/CoPO-MCF catalyst exhibited high catalytic activity for the oxidation of vinyl chloride (VC). The results of three consecutive runs and long-term tests showed high stability of the Ru/CoPO-MCF for the catalytic oxidation of VC. The unique heterostructures of the CoPO-MCF not only improve the reducibility and acidity of the MCF but also strengthen the interaction between ruthenium oxide nanoparticles and the CoPO-MCF support, which contributes to the enhanced catalytic performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of 1,2-dichloroethane, dichloroethene and vinyl chloride carbon stable isotope fractionation during dechlorination by two Dehalococcoides strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marie; Lege, Sascha; Nijenhuis, Ivonne

    2014-04-01

    Carbon stable isotope fractionation during 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), dichloroethene (DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) dechlorination was analysed for two Dehalococcoides strains, Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain 195 (formerly Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195) and D. mccartyi strain BTF08, and used to characterize the reaction. The isotope enrichment factors (εC) determined for 1,2-DCA were -30.8 ± 1.3‰ and -29.0 ± 3.0‰ for D. mccartyi strain BTF08 and D. mccartyi strain 195, respectively. Enrichment factors (εC) determined for chlorinated ethenes with strain BTF08 were -28.8 ± 1.5‰ (VC), -30.5 ± 1.5‰ (cis-DCE) and -12.4 ± 1.1‰ (1,1-DCE). Product, ethene, related enrichment factors (εC1,2-DCA-ethene) calculated for 1,2-DCA (-34.1 and -32.3‰ for strain BTF08 and strain 195, respectively) were similar to substrate based enrichment factors (εC1,2-DCA), supporting the hypothesis that ethene is the direct product of 1,2-DCA dichloroelimination but that VC was a side product as result of branching in the reaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Solid-phase extraction of cobalt(II) from lithium chloride solutions using a poly(vinyl chloride)-based polymer inclusion membrane with Aliquat 336 as the carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagaya, Shigehiro; Cattrall, Robert W; Kolev, Spas D

    2011-01-01

    The extraction of cobalt(II) from solutions containing various concentrations of lithium chloride, hydrochloric acid, and mixtures of lithium chloride plus hydrochloric acid is reported using a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) containing 40% (w/w) Aliquat 336 as a carrier. The extraction from lithium chloride solutions and mixtures with hydrochloric acid is shown to be more effective than extraction from hydrochloric acid solutions alone. The solution concentrations giving the highest amounts of extraction are 7 mol L(-1) for lithium chloride and 8 mol L(-1) lithium chloride plus 1 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid for mixed solutions. Cobalt(II) is easily stripped from the membrane using deionized water. The cobalt(II) species extracted into the membrane are CoCl(4)(2-) for lithium chloride solutions and HCoCl(4)(-) for mixed solutions; these form ion-pairs with Aliquat 336. It is also shown that both lithium chloride and hydrochloric acid are extracted by the PIM and suppress the extraction of cobalt(II) by forming ion-pairs in the membrane (i.e. R(3)MeN(+)·HCl(2)(-) for hydrochloric acid and R(3)MeN(+)·LiCl(2)(-) for lithium chloride). 2011 © The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry

  18. Novel thermally stable poly(vinyl chloride) composites for sulfate removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N., E-mail: Nadagouda.mallikarjuna@epa.gov [Water Supply and Water Resources Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive Cincinnati, Ohio 45268 (United States); Pressman, Jonathan; White, Colin; Speth, Thomas F.; McCurry, Daniel L. [Water Supply and Water Resources Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive Cincinnati, Ohio 45268 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Graphical abstract: Barium carbonate and/or barium carbonate-loaded silica aero-gels dispersed polyvinyl chloride (PVC) composites were prepared by dissolving PVC in tetrahydrofuran (THF), dispersing BaCO{sub 3} and/or BaCO{sub 3}-loaded silica aero-gels, re-precipitating the PVC with water at room temperature. The PVC composites were then characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray mapping, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. The obtained composites had better thermal properties than the control PVC. The composites were tested for sulfate removal and found to significantly reduce sulfate when compared with control PVC. - Abstract: BaCO{sub 3} dispersed PVC composites were prepared through a polymer re-precipitation method. The composites were tested for sulfate removal using rapid small scale column test (RSSCT) and found to significantly reduce sulfate concentration. The method was extended to synthesize barium carbonate-loaded silica aero-gels-polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymer composites. The PVC composites were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray mapping, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. The method has advantages over conventional sulfate precipitation (sulfate removal process) using BaCO{sub 3} wherein clogging of the filter can be avoided. The method is environmentally friendly and does not interfere with natural organic matter as the conventional resin does. Some of the composites were thermally more stable as compared with the pure PVC discussed in the literature.

  19. Integrated antifouling and bactericidal polymer membranes through bioinspired polydopamine/poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xianghong [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Yuan, Shuaishuai [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Shi, Dean, E-mail: deanshi2012@yahoo.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Yang, Yingkui; Jiang, Tao [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Yan, Shunjie; Shi, Hengchong [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Luan, Shifang, E-mail: sfluan@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Yin, Jinghua [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2016-07-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Antifouling and bactericidal capabilities were facilely integrated into a surface via bioinspired coating. • The modification technique was very facile and universal to different types of substrate materials. • The integrated antifouling and bactericidal surfaces have great potential in wound dressing applications. - Abstract: Polypropylene (PP) non-woven has been widely used as wound dressing; however, the hydrophobic nature of PP can initiate bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation. Herein, we propose a facile approach to functionalize PP non-woven with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone)-iodine complex (PVP-I). PVP and PEG were successively tethered onto PP non-woven surface via versatile bioinspired dopamine (DA) chemistry, followed by complexing iodine with PVP moieties. It was demonstrated through the field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) and spread plate method that the as-modified PP non-woven integrated both antifouling property of PEG for suppressing bacterial adhesion, and bactericidal property of PVP-I for killing the few adherent bacteria. Meanwhile, it could greatly resist platelet and red blood cell adhesion. The integrated antifouling and bactericidal PP non-woven surfaces might have great potential in various wound dressing applications.

  20. Physical and chemical basics of modification of poly(vinyl chloride) by means of polyisocyanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamov, Anvar; Fakhrutdinova, Venera; Abdrakhmanova, Lyailya

    2016-01-01

    This research presents data relating to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) modification by means of reactive oligomer and measures technological, physical and mechanical properties of the modified composites. Polyisocyanate (PIC) has been chosen as the modifying reactive oligomer. It has been shown that insertion of the oligomer has a double effect on PVC. Primarily, PIC produces a plasticizing effect on PVC and in particular leads to an increase in thermal stability and melt flow index at the stage of processing. In addition, the molded PVC composites possess higher strength properties and lower deformability when exposed to temperature because of chemical transformations of PIC in polymer matrix and, as the result, the formation of cross-linked systems takes place. In this case, semi-interpenetrating structures are formed based on cross-linked products of PIC chemical transformations homogeneously distributed in the PVC matrix. It has been determined by means of IR-spectroscopy that the basic products of PIC curing are compounds with urea and biuret groups which leads to modifying effect on PVC especially: increase in strength, thermal and mechanical properties, and chemical resistance.

  1. A novel reutilization method for waste printed circuit boards as flame retardant and smoke suppressant for poly (vinyl chloride)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiu, Fu-Rong, E-mail: xiu_chem@hotmail.com [College of Ecological Environment and Urban Construction, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Weng, Huiwei; Qi, Yingying; Yu, Gending; Zhang, Zhigang [College of Ecological Environment and Urban Construction, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Zhang, Fu-Shen [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2016-09-05

    Highlights: • We report a novel electronic waste-based flame retardant for PVC. • The SCWO-treated PCBs significantly improves the flame retardancy of PVC. • The flame retardant mechanism of SCWO-treated PCBs was studied. • Appropriate amount flame retardant does not degrade the mechanical property of PVC. - Abstract: In this study, a novel reutilization method for waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) as flame retardant and smoke suppressant for poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) was successfully testified. A supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) process was applied to treat waste PCBs before they could be used as flame retardants of PVC. The results indicated that SCWO conditions had a significant effect on the flame retarding and smoke suppressing properties of waste PCBs for PVC. Cu{sub 2}O, CuO, and SnO{sub 2} were the main active ingredients in waste PCBs-derived flame retardants. A conversion of Cu elements (Cu{sup 0} → Cu{sup +} → Cu{sup 2+}) during SCWO process with the increase of reaction temperature was found to be the key influence factor for the flame retarding properties of SCWO-treated PCBs. The experiment results also showed that there was a synergistic effect of flame retardancy between Cu{sup +} and Cu{sup 2+}. After the optimized SCWO treatment, SCWO-treated PCBs significantly improved the flame retardancy and smoke suppression of PVC. Limiting oxygen index (LOI) and char yield (CY) increased with increasing SCWO-treated PCBs content in PVC, while smoke density rating (SDR) and maximum smoke density (MSD) decreased markedly. The mechanical properties of PVC samples were influenced in different degree by adding different content SCWO-treated PCBs.

  2. Lead removal from cathode ray tube glass by the action of calcium hydroxide and poly(vinyl chloride)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grause, Guido, E-mail: grause@env.che.tohoku.ac.jp; Takahashi, Kenshi; Kameda, Tomohito; Yoshioka, Toshiaki, E-mail: yoshioka@env.che.tohoku.ac.jp

    2014-11-20

    Highlights: • About 99.9% of lead is removed from CRT glass by PbCl{sub 2} volatilization. • PVC is used as chlorination agent with the aid of Ca(OH){sub 2} as HCl absorbing material. • The residual calcium silicate has a lead content as low as 140 mg kg{sup −1}. • Lead leaching from the residue was below the detection limit. - Abstract: With the development of flat screen technology, the cathode ray tubes (CRTs) used in TV sets became obsolete, leaving huge amounts of lead-containing CRT glass for disposal. We developed a novel lead volatilization process in which PbCl{sub 2} was generated in the presence of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as a chlorination agent and Ca(OH){sub 2} as an HCl absorber. PVC was incinerated in air atmosphere and the resulting HCl was captured by Ca(OH){sub 2} before exiting the reactor with the air flow. CaCl{sub 2} and Ca(OH){sub 2} reacted with the lead glass forming volatile PbCl{sub 2} and crystalline Ca-silicates. Since the reactivity of lead glass with gaseous HCl is negligible, the presence of Ca(OH){sub 2} was essential for the success of this method. At a temperature of 1000 °C, a molar Cl/Pb ratio of 16, and a molar Ca/Si ratio of about 2, approximately 99.9% of the lead was volatilized, leaving a residue with a lead content of 140 mg kg{sup −1}. The residual calcium silicate, with its low lead level, has the potential to be repurposed for other uses.

  3. Stability assessment of lyophilized intravenous immunoglobulin after reconstitution in glass containers and poly(vinyl chloride) bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parti, R; Mankarious, S

    1997-02-01

    Human intravenous immunoglobulin (IGIV) has been in use for the past 20 years. This biological product is commonly provided in liquid or lyophilized dosage form. When the lyophilized product is rehydrated, it is usually administered within 2-3 h from time of complete dissolution. While this practice is advisable whenever possible, occasionally the patient or care-giver may need to delay the infusion. Hence, a study of the stability of lyophilized IGIV after reconstitution with water for injection was conducted. The reconstituted product was stored either in its original glass container or pooled into poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) bags. The effect of extended storage on the active ingredient (IgG), excipients (glucose, albumin) and extractables [sodium from glass vials, and di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate and cyclohexanone from PVC bags] was evaluated. The stability of the active ingredient was evaluated by physico-chemical tests (molecularsize distribution, pH, appearance, total protein), monitoring titres of a specific antibody (hepatitis B surface antigen) and an antibody functional test (bacterial opsonization). To evaluate the risk of microbial contamination during reconstitution and pooling procedures, sterility, pyrogen and animal-safety tests were included in the protocol. The potential of IgG polymerizing in solution during storage and subsequent complement activation was evaluated by assaying for non-specific binding of complement (anti-complement activity). Results show that aseptically reconstituted IGIV is stable and remains sterile up to 48 h at 5 degrees C. The reconstituted product was also found to be stable at room temperature (25 degrees C) up to 12 h.

  4. Effect of the XRCC1 codon 399 polymorphism on the repair of vinyl chloride metabolite-induced DNA damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yongliang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent epidemiologic evidence suggests that the common polymorphism at amino acid residue 399 of the x-ray cross complementing-1 (XRCC1 protein, a key component of the base excision repair (BER pathway for DNA damage, plays a significant role in the genetic variability of individuals in terms of the mutagenic damage they experience following exposure to the carcinogen vinyl chloride (VC. The aim of this study was to provide support for the biological plausibility of these epidemiologic observations with experimental data derived from cell lines in culture from individuals who were either homozygous wild-type or homozygous variant for this XRCC1 polymorphism following exposure to chloroethylene oxide (CEO, the active metabolite of VC, with measurement of the induced etheno-DNA adducts before and after repair. Materials and Methods: Immortalized lymphoblast cell lines from seven VC workers (four homozygous wild-type and three homozygous variant for the 399 XRCC1 polymorphism were exposed to CEO, and etheno-adenosine (εA adduct levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA pre-exposure and at 0, 4, 8 and 24 h following exposure. Results: The average εA adduct levels were statistically significantly higher in the variant cells compared to the wild-type cells at 8 and 24 h following exposure (P< 0.05 with an overall average repair efficiency of 32% in the variant cells compared to 82% in the wild-type cells. Conclusion: These results are consistent with the epidemiologic findings of the types of VC-induced biomarkers observed in exposed individuals and the mutational spectra found in the resultant tumors as well as the key role that BER, especially XRCC1, plays in this carcinogenic pathway.

  5. Arsenic, vinyl chloride, viral hepatitis, and hepatic angiosarcoma: A hospital-based study and review of literature in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Neng-Chyan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatic angiosarcoma (HAS is a rare type of liver cancer that is often fatal, and arsenic and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM are two major causal agents. Whereas Taiwan is an endemic area of liver cancer, epidemiologic data on HAS are limited. We reviewed the cases observed at a teaching hospital to evaluate the roles of VCM, arsenic, and viral hepatitis in the occurrence of HAS. Methods We reviewed the medical records of patients with pathological proof of HAS from January 2000 to August 2010 at a teaching hospital which is adjacent to the major VCM processing area in Taiwan and nearby an endemic area of arsenic exposure from drinking water. We also conducted a literature review and included all patients of HAS reported in Taiwan. Results Six male and three female cases aged from 56 to 83 years (64.6 ± 8.2 years were identified at the hospital. The differences in clinical features between men and women were not statistically significant. None of them had exposure to VCM or arsenic in drinking water. Two had evidence of hepatitis C infection, but none had evidence of hepatitis B infection. Five male and four female cases aged 30 to 82 years (58.6 ± 15.5 years were identified in the literature, including two with arsenic exposure and one with chronic hepatitis B infection. Conclusions HAS is rare in Taiwan, and we found no evidence supporting a major role of VCM, arsenic in drinking water, or viral hepatitis in its occurrence.

  6. Reanalysis of updated mortality among vinyl and polyvinyl chloride workers: Confirmation of historical evidence and new findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crosignani Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The production of vinyl chloride (VC and polyvinyl chloride (PVC involves the use of various chemicals, some known to be toxic and potentially or definitely carcinogenic. The related potential risk often has not been properly investigated. Updated cancer mortality among different subgroups of workers employed in a VC-PVC production plant located in Porto Marghera (Italy was re-analyzed using an internal reference group of workers with low (or null exposure to VC. Methods Mortality of 1658 male workers was analyzed by Poisson regression. Relative risks (RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for blue collar workers and their specific subgroups of PVC baggers, PVC compound, autoclave and other blue collar workers were calculated using technicians and clerks as an internal reference group. The follow-up covered the period 1972–1999. Results Significantly increased mortality rates were observed for all causes of death among the whole blue collar workforce (RR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.03–2.35; 229 deaths, PVC baggers (1.72; 95% CI = 1.04–2.83; 49 deaths and PVC compound workers (1.71; 95% CI = 1.09–2.67; 72 deaths. Liver cancer, including angiosarcoma, was increased among autoclave workers (9.57; 95% CI = 3.71–24.68; 7 deaths and cardiovascular diseases among PVC baggers (2.25; 95% CI = 1.08–4.70; 12 deaths. Hemolymphopoietic system tumors, leukemias and lymphomas prevalently, were found only among exposed workers, with 4, 4 and 6 deaths observed among PVC baggers, PVC compound and other blue collar workers, respectively. An excess of lung cancer was found among PVC baggers. Conclusion This cohort analysis, based on internal comparison, confirmed previously reported specific risk excesses for liver tumors and liver cirrhosis among autoclave workers and for lung cancer among PVC baggers, and revealed PVC compound workers as a possible new at risk group for all causes, all tumors and for liver and lung tumors. In conclusion

  7. Reanalysis of updated mortality among vinyl and polyvinyl chloride workers: Confirmation of historical evidence and new findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, Valerio; Ceppi, Marcello; Crosignani, Paolo; Montanaro, Fabio

    2008-01-22

    The production of vinyl chloride (VC) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) involves the use of various chemicals, some known to be toxic and potentially or definitely carcinogenic. The related potential risk often has not been properly investigated. Updated cancer mortality among different subgroups of workers employed in a VC-PVC production plant located in Porto Marghera (Italy) was re-analyzed using an internal reference group of workers with low (or null) exposure to VC. Mortality of 1658 male workers was analyzed by Poisson regression. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for blue collar workers and their specific subgroups of PVC baggers, PVC compound, autoclave and other blue collar workers were calculated using technicians and clerks as an internal reference group. The follow-up covered the period 1972-1999. Significantly increased mortality rates were observed for all causes of death among the whole blue collar workforce (RR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.03-2.35; 229 deaths), PVC baggers (1.72; 95% CI = 1.04-2.83; 49 deaths) and PVC compound workers (1.71; 95% CI = 1.09-2.67; 72 deaths). Liver cancer, including angiosarcoma, was increased among autoclave workers (9.57; 95% CI = 3.71-24.68; 7 deaths) and cardiovascular diseases among PVC baggers (2.25; 95% CI = 1.08-4.70; 12 deaths). Hemolymphopoietic system tumors, leukemias and lymphomas prevalently, were found only among exposed workers, with 4, 4 and 6 deaths observed among PVC baggers, PVC compound and other blue collar workers, respectively. An excess of lung cancer was found among PVC baggers. This cohort analysis, based on internal comparison, confirmed previously reported specific risk excesses for liver tumors and liver cirrhosis among autoclave workers and for lung cancer among PVC baggers, and revealed PVC compound workers as a possible new at risk group for all causes, all tumors and for liver and lung tumors. In conclusion, RRs for all causes of death and all tumors were increased among all

  8. 21 CFR 175.360 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... film. 175.360 Section 175.360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... coatings for nylon film. Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings identified in this section and applied on nylon film may be safely used as food-contact surfaces, in accordance with the following prescribed...

  9. Cold Spray Coating of Submicronic Ceramic Particles on Poly(vinyl alcohol) in Dry and Hydrogel States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, David; Borit, François; Corté, Laurent; Guipont, Vincent

    2017-06-01

    We report an approach using cold spray technology to coat poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in polymer and hydrogel states with hydroxyapatite (HA). Using porous aggregated HA powder, we hypothesized that fragmentation of the powder upon cold spray could lead to formation of a ceramic coating on the surface of the PVA substrate. However, direct spraying of this powder led to complete destruction of the swollen PVA hydrogel substrate. As an alternative, HA coatings were successfully produced by spraying onto dry PVA substrates prior to swelling in water. Dense homogeneous HA coatings composed of submicron particles were obtained using rather low-energy spraying parameters (temperature 200-250 °C, pressure 1-3 MPa). Coated PVA substrates could swell in water without removal of the ceramic layer to form HA-coated hydrogels. Microscopic observations and in situ measurements were used to explain how local heating and impact of sprayed aggregates induced surface roughening and strong binding of HA particles to the molten PVA substrate. Such an approach could lead to design of ceramic coatings whose roughness and crystallinity can be finely adjusted to improve interfacing with biological tissues.

  10. Improvement of Chromium(VI) Extraction from Acidic Solutions Using a Poly(vinyl chloride)-based Polymer Inclusion Membrane with Aliquat 336 as the Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagaya, Shigehiro; Maeno, Tomonori; Ito, Kazuma; Gemmei-Ide, Makoto; Cattrall, Robert W; Kolev, Spas D

    2017-01-01

    An important reason for the inefficient extraction of Cr(VI) from its acidic solutions into polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs), consisting of poly(vinyl chloride) as the base-polymer and Aliquat 336 as the carrier, was found to be associated with the leaching of Aliquat 336 from the PIMs into the solutions, where it subsequently reduced the anionic Cr(VI) species to cationic Cr(III) species. The PIM extraction efficiency for Cr(VI) was significantly improved by the addition of NaNO3 to the solutions, which suppressed the leaching of Aliquat 336 and the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III).

  11. Multiple lines of evidence to demonstrate vinyl chloride aerobic biodegradation in the vadose zone, and factors controlling rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, B. M.; Aravena, R.; Davis, G. B.; Furness, A. J.; Bastow, T. P.; Bouchard, D.

    2013-10-01

    A field-based investigation was conducted at a contaminated site where the vadose zone was contaminated with a range of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The investigation consisted of groundwater and multilevel soil-gas monitoring of a range of contaminants and gases, along with isotope measurements and microbiology studies. The investigation provided multiple lines of evidence that demonstrated aerobic biodegradation of vinyl chloride (VC) was occurring in the vadose zone (i) above the on-site source zone, and (ii) above the downgradient off-site groundwater plume location. Data from both the on-site and off-site locations were consistent in showing substantially greater (an order of magnitude greater) rates of VC removal from the aerobic vadose zone compared to more recalcitrant contaminants trichloroethene (TCE) and tetrachloroethene (PCE). Soil gas VC isotope analysis showed substantial isotopic enrichment of VC (δ13C - 5.2 to - 10.9‰) compared to groundwater (δ13C - 39.5‰) at the on-site location. Soil gas CO2 isotope analysis at both locations showed that CO2 was highly isotopically depleted (δ13C - 28.8 to - 33.3‰), compared to soil gas CO2 data originating from natural sediment organic matter (δ13C = - 14.7 to - 21.3‰). The soil gas CO2 δ13C values were consistent with near-water table VC groundwater δ13C values (- 36.8 to - 39.5‰), suggesting CO2 originating from aerobic biodegradation of VC. Bacteria that had functional genes (ethene monooxygenase (etnC) and epoxyalkane transferase (etnE) involved in ethene metabolism and VC oxidation were more abundant at the source zone where oxygen co-existed with VC. The distribution of VC and oxygen vadose zone vapour plumes, together with long-term changes in soil gas CO2 concentrations and temperature, provided information to elucidate the factors controlling aerobic biodegradation of VC in the vadose zone. Based on the overlapping VC and oxygen vadose zone vapour plumes, aerobic vapour biodegradation

  12. Palladium Nanoparticles Immobilized on Poly(vinyl chloride-Supported Pyridinium as an Efficient and Recyclable Catalyst for Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The palladium nanoparticles immobilized on the polymeric surface of poly(vinyl chloride-supported pyridinium (PVC-Py-Pd0 were achieved by a simple procedure by applying the corresponding functionalized polymer and palladium chloride in ethanol solution. The as-prepared catalyst (PVC-Py-Pd0 was found to be air and moisture stable and exhibits significant catalytic activity for Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction of various aryl halides and phenylboronic acid under milder operating conditions. The procedure presented here showed several merits such as short reaction time, simple experimental and isolated procedure and excellent yields of products. Furthermore, the catalyst can be easily recovered and reused for at least six times with consistent activities.

  13. Flow-injection potentiometry by poly(vinyl chloride)-membrane electrodes with diphosphoryl-dicarboxylicacid-p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene ionophore for the determination of Th(IV) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizani, Farhang; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Yaftian, Mohammad R; Matt, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    A new coated ion-selective electrode for the determination of trace thorium ions by flow-injection potentiometry (FIP) has been developed. A poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based membrane was coated on a graphite electrode. The optimum membrane contained 5 wt% diphosphoryl-dicarboxylicacid-p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene (L) as the ionophore, 59 wt% dioctyl phthalate (DOP), 33 wt% PVC and 3 wt% additive sodium tetraphenylborate. The response was linear from 2.0 × 10(-7) to 1.0 × 10(-2) M with a slope of 13.9 mV decade(-1) and a limit of detection of 9.0 × 10(-8) M. The pH-independent region ranged from 3.15 to 6.5, and the lifetime was longer than 8 weeks when used in the flow injection analysis (FIA) system. Selectivity coefficients for several ions were obtained by the separate solutions method. Results showed that, for all cations used, the selectivity coefficients were in the order of 10(-3), or smaller. The flow cell is simple to construct and free from memory effect problems over long periods of use. The proposed sensor was successfully applied to the direct determination of thorium in both real and synthetic samples.

  14. New coating systems based on vinyl ether- and oxetane-modified hyperbranched polyesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmaljohann, D.; Voit, B.I.; Jansen, J.F.G.A.; Hendriks, Peter; Loontjens, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    A series of hyperbranched aliphatic-aromatic polyesters has been synthesized which contain vinyl ether or oxetane functionalities as curable groups. We investigated the curing behavior of these multifunctional polymers in the presence of reactive diluents in order to analyze the possibility of their

  15. Development of amorphous carbon protective coatings on poly(vinyl)chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, Elidiane C., E-mail: elidiane@sorocaba.unesp.b [Laboratorio de Plasmas Tecnologicos, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Av. Tres de Marco, 511, 18087-180 Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Souza, Eduardo S. de; Moraes, Francine S. de [Laboratorio de Plasmas Tecnologicos, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Av. Tres de Marco, 511, 18087-180 Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Marins, Nazir M.S. [Laboratorio de Plasmas, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Silva, 333, 12516-410 Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Schreiner, Wido H. [Laboratorio de Superficies e Interfaces, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, 81531-990 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Cruz, Nilson C. [Laboratorio de Plasmas Tecnologicos, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Av. Tres de Marco, 511, 18087-180 Sorocaba, SP (Brazil)

    2010-03-01

    The great versatility of polymers has promoted their application in a series of ordinary situations. The development of specific devices from polymers, however, requires modifications to fit specific stipulations. In this work the surface properties of thin films grown onto polyvinylchloride (PVC) were investigated. Hydrogenated amorphous carbon films were deposited onto commercial PVC plates from acetylene and argon plasmas excited by radiofrequency (13.56 MHz, 70 W) power. The proportion of acetylene in the gas feed was varied against that of argon, keeping the total pressure constant at 2.5 Pa. Deposition time was 1800 s. Film elemental composition was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS. Water contact angle measurements were performed using the sessile drop technique. The root mean squared roughness was derived from 50 x 50 {mu}m{sup 2} surface topographic images, acquired by scanning probe microscopy. Nanoindentation and pin-on-disk techniques were employed on the determination of film hardness and sliding wear, respectively. Oxidation resistance was obtained through the etching rate of the samples in oxygen radiofrequency (1.3 Pa, 50 W) plasmas. From XPS analysis it was detected oxygen and nitrogen contamination in all the samples. It was also found that sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} ratio depends on the proportion of argon in the plasma. At lower argon concentrations, hardness, wear and oxidation resistances were all improved with respect to the uncoated PVC. In such conditions, the surface wettability is low indicating a moderate receptivity to water. This combination of properties, ascribed to a balance between the ion bombardment and deposition processes, is suitable for materials exposed to rigorous weathering conditions.

  16. 5-aminolevulinic acid-incorporated poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofiber-coated metal stent for application in photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jin Ju; Kim, Chan; Chung, Chung-Wook; Jeong, Young-Il; Kang, Dae Hwan

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the use of combined photodynamic therapy (PDT) and stent placement for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma (CC). For this purpose, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was incorporated into poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofiber, and coated onto metal stents. Their efficacy was assessed in PDT towards HuCC-T1 CC cells. Fabrication of ALA-PVA nanofiber, and simultaneous coating onto metal stents, was performed through electrospinning. The dark-toxicity, generation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), and PDT effect of ALA and ALA-PVA nanofiber were studied in vitro, using HuCC-T1 CC cells. The ALA-PVA nanofibers were coated onto metal stents less than 1000 nm in diameter. ALA-only displayed marginal cytotoxicity; ALA-PVA nanofiber showed less cytotoxicity. PpIX generation was not sigficantly different between ALA and ALA-PVA nanofiber treatments. PVA itself did not generate PpIX in tumor cells. ALA and ALA-PVA nanofiber displayed a similar PDT effect on tumor cells. Cell viability was decreased, dose-dependently, until ALA concentration reached 100 μg/mL. Necrosis and apoptosis of tumor cells occurred similarly for ALA and ALA- PVA nanofiber treatments. The ALA-PVA nanofiber-coated stent is a promising candidate for therapeutic use with cholangiocarcinoma.

  17. Polydopamine-coated electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid) membranes as efficient dye adsorbent with good recyclability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jiajie; Huang, Yunpeng; Miao, Yue-E; Tjiu, Weng Weei; Liu, Tianxi

    2015-01-01

    Free-standing poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid) (PVA/PAA) membranes with polydopamine (PDA) coating were prepared based on the combination of electrospinning and self-polymerization of dopamine. This is a facile, mild, controllable, and low-energy consumption process without any rigorous restriction to reactive conditions. Benefiting from the high specific surface area of electrospun membranes and the abundant "adhesive" functional groups of polydopamine, the as-prepared membranes exhibit efficient adsorption performance towards methyl blue with the adsorption capacity reaching up to 1147.6 mg g(-1). Moreover, compared to other nanoparticle adsorbents, the as-prepared self-standing membrane is highly flexible, easy to operate and retrieve, and most importantly, easy to elute, and regenerate, which enable its potential applications in wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Aerobic and Anaerobic Transformation of cis-Dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and Vinyl Chloride (VC): Steps for Reliable Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    PCE, TCE, cis-DCE, 1,1-DCE, 1,2- dichloroethane, 1,2-d ibromoethane crs-DCE, VC TCE, cis-DCE cis-DCE, frans -DCE, 1,1-DCE, VC, vinyl bromide, 1,2...chlorinatedhydrocarbons in groundwater. water sci. Technor. 26:67-73. 33’ Muyzer G, De Waal , EC & Uitterlinden.AG (1993) Profiling of complex microbial

  19. Flow-injection potentiometric determination of triiodide by plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrodes and its application to the determination of chlorine-containing disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuño, Joaquín A; Sánchez-Pedreño, Concepción; Hernández, Jorge; Oliva, Domingo J

    2005-03-15

    Plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membranes of different compositions were tested for use in the construction of potentiometric flow detectors for triiodide. A membrane with a 2:1 (w/w) 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether to PVC ratio was selected. The influence of thiosulphate in the carrier solution composition and of the flow-injection variables on the determination of triiodide was studied. In the selected conditions, a linear relationship between peak height and log[I(3)(-)] was obtained between 5 x 10(-6) and 1 x 10(-4)moll(-1) triiodide. Peak height relative standard deviations for 2 x 10(-5) and 1 x 10(-4)moll(-1) triiodide were +/-0.4 and +/-1.8%, respectively, and sampling frequency was 80 samples per hour. The method proposed was applied satisfactorily to the iodometric determination of different chlorine-containing disinfectants, among them trichloroisocyanuric acid and dichloroisocyanurate in several types of commercial sample.

  20. Utilization of Polyaniline (PAni) as Conductive Filler on Poly (Ethylene Oxide) / Poly (Vinyl Chloride) Films: Effects of Naphthalene as Surface Modifier on Electrical Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazid, Mohammed Izzuddeen Bin Mohd; Ghani, Supri A.; Jin, Tan Soo; Fazlina Osman, Azlin; Din, Siti Hajar Mohd

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to utilize polyaniline (PAni) as conductive filler in poly (ethylene oxide) / poly (vinyl chloride) (PEO/PVC) films. Naphthalene was used as surface modifier to increase the properties of PEO/PVC/PAni films. The electrical conductivity of PEO/PVC/PAni film improved with higher loading of PAni until it reached the percolation threshold at 10 wt%. Moreover, the conductivity of the films also improved with the addition of naphthalene compared to the films without naphthalene. These enhancements were due to the improved interfacial bonding between PEO/PVC blend and PAni, which were supported by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. In addition, no new chemical bonding was created with the incorporation of naphthalene as proved by the FTIR analysis.

  1. The effect on poly (ethylene oxide) / poly (vinyl chloride) / polyaniline (PAni) films by ethylene dimethacrylate as surface modifier: electrical conductivity and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazid, M. I. M.; Ghani, S. A.; Osman, A. F.; Din, S. H. M.; Jin, T. S.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, the electrical conductivity and the characterizations of poly (ethylene oxide) / poly (vinyl chloride) / polyaniline (PEO/PVC/PAni) films with and without the presence of Ethylene Dimethacrylate (EDMA) were investigated. The films were prepared using solution casting method using tetrahydrofuran as the solvent. The results indicated that the electrical conductivity of PEO/PVC/PAni films increased as the PAni loadings increased while PEO/PVC/PAni films with EDMA showed higher electrical conductivity than PEO/PVC/PAni films. PEO/PVC/PAni films with EDMA showed a value as high as 0.68 × 10-4 S/mm as it enhanced the interfacial adhesion between the matrix and the filler as proved by the SEM morphology. Meanwhile, the FTIR analysis confirmed there are no new chemical bonding occurred with the introduction of EDMA into the films.

  2. A highly selective fluorescent sensor for Cu{sup 2+} based on 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole in a poly(vinyl chloride) matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xiaobing [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Peng Jing [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); He Chunlian [Medical college, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410006 (China); Shen Guoli [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Yu Ruqin [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China)]. E-mail: rqyu@hnu.cn

    2006-05-17

    This paper describes a copper selective optical chemical sensor based on static quenching of the fluorescence of 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole entrapped in a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane. The effect of the composition of the sensing membrane was studied, and experimental conditions were optimized. The sensors exhibit stable response over the concentration range from 4.0 x 10{sup -8} M to 5.0 x 10{sup -5} M Cu{sup 2+} at pH 4.0-6.5, and a high selectivity. The response time for Cu{sup 2+} with concentration {<=}5 x 10{sup -6} M is less than 7 min. The optode can be regenerated using 0.1 M HCl and acetate buffer solution. The sensor has been used for direct measurement of copper content in river water samples with a relative error less than 4% with reference to that obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry.

  3. Surface characterization of poly(vinyl chloride) urinary catheters functionalized with acrylic acid and poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate using gamma-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islas, Luisa [Departamento de Química de Radiaciones y Radioquímica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Ruiz, Juan-Carlos [División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería, Depto. de Ingeniería de Procesos e Hidráulica, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Muñoz-Muñoz, Franklin [Facultad de Ingeniería, Arquitectura y Diseño, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Carretera Transpeninsular Ensenada-Tijuana 3917, Ensenada, B.C. C.P 22860 (Mexico); Isoshima, Takashi [Nano Medical Engineering Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Burillo, Guillermina, E-mail: burillo@nucleares.unam.mx [Departamento de Química de Radiaciones y Radioquímica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • Polymer grafting using gamma-radiation allowed for acrylic acid and poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate to graft on the inner and outer surface of poly(vinyl chloride) urinary catheters. • HR-XPS revealed the different compositional percentages of the compounds present on the surface of the catheter. • Catheters that were grafted with PEGMA had the roughest surface as observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser microscopy (CLM). - Abstract: Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) urinary catheters were modified with either a single or binary graft of acrylic acid (AAc) and/or poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) using gamma-radiation from {sup 60}Co to obtain PVC-g-AAc, PVC-g-PEGMA, [PVC-g-AAc]-g-PEGMA, and [PVC-g-PEGMA]-g-AAc copolymers. The outer and inner surfaces of the modified catheters were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser microscopy (CLM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS analyses, by examining the correlation between the variation of the C{sub 1s} and O{sub 1s} content at the catheter’s surface, revealed that the catheter’s surfaces were successfully grafted with the chosen compounds, with those that were binary grafted showing a slightly more covered surface as was evidenced by the disappearance of PVC’s Cl peak. The SEM and CLM analyses revealed that catheters that had been grafted with PEGMA had a rougher outer surface as compared to those that had only been grafted with AAc. In addition, these imaging techniques showed that the inner surface of the singly grafted catheters, whether they had been grafted with AAc or PEGMA, retained some smoothness at the analyzed grafting percentages, while the binary grafted catheters showed many protuberances and greater roughness on both outer and inner surfaces.

  4. Preparation and characterization of underwater superoleophobic chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) coatings for self-cleaning and oil/water separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qian; Fu, Youjia; Yan, Xiaoxia; Chang, Yanjiao; Ren, Lili; Zhou, Jiang

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Underwater superoleophobic CS/PVA coatings were prepared using a facile method. • Immersion in NaOH solution was crucial to enhance roughness of the coating surface. • Effects of coating composition on wettability of coating surface were investigated. • The CS/PVA coatings possess self-cleaning property. • The CS/PVA coatings can be used for oil/water separation with high efficiency. - Abstract: In this paper, chitosan (CS)/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) coatings cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) were prepared. Effects of the coating composition and NaOH solution treatment on surface morphology and topography were investigated by scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. It was found that the process of immersing the CS/PVA coatings into NaOH solution was crucial to enhance rough structure on the coating surface. The rough surface structure and the hydrophilic groups of CS and PVA made the CS/PVA coatings possess underwater superoleophobicity and low adhesion to oil. Oil contact angle of the prepared CS/PVA coatings was up to 161° and slide angle was only 3°. Moreover, the CS/PVA coatings showed stable superoleophobicity in high salt, strong acidic, and alkaline environments as well as underwater self-cleaning property and excellent transparency. The CS/PVA coatings could be used for gravity driven oil/water separation with high efficiency.

  5. Cellular response to poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofibers coated with biocompatible proteins and polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So Young; Jang, Da Hyun; Kang, Yun Ok; Kim, O. Bok; Jeong, Lim; Kang, Hyun Ki; Lee, Seung Jin; Lee, Chong-Heon; Park, Won Ho; Min, Byung-Moo

    2012-07-01

    A PVA nanofibrous matrix was prepared by electrospinning an aqueous 10 wt% PVA solution. The mean diameter of the PVA nanofibers electrospun from the aqueous PVA solution was 240 nm. The water resistance of the as-spun PVA nanofibrous matrix was improved by physically crosslinking the PVA nanofibers by heat treatment at 150 °C for 10 min. In addition, the heat-treated PVA nanofibrous matrix was coated with biocompatible polysaccharides (chitosan (CHI) or hyaluronic acid (HA)) and proteins (collagen (COL) or silk fibroin (SF)) to construct biomimetic nanofibrous scaffolds. The coating of proteins or polysaccharides on the PVA nanofibrous matrix was confirmed by ATR-IR spectra, and the degree of coating was determined by elemental analysis based on nitrogen content. The coated PVA matrices exhibited less hydrophilicity, except for the HA coating, and better tensile properties than the pure PVA nanofibrous matrix. The increase in tensile properties was due to interfiber bonds formed by the coating. The effect of protein and polysaccharide coating on normal human keratinocytes (NHEKs) and fibroblasts (NHEFs) was examined by cytocompatibility assessment in vitro. Among the CHI-, COL-, HA- and SF-coated PVA matrices, the SF-coated PVA nanofibrous matrix was found to be the most promising scaffold for the attachment and spreading of NHEKs and NHEFs as compared to the pure PVA matrix. This approach to controlling the surface properties of nanofibrous structures with SF may be useful in the design and tailoring of novel matrices for skin regeneration.

  6. [To the question of the optimization of methods for detection of vinyl chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane, and their metabolites in biological fluids in workers involved in production of polyvinyl chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhurba, O M; Alekseenko, A N

    2014-01-01

    There is considered the improvement of methodological approaches to the gas chromatographic methods- of the detection of vinyl chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane and their metabolites--chloroethanol and monochloroacetic acid in biological fluids. There were evaluated such metrological characteristics of methods, as repeatability, interlaboratoty precision, relevance and accuracy. The value of relative expanded uncertainty does not exceed 30%. There are reported optimal regimes of gas chromatographic analysis, conditions for sample preparation. The results of the contents ofthese chemical compounds and their metabolites in biological fluids from persons working in contact with chlorinated hydrocarbons are presented These techniques can be used for the detection ofthe fact of exposure to toxic substances, assessment of the level of exposure and biomonitoring.

  7. Evaluation of liver enzyme levels in workers exposed to vinyl chloride vapors in a petrochemical complex: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolati Mandana

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyvinyl chloride is used in production and manufacturing of many essential tools (e.g. plastic pipes, photography films, etc.. Its production is impossible without the use of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM, which can cause liver damage in long-term. In this study we intend to assess the effects of mild to moderate long term exposure to VCM on liver and to assess the importance of liver enzyme measurements as a screening tool. Methods In this study, liver enzyme levels of 52 workers were compared to 48 control workers using the T-test. The cases all worked in a PVC production unit in a petrochemical complex and the controls were randomly selected from office personnel of the same complex. A questionnaire was also filled in about information such as age, weight, work history, etc. in both groups. Results Mean comparisons for ALP and GGT using T-test showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. For AST, ALT and bilirubin (total, direct the mean was higher in the case group but this difference was not statistically significant. Discussion This study showed that mild exposure to VCM can cause mild liver cholestasis. So, using cholestasis assessment tests such as ALP and GGT should be considered in periodic assessment of liver function in PVC producing units.

  8. Understanding the Science Behind How Methylene Chloride/Phenolic Chemical Paint Strippers Remove Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    polyurethane topcoat in methylene chloride blended with phenol, hexadecane, 1- butanol , 1-propanol, ethanol, or methanol ..............49 48. Volume swell of...effective. The unique properties of phenol arise from a very special relationship between the aromatic ring and its hydroxyl group. Briefly, this group...intermolecular bonds between the solvent and coating, a process that is governed by the chemical physics of polymer solutions.7-10 Thermodynamically , this

  9. Integrated antifouling and bactericidal polymer membranes through bioinspired polydopamine/poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianghong; Yuan, Shuaishuai; Shi, Dean; Yang, Yingkui; Jiang, Tao; Yan, Shunjie; Shi, Hengchong; Luan, Shifang; Yin, Jinghua

    2016-07-01

    Polypropylene (PP) non-woven has been widely used as wound dressing; however, the hydrophobic nature of PP can initiate bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation. Herein, we propose a facile approach to functionalize PP non-woven with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone)-iodine complex (PVP-I). PVP and PEG were successively tethered onto PP non-woven surface via versatile bioinspired dopamine (DA) chemistry, followed by complexing iodine with PVP moieties. It was demonstrated through the field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) and spread plate method that the as-modified PP non-woven integrated both antifouling property of PEG for suppressing bacterial adhesion, and bactericidal property of PVP-I for killing the few adherent bacteria. Meanwhile, it could greatly resist platelet and red blood cell adhesion. The integrated antifouling and bactericidal PP non-woven surfaces might have great potential in various wound dressing applications.

  10. Hygroscopicity of a sugarless coating layer formed by the interaction between mannitol and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Masaharu; Tanaka, Shouko; Tamura, Koichi; Sakata, Yukoh

    2014-11-01

    A sugarless layer that provides protection against moisture is formed on tablets when a coating solution comprising mannitol and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) is applied. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the formation of such a sugarless layer and the resulting hygroscopic properties in order to derive an appropriate sugarless coating. The hygroscopicity of the sugarless layer is shown to be strongly affected by the addition of PVA, and has the lowest at concentration ratios between 15:2.5 and 15:4 (w/w) of mannitol and PVA. The polymorphic form of mannitol is different in formulations with different mannitol:PVA concentration ratios. Mannitol occurs in the α-form at mannitol:PVA concentration ratios between 15:1 and 15:4 (w/w). Moreover, PVA affects the molecular motions in the region associated with the OH stretch, OH deformation, and CH2 wag of mannitol. In particular, the molecular motions change considerably at mannitol:PVA concentration ratio of 15:2.5 and 15:4 (w/w). In addition, the surface state of the sugarless layer depends on the amount of PVA added, and exhibits the smoothest surface at a mannitol:PVA concentration ratio between 15:2.5 and 15:4 (w/w). Thus, the hygroscopicity is related to the surface states of the sugarless layer, which, in turn, is affected by the change in the molecular motions of mannitol due to the interactions between mannitol and PVA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The long-term effects of occupational exposure to vinyl chloride monomer on microcirculation: a cross-sectional study 15 years after retirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Vincent; Chamoux, Alain; Tempier, Marion; Thiel, Hélène; Ughetto, Sylvie; Trousselard, Marion; Naughton, Geraldine; Dutheil, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess residual long-term microcirculation abnormalities by capillaroscopy, 15 years after retiring from occupational exposure to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Allier, one of the major areas of polyvinyl chloride production in France. Participants We screened 761 (97% men) retired workers exposed to chemical toxics. Exposure to chemicals other than VCM excluded potential participants. Primary and secondary outcome measures These participants underwent a medical examination including a capillaroscopy, symptoms of Raynaud and comorbidities, as well as a survey to determine exposure time, direct or indirect contact, type of occupation, smoking status and time after exposure. A double blind analysis of capillaroscopic images was carried out. A control group was matched in age, sex, type of occupation. Results 179/761 retired workers were only exposed to VCM at their work, with 21 meeting the inclusion criteria and included. Exposure time was 29.8±1.9 years and time after exposure was 15.9±2.4 years. Retired workers previously exposed to VCM had significantly higher capillaroscopic modifications than the 35 controls: enlarged capillaries (19% vs 0%, p<0.001), dystrophy (28.6% vs 0%, p=0.0012) and augmented length (33% vs 0%, p<0.001). Time exposure was linked (p<0.001) with enlarged capillaries (R2=0.63), dystrophy (R2=0.51) and capillary length (R2=0.36). They also had higher symptoms of Raynaud (19% vs 0%, p=0.007) without correlation with capillaroscopic modifications. Conclusions Although VCM exposure was already known to affect microcirculation, our study demonstrates residual long-term abnormalities following an average of 15 years’ retirement, with a time-related exposure response. Symptoms of Raynaud, although statistically associated with exposure, were not related to capillaroscopic modifications; its origin remains to be determined. PMID:23794583

  12. The long-term effects of occupational exposure to vinyl chloride monomer on microcirculation: a cross-sectional study 15 years after retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Vincent; Chamoux, Alain; Tempier, Marion; Thiel, Hélène; Ughetto, Sylvie; Trousselard, Marion; Naughton, Geraldine; Dutheil, Frédéric

    2013-06-20

    To assess residual long-term microcirculation abnormalities by capillaroscopy, 15 years after retiring from occupational exposure to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). Cross-sectional study. Allier, one of the major areas of polyvinyl chloride production in France. We screened 761 (97% men) retired workers exposed to chemical toxics. Exposure to chemicals other than VCM excluded potential participants. These participants underwent a medical examination including a capillaroscopy, symptoms of Raynaud and comorbidities, as well as a survey to determine exposure time, direct or indirect contact, type of occupation, smoking status and time after exposure. A double blind analysis of capillaroscopic images was carried out. A control group was matched in age, sex, type of occupation. 179/761 retired workers were only exposed to VCM at their work, with 21 meeting the inclusion criteria and included. Exposure time was 29.8±1.9 years and time after exposure was 15.9±2.4 years. Retired workers previously exposed to VCM had significantly higher capillaroscopic modifications than the 35 controls: enlarged capillaries (19% vs 0%, p<0.001), dystrophy (28.6% vs 0%, p=0.0012) and augmented length (33% vs 0%, p<0.001). Time exposure was linked (p<0.001) with enlarged capillaries (R(2)=0.63), dystrophy (R(2)=0.51) and capillary length (R(2)=0.36). They also had higher symptoms of Raynaud (19% vs 0%, p=0.007) without correlation with capillaroscopic modifications. Although VCM exposure was already known to affect microcirculation, our study demonstrates residual long-term abnormalities following an average of 15 years' retirement, with a time-related exposure response. Symptoms of Raynaud, although statistically associated with exposure, were not related to capillaroscopic modifications; its origin remains to be determined.

  13. Exposure of Daphnia magna to trichloroethylene (TCE) and vinyl chloride (VC): evaluation of gene transcription, cellular activity, and life-history parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Magali; Douville, Mélanie; Gagnon, Pierre; Sproull, Jim; Cloutier, François

    2015-06-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous contaminant classified as a human carcinogen. Vinyl chloride (VC) is primarily used to manufacture polyvinyl chloride and can also be a degradation product of TCE. Very few data exist on the toxicity of TCE and VC in aquatic organisms particularly at environmentally relevant concentrations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sub-lethal effects (10 day exposure; 0.1; 1; 10 µg/L) of TCE and VC in Daphnia magna at the gene, cellular, and life-history levels. Results indicated impacts of VC on the regulation of genes related to glutathione-S-transferase (GST), juvenile hormone esterase (JHE), and the vitelline outer layer membrane protein (VMO1). On the cellular level, exposure to 0.1, 1, and 10 µg/L of VC significantly increased the activity of JHE in D. magna and TCE increased the activity of chitinase (at 1 and 10 µg/L). Results for life-history parameters indicated a possible tendency of TCE to affect the number of molts at the individual level in D. magna (p=0.051). Measurement of VG-like proteins using the alkali-labile phosphates (ALP) assay did not show differences between TCE treated organisms and controls. However, semi-quantitative measurement using gradient gel electrophoresis (213-218 kDa) indicated significant decrease in VG-like protein levels following exposure to TCE at all three concentrations. Overall, results indicate effects of TCE and VC on genes and proteins related to metabolism, reproduction, and growth in D. magna. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydrogenation induced deviation of temperature and concentration dependences of polymer-solvent interactions in poly(vinyl chloride) and a new eco-friendly plasticizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Rongchun; Wang, Xiaoliang; Sun, Pingchuan; Chen, Wei; Shen, Jianyi; Xue, Gi

    2015-06-01

    As a substitute for di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DOP), a new eco-friendly plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl) cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DEHHP), was systematically studied in this work, mainly focusing on its interaction with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). The temperature and concentration dependences of polymer-solvent interactions in PVC/DEHHP were systematically investigated by rheology, low-field NMR and molecular dynamics simulations, and the results were quite different from those in PVC/DOP. With temperature increasing or PVC concentration decreasing, rheology experiments revealed that polymer-solvent interactions in PVC/DEHHP were weaker than that in PVC/DOP. Low-field 1H NMR results showed that the number of polymer-solvent complexes decreased as temperature increased. A faster decreasing rate of this number made the polymer-solvent interactions weaker in PVC/DEHHP than in PVC/DOP. Molecular dynamics simulations were further performed to study the role of polymer-solvent hydrogen bonding interactions in the systems. The radial distribution function showed that heating and dilution both resulted in faster molecular motions, and disassociation of the hydrogen bonds in the simplex hydrogen bonding system. Therefore, heating and dilution had an equivalent effect on the polymer-solvent interactions.

  15. Adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to untreated and oxygen-plasma treated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) from endotracheal intubation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triandafillu, K; Balazs, D J; Aronsson, B-O; Descouts, P; Tu Quoc, P; van Delden, C; Mathieu, H J; Harms, H

    2003-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia is a life threatening complication in mechanically ventilated patients that requires the ability of the bacteria to adhere to, and colonize the endotracheal intubation device. New strategies to prevent or reduce these nosocomial infections are greatly needed. We report here the study of a set of P. aeruginosa clinical isolates, together with specific mutants, regarding their adhesion on native and chemically modified poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) surfaces from endotracheal intubation devices. The adhesion of the different strains to untreated PVC varied widely, correlating with several physico-chemical characteristics known to influence the attachment of bacteria to inert surfaces. The adhesion patterns were compared to the calculations obtained with the DLVO theory of colloidal stability. These results illustrate the importance of testing different clinical isolates when investigating bacterial adhesion. Oxygen plasma treatment of the PVC pieces yielded a hydrophilic surface and reduced the number of adhering bacteria by as much as 70%. This reduction is however unlikely to be sufficient to prevent P. aeruginosa colonization of endotracheal intubation devices. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  16. Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate migration from irradiated poly(vinyl chloride) blood bags for graft-vs-host disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Marcella; Marcella, Ferri; Chiellini, Federica; Federica, Chiellini; Pili, Giorgio; Giorgio, Pili; Grimaldi, Luca; Luca, Grimaldi; Florio, Elena Tiziana; Pili, Stefania; Stefania, Pili; Cucci, Francesco; Francesco, Cucci; Latini, Giuseppe; Giuseppe, Latini

    2012-07-01

    Irradiation with 20-25 kGy is a process commonly used for sterilizing poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) medical devices. Moreover, whole blood and blood components undergo additional irradiation with 25-50 Gy to inhibit the proliferative capacity of lymphocytes and reduce the risk of transfusion-associated graft-vs-host disease (GVHD). Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) plasticized PVC is extensively used for the production of flexible medical devices including blood bags, but since DEHP is not covalently bound to PVC, it tends to migrate and leach out of the medical device, with harmful consequences for the patients. In this study, the effects of different doses of gamma irradiation on DEHP migration from PVC blood bags was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Our findings indicate that irradiation with 25-100 Gy reduces the ability of DEHP to migrate from the blood bags, and in the case of a primary container a correlation between the doses of gamma ray irradiation was also observed. In particular, a decrease in DEHP leachability was obtained by increasing the dose of gamma ray irradiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The concomitant development of poly(vinyl chloride)-related biofilm and antimicrobial resistance in relation to ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, S P; McGovern, J G; Woolfson, A D; Adair, C G; Jones, D S

    2001-10-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a major cause of death in intensive care patients and the endotracheal tube, commonly fabricated from poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), is acknowledged as a significant factor in this. Bacteria colonise the biomaterial, thereby adopting a sessile mode of growth that progresses to the establishment of an antibiotic-resistant biofilm by the accretion of a protective glycocalyx. This study examined the sequential steps involved in the formation of biofilm on PVC by atomic force microscopy and the concomitant development of resistance to an antibiotic (ceftazidime) and to a non-antibiotic antimicrobial agent (hexetidine). Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from ET tube biofilm were employed. The surface microrugosity of bacteria growing in sessile mode on PVC decreased significantly (p or = 24 h) significantly more resistant (p < 0.05) than early sessile populations (< or = 4 h). Importantly, for practice, even newly colonised bacteria (1 h) were significantly more resistant to antibiotic than planktonic bacteria. Hexetidine was significantly more active (p < 0.05) than ceftazidime on biofilms of both isolates, irrespective of age, with total kill within 24 h treatment. Hexetidine may offer promise in the resolution of infection associated with PVC endotracheal tubes.

  18. Correlation of chromosome damage and promoter methylation status of the DNA repair genes MGMT and hMLH1 in Chinese vinyl chloride monomer (VCM-exposed workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Wu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the association of the methylation status of MGMT and hMLH1 with chromosome damage induced by vinyl chloride monomer (VCM. Materials and Methods: Methylation of MGMT and hMLH1 was measured in 101 VCM-exposed workers by methylation-specifi c PCR. Chromosome damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes was measured by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. The subjects were divided into chromosome damaged and non-damaged groups based on the normal reference value of micronuclei frequencies determined for two control groups. Results: MGMT promoter methylation was detectable in 5 out of 49 chromosome damaged subjects, but not in the chromosome non-damaged subjects; there was a signifi cant difference in MGMT methylation between the two groups (p < 0.05. Conclusions: We detected aberrant promoter methylation of MGMT in a small number of chromosome damaged VCM-exposed workers, but not in the chromosome non-damaged subjects. This preliminary observation warrants further investigation in a larger study.

  19. Effect of Fe(III) on 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane degradation and vinyl chloride accumulation in wetland sediments of the Aberdeen Proving Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elizabeth; Voytek, Mary; Lorah, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane (TeCA) contaminated groundwater at the Aberdeen Proving Ground discharges through an anaerobic wetland in West Branch Canal Creek (MD), where dechlorination occurs. Two microbially mediated pathways, dichloroelimination and hydrogenolysis, account for most of the TeCA degradation at this site. The dichloroelimination pathways lead to the formation of vinyl chloride (VC), a recalcitrant carcinogen of great concern. The goal of this investigation was to determine whether microbially-available Fe(III) in the wetland surface sediment influenced the fate of TeCA and its daughter products. Differences were identified in the TeCA degradation pathway between microcosms treated with amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide (AFO-treated) and untreated (no AFO) microcosms. TeCA degradation was accompanied by a lower accumulation of VC in AFO-treated microcosms than untreated microcosms. The microcosm incubations and subsequent experiments with the microcosm materials showed that AFO treatment resulted in lower production of VC by (1) shifting TeCA degradation from dichloroelimination pathways to production of a greater proportion of chlorinated ethane products, and (2) decreasing the microbial capability to produce VC from 1,2-dichloroethene (DCE). VC degradation was not stimulated in the presence of Fe(III). Rather, VC degradation occurred readily under methanogenic conditions and was inhibited under Fe(III)-reducing conditions.

  20. Characterization of an H2-utilizing enrichment culture that reductively dechlorinates tetrachloroethene to vinyl chloride and ethene in the absence of methanogenesis and acetogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maymó-Gatell, X; Tandoi, V; Gossett, J M; Zinder, S H

    1995-11-01

    We have been studying an anaerobic enrichment culture which, by using methanol as an electron donor, dechlorinates tetrachloroethene (PCE) to vinyl chloride and ethene. Our previous results indicated that H2 was the direct electron donor for rductive dechlorination of PCE by the methanol-PCE culture. Most-probable-number counts performed on this culture indicated low numbers ( or equal to 10(6)/ml)) of sulfidogens, methanol-utilizing acetogens, fermentative heterotrophs, and PCE dechlorinators using H2. An anaerobic H2-PCE enrichment culture was derived from a 10(-6) dilution of the methanol-PCE culture. This H2-PCE culture used PCE at increasing rates over time when transferred to fresh medium and could be transferred indefinitely with H2 as the electron donor for the PCE dechlorination, indicating that H2-PCE can serve as an electron donor-acceptor pair for energy conservation and growth. Sustained PCE dechlorination by this culture was supported by supplementation with 0.05 mg of vitamin B12 per liter, 25% (vol/vol) anaerobic digestor sludge supernatant, and 2 mM acetate, which presumably served as a carbon source. Neither methanol nor acetate could serve as an electron donor for dechlorination by the H2-PCE culture, and it did not produce CH4 or acetate from H2-CO2 or methanol, indicating the absence of methanogenic and acetogenic bacteria. Microscopic observatios of the pruified H2-PCE culture showed only two major morphotypes: irregular cocci and small rods.

  1. Dielectric behavior of CaCu3Ti4O12: Poly Vinyl Chloride ceramic polymer composites at different temperature and frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Pratap Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the efforts have been made to obtain relatively high dielectric constant polymer-ceramic composite by incorporating the giant dielectric constant material, calcium copper titanate (CCTO in a PVC polymer matrix. We have prepared composites of CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO ceramic and Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC polymer in various ratios (by volume in addition to pure CCTO. For this, CCTO was prepared by the conventional oxide route (solid-state reaction method. The structural, the microstructural and the dielectric properties of the composites were studied using X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope, and impedance analyzer respectively. The study of dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the pure CCTO and the composites reveal that there is good range of dielectric constants and dielectric losses for the studied composites. The pure sample of CCTO exhibits giant dielectric constant at low frequency within the studied temperature range. As frequency increases, dielectric constant drastically decreases and approaching a constant value at 1 MHz. Above the intermediate temperature, the dielectric constant and dielectric loss for pure CCTO is more frequency dependent than its composites.

  2. Preparation and characterization of underwater superoleophobic chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) coatings for self-cleaning and oil/water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Fu, Youjia; Yan, Xiaoxia; Chang, Yanjiao; Ren, Lili; Zhou, Jiang

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, chitosan (CS)/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) coatings cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) were prepared. Effects of the coating composition and NaOH solution treatment on surface morphology and topography were investigated by scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. It was found that the process of immersing the CS/PVA coatings into NaOH solution was crucial to enhance rough structure on the coating surface. The rough surface structure and the hydrophilic groups of CS and PVA made the CS/PVA coatings possess underwater superoleophobicity and low adhesion to oil. Oil contact angle of the prepared CS/PVA coatings was up to 161° and slide angle was only 3°. Moreover, the CS/PVA coatings showed stable superoleophobicity in high salt, strong acidic, and alkaline environments as well as underwater self-cleaning property and excellent transparency. The CS/PVA coatings could be used for gravity driven oil/water separation with high efficiency.

  3. Temperature Dependent Electrical Transport in Al/Poly(4-vinyl phenol/p-GaAs Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor by Sol-Gel Spin Coating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şadan Özden

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deposition of poly(4-vinyl phenol insulator layer is carried out by applying the spin coating technique onto p-type GaAs substrate so as to create Al/poly(4-vinyl phenol/p-GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS structure. Temperature was set to 80–320 K while the current-voltage (I-V characteristics of the structure were examined in the study. Ideality factor (n and barrier height (ϕb values found in the experiment ranged from 3.13 and 0.616 eV (320 K to 11.56 and 0.147 eV (80 K. Comparing the thermionic field emission theory and thermionic emission theory, the temperature dependent ideality factor behavior displayed that thermionic field emission theory is more valid than the latter. The calculated tunneling energy was 96 meV.

  4. Histomorphometric Assessment of Implant Coating with A Mixture of Strontium Chloride and Hydroxyapatite at Different Concentration

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    Jani Ghasak H

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/purpose: Surface properties are one of the major keys of successful implant osseointegration in addition to mechanical strength and excellent biocompatibility of implant material. The purpose of this study is to make histological and histomorphometric analysis of an implant coated with strontium chloride (SrCl2 mixed with hydroxyapatite (HA at different concentrations, in rabbit tibia at 2 and 6 weeks of implantation time. Method: 48 commercially pure titanium screw shaped implants were placed in 24 healthy adult New Zeeland rabbits, each rabbit received 2 implants; one coated with mixture 1 (25% HA and 75% SrCl2 and the other coated with mixture 2 (75% HA and 25% SrCl2. Twelve rabbits were sacrificed at 2 weeks of healing and other twelve after 6 weeks. The new bone area and number of cells (osteoblast and osteoclast were assessed by light microscope. Result: Statistical analysis showed significant differences in new bone formation ratio after 2 weeks of healing and non-significant differences after 6 weeks of healing. Data also suggested that osteoblast was increased, and osteoclast was decreased in mixture 2 (75% HA and 25% SrCl2 more than mixture 1 (25% HA and 75% SrCl2. Conclusion: There was a significantly higher new bone formation ratio of mix 2 (25%Sr-75%HA coated Cp-Ti implants than mix 1 (75% Sr- 25% HA coated Cp-Ti implant at 2 weeks healing period, also there was an increase in new bone formation ratio with time for both coated materials (SrCl2 implants.

  5. Electroanalytical studies on cobalt(II) selective potentiometric sensor based on bridge modified calixarene in poly(vinyl chloride)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, V.K.; Jain, A.K.; Raisoni, J.R. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Khayat, M. Al [Department of Chemistry, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Sharjah (United Arab Emirates); Bhargava, S.K. [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne 3001 (Australia)

    2008-06-30

    A bridge modified 4-tert-butylthiacalix[4]arene (I) has been employed as electroactive material in the preparation of cobalt selective sensor. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-based membranes of (I) using sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) as anion discriminator and bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (DOS), chloronaphthalene (CN), tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP), o-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), tris(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (TEHP) as plasticizers were prepared and investigated as cobalt selective sensors. A number of membranes of different compositions were prepared and investigated. The best performance was observed with the membrane having composition of 2:66:1.5:127 (mg) = I:NaTPB:PVC:NPOE. The potential response of this membrane is linear to Co{sup 2+} ions in the concentration range 5.3 x 10{sup -6} to 1.0 x 10{sup -1} M with near-Nernstian slope of 30.0 mV/decade of activity and a detection limit of {proportional_to}0.3 ppm. This membrane also showed lowest response time of 10 s and works satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous medium. The selectivity studies of this sensor, evaluated with fixed interference method and matched potential method, show that the sensor under consideration possesses excellent selectivity for Co{sup 2+} over a large number of mono-, bi- and trivalent cations such as Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ag{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Li{sup +}, Ba{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, Ni{sup 2+}, etc. The sensor could be used as an indicator electrode in the quantification of Co{sup 2+} by potentiometric titration against EDTA as well as in determination of cobalt content in wastewater and beer samples. (author)

  6. Role of physiological conditions in the oropharynx on the adherence of respiratory bacterial isolates to endotracheal tube poly(vinyl chloride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D S; McGovern, J G; Woolfson, A D; Gorman, S P

    1997-03-01

    Pneumonia is a major problem in intensive care patients and can be induced by pathogenic bacteria adhering to poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) endotracheal (ET) tubes. This study examines the influence of surface properties on the adherence of the respiratory isolates Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to PVC. In particular, the influence of respiratory tract physiological conditions, 5% CO2 and saliva, on adherence was investigated. In general, decreased adherence to PVC was observed when bacteria were grown in CO2. When these CO2-grown bacteria were treated with saliva their adherence to PVC significantly increased; however, their adherence was significantly reduced to saliva-treated PVC. Treatment of both bacterial isolates with saliva decreased their negative zeta potential, a factor which may directly contribute to the observed increased microbial (saliva pretreated) adherence to PVC. Cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) was evaluated by measuring the initial rates of microbial removal from a buffered aqueous phase, to ensure the absence of electrostatic interactions, to an organic phase (xylene). Under physiological conditions, CSH did not appear to be a dominant factor in biomaterial adherence as the CSH of S. aureus was decreased by saliva treatment but was unchanged for Ps. aeruginosa. Additionally, CSH also differed for the two isolates when grown in CO2, significantly decreasing with S. aureus but remaining unaltered with Ps. aeruginosa. Saliva treatment of PVC also decreased the advancing and receding contact angles of the biomaterial and its surface roughness, which may be a factor in the decreased adherence of saliva-treated bacteria to this surface. Alternative biomaterials or surface modifications appear necessary for the desired improvements in ET tube effectiveness. This study highlights the influence of physiological conditions on biomaterial and bacterial surface characteristics and subsequent interactions. It is imperative that the

  7. Assessment of a groundwater contamination with vinyl chloride (VC) and precursor volatile organic compounds (VOC) by use of a geographical information system (GIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistemann, Thomas; Hundhausen, Joachim; Herbst, Susanne; Classen, Thomas; Färber, Harald

    2008-07-01

    Regarding the health effects of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and their decomposition products (particularly vinyl chloride (VC)) under chronic low-dose exposure, VOC groundwater contaminations are seen to be an ongoing public health issue. This article presents results of a long-term investigation surveying VOC and VC groundwater contamination upstream of a large groundwater works in Cologne, Germany. For 10 years a contaminated aquifer has been monitored for different VOC and for VC. In total, 255 samples have been taken to assess both the 3-dimensional distribution and the temporal dynamics of the contaminants. VOC and VC precursor substances have been measured by means of pentane-liquid-liquid-extraction, GC and ECD, VC by means of derivatisation to 1,2 dibromochloroethane, GC, ECD, and by purge and trap technique and GC-MS-coupling. For spatial analysis all test results and additional hydrogeological attribute data have been transferred to a GIS. The spatial VOC distribution has been assessed by use of kriging interpolation indicating a decrease of the initial contaminants in time. A cluster analysis allowed to distinguish several independent contaminations within the large contamination area. The VC contamination was increasing. Anaerobic microbial dechlorination of VOC and subsequent VC accumulation were seen to be as credible from several indications (VC presence, downstream change of tetra/trichloroethylene-ratio and anaerobic conditions in the aquifer, high Fe(2+)- and Mn(2+)-concentrations). There was no statistically significant vertical differentiation of VOC and VC concentrations. The VOC load within the different water protection zones of the waterworks could be assessed.

  8. Improved permeation performance and fouling-resistance of Poly(vinyl chloride/Polycarbonate blend membrane with added Pluronic F127

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supateekan Pacharasakoolchai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to prepare and characterize poly(vinyl chloride (PVC/polycarbonate (PC blend membranes for use in ultrafiltration. Pluronic F127 was used as an additive to modify the membrane surface of the PVC/PC blended membranes. The PVC/PC blend membrane was first prepared using the phase inversion method from a casting solution of PVC with small amount of PC in N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP and water as the non-solvent. The morphologies structure and properties, such as tensile strength, water flux, and bovine serum albumin (BSA rejection of the blend membrane were studied. Increased amounts of PC resulted in an increase in the water flux and ability to reject protein. A concentration of 0.75 wt% PC provided the best improvement in tensile strength of blend membrane. Addition of different amounts of pluronic F127 to the casting solution of PVC/PC with a PC concentration of 0.75 wt% resulted in a decrease in the water contact angle that demonstrated the improvement of hydrophilicity of blend membrane. Scanning electron microscopy photographs showed that the modified PVC/PC membranes had a bigger pore volume in the porous sub-layer compared to the PVC/PC control membrane. The PVC/PC membrane with added Pluronic F127 exhibited a much higher flux and rejection of BSA in a protein filtration experiment than the PVC/PC membrane. An increase in flux recovery ratio of PVC/PC/pluronic 127 blend membrane indicated that the modified membranes could reduce membrane fouling useful for ultrafiltration.

  9. Electroanalytical studies on cadmium(II) selective potentiometric sensors based on t-butyl thiacalix[4]arene and thiacalix[4]arene in poly(vinyl chloride)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Vinod K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667, Uttaranchal (India)], E-mail: vinodfcy@iitr.ernet.in; Jain, Ajay K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667, Uttaranchal (India); Ludwig, Rainer [Institute for Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Freie Universitaet, Berlin 14195 (Germany); Maheshwari, Gaurav [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667, Uttaranchal (India)

    2008-01-01

    Cd{sup 2+}-selective sensors have been fabricated from poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix membranes containing t-butyl thiacalix[4]arene (I) and thiacalix[4]arene (II) as electroactive materials. The addition of sodium tetraphenylborate and the plasticizer 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether has been found to improve the performance of the sensors substantially. The membranes of various compositions of the two thiacalixarenes have been investigated and it was found that the best performance was obtained for the membrane of composition II:PVC:NaTPB:NPOE in the ratio 5:120:3:150. The sensor shows a linear potential response for Cd{sup 2+} over a wide activity range 3.2 x 10{sup -6} to 1.0 x 10{sup -1} M with Nernstian compliance (29.5 mV decade{sup -1} of activity) in pH range 4.5-6.5 and a fast response time of {approx}8 s. The potentiometric selectivity coefficient values determined by matched potential method indicate excellent selectivity for Cd{sup 2+} ions over mono-, di- and trivalent interfering cations. The sensor exhibits adequate shelf life ({approx}3 months) with good reproducibility (S.D. {+-}0.2 mV) and can also be used in partially non-aqueous media having up to 20% (v/v) methanol, ethanol or acetone content with no significant change in the value of slope or working activity range. The sensor has been used in the potentiometric titration of Cd{sup 2+} with EDTA. The sensor could be successfully used for the quantification of cadmium in river water samples.

  10. Effects of choline chloride on electrodeposited Ni coating from a Watts-type bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yurong; Yang, Caihong; He, Jiawei; Wang, Wenchang [School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Mitsuzak, Naotoshi [Qualtec Co., Ltd, Osaka 590-0906 (Japan); Chen, Zhidong, E-mail: zdchen.lab@gmail.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials, Surface and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Material and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2016-05-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ChCl was applied as additive and conducting salt in Watts-type bath. • Progressive addition of ChCl leads to the crystal orientation (1 1 1) predominant. • The grain size and microhardness were refined and enhanced by increasing ChCl. • ChCl could be a good alternative to NiCl{sub 2} and additives for bright Ni electroplating. - Abstract: Electrodeposition of bright nickel (Ni) was carried out in a Watts-type bath. Choline chloride (ChCl) was applied as a multifunctional additive and substitute for nickel chloride (NiCl{sub 2}) in a Watts-type bath. The function of ChCl was investigated through conductivity tests, anodic polarization, and cathodic polarization experiments. The studies revealed that ChCl performed well as a conducting salt, anodic activator, and cathodic inhibitor. The effects of ChCl on deposition rate, preferred orientation, grain size, surface morphology, and microhardness of Ni coatings were also studied. The deposition rate reached a maximum value of greater than 27 μm h{sup −1} when 20 g L{sup −1} ChCl was introduced to the bath. Using X-ray diffraction, it was confirmed that progressive addition of ChCl promoted the preferred crystal orientation modification from (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) to (1 1 1), refined grain size, and enhanced microhardness. The presence of ChCl lowered the roughness of the coating.

  11. Coating of Carbon Fiber with Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS to Enhance Mechanical Properties and Durability of Carbon/Vinyl Ester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujib Khan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Our continuing quest to improve the performance of polymer composites under moist and saltwater environments has gained momentum in recent years with the reinforcement of inorganic nanoparticles into the polymer. The key to mitigate degradation of composites under such environments is to maintain the integrity of the fiber/matrix (F/M interface. In this study, the F/M interface of carbon/vinyl ester composites has been modified by coating the carbon fiber with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS. POSS is a nanostructured inorganic-organic hybrid particle with a cubic structure having silicon atoms at the core and linked to oxygen atoms. The advantage of using POSS is that the silicon atoms can be linked to a substituent that can be almost any chemical group known in organic chemistry. Cubic silica cores are ‘hard particles’ and are about 0.53 nm in diameter. The peripheral organic unit is a sphere of about 1–3 nm in diameter. Further, cubic structure of POSS remains intact during the polymerization process and therefore with appropriate functional groups, if installed on the fiber surface, would provide a stable and strong F/M interface. Two POSS systems with two different functional groups; namely, octaisobutyl and trisilanolphenyl have been investigated. A set of chemical and mechanical procedures has been developed to coat carbon fibers with POSS, and to fabricate layered composites with vinyl ester resin. Interlaminar shear and low velocity impact tests have indicated around 17–38% improvement in mechanical properties with respect to control samples made without the POSS coating. Saltwater and hygrothermal tests at various environmental conditions have revealed that coating with POSS reduces water absorption by 20–30% and retains the composite properties.

  12. Evaluation of poly([2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) cationic polymer capillary coating for capillary electrophoresis and electrokinetic chromatography separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettrick, Julie R; Palmer, Christopher P

    2017-10-01

    Capillary electrophoresis and electrokinetic chromatography are typically carried out in unmodified fused-silica capillaries under conditions that result in a strong negative zeta potential at the capillary wall and a robust cathodic electroosmotic flow. Modification of the capillary wall to reverse the zeta potential and mask silanol sites can improve separation performance by reducing or eliminating analyte adsorption, and is essential when conducting electrokinetic chromatography separations with cationic latex nanoparticle pseudo-stationary phases. Semipermanent modification of the capillary walls by coating with cationic polymers has proven to be facile and effective. In this study, poly([2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) polymers were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization and used as physically adsorbed semipermanent coatings for capillary electrophoresis and electrokinetic chromatography separations. An initial synthesis of poly([2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) polymer coating produced strong and stable anodic electroosmotic flow of -5.7 to -5.4 × 10-4 cm2 /V⋅s over the pH range of 4-7. Significant differences in the magnitude of the electroosmotic flow and effectiveness were observed between synthetic batches, however. For electrokinetic chromatography separations, the best performing batches of poly([2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) polymer performed as well as the commercially available cationic polymer polyethyleneimine, whereas polydiallylammonium chloride and hexadimethrine bromide did not perform well. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Programmable Laser-Assisted Surface Microfabrication on a Poly(Vinyl Alcohol)-Coated Glass Chip with Self-Changing Cell Adhesivity for Heterotypic Cell Patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Chen; Lin, Meng-Wei; Yen, Meng-Hua; Fan, Sabrina Mai-Yi; Wu, June-Tai; Young, Tai-Horng; Cheng, Ji-Yen; Lin, Sung-Jan

    2015-10-14

    Organs are composed of heterotypic cells with patterned architecture that enables intercellular interaction to perform specific functions. In tissue engineering, the ability to pattern heterotypic cells into desired arrangement will allow us to model complex tissues in vitro and to create tissue equivalents for regeneration. This study was aimed at developing a method for fast heterotypic cell patterning with controllable topological manipulation on a glass chip. We found that poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated glass showed a biphasic change in adhesivity to cells in vitro: low adhesivity in the first 24 h and higher adhesivity at later hours due to increased serum protein adsorption. Combining programmable CO2 laser ablation to remove poly(vinyl alcohol) and glass, we were able to create arrays of adhesive microwells of adjustable patterns. We tested whether controllable patterns of epithelial-mesenchymal interaction could be created. When skin dermal papilla cells and fibroblasts were seeded respectively 24 h apart, we were able to pattern these two cells into aggregates of dermal papilla cells in arrays of microwells in a background of fibroblasts sheet. Seeded later, keratinocytes attached to these mesenchymal cells. Keratinocytes contacting dermal papilla cells started to differentiate toward a hair follicle fate, demonstrating patternable epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. This method allows fast adjustable heterotypic cell patterning and surface topology control and can be applied to the investigation of heterotypic cellular interaction and creation of tissue equivalent in vitro.

  14. N-trimethyl chitosan chloride-coated PLGA nanoparticles overcoming multiple barriers to oral insulin absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jianyong; Han, Limei; Qin, Jing; Ru, Ge; Li, Ruixiang; Wu, Lihong; Cui, Dongqi; Yang, Pei; He, Yuwei; Wang, Jianxin

    2015-07-22

    Although several strategies have been applied for oral insulin delivery to improve insulin bioavailability, little success has been achieved. To overcome multiple barriers to oral insulin absorption simultaneously, insulin-loaded N-trimethyl chitosan chloride (TMC)-coated polylactide-co-glycoside (PLGA) nanoparticles (Ins TMC-PLGA NPs) were formulated in our study. The Ins TMC-PLGA NPs were prepared using the double-emulsion solvent evaporation method and were characterized to determine their size (247.6 ± 7.2 nm), ζ-potential (45.2 ± 4.6 mV), insulin-loading capacity (7.8 ± 0.5%) and encapsulation efficiency (47.0 ± 2.9%). The stability and insulin release of the nanoparticles in enzyme-containing simulated gastrointestinal fluids suggested that the TMC-PLGA NPs could partially protect insulin from enzymatic degradation. Compared with unmodified PLGA NPs, the positively charged TMC-PLGA NPs could improve the mucus penetration of insulin in mucus-secreting HT29-MTX cells, the cellular uptake of insulin via clathrin- or adsorption-mediated endocytosis in Caco-2 cells and the permeation of insulin across a Caco-2 cell monolayer through tight junction opening. After oral administration in mice, the TMC-PLGA NPs moved more slowly through the gastrointestinal tract compared with unmodified PLGA NPs, indicating the mucoadhesive property of the nanoparticles after TMC coating. Additionally, in pharmacological studies in diabetic rats, orally administered Ins TMC-PLGA NPs produced a stronger hypoglycemic effect, with 2-fold higher relative pharmacological availability compared with unmodified NPs. In conclusion, oral insulin absorption is improved by TMC-PLGA NPs with the multiple absorption barriers overcome simultaneously. TMC-PLGA NPs may be a promising drug delivery system for oral administration of macromolecular therapeutics.

  15. Nanocompósitos de Poli(Cloreto de Vinila (PVC/argilas organofílicas Poly(Vinyl Chloride (PVC/organoclay nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A. Souza

    2006-12-01

    superar essas limitações e possibilitar o desenvolvimento de novos produtos com desempenho e propriedades diferenciados.In recent years, organic-inorganic nanocomposites have received great attention due to the excellent possibility of improving the mechanical, thermal and barrier properties of polymer matrix by the addition of small amounts of nanoscaled inorganic fillers to it. Nanoscale silicate layers of organically modified clay are usually dispersed in a polymer matrix to improve its properties. Because of the nanoscale effects, polymer/silicate layers of organically modified nanocomposites often exhibit significant improvement in strength, modulus, thermal resistance, and gas permeability barrier properties with far less silicate content than regular filler used those in conventionally filled polymer composites. Poly(vinyl chloride (PVC, as an important commercial polymer, has been studied and used widely in industrial fields for many years. However, due to its inherent limitations, such as low thermal stability, brittleness and smoke evolution, PVC and its composites usually face some limitations in certain applications. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new PVC products with differentiated properties and performance in order to yield high added values and broaden PVC applications and in this regard the development of nanocomposites of PVC / silicates presents a very interesting way to prepare high performance PVC composites.

  16. Electron beam immobilization of functionalized poly(vinyl methyl ether thin films on polymer surfaces – Towards stimuli responsive coatings for biomedical purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of poly(vinyl methyl ether (PVME were immobilized on polystyrene surfaces by low energy electron beam cross-linking. Structure retention as well as the thermo-responsive swelling behavior in aqueous media were studied by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and spectroscopic ellipsometry respectively. The physical properties of the thermo-responsive coatings can be controlled in a wide range by adjusting the irradiation parameters. To allow for a variety of biomolecular functionalization strategies, the concept was extended by adding reactive sites to the system. For that purpose a mixture of PVME and the copolymer of PVME and maleic acid was applied, that possesses a similar stimuli-responsive behavior.

  17. Gas-Barrier Hybrid Coatings by the Assembly of Novel Poly(vinyl alcohol) and Reduced Graphene Oxide Layers through Cross-Linking with Zirconium Adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ning; Capezzuto, Filomena; Buonocore, Giovanna G; Lavorgna, Marino; Xia, Hesheng; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-10-14

    Gas-barrier materials obtained by coating poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates have already been studied in the recent literature. However, because of the benefits of using cheaper, biodegradable, and nonpolar polymers, multilayered hybrid coatings consisting of alternate layers of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets and a novel high amorphous vinyl alcohol (HAVOH) with zirconium (Zr) adducts as binders were successfully fabricated through a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly approach. Atomic force microscopy analysis showed that rGO nanoplatelets were uniformly dispersed over the HAVOH polymer substrate. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies revealed that multilayer (HAVOH/Zr/rGO)n hybrid coatings exhibited a brick-wall structure with HAVOH and rGO as buildings blocks. It has been shown that 40 layers of HAVOH/Zr/rGO ultrathin films deposited on PET substrates lead to a decrease of 1 order of magnitude of oxygen permeability with respect to the pristine PET substrate. This is attributed to the effect of zirconium polymeric adducts, which enhance the assembling efficiency of rGO and compact the layers, as confirmed by NMR characterization, resulting in a significant increment of the oxygen-transport pathways. Because of their high barrier properties and high flexibility, these films are promising candidates in a variety of applications such as packaging, selective gas films, and protection of flexible electronics.

  18. SBAR Panel: Regulation of N-Methylpyrrolidone and Methylene Chloride in Paint and Coating Removal under Section 6(a) of the Toxic Substances Control Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBAR panel related to a rule that proposes to determine whether the continued use of NMP and methylene chloride in commercial and consumer paint and coating removers poses an unreasonable risk to human health and the environment

  19. Hot Corrosion Behavior of Arc-Sprayed Highly Dense NiCr-Based Coatings in Chloride Salt Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Enwei; Yin, Song; Ji, Hua; Huang, Qian; Liu, Zekun; Wu, Shuhui

    2017-04-01

    To make cities more environmentally friendly, combustible wastes tend to be incinerated in waste-to-energy power plant boilers. However, release of chlorine gas (Cl2) during incineration causes serious problems related to hot corrosion of boiler tubes and poses a safety threat for such plants. In this study, a pseudo-de Laval nozzle was employed in a twin-wire arc spray system to enhance the velocity of in-flight particles. Highly dense NiCr-based coatings were obtained using the modified nozzle gun. The coating morphology was characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and hot corrosion testing was carried out in a synthetic molten chloride salt environment. Results showed that the dense NiCr-based coatings exhibited high resistance against corrosion by chlorine, which can be related to the typical splat lamellar microstructure and chemical composition as well as minor alloying elements such as Ti and Mo.

  20. Active film of poly(vinyl chloride)/silver: synthesis, characterization and evaluation as antimicrobial active packaging; Filme ativo de poli(cloreto de vinila)/prata: sintese, caracterizacao e avaliacao como embalagem ativa antimicrobiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Lilian R.; Rangel, Ellen T.; Machado, Fabricio, E-mail: lilianrodribraga@gmail.com [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Brasilia, DF, (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The antimicrobial films based on poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) mediated silver (1, 2, 4 and 8 wt%) were evaluated as antimicrobial active packaging using the casting method. The structure of the active films was characterized by SEM, EDX-XRF, XRD, FTIR and TG. FTIR spectra confirmed the PVC-Ag interaction due to the presence of new bands at 1745 cm{sup -1} and 1165 cm{sup -1} bands, which are absent in the PVC control. The FRX-EDX spectrum confirmed the presence of silver ions in all the films. TG and SEM results showed that the increased concentration of silver provided an improved thermal stability and presence of pores in the active films, respectively. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by disk diffusion method for Bacillus subtilis, Fusarium solani and Apergillus niger, which proved the efficiency of the films active. (author)

  1. Fabrication of novel high performance ductile poly(lactic acid) nanofiber scaffold coated with poly(vinyl alcohol) for tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdal-hay, Abdalla, E-mail: abda_55@jbnu.ac.kr [Dept of Engineering Materials and Mechanical Design, Faculty of Engineering, South Valley of University, Qena 83523 (Egypt); Hussein, Kamal Hany [Stem Cell Institute and College of Veterinary Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Casettari, Luca [Department of Biomolecular Sciences, University of Urbino, Piazza Rinascimento, 6, Urbino, PU 61029 (Italy); Khalil, Khalil Abdelrazek [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Saud University, 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Energy Engineering, Aswan University, Aswan (Egypt); Hamdy, Abdel Salam [Dept. of Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering and Computer Science, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, 1201 West University Dr., Edinburg, TX 78541-2999 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanofiber scaffold has received increasing interest as a promising material for potential application in the field of regenerative medicine. However, the low (hydrophilicity) and poor ductility restrict its practical application. Integration of hydrophilic elastic polymer onto the surface of the nanofiber scaffold may help to overcome the drawbacks of PLA material. Herein, we successfully optimized the parameters for in situ deposition of poly(vinyl alcohol), (PVA) onto post-electrospun PLA nanofibers using a simple hydrothermal approach. Our results showed that the average fiber diameter of coated nanofiber mat is about 1265 ± 222 nm, which is remarkably higher than its pristine counterpart (650 ± 180 nm). The hydrophilicity of PLA nanofiber scaffold coated with a PVA thin layer improved dramatically (36.11 ± 1.5°) compared to that of pristine PLA (119.7 ± 1.5°) scaffold. The mechanical testing showed that the PLA nanofiber scaffold could be converted from rigid to ductile with enhanced tensile strength, due to maximizing the hydrogen bond interaction during the heat treatment and in the presence of PVA. Cytocompatibility performance of the pristine and coated PLA fibers with PVA was observed through an in vitro experiment based on cell attachment and the MTT assay by EA.hy926 human endothelial cells. The cytocompatibility results showed that human cells induced more favorable attachment and proliferation behavior on hydrophilic PLA composite scaffold than that of pristine PLA. Hence, PVA coating resulted in an increase in initial human cell attachment and proliferation. We believe that the novel PVA-coated PLA nanofiber scaffold developed in this study, could be a promising high performance biomaterial in regeneration medicine. - Highlights: • Novel PVA-coated PLA nanofibers were prepared by a simple hydrothermal route. • This in situ treatment strategy for PLA fibers induced polymer chain conformation. • Bonding interaction

  2. The behaviour of polyaniline-coated PVC membrane based on 7, 16 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polyaniline(PANI) chemically coated on poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane based on a neutral carrier 7 ... membrane; hydrogen ion-selective electrode. 1. .... vacuum distillation. Redistilled water and analytical- reagent grade reagents were used throughout. High-. Scheme 1. Polyaniline (emeraldine) salt exists in acidic.

  3. Preparation and characterization of Bioglass®-based scaffolds reinforced bypoly-vinyl alcohol/microfibrillated cellulose composite coating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bertolla, Luca; Dlouhý, Ivo; Boccaccini, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 14 (2014), s. 3379-3387 ISSN 0955-2219. [Fractography of Advanced Ceramics IV. Smolenice Castle Congres Center, Smolenice SAS, 29.09.13-02.10.13] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 264526 - GLACERCO Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : bioceramcs * bioglass (R) scaffolds * porous materials * polymer coating * composite coating Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 2.947, year: 2014 http://www.imr.saske.sk/confer/fac2013/publication.htm

  4. Needs for public health intervention and needs for new research on vinyl halides and their polymers: a public policy perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Hattis, D

    1981-01-01

    Consideration of needs for public health interventions and new research requires comparative assessments of the health benefits that are likely to result from alternative uses of limited regulatory and technical resources. This paper briefly examines regulatory and research priorities in the light of recent information on the carcinogenic hazards of vinyl chloride and alkyl and vinyl halides related to vinyl chloride, the respiratory-system hazards of poly (vinyl chloride), and the reproducti...

  5. 'One-component' ultrathin multilayer films based on poly(vinyl alcohol) as stabilizing coating for phenytoin-loaded liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasada, Katarzyna; Łukasiewicz-Atanasov, Magdalena; Kłysik, Katarzyna; Lewandowska-Łańcucka, Joanna; Gzyl-Malcher, Barbara; Puciul-Malinowska, Agnieszka; Karewicz, Anna; Nowakowska, Maria

    2015-11-01

    Ultrathin "one-component" multilayer polymeric films for potential biomedical applications were designed based on polyvinyl alcohol,-a non-toxic, fully degradable synthetic polymer. Good uniformity of the obtained film and adequate adsorption properties of the polymeric layers were achieved by functional modification of the polymer, which involved synthesis of cationic and anionic derivatives. Synthesized polymers were characterized by FTIR, NMR spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering measurements and elemental analysis. The layer by layer assembly technique was used to build up a multilayer film and this process was followed using UV-Vis spectroscopy and ellipsometry. The morphology and thickness of the obtained multilayered film material was evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Preliminary studies on the application of the obtained multilayer film for coating of liposomal nanocarriers containing phenytoin, an antiarrhythmic drug, were performed. The coating effectively stabilizes liposomes and the effect increases with an increasing number of deposited layers until the polymeric film reaches the optimal thickness. The obtained release profiles suggest that bilayer-coated liposomes release phenytoin less rapidly than uncoated ones. The cytotoxicity studies performed for all obtained nanocarriers confirmed that none of them has negative effect on cell viability. All of the performed experiments suggest that liposomes coated with ultrathin film obtained from PVA derivatives can be attractive drug nanocarriers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Vinyl Record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartmanski, Dominik; Woodward, Ian

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we use the case of the vinyl record to show that iconic objects become meaningful via a dual process. First, they offer immersive engagements which structure user interpretations through various material experiences of handling, use, and extension. Second, they always work via enta...

  7. SPECIATION OF ORGANOTINS IN POLY VINYL CHLORIDE PIPE VIA X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY AND IN LEACHATES USING GC-PFPD AFTER DERIVATISATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three different polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe types were subjected to de–ionized water exposures over the course of at least 180 days. Water exposed to the pipe was analyzed for organotin speciation and concentration. Organotin concentrations were the highest during the fir...

  8. A peptide-based biological coating for enhanced corrosion resistance of titanium alloy biomaterials in chloride-containing fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muruve, Noah; Feng, Yuanchao; Platnich, Jaye; Hassett, Daniel; Irvin, Randall; Muruve, Daniel; Cheng, Frank

    2017-03-01

    Titanium alloys are common materials in the manufacturing of dental and orthopedic implants. Although these materials exhibit excellent biocompatibility, corrosion in response to biological fluids can impact prosthesis performance and longevity. In this work, a PEGylated metal binding peptide (D-K122-4-PEG), derived from bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was applied on a titanium (Ti) alloy, and the corrosion resistance of the coated alloy specimen was investigated in simulated chloride-containing physiological fluids by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and micro-electrochemical measurements, surface characterization, and biocompatibility testing. Compared to uncoated specimen, the D-K122-4-PEG-coated Ti alloy demonstrates decreased corrosion current density without affecting the natural passivity. Morphological analysis using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirms a reduction in surface roughness of the coated specimens in the fluids. The D-K122-4-PEG does not affect the binding of HEK-293T cells to the surface of unpolished Ti alloy, nor does it increase the leukocyte activation properties of the metal. D-K122-4-PEG represents a promising coating to enhance the corrosion resistance of Ti alloys in physiological fluids, while maintaining an excellent biocompatibility.

  9. 77 FR 22847 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... a surrogate for chlorine gas. In setting limits for all HAP emitted at PVC major sources, we... limits for HCl as a surrogate for all acid gas HAP and chlorine gas, vinyl chloride, and CDD/CDF... limits (ppmw) limits (ppmw) \\a\\ \\b\\ \\a\\ \\b\\ Existing Vinyl Chloride 0.48 37 Total Non-Vinyl Chloride...

  10. Needs for public health intervention and needs for new research on vinyl halides and their polymers: a public policy perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattis, D

    1981-10-01

    Consideration of needs for public health interventions and new research requires comparative assessments of the health benefits that are likely to result from alternative uses of limited regulatory and technical resources. This paper briefly examines regulatory and research priorities in the light of recent information on the carcinogenic hazards of vinyl chloride and alkyl and vinyl halides related to vinyl chloride, the respiratory-system hazards of poly (vinyl chloride), and the reproductive hazards of vinyl chloride. Specific suggestions are made for relatively promising types of efforts in these areas.

  11. Sodium chloride methanol solution spin-coating process for bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong-Fang; Hu, Yu-Feng; Deng, Zhen-Bo; Li, Xiong; Zhu, Li-Jie; Wang, Yue; Lv, Long-Feng; Wang, Tie-Ning; Lou, Zhi-Dong; Hou, Yan-Bing; Teng, Feng

    2016-08-01

    The sodium chloride methanol solution process is conducted on the conventional poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. The device exhibits a power conversion efficiency of up to 3.36%, 18% higher than that of the device without the solution process. The measurements of the active layer by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) indicate a slight phase separation in the vertical direction and a sodium chloride distributed island-like interface between the active layer and the cathode. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) and impedance spectroscopy measurements prove that the sodium chloride methanol process can reduce the electron injection barrier and improve the interfacial contact of polymer solar cells. Therefore, this one-step solution process not only optimizes the phase separation in the active layers but also forms a cathode buffer layer, which can enhance the generation, transport, and collection of photogenerated charge carriers in the device simultaneously. This work indicates that the inexpensive and non-toxic sodium chloride methanol solution process is an efficient one-step method for the low cost manufacturing of polymer solar cells. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2014JBZ009) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274063, 61377028, 61475014, and 61475017).

  12. Nanocomposite materials based on poly(vinyl chloride) and bovine serum albumin modified ZnO through ultrasonic irradiation as a green technique: Optical, thermal, mechanical and morphological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallakpour, Shadpour; Darvishzadeh, Marzieh

    2018-03-01

    In this project, physicochemical properties of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) reinforced by ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were studied. Firstly, ZnO NPs were modified with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as an organo-modifier and biocompatible substance through ultrasound irradiation as environmental friendly, low cost and rapid means. Nanocomposite (NC) films were prepared by loadings of various ratios of ZnO/BSA NPs (3, 6 and 9wt%) inside the PVC. Structural morphology and physical properties of the ZnO-BSA NPs and NC films were investigated via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. According to the obtained information from the TGA, an increase in the thermal stability can be clearly observed. Also the results of contact angle analysis indicated with increasing percent of ZnO/BSA NPs into PVC the hydrophilic behaviors of NCs were increased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cohort mortality study of vinyl chloride exposed workers in Porto Marghera during production, polymerization and bagging; Indagine epidemiologica sui lavoratori di Porto Marghera esposti a cloruro di vinile nelle fasi di produzione, polimerizzazione e insacco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirastu, R. [Rome, Univ. (Italy). Dipt di Biologia Umana e Animale; Chellini, E. [Centro per lo Studio e la Prevenzione Oncologica, Florence (Italy); Carnevale, F. [Unita` Sanitaria Locale 10, Florence (Italy). Servizio di Prevenzione, Igiene e Sicurezza nei Luoghi di Lavoro; De Santis, M.; Comba, P. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale; Bracci, C. [CGIL Lazio, Rome (Italy). Sindacato Pensionati Italiani

    1997-09-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate cause specific mortality among workers employed in vinyl chloride manufacture, polymerization and bagging in Porto Marghera between start of operation and June 30, 1995. The cohort includes 1.658 subjects employed by the companies running the petrochemical plant in Porto Marghera (Montedison and Enichem) and 272 members of three cooperatives of baggers who operated in the plant. The study detected an increased mortality from liver cancer, especially among autoclave workers, and an increase in lung cancer among baggers. In the whole study period, in the Montedison-Enichem cohort, 11 deaths from liver cancer were observed versus 5.7 expected; among autoclave workers 6 deaths were observed versus 0.8 expected. Four further cases were detected by `Best Evidence` procedures. Altogether 5 cases were angiosarcomas, 5 hepato-carcinomas, 3 cases of liver cancer occurred in cirrhotic subjects and in 2 cases histology was not known. The increase in lung cancer risk among baggers is present both in the Montedison-Enichem cohort and among the members of the cooperatives. The results of the present study will soon be supplemented with those concerning the cohorts in the plants located in Ferrara, Ravenna, Rosignano, Terni and Brindisi.

  14. Charge-discharge characteristics of LiCoO 2/mesocarbon microbeads battery with poly(vinyl chloride)-based composite polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subban, R. H. Y.; Arof, A. K.

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-based composite polymer electrolyte films consisting of PVC-LiCF 3SO 3-SiO 2 are prepared by the solution-casting method. The electrical properties of the electrolyte are investigated for ionic conductivity and its dependence on temperature. The electrolyte with the highest ionic conductivity is used to fabricate a LiCoO 2/PVC-LiCF 3SO 3-SiO 2/mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) battery. The charge-discharge characteristics and performance of the battery at room temperature are evaluated to ascertain the effective viability, of these solid electrolytes in lithium-polymer batteries. Battery performances is also investigated at 313, 323 and 333 K.

  15. Characterization of the thickness and distribution of latex coatings on polyvinylidene chloride beads by backscattered electron imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Clifford S; Beyer, Douglas E

    2015-04-01

    Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) co-polymer resins are commonly formulated with a variety of solid additives for the purpose of processing or stabilization. A homogeneous distribution of these additives during handling and processing is important. The Dow Chemical Company developed a process to incorporate solid materials in latex form onto PVDC resin bead surfaces using a coagulation process. In this context, we present a method to characterize the distribution and thickness of these latex coatings. The difference in backscattered electron signal from the higher mean atomic number PVDC core and lower atomic number latex coating in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging using a range of accelerating voltages was used to characterize latex thickness and distribution across large numbers of beads quickly and easily. Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantitatively estimate latex thickness as a function of brightness in backscatter electron images. This thickness calibration was validated by cross-sectioning using a focused ion-beam SEM. Thicknesses from 100 nm up to about 1.3 µm can be determined using this method.

  16. Analysis of plasticizers in poly(vinyl chloride) medical devices for infusion and artificial nutrition: comparison and optimization of the extraction procedures, a pre-migration test step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Lise; Cueff, Régis; Bourdeaux, Daniel; Breysse, Colette; Sautou, Valérie

    2015-02-01

    Medical devices (MDs) for infusion and enteral and parenteral nutrition are essentially made of plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The first step in assessing patient exposure to these plasticizers, as well as ensuring that the MDs are free from di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), consists of identifying and quantifying the plasticizers present and, consequently, determining which ones are likely to migrate into the patient's body. We compared three different extraction methods using 0.1 g of plasticized PVC: Soxhlet extraction in diethyl ether and ethyl acetate, polymer dissolution, and room temperature extraction in different solvents. It was found that simple room temperature chloroform extraction under optimized conditions (30 min, 50 mL) gave the best separation of plasticizers from the PVC matrix, with extraction yields ranging from 92 to 100% for all plasticizers. This result was confirmed by supplemented Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) and gravimetric analyses. The technique was used on eight marketed medical devices and showed that they contained different amounts of plasticizers, ranging from 25 to 36% of the PVC weight. These yields, associated with the individual physicochemical properties of each plasticizer, highlight the need for further migration studies.

  17. Hybrid Coatings Enriched with Tetraethoxysilane for Corrosion Mitigation of Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel in Chloride Contaminated Simulated Concrete Pore Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita B. Figueira

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid sol-gel coatings, named U(X:TEOS, based on ureasilicate matrices (U(X enriched with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS, were synthesized. The influence of TEOS addition was studied on both the structure of the hybrid sol-gel films as well as on the electrochemical properties. The effect of TEOS on the structure of the hybrid sol-gel films was investigated by solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The dielectric properties of the different materials were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The corrosion behavior of the hybrid coatings on HDGS was studied in chloride-contaminated simulated concrete pore solutions (SCPS by polarization resistance measurements. The roughness of the HDGS coated with hybrids was also characterized by atomic force microscopy. The structural characterization of the hybrid materials proved the effective reaction between Jeffamine® and 3-isocyanate propyltriethoxysilane (ICPTES and indicated that the addition of TEOS does not seem to affect the organic structure or to increase the degree of condensation of the hybrid materials. Despite the apparent lack of influence on the hybrids architecture, the polarization resistance measurements confirmed that TEOS addition improves the corrosion resistance of the hybrid coatings (U(X:TEOS in chloride-contaminated SCPS when compared to samples prepared without any TEOS (U(X. This behavior could be related to the decrease in roughness of the hybrid coatings (due TEOS addition and to the different metal coating interaction resulting from the increase of the inorganic component in the hybrid matrix.

  18. Catalytic dehydration of carbohydrates suspended in organic solvents promoted by AlCl3 /SiO2 coated with choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; De Oliveira Vigier, Karine; Gu, Yanlong; Jérôme, François

    2015-01-01

    We show that the coating of choline chloride on silica-supported AlCl3 allows the dehydration of carbohydrates to successfully proceed in low boiling point organic solvents. The concept is based on the in situ formation of a deep eutectic liquid phase on the catalyst surface, thus facilitating the interaction between the solid catalyst and insoluble carbohydrate. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., including the following topics: (A) Alcohol intake; (B) Past history of hepatitis; (C) Work history and past exposure to potential hepatotoxic agents, including drugs and chemicals; (D) Past history of blood transfusions; and (E) Past history of hospitalizations. (iii) A serum specimen shall be obtained and...

  20. An Evaluation of Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymers as Desensitizers for RDX in Insensitive Booster Compositions Prepared by the Slurry Coating Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    correllation between coolkof! response and explosivo temperature or time to reaction. Although the variation between duplicates is t cons iderable...1986). Surface characterization of an energetic material, pentoerythritoltetranitrate ( PETN ). having a tin coating achieved througF a starved

  1. Specific adhesion model for bonding hot-melt polyamides to vinyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2004-01-01

    Hot-melt polyamides are an important market for the dimer acid made from the tall oil fatty acids liberated during the Kraft pulping process. These polyamides bond well to many substrates, but not to polyvinyl chloride (PVC), commonly called vinyl. Dimer-based polyamides made from secondary amines such as piperazine bond well to vinyl. No model for this unique adhesion...

  2. Properties and performance of spin-on-glass coatings for the corrosion protection of stainless steels in chloride media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampert, Felix; Jensen, Annemette H.; Din, Rameez U.

    2018-01-01

    of the upper limit of the breakdown potential, there is also a decrease of the lower limit. It was found that such lower quality coatings showed, in association with substrate defects, unevenly distributed coating flaws, which may act as initiation points of pitting corrosion and decrease the corrosion...

  3. Photocatalytic self-cleaning cotton fabrics with platinum (IV) chloride modified TiO{sub 2} and N-TiO{sub 2} coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Mingce, E-mail: long_mc@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of the Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Zheng, Longhui; Tan, Beihui [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Shu, Heping [Xiaoxi New Materials Science and Technology (Shanghai) Co. Ltd., 655 Cangyuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Platinum (IV) chloride modified TiO{sub 2} and N-TiO{sub 2} nanosols are synthesized. • Pt-TiO{sub 2} coatings display enhanced performance in the degradation of MO and stains. • Surface attached PtCl{sub 6}{sup 2−} enable visible light activity of TiO{sub 2} coated cotton fabric. - Abstract: To enable photocatalytic self-cleaning cotton fabrics working under visible light irradiation, platinum (IV) chloride modified TiO{sub 2} (Pt-TiO{sub 2}) and N-TiO{sub 2} (Pt-N-TiO{sub 2}) nanosols are synthesized through a low temperature precipitation-peptization method. According to the characterizations of XRD, DRS and TEM, all nanoparticles are anatase nanocrystallites in the sizes of less than 10 nm, while N-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles have better crystallization and smaller sizes. However, the cotton fabrics functionalized with Pt-TiO{sub 2} display significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity for methyl orange degradation and coffee stain removal under both solar simulator and visible light irradiation, while the performance of that coatings of Pt-N-TiO{sub 2} is poor. Further XRF and XPS results indicate that surface species on N-TiO{sub 2} block the adsorption of PtCl{sub 6}{sup 2−} anions, whereas these anions strongly attach on the surface of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, and accordingly enable functionalized cotton fabrics efficient visible light driven activities based on a mechanism of charge transfer from ligand to metal (CTLM) excitation.

  4. Effects of temperature on the corrosion behavior of coated carbon steel in 1 wt.% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Khalil Abdul; Fuad, Mohd Fazril Irfan Ahmad; Alias, Nur Hashimah; Othman, Nur Hidayati; Zahari, Muhammad Imran

    2017-12-01

    Special attention has been paid in the past decade on the use of metal corrosion protection to conserve natural resources and to improve the performance of engine, build structures and other equipment. Coating is considered as one of the promising methods that can be used to protect the metal against corrosion. However, not many attentions have been given on the evaluation of coating mechanism towards corrosion protection. In this work, the performance of zinc-rich paint (ZRP) was investigated under saltwater environment as to simulate the nature of corrosion in seawater. The adhesion of the coated steel was also studied to determine the adherence of the coatings to the metal substrate. Results obtained from the immersion test was then used to determine the corrosion rate of the coatings. The mechanisms and the function of ZRP as a protection layer were also investigated. By using 3 coated system of ZRP, the corrosion rate of the steel was observed to decrease thus provide better protection in seawater environment.

  5. Lead and Cadmium in Vinyl Children's Products. A Greenpeace Expose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gangi, Joseph

    Polyvinyl chloride (vinyl or PVC) is a substance widely used in children's products. Because children in contact with these products may ingest substantial quantities of potentially harmful chemicals during normal play, especially when they chew on the product, this Greenpeace study examined the levels of lead and cadmium in a variety of consumer…

  6. A Kinetic Study of the Emulsion Polymerization of Vinyl Acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, N.; Nyhagen, L.

    1973-01-01

    The emulsion polymerization of vinyl acetate was studied at 50°C. It was found that the rate of polymerization was proportional to the 0.5 power of the initiator concentration and the 0.25 power of the number of particles. The number of particles was proportional to the power 0.5 ± 0.05 of the em...... to that of vinyl chloride. The linearity of the conversion-versus-time curve is explained as being due partly to a decrease in the desorption rate of radicals from the polymer particles and partly to a decrease in the termination rate constant....

  7. Nano-assemblies consisting of Pd/Pt nanodendrites and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-coated reduced graphene oxide on glassy carbon electrode for hydrogen peroxide sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Cong; Zhang, Di; Ma, Min; Wang, Weizhen; Chen, Qiang, E-mail: qiangchen@nankai.edu.cn

    2016-01-01

    Non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) sensors were fabricated on the basis of glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with palladium (Pd) core-platinum (Pt) nanodendrites (Pt-NDs) and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)-coated reduced graphene oxide (rGO). A facile wet-chemical method was developed for preparing Pd core-Pt nanodendrites. In this approach, the growth of Pt NDs was directed by Pd nanocrystal which could be regarded as seed. The PDDA-coated rGO could form uniform film on the surface of GC electrode, which provided a support for Pd core- Pt NDs adsorption by self-assembly. The morphologies of the nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (spectrum). Electrocatalytic ability of the nanocomposites was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric methods. The sensor fabricated by Pd core-Pt NDs/PDDA-rGO/GCE exhibited high sensitivity (672.753 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}), low detection limit (0.027 μM), wider linear range (0.005–0.5 mM) and rapid response time (within 5 s). Besides, it also exhibited superior reproducibility, excellent anti-interference performance and long-term stability. The present work could afford a viable method and efficient platform for fabricating all kinds of amperometric sensors and biosensors. - Highlights: • A facial wet-chemical method was developed for preparing Pd core-Pt nanodendrites. • The morphologies of graphene and Pd core-Pt nanodendrites were characterized. • A novel H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensor was fabricated by nano-assembly. • The performance of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensor was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric methods.

  8. Controlled free radical polymerization of vinyl acetate with cobalt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    this polymer is biodegradable and have found many applications in coatings, paper, and drug industries. In recent years, polyvinyl acetate with a well defined struc- ture has been reported to be used in block copolymers and in the controlled radical polymerizations (CRP). In this process the unreacted vinyl acetate monomer ...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1360 Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS Reg. No. 26221-27-2...

  10. Synthesis and biocidal activity of modified poly(vinyl alcohol)

    OpenAIRE

    El-Refaie Kenawy; Mohamed H. El-Newehy; Fouad I. Abdel-Hay; Abd El-Raheem R. El-Shanshoury

    2014-01-01

    Functionalized polymers and their polymer nature give them more advantages than the corresponding small molecules. In this respect, polymeric ammonium and phosphonium salts were prepared by chemical modifications of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) aiming to explore their antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The modifications were performed by chloroacetylation with chloroacetyl chloride. Incorporation of the ammonium and phosphonium salts was conducted by the reaction of ...

  11. 40 CFR 61.64 - Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standard for polyvinyl... Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.64 Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of a polyvinyl chloride plant shall comply with the requirements of this section and § 61.65. (a...

  12. Conservation of minimally processed pineapple using calcium chloride, edible coating and gamma radiation;Conservacao de abacaxi minimamente processado utilizando como coadjuvantes cloreto de calcio, pelicula comestivel e radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilon, Lucimeire

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain a convenience type pineapple subjected to fresh-cut process and calcium chloride, wheat gluten and alginate-base edible coating and irradiation treatments. The fruits were washed, sanitized with Sumaveg (Sodium Dichloro-s-Triazinetrione) in a 200 mg L-1 chlorine-free solution at 7 deg C for 15 minutes, and then manually peeled. The peeled fruits were sliced into 1 cm thick slices, rinsed in 20 mg L-1 chlorine-free solution for 3 minutes and drained for 3 minutes. In the first experiment, the samples were treated with: 1% calcium chloride + vital wheat gluten solution; 1% calcium chloride + 1% alginate solution; and control. In the second experiment, the samples were treated with: 1% calcium chloride + vital wheat gluten solution + 2.3 kGy; 1% calcium chloride + 2.3kGy; irradiation with 2.3kGy; and control. The packing consisted of rigid polyethylene terephthalate (PET) trays with around 250 g of fruit. The irradiation was performed in a Cobalt-60 multipurpose irradiator with 92 kCi activity and dose value of 2.3 kGy h-1. The samples were stored at 5 +- 1 deg C and evaluated every other day for 12 days. In the first experiment pH and titratable acidity values showed slight variations but were similar between the treatments. There was a decrease in ascorbic acid values in all treatments. Browning was noticed in all treatments over the storage period. Although the values between the treatments were similar, the pineapple treated with calcium chloride + gluten showed firmer texture, less liquid loss, and lower values of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities and CO{sub 2} and ethylene production. Mesophiles and mold and yeast counts were also reduced. No Salmonella and E. coli were detected. Total coliform counts were low in all the treatments and appeared in just a few isolated samples during the storage period. Sensory analyses showed that the samples treated with calcium chloride + gluten had the lower scores for texture

  13. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate for use in active food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2013-01-01

    This scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the powder mixture of the active substances sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate (FCM substance No 1009), bentonite (CAS No 1302-78-9, FCM No 393), sodium chloride (CAS No 7647-14-5, FCM No 985), sodium carbonate (CAS No 497-19-8, FCM No 1008) which are intended to be used as combined oxygen generator and carbon...

  14. Corrosion Resistance of AISI 316L Coated with an Air-Cured Hydrogen Silsesquioxane Based Spin-On-Glass Enamel in Chloride Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampert, Felix; Bruun Christiansen, Alexander; Din, Rameez Ud

    2017-01-01

    The efficiency of thin hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) -based corrosion barrier coatings on 316 Lsubstrates after oxidative thermal curing at 400-550 ºC in air was investigated. Infrared spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that an increasing curing temperature leads to pr...... and the chemical coating stability increased with curing temperature. Oxidative curing was found inadequate as polymerization treatment of HSQ-based corrosion barrier coatings on 316L substrate....

  15. Chloride Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and bicarbonate , to help regulate the amount of fluid in the body and maintain the acid-base balance . This test measures the level of chloride in ... and bicarbonate , to help regulate the amount of fluid in the body and maintain the acid-base (pH) balance . Chloride and electrolyte tests may also be ordered ...

  16. Preparação e caracterização reológica de nanocompósitos de poli(cloreto de vinila: plastisol com nano-argila Preparation and rheological characterization of nanocomposites of poly(vinyl chloride: paste with nano-clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola P. S. de B. Bettio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi estudada a influência da adição de nano-argila nas propriedades reológicas de suspensões de plastisol de poli(cloreto de vinila. Foram utilizados dois tipos de nano-argila, montmorilonita sódica e a organicamente modificada com sal quaternário de amônio, contemplando a avaliação tanto do método de inchamento da argila, quanto da influência da concentração. A nano-argila, na concentração de 2,5, 5, e 10 pcr, foi previamente inchada em plastificante, sob ação de cisalhamento e temperatura. Três tipos de plastificantes foram utilizados, diisobutil ftalato, diisononil ftalato e éster poliglicólico. Experimentos sem o inchamento prévio da argila também foram realizados para validação de sua influência. O plastisol foi obtido com a mistura da nano-argila com o PVC, plastificante diisononil ftalato e demais aditivos, em misturador planetário. A análise dos dados com método estatístico propiciou afirmar que tanto o tipo de argila quanto sua concentração foram determinantes na elevação da viscosidade da pasta, não tendo sido comprovada eficácia do inchamento prévio da argila.The influence from adding nanoclay on the properties of a poly(vinyl chloride plastisol microsuspension was studied. Two types of nanoclay were used, namely sodium montmorillonite and organophilic modified with quaternary ammonium salt, with both the method of clay swelling and clay concentration. Nanoclays at concentrations of 2.5, 5 and 10 phr, were previously swollen in the plasticizer under shear and temperature. Three plasticizers were used, viz. diisobutyl phthalate, diisononyl phthalate and ester polyglycolic. The plastisol was obtained by mixing the nanoclay with PVC, plasticizer diisononyl phthalate and other additives in a planetary mixer. Data analysis was performed with a statistical method, which allowed us to verify that the type of clay and its concentration affect the plastisol viscosity. The clay swelling method

  17. Cross-Coupling of Sodium Sulfinates with Aryl, Heteroaryl and Vinyl Halides by Nickel/photoredox dual catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Huifeng

    2017-12-06

    An efficient photoredox/nickel dual catalyzed sulfonylation reaction of aryl, heteroaryl, and vinyl halides has been achieved for the first time. This newly developed sulfonylation protocol provides a versatile method for the synthesis of diverse aromatic sulfones at room temperature and shows excellent functional group tolerance. The electrophilic coupling partners are not limited to aryl, heteroaryl and vinyl bromides but also less reactive aryl chlorides are suitable substrates for this transformation.

  18. Effect of oxidation agent on wood biomass in ethylene vinyl acetate conductive polymer: tensile properties, tensile fracture surface and electrical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, M. P. M.; Supri, A. G.; Rozyanty, A. R.; Tan, S. J.

    2017-10-01

    The wood fiber (WF) type of Pulverised Wood Filler obtained by combustion process at temperature under 700 °C for 3 hours was characterized and coated with ferric chloride (FeCl3) by ethanol solution. Both carbonized wood fiber (CWF) and carbonized wood fiber-ferric chloride (CWF-FeCl3) were used as filler in ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) conductive polymer. The filler was coated with FeCl3 to enhance the properties of the CWF to achieve progressive mechanical and electrical properties. The CWF and CWF-FeCl3 loading were varied from 2.5 to 10.0 wt%. EVA/CWF and EVA/CWF-FeCl3 conductive polymer were processed by using Brabender Plasticoder at 160 °C with 50 rpm rotor speed for 10 min. The mechanical properties were investigated by tensile testing and the tensile fractured surface of conductive polymers was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Then, the electrical conductivity of conductive polymer was determined by four-point probe I-V measurement system. The EVA/CWF-FeCl3 conductive polymer showed greater electrical conductivity and tensile strength but lower elongation at break than EVA/CWF conductive polymer. SEM morphology displayed rougher surface between CWF-FeCl3 and EVA phases compared to EVA/CWF conductive polymer.

  19. Corrosion-Protection Coatings for Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    Study investigates 21 combinatios of surface treatments, primers and topcoats. Study considers several types of coatings, including primers, enamels, chlorinated rubbers, alkyds, epoxies, vinyls, polyurethanes, waterbased paints, and antifouling paints. 20-page report summarizes the study.

  20. Synthesis and biocidal activity of modified poly(vinyl alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Refaie Kenawy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Functionalized polymers and their polymer nature give them more advantages than the corresponding small molecules. In this respect, polymeric ammonium and phosphonium salts were prepared by chemical modifications of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA aiming to explore their antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The modifications were performed by chloroacetylation with chloroacetyl chloride. Incorporation of the ammonium and phosphonium salts was conducted by the reaction of chloroacetylated poly(vinyl alcohol (CPVA with triethylamine (TEA, triphenylphosphine (TPP, and tributylphosphine (TBP. The antimicrobial activity of the polymers against variety of test microorganisms was examined by the cut plug and viable cell counting methods of shake cultures of 10 times dilute nutrient broth and Sabouraud’s media, seeded with the test microorganisms. It was found that the immobilized polymers exhibited antimicrobial activity against the Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella sp. and Salmonella typhi and Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and B. cereus and the dermatophyte fungus (Trichophyton rubrum. The growth inhibition of the test microorganisms (ratio of surviving cell number, M/C varied according to the composition of the active group in the polymer and the test organism. It increased by increasing the concentration of the polymer. Triphenyl phosphonium salt of the modified poly(vinyl alcohol exhibited the most biocidal activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria after 24 h.

  1. Corrosion resistance of AISI 316L coated with an air-cured hydrogen silsesquioxane based spin-on-glass enamel in chloride environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lampert, Felix; Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Din, Rameez Ud; Gonzalez Garcia, Y.; Møller, Per

    2017-01-01

    The efficiency of thin hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) −based corrosion barrier coatings on 316L substrates after oxidative thermal curing at 400–550 °C in air was investigated. Infrared spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that an increasing curing temperature leads to

  2. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cong Cui

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  3. [Study of Interaction between Fluorinated Coating Glass and the Medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Yayoi; Otsu, Saki; Bamba, Takao; Hanawa, Takehisa

    2017-11-01

     The adsorption of active pharmaceutical ingredients on the surface of medical devices such as polyvinl chloride, ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer and glass often prevent the acuurate dose of drug. At dispensing of pharmaceuticals, mètre glass (MG) has been widely used for dispensing syrup. When measuring the viscous syrup, it often takes long time to dispense the accurate volume due to their adhesiveness on the glass surface. In this study, we investigate the adhesion of various syrups to MG made with uncoated glass or glass with a strongly hydrophobic silicone or fluorinated coating in terms of the following formulation parameters: viscosity, surface tension, contact angle, and surface free energy. The contact angles for syrups on the coated glass surfaces were significantly higher than those on the uncoated glass surface. In addition, the relationship between surface tension and contact angle was examined. We found that the contact angle was independent of surface tension for the uncoated glass, while it increased with increasing surface tension for the coated glasses. These results can be explained as follows: the silicone or fluorinated coatings inhibit the hydrogen bonding that usually takes place between water and silanol and siloxane groups at glass surfaces. The coatings reduced the surface free energy and increased the hydrophobicity of the glass, reduced its wettability by the syrups, and thus reduced the adhesion loss for the syrups. It was considered that as for the hydrophobic action, properties of matter of sample influence the coated device by coating in order that it is reinforced.

  4. Synergism between sodium chloride, sucrose and tricalcium phosphate in the osmotic dehydration of oca (Oxalis tuberosa with and without chitosan coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Arroyo Portal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the synergistic effect of three solutes (sodium chloride, sucrose, tricalcium phosphate in different combinations of concentration, on the moisture, solid gain and calcium gain in oca (Oxalis tuberosa with and without chitosan (CR and SR. In both cases applied the Simplex with Extended Centroid mixture design. Were used cylinders of oca of 0.9 cm of diameter and 3.4 cm of length. The kinetics of moisture, solid gain and calcium gain for 48 hours was evaluated. The effective diffusivity of water, solids and calcium was determined. We found that in samples CR is greater loss of water and less solid gain compared with SR samples mainly as sodium chloride or sucrose participate independently, while for the gain of calcium, in all cases, the CR samples gain more of calcium than SR samples. The effective diffusivities found are: water, 1.19E-09 m2 /s in samples CR and 1.34E-09 m2 /s in SR samples; for solid, 3.67E-09 m2 /s in samples CR and 5.43E-09 m2 /s in SR samples; and, for calcium 3.32E-11 m2 /s in samples CR and 1.57E-09 m2 /s in SR samples.

  5. Conjugate Addition of Nucleophiles to the Vinyl Function of 2-Chloro-4-vinylpyrimidine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucjan Strekowski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Conjugate addition reaction of various nucleophiles across the vinyl group of 2-chloro-4-vinylpyrimidine, 2-chloro-4-(1-phenylvinylpyrimidine and 2-chloro-4-vinylquinazoline provides the corresponding 2-chloro-4-(2-substituted ethylpyrimidines and 2-chloro-4-(2-substituted ethylquinazolines. Treatment of these products, without isolation, with N-methylpiperazine results in nucleophilic displacement of chloride and yields the corresponding 2,4-disubstituted pyrimidines and quinazolines.

  6. Analysis of microcystins using high-performance liquid chromatography and magnetic solid-phase extraction with silica-coated magnetite with cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuying; Lian, Lili; Wang, Xiyue; Wang, Runnan; Tian, Yuanyuan; Guo, Xiaoyang; Lou, Dawei

    2017-04-01

    Microcystins (MCs), produced by freshwater cyanobacteria, can be serious water pollutants, so it is important to monitor their concentration in drinking water. We have developed a method for rapid and accurate determination of microcystin levels in environmental water, using magnetic solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The magnetic composite material, which was combined with cetylpyridinium chloride, was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis. The optimal extraction of microcystins in water sample was achieved by optimizing the amount of adsorbent, time of adsorption, ratio of eluting solvent, and volume of eluent. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection of MC-LR was 0.001 μg/L, and the limit of quantification was 0.0028 μg/L. The limit of detection of MC-RR was 0.001 μg/L, and the limit of quantification was 0.003 μg/L. These values are far lower than those established by the International Health Organization for the maximum concentration of microcystins in drinking water. The magnetic solid-phase extraction adsorbent used in this method has the advantages of simple preparation, low price, and easy solid-liquid separation, and it can be used for the rapid and sensitive monitoring of trace microcystins in environmental water samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Jack J.; Elling, David; Reams, Walter

    1990-01-01

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  8. Tribenzylammonium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waly Diallo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title salt, C21H21NH+·Cl−, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving [(C6H5CH23NH]2[HPO4] and Sn(CH33Cl in ethanol. Both the cation and the anion are situated on a threefold rotation axis. The central N atom in the cation has a slightly distorted tetrahedral environment, with angles ranging from 107.7 to 111.16 (10°. In the crystal, the tribenzylammonium cations and chloride anions are linked through N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of infinite chains along [001]. The crystal studied was a merohedral twin.

  9. Adubação antecipada na cultura da soja com superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio revestidos por polímeros Antecipated fertilization on soybean with triple superphosphate and potassium chloride coated with polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Fernandes Guareschi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se comparar épocas e doses de aplicação do superfosfato triplo (SFT cloreto de potássio (KCl com e sem revestimento por polímero no desempenho produtivo da soja em condições edafoclimáticas de cerrado. O experimento foi realizado em Rio Verde, GO, em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x2x2+1. O primeiro fator foi constituído pelos fertilizantes SFT e KCl revestidos ou não por polímeros, o segundo por duas doses de fósforo e potássio (40 + 40 e 80 + 80 kg ha-1 P2O5 e K2O, e o terceiro, por duas épocas de aplicação dos fertilizantes (15 dias antes da semeadura e na semeadura. Inclui-se ainda, um tratamento testemunha sem adubação. Foi avaliada a produção de biomassa, a produtividade de grãos e componentes de produtividade. Houve resposta à aplicação da adubação com P e K na produção de massa fresca e produtividade, sendo a ausência de adubação prejudicial ao desenvolvimento da cultura da soja. A aplicação a lanço de superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio, revestidos por polímeros 15 dias antes da semeadura, proporcionou maior produção de massa seca, número de vagens por planta e produtividade de grãos de soja em relação aos fertilizantes convencionais. Quando aplicados na semeadura, os fertilizantes convencionais e fertilizantes revestidos por polímeros conferiram a mesma produção de massa seca e produtividade de grãos de soja.The objetive of this work was to compare times and application rates of triple superphosphate (TSF and potassium chloride (KCl with and without polymer coating on soybean yield performance in the cerrado environmental conditions. The experiment was conducted in Rio Verde, GO, in an Oxisol. Treatments were arranged in a randomized block design, in factorial 2x2x2+1. The first factor consisted by fertilizer TSF and KCl coated or not by polymer, the second by two

  10. Chloride Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/chloridebloodtest.html Chloride Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Chloride Blood Test? A chloride blood test measures the amount of ...

  11. Ultraviolet photoinitiated on-fiber copolymerization of ionic liquid sorbent coatings for headspace and direct immersion solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tien D; Yu, Honglian; Cole, William T S; Anderson, Jared L

    2012-11-06

    A high-throughput method for the production of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sorbent coatings via ultraviolet (UV) photoinitiated copolymerization of ionic liquid (IL) monomers on a fused silica support is described. The copolymerization of monocationic and dicationic IL cross-linkers was performed "on-fiber" using UV initiated free radical polymerization. Mixtures composed of various amounts of the IL cross-linker, UV initiator (DAROCUR 1173), and IL monomer were dip-coated onto an etched and derivatized fused silica support and placed in a high-capacity UV reactor. The method requires no organic dispersive solvent and is much more rapid compared to traditional methods in which polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) sorbent coatings are prepared by 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) (AIBN)-initiated polymerization. Two ionic liquid-based cross-linkers, namely, 1,8-di (3-vinylimidazolium) octane dibromide ([(VIM)(2)C(8)] 2[Br]) and 1,12-di (3-vinylimidazolium) dodecane dibromide ([(VIM)(2)C(12)] 2[Br]), were copolymerized with an ionic liquid monomer, 1-vinyl-3-hexylimidazolium chloride ([VHIM][Cl]), to produce polar cross-linked PIL-based SPME sorbent coatings. The cross-linking and immobilization of these coatings make them particularly applicable in direct immersion SPME. The coatings were applied in the extraction of polar analytes, including alcohols, aldehydes, and esters, from aqueous solutions using headspace and direct immersion SPME gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Compared to linear PIL-based sorbent coatings containing the same anions, the cross-linked PIL-based coatings exhibited higher thermal stability and lower bleed, making them ideal for GC/MS. Recovery experiments were performed in deionized, well, and river water. The structural integrity of the sorbent coatings, as well as their analytical precision, was not diminished after 90 extractions from complex samples using headspace and direct immersion SPME.

  12. Antimalarial effects of vinyl sulfone cysteine proteinase inhibitors.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenthal, P J; Olson, J E; Lee, G K; Palmer, J T; Klaus, J L; Rasnick, D

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the antimalarial effects of vinyl sulfone cysteine proteinase inhibitors. A number of vinyl sulfones strongly inhibited falcipain, a Plasmodium falciparum cysteine proteinase that is a critical hemoglobinase. In studies of cultured parasites, nanomolar concentrations of three vinyl sulfones inhibited parasite hemoglobin degradation, metabolic activity, and development. The antimalarial effects correlated with the inhibition of falcipain. Our results suggest that vinyl sulfones or...

  13. Fabrication of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode and its application for simultaneous electrochemical determination colorants of sunset yellow and tartrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoliang; Du, Yongling; Lu, Daban; Wang, Chunming

    2013-05-24

    We proposed a green and facile approach for the synthesis of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film (β-CD-PDDA-Gr) by using L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) as the reducing agent at room temperature. The β-CD-PDDA-Gr composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode (GC-RDE) was then developed for the sensitive simultaneous determination of two synthetic food colorants: sunset yellow (SY) and tartrazine (TT). By cyclic voltammetry (CV), the peak currents of SY and TT increased obviously on the developed electrochemical sensor. The kinetic parameters, such as diffusion coefficient D and standard heterogeneous rate constant kb, were estimated by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Under the optimal conditions, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) signals of SY and TT on the β-CD-PDDA-Gr modified GC-RDE were significantly enhanced. The enhanced anodic peak currents represented the excellent analytical performance of simultaneous detection of SY and TT in the range of 5.0×10(-8) to 2.0×10(-5) mol L(-1), with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 1.25×10(-8) mol L(-1) for SY and 1.43×10(-8) mol L(-1) for TT (SN(-1)=3). This proposed method displayed outstanding selectivity, good stability and acceptable repeatability and reproducibility, and also has been used to simultaneously determine SY and TT in some commercial soft drinks with satisfactory results. The obtained results were compared to HPLC of analysis for those two colorants and no significant differences were found. By the treatment of the experimental data, the electrochemical reaction mechanisms of SY and TT both involved a one-electron-one-proton-transfer process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Colloidal titration of aqueous zirconium solutions with poly(vinyl sulfate) by potentiometric endpoint detection using a toluidine blue selective electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurada, Osamu; Kato, Yasutake; Kito, Noriyoshi; Kameyama, Keiichi; Hattori, Toshiaki; Hashiba, Minoru

    2004-02-01

    Zirconium oxy-salts were hydrolyzed to form positively charged polymer or cluster species in acidic solutions. The zirconium hydrolyzed polymer was found to react with a negatively charged polyelectrolyte, such as poly(vinyl sulfate), and to form a stoichiometric polyion complex. Thus, colloidal titration with poly(vinyl sulfate) was applied to measure the zirconium concentration in an acidic solution by using a Toluidine Blue selective plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrode as a potentiometric end-point detecting device. The determination could be performed with 1% of the relative standard deviation. The colloidal titration stoichiometry at pH < or = 2 was one mol of zirconium per equivalent mol of poly(vinyl sulfate).

  15. Effect of chain structure on hydrogen bonding in vinyl acetate - vinyl alcohol copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merekalova, Nadezhda D.; Bondarenko, Galina N.; Denisova, Yuliya I.; Krentsel, Liya B.; Litmanovich, Arkadiy D.; Kudryavtsev, Yaroslav V.

    2017-04-01

    FTIR spectroscopy and semi-empirical AM1 method are used to study hydrogen bonding in multiblock and random equimolar copolymers of vinyl acetate and vinyl alcohol. An energetically beneficial zip-holder complex, built on multiple inter- and intrachain hydroxyl-hydroxyl bonds and an intrachain hydroxyl-acetyloxy bond, can be formed between two vinyl alcohol sequences. As a result, multiblock copolymers reveal stronger degree of association that affects crystallinity, as well as various rheological and relaxation properties discussed in the literature. Macromolecular complexes in random copolymers are weak and tend to be destroyed in the presence of residual DMF solvent and adsorbed water. Nevertheless, a rather stable interchain quaternary complex can be formed that includes vinyl alcohol and vinyl acetate units and DMF and water molecules. For a single chain it is shown that an H-bond between neighboring vinyl alcohol and vinyl acetate monomer units mostly engages a carbonyl oxygen atom of the vinyl acetate, if the vinyl alcohol belongs to a short (<5 units) sequence, and an ether oxygen atom in the other case. On the whole, the quantum chemistry calculations shed much light on the origin of distinctions in the copolymer FTIR spectra, which may seem subtle when considered standalone.

  16. Effect of non-associated electrolyte solutions on the behaviour of poly(vinyl alcohol)-based hydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Patachia, Sílvia; Valente,Artur J. M.; Baciu, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the behaviour of the poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels [PVA-HG] in sodium and potassium chlorides aqueous solutions, due to their interactions. The tested [PVA-HG]-s have been obtained by repeated freezing and thawing cycles. White, heterogeneous hydrogels have been obtained. These hydrogels exhibit a mechanical active behaviour at their contact with electrolytes aqueous solutions, manifested by important changing in mass, volume and density of the hydrogel sam...

  17. Effect of association on the gelation of aqueous poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) solutions with. gamma. -rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueven, O.; Yigit, F. (Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1982-01-01

    In this study gelation of dilute aqueous poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone), PVP, solutions with ..gamma..-rays is investigated. The gelation dose is found to increase with the addition of guanidine salts to polymer solutions. The mechanism responsible for the increase in gelation in guanidine sulfate is shown to be mainly due to the changes in the configurational behaviour of PVP. Since there was no change in viscosity-concentration relation of PVP in guanidine chloride solutions, the increase in gelation dose in the presence of this substance is explained as due to changes brought about in the indirect action of radiation by chloride ions.

  18. Fabrication of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode and its application for simultaneous electrochemical determination colorants of sunset yellow and tartrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Xiaoliang; Du, Yongling; Lu, Daban; Wang, Chunming, E-mail: wangcm@lzu.edu.cn

    2013-05-24

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A green and facile approach for synthesis of β-CD-PDDA-Gr at room temperature. •We present the β-CD-PDDA-Gr modified GC-RDE for simultaneous detection of SY and TT. •SY and TT's electrooxidations are both the one-electron-one-proton-transfer process. •Diffusion coefficients and standard rate constants of SY and TT were discussed. -- Abstract: We proposed a green and facile approach for the synthesis of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film (β-CD-PDDA-Gr) by using L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) as the reducing agent at room temperature. The β-CD-PDDA-Gr composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode (GC-RDE) was then developed for the sensitive simultaneous determination of two synthetic food colorants: sunset yellow (SY) and tartrazine (TT). By cyclic voltammetry (CV), the peak currents of SY and TT increased obviously on the developed electrochemical sensor. The kinetic parameters, such as diffusion coefficient D and standard heterogeneous rate constant k{sub b}, were estimated by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Under the optimal conditions, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) signals of SY and TT on the β-CD-PDDA-Gr modified GC-RDE were significantly enhanced. The enhanced anodic peak currents represented the excellent analytical performance of simultaneous detection of SY and TT in the range of 5.0 × 10{sup −8} to 2.0 × 10{sup −5} mol L{sup −1}, with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 1.25 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} for SY and 1.43 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} for TT (S N{sup −1} = 3). This proposed method displayed outstanding selectivity, good stability and acceptable repeatability and reproducibility, and also has been used to simultaneously determine SY and TT in some commercial soft drinks with satisfactory results. The obtained results were compared to HPLC of analysis for those two colorants and no significant

  19. Effects of quaternary ammonium silane coatings on mixed fungal and bacterial biofilms on tracheoesophageal shunt prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, JJH; Buijssen, KJDA; Busscher, HJ; van der Laan, BFAM; van der Mei, HC

    Two quaternary ammonium silanes (QAS) were used to coat silicone rubber tracheoesophageal shunt prostheses, yielding a positively charged surface. One QAS coating [(trimethoxysilyl)-propyidimethylocta-decylammonium chloride] was applied through chemical bonding, while the other coating, Biocidal ZF,

  20. Characterization of plasma-polymerized 4-vinyl pyridine with silver nanoparticies on poly(ethylene terephthalate) film for anti-microbial properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, J.; Winther-Jensen, Bjørn; Kjær, Erik Michael

    2006-01-01

    on the poly(4-vinyl pyridine) coating by UV irradiation in Silver nitride water solution, in order to enhance the anti-microbial properties. Different kinds of modified PET films were tested for anti-microbial properties against yeast (Debaryomyces hansenii) by using microbiological analyser mu-4200......4-vinyl pyridine was polymerized on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film by using lower energy pulsed AC plasma under low pressure in Ar atmosphere. The plasma polymerized coating was characterized by ATR Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission...

  1. Chloride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vegetables. Foods with higher amounts of chloride include seaweed, rye, tomatoes, lettuce, celery, and olives. Chloride, combined ... RDA is an intake level based on scientific research evidence. Adequate Intake (AI): This level is established ...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3140 - Vinyl epoxy ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl epoxy ester. 721.3140 Section... Substances § 721.3140 Vinyl epoxy ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance vinyl epoxy ester (PMN P-85-527) is subject to reporting under this...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1350 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. 177.1350 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1350 Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers may be safely used as articles or components of articles...

  4. Carbon : Desktop Vinyl Lathe Recapturing Value In Recorded Music

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Vinyl records have re-emerged as the preferred format for music fans and artists alike. The problem is that producing vinyl records is slow and expensive; this makes it difficult for up-and-coming artists to release their music on vinyl. What if you could make your own records at home?

  5. Intramolecular crosslinking of poly(vinyl alcohol)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebben, Bert; van den Berg, J.W.A.; Bargeman, Dick; Smolders, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) is crosslinked in dilute solution (c=0.1 wt%) with glutaraldehyde. The reaction product is characterized by viscometry and gel permeation chromatography (g.p.c.). The intrinsic viscosity decreases with increasing degree of crosslinking and does not depend on temperature. G.p.c.

  6. Atmospheric fate of methyl vinyl ketone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praske, Eric; Crounse, John D; Bates, Kelvin H

    2015-01-01

    First generation product yields from the OH-initiated oxidation of methyl vinyl ketone (3-buten-2-one, MVK) under both low and high NO conditions are reported. In the low NO chemistry, three distinct reaction channels are identified leading to the formation of (1) OH, glycolaldehyde, and acetyl p...

  7. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents the state-of-the art: an analytical model which describes chloride profiles in concrete as function of depth...... dependent surface chloride concentrations and the diffusion coefficients. Model parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in marine atmospheric and submerged South Scandinavian environment are suggested in a companion paper based on 10 years field exposure data....... makes physical sense for the design engineer, i.e. the achieved chloride diffusion coefficients at 1 year and 100 years, D1 and D100 respectively, and the corresponding achieved chloride concentrations at the exposed concrete surface, C1 and C100. Data from field exposure supports the assumption of time...

  8. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash...... in marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...

  9. Performance Evaluation of Vinyl Replacement Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-15

    VINYL REPLACEMENT WINDOWS P. B. SHEPHERD JOHNS-MANVILLE SALES CORPORATION LEU ! RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT CENTER CLE 0 KEN- CARYL RANCH DENVER, COLORADO...AE OKUI UBR Research & Development Center i 0010 Ken- Caryl Ranch, Denver, Colorado 80217(W II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12 5CPORT DATE U.S...The letter sent to manufacturers is reproduced on the following page. The source of manufacturers solicited was the Thomas Register I0 and all firms

  10. Hydrotelluration of alkynes: a unique route to Z-vinyl organometallics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Maurício L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrotelluration reaction of alkynes is reviewed. The transformation of vinylic tellurides into reactive vinyl organometallics and the coupling reactions of vinylic tellurides with alkynes and organometallics are presented.

  11. Polystyrene film-coated glassware : a new means of reducing metal losses in trace metal speciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinheiro, J.P.; Bosker, W.T.E.

    2004-01-01

    A recently developed process for coating a glass surface with polystyrene (PS) film, by use of a simple chemical process has been used to reduce trace metal adsorption by cell components. The glass coating is a two-step procedure consisting of covalent attachment of vinyl-terminated PS to Si atoms

  12. 1,3,5-Trimethylpyrazolium chloride based ionogel as an efficient and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and 1,3,5-trimethylpyrazolium chloride through sol-gel process and comparison with silica coated with 1,3,5- trimethylpyrazolium chloride for the synthesis of benz- imidazoles. Our method involves simple work-up procedure, solvent-free conditions, less reaction time, tolerance to various functionalities and excellent yields,.

  13. Copolymers of Vinyl-Containing Benzoxazine with Vinyl Monomers as Precursors for High Performance Thermosets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Takeichi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A benzoxazine containing a vinyl group (P-4va was prepared by the reaction of phenol, 4-vinylaniline, and paraformaldehyde. A differential scanning calorimetry (DSC study revealed that ring-opening polymerization of the benzoxazine and chain polymerization of the vinyl group occurred in the same temperature range. When 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile was added as a radical initiator to P-4va, however, only the vinyl groups were polymerized at lower temperature, giving oligo(P-4va that contains pendent benzoxazine units. Radical copolymerization of P-4va with various vinyl monomers such as styrene, methyl methacrylate (MMA, and n-butyl acrylate (BuA was examined. The chemical structure of the copolymers was confirmed by FT-IR and 1H-NMR to be one of polyolefins bearing benzoxazine units as the pendant groups. The weight-average molecular weights of the copolymers determined by size exclusion chromatography were to be in the range of 1900–51,500 depending on the comonomers. DSC of the copolymers showed that the maxima of the exothermic peaks corresponding to the ring-opening polymerization of the pendent benzoxazine units were observed in the temperature range of 229–250 °C. Thermal cure up to 240 °C of the copolymer films afforded homogenous transparent films with improved thermal properties. Tough cured film was obtained by the copolymerization with MMA, while a tough and flexible film was obtained by the copolymerization with BuA.

  14. Parameters governing the corrosion protection efficiency of fusion-bonded epoxy coatings on reinforcing steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate various epoxy coating and exposure parameters to determine their effects on the corrosion of reinforcing steel. The parameters investigated were: chloride content at the bar depth, coated bar corroded area...

  15. 1, 3, 5-Trimethylpyrazolium chloride based ionogel as an efficient ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1,3,5-Trimethylpyrazolium chloride based ionogel as an efficient and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for the synthesis of benzimidazoles ... Catalytic activity of ionogel was compared with silica coated with ionic liquid (silica-IL) and it was found that ionogel is highly active compared to silica-IL for the synthesis of ...

  16. Cinchonidinium chloride monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Feng Ni

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt, C19H23N2O+·Cl−·H2O, the ions and the water molecule are held together by O—H...Cl, N—H...Cl, O—H...O, O—H...N and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional framework. The vinyl group is disordered over two orientations with refined occupancies of 0.564 (16 and 0.436 (16. The cell parameters of the title compound have been reported previously [Griffiths (1952. Acta Cryst. 5, 290–291].

  17. Production of methyl-vinyl ketone from levulinic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI; West,; Ryan, M [Madison, WI

    2011-06-14

    A method for converting levulinic acid to methyl vinyl ketone is described. The method includes the steps of reacting an aqueous solution of levulinic acid, over an acid catalyst, at a temperature of from room temperature to about 1100 K. Methyl vinyl ketone is thereby formed.

  18. Cardanol Groups Grafted on Poly(vinyl chloride—Synthesis, Performance and Plasticization Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puyou Jia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Internally plasticized poly(vinyl chloride (PVC materials are investigated via grafting of propargyl ether cardanol (PEC. The chemical structure of the materials was studied by FT-IR and 1H NMR. The performace of the obtained internally plasticized PVC materials was also investigated with TGA, DSC and leaching tests. The results showed that grafting of propargyl ether cardanol (PEC on PVC increased the free volume and distance of PVC chains, which efficiently decreased the glass transition temperature (Tg. No migration was found in the leaching tests for internally plasticized PVC films compared with plasticized PVC materials with commercial plasticizer dioctyl phthalate (DOP. The internal plasticization mechanism was also disscussed according to lubrication theory and free volume theory. This work provides a meaningful strategy for designing no-migration PVC materials by introducing cardanol groups as branched chains.

  19. ACETYLENE INHIBITION OF TRICHLOROETHENE AND VINYL CHLORIDE REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION. (R828772)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY OF P53 PROTEIN MUTATIONS IN WORKERS EXPOSED TO VINYL CHLORIDE. (R825361)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  1. A Vinyl Chloride-exposed Worker with an Adrenal Gland Angiosarcoma: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    CRISCUOLO, Mario; VALERIO, Jacqueline; GIANICOLO, Maria Elena; GIANICOLO, Emilio A.L; PORTALURI, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Adrenal epithelioidangiosarcoma (AEA) is a rare neoplasm that accounts for less than 1% of sarcomas. Due to its rarity, it can easily be misdiagnosed, both by the clinician and the pathologist. Data on the patient’s occupational history was collected and analyzed. The bibliographic data was found on the PUBMED bibliographic search site after entering the word “extrahepaticangiosarcoma”. We report a case of adrenal epithelioidangiosarcoma (AEA) in a 68 yr-old Caucasian male factory worker expo...

  2. Thermal and mechanical properties of bio-based plasticizers mixtures on poly (vinyl chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boussaha Bouchoul

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of mixtures of nontoxic and biodegradable plasticizers coming from natural resources is a good way to replace conventional phthalates plasticizers. In this study, two secondary plasticizers of epoxidized sunflower oil (ESO and epoxidized sunflower oil methyl ester (ESOME were synthesized and have been used with two commercially available biobased plasticizers; isosorbide diesters (ISB and acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC in order to produce flexible PVC. Different mixtures of these plasticizers have been introduced in PVC formulations. Thermal, mechanical and morphological properties have been studied by using discoloration, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA, tensile - strain and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Studies have shown that PVC plasticization and stabilization were improved by addition of plasticizers blends containing ISB, ATBC, ESO and ESOME. An increase in the content of ESO or ESOME improved thermal and mechanical properties, whereas ESOME/ATBC formulations exhibited the best properties.

  3. Migration of additives from poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) tubes into aqueous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Storm, Birgit Kjærside

    2005-01-01

    ), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The low molecular weight migration product that was released was extracted and silylanized before gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) identification and quantification. After 70 days, the weight loss was less than 0...

  4. Effects of Toluene, Acrolein and Vinyl Chloride on Motor Activity of Drosophila Melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data generated by current high-throughput assays for chemical toxicity require information to link effects at molecular targets to adverse outcomes in whole animals. In addition, more efficient methods for testing volatile chemicals are needed. Here we begin to address these ...

  5. Factors Affecting Cis-Dichloroethene and Vinyl Chloride Biological Transformation Under Anaerobic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    is yield (copy/ mol) and decay is represented by b (d -1 ). Properties of the non-linear least squares estimates of q and b were analyzed following...catabolic reaction. Reductive dechlorination of VC is a thermodynamically favorable process with hydrogen as the electron donor (_G 0 ` = -149 kJ/mol of VC...Hydrogen or butanol were used as sole electron donors. Yu et al. (2004 and 2005) studied the transformation rate kinetics of complete PCE dechlorination (55

  6. Itaconamide derivatives as organic stabilizers for poly(vinyl chloride) against photodegradation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khalil, A. M.; Rabie, S. T.; Kaprálková, Ludmila; Abd El Ghaffar, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2016), s. 96-103 ISSN 1060-1325 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : itaconamide * PVC * stabilizer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2016

  7. Inhibiting the deterioration of plasticized poly (vinyl chloride)-a museum perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    international museum collections, in the form of protective clothing and footwear, inflatable furniture, cable insulation, toys, medical tubing and sculpture. Most plasticized PVC formulations are designed to function for less than 10 years; this is a concern to museums where all collections should be preserved...... materials in museums. Environments included a closed flask, freezer, with silica gel, activated carbon and Ageless ® oxygen absorber, at high relative humidity, on glass and in polyethylene bags. In addition, two naturally aged ‘objects’, also plasticized with DEHP and exhibiting deterioration, were...

  8. Elucidation of the Mechanisms and Environmental Relevance of cis-Dichloroethene and Vinyl Chloride Biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    hypothesis given its well-known role in depressing the observed carbon isotope effects during photosynthesis (O’Leary, 1988). Nijenhuis et al. (2005...Environmental Microbiology 71(7): 3413-3419. O’Leary, M. H. (1988). “Carbon Isotopes in Photosynthesis .” Bioscience 38(5): 328-336. Sherwood Lollar, B...biodegradation in other hydrogeological scenarios including sites without artificial recirculation and with other parent contaminants. For example

  9. Enhancement of mechanical properties of poly(vinyl chloride with polymethyl methacrylate-grafted halloysite nanotube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Halloysite nanotubes(HNTs grafted with Polymethyl methacrylate(PMMA were synthesized via radical polymerization. The properties of PMMA-grafted HNTs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The results showed that PMMA grafted to the surfaces of HNTs successfully. Then, PVC/PMMA-grafted HNTs nanocomposites were prepared by melt compounding. The morphology, mechanical properties and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. PMMA-grafted HNTs can effectively improve the toughness, strength and modulus of PVC. The glass transition and thermal decomposition temperatures of PVC phase in PVC/PMMA-grafted HNTs nanocomposites are shifted toward slightly higher temperatures. The grafted HNTs were uniformly dispersed in PVC matrix as revealed by TEM photos. The fracture surfaces of the nanocomposites exhibited plastic deformation feature indicating ductile fracture behaviors. The improvement of toughness of PVC by PMMA-grafted HNTs was attributed to the improved interfacial bonding by grafting and the toughening mechanism was explained according to the cavitation mechanism.

  10. Theoretical study of structural and electronic properties of poly(vinyl chloride nanotube inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assad Kareen Edaan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The structural and electronic properties of inclusion or interconnection between NT and PVC were studied by quantum semiepirical approximation method using (PM3 self-consistent ?eld molecular orbital method. The total structural energy, HOMO level energy, LUMO level energy, band gap?(E?_g ?=E?_HOMO-E_LUMO, and dipole moment of the compounds were calculated. Increasing the distance between NT and PVC led to decline the total energy difference which led to better interconnection between NT and PVC and vice versa when the distant is decreased. Therefore the more stable compound is f. The best electronic energies were obtained at the structures 3c and 3b in the first distance respectively. The dipole moments for all structures have the following trend: b> d > c > e > f > a> g.

  11. RAFT Polymerization of Vinyl Esters: Synthesis and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Harrisson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is the first comprehensive review on the study and use of vinyl ester monomers in reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization. It covers all the synthetic aspects associated with the definition of precision polymers comprising poly(vinyl ester building blocks, such as the choice of RAFT agent and reaction conditions in order to progress from simple to complex macromolecular architectures. Although vinyl acetate was by far the most studied monomer of the range, many vinyl esters have been considered in order to tune various polymer properties, in particular, solubility in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2. A special emphasis is given to novel poly(vinyl alkylates with enhanced solubilities in scCO2, with applications as reactive stabilizers for dispersion polymerization and macromolecular surfactants for CO2 media. Other miscellaneous uses of poly(vinyl esters synthesized by RAFT, for instance as a means to produce poly(vinyl alcohol with controlled characteristics for use in the biomedical area, are also covered.

  12. Novel Alkyd-Type Coating Resins Produced Using Cationic Polymerization [PowerPoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, Bret; Kalita, Harjyoti; Alam, Samim; Jayasooriyamu, Anurad; Fernando, Shashi; Samanata, Satyabrata; Bahr, James; Selvakumar, Sermadurai; Sibi, Mukund; Vold, Jessica; Ulven, Chad

    2014-04-07

    Novel, partially bio-based poly(vinyl ether) copolymers derived from soybean oil and cyclohexyl vinyl ether (CHVE) were produced by cationic polymerization and investigated for application as alkyd-type surface coatings. Compared to conventional alkyd resins, which are produced by high temperature melt condensation polymerization, the poly(vinyl ether)s provide several advantages. These advantages include miler, more energy efficient polymer synthesis, elimination of issues associated with gelation during polymer synthesis, production of polymers with well-defined composition and relatively narrow molecular weight distribution, and elimination of film formation and physical property issues associated with entrained monomers, dimers, trimmers, etc. The results of the studied showed that the thermal, mechanical, and physical properties of the coatings produced from these novel polymers varied considerable as a function of polymer composition and cure temperature. Overall, the results suggest a good potential for these novel copolymers to be used for coatings cured by autoxidation.

  13. Moxifloxacinium chloride monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Xiang Wu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound {systematic name: 7-[(1S,6S-8-aza-2-azoniabicyclo[4.3.0]non-8-yl]-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-8-methoxy-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid chloride monohydrate}, C21H25FN3O4+·Cl−·H2O, crystallizes with two moxifloxacinium cations, two chloride ions and two uncoordinated water molecules in the unit cell. The crystal structure has a pseudo-inversion center except for the chloride ions. In both moxifloxacinium cations, the quinoline rings are approximately planar, the maximum atomic deviations being 0.107 (3 and 0.118 (3 Å. The piperidine rings adopt a chair conformation while the pyrrolidine rings display a half-chair conformation. In the crystal, the carboxyl groups, the protonated piperidyl groups, the uncoordinated water molecule and chloride anions participate in O—H...O, O—H...Cl and N—H...Cl hydrogen bonding; weak intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonding is also present in the crystal structure.

  14. Strontium-89 Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may harm the fetus.notify any health care professional (especially other doctors) giving you treatment that you will be taking strontium-89 chloride.do not have any vaccinations (e.g., measles or flu shots) without talking to your doctor.

  15. Congenital chloride diarrhea: late presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Al Bishi, Laila; Mustafa,

    2011-01-01

    Laila Al Bishi1, Mustafa Al Toonisi2Pediatric Department, North West Armed Forces Hospital, Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: We report the case of a male infant who presented with diarrhea at 6 months of age. He was failing to thrive, and biochemical investigation revealed hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Diagnosis of congenital chloride diarrhea was suspected and confirmed by the stool chloride result. He was started on high-dose sodium chloride and potassium chloride to...

  16. Influence of Halogen Variation on Structure and Interactions in Vinyl Halide (H_2C=CHX)\\cdotsCO_2 (x = F, Cl, Br) Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, Ashley M.; Christenholz, Cori L.; Dorris, Rachel E.; Peebles, Rebecca A.; Peebles, Sean A.

    2016-06-01

    Chirped-pulse and resonant cavity Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy have been used to investigate dimers of CO_2 with vinyl fluoride (VF), vinyl chloride (VCl) and vinyl bromide (VBr). For all three complexes, CO_2 is aligned adjacent to the X-C-H end (X = F, Cl, Br) of the ethylene subunit, with C-X\\cdotsC and C-H\\cdotsO contacts. For VF\\cdotsCO_2, a second isomer is also observed, with CO_2 roughly parallel to the H-C=C-F side of VF; however, there is no spectroscopic indication that similar structures are present for VCl\\cdotsCO_2 or VBr\\cdotsCO_2. For vinyl fluoride\\cdotsCO_2, a full structural analysis has previously been published, while for the Cl- and Br-containing species, insufficient data are presently available for complete structure determinations. However, structural information from ab initio calculations, 35Cl/37Cl and 79B/81Br isotopic substitution, and analysis of chlorine and bromine nuclear quadrupole coupling constants will be presented. In addition, for this series of dimers containing C-H\\cdotsO contacts, further insight into the nature of the weak interactions may be obtained from Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) and other ab initio} analyses that are presently in progress. C. L. Christenholz, R. E. Dorris, R. A. Peebles, S. A. Peebles, J. Phys. Chem. A, 118, (2014), 8765-8772.

  17. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and fact...

  18. Combined XPS and contact angle studies of ethylene vinyl acetate and polyvinyl acetate blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, I. O.; Doganci, M. D.; Cansoy, C. E.; Erbil, H. Y.; Avramova, I.; Suzer, S.

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we prepared thin films by blending ethylene vinyl acetate copolymers (EVA) containing 12-33 (wt.%) vinyl acetate (VA) with polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) and high density polyethylene homopolymers. Large area micropatterns having controlled protrusion sizes were obtained by phase-separation especially for the PVAc/EVA-33 blends using dip coating. These surfaces were characterized by XPS and contact angle measurements. A reasonably linear relation was found between the VA content on the surface (wt.%) obtained from XPS analysis and the VA content in bulk especially for PVAc/EVA-33 blend surfaces. PE segments were more enriched on the surface than that of the bulk for pure EVA copolymer surfaces similar to previous reports and VA enrichment was found on the EVA/HDPE blend surfaces due to high molecular weight of HDPE. Water θ decreased with the increase in the VA content on the blend surface due to the polarity of VA. A good agreement was obtained between γs- and atomic oxygen surface concentration with the increase of VA content. The applicability of Cassie-Baxter equation was tested and found that it gave consistent results with the experimental water contact angles for the case where VA content was lower than 55 wt.% in the bulk composition.

  19. Al(III Coated Wire Selective Electrode Based on 5-Bromo(salicylidene-2-aminothiophenol Schiff Base as a New Ionophore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shokrollahi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new Al(III selective membrane based on 5-bromo(salicylidene-2-amino thiophenol as a neutral carrier in a poly(vinyl chloride (PVC matrix is coated on platinum wire to determine trace amounts of Al(III ion in various samples. The sensor exhibits a good response for Al(III ion over a wide concentration range of 5.20 × 10-7 to 1.00 × 10-2 M  with Nernstian slope of 19.64 ± 0.15 mV decade-1 and low detection limit of 5.01 × 10-7 M. The performance of the sensor is best in the pH range of 4.00-6.50 without any divergence in potential and it also works well in partially non-aqueous medium. The coated wire electrode has a short response time of about 5 s and is stable for at least 2 months. The proposed membrane electrode revealed good selectivity for Al(III ion over a wide variety of other metal ions. It was successfully applied for determination of Al(III ion in different real and environmental samples and also as an indicator electrode for potentiometric titration of Al(III ion with EDTA.

  20. Chemical modification of poly(vinyl alcohol): evaluation of hydrophilic/lipophilic balance; Poli(alcool vinilico) modificado com cadeias hidrocarbonicas: avaliacao do balanco hidrofilo/lipofilo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranha, Isabele B.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Eloisa B. Mano]. E-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br

    2001-12-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) terpolymers have been obtained by reaction of partially hydrolized poly(vinyl alcohol) with different acid chlorides. The objective is the preparation of polymers with slight differences in their hydrophilic/lipophilic balance and in the interfacial activities of their solutions. The chemical modifications were characterized by means of {sup 1}H NMR and the polymer properties were evaluated in terms of changes in solubility and surface tension. By chemical modification, polymers with low percentage of hydrophobic group were obtained. The water-soluble polymers obtained did not have the surface tension of their solutions altered. The solubility of the modified polymers decreased markedly, even with low contents of hydrophobic groups. (author)

  1. Functionalized graphene – poly(vinyl alcohol nanocomposites: Physical and dielectric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Psarras

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemically derivatized graphene/poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA nanocomposites were successfully fabricated by combination of solution processing and compression molding. SEM imaging combined with XRD measurements revealed that graphene platelets were fully incorporated into the polymer matrix after their chemical modification through adsorption of amphiphilic copolymer. The chemical functionalities onto the graphitic surface prevented particle aggregation and provided compatibility with the polymer matrix. Thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated enhanced thermal stability for the composites containing modified graphenes at loading above 1 wt%. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms showed that graphene nanoplatelets induced the crystallization of matrix with optimum loading at 2 wt%. Dielectric spectroscopy measurements showed enhanced electrical permittivity for the graphene oxide/PVA system, compared to the one of graphene/copolymer/PVA. This could be attributed to the formation of an insulating coating between graphite inclusions and PVA because of the presence of the copolymer.

  2. Modified zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 as solid-phase microextraction Arrow coating for sampling of amines in wastewater and food samples followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Hangzhen; Rönkkö, Tuukka; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Hartonen, Kari; Gan, Ning; Sakeye, Motolani; Sarfraz, Jawad; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2017-02-24

    In this study, a novel solid phase microextration (SPME) Arrow was prepared for the sampling of volatile low molecular weight alkylamines (trimethylamine (TMA) and triethylamine (TEA)) in wastewater, salmon and mushroom samples before gas chromatographic separation with mass spectrometer as detector. Acidified zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (A-ZIF-8) was utilized as adsorbent and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as the adhesive. The custom SPME Arrow was fabricated via a physical adhesion: (1) ZIF-8 particles were suspended in a mixture of tetrahydrofuran (THF) and PVC to form a homogeneous suspension, (2) a non-coated stainless steel SPME Arrow was dipped in the ZIF-8/PVC suspension for several times to obtain a uniform and thick coating, (3) the pore size of ZIF-8 was modified by headspace exposure to hydrochloric acid in order to increase the extraction efficiency for amines. The effect of ZIF-8 concentration in PVC solution, dipping cycles and aging temperature on extraction efficiency was investigated. In addition, sampling parameters such as NaCl concentration, sample volume, extraction time, potassium hydroxide concentration, desorption temperature and desorption time were optimized. The Arrow-to-Arrow reproducibilities (RSDs) for five ZIF-8 coated Arrows were 15.6% and 13.3% for TMA and TEA, respectively. The extraction with A-ZIF-8/PVC Arrow was highly reproducible for at least 130 cycles without noticeable decrease of performance (RSD<12.5%). Headspace SPME of 7.5mL sample solution with the fabricated ZIF-8 coated Arrow achieved linear ranges of 1-200ngmL(-1) for both TMA and TEA. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 1ngmL(-1) for both TMA and TEA. The method was successfully applied to the determination of TMA and TEA in wastewater, salmon and mushroom samples giving satisfactory selectivity towards the studied amines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Eosinophil peroxidase-derived reactive brominating species target the vinyl ether bond of plasmalogens generating a novel chemoattractant, alpha-bromo fatty aldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Carolyn J; Thukkani, Arun K; Heuertz, Rita M; Slungaard, Arne; Hazen, Stanley L; Ford, David A

    2003-03-14

    Plasmalogens are a subclass of glycerophospholipids that are enriched in the plasma membrane of many mammalian cells. The vinyl ether bond of plasmalogens renders them susceptible to oxidation. Accordingly, it was hypothesized that reactive brominating species, a unique oxidant formed at the sites of eosinophil activation, such as in asthma, might selectively target plasmalogens for oxidation. Here we show that reactive brominating species produced by the eosinophil peroxidase system of activated eosinophils attack the vinyl ether bond of plasmalogens. Reactive brominating species produced by eosinophil peroxidase target the vinyl ether bond of plasmalogens resulting in the production of a neutral lipid and lysophosphatidylcholine. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses of this neutral lipid demonstrated that it was 2-bromohexadecanal (2-BrHDA). Reactive brominating species produced by eosinophil peroxidase attacked the plasmalogen vinyl ether bond at acidic pH. Bromide was the preferred substrate for eosinophil peroxidase, and chloride was not appreciably used even at a 1000-fold molar excess. Furthermore, 2-BrHDA production elicited by eosinophil peroxidase-derived reactive brominating species in the presence of 100 microM NaBr doubled with the addition of 100 mM NaCl. The potential physiological significance of this pathway was suggested by the demonstration that 2-BrHDA was produced by phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated eosinophils and by the demonstration that 2-BrHDA is a phagocyte chemoattractant. Taken together, the present studies demonstrate the targeting of the vinyl ether bond of plasmalogens by the reactive brominating species produced by eosinophil peroxidase and by activated eosinophils, resulting in the production of brominated fatty aldehydes.

  4. Congenital chloride diarrhea: late presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Bishi L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Laila Al Bishi1, Mustafa Al Toonisi2Pediatric Department, North West Armed Forces Hospital, Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: We report the case of a male infant who presented with diarrhea at 6 months of age. He was failing to thrive, and biochemical investigation revealed hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Diagnosis of congenital chloride diarrhea was suspected and confirmed by the stool chloride result. He was started on high-dose sodium chloride and potassium chloride to control the electrolyte imbalance. The disease was difficult to control for a year after diagnosis. Late presentation is associated with severe chronic electrolyte disturbances and high-dose replacement therapy.Keywords: congenital chloride diarrhea, hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, high stool chloride

  5. Construction of a new selective coated disk electrode for Ag (I) based on modified polypyrrole-carbon nanotubes composite with new lariat ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspour, A; Tashkhourian, J; Ahmadpour, S; Mirahmadi, E; Sharghi, H; Khalifeh, R; Shahriyari, M R

    2014-01-01

    A poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix membrane ion-selective electrode for silver (I) ion is fabricated based on modified polypyrrole - multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite with new lariat ether. This sensor has a Nernstian slope of 59.4±0.5mV/decade over a wide linear concentration range of 1.0×10(-7) to 1.0×10(-1)molL(-1) for silver (I) ion. It has a short response time of about 8.0s and can be used for at least 50days. The detection limit is 9.3×10(-8)molL(-1) for silver (I) ion, and the electrode was applicable in the wide pH range of 1.6 -7.7. The electrode shows good selectivity for silver ion against many cations such as Hg (II), which usually imposes serious interference in the determination of silver ion concentration. The use of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in a polymer matrix improves the linear range and sensitivity of the electrode. In addition by coating the solid contact with a layer of the polypyrrole (Ppy) before coating the membrane on it, not only did it reduce the drift in potential, but a shorter response time was also resulted. The proposed electrode was used as an indicator electrode for potentiometric titration of silver ions with chloride anions and in the titration of mixed halides. This electrode was successfully applied for the determination of silver ions in silver sulphadiazine as a burning cream. © 2013.

  6. Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Aramid Fabrics Impregnated with Carbon Nanotube/Poly (Vinyl Butyral/Ethanol Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Obradović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study six samples of polyurethane/p-aramid multiaxial fabric forms (Colon fabrics were coated with 10 wt.% poly (vinyl butyral (PVB/ethanol solution with the addition of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT. The solution was impregnated on both sides of each of the fabrics. All composite samples consisted of four layers of the impregnated fabrics. The MWCNT/PVB content was 0, 0.1 and 1 wt.%. The three samples of the fabrics with different MWCNT/PVB content were coated with γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (AMEO silane/ethanol solution due to the surface modification. The mechanical properties of the prepared composite samples were studied by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. The 60% increase in storage modulus was achieved by addition of MWCNT and impregnation of aramid fabrics with AMEO silane. The pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT were introduced in order to enhance additionally the mechanical properties of the materials for ballistic protection.

  7. Modification of poly(vinylidene fluoride) ultrafiltration membranes with poly(vinyl alcohol) for fouling control in drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jennifer R; Peldszus, Sigrid; Huck, Peter M; Feng, Xianshe

    2009-10-01

    A commercial poly(vinylidene fluoride) flat sheet membrane was modified by surface coating with a dilute poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) aqueous solution followed by solid-vapor interfacial crosslinking. The resulting PVA layer increased membrane smoothness and hydrophilicity and resulted in comparable pure water permeation between the modified and unmodified membranes. Fouling tests using a 5 mg/L protein solution showed that a short period of coating and crosslinking improved the anti-fouling performance. After 18 h ultrafiltration of a surface water with a TOC of approximately 7 mg C/L, the flux of the modified membrane was twice as high as that of the unmodified membrane. The improved fouling resistance of the modified membrane was related to the membrane physiochemical properties, which were confirmed by pure water permeation, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and contact angle, zeta potential and roughness measurements.

  8. Antifouling and antimicrobial polymer membranes based on bioinspired polydopamine and strong hydrogen-bonded poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinhong; Zhu, Liping; Zhu, Lijing; Zhang, Hongtao; Zhu, Baoku; Xu, Youyi

    2013-12-26

    A facile and versatile approach for the preparation of antifouling and antimicrobial polymer membranes has been developed on the basis of bioinspired polydopamine (PDA) in this work. It is well-known that a tightly adherent PDA layer can be generated over a wide range of material surfaces through a simple dip-coating process in dopamine aqueous solution. The resulting PDA coating is prone to be further surface-tailored and functionalized via secondary treatments because of its robust reactivity. Herein, a typical hydrophobic polypropylene (PP) porous membrane was first coated with a PDA layer and then further modified by poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) via multiple hydrogen-bonding interactions between PVP and PDA. Data of water contact angle measurements showed that hydrophilicity and wettability of the membranes were significantly improved after introducing PDA and PVP layers. Both permeation fluxes and antifouling properties of the modified membranes were enhanced as evaluated in oil/water emulsion filtration, protein filtration, and adsorption tests. Furthermore, the modified membranes showed remarkable antimicrobial activity after iodine complexation with the PVP layer. The PVP layer immobilized on the membrane had satisfying long-term stability and durability because of the strong noncovalent forces between PVP and PDA coating. The strategy of material surface modification reported here is substrate-independent, and applicable to a broad range of materials and geometries, which allows effective development of materials with novel functional coatings based on the mussel-inspired surface chemistry.

  9. Synthesis and characterisation of polymeric nanofibers poly (vinyl alcohol and poly (vinyl alcohol/silica using indigenous electrospinning set up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sasipriya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous design and fabrication horizontal of electrospinning set up was developed to facilitate with double drum conveyor belt system to make ease in harvesting nanofibers rapidly. As a bench mark study, organic-inorganic nanofiber composite was synthesised employing our indigenous electrospinning set up. The aqueous solution of poly (vinyl alcohol and poly (vinyl alcohol/silica sol were employed to produce nanofiber mats in order to vary the experimental parameters such as voltage, solvent effect and the effect of catalyst. The synthesised pure electro spun poly (vinyl alcohol and poly (vinyl alcohol/silica sol fibers were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Atomic force microscopy (AFM and Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR. According to the results, the fine polymeric nanofibers were achieved in the size range of 100-500 nm for pure poly (vinyl alcohol fiber and 100-700 nm for polyvinyl alcohol/silica and the constitution of silica in rendering better fiber mats with this double drum set up.

  10. Synthesis and characterisation of polymeric nanofibers poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (vinyl alcohol)/silica using indigenous electrospinning set up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasipriya, K.; Suriyaprabha, R.; Prabu, P.; Rajendran, V., E-mail: veerajendran@gmail.com [Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, K. S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-11-01

    Indigenous design and fabrication horizontal of electrospinning set up was developed to facilitate with double drum conveyor belt system to make ease in harvesting nanofibers rapidly. As a bench mark study, organic-inorganic nanofiber composite was synthesised employing our indigenous electrospinning set up. The aqueous solution of poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (vinyl alcohol)/silica sol were employed to produce nanofiber mats in order to vary the experimental parameters such as voltage, solvent effect and the effect of catalyst. The synthesised pure electro spun poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (vinyl alcohol)/silica sol fibers were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR). According to the results, the fine polymeric nanofibers were achieved in the size range of 100-500 nm for pure poly (vinyl alcohol) fiber and 100-700 nm for polyvinyl alcohol/silica and the constitution of silica in rendering better fiber mats with this double drum set up. (author)

  11. Inorganic acid-catalyzed tautomerization of vinyl alcohol to acetaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karton, Amir

    2014-01-01

    The vinyl alcohol-acetaldehyde tautomerization reaction has recently received considerable attention as a potential route for the formation of organic acids in the troposphere (Andrews et al., 2012 [7]). We examine the catalytic effect of inorganic acids in the troposphere (e.g. HNO3, H2SO4 and HClO4) on the vinyl alcohol-acetaldehyde tautomerization reaction, by means high-level thermochemical procedures. We show that H2SO4 and HClO4 catalysts lead to near-zero reaction barrier heights for the vinyl alcohol → acetaldehyde reaction, and to low reaction barrier heights in the reverse direction (ΔH298‡ = 40.6and 39.5kJmol-1 , respectively).

  12. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2011-07-07

    The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.

  13. Chloride on the Move

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo

    2017-01-09

    Chloride (Cl−) is an essential plant nutrient but under saline conditions it can accumulate to toxic levels in leaves; limiting this accumulation improves the salt tolerance of some crops. The rate-limiting step for this process – the transfer of Cl− from root symplast to xylem apoplast, which can antagonize delivery of the macronutrient nitrate (NO3−) to shoots – is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and is multigenic. Until recently the molecular mechanisms underpinning this salt-tolerance trait were poorly defined. We discuss here how recent advances highlight the role of newly identified transport proteins, some that directly transfer Cl− into the xylem, and others that act on endomembranes in ‘gatekeeper’ cell types in the root stele to control root-to-shoot delivery of Cl−.

  14. Dissolution of paracetamol crystallized in the presence of poly(vinyl acetate-co-maleic anhydride)

    OpenAIRE

    Raval D; Parikh D; Patel V

    2006-01-01

    Copolymer of vinyl acetate and maleic anhydride, poly (vinyl acetate-co-maleic anhydride) was prepared by precipitation polymerization and characterized. Paracetamol was crystallized in presence of different concentrations of poly (vinyl acetate-co-maleic anhydride). Crystals were characterized by sieve analysis, solubility and dissolution study. Crystallization of paracetamol in presence of poly (vinyl acetate-co-maleic anhydride) caused a marked enhancement in its dissolution rate with incr...

  15. Experimental investigation of coating degradation during simultaneous acid and erosive particle exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Victor Buhl; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Frankær, Sarah Maria

    of a simultaneous exposure. To investigate this, a pilot-scale stirred acid leaching tank, containing erosive particles and acidic solutions, has been designed and constructed. Resin types considered are amine-cured novolac epoxy and vinyl ester. Transient coating degradation is mapped through visual inspection...

  16. Assessment of Some Advanced Protective Schemes, Including Chromate and Non-Chromate Conversion Coatings for Mg Alloy ZE41A-T5 Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chang, Frank

    1994-01-01

    .... Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray tests have been employed to compare the corrosion behavior in chloride containing solutions of Mg alloy ZE41A-T5 which has been coated with various combinations of a conversion coating...

  17. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting the dyes, either alone or in combination, with a vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate copolymer, so...

  18. Potentiometric titration of polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride with potassium poly(vinyl sulfate) solution using a cationic surfactant-selective electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadome, Takashi; Yamagishi, Yuichi; Takano, Masaki; Hattori, Toshiaki

    2008-03-01

    A potentiometric titration method using a cationic surfactant as an indicator cation and a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrode sensitive to the cationic surfactant is proposed for the determination of polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB-HCl), which is a cationic polyelectrolyte. A sample solution of PHMB-HCl containing an indicator cation (hexadecyltrimethylammonium ion, HTA) was titrated with a standard solution of an anionic polyelectrolyte, potassium poly(vinyl sulfate) (PVSK). The end-point was detected as a sharp potential change due to an abrupt decrease in the concentration of the indicator cation, HTA, which is caused by its association with PVSK. The effects of the concentrations of HTA ion and coexisting electrolytes in the sample solution on the degree of the potential change at the end-point were examined. A linear relationship between the concentration of PHMB-HCl and the end-point volume of the titrant exists in the concentration range from 2.0 x 10(-5) to 4.0 x 10(-4) M in the case that the concentration of HTA is 1.0 x 10(-5) M, and that from 1.0 x 10(-6) to 1.2 x 10(-5) M in the case that the concentration of HTA is 5.0 x 10(-6) M, respectively. The proposed method was applied to the determination of PHMB-HCl in some contact-lens detergents.

  19. Synthesis and properties of a novel pH sensitive poly(N-vinyl-pyrrolidone-co-sulfadiazine hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulfadiazine monomer (SDM was synthesized by the reaction of sulfadiazine with acryloyl chloride. The SDM was characterized by 1H-NMR and IR spectra. A novel hydrogel with –SO2NH- group was obtained by the radical copolymerization of SDM with N-vinyl-pyrrolidone (NVP. Effects of the reaction temperature, reaction time, the monomer ratio, and the amount of the cross-linker on the pH sensitivity of the hydrogel were investigated. Results indicate that the hydrogel shows strong pH sensitivity in the pH range of 6.5 to 7.2. It also exhibits a good swelling reversibility at buffer solutions of pH 6.5 and 7.2. At last, drugs tests demonstrated the release effect of the hydrogel in pH range of 6.5 to 7.2.

  20. Effect of hygroscopic materials on water vapor permeation and dehumidification performance of poly(vinyl alcohol) membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Bui, T. D.

    2017-01-16

    In this study, two hygroscopic materials, inorganic lithium chloride (LiCl) and organic triethylene glycol (TEG) were separately added to poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to form blend membranes for air dehumidification. Water vapor permeation, dehumidification performance and long-term durability of the membranes were studied systematically. Membrane hydrophilicity and water vapor sorbability increased significantly with higher the hygroscopic material contents. Water vapor permeance of the membranes increased with both added hygroscopic material and absorbed water. Water permeation energy varied from positive to negative with higher hygroscopic content. This observation is attributed to a lower diffusion energy and a relatively constant sorption energy when hygroscopic content increases. Comparatively, PVA/TEG has less corrosive problems and is more environmentally friendly than PVA/LiCl. A membrane with PVA/TEG is observed to be highly durable and is suitable for dehumidification applications.

  1. Synthesis, properties and applications of interacting blends of acrylated novalac epoxy resin based poly(ester-amides and vinyl ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragnesh N. Dave

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Epoxy resin based unsaturated poly(ester-amide resins (UPEAs were prepared by the reported method. These UPEAs were then treated with acryloyl chloride to afford acrylated UPEAs resin (i.e. AUPEAs. Interacting blends of equal proportional AUPEAs and vinyl ester epoxy (VE resin were prepared. APEAs and AUPEAs were characterized by elemental analysis, molecular weight determined by vapor pressure osmometer and by IR spectral study and by thermogravimetry. The curing of interacting blends was monitored on differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. Based on DSC data in situ glass reinforced composites of the resultant blends have been prepared and characterized for mechanical, electrical and chemical properties. Unreinforced blends were characterized by thermogravimetry (TGA.

  2. Transfer coating by electron initiated polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nablo, Sam V.

    The high speed and depth of cure possible with electron initiated monomer/oligomer coating systems provide many new opportunities for approaches to product finishing. Moreover, the use of transfer or cast coating using films or metallic surfaces offers the ability to precisely control the surface topology of liquid film surfaces during polymerization. Transfer coating such as with textiles has been a commercial process for many years and the synergistic addition of EB technology permits the manufacture of unusual new products. One of these, the casting paper used in the manufacture of vinyl and urethane fabrics, is the first EB application to use a drum surface for pattern replication in the coating. In this case the coated paper is cured against, and then released from, an engraved drum surface. Recent developments in the use of plastic films for transfer have been applied to the manufacture of transfer metallized and coated paper and paperboard products for packaging. Details of these and related processes will be presented as well as a discussion of the typical product areas (e.g. photographic papers, release papers, magnetic media) using this high speed transfer technology.

  3. Antioxidation performance of poly(vinyl alcohol) modified poly(vinylidene fluoride) membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daohui; Li, Xianfeng; Li, Qing; Liu, Zhen; Li, Nana; Huang, Qinglin; Zhang, Yufeng; Xiao, Changfa

    2018-03-01

    Commercial poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes were modified by dip-coating and crosslinking hydrophilic poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) on the membrane surface. The antioxidation performance of the modified PVDF membranes was evaluated via exposing the modified membranes to sodium hypochlorite and potassium permanganate solutions for 5-30 days, respectively. The evaluation was based on the influences of the two oxidants on the permeability, rejection, and hydrophility of the modified membranes, which were characterized by water flux, ink rejection, water contact angle, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The XPS and water contact angle results show that the hydrophilicity of PVDF membranes was significantly improved when PVA was crosslinked on the surface of PVDF membranes. When the modified membranes had been treated with sodium hypochlorite or potassium permanganate for 30 days, the permeability and hydrophilicity were basically maintained and the rejection was slightly decreased. XPS and XRD indicated that some of PVAs coated on the membrane surface could be oxidized and peeled.

  4. Transparent and high gas barrier films based on poly(vinyl alcohol)/graphene oxide composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye Min; Lee, Jung Kyoo; Lee, Heon Sang, E-mail: heonlee@dau.ac.kr

    2011-09-01

    Composites of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and graphene oxide (GO) were synthesized by a modified Hummers method and a solution-mixing method. GO was fully exfoliated in the PVA/GO composites. GO did not affect the crystallization of PVA during solvent evaporation. GO is itself an excellent gas barrier without any chemical reduction. The oxygen permeability of the PVA/GO (0.3 wt.%) composite coated film was 17 times lower than that of the pure poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film, with 92% light transmittance at 550 nm. Composites of PVA and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) were synthesized by performing chemical reduction using hydrazine monohydrate. The oxygen permeability of the PVA/RGO (0.3 wt.%) composite coated film was 86 times lower than that of the pure PET film, with 73% light transmittance at 550 nm. The reduction of oxygen permeability was mainly attributed to the reduced oxygen solubility in the PVA/GO composite film, while it was attributed to both the reduced oxygen diffusivity and solubility in the PVA/RGO composite film.

  5. Biotransformation of ferulic acid to 4-vinyl guaiacol by Lactobacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuously growing demand for natural flavors has led to a tremendous increase in biotransformation process employing microorganisms of different genera using ferulic acid (FA) as the precursor. In this study, potential of Lactobacillus farciminis (ATCC 29644) for biotransformation of FA to 4-vinyl guaiacol (4VG) was ...

  6. Poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel membrane as electrolyte for direct ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) employing a poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel membrane electrolyte (PHME) is reported. The DBFC employs an AB5 Misch metal alloy as anode and a goldplated stainless steel mesh as cathode in conjunction with aqueous alkaline solution of sodium borohydride as fuel and aqueous ...

  7. Methyl vinyl glycolate as a diverse platform molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølvhøj, Amanda Birgitte; Taarning, Esben; Madsen, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Methyl vinyl glycolate (methyl 2-hydroxybut-3-enoate, MVG) is available by zeolite catalyzed degradation of mono- and disaccharides and has the potential to become a renewable platform molecule for commercially relevant catalytic transformations. This is further illustrated here by the development...

  8. Synthesis of boron nitride from boron containing poly (vinyl alcohol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A ceramic precursor, prepared by condensation reaction from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and boric acid (H3BO3) in 1:1, 2:1 and 4:1 molar ratios, was synthesized as low temperature synthesis route for boron nitride ceramic. Samples were pyrolyzed at 850°C in nitrogen atmosphere followed by characterization using Fourier ...

  9. Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels as photoacoustic breast phantoms revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, W.; Piras, D.; Heijblom, M.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton; Manohar, Srirang

    2011-01-01

    A popular phantom in photoacoustic imaging is poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel fabricated by freezing and thawing (F–T) aqueous solutions of PVA. The material possesses acoustic and optical properties similar to those of tissue. Earlier work characterized PVA gels in small test specimens where

  10. Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels as photoacoustic breast phantoms revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, Wenfeng; Piras, Daniele; Heijblom, Michelle; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Manohar, Srirang

    2011-01-01

    A popular phantom in photoacoustic imaging is poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel fabricated by freezing and thawing (F-T) aqueous solutions of PVA. The material possesses acoustic and optical properties similar to those of tissue. Earlier work characterized PVA gels in small test specimens where

  11. Controlled free radical polymerization of vinyl acetate with cobalt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The polymerization of vinyl acetate with the complex catalyst of cobalt acetoacetonate [Co (acac)2] and DMF ligand with benzoyl peroxide initiator has been successfully carried out in bulk and in solution. The bulk polymerization has been used in a new route consisting of a one-step polymer formation in a fine capillary tube ...

  12. ALMA detection and astrobiological potential of vinyl cyanide on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Maureen Y.; Cordiner, Martin A.; Nixon, Conor A.; Charnley, Steven B.; Teanby, Nicholas A.; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Mumma, Michael J.

    2017-07-01

    Recent simulations have indicated that vinyl cyanide is the best candidate molecule for the formation of cell membranes/vesicle structures in Titan's hydrocarbon-rich lakes and seas. Although the existence of vinyl cyanide (C2H3CN) on Titan was previously inferred using Cassini mass spectrometry, a definitive detection has been lacking until now. We report the first spectroscopic detection of vinyl cyanide in Titan's atmosphere, obtained using archival data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), collected from February to May 2014. We detect the three strongest rotational lines of C2H3CN in the frequency range of 230 to 232 GHz, each with >4σ confidence. Radiative transfer modeling suggests that most of the C2H3CN emission originates at altitudes of ≥200 km, in agreement with recent photochemical models. The vertical column densities implied by our best-fitting models lie in the range of 3.7 × 10^13 to 1.4 × 10^14 cm-2. The corresponding production rate of vinyl cyanide and its saturation mole fraction imply the availability of sufficient dissolved material to form ~10^7 cell membranes/cm3 in Titan's sea Ligeia Mare.

  13. Fabrication of porous ionic liquid polymer as solid-phase microextraction coating for analysis of organic acids by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhentao; Duan, Yixiang

    2017-09-01

    A kind of porous ionic liquid polymer was designed as coating material for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers to extract polar organic acids. The synthesized ionic liquids (1-vinyl-3-(4-vinyl-benzyl)imidazolium chloride) were polymerized in the presence of azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN), and subsequently coated on stainless steel wires with physical adhesion. To guarantee the adhesion between coating and the surface of stainless steel wires, micro-wave induced plasma was applied to modify the stainless steel wires. The derivatives of extracted organic acids were analyzed by gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with N-tert-Butyldimethylsilyl-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) as the derivatization reagent. Under the optimal condition, a calibration study was carried out to evaluate the performance of the SPME fibers. The calibration curves were linear (R2>0.99) in the range from 0.01μg/ml to 1μg/ml for six organic acids. Detection limits were detected down to 0.07ng/ml. To further validate the extraction efficiency of the fibers, experiments were conducted in comparison with commercial fibers. Lower LOD and LOQ values were obtained by the in-house fabricated fibers especially for polyatomic acids. Good repeatability (RSD≤16%) and fiber-to-fiber reproducibility (RSD≤20%) were obtained. The acceptable recovery of the spiked grape wine samples ranged from 78.19% to 98.11%. Additionally, long lifetime and good durability of the fibers have been demonstrated. The performance of the established SPME-GC-MS method for analysis of organic acids was shown to be greatly improved in comparison to the direct HPLC/CE method or other SPME materials as reported in the literature. In summary, a feasible and effective approach has been demonstrated to fabricate the in-house fabricated fibers based on porous ionic liquid polymers, which were proved to be advantageous and sensitive for extraction of polar organic acids. Simultaneously, application of

  14. Mitigation of corrosion attack on carbon steel coated cermet alloy in different anion contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Muhamad Azrin Mohd; Ismail, Azzura

    2017-12-01

    This research study evaluated the corrosion mechanism attack on carbon steel coated with cermet alloys (WC-9% Ni) in seawater at different sulphate-to-chloride ratios. The four different sulphate-to-chloride ratios were synthesised with the same seawater salinity of 3.5 % and same pH of real seawater. The corrosion tests involved immersion and electrochemical tests. The immersion test is used to determine the cermet coating ability to withstand the corrosion attack based on different ratios of anions present in the seawater at different periods of immersion. The corrosion attack was characterized by optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The aggressive anions present in the seawater influenced the corrosion attack on the cermet coating. For immersion test, results revealed that increasing sulphate more than chloride, increased the weight loss of cermets. The electrochemistry analysis showed that the passive layer forms on cermet coating prevented the material from further corrosion attack. However, due to its porosity, the passive layer collapsed and exposed the material for other corrosion reaction. For electrochemical test, the result shows that the solution with sulphate-to-chloride ratio of 0.14 (real seawater) has the highest corrosion current and Open Circuit Potential (OCP) compared to other solutions (different sulphate-to-chloride ratio). In conclusion, sulfate and chloride show their competition to attack the cermet coating on carbon steel and the higher the amount of chloride present in seawater, the higher the corrosion rate and pits formed on the cermet coating.

  15. [On the problem of the study of the chemical air pollution with chlororganic hydrocarbons at productions of polyvinyl chloride and epichlorohydrin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranenko, N A; Meshakova, N M; Zhurba, O M; Telezhkin, V V

    2014-01-01

    Hygienic assessment of working conditions at the chemical productions of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and epichlorohydrin (EPCH) in East Siberia has shown that the employees are exposed to the chlororganic hydrocarbons of hazard category 1-2, out of them there were found to be more toxical pollutants such as vinyl chloride, 1.2-dicloroethane in the production of polyvinyl chloride; allyl chloride and epichlorohydrin in the production of epichlorohydrin. Multistageness of the technological processes, the absence of the isolation of main stages of the technological processes as well as the heating microclimate contribute to the chemical pollution of the air environment. In spite of the significant improvement of the hygienic situation at the productions mentioned in the recent 10 years according to the chemical factor due to the introduction of the complex of curative measures, the working conditions of the employees still belonged to the harmful category. According to the content of the harmful chemical substances in the air of the working zone and the parameters of microclimate, the working conditions of the employees working at the production of epichlorohydrin and in the shop of vinyl chloride production must be qualified as the harmful ones of the first category of the hazard and danger (Class 3.1), in the production shop for PVC- as the harmful ones which correspond to the second category of the hazard and danger (Class 3.2).

  16. Surfactant-Assisted Perovskite Nanofillers Incorporated in Quaternized Poly (Vinyl Alcohol Composite Membrane as an Effective Hydroxide-Conducting Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Rajesh Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite LaFeO3 nanofillers (0.1% are incorporated into a quaternized poly(vinyl alcohol (QPVA matrix for use as hydroxide-conducting membranes in direct alkaline methanol fuel cells (DAMFCs. The as-synthesized LaFeO3 nanofillers are amorphous and functionalized with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB surfactant. The annealed LaFeO3 nanofillers are crystalline without CTAB. The QPVA/CTAB-coated LaFeO3 composite membrane shows a defect-free structure while the QPVA/annealed LaFeO3 film has voids at the interfaces between the soft polymer and rigid nanofillers. The QPVA/CTAB-coated LaFeO3 composite has lower methanol permeability and higher ionic conductivity than the pure QPVA and QPVA/annealed LaFeO3 films. We suggest that the CTAB-coated LaFeO3 provides three functions to the polymeric composite: increasing polymer free volume, ammonium group contributor, and plasticizer to enhance the interfacial compatibility. The composite containing CTAB-coated LaFeO3 results in superior cell performance. A maximum power density of 272 mW cm−2 is achieved, which is among the highest power outputs reported for DAMFCs in the literature.

  17. Laser Spectroscopy of Vinyl Alcohol Embedded in Helium Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Hayley; Raston, Paul; Douberly, Gary E.

    2017-06-01

    Vinyl alcohol has two rotameric forms, known as syn- and anti-vinyl alcohol, where syn is the most stable. While both have been investigated by microwave and far-infrared spectroscopy, only the syn rotamer has been investigated by mid-infrared spectroscopy. This is due to the low anti rotamer population (15%) at room temperature, in addition to the closeness in proximity of the mid-infrared bands between the rotamers; this results in overlapping bands that are dominated by syn-vinyl alcohol absorptions. In this investigation we increase the anti-vinyl alcohol population to 40% by using a high temperature "pyrolysis" source, and eliminate the spectral overlap by recording the spectra at low temperature in helium nanodroplets. We observe a number of bands of both rotamers in the OH, CH, and CO stretching regions that display rotational substructure. A highlight of this work is the observation of a Fermi dyad in the OH stretching region of anti-vinyl alcohol. Anharmonic frequency calculations suggest that this is due to a near degeneracy of the OH stretching state (νb{1}) with a triple combination involving νb{7}, νb{8}, and νb{9}. M. Rodler, J. Mol. Spec. 114, 23 (1985);S. Saito, Chem. Phys. Lett. 42, 3 (1976) H. Bunn, R. Hudson, A. S. Gentleman, and P. L. Raston, ACS Earth Space Chem. DOI: 10.1021/acsearthspacechem.6b00008 (2017) D-L Joo, A. J. Merer, D. J. Clouthier, J. Mol. Spec. 197, 68 (1999)

  18. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The greener, clean and efficient protocol for the synthesis of acridine diones derivatives has been achieved by reacting aromatic aldehyde, dimedone and amines using methyltrioctylammonium chloride (Aliquate 336) as a catalyst under ultrasonic irradiations.

  19. Fabrication of antibacterial blend film from poly (vinyl alcohol) and quaternized chitosan for packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Dongying; Wang, Lijuan, E-mail: donglinwlj@163.com

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • HTCC/PVA blend films were prepared through a simple mixing method. • The blend films had greater elongation at break and good optical transmittance. • The blend films had low oxygen permeability and water vapor permeability. • The films had good activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. - Abstract: Blend films from poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) containing N-(2-hydroxy) propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan (HTCC) were prepared via a simple mixing and casting method. The films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and ultraviolet-visible measurements (UV–vis). The effects of HTCC amount on mechanical properties, oxygen permeability, water vapor permeation, and antibacterial properties against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) of the films were investigated. FTIR and XRD analysis show that HTCC and PVA in the blend films interacted by hydrogen bonding. SEM and UV–vis analysis reveal the good compatibility between HTCC and PVA. Compared with pure PVA film, the blend films had greater elongation at break, lower water permeability, and higher antibacterial activity. The HTCC addition decreased the tensile strength and the light transmittance. The results suggest that HTCC/PVA blend films have a potential as packaging materials.

  20. Dynamic electrochemical measurement of chloride ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, Derk B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the dynamic measurement of chloride ions using the transition time of a silver silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode. Silver silver chloride electrode is used extensively for potentiometric measurement of chloride ions concentration in electrolyte. In this measurement,

  1. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... hydrochloric acid solution and crystallizing out magnesium chloride hexahydrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  2. CHLORIDE WASHER PERFORMACE TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J; David Best, D; Robert Pierce, R

    2007-11-30

    Testing was performed to determine the chloride (Cl-) removal capabilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and built Cl- washing equipment intended for HB-Line installation. The equipment to be deployed was tested using a cerium oxide (CeO2) based simulant in place of the 3013 plutonium oxide (PuO2) material. Two different simulant mixtures were included in this testing -- one having higher Cl- content than the other. The higher Cl- simulant was based on K-Area Interim Surveillance Inspection Program (KIS) material with Cl- content approximately equal to 70,000 ppm. The lower Cl- level simulant was comparable to KIS material containing approximately 8,000-ppm Cl- content. The performance testing results indicate that the washer is capable of reducing the Cl- content of both surrogates to below 200 ppm with three 1/2-liter washes of 0.1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Larger wash volumes were used with similar results - all of the prescribed test parameters consistently reduced the Cl- content of the surrogate to a value below 200 ppm Cl- in the final washed surrogate material. The washer uses a 20-micron filter to retain the surrogate solids. Tests showed that 0.16-0.41% of the insoluble fraction of the starting mass passed through the 20-micron filter. The solids retention performance indicates that the fissile masses passing through the 20-micron filter should not exceed the waste acceptance criteria for discard in grout to TRU waste. It is recommended that additional testing be pursued for further verification and optimization purposes. It is likely that wash volumes smaller than those tested could still reduce the Cl- values to acceptable levels. Along with reduced wash volumes, reuse of the third wash volume (in the next run processed) should be tested as a wash solution minimization plan. A 67% reduction in the number of grouted paint pails could be realized if wash solution minimization testing returned acceptable results.

  3. Biodegradable polymers by reactive blending trans-esterification of thermoplastic starch with poly (vinyl acetate) and poly (vinyl acetate-co-butyl acrylate)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vargha, V

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat starch was reacted with poly (vinyl acetate) and with poly (vinyl acetate-co-butyl acrylate) in an internal mixer at 150 _C in the absence of catalyst, and in the presence of sodium carbonate, zinc-acetate and titanium (IV) but oxide...

  4. Development and in Vitro Characterization of Photochemically Crosslinked Polyvinylpyrrolidone Coatings for Drug-Coated Balloons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svea Petersen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP is a conventionally applied hydrophilic lubricious coating on catheter-based cardiovascular devices, used in order to ease movement through the vasculature. Its use as drug reservoir and transfer agent on drug-coated balloons (DCB is therefore extremely promising with regard to the simplification of its approval as a medical device. Here, we developed a PVP-based coating for DCB, containing paclitaxel (PTX as a model drug, and studied the impact of crosslinking via UV radiation on drug stability, wash off, and transfer during simulated use in an in vitro vessel model. We showed that crosslinking was essential for coating stability and needed to be performed prior to PTX incorporation due to decreased drug bioavailability as a result of photodecomposition and/or involvement in vinylic polymerization with PVP under UV radiation. Moreover, the crosslinking time needed to be carefully controlled. While short radiation times did not provide enough coating stability, associated with high wash off rates during DCB insertion, long radiation times lowered drug transfer efficiency upon balloon expansion. A ten minutes radiation of PVP, however, combined a minimized drug wash off rate of 34% with an efficient drug transfer of 49%, underlining the high potential of photochemically crosslinked PVP as a coating matrix for DCB.

  5. Synthesis of iron nanoparticles with poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) and its application to nitrate reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Nara; Choi, Kyunghoon; Uthuppu, Basil

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to synthesize dispersed and reactive nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) with poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVP/VA), nontoxic and biodegradable stabilizer. The nZVI used for the experiments was prepared by reduction of ferric solution in the presence of PVP/VA with spe......This study aimed to synthesize dispersed and reactive nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) with poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVP/VA), nontoxic and biodegradable stabilizer. The nZVI used for the experiments was prepared by reduction of ferric solution in the presence of PVP....../VA with specific weight ratios to iron contents. Colloidal stability was investigated based on the rate of sedimentation, hydrodynamic radius and zeta potential measurement. The characteristic time, which demonstrated dispersivity of particles resisting aggregation, increased from 21.2 min (bare nZVI) to 97.8 min...... with increasing amount of PVP/VA (the ratios of 2). For the most stable nZVI coated by PVP/VA, its reactivity was examined by nitrate reduction in a closed batch system. The pseudo-first-order kinetic rate constants for the nitrate reduction by the nanoparticles with PVP/VA ratios of 0 and 2 were 0.1633 and 0...

  6. Effect of Wrapped Carbon Nanotubes on Optical Properties, Morphology, and Thermal Stability of Electrospun Poly(vinyl alcohol Composite Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoual Diouri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospinning was used to elaborate poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA nanofibers in the presence of embedded multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs in surfactant and polymer. MWCNTs were dispersed in aqueous solution using both sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS as surfactant and Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP. Changing the surfactant and polymer concentration reveals that the maximum dispersion achievable is corresponding to the mass ratios MWCNTs : SDS—1 : 5 and MWCNTs : SDS : PVP—1 : 5 : 0.6 in the presence of the PVP. After the optimization of the dispersion process, the SEM image of the PVA/PVP/SDS/MWCNTs electrospun fibers presents high stability of the fibers with diameter around 224 nm. Infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis elucidate the type of interaction between the PVA and the coated carbon nanotube. The presence of PVP wrapped carbon nanotubes reduced slightly the onset of the degradation temperature of the electrospun nanofibers.

  7. Performance Assessment of Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP)Free Chemical Paint Strippers on Military Coatings for Validation to Federal Specification TT-R-2918A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    methylene chloride are very effective at removing organic coatings, several of the HAP-free paint strippers were shown to be viable alternatives as...in finding suitable “drop-in” replacements for methylene chloride is that most HAP-free products have been known to have slower paint removal times...Army coating systems. The results indicate that some of the alternative strippers performed well compared with the control and the methylene - chloride

  8. Sustainable, Green Vinyl Ester Resin (VER) from Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-02

    most important building blocks of today’s plastics industry. Many plastics such as polycarbonates, epoxy resins, and vinyl ester resins are synthesized...the reaction was performed in a reactor sealed with a plastic cork. Several reactions were performed, mainly by varying phenol-to-acetone ratio...wastes of cooked oil, rice straw , vegetable oil mixtures of cottonseed, soybean and castor oils, jatropha oil, and crude palm oil. Biodiesel is

  9. Oil recovery with vinyl sulfonic acid-acrylamide copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, C.J.; Falk, D.O.

    1973-12-18

    An aqueous polymer flood containing sulfomethylated alkali metal vinyl sulfonate-acrylamide copolymers was proposed for use in secondary or tertiary enhanced oil recovery. The sulfonate groups on the copolymers sustain the viscosity of the flood in the presence of brine and lime. Injection of the copolymer solution into a waterflooded Berea core, produced 30.5 percent of the residual oil. It is preferred that the copolymers are partially hydrolyzed.

  10. Acrylonitrile-grafted poly(vinyl alcohol) copolymer as effective binder for high-voltage spinel positive electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shinichi; Narutomi, Takuya; Suzuki, Shigeru; Nakao, Aiko; Oji, Hiroshi; Yabuuchi, Naoaki

    2017-08-01

    Acrylonitrile-grafted poly(vinyl alcohol) copolymer with a branched structure is synthesized and used as binder for a LiNi1/2Mn3/2O4 composite electrode. Electrode performances of composite electrodes with different binders are compared in Li cells at 50 °C. The branched copolymer has better coatability to active materials in comparison to a simple mixture of linear polymers and conventional PVdF as evidenced by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cyclability is effectively improved by using the branched copolymer at elevated temperatures because of high chemical stability of the coated polymer layer and formation of a protective layer on cycles. Moreover, excellent rate-capability is realized by applying the branched copolymer with high adhesive strength, and the composite electrode delivers 70 mAh g-1 of discharge capacity at a rate of 1280 mA g-1.

  11. Chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environment - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Q; Shi, C.; Schutter, G. de; K. Audenaert; Deng, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environments. Chloride ion exist either in the pore solution, chemically bound to the hydration products, or physically held to the surface of the hydration products. Chloride binding of cement-based material is very complicated and influenced by many factors, such as chloride concentration, cement composition, hydroxyl concentration, cation of chloride salt, temperature, supplementary cementing m...

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Rotational spectrum of vinyl formate (CH2=CHOCHO) (Alonso+,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, E. R.; Kolesnikova, L.; Tercero, B.; Cabezas, C.; Alonso, J. L.; Cernicharo, J.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2017-02-01

    Previous detections of methyl and ethyl formate make other small substituted formates potential candidates for observation in the interstellar medium. Among them, vinyl formate is one of the simplest unsaturated carboxylic ester. The aim of this work is to provide direct experimental frequencies of the ground vibrational state of vinyl formate in a large spectral range for astrophysical use. The room-temperature rotational spectrum of vinyl formate has been measured from 80 to 360GHz and analyzed in terms of Watson's semirigid rotor Hamiltonian. Two thousand six hundred transitions within J=3-88 and Ka=0-28 were assigned to the most stable conformer of vinyl formate and a new set of spectroscopic constants was accurately determined. Spectral features of vinyl formate were then searched for in Orion KL, Sgr B2(N), B1-b, and TMC-1 molecular clouds. Upper limits to the column density of vinyl formate are provided. (1 data file).

  13. Lubiprostone: a chloride channel activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Brian E; Levy, L Campbell

    2007-04-01

    In January 2006 the Food and Drug Administration approved lubiprostone for the treatment of chronic constipation in men and women aged 18 and over. Lubiprostone is categorized as a prostone, a bicyclic fatty acid metabolite of prostaglandin E1. Lubiprostone activates a specific chloride channel (ClC-2) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to enhance intestinal fluid secretion, which increases GI transit and improves symptoms of constipation. This article reviews the role of chloride channels in the GI tract, describes the structure, function, and pharmacokinetics of lubiprostone, and discusses clinically important data on this new medication.

  14. Merging Photoredox and Nickel Catalysis: Decarboxylative Cross-Coupling of Carboxylic Acids with Vinyl Halides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Decarboxylative cross-coupling of alkyl carboxylic acids with vinyl halides has been accomplished through the synergistic merger of photoredox and nickel catalysis. This new methodology has been successfully applied to a variety of α-oxy and α-amino acids, as well as simple hydrocarbon-substituted acids. Diverse vinyl iodides and bromides give rise to vinylation products in high efficiency under mild, operationally simple reaction conditions. PMID:25521443

  15. Enantioselective α-Vinylation of Aldehydes Via the Synergistic Combination of Copper and Amine Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skucas, Eduardas; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2012-01-01

    The enantioselective α-vinylation of aldehydes using vinyl iodonium triflate salts has been accomplished via the synergistic combination of copper and chiral amine catalysis. These mild catalytic conditions provide a direct route for the enantioselective construction of enolizable α-formyl vinylic stereocenters without racemization or olefin transposition. These high-value coupling adducts are readily converted into a variety of useful olefin synthons. PMID:22616631

  16. Predicting the Viscosity of Low VOC Vinyl Ester and Fatty Acid-Based Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    1) (1). Epon 828 , 834, 836, 1001F, 1004F, 1007F, and 1009F (Miller- Stephenson, Danbury, CT) were used as the source of DGEBA. To determine the...Figure 1. The reaction of methacrylic acid with Epon to form vinyl-ester monomer. Pure vinyl ester was prepared via methacrylation of Epon 828 ...resins prepared. Bimodal blends of vinyl-ester monomers (BM-VE) were prepared by methacrylation of blends of Epon 828 , used as the low molecular weight

  17. Surface Properties of a Novel Poly(vinyl alcohol Film Prepared by Heterogeneous Saponification of Poly(vinyl acetate Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Baek Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Almost general poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA films were prepared by the processing of a PVA solution. For the first time, a novel poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA film was prepared by the saponification of a poly(vinyl acetate (PVAc film in a heterogenous medium. Under the same saponification conditions, the influence of saponification time on the degree of saponification (DS was studied for the preparation of the saponified PVA film, and it was found that the DS varied with time. Optical microscopy was used to confirm the characteristics and surface morphology of the saponified PVA film, revealing unusual black globules in the film structure. The contact angle of the films was measured to study the surface properties, and the results showed that the saponified PVA film had a higher contact angle than the general PVA film. To confirm the transformation of the PVAc film to the PVA film, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were employed.

  18. Hierarchial coassembly of a cyanine dye in poly(vinyl alcohol) fibrous films by electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Mustafa M; Horzum, Nesrin; Özen, Bengisu; Özçelik, Serdar

    2013-09-19

    We report molecular aggregate formation of TTBC (1,1',3,3'-tetraethyl-5,5',6,6'-tetrachlorobenzimidazolocarbocyanine) in submicrometer-sized PVA (poly(vinyl alcohol)) fibers by electrospinning. The formation of the molecular aggregate is examined by solution and instrumental parameters of electrospinning. The precursor solution of PVA/TTBC, in the range of 0.016-0.065 wt % is subjected to electrospinning under an electrical field ranging from 0.95 to 1.81 kV cm(-1). Both randomly deposited and uniaxially aligned fibers are achieved by using two parallel-positioned metal strips as counter electrode. Photoluminescence and polarized Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies are employed to determine spectral properties of the fibers. H-aggregates are formed within the electrospun fibers, regardless of their alignment, and H- and J-type aggregates coexist in the alternative spin-coated and the cast films. A strongly polarized photoluminescence emission is observed in the direction of uniaxially aligned fibers as a result of the orientation of the H-aggregates along the fiber axis. We demonstrate that electrospinning is a process capable of forming and orienting TTBC aggregates during the structural development of the polymer/dye nanofibers. These fibrous films may potentially find applications in optics and electronics.

  19. Effect of Acetate Group Content in Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymer on Properties of Composite Based on Low Density Polyethylene and Polyamide-6

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bui, Nhi Dinh; Vu, Ngo Dinh; Minh, Thao Thi; Dam, Huong Thi Thanh; Spiridonova, Regina Romanovna; Sirotkin, Semenovich Alexandr

    2016-01-01

    .... Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer containing less vinyl acetate groups (10-14 wt.%) has a positive compatibility effect on polymer composite than ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer containing 21-30 wt...

  20. Chloride : The queen of electrolytes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berend, Kenrick; van Hulsteijn, Leonard Hendrik; Gans, Rijk O. B.

    Background: Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms and have been documented extensively over the past decade. In contrast, despite the important role of chloride in serum, textbooks in general

  1. 1,5-Diaminotetrazolium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qiao Meng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, CH5N6+·Cl−, crystallized with two indepedent 1,5-diaminotetrazolium cations and two independent chloride anions in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, there are a number of N—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions, which generate a three-dimensional network.

  2. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis of acridine diones. BHUPINDER KAUR and HARISH KUMAR. ∗. Department of Chemistry, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Longowal 148 106, India e-mail: choprahk67@gmail.com. MS received 21 May 2012; revised 30 January ...

  3. Investigation into the role of sodium chloride deposited on oxide and metal substrates in the initiation of hot corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birks, N.

    1983-01-01

    Sodium chloride is deposited on the surface of alumina substrates and exposed to air containing 1% SO2 at temperatures between 500 C and 700 C. In all cases the sodium chloride was converted to sodium sulfate. The volatilization of sodium chloride from the original salt particles was responsible for the development of a uniform coating of sodium sulfate on the alumina substrate. At temperatures above 625 C, a liquid NaCl-Na2SO4 autectic was formed on the substrate. The mechanisms for these reactions are given. One of the main roles of NaCl in low temperature hot corrosion lies in enabling a corrosive liquid to form.

  4. Curing mechanism of flexible aqueous polymeric coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Ahmed, Abid Riaz; Kolter, Karl; Bodmeier, Roland; Dashevskiy, Andriy

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to explain curing phenomena for pellets coated with a flexible polymeric coating based on poly(vinyl acetate) (Kollicoat® SR 30D) with regard to the effect of starter cores, thickness of drug layer, adhesion of coating to drug-layered-cores as well as coating properties. In addition, appropriate approaches to eliminate the curing effect were identified. Sugar or MCC cores were layered with the model drugs carbamazepine, theophylline, propranolol HCl, tramadol HCl and metoprolol HCl using HPMC (5 or 25% w/w, based on drug) as a binder. Drug-layered pellets were coated with Kollicoat® SR 30D in a fluidized bed coater using TEC (10% w/w) as plasticizer and talc (35-100% w/w) as anti-tacking agent. Drug release, pellet properties (morphology, water uptake-weight loss and osmolality) and adhesion of the coating to the drug layer were investigated as a function of curing at 60°C or 60°C/75% RH for 24h. The film formation of the aqueous dispersion of Kollicoat® SR 30D was complete, and therefore, a strong curing effect (decrease in drug release) at elevated temperature and humidity (60°C/75% RH) could not be explained by the well-known hydroplasticization and the further gradual coalescence of the colloidal polymer particles. According to the provided mechanistic explanation, the observed curing effect was associated with (1) high flexibility of coating, (2) adhesion between coating and drug layer, (3) water retaining properties of the drug layer, and (4) osmotically active cores. Unwanted curing effects could be minimized/eliminated by the addition of talc or/and pore-forming water soluble polymers in the coating, increasing binder amount or applying an intermediate coating, by increasing the thickness of drug layer or using non-osmotic cores. A new insight into curing phenomena mainly associated with the adhesion between drug layer and coating was provided. Appropriate approaches to avoid unwanted curing effect were identified

  5. Preparation of aluminide coatings on the inner surface of tubes by heat treatment of Al coatings electrodeposited from an ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Dongpeng; Chen, Yimin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Ling, Guoping, E-mail: linggp@zju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Liu, Kezhao; Chen, Chang’an; Zhang, Guikai [National Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Al coating is prepared on the inner surface of one-meter tube. • Al coating shows good adherence to the substrate. • The thickness of Al coating is uniform along the tube. • Aluminide coating is obtained by heat treating Al coating. • Structure of aluminide coating is regulated by different thickness of Al coating. - Abstract: Aluminide coatings were prepared on the inner surface of 316L stainless steel tubes with size of Ø 12 mm × 1000 mm by heat-treating Al coatings electrodeposited from AlCl{sub 3}-1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride (AlCl{sub 3}–EMIC) ionic liquid at room temperature. Studies on the electrolytic etching pretreatment of stainless tubes before Al coating electrodeposition were carried out. The Al coating showed good adherence to the substrate after electrolytic etching at 10 mA/cm{sup 2} for 10 min. The thickness of Al coatings was uniform along the tube. The structure of prepared aluminide coatings can be regulated by different thickness of Al coating. The outer layer of aluminide coatings was FeAl, Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} and FeAl{sub 3} for the samples of 1-μm, 5-μm and 10-μm thick Al coatings, respectively.

  6. Advances in Protective Coatings and Their Application to Ageing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    removed used a comparatively preparation and increased chemical resistance. This is simple paint stripper . reflected in differences in the condition...possible alternatives selected because of its high resistance to fluids. The only to cadmium plating. chemical paint strippers , which are effective on...these types of coating, are based on methylene chloride with additives of Fig.3 compares the corrosion of several zinc alloy coatings phenol. These are

  7. SERDP-ESTCP Research and Development in Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Substrate Pretreatments for Multi-Material Systems ● Understanding the Science Behind How Methylene Chloride /Phenolic Chemical Paint Strippers Remove...Coatings FY2010 ● Environmentally Benign, High-Performance Non-Media Paint Strippers 11 Selected ESTCP Projects Related to Coatings ● FY2000: Non...Acceptable Alternatives for Liquid Spray Paint Pre-Mix Components ● Environmentally Benign Methods for the Removal of Radar Absorbing Material

  8. Chemische contaminanten in diervoeder additief Choline Chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Jong, de J.; Egmond, van H.J.; Dam, ten G.

    2010-01-01

    Dit briefrapport beschrijft de resultaten van een onderzoek naar chemische contaminanten in Choline Chloride. De doelstellingen waren: 1) Inzicht te verkrijgen in het voorkomen van (gebromeerde) vlamvertragers en broomdioxines in het diervoederadditief Choline Chloride en het, op basis van de

  9. Prediction of Chloride Penetration into Hardening Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jie Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In marine and coastal environments, penetration of chloride ions is one of the main mechanisms causing concrete reinforcement corrosion. Currently, most of experimental investigations about submerged penetration of chloride ions are started after the four-week standard curing of concrete. The further hydration of cement and reduction of chloride diffusivity during submerged penetration period are ignored. To overcome this weak point, this paper presents a numerical procedure to analyze simultaneously cement hydration reaction and chloride ion penetration process. First, using a cement hydration model, degree of hydration and phase volume fractions of hardening concrete are determined. Second, the dependences of chloride diffusivity and chloride binding capacity on age of concrete are clarified. Third, chloride profiles in hardening concrete are calculated. The proposed numerical procedure is verified by using chloride submerged penetration test results of concrete with different mixing proportions.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE MONITORING SYSTEM FOR CHLORIDE PENETRATION INTO REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Antoni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete structures in marine environment are subjected to chloride penetration, which significantly degrades the structural performance due to the occurrence of corrosion in the steel reinforcement. The performance degradation of the structures would reduce the intended service life and caused higher maintenance and repair cost. Therefore, system to monitor chloride penetration into reinforced concrete before the starting corrosion of reinforcement is indispensable. An embedded probe system to detect chloride penetration into concrete was developed in Japan. This probe consists of a cementitious material body and some number of wires as sensors, which are set in the shallow ditches around the probe body. The system detect the chloride penetration by monitoring the initiation time of wire corrosion, it also has the advantages of continuous monitoring and early warning on the onset of corrosion in the reinforcement. However, the probe had not yet had high sensitivity for detecting critical chloride content in concrete. Therefore to increase its sensitivity, four types of improvements, namely partial coating of the wires, waterproofing on the probe body, filling the ditches with porous material and supplying small current on the wires were evaluated in this study. From the experimental result, it was observed that supplying small current and partial coating of the wires could improve the sensitivity of the probe significantly, while waterproofing treatment on the probe body and filling the ditches did not have significant contribution.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Waterborne Fluoropolymers Prepared by the One-Step Semi-Continuous Emulsion Polymerization of Chlorotrifluoroethylene, Vinyl Acetate, Butyl Acrylate, Veova 10 and Acrylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhu Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne fluoropolymer emulsions were synthesized using the one-step semi-continuous seed emulsion polymerization of chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE, vinyl acetate (VAc, n-butyl acrylate (BA, Veova 10, and acrylic acid (AA. The main physical parameters of the polymer emulsions were tested and analyzed. Characteristics of the polymer films such as thermal stability, glass transition temperature, film-forming properties, and IR spectrum were studied. Meanwhile, the weatherability of fluoride coatings formulated by the waterborne fluoropolymer and other coatings were evaluated by the quick ultraviolet (QUV accelerated weathering test, and the results showed that the fluoropolymer with more than 12% fluoride content possessed outstanding weather resistance. Moreover, scale-up and industrial-scale experiments of waterborne fluoropolymer emulsions were also performed and investigated.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Waterborne Fluoropolymers Prepared by the One-Step Semi-Continuous Emulsion Polymerization of Chlorotrifluoroethylene, Vinyl Acetate, Butyl Acrylate, Veova 10 and Acrylic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongzhu; Bian, Jiming; Wang, Zhonggang; Hou, Chuan-Jin

    2017-01-22

    Waterborne fluoropolymer emulsions were synthesized using the one-step semi-continuous seed emulsion polymerization of chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE), vinyl acetate (VAc), n-butyl acrylate (BA), Veova 10, and acrylic acid (AA). The main physical parameters of the polymer emulsions were tested and analyzed. Characteristics of the polymer films such as thermal stability, glass transition temperature, film-forming properties, and IR spectrum were studied. Meanwhile, the weatherability of fluoride coatings formulated by the waterborne fluoropolymer and other coatings were evaluated by the quick ultraviolet (QUV) accelerated weathering test, and the results showed that the fluoropolymer with more than 12% fluoride content possessed outstanding weather resistance. Moreover, scale-up and industrial-scale experiments of waterborne fluoropolymer emulsions were also performed and investigated.

  13. Development of a sampling and analysis method for 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Tangprakorn, Bantoon; Yoosook, Witaya; Chantanakul, Suttinun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop an applicable sampling and analytical method to determine airborne 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene concentrations which are usually found in the atmosphere of polybutadiene factories. A solid sorbent tube, containing two sections (100 mg in the front and 50 mg in the back) of activated coconut-shell charcoal was chosen for sampling 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene vapor. The 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene in the charcoal samples was desorbed with carbon disulfide and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector. The suitable air flow rate, adsorption capacity, sample storage stability, desorption efficiency and reliability of the method for sampling and analysis of 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene were evaluated. The method was applied to sampling and analysis of 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene in the rubber industry. The results indicated a suitable air flow rate of 0.3 to 1.5 l/min. The adsorption capacity of 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene on 100 mg of charcoal was 0.2134 mg. The 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene adsorbed on the charcoal was stable for 7 d at room temperature or 21 d in a refrigerated condition. The average percent desorption efficiency of 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene ranged from 90.45% to 97.04% with the loaded amount ranging from 0.412 to 8.250 microg using 1 ml carbon disulfide. The limit of detection of 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene was 0.044 ng. The average percent recoveries (n=6) of 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene adsorbed on charcoal ranging from 0.46 to 8.87 microg were 96.78-102.87% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.34-1.92%, respectively. The concentrations of 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene ranged from 0.011 to 0.105 mg/m(3) in the working environment of a polybutadiene factory.

  14. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1959-08-01

    The removal of chlorides from aqueons solutions is described. The process involves contacting the aqueous chloride containing solution with a benzene solution about 0.005 M in phenyl mercuric acetate whereby the chloride anions are taken up by the organic phase and separating the organic phase from the aqueous solutions.

  15. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject... order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review). By order of the Commission...

  17. Corrosion resistant Zn–Co alloy coatings deposited using saw-tooth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Micro/nanostructured multilayer coatings of Zn–Co alloy were developed periodically on mild steel from acid chloride bath. Composition modulated multilayer alloy (CMMA) coatings, having gradual change in composition (in each layer) were developed galvanostatically using saw-tooth pulses through single.

  18. 76 FR 76766 - Standard on Vinyl Chloride; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... minimize the hazards of an emergency. (E) Medical Surveillance (Sec. 1910.1017(k)) Paragraph (k) requires employers to develop a medical surveillance program for workers exposed to VC in excess of the Action Level... other technological information collection and transmission techniques. III. Proposed Actions The Agency...

  19. 1-[(Diethylaminocarbonylmethyl]-2-[hydroxy(6-methoxyquinolin-4-ylmethyl]-5-vinyl-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane chloride monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Qing Chen

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C26H36N3O3+·Cl−·H2O, the molecular structure of the cation is stabilized by a number of C—H...O intramolecular interactions. In the crystal structure, O—H...Cl and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds link the ions into a ribbon-like structure along the a axis.

  20. Enhanced Oxidative Bioremediation of cis-Dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and Vinyl Chloride (VC) using Electron Shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    cryogenic liquid container (Dewar). Cryogenic hose with fittings to connect the nitrogen Dewar to the copper tubing. • Approximately 15 to 20 liters of...liquid nitrogen is required per sample. • Specialized personal protective equipment (PPE, e.g., gloves and face shields) for handling cryogenic media...based diamond paste. The grinding and polishing steps involved the use of equipment that was too large to fit in the glove box, so these steps were

  1. Concurrent ethene generation and growth of Dehalococcoides containing vinyl chloride reductive dehalogenase genes during an enhanced reductive dechlorination field demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Durant, N. D.; Dennis, P.

    2008-01-01

    detected a priori in the demonstration plot however, aquifer materials in a bench treatability test were able to dechlorinate cDCE with only a 4-month lag period. Given the short (7-month) schedule for the field demonstration, the field plot was bioaugmented on Day 69 with a mixed culture (KB-1...

  2. Investigation of fatigue and mechanical properties of the pipe grade poly(vinyl chloride using recycled scraps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J-M. Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of using pre-consumer PVC scraps on static and long-term mechanical properties is studied. The degradation characteristics of mixing virgin PVC with crushed pre-consumer and PVC pipe scraps are analyzed using various tools including Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA, X-ray fluorescence (XRF and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The variation of static mechanical properties as a function of adding pre-consumer PVC pipe scraps is investigated using the degradation analyses of recycled PVC scraps. In addition, fatigue tests are executed to evaluate the long-term durability of blending virgin PVC and recycled PVC scraps, and the fracture surface is investigated in detail to reveal the variation of the fracture mechanisms.

  3. Effects of interfacial interaction on the properties of poly(vinyl chloride)/styrene-butadiene rubber blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuihan

    PVC/SBR blends---new thermoplastic elastomer material---were developed. They have potential applications due to low costs and low-temperature elasticity. A unique compatibilization method was employed to enhance the mechanical properties of the materials a compatibilizer miscible with one of the blend components can react chemically with the other component(s). Improvements in tensile and impact behavior were observed as a result of the compatibilization. A novel characterization technique to study the interface of PVC/SBR blends was developed. This technique involves the observation of the unstained sample under electron beam irradiation by a transmission electron microscope (TEM). An enrichment of rubber at the interface between PVC and SBR was detected in the compatiblized PVC/SBR blends. Magnetic relaxation measurements show that the rubber concentration in the proximity of PVC increases with the degree of covulcanization between NBR and SBR. The interface development and the rheological effect during processing were investigated. The interfacial concentration profile and the interfacial thickness were obtained by grayscale measurements on TEM micrographs, evaluation of SIMS images, and measurements of micromechanical properties.

  4. Nano level detection of Cd(II) using poly(vinyl chloride) based membranes of Schiff bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Vinod K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India)], E-mail: vinodfcy@iitr.ernet.in; Al Khayat, Maysoon [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, University of Sharjah, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates); Singh, Ashok K.; Pal, Manoj K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India)

    2009-02-16

    The construction and performance characteristics of polymeric membrane electrodes based on two neutral ionophores, 2,2'-(1Z,1'Z)-(1E,1'E)-(1,2-phenylenebis(methan-1-yl-1-ylidene)) bis(azaan-1-yl-1-ylidene)bis(methylene)bis(azan-1-yl-1-ylidene) bis(methan-1-yl-ylidene)diphenol (L{sub 1}) and 4,4'-(1E,1'E)-(butane-1,4-diylbis(azan-1-yl-1-ylidene)) bis(methan-1-yl-1-ylidene)dinaphthalen-1-ol (L{sub 2}) for quantification of cadmium ions, are described. The influences of membrane compositions on the potentiometric response of the electrodes have been found to substantially improve the performance characteristics. The best performance was obtained with the electrode having a membrane composition (w/w) of (L{sub 1}) (2.6%):PVC (31.6%):DOP (63.2%):NaTPB (2.6%). The proposed electrode exhibits Nernstian response in the concentration range 5.0 x 10{sup -9} to 1.0 x 10{sup -1} M Cd{sup 2+} with limit of detection 3.1 x 10{sup -9}, performs satisfactorily over wide pH range (2.0-8.5) with a fast response time (11 s). The electrode has been found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media up to 40% (v/v) content of methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile and could be used for a period of 2.5 months. The analytical usefulness of the proposed electrode has been evaluated by its application in the determination of cadmium in cigarette samples. The practical utility of the membrane electrode has also been observed in the presence of surfactants.

  5. Enhanced Oxidative Bioremediation of cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and Vinyl Chloride (VC) using Electron Shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    of methylene blue, may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and gastritis , large doses may cause abdominal and chest pain, headache, profuse sweating...FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 54A; WHO Food Additives Series, No. 6. Xu, Y, W Wu, Y Zhang. 1996. Effect of aquatic humic acids on

  6. Specific migration of IRGASTAB 17 MOK and DBP from rigid and plasticized poly(vinyl chloride into organic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amara A.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the determination of the specific migration of an plasticizer and an organotin heat stabilizer (IRGASTAB 17 MOK from plasticized and rigid (PVC into organic liquids hexane and ethanol simulating fatty food. The migration test conditions were 10 days at 40°C and 2 hours at 70°C. FTIR and UV-Visible at 490 nm spectroscopy and gas chromatography were used to investigate the migration phenomena. The influence of various parameters such as temperature, time of contact and the nature of food simulant were considered. The results show that plasticizer accelerates the heat stabilizer migration. On the other hand that gas chromatography could be substituted by FTIR spectroscopy to investigate the DBP migration phenomena. It is a simple, low cost and rapid method which can be used.

  7. Spectroscopic detection and mapping of vinyl cyanide on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, Martin; Yukiko Palmer, Maureen; Lai, James; Nixon, Conor A.; Teanby, Nicholas; Charnley, Steven B.; Vuitton, Veronique; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Irwin, Patrick; Molter, Ned; Mumma, Michael J.

    2017-10-01

    The first spectroscopic detection of vinyl cyanide (otherwise known as acrylonitrile; C2H3CN) on Titan was obtained by Palmer et al. (2017), based on three rotational emission lines observed with ALMA at millimeter wavelengths (in receiver band 6). The astrobiological significance of this detection was highlighted due to the theorized ability of C2H3CN molecules to combine into cell membrane-like structures under the cold conditions found in Titan's hydrocarbon lakes. Here we report the detection of three additional C2H3CN transitions at higher frequencies (from ALMA band 7 flux calibration data). We present the first emission maps for this gas on Titan, and compare the molecular distribution with that of other nitriles observed with ALMA including HC3N, CH3CN, C2H5CN and HNC. The molecular abundance patterns are interpreted based on our understanding of Titan's high-altitude photochemistry and time-variable global circulation. Similar to the short-lived HC3N molecule, vinyl cyanide is found to be most abundant in the vicinity of the southern (winter) pole, whereas the longer-lived CH3CN is more concentrated in the north. The vertical abundance profile of C2H3CN (from radiative transfer modeling), as well as its latitudinal distribution, are consistent with a short photochemical lifetime for this species. Complementary results from our more recent (2017) nitrile mapping studies at higher spatial resolution will also be discussed.REFERENCES:Palmer, M. Y., Cordiner, M. A., Nixon, C. A. et al. "ALMA detection and astrobiological potential of vinyl cyanide on Titan", Sci. Adv. 2017, 3, e1700022

  8. Chemical Modification of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houssein Awada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Partial chemical modification of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA was performed through tosylation followed by azidation. Amine functional PVA was also prepared by grafting propargylamine using click chemistry reaction. Through this approach, a tosyl group (a good leaving group, azide group (a group used in click chemistry and amine group (a group used for amidation were attached to PVA polymer chains. The three chemical modifications were performed in water. FTIR and XPS analysis confirmed the chemical modification after each step. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA was used to study the thermal stability of the modified PVA.

  9. Enhancement of OCT images with vinyl polysiloxane (VPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hobin; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Several studies have shown that optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used to measure the remaining enamel thickness and detect the location of subsurface lesions hidden under the sound enamel. Moreover studies have shown that high refractive index liquids can be used to improve the visibility of subsurface lesions in OCT images. In this study, we demonstrate that vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) impression materials which are routinely used in dentistry can be used to enhance the detection of dentinal lesions on tooth occlusal surfaces. Lesion presence was confirmed with polarized light microscopy and microradiography.

  10. Negative-tone resist system using vinyl cyclic acetal crosslinker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wu-Song; Lee, Kim Y.; Chen, K. Rex; Schepis, Dominic

    1996-06-01

    Most high performance negative tone resists are chemically amplified systems. The chemistry involves a creation of acid during photo-exposure and subsequent crosslinking of the polymer matrix during post-exposure bake. The commonly used crosslinkers are epoxies, melamines, benzyl alcohol and benzyl acetates. In light of the high reactivity of vinyl group on vinyl ether type compounds, literature has suggested that photochemical addition reaction of a polymer- bearing pendant vinyl ether with various thiol compounds can potentially be highly sensitive negative-type photoresists. Recently, bis-dihydropyrane derivative has been used for the first time to develop high performance negative tone resists for DUV, E-beam and x-ray applications. A cyclic acetal system based on acetal blocked aromatic aldehyde has also been demonstrated to be a good crosslinker for negative DUV resist. In order to take advantage of the above chemistries, we have investigated a crosslinker, 3,9-divinylspirobi(M-dioxane) (DVSDO), which contains both cyclic acetal groups and vinyl groups. Different loadings of DVSDO from 8% to 17% were formulated in combination with triphenyl sulfonyl triflate and N-sulfonyl triflate derivatives in polyhydroxystyrene matrix. One composition contains 8% N- sulfonyloxy derivative, 12% DVSDO in 20% solid of polyhydroxystyrene has shown resolution to 0.35 micrometer from Canon 0.37 NA DUV stepper. It also shows promising resolution in E-beam lithography. Varying the post apply bake (PAB) temperatures and post exposure bake temperatures (PEB) demonstrate a great dependency of sensitivity to baking temperature. The sensitivity increases with decreasing PAB, while decreases with decreasing PEB. Insufficient baking time (less than 4 - 5 minutes) at lower PEB temperature 90 degrees Celsius causes significant film loss after development in 0.14N TMAH for 60 - 75s. On the other hand, when the PEB temperature is too high (greater than 120 degrees Celsius), the resist

  11. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES...

  12. Photochemical Generation of Six- and Five-Membered Cyclic Vinyl Cations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegt, M.; Gronheid, R.; Vlugt, van der D.; Ochiai, M.; Okuyama, T.; Zuilhof, H.; Overkleeft, H.S.; Lodder, G.

    2006-01-01

    [GRAPHICS] The photochemical solvolyses of 4-tert-butylcyclohex-1-enyl(phenyl)iodonium tetrafluoroborate (1) and cyclopent-1-enyl(phenyl)iodonium tetrafluoroborate (2) in methanol yield vinylic ethers and vinylic cycloalkenyliodoberizenes and cycloalkenylbenzene, which are the trapping products of

  13. Photochemical generation of a primary vinyl cation from (E)-bromostyrene: Mechanisms of formation and reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gronheid, R.; Zuilhof, H.; Hellings, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    The photochemistry of (E)-bromostyrene was investigated to determine the nature of the product-forming intermediates and to clarify the mechanism of formation of vinylic cations and vinylic radicals. Both a cation- and a radical-derived product are formed, and the ionic origin of the former product

  14. Synthesis of Higher Fatty Acid Starch Esters using Vinyl Laurate and Stearate as Reactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junistia, Laura; Sugih, Asaf K.; Manurung, Robert; Picchioni, Francesco; Janssen, Leon P. B. M.; Heeres, Hero J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of long-chain fatty esters of corn starch (starch laurate and starch stearate) with a broad range in degree of substitution (DS = 0.24-2.96). The fatty esters were prepared by reacting the starch with vinyl laurate or vinyl stearate in the presence of basic

  15. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Unsaturated Polyester/Vinyl Ester Blends Cured at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhyananta, H.; Puspadewa, F. D.; Wicaksono, S. T.; Widyastuti; Wibisono, A. T.; Kurniawan, B. A.; Ismail, H.; Salsac, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    Unsaturated polyester (UP) resin containing aromatic ring was blended with vinyl ester (VE) at wide range composition (10, 20, 30, 40,and 80 wt.%) using mechanical blending method. The blends were cured at room temperature using methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) (4 wt.%) as catalyst initiator without the presence of catalystaccelerator. The effect of vinyl ester composition on theenhancement of mechanical and thermal properties of unsaturated polyester/vinyl ester blends was investigated. The polymer blends were characterized by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR)spectroscopy, tensile testing, hardness testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). IR spectra showed UP and VE peaks. The curing copolymerization reactionoccurred at vinyl (C=C) bonds. The addition of vinyl esters enhanced mechanical and thermal properties. The UP/VE blends showed homogeneous morphology, transparent and copolymer thermoset blend.

  16. Oil recovery with sulfomethylated poly (lower alkyl vinyl ether/maleic anhydride)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, C.J.; Falk, D.O.

    1973-05-22

    Lower alkyl vinyl ether e.g., methyl vinyl ether, propyl vinyl ether, isopropyl vinyl ether, hexyl vinyl ether, is copolymerized conventionally with maleic anhydride, the resulting copolymer is treated with ammonia or ammonium hydroxide to form the partial amide-ammonium salt, and this salt is in turn treated with formaldehyde and thereafter or simultaneously with ammonium or alkali metal salt sulfite (including bisulfites, etc.) to form an at least partially sulfomethylated copolymer. Aqueous solutions of the sulfomethylated copolymer are useful in increasing the viscosity of drive fluids used in the supplemented recovery of petroleum from subterranean formations. In general, enhancing the polyionic character of mobility control agents used in supplemented recovery of petroleum provides enhanced recovery. Achieving this enhancement of polyionic character through use of sulfonate groups provides a mobility control agent with good ability to sustain viscosity in the presence of brine and lime, usually present in the connate waters of petroleum-bearing formations. (7 claims)

  17. Chloride Penetration through Cracks in High-Performance Concrete and Surface Treatment System for Crack Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Seok Yoon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For enhancing the service life of concrete structures, it is very important to minimize crack at surface. Even if these cracks are very small, the problem is to which extend these cracks may jeopardize the durability of these decks. It was proposed that crack depth corresponding with critical crack width from the surface is a crucial factor in view of durability design of concrete structures. It was necessary to deal with chloride penetration through microcracks characterized with the mixing features of concrete. This study is devoted to examine the effect of high strength concrete and reinforcement of steel fiber on chloride penetration through cracks. High strength concrete is regarded as an excellent barrier to resist chloride penetration. However, durability performance of cracked high strength concrete was reduced seriously up to that of ordinary cracked concrete. Steel fiber reinforcement is effective to reduce chloride penetration through cracks because steel fiber reinforcement can lead to reduce crack depth significantly. Meanwhile, surface treatment systems are put on the surface of the concrete in order to seal the concrete. The key-issue is to which extend a sealing is able to ensure that chloride-induced corrosion can be prevented. As a result, penetrant cannot cure cracks, however, coating and combined treatment can prevent chloride from flowing in concrete with maximum crack width of 0.06 mm and 0.08 mm, respectively.

  18. Far-infrared Spectroscopic Characterization of Anti-vinyl Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Hayley; Soliday, Rebekah M.; Sumner, Isaiah; Raston, Paul L.

    2017-09-01

    We report a detailed analysis of the high-resolution far-infrared spectrum of anti-vinyl alcohol, which has been previously identified toward Sagittarius B2(N). The ν 15 OH torsional fundamental investigated here is more than 200 cm-1 removed from the next nearest vibration, making it practically unperturbed and ideal to help refine the ground state rotational constants that were previously determined from 25 microwave lines. We assigned 1335 lines within the ν 15 fundamental centered at 261.5512 cm-1, with J and K a ranges of 1-59 and 0-16, respectively. The microwave and far-infrared line positions were fit with Watson-type A- and S-reduced Hamiltonians, with the inclusion of quartic and select sextic distortion terms. This resulted in a significant refinement of the ground state constants, in addition to the determination of the {ν }15=1 state constants for the first time. The spectroscopic parameters are in good agreement with the results from anharmonic coupled-cluster calculations, and should be useful in searches for rotationally and/or vibrationally warm anti-vinyl alcohol in interstellar molecular clouds.

  19. Rubber-like poly(vinyl alcohol) gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nambu, Masao (Nippon Oil Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Central Technical Research Lab.)

    1990-09-01

    Anomalous poly (vinyl alcohol) gel has been found in our laboratory since 1980. The gel is prepared by repeated freezing (or freeze-dehydration) of aqueous poly (vinyl alcohol). Experiments establish the fact that anomalous gel is never produced in the course of freezing, but during sustained thawing the gelation does occur. Moreover, it was found that the softening point of the gel increases at 37degC. It is assumed that crystal nuclei are generated on freezing, then on thawing, some of them grow to very fine crystals which act as polymer network-knots (cross-linking). Additional freezing provide other seeds, which grow similarly, and these are accumulated until rubber-like gel is produced. The gel was always water-resistant at 37degC, and the potassium permanganate consumption of the extracted water layer remained far below the official restricted value for medical materials. The gel can be sterilized with gamma-rays or chlorhexidine. Moreover, it satisfies the official standards of acute toxicity, pyrogen, intracutaneous reaction, hemolyzation, and intracorporeal implantation, respectively. Applications to adhesion-preventing membrane (for joint or pericardium), tamponade (for jaw defects), electrode (for electroretinogram or artificial inner ear), artificial denture base and phantoms for magnetic resonance imaging were examined. (author) 54 refs.

  20. Transition-metal-free chemo- and regioselective vinylation of azaallyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minyan; Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Berritt, Simon; Pascual-Escudero, Ana; Yeşilçimen, Ahmet; Yang, Xiaodong; Adrio, Javier; Huang, Georgia; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko; Kozlowski, Marisa C.; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2017-10-01

    Direct C(sp3)-C(sp2) bond formation under transition-metal-free conditions offers an atom-economical, inexpensive and environmentally benign alternative to traditional transition-metal-catalysed cross-coupling reactions. A new chemo- and regioselective coupling protocol between 3-aryl-substituted-1,1-diphenyl-2-azaallyl derivatives and vinyl bromides has been developed. This is the first transition-metal-free cross-coupling of azaallyls with vinyl bromide electrophiles and delivers allylic amines in excellent yields (up to 99%). This relatively simple and mild protocol offers a direct and practical strategy for the synthesis of high-value allylic amine building blocks that does not require the use of transition metals, special initiators or photoredox catalysts. Radical clock experiments, electron paramagnetic resonance studies and density functional theory calculations point to an unprecedented substrate-dependent coupling mechanism. Furthermore, an electron paramagnetic resonance signal was observed when the N-benzyl benzophenone ketimine was subjected to silylamide base, supporting the formation of radical species upon deprotonation. The unique mechanisms outlined herein could pave the way for new approaches to transition-metal-free C-C bond formations.

  1. spin coating

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROJET SOJA

    Intense UV photoluminescence is observed for intrinsic ZnO film. Keywords : thin films, oxidize zinc doped aluminium (ZnO:Al), sol-gel, spin coating, structural analysis, electric and optical properties. 1. Introduction. Depuis ces vingt dernières années les couches minces d'oxyde de zinc ont connu un intérêt croissant dans ...

  2. Isolation and Characterization of 1,3-Bis(vinylbenzylthymine: Copolymerization with Vinylbenzyl Thymine Ammonium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc Chau H. Vy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel bioinspired molecule, 1,3-bis(vinylbenzylthymine (bisVBT, was isolated as a by-product during the synthesis of 1-(4-vinylbenzylthymine (VBT and analyzed with various techniques: NMR, IR, and Single-Crystal X-ray Diffraction. In addition to embodying all the desired characteristics of VBT (i.e., having the ability to undergo a 2π+2π photodimerization reaction upon UV irradiation, a derivatization site, hydrogen bonding sites, and aromatic stacking ability the bisVBT monomer has the added benefit of having two vinyl groups for cross-polymerization. Copolymerizing the bisVBT monomer with the charged monomer vinylbenzyl triethylammonium (VBA chloride, different copolymers/terpolymers/cross-linked network were obtained, as it was shown by the absence of the vinyl resonance in the NMR spectra. Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC showed an indication of materials with low degree of cross-linking. A Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC method was improved to better characterize the molecular weight distributions of the cationic structures. Preliminary qualitative cross-linking studies were performed on bisVBT-VBA copolymers, and a comparison with VBT-VBA copolymers is presented.

  3. A novel approach for fabricating highly tunable and fluffy bioinspired 3D poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fiber scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sunanda; Kuddannaya, Shreyas; Das, Tanya; Lee, Heng Yeong; Lim, Jacob; Hu, Xiao 'Matthew'; Chee Yoon, Yue; Kim, Jaehwan

    2017-06-01

    The excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and chemo-thermal stability of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) have been harnessed in diverse practical applications. These properties have motivated the fabrication of high performance PVA based nanofibers with adequate control over the micro and nano-architectures and surface chemical interactions. However, the high water solubility and hydrophilicity of the PVA polymer limits the application of the electrospun PVA nanofibers in aqueous environments owing to instantaneous dissolution. In this work, we report a novel yet facile concept for fabricating extremely light, fluffy, insoluble and stable three dimensional (3D) PVA fibrous scaffolds with/without coating for multifunctional purposes. While the solubility, morphology, fiber density and mechanical properties of nanofibers could be tuned by optimizing the cross-linking conditions, the surface chemical reactivity could be readily enhanced by coating with a polydopamine (pDA) bioinspired polymer without compromising the stability and innate properties of the native PVA fiber. The 3D pDA-PVA scaffolds exhibited super dye adsorption and constructive synergistic cell-material interactions by promoting healthy adhesion and viability of the human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) within 3D micro-niches. We foresee the application of tunable PVA 3D as a highly adsorbent material and a scaffold material for tissue regeneration and drug delivery with close consideration of realistic in vivo parameters.

  4. Separator Membrane from Crosslinked Poly(Vinyl Alcohol and Poly(Methyl Vinyl Ether-alt-Maleic Anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Vashisth Rohatgi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report separator membranes from crosslinking of two polymers, such as poly vinyl alcohol (PVA with an ionic polymer poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride (PMVE-MA. Such interpolymer-networked systems were extensively used for biomedical and desalination applications but they were not examined for their potential use as membranes or separators for batteries. Therefore, the chemical interactions between these two polymers and the influence of such crosslinking on physicochemical properties of the membrane are systematically investigated through rheology and by critical gel point study. The hydrogen bonding and the chemical interaction between PMVE-MA and PVA resulted in highly cross-linked membranes. Effect of the molecular weight of PVA on the membrane properties was also examined. The developed membranes were extensively characterized by studying their physicochemical properties (water uptake, swelling ratio, and conductivity, thermal and electrochemical properties using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The DSC study shows the presence of a single Tg in the membranes indicating compatibility of the two polymers in flexible and transparent films. The membranes show good stability and ion conductivity suitable for separator applications.

  5. Glass frits coated with silver nanoparticles for silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yingfen, E-mail: lyf350857423@163.com; Gan, Weiping; Zhou, Jian; Li, Biyuan

    2015-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silver-coated glass frits for solar cells were prepared by electroless plating. • Gum Arabic was used as the activating agent of glass frits. • Silver-coated glass frits can improve the photovoltaic performances of solar cells. - Abstract: Glass frits coated with silver nanoparticles were prepared by electroless plating. Gum Arabic (GA) was used as the activating agent of glass frits without the assistance of stannous chloride or palladium chloride. The silver-coated glass frits prepared with different GA dosages were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The characterization results indicated that silver-coated glass frits had the structures of both glass and silver. Spherical silver nanoparticles were distributed on the glass frits evenly. The density and particle size of silver nanoparticles on the glass frits can be controlled by adjusting the GA dosage. The silver-coated glass frits were applied to silver pastes to act as both the densification promoter and silver crystallite formation aid in the silver electrodes. The prepared silver-coated glass frits can improve the photovoltaic performances of solar cells.

  6. Prevention of chloride-induced corrosion damage to bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Virmani, Y.P. (FHWA, USDOT) | Butler, J.T. (Joseph T. Butler, Inc.); Nelson, F.J. (Oregon Dept. of Transportation) | Thompson, N.G. (CC Technologies)

    2002-01-01

    The annual direct cost of bridge infrastructure corrosion to the U.S. economy is estimated at $8.3 billion, with indirect costs approximately 10 times higher. Of the approximately 600000 bridges in the U.S., between 15% and 20% are listed as ?structurally deficient,? frequently due to corrosion damage. Five technologies are presented for reducing the cost of chloride-induced corrosion damage: (1) conductive coating anodes for cathodic protection of existing reinforce concrete bridges, (2) epoxy-coated rebar (ECR), (3) stainless steel rebar, and (4) high-performance concrete for extending the service life of new structures, and (5) metalizing to provide economical, long-term corrosion protection of steel bridges. Conductive coating anodes and stainless steel rebar represent ongoing work by the Oregon Department of Transportation with final verdicts not expected for years. The ECR and metalizing technology have longer track records and are better established in the bridge construction and protection industry. Application of these technologies is guided by a thorough understanding of their performance, of characteristics of the bridge and its environment, and of the results that are sought.

  7. 4-(Methylsulfonylpiperazin-1-ium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecular salt, C5H13N2O2S+·Cl−, the complete cation is generated by crystallographic mirror symmetry, with both N atoms, the S atom and one C atom lying on the reflecting plane. The chloride ion also lies on the mirror plane. The piperazinium ring adopts a chair conformation and the N—S bond adopts an equatorial orientation. In the crystal structure, the component ions are linked into a three-dimensional framework by intermolecular N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  8. spin coating

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROJET SOJA

    Dans ce travail nous avons préparé des couches minces de l'oxyde de zinc ZnO dopées à l'aluminium et non dopées par la technique Sol-Gel associée au « spin coating » sur des substrats en verre « pyrex » à partir de l'acétate de zinc dissous dans une solution de l'éthanol. Nous avons ensuite effectué des analyses ...

  9. Preparation of iron doped carbon coated W18O49 and its photoactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Toyoda

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron doping to carbon coated W18O49 was carried out through solid-state reaction of WO2.9 with iron acetate at 400 oC,followed by carbonization with poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA as carbon precursor at 800 oC in N2 atmosphere. Photoactivitiesof these samples were confirmed by phenol photodecomposition in its aqueous solution. They revealed the photoactivityunder visible light irradiation. Carbon coated W18O49 with iron exhibited higher photoactivity than it without iron. Additionof 1 % iron and 90/10 mixing ratio (WO2.9 / PVA derived the highest photoactivity to decompose the phenol.

  10. Acoustic monitoring of a fluidized bed coating process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naelapaa, Kaisa; Veski, Peep; Pedersen, Joan G.

    2007-01-01

      The aim of the study was to investigate the potential of acoustic monitoring of a production scale fluidized bed coating process. The correlation between sensor signals and the estimated amount of film applied and percentage release, respectively, were investigated in coating potassium chloride...... (KCl) crystals with ethylcellulose (EC). Vibrations were measured with two different types of accelerometers. Different positions for placing the accelerometers and two different product containers were included in the study. Top spray coating of KCl was chosen as a ‘worst case' scenario from a coating...... point perspective. The acoustic monitoring has the potential of summarising the commonly used means to monitor the coating process. The best partial least squares (PLS) regressions, obtained by the high frequency accelerometer, showed for the release a correlation coefficient of 0.92 and a root mean...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7773-01-5) is a pink, translucent, crystalline product. It is also known as manganese...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg..._locations.html. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation...

  13. Prediction of Chloride Penetration into Hardening Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Jie Fan; Xiao-Yong Wang

    2015-01-01

    In marine and coastal environments, penetration of chloride ions is one of the main mechanisms causing concrete reinforcement corrosion. Currently, most of experimental investigations about submerged penetration of chloride ions are started after the four-week standard curing of concrete. The further hydration of cement and reduction of chloride diffusivity during submerged penetration period are ignored. To overcome this weak point, this paper presents a numerical procedure to analyze simult...

  14. Myoglobin entrapment in poly(vinyl alcohol dense membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. S. Figueiredo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Our goal in this study was the immobilization of myoglobin in poly(vinyl alcohol dense membranes. Glutaraldehyde was investigated both as the crosslinking agent, aiming to increase the membrane stability in aqueous medium, and as the vehicle to bind myoglobin and PVA. Reaction and membrane synthesis were carried simultaneously in mild operating conditions in order to maintain the native protein folding. Membrane characterization comprised the water swelling degree, DSC, TGA, UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR analysis and oxygen transport in a dialysis cell. The incorporation of myoglobin in the film decreased the water swelling degree and improved the membrane thermal properties compared to unmodified PVA membrane. The reduction of ferric iron in the prosthetic group of the protein to the ferrous form was observed. The increased affinity between oxygen and the immobilized myoglobin did not favor the release of this solute from the biocarrier.

  15. Stimuli Responsive Poly(Vinyl Caprolactam Gels for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kummara Madhusudana Rao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinyl caprolactam (PNVCL is one of the most important thermoresponsive polymers because it is similar to poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide. PNVCL precipitates from aqueous solutions in a physiological temperature range (32–34 °C. The use of PNVCL instead of PNIPAM is considered advantageous because of the assumed lower toxicity of PNVCL. PNVCL copolymer gels are sensitive to external stimuli, such as temperature and pH; which gives them a wide range of biomedical applications and consequently attracts considerable scientific interest. This review focuses on the recent studies on PNVCL-based stimuli responsive three dimensional hydrogels (macro, micro, and nano for biomedical applications. This review also covers the future outlooks of PNVCL-based gels for biomedical applications, particularly in the drug delivery field.

  16. Methyl internal rotation in the microwave spectrum of vinyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha Vinh Lam; Jabri, Atef; Van, Vinh; Stahl, Wolfgang

    2014-12-26

    The rotational spectrum of vinyl acetate, CH3(CO)OCH═CH2, was measured using two molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectrometers operating in the frequency range from 2 to 40 GHz. Large splittings up to 2 GHz occurred due to the internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group CH3CO with a V3 potential of 151.492(34) cm(-1), much larger than the barrier of approximately 100 cm(-1) often found in acetates. The torsional transitions were fitted using three different programs XIAM, ERHAM, and BELGI-Cs, whereby the rotational constants, centrifugal distortion constants, and the internal rotation parameters could be determined with very high accuracy. The experimental results were supported by quantum chemical calculations. For a conformational analysis, potential energy surfaces were calculated.

  17. Functionalization at the central position of vinyl polymer chains: highly associable multipoint hydrogen bonds for complementary self-assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Ouchi, Makoto; Sawamoto, Mitsuo

    2014-02-01

    This paper deals with the precision introduction of a multiple hydrogen-bonding site of a high association constant at the central position of a vinyl polymer chain for complementary self-assemblies. The interactive site consists of an array of hydrogen donors (D) and acceptors (A) to induce a multiple and highly associable interaction with a complementary counterpart. A bifunctional initiator (Cl-DADDAD-Cl) for metal-catalyzed living radical polymerization is thus designed and synthesized to embed a "Hamilton receptor" (DADDAD) between two terminal chlorides (Cl). In the presence of a ruthenium complex, the dichloride gives controlled polymers (Cl∼∼∼DADDAD∼∼∼Cl, ∼ ∼ ∼: polymer backbone) of narrow molecular weight distributions (Mw/Mn MMA). The receptor-decorated polystyrene recognizes complementary associable molecules and polymers carrying an ADADA unit (ADADA-Anthracene and ADADA-PMMA) to form self-assemblies where the association constant is as high as K(ass) ≈ 8000 m(-1). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Cross-metathesis reaction of α- and β-vinyl C-glycosides with alkenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Šnajdr

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cross-metathesis of α- and β-vinyl C-deoxyribosides and α-vinyl C-galactoside with various terminal alkenes under different conditions was studied. The cross-metathesis of the former proceeded with good yields of the corresponding products in ClCH2CH2Cl the latter required the presence of CuI in CH2Cl2 to achieve good yields of the products. A simple method for the preparation of α- and β-vinyl C-deoxyribosides was also developed. In addition, feasibility of deprotection and further transformations were briefly explored.

  19. Effect of cracking and randomness of inputs on corrosion initiation of reinforced concrete bridge decks exposed to chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Konecny

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at the indicative evaluation of the effect of random scatter of input parameters in case of durability of reinforced concrete bridge deck. The time to onset of corrosion of steel reinforcement of concrete bridge deck exposed to chloride is evaluated. The effect of cracking in concrete onto chloride ingress is considered. The selected steel reinforcement protection strategies are: unprotected steel reinforcement, epoxy-coated steel reinforcement and water-proof barrier bellow asphalt overlay. The preliminary model for damage effect on chloride ion ingress through water proof membrane under penetrable asphalt overlay is used. 2-D finite element chloride ingress model is combined with Monte Carlo simulation technique. The innovative crack effect modeling via highly penetrable elements is applied. Deterministic and probabilistic calculations are compared.

  20. Multi-stage Mass Spectrometry of Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) and Its Vinyl Succinimide Copolymer Formed upon Exposure to Sodium Hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Thierry; Torimura, Masaki; Sato, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    The degradation routes of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) exposed to sodium hypochlorite (bleach) have been previously investigated using chemical analyses such as infrared spectroscopy. So far, no reports have proposed mass spectrometry (MS) as an alternative tool despite its capability to provide molecular and structural information using its single stage electrospray (ESI) or matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and multi stage (MS (n) ) configurations, respectively. The present study thus reports on the characterization of PVP after its exposure to bleach by high resolution MALDI spiralTOF-MS and Kendrick mass defect analysis providing clues as to the formation of a vinyl pyrrolidone/vinyl succinimide copolymeric degradation product. A thorough investigation of the fragmentation pathways of PVP adducted with sodium and proton allows one main route to be described-namely the release of the pyrrolidone pendant group in a charge remote and charge driven mechanism, respectively. Extrapolating this fragmentation pathway, the oxidation of vinyl pyrrolidone into vinyl succinimide hypothesized from the single stage MS is validated by the detection of an alternative succinimide neutral loss in lieu of the pyrrolidone release in the ESI-MS (n) spectra of the aged PVP sample. It constitutes an example of application of multi-stage mass spectrometry for the characterization of the degradation of polymeric samples at a molecular level.

  1. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  2. Graphene Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoot, Adam Carsten; Camilli, Luca; Bøggild, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Owing to its remarkable electrical and mechanical properties, graphene has been attracting tremendous interest in materials science. In particular, its chemical stability and impermeability make it a promising protective membrane. However, recent investigations reveal that single layer graphene...... cannot be used as a barrier in the long run, due to galvanic corrosion phenomena arising when oxygen or water penetrate through graphene cracks or domain boundaries. Here, we overcome this issue by using a multilayered (ML) graphene coating. Our lab- as well as industrial-scale tests demonstrate that ML...... graphene can effectively protect Ni in harsh environments, even after long term exposure. This is made possible by the presence of a high number of graphene layers, which can efficiently mask the cracks and domain boundaries defects found in individual layers of graphene. Our findings thus show...

  3. Improved adhesion performances of aramid fibers with vinyl epoxy via supercritical carbon dioxide modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, M. L.; Kong, H. J.; Yu, M. H.; Teng, C. Q.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, aramid fibers were treated under supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) with isocyanate terminated liquid nitrile rubber to improve the adhesion performances of vinyl epoxy composites. The interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of vinyl epoxy composites was investigated by micro-bond test. The results indicate that the surface modification of aramid fibers in SCCO2 was an efficient method to increase the adhesion performances between fibers and vinyl epoxy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were adopted to investigate the surface structure and composition of aramid fibers. The flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of treated aramid fibers/vinyl epoxy composites was improved by 18.1% and 28.9% compared with untreated aramid fibers, respectively. Furthermore, the fractured surfaces of the composites were observed by SEM, which showed that the interfacial adhesion of composites has been remarkably changed.

  4. Vinyl Monomers Double as UV Stabilizers: 179th ACS Meeting Houston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Synthesis and polymerization of vinyl monomers that double as stabilizers against degradation of plastics by ultraviolet light has been accomplished. Potential applications include protection of photovoltaic cells in solar power plants. (Author/RE)

  5. Neodymium Catalyst for the Polymerization of Dienes and Polar Vinyl Monomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kularatne, Ruvanthi N; Yang, Annie; Nguyen, Hien Q; McCandless, Gregory T; Stefan, Mihaela C

    2017-10-01

    Ziegler-Natta catalysts have played a major role in industry for the polymerization of dienes and vinyl monomers. However, due to the deactivation of the catalyst, this system fails to polymerize polar vinyl monomers such as vinyl acetate, methyl methacrylate, and methyl acrylate. Herein, a catalytic system composed of NdCl 3 ⋅3TEP/TIBA is reported, which promotes a quasi-living polymerization of dienes and is also active for the homopolymerization of polar vinyl monomers. Additionally, this catalytic system generates polymyrcene-b-polyisoprene and poly(myrcene)-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) diblock copolymers by sequential monomer addition. To encourage the replacement of petroleum-based polymers by environmentally benign biobased polymers, polymerization of β-myrcene is demonstrated with a catalytic activity of ≈106 kg polymer mol Nd -1 h -1 . © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Poly (aniline-co-m-aminobenzoic acid) deposited on poly (vinyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    vinyl alcohol) (PVA) by in situ polymerization. The polymerization was effected within maleic acid (MA) cross-linked PVA hydrogel. The copolymer was obtained by oxidative polymerization of aniline hydrochloride and -aminobenzoic acid using ...

  7. Effects of solvents on the radiation grafting reaction of vinyl compounds on poly (3-hydroxybutyrate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Maykel González; Talavera, José Rogelio Rodríguez; Muñoz, Susana Vargas; Pérez, Manuel González; Castro, Ma. Pilar. Carreón.; Cortes, Jorge Cerna; Muñoz, Rodrigo Alonso Esparza

    2015-03-01

    Vinyl Acetate was grafted onto poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) by the simultaneous gamma irradiation method using different types of solvents and in bulk (solvent free), at 10 kGy and 1.62 kGy/h dose and dose rate respectively. Subsequent complete hydrolysis allowed the conversion of grafted chains from poly (vinyl acetate) to poly (vinyl alcohol). The aim of this study is to determine the effect of solvent through the estimation of the dependence of the degree of grafting with the choice of solvent, the calculation of the degree of crystallinity, and to study the biodegradation of the products. The results showed a greater degree of grafting in bulk, while the more suitable solvent was hexane. Characterization of the grafted copolymer indicated that crystallinity percentage decreased by an increase in grafting, while the biodegradability was promoted by the increment in poly (vinyl alcohol) grafted.

  8. Laser induced augmentation of silver nanospheres to nanowires in ethanol fostered by Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian, Suneetha, E-mail: sunikutty@gmail.com; Linslal, C.L.; Vallabhan, C.P.G.; Nampoori, V.P.N.; Radhakrishnan, P.; Kailasnath, M.

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Silver nanospheres are synthesised in ethanol containing Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone which acts as a polymeric capping agent to nanoparticles thus improving its stability. • Laser irradiation onto the colloidal solution of silver nanoparticles produced well defined nanowires through ripening mechanism promoted by Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone. • Nanowires so formed are having an average length of 8.7 μm and width of 160 nm. - Abstract: Stable uniform silver nanospheres having an average diameter of 45 nm are synthesised in ethanol containing Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone using Laser Ablation in Liquid technique. Further irradiation of the nanocolloidal solution by focussed laser beam produced stable well defined silver nanowires through ripening mechanism fostered by the presence of Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone. Confirmation of the mechanism is obtained from Transmission Electron Microscopic images of the nanocolloidal solution irradiated for different time durations.

  9. Sodium-metal chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1992-02-01

    It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

  10. High performance polypyrrole coating for corrosion protection and biocidal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautiyal, Amit; Qiao, Mingyu; Cook, Jonathan Edwin; Zhang, Xinyu; Huang, Tung-Shi

    2018-01-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) coating was electrochemically synthesized on carbon steel using sulfonic acids as dopants: p-toluene sulfonic acid (p-TSA), sulfuric acid (SA), (±) camphor sulfonic acid (CSA), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS). The effect of acidic dopants (p-TSA, SA, CSA) on passivation of carbon steel was investigated by linear potentiodynamic and compared with morphology and corrosion protection performance of the coating produced. The types of the dopants used were significantly affecting the protection efficiency of the coating against chloride ion attack on the metal surface. The corrosion performance depends on size and alignment of dopant in the polymer backbone. Both p-TSA and SDBS have extra benzene ring that stack together to form a lamellar sheet like barrier to chloride ions thus making them appropriate dopants for PPy coating in suppressing the corrosion at significant level. Further, adhesion performance was enhanced by adding long chain carboxylic acid (decanoic acid) directly in the monomer solution. In addition, PPy coating doped with SDBS displayed excellent biocidal abilities against Staphylococcus aureus. The polypyrrole coatings on carbon steels with dual function of anti-corrosion and excellent biocidal properties shows great potential application in the industry for anti-corrosion/antimicrobial purposes.

  11. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs ...

  12. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements...

  13. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a...

  14. Electrochemical Chloride extraction using external electrodes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical methods for the removal of chloride from concrete have been developed and the methods are primarily designed for situations where corrosion has started due to an increased chloride concentration in the vicinity of the reinforcement. In these methods the reinforcement is used as th...

  15. Chronopotentiometric chloride sensing using transition time measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, D.B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Detection of chloride ions is crucial to accurately access the concrete structure durability[1]. The existing electrochemical method of chloride ions detection in concrete, potentiometry[1], is not suitable for in-situ measurement due to the long term stability issue of conventional reference

  16. Blend miscibility of cellulose propionate with poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone-co-methyl methacrylate).

    OpenAIRE

    Sugimura, Kazuki; Teramoto, Yoshikuni; NISHIO, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    The blend miscibility of cellulose propionate (CP) with poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone-co-methyl methacrylate) (P(VP-co-MMA)) was investigated. The degree of substitution (DS) of CP used ranged from 1.6 to >2.9, and samples for the vinyl polymer component were prepared in a full range of VP:MMA compositions. Through DSC analysis and solid-state (13)C NMR and FT-IR measurements, we revealed that CPs of DS

  17. Separation of Aqueous Isopropanol Through Chitosan/Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) Blended Membranes by Pervaporation

    OpenAIRE

    S. H. Tan, A. L. Ahmad; M. G. Mohd. Nawawi and H. Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Blend membranes consisting of chitosan/poly (vinyl alcohol) (CS/PVA) were prepared from a solution casting method and characterized via the pervaporation separation of isopropanol-water mixtures.  The solution of pure chitosan was blended with poly(vinyl alcohol) at different compositions. The miscibility of the blended polymers was determined.  Criteria for miscibility was based on the clarity of the blend and the transparency of the membrane obtained.  The effects of feed con...

  18. High Performance Fatty Acid-Based Vinyl Ester Resin for Liquid Molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    novolac epoxy, and Epon 828 , a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), were purchased from Hexion Specialty Chemicals and was used to synthesize vinyl...with Epon 160 (n=0.5) and Epon 828 (n=0.098) to produce VE 160 and VE 828 , respectively (Figure 1). The reaction was catalyzed by 1 wt% AMC-2...PROCEDURE 2.1 Materials Derakane 470HT-400 vinyl ester resin was obtained from Ashland and was used without modification. Epon Resin 160, a

  19. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used in continu......The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used...... sensor remained responsive even at low chloride concentrations, where the conductivity electrode was no longer responding to changing chloride levels. With the results, it is believed that the simple chloride sensor could be used for continuous monitoring of groundwater quality....

  20. Electrocurtain coating process for coating solar mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Boyd, Donald W.; Buchanan, Michael J.; Kelly, Patrick; Kutilek, Luke A.; McCamy, James W.; McPheron, Douglas A.; Orosz, Gary R.; Limbacher, Raymond D.

    2013-10-15

    An electrically conductive protective coating or film is provided over the surface of a reflective coating of a solar mirror by flowing or directing a cation containing liquid and an anion containing liquid onto the conductive surface. The cation and the anion containing liquids are spaced from, and preferably out of contact with one another on the surface of the reflective coating as an electric current is moved through the anion containing liquid, the conductive surface between the liquids and the cation containing liquid to coat the conductive surface with the electrically conductive coating.

  1. Effects of Sulfate, Chloride, and Bicarbonate on Iron Stability in a PVC-U Drinking Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaying Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to describe iron stability in plastic pipes and to ensure the drinking water security, the influence factors and rules for iron adsorption and release were studied, dependent on the Unplasticized poly (vinyl chloride (PVC-U drinking pipes employed in this research. In this paper, sulfate, chloride, and bicarbonate, as well as synthesized models, were chosen to investigate the iron stability on the inner wall of PVC-U drinking pipes. The existence of the three kinds of anions could significantly affect the process of iron adsorption, and a positive association was found between the level of anion concentration and the adsorption rate. However, the scaling formed on the inner surface of the pipes would be released into the water under certain conditions. The Larson Index (LI, used for a synthetic consideration of anion effects on iron stability, was selected to investigate the iron release under multi-factor conditions. Moreover, a well fitted linear model was established to gain a better understanding of iron release under multi-factor conditions. The simulation results demonstrated that the linear model was better fitted than the LI model for the prediction of iron release.

  2. Effects of Sulfate, Chloride, and Bicarbonate on Iron Stability in a PVC-U Drinking Pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaying; Tao, Tao; Yan, Hexiang

    2017-06-19

    In order to describe iron stability in plastic pipes and to ensure the drinking water security, the influence factors and rules for iron adsorption and release were studied, dependent on the Unplasticized poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) drinking pipes employed in this research. In this paper, sulfate, chloride, and bicarbonate, as well as synthesized models, were chosen to investigate the iron stability on the inner wall of PVC-U drinking pipes. The existence of the three kinds of anions could significantly affect the process of iron adsorption, and a positive association was found between the level of anion concentration and the adsorption rate. However, the scaling formed on the inner surface of the pipes would be released into the water under certain conditions. The Larson Index (LI), used for a synthetic consideration of anion effects on iron stability, was selected to investigate the iron release under multi-factor conditions. Moreover, a well fitted linear model was established to gain a better understanding of iron release under multi-factor conditions. The simulation results demonstrated that the linear model was better fitted than the LI model for the prediction of iron release.

  3. Iron oxide nanoparticles with different polymer coatings for photothermal therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jia; Fan, Lu; Xu, Yanhong; Xia, Jindong

    2017-10-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) have attracted significant attention in view of their potential applications in biomedicine. Surface coatings or modifications are generally needed to improve the colloidal stability of Fe3O4 NPs in a physiological environment. In this study, Fe3O4 NPs in the size range of 12-15 nm coated with polyacrylic acid (PAA), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and polyethyleneimine (PEI) were synthesized through a mild reduction route to investigate their potential for photothermal therapy. The polymer-coated Fe3O4 NPs dispersed well in water and formed stable colloids; the surface charges of the particles were dependent on the nature of the surface coating. The strong absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) region enabled the coated Fe3O4 NPs to be used as agents in photothermal therapy. The photothermal conversion efficiency of PEI-coated Fe3O4 NPs (PEI-Fe3O4 NPs) distinctly decreased when exposed to a cell culture medium. In addition, PEI-Fe3O4 NPs showed higher cytotoxicity and enhanced cellular uptake efficiency when compared to PAA-coated Fe3O4 NPs (PAA-Fe3O4 NPs) and PVA-coated Fe3O4 NPs (PVA-Fe3O4 NPs). This study highlights the importance of optimizing the surface properties of Fe3O4 NPs when using them in biomedical applications and provides guidelines for the design and development of functional Fe3O4 NPs for cancer therapy. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Oral drug delivery system based on interpolymer complex formation between poly(acrylic acid) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Germishuizen, A

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available as it passes through the acidic medium of the stomach (pH 1-2) square4 The drug is released upon entering the basic medium of the lower intestines (pH 6.2-7.4) square4 The delivery system should thus be pH- sensitive square4 A system based on inter... system based on interpolymer complex formation between poly(acrylic acid) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) 13 July 2005 André Germishuizen Supporting the Manufacturing and Materials Industry in its quest for global competitiveness CSIR...

  5. Vinyl flooring in the home is associated with children's airborne butylbenzyl phthalate and urinary metabolite concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Allan C; Miller, Rachel L; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Rundle, Andrew G; Chen, Qixuan; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Hoepner, Lori; Camann, David E; Calafat, Antonia M; Perera, Frederica P; Whyatt, Robin M

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that vinyl flooring as well as the vinyl-softening plasticizers butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are associated with asthma and airway inflammation. Although DEHP exposure is primarily dietary, whether home vinyl flooring contributes to indoor air and urinary metabolite concentrations for these two phthalates is unclear. Exposures to BBzP and DEHP were examined in a prospective birth cohort of New York City children (n=239) using: (i) visual observation of potential phthalate containing flooring, (ii) a 2-week home indoor air sample, and (iii) concurrent urinary metabolites in a subset (n=193). The category "vinyl or linoleum" flooring was observed in 135 (56%) of monitored rooms; these rooms had statistically significantly higher indoor air geometric mean concentrations of BBzP (23.9 ng/m(3)) than rooms with wood or carpet flooring (10.6 ng/m(3)). Children from homes with "vinyl or linoleum" flooring also had significantly higher urinary BBzP metabolite concentrations than other children. Indoor air BBzP and urinary metabolite concentrations were correlated positively (Spearman's rho 0.40). By contrast, indoor air DEHP was not associated with flooring type nor with its urinary metabolite concentrations. Vinyl flooring in the home may be an important source of children's exposure to BBzP via indoor air.

  6. Separation of selenium compounds by CE-ICP-MS in dynamically coated capillaries applied to selenized yeast samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendahl, Lars; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2004-01-01

    The selenium species in nutritional supplement tablets, based on selenized yeast, were separated by capillary zone electrophoresis using capillaries coated dynamically with poly(vinyl sulfonate) and detected by ICP-MS. Sample pre-treatment consisted of cold-water extraction by sonication and subs......The selenium species in nutritional supplement tablets, based on selenized yeast, were separated by capillary zone electrophoresis using capillaries coated dynamically with poly(vinyl sulfonate) and detected by ICP-MS. Sample pre-treatment consisted of cold-water extraction by sonication......-water extract within 13 min. The efficiency of the system corresponded to 620 000 theoretical plates. When spiking the sample with available standards, co-migration was observed with selenomethionine and selenocystine-Se-methylselenocysteine-the latter species were not separated. When the cold-water extract...

  7. Combination of Tung oil and Natural Rubber Latex in PVA as Water Based Coatings for Paperboard Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianprasert Apichaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on the preparation of the PVA/TO/NRL coatings for paperboard by using poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA as substance and blending with Tung oil (TO and/or natural rubber latex (NRL in order to enhance water resistance and dynamic mechanical properties. The effects of TO: NRL ratios on the structures were investigated by water resistance property and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMA. The results showed that the water resistance property was improved by crosslinking of TO and film forming of NRL. The PVA/TO/NRL coating containing both TO and NRL gave better thermal behavior than those with only TO or NRL. For paperboard application, the PVA/TO/NRL coatings were applied on the paperboard to study water affinity and absorption rate on the coated surface. The rate of contact angle change of water on coated paperboards decreased depending on the ratios of TO and NRL.

  8. Effects of platinic chloride on Tetrahymena pyrifromis GL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jytte R.

    1992-01-01

    Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin......Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin...

  9. Emulsion polymerization of vinyl acetate initiated by intermittent. gamma. radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundardi, F.

    1979-08-15

    The reaction kinetics of emulsion polymerization of vinyl acetate (VAc) monomer have been studied by using intermittent ..gamma.. radiation. The purpose of this technique is to take advantage of the polymerization reaction which still continues after the radiation production has been stopped, as expected by the Smith-Ewart rate theory. Tween 20 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate), was used as the emulsifier. The polymer conversion was determined by using the dilatometric method. The polymerization rate R/sub p/ decreased with increase in emulsifier content. The Smith-Ewart rate theory cannot explain the experimental evidence satisfactorily. The average polymerization rate anti R/sub p/ between 20% and 80% conversion is a function of irradiation dose rate and can be written anti R/sub p/ = a/sub 1/I/sup a2/ where a/sub 1/ and a/sub 2/ is a constant in which the value depends on the emulsifier content in the emulsion and I is the irradiation dose rate.

  10. Degree of vinyl conversion in experimental amorphous calcium phosphate composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarle, Z.; Knežević, A.; Matošević, D.; Škrtić, D.; Ristić, M.; Prskalo, K.; Musić, S.

    2009-04-01

    An experimental dental composite, based on amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) with the potential to arrest caries development and regenerate mineral-deficient tooth structures has recently been developed. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of vinyl conversion (DVC) attained in experimental composites based on zirconia-modified ACP. Photo-activated resins were based on ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA) [ETHM series with varying EBPADMA/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) molar ratios assigned 0.5-ETHM I, 0.85-ETHM II and 1.35-ETHM III], or 2,2-bis[p-(2'-hydroxy-3'-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]-propane (Bis-GMA) [BTHZ series]. To asses a possible effect of filler particle size on DVC, composites containing 60 mass % resin and 40 mass % of either milled ACP (mACP; median diameter d m = 0.9 μm) or coarse ACP (cACP; d m = 6.0 μm) were prepared, and irradiated with LED curing unit for 40 s. The DVC was calculated as the % change in the ratio of the integrated peak areas between the aliphatic and aromatic absorption bands determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The highest DVCs values were attained in mACP-BTHZ, cACP-BTHZ and mACP-ETHM III formulations. DVC of tested ACP composites (on average (76.76 ± 4.43)%) compares well with or exceeds DVCs values reported for the majority of commercial materials.

  11. Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels as photoacoustic breast phantoms revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenfeng; Piras, Daniele; Heijblom, Michelle; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Manohar, Srirang

    2011-07-01

    A popular phantom in photoacoustic imaging is poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel fabricated by freezing and thawing (F-T) aqueous solutions of PVA. The material possesses acoustic and optical properties similar to those of tissue. Earlier work characterized PVA gels in small test specimens where temperature distributions during F-T are relatively homogeneous. In this work, in breast-sized samples we observed substantial temperature differences between the shallow regions and the interior during the F-T procedure. We investigated whether spatial variations were also present in the acoustic and optical properties. The speed of sound, acoustic attenuation, and optical reduced scattering coefficients were measured on specimens sampled at various locations in a large phantom. In general, the properties matched values quoted for breast tissue. But while acoustic properties were relatively homogeneous, the reduced scattering was substantially different at the surface compared with the interior. We correlated these variations with gel microstructure inspected using scanning electron microscopy. Interestingly, the phantom's reduced scattering spatial distribution matches the optical properties of the standard two-layer breast model used in x ray dosimetry. We conclude that large PVA samples prepared using the standard recipe make excellent breast tissue phantoms.

  12. Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels as photoacoustic breast phantoms revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenfeng; Piras, Daniele; Heijblom, Michelle; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Manohar, Srirang

    2011-07-01

    A popular phantom in photoacoustic imaging is poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel fabricated by freezing and thawing (F-T) aqueous solutions of PVA. The material possesses acoustic and optical properties similar to those of tissue. Earlier work characterized PVA gels in small test specimens where temperature distributions during F-T are relatively homogeneous. In this work, in breast-sized samples we observed substantial temperature differences between the shallow regions and the interior during the F-T procedure. We investigated whether spatial variations were also present in the acoustic and optical properties. The speed of sound, acoustic attenuation, and optical reduced scattering coefficients were measured on specimens sampled at various locations in a large phantom. In general, the properties matched values quoted for breast tissue. But while acoustic properties were relatively homogeneous, the reduced scattering was substantially different at the surface compared with the interior. We correlated these variations with gel microstructure inspected using scanning electron microscopy. Interestingly, the phantom's reduced scattering spatial distribution matches the optical properties of the standard two-layer breast model used in x ray dosimetry. We conclude that large PVA samples prepared using the standard recipe make excellent breast tissue phantoms.

  13. Time domain NMR evaluation of poly(vinyl alcohol xerogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Jorge da Rocha Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract Poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA-based chemically cross-linked xerogels, both neat and loaded with nanoparticulate hydrophilic silica (SiO2, were obtained and characterized mainly through time domain NMR experiments (TD-NMR. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD analyses were employed as secondary methods. TD-NMR, through the interpretation of the spin-lattice relaxation constant values and related information, showed both cross-linking and nanoparticle influences on PVA matrix. SiO2 does not interact chemically with the PVA chains, but has effect on its molecular mobility, as investigated via TD-NMR. Apparent energy of activation, spin-lattice time constant and size of spin domains in the sample have almost linear dependence with the degree of cross-linking of the PVA and are affected by the addition of SiO2. These three parameters were derived from a single set of TD-NMR experiments, which demonstrates the versatility of the technique for characterization of inorganic-organic hybrid xerogels, an important class of materials.

  14. Pemanfaatan limbah kopolimer ethyene vinyl acetateuntuk komposit karet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Wahini Nurhajati

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new composite of natural rubber blend with ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA waste obtained from footwear industry hase been made. EVA waste from footwear industry is crosslinked materials which is able to be used as a filler in composite rubber. Potency of EVA waste in the form of powder from the footwear industry in Indonesia is more than 50kg/day, while in the form of solid is about 75,000 ton/ year and is hasn’t yet utilized. The aim of this research is to study influence of EVA waste on the physical properties of natural rubber composite filled with EVA waste. Natural rubber, EVA waste, and addives were mixed by a two-roll mills machine. The amounts of EVA waste were varied from 0 to 100 phr with range of 20 phr. The results of physical properties test showed that the maximum addition of EVA waste, which performed highest tensile strength, and tear resistance was found for 60 phr, and which contributed to an increase in higher elongation at break, hardness, 50% permanent set, and density was found for 100 phr. The addition of EVA waste resulted in a reduction of the abrasion resistance. All of the resulted composites there were no crack detected on the flex cracking test at 150 kcs.

  15. The response of poly (vinyl alcohol) to humidity

    CERN Document Server

    Spindura, J

    2000-01-01

    material that swells, although it has been shown that not all the amorphous material swells to the same extent. The glass transition temperature (T sub g) could not be followed with DSC as the semicrystalline nature of the samples masked this transition and hence DMA was used to follow the changes in T sub g with both annealing and moisture content. A decrease in T sub g with increasing humidity was clearly observed. An interesting observation was the increase in T sub g for films exposed to humidity and then dried before analysis as XRD showed no corresponding increase in crystallinity. For fibre samples the crystallinity was found to be greatly increased by the orientation processes which gave rise to very large melting enthalpies in the DSC suggesting that there is more and/or stronger bonding opportunities within the fibre samples. This thesis aims to investigate the effects of heat treatments, humidity and hydrogen bonding on thin film and fibre samples of poly (vinyl alcohol). A number of different tech...

  16. Time domain NMR evaluation of poly(vinyl alcohol) xerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Elton Jorge da Rocha; Cavalcante, Maxwell de Paula; Tavares, Maria Ines Bruno, E-mail: mibt@ima.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano

    2016-05-15

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-based chemically cross-linked xerogels, both neat and loaded with nanoparticulate hydrophilic silica (SiO{sub 2}), were obtained and characterized mainly through time domain NMR experiments (TD-NMR). Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) analyses were employed as secondary methods. TD-NMR, through the interpretation of the spin-lattice relaxation constant values and related information, showed both cross-linking and nanoparticle influences on PVA matrix. SiO{sub 2} does not interact chemically with the PVA chains, but has effect on its molecular mobility, as investigated via TD-NMR. Apparent energy of activation, spin-lattice time constant and size of spin domains in the sample have almost linear dependence with the degree of cross-linking of the PVA and are affected by the addition of SiO{sub 2}. These three parameters were derived from a single set of TD-NMR experiments, which demonstrates the versatility of the technique for characterization of inorganic-organic hybrid xerogels, an important class of materials. (author)

  17. Surface studies of microcrystalline chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowska, Katarzyna, E-mail: reol@chem.uni.torun.pl [Nicolaus Copernicus University, Faculty of Chemistry, Chair of Chemistry and Photochemistry of Polymers, 7 Gagarin Street, 87-100 Torun (Poland)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface properties were investigated by AFM, SEM and FTIR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AFM images showed the lamellar structure of PVA in the blend. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEM microscopy confirmed the existence of microphase separation of components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FTIR analysis showed the existence of a weak interaction. - Abstract: In the present study, the surface properties of microcrystalline chitosan (MCCh), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and MCCh/PVA blends (made from acetic acid solutions with the MCCh concentration ranging from 20% to 80%) have been studied by the tapping-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The changes of topography images are considered by determining the root mean square (RMS, R{sub q}) deviation in the image data. For PVA samples, the transition between adjacent lamellae occurs through holes, islands, and bicontinuous structures. The AFM images showed also the lamellar structure of PVA in the blend. The crystalline topography of MCCh/PVA film surface suggests the presence of PVA on the top surface. The FTIR spectra of film blends, in the amide I and II region of MCCh and the hydroxyl stretching bands of PVA have been analyzed. FTIR analysis showed the existence of a weak interaction of the hydroxyl or amino groups of microcrystalline chitosan with hydroxyl groups of PVA.

  18. Effect of the Type of Surface Treatment and Cement on the Chloride Induced Corrosion of Galvanized Reinforcements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittarelli, Francesca; Mobili, Alessandra; Vicerè, Anna Maria; Roventi, Gabriella; Bellezze, Tiziano

    2017-10-01

    The effect of a new passivation treatment, obtained by immersion of the galvanized reinforcements in a trivalent chromium salts based solution, on the chlorides induced corrosion has been investigated. To investigate also the effect of cement alkalinity on corrosion behaviour of reinforcements, concretes manufactured with three different European cements were compared. The obtained results show that the alternative treatment based on hexavalent chromium-free baths forms effective protection layers on the galvanized rebar surfaces. The higher corrosion rates of zinc coating in concrete manufactured with Portland cement compared to those recorded for bars in concrete manufactured with pozzolanic cement depends strongly on the higher chloride content at the steel concrete interface.

  19. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    In reinforced concrete structures corrosion is initiated when the chloride concentration around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. If corrosion starts then expensive repairs can be necessary. The estimation of the probability that corrosion has been initiated in a given structure is based...... on measurements of the chloride content obtained from the given structure. In the present paper optimal planning of measurements of the chloride content in reinforced concrete structures is considered. It is shown how optimal experimental plans can be obtained using FORM-analysis. Bayesian statistics are used...

  20. An alternate to chromate conversion coatings for the corrosion protection of aluminum 2024-T3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ruiguang

    Corrosion of high-strength aluminum alloys used for airspace application is an expensive and serious problem. The most significant environmental factor contributing to the corrosion of these alloys is water condensed from humid air and contaminated with soluble chloride salts. The Al 2024 series used for aircraft are particularly susceptible to corrosion in aqueous chloride solutions due to alloying constituents such as copper and other impurities. Chromates are efficient inhibitors of corrosion of aluminum in near neutral aqueous environments containing aggressive anions such as chlorides. Usually, aluminum alloys are initially protected by chromate conversion coatings. Additional polymer coatings are sometimes added during exposure to corrosive atmospheres such as marine environments. Although chromate coatings are widely used, they require the use of noxious solutions, so they have always presented effluent disposal problems. There are health and safety concerns over the use of chromates due to their toxicity and carcinogenic nature and, as a consequence, the environmental and health risks associated with the use of such coatings will be restricted in the future. It was these health and safety concerns that led to the development of alternative non-toxic coating processes with comparable adhesion properties and corrosion protection. A variety of process technologies are under development and are vying for acceptance in industrial markets. As an alternate conversion coating, a new titanate conversion coating was systematically researched and developed. Research concentrated on producing passive surfaces from a simple titanate solution using an immersion process. The corrosion resistance of the treated surface has been evaluated using simple, rapid electrochemical techniques as well as a more long-term salt spray test. Passivation by titanate conversion treatment exhibits many similarities to chromate conversion treatment. Based on this study of corrosion

  1. Block copolymers of poly(vinyl ethers) and poly(ethylene glycol) by means of the living cationic polymerization of vinyl ethers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loontjens, Ton; Derks, Frank; Kleuskens, Engelien

    1992-01-01

    If living poly(vinyl ethers) are terminated with a large excess of methanol, containing aqueous ammonia, well-defined products are obtained. If only a slight excess of methanol is used, aldehydes and coupling products are formed. However, termination with an excess of a hydroxy terminated polymer is

  2. Thermal conductive epoxy enhanced by nanodiamond-coated carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Jiang, Guohua

    2017-11-01

    Nanodiamond (ND) particles were coated on the surface of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by chemical reactions. Reliable bonding was formed by the combination of acyl chloride on NDs and amine group on CNTs. ND coated CNTs (CNT-ND) were dispersed into epoxy to fabricate thermal conductive resins. The results show that the surface energy of CNTs is decreased by the coated NDs, which is contributed to the excellent dispersion of CNT-NDs in the epoxy matrix. The heat-transfer channels were built by the venous CNTs cooperating with the coated NDs, which not only plays an effective role of heat conduction for CNTs and NDs, but also avoids the electrical leakage by the protection of NDs surrounding outside of CNTs. Electrical and thermal conductance measurements demonstrate that the influence of the CNT-ND incorporation on the electrical conductance is minor, however, the thermal conductivity is improved significantly for the epoxy filled with CNT-ND.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Phosphoric Acid-Mediated Synthesis of Vinyl Sulfones through Decarboxylative Coupling Reactions of Sodium Sulfinates with Phenylpropiolic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Guangwei; Mao, Jincheng; Yan, Hong; Zheng, Yang; Zhang, Guoqi

    2015-08-07

    A novel phosphoric acid -mediated synthesis of vinyl sulfones through decarboxylative coupling reactions of sodium sulfinates with phenylpropiolic acids is described. This transformation is efficient and environmentally friendly.

  4. A study on poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone covalently bonded NiTi surface for inhibiting protein adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Yu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Near equiatomic NiTi alloys have been extensively applied as biomaterials owing to its unique shape memory effect, superelasticity and biocompatibility. It has been demonstrated that surfaces capable of preventing plasma protein adsorption could reduce the reactivity of biomaterials with human blood. This motivated a lot of researches on the surface modification of NiTi alloy. In the present work, following heat and alkaline treatment and silanization by trichlorovinylsilane (TCVS, coating of poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (PVP was produced on the NiTi alloy by gamma ray induced chemical bonding. The structures and properties of modified NiTi were characterized and in vitro biocompatibility of plasma protein adsorption was investigated. The results indicated that heat treatment at 823 K for 1 h could result in the formation of a protective TiO2 layer with “Ni-free” zone on NiTi surface. It was found that PVP was covalently bonded on NiTi surface to create a hydrophilic layer for inhibiting protein adsorption on the surface. The present work offers a green approach to introduce a bioorganic surface on metal and other polymeric or inorganic substrates by gamma irradiation.

  5. Flow coating apparatus and method of coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumanthu, Ramasubrahmaniam; Neyman, Patrick; MacDonald, Niles; Brophy, Brenor; Kopczynski, Kevin; Nair, Wood

    2014-03-11

    Disclosed is a flow coating apparatus, comprising a slot that can dispense a coating material in an approximately uniform manner along a distribution blade that increases uniformity by means of surface tension and transfers the uniform flow of coating material onto an inclined substrate such as for example glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed is a method of flow coating a substrate using the apparatus such that the substrate is positioned correctly relative to the distribution blade, a pre-wetting step is completed where both the blade and substrate are completed wetted with a pre-wet solution prior to dispensing of the coating material onto the distribution blade from the slot and hence onto the substrate. Thereafter the substrate is removed from the distribution blade and allowed to dry, thereby forming a coating.

  6. Niobium pentoxide coating replacing zinc phosphate coating

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGUES, P.R.P.; TERADA, M.; JUNIOR, O.R.A.; LOPES, A.C.; COSTA, I.; BANCZEK, E.P.

    2015-01-01

    A new coating made of niobium pentoxide, obtained through the sol-gel process, was developed for the carbon steel (SAE 1010). The corrosion protection provided by this coating was evaluated through electrochemical tests such as: open circuit potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and anodic potentiodynamic polarization in NaCl 0,5 mol L-1 solution. The morphology and composition of the coatings were analyzed using scanning electronic microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X...

  7. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of.... Persons with mobility impairments who will need special assistance in gaining access to the Commission...

  8. Bicarbonate secretion and chloride absorption by rabbit cortical collecting ducts. Role of chloride/bicarbonate exchange.

    OpenAIRE

    Star, R A; Burg, M. B.; Knepper, M A

    1985-01-01

    Cortical collecting ducts (CCD) from rabbits treated with deoxycorticosterone (DOC) actively secrete bicarbonate at high rates. To investigate the mechanism of bicarbonate secretion, we measured bicarbonate and chloride transport in CCD from rabbits treated with DOC for 9-24 d. Removal of chloride (replaced with gluconate) from both perfusate and bath inhibited bicarbonate secretion without changing transepithelial voltage. Removal of chloride only from the bath increased bicarbonate secretio...

  9. Methyl chloride via oxhydrochlorination of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, R.F. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Dow Corning is developing a route from methane to methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination (OHC) chemistry with joint support from the Gas Research Institute and the Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center. Dow Corning is the world`s largest producer of methyl chloride and uses it as an intermediate in the production of silicone materials. Other uses include production of higher hydrocarbons, methyl cellulose, quaternary ammonium salts and herbicides. The objective of this project is to demonstrate and develop a route to methyl chloride with reduced variable cost by using methane instead of methanol raw materials. Methyl chloride is currently produced from methanol, but U.S. demand is typically higher than available domestic supply, resulting in fluctuating prices. OHC technology utilizes domestic natural gas as a feedstock, which allows a lower-cost source of methyl chloride which is independent of methanol. In addition to other uses of methyl chloride, OHC could be a key step in a gas-to-liquid fuels process. These uses could divert significant methanol demand to methane. A stable and selective catalyst has been developed in the laboratory and evaluated in a purpose-built demonstration unit. Materials of construction issues have been resolved and the unit has been run under a range of conditions to evaluate catalyst performance and stability. Many technological advances have been made, especially in the areas of catalyst development, online FTIR analysis of the product stream, and recovery of methyl chloride product via an absorber/stripper system. Significant technological hurdles still remain including heat transfer, catalysts scaleup, orthogonality in modeling, and scaleable absorption data. Economics of the oxyhydrochlorination process have been evaluated an found to be unfavorable due to high capital and utility costs. Future efforts will focus on improved methane conversion at high methyl chloride selectivity.

  10. The kinetics of the hydrogen chloride oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Martinez Isai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen chloride (HCl oxidation has been investigated on technical membrane electrode assemblies in a cyclone flow cell. Influence of Nafion loading, temperature and hydrogen chloride mole fraction in the gas phase has been studied. The apparent kinetic parameters like reaction order with respect to HCl, Tafel slope and activation energy have been determined from polarization data. The apparent kinetic parameters suggest that the recombination of adsorbed Cl intermediate is the rate determining step.

  11. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    OpenAIRE

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method prov...

  12. Influence of Chloride-Ion Adsorption Agent on Chloride Ions in Concrete and Mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Gai-Fei; Feng, Nai-Qian; Song, Qi-Ming

    2014-04-30

    The influence of a chloride-ion adsorption agent (Cl agent in short), composed of zeolite, calcium aluminate hydrate and calcium nitrite, on the ingress of chloride ions into concrete and mortar has been experimentally studied. The permeability of concrete was measured, and the chloride ion content in mortar was tested. The experimental results reveal that the Cl agent could adsorb chloride ions effectively, which had penetrated into concrete and mortar. When the Cl agent was used at a dosage of 6% by mass of cementitious materials in mortar, the resistance to the penetration of chloride ions could be improved greatly, which was more pronounced when a combination of the Cl agent and fly ash or slag was employed. Such an effect is not the result of the low permeability of the mortar, but might be a result of the interaction between the Cl agent and the chloride ions penetrated into the mortar. There are two possible mechanisms for the interaction between the Cl agent and chloride ion ingress. One is the reaction between calcium aluminate hydrate in the Cl agent and chloride ions to form Friedel's salt, and the other one is that calcium aluminate hydrate reacts with calcium nitrite to form AFm during the early-age hydration of mortar and later the NO₂(-) in AFm is replaced by chloride ions, which then penetrate into the mortar, also forming Friedel's salt. More research is needed to confirm the mechanisms.

  13. High temperature alloy chloridation at 850 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, S.; Bekaddour, A. [Laboratoire de Recherches sur la Reactivite des Solides, UMR 5613 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 avenue Alain Savary, 21078 Dijon (France); Ched' Homme, S. [DTM/SRPU/LPPU, CEA Valduc, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Amilain-Basset, K.; Buisson, L. [Interface Caracterisation des Materiaux, Universite de Bourgogne, 21078 Dijon (France)

    2007-05-15

    The resistance of eight alloys against chloridation was tested at 850 C in Ar/Cl{sub 2} (2.5% Cl{sub 2}) for 15 min. Pre-oxidation treatments were performed for 1 h and 8 h at 850 C in order to produce a thin, adherent and protective oxide scale able to improve the chloridation behaviour of the tested materials. The chloridised sample morphologies were compared to the morphologies observed on the non pre-oxidised samples. The alloys containing a large amount of iron did not exhibit any chloridation resistance, even after pre-oxidation, and were severely damaged. The nickel based alloys gave interesting results but were also attacked by chloride, probably by the ''active oxidation'' mechanism. The duration of the pre-oxidation treatment plays an important role, since the 8 h pre-oxidation appears more beneficial than the 1 h pre-oxidation, to delay the chloridation, probably because of the best quality of the oxide layer grown during 8 h. For the nickel based materials, the effects of chloride appear less severe than for the iron-based alloys, but are not stopped. The ''active oxidation'' mechanism is proposed to be responsible for the degradation of the tested materials. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Preparation and characterization of film of poly vinyl acetate ethylene copolymer emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanhua; Gu, Jiyou; Tan, Haiyan; Shi, Junyou; Di, Mingwei; Zuo, Yingfeng; Qiu, Si

    2013-07-01

    In order to improve the storage modulus and water resistance of poly (vinyl acetate), the vinyl acetate and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were respectively used as monomers and protective colloid to prepare a new kind of polyvinyl acetate emulsion adhesive by continuous emulsion polymerization. The dynamic mechanics, particle distribution, glass transition temperature, polymer emulsion structure of both polymerized and copolymerized emulsion were analyzed by SEM, DMA and XPS, respectively. The results indicated that the copolymerized emulsion has the appropriate particle size and the uniform particle distribution, the glass transition temperature increased from 50 °C to 70 °C, compared with poly (vinyl acetate). It could be seen from XPS spectra of copolymerized emulsion that key characteristic peak of Cdbnd O was still existent. X-ray photoelectron spectra revealed that the addition of EVA did not generate the new bond, whereas the maximum percentage increases in ester was determined in the composite film with the introduction of EVA of 25%, which indicated that the composite film has copolymer structure. The storage modulus and water resistance of poly (vinyl acetate) were improved due to the introduction of the EVA.

  15. Development of functionalized hydroxyapatite/poly(vinyl alcohol) composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipniece, Liga; Salma-Ancane, Kristine; Rjabovs, Vitalijs; Juhnevica, Inna; Turks, Maris; Narkevica, Inga; Berzina-Cimdina, Liga

    2016-06-01

    Based on the well-known pharmaceutical excipient potential of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and clinical success of hydroxyapatite (HAp), the objective of this work was to fabricate functionalized composite microgranules. PVA was modified with succinic anhydride to introduce carboxyl groups (-COOH), respectively, by reaction between the -OH groups of PVA and succinic anhydride, for attachment of drug molecules. For the first time, the functionalized composite microgranules containing HAp/PVA in the ratio of 1:1 were prepared through in situ precipitation of HAp in modified PVA aqueous solutions followed by spray drying of obtained suspensions. The microgranules were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The presence of -COOH groups was verified by FT-IR, and the amount of functional groups added to PVA molecules (averaging 15 mol%) was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). DSC results showed that modification with -COOH groups slightly decreased the thermal stability of PVA. FT-IR and XRD analysis confirmed that the resulting composites contain mainly nanocrystalline HAp and PVA. Moreover, the images taken by FE-SEM revealed that the microgranules consisted of nanosized HAp crystallites homogenously embedded in the PVA matrix. DSC measurements indicated that decomposition mechanism of the HAp/PVA differs from that of pure PVA and occurs at lower temperatures. However, the presence of HAp had minor influence on the thermal decomposition of the PVA modified with succinic anhydride. The investigation of composite microgranules confirmed interaction and integration between the HAp and PVA.

  16. Zero VOC, Coal Tar Free Splash Zone Coating (SZC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Operating Salt Spray (Fog) Apparatus D 476 Classification for Dry Pigmentary Titanium Dioxide Pigments D 512 Test Methods for Chloride Ion...system options include high VOC content, Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP’s) and may also include hazardous pigment content. The coal tar epoxy also...Organic Compounds (VOC’s), Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP’s) of Methyl Isobutyl Ketone (MIBK) and Xylene, and the pigment Chromium Oxide. Each coat of

  17. Potentiometric Determination of Free Chloride in Cement Paste – an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    selective electrode has been developed to analyze free chloride in the pore water extracted from cement paste.16 The accuracy and reliability of this ... Chloride analysis in fresh or hardened concrete and its raw materials is of great .... ular mass of chloride (35.45 g mol–1), Us = chloride ISE reading of each sample, Uå ...

  18. Determination of vinyl acetate content in ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer through thermogravimetric analysis; Determinacao do teor de acetato de vinila em copolimero de etileno-acetato de vinila (EVA) por termogravimetrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinoco, Adelaide Ribeiro Guimaraes; Ficara, Maria Luisa G. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Tavares, R.M. [Partime (Brazil)

    1991-04-01

    This paper presents a methodology to get vinyl acetate contents of EVA (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate) samples by thermogravimetric analysis. Analytical procedures, curves and graphic concerning to the thermogravimetric analysis procedures, calculations and conclusions about the methodology are also presented 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Chloride-Reinforced Carbon Nanofiber Host as Effective Polysulfide Traps in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lei; Zhuang, Houlong L; Zhang, Kaihang; Cooper, Valentino R; Li, Qi; Lu, Yingying

    2016-12-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is one of the most promising alternatives for the current state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical energy density and low production cost from the use of sulfur. However, the commercialization of Li-S batteries has been so far limited to the cyclability and the retention of active sulfur materials. Using co-electrospinning and physical vapor deposition procedures, we created a class of chloride-carbon nanofiber composites, and studied their effectiveness on polysulfides sequestration. By trapping sulfur reduction products in the modified cathode through both chemical and physical confinements, these chloride-coated cathodes are shown to remarkably suppress the polysulfide dissolution and shuttling between lithium and sulfur electrodes. From adsorption experiments and theoretical calculations, it is shown that not only the sulfide-adsorption effect but also the diffusivity in the vicinity of these chlorides materials plays an important role on the reversibility of sulfur-based cathode upon repeated cycles. Balancing the adsorption and diffusion effects of these nonconductive materials could lead to the enhanced cycling performance of an Li-S cell. Electrochemical analyses over hundreds of cycles indicate that cells containing indium chloride-modified carbon nanofiber outperform cells with other halogenated salts, delivering an average specific capacity of above 1200 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C.

  20. Occupational exposures at a polyvinyl chloride production facility are associated with significant changes to the plasma metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, John J; Beier, Juliane I; Falkner, K Cameron; Wheeler, Benjamin; McClain, Craig James; Cave, Matt

    2016-12-15

    Occupational vinyl chloride (VC) exposures have been associated with toxicant-associated steatohepatitis and liver cancer. Metabolomics has been used to clarify mode of action in drug-induced liver injury but has not been performed following VC exposures. Plasma samples from 17 highly exposed VC workers without liver cancer and 27 unexposed healthy volunteers were obtained for metabolite extraction and GC/MS and LC/MS2 analysis. Following ion identification/quantification, Ingenuity pathway analysis was performed. 613 unique named metabolites were identified. Of these, 189 metabolites were increased in the VC exposure group while 94 metabolites were decreased. Random Forest analysis indicated that the metabolite signature could separate the groups with 94% accuracy. VC exposures were associated with increased long chain (including arachidonic acid) and essential (including linoleic acid) fatty acids. Occupational exposure increased lipid peroxidation products including monohydroxy fatty acids (including 13-HODE); fatty acid dicarboxylates; and oxidized arachidonic acid products (including 5,9, and 15-HETE). Carnitine and carnitine esters were decreased, suggesting peroxisomal/mitochondrial dysfunction and alternate modes of lipid oxidation. Differentially regulated metabolites were shown to interact with extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), Akt, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and the N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. The top canonical pathways affected by occupational exposure included tRNA charging, nucleotide degradation, amino acid synthesis/degradation and urea cycle. Methionine and homocysteine was increased with decreased cysteine, suggesting altered 1-carbon metabolism. Occupational exposure generated a distinct plasma metabolome with markedly altered lipid and amino acid metabolites. ERK1/2, Akt, AMPK, and NMDA were identified as protein targets for vinyl chloride toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. European coatings conference - Marine coatings. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This volume contains 13 lectures (manuscripts or powerpoint foils) with the following topics: 1. Impact of containerization on polyurethane and polyurea in marine and protective coatings (Malte Homann); 2. The application of combinatorial/high-throughput methods to the development of marine coatings (Bret Chisholm); 3. Progress and perspectives in the AMBIO (advanced nanostructured surfaces for the control of biofouling) Project (James Callow); 4. Release behaviour due to shear and pull-off of silicone coatings with a thickness gradient (James G. Kohl); 5. New liquid rheology additives for high build marine coatings (Andreas Freytag); 6. Effective corrosion protection with polyaniline, polpyrrole and polythiophene as anticorrosice additives for marine paints (Carlos Aleman); 7. Potential applications of sol gel technology for marine applications (Robert Akid); 8: Performance of biocide-free Antifouling Coatings for leisure boats (Bernd Daehne); 9. Novel biocidefree nanostructured antifouling coatings - can nano do the job? (Corne Rentrop); 10. One component high solids, VOC compliant high durability finish technology (Adrian Andrews); 11. High solid coatings - the hybrid solution (Luca Prezzi); 12. Unique organofunctional silicone resins for environmentally friendly high-performance coatings (Dieter Heldmann); 13. Silicone-alkyd paints for marine applications: from battleship-grey to green (Thomas Easton).

  2. CHARACTERISTICS OF PROTECTIVE COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seljaev Vladimir Pavlovich

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the computer program «Statistical analysis of color components for paint and varnish coatings», methods are suggested and experimental results are obtained for decorative characteristics polyurethane coatings.

  3. Corrosion inhibiting organic coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasson, E.

    1984-10-16

    A corrosion inhibiting coating comprises a mixture of waxes, petroleum jelly, a hardener and a solvent. In particular, a corrosion inhibiting coating comprises candelilla wax, carnauba wax, microcrystalline waxes, white petrolatum, an oleoresin, lanolin and a solvent.

  4. Bismuth- and hafnium-catalyzed hydroamination of vinyl arenes with sulfonamides, carbamates, and carboxamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hongbo; Yamagiwa, Noriyuki; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Shibasaki, Masakatsu

    2007-01-08

    Catalytic intermolecular hydroamination of vinyl arenes is described. Our initial investigation revealed that a Bi(OTf)3/[Cu(CH3CN)4]PF6 system previously developed for catalytic intermolecular hydroamination of 1,3-dienes was suitable for hydroamination of a styrene with sulfonamides, but the substrate generality of this system was unsatisfactory. Several metals were screened to expand the substrate scope, and a new Hf(OTf)4/[Cu(CH3CN)4]PF6 system was determined to be highly suitable. The combination of Hf(OTf)4 and [Cu(CH3CN)4]PF6 efficiently promoted the hydroamination of various vinyl arenes, including less-reactive vinyl arenes with electron-withdrawing groups. This strategy was applied to sulfonamides, carbamates, and carboxamides, and products were obtained in up to 99% yield with 0.3-10 mol % catalyst loading.

  5. Nanocrystalline coatings properties forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremin, E. N.; Yurov, V. M.; Guchenko, S. A.; Laurynas, V. Ch

    2017-06-01

    The paper considers various properties of nanocrystalline coatings. The methods of determining the surface tension of the deposited coating on the basis of the size dependence of their physical properties. It is shown that predict the mechanical properties of the coatings, their melting point, heat resistance, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, etc. It can be based on a theoretical evaluation of the surface tension.

  6. Spin coating of electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetter, Joseph R.; Maclay, G. Jordan

    1989-01-01

    Methods for spin coating electrolytic materials onto substrates are disclosed. More particularly, methods for depositing solid coatings of ion-conducting material onto planar substrates and onto electrodes are disclosed. These spin coating methods are employed to fabricate electrochemical sensors for use in measuring, detecting and quantifying gases and liquids.

  7. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  8. Coating of graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, G.F.; Dekker, C.

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is in the field of highly crystalline graphene and coating said graphene with a layer. Said graphene may have further structures, such as nanopores, nanogaps, and nanoribbons. The coated graphene can be used for biomolecular analysis and modification, such as DNA-sequencing, as a sensor, etc. The invention therefor also relates to use of coated graphene.

  9. Delocalization does not always stabilize : a quantum chemical analysis of -substituent effects on 54 alkyl and vinyl cations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alem, van K.; Lodder, G.; Zuilhof, H.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of -substituents on alkyl and vinyl cations are studied using high-level ab initio calculations. The geometries, stabilities, and electronic properties of 27 alkyl cations and 27 vinyl cations with -substituents are computed at the B3LYP/6-311 G(d,p), MP2/6-311 G(d,p), and CBS-Q levels.

  10. 75 FR 5578 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request-Flammability Standards for Clothing Textiles and Vinyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... COMMISSION Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request--Flammability Standards for Clothing Textiles and Vinyl... clothing textiles and vinyl plastic film. DATES: Written comments on this request for extension of approval... captioned ``Clothing Textiles and Film, Collection of Information'' and submitted by March 5, 2010 to (1...

  11. Enzymatic preparation of arbutin derivatives: lipase-catalyzed direct acylation without the need of vinyl ester as an acyl donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Kohji; Katsube, Yasuko; Kumazawa, Nozomi; Kuratani, Mari; Masuoka, Noriyoshi; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi

    2010-06-01

    Direct and regioselective acylation of arbutin with aromatic or aliphatic acid using a lipase obtained from Candida antarctica in an organic solvent was investigated. We achieved the enzymatic synthesis of feruloyl arbutin and lipoyl arbutin without the need of vinyl ferulate and vinyl lipoate as acyl donors, respectively. (c) 2009 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation Into Accessible Surface Vinyl Concentrations of Nonstoichiometric PDMS Microspheres from Hydrosilylation Reactions and Their Further Crosslinking Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Baoguang; Hansen, Jens Henrik; Hvilsted, Søren

    2015-01-01

    titration method, which is based on efficiently and covalently bonding mono-functional hydride to vinyl, is employed to determine surface vinyl concentration. The titration method exhibits good reproducibility in detection, thereby underlining its potential applicability as a general titration method...

  13. Microstructural investigations of Ni and Ni2Al3 coatings exposed in biomass power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, D. L.; Dahl, K. V.; Christiansen, T. L.

    2017-01-01

    temperature pack cementation. After exposure, microstructural investigations were performed by light optical and electron microscopy (SEM-EDS). Electroplated Ni coatings were not protective in straw firing power plants and exhibited similar corrosion morphology as uncoated tubes. For Ni2Al3 coatings......The present work investigates the corrosion resistance of Ni and Ni2Al3 coated austenitic stainless steel (TP347H) tubes, which were exposed in a biomass-fired boiler with an outlet steam temperature of 540 °C for 6757 h. The Ni2Al3 coating was produced by electroplating Ni followed by low......, the nickel aluminide layer was no longer adherent to the tube and was only found within the deposit. However, Ni2Al3 coatings had provided some protection compared to uncoated and Ni coated tubes. The formation of nickel chloride binds aggressive chlorine and slows down the active oxidation mechanism...

  14. Chloride ion-assisted self-assembly of silver nanoparticles on filter paper as SERS substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasi, Wu-Li-Ji; Lin, Xiang; Lou, Xiu-Tao; Lin, Shuang; Yang, Fang; Lin, Dian-Yang; Lu, Zhi-Wei

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a robust and easy-to-handle strategy was developed to fabricate silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs)-decorated filter paper as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrate using dip-coating method only with the assistance of chloride ions. Filter paper was modified with chloride ions for chemisorption of Ag NPs, overcoming the electrostatic repulsion between Ag NPs and paper. The effect of laser-induced substrate deformation was studied. The enhancement factor of the substrate was higher than 6.4 × 105 with a limit of detection of 1 × 10-8 M for 4-mercaptobenzoic acid. The Ag NPs-decorated paper substrate exhibits a good uniformity and can be stored for more than 2 months with negligible degradation. This substrate has great potential for detecting food contaminations, environment polluters and biomolecules.

  15. Material Solutions to Mitigate the Alkali Chloride-Induced High Temperature Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiamehr, Saeed

    in the course of corrosion as well as the role of potassium chloride vapor. Results showed that while the majority of the alloys formed protective slow-growing oxides in the absence of KCl, they all suffered from significant attack when KCl was present. Thereby the inability of Cr to form a protective oxide......High temperature corrosion induced by potassium chloride (KCl) is a major challenge for biomass-based power plants. The current study aims at identification or development of alloys or coatings that can yield a better performance at a target metal temperature of 600oC compared to austenitic...... of metals. This was aimed at identifying the constituent elements of a corrosion resistant alloy. Calculations suggested Al, Si, Cr, Ti, Y, Ce, Ta, Hf and Zr as suitable oxide-forming elements as well as Mo, Ni and Co as suitable matrix-forming elements. However, the presence of potassium in the environment...

  16. Peptide-based biocoatings for corrosion protection of stainless steel biomaterial in a chloride solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muruve, Noah G G; Cheng, Y Frank; Feng, Yuanchao; Liu, Tao; Muruve, Daniel A; Hassett, Daniel J; Irvin, Randall T

    2016-11-01

    In this work, PEGylated D-amino acid K122-4 peptide (D-K122-4-PEG), derived from the type IV pilin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, coated on 304 stainless steel was investigated for its corrosion resistant properties in a sodium chloride solution by various electrochemical measurements, surface characterization and molecular dynamics simulation. As a comparison, stainless steel electrodes coated with non-PEGylated D-amino acid retroinverso peptide (RI-K122-4) and D-amino acid K122-4 peptide (D-K122-4) were used as control variables during electrochemical tests. It was found that the D-K122-4-PEG coating is able to protect the stainless steel from corrosion in the solution. The RI-K122-4 coating shows corrosion resistant property and should be investigated further, while the D-K122-4 peptide coating, in contrast, shows little to no effect on corrosion. The morphological characterizations support the corrosion resistance of D-K122-4-PEG on stainless steel. The adsorption of D-K122-4 molecules occurs preferentially on Fe2O3, rather than Cr2O3, present on the stainless steel surface. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of zinc phosphate chemical conversion coating on corrosion behaviour of mild steel in alkaline medium: protection of rebars in reinforced concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Simescu and Hassane Idrissi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We outline the ability of zinc phosphate coatings, obtained by chemical conversion, to protect mild steel rebars against localized corrosion, generated by chloride ions in alkaline media. The corrosion resistance of coated steel, in comparison with uncoated rebars and coated and uncoated steel rebars embedded in mortar, were evaluated by open-circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization, cronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The coated surfaces were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. First, coated mild steel rebars were studied in an alkaline solution with and without chloride simulating a concrete pore solution. The results showed that the slow dissolution of the coating generates hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO46(OH2. After a long immersion, the coating became dense and provided an effective corrosion resistance compared with the mild steel rebar. Secondly, the coated and uncoated steel rebars embedded in mortar and immersed in chloride solution showed no corrosion or deterioration of the coated steel. Corrosion rate is considerably lowered by this phosphate coating.

  18. Effect of zinc phosphate chemical conversion coating on corrosion behaviour of mild steel in alkaline medium: protection of rebars in reinforced concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simescu, Florica; Idrissi, Hassane

    2008-01-01

    We outline the ability of zinc phosphate coatings, obtained by chemical conversion, to protect mild steel rebars against localized corrosion, generated by chloride ions in alkaline media. The corrosion resistance of coated steel, in comparison with uncoated rebars and coated and uncoated steel rebars embedded in mortar, were evaluated by open-circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization, cronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The coated surfaces were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. First, coated mild steel rebars were studied in an alkaline solution with and without chloride simulating a concrete pore solution. The results showed that the slow dissolution of the coating generates hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. After a long immersion, the coating became dense and provided an effective corrosion resistance compared with the mild steel rebar. Secondly, the coated and uncoated steel rebars embedded in mortar and immersed in chloride solution showed no corrosion or deterioration of the coated steel. Corrosion rate is considerably lowered by this phosphate coating. PMID:27878037

  19. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea: Diagnosis by Easy-Accessible Chloride Measurement in Feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gils

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl−/HCO3- exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90 mmol/L and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves when treated correctly. Case Presentation. A 27-year-old woman had an emergency caesarian due to pain and discomfort in gestational week 36 + 4. The newborn boy had abdominal distension and yellow fluid per rectum. Therapy with intravenous glucose and sodium chloride decreased his stool frequency and improved his clinical condition. A suspicion of congenital chloride diarrhea was strongly supported using blood gas analyzer to measure an increased chloride concentration in the feces; the diagnosis was confirmed by DNA testing. Discussion. Measurement of chloride in feces using an ordinary blood gas analyzer can serve as a preliminary analysis when congenital chloride diarrhea is suspected. This measurement can be easily performed with a watery feces composition. An easy-accessible chloride measurement available will facilitate the diagnostics and support the initial treatment if CCD is suspected.

  20. Solar collectors. Technical progress report No. 1, September 5, 1978-March 5, 1979. [Listing of glazings, housing materials, acrylic coatings, etching processes and AR coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, B.; Gage, M.

    1979-04-27

    A broad information search was carried out in four areas: glazings, housing materials, acrylic coatings, etching processes and AR coatings. An extensive list of all (known) US transparent polymers was developed as well as tables of plastic, ceramic and metallic materials that could conceivably function as a housing. In addition, a compilation was made of commercially available solvent and water-base acrylic coatings for use as a uv protective coating for the glazing. Eighteen transparent polymers were chosen as possible glazings and twelve materials (plastic and wood) as possible housings and exposed in the Weather-Ometer as tensile bars and for the glazings as disks for optical transmission. These same materials were also exposed on our roof to monitor soiling. A variety of solvent and water-base acrylics were selected as protective coatings and ordered. Two commercial films - Tedlar 20 and Halar 500 - with strong absorption in the uv and two commercial films containing uv absorbers - Tedlar UT and Korad 201R - were laminated by several different processes to four promising glazing materials: polyvinyl fluoride (Tedlar), polymethyl methacrylate (Plexiglass), crosslinked ethylene/vinyl acetate and thermoplastic polyester (Llumar). A variety of etching processes were briefly explored and AR coating studies started on the above four glazing films.

  1. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantcheva, Adriana K; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Winther, Anne-Marie Lund; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A; Nissen, Poul

    2013-05-21

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion in the Na1 site organize a connection between their coordinating residues and the extracellular gate of LeuT through a continuous H-bond network. The specific insights from the structures, combined with results from substrate binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations, reveal an anion-dependent occlusion mechanism for NSS and shed light on the functional role of chloride binding.

  2. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantcheva, Adriana K.; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Winther, Anne-Marie Lund; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Nissen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion in the Na1 site organize a connection between their coordinating residues and the extracellular gate of LeuT through a continuous H-bond network. The specific insights from the structures, combined with results from substrate binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations, reveal an anion-dependent occlusion mechanism for NSS and shed light on the functional role of chloride binding. PMID:23641004

  3. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  4. Antibacterial polymer coatings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Allen, Ashley N.; Barnhart, Meghan; Tucker, Mark David; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2009-09-01

    A series of poly(sulfone)s with quaternary ammonium groups and another series with aldehyde groups are synthesized and tested for biocidal activity against vegetative bacteria and spores, respectively. The polymers are sprayed onto substrates as coatings which are then exposed to aqueous suspensions of organisms. The coatings are inherently biocidal and do not release any agents into the environment. The coatings adhere well to both glass and CARC-coated coupons and they exhibit significant biotoxicity. The most effective quaternary ammonium polymers kills 99.9% of both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and the best aldehyde coating kills 81% of the spores on its surface.

  5. ATHENA optimized coating design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of coating design for the ATHENA mission si described and the possibility of increasing the telescope effective area in the range between 0.1 and 10 keV is investigated. An independent computation of the on-axis effective area based on the mirror design of ATHENA is performed...... in order to review the current coating baseline. The performance of several material combinations, considering a simple bi-layer, simple multilayer and linear graded multilayer coatings are tested and simulation of the mirror performance considering both the optimized coating design and the coating...

  6. Effect of gamma ray on poly(lactic acid)/poly(vinyl acetate-co-vinyl alcohol) blends as biodegradable food packaging films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed Mohammad; Dadbin, Susan; Frounchi, Masoud

    2014-03-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/poly(vinyl acetate-co-vinyl alcohol) [P(VAc-co-VA)] blends as new transparent film packaging materials were prepared at various blend compositions and different vinyl alcohol contents. The blends and pure PLA were irradiated by gamma rays to investigate the extent of changes in the packaging material during gamma ray sterilization process. The miscibility of the blends was dependent on the blend composition and vinyl alcohol content; gamma irradiation had little effect on the extent of miscibility. The glass transition temperature of pure PLA and PLA/P(VAc-co-VA) miscible blends reduced after irradiation. On the other hand in PLA/P(VAc-co-VA) immiscible blends, while the glass transition temperature of the PLA phase decreased; that of the copolymer phase slightly increased. The reduction in the glass transition was about 10 percent for samples irradiated with 50 kGy indicating dominance of chain scission of PLA molecules at high irradiation dose. The latter was verified by drop in mechanical properties of pure PLA after exposing to gamma irradiation at 50 kGy. Blending of PLA with the copolymer P(VAc-co-VA) compensated greatly the adverse effects of irradiation on PLA. The oxygen-barrier property of the blend was superior to the neat PLA and remained almost intact with irradiation. The un-irradiated and irradiated blends had excellent transparency. Gamma ray doses used for sterilization purposes are usually less than 20 kGy. It was shown that gamma irradiation at 20 kGy had no or little adverse effects on PLA/P(VAc-co-VA) blends mechanical and gas barrier properties.

  7. Evaluation of HVOF coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Landová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Attention in this paper is devoted to the evaluation of wear coatings deposited using HVOF technology (high velocity oxy-fuel. There were evaluated three types of coatings based on WC-Co (next only 1343, WC-Co-Cr (next only 1350 and Cr3C2-25NiCr (next only 1375. There was assessed adherence of coatings, micro hardness, porosity and the tribological properties of erosive, abrasive, adhesive and wear resistance of coatings in terms of cyclic thermal load. Thanks to wide variety of suitable materials and their combinations, the area of utilization thermally sprayed coatings is very broad. It is possible to deposit coatings of various materials from pure metals to special alloys. The best results in the evaluated properties were achieved at the coating with the label 1375.

  8. Flexible Antibacterial Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, Jindřich

    2017-05-16

    This article reviews the present state of the art in the field of flexible antibacterial coatings which efficiently kill bacteria on their surfaces. Coatings are formed using a reactive magnetron sputtering. The effect of the elemental composition and structure of the coating on its antibacterial and mechanical properties is explained. The properties of Cr-Cu-O, Al-Cu-N, and Zr-Cu-N antibacterial coatings are used as examples and described in detail. The efficiency of killing of bacteria was tested for the Escherichia coli bacterium. The principle of the formation of thick, flexible antibacterial coatings which are resistant to cracking under bending is explained. It is shown that magnetron sputtering enables production of robust, several-micrometer thick, flexible antibacterial coatings for long-term use. The antibacterial coatings produced by magnetron sputtering present huge potential for many applications.

  9. Anticorrosive coatings: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this review is to describe some of the important topics related to the use of marine and protective coatings for anticorrosive purposes. In this context, "protective" refers to coatings for containers, offshore constructions, wind turbines, storage tanks, bridges, rail cars...... of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have caused significant changes in the anticorrosive coating industry. The requirement for new VOC-compliant coating technologies means that coating manufacturers can no longer rely on the extensive track record of their time-served products to convince consumers......, and inhibitive coatings are outlined. In the past decades, several alternatives to organic solvent-borne coatings have reached the commercial market. This review also presents some of these technologies and discusses some of their advantages and limitations. Finally, some of the mechanisms leading to degradation...

  10. Coated Aerogel Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  11. Chemical modification of the ethylene-co-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) for testing like additive for lubrication oil; Modificacao quimica de copolimero de etileno-coacetato de vinila (EVA) para ser testado como aditivo para oleo lubrificante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansur, Claudia R.E.; Passos, Leonardo B.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas]. E-mail: celias@ima.ufrj.br; elucas@ima.ufrj.br; Alvares, Dellyo R.S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas]. E-mail: dellyo@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2003-07-01

    One of the most widely used techniques for solving the drawback caused by the deposition of paraffin crystals as observed in the petroleum industry is the use of organic deposition inhibitors - ODI's. This work aims at the development of polymeric materials to be employed as ODI's for crudes and middle distillate petroleum oils, such as lube oils. To this purpose, commercial ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymers were submitted to chemical modifications involving esterification reactions with long chain organic acid chlorides, the amount of which being varied in order to obtain materials of different side chain contents. The resulting products were tested as lube oil additives, and the oils had their pour points assessed. Results showed that the chemically modified copolymers had a more pronounced influence in the paraffin crystallization process, leading to a more accentuated decrease in the lube oil pour point, than the non-modified EVA commercial sample. (author)

  12. Adsorption of poly(vinyl formamide-co-vinyl amine) (PVFA-co-PVAm) polymers on zinc, zinc oxide, iron, and iron oxide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Susan; Simon, Frank; Baumann, Giesela; Hietschold, Michael; Seifert, Andreas; Spange, Stefan

    2011-12-06

    The adsorption of poly(vinyl formamide) (PVFA) and the statistic copolymers poly(vinyl formamide-co-vinyl amine) (PVFA-co-PVAm) onto zinc and iron metal particles as well as their oxides was investigated. The adsorbates were characterized by means of XPS, DRIFT spectroscopy, wet chemical analysis, and solvatochromic probes. Dicyano-bis-(1,10-phenanthroline)-iron(II) (1), 3-(4-amino-3-methylphenyl)-7-phenyl-benzo-[1,2-b:4,5-b']difuran-2,6-dione (2), and 4-tert-butyl-2-(dicyano-methylene)-5-[4-(diethylamino)-benzylidene]-Δ(3)-thiazoline (3) as solvatochromic probes were coadsorbed onto zinc oxide to measure various effects of surface polarity. The experimental findings showed that the adsorption mechanism of PVFA and PVFA-co-PVAm strongly depends on the degree of hydrolysis of PVFA and pH values and also on the kind of metal or metal oxide surfaces that were employed as adsorbents. The adsorption mechanism of PVFA/PVFA-co-PVAm onto zinc oxide and iron oxide surfaces is mainly affected by electrostatic interactions. Particularly in the region of pH 5, the adsorption of PVFA/PVFA-co-PVAm onto zinc and iron metal particles is additionally influenced by redox processes, dissolution, and complexation reactions. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  13. Facile synthesis of plasmalogens via Barbier-type reactions of vinyl dioxanes and vinyl dioxolanes with alkyl halides in LiDBB solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Junhwa; Gerasimov, Oleg; Thompson, David H

    2002-09-06

    Plasmalogens (i.e. plasmenylcholines or plasmenylethanolamines) are a biologically important class of glycerophospholipids that have been difficult to synthesize due to the presence of an acid and oxidatively labile (Z)-vinyl ether substituent at the sn-1 position and a base-labile sn-2 acyl substituent that easily migrates during silica gel purification. We report two facile synthetic methods for the preparation of racemic plasmenylcholines via a tandem reductive vinyl dioxane/dioxolane ring opening and alkyliodide coupling process that proceeds in a single pot reaction. The key step in the formation of (Z)-vinyl ether precursors for the production of plasmenylcholines is accomplished using LiDBB under Barbier-type conditions to give the corresponding TBDMS-protected 1-O-Z'-vinylglycerol intermediate in moderate yields. This pathway is the most direct synthetic route for the formation of plasmenylcholines to date, requiring a total of six transformations from acrolein and glycerol or solketal as inexpensive starting materials, to generate glycerophosphocholine-type plasmalogens in 4% overall yield.

  14. Tailor-made starch-based conjugates containing well-defined poly(vinyl acetate and its derivative poly(vinyl alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization was adopted to synthesize starch-based conjugates that possessed controllable architecture and properties. Starch-based xanthate agent was prepared and applied as chain transfer agent to conduct the living/controlled polymerization (LCP of vinyl acetate, which generated tailor-made conjugates of starch and well-defined poly(vinyl acetate (SVAc. The relevant derivatives, conjugates of starch and chain length-controlled poly(vinyl alcohol (SVA, were obtained subsequently. Various characterizations such as Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA were performed to examine the structure of intermediates and the starch-based conjugates. Static contact angle measurements revealed that the hydrophilic character of starch-based conjugates was tunable. Well-defined SVAc was amphiphilic and it was able to self-assemble into size controllable micelles, which was verified by contact angles, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS tests. SVA exhibited much higher capability to form physically cross-linked hydrogel than starch did. Both the characteristic of SVAc and SVA were chain length-dependent.

  15. An automatic molecular dispenser of chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibrandi, Giuseppe; Amendola, Valeria; Bergamaschi, Greta; Dollenz, Riccardo; Fabbrizzi, Luigi; Licchelli, Maurizio; Lo Vecchio, Carmelo

    2013-03-11

    The combined activity of the 1.1.1-cryptand and of a dicopper(II) bistren cryptate complex including chloride makes the Cl(-) ion be continuously and slowly delivered to the solution, without any external intervention. The 1.1.1-cryptand slowly releases OH(-) ions, according to a defined kinetics, and each OH(-) ion displaces a Cl(-) ion from the cryptate. Chloride displacement induces a sharp colour change from bright yellow to aquamarine and can be conveniently monitored spectrophotometrically, even in diluted solutions. The 1.1.1-cryptand is the motor of a molecular dispenser (the dicopper(II) cryptate) delivering chloride ion automatically, from the inside of the solution. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Development of Zn-Al-Cu coatings by hot dip coated technology: preparation and characterization; Obtencion y caracterizacion de recubrimientos Zn-Al-Cu por inmersion en caliente sobre aceros de bajo carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes, J.; Barba, A.; Hernandez, M. A.; Salas, J.; Espinoza, J. L.; Denova, C.; Torres-Villasenor, G.; Conde, A.; Covelo, A.; Valdez, R.

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, research concerning Zn-Al-Cu coatings on low carbon steels has been conducted in order to characterize different properties obtained by a hot-dip coated process. The results include preparation procedure as well as the processing parameters of the coatings. The obtained coatings were subjected to a cold rolling process followed by an anneal heat treatment at different temperatures and under different time conditions. The structural characteristics of coatings have been investigated by optical and electron microscopy. The mechanical properties were obtained by using micro-hardness testing, deep drawing and wear tests whereas chemical analyses were carried out using the SEM/EDAX microprobe. The corrosion properties were achieved by using a salt spray fog chamber and potentiodynamic tests in a saline solution. The coatings are resistant to corrosion and wear in the presence of sodium chloride, therefore, the coatings could be an attractive alternative for application in coastal areas, and adequate wear adhesive resistance. (Author)

  17. Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

  18. Propargyl Vinyl Ethers and Tertiary Skipped Diynes: Two Pluripotent Molecular Platforms for Diversity-Oriented Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, David; López-Tosco, Sara; Méndez-Abt, Gabriela; Cotos, Leandro; García-Tellado, Fernando

    2016-04-19

    During the last years, we have been involved in the development of a diversity-oriented synthetic strategy aimed at transforming simple, linear, and densely functionalized molecular platforms into collections of topologically diverse scaffolds incorporating biologically relevant structural motifs such as N- and O- heterocycles, multifunctionalized aromatic rings, fused macrocycles, etc. The strategy merges the concepts of pluripotency (the property of an array of chemical functionalities to express different chemical outcomes under different chemical environments) and domino chemistry (chemistry based on processes involving two or more bond-forming transformations that take place while the initial reaction conditions are maintained, with the subsequent reaction resulting as a consequence of the functionality installed in the previous one) to transform common multifunctional substrates into complex and diverse molecular frameworks. This design concept constitutes the ethos of the so-called branching cascade strategy, a branch of diversity-oriented synthesis focused on scaffold diversity generation. Two pluripotent molecular platforms have been extensively studied under this merging (branching) paradigm: C4-O-C3 propargyl vinyl ethers (PVEs) and C7 tertiary skipped diynes (TSDs). These are conveniently constructed from simple and commercially available raw materials (alkyl propiolates, ketones, aldehydes, acid chlorides) through multicomponent manifolds (ABB' three-component reaction for PVEs; A2BB' four-component reaction for TSDs) or a simple two-step procedure (for PVEs). Their modular origin facilitates their structural/functional diversification without increasing the number of synthetic steps for their assembly. These two pluripotent molecular platforms accommodate a well-defined and dense array of through-bond/through-space interrelated functionalities on their structures, which defines their primary reactivity principles and establishes the reactivity profile

  19. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Andreas L.; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata

    2013-01-01

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammoni......J/mol. A simple kinetic model is proposed that accounts for the absorption of ammonia through the adsorbed state.......An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammonia...

  20. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammitzbóll, Andreas L; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata; Vegge, Tejs; Quaade, Ulrich J

    2013-04-28

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammonia desorption originating from the adsorbed state is directly observed below the bulk desorption temperature, as confirmed by density functional theory calculations. The desorption enthalpy of the adsorbed state of strontium chloride octa-ammine is determined with both techniques to be around 37-39 kJ∕mol. A simple kinetic model is proposed that accounts for the absorption of ammonia through the adsorbed state.