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Sample records for vimentin intermediate filament

  1. Nanomechanical properties of vimentin intermediate filament dimers

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    Qin Zhao; Buehler, Markus J [Laboratory for Atomistic and Molecular Mechanics, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Room 1-235A and B, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Kreplak, Laurent, E-mail: mbuehler@MIT.ED [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 3J5 (Canada)

    2009-10-21

    The cell's cytoskeleton, providing the cell with structure and shape, consists of a complex array of structural proteins, including microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments. Intermediate filaments play a crucial role in mechanotransduction and in providing mechanical stability to cells, in particular under large deformation. By utilizing molecular simulation, here we report a nanomechanical analysis of vimentin intermediate filament dimers, the basic building blocks of intermediate filaments. We describe a detailed analysis of the mechanical properties and associated deformation mechanisms, and find that mechanical stretch induces a transition from alpha-helices to beta-sheets, a phenomenon known as alpha-beta transition. A comparison of the Young's modulus predicted from simulation with experimental measurements is provided, and good agreement is found. We present an analysis of structural changes during deformation, domain unfolding patterns, rate dependence of the rupture force and associated changes in the energy landscape, and conclude with a discussion of potential implications for mechanobiology and the development of de novo protein materials.

  2. Hierarchical structure controls nanomechanical properties of vimentin intermediate filaments.

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    Zhao Qin

    Full Text Available Intermediate filaments (IFs, in addition to microtubules and microfilaments, are one of the three major components of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells, playing a vital role in mechanotransduction and in providing mechanical stability to cells. Despite the importance of IF mechanics for cell biology and cell mechanics, the structural basis for their mechanical properties remains unknown. Specifically, our understanding of fundamental filament properties, such as the basis for their great extensibility, stiffening properties, and their exceptional mechanical resilience remains limited. This has prevented us from answering fundamental structure-function relationship questions related to the biomechanical role of intermediate filaments, which is crucial to link structure and function in the protein material's biological context. Here we utilize an atomistic-level model of the human vimentin dimer and tetramer to study their response to mechanical tensile stress, and describe a detailed analysis of the mechanical properties and associated deformation mechanisms. We observe a transition from alpha-helices to beta-sheets with subsequent interdimer sliding under mechanical deformation, which has been inferred previously from experimental results. By upscaling our results we report, for the first time, a quantitative comparison to experimental results of IF nanomechanics, showing good agreement. Through the identification of links between structures and deformation mechanisms at distinct hierarchical levels, we show that the multi-scale structure of IFs is crucial for their characteristic mechanical properties, in particular their ability to undergo severe deformation of approximately 300% strain without breaking, facilitated by a cascaded activation of a distinct deformation mechanisms operating at different levels. This process enables IFs to combine disparate properties such as mechanosensitivity, strength and deformability. Our results enable a

  3. The intermediate filament network protein, vimentin, is required for parvoviral infection

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    Fay, Nikta; Panté, Nelly, E-mail: pante@zoology.ubc.ca

    2013-09-15

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) have recently been shown to serve novel roles during infection by many viruses. Here we have begun to study the role of IFs during the early steps of infection by the parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM). We found that during early infection with MVM, after endosomal escape, the vimentin IF network was considerably altered, yielding collapsed immunofluorescence staining near the nuclear periphery. Furthermore, we found that vimentin plays an important role in the life cycle of MVM. The number of cells, which successfully replicated MVM, was reduced in infected cells in which the vimentin network was genetically or pharmacologically modified; viral endocytosis, however, remained unaltered. Perinuclear accumulation of MVM-containing vesicles was reduced in cells lacking vimentin. Our data suggests that vimentin is required for the MVM life cycle, presenting possibly a dual role: (1) following MVM escape from endosomes and (2) during endosomal trafficking of MVM. - Highlights: • MVM infection changes the distribution of the vimentin network to perinuclear regions. • Disrupting the vimentin network with acrylamide decreases MVM replication. • MVM replication is significantly reduced in vimentin-null cells. • Distribution of MVM-containing vesicles is affected in MVM infected vimentin-null cells.

  4. Cytolocation of prosome antigens on intermediate filament subnetworks of cytokeratin, vimentin and desmin type.

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    Olink-Coux, M; Arcangeletti, C; Pinardi, F; Minisini, R; Huesca, M; Chezzi, C; Scherrer, K

    1994-03-01

    Analysis by double-label indirect immunofluorescence of PtK1 and HeLa cells had previously demonstrated that prosome* antigens form networks that superimpose on those of the intermediate filaments of the cytokeratin type. We show here that in PtK1 cells various prosomal antigens also reside to a variable extent on intermediate filaments subnetworks of the vimentin type. In proliferating human fibroblasts the prosome and vimentin networks were found to coincide, while in proliferating myoblasts of the C2.7 mouse myogenic cell line the prosomal antigens seem to superimpose on the intermediate filaments of the desmin type. Thus, the prosomes, which are RNP particles of variable composition and subcomplexes of untranslated mRNP, and carry a multicatalytic proteinase activity, seem to co-localize with the specific kind of cytoplasmic intermediate filament in relation to the cell type. These results, which generalize the previous data, are discussed in view of possible role(s) for prosomes in mRNA metabolism and/or intermediate filaments remodelling.

  5. Nonlinear Loading-Rate-Dependent Force Response of Individual Vimentin Intermediate Filaments to Applied Strain

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    Block, Johanna; Witt, Hannes; Candelli, Andrea; Peterman, Erwin J. G.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.; Janshoff, Andreas; Köster, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical properties of eukaryotic cells are to a great extent determined by the cytoskeleton, a composite network of different filamentous proteins. Among these, intermediate filaments (IFs) are exceptional in their molecular architecture and mechanical properties. Here we directly record stress-strain curves of individual vimentin IFs using optical traps and atomic force microscopy. We find a strong loading rate dependence of the mechanical response, supporting the hypothesis that IFs could serve to protect eukaryotic cells from fast, large deformations. Our experimental results show different unfolding regimes, which we can quantitatively reproduce by an elastically coupled system of multiple two-state elements.

  6. Nonlinear Loading-Rate-Dependent Force Response of Individual Vimentin Intermediate Filaments to Applied Strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Block, Johanna; Witt, Hannes; Candelli, Andrea; Peterman, Erwin J. G.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.; Janshoff, Andreas; Koester, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical properties of eukaryotic cells are to a great extent determined by the cytoskeleton, a composite network of different filamentous proteins. Among these, intermediate filaments (IFs) are exceptional in their molecular architecture and mechanical properties. Here we directly record

  7. The dermatan sulfate proteoglycan decorin modulates α2β1 integrin and the vimentin intermediate filament system during collagen synthesis.

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    Oliver Jungmann

    Full Text Available Decorin, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan harboring a dermatan sulfate chain at its N-terminus, is involved in regulating matrix organization and cell signaling. Loss of the dermatan sulfate of decorin leads to an Ehlers-Danlos syndrome characterized by delayed wound healing. Decorin-null (Dcn(-/- mice display a phenotype similar to that of EDS patients. The fibrillar collagen phenotype of Dcn(-/- mice could be rescued in vitro by decorin but not with decorin lacking the glycosaminoglycan chain. We utilized a 3D cell culture model to investigate the impact of the altered extracellular matrix on Dcn(-/- fibroblasts. Using 2D gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry, we identified vimentin as one of the proteins that was differentially upregulated by the presence of decorin. We discovered that a decorin-deficient matrix leads to abnormal nuclear morphology in the Dcn(-/- fibroblasts. This phenotype could be rescued by the decorin proteoglycan but less efficiently by the decorin protein core. Decorin treatment led to a significant reduction of the α2β1 integrin at day 6 in Dcn(-/- fibroblasts, whereas the protein core had no effect on β1. Interestingly, only the decorin core induced mRNA synthesis, phosphorylation and de novo synthesis of vimentin indicating that the proteoglycan decorin in the extracellular matrix stabilizes the vimentin intermediate filament system. We could support these results in vivo, because the dermis of wild-type mice have more vimentin and less β1 integrin compared to Dcn(-/-. Furthermore, the α2β1 null fibroblasts also showed a reduced amount of vimentin compared to wild-type. These data show for the first time that decorin has an impact on the biology of α2β1 integrin and the vimentin intermediate filament system. Moreover, our findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the reported defects in wound healing associated with the Dcn(-/- phenotype.

  8. Type III Intermediate Filaments Desmin, Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), Vimentin, and Peripherin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, Elly M; Capetanaki, Yassemi

    2017-01-01

    SummaryType III intermediate filament (IF) proteins assemble into cytoplasmic homopolymeric and heteropolymeric filaments with other type III and some type IV IFs. These highly dynamic structures form an integral component of the cytoskeleton of muscle, brain, and mesenchymal cells. Here, we review

  9. FSHD myoblasts fail to downregulate intermediate filament protein vimentin during myogenic differentiation.

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    Lipinski M.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is an autosomal dominant hereditary neuromuscular disorder. The clinical features of FSHD include weakness of the facial and shoulder girdle muscles followed by wasting of skeletal muscles of the pelvic girdle and lower extremities. Although FSHD myoblasts grown in vitro can be induced to differentiate into myotubes by serum starvation, the resulting FSHD myotubes have been shown previously to be morphologically abnormal. Aim. In order to find the cause of morphological anomalies of FSHD myotubes we compared in vitro myogenic differentiation of normal and FSHD myoblasts at the protein level. Methods. We induced myogenic differentiation of normal and FSHD myoblasts by serum starvation. We then compared protein extracts from proliferating myoblasts and differentiated myotubes using SDS-PAGE followed by mass spectrometry identification of differentially expressed proteins. Results. We demonstrated that the expression of vimentin was elevated at the protein and mRNA levels in FSHD myotubes as compared to normal myotubes. Conclusions. We demonstrate for the first time that in contrast to normal myoblasts, FSHD myoblasts fail to downregulate vimentin after induction of in vitro myogenic differentiation. We suggest that vimentin could be an easily detectable marker of FSHD myotubes

  10. Oncogenes induce a vimentin filament collapse mediated by HDAC6 that is linked to cell stiffness.

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    Rathje, Li-Sophie Z; Nordgren, Niklas; Pettersson, Torbjörn; Rönnlund, Daniel; Widengren, Jerker; Aspenström, Pontus; Gad, Annica K B

    2014-01-28

    Oncogenes deregulate fundamental cellular functions, which can lead to development of tumors, tumor-cell invasion, and metastasis. As the mechanical properties of cells govern cell motility, we hypothesized that oncogenes promote cell invasion by inducing cytoskeletal changes that increase cellular stiffness. We show that the oncogenes simian virus 40 large T antigen, c-Myc, and cyclin E induce spatial reorganization of the vimentin intermediate filament network in cells. At the cellular level, this reorganization manifests as increased width of vimentin fibers and the collapse of the vimentin network. At nanoscale resolution, the organization of vimentin fibers in these oncogene-expressing cells was more entangled, with increased width of the fibers compared with control cells. Expression of these oncogenes also resulted in up-regulation of the tubulin deacetylase histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) and altered spatial distribution of acetylated microtubules. This oncogene expression also induced increases in cellular stiffness and promoted the invasive capacity of the cells. Importantly, HDAC6 was required and sufficient for the structural collapse of the vimentin filament network, and was required for increased cellular stiffness of the oncogene-expressing cells. Taken together, these data are consistent with the possibility that oncogenes can induce cellular stiffness via an HDAC6-induced reorganization of the vimentin intermediate filament network.

  11. Co-expression of cytokeratins and vimentin by highly invasive trophoblast in the white-winged vampire bat, Diaemus youngi, and the black mastiff bat, Molossus ater, with observations on intermediate filament proteins in the decidua and intraplacental trophoblast.

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    Badwaik, N K; Rasweiler, J J; Muradali, F

    1998-11-01

    Histological and immunocytochemical studies of gravid reproductive tracts obtained from the white-winged vampire bat (Diaemus youngi) and the black mastiff bat (Molossus ater) have established that both species develop unusually invasive trophoblast. This is released by the developing discoidal haemochorial placenta, expresses both cytokeratins and vimentin, and invades the myometrium and adjacent tissues (including the ovaries) via interstitial migration within the walls of maternal blood vessels. Hence, this trophoblast is noteworthy for the extent to which it undergoes an epithelial-mesenchymal transformation. In Molossus, it originates from the cytotrophoblastic shell running along the base of the placenta, is mononuclear, and preferentially invades maternal arterial vessels serving the discoidal placenta. This trophoblast may have a role in dilatation of these vessels when the discoidal placenta becomes functional. In Diaemus, the highly invasive trophoblast appears to originate instead from a layer of syncytiotrophoblast on the periphery of the placenta is multinucleated, and vigorously invades both arterial and venous vessels. During late pregnancy, it becomes extensively branched and sends attenuated processes around many of the myometrial smooth muscle fibres. In view of its distribution, this trophoblast could have important influences upon myometrial contractility and the function of blood vessels serving the gravid tract. Other aspects of intermediate filament expression in the uteri and placentae of these bats are also noteworthy. Many of the decidual giant cells in Molossus co-express cytokeratins and vimentin, while the syncytiotrophoblast lining the placental labyrinth in Diaemus late in pregnancy expresses little cytokeratin.

  12. Bacterial intermediate filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Cabeen, M.; Jacobs-Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Crescentin, which is the founding member of a rapidly growing family of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, was previously proposed to resemble eukaryotic intermediate filament (IF) proteins based on structural prediction and in vitro polymerization properties. Here, we demonstrate that crescentin...

  13. Microtubule-dependent transport of vimentin filament precursors is regulated by actin and by the concerted action of Rho- and p21-activated kinases.

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    Robert, Amélie; Herrmann, Harald; Davidson, Michael W; Gelfand, Vladimir I

    2014-07-01

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) form a dense and dynamic network that is functionally associated with microtubules and actin filaments. We used the GFP-tagged vimentin mutant Y117L to study vimentin-cytoskeletal interactions and transport of vimentin filament precursors. This mutant preserves vimentin interaction with other components of the cytoskeleton, but its assembly is blocked at the unit-length filament (ULF) stage. ULFs are easy to track, and they allow a reliable and quantifiable analysis of movement. Our results show that in cultured human vimentin-negative SW13 cells, 2% of vimentin-ULFs move along microtubules bidirectionally, while the majority are stationary and tightly associated with actin filaments. Rapid motor-dependent transport of ULFs along microtubules is enhanced ≥ 5-fold by depolymerization of actin cytoskeleton with latrunculin B. The microtubule-dependent transport of vimentin ULFs is further regulated by Rho-kinase (ROCK) and p21-activated kinase (PAK): ROCK inhibits ULF transport, while PAK stimulates it. Both kinases act on microtubule transport independently of their effects on actin cytoskeleton. Our study demonstrates the importance of the actin cytoskeleton to restrict IF transport and reveals a new role for PAK and ROCK in the regulation of IF precursor transport.-Robert, A., Herrmann, H., Davidson, M. W., and Gelfand, V. I. Microtubule-dependent transport of vimentin filament precursors is regulated by actin and by the concerted action of Rho- and p21-activated kinases. © FASEB.

  14. Role of Intermediate Filaments in Vesicular Traffic

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    Azzurra Margiotta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate filaments are an important component of the cellular cytoskeleton. The first established role attributed to intermediate filaments was the mechanical support to cells. However, it is now clear that intermediate filaments have many different roles affecting a variety of other biological functions, such as the organization of microtubules and microfilaments, the regulation of nuclear structure and activity, the control of cell cycle and the regulation of signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, a number of intermediate filament proteins have been involved in the acquisition of tumorigenic properties. Over the last years, a strong involvement of intermediate filament proteins in the regulation of several aspects of intracellular trafficking has strongly emerged. Here, we review the functions of intermediate filaments proteins focusing mainly on the recent knowledge gained from the discovery that intermediate filaments associate with key proteins of the vesicular membrane transport machinery. In particular, we analyze the current understanding of the contribution of intermediate filaments to the endocytic pathway.

  15. Intermediate Filaments at the Junction of Mechanotransduction, Migration, and Development

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    Rucha Sanghvi-Shah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mechanically induced signal transduction has an essential role in development. Cells actively transduce and respond to mechanical signals and their internal architecture must manage the associated forces while also being dynamically responsive. With unique assembly-disassembly dynamics and physical properties, cytoplasmic intermediate filaments play an important role in regulating cell shape and mechanical integrity. While this function has been recognized and appreciated for more than 30 years, continually emerging data also demonstrate important roles of intermediate filaments in cell signal transduction. In this review, with a particular focus on keratins and vimentin, the relationship between the physical state of intermediate filaments and their role in mechanotransduction signaling is illustrated through a survey of current literature. Association with adhesion receptors such as cadherins and integrins provides a critical interface through which intermediate filaments are exposed to forces from a cell's environment. As a consequence, these cytoskeletal networks are posttranslationally modified, remodeled and reorganized with direct impacts on local signal transduction events and cell migratory behaviors important to development. We propose that intermediate filaments provide an opportune platform for cells to both cope with mechanical forces and modulate signal transduction.

  16. Epithelial Intermediate Filaments: Guardians against Microbial Infection?

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    Florian Geisler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate filaments are abundant cytoskeletal components of epithelial tissues. They have been implicated in overall stress protection. A hitherto poorly investigated area of research is the function of intermediate filaments as a barrier to microbial infection. This review summarizes the accumulating knowledge about this interaction. It first emphasizes the unique spatial organization of the keratin intermediate filament cytoskeleton in different epithelial tissues to protect the organism against microbial insults. We then present examples of direct interaction between viral, bacterial, and parasitic proteins and the intermediate filament system and describe how this affects the microbe-host interaction by modulating the epithelial cytoskeleton, the progression of infection, and host response. These observations not only provide novel insights into the dynamics and function of intermediate filaments but also indicate future avenues to combat microbial infection.

  17. Integration of intermediate filaments into cellular organelles.

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    Georgatos, S D; Maison, C

    1996-01-01

    The intermediate filaments represent core components of the cytoskeleton and are known to interact with several membranous organelles. Classic examples of this are the attachment of keratin filaments to the desmosomes and the association of the lamin filament meshwork with the inner nuclear membrane. At this point, the molecular mechanisms by which the filaments link to membranes are not clearly understood. However, since a substantial body of information has been amassed, the time is now ripe for comparing notes and formulating working hypotheses. With this objective in mind, we review here pioneering studies on this subject, together with work that has appeared more recently in the literature.

  18. Overexpression of vimentin in canine prostatic carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, M M P; Rema, A; Gärtner, F

    2011-01-01

    is associated with the invasive phenotype of human prostate cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to characterize immunohistochemically the expression of vimentin by canine prostatic carcinomas. Primary carcinomas and metastatic tumour foci both showed vimentin expression. This finding suggests...... that the acquisition of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype in canine prostatic carcinoma may be characterized by the presence of mesenchymal intermediate filament (vimentin) that could lead to a higher likelihood of metastasis....

  19. Unraveling Intermediate Filaments : The super resolution solution

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    Nahidiazar, L.

    2017-01-01

    Intermediate Filaments (IFs) carry out major functions in cells. Several diseases have been associated with malfunctioning IFs in the cells and among them are certain sub types of cancer. To determine the structure and organization of IFs, we have used Single Molecule Localization Microscopy (SMLM)

  20. Elucidation of GlcNAc-binding properties of type III intermediate filament proteins, using GlcNAc-bearing polymers.

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    Ise, Hirohiko; Yamasaki, Sadanori; Sueyoshi, Kazuaki; Miura, Yoshiko

    2017-10-01

    Vimentin, desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and peripherin belong to type III intermediate filament family and are expressed in mesenchymal cells, skeletal muscle cells, astrocytes and peripheral neurons, respectively. Vimentin and desmin possess N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc)-binding properties on cell surfaces. The rod II domain of these proteins is a GlcNAc-binding site, which also exists in GFAP and peripherin. However, the GlcNAc-binding activities and behaviors of these proteins remain unclear. Here, we characterized the interaction and binding behaviors of these proteins, using various well-defined GlcNAc-bearing polymers synthesized by radical polymerization with a reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer reagent. The small GlcNAc-bearing polymers strongly interacted with HeLa cells through vimentin expressed on the cell surface and interacted with vimentin-, desmin-, GFAP- and peripherin-transfected vimentin-deficient HeLa cells. These proteins present high affinity to GlcNAc-bearing polymers, as shown by surface plasmon resonance. These results show that type III intermediate filament proteins possess GlcNAc-binding activities on cell surfaces. These findings provide important insights into novel cellular functions and physiological significance of type III intermediate filaments. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Dual regulation of intermediate filament phosphorylation

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Intermediate filament proteins have been isolated from ME-180, cells of a human cervical carcinoma. Eight of these proteins have been identified as keratins by immunologic cross-reactivity to antibodies raised against authentic human epidermal keratins. The ME-180 keratin proteins consist of two major subunits designated MEK-1 and MEK-2 with approximate molecular weights of 58,000 and 53,000, respectively, and six minor subunits of 59, 57, 52.5, 50.5, 45, and 40 kilodaltons. When ME-180 cells...

  2. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Vimentin in Oral Submucous Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Meghanand T.; Anjali Singh; Rajiv S. Desai; S. S. Vanaki

    2013-01-01

    Background. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), a precancerous condition, is characterized by abnormal accumulation of collagen fibers in oral submucosa. Vimentin is a Class 2 intermediate filament (IF) and primarily expressed in cells of mesenchymal origin. Vimentin is also found to be involved in cell growth, cell cycling, and tumour differentiation. Objective. The purpose of the study was to compare the expression of vimentin in various histological grades of OSF. Materials and Methods. To asse...

  3. Post-translational modifications of intermediate filament proteins: mechanisms and functions.

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    Snider, Natasha T; Omary, M Bishr

    2014-03-01

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) are cytoskeletal and nucleoskeletal structures that provide mechanical and stress-coping resilience to cells, contribute to subcellular and tissue-specific biological functions, and facilitate intracellular communication. IFs, including nuclear lamins and those in the cytoplasm (keratins, vimentin, desmin, neurofilaments and glial fibrillary acidic protein, among others), are functionally regulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs). Proteomic advances highlight the enormous complexity and regulatory potential of IF protein PTMs, which include phosphorylation, glycosylation, sumoylation, acetylation and prenylation, with novel modifications becoming increasingly appreciated. Future studies will need to characterize their on-off mechanisms, crosstalk and utility as biomarkers and targets for diseases involving the IF cytoskeleton.

  4. Intermediate Filaments and Polarization in the Intestinal Epithelium

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    Richard A. Coch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The cytoplasmic intermediate filament cytoskeleton provides a tissue-specific three-dimensional scaffolding with unique context-dependent organizational features. This is particularly apparent in the intestinal epithelium, in which the intermediate filament network is localized below the apical terminal web region and is anchored to the apical junction complex. This arrangement is conserved from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to humans. The review summarizes compositional, morphological and functional features of the polarized intermediate filament cytoskeleton in intestinal cells of nematodes and mammals. We emphasize the cross talk of intermediate filaments with the actin- and tubulin-based cytoskeleton. Possible links of the intermediate filament system to the distribution of apical membrane proteins and the cell polarity complex are highlighted. Finally, we discuss how these properties relate to the establishment and maintenance of polarity in the intestine.

  5. Intermediate Filaments and Polarization in the Intestinal Epithelium.

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    Coch, Richard A; Leube, Rudolf E

    2016-07-15

    The cytoplasmic intermediate filament cytoskeleton provides a tissue-specific three-dimensional scaffolding with unique context-dependent organizational features. This is particularly apparent in the intestinal epithelium, in which the intermediate filament network is localized below the apical terminal web region and is anchored to the apical junction complex. This arrangement is conserved from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to humans. The review summarizes compositional, morphological and functional features of the polarized intermediate filament cytoskeleton in intestinal cells of nematodes and mammals. We emphasize the cross talk of intermediate filaments with the actin- and tubulin-based cytoskeleton. Possible links of the intermediate filament system to the distribution of apical membrane proteins and the cell polarity complex are highlighted. Finally, we discuss how these properties relate to the establishment and maintenance of polarity in the intestine.

  6. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate...... filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge...... about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria...

  7. Vimentin mediates uptake of C3 exoenzyme.

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    Astrid Rohrbeck

    Full Text Available Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme (C3 selectively inactivates RhoA/B/C GTPases by ADP-ribosylation. Based on this substrate specificity C3 is a well-established tool in cell biology. C3 is taken up by eukaryotic cells although lacking an uptake and translocation domain. Based on different approaches vimentin was identified as membranous C3-interaction partner by mass spectrometry. Vimentin in fact was partly localized at the outer surface of hippocampal HT22 cells and J744A.1 macrophages. Domain analysis identified the rod domain as binding partner of C3. Vimentin was also involved in uptake of C3 as shown by knock down of vimentin in HT22 and J774A.1 cells. The involvement of vimentin in uptake of C3 was further supported by the findings that the vimentin disruptor acrylamide blocked uptake of C3. Vimentin is not only a major organizing element of the intermediate filament network but is also involved in both binding and uptake of C3 exoenzyme.

  8. Endothelial targeting of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV via surface vimentin.

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    Kristopher J Koudelka

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV is a plant comovirus in the picornavirus superfamily, and is used for a wide variety of biomedical and material science applications. Although its replication is restricted to plants, CPMV binds to and enters mammalian cells, including endothelial cells and particularly tumor neovascular endothelium in vivo. This natural capacity has lead to the use of CPMV as a sensor for intravital imaging of vascular development. Binding of CPMV to endothelial cells occurs via interaction with a 54 kD cell-surface protein, but this protein has not previously been identified. Here we identify the CPMV binding protein as a cell-surface form of the intermediate filament vimentin. The CPMV-vimentin interaction was established using proteomic screens and confirmed by direct interaction of CPMV with purified vimentin, as well as inhibition in a vimentin-knockout cell line. Vimentin and CPMV were also co-localized in vascular endothelium of mouse and rat in vivo. Together these studies indicate that surface vimentin mediates binding and may lead to internalization of CPMV in vivo, establishing surface vimentin as an important vascular endothelial ligand for nanoparticle targeting to tumors. These results also establish vimentin as a ligand for picornaviruses in both the plant and animal kingdoms of life. Since bacterial pathogens and several other classes of viruses also bind to surface vimentin, these studies suggest a common role for surface vimentin in pathogen transmission.

  9. Expression of Intermediate Filament Nestin in Blood Vessels of Neural and Non-neural Tissues

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    Jaroslav Mokrý

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous findings performed in rat tissues demonstrated that intermediate filament nestin is expressed in endothelial cells of newly formed blood vessels of developing organs and neural transplants. The aim of the present study was to identify other cellular markers expressed in nestin-positive (nestin+ blood vessels. To reach this goal we performed double immunofluorescent study to co-localize nestin with endothelium-specific markers (CD31, CD34 II, vimentin or markers of perivascular cells (GFAP, SMA in paraffin-embedded sections of normal human brain tissue, low- and high-grade gliomas, postinfarcted heart and samples of non-neural tumours. Our findings documented that all the samples examined contained blood vessels with different ratio of nestin+ endothelial cells. Double immunostaining provided unambiguous evidence that endothelial cells expressed nestin and allowed them to distinguish from other nestin+ elements (perivascular astrocytic endfeet, undifferentiated tumour cells, smooth muscle cells and pericytes. Nestin+ endothelium was not confined only to newly formed capillaries but was also observed in blood vessels of larger calibres, frequently in arterioles and venules. We conclude that nestin represents a reliable vascular marker that is expressed in endothelial cells. Elevation of nestin expression likely corresponds to reorganization of intermediate filament network in the cytoskeleton of endothelial cells in the course of their maturation or adaptation to changes in growing tissues.

  10. Intermediate Filaments as Organizers of Cellular Space: How They Affect Mitochondrial Structure and Function

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    Nicole Schwarz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate filaments together with actin filaments and microtubules form the cytoskeleton, which is a complex and highly dynamic 3D network. Intermediate filaments are the major mechanical stress protectors but also affect cell growth, differentiation, signal transduction, and migration. Using intermediate filament-mitochondrial crosstalk as a prominent example, this review emphasizes the importance of intermediate filaments as crucial organizers of cytoplasmic space to support these functions. We summarize observations in different mammalian cell types which demonstrate how intermediate filaments influence mitochondrial morphology, subcellular localization, and function through direct and indirect interactions and how perturbations of these interactions may lead to human diseases.

  11. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Vimentin in Oral Submucous Fibrosis

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    Nayak, Meghanand T.; Singh, Anjali; Desai, Rajiv S.; Vanaki, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), a precancerous condition, is characterized by abnormal accumulation of collagen fibers in oral submucosa. Vimentin is a Class 2 intermediate filament (IF) and primarily expressed in cells of mesenchymal origin. Vimentin is also found to be involved in cell growth, cell cycling, and tumour differentiation. Objective. The purpose of the study was to compare the expression of vimentin in various histological grades of OSF. Materials and Methods. To assess the immunohistochemical expression of vimentin in 20 mild cases of OSF, 20 severe cases of OSF, and ten cases of normal oral buccal mucosa. Results. The overall staining intensity of vimentin significantly increased statistically (P < 0.01) in OSF cases over normal control. A significant increase in the staining intensity of vimentin was also noted in the fibroblasts of severe cases of OSF (P = 0.03). Conclusion. Considering the marked vimentin expression in the present study, future studies should include cytoskeleton IF and other filaments in the fibroblasts of OSF. PMID:23840210

  12. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Vimentin in Oral Submucous Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghanand T. Nayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF, a precancerous condition, is characterized by abnormal accumulation of collagen fibers in oral submucosa. Vimentin is a Class 2 intermediate filament (IF and primarily expressed in cells of mesenchymal origin. Vimentin is also found to be involved in cell growth, cell cycling, and tumour differentiation. Objective. The purpose of the study was to compare the expression of vimentin in various histological grades of OSF. Materials and Methods. To assess the immunohistochemical expression of vimentin in 20 mild cases of OSF, 20 severe cases of OSF, and ten cases of normal oral buccal mucosa. Results. The overall staining intensity of vimentin significantly increased statistically (P<0.01 in OSF cases over normal control. A significant increase in the staining intensity of vimentin was also noted in the fibroblasts of severe cases of OSF (P=0.03. Conclusion. Considering the marked vimentin expression in the present study, future studies should include cytoskeleton IF and other filaments in the fibroblasts of OSF.

  13. Assays for Post-translational Modifications of Intermediate Filament Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omary, M. Bishr

    2016-01-01

    Intermediate filament (IF) proteins are known to be regulated by a number of post-translational modifications (PTMs). Phosphorylation is the best studied IF PTM, whereas ubiquitination, sumoylation, acetylation, glycosylation, ADP-ribosylation, farnesylation and transamidation are less understood in functional terms but are known to regulate specific IFs under various contexts. The number and diversity of IF PTMs is certain to grow along with rapid advances in proteomic technologies. Therefore, the need for a greater understanding of the implications of PTMs to the structure, organization, and function of the IF cytoskeleton has become more apparent with the increased availability of data from global profiling studies of normal and diseased specimens. This chapter will provide information on established methods for the isolation and monitoring of IF PTMs along with the key reagents that are necessary to carry out these experiments. PMID:26795469

  14. Herpesviruses and Intermediate Filaments: Close Encounters with the Third Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Hertel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate filaments (IF are essential to maintain cellular and nuclear integrity and shape, to manage organelle distribution and motility, to control the trafficking and pH of intracellular vesicles, to prevent stress-induced cell death, and to support the correct distribution of specific proteins. Because of this, IF are likely to be targeted by a variety of pathogens, and may act in favor or against infection progress. As many IF functions remain to be identified, however, little is currently known about these interactions. Herpesviruses can infect a wide variety of cell types, and are thus bound to encounter the different types of IF expressed in each tissue. The analysis of these interrelationships can yield precious insights into how IF proteins work, and into how viruses have evolved to exploit these functions. These interactions, either known or potential, will be the focus of this review.

  15. Three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy on intermediate filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmse, Robert; Bouchet-Marquis, Cédric; Page, Cynthia; Hoenger, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Together with microtubules and actin filaments (F-actin), intermediate filaments (IFs) form the cytoskeleton of metazoan cells. However, unlike the other two entities that are extremely conserved, IFs are much more diverse and are grouped into five different families. In contrast to microtubules and F-actin, IFs do not exhibit a polarity, which may be the reason that no molecular motors travel along them. The molecular structure of IFs is less well resolved than that of the other cytoskeletal systems. This is partially due to their functional variability, tissue-specific expression, and their intrinsic structural properties. IFs are composed mostly of relatively smooth protofibrils formed by antiparallel arranged α-helical coiled-coil bundles flanked by small globular domains at either end. These features make them difficult to study by various electron microscopy methods or atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore, the elongated shape of monomeric or dimeric IF units interferes with the formation of highly ordered three-dimensional (3-D) crystals suitable for atomic resolution crystallography. So far, most of the data we currently have on IF macromolecular structures come from electron microscopy of negatively stained samples, and fragmented α-helical coiled-coil units solved by X-ray diffraction. In addition, AFM allows the observation of the dynamic states of IFs in solution and delivers a new view into the assembly properties of IFs. Here, we discuss the applicability of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) for the field. Both methods are strongly related and have only recently been applied to IFs. However, cryo-EM revealed distinct new features within IFs that have not been seen before, and cryo-ET adds a 3-D view of IFs revealing the path and number of protofilaments within the various IF assemblies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Specific types of prosomes distribute differentially between intermediate and actin filaments in epithelial, fibroblastic and muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcangeletti, C; De Conto, F; Sütterlin, R; Pinardi, F; Missorini, S; Géraud, G; Aebi, U; Chezzi, C; Scherrer, K

    2000-06-01

    First observed as components of non-translated mRNP complexes, prosomes harbour RNase and several proteinase activities; they are also the central constituent of the "Multicatalytic Proteinase (MCP) complexes" or "26S-proteasomes". In two recent publications (Arcangeletti et al., 1997b; De Conto et al., 1997) we have shown, by applying a new fixation technique, that these particles distribute differentially between the cytoskeletal networks of intermediate filament (IF) and actin types; previously they had been observed exclusively on the intermediate filaments. Here we further investigate the distribution of prosomes of several types, distinct by their subunit composition, between the IF of vimentin type and the actin network, as well as in the 3D space of the cell. It is shown that subtypes of prosomes occupy specific networks of the cytoskeleton, and that this pattern is specific for a given cell type. Confocal microscopy shows that prosome cytodistribution is not homogeneous in the 3D space: in the perinuclear area they colocalize most strongly with the IF, and more peripherally with the microfilament/stress fiber system; connections may exist between the two networks. Furthermore, new data indicate that the prosome-actin interaction may participate in the molecular structure of the stress fibers.

  17. Molecular evolution of type VI intermediate filament proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Michel

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanabin, transitin and nestin are type VI intermediate filament (IF proteins that are developmentally regulated in frogs, birds and mammals, respectively. Tanabin is expressed in the growth cones of embryonic vertebrate neurons, whereas transitin and nestin are found in myogenic and neurogenic cells. Another type VI IF protein, synemin, is expressed in undifferentiated and mature muscle cells of birds and mammals. In addition to an IF-typical α-helical core domain, type VI IF proteins are characterized by a long C-terminal tail often containing distinct repeated motifs. The molecular evolution of type VI IF proteins remains poorly studied. Results To examine the evolutionary history of type VI IF proteins, sequence comparisons, BLAST searches, synteny studies and phylogenic analyses were performed. This study provides new evidence that tanabin, transitin and nestin are indeed orthologous type VI IF proteins. It demonstrates that tanabin, transitin and nestin genes share intron positions and sequence identities, have a similar chromosomal context and display closely related positions in phylogenic analyses. Despite this homology, fast evolution rates of their C-terminal extremity have caused the appearance of repeated motifs with distinct biological activities. In particular, our in silico and in vitro analyses of their tail domain have shown that (avian transitin, but not (mammalian nestin, contains a repeat domain displaying nucleotide hydrolysis activity. Conclusion These analyses of the evolutionary history of the IF proteins fit with a model in which type VI IFs form a branch distinct from NF proteins and are composed of two major proteins: synemin and nestin orthologs. Rapid evolution of the C-terminal extremity of nestin orthologs could be responsible for their divergent functions.

  18. Histone acetylation in astrocytes suppresses GFAP and stimulates a reorganization of the intermediate filament network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanski, Regina; Sneeboer, Marjolein A M; van Bodegraven, Emma J; Sluijs, Jacqueline A; Kropff, Wietske; Vermunt, Marit W.; Creyghton, Menno P; De Filippis, Lidia; Vescovi, Angelo; Aronica, Eleonora; van Tijn, P.; van Strien, Miriam E; Hol, Elly M

    2014-01-01

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the main intermediate filament in astrocytes and is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms during development. We demonstrate that histone acetylation also controls GFAP expression in mature astrocytes. Inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) with

  19. Internal epithelia in Drosophila display rudimentary competence to form cytoplasmic networks of transgenic human vimentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullmets, Josef; Torvaldson, Elin; Lindqvist, Julia; Imanishi, Susumu Y; Taimen, Pekka; Meinander, Annika; Eriksson, John E

    2017-12-01

    Cytoplasmic intermediate filaments (cIFs) are found in all eumetazoans, except arthropods. To investigate the compatibility of cIFs in arthropods, we expressed human vimentin (hVim), a cIF with filament-forming capacity in vertebrate cells and tissues, transgenically in Drosophila Transgenic hVim could be recovered from whole-fly lysates by using a standard procedure for intermediate filament (IF) extraction. When this procedure was used to test for the possible presence of IF-like proteins in flies, only lamins and tropomyosin were observed in IF-enriched extracts, thereby providing biochemical reinforcement to the paradigm that arthropods lack cIFs. In Drosophila, transgenic hVim was unable to form filament networks in S2 cells and mesenchymal tissues; however, cage-like vimentin structures could be observed around the nuclei in internal epithelia, which suggests that Drosophila retains selective competence for filament formation. Taken together, our results imply that although the filament network formation competence is partially lost in Drosophila, a rudimentary filament network formation ability remains in epithelial cells. As a result of the observed selective competence for cIF assembly in Drosophila, we hypothesize that internal epithelial cIFs were the last cIFs to disappear from arthropods.-Gullmets, J., Torvaldson, E., Lindqvist, J., Imanishi, S. Y., Taimen, P., Meinander, A., Eriksson, J. E. Internal epithelia in Drosophila display rudimentary competence to form cytoplasmic networks of transgenic human vimentin. © FASEB.

  20. Multidimensional Monitoring of Keratin Intermediate Filaments in Cultured Cells and Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Nicole; Moch, Marcin; Windoffer, Reinhard; Leube, Rudolf E

    2016-01-01

    Keratin filaments are a hallmark of epithelial differentiation. Their cell type-specific spatial organization and dynamic properties reflect and support epithelial function. To study this interdependency, imaging of fluorescently tagged keratins is a widely used method by which the temporospatial organization and behavior of the keratin intermediate filament network can be analyzed in living cells. Here, we describe methods that have been adapted and optimized to dissect and quantify keratin intermediate filament network dynamics in vital cultured cells and functional tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Planck intermediate results: VIII. Filaments between interacting clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartlett, J.G.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Castex, G.

    2013-01-01

    Context. About half of the baryons of the Universe are expected to be in the form of filaments of hot and low-density intergalactic medium. Most of these baryons remain undetected even by the most advanced X-ray observatories, which are limited in sensitivity to the diffuse low-density medium. Ai...

  2. Vimentin regulates activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Gimena; Rogel, Micah R.; Baker, Margaret A.; Troken, James R.; Urich, Daniela; Morales-Nebreda, Luisa; Sennello, Joseph A.; Kutuzov, Mikhail A.; Sitikov, Albert; Davis, Jennifer M.; Lam, Anna P.; Cheresh, Paul; Kamp, David; Shumaker, Dale K.; Budinger, G. R. Scott; Ridge, Karen M.

    2015-03-01

    Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and subsequent maturation of IL-1β have been implicated in acute lung injury (ALI), resulting in inflammation and fibrosis. We investigated the role of vimentin, a type III intermediate filament, in this process using three well-characterized murine models of ALI known to require NLRP3 inflammasome activation. We demonstrate that central pathophysiologic events in ALI (inflammation, IL-1β levels, endothelial and alveolar epithelial barrier permeability, remodelling and fibrosis) are attenuated in the lungs of Vim-/- mice challenged with LPS, bleomycin and asbestos. Bone marrow chimeric mice lacking vimentin have reduced IL-1β levels and attenuated lung injury and fibrosis following bleomycin exposure. Furthermore, decreased active caspase-1 and IL-1β levels are observed in vitro in Vim-/- and vimentin-knockdown macrophages. Importantly, we show direct protein-protein interaction between NLRP3 and vimentin. This study provides insights into lung inflammation and fibrosis and suggests that vimentin may be a key regulator of the NLRP3 inflammasome.

  3. Vimentin Levels and Serine 71 Phosphorylation in the Control of Cell-Matrix Adhesions, Migration Speed, and Shape of Transformed Human Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Terriac

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasizing tumor cells show increased expression of the intermediate filament (IF protein vimentin, which has been used to diagnose invasive tumors for decades. Recent observations indicate that vimentin is not only a passive marker for carcinoma, but may also induce tumor cell invasion. To clarify how vimentin IFs control cell adhesions and migration, we analyzed the nanoscale (30–50 nm spatial organization of vimentin IFs and cell-matrix adhesions in metastatic fibroblast cells, using three-color stimulated emission depletion (STED microscopy. We also studied whether wild-type and phospho-deficient or -mimicking mutants of vimentin changed the size and lifetime of focal adhesions (FAs, cell shape, and cell migration, using live-cell total internal reflection imaging and confocal microscopy. We observed that vimentin exists in fragments of different lengths. Short fragments were mostly the size of a unit-length filament and were mainly localized close to small cell-matrix adhesions. Long vimentin filaments were found in the proximity of large FAs. Vimentin expression in these cells caused a reduction in FAs size and an elongated cell shape, but did not affect FA lifetime, or the speed or directionality of cell migration. Expression of a phospho-mimicking mutant (S71D of vimentin increased the speed of cell migration. Taken together, our results suggest that in highly migratory, transformed mesenchymal cells, vimentin levels control the cell shape and FA size, but not cell migration, which instead is linked to the phosphorylation status of S71 vimentin. These observations are consistent with the possibility that not only levels, but also the assembly status of vimentin control cell migration.

  4. Interaction between Bluetongue virus outer capsid protein VP2 and vimentin is necessary for virus egress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Polly

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The VP2 outer capsid protein Bluetongue Virus (BTV is responsible for receptor binding, haemagglutination and eliciting host-specific immunity. However, the assembly of this outer capsid protein on the transcriptionally active viral core would block transcription of the virus. Thus assembly of the outer capsid on the core particle must be a tightly controlled process during virus maturation. Earlier studies have detected mature virus particles associated with intermediate filaments in virus infected cells but the viral determinant for this association and the effect of disrupting intermediate filaments on virus assembly and release are unknown. Results In this study it is demonstrated that BTV VP2 associates with vimentin in both virus infected cells and in the absence of other viral proteins. Further, the determinants of vimentin localisation are mapped to the N-terminus of the protein and deletions of aminio acids between residues 65 and 114 are shown to disrupt VP2-vimentin association. Site directed mutation also reveals that amino acid residues Gly 70 and Val 72 are important in the VP2-vimentin association. Mutation of these amino acids resulted in a soluble VP2 capable of forming trimeric structures similar to unmodified protein that no longer associated with vimentin. Furthermore, pharmacological disruption of intermediate filaments, either directly or indirectly through the disruption of the microtubule network, inhibited virus release from BTV infected cells. Conclusion The principal findings of the research are that the association of mature BTV particles with intermediate filaments are driven by the interaction of VP2 with vimentin and that this interaction contributes to virus egress. Furthermore, i the N-terminal 118 amino acids of VP2 are sufficient to confer vimentin interaction. ii Deletion of amino acids 65–114 or mutation of amino acids 70–72 to DVD abrogates vimentin association. iii Finally

  5. Identification of Vimentin as a Potential Therapeutic Target against HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ortega, Celia; Ramírez, Anna; Casillas, Dionne; Paneque, Taimi; Ubieta, Raimundo; Dubed, Marta; Navea, Leonor; Castellanos-Serra, Lila; Duarte, Carlos; Falcon, Viviana; Reyes, Osvaldo; Garay, Hilda; Silva, Eladio; Noa, Enrique; Ramos, Yassel; Besada, Vladimir; Betancourt, Lázaro

    2016-01-01

    A combination of antiviral drugs known as antiretroviral therapy (ART) has shown effectiveness against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ART has markedly decreased mortality and morbidity among HIV-infected patients, having even reduced HIV transmission. However, an important current disadvantage, resistance development, remains to be solved. Hope is focused on developing drugs against cellular targets. This strategy is expected to prevent the emergence of viral resistance. In this study, using a comparative proteomic approach in MT4 cells treated with an anti-HIV leukocyte extract, we identified vimentin, a molecule forming intermediate filaments in the cell, as a possible target against HIV infection. We demonstrated a strong reduction of an HIV-1 based lentivirus expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in vimentin knockdown cells, and a noteworthy decrease of HIV-1 capsid protein antigen (CAp24) in those cells using a multiround infectivity assay. Electron micrographs showed changes in the structure of intermediate filaments when MT4 cells were treated with an anti-HIV leukocyte extract. Changes in the structure of intermediate filaments were also observed in vimentin knockdown MT4 cells. A synthetic peptide derived from a cytoskeleton protein showed potent inhibitory activity on HIV-1 infection, and low cytotoxicity. Our data suggest that vimentin can be a suitable target to inhibit HIV-1. PMID:27314381

  6. Intermediate filaments in non-neuronal cells of invertebrates: isolation and biochemical characterization of intermediate filaments from the esophageal epithelium of the mollusc Helix pomatia

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    To screen invertebrate tissues for the possible expression of intermediate filaments (IFs), immunofluorescence microscopy with the monoclonal antibody anti-IFA known to detect all mammalian IF proteins was used (Pruss, R. M., R. Mirsky, M. C. Raff, R. Thorpe, A. J. Dowding, and B. H. Anderton. 1981. Cell, 27:419-428). In a limited survey, the lower chordate Branchiostoma as well as the invertebrates Arenicola, Lumbricus, Ascaris, and Helix pomatia revealed a positive reaction primarily on epi...

  7. Structural and Mechanical Properties of Intermediate Filaments under Extreme Conditions and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhao

    Intermediate filaments are one of the three major components of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. It was discovered during the recent decades that intermediate filament proteins play key roles to reinforce cells subjected to large-deformation as well as participate in signal transduction. However, it is still poorly understood how the nanoscopic structure, as well as the biochemical properties of these protein molecules contribute to their biomechanical functions. In this research we investigate the material function of intermediate filaments under various extreme mechanical conditions as well as disease states. We use a full atomistic model and study its response to mechanical stresses. Learning from the mechanical response obtained from atomistic simulations, we build mesoscopic models following the finer-trains-coarser principles. By using this multiple-scale model, we present a detailed analysis of the mechanical properties and associated deformation mechanisms of intermediate filament network. We reveal the mechanism of a transition from alpha-helices to beta-sheets with subsequent intermolecular sliding under mechanical force, which has been inferred previously from experimental results. This nanoscale mechanism results in a characteristic nonlinear force-extension curve, which leads to a delocalization of mechanical energy and prevents catastrophic fracture. This explains how intermediate filament can withstand extreme mechanical deformation of > 1 00% strain despite the presence of structural defects. We combine computational and experimental techniques to investigate the molecular mechanism of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, a premature aging disease. We find that the mutated lamin tail .domain is more compact and stable than the normal one. This altered structure and stability may enhance the association of intermediate filaments with the nuclear membrane, providing a molecular mechanism of the disease. We study the nuclear membrane association

  8. The vital role of actin and the intermediate filaments in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cytoskeleton is a system of structural protein primarily involved in the cellular architectural maintenance, intracellular transport, cell division and movement. The classical major components of the cytoskeleton are microtubules, intermediate filaments and microfilaments. Traditionally the microtubules are involved in ...

  9. GFAP isoforms control intermediate filament network dynamics, cell morphology, and focal adhesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeton, M.; Stassen, O.M.J.A.; Sluijs, J.A.; van der Meer, V.W.N.; Kluivers, L.J.; van Hoorn, H.; Schmidt, T.; Reits, E.A.J.; van Strien, M.E.; Hol, E.M.

    2016-01-01

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the characteristic intermediate filament (IF) protein in astrocytes. Expression of its main isoforms, GFAPα and GFAPδ, varies in astrocytes and astrocytoma implying a potential regulatory role in astrocyte physiology and pathology. An IF-network is a dynamic

  10. Photomechanical wave-driven delivery of siRNAs targeting intermediate filament proteins promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Ando

    Full Text Available The formation of glial scars after spinal cord injury (SCI is one of the factors inhibiting axonal regeneration. Glial scars are mainly composed of reactive astrocytes overexpressing intermediate filament (IF proteins such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and vimentin. In the current study, we delivered small interfering RNAs (siRNAs targeting these IF proteins to SCI model rats using photomechanical waves (PMWs, and examined the restoration of motor function in the rats. PMWs are generated by irradiating a light-absorbing material with 532-nm nanosecond laser pulses from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. PMWs can site-selectively increase the permeability of the cell membrane for molecular delivery. Rat spinal cord was injured using a weight-drop device and the siRNA(s solutions were intrathecally injected into the vicinity of the exposed SCI, to which PMWs were applied. We first confirmed the substantial uptake of fluorescence-labeled siRNA by deep glial cells; then we delivered siRNAs targeting GFAP and vimentin into the lesion. The treatment led to a significant improvement in locomotive function from five days post-injury in rats that underwent PMW-mediated siRNA delivery. This was attributable to the moderate silencing of the IF proteins and the subsequent decrease in the cavity area in the injured spinal tissue.

  11. Expressão dos filamentos intermediários no diagnóstico dos tumores mamários de cadelas Expression of intermediate filaments in canine mammary tumors diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A.P.C. Zuccari

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados anticorpos monoclonais para marcação imunoistoquímica dos tecidos tumorais e obtenção de informações sobre a histogênese dos tumores mamários utilizando-se anti-citoqueratinas para marcação de células epiteliais, e anti-actina e anti-vimentina para células mioepiteliais. O procedimento imunoistoquímico mostrou-se esclarecedor com relação à histogênese dos tumores mamários, confirmando a marcação de células epiteliais com as citoqueratinas que perdem sua expressão na transformação celular maligna. A alfa-actina e a vimentina mostraram-se eficientes na marcação de células mioepiteliais. A alfa-actina diminuiu a marcação na metaplasia óssea ou cartilaginosa contrariamente à vimentina cuja marcação foi aumentada. Os resultados permitem melhor entendimento da classificação dos tumores mamários de cadelas com a utilização de anticorpos monoclonais como marcadores do citoesqueleto, que se mostraram eficientes nessa caracterização.Immunohistochemical evaluation was performed to study the histogenesis of canine mammary tumors and to contribute to a better understanding of their classification. Monoclonal antibodies specific for different types of intermediate filaments (cytokeratins, vimentin, alpha-actin were used. Epithelial cells stained positively for cytokeratins and their expression was lost as the malignant transformation occurs. Myoepithelial cells stained positively for vimentin and alpha-actin. In contrast to vimentin, alpha-actin lost the expression as the cartilaginous or osseous metaplasia occurs. Immunohistochemical evaluation with monoclonal antibodies proved to be efficient for identification of tumor histogenesis. alpha-actin were used. Epithelial cells stained positively for cytokeratins and their expression was lost as the malignant transformation occurs. Myoepithelial cells stained positively for vimentin and alpha-actin. In contrast to vimentin, alpha-actin lost the expression

  12. Assays to Study Consequences of Cytoplasmic Intermediate Filament Mutations: The Case of Epidermal Keratins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tong San; Ng, Yi Zhen; Badowski, Cedric; Dang, Tram; Common, John E A; Lacina, Lukas; Szeverényi, Ildikó; Lane, E Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of the causative link between keratin mutations and a growing number of human diseases opened the way for a better understanding of the function of the whole intermediate filament families of cytoskeleton proteins. This chapter describes analytical approaches to identification and interpretation of the consequences of keratin mutations, from the clinical and diagnostic level to cells in tissue culture. Intermediate filament pathologies can be accurately diagnosed from skin biopsies and DNA samples. The Human Intermediate Filament Database collates reported mutations in intermediate filament genes and their diseases, and can help clinicians to establish accurate diagnoses, leading to disease stratification for genetic counseling, optimal care delivery, and future mutation-aligned new therapies. Looking at the best-studied keratinopathy, epidermolysis bullosa simplex, the generation of cell lines mimicking keratinopathies is described, in which tagged mutant keratins facilitate live-cell imaging to make use of today's powerful enhanced light microscopy modalities. Cell stress assays such as cell spreading and cell migration in scratch wound assays can interrogate the consequences of the compromised cytoskeletal network. Application of extrinsic stresses, such as heat, osmotic, or mechanical stress, can enhance the differentiation of mutant keratin cells from wild-type cells. To bring the experiments to the next level, 3D organotypic human cultures can be generated, and even grafted onto the backs of immunodeficient mice for greater in vivo relevance. While development of these assays has focused on mutant K5/K14 cells, the approaches are often applicable to mutations in other intermediate filaments, reinforcing fundamental commonalities in spite of diverse clinical pathologies. Copyright © 2016 Tong San Tan, Yi Zhen Ng, Cedric Badowski, Tram Dang, John E.A. Common, Lukas Lacina, Ildikó Szeverényi, and E. Birgitte Lane. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  13. Cytoskeleton in motion: the dynamics of keratin intermediate filaments in epithelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windoffer, Reinhard; Beil, Michael; Magin, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Epithelia are exposed to multiple forms of stress. Keratin intermediate filaments are abundant in epithelia and form cytoskeletal networks that contribute to cell type–specific functions, such as adhesion, migration, and metabolism. A perpetual keratin filament turnover cycle supports these functions. This multistep process keeps the cytoskeleton in motion, facilitating rapid and protein biosynthesis–independent network remodeling while maintaining an intact network. The current challenge is to unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of the keratin cycle in relation to actin and microtubule networks and in the context of epithelial tissue function. PMID:21893596

  14. Withaferin A effectively targets soluble vimentin in the glaucoma filtration surgical model of fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagna-Mohan, Paola; Deokule, Sunil P; Thompson, Kyle; Wizeman, John; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Vooturi, Sunil; Kompella, Uday B; Mohan, Royce

    2013-01-01

    Withaferin A (WFA) is a natural product that binds to soluble forms of the type III intermediate filament (IF) vimentin. Currently, it is unknown under what pathophysiological contexts vimentin is druggable, as cytoskeltal vimentin-IFs are abundantly expressed. To investigate druggability of vimentin, we exploited rabbit Tenon's capsule fibroblast (RbTCF) cell cultures and the rabbit glaucoma filtration surgical (GFS) model of fibrosis. WFA potently caused G₀/G₁ cell cycle inhibition (IC₅₀ 25 nM) in RbTCFs, downregulating ubiquitin E3 ligase skp2 and inducing p27(Kip1) expression. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß-induced myofibroblast transformation caused development of cell spheroids with numerous elongated invadopodia, which WFA blocked potently by downregulating soluble vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) expression. In the pilot proof-of-concept study using the GFS model, subconjunctival injections of a low WFA dose reduced skp2 expression in Tenon's capsule and increased p27(Kip1) expression without significant alteration to vimentin-IFs. This treatment maintains significant nanomolar WFA concentrations in anterior segment tissues that correspond to WFA's cell cycle targeting activity. A ten-fold higher WFA dose caused potent downregulation of soluble vimentin and skp2 expression, but as found in cell cultures, no further increase in p27(Kip1) expression was observed. Instead, this high WFA dose potently induced vimentin-IF disruption and downregulated α-SMA expression that mimicked WFA activity in TGF-ß-treated RbTCFs that blocked cell contractile activity at submicromolar concentrations. These findings illuminate that localized WFA injection to ocular tissues exerts pharmacological control over the skp2-p27(Kip1) pathway by targeting of soluble vimentin in a model of surgical fibrosis.

  15. Withaferin A effectively targets soluble vimentin in the glaucoma filtration surgical model of fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Bargagna-Mohan

    Full Text Available Withaferin A (WFA is a natural product that binds to soluble forms of the type III intermediate filament (IF vimentin. Currently, it is unknown under what pathophysiological contexts vimentin is druggable, as cytoskeltal vimentin-IFs are abundantly expressed. To investigate druggability of vimentin, we exploited rabbit Tenon's capsule fibroblast (RbTCF cell cultures and the rabbit glaucoma filtration surgical (GFS model of fibrosis. WFA potently caused G₀/G₁ cell cycle inhibition (IC₅₀ 25 nM in RbTCFs, downregulating ubiquitin E3 ligase skp2 and inducing p27(Kip1 expression. Transforming growth factor (TGF-ß-induced myofibroblast transformation caused development of cell spheroids with numerous elongated invadopodia, which WFA blocked potently by downregulating soluble vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA expression. In the pilot proof-of-concept study using the GFS model, subconjunctival injections of a low WFA dose reduced skp2 expression in Tenon's capsule and increased p27(Kip1 expression without significant alteration to vimentin-IFs. This treatment maintains significant nanomolar WFA concentrations in anterior segment tissues that correspond to WFA's cell cycle targeting activity. A ten-fold higher WFA dose caused potent downregulation of soluble vimentin and skp2 expression, but as found in cell cultures, no further increase in p27(Kip1 expression was observed. Instead, this high WFA dose potently induced vimentin-IF disruption and downregulated α-SMA expression that mimicked WFA activity in TGF-ß-treated RbTCFs that blocked cell contractile activity at submicromolar concentrations. These findings illuminate that localized WFA injection to ocular tissues exerts pharmacological control over the skp2-p27(Kip1 pathway by targeting of soluble vimentin in a model of surgical fibrosis.

  16. Complete Structure of an Epithelial Keratin Dimer: Implications for Intermediate Filament Assembly.

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    David J Bray

    Full Text Available Keratins are cytoskeletal proteins that hierarchically arrange into filaments, starting with the dimer sub-unit. They are integral to the structural support of cells, in skin, hair and nails. In skin, keratin is thought to play a critical role in conferring the barrier properties and elasticity of skin. In general, the keratin dimer is broadly described by a tri-domain structure: a head, a central rod and a tail. As yet, no atomistic-scale picture of the entire dimer structure exists; this information is pivotal for establishing molecular-level connections between structure and function in intermediate filament proteins. The roles of the head and tail domains in facilitating keratin filament assembly and function remain as open questions. To address these, we report results of molecular dynamics simulations of the entire epithelial human K1/K10 keratin dimer. Our findings comprise: (1 the first three-dimensional structural models of the complete dimer unit, comprising of the head, rod and tail domains; (2 new insights into the chirality of the rod-domain twist gained from analysis of the full domain structure; (3 evidence for tri-subdomain partitioning in the head and tail domains; and, (4 identification of the residue characteristics that mediate non-covalent contact between the chains in the dimer. Our findings are immediately applicable to other epithelial keratins, such as K8/K18 and K5/K14, and to intermediate filament proteins in general.

  17. A protein antigenically related to nuclear lamin B mediates the association of intermediate filaments with desmosomes

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Desmosomes are specialized domains of epithelial cell plasma membranes engaged in the anchoring of intermediate filaments (IF). So far, the desmosomal component(s) responsible for this binding has not been unambiguously identified. In the present work, we have examined bovine muzzle epidermis desmosomes for the presence of protein(s) structurally and functionally related to lamin B, the major receptor for IF in the nuclear envelope (Georgatos, S. D., and G. Blobel. 1987. J. Cell Biol. 105:105...

  18. Simultaneous identification of multi-combustion-intermediates of alkanol-air flames by femtosecond filament excitation for combustion sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Helong; Chu, Wei; Xu, Huailiang; Cheng, Ya; Chin, See-Leang; Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Laser filamentation produced by the propagation of intense laser pulses in flames is opening up new possibility in application to combustion diagnostics that can provide useful information on understanding combustion processes, enhancing combustion efficiency and reducing pollutant products. Here we present simultaneous identification of multiple combustion intermediates by femtosecond filament excitation for five alkanol-air flames fueled by methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol, and n-pentanol. We experimentally demonstrate that the intensities of filament-induced photoemission signals from the combustion intermediates C, C2, CH, CN increase with the increasing number of carbons in the fuel molecules, and the signal ratios between the intermediates (CH/C, CH/C2, CN/C, CH/C2, CN/CH) are different for different alkanol combustion flames. Our observation provides a way for sensing multiple combustion components by femtosecond filament excitation in various combustion conditions that strongly depend on the fuel species. PMID:27250021

  19. Developmental pattern of the neuronal intermediate filament inaa in the zebrafish retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Meng-Lin; Peng, Wei-Hau; Kan, Daphne; Chien, Chung-Liang

    2016-12-15

    α-Internexin is a member of the neuronal intermediate filament (nIF) protein family, which also includes peripherin and neurofilament (NF) triplet proteins. Previous studies found that expression of α-internexin precedes that of the NF triplet proteins in mammals and suggested that α-internexin plays a key role in the neuronal cytoskeleton network during development. In this study, we aimed to analyze the expression patterns and function of internexin neuronal intermediate filament protein-alpha a (inaa), the encoding gene of which is a homolog of the mammalian α-internexin, during retinal development in zebrafish. Via in vitro and in vivo studies, we demonstrated that zebrafish inaa is an α-internexin homolog that shares characteristics with nIFs. An immunohistochemical analysis of zebrafish revealed that inaa was distributed dynamically in the developing retina. It was widely localized in retinal neuroepithelial cells at 1 day postfertilization (dpf), and was mainly found in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) and inner part of the inner nuclear layer (INL) from 3-9 dpf; after 14 dpf, it was restricted to the outer nuclear layer (ONL). Moreover, we demonstrated for the first time that inaa acted distinctively from the cytoskeletal scaffold of zebrafish cone photoreceptors during development. In conclusion, we demonstrated the morphological features of a novel nIF, inaa, and illustrated its developmental expression pattern in the zebrafish retina. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3810-3826, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Intermediate filament-co-localized molecules with myosin heavy chain epitopes define distinct cellular domains in hair follicles and epidermis

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    Hughes Simon M

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins linking intermediate filaments to other cytoskeletal components have important functions in maintaining tissue integrity and cell shape. Results We found a set of monoclonal antibodies raised against specific human sarcomeric myosin heavy chain (MyHC isoforms labels cells in distinct regions of the mammalian epidermis. The antigens co-localize with intermediate filament-containing structures. A slow MyHC-related antigen is punctate on the cell surface and co-localizes with desmoplakin at desmosomal junctions of all suprabasal epidermal layers from rat fœtal day 16 onwards, in the root sheath of the hair follicle and in intercalated disks of cardiomyocytes. A fast MyHC-related antigen occurs in cytoplasmic filaments in a subset of basal cells of skin epidermis and bulb, but not neck, of hair follicles. A fast IIA MyHC-related antigen labels filaments of a single layer of cells in hair bulb. This 230 000 Mr antigen co-purifies with keratin. No obvious candidate for any of the antigens appears in the literature. Conclusions We describe a set of molecules that co-localize with intermediate filament in specific cell subsets in epithelial tissues. These antigens presumably influence intermediate filament structure or function.

  1. Novel association of APC with intermediate filaments identified using a new versatile APC antibody

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    Coffey Robert J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a key player in suppression of colon tumorigenesis, Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC has been widely studied to determine its cellular functions. However, inconsistencies of commercially available APC antibodies have limited the exploration of APC function. APC is implicated in spindle formation by direct interactions with tubulin and microtubule-binding protein EB1. APC also interacts with the actin cytoskeleton to regulate cell polarity. Until now, interaction of APC with the third cytoskeletal element, intermediate filaments, has remained unexamined. Results We generated an APC antibody (APC-M2 pAb raised against the 15 amino acid repeat region, and verified its reliability in applications including immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence in cultured cells and tissue. Utilizing this APC-M2 pAb, we immunoprecipitated endogenous APC and its binding proteins from colon epithelial cells expressing wild-type APC. Using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, we identified 42 proteins in complex with APC, including β-catenin and intermediate filament (IF proteins lamin B1 and keratin 81. Association of lamin B1 with APC in cultured cells and human colonic tissue was verified by co-immunoprecipitation and colocalization. APC also colocalized with keratins and remained associated with IF proteins throughout a sequential extraction procedure. Conclusion We introduce a versatile APC antibody that is useful for cell/tissue immunostaining, immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. We also present evidence for interactions between APC and IFs, independent of actin filaments and microtubules. Our results suggest that APC associates with all three major components of the cytoskeleton, thus expanding potential roles for APC in the regulation of cytoskeletal integrity.

  2. Filamentous biopolymers on surfaces: atomic force microscopy images compared with Brownian dynamics simulation of filament deposition.

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    Norbert Mücke

    Full Text Available Nanomechanical properties of filamentous biopolymers, such as the persistence length, may be determined from two-dimensional images of molecules immobilized on surfaces. For a single filament in solution, two principal adsorption scenarios are possible. Both scenarios depend primarily on the interaction strength between the filament and the support: i For interactions in the range of the thermal energy, the filament can freely equilibrate on the surface during adsorption; ii For interactions much stronger than the thermal energy, the filament will be captured by the surface without having equilibrated. Such a 'trapping' mechanism leads to more condensed filament images and hence to a smaller value for the apparent persistence length. To understand the capture mechanism in more detail we have performed Brownian dynamics simulations of relatively short filaments by taking the two extreme scenarios into account. We then compared these 'ideal' adsorption scenarios with observed images of immobilized vimentin intermediate filaments on different surfaces. We found a good agreement between the contours of the deposited vimentin filaments on mica ('ideal' trapping and on glass ('ideal' equilibrated with our simulations. Based on these data, we have developed a strategy to reliably extract the persistence length of short worm-like chain fragments or network forming filaments with unknown polymer-surface interactions.

  3. Increased vimentin mRNA expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line after repeated endoxifen-treatment

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    Paramita Paramita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT plays a significant role in the development of cancer cell resistance to drugs. Vimentin, a type III intermediate filament protein, is a marker of EMT. Vimentin's over-expression in cancer correlates well with increased tumor growth, change in cell shape and poor prognosis. Endoxifen is an active metabolite of tamoxifen  and has become a new potent agent in the treatment of breast cancer. This is a study that aimed to investigate the effect of endoxifen exposure with or without estradiol on cell viability, cell morphology and EMT progression through the analysis of vimentin mRNA expression after 4-week treatment.Methods: Endoxifen, 100 nM or 1,000 nM, with or without beta-estradiol were given repeatedly to MCF-7 cells. Cells treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO 0.001% were used as control. After 2- and 4-week exposure, the cells were counted, analyzed for mRNA vimentin expression, and observed for morphological changes.Results: Compared to control, there were significant decreases in vimentin mRNA expressions in endoxifen and endoxifen+β-estradiol treated cells after 2-weeks, which then significantly increased after 4-week compared with the 2-week exposure. We found no change in morphology of MCF-7 cells.Conclusion: Repeated exposure of endoxifen might induce EMT progression through increased expression of vimentin in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line.

  4. Renal cells express different forms of vimentin: the independent expression alteration of these forms is important in cell resistance to osmotic stress and apoptosis.

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    Bettina S Buchmaier

    Full Text Available Osmotic stress has been shown to regulate cytoskeletal protein expression. It is generally known that vimentin is rapidly degraded during apoptosis by multiple caspases, resulting in diverse vimentin fragments. Despite the existence of the known apoptotic vimentin fragments, we demonstrated in our study the existence of different forms of vimentin VIM I, II, III, and IV with different molecular weights in various renal cell lines. Using a proteomics approach followed by western blot analyses and immunofluorescence staining, we proved the apoptosis-independent existence and differential regulation of different vimentin forms under varying conditions of osmolarity in renal cells. Similar impacts of osmotic stress were also observed on the expression of other cytoskeleton intermediate filament proteins; e.g., cytokeratin. Interestingly, 2D western blot analysis revealed that the forms of vimentin are regulated independently of each other under glucose and NaCl osmotic stress. Renal cells, adapted to high NaCl osmotic stress, express a high level of VIM IV (the form with the highest molecular weight, besides the three other forms, and exhibit higher resistance to apoptotic induction with TNF-α or staurosporin compared to the control. In contrast, renal cells that are adapted to high glucose concentration and express only the lower-molecular-weight forms VIM I and II, were more susceptible to apoptosis. Our data proved the existence of different vimentin forms, which play an important role in cell resistance to osmotic stress and are involved in cell protection against apoptosis.

  5. Spectral selectivity model for light transmission by the intermediate filaments in Müller cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmelinskii, Igor; Golubeva, Tatiana; Korneeva, Elena; Inyushin, Mikhail; Zueva, Lidia; Makarov, Vladimir

    2017-08-01

    Presently we continue our studies of the quantum mechanism of light energy transmission in the form of excitons by axisymmetric nanostructures with electrically conductive walls. Using our theoretical model, we analyzed the light energy transmission by biopolymers forming optical channels within retinal Müller cells. There are specialized intermediate filaments (IF) 10-18nm in diameter, built of electrically conductive polypeptides. Presently, we analyzed the spectral selectivity of these nanostructures. We found that their transmission spectrum depends on their diameter and wall thickness. We also considered the classical approach, comparing the results with those predicted by the quantum mechanism. We performed experimental measurements on model quantum waveguides, made of rectangular nanometer-thick chromium (Cr) tracks. The optical spectrum of such waveguides varied with their thickness. We compared the experimental absorption/transmission spectra with those predicted by our model, with good agreement between the two. We report that the observed spectra may be explained by the same mechanisms as operating in metal nanolayers. Both the models and the experiment show that Cr nanotracks have high light transmission efficiency in a narrow spectral range, with the spectral maximum dependent on the layer thickness. Therefore, a set of intermediate filaments with different geometries may provide light transmission over the entire visible spectrum with a very high (~90%) efficiency. Thus, we believe that high contrast and visual resolution in daylight are provided by the quantum mechanism of energy transfer in the form of excitons, whereas the ultimate retinal sensitivity of the night vision is provided by the classical mechanism of photons transmitted by the Müller cell light-guides. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Multiple roles for keratin intermediate filaments in the regulation of epithelial barrier function and apico-basal polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Pedro J; Forteza, Radia; Mashukova, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    As multicellular organisms evolved a family of cytoskeletal proteins, the keratins (types I and II) expressed in epithelial cells diversified in more than 20 genes in vertebrates. There is no question that keratin filaments confer mechanical stiffness to cells. However, such a number of genes can hardly be explained by evolutionary advantages in mechanical features. The use of transgenic mouse models has revealed unexpected functional relationships between keratin intermediate filaments and intracellular signaling. Accordingly, loss of keratins or mutations in keratins that cause or predispose to human diseases, result in increased sensitivity to apoptosis, regulation of innate immunity, permeabilization of tight junctions, and mistargeting of apical proteins in different epithelia. Precise mechanistic explanations for these phenomena are still lacking. However, immobilization of membrane or cytoplasmic proteins, including chaperones, on intermediate filaments ("scaffolding") appear as common molecular mechanisms and may explain the need for so many different keratin genes in vertebrates.

  7. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and the astrocyte intermediate filament system in diseases of the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, Elly M.; Pekny, Milos

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the hallmark intermediate filament (IF; also known as nanofilament) protein in astrocytes, a main type of glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocytes have a range of control and homeostatic functions in health and disease. Astrocytes assume a

  8. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and the astrocyte intermediate filament system in diseases of the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, E.M.; Pekny, M.

    2015-01-01

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the hallmark intermediate filament (IF; also known as nanofilament) protein in astrocytes, a main type of glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocytes have a range of control and homeostatic functions in health and disease. Astrocytes assume a

  9. Patterns of cytodistribution of prosomal antigens on the vimentin and cytokeratin networks of monkey kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcangeletti, C; Olink-Coux, M; Minisini, R; Huesca, M; Chezzi, C; Scherrer, K

    1992-12-01

    Prosomes were found as mRNA-associated ribonucleoprotein particles (RNP) and cofactors of untranslated (ribosome-) free mRNP. Previous data have shown the presence of prosomal networks in the cytoplasm of PtK1 and HeLa cells and their superposition onto the intermediate filaments (IF) of cytokeratin type but little if any of vimentin type. Here it is shown that in LLC-MK2 cells various prosomal antigens are present on both, vimentin and cytokeratin networks, individual prosomal antigens superposing to variable degrees onto the IF subnetworks. Some prosomal antigens in variable relative concentrations were also observed in the nuclei of these cells. We suggest the existence of prosomal subnetworks specific for each prosomal antigen superposing to a variable extent onto the IF of both types.

  10. Great promises yet to be fulfilled: defining keratin intermediate filament function in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulombe, Pierre A; Tong, Xuemei; Mazzalupo, Stacy; Wang, Zhiling; Wong, Pauline

    2004-12-01

    Keratins are abundant proteins in epithelial cells, in which they occur as a cytoplasmic network of 10 - 12 nm wide intermediate filaments (IFs). They are encoded by a large family of conserved genes in mammals, with more than 50 individual members partitioned into two sequence types. A strict requirement for the heteropolymerization of type I and type II keratin proteins during filament formation underlies the pairwise transcriptional regulation of keratin genes. In addition, individual pairs are regulated in a tissue-type and differentiation-specific manner. Elucidating the rationale behind the diversity and differential distribution of keratin proteins offers the promise of novel insight into epithelial biology. At present, we know that keratin IFs act as resilient yet pliable scaffolds that endow epithelial cells with the ability to sustain mechanical and non-mechanical stresses. Accordingly, inherited mutations altering the coding sequence of keratins underlie several epithelial fragility disorders. In addition, keratin IFs influence the cellular response to pro-apoptotic signals in specific settings, and the routing of membrane proteins in polarized epithelia. Here we review studies focused on a subset of keratin genes, K6, K16 and K17, showing a complex regulation in vivo, including a widely known upregulation during wound repair and in diseased skin. Progress in defining the function of these and other keratins through gene manipulation in mice has been hampered by functional redundancy within the family. Still, detailed studies of the phenotype exhibited by K6 and K17 null mice yielded novel insight into the properties and function of keratin IFs in vivo.

  11. Atypical vimentin expression in a feline salivary gland adenocarcinoma with widespread metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Christelle; Benal, Yasmine; Caplier, Laura; Rakotovao, Farasoa; Fontaine, Jean-Jacques

    2009-12-01

    We report herein a feline salivary gland adenocarcinoma with widespread metastases to draining lymph nodes, liver and lung, as well as an unusual metastasis to the spleen. Histologically, the primary salivary gland tumor consisted of low columnar to polygonal epithelial cells forming tubules and trabeculae. The spleen was infiltrated with sheets of poorly differentiated large round cells. Interestingly, morphologic change in epithelial cells was accompanied with the acquisition of vimentin intermediate filaments, a feature particularly evident in the splenic metastasis. This study highlights the role of epithelial cell plasticity during carcinogenesis and metastasis.

  12. Neuronal intermediate filaments in the developing tongue of the frog Rana esculenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Zuwala

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The expression of several neuronal intermediate filament (NIF proteins was investigated in the tongue of metamorphosing tadpoles (stage 38-45 of Gosner and in adult individuals of the frog, Rana esculenta by means of immunohistochemistry. Results showed that nerve fibres at early stages of tongue development expressed peripherin (a NIF protein usually found in differentiating neurones as well as the light- and medium molecular weight NIF polypeptide subunits (NF-L and NF-M, respectively; in the adult frog, peripherin was still found in nerve fibres reaching the fungiform papilla together with NF-M, but NF-L immunoreactivity was absent therein. Clusters of epithelial cells expressing peripherin were found in the early developing tongue before differentiation of taste organs, and NF-L and NF-H immunoreactivities were present in basal (Merkel cells of the adult frog taste disc. Results indicate that neurones innervating the adult frog’s taste disc maintain a certain plasticity in their cytoskeleton and that neuronal-like cells are present in the undifferentiated and differentiated tongue epithelium possibly playing a role in the developing and mature taste organ.

  13. Regulation of hard α-keratin mechanics via control of intermediate filament hydration: matrix squeeze revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Daniel A; Fudge, Douglas S

    2013-01-07

    Mammalian hard α-keratins are fibre-reinforced biomaterials that consist of 10 nm intermediate filaments (IFs) embedded in an elastomeric protein matrix. Recent work suggests that the mechanical properties of IFs are highly sensitive to hydration, whereas hard α-keratins such as wool, hair and nail are relatively hydration insensitive. This raises the question of how mammalian keratins remain stiff in water. The matrix squeeze hypothesis states that the IFs in hard α-keratins are stiffened during an air-drying step during keratinization, and subsequently locked into a dehydrated state via the oxidation and cross-linking of the keratin matrix around them. The result is that even when hard α-keratins are immersed in water, their constituent IFs remain essentially 'dry' and therefore stiff. This hypothesis makes several predictions about the effects of matrix abundance and function on hard α-keratin mechanics and swelling behaviour. Specifically, it predicts that high matrix keratins in water will swell less, and have a higher tensile modulus, a higher yield stress and a lower dry-to-wet modulus ratio. It also predicts that disruption of the keratin matrix in water should lead to additional swelling, and a drop in modulus and yield stress. Our results are consistent with these predictions and suggest that the keratin matrix plays a critical role in governing the mechanical properties of mammalian keratins via control of IF hydration.

  14. Antibodies to intermediate filament proteins as molecular markers in clinical tumor pathology. Differentiation of carcinomas by their reaction with different cytokeratin antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krepler, R; Denk, H; Artlieb, U; Fichtinger, E; Davidovits, A

    1982-01-01

    Antibodies to human and bovine epidermal prekeratin and antibodies to mouse liver cytokeratin component D (Mr 49 000) have been applied in indirect immunofluorescence microscopy on sections of human tumors of mammary gland and liver. In non-neoplastic mammary gland all epithelial cells were stained with these antibodies. In pre-invasive and invasive ductal and lobular carcinomas a cell population was observed which was not significantly stained with antibodies to epidermal prekeratin but did strongly react with antibodies to liver cytokeratin D. In the liver, the antibodies to epidermal prekeratin as well as those directed against liver cytokeratin D strongly decorated bile duct epithelia. In contrast, significant staining of the hepatocytes was only achieved with antibodies to liver cytokeratin D. This different staining reaction was maintained in liver tumors of hepatocellular and cholangiocellular origin. Antibodies to vimentin stained mesenchymal cells and tumors of mesenchymal derivation but reacted not significantly with any of the epithelial and carcinoma cells examined. The difference is of practical importance for the discrimination between anaplastic carcinomas and sarcomas of unknown origin. Cytokeratin could also be detected by antibody staining using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) technique in formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded material of skin, gastrointestinal, respiratory, urinary and genital tract as well as various glands, liver and kidney. Examples of positive reactions were shown in a squamous cell carcinoma, a basalioma and a pleomorphic adenoma of the parotis. It is concluded that the immunohistochemical analysis of intermediate filament proteins has diagnostic potential in clinical pathology and may help to elucidate histogenesis and differentiation of tumors and possibly also prognosis of tumor growth. It is further suggested to use antibodies recognizing different subsets of proteins of the cytokeratin family in order to

  15. Induction and segregation of glial intermediate filament expression in the RT4 family of peripheral nervous system cell lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, M. R.; Sueoka, N

    1987-01-01

    We have found glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), the major component of astrocyte intermediate filaments, to be expressed in cell lines of the RT4 peripheral neurotumor family. The RT4 family is a "stem-cell-like" cell line, RT4-AC, that spontaneously undergoes differentiation in culture to three derivative cell types. This process, termed cell-type conversion, results in a segregation among the derivative cell types of parental cell phenotypes that have been described as neuronal-like o...

  16. Two Domains of Vimentin Are Expressed on the Surface of Lymph Node, Bone and Brain Metastatic Prostate Cancer Lines along with the Putative Stem Cell Marker Proteins CD44 and CD133

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmetz, Nicole F. [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, 10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Maurer, Jochen [Sanford-Burnham, Medical Research Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Sheng, Huiming [Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Division of Immune Regulation, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Bensussan, Armand [INSERM U976, Hôpital Saint Louis, F-75475 Paris (France); Department of Immunology, Dermatology and Oncology, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMRS976 F-75475 Paris (France); Maricic, Igor; Kumar, Vipin [Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Laboratory of Autoimmunity, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Braciak, Todd A., E-mail: tbraciak@tpims.org [Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Division of Immune Regulation, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2011-07-13

    Vimentin was originally identified as an intermediate filament protein present only as an intracellular component in many cell types. However, this protein has now been detected on the surface of a number of different cancer cell types in a punctate distribution pattern. Increased vimentin expression has been indicated as an important step in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) required for the metastasis of prostate cancer. Here, using two vimentin-specific monoclonal antibodies (SC5 and V9 directed against the coil one rod domain and the C-terminus of the vimentin protein, respectively), we examined whether either of these domains would be displayed on the surface of three commonly studied prostate cancer cell lines isolated from different sites of metastases. Confocal analysis of LNCaP, PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines (derived from lymph node, bone or brain prostate metastases, respectively) demonstrated that both domains of vimentin are present on the surface of these metastatic cancer cell types. In addition, flow cytometric analysis revealed that vimentin expression was readily detected along with CD44 expression but only a small subpopulation of prostate cancer cells expressed vimentin and the putative stem cell marker CD133 along with CD44. Finally, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) nanoparticles that target vimentin could bind and internalize into tested prostate cancer cell lines. These results demonstrate that at least two domains of vimentin are present on the surface of metastatic prostate cancer cells and suggest that vimentin could provide a useful target for nanoparticle- or antibody- cancer therapeutic agents directed against highly invasive cancer and/or stem cells.

  17. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system. Patterns of expression of neuroendocrine markers, and all classes of intermediate filament proteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gould, V E; Jansson, D S; Molenaar, W M; Rorke, L B; Trojanowski, J Q; Lee, V M; Packer, R J; Franke, W W

    1990-01-01

    Snap-frozen samples from 22 primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) primary in the central nervous system were studied with antibodies to synaptophysin, bombesin, somatostatin, substance P, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, all classes of intermediate filaments, and desmoplakins I and II. Frozen

  18. ngs (notochord granular surface) gene encodes a novel type of intermediate filament family protein essential for notochord maintenance in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiangjun; Xia, Zhidan; Zu, Yao; Telfer, Helena; Hu, Jing; Yu, Jingyi; Liu, Huan; Zhang, Quan; Sodmergen; Lin, Shuo; Zhang, Bo

    2013-01-25

    The notochord is an important organ involved in embryonic patterning and locomotion. In zebrafish, the mature notochord consists of a single stack of fully differentiated, large vacuolated cells called chordocytes, surrounded by a single layer of less differentiated notochordal epithelial cells called chordoblasts. Through genetic analysis of zebrafish lines carrying pseudo-typed retroviral insertions, a mutant exhibiting a defective notochord with a granular appearance was isolated, and the corresponding gene was identified as ngs (notochord granular surface), which was specifically expressed in the notochord. In the mutants, the notochord started to degenerate from 32 hours post-fertilization, and the chordocytes were then gradually replaced by smaller cells derived from chordoblasts. The granular notochord phenotype was alleviated by anesthetizing the mutant embryos with tricaine to prevent muscle contraction and locomotion. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ngs encodes a new type of intermediate filament (IF) family protein, which we named chordostatin based on its function. Under the transmission electron microcopy, bundles of 10-nm-thick IF-like filaments were enriched in the chordocytes of wild-type zebrafish embryos, whereas the chordocytes in ngs mutants lacked IF-like structures. Furthermore, chordostatin-enhanced GFP (EGFP) fusion protein assembled into a filamentous network specifically in chordocytes. Taken together, our work demonstrates that ngs encodes a novel type of IF protein and functions to maintain notochord integrity for larval development and locomotion. Our work sheds light on the mechanisms of notochord structural maintenance, as well as the evolution and biological function of IF family proteins.

  19. Prognostic Values of Vimentin Expression and Its Clinicopathological Significance in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies with 4118 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhihua; Zhang, Xin; Luo, Yihuan; Li, Shikang; Huang, Lanshan; Li, Zuyun; Li, Ping; Chen, Gang

    Vimentin is a member of the intermediate filament proteins and a canonical marker of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is pivotal in tumorigenesis, metastasis and invasion in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The current meta-analysis aimed to investigate the associations between vimentin and prognosis and progression in NSCLC. Databases with literature published in English, including PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Science Direct, Wiley Online Library, Ovid, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, LILACS and Google Scholar, and the CNKI, VIP, CBM and WanFang databases in Chinese were used for the literature search. The key terms included (1) 'vimentin' OR 'vim' OR 'vmt' OR 'vm' OR 'hel113' OR 'ctrct30' and (2) 'pulmon*' OR 'lung' OR 'alveolar' and (3) 'cancer' OR 'carcinoma' OR 'tumor' OR 'adenocarcinoma' OR 'squamous' OR 'neoplas*' OR 'malignan*'. The data were combined by random effect model and the H value and I2 were used to assess the heterogeneity. All the meta-analysis was conducted using Stata 12.0. Thirty-two qualified studies (4118 cases) were included in the current meta-analysis. Twelve studies with 1750 patients were included to assess the significance of vimentin in the overall survival (OS) of NSCLC; the pooled hazard ratio (HR) was 1.831 (confidence interval (CI): 1.315-2.550, P0.05). An overexpression of vimentin may predict the progression and an unfavorable survival of NSCLC. Vimentin may represent a helpful biomarker and a potential target for the treatment strategies of NSCLC. Additional, prospective studies with large samples are necessary to confirm the significance of vimentin in NSCLC.

  20. Visualization of prosomes (MCP-proteasomes), intermediate filament and actin networks by "instantaneous fixation" preserving the cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcangeletti, C; Sütterlin, R; Aebi, U; De Conto, F; Missorini, S; Chezzi, C; Scherrer, K

    1997-06-01

    A new "instantaneous" fixation/extraction procedure, yielding good preservation of intermediate filaments (IFs) and actin filaments when applied at 37 degrees C, has been explored to reexamine the relationships of the prosomes to the cytoskeleton. Prosomes are protein complexes of variable subunit composition, including occasionally a small RNA, which were originally observed as trans-acting factors in untranslated mRNPs. Constituting also the proteolytic core of the 26S proteasomes, they are also called "multicatalytic proteinase (MCP) complexes" or "20S-Proteasomes." In Triton X-100-extracted epithelial, fibroblastic, and muscle cells, prosome particles were found associated primarily with the IFs (Olink-Coux et al., 1994). Application of "instantaneous fixation" has now led to the new observation that a major fraction of prosome particles, composed of specific sets of subunits, is distributed in variable proportions between the IFs and the microfilament/ stress fiber system in PtK1 epithelial cells and human fibroblasts. Electron microscopy using gold-labeled antibodies confirms this dual localization on classical whole mounts and on cells exposed to instantaneous fixation. In contrast to the resistance of the prosome-IF association, a variable fraction of the prosome particles is released from the actin cytoskeleton by Triton X-100 when applied prior to fixation. Moreover, in vitro copolymerization of prosomes with G-actin made it possible to observe "ladder-like" filamentous structures in the electron microscope, in which the prosome particles, like the "rungs of a ladder," laterally crosslink two or more actin filaments in a regular pattern. These results demonstrate that prosomes are bound in the cell not only to IFs but also to the actin cytoskeleton and, furthermore, not only within large M(r) complexes (possibly mRNPs and/or 26S proteasomes), but also directly, as individual prosome particles.

  1. A network of 2-4 nm filaments found in sea urchin smooth muscle. Protein constituents and in situ localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pureur, R P; Coffe, G; Soyer-Gobillard, M O; de Billy, F; Pudles, J

    1986-01-01

    In this report the coisolation of two proteins from sea urchin smooth muscle of apparent molecular weights (Mr) 54 and 56 kD respectively, as determined on SDS-PAGE, is described. Like the intermediate filament proteins, these two proteins are insoluble in high ionic strength buffer solution. On two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and by immunological methods it is shown that these proteins are not related (by these criteria) to rat smooth muscle desmin (54 kD) or vimentin (56 kD). Furthermore, in conditions where both desmin and vimentin assemble in vitro into 10 nm filaments, the sea urchin smooth muscle proteins do not assemble into filaments. Ultrastructural studies on the sea urchin smooth muscle cell show that the thin and thick filaments organization resembles that described in the vertebrate smooth muscle. However, instead of 10 nm filaments, a network of filaments, 2-4 nm in diameter, is revealed, upon removal of the thin and thick filaments by 0.6 M KCl treatment. By indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, and in particular by immunocytochemical electron microscopy studies on the sea urchin smooth muscle cell, it is shown that the antibodies raised against both 54 and 56 kD proteins appear to specifically label these 2-4 nm filaments. These findings indicate that both the 54 and 56 kD proteins might be constituents of this category of filaments. The possible significance of this new cytoskeletal element, that we have named echinonematin filaments, is discussed.

  2. Induction and segregation of glial intermediate filament expression in the RT4 family of peripheral nervous system cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, M R; Sueoka, N

    1987-01-01

    We have found glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), the major component of astrocyte intermediate filaments, to be expressed in cell lines of the RT4 peripheral neurotumor family. The RT4 family is a "stem-cell-like" cell line, RT4-AC, that spontaneously undergoes differentiation in culture to three derivative cell types. This process, termed cell-type conversion, results in a segregation among the derivative cell types of parental cell phenotypes that have been described as neuronal-like or glial-like. We have identified a 50-kDa GFAP-immunoreactive cytoskeletal protein and GFAP mRNA in continuous RT4-AC and RT4-D (glial-type derivative) cell lines, but not in two presumptive neuronal-type cell lines. This result suggests that GFAP gene expression is coordinately coupled with the expression of other glial properties during cell-type conversion. In addition, the RT4-AC and RT4-D sublines were found to significantly express GFAP only at high cell densities and not during logarithmic growth and to express GFAP precociously during morphological differentiation following treatment with 1 mM N6, O2'-dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate. These observations closely reflect reports of glial filament expression in astrocyte cultures, suggesting that a common regulatory mechanism is employed by central and peripheral nervous system glia. Images PMID:2441395

  3. Role of Reactive Intermediates in Manganese Oxide Formation By Filamentous Ascomycete Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, C. A.; Anderton, C.; Wu, S.; Purvine, S.; Zink, E.; Paša-Tolić, L.; Santelli, C. M.; Hansel, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Biogenic manganese (Mn) oxide minerals are ubiquitous in the environment, and their high reactivity can profoundly impact the fate of contaminants and cycling of carbon and nutrients. In contrast to bacteria, the pathways utilized by fungi to oxidize Mn(II) to Mn(III,IV) oxides remain largely unknown. Here, we explore the mechanisms of Mn(II) oxidation by a phylogenetically diverse group of filamentous Ascomycete fungi using a combination of chemical assays and bulk and spatially-resolved mass spectrometry. We show that the mechanisms of Mn(II) oxidation vary with fungal species, over time during secretome compositional changes, and in the presence of other fungi. Specifically, our work implicates a dynamic transition in Mn(II) oxidation pathways that varies between species. In particular, while reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced via transmembrane NADPH oxidases are involved in initial oxidation, over time, secreted enzymes become important Mn(II) oxidation mediators for some species. In addition, the overall secretome oxidation capacity varies with time and fungal species. Secretome analysis reveals a surprising absence of enzymes currently considered to be Mn(II)-oxidizing enzymes in these organisms, and instead highlights a wide variety of redox-active enzymes. Furthermore, we implicate fungal cell defense mechanisms in the formation of distinct Mn oxide patterns when fungi are grown in head-to-head competition. The identification and regulation of these secreted enzymes are under current investigation within the bulk secretome and within the interaction zone of structured fungal communities. Overall, our findings illustrate that Ascomycete Mn(II) oxidation mechanisms are highly variable and are dictated by complex environmental and ecological interactions. Future work will explore the connection between Ascomycete Mn(II) oxidation and the ability to degrade cellulose, a key carbon reservoir for biofuel production.

  4. On the formation of lipid droplets in human adipocytes: the organization of the perilipin-vimentin cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Heid

    Full Text Available We report on the heterogeneity and diversity of lipid droplets (LDs in early stages of adipogenesis by elucidating the cell and molecular biology of amphiphilic and cytoskeletal proteins regulating and stabilizing the generation of LDs in human adipose cells. A plethora of distinct and differently sized LDs was detected by a brief application of adipocyte differentiation medium and additional short treatment with oleic acid. Using these cells and highly specific antibodies for LD-binding proteins of the perilipin (PLIN family, we could distinguish between endogenously derived LDs (endogenous LDs positive for perilipin from exogenously induced LDs (exogenous LDs positive for adipophilin, TIP47 and S3-12. Having optimized these stimulation conditions, we used early adipogenic differentiation stages to investigate small-sized LDs and concentrated on LD-protein associations with the intermediate-sized filament (IF vimentin. This IF protein was described earlier to surround lipid globules, showing spherical, cage-like structures. Consequently - by biochemical methods, by immunofluorescence microscopy and by electron- and immunoelectron microscopy - various stages of emerging lipid globules were revealed with perilipin as linking protein between LDs and vimentin. For this LD-PLIN-Vimentin connection, a model is now proposed, suggesting an interaction of proteins via opposed charged amino acid domains respectively. In addition, multiple sheaths of smooth endoplasmic reticulum cisternae surrounding concentrically nascent LDs are shown. Based on our comprehensive localization studies we present and discuss a novel pathway for the LD formation.

  5. Isolation of Intermediate Filament Proteins from Multiple Mouse Tissues to Study Aging-associated Post-translational Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Rachel A; Kabiraj, Parijat; Willcockson, Helen H; Lian, Melinda; Snider, Natasha T

    2017-05-18

    Intermediate filaments (IFs), together with actin filaments and microtubules, form the cytoskeleton - a critical structural element of every cell. Normal functioning IFs provide cells with mechanical and stress resilience, while a dysfunctional IF cytoskeleton compromises cellular health and has been associated with many human diseases. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) critically regulate IF dynamics in response to physiological changes and under stress conditions. Therefore, the ability to monitor changes in the PTM signature of IFs can contribute to a better functional understanding, and ultimately conditioning, of the IF system as a stress responder during cellular injury. However, the large number of IF proteins, which are encoded by over 70 individual genes and expressed in a tissue-dependent manner, is a major challenge in sorting out the relative importance of different PTMs. To that end, methods that enable monitoring of PTMs on IF proteins on an organism-wide level, rather than for isolated members of the family, can accelerate research progress in this area. Here, we present biochemical methods for the isolation of the total, detergent-soluble, and detergent-resistant fraction of IF proteins from 9 different mouse tissues (brain, heart, lung, liver, small intestine, large intestine, pancreas, kidney, and spleen). We further demonstrate an optimized protocol for rapid isolation of IF proteins by using lysing matrix and automated homogenization of different mouse tissues. The automated protocol is useful for profiling IFs in experiments with high sample volume (such as in disease models involving multiple animals and experimental groups). The resulting samples can be utilized for various downstream analyses, including mass spectrometry-based PTM profiling. Utilizing these methods, we provide new data to show that IF proteins in different mouse tissues (brain and liver) undergo parallel changes with respect to their expression levels and PTMs during

  6. Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy of sparsely labeled tobacco mosaic viruses and the intermediate filament desmin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Harder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Both fluorescence imaging and atomic force microscopy (AFM are highly versatile and extensively used in applications ranging from nanotechnology to life sciences. In fluorescence microscopy luminescent dyes serve as position markers. Moreover, they can be used as active reporters of their local vicinity. The dipolar coupling of the tip with the incident light and the fluorophore give rise to a local field and fluorescence enhancement. AFM topographic imaging allows for resolutions down to the atomic scale. It can be operated in vacuum, under ambient conditions and in liquids. This makes it ideal for the investigation of a wide range of different samples. Furthermore an illuminated AFM cantilever tip apex exposes strongly confined non-propagating electromagnetic fields that can serve as a coupling agent for single dye molecules. Thus, combining both techniques by means of apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy (aSNOM enables concurrent high resolution topography and fluorescence imaging. Commonly, among the various (apertureless SNOM approaches metallic or metallized probes are used. Here, we report on our custom-built aSNOM setup, which uses commercially available monolithic silicon AFM cantilevers. The field enhancement confined to the tip apex facilitates an optical resolution down to 20 nm. Furthermore, the use of standard mass-produced AFM cantilevers spares elaborate probe production or modification processes. We investigated tobacco mosaic viruses and the intermediate filament protein desmin. Both are mixed complexes of building blocks, which are fluorescently labeled to a low degree. The simultaneous recording of topography and fluorescence data allows for the exact localization of distinct building blocks within the superordinate structures.

  7. Planck intermediate results XXXIII. Signature of the magnetic field geometry of interstellar filaments in dust polarization maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.

    2016-01-01

    Planck observations at 353 GHz provide the first fully sampled maps of the polarized dust emission towards interstellar filaments and their backgrounds (i.e., the emission observed in the surroundings of the filaments). The data allow us to determine the intrinsic polarization properties of the f...

  8. Planck intermediate results. XXXIII. Signature of the magnetic field geometry of interstellar filaments in dust polarization maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Arnaud, M.; Arzoumanian, D.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Berné, O.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bracco, A.; Burigana, C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Ferrière, K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Guillet, V.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oppermann, N.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Soler, J. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-02-01

    Planck observations at 353 GHz provide the first fully sampled maps of the polarized dust emission towards interstellar filaments and their backgrounds (I.e., the emission observed in the surroundings of the filaments). The data allow us to determine the intrinsic polarization properties of the filaments and therefore to provide insight into the structure of their magnetic field (B). We present the polarization maps of three nearby (several parsecs long) star-forming filaments of moderate column density (NH about 1022 cm-2): Musca, B211, and L1506. These three filaments are detected above the background in dust total and polarized emission. We use the spatial information to separate Stokes I, Q, and U of the filaments from those of their backgrounds, an essential step in measuring the intrinsic polarization fraction (p) and angle (ψ) of each emission component. We find that the polarization angles in the three filaments (ψfil) are coherent along their lengths and not the same as in their backgrounds (ψbg). The differences between ψfil and ψbg are 12° and 54° for Musca and L1506, respectively, and only 6° in the case of B211. These differences forMusca and L1506 are larger than the dispersions of ψ, both along the filaments and in their backgrounds. The observed changes of ψ are direct evidence of variations of the orientation of the plane of the sky (POS) projection of the magnetic field. As in previous studies, we find a decrease of several per cent in p with NH from the backgrounds to the crest of the filaments. We show that the bulk of the drop in p within the filaments cannot be explained by random fluctuations of the orientation of the magnetic field because they are too small (σψ< 10°). We recognize the degeneracy between the dust alignment efficiency (by, e.g., radiative torques) and the structure of the B-field in causing variations in p, but we argue that the decrease in p from the backgrounds to the filaments results in part from

  9. The role of Vimentin in Regulating Cell Invasive Migration in Dense Cultures of Breast Carcinoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messica, Yonatan; Laser-Azogui, Adi; Volberg, Tova; Elisha, Yair; Lysakovskaia, Kseniia; Eils, Roland; Gladilin, Evgeny; Geiger, Benjamin; Beck, Roy

    2017-11-01

    Cell migration and mechanics are tightly regulated by the integrated activities of the various cytoskeletal networks. In cancer cells, cytoskeletal modulations have been implicated in the loss of tissue integrity, and acquisition of an invasive phenotype. In epithelial cancers, for example, increased expression of the cytoskeletal filament protein vimentin correlates with metastatic potential. Nonetheless, the exact mechanism whereby vimentin affects cell motility remains poorly understood. In this study, we measured the effects of vimentin expression on the mechano-elastic and migratory properties of the highly invasive breast carcinoma cell line MDA231. We demonstrate here that vimentin stiffens cells and enhances cell migration in dense cultures, but exerts little or no effect on the migration of sparsely plated cells. These results suggest that cell-cell interactions play a key role in regulating cell migration, and coordinating cell movement in dense cultures. Our findings pave the way towards understanding the relationship between cell migration and mechanics, in a biologically relevant context.

  10. Molecular manipulation of keratin 8/18 intermediate filaments: modulators of FAS-mediated death signaling in human ovarian granulosa tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisdale, Sarah K; Schwab, Nicolette M; Hou, Xiaoying; Davis, John S; Townson, David H

    2016-02-24

    Granulosa cell tumors (GCT) are a rare ovarian neoplasm but prognosis is poor following recurrence. Keratin intermediate filaments expressed in these tumors are a diagnostic marker, yet paradoxically, may also constitute a target for therapeutic intervention. In the current study, we evaluated keratin 8/18 (K8/18) filament expression as a mechanism of resistance to apoptosis in GCT, specifically focusing on regulation of the cell surface death receptor, Fas (FAS). The GCT cell line, KGN, was transiently transfected with siRNA to KRT8 and KRT18 to reduce K8/18 filament expression. Expression of K8/18, FAS, and apoptotic proteins (PARP, cleaved PARP) were evaluated by fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometric analysis, and immunoblotting, respectively. The incidence of FAS-mediated apoptosis in KGN cells was measured by caspase 3/7 activity. All experiments were performed independently three to six times, using a fresh aliquot of KGN cells for each experiment. Quantitative data were analyzed by one- or two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by a Tukey's post-test for multiple comparisons; differences among means were considered statistically significant at P cells exhibited abundant K8/18 filament expression (~90 % of cells), and minimal expression of FAS (cells). These cells were resistant to FAS-activating antibody (FasAb)-induced apoptosis, as determined by detection of cleaved PARP and measurement of caspase 3/7 activity. Conversely, siRNA-mediated knock-down of K8/18 filament expression enhanced FAS expression (> 70 % of cells) and facilitated FasAb-induced apoptosis, evident by increased caspase 3/7 activity (P cells and their role in apoptotic resistance provides a greater mechanistic understanding of ovarian tumorgenicity, specifically GCT, as well as a clinically-relevant target for potential therapeutic intervention.

  11. Estrous cycle-dependent changes of Fas expression in the bovine corpus luteum: influence of keratin 8/18 intermediate filaments and cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Alice

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fas expression and Fas-induced apoptosis are mechanisms attributed to the selective destruction of cells of the corpus luteum (CL during luteal regression. In certain cell-types, sensitivity to these death-inducing mechanisms is due to the loss or cleavage of keratin-containing intermediate filaments. Specifically, keratin 8/18 (K8/K18 filaments are hypothesized to influence cell death in part by regulating Fas expression at the cell surface. Methods Here, Fas expression on bovine luteal cells was quantified by flow cytometry during the early (Day 5, postovulation and late stages (Days 16–18, postovulation of CL function, and the relationship between Fas expression, K8/K18 filament expression and cytokine-induced cell death in vitro was evaluated. Results Both total and cell surface expression of Fas on luteal cells was greater for early versus late stage bovine CL (89% vs. 44% of cells for total Fas; 65% vs.18% of cells for cell surface Fas; respectively, P0.05, n=4 CL/stage, despite evidence these conditions increased Fas expression on HepG2 cells (P0.05 or stage of CL (P>0.05, n= 4 CL/stage on this outcome. Conclusion In conclusion, we rejected our null hypothesis that the cell surface expression of Fas does not differ between luteal cells of early and late stage CL. The results also did not support the idea that K8/K18 filaments influence the expression of Fas on the surface of bovine luteal cells. Potential downstream effects of these filaments on death signaling, however, remain a possibility. Importantly, the elevated expression of Fas observed on cells of early stage bovine CL compared to late stage bovine CL raises a provocative question concerning the physiological role(s of Fas in the corpus luteum, particularly during early luteal development.

  12. Biological adhesion of the flatworm Macrostomum lignano relies on a duo-gland system and is mediated by a cell type-specific intermediate filament protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengerer, Birgit; Pjeta, Robert; Wunderer, Julia; Rodrigues, Marcelo; Arbore, Roberto; Schärer, Lukas; Berezikov, Eugene; Hess, Michael W; Pfaller, Kristian; Egger, Bernhard; Obwegeser, Sabrina; Salvenmoser, Willi; Ladurner, Peter

    2014-02-12

    Free-living flatworms, in both marine and freshwater environments, are able to adhere to and release from a substrate several times within a second. This reversible adhesion relies on adhesive organs comprised of three cell types: an adhesive gland cell, a releasing gland cell, and an anchor cell, which is a modified epidermal cell responsible for structural support. However, nothing is currently known about the molecules that are involved in this adhesion process. In this study we present the detailed morphology of the adhesive organs of the free-living marine flatworm Macrostomum lignano. About 130 adhesive organs are located in a horse-shoe-shaped arc along the ventral side of the tail plate. Each organ consists of exactly three cells, an adhesive gland cell, a releasing gland cell, and an anchor cell. The necks of the two gland cells penetrate the anchor cell through a common pore. Modified microvilli of the anchor cell form a collar surrounding the necks of the adhesive- and releasing glands, jointly forming the papilla, the outer visible part of the adhesive organs. Next, we identified an intermediate filament (IF) gene, macif1, which is expressed in the anchor cells. RNA interference mediated knock-down resulted in the first experimentally induced non-adhesion phenotype in any marine animal. Specifically, the absence of intermediate filaments in the anchor cells led to papillae with open tips, a reduction of the cytoskeleton network, a decline in hemidesmosomal connections, and to shortened microvilli containing less actin. Our findings reveal an elaborate biological adhesion system in a free-living flatworm, which permits impressively rapid temporary adhesion-release performance in the marine environment. We demonstrate that the structural integrity of the supportive cell, the anchor cell, is essential for this adhesion process: the knock-down of the anchor cell-specific intermediate filament gene resulted in the inability of the animals to adhere. The RNAi

  13. Dynamic JUNQ inclusion bodies are asymmetrically inherited in mammalian cell lines through the asymmetric partitioning of vimentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrodnik, Mikołaj; Salmonowicz, Hanna; Brown, Rachel; Turkowska, Joanna; Średniawa, Władysław; Pattabiraman, Sundararaghavan; Amen, Triana; Abraham, Ayelet-chen; Eichler, Noam; Lyakhovetsky, Roman; Kaganovich, Daniel

    2014-06-03

    Aging is associated with the accumulation of several types of damage: in particular, damage to the proteome. Recent work points to a conserved replicative rejuvenation mechanism that works by preventing the inheritance of damaged and misfolded proteins by specific cells during division. Asymmetric inheritance of misfolded and aggregated proteins has been shown in bacteria and yeast, but relatively little evidence exists for a similar mechanism in mammalian cells. Here, we demonstrate, using long-term 4D imaging, that the vimentin intermediate filament establishes mitotic polarity in mammalian cell lines and mediates the asymmetric partitioning of damaged proteins. We show that mammalian JUNQ inclusion bodies containing soluble misfolded proteins are inherited asymmetrically, similarly to JUNQ quality-control inclusions observed in yeast. Mammalian IPOD-like inclusion bodies, meanwhile, are not always inherited by the same cell as the JUNQ. Our study suggests that the mammalian cytoskeleton and intermediate filaments provide the physical scaffold for asymmetric inheritance of dynamic quality-control JUNQ inclusions. Mammalian IPOD inclusions containing amyloidogenic proteins are not partitioned as effectively during mitosis as their counterparts in yeast. These findings provide a valuable mechanistic basis for studying the process of asymmetric inheritance in mammalian cells, including cells potentially undergoing polar divisions, such as differentiating stem cells and cancer cells.

  14. Pathomorphological feature of chronic pancreatitis (CP is the development of pancreatic fibrosis with the accumulation of various collagen types, tubulin, fibronectin, laminin, and also intermediate filament proteins produced by activated pancreatic stel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Turovskaya

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available T. V. Turovskaya, A. M. Gnilorybov, L. V. Vasilyeva Pathomorphological feature of chronic pancreatitis (CP is the development of pancreatic fibrosis with the accumulation of various collagen types, tubulin, fibronectin, laminin, and also intermediate filament proteins produced by activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs, which express the cytoskeletal α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA. The aim of the research: determination of immunophenotype and proliferative activity of pancreatic stellate cells as well as the main histotopographic components of severe pancreatic fibrosis and accumulation of collagen I, III and IV types in pancreas at CP. Materials and methods. Histological, histochemical (Van Gieson's and Masson's trichrome staining, immunohistochemical (α-SMA, vimentin, desmin, fibronectin, Ki-67, collagen I, III and IV types and morphometric studies (Image J program of accumulation of various collagen types, represented in standard unit of optical density (SUOD, were held at pancreas biopsies of 30 patients (35-72 years old with CP. Results. It was found that development of severe pancreatic fibrosis is promoted by proliferation and increase of α-SMA+, vimentin+, desmin+ activated stellate cells and deposition of significant amount of collagen I, III, IV types and fibronectin in pancreas that are synthesized by PSCs. In areas of severe fibrosis Ki-67 expression is detected in the nuclei of at least 25% of PSCs, that corresponds to relatively low levels of proliferation. Four components of severe pancreatic fibrosis: circular-periductal fibrosis involving the large ducts of the pancreas, laminar fibrosis in extensive fibrous fields between large ducts and acinar tissue, as well as tape-like interlobular and septal-periacinar intralobular pancreatic fibrosis are identified in patients with CP. Conclusion. Morphological manifestation of severe circular-periductal pancreatic fibrosis is the presence of significant concentric fibrosis around the

  15. Functional expression of NF1 tumor suppressor protein: association with keratin intermediate filaments during the early development of human epidermis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peltonen Sirkku

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NF1 refers to type 1 neurofibromatosis syndrome, which has been linked with mutations of the large NF1 gene. NF1 tumor suppressor protein, neurofibromin, has been shown to regulate ras: the NF1 protein contains a GTPase activating protein (GAP related domain which functions as p21rasGAP. Our studies have previously demonstrated that the NF1 protein forms a high affinity association with cytokeratin 14 during the formation of desmosomes and hemidesmosomes in cultured keratinocytes. Methods The expression of NF1 protein was studied in developing human epidermis using western transfer analysis, indirect immunofluorescence, confocal laser scanning microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy, and in situ hybridization. Results The expression of NF1 protein was noted to be highly elevated in the periderm at 8 weeks estimated gestational age (EGA and in the basal cells at 8–14 weeks EGA. During this period, NF1 protein was associated with cytokeratin filaments terminating to desmosomes and hemidesmosomes. NF1 protein did not display colocalization with α-tubulin or actin of the cytoskeleton, or with adherens junction proteins. Conclusions These results depict an early fetal period when the NF1 tumor suppressor is abundantly expressed in epidermis and associated with cytokeratin filaments. This period is characterized by the initiation of differentiation of the basal cells, maturation of the basement membrane zone as well as accentuated formation of selected cellular junctions. NF1 tumor suppressor may function in the regulation of epidermal histogenesis via controlling the organization of the keratin cytoskeleton during the assembly of desmosomes and hemidesmosomes.

  16. Centrosome detection in sea urchin eggs with a monoclonal antibody against Drosophila intermediate filament proteins: characterization of stages of the division cycle of centrosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, H; Walter, M; Mazia, D; Biessmann, H; Paweletz, N; Coffe, G; Schatten, G

    1987-12-01

    A mouse monoclonal antibody generated against Drosophila intermediate filament proteins (designated Ah6/5/9 and referred to herein as Ah6) is found to cross-react specifically with centrosomes in sea urchin eggs and with a 68-kDa antigen in eggs and isolated mitotic apparatus. When preparations stained with Ah6 are counterstained with a human autoimmune serum whose anti-centrosome activity has been established, the immunofluorescence images superimpose exactly. A more severe test of the specificity of the antibody demands that it display all of the stages of the centrosome cycle in the cell cycle: the flattening and spreading of the compact centrosomes followed by their division and the establishment of two compact poles. The test was made by an experimental design that uses a period of exposure of the eggs to 2-mercaptoethanol. This treatment allows observation of the stages of the centrosome cycle--separation, division, and bipolarization--while the chromosomes are arrested in metaphase. Mitosis is arrested in the presence of 0.1 M 2-mercaptoethanol. Chromosomes remain in a metaphase configuration while the centrosomes divide, producing four poles perpendicular to the original spindle axis. Microtubules are still present in the mitotic apparatus, as indicated by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. When 2-mercaptoethanol is removed, the chromosomes reorient to the poles of a tetrapolar (sometimes tripolar) mitotic apparatus. During the following cycle, the blastomeres form a monopolar mitotic apparatus. The observations of the centrosome cycle with the Ah6 antibody display very clearly all the stages that have been seen or deduced from work with other probes. The 68-kDa antigen that reacts with the Ah6 monoclonal antibody to Drosophila intermediate filament proteins must be a constant component of sea urchin centrosomes because it is present at all stages of the centrosome cycle.

  17. The Molecular Architecture for the Intermediate Filaments of Hard [alpha]-Keratin Based on the Superlattice Data Obtained from a Study ofMammals Using Synchrotron Fibre Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Veronica (ANU)

    2014-09-24

    High- and low-angle X-ray diffraction studies of hard {alpha}-keratin have been studied, and various models have been proposed over the last 70 years. Most of these studies have been confined to one or two forms of alpha keratin. This high- and low-angle synchrotron fibre diffraction study extends the study to cover all available data for all known forms of hard {alpha}-keratin including hairs, fingernails, hooves, horn, and quills from mammals, marsupials, and a monotreme, and it confirms that the model proposed is universally acceptable for all mammals. A complete Bragg analysis of the meridional diffraction patterns, including multiple-time exposures to verify any weak reflections, verified the existence of a superlattice consisting of two infinite lattices and three finite lattices. An analysis of the equatorial patterns establishes the radii of the oligomeric levels of dimers, tetramers, and intermediate filaments (IFs) together with the centre to centre distance for the IFs, thus confirming the proposed helices within helices molecular architecture for hard {alpha}-keratin. The results verify that the structure proposed by Feughelman and James meets the criteria for a valid {alpha}-keratin structure.

  18. Surface vimentin is critical for the cell entry of SARS-CoV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yvonne Ting-Chun; Chien, Ssu-Chia; Chen, I-Yin; Lai, Chia-Tsen; Tsay, Yeou-Guang; Chang, Shin C; Chang, Ming-Fu

    2016-01-22

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) caused a global panic due to its high morbidity and mortality during 2002 and 2003. Soon after the deadly disease outbreak, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was identified as a functional cellular receptor in vitro and in vivo for SARS-CoV spike protein. However, ACE2 solely is not sufficient to allow host cells to become susceptible to SARS-CoV infection, and other host factors may be involved in SARS-CoV spike protein-ACE2 complex. A host intracellular filamentous cytoskeletal protein vimentin was identified by immunoprecipitation and LC-MS/MS analysis following chemical cross-linking on Vero E6 cells that were pre-incubated with the SARS-CoV spike protein. Moreover, flow cytometry data demonstrated an increase of the cell surface vimentin level by 16.5 % after SARS-CoV permissive Vero E6 cells were treated with SARS-CoV virus-like particles (VLPs). A direct interaction between SARS-CoV spike protein and host surface vimentin was further confirmed by far-Western blotting. In addition, antibody neutralization assay and shRNA knockdown experiments indicated a vital role of vimentin in cell binding and uptake of SARS-CoV VLPs and the viral spike protein. A direct interaction between vimentin and SARS-CoV spike protein during viral entry was observed. Vimentin is a putative anti-viral drug target for preventing/reducing the susceptibility to SARS-CoV infection.

  19. Covisualization in living onion cells of putative integrin, putative spectrin, actin, putative intermediate filaments, and other proteins at the cell membrane and in an endomembrane sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuzeau, C.; Doolittle, K. W.; McNally, J. G.; Pickard, B. G.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Covisualizations with wide-field computational optical-sectioning microscopy of living epidermal cells of the onion bulb scale have evidenced two major new cellular features. First, a sheath of cytoskeletal elements clads the endomembrane system. Similar elements clad the inner faces of punctate plasmalemmal sites interpreted as plasmalemmal control centers. One component of the endomembrane sheath and plasmalemmal control center cladding is anti-genicity-recognized by two injected antibodies against animal spectrin. Immunoblots of separated epidermal protein also showed bands recognized by these antibodies. Injected phalloidin identified F-actin with the same cellular distribution pattern, as did antibodies against intermediate-filament protein and other cytoskeletal elements known from animal cells. Injection of general protein stains demonstrated the abundance of endomembrane sheath protein. Second, the endomembrane system, like the plasmalemmal puncta, contains antigen recognized by an anti-beta 1 integrin injected into the cytoplasm. Previously, immunoblots of separated epidermal protein were shown to have a major band recognized both by this antibody prepared against a peptide representing the cytosolic region of beta 1 integrin and an antibody against the matrix region of beta 1 integrin. The latter antiboby also identified puncta at the external face of protoplasts. It is proposed that integrin and associated transmembrane proteins secure the endomembrane sheath and transmit signals between it and the lumen or matrix of the endoplasmic reticulum and organellar matrices. This function is comparable to that proposed for such transmembrane linkers in the plasmalemmal control centers, which also appear to bind cytoskeleton and a host of related molecules and transmit signals between them and the wall matrix. It is at the plasmalemmal control centers that the endoplasmic reticulum, a major component of the endomembrane system, attaches to the plasma membrane.

  20. The calcium-modulated proteins, S100A1 and S100B, as potential regulators of the dynamics of type III intermediate filaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Garbuglia

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ca2+-modulated, dimeric proteins of the EF-hand (helix-loop-helix type, S100A1 and S100B, that have been shown to inhibit microtubule (MT protein assembly and to promote MT disassembly, interact with the type III intermediate filament (IF subunits, desmin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, with a stoichiometry of 2 mol of IF subunit/mol of S100A1 or S100B dimer and an affinity of 0.5-1.0 µM in the presence of a few micromolar concentrations of Ca2+. Binding of S100A1 and S100B results in inhibition of desmin and GFAP assemblies into IFs and stimulation of the disassembly of preformed desmin and GFAP IFs. S100A1 and S100B interact with a stretch of residues in the N-terminal (head domain of desmin and GFAP, thereby blocking the head-to-tail process of IF elongation. The C-terminal extension of S100A1 (and, likely, S100B represents a critical part of the site that recognizes desmin and GFAP. S100B is localized to IFs within cells, suggesting that it might have a role in remodeling IFs upon elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration by avoiding excess IF assembly and/or promoting IF disassembly in vivo. S100A1, that is not localized to IFs, might also play a role in the regulation of IF dynamics by binding to and sequestering unassembled IF subunits. Together, these observations suggest that S100A1 and S100B may be regarded as Ca2+-dependent regulators of the state of assembly of two important elements of the cytoskeleton, IFs and MTs, and, potentially, of MT- and IF-based activities.

  1. Development of a Novel Green Fluorescent Protein-Based Binding Assay to Study the Association of Plakins with Intermediate Filament Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Bertrand; Begré, Nadja; Bouameur, Jamal-Eddine; Borradori, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are fundamental for most biological processes, such as the formation of cellular structures and enzymatic complexes or in signaling pathways. The identification and characterization of protein-protein interactions are therefore essential for understanding the mechanisms and regulation of biological systems. The organization and dynamics of the cytoskeleton, as well as its anchorage to specific sites in the plasma membrane and organelles, are regulated by the plakins. These structurally related proteins anchor different cytoskeletal networks to each other and/or to other cellular structures. The association of several plakins with intermediate filaments (IFs) is critical for maintenance of the cytoarchitecture. Pathogenic mutations in the genes encoding different plakins can lead to dramatic manifestations, occurring principally in the skin, striated muscle, and/or nervous system, due to cytoskeletal disorganization resulting in abnormal cell fragility. Nevertheless, it is still unclear how plakins bind to IFs, although some general rules are slowly emerging. We here describe in detail a recently developed protein-protein fluorescence binding assay, based on the production of recombinant proteins tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and their use as fluid-phase fluorescent ligands on immobilized IF proteins. Using this method, we have been able to assess the ability of C-terminal regions of GFP-tagged plakin proteins to bind to distinct IF proteins and IF domains. This simple and sensitive technique, which is expected to facilitate further studies in this area, can also be potentially employed for any kind of protein-protein interaction studies. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Raf-1/CK2 and RhoA/ROCK signaling promote TNF-α-mediated endothelial apoptosis via regulating vimentin cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lifeng; Tang, Lian; Dai, Fan; Meng, Guoliang; Yin, Runting; Xu, Xiaole; Yao, Wenjuan

    2017-08-15

    Both RhoA/ROCK and Raf-1/CK2 pathway play essential roles in cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and multiple other common cellular functions. We previously reported that vimentin is responsible for TNF-α-induced cell apoptosis. Herein, we investigated the regulation of RhoA/ROCK and Raf-1/CK2 signaling on vimentin filaments and endothelial apoptosis mediated by TNF-α. Treatment with TNF-α significantly induced the activation of RhoA and ROCK, and the expression of ROCK1. RhoA deficiency could obviously inhibit ROCK activation and ROCK1 expression induced by TNF-α. Both RhoA deficiency and ROCK activity inhibition (Y-27632) greatly inhibited endothelial apoptosis and preserved cell viability in TNF-α-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Also vimentin phosphorylation and the remodeling of vimentin or phospho-vimentin induced by TNF-α were obviously attenuated by RhoA suppression and ROCK inhibition. TNF-α-mediated vimentin cleavage was significantly inhibited by RhoA suppression and ROCK inhibition through decreasing the activation of caspase3 and 8. Furthermore, TNF-α treatment greatly enhanced the activation of Raf-1. Suppression of Raf-1 or CK2 by its inhibitor (GW5074 or TBB) blocked vimentin phosphorylation, remodeling and endothelial apoptosis, and preserved cell viability in TNF-α-induced HUVECs. However, Raf-1 inhibition showed no significant effect on TNF-α-induced ROCK expression and activation, suggesting that the regulation of Raf-1/CK2 signaling on vimentin was independent of ROCK. Taken together, these results indicate that both RhoA/ROCK and Raf-1/CK2 pathway are responsible for TNF-α-mediated endothelial cytotoxicity via regulating vimentin cytoskeleton. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The autoimmune regulator (AIRE), which is defective in autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy patients, is expressed in human epidermal and follicular keratinocytes and associates with the intermediate filament protein cytokeratin 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vipul; Pedroza, Luis A; Mace, Emily M; Seeholzer, Steven; Cotsarelis, George; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Payne, Aimee S; Orange, Jordan S

    2011-03-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) syndrome, which is caused by mutation of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, is a highly variable disease characterized by multiple endocrine failure, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, and various ectodermal defects. AIRE is a transcriptional regulator classically expressed in medullary thymic epithelial cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Previous studies have suggested that AIRE can shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells, although its cytoplasmic functions are poorly characterized. Through mass spectrometry analysis of proteins co-immunoprecipitating with cytoplasmic AIRE, we identified a novel association of AIRE with the intermediate filament protein cytokeratin 17 (K17) in the THP-1 monocyte cell line. We confirmed AIRE expression in HaCaT epidermal keratinocytes, as well as its interaction with K17. Confocal microscopy of human fetal and adult scalp hair follicles demonstrated a cytoplasmic pattern of AIRE staining that moderately colocalized with K17. The cytoplasmic association of AIRE with the intermediate filament network in human epidermal and follicular keratinocytes may provide a new path to understanding the ectodermal abnormalities associated with the APECED syndrome. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Microbial dynamics and properties of aerobic granules developed in a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor with an intermediate filamentous bulking stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqeel, H; Basuvaraj, M; Hall, M; Neufeld, J D; Liss, S N

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic granules offer enhanced biological nutrient removal and are compact and dense structures resulting in efficient settling properties. Granule instability, however, is still a challenge as understanding of the drivers of instability is poorly understood. In this study, transient instability of aerobic granules, associated with filamentous outgrowth, was observed in laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). The transient phase was followed by the formation of stable granules. Loosely bound, dispersed, and pinpoint seed flocs gradually turned into granular flocs within 60 days of SBR operation. In stage 1, the granular flocs were compact in structure and typically 0.2 mm in diameter, with excellent settling properties. Filaments appeared and dominated by stage 2, resulting in poor settleability. By stage 3, the SBRs were selected for larger granules and better settling structures, which included filaments that became enmeshed within the granule, eventually forming structures 2-5 mm in diameter. Corresponding changes in sludge volume index were observed that reflected changes in settleability. The protein-to-polysaccharide ratio in the extracted extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) from stage 1 and stage 3 granules was higher (2.8 and 5.7, respectively), as compared to stage 2 filamentous bulking (1.5). Confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) imaging of the biomass samples, coupled with molecule-specific fluorescent staining, confirmed that protein was predominant in stage 1 and stage 3 granules. During stage 2 bulking, there was a decrease in live cells; dead cells predominated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprint results indicated a shift in bacterial community composition during granulation, which was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In particular, Janthinobacterium (known denitrifier and producer of antimicrobial pigment) and Auxenochlorella protothecoides (mixotrophic green algae) were predominant during stage

  5. Vimentin 3, the new hope, differentiating RCC versus oncocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Brandenstein, Melanie; Puetz, Katharina; Schlosser, Monika; Löser, Heike; Kallinowski, Joachim P; Gödde, Daniel; Buettner, Reinhard; Störkel, Stefan; Fries, Jochen W U

    2015-01-01

    Vimentin is currently used to differentiate between malignant renal carcinomas and benign oncocytomas. Recent reports showing Vimentin positive oncocytomas seriously question the validity of this present diagnostic approach. Vimentin 3 is a spliced variant and ends with a unique C-terminal ending after exon 7 which differentiates it from the full length version that has 9 exons. Therefore, the protein size is different; the full length Vimentin version has a protein size of ~57 kDa and the truncated version of ~47 kDa. We designed an antibody, called Vim3, against the unique C-terminal ending of the Vimentin 3 variant. Using immune histology, immune fluorescence, Western blot, and qRT-PCR analysis, a Vim3 overexpression was detectable exclusively in oncocytoma, making the detection of Vim3 a potential specific marker for benign kidney tumors. This antibody is the first to clearly differentiate benign oncocytoma and the mimicking eosinophilic variants of the RCCs. This differentiation between malignant and benign RCCs is essential for operative planning, follow-up therapy, and patients' survival. In the future the usage of Vimentin antibodies in routine pathology has to be applied with care. Consideration must be given to Vimentin specific binding epitopes otherwise a misdiagnosis of the patients' tumor samples may result.

  6. Vimentin 3, the New Hope, Differentiating RCC versus Oncocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie von Brandenstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vimentin is currently used to differentiate between malignant renal carcinomas and benign oncocytomas. Recent reports showing Vimentin positive oncocytomas seriously question the validity of this present diagnostic approach. Vimentin 3 is a spliced variant and ends with a unique C-terminal ending after exon 7 which differentiates it from the full length version that has 9 exons. Therefore, the protein size is different; the full length Vimentin version has a protein size of ~57 kDa and the truncated version of ~47 kDa. We designed an antibody, called Vim3, against the unique C-terminal ending of the Vimentin 3 variant. Using immune histology, immune fluorescence, Western blot, and qRT-PCR analysis, a Vim3 overexpression was detectable exclusively in oncocytoma, making the detection of Vim3 a potential specific marker for benign kidney tumors. This antibody is the first to clearly differentiate benign oncocytoma and the mimicking eosinophilic variants of the RCCs. This differentiation between malignant and benign RCCs is essential for operative planning, follow-up therapy, and patients’ survival. In the future the usage of Vimentin antibodies in routine pathology has to be applied with care. Consideration must be given to Vimentin specific binding epitopes otherwise a misdiagnosis of the patients’ tumor samples may result.

  7. Chaperonin filaments: The archael cytoskeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent, J.D.; Kagawa, H.K.; Yaoi, Takuro; Olle, E.; Zaluzec, N.J.

    1997-08-01

    Chaperonins are multi-subunit double-ring complexed composed of 60-kDa proteins that are believed to mediate protein folding in vivo. The chaperonins in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae are composed of the organism`s two most abundant proteins, which represent 4% of its total protein and have an intracellular concentration of {ge} 3.0 mg/ml. At concentrations of 1.0 mg/ml, purified chaperonin proteins aggregate to form ordered filaments. Filament formation, which requires Mg{sup ++} and nucleotide binding (not hydrolysis), occurs at physiological temperatures under conditions suggesting filaments may exist in vivo. If the estimated 4,600 chaperonins per cell, formed filaments in vivo, they could create a matrix of filaments that would span the diameter of an average S. shibatae cell 100 times. Direct observations of unfixed, minimally treated cells by intermediate voltage electron microscopy (300 kV) revealed an intracellular network of filaments that resembles chaperonin filaments produced in vitro. The hypothesis that the intracellular network contains chaperonins is supported by immunogold analyses. The authors propose that chaperonin activity may be regulated in vivo by filament formation and that chaperonin filaments may serve a cytoskeleton-like function in archaea and perhaps in other prokaryotes.

  8. Binding of two desmin derivatives to the plasma membrane and the nuclear envelope of avian erythrocytes: evidence for a conserved site-specificity in intermediate filament-membrane interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgatos, S.D.; Weber, K.; Geisler, N.; Blobel, G.

    1987-10-01

    Using solution binding assays, the authors found that a 45-kDa fragment of /sup 125/I-labelled desmin, lacking 67 residues from the N terminus, could specifically associate with avian erythrocyte nuclear envelopes but not with plasma membranes from the same cells. It was also observed that a 50-kDa desmin peptide, missing 27 C-terminal residues, retained the ability to bind to both membrane preparations. Displacement experiments with an excess of purified vimentin suggested that the two desmin derivatives were interacting with a previously identified vimentin receptor at the nuclear envelope, the protein lamin B. Additional analysis by affinity chromatography confirmed this conclusion. Employing an overlay assay, they demonstrated that the 50-kDa fragment, but not the 45-kDa desmin peptide, was capable of interacting with the plasma membrane polypeptide ankyrin (a known vimentin attachment site), as was intact vimentin. Conversely, the nuclear envelope protein lamin B was recognized by both fragments but not by a chymotryptic peptide composed solely of the helical rod domain of desmin. These data imply that the lamin B-binding site on desmin resides within the 21 residues following its helical rod domain, whereas the ankyrin-associating region is localized within its N-terminal head domain, exactly as in the case of vimentin.

  9. Cornification in reptilian epidermis occurs through the deposition of keratin-associated beta-proteins (beta-keratins) onto a scaffold of intermediate filament keratins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2013-02-01

    The isolation of genes for alpha-keratins and keratin-associated beta-proteins (formerly beta-keratins) has allowed the production of epitope-specific antibodies for localizing these proteins during the process of cornification epidermis of reptilian sauropsids. The antibodies are directed toward proteins in the alpha-keratin range (40-70 kDa) or beta-protein range (10-30 kDa) of most reptilian sauropsids. The ultrastructural immunogold study shows the localization of acidic alpha-proteins in suprabasal and precorneous epidermal layers in lizard, snake, tuatara, crocodile, and turtle while keratin-associated beta-proteins are localized in precorneous and corneous layers. This late activation of the synthesis of keratin-associated beta-proteins is typical for keratin-associated and corneous proteins in mammalian epidermis (involucrin, filaggrin, loricrin) or hair (tyrosine-rich or sulfur-rich proteins). In turtles and crocodilians epidermis, keratin-associated beta-proteins are synthesized in upper spinosus and precorneous layers and accumulate in the corneous layer. The complex stratification of lepidosaurian epidermis derives from the deposition of specific glycine-rich versus cysteine-glycine-rich keratin-associated beta-proteins in cells sequentially produced from the basal layer and not from the alternation of beta- with alpha-keratins. The process gives rise to Oberhäutchen, beta-, mesos-, and alpha-layers during the shedding cycle of lizards and snakes. Differently from fish, amphibian, and mammalian keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) of the epidermis, the keratin-associated beta-proteins of sauropsids are capable to form filaments of 3-4 nm which give rise to an X-ray beta-pattern as a consequence of the presence of a beta-pleated central region of high homology, which seems to be absent in KAPs of the other vertebrates. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Association of the intermediate filament nestin with cancer stage: a meta-analysis based on 223 positive/high nestin cases and 460 negative/low case-free controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Beilong; Wang, Tao; Zou, Jianyong; Zheng, Fangfang; Huang, Rijiao; Zheng, Xiaobin; Yang, Weilin; Chen, Zhenguang

    2015-09-08

    Nestin, a member of the intermediate filament protein family, has been reported to be associated with several types of neoplastic transformation. However, questions remain, with studies reporting sometimes inconclusive or conflicting data. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate literature reports on the relationship between nestin and cancer stage. Relevant articles published as of June 2014 were retrieved from multiple databases. After applying specific inclusion criteria, we chose seven articles relating to nestin expression and cancer stage, which included a total of 223 positive/high nestin cases and 460 negative/low case-free controls. Overall, positive/high nestin was significantly associated with median or advanced stages of several types of cancer (nestin and cancer stage: OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.30-2.78; nestin and lymph node: OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.26-3.72). Notably, studies relating to lung cancer (three qualifying articles) showed a significant association between nestin and lung cancer stage (OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.16-3.44). These findings indicate that positive/high nestin may be more strongly linked to median or advanced cancer stage and correlated with malignant characteristics that lead to poor prognosis in different cancers, especially lung cancer.

  11. Development of the membrana granulosa of bovine antral follicles: structure, location of mitosis and pyknosis, and immunolocalization of involucrin and vimentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wezel, I L; Krupa, M; Rodgers, R J

    1999-01-01

    The membrana granulosa of the ovarian follicle is termed the 'follicular epithelium', yet there have been no studies considering its epithelial nature and how it changes during follicular development. Therefore, these issues were investigated using histology (n = 45 ovaries), considering its structure and the location of proliferating and dying cells, and drawing analogies with other epithelia. Additionally, differences between the layers of granulosa cells were demonstrated by immunohistochemistry (n = 7 ovaries). The structure of the membrana granulosa differed between follicles. Six arbitrary classifications were designed based on these structures, 80 follicles were allocated (n = 13 ovaries) to these classes and the follicular diameters were then measured. For the first time, differences in membrana granulosa structure were shown to correspond to follicle size. Follicles in classes 1-3, where basal granulosa cells were columnar with nuclei positioned basally in the cell, were all 5 mm had only rounded basal cells. In all these classes, cells in the middle zone were rounded; cells aligning the antrum were often flattened. Irrespective of follicle class, cell proliferation and cell death were shown to be predominantly in the middle portions, rather than the most antral or most basal portions, of the membrana granulosa of healthy and atretic follicles. Involucrin, a marker of keratinocyte differentiation, was localized to the suprabasal region of the membrana granulosa of healthy follicles, particularly in the second and third cellular layers in from the follicular basal lamina. Conversely, the staining intensity for the intermediate filament protein vimentin was lowest in this region, and greatest in the more antral and basal regions. In atretic follicles, there was widespread staining for involucrin and vimentin throughout the membrana granulosa. In conclusion, the membrana granulosa is highly structured, and alters with follicular development. Layers in the

  12. Triple-negative vimentin-positive heterogeneous feline mammary carcinomas as a potential comparative model for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliari, Diego; Zappulli, Valentina; Rasotto, Roberta; Cardazzo, Barbara; Frassineti, Federica; Goldschmidt, Michael H; Castagnaro, Massimo

    2014-09-25

    Human breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease classified by molecular subtyping into luminal A, luminal B, HER2-overexpressing, basal-like, claudin-low and normal-breast like. The routinely applied and standardized immunohistochemical-based surrogates of this classification group together the last three entities as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBCs) that show the most diverse and complex heterogeneity and represent a therapeutic challenge. In the present work 156 feline mammary lesions consisting of feline mammary carcinomas (FMCs), benign neoplasms, and hyperplastic/dysplastic tissues were evaluated histologically and by immunohistochemistry for expression of basal and luminal cytokeratins (CK), vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, calponin, estrogen receptor (ER) alpha (a), and progesterone receptor (PR). Thirty-seven FMCs with 27 matched non-neoplastic controls were also investigated for gene expression of ERa, ER beta, PR, and HER2. A large group of hormone receptors (HRs)-negative aggressive carcinomas - that did not overexpress HER2 - could be distinguished from the less aggressive (10.8%) and benign (8%) HRs + tumors, that showed bilineage (luminal and myoepithelial) differentiation. Immunohistochemical evaluations of cytoplasmic filaments indicated that HRs- FMCs are vimentin+, CK14+, and CK5_6+ carcinomas that may resemble the TNBCs (basal like/claudin low) described in women. The identification of luminal and myoepithelial progenitors within the mammary ductal system suggested potential cells/sites of origin of these tumors. A diffuse and never previously described CKs/vimentin luminal cell co-expression was detected in the non-neoplastic ducts, indicating a potential bilineage progenitor. These results indicate and potentially explain the high incidence of triple-negative, vimentin + aggressive tumors in cats that may used to elucidate some of the challenging features of TNBCs in women.

  13. Paired Helical Filaments from Alzheimer Disease Brain Induce Intracellular Accumulation of Tau Protein in Aggresomes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa-Maria, Ismael; Varghese, Merina; Ksiȩżak-Reding, Hanna; Dzhun, Anastasiya; Wang, Jun; Pasinetti, Giulio M.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal folding of tau protein leads to the generation of paired helical filaments (PHFs) and neurofibrillary tangles, a key neuropathological feature in Alzheimer disease and tauopathies. A specific anatomical pattern of pathological changes developing in the brain suggests that once tau pathology is initiated it propagates between neighboring neuronal cells, possibly spreading along the axonal network. We studied whether PHFs released from degenerating neurons could be taken up by surrounding cells and promote spreading of tau pathology. Neuronal and non-neuronal cells overexpressing green fluorescent protein-tagged tau (GFP-Tau) were treated with isolated fractions of human Alzheimer disease-derived PHFs for 24 h. We found that cells internalized PHFs through an endocytic mechanism and developed intracellular GFP-Tau aggregates with attributes of aggresomes. This was particularly evident by the perinuclear localization of aggregates and redistribution of the vimentin intermediate filament network and retrograde motor protein dynein. Furthermore, the content of Sarkosyl-insoluble tau, a measure of abnormal tau aggregation, increased 3-fold in PHF-treated cells. An exosome-related mechanism did not appear to be involved in the release of GFP-Tau from untreated cells. The evidence that cells can internalize PHFs, leading to formation of aggresome-like bodies, opens new therapeutic avenues to prevent propagation and spreading of tau pathology. PMID:22496370

  14. Extracellular Tau Paired Helical Filaments Differentially Affect Tau Pathogenic Mechanisms in Mitotic and Post-Mitotic Cells: Implications for Mechanisms of Tau Propagation in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Merina; Santa-Maria, Ismael; Ho, Lap; Ward, Libby; Yemul, Shrishailam; Dubner, Lauren; Księżak-Reding, Hanna; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2016-09-06

    The release of paired helical filaments (PHFs) from neurons into the extracellular space may contribute to the propagation of tau pathology across brain regions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies. The majority of available mechanistic studies exploring the pathologic role of extracellular PHFs are conducted in proliferating cell lines. Here, we compare how extracellular PHFs induce tauopathy in mitotic cells and in post-mitotic brain neurons. In a mitotic cell line (HEK 293T), extracellular exposure to AD PHFs leads to an intracellular "aggresomal" type deposition of tau, coincidental with redistribution of dynein, a retrograde motor protein. We also observed that PHFs impaired proteasome degradation, but not autophagy. Exposure of cells to proteasome inhibitors was sufficient to induce intracellular tau aggregate formation as well as reorganization of dynein and the intermediate filament protein, vimentin. Thus, in mitotic cells, extracellular PHFs promote cellular tau aggregation, in part, by interfering with cellular proteasome degradation processes. In contrast with our observations with proliferating cells, exposure of post-mitotic primary neuronal cultures to AD PHFs did not promote "aggresomal" tau deposition, but instead resulted in a widespread accumulation of phosphorylated tau-immunoreactive swellings in neuritic processes, characterized by disturbed cytoskeletal organization of dynein and vimentin. Collectively, our observations suggest that extracellular PHFs may contribute to the propagation of tau pathology by independent mechanisms in post-mitotic and mitotic brain cells. These outcomes indicate that in addition to post-mitotic brain neurons, mitotic brain cells should also be considered as targets for therapeutic interventions to attenuate propagation of tauopathy.

  15. Keratin Hypersumoylation Alters Filament Dynamics and Is a Marker for Human Liver Disease and Keratin Mutation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Natasha T.; Weerasinghe, Sujith V. W.; Iñiguez-Lluhí, Jorge A.; Herrmann, Harald; Omary, M. Bishr

    2011-01-01

    Keratin polypeptide 8 (K8) associates noncovalently with its partners K18 and/or K19 to form the intermediate filament cytoskeleton of hepatocytes and other simple-type epithelial cells. Human K8, K18, and K19 variants predispose to liver disease, whereas site-specific keratin phosphorylation confers hepatoprotection. Because stress-induced protein phosphorylation regulates sumoylation, we hypothesized that keratins are sumoylated in an injury-dependent manner and that keratin sumoylation is an important regulatory modification. We demonstrate that K8/K18/K19, epidermal keratins, and vimentin are sumoylated in vitro. Upon transfection, K8, K18, and K19 are modified by poly-SUMO-2/3 chains on Lys-285/Lys-364 (K8), Lys-207/Lys-372 (K18), and Lys-208 (K19). Sumoylation affects filament organization and stimulus-induced keratin solubility and is partially inhibited upon mutation of one of three known K8 phosphorylation sites. Extensive sumoylation occurs in cells transfected with individual K8, K18, or K19 but is limited upon heterodimerization (K8/K18 or K8/K19) in the absence of stress. In contrast, keratin sumoylation is significantly augmented in cells and tissues during apoptosis, oxidative stress, and phosphatase inhibition. Poly-SUMO-2/3 conjugates are present in chronically injured but not normal, human, and mouse livers along with polyubiquitinated and large insoluble keratin-containing complexes. Notably, common human K8 liver disease-associated variants trigger keratin hypersumoylation with consequent diminished solubility. In contrast, modest sumoylation of wild type K8 promotes solubility. Hence, conformational changes induced by keratin natural mutations and extensive tissue injury result in K8/K18/K19 hypersumoylation, which retains keratins in an insoluble compartment, thereby limiting their cytoprotective function. PMID:21062750

  16. Keratin hypersumoylation alters filament dynamics and is a marker for human liver disease and keratin mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Natasha T; Weerasinghe, Sujith V W; Iñiguez-Lluhí, Jorge A; Herrmann, Harald; Omary, M Bishr

    2011-01-21

    Keratin polypeptide 8 (K8) associates noncovalently with its partners K18 and/or K19 to form the intermediate filament cytoskeleton of hepatocytes and other simple-type epithelial cells. Human K8, K18, and K19 variants predispose to liver disease, whereas site-specific keratin phosphorylation confers hepatoprotection. Because stress-induced protein phosphorylation regulates sumoylation, we hypothesized that keratins are sumoylated in an injury-dependent manner and that keratin sumoylation is an important regulatory modification. We demonstrate that K8/K18/K19, epidermal keratins, and vimentin are sumoylated in vitro. Upon transfection, K8, K18, and K19 are modified by poly-SUMO-2/3 chains on Lys-285/Lys-364 (K8), Lys-207/Lys-372 (K18), and Lys-208 (K19). Sumoylation affects filament organization and stimulus-induced keratin solubility and is partially inhibited upon mutation of one of three known K8 phosphorylation sites. Extensive sumoylation occurs in cells transfected with individual K8, K18, or K19 but is limited upon heterodimerization (K8/K18 or K8/K19) in the absence of stress. In contrast, keratin sumoylation is significantly augmented in cells and tissues during apoptosis, oxidative stress, and phosphatase inhibition. Poly-SUMO-2/3 conjugates are present in chronically injured but not normal, human, and mouse livers along with polyubiquitinated and large insoluble keratin-containing complexes. Notably, common human K8 liver disease-associated variants trigger keratin hypersumoylation with consequent diminished solubility. In contrast, modest sumoylation of wild type K8 promotes solubility. Hence, conformational changes induced by keratin natural mutations and extensive tissue injury result in K8/K18/K19 hypersumoylation, which retains keratins in an insoluble compartment, thereby limiting their cytoprotective function.

  17. Measuring the regulation of keratin filament network dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Moch, Marcin; Herberich, Gerlind; Aach, Til; Leube, Rudolf E.; Windoffer, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    The organization of the keratin intermediate filament cytoskeleton is closely linked to epithelial function. To study keratin network plasticity and its regulation at different levels, tools are needed to localize and measure local network dynamics. In this paper, we present image analysis methods designed to determine the speed and direction of keratin filament motion and to identify locations of keratin filament polymerization and depolymerization at subcellular resolution. Using these meth...

  18. Carbamylation of vimentin is inducible by smoking and represents an independent autoantigen in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospelt, Caroline; Bang, Holger; Feist, Eugen; Camici, Giovanni; Keller, Stephan; Detert, Jacqueline; Krämer, Anette; Gay, Steffen; Ghannam, Khetam; Burmester, Gerd R

    2017-07-01

    Smoking has been connected to citrullination of antigens and formation of anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPAs) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Since smoking can modify proteins by carbamylation (formation of homocitrulline), this study was conducted to investigate these effects on vimentin in animal models and RA. The efficiency of enzymatic carbamylation of vimentin was characterised. B-cell response was investigated after immunisation of rabbits with different vimentin isoforms. Effects of tobacco smoke exposure on carbamylation of vimentin and formation of autoantibodies were analysed in mice. The antibody responses against isoforms of vimentin were characterised with respect to disease duration and smoking status of patients with RA. Enzymatic carbamylation of vimentin was efficiently achieved. Subsequent citrullination of vimentin was not disturbed by homocitrullination. Sera from rabbits immunised with carbamylated vimentin (carbVim), in addition to carbVim also recognised human IgG-Fc showing rheumatoid factor-like reactivity. Smoke-exposed mice contained detectable amounts of carbVim and developed a broad immune response against carbamylated antigens. Although the prevalence of anti-carbamylated antibodies in smokers and non-smokers was similar, the titres of carbamylated antibodies were significantly increased in sera of smoking compared with non-smoking RA. CarbVim antibodies were observed independently of ACPAs in early phases of disease and double-positive patients for anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin (MCV) and anti-carbVim antibodies showed an extended epitope recognition pattern towards MCV. Carbamylation of vimentin is inducible by cigarette smoke exposure. The polyclonal immune response against modified antigens in patients with RA is not exclusively citrulline-specific and carbamylation of antigens could be involved in the pathogenesis of disease. ISRCTN36745608; EudraCT Number: 2006-003146-41. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  19. Solar Features - Prominences and Filaments - Filaments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Filaments are formed in magnetic loops that hold relatively cool, dense gas suspended above the surface of the Sun (David Hathaway/NASA)

  20. Morphology, behavior, and interaction of cultured epithelial cells after the antibody-induced disruption of keratin filament organization

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    The organization of intermediate filaments in cultured epithelial cells was rapidly and radically affected by intracellularly injected monoclonal antikeratin filament antibodies. Different antibodies had different effects, ranging from an apparent splaying apart of keratin filament bundles to the complete disruption of the keratin filament network. Antibodies were detectable within cells for more than four days after injection. The antibody-induced disruption of keratin filament organization ...

  1. Externally refuelled optical filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Maik; Mills, Matthew S.; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Cheng, Weibo; Moloney, Jerome V.; Kolesik, Miroslav; Polynkin, Pavel; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.

    2014-04-01

    Plasma channels produced in air through femtosecond laser filamentation hold great promise for a number of applications, including remote sensing, attosecond physics and spectroscopy, channelling microwaves and lightning protection. In such settings, extended filaments are desirable, yet their longitudinal span is limited by dissipative processes. Although various techniques aiming to prolong this process have been explored, the substantial extension of optical filaments remains a challenge. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that the natural range of a plasma column can be enhanced by at least an order of magnitude when the filament is prudently accompanied by an auxiliary beam. In this arrangement, the secondary low-intensity `dressing' beam propagates linearly and acts as a distributed energy reservoir, continuously refuelling the optical filament. Our approach offers an efficient and viable route towards the generation of extended light strings in air without inducing premature wave collapse or an undesirable beam break-up into multiple filaments.

  2. Vimentin binds IRAP and is involved in GLUT4 vesicle trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Yohko [Department of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute of Health Biosciences, Tokushima University, Tokushima (Japan); Hosaka, Toshio, E-mail: hosaka@nutr.med.tokushima-u.ac.jp [Department of Public Health and Applied Nutrition, Institute of Health Biosciences, Tokushima University, Tokushima (Japan); Iwata, Takeo [Department of Medical Pharmacology, Institute of Health Biosciences, Tokushima University, Tokushima (Japan); Le, Chung T.K.; Jambaldorj, Bayasgalan; Teshigawara, Kiyoshi; Harada, Nagakatsu; Sakaue, Hiroshi [Department of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute of Health Biosciences, Tokushima University, Tokushima (Japan); Sakai, Tohru [Department of Public Health and Applied Nutrition, Institute of Health Biosciences, Tokushima University, Tokushima (Japan); Yoshimoto, Katsuhiko [Department of Medical Pharmacology, Institute of Health Biosciences, Tokushima University, Tokushima (Japan); Nakaya, Yutaka [Department of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute of Health Biosciences, Tokushima University, Tokushima (Japan)

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Vimentin is shown to bind to the N-terminus of insulin-responsive aminopeptidase (IRAP), a major cargo protein of GLUT4 vesicles in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. {yields} GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane by insulin is decreased in vimentin-depleted adipocytes. {yields} An interaction between vimentin and IRAP functions to sequester GLUT4 vesicles to the peri-nuclear region of the cell. -- Abstract: Insulin-responsive aminopeptidase (IRAP) and GLUT4 are two major cargo proteins of GLUT4 storage vesicles (GSVs) that are translocated from a postendosomal storage compartment to the plasma membrane (PM) in response to insulin. The cytoplasmic region of IRAP is reportedly involved in retention of GSVs. In this study, vimentin was identified using the cytoplasmic domain of IRAP as bait. The validity of this interaction was confirmed by pull-down assays and immunoprecipitation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, it was shown that GLUT4 translocation to the PM by insulin was decreased in vimentin-depleted adipocytes, presumably due to dispersing GSVs away from the cytoskeleton. These findings suggest that the IRAP binding protein, vimentin, plays an important role in retention of GSVs.

  3. Tungsten Filament Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James

    2016-01-01

    We safely remove the outer glass bulb from an incandescent lamp and burn up the tungsten filament after the glass is removed. This demonstration dramatically illustrates the necessity of a vacuum or inert gas for the environment surrounding the tungsten filament inside the bulb. Our approach has added historical importance since the incandescent…

  4. Proteomics of Filamentous Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passel, van M.W.J.; Schaap, P.J.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2013-01-01

    Filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae traditionally have had an important role in providing enzymes and enzyme cocktails that are used in food industry. In recent years the genome sequences of many filamentous fungi have become available. This combined with

  5. Vimentin may reflect areas of pathologic involvement in biopsies from patients with autoimmune skin diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Autoimmune bullous skin diseases (ABDs represent a group of disorders of the skin and mucosa commonly associated with deposits of immunoglobulins, complement and fibrinogen, and usually directed against distinct adhesion molecules. After studing these diseases for many years, we noted alterations not only between the cells junctions of the epidermis and/or the dermal/epidermal junction, but also in dermal skin appendageal structures and in mesenchymal tissue around the blisters. Based on our findings, we wanted to determine if the observed patterns of autoimmunity correlated with cutaneous vimentin expression. Materials and Methods: Archival biopsies previously diagnosed with ABDs by clinical, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and direct and/or immunofluorescence data were stained with antibodies directed against vimentin via immunohistochemistry (IHC. We tested 30 patients affected by endemic pemphigus, 30 controls from the endemic area, and 15 normal controls. We also tested 30 biopsies from patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP, 20 with pemphigus vulgaris (PV, 8 with pemphigus foliaceus, 14 with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH and 3 with Senear-Usher syndrome. Results: The H&E, DIF and vimentin patterns of positivity in the different ABDs confirmed that vimentin was compartmentalized around areas of dermal inflammation, around skin appendages and in epidermal, dermal and mesenchymal cell junction areas. Conclusion: Vimentin may be a useful tool for highlighting patterns of microenvironmental tissue alteration in multiple ABDs. The vimentin staining pattern observed was analogous to that we have previously described for proteases and protease inhibitors in patients affected by ABDs, expanding the concept that the autoimmune process extends beyond cell junctions.

  6. Femtosecond Laser Filamentation

    CERN Document Server

    Chin, See Leang

    2010-01-01

    Femtosecond Laser Filamentation gives a comprehensive review of the physics of propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses in optical media (principally air) and the applications and challenges of this new technique. This book presents the modern understanding of the physics of femtosecond laser pulse propagation, including unusual new effects such as the self-transformation of the pulse into a white light laser pulse, intensity clamping, the physics of multiple filamentation and competition, and how filaments’ ability to melt glass leads to wave guide writing. The potential applications of laser filamentation in atmospheric sensing and the generation of other electromagnetic pulses from the UV to the radio frequency are treated, together with possible future challenges in the excitation of super-excited states of molecules. Exciting new phenomena such as filament induced ultrafast birefringence and the excitation of molecular rotational wave packets and their multiple revivals in air (gases) will also ...

  7. URI promotes the migration and invasion of human cervical cancer cells potentially via upregulation of vimentin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhonghai; Bian, Huiqin; Zhang, Fei; Mi, Rui; Wang, Qian; Lu, Yaojuan; Zheng, Qiping; Gu, Junxia

    2017-01-01

    URI is known to act as an oncoprotein in several tumors. Our previous studies have shown that URI is associated with the migration process in cervical and gastric cancer cells, but the mechanisms remain to be determined. Given the fact that URI positively regulates vimentin expression, we therefore investigated how URI regulated vimentin expression affects the migration and invasion of cells from two human cervical cancer cell lines HeLa and C33A, which differentially express URI. We have shown that knock-down of URI in HeLa cells using URI siRNA caused decreased vimentin mRNA and protein levels along with attenuated cell motility. Meanwhile, overexpression of URI by transfection of PCMV6-URI in C33A cells resulted in increased vimentin expression and enhanced cell migration and invasion. We have also used TGF-β to induce vimentin expression, which enhanced the cell migration and invasion abilities affected by URI, while inhibition of vimentin by siRNA attenuated URI's effect on cell migration and invasion. In addition, we have performed luciferase reporter and ChIP assays, and the results support that URI indirectly enhances the activity of vimentin promoter. Taken together, our results suggest that URI plays essential roles in the migration and invasion of human cervical cancer cells, possibly via targeting vimentin expression.

  8. Prosome cytodistribution relative to desmin and actin filaments in dividing C2.7 myoblasts and during myotube formation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Conto, F; Missorini, S; Arcangeletti, C; Pinardi, F; Montarras, D; Pinset, C; Vassy, J; Géraud, G; Chezzi, C; Scherrer, K

    1997-05-25

    Prosomes constitute the multicatalytic proteinase (MCP) core of the 26S proteasomes, but were first observed as subcomplexes of untranslated mRNP; this suggests that they play a putative role in the control of protein biosynthesis in addition to their catabolic enzymatic function. In previous investigations it was shown that some prosomes colocalize with the intermediate filaments (IF) of the cytoskeleton, of the cytokeratin type in epithelial cells, and of the vimentin type in fibroblasts. Studies on adult rat muscle carried out with prosome-specific monoclonal antibodies (p-mAbs) have shown, surprisingly, that specific types of prosomes predominantly occupy a particular zone in between the M and the Z lines of the sarcomeric structure. The data presented here show that the subunit composition of prosomes changes when the dividing C2.7 myoblasts fuse into myotubes. We show furthermore that, in dividing C2.7 myoblasts, prosomes colocalize with the desmin network as well as with that of actin, in a distribution that changes with the subunit pattern of the prosomes investigated by individual p-mAbs. Surprisingly, when myogenic fusion is induced, specific types of prosomes move first to the nuclei; later on, they reappear in the cytoplasm. There, superimposing initially onto the reorganizing desmin filaments that run from one pole of the prefusion myoblast to the other, prosomes gradually colocalize with the actin fibers in the fusing myotubes, finally forming a "pearl on a string" pattern. These results are discussed in relation to parallel observations of prosome distribution between the actin and IF networks not only in epithelial cells but also in fusing muscle satellite cells, which made it possible to monitor the complete buildup of the sarcomeric structure.

  9. Autophagy in filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Judith K; Harris, Steven D; Marten, Mark R

    2009-01-01

    Autophagy is a ubiquitous, non-selective degradation process in eukaryotic cells that is conserved from yeast to man. Autophagy research has increased significantly in the last ten years, as autophagy has been connected with cancer, neurodegenerative disease and various human developmental processes. Autophagy also appears to play an important role in filamentous fungi, impacting growth, morphology and development. In this review, an autophagy model developed for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used as an intellectual framework to discuss autophagy in filamentous fungi. Studies imply that, similar to yeast, fungal autophagy is characterized by the presence of autophagosomes and controlled by Tor kinase. In addition, fungal autophagy is apparently involved in protection against cell death and has significant effects on cellular growth and development. However, the only putative autophagy proteins characterized in filamentous fungi are Atg1 and Atg8. We discuss various strategies used to study and monitor fungal autophagy as well as the possible relationship between autophagy, physiology, and morphological development.

  10. Cell-surface Vimentin (csVim): A mislocalized protein for isolating csVimentin+CD133− novel stem-like hepatocellular carcinoma cells expressing EMT markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Abhisek; Satelli, Arun; Xia, Xueqing; Cutrera, Jeffrey; Lopa, Mishra; Li, Shulin

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in cancer stem cell biology have shown that cancer stem–like cells with epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotypes are more aggressive and cause relapse; however absence of a specific marker to isolate these EMT stem-like cells hampers research in this direction. Cell surface markers have been identified for isolating cancer stem-like cells, but none has been identified for isolating cancer stem-like cells with EMT phenotype. Recently, we discovered that Vimentin, an intracellular EMT tumor cell marker, is present on the surface of colon metastatic tumor nodules in the liver. In this study, we examined the potential of targeting cell surface Vimentin (CSV) to isolate stem-like cancer cells with EMT phenotype, by using a specific CSV-binding antibody, 84-1. Using this antibody, we purified the CSV positive, CD133-negative (csVim+CD133−) cell population from primary liver tumor cell suspensions and characterized for stem cell properties. The results of sphere assays and staining for the stem cell markers Sox2 and Oct4A demonstrated that csVim+CD133− cells have stem-like properties similar to csVim−CD133+ population. Our investigation further revealed that the csVim+CD133− cells had EMT phenotypes, as evidenced by the presence of Twist and Slug in the nucleus, the absence of EpCAM on the cell surface and basal level of expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin. The csVimentin negative CD133 positive stem cells do not have any EMT phenotypes. csVim+CD133− cells exhibited more aggressively metastatic in livers than csVim−CD133+ cells. Our findings indicate that csVim+CD133− cells are promising targets for treatment and prevention of metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:25487874

  11. Intermediate care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afro Salsi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In most cases intermediate care is represented by a residential care service that faces needs of people, mainly older people, between discharge from the hospital and the return to home. Discussion: Some authors have a negative opinion of this system due to the risk of omission of care and malpractice for the elderly as a consequence of early discharge from the hospital. There are different models of implementation based on the resources locally available and on the particular facilities network. Conclusion: The multidimensional assessment of clinical, functional and social problems is the key for a favourable outcome of intermediate care. If appropriately built as organisational care, intermediate care can become a positive chance for patients’ health. The key for success is to operate in a patient-centered mode, by accurately defining the individual plan of care.

  12. Filaments in Lupus I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoko; Rodon, J.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Plunkett, A.

    2017-06-01

    The mechanisms behind the formation of sub-stellar mass sources are key to determine the populations at the low-mass end of the stellar distribution. Here, we present mapping observations toward the Lupus I cloud in C18O(2-1) and 13CO(2-1) obtained with APEX. We have identified a few velocity-coherent filaments. Each contains several substellar mass sources that are also identified in the 1.1mm continuum data (see also SOLA catalogue presentation). We will discuss the velocity structure, fragmentation properties of the identified filaments, and the nature of the detected sources.

  13. Aerogel-supported filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuest, Craig R.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Johnson, III, Coleman V.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is a thin filament embedded in a low density aerogel for use in radiation detection instruments and incandescent lamps. The aerogel provides a supportive matrix that is thermally and electrically nonconductive, mechanically strong, highly porous, gas-permeable, and transparent to ionizing radiation over short distances. A low density, open-cell aerogel is cast around a fine filament or wire, which allows the wire to be positioned with little or no tension and keeps the wire in place in the event of breakage. The aerogel support reduces the stresses on the wire caused by vibrational, gravitational, electrical, and mechanical forces.

  14. Fundamentals of Filament Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-19

    strictly to the research plan outlined in the original proposal. To our knowledge this was the first time the HEL JTO had used an MRI to advance the...Department Of Chemistry 2145 Sheridan Road • Evanston, Il 60208-3113 Phone 847-467-4979 • Fax 847-467-4996 • E-Mail T-Seideman@Northwestern.Edu...JTO had used an MRI to advance the understanding of optical filamentation in air by ultrashort laser pulses. Studies of filamentation involve many

  15. Solar Features - Prominences and Filaments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Prominences and filaments are two manifestations of the same phenomenon. Both prominences and filaments are features formed above the chromosphere by cool dense...

  16. Positrusion Filament Recycling System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TUI proposes a novel process to produce 3d printer feedstock filament out of scrap ABS on the ISS. Currently the plastic filament materials that most 3d printers use...

  17. Capillary thinning of polymeric filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Szabo, Peter; Hassager, Ole

    1998-01-01

    . Thereby the sample is stretched into a filament. Provided the filament is sufficiently long, surface tension will induce a thinningof the filament until breakage in finite time.This experiment was originally deviced by Bazilevsky et al. (1990). For the numerical simulations we employ a Lagrangian finite...

  18. Capillary thinning of polymeric filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Szabo, Peter

    1999-01-01

    , the bottom plate is lowered under gravity to produce a specified strain. The sample is thereby stretched into a filament. Provided the filament is sufficiently long, surface tension will induce a thinning of the filament until breakup in finite time. The numerical simulations are performed with a Lagrangian...

  19. Identification and fine mapping of a linear B cell epitope of human vimentin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Catharina Essendrup; Houen, Gunnar; Hansen, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    sequence LDSLPLVDTH was identified as the complete epitope, corresponding to amino acids 428-437 in the C-terminal end of the human vimentin protein. Alanine scanning and functionality scanning applying substituted peptides were used to identify amino acids essential for antibody reactivity. In particular......, the two aspartate residues were found to be essential for antibody reactivity since these amino acids could not be substituted without a reduction in antibody reactivity. The majority of the remaining amino acids could be substituted without reducing antibody reactivity notably. These results confirm...... that charged amino acids are essential for antibody reactivity and that the vimentin antibody is dependent on side-chain interactions in combination with backbone interactions....

  20. Expression of CK14 and vimentin in adenomatoid odontogenic tumor and dentigerous cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakara, Muniswamappa; Rudrayya, S Puranik; Vanaki, Srineevas S; Bhullar, RamanPreet Kaur; Shivakumar, MS; Hosur, Mahadevi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Origin of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) has long been a controversy, and the issue of it being a neoplasm or hamartoma was a subject of debate for a long time. Earlier it was grouped under a mixed group of odontogenic tumors considering the varying degrees of inductive changes. Recently, the WHO classification states that the presence of hard tissue within AOT was not due to induction but was rather a metaplastically produced mineralization and hence the tumor was reclassified under a group of tumors arising from odontogenic epithelium. This study is an attempt to identify if both epithelial (cytokeratin 14 [CK14]) and mesenchymal (vimentin) markers are expressed in the follicular and extrafollicular variants of AOT and to compare the expression with dentigerous cyst (DC) as this cyst is known to arise from reduced enamel epithelium which expressed CK14. This is done to possibly relate the origin of AOT with reduced enamel epithelium. Aims and Objectives: To study, analyze and correlate the expression of CK14 and vimentin in AOT and DC. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study on paraffin embedded tissues. Sixteen cases of AOT and 15 cases of DC were retrieved from the departmental archives and subjected to CK14 and vimentin immunostaining. Statistical Methods: Measures of central tendency was used to analyze the results. Results and Observations: Ninety percent of cases of follicular AOT (FAOT) and 100% cases of extra-follicular AOTs (EAOTs) showed positivity for CK14 and all cases of DC showed positivity for CK14. Vimentin was positive in 44% and negative in 56% cases of both FAOT and EAOT taken together. Conclusion: The CK14 expression profile in AOT and DC supports its odontogenic epithelial specific nature. The possible role of reduced enamel epithelium and dental lamina in histogenesis of AOT and DC is strongly evident by their CK14 expression pattern. PMID:27721599

  1. p62/SQSTM1 interacts with vimentin to enhance breast cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Si; Xu, Ling-Zhi; Zhou, Wei; Yao, Shang; Wang, Chun-Li; Xia, Jiang-Long; Wang, He-Fei; Kamran, Muhammad; Xue, Xiao-Yuan; Dong, Lin; Wang, Jing; Ding, Xu-Dong; Bella, Laura; Bugeon, Laurence; Xu, Jie; Zheng, Fei-Meng; Dallman, Margaret J; Lam, Eric W F; Liu, Quentin

    2017-10-26

    The signalling adaptor p62 is frequently overexpressed in numerous cancer types. Here, we found that p62 expression was elevated in metastatic breast cancer and its overexpression correlated with reduced metastasis- and relapse-free survival times. Analysis of p62 expression in breast cancer cell lines demonstrated that high p62 expression was associated with the invasive phenotypes of breast cancer. Indeed, silencing p62 expression attenuated the invasive phenotypes of highly metastatic cells, whereas overexpressing p62 promoted the invasion of non-metastatic cells in in vitro microfluidic model. Moreover, MDA-MB-231 cells with p62 depletion which were grown in a three-dimensional culture system exhibited a loss of invasive protrusions. Consistently, genetic ablation of p62 suppressed breast cancer metastasis in both zebrafish embryo and immunodeficient mouse models, as well as decreased tumourigenicity in vivo. To explore the molecular mechanism by which p62 promotes breast cancer invasion, we performed a co-immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry analysis and revealed that p62 interacted with vimentin, which mediated the function of p62 in promoting breast cancer invasion. Vimentin protein expression was downregulated upon p62 suppression and upregulated with p62 overexpression in breast cancer cells. Linear regression analysis of clinical breast cancer specimens showed a positive correlation between p62 and vimentin protein expression. Together, our findings provide strong evidence that p62 functions as a tumour metastasis promoter by binding vimentin and promoting its expression. This finding might help to develop novel molecular therapeutic strategies for breast cancer metastasis treatment. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. CD 9 and vimentin distinguish clear cell from chromophobe renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljunberg Börje

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC can usually be distinguished by histologic characteristics. Occasionally, diagnosis proves challenging and diagnostic difficulty will likely increase as needle biopsies of renal lesions become more common. Methods To identify markers that aid in differentiating ccRCC from chRCC, we used gene expression profiles to identify candidate markers that correlate with histology. 39 antisera and antibodies, including 35 for transcripts identified from gene expression profiling, were evaluated. Promising markers were tested on a tissue microarray (TMA containing 428 renal neoplasms. Strength of staining of each core on the TMA was formally scored and the distribution of staining across different types of renal neoplasms was analyzed. Results Based on results from initial immunohistochemical staining of multitissue titer arrays, 23 of the antisera and antibodies were selected for staining of the TMA. For 7 of these markers, strength of staining of each core on the TMA was formally scored. Vimentin (positive in ccRCC and CD9 (positive in chRCC best distinguished ccRCC from chRCC. The combination of vimentin negativity and CD9 positivity was found to distinguish chRCC from ccRCC with a sensitivity of 100.0% and a specificity of 95.2%. Conclusion Based on gene expression analysis, we identify CD9 and vimentin as candidate markers for distinguishing between ccRCC and chRCC. In difficult cases and particularly when the amount of diagnostic tissue is limited, vimentin and CD9 staining could serve as a useful adjunct in the differential diagnosis of ccRCC and chRCC.

  3. Vimentin and laminin are altered on cheek pouch microvessels of streptozotocin-induced diabetic hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemima Fuentes R Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Normal endothelial cells respond to shear stress by elongating and aligning in the direction of fluid flow. Hyperglycemia impairs this response and contributes to microvascular complications, which result in deleterious effects to the endothelium. This work aimed to evaluate cheek pouch microvessel morphological characteristics, reactivity, permeability, and expression of cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix components in hamsters after the induction of diabetes with streptozotocin. METHODS: Syrian golden hamsters (90-130 g were injected with streptozotocin (50 mg/kg, i.p. or vehicle either 6 (the diabetes mellitus 6 group or 15 (the diabetes mellitus 15 group days before the experiment. Vascular dimensions and density per area of vessels were determined by morphometric and stereological measurements. Changes in blood flow were measured in response to acetylcholine, and plasma extravasation was measured by the number of leakage sites. Actin, talin, α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, type IV collagen, and laminin were detected by immunohistochemistry and assessed through a semiquantitative scoring system. RESULTS: There were no major alterations in the lumen, wall diameters, or densities of the examined vessels. Likewise, vascular reactivity and permeability were not altered by diabetes. The arterioles demonstrated increased immunoreactivity to vimentin and laminin in the diabetes mellitus 6 and diabetes mellitus 15 groups. DISCUSSION: Antibodies against laminin and vimentin inhibit branching morphogenesis in vitro. Therefore, laminin and vimentin participating in the structure of the focal adhesion may play a role in angiogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated the existence of changes related to cell-matrix interactions, which may contribute to the pathological remodeling that was already underway one week after induction of experimental diabetes.

  4. Intermediate uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfioli, Adriana A; Damico, Francisco Max; Curi, Andre L L; Orefice, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    Intermediate uveitis is an intraocular inflammation involving the anterior vitreous, peripheral retina and pars plana. It usually affects patients from 5 to 30 years old, without gender or racial preferences. The etiology is unknown but there are several associated diseases: multiple sclerosis, idiopathic optic neuritis, autoimmune corneal endotheliopathy, sarcoidosis, thyroid diseases and inflammatory bowel diseases. Symptoms are blurry vision, floaters and distortion of central vision. The syndrome is bilateral in 80% of the patients and chronic with periods of exacerbation and remission. Clinical presentation includes: mild to moderate anterior chamber inflammation, thin keratic precipitates in the inferior portion of the cornea, autoimmune endotheliopathy, vitreitis, vasculitis in the peripheral retina, intravitreal "snowballs," retinal "snowbanking," optic neuritis and cystoid macular edema. Cataract and glaucoma are frequent complications. Treatment of intermediate uveitis is based on periocular and oral corticosteroids. Cryotherapy or laser photocoagulation of the peripheral retina are options in patients with snowbanking when there is an insufficient response to periocular or systemic corticosteroids. Imunosuppression may also be used when other therapies fail, and Cyclosporin A is the first drug of choice. Pars plana vitrectomy is indicated in patients with chronic significant inflammation, non-responsive cystoid macular edema, non-clearing vitreous hemorrhage, tractional retinal detachment and epiretinal membranes. The long-term prognosis of intermediate uveitis is usually good, particularly with strict control of inflammation and with proper management of complications. Patients can often maintain a vision of 20/50 or better.

  5. TET1 promotes cisplatin-resistance via demethylating the vimentin promoter in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xi; Zhou, Yuanyuan; You, Yuanyi; Lu, Jiaojiao; Wang, Lijie; Hou, Huilian; Li, Jing; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Le; Li, Xu

    2017-04-01

    The development of chemo-resistance impairs the outcome of the first line platinum-based chemotherapies for ovarian cancer. Deregulation of DNA methylation/demethylation provides a critical mechanism for the occurrence of chemo-resistance. The ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of dioxygenases including TET1/2/3 plays an important part in DNA demethylation, but their roles in cisplatin resistance have not been elucidated. Using cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell models, we found that TET1 was significantly upregulated in cisplatin-resistant CP70 cells compared with that in cisplatin-sensitive A2780 cells. Ectopic expression of TET1 in A2780 cells promoted cisplatin resistance and decreased cytotoxicity induced by cisplatin, while inhibition of TET1 by siRNA transfection in CP70 cells attenuated cisplatin resistance and enhanced cytotoxicity of cisplatin. Increased TET1 induced re-expression of vimentin through active DNA demethylation, and cause partial epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) in A2780 cells. Contrarily, knocking down of TET1 in CP70 cells reduced vimentin expression and reversed EMT process. Immunohistochemical analysis of TET1 in human ovarian cancer tissues revealed that TET1 existed in nucleus and cytoplasm in ovarian cancer tissues. And the expression of nuclear TET1 was positively correlated with residual tumor and chemotherapeutic response. Thus, TET1 expression causes resistance to cisplatin and one of the targets of TET1 action is vimentin in ovarian cancer. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  6. Filamentous Fungi Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Anders; Stocks, Stuart; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi (including microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae) represent an enormously important platform for industrial fermentation. Two particularly valuable features are the high yield coefficients and the ability to secrete products. However, the filamentous...... morphology, together with non-Newtonian rheological properties (shear thinning), result in poor oxygen transfer unless sufficient energy is provided to the fermentation. While genomic research may improve the organisms, there is no doubt that to enable further application in future it will be necessary...... to match such research with studies of oxygen transfer and energy supply to high viscosity fluids. Hence, the implementation of innovative solutions (some of which in principle are already possible) will be essential to ensure the further development of such fermentations....

  7. E-cadherin and Vimentin as Predictors of Resistance to Preoperative Systemic Therapy in Patients with Advanced Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonar. S. Panigoro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss of E-cadherin and increased vimentin expression are associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition andcancer stemness which are responsible for treatment resistance. The study aims to evaluate the role of E-cadherin andvimentin as predictors of resistance to preoperative systemic therapy in patients with advanced breast cancer. This wasa cross-sectional analytical study in patients with stage III-IV breast cancer in Dharmais Cancer Hospital and dr. CiptoMangunkusumo National Hospital from July 2015 to April 2016. Patients had biopsy specimens embedded in paraffinblocks. Expressions of E-cadherin and vimentin proteins were done immunohistochemically. Treatment response wasevaluated histopathologically using Miller-Payne criteria on mastectomy specimens. A total of 65 patients were enrolled.Five patients with invasive lobular carcinoma were excluded. Thirty one had chemotherapy and 29 had hormonaltherapy. After treatment, 46 patients were eligible for mastectomy. E-cadherin and vimentin were positive in 28 (60.9%and 11 (20.3% of specimens. Twenty-three (50% patients showed no response. Treatment resistance were associatedwith type of therapy (OR=4.4; 95% CI=1.27-15.41; p=0.017 and vimentin expression (OR=6.75; 95% CI=1.27-30.02;p=0.016. Hormonal therapy (ORadj=6.26; 95%CI=1.59-24.6; p=0.009 and positive vimentin (ORadj=8.75; 95%CI=1.43-57.4; p=0.019 were independent predictors of treatment resistance. In conclusion, E-cadherin and vimentin can beused as predictors of resistance to preoperative systemic therapy in patients with advanced breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, cancer stemness, E-cadherin, preoperative therapy, vimentin.   Peran E-cadherin dan Vimentin sebagai Prediktor Resistensi Terapi Sistemik Preoperatif pada Pasien Kanker Payudara Stadium Lanjut Abstrak Hilangnya ekspresi E-cadherin dan meningkatnya ekspresi vimentin dihubungkan dengan epithelial-mesenchymaltransition dan cancer stemness yang bertanggungjawab terhadap

  8. Intermediate Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paech Joachim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from a definition of the word ‘picture’ as a real-world object that shows other objects on its surface as a representation of its image, I propose that the intermediality of pictures of all kinds is only possible through their images, after they have been separated from their material basis or foundation (for example, a painting in its physical reality can never be directly connected with a movie. In all technical reproductions of images, such as printing processes, an image is taken from a negative matrix in order to realize multiple prints of the same representation. The most effective model of this procedure is photography: photographic images can easily be connected with their media forms to produce other, more complex forms, such as magazines, printed books, or films. Intermediate images in the form of matrices - sometimes transparent (e.g. in the light beam of a film projection, sometimes opaque - are required to transform one pictorial media form into another. Finally, for the digital matrix-image, there is no longer any difference between the matrix and the image: the matrix has become its own image, which can be linked to all other media forms.

  9. Fixation-dependent vimentin immunoreactivity of mono- and polyclonal antibodies in brain tissue of cattle, rabbits, rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, K; Hewicker-Trautwein, M

    1994-12-01

    The immunohistochemical staining of vimentin in paraffin-embedded sections from adult cattle, rabbit, rat and mouse brain fixed in different fixatives (formaldehyde, methacarn, ethanol) was examined using two monoclonal antibodies and a polyclonal antiserum. In non-trypsinized formaldehyde-fixed tissue sections both monoclonal antibodies and the polyclonal antibodies failed to stain vimentin. Following trypsinization of formaldehyde-fixed sections of the four species the meninges, endothelial cells of blood vessels, ependymal cells and the stroma of the choroid plexus were labelled by the monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies used. Astrocytes and Bergmann glial fibers in pretrypsinized formaldehyde-fixed sections from cattle, rabbit and rat brain, however, showed only weak staining. Fixation of cattle and rat brain in methacarn markedly improved the vimentin immunoreactivity of astrocytes and Bergmann glial fibers. The best fixative for the preservation of immunoreactive determinants of vimentin in astrocytes and Bergmann glial fibers in cattle, rabbit and rat brain was ethanol. In brain tissue from mice both monoclonal antibodies labelled only mesoderm-derived tissue components, but did not recognize vimentin in astrocytes and Bergmann glial fibers. Pre-heating formaldehyde-fixed sections from cattle, rabbit and rat brain in a microwave oven prior to the immunohistochemical reaction resulted in an enormous enhancement of vimentin staining of mesoderm-derived tissues, of astrocytes and bergmann cell fibers.

  10. The keratin intermediate filament—like system in maize protoplasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SuFei; GuWei; 等

    1990-01-01

    The application of Penman's method of cell fractionation to plant protoplasts leads to our finding of keratin intermediate filament(IF)-like system in maize protoplasts,which was identified by using immunogold labelling with monoclonal antibody of cytokeratin from animal cells.Many gold particles were found to be bound on filaments,linked by 3 nm filaments.After further digestion and extraction with DNase I and ammonium sulphate.IF-like framework-lamina-nuclear matrix system was shown under electron microscope.That IF system exists in plant protoplasts just like in animal cells,and their main component is keratin-like protein.

  11. Involvement of vimentin in neurite outgrowth damage induced by fipronil in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruangjaroon, Theetat; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Svasti, Jisnuson; Paricharttanakul, N Monique

    2017-05-06

    Fipronil, a phenylpyrazole insecticide, is more selective in its potency towards insects than humans and is thus commonly used. In this study, we demonstrated that exposure to fipronil may pose a human health risk. We observed in vitro the shortening of neurite outgrowths of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells upon treatment with fipronil, even at a non-cytotoxic concentration. Fipronil induced apoptosis involving caspase-6, which is an apoptotic effector highly implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, at a concentration that did not induce apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagic vacuole formation were detected. Interestingly using proteomics, we identified vimentin to be dramatically expressed by SH-SY5Y cells as a response to fipronil treatment. Not only did the expression of total vimentin increase, different isoforms were observed, indicating alterations in post-translational modifications. Vimentin was localized at the neurite outgrowth, possibly to repair the damage in cellular structure. However at high concentrations of fipronil, vimentin was found in less defined fibrils, in bridge-like formation, and dense surrounding vacuoles. In all, our results indicate that vimentin plays an important role in fipronil-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Histone demethylase retinoblastoma binding protein 2 regulates the expression of -smooth muscle actin and vimentin in cirrhotic livers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Liver cirrhosis is one of the most common diseases of Chinese patients. Herein, we report the high expression of a newly identified histone 3 lysine 4 demethylase, retinoblastoma binding protein 2 (RBP2, and its role in liver cirrhosis in humans. The siRNA knockdown of RBP2 expression in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs reduced levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA and vimentin and decreased the proliferation of HSCs; and overexpression of RBP2 increased α-SMA and vimentin levels. Treatment with transforming growth factor β (TGF-β upregulated the expression of RBP2, α-SMA, and vimentin, and the siRNA knockdown of RBP2 expression attenuated TGF-β-mediated upregulation of α-SMA and vimentin expression and HSC proliferation. Furthermore, RBP2 was highly expressed in cirrhotic rat livers. Therefore, RBP2 may participate in the pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis by regulating the expression of α-SMA and vimentin. RBP2 may be a useful marker for the diagnosis and treatment of liver cirrhosis.

  13. Histone demethylase retinoblastoma binding protein 2 regulates the expression of α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin in cirrhotic livers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q. [Department of Microbiology, Key Laboratory for Experimental Teratology of the Chinese Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Wang, L.X. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Zeng, J.P. [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Liu, X.J.; Liang, X.M.; Zhou, Y.B. [Department of Microbiology, Key Laboratory for Experimental Teratology of the Chinese Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan (China)

    2013-09-06

    Liver cirrhosis is one of the most common diseases of Chinese patients. Herein, we report the high expression of a newly identified histone 3 lysine 4 demethylase, retinoblastoma binding protein 2 (RBP2), and its role in liver cirrhosis in humans. The siRNA knockdown of RBP2 expression in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) reduced levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and vimentin and decreased the proliferation of HSCs; and overexpression of RBP2 increased α-SMA and vimentin levels. Treatment with transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) upregulated the expression of RBP2, α-SMA, and vimentin, and the siRNA knockdown of RBP2 expression attenuated TGF-β-mediated upregulation of α-SMA and vimentin expression and HSC proliferation. Furthermore, RBP2 was highly expressed in cirrhotic rat livers. Therefore, RBP2 may participate in the pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis by regulating the expression of α-SMA and vimentin. RBP2 may be a useful marker for the diagnosis and treatment of liver cirrhosis.

  14. MicroRNA-138 modulates metastasis and EMT in breast cancer cells by targeting vimentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Dan; Feng, Zhuo; Mao, Jun; Zhang, Chunying; Lu, Ying; Li, Jiazhi; Zhang, Qingqing; Li, Qing; Li, Lianhong

    2016-02-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) plays critical roles in malignant transformation and tumor progression. In this study, in order to investigate the association of miR-138 with breast cancer we investigated the role of miR-138 in breast cancer metastasis. Levels of miR-138 were determined by qRT-PCR in 45 breast cancer samples. Cell migration and invasion assays were performed in a stably expressing miRNA-138 breast cancer cell line established using a lentivirus expression system. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was evaluated using qRT-PCR and Western Blots to detect epithelial marker E-cadherin and mesenchymal marker, vimentin. Luciferase reporter assays were used to identify downstream targets and biological function of miR-138. Breast cancer tissues had significantly lower expression of miR-138 compared to non-tumor tissues. Low miR-138 levels were associated with lymph node metastasis and invasion. miR-138 overexpression inhibited metastasis of breast cancer cells. miR-138 overexpression also down-regulated vimentin expression and upregulated E-cadherin expression, suggesting that miR-138 inhibited EMT. Our results support the involvement of miR-138 in breast tumorigenesis, especially lymph node metastasis. We propose that miR-138 might be used as therapeutic agent for breast cancer. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Comparative Biomechanics of Thick Filaments and Thin Filaments with Functional Consequences for Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Miller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The scaffold of striated muscle is predominantly comprised of myosin and actin polymers known as thick filaments and thin filaments, respectively. The roles these filaments play in muscle contraction are well known, but the extent to which variations in filament mechanical properties influence muscle function is not fully understood. Here we review information on the material properties of thick filaments, thin filaments, and their primary constituents; we also discuss ways in which mechanical properties of filaments impact muscle performance.

  16. Intestinal, segmented, filamentous bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaasen, H L; Koopman, J P; Poelma, F G; Beynen, A C

    1992-06-01

    Segmented, filamentous bacteria (SFBs) are autochthonous, apathogenic bacteria, occurring in the ileum of mice and rats. Although the application of formal taxonomic criteria is impossible due to the lack of an in vitro technique to culture SFBs, microbes with a similar morphology, found in the intestine of a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate host species, are considered to be related. SFBs are firmly attached to the epithelial cells of the distal ileal mucosa, their preferential ecological niche being the epithelium covering the Peyer's patches. Electron microscopic studies have demonstrated a considerable morphological diversity of SFBs, which may relate to different stages of a life cycle. Determinants of SFB colonization in vivo are host species, genotypical and phenotypical characteristics of the host, diet composition, environmental stress and antimicrobial drugs. SFBs can survive in vitro incubation, but do not multiply. On the basis of their apathogenic character and intimate relationship with the host, it is suggested that SFBs contribute to development and/or maintenance of host resistance to enteropathogens.

  17. Centromeres of filamentous fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristina M.; Galazka, Jonathan M.; Phatale, Pallavi A.; Connolly, Lanelle R.; Freitag, Michael

    2012-01-01

    How centromeres are assembled and maintained remains one of the fundamental questions in cell biology. Over the past 20 years the idea of centromeres as precise genetic loci has been replaced by the realization that it is predominantly the protein complement that defines centromere localization and function. Thus, placement and maintenance of centromeres are excellent examples of epigenetic phenomena in the strict sense. In contrast, the highly derived “point centromeres” of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its close relatives are counterexamples for this general principle of centromere maintenance. While we have learned much in the past decade, it remains unclear if mechanisms for epigenetic centromere placement and maintenance are shared amongst various groups of organisms. For that reason it seems prudent to examine species from many different phylogenetic groups with the aim to extract comparative information that will yield a more complete picture of cell division in all eukaryotes. This review addresses what has been learned by studying the centromeres of filamentous fungi, a large, heterogeneous group of organisms that includes important plant, animal and human pathogens, saprobes and symbionts that fulfill essential roles in the biosphere, as well as a growing number of taxa that have become indispensable for industrial use. PMID:22752455

  18. Boolean gates on actin filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siccardi, Stefano, E-mail: ssiccardi@2ssas.it [The Unconventional Computing Centre, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom); Tuszynski, Jack A., E-mail: jackt@ualberta.ca [Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Adamatzky, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.adamatzky@uwe.ac.uk [The Unconventional Computing Centre, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-08

    Actin is a globular protein which forms long polar filaments in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Actin networks play a key role in cell mechanics and cell motility. They have also been implicated in information transmission and processing, memory and learning in neuronal cells. The actin filaments have been shown to support propagation of voltage pulses. Here we apply a coupled nonlinear transmission line model of actin filaments to study interactions between voltage pulses. To represent digital information we assign a logical TRUTH value to the presence of a voltage pulse in a given location of the actin filament, and FALSE to the pulse's absence, so that information flows along the filament with pulse transmission. When two pulses, representing Boolean values of input variables, interact, then they can facilitate or inhibit further propagation of each other. We explore this phenomenon to construct Boolean logical gates and a one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses. We discuss implications of these findings on cellular process and technological applications. - Highlights: • We simulate interaction between voltage pulses using on actin filaments. • We use a coupled nonlinear transmission line model. • We design Boolean logical gates via interactions between the voltage pulses. • We construct one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses.

  19. A dsRNA virus with filamentous viral particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hengxia; Dong, Kaili; Zhou, Lingling; Wang, Guoping; Hong, Ni; Jiang, Daohong; Xu, Wenxing

    2017-08-01

    Viruses with double-stranded RNA genomes form isometric particles or are capsidless. Here we report a double-stranded RNA virus, Colletotrichum camelliae filamentous virus 1 (CcFV-1) isolated from a fungal pathogen, that forms filamentous particles. CcFV-1 has eight genomic double-stranded RNAs, ranging from 990 to 2444 bp, encoding 10 putative open reading frames, of which open reading frame 1 encodes an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and open reading frame 4 a capsid protein. When inoculated, the naked CcFV-1 double-stranded RNAs are infectious and induce the accumulation of the filamentous particles in vivo. CcFV-1 is phylogenetically related to Aspergillus fumigatus tetramycovirus-1 and Beauveria bassiana polymycovirus-1, but differs in morphology and in the number of genomic components. CcFV-1 might be an intermediate virus related to truly capsidated viruses, or might represent a distinct encapsidating strategy. In terms of genome and particle architecture, our findings are a significant addition to the knowledge of the virosphere diversity.Viruses with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomes form typically isometric particles or are capsid-less. Here, the authors identify a mycovirus with an eight-segmented dsRNA genome that forms exceptionally long filamentous particles and could represent an evolutionary link between ssRNA and dsRNA viruses.

  20. Expression of Nestin, Vimentin, and NCAM by Renal Interstitial Cells after Ischemic Tubular Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vansthertem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work explores the distribution of various markers expressed by interstitial cells in rat kidneys after ischemic injury (35 minutes during regeneration of S3 tubules of outer stripe of outer medulla (OSOM. Groups of experimental animals (n=4 were sacrificed every two hours during the first 24 hours post-ischemia as well as 2, 3, 7, 14 days post-ischemia. The occurrence of lineage markers was analyzed on kidney sections by immunohistochemistry and morphometry during the process of tubular regeneration. In postischemic kidneys, interstitial cell proliferation, assessed by 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA labeling, was prominent in outer medulla and reach a maximum between 24 and 72 hours after reperfusion. This population was characterized by the coexpression of vimentin and nestin. The density of -Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM positive interstitial cells increased transiently (18–72 hours in the vicinity of altered tubules. We have also localized a small population of α-Smooth Muscle Actin (SMA-positive cells confined to chronically altered areas and characterized by a small proliferative index. In conclusion, we observed in the postischemic kidney a marked proliferation of interstitial cells that underwent transient phenotypical modifications. These interstitial cells could be implicated in processes leading to renal fibrosis.

  1. Cigarette Smoke Induces Immune Responses to Vimentin in both, Arthritis-Susceptible and -Resistant Humanized Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali Bidkar

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an autoimmune disease marked by chronic synovial inflammation and both, genetic and environmental factors are involved in its pathogenesis. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA DRB1*0401 is associated with susceptibility to develop RA, while cigarette smoke (CS exposure promotes seropositive disease with increased severity in DRB1*0401+ individuals. Smokers have higher levels of antibodies against citrullinated peptides. In this study, we determined whether the response to a known autoantigen, Vimentin (Vim is shared epitope specific and how CS influences this response using transgenic-mice carrying RA-susceptible,*0401, and -resistant, *0402, genes. Following relatively brief exposure to CS, peptidyl arginine deiminase (PAD enzyme expression was increased in murine lungs. Cigarette smoking led to production of Interferon (IFN-γ with reduced levels of Interleukin (IL-10 by splenocytes of *0401 mice. In contrast, CS augmented Th2 cytokines along with T-regulatory cells in *0402 mice. An increase in levels of antibodies to native and citrullinated Vim was observed in naïve mice of both strains following CS exposure. Our data showed that both arthritis-susceptible and -resistant mice can generate cellular and humoral immunity to Vim; however CS-induced modulation of host immunity is dependent on the interaction with the host HLA genes.

  2. Transient filament stretching rheometer II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The Lagrangian sspecification is used to simulate the transient stretching filament rheometer. Simulations are performed for dilute PIB-solutions modeled as a four mode Oldroyd-B fluid and a semidilute PIB-solution modeled as a non-linear single integral equation. The simulations are compared...

  3. Towards filament free semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.

    2000-01-01

    We outline physical models and simulations for suppression of self-focusing and filamentation in large aperture semiconductor lasers. The principal technical objective is to generate multi-watt CW or quasi-CW outputs with nearly diffraction limited beams, suitable for long distance free space...... propagation structures in lasers and amplifiers which suppress lateral reflections....

  4. Streptococcal-vimentin cross-reactive antibodies induce microvascular cardiac endothelial proinflammatory phenotype in rheumatic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delunardo, F; Scalzi, V; Capozzi, A; Camerini, S; Misasi, R; Pierdominici, M; Pendolino, M; Crescenzi, M; Sorice, M; Valesini, G; Ortona, E; Alessandri, C

    2013-09-01

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is characterized by the presence of anti-streptococcal group A antibodies and anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA). Molecular mimicry between streptococcal antigens and self proteins is a hallmark of the pathogenesis of rheumatic fever. We aimed to identify, in RHD patients, autoantibodies specific to endothelial autoantigens cross-reactive with streptococcal proteins and to evaluate their role in inducing endothelial damage. We used an immunoproteomic approach with endothelial cell-surface membrane proteins in order to identify autoantigens recognized by AECA of 140 RHD patients. Cross-reactivity of purified antibodies with streptococcal proteins was analysed. Homologous peptides recognized by serum cross-reactive antibodies were found through comparing the amino acid sequence of streptococcal antigens with human antigens. To investigate interleukin (IL)-1R-associated kinase (IRAK1) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, we performed a Western blot analysis of whole extracts proteins from unstimulated or stimulated human microvascular cardiac endothelial cells (HMVEC-C). Adhesion molecule expression and release of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors were studied by multiplex bead based immunoassay kits. We observed anti-vimentin antibodies in sera from 49% RHD AECA-positive patients. Cross-reactivity of purified anti-vimentin antibodies with heat shock protein (HSP)70 and streptopain streptococcal proteins was shown. Comparing the amino acid sequence of streptococcal HSP70 and streptopain with human vimentin, we found two homologous peptides recognized by serum cross-reactive antibodies. These antibodies were able to stimulate HMVEC-C inducing IRAK and NF-κB activation, adhesion molecule expression and release of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors. In conclusion, streptococcal-vimentin cross-reactive antibodies were able to activate microvascular cardiac endothelium by amplifying the inflammatory response

  5. Transversal segments in Hα solar filament channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, B.

    2017-12-01

    Some filament channels are inhabited not by solid filament bodies but filaments with gaps and isolated segments. Axes of some segments are directed at different angles to filament long axes deviating to the other side of them than thin threads of the fine filament structure. Obviously, the structure of a filament should be related to the distribution of photospheric magnetic fields in the filament channel. We analyse the distribution of dips in magnetic field lines of a flux rope in the framework of a simple flux-rope model under the influence of two small magnetic sources of opposite polarities. We found that isolated segments appear above the bipole when the direction of its horizontal field is antiparallel to the direction of the flux-rope axial field. This magnetic configuration becomes apparent in the shape of a polarity inversion line (PIL). Observations confirm the relationship between the shape of the photospheric PILs and filament structures.

  6. TIRF-Based Single-Molecule Detection of the RecA Presynaptic Filament Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung H

    2018-01-01

    RecA is a key protein in homologous DNA repair process. On a single-stranded (ss) DNA, which appears as an intermediate structure at a double-strand break site, RecA forms a kilobase-long presynaptic filament that mediates homology search and strand exchange reaction. RecA requires adenosine triphosphate as a cofactor that confers dynamic features to the filament such as nucleation, end-dependent growth and disassembly, scaffold shift along the ssDNA, and conformational change. Due to the complexity of the dynamics, detailed molecular mechanisms of functioning presynaptic filament have been characterized only recently after the advent of single-molecule techniques that allowed real-time observation of each kinetic process. In this chapter, single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays, which revealed detailed molecular pictures of the presynaptic filament dynamics, will be discussed. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Coordinate expression of cytokeratins 7 and 14, vimentin, and Bcl-2 in canine cutaneous epithelial tumors and cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Jason B; Stern, Adam W; LeClerc, Suzette M; Campbell, Karen L

    2015-07-01

    Forty-seven canine cutaneous epithelial tumors and cysts were examined to determine coordinate expression of cytokeratins 7 (CK7) and 14 (CK14), vimentin, and Bcl-2 using commercially available antibodies. Within non-affected normal skin adjacent to tumors or cysts, CK7 expression was observed in luminal cells in apocrine glands; CK14 expression was observed in the stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, basal layer of outer root sheath, sebaceous glands, and myoepithelial cells of apocrine glands; vimentin expression was observed in dermal papilla and scattered non-epithelial cells within the epidermis; and Bcl-2 expression was observed in scattered non-epithelial cells in the epidermis and some apocrine glands. The pattern of expression of CK7 and CK14 in cases of adenocarcinoma of the apocrine gland of the anal sac (CK7+/CK14-) and hepatoid gland tumors (CK7-/CK14+) may prove useful for diagnostic purposes. Loss of expression of CK14 and vimentin, identifying myoepithelial cells, was observed in apocrine and ceruminous adenocarcinomas. Differences in patterns of expression of Bcl-2 were observed between infundibular keratinizing acanthomas compared to trichoepitheliomas. © 2015 The Author(s).

  8. Analysis of a filament stretching rheometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    1996-01-01

    A finite element analysis of the stretching filament rheometer of Tirtaadmadja and Sridhar (1993) is presenetd. Simulations of the stretching of a filament of the polymet test solution, fluid A, between two plates are shown.......A finite element analysis of the stretching filament rheometer of Tirtaadmadja and Sridhar (1993) is presenetd. Simulations of the stretching of a filament of the polymet test solution, fluid A, between two plates are shown....

  9. Page 1 Recombination of two vortex filaments and jet noise 395 The ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recombination of two vortex filaments and jet noise 395. The parameters m, k, l, 6 and wo(0–) are treated as given. Parameters g, and gy will be related to the other ... necessarily require the existence of the ring pair. What is essential in this model is that the intermediate flow field has an axisymmetry expressed as (10), but ...

  10. Remote electrical arc suppression by laser filamentation

    CERN Document Server

    Schubert, Elise; Kasparian, Jérôme; Wolf, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the interaction of narrow plasma channels formed in the filamentation of ultrashort laser pulses, with a DC high voltage. The laser filaments prevent electrical arcs by triggering corona that neutralize the high-voltage electrodes. This phenomenon, due to the electric field modulation and free electron release around the filament, opens new prospects to lightning and over-voltage mitigation.

  11. Large-scale Motion of Solar Filaments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Abstract. Precise measurements of heliographic position of solar fila- ments were used for determination of the proper motion of solar filaments on the time-scale of days. The filaments have a tendency to make a shaking or waving of the external structure and to make a general move- ment of whole filament body, coinciding ...

  12. Solar Filaments as Tracers of Subsurface Processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solar filaments are discussed in terms of two contrasting paradigms. The standard paradigm is that filaments are formed by condensation of coronal plasma into magnetic fields that are twisted or dimpled as a consequence of motions of the fields' sources in the photo-sphere. According to a new paradigm, filaments form in ...

  13. Current-vortex filaments in magnetized plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, J.; Kuvshinov, B. N.; Lakhin, V. P.; Schep, T. J.; Westerhof, E.

    1999-01-01

    Current-vortex filament solutions to the two-fluid plasma equations that describe drift-Alfven waves are presented. Such filament systems are Hamiltonian. Integrable three and four filament systems are discussed in some detail. A wide variety of orbit topologies exists in the plasma case. Special

  14. Transition of Immunohistochemical Expression of E-Cadherin and Vimentin from Premalignant to Malignant Lesions of Oral Cavity and Oropharynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafil Akhtar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We sought to study the expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers E-cadherin and vimentin in precancerous lesions of the oral cavity and oropharynx and to use the specific pattern of expression to predict invasiveness. Methods: This cross-sectional study looked at 87 cases of oral and oropharyngeal lesions obtained between December 2012 and November 2014 in the Department of Pathology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, India. Fifty-three biopsies from the buccal mucosa, tongue, and pharynx and 34 resected oral specimens were evaluated for premalignant and malignant lesions using hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical stains. Immunohistochemical expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin and mesenchymal marker vimentin was evaluated wherever possible. Slides were examined for staining pattern (cytoplasmic or membrane, proportion, and intensity of staining of tumor cells. Patients follow-up and therapy related changes were also studied. Results: There were 64 premalignant and 23 malignant cases in our study with 65 (74.7% cases seen in males and 22 (25.3% cases seen in females. The majority of malignant cases, (n = 15; 64.2% were seen in the fifth and sixth decades of life while most of the premalignant lesions (n = 36; 56.4% were seen in the fourth and fifth decade. Amongst the 64 premalignant oral lesions, leukoplakia comprised of 14 cases (21.9%, of which three cases had associated mild to moderate dysplasia. The majority of premalignant lesions showed strong E-cadherin expression and decreased expression of vimentin with negative and weak expression in both dysplasias and carcinoma in situ (p = 0.013. E-cadherin expression was significantly reduced in invasive carcinomas compared to dysplasias and carcinoma in situ and the difference in immunoreactivity was statistically significant (p < 0.050. Vimentin expression increased as the tumor progressed from dysplasias to carcinoma in

  15. Elasticity of a Filament with Kinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein

    2017-12-01

    Using the wormlike chain model, we analytically study the elasticity of a filament with kinks. We calculate the position probability density function and the force constant of a kinked filament with a general kink angle. Then, using the mathematical induction, we obtain the positional-orientational probability density function of a filament with regular kinks. For this filament, we compute the force constant in two different directions. In longitudinal direction of the filament, the force constant is proportional to the inverse of the number of the segments, i.e., 1 / m, while in transverse direction, it is proportional to 1/m^3.

  16. Enterovirus 71 VP1 activates calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and results in the rearrangement of vimentin in human astrocyte cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Haolong

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is one of the main causative agents of foot, hand and mouth disease. Its infection usually causes severe central nervous system diseases and complications in infected infants and young children. In the present study, we demonstrated that EV71 infection caused the rearrangement of vimentin in human astrocytoma cells. The rearranged vimentin, together with various EV71 components, formed aggresomes-like structures in the perinuclear region. Electron microscopy and viral RNA labeling indicated that the aggresomes were virus replication sites since most of the EV71 particles and the newly synthesized viral RNA were concentrated here. Further analysis revealed that the vimentin in the virus factories was serine-82 phosphorylated. More importantly, EV71 VP1 protein is responsible for the activation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II which phosphorylated the N-terminal domain of vimentin on serine 82. Phosphorylation of vimentin and the formation of aggresomes were required for the replication of EV71 since the latter was decreased markedly after phosphorylation was blocked by KN93, a CaMK-II inhibitor. Thus, as one of the consequences of CaMK-II activation, vimentin phosphorylation and rearrangement may support virus replication by playing a structural role for the formation of the replication factories. Collectively, this study identified the replication centers of EV71 in human astrocyte cells. This may help us understand the replication mechanism and pathogenesis of EV71 in human.

  17. Enterovirus 71 VP1 Activates Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II and Results in the Rearrangement of Vimentin in Human Astrocyte Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haolong, Cong; Du, Ning; Hongchao, Tian; Yang, Yang; Wei, Zhang; Hua, Zhang; Wenliang, Zhang; Lei, Song; Po, Tien

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main causative agents of foot, hand and mouth disease. Its infection usually causes severe central nervous system diseases and complications in infected infants and young children. In the present study, we demonstrated that EV71 infection caused the rearrangement of vimentin in human astrocytoma cells. The rearranged vimentin, together with various EV71 components, formed aggresomes-like structures in the perinuclear region. Electron microscopy and viral RNA labeling indicated that the aggresomes were virus replication sites since most of the EV71 particles and the newly synthesized viral RNA were concentrated here. Further analysis revealed that the vimentin in the virus factories was serine-82 phosphorylated. More importantly, EV71 VP1 protein is responsible for the activation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II) which phosphorylated the N-terminal domain of vimentin on serine 82. Phosphorylation of vimentin and the formation of aggresomes were required for the replication of EV71 since the latter was decreased markedly after phosphorylation was blocked by KN93, a CaMK-II inhibitor. Thus, as one of the consequences of CaMK-II activation, vimentin phosphorylation and rearrangement may support virus replication by playing a structural role for the formation of the replication factories. Collectively, this study identified the replication centers of EV71 in human astrocyte cells. This may help us understand the replication mechanism and pathogenesis of EV71 in human. PMID:24073199

  18. Filamentation as primitive growth mode?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigan, Erwan; Steyaert, Jean-Marc; Douady, Stéphane

    2015-12-01

    Osmotic pressure influences cellular shape. In a growing cell, chemical reactions and dilution induce changes in osmolarity, which in turn influence the cellular shape. Using a protocell model relying upon random conservative chemical reaction networks with arbitrary stoichiometry, we find that when the membrane is so flexible that its shape adjusts itself quasi-instantaneously to balance the osmotic pressure, the protocell either grows filamentous or fails to grow. This behavior is consistent with a mathematical proof. This suggests that filamentation may be a primitive growth mode resulting from the simple physical property of balanced osmotic pressure. We also find that growth is favored if some chemical species are only present inside the protocell, but not in the outside growth medium. Such an insulation requires specific chemical schemes. Modern evolved cells such as E. coli meet these requirements through active transport mechanisms such as the phosphotransferase system.

  19. Dynamics of 3D isolated thermal filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Walkden, N R; Militello, F; Omotani, J T

    2016-01-01

    Simulations have been carried out to establish how electron thermal physics, introduced in the form of a dynamic electron temperature, affects isolated filament motion and dynamics in 3D. It is found that thermal effects impact filament motion in two major ways when the filament has a significant temperature perturbation compared to its density perturbation: They lead to a strong increase in filament propagation in the bi-normal direction and a significant decrease in net radial propagation. Both effects arise from the temperature dependence of the sheath current which leads to a non-uniform floating potential, with the latter effect supplemented by faster pressure loss. The reduction in radial velocity can only occur when the filament cross-section loses angular symmetry. The behaviour is observed across different filament sizes and suggests that filaments with much larger temperature perturbations than density perturbations are more strongly confined to the near SOL region.

  20. Direct observation of current in type-I edge-localized-mode filaments on the ASDEX upgrade tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vianello, N.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetically confined plasmas in the high confinement regime are regularly subjected to relaxation oscillations, termed edge localized modes (ELMs), leading to large transport events. Present ELM theories rely on a combined effect of edge current and the edge pressure gradients which result...... in intermediate mode number (n≅10-15) structures (filaments) localized in the perpendicular plane and extended along the field lines. By detailed localized measurements of the magnetic field perturbation associated to type-I ELM filaments, it is shown that these filaments carry a substantial current. © 2011...

  1. Filamentous Growth in Eremothecium Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskarsson, Therese

    The fungal kingdom encompasses a diverse group of organisms some of which have a great impact on human lives, either as domesticated benefactors or as human and crop pathogens. Using the filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii and its close relative Eremothecium cymbalariae as model organisms, this th......The fungal kingdom encompasses a diverse group of organisms some of which have a great impact on human lives, either as domesticated benefactors or as human and crop pathogens. Using the filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii and its close relative Eremothecium cymbalariae as model organisms......, this thesis deals with some of the aspects of hyphal growth, which is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi infecting both humans and plants. Hyphal establishment through continuous polar growth is a complex process, requiring the careful coordination of a large subset of proteins involved......-regulatory activity of AgGts1, the protein could have additional actin organizing properties. In the second and third part, this thesis addresses the use of A. gossypii and its relative E. cymbalariae as model organisms for filamentous growth. A series of assays analyzed the capability of Eremothecium genus fungi...

  2. Force-induced dynamical properties of multiple cytoskeletal filaments are distinct from that of single filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Dipjyoti; Padinhateeri, Ranjith

    2014-01-01

    How cytoskeletal filaments collectively undergo growth and shrinkage is an intriguing question. Collective properties of multiple bio-filaments (actin or microtubules) undergoing hydrolysis, have not been studied extensively earlier, within simple theoretical frameworks. In this paper, we show that collective properties of multiple filaments under force are very distinct from the properties of a single filament under similar conditions -- these distinctions manifest as follows: (i) the collapse time during collective catastrophe for a multifilament system is much larger than that of a single filament with the same average length, (ii) force-dependence of the cap-size distribution of multiple filaments are quantitatively different from that of single filament, (iii) the diffusion constant associated with the system length fluctuations is distinct for multiple filaments, (iv) switching dynamics of multiple filaments between capped and uncapped states and the fluctuations therein are also distinct. We build a un...

  3. Inhibiting Vimentin or beta 1-integrin Reverts Prostate Tumor Cells in IrECM and Reduces Tumor Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xueping; Fournier, Marcia V.; Ware, Joy L.; Bissell, Mina J.; Zehner, Zendra E.

    2009-07-27

    Prostate epithelial cells grown embedded in laminin-rich extracellular matrix (lrECM) undergo morphological changes that closely resemble their architecture in vivo. In this study, growth characteristics of three human prostate epithelial sublines derived from the same cellular lineage, but displaying different tumorigenic and metastatic properties in vivo, were assessed in three-dimensional (3D) lrECM gels. M12, a highly tumorigenic and metastatic subline, was derived from the parental prostate epithelial P69 cell line by selection in nude mice and found to contain a deletion of 19p-q13.1. The stable reintroduction of an intact human chromosome 19 into M12 resulted in a poorly tumorigenic subline, designated F6. When embedded in lrECM gels, the nontumorigenic P69 line produced acini with clearly defined lumena. Immunostaining with antibodies to {beta}-catenin, E-cadherin or {alpha}6-, {beta}4- and {beta}1-integrins showed polarization typical of glandular epithelium. In contrast, the metastatic M12 subline produced highly disorganized cells with no evidence of polarization. The F6 subline reverted to acini-like structures exhibiting basal polarity marked with integrins. Reducing either vimentin levels via siRNA interference or {beta}1-integrin expression by the addition of the blocking antibody, AIIB2, reorganized the M12 subline into forming polarized acini. The loss of vimentin significantly reduced M12-Vim tumor growth when assessed by subcutaneous injection in athymic mice. Thus, tumorigenicity in vivo correlated with disorganized growth in 3D lrECM gels. These studies suggest that the levels of vimentin and {beta}1-integrin play a key role in the homeostasis of the normal acini in prostate and that their dysregulation may lead to tumorigenesis.

  4. Tetrahydroxystilbene Glucoside Protects Against Oxidized LDL-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction via Regulating Vimentin Cytoskeleton and its Colocalization with ICAM-1 and VCAM-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Yao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endothelial cell dysfunction triggered by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL is the main event occurring during the development of atherosclerosis. 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG, an active component of the rhizome extract from Polygonum multiflorum, exhibits significant anti-atherosclerotic activity. However, the protective effects of TSG against oxLDL-induced endothelial dysfunction have not been clarified. We investigated the cytoprotective effects of TSG in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and explored underlying mechanisms. Methods and Results: TSG pretreatment markedly attenuated oxLDL-mediated loss of cell viability, release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, cell apoptosis, and monocyte adhesion. OxLDL increased vimentin mRNA and protein levels, vimentin cleavage, caspase-3 activation, adhesion molecules levels and their colocalization with vimentin in HUVECs. These alterations were attenuated by pretreatment with TSG. Meanwhile, TSG inhibited both the expression of TGFβ1 and the phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3, and TSG suppressed the nuclear translocation of Smad4 induced by oxLDL. Using shRNA, oxLDL-induced cell apoptosis and monocyte adhesion were significantly inhibited by vimentin suppression in HUVECs. Conclusions: These results suggest that TSG protects HUVECs against oxLDL-induced endothelial dysfunction through inhibiting vimentin expression and cleavage, and the expression of adhesion molecules and their colocalization with vimentin. The interruption of TGFβ/Smad pathway and caspase-3 activation appears to be responsible for the downregulation of TSG on vimentin expression and fragmentation, respectively.

  5. The Mysterious Case of the Missing Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, C. R.

    2016-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections, or CMEs, are large solar eruptions that can have major debilitating impacts on society. Typically, these eruptions have the three following key structures: the leading edge, the empty chamber known as the cavity, and the filament which often is the brightest part of the CME. When we can see all three structures clearly with a coronagraph, it is called a classic three-part CME, also referred to as a 'lightbulb' CME. According to current knowledge, when a CME erupts, a filament should also erupt or lift off the Sun in order to have the bright center within the CME. However, we do not always see a filament erupt at the surface, and yet we still get a 'filament' within the coronagraph CME. To better understand what might be occurring with these missing filaments, we looked at three-part CMEs using the SOHO LASCO CME Catalog and filaments from the SDO AIA Filament Catalog in order to create a list of 50 CMEs without a listed filament erupting at the surface. For those CMEs without filaments in the list we closely inspected the AIA images for evidence of filament eruption. To ensure that there were no filaments past the limb of the Sun, we used data from the STEREO-A and STEREO-B spacecraft's to look at the Sun from other angles. We have found numerous events where no filament erupts from the surface, but we still see the classic three-part CME. We believe this may be due to an optical illusion occurring from the twisting of the flux rope.

  6. Filamentous Biological Entities Obtained from the Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Milton; Rose, Christopher E.; Baker, Alexander J.; Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    2013-03-01

    We previously reported the presence of large, non-filamentous, biological entities including a diatom fragment in the stratosphere at heights of between 22-27km. Here we report clear evidence for the presence of filamentous entities associated with a relatively large particle mass collected from the stratosphere. Although viable fungi have previously been isolated from the stratosphere, this is the first report of a filamentous microorganism being observed in situ on a stratospheric particle mass.

  7. Methods for modeling cytoskeletal and DNA filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Steven S.

    2014-02-01

    This review summarizes the models that researchers use to represent the conformations and dynamics of cytoskeletal and DNA filaments. It focuses on models that address individual filaments in continuous space. Conformation models include the freely jointed, Gaussian, angle-biased chain (ABC), and wormlike chain (WLC) models, of which the first three bend at discrete joints and the last bends continuously. Predictions from the WLC model generally agree well with experiment. Dynamics models include the Rouse, Zimm, stiff rod, dynamic WLC, and reptation models, of which the first four apply to isolated filaments and the last to entangled filaments. Experiments show that the dynamic WLC and reptation models are most accurate. They also show that biological filaments typically experience strong hydrodynamic coupling and/or constrained motion. Computer simulation methods that address filament dynamics typically compute filament segment velocities from local forces using the Langevin equation and then integrate these velocities with explicit or implicit methods; the former are more versatile and the latter are more efficient. Much remains to be discovered in biological filament modeling. In particular, filament dynamics in living cells are not well understood, and current computational methods are too slow and not sufficiently versatile. Although primarily a review, this paper also presents new statistical calculations for the ABC and WLC models. Additionally, it corrects several discrepancies in the literature about bending and torsional persistence length definitions, and their relations to flexural and torsional rigidities.

  8. Chaperonin filaments: The archaeal cytoskeleton?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan D.; Kagawa, Hiromi K.; Yaoi, Takuro; Olle, Eric; Zaluzec, Nestor J.

    1997-01-01

    Chaperonins are high molecular mass double-ring structures composed of 60-kDa protein subunits. In the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae the two chaperonin proteins represent ≈4% of its total protein and have a combined intracellular concentration of >30 mg/ml. At concentrations ≥ 0.5 mg/ml purified chaperonins form filaments in the presence of Mg2+ and nucleotides. Filament formation requires nucleotide binding (not hydrolysis), and occurs at physiological temperatures in biologically relevant buffers, including a buffer made from cell extracts. These observations suggest that chaperonin filaments may exist in vivo and the estimated 4600 chaperonins per cell suggest that such filaments could form an extensive cytostructure. We observed filamentous structures in unfixed, uranyl-acetate-stained S. shibatae cells, which resemble the chaperonin filaments in size and appearance. ImmunoGold (Janssen) labeling using chaperonin antibodies indicated that many chaperonins are associated with insoluble cellular structures and these structures appear to be filamentous in some areas, although they could not be uranyl-acetate-stained. The existence of chaperonin filaments in vivo suggests a mechanism whereby their protein-folding activities can be regulated. More generally, the filaments themselves may play a cytoskeletal role in Archaea. PMID:9144246

  9. Experiment of Waves on a Vortex filament

    OpenAIRE

    渡辺, 慎介; 舟久保, 悠子; Shinsuke, WATANABE; Yuko, FUNAKUBO; 横浜国大工; Department of Physics Yokohama National University; Department of Energy Engineering Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University

    2000-01-01

    Experiment of waves on a vortex filament is reported. A vertical vortex filament is generated by an axial flow of water in a cylindrical tank with a small hole in the center of the bottom. The motion of a vortex filament is controlled by a solid disk inserted from the top of water tank. When the disk is flapped sinusoidally around a horizontal axis, a vortex filament tends to contact perpendicularly with a disk, and begins to move on the disk. The motion brings about perturbations on a vortex...

  10. [The effects of equol on enzymes related to testosterone synthesis and vimentin in the testis of perinatal mice by organ culture in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ling-yu; Zhu, Yan-feng; Xu, Hua; Gao, Zhi-bin; Li, Min; Li, Yun

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the effects of Equol on genes and protein expression of testosterone synthesis related enzymes and Vimentin in testis of perinatal mice in vitro. Testes were isolated and cultured in infiltrating type rotating device for 72 h. The testes were randomly divided into five groups and treated with Equol (DMSO control, 0.01, 0.10, 1.00, 10.00 μmol/L Equol). Morphological changes were observed by HE staining under optical microscope. Expressions of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD),P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), Vimentin were detected by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. No apparent morphological change in testes was observed compared to control group. The mRNA expression of 3β HSD, P450Scc, Vimentin show no statistical significance(P> 0. 05) in all Equol group, while the protein expressions of 3β-HSD, Vimentin, P450scc increased in 0. 10 μmol/L and decreased in 10.00 μmol/L Equol group. Equol exposure can affect 3β-HSD, P450Scc, Vimentin expression in testes in vitro, means Equol may have potential adverse effects on testosterone production and spermatogenesis.

  11. Aspiperidine oxide, a piperidine N-oxide from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus indologenus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lene Maj; Kildgaard, Sara; Jaspars, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    A novel secondary metabolite, aspiperidine oxide, was isolated from the filamentous fungus, Aspergillus indologenus. The structure of aspiperidine oxide was determined from extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis supported by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The structure revealed a rare...... piperidine N-oxide, not observed in filamentous fungi before. A biosynthetic pathway towards aspiperidine oxide is proposed, based on tentative identification of intermediates from UHPLC-DAD-HRMS data.......A novel secondary metabolite, aspiperidine oxide, was isolated from the filamentous fungus, Aspergillus indologenus. The structure of aspiperidine oxide was determined from extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis supported by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The structure revealed a rare...

  12. Structural basis for heteromeric assembly and perinuclear organization of keratin filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Kim, Min-Sung; Chung, Byung Min; Leahy, Daniel J; Coulombe, Pierre A

    2013-01-01

    There is as yet no high-resolution data regarding the structure and organization of keratin intermediate filaments, which are obligate heteropolymers providing vital mechanical support in epithelia. We report the crystal structure of interacting 2B regions from the central coiled-coil domains of keratins 5 and 14 (K5 and K14), expressed in progenitor keratinocytes of epidermis. The interface of the K5–K14 coiled-coil heterodimer has asymmetric salt bridges, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts, and its surface exhibits a notable charge polarization. A trans-dimer homotypic disulfide bond involving Cys367 in K14's stutter region occurs in the crystal and in skin keratinocytes, where it is concentrated in a keratin filament cage enveloping the nucleus. We show that K14-Cys367 impacts nuclear shape in cultured keratinocytes and that mouse epidermal keratinocytes lacking K14 show aberrations in nuclear structure, highlighting a new function for keratin filaments. PMID:22705788

  13. Formation of an Extraordinarily Long Filament Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M.; Martin, S. F.

    2005-12-01

    We analyze an example of how the Sun's surface processes appear to cause filament channels to evolve from medium-scale into global-scale phenomena. The channel was nearly linear when it reached a maximum length of 160 heliographic degrees. Because filament channels need to be of the same chirality (helicity) to merge and because most quiescent filaments in the northern and southern hemispheres have opposite chirality, this example is among the largest that the Sun could be expected to produce. We focus on filament channels because they are more fundamental than the filaments that form and erupt from them. The physical factors and processes that contributed to the formation and development of the channels from medium-scale into this global-scale filament were: (1) the presence and diffusion of the magnetic flux of active regions, (2) canceling magnetic fields, (3) differential rotation, (4) the pattern of orientation of the magnetic field bipoles of active regions per hemisphere known as Joy's law, and (5) the hemispheric chirality pattern for filament channels and their filaments. We suggest two additional factors, not included in this study, that might play significant roles in contributing to the overall form of the giant channels. These are: (7) meridional circulation and the (8) reconfiguring of solar magnetic fields during all scales of eruptive events.

  14. The level of RCAS1 expression is inversely correlated with the number of vimentin-positive stromal cells in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Kenzo; Miyamoto, Shingo; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Ogawa, Shinji; Okugawa, Kaoru; Taniguchi, Shuichi; Wake, Norio

    2009-07-01

    Expression of RCAS1 is significantly associated with clinical prognosis in 15 different types of human cancer. We have previously reported that RCAS1 expression is correlated with a decreasing number of vimentin-positive stromal cells in cervical cancer. Moreover, RCAS1 expression is related to the expression of matrix metalloprotease 1 and laminin 5 and angiogenesis. We examined whether RCAS1 contributes to connective tissue remodeling in epithelial ovarian cancer. RCAS1 expression was studied retrospectively via immunohistochemistry. Samples were obtained from resected tumor tissues from 65 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. Statistical analysis was done to correlate RCAS1 expression and clinicopathologic variables. The associations between RCAS1 expression and the number of vimentin-positive cells or microvessel density were evaluated. Western blot analysis was also performed to verify the perturbation of vimentin expression in fibroblast L cells, following stimulation by soluble RCAS1. RCAS1 expression was detected in 72.3% (47/65 total cases) and significantly correlated with age and histological subtype. Patients with advanced stage, positive lymph node metastasis, or positive peritoneal cytological results had significantly shorter overall survival rates; however, no significant relationship was detected between RCAS1 immunoreactivity and overall survival. In the connective tissue surrounding tumor cells, the number of cells expressing vimentin significantly decreased in relation to the RCAS1 expression level. The growth of L cells was suppressed after stimulation by soluble RCAS1, and the expression of vimentin was markedly diminished. RCAS1 may contribute to connective tissue remodeling by altering the number of vimentin-positive cells in epithelial ovarian cancer.

  15. Intermediate algebra & analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gondin, William R

    1967-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra & Analytic Geometry Made Simple focuses on the principles, processes, calculations, and methodologies involved in intermediate algebra and analytic geometry. The publication first offers information on linear equations in two unknowns and variables, functions, and graphs. Discussions focus on graphic interpretations, explicit and implicit functions, first quadrant graphs, variables and functions, determinate and indeterminate systems, independent and dependent equations, and defective and redundant systems. The text then examines quadratic equations in one variable, system

  16. Intermediate algebra a textworkbook

    CERN Document Server

    McKeague, Charles P

    1985-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra: A Text/Workbook, Second Edition focuses on the principles, operations, and approaches involved in intermediate algebra. The publication first takes a look at basic properties and definitions, first-degree equations and inequalities, and exponents and polynomials. Discussions focus on properties of exponents, polynomials, sums, and differences, multiplication of polynomials, inequalities involving absolute value, word problems, first-degree inequalities, real numbers, opposites, reciprocals, and absolute value, and addition and subtraction of real numbers. The text then ex

  17. Theory of Semiflexible Filaments and Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanlong Meng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review the recent developments in the theory of individual semiflexible filaments, and of a crosslinked network of such filaments, both permanent and transient. Starting from the free energy of an individual semiflexible chain, models on its force-extension relation and other mechanical properties such as Euler buckling are discussed. For a permanently crosslinked network of filaments, theories on how the network responds to deformation are provided, with a focus on continuum approaches. Characteristic features of filament networks, such as nonlinear stress-strain relation, negative normal stress, tensegrity, and marginal stability are discussed. In the new area of transient filament network, where the crosslinks can be dynamically broken and re-formed, we show some recent attempts for understanding the dynamics of the crosslinks, and the related rheological properties, such as stress relaxation, yield stress and plasticity.

  18. Actin filaments as tension sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, Vitold E; Orlova, Albina; Egelman, Edward H

    2012-02-07

    The field of mechanobiology has witnessed an explosive growth over the past several years as interest has greatly increased in understanding how mechanical forces are transduced by cells and how cells migrate, adhere and generate traction. Actin, a highly abundant and anomalously conserved protein, plays a large role in forming the dynamic cytoskeleton that is so essential for cell form, motility and mechanosensitivity. While the actin filament (F-actin) has been viewed as dynamic in terms of polymerization and depolymerization, new results suggest that F-actin itself may function as a highly dynamic tension sensor. This property may help explain the unusual conservation of actin's sequence, as well as shed further light on actin's essential role in structures from sarcomeres to stress fibers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Filamentous Growth in Eremothecium Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskarsson, Therese

    , this thesis deals with some of the aspects of hyphal growth, which is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi infecting both humans and plants. Hyphal establishment through continuous polar growth is a complex process, requiring the careful coordination of a large subset of proteins involved......-regulatory activity of AgGts1, the protein could have additional actin organizing properties. In the second and third part, this thesis addresses the use of A. gossypii and its relative E. cymbalariae as model organisms for filamentous growth. A series of assays analyzed the capability of Eremothecium genus fungi...... of molecular tools for E. cymbalariae to enable a faster and more efficient approach for genetic comparisons between Eremothecium genus fungi....

  20. Natural colorants from filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Fábio Aurélio Esteves; Zaccarim, Bruna Regina; de Lencastre Novaes, Letícia Celia; Jozala, Angela Faustino; Dos Santos, Carolina Alves; Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas; Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria Carvalho

    2016-03-01

    In the last years, there is a trend towards the replacement of synthetic colorants by natural ones, mainly due to the increase of consumer demand for natural products. The natural colorants are used to enhance the appearance of pharmaceutical products, food, and different materials, making them preferable or attractive. This review intends to provide and describe a comprehensive overview of the history of colorants, from prehistory to modern time, of their market and their applications, as well as of the most important aspects of the fermentation process to obtain natural colorants. Focus is given to colorants produced by filamentous fungal species, aiming to demonstrate the importance of these microorganisms and biocompounds, highlighting the production performance to get high yields and the aspects of conclusion that should be taken into consideration in future studies about natural colorants.

  1. Particles trajectories in magnetic filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2015-07-15

    The motion of a particle in a spatially harmonic magnetic field is a basic problem involved, for example, in the mechanism of formation of a collisionless shock. In such settings, it is generally reasoned that particles entering a Weibel generated turbulence are trapped inside it, provided their Larmor radius in the peak field is smaller than the field coherence length. The goal of this work is to put this heuristic conclusion on firm ground by studying, both analytically and numerically, such motion. A toy model is analyzed, consisting of a relativistic particle entering a region of space occupied by a spatially harmonic field. The particle penetrates the magnetic structure in a direction aligned with the magnetic filaments. Although the conclusions are not trivial, the main result is confirmed.

  2. Galactic cold cores. VIII. Filament formation and evolution: Filament properties in context with evolutionary models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ingraham, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Juvela, M.; Montillaud, J.; Men'shchikov, A.; Malinen, J.; Pelkonen, V.-M.; Marston, A.; Martin, P. G.; Pagani, L.; Paladini, R.; Paradis, D.; Ysard, N.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bernard, J.-P.; Marshall, D. J.; Montier, L.; Tóth, L. V.

    2017-05-01

    Context. The onset of star formation is intimately linked with the presence of massive unstable filamentary structures. These filaments are therefore key for theoretical models that aim to reproduce the observed characteristics of the star formation process in the Galaxy. Aims: As part of the filament study carried out by the Herschel Galactic Cold Cores Key Programme, here we study and discuss the filament properties presented in GCC VII (Paper I) in context with theoretical models of filament formation and evolution. Methods: A conservatively selected sample of filaments located at a distance Dextracted from the GCC fields with the getfilaments algorithm. The physical structure of the filaments was quantified according to two main components: the central (Gaussian) region of the filament (core component), and the power-law-like region dominating the filament column density profile at larger radii (wing component). The properties and behaviour of these components relative to the total linear mass density of the filament and the column density of its environment were compared with the predictions from theoretical models describing the evolution of filaments under gravity-dominated conditions. Results: The feasibility of a transition from a subcritical to supercritical state by accretion at any given time is dependent on the combined effect of filament intrinsic properties and environmental conditions. Reasonably self-gravitating (high Mline,core) filaments in dense environments (AV≳ 3 mag) can become supercritical on timescales of t 1 Myr by accreting mass at constant or decreasing width. The trend of increasing Mline,tot (Mline,core and Mline,wing) and ridge AV with background for the filament population also indicates that the precursors of star-forming filaments evolve coevally with their environment. The simultaneous increase of environment and filament AV explains the observed association between dense environments and high Mline,core values, and it argues

  3. Anaplasma phagocytophilum-Occupied Vacuole Interactions with the Host Cell Cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary K. Truchan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen of humans and animals. The A. phagocytophium-occupied vacuole (ApV is a critical host-pathogen interface. Here, we report that the intermediate filaments, keratin and vimentin, assemble on the ApV early and remain associated with the ApV throughout infection. Microtubules localize to the ApV to a lesser extent. Vimentin, keratin-8, and keratin-18 but not tubulin expression is upregulated in A. phagocytophilum infected cells. SUMO-2/3 but not SUMO-1 colocalizes with vimentin filaments that surround ApVs. PolySUMOylation of vimentin by SUMO-2/3 but not SUMO-1 decreases vimentin solubility. Consistent with this, more vimentin exists in an insoluble state in A. phagocytophilum infected cells than in uninfected cells. Knocking down the SUMO-conjugating enzyme, Ubc9, abrogates vimentin assembly at the ApV but has no effect on the bacterial load. Bacterial protein synthesis is dispensable for maintaining vimentin and SUMO-2/3 at the ApV. Withaferin A, which inhibits soluble vimentin, reduces vimentin recruitment to the ApV, optimal ApV formation, and the bacterial load when administered prior to infection but is ineffective once vimentin has assembled on the ApV. Thus, A. phagocytophilum modulates cytoskeletal component expression and co-opts polySUMOylated vimentin to aid construction of its vacuolar niche and promote optimal survival.

  4. Effects of keratin phosphorylation on the mechanical properties of keratin filaments in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fois, Giorgio; Weimer, Michael; Busch, Tobias; Felder, Erika T; Oswald, Franz; von Wichert, Götz; Seufferlein, Thomas; Dietl, Paul; Felder, Edward

    2013-04-01

    Keratin filaments impart resilience against mechanical extension of the cell. Despite the pathophysiological relevance of this function, very little is known about the mechanical properties of intermediate filaments in living cells and how these properties are modulated. We used keratin mutants that mimic or abrogate phosphorylation of keratin 8-serine(431) and keratin 18-serine(52) and investigated their effect on keratin tortuousness after cell stretch release in squamous cell carcinoma cells. Cells transfected with the wild-type keratins were used as controls. We can show that keratin dephosphorylation alters the stretch response of keratin in living cells since keratin tortuousness was abolished when phosphorylation of keratin18-serine(52) was abrogated. Additional experiments demonstrate that keratin tortuousness is not simply caused by a plastic overextension of keratin filaments because tortuousness is reversible and requires an intact actin-myosin system. The role of actin in this process remains unclear, but we suggest anchorage of keratin filaments to actin during stretch that leads to buckling on stretch release. Dephosphorylated keratin18-serine(52) might strengthen the recoil force of keratin filaments and hence explain the abolished buckling. The almost exclusive immunolabeling for phosphorylated keratin18-serine (52) in the cell periphery points at a particular role of the peripheral keratin network in this regard.

  5. Variable metastatic potentials correlate with differential plectin and vimentin expression in syngeneic androgen independent prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya C Burch

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a clinically heterogeneous disease, ranging from indolent asymptomatic disease to very aggressive metastatic and life threatening forms of the disease. Distant metastasis represents the major lethal cause of prostate cancer. The most critical clinical challenge in the management of the patients is identifying those individuals at risk of developing metastatic disease. To understand the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer metastasis and identify markers with metastatic potential, we have analyzed protein expression in two syngeneic prostate cancer cells lines PC3-N2 and PC3-ML2 using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation labeling and multi-dimensional protein identification technology liquid chromatography matrix assisted laser desorption ionization tandem mass spectrometry. PC3-N2 is lowly metastatic while PC3-ML2 highly metastatic. A total of 1,756 proteins were identified in the analyses with 130 proteins showing different expression levels (p<0.01 in the two cell lines. Out of these, 68 proteins were found to be significantly up-regulated while 62 are significantly down-regulated in PC3-ML2 cells compared with PC3-N2 cells. The upregulation of plectin and vimentin which were the most significantly differentially expressed were validated by Western blot and their functional relevance with respect to invasion and migration was determined by siRNA gene silencing. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that up-regulation of vimentin and plectin expression positively correlates with the invasion and metastasis of androgen-independent PCA.

  6. Thermal and Chemical Evolution of Collapsing Filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, William J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Scannapieco, Evan [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States). School of Earth and Space Exploration

    2013-01-15

    Intergalactic filaments form the foundation of the cosmic web that connect galaxies together, and provide an important reservoir of gas for galaxy growth and accretion. Here we present very high resolution two-dimensional simulations of the thermal and chemical evolution of such filaments, making use of a 32 species chemistry network that tracks the evolution of key molecules formed from hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon. We study the evolution of filaments over a wide range of parameters including the initial density, initial temperature, strength of the dissociating UV background, and metallicity. In low-redshift, Z ≈ 0.1Z filaments, the evolution is determined completely by the initial cooling time. If this is sufficiently short, the center of the filament always collapses to form dense, cold core containing a substantial fraction of molecules. In high-redshift, Z = 10-3Z filaments, the collapse proceeds much more slowly. This is due mostly to the lower initial temperatures, which leads to a much more modest increase in density before the atomic cooling limit is reached, making subsequent molecular cooling much less efficient. Finally, we study how the gravitational potential from a nearby dwarf galaxy affects the collapse of the filament and compare this to NGC 5253, a nearby starbusting dwarf galaxy thought to be fueled by the accretion of filament gas. In contrast to our fiducial case, a substantial density peak forms at the center of the potential. This peak evolves faster than the rest of the filament due to the increased rate at which chemical species form and cooling occur. We find that we achieve similar accretion rates as NGC 5253, but our two-dimensional simulations do not recover the formation of the giant molecular clouds that are seen in radio observations.

  7. THERMAL AND CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF COLLAPSING FILAMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, William J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-038, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Scannapieco, Evan [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287-1494 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    Intergalactic filaments form the foundation of the cosmic web that connect galaxies together, and provide an important reservoir of gas for galaxy growth and accretion. Here we present very high resolution two-dimensional simulations of the thermal and chemical evolution of such filaments, making use of a 32 species chemistry network that tracks the evolution of key molecules formed from hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon. We study the evolution of filaments over a wide range of parameters including the initial density, initial temperature, strength of the dissociating UV background, and metallicity. In low-redshift, Z Almost-Equal-To 0.1 Z{sub Sun} filaments, the evolution is determined completely by the initial cooling time. If this is sufficiently short, the center of the filament always collapses to form a dense, cold core containing a substantial fraction of molecules. In high-redshift, Z = 10{sup -3} Z{sub Sun} filaments, the collapse proceeds much more slowly. This is mostly due to the lower initial temperatures, which lead to a much more modest increase in density before the atomic cooling limit is reached, making subsequent molecular cooling much less efficient. Finally, we study how the gravitational potential from a nearby dwarf galaxy affects the collapse of the filament and compare this to NGC 5253, a nearby starbursting dwarf galaxy thought to be fueled by the accretion of filament gas. In contrast to our fiducial case, a substantial density peak forms at the center of the potential. This peak evolves faster than the rest of the filament due to the increased rate at which chemical species form and cooling occurs. We find that we achieve similar accretion rates as NGC 5253 but our two-dimensional simulations do not recover the formation of the giant molecular clouds that are seen in radio observations.

  8. Filaments in simulations of molecular cloud formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez, Gilberto C.; Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Morelia Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico)

    2014-08-20

    We report on the filaments that develop self-consistently in a new numerical simulation of cloud formation by colliding flows. As in previous studies, the forming cloud begins to undergo gravitational collapse because it rapidly acquires a mass much larger than the average Jeans mass. Thus, the collapse soon becomes nearly pressureless, proceeding along its shortest dimension first. This naturally produces filaments in the cloud and clumps within the filaments. The filaments are not in equilibrium at any time, but instead are long-lived flow features through which the gas flows from the cloud to the clumps. The filaments are long-lived because they accrete from their environment while simultaneously accreting onto the clumps within them; they are essentially the locus where the flow changes from accreting in two dimensions to accreting in one dimension. Moreover, the clumps also exhibit a hierarchical nature: the gas in a filament flows onto a main, central clump but other, smaller-scale clumps form along the infalling gas. Correspondingly, the velocity along the filament exhibits a hierarchy of jumps at the locations of the clumps. Two prominent filaments in the simulation have lengths ∼15 pc and masses ∼600 M {sub ☉} above density n ∼ 10{sup 3} cm{sup –3} (∼2 × 10{sup 3} M {sub ☉} at n > 50 cm{sup –3}). The density profile exhibits a central flattened core of size ∼0.3 pc and an envelope that decays as r {sup –2.5} in reasonable agreement with observations. Accretion onto the filament reaches a maximum linear density rate of ∼30 M {sub ☉} Myr{sup –1} pc{sup –1}.

  9. Membrane Buckling Induced by Curved Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Martin; Crow, Daniel J. G.; Joanny, Jean-François

    2009-07-01

    We present a novel buckling instability relevant to membrane budding in eukaryotic cells. In this mechanism, curved filaments bind to a lipid bilayer without changing its intrinsic curvature. As more and more filaments adsorb, newly added ones are more and more strained, which destabilizes the flat membrane. We perform a linear stability analysis of filament-dressed membranes and find that the buckling threshold is within reasonable in vivo parameter values. We account for the formation of long tubes previously observed in cells and in purified systems. We study strongly deformed dressed membranes and their bifurcation diagram numerically. Our mechanism could be validated by a simple experiment.

  10. Mobile communication and intermediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helles, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    The article argues the importance of intermediality as a concept for research in mobile communication and media. The constant availability of several, partially overlapping channels for communication (texting, calls, email, Facebook, etc.) requires that we adopt an integrated view of the various...... communicative affordances of mobile devices in order to understand how people choose between them for different purposes. It is argued that mobile communication makes intermediality especially central, as the choice of medium is detached from the location of stationary media and begins to follow the user across...

  11. Prediction of radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis and the role of antibodies against mutated citrullinated vimentin : results from a 10-year prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syversen, S. W.; Goll, G. L.; van der Heijde, D.; Landewe, R.; Lie, B. A.; Odegard, S.; Uhlig, T.; Gaarder, P. I.; Kvien, T. K.

    Objectives: Anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPAs) are established as useful predictors of radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The main objective of this study was to test the prognostic capacity of the recently developed test for anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin

  12. Tunnel ionization, population trapping, filamentation and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leang Chin, See; Xu, Huailiang

    2016-11-01

    The advances in femtosecond Ti-sapphire laser technology have led to the discovery of a profusion of new physics. This review starts with a brief historical account of the experimental realization of tunnel ionization, followed by high harmonic generation and the prediction of attosecond pulses. Then, the unique phenomenon of dynamic population trapping during the ionization of atoms and molecules in intense laser fields is introduced. One of the consequences of population trapping in the highly excited states is the neutral dissociation into simple molecular fragments which fluoresce. Such fluorescence could be amplified in femtosecond laser filamentation in gases. The experimental observations of filament-induced fluorescence and lasing in the atmosphere and combustion flames are given. Excitation of molecular rotational wave packets (molecular alignment) and their relaxation and revival in a gas filament are described. Furthermore, filament-induced condensation and precipitation inside a cloud chamber is explained. Lastly, a summary and future outlook is given.

  13. Morgellons disease: a filamentous borrelial dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Stricker, Raphael B

    2016-01-01

    Marianne J Middelveen, Raphael B Stricker International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USA Abstract: Morgellons disease (MD) is a dermopathy characterized by multicolored filaments that lie under, are embedded in, or project from skin. Although MD was initially considered to be a delusional disorder, recent studies have demonstrated that the dermopathy is associated with tickborne infection, that the filaments are composed of keratin and collagen, and that they resu...

  14. Filamentation Involves Two Overlapping, but Distinct, Programs of Filamentation in the Pathogenic Fungus Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadmanesh, Jahaun; Gowen, Austin M; Creger, Paul E; Schafer, Nichole D; Blankenship, Jill R

    2017-11-06

    The ability of the human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans to switch between yeast-like and filamentous forms of growth has long been linked to pathogenesis. Numerous environmental conditions, including growth at high temperatures, nutrient limitation, and exposure to serum, can trigger this morphological switch and are frequently used in in vitro models to identify genes with roles in filamentation. Previous work has suggested that differences exist between the various in vitro models both in the genetic requirements for filamentation and transcriptional responses to distinct filamentation-inducing media, but these differences had not been analyzed in detail. We compared 10 in vitro models for filamentation and found broad genetic and transcriptomic differences between model systems. The comparative analysis enabled the discovery of novel media-independent genetic requirements for filamentation as well as a core filamentation transcriptional profile. Our data also suggest that the physical environment drives distinct programs of filamentation in C. albicans, which has significant implications for filamentation in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Azadmanesh et al.

  15. Filamentation Involves Two Overlapping, but Distinct, Programs of Filamentation in the Pathogenic Fungus Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahaun Azadmanesh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans to switch between yeast-like and filamentous forms of growth has long been linked to pathogenesis. Numerous environmental conditions, including growth at high temperatures, nutrient limitation, and exposure to serum, can trigger this morphological switch and are frequently used in in vitro models to identify genes with roles in filamentation. Previous work has suggested that differences exist between the various in vitro models both in the genetic requirements for filamentation and transcriptional responses to distinct filamentation-inducing media, but these differences had not been analyzed in detail. We compared 10 in vitro models for filamentation and found broad genetic and transcriptomic differences between model systems. The comparative analysis enabled the discovery of novel media-independent genetic requirements for filamentation as well as a core filamentation transcriptional profile. Our data also suggest that the physical environment drives distinct programs of filamentation in C. albicans, which has significant implications for filamentation in vivo.

  16. Actin filament attachments for sustained motility in vitro are maintained by filament bundling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Hu

    Full Text Available We reconstructed cellular motility in vitro from individual proteins to investigate how actin filaments are organized at the leading edge. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of actin filaments, we tested how profilin, Arp2/3, and capping protein (CP function together to propel thin glass nanofibers or beads coated with N-WASP WCA domains. Thin nanofibers produced wide comet tails that showed more structural variation in actin filament organization than did bead substrates. During sustained motility, physiological concentrations of Mg(2+ generated actin filament bundles that processively attached to the nanofiber. Reduction of total Mg(2+ abolished particle motility and actin attachment to the particle surface without affecting actin polymerization, Arp2/3 nucleation, or filament capping. Analysis of similar motility of microspheres showed that loss of filament bundling did not affect actin shell formation or symmetry breaking but eliminated sustained attachments between the comet tail and the particle surface. Addition of Mg(2+, Lys-Lys(2+, or fascin restored both comet tail attachment and sustained particle motility in low Mg(2+ buffers. TIRF microscopic analysis of filaments captured by WCA-coated beads in the absence of Arp2/3, profilin, and CP showed that filament bundling by polycation or fascin addition increased barbed end capture by WCA domains. We propose a model in which CP directs barbed ends toward the leading edge and polycation-induced filament bundling sustains processive barbed end attachment to the leading edge.

  17. Prokaryotic cytoskeletons: protein filaments organizing small cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, James; Löwe, Jan

    2018-01-22

    Most, if not all, bacterial and archaeal cells contain at least one protein filament system. Although these filament systems in some cases form structures that are very similar to eukaryotic cytoskeletons, the term 'prokaryotic cytoskeletons' is used to refer to many different kinds of protein filaments. Cytoskeletons achieve their functions through polymerization of protein monomers and the resulting ability to access length scales larger than the size of the monomer. Prokaryotic cytoskeletons are involved in many fundamental aspects of prokaryotic cell biology and have important roles in cell shape determination, cell division and nonchromosomal DNA segregation. Some of the filament-forming proteins have been classified into a small number of conserved protein families, for example, the almost ubiquitous tubulin and actin superfamilies. To understand what makes filaments special and how the cytoskeletons they form enable cells to perform essential functions, the structure and function of cytoskeletal molecules and their filaments have been investigated in diverse bacteria and archaea. In this Review, we bring these data together to highlight the diverse ways that linear protein polymers can be used to organize other molecules and structures in bacteria and archaea.

  18. Otomycosis due to filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Agudo, Lidia; Aznar-Marín, Pilar; Galán-Sánchez, Fátima; García-Martos, Pedro; Marín-Casanova, Pilar; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    Otomycosis is common throughout the world but barely studied in Spain. Our objective was to determine the microbiological and epidemiological characteristics of this pathology in Cadiz (Spain) between 2005 and 2010. Samples from patients with suspicion of otomycosis underwent a direct microscopic examination and culture on different media for fungi and bacteria. Mycological cultures were incubated at 30°C for at least seven days. Identification of fungi was based on colonial morphology and microscopic examination of fungal structure. From a total of 2,633 samples, microbial growth was present in 1,375 (52.2%) and fungal isolation in 390 (28.4%). We identified 228 yeasts and 184 filamentous fungi (13.4% of positive cultures and 47.2% of otomycosis), associated with yeasts in 22 cases (5.6%). The most frequent species were Aspergillus flavus (42.4%), A. niger (35.9%), A. fumigatus (12.5%), A. candidus (7.1%), A. terreus (1.6%), and Paecilomyces variotii (0.5%). Infection was predominant in men (54.9%) and patients beyond 55 years old (46.8%). The most common clinical symptoms were itching (98.9%), otalgia (59.3%), and hypoacusis (56.0%). Fall season reported the lowest number of cases (20.1%). Incidence of otomycosis and fungi producing otomycosis vary within the distinct geographical areas. In Cadiz, this infection is endemic due to warm temperatures, high humidity, sea bathing, and wind, which contributes to disseminate the conidia. Despite Aspergillus niger has been reported as the main causative agent, A. flavus is predominant in Cadiz. Although infection is usually detected in warm months, we observed a homogeneous occurrence of otomycosis in almost all the seasons.

  19. Filament hunting: integrated H i 21 cm emission from filaments inferred by galaxy surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooistra, Robin; Silva, Marta B.; Zaroubi, Saleem

    2017-06-01

    Large-scale filaments, with lengths that can reach tens of Mpc, are the most prominent features in the cosmic web. These filaments have only been observed indirectly through the positions of galaxies in large galaxy surveys or through absorption features in the spectra of high-redshift sources. In this study, we propose to go one step further and directly detect intergalactic medium filaments through their emission in the H i 21 cm line. We make use of high-resolution cosmological simulations to estimate the intensity of this emission in low-redshift filaments and use it to make predictions for the direct detectability of specific filaments previously inferred from galaxy surveys, in particular the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Given the expected signal of these filaments, our study shows that H i emission from large filaments can be observed by current and next-generation radio telescopes. We estimate that gas in filaments of length l ≳ 15 h-1 Mpc with relatively small inclinations to the line of sight (≲ 10°) can be observed in ˜40-100 h with telescopes such as Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope or Expanded Very Large Array, potentially providing large improvements over our knowledge of the astrophysical properties of these filaments. Due to their large field of view and sufficiently long integration times, upcoming H i surveys with the Apertif and Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder instruments will be able to detect large filaments independently of their orientation and curvature. Furthermore, our estimates indicate that a more powerful future radio telescope like Square Kilometre Array can be used to map most of these filaments, which will allow them to be used as a strong cosmological probe.

  20. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Alonso, J. R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ankowski, A. M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Asaadi, J. A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Ashenfelter, J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Axani, S. N. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Babu, K [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Backhouse, C. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Band, H. R. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Barbeau, P. S. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Barros, N. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bernstein, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Betancourt, M. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bishai, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blucher, E. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Bouffard, J. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Albany, NY (United States); Bowden, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brice, S. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bryan, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Camilleri, L. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Cao, J. [Inst. of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Carlson, J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carr, R. E. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Chatterjee, A. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Chen, M. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Chen, S. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Chiu, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Church, E. D. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Collar, J. I. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Collin, G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Conrad, J. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Convery, M. R. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cooper, R. L. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Cowen, D. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Davoudiasl, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gouvea, A. D. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Dean, D. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deichert, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Descamps, F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); DeYoung, T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Diwan, M. V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Djurcic, Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dolinski, M. J. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Dolph, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Donnelly, B. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Dwyer, D. A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dytman, S. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Efremenko, Y. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Everett, L. L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Fava, A. [University of Padua, Padova (Italy); Figueroa-Feliciano, E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Fleming, B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Friedland, A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fujikawa, B. K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gaisser, T. K. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Galeazzi, M. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States); Galehouse, DC [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States); Galindo-Uribarri, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Garvey, G. T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gautam, S. [Tribhuvan Univ., Kirtipur (Nepal); Gilje, K. E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Gonzalez-Garcia, M. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Goodman, M. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gordon, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gramellini, E. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Green, M. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Guglielmi, A. [University of Padua, Padova (Italy); Hackenburg, R. W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hackenburg, A. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Halzen, F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Han, K. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Hans, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Harris, D. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Heeger, K. M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Herman, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hill, R. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Holin, A. [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom); Huber, P. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Jaffe, D. E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Johnson, R. A. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Joshi, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Karagiorgi, G. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Kaufman, L. J. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Kayser, B. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Kettell, S. H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kirby, B. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Klein, J. R. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Kolomensky, Y. G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kriske, R. M. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Lane, C. E. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Langford, T. J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Lankford, A. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Lau, K. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Learned, J. G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ling, J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Link, J. M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Lissauer, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Littenberg, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Littlejohn, B. R. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Lockwitz, S. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Lokajicek, M. [Inst. of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); Louis, W. C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Luk, K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lykken, J. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Marciano, W. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Maricic, J. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Markoff, D. M. [North Carolina Central Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Caicedo, D. A. M. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Mauger, C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mavrokoridis, K. [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom); McCluskey, E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); McKeen, D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); McKeown, R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Mills, G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mocioiu, I. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Monreal, B. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Mooney, M. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Morfin, J. G. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Mumm, P. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Napolitano, J. [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Neilson, R. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Nelson, J. K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Nessi, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Norcini, D. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Nova, F. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Nygren, D. R. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Gann, GDO [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Palamara, O. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Parsa, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Patterson, R. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Paul, P. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Pocar, A. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Qian, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Raaf, J. L. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Rameika, R. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Ranucci, G. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Milano (Italy); Ray, H. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Reyna, D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rich, G. C. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Rodrigues, P. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Romero, E. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rosero, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rountree, S. D. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Rybolt, B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Sanchez, M. C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Santucci, G. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Schmitz, D. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Scholberg, K. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Seckel, D. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Shaevitz, M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Shrock, R. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Smy, M. B. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Soderberg, M. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Sonzogni, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sousa, A. B. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Spitz, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); John, J. M. S. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Stewart, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Strait, J. B. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Sullivan, G. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Svoboda, R. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Szelc, A. M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Tayloe, R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Thomson, M. A. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Toups, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Vacheret, A. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Vagins, M. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Water, R. G. V. D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vogelaar, R. B. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Weber, M. [Bern (Switzerland); Weng, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wetstein, M. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); White, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); White, B. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Whitehead, L. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Whittington, D. W. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Wilking, M. J. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Wilson, R. J. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Wilson, P. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Winklehner, D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Winn, D. R. [Fairfield Univ., CT (United States); Worcester, E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yang, L. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Yeh, M [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yokley, Z. W. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Yoo, J. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Yu, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yu, J. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Zhang, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-04-03

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summarizes discussion and conclusions from the workshop.

  1. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C.; et al.

    2015-03-23

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summarizes discussion and conclusions from the workshop.

  2. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, C.; Ankowski, A.M.; Asaadi, J.A.; Ashenfelter, J.; Axani, S.N.; Babu, K.; Backhouse, C.; Band, H.R.; Barbeau, P.S.; Barros, N.; Bernstein, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bishai, M.; Blucher, E.; Bouffard, J.; Bowden, N.; Brice, S.; Bryan, C.; Camilleri, L.; Cao, J.; Carlson, J.; Carr, R.E.; Chatterjee, A.; Chen, M.; Chen, S.; Chiu, M.; Church, E.D.; Collar, J.I.; Collin, G.; Conrad, J.M.; Convery, M.R.; Cooper, R.L.; Cowen, D.; Davoudiasl, H.; de Gouvea, A.; Dean, D.J.; Deichert, G.; Descamps, F.; DeYoung, T.; Diwan, M.V.; Djurcic, Z.; Dolinski, M.J.; Dolph, J.; Donnelly, B.; Dwyer, D.A.; Dytman, S.; Efremenko, Y.; Everett, L.L.; Fava, A.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Fleming, B.; Friedland, A.; Fujikawa, B.K.; Gaisser, T.K.; Galeazzi, M.; Galehouse, D.C.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Garvey, G.T.; Gautam, S.; Gilje, K.E.; Gonzalez-Garcia, M.; Goodman, M.C.; Gordon, H.; Gramellini, E.; Green, M.P.; Guglielmi, A.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Hackenburg, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Harris, D.; Heeger, K.M.; Herman, M.; Hill, R.; Holin, A.; Huber, P.; Jaffe, D.E.; Johnson, R.A.; Joshi, J.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kaufman, L.J.; Kayser, B.; Kettell, S.H.; Kirby, B.J.; Klein, J.R.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kriske, R.M.; Lane, C.E.; Langford, T.J.; Lankford, A.; Lau, K.; Learned, J.G.; Ling, J.; Link, J.M.; Lissauer, D.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B.R.; Lockwitz, S.; Lokajicek, M.; Louis, W.C.; Luk, K.; Lykken, J.; Marciano, W.J.; Maricic, J.; Markoff, D.M.; Martinez Caicedo, D.A.; Mauger, C.; Mavrokoridis, K.; McCluskey, E.; McKeen, D.; McKeown, R.; Mills, G.; Mocioiu, I.; Monreal, B.; Mooney, M.R.; Morfin, J.G.; Mumm, P.; Napolitano, J.; Neilson, R.; Nelson, J.K.; Nessi, M.; Norcini, D.; Nova, F.; Nygren, D.R.; Orebi Gann, G.D.; Palamara, O.; Parsa, Z.; Patterson, R.; Paul, P.; Pocar, A.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J.L.; Rameika, R.; Ranucci, G.; Ray, H.; Reyna, D.; Rich, G.C.; Rodrigues, P.; Romero, E.Romero; Rosero, R.; Rountree, S.D.; Rybolt, B.; Sanchez, M.C.; Santucci, G.; Schmitz, D.; Scholberg, K.; Seckel, D.; Shaevitz, M.; Shrock, R.; Smy, M.B.; Soderberg, M.; Sonzogni, A.; Sousa, A.B.; Spitz, J.; St. John, J.M.; Stewart, J.; Strait, J.B.; Sullivan, G.; Svoboda, R.; Szelc, A.M.; Tayloe, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Toups, M.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Van de Water, R.G.; Vogelaar, R.B.; Weber, M.; Weng, W.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; White, B.R.; Whitehead, L.; Whittington, D.W.; Wilking, M.J.; Wilson, R.J.; Wilson, P.; Winklehner, D.; Winn, D.R.; Worcester, E.; Yang, L.; Yeh, M.; Yokley, Z.W.; Yoo, J.; Yu, B.; Yu, J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summ...

  3. Caspase Cleavage of GFAP Produces an Assembly-Compromised Proteolytic Fragment that Promotes Filament Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hsuan Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available IF (intermediate filament proteins can be cleaved by caspases to generate proapoptotic fragments as shown for desmin. These fragments can also cause filament aggregation. The hypothesis is that disease-causing mutations in IF proteins and their subsequent characteristic histopathological aggregates could involve caspases. GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein, a closely related IF protein expressed mainly in astrocytes, is also a putative caspase substrate. Mutations in GFAP cause A×D (Alexander disease. The overexpression of wild-type or mutant GFAP promotes cytoplasmic aggregate formation, with caspase activation and GFAP proteolysis. In this study, we report that GFAP is cleaved specifically by caspase 6 at VELD225 in its L12 linker domain in vitro. Caspase cleavage of GFAP at Asp225 produces two major cleavage products. While the C-GFAP (C-terminal GFAP is unable to assemble into filaments, the N-GFAP (N-terminal GFAP forms filamentous structures that are variable in width and prone to aggregation. The effect of N-GFAP is dominant, thus affecting normal filament assembly in a way that promotes filament aggregation. Transient transfection of N-GFAP into a human astrocytoma cell line induces the formation of cytoplasmic aggregates, which also disrupt the endogenous GFAP networks. In addition, we generated a neo-epitope antibody that recognizes caspase-cleaved but not the intact GFAP. Using this antibody, we demonstrate the presence of the caspase-generated GFAP fragment in transfected cells expressing a disease-causing mutant GFAP and in two mouse models of A×D. These findings suggest that caspase-mediated GFAP proteolysis may be a common event in the context of both the GFAP mutation and excess.

  4. Transition of Femtosecond-Filament-Solid Interactions from Single to Multiple Filament Regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrodzki, P J; Burger, M; Jovanovic, I

    2017-10-06

    High-peak-power fs-laser filaments offer unique characteristics attractive to remote sensing via techniques such as remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (R-LIBS). The dynamics of several ablation mechanisms following the interaction between a filament and a solid determines the emission strength and reproducibility of target plasma, which is of relevance for R-LIBS applications. We investigate the space- and time-resolved dynamics of ionic and atomic emission from copper as well as the surrounding atmosphere in order to understand limitations of fs-filament-ablation for standoff energy delivery. Furthermore, we probe the shock front produced from filament-target interaction using time-resolved shadowgraphy and infer laser-material coupling efficiencies for both single and multiple filament regimes through analysis of shock expansion with the Sedov model for point detonation. The results provide insight into plasma structure for the range of peak powers up to 30 times the critical power for filamentation P cr . Despite the stochastic nucleation of multiple filaments at peak-powers greater than 16 P cr , emission of ionic and neutral species increases with pump beam intensity, and short-lived nitrogen emission originating from the ambient is consistently observed. Ultimately, results suggest favorable scaling of emission intensity from target species on the laser pump energy, furthering the prospects for use of filament-solid interactions for remote sensing.

  5. Role of multiple filaments in self-accelerating actions of laser filamentation in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuze; Nie, Jinsong; Sun, Ke

    2017-11-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of multiple filaments in self-accelerating actions by using corrected accelerating parabolic beams (CAPBs) are numerically investigated. By increasing the number of main lobes, the curved filaments can be elongated, leading to a longer displacement. The replenished energy originating from curved multiple filaments (MFs) that constructively interfere with the central one plays a crucial role in the phenomenon. At the bifurcation position, a beam pattern in which secondary lobes tightly follow the main lobes is formed, which is beneficial for the accelerating action of MFs. A new curved filament is generated due to the merging of side-curved MFs, and its accelerating strength decreases gradually with further propagation. Moreover, a special spatiotemporal profile that enhances the possibility of acceleration is also formed. The use of the accelerating beam with the appropriate amount of main lobes provides a new approach to elongate curved filaments.

  6. Higher Levels of Autoantibodies Targeting Mutated Citrullinated Vimentin in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis Than in Patients with Psoriasis Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szandra Dalmády

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies against citrullinated proteins/peptides (ACPAs, and especially antibodies targeting mutated citrullinated vimentin (anti-MCVs, are novel biomarkers of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Whereas ACPAs are specific and sensitive markers for RA, there have hardly been any reports relating to ACPAs in psoriatic arthritis (PsA or in psoriasis without joint symptoms (PsO. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of anti-MCVs in PsA and PsO. Serum anti-MCV titers were measured in 46 PsA and 42 PsO patients and in 40 healthy controls by means of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The potential correlations of the serum autoantibody levels with several clinical and laboratory parameters were examined. The anti-MCV levels in the PsA patients were significantly higher than those in the PsO group. Among the clinical variables, the presence of tender knee joints and nail psoriasis was significantly associated with anti-MCV positivity in the PsA patients. Higher anti-MCV titers in the PsO patients were associated with a more severe disease course and with the early onset of psoriatic skin symptoms. Our results suggest that anti-MCVs can be used as novel markers in the diagnosis of PsA and in a subset of PsO patients.

  7. Drops moving along and across a filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Rakesh P.; Sinha-Ray, Suman; Yarin, Alexander; Pourdeyhimi, Behnam

    2013-11-01

    The present work is devoted to the experimental study of oil drop motion both along and across a filament due to the air jet blowing. In case of drop moving along the filament, phenomena such as drop stick-slip motion, shape oscillations, shedding of a tail along the filament, the tail capillary instability and drop recoil motion were observed which were rationalized in the framework of simplified models. Experiments with cross-flow of the surrounding gas relative to the filament with an oil drop on it were conducted, with air velocity in the range of 7.23 to 22.7 m s-1. The Weber number varied from 2 to 40 and the Ohnesorge number varied from 0.07 to 0.8. The lower and upper critical Weber numbers were introduced to distinguish between the beginning of the drop blowing off the filament and the onset of the bag-stamen breakup. The range of the Weber number between these two critical values is filled with three types of vibrational breakup: V1 (a balloon-like drop being blown off), V2 (a drop on a single stamen being blown off), and V3 (a drop on a double stamen being blown off). The Weber number/Ohnesorge number plane was delineated into domains of different breakup regimes. The work is supported by the Nonwovens Cooperative Research Center (NCRC).

  8. Filamentous Influenza Virus Enters Cells via Macropinocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Jeremy S.; Leser, George P.

    2012-01-01

    Influenza virus is pleiomorphic, producing both spherical (100-nm-diameter) and filamentous (100-nm by 20-μm) virions. While the spherical virions are known to enter host cells through exploitation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the entry pathway for filamentous virions has not been determined, though the existence of an alternative, non-clathrin-, non-caveolin-mediated entry pathway for influenza virus has been known for many years. In this study, we confirm recent results showing that influenza virus utilizes macropinocytosis as an alternate entry pathway. Furthermore, we find that filamentous influenza viruses use macropinocytosis as the primary entry mechanism. Virions enter cells as intact filaments within macropinosomes and are trafficked to the acidic late-endosomal compartment. Low pH triggers a conformational change in the M2 ion channel protein, altering membrane curvature and leading to a fragmentation of the filamentous virions. This fragmentation may enable more-efficient fusion between the viral and endosomal membranes. PMID:22875971

  9. Free-Space Nonlinear Beam Combining Towards Filamentation

    CERN Document Server

    Rostami, Shermineh; Kepler, Daniel; Baudelet, Matthieu; Litchinitser, Natalia M; Richardson, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Multi-filamentation opens new degrees of freedom for manipulating electromagnetic waves in air. However, without control, multiple filament interactions, including attraction, repulsion or fusion often result in formation of complex disordered filament distributions. Moreover, high power beams conventionally used in multi-filament formation experiments often cause significant surface damage. The growing number of applications for laser filaments requires fine control of their formation and propagation. We demonstrate, experimentally and theoretically, that the attraction and fusion of ultrashort beams with initial powers below the critical value enable the eventual formation of a filament downstream. Filament formation is delayed to a predetermined distance in space, avoiding optical damage to external beam optics while still enabling robust filaments with controllable properties as if formed from a single high power beam. This paradigm introduces new opportunities for filament engineering eliminating the nee...

  10. Tropomyosin prevents depolymerization of actin filaments from the pointed end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broschat, K O

    1990-12-05

    Regulation of the pointed, or slow-growing, end of actin filaments is essential to the regulation of filament length. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of skeletal muscle tropomyosin (TM) in regulating pointed end assembly and disassembly in vitro. The effects of TM upon assembly and disassembly of actin monomers from the pointed filament end were measured using pyrenyl-actin fluorescence assays in which the barbed ends were capped by villin. Tropomyosin did not affect pointed end elongation; however, filament disassembly from the pointed end stopped in the presence of TM under conditions where control filaments disassembled within minutes. The degree of protection against depolymerization was dependent upon free TM concentration and upon filament length. When filaments were diluted to a subcritical actin concentration in TM, up to 95% of the filamentous actin remained after 24 h and did not depolymerize further. Longer actin filaments (150 monomers average length) were more effectively protected from depolymerization than short filaments (50 monomers average length). Although filaments stopped depolymerizing in the presence of TM, they were not capped as shown by elongation assays. This study demonstrates that a protein, such as TM, which binds to the side of the actin filament can prevent dissociation of monomers from the end without capping the end to elongation. In skeletal muscle, tropomyosin could prevent thin filament disassembly from the pointed end and constitute a mechanism for regulating filament length.

  11. Immunohistohemical evidences of pregnancy in uterine curettage tissue by the use of a double immunocytochemical staining technique using cytokeratin 7 and vimentin antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenkić Milan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Usual histopatological diagnosis of intrauterine pregnancy is made by demonstration of chorionic villi, but in the curettage tissue from intrauterine miscarriage they may not be present in all cases. The use of monoclonal antibody against cytokeratin as a sensitive and reliable marker for the morphologic discrimination between invasive trophoblastic (IT cells and decidual cells has been well established. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of pregnancy in endometrial curettings when chorionic villi are absent from patients suspected of intrauterine pregnancy. Methods. Twenty cases of endometrial tissue specimens were investigated for cytokeratin and vimentin expression by a double immunostaining for detection of IT cells. Results. Out of the total number of cases (20 17 cases expressed cytokeratin 7 positive IT cells, that are an evidence of pregnancy. Conclusion. The obtained results indicated, that double immunohistochemical demonstration of cytokeratin and vimentin is useful for identifying pregnancy in all chorionic villi-negative cases.

  12. The Physics of Intense Femtosecond Laser Filamentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, See Leang; Liu, Weiwei; Kosareva, Olga G.; Kandidov, Valerii P.

    When a powerful femtosecond laser pulse propagates in a transparent optical medium, be it a gas or a condensed medium, the pulse will self-focus into a series of self-foci, giving rise to the perception of a filament. This universal nonlinear propagation phenomenon is currently an interesting research topic at the forefront of applied physics and attracts more and more people into this field. In this chapter some fundamental physical concepts underlying femtosecond laser filamentation are discussed. These include slice-by-slice self-focusing, intensity clamping, self-transformation into a white light laser pulse (supercontinuum generation), background reservoir and multiple filamentation competition. Some important potential applications are also briefly mentioned.

  13. High brightness semiconductor lasers with reduced filamentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter.; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.

    1999-01-01

    High brightness semiconductor lasers have applications in spectroscopy, fiber lasers, manufacturing and materials processing, medicine and free space communication or energy transfer. The main difficulty associated with high brightness is that, because of COD, high power requires a large aperture....... Large apertures result in high order transverse modes, filamentation and spatio-temporal instabilities, all of which degrade spatial coherence and therefore brightness. We shall describe a combined assault on three fronts: (1) minimise aperture size required for a given power by maximising the facet...... damage threshold, (2) for a given aperture, minimise self-focusing and filamentation by minimising the effective nonlinear coefficient (the alpha parameter), and (3) for a given aperture and nonlinear coefficient, develop optical cavities and propagation structures to suppress filamentation and high...

  14. Heterologous expression of cellobiohydrolases in filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoglowek, Marta; Lübeck, Peter S.; Ahring, Birgitte K.

    2015-01-01

    Cellobiohydrolases are among the most important enzymes functioning in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose, significantly contributing to the efficient biorefining of recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and bio-based products. Filamentous fungi are recognized as both well...... into valuable products. However, due to low cellobiohydrolase activities, certain fungi might be deficient with regard to enzymes of value for cellulose conversion, and improving cellobiohydrolase expression in filamentous fungi has proven to be challenging. In this review, we examine the effects of altering...... promoters, signal peptides, culture conditions and host post-translational modifications. For heterologous cellobiohydrolase production in filamentous fungi to become an industrially feasible process, the construction of site-integrating plasmids, development of protease-deficient strains and glycosylation...

  15. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis of dysplastic epithelium of human ocular surface: basement membrane and intermediate filament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saika, S; Kawashima, Y; Okada, Y; Ohkawa, K; Yamanaka, O; Katoh, T; Ohnishi, Y; Ooshima, A; Kao, W W

    1999-05-01

    The dysplastic corneal epithelium is characterized by the abnormal proliferation of epithelial cells. The phenotypes of these cells have not been elucidated. We investigated whether such epithelium expresses the phenotypes of corneal or conjunctival epithelial cells. The corneas and conjunctivae from four normal subjects and from one patient with epithelial dysplasia of the central cornea were immunostained for IV and VII collagens and for cytokeratins. Monoclonal antibodies against collagen IV reacted to the [alpha1(IV)]2alpha2(IV) or alpha5(IV) molecule. Anti-cytokeratin antibodies were used to define epithelial cell types. The ultrastructure of the basement membrane (BM) of each specimen also was examined. Type VII collagen immunoreactivity was detected in all the specimens of epithelial BM. The anti-collagen IV [alpha1(IV)]2alpha2(IV) antibody labeled the conjunctival BMs, not the BMs of the corneal epithelia, of each subject. The normal corneal epithelial BM, not the BM of the conjunctival or dysplastic corneal epithelium, was immunolabeled with anti-alpha5(IV) antibody. The pattern of cytokeratin expression in the corneal epithelial dysplasia resembled that seen in the normal conjunctivae. Small breaks in the BM of dysplastic corneal epithelium were ultrastructurally revealed. The number of hemidesmosomes in the dysplastic corneal epithelium was decreased as compared with that in the normal BM. The composition of collagen types within the BM and the cellular phenotype of the dysplastic epithelium in the cornea resembled those of conjunctival epithelium, not of the cornea.

  16. Altered expression of epithelial cell surface glycoconjugates and intermediate filaments at the margins of mucosal wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Grøn, B; Mandel, U

    1998-01-01

    Alterations in cell to cell adhesion are necessary to enable the type of cell movements that are associated with epithelial wound healing and malignant invasion. Several studies of transformed cells have related epithelial cell movement to changes in the cell surface expression of the carbohydrate...... structures represented by the ABO blood group antigens and, in particular, by Lewis antigens and their biosynthetic precursors. To study further the relationship between cell surface carbohydrates and keratinocyte cell movement, experimental wounds were created in human oral mucosa and examined......-T antigen. The changes induced by wounding in the expression of collagen IV, laminin gamma2-chain (laminin-5), and laminin alpha5-chain were similar to those found in skin wounds and served to define the region of epithelial movement. This region was found to show a marked increase in staining for both...

  17. Uncovering Design Principles of Intermediate Filaments, a Self-Assembling Biomaterial: Lessons in Nanoscale Materials Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-21

    characterization of peptides with 4(R)-hydroxyproline in the Xaa position J Biol Chem 278, 32373-9. (Continuation Sheet) REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE (SF298) [19...H.P. (2000) Glycosylation/Hydroxylation-induced stabilization of the collagen triple helix. 4-trans-hydroxyproline in the Xaa position can stabilize

  18. Heterologous gene expression in filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoyun; Schmitz, George; Zhang, Meiling; Mackie, Roderick I; Cann, Isaac K O

    2012-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are critical to production of many commercial enzymes and organic compounds. Fungal-based systems have several advantages over bacterial-based systems for protein production because high-level secretion of enzymes is a common trait of their decomposer lifestyle. Furthermore, in the large-scale production of recombinant proteins of eukaryotic origin, the filamentous fungi become the vehicle of choice due to critical processes shared in gene expression with other eukaryotic organisms. The complexity and relative dearth of understanding of the physiology of filamentous fungi, compared to bacteria, have hindered rapid development of these organisms as highly efficient factories for the production of heterologous proteins. In this review, we highlight several of the known benefits and challenges in using filamentous fungi (particularly Aspergillus spp., Trichoderma reesei, and Neurospora crassa) for the production of proteins, especially heterologous, nonfungal enzymes. We review various techniques commonly employed in recombinant protein production in the filamentous fungi, including transformation methods, selection of gene regulatory elements such as promoters, protein secretion factors such as the signal peptide, and optimization of coding sequence. We provide insights into current models of host genomic defenses such as repeat-induced point mutation and quelling. Furthermore, we examine the regulatory effects of transcript sequences, including introns and untranslated regions, pre-mRNA (messenger RNA) processing, transcript transport, and mRNA stability. We anticipate that this review will become a resource for researchers who aim at advancing the use of these fascinating organisms as protein production factories, for both academic and industrial purposes, and also for scientists with general interest in the biology of the filamentous fungi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Production of recombinant proteins by filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Owen P

    2012-01-01

    The initial focus of recombinant protein production by filamentous fungi related to exploiting the extraordinary extracellular enzyme synthesis and secretion machinery of industrial strains, including Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Penicillium and Rhizopus species, was to produce single recombinant protein products. An early recognized disadvantage of filamentous fungi as hosts of recombinant proteins was their common ability to produce homologous proteases which could degrade the heterologous protein product and strategies to prevent proteolysis have met with some limited success. It was also recognized that the protein glycosylation patterns in filamentous fungi and in mammals were quite different, such that filamentous fungi are likely not to be the most suitable microbial hosts for production of recombinant human glycoproteins for therapeutic use. By combining the experience gained from production of single recombinant proteins with new scientific information being generated through genomics and proteomics research, biotechnologists are now poised to extend the biomanufacturing capabilities of recombinant filamentous fungi by enabling them to express genes encoding multiple proteins, including, for example, new biosynthetic pathways for production of new primary or secondary metabolites. It is recognized that filamentous fungi, most species of which have not yet been isolated, represent an enormously diverse source of novel biosynthetic pathways, and that the natural fungal host harboring a valuable biosynthesis pathway may often not be the most suitable organism for biomanufacture purposes. Hence it is expected that substantial effort will be directed to transforming other fungal hosts, non-fungal microbial hosts and indeed non microbial hosts to express some of these novel biosynthetic pathways. But future applications of recombinant expression of proteins will not be confined to biomanufacturing. Opportunities to exploit recombinant technology to unravel the

  20. Expression of cell cycle regulators, 14-3-3σ and p53 proteins, and vimentin in canine transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Bonnet, Alejandro; Herráez, Pedro; Aguirre, Maria; Suárez-Bonnet, Elena; Andrada, Marisa; Rodríguez, Francisco; Espinosa de Los Monteros, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    The study of the expression of 14-3-3σ, p53, and vimentin proteins in canine transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) evaluating differences with normal bladder tissues, and the association with clinicopathological variables. We analyze by immunohistochemistry in 19 canine TCCs the expression of 14-3-3σ, p53, and vimentin using monoclonal antibodys. A semiquantitative scoring method was employed and statistical analysis was performed to display relationships between variables. In contrast to normal urinary bladder epithelium, which showed high levels of 14-3-3σ, its expression was decreased in 53% of the studied tumors (P = 0.0344). The 14-3-3σ protein was expressed by neoplastic emboli and by highly infiltrative neoplastic cells. The p53 protein was expressed in 26% of TCCs, but no significant association between 14-3-3σ and p53 was detected. Neoplastic epithelial cells displayed vimentin immunoreactivity in 21% of TCCs, and a positive correlation with mitotic index was observed (P = 0.042). Coexpression of vimentin and 14-3-3σ by highly infiltrative neoplastic cells was also observed. 14-3-3σ is deregulated in canine TCCs and its expression by highly infiltrative tumor cells may be related to the acquisition of aggressive behavior. Furthermore, this article reinforce the role of canine TCC as relevant model of human urothelial carcinoma and we suggest 14-3-3σ as a potential therapeutic target. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of 14-3-3σ in canine TCC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Filament stretching rheometer: inertia compensation revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2003-01-01

    The necessary inertia compensation used in the force balance for the filament stretching rheometer is derived for an arbitrary frame of reference. This enables the force balance to be used to extract correctly the extensional viscosity from measurements of the tensile force at either end of the e......The necessary inertia compensation used in the force balance for the filament stretching rheometer is derived for an arbitrary frame of reference. This enables the force balance to be used to extract correctly the extensional viscosity from measurements of the tensile force at either end...

  2. Semiautomated quantitative image analysis of glomerular immunohistochemistry markers desmin, vimentin, podocin, synaptopodin and WT-1 in acute and chronic rat kidney disease models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, J; Ott, V; Herrmann, A; Rapp, W; Raab, S; Riboulet, W; Vandjour, A; Hainaut, E; Benardeau, A; Singer, T; Jacobsen, B

    2016-03-01

    Five different glomerular immunohistochemistry markers were evaluated and compared in four different acute and chronic rat kidney disease models. Progression of glomerular or podocyte damage was shown in the puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis (PAN) and Zucker fatty/spontaneously hypertensive heart failure F1 hybrid (ZSF1) rat model. Progression and prevention of glomerular damage was demonstrated in the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl SS) rat. Immunohistochemistry was performed for desmin, vimentin, podocin, synaptopodin and Wilms tumor protein-1 (WT-1), and evaluation of glomerular immunohistochemistry markers was done by semiautomated quantitative image analysis. We found desmin and WT-1 as the most sensitive markers for podocyte damage in both acute and chronic glomerular damage followed by vimentin, podocin and synaptopodin. We were able to demonstrate that early podocyte damage as shown by increased desmin and vimentin staining together with either a phenotypic podocyte change or podocyte loss (reduced numbers of WT-1-stained podocytes) drives the progression of glomerular damage. This is followed by a reduction in podocyte-specific proteins such as podocin and synaptopodin. Our report describes the different sensitivity of glomerular or podocyte markers and gives future guidance for the selection of the most sensitive markers for efficacy testing of new drugs as well as for the selection of tissue-based toxicity markers for glomerular or podocyte injury. In addition to functional clinical chemistry markers, desmin and WT-1 immunohistochemistry offers reliable and valuable data on the morphologic state of podocytes.

  3. Cores, Filaments, and Bundles: Hierarchical core formation in the B213 filament in Taurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacar, Alvaro; Tafalla, Mario; Kauffmann, Jens; Kovacs, Attila

    2013-07-01

    Characterizing the dense core formation in filaments is a critical step for our understanding of the star formation process within molecular clouds. Using different molecular tracers to study the gas kinematics at different scales and density regimes, we have investigated the dense core formation in the B213/L1495 filament in Taurus, one of the most prominent structures identified in nearby clouds (see Hacar et al 2013, A&A, 554, A55). Our analysis of its internal kinematics demonstrates that this filament is actually a bundle of 35 velocity-coherent filaments, typically with lengths of ˜ 0.5 pc and oscillatory-like and sonic velocity field, each of them exhibiting linear masses close to the expected mass for a filament in hydrostatic equilibrium. Among them, only a small fraction of these filaments (˜1/4) are "fertile" and efficiently fragment forming all the cores identified within this region, while most of them (˜3/4) do not form cores and remain "sterile". Our observations then suggest that core formation in Taurus occurs in two steps. First, 0.5 pc-long velocity-coherent filaments condense out of the cloud gas, probably as a result of the turbulent cascade. After that, the dense cores condense quasi-statically in only those "fertile" filaments that have accumulated enough mass to became gravitational unstable, inheriting their kinematic properties. The formation of these velocity-coherent filaments appears therefore as a critical step on the star formation process being the first subsonic structures formed out of the turbulent regime that dominates the cloud dynamics at large scales.

  4. High-resolution Observations of Sympathetic Filament Eruptions by NVST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yingna; Li, Shangwei; Zhou, Tuanhui; Van Ballegooijen, Adriaan A.; Sun, Xudong; Ji, Haisheng

    2017-08-01

    We investigate two sympathetic filament eruptions observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) on 2015 October 15. The full picture of the eruptions is obtained from the corresponding SDO/AIA observations. The two filaments start from the east border of active region NOAA 12434 in the north and end in one large quiescent filament channel in the south. The left filament erupts firstly, followed by the right filament eruption about 10 minutes later. Clear twist structure and rotating motion are observed in both filaments during the eruption. Both eruptions are failed, since the filaments firstly rise up, then flow towards the south and merge into the southern large quiescent filament. We also observe repeating activations of mini filaments below the right filament after its eruption. Using magnetic field models constructed based on SDO/HMI magnetograms by flux rope insertion method, we find that the left filament eruption is likely to be triggered by kink instability, while weakening of overlying magnetic fields due to magnetic reconnection at an X-point between the two filament systems might play an important role in the onset of the right filament eruption.

  5. Mapping the filaments in NGC 1275

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos, Aracely Susan; Rich, Jeffrey; Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS)

    2018-01-01

    The giant elliptical brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) at the centers of many massive clusters are often surrounded by drawn-out forms of gaseous material. It is believed that this gaseous material is gas condensing from the intracluster medium (ICM) in a “cooling flow,” and it can directly impact the growth of the BCG. The galaxy NGC 1275 is one of the closest giant elliptical BCGs and lies at the center of the Perseus cluster. NGC 1275 has large filaments that are thought to be associated with a cooling flow, but they may also be affected by its AGN. To investigate the relationship between the AGN and the cooling flow we have mapped the filaments around NGC 1275 with the Cosmic Web Imager, an image-slicing integral field spectrograph at Palomar Observatories. We employ standard emission-line ratio diagnostics to determine the source of ionizing radiation. We use our analysis to investigate whether the formation of the extended filaments is a result of gas from the ICM collapsing onto the galaxy as it cools or if it is possible that the filaments are a result of the cluster’s interaction with the outflow driven by the AGN.

  6. Filament stretching rheometry of polymer melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2005-01-01

    The Filament Stretching Rheometry (FSR) method developed by Sridhar, McKinley and coworkers for polymer solutions has been extended to be used also for polymer melts. The design of a melt-FSR will be described and differences to conventional melt elongational rheometers will be pointed out. Results...

  7. Linear viscoelastic characterization from filament stretching rheometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Sara Lindeblad; Alvarez, Nicolas J.; Hassager, Ole

    viscoelasticity well into the nonlinear regime. Therefore at present, complete rheological characterization of a material requires two apparatuses: a shear and an extensional rheometer. This work is focused on developing a linear viscoelastic protocol for the filament stretching rheometer (FSR) in order...

  8. Architecture dependence of actin filament network disassembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressin, Laurène; Guillotin, Audrey; Guérin, Christophe; Blanchoin, Laurent; Michelot, Alphée

    2015-06-01

    Turnover of actin networks in cells requires the fast disassembly of aging actin structures. While ADF/cofilin and Aip1 have been identified as central players, how their activities are modulated by the architecture of the networks remains unknown. Using our ability to reconstitute a diverse array of cellular actin organizations, we found that ADF/cofilin binding and ADF/cofilin-mediated disassembly both depend on actin geometrical organization. ADF/cofilin decorates strongly and stabilizes actin cables, whereas its weaker interaction to Arp2/3 complex networks is correlated with their dismantling and their reorganization into stable architectures. Cooperation of ADF/cofilin with Aip1 is necessary to trigger the full disassembly of all actin filament networks. Additional experiments performed at the single-molecule level indicate that this cooperation is optimal above a threshold of 23 molecules of ADF/cofilin bound as clusters along an actin filament. Our results indicate that although ADF/cofilin is able to dismantle selectively branched networks through severing and debranching, stochastic disassembly of actin filaments by ADF/cofilin and Aip1 represents an efficient alternative pathway for the full disassembly of all actin networks. Our data support a model in which the binding of ADF/cofilin is required to trigger a structural change of the actin filaments, as a prerequisite for their disassembly by Aip1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Modelling the morphology of filamentous microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1996-01-01

    The rapid development in image analysis techniques has made it possible to study the growth kinetics of filamentous microorganisms in more detail than previously, However, owing to the many different processes that influence the morphology it is important to apply mathematical models to extract...

  10. Morphology and rheology in filamentous cultivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wucherpfennig, T; Kiep, K A; Driouch, H; Wittmann, C; Krull, R

    2010-01-01

    Because of their metabolic diversity, high production capacity, secretion efficiency, and capability of carrying out posttranslational modifications, filamentous fungi are widely exploited as efficient cell factories in the production of metabolites, bioactive substances, and native or heterologous proteins, respectively. There is, however, a complex relationship between the morphology of these microorganisms, transport phenomena, the viscosity of the cultivation broth, and related productivity. The morphological characteristics vary between freely dispersed mycelia and distinct pellets of aggregated biomass, every growth form having a distinct influence on broth rheology. Hence, the advantages and disadvantages for mycelial or pellet cultivation have to be balanced out carefully. Because of the still inadequate understanding of the morphogenesis of filamentous microorganisms, fungal morphology is often a bottleneck of productivity in industrial production. To obtain an optimized production process, it is of great importance to gain a better understanding of the molecular and cell biology of these microorganisms as well as the relevant approaches in biochemical engineering. In this chapter, morphology and growth of filamentous fungi are described, with special attention given to specific problems as they arise from fungal growth forms; growth and mass transfer in fungal biopellets are discussed as an example. To emphasize the importance of the flow behavior of filamentous cultivation broths, an introduction to rheology is also given, reviewing important rheological models and recent studies concerning rheological parameters. Furthermore, current knowledge on morphology and productivity in relation to the environom is outlined in the last section of this review. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Filamentation of a Magnetized, Radio Frequency Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Uwe; Lynch, Brian; Bandyopadhyay, Pintu; Sharma, Devendra; Thomas, Edward

    2014-10-01

    A filamentation instability has been observed in a radio-frequency (rf) discharge that was subject to an externally applied, homogeneous magnetic field. The instability arises in a uniform rf-discharge after the magnetic field strength is sufficiently increased. First, the plasma shows target-like glow structures, followed by spiral structures at higher fields. Finally, the plasma breaks up into individual, string-like, magnetic field aligned filaments that seem to repel each other. A variety of filamentation states can be observed, but their overall shapes follow the aforementioned rule of magnetic field strength dependency. The detailed picture of the discharge glow, however, depends on experiment specific conditions as the geometric shape and type of the discharge electrodes, the discharge pressure and power. In an effort to verify that the observed effect is universal, we compare experimental measurements made using two different high magnetic field, dusty plasma experiment facilities: the experiment that was located at the Max Planck Institute in Garching, Germany and the newly built MDPX (magnetized dusty plasma experiment) at Auburn University, Alabama. In both experimental setups we could observe filamentation. This work is supported from funding from DOE and NSF.

  12. Filament Channel Formation, Eruption, and Jet Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, C. Richard; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Karpen, Judith T.

    2017-08-01

    The mechanism behind filament-channel formation is a longstanding mystery, while that underlying the initiation of coronal mass ejections and jets has been studied intensively but is not yet firmly established. In previous work, we and collaborators have investigated separately the consequences of magnetic-helicity condensation (Antiochos 2013) for forming filament channels (Zhao et al. 2015; Knizhnik et al. 2015, 2017a,b) and of the embedded-bipole model (Antiochos 1996) for generating reconnection-driven jets (Pariat et al. 2009, 2010, 2015, 2016; Wyper et al. 2016, 2017). Now we have taken a first step toward synthesizing these two lines of investigation. Our recent study (Karpen et al. 2017) of coronal-hole jets with gravity and wind employed an ad hoc, large-scale shear flow at the surface to introduce magnetic free energy and form the filament channel. In this effort, we replace the shear flow with an ensemble of local rotation cells, to emulate the Sun’s ever-changing granules and supergranules. As in our previous studies, we find that reconnection between twisted flux tubes within the closed-field region concentrates magnetic shear and free energy near the polarity inversion line, forming the filament channel. Onset of reconnection between this field and the external, unsheared, open field releases stored energy to drive the impulsive jet. We discuss the results of our new simulations with implications for understanding solar activity and space weather.

  13. Isolation and bioactivity of endophytic filamentous actinobacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and bioactivity of endophytic filamentous actinobacteria from tropical medicinal plants. ... In addition, metabolites of nine isolates inhibited caspase 3, a protein related to neurodegenerative diseases, and three inhibited protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a protein related to diabetes. Based on their ...

  14. Electron tomography reveals unbranched networks of actin filaments in lamellipodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Edit; Jacob, Sonja; Nemethova, Maria; Resch, Guenter P; Small, J Victor

    2010-05-01

    Eukaryotic cells can initiate movement using the forces exerted by polymerizing actin filaments to extend lamellipodial and filopodial protrusions. In the current model, actin filaments in lamellipodia are organized in a branched, dendritic network. We applied electron tomography to vitreously frozen 'live' cells, fixed cells and cytoskeletons, embedded in vitreous ice or in deep-negative stain. In lamellipodia from four cell types, including rapidly migrating fish keratocytes, we found that actin filaments are almost exclusively unbranched. The vast majority of apparent filament junctions proved to be overlapping filaments, rather than branched end-to-side junctions. Analysis of the tomograms revealed that actin filaments terminate at the membrane interface within a zone several hundred nanometres wide at the lamellipodium front, and yielded the first direct measurements of filament densities. Actin filament pairs were also identified as lamellipodium components and bundle precursors. These data provide a new structural basis for understanding actin-driven protrusion during cell migration.

  15. Graphene-based filament material for thermal ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewitt, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shick, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Siegfried, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-19

    The use of graphene oxide materials for thermal ionization mass spectrometry analysis of plutonium and uranium has been investigated. Filament made from graphene oxide slurries have been 3-D printed. A method for attaching these filaments to commercial thermal ionization post assemblies has been devised. Resistive heating of the graphene based filaments under high vacuum showed stable operation in excess of 4 hours. Plutonium ion production has been observed in an initial set of filaments spiked with the Pu 128 Certified Reference Material.

  16. The Unique 3D Magnetic Structure of Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Engvold, O.; Martin, S.; Panasenco, O.

    2008-05-01

    Filaments in active regions most clearly have the form of long thin ribbons as seen in Hα. The ribbon structure is also readily demonstrated for quiescent filaments when seen from an end view as a filament is transported across the east or west limb due to solar rotation. In addition to the primary ribbon structure, filaments also have shorter, secondary structures called barbs which connect some threads of the main ribbon structure to the chromosphere; these are also seen in the end view of filaments at the limb. This connection with the chromosphere is corroborated in high resolution images of filaments recorded against the disk at the 1-meter Swedish Solar Telescope (SST). In these high resolution Hα movies, the lower parts of all threads are recognizable because they move less freely than the higher parts. The connection of the ends of the threads of the main filament ribbon and the ends of the filament barbs to the chromosphere/photosphere is strong evidence alone that filaments have their own magnetic fields separate from surrounding coronal magnetic fields. The chirality (handedness) of filaments provides further evidence that filaments have their own magnetic fields. The two forms of dextral and sinistral chirality are generally manifest in the relative direction of the deviation of barbs from the main ribbon. However, the sign of chirality is most clear in the thread structure of all barbs seen in Hα images from the SST. From a number of characteristics of the observed mass motions of filament threads of the order of several to tens of kilometers per second, we have previously concluded that filament threads are field-aligned. Therefore we use the threads and their mass motions to construct the 3D configuration of filament magnetic fields. We end this presentation with movies of filaments from STEREO/SECCHI/EUVI consistent with our thread model of filaments.

  17. Mechanical Heterogeneity Favors Fragmentation of Strained Actin Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz, Enrique M.; Martiel, Jean-Louis; Blanchoin, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    We present a general model of actin filament deformation and fragmentation in response to compressive forces. The elastic free energy density along filaments is determined by their shape and mechanical properties, which were modeled in terms of bending, twisting, and twist-bend coupling elasticities. The elastic energy stored in filament deformation (i.e., strain) tilts the fragmentation-annealing reaction free-energy profile to favor fragmentation. The energy gradient introduces a local shear force that accelerates filament intersubunit bond rupture. The severing protein, cofilin, renders filaments more compliant in bending and twisting. As a result, filaments that are partially decorated with cofilin are mechanically heterogeneous (i.e., nonuniform) and display asymmetric shape deformations and energy profiles distinct from mechanically homogenous (i.e., uniform), bare actin, or saturated cofilactin filaments. The local buckling strain depends on the relative size of the compliant segment as well as the bending and twisting rigidities of flanking regions. Filaments with a single bare/cofilin-decorated boundary localize energy and force adjacent to the boundary, within the compliant cofilactin segment. Filaments with small cofilin clusters were predicted to fragment within the compliant cofilactin rather than at boundaries. Neglecting contributions from twist-bend coupling elasticity underestimates the energy density and gradients along filaments, and thus the net effects of filament strain to fragmentation. Spatial confinement causes compliant cofilactin segments and filaments to adopt higher deformation modes and store more elastic energy, thereby promoting fragmentation. The theory and simulations presented here establish a quantitative relationship between actin filament fragmentation thermodynamics and elasticity, and reveal how local discontinuities in filament mechanical properties introduced by regulatory proteins can modulate both the severing efficiency

  18. Harmful impact of filamentous algae (Spirogyra sp.) on juvenile crayfish

    OpenAIRE

    Ulikowski Dariusz; Chybowski Łucjan; Traczuk Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of filamentous algae on the growth and survival of juvenile narrow-clawed crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus (Esch.), in rearing basins. Three stocking variants were used: A - basins with a layer of filamentous algae without imitation mineral substrate; B - basins with a layer of filamentous algae with imitation mineral substrate; C - basins without filamentous algae but with mineral substrate. The crayfish were reared from June 12 to October 10 ...

  19. The Novel Desmin Mutant p.A120D Impairs Filament Formation, Prevents Intercalated Disk Localization, and Causes Sudden Cardiac Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodehl, Andreas; Dieding, Mareike; Klauke, Bärbel

    2013-01-01

    The intermediate filament protein desmin is encoded by the gene DES and contributes to the mechanical stabilization of the striated muscle sarcomere and cell contacts within the cardiac intercalated disk. DES mutations cause severe skeletal and cardiac muscle diseases with heterogeneous phenotype...

  20. Filamentary structures in dense plasma focus: Current filaments or vortex filaments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, Leopoldo, E-mail: lsoto@cchen.cl; Pavez, Cristian; Moreno, José [Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, CCHEN, Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4, Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andrés Bello, República 220, Santiago (Chile); Castillo, Fermin [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cuernavaca, México (Mexico); Veloso, Felipe [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Auluck, S. K. H. [Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2014-07-15

    Recent observations of an azimuthally distributed array of sub-millimeter size sources of fusion protons and correlation between extreme ultraviolet (XUV) images of filaments with neutron yield in PF-1000 plasma focus have re-kindled interest in their significance. These filaments have been described variously in literature as current filaments and vortex filaments, with very little experimental evidence in support of either nomenclature. This paper provides, for the first time, experimental observations of filaments on a table-top plasma focus device using three techniques: framing photography of visible self-luminosity from the plasma, schlieren photography, and interferometry. Quantitative evaluation of density profile of filaments from interferometry reveals that their radius closely agrees with the collision-less ion skin depth. This is a signature of relaxed state of a Hall fluid, which has significant mass flow with equipartition between kinetic and magnetic energy, supporting the “vortex filament” description. This interpretation is consistent with empirical evidence of an efficient energy concentration mechanism inferred from nuclear reaction yields.

  1. UV Observation of a QSO Sightline Intersecting an X-ray Identified Filament of the Cosmic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    We propose to observe Quasar VV98-J010250.2-220929 with COS for 5 orbits to study the multi-phase nature of a filament detected in X-rays connecting to Abell 133. The diffuse nature of cosmic filaments makes detecting them in X-rays an almost impossible task with current X-ray observatories without dedicating extreme amounts of time; this filament was detected with almost a month of total observations with Chandra. As the only known quasar intersecting a reported X-ray filament, VV98-J010250.2-220929 offers us the unique opportunity to study the multi-phase conditions of a filament with both UV and X-ray observations. With the observations we propose, we will use Lyman-alpha absorption to detect neutral hydrogen down to a column density of N(HI) 10^13.3 cm^-2. Additionally, we will use low- and intermediate-ionization metal transition lines to constrain the metallicity and ionization state of the filamentary gas.

  2. Synthesis and functionalization of coiled carbon filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikita, Muneaki

    Coiled carbon filaments have one of the most attractive three-dimensional forms in carbon materials due to their helical morphologies. Because of their shape and carbon structure, they exhibit excellent mechanical and electrical properties such as superelasticity, low Young's modulus, relatively high electrical conductivity, and good electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption. Therefore, they are good candidates as fillers in composite materials for tactile sensor and electromagnetic interference shielding. In medical areas of interests, coiled carbon filaments can be used as micro and nano heaters or trigger for thermotherapy and biosensors using EM wave exposure because absorbed EM waves by coiled carbon filaments are converted into heat. Although various shapes of coiled carbon filaments have been discovered, optimum synthesis conditions and growth mechanisms of coiled carbon filaments are poorly understood. The study of growth kinetics is significant not only to analyze catalyst activity but also to establish the growth mechanisms of coiled carbon filaments. The establishment of growth mechanisms would be useful for determining optimum synthesis conditions and maximizing the quantity of carbon filaments synthesized for a given application. In the first study, tip grown single helical carbon filaments or carbon nanocoils (CNCs) were synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition method using tin-iron-oxide (Sn-Fe-O) xerogel film catalyst. The Sn-Fe-O catalyst was prepared by a low-cost sol-gel method using stannous acetate and ferric acetate as precursors. The growth kinetics of CNCs were monitored by a thermogravimetric analyzer, and the experimental result was correlated using a one-dimensional kinetic model, corresponding to one-dimensional tip growth. In the second study, bidirectionally grown double helical filaments or carbon microcoils (CMCs) were synthesized using a chemical vapor deposition method. CMCs obtained at two reaction temperatures were compared. CMCs

  3. Type-III interferons and rheumatoid arthritis: Correlation between interferon lambda 1 (interleukin 29) and antimutated citrullinated vimentin antibody levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Martínez, Diana; Juarez, Maribel; Patlán, Mariana; Páez, Araceli; Massó, Felipe; Amezcua-Guerra, Luis M

    2017-03-01

    To assess serum type III or lambda (λ) interferons (IFN) levels and its clinical and laboratory associations in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A cross-sectional study including 43 patients with RA (86% females; age 45.3 ± 10.3 years) and 43 healthy individuals was performed. Clinical data including disease activity, acute-phase reactants, rheumatoid factor and anticyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies were collected. Serum IFNλ1, IFNλ2, IFNλ3, CXCL8 and anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin (anti-MCV) antibody levels were measured. Patients with RA had higher IFNλ1 (113.5 ± 118.6 pg/mL versus 55.9 ± 122.3 pg/mL; p < 0.0001) and IFNλ2 (245.4 ± 327.7 pg/mL versus 5.1 ± 11.0 pg/mL; p = 0.009) levels than controls, but not IFNλ3 levels. Notably, IFNλ1 levels were found to be higher in both patients with active disease (124.9 ± 135.9 pg/mL; p < 0.001) and quiescent disease (99.0 ± 93.7 pg/mL; p < 0.01), while IFNλ2 levels were higher only in patients with active disease (264.0 ± 356.1 pg/mL; p = 0.02). A noteworthy association between serum IFNλ1 levels and anti-MCV antibody titers (Spearman's rho coefficient 0.36, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.61; p = 0.02) was observed. Serum IFNλ1 and IFNλ2 levels are abnormally elevated in patients with RA and the former are linearly associated with circulating anti-MCV antibody levels. These results may place type-III IFN as an attractive new therapeutic target in RA.

  4. The structures, mass motions and footpoints of solar filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramanasastry, Aparna

    This thesis focuses on identifying the mechanism by which solar filaments acquire mass. Some of the speculations for how a filament gets its mass are 1) injection of mass from the chromosphere into the filament structure, and 2) condensation of mass from the corona into the region of the filament channel. Mass motion at the footpoints of the filaments is studied to detect mass entering and leaving the filament body. The magnetic properties of the footpoints of the filaments are also studied. Recommendations are drawn by comparing observational properties obtained in this study with the features used in some of the previously developed models. The datasets used for this study are high-resolution image sets of centerline and Doppler wings of Halpha, obtained using the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT). The data were obtained on Oct 30, 2010. The data set contains three filaments in an active region in the northern hemisphere of the Sun. The images in each wavelength are aligned and made into movies to find the footpoints of the filaments through which the mass goes into and comes out of the filaments from and to the chromosphere, respectively. The magnetic properties of the footpoints are studied by overlaying the magnetogram images with the DOT images by using full-disk Halpha images for matching the features in the two. Of the three filaments, one of the filaments is observed to be stable throughout the duration of the observations; another filament erupts after about two hours of the beginning of observations; and the third filament is in its early stages of formation. The ends of the stable filament are clearly observed whereas the ends of the erupting filament and the forming filament are observed clearly intermittently during the duration of the observations. The animations of the region near the ends of filament 1 reveal definite injection and draining of mass via the footpoints into and out of the filament. The mass motion into and out of the filaments are observed

  5. Morgellons disease: a filamentous borrelial dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Stricker, Raphael B

    2016-01-01

    Morgellons disease (MD) is a dermopathy characterized by multicolored filaments that lie under, are embedded in, or project from skin. Although MD was initially considered to be a delusional disorder, recent studies have demonstrated that the dermopathy is associated with tickborne infection, that the filaments are composed of keratin and collagen, and that they result from proliferation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in epithelial tissue. Culture, histopathological and molecular evidence of spirochetal infection associated with MD has been presented in several published studies using a variety of techniques. Spirochetes genetically identified as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto predominate as the infective agent in most of the Morgellons skin specimens studied so far. Other species of Borrelia including Borrelia garinii , Borrelia miyamotoi , and Borrelia hermsii have also been detected in skin specimens taken from MD patients. The optimal treatment for MD remains to be determined.

  6. Morphogenesis of filaments growing in flexible confinements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, R.; Wittel, F. K.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-07-01

    Space-saving design is a requirement that is encountered in biological systems and the development of modern technological devices alike. Many living organisms dynamically pack their polymer chains, filaments or membranes inside deformable vesicles or soft tissue-like cell walls, chorions and buds. Surprisingly little is known about morphogenesis due to growth in flexible confinements—perhaps owing to the daunting complexity lying in the nonlinear feedback between packed material and expandable cavity. Here we show by experiments and simulations how geometric and material properties lead to a plethora of morphologies when elastic filaments are growing far beyond the equilibrium size of a flexible thin sheet they are confined in. Depending on friction, sheet flexibility and thickness, we identify four distinct morphological phases emerging from bifurcation and present the corresponding phase diagram. Four order parameters quantifying the transitions between these phases are proposed.

  7. Laser filamentation mathematical methods and models

    CERN Document Server

    Lorin, Emmanuel; Moloney, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    This book is focused on the nonlinear theoretical and mathematical problems associated with ultrafast intense laser pulse propagation in gases and in particular, in air. With the aim of understanding the physics of filamentation in gases, solids, the atmosphere, and even biological tissue, specialists in nonlinear optics and filamentation from both physics and mathematics attempt to rigorously derive and analyze relevant non-perturbative models. Modern laser technology allows the generation of ultrafast (few cycle) laser pulses, with intensities exceeding the internal electric field in atoms and molecules (E=5x109 V/cm or intensity I = 3.5 x 1016 Watts/cm2 ). The interaction of such pulses with atoms and molecules leads to new, highly nonlinear nonperturbative regimes, where new physical phenomena, such as High Harmonic Generation (HHG), occur, and from which the shortest (attosecond - the natural time scale of the electron) pulses have been created. One of the major experimental discoveries in this nonlinear...

  8. Filamentous actin detected in rat spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, A W; Genereux, K; Pfeiffer, D C

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we report the positive staining of epididymal spermatozoa and testicular cells (late spermatids and spermatozoa) with fluorescent phallotoxins. Staining is most obvious with rhodamine phalloidin, but is also detectible with NBD-phallacidin. Specific fluorescence is emitted as a linear tract along the dorsal curvature of the head and as an inverted V-shaped structure in what appears to be the anterior aspect of the post-acrosomal region. We conclude that filamentous actin occurs in the heads of rat spermatozoa. Moreover, we speculate that this filamentous actin is concentrated in two regions of the perinuclear theca; in the subacrosomal space along the dorsal curvature of the nucleus, and in the post-acrosomal region in an area termed the ventral spur.

  9. Theory of swimming filaments in viscoelastic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Henry

    2008-03-01

    Microorganisms often encounter and must move through complex media. What aspects of propulsion are altered when swimming in viscoelastic gels and fluids? Motivated by the swimming of sperm through the mucus of the female mammalian reproductive tract, we examine the swimming of filaments in nonlinearly viscoelastic fluids. We obtain the swimming velocity and hydrodynamic force exerted on an infinitely long cylinder with prescribed beating pattern. We apply these results to study the swimming of a simplified sliding-filament model for a sperm flagellum. Viscoelasticity tends to decrease swimming speed. The viscoelastic response of the fluid can change the shapes of beating patterns, and changes in the beating patterns can even lead to reversal of the swimming direction.

  10. Experiments on the propagation of plasma filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Noam; Egedal, Jan; Fox, Will; Le, Ari; Porkolab, Miklos

    2008-07-04

    We investigate experimentally the motion and structure of isolated plasma filaments propagating through neutral gas. Plasma filaments, or "blobs," arise from turbulent fluctuations in a range of plasmas. Our experimental geometry is toroidally symmetric, and the blobs expand to a larger major radius under the influence of a vertical electric field. The electric field, which is caused by nabla B and curvature drifts in a 1/R magnetic field, is limited by collisional damping on the neutral gas. The blob's electrostatic potential structure and the resulting E x B flow field give rise to a vortex pair and a mushroom shape, which are consistent with nonlinear plasma simulations. We observe experimentally this characteristic mushroom shape for the first time. We also find that the blob propagation velocity is inversely proportional to the neutral density and decreases with time as the blob cools.

  11. How eukaryotic filamentous pathogens evade plant recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Garcia, Ely; Valent, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    Plant pathogenic fungi and oomycetes employ sophisticated mechanisms for evading host recognition. After host penetration, many fungi and oomycetes establish a biotrophic interaction. It is assumed that different strategies employed by these pathogens to avoid triggering host defence responses, including establishment of biotrophic interfacial layers between the pathogen and host, masking of invading hyphae and active suppression of host defence mechanisms, are essential for a biotrophic parasitic lifestyle. During the infection process, filamentous plant pathogens secrete various effectors, which are hypothesized to be involved in facilitating effective host infection. Live-cell imaging of fungi and oomycetes secreting fluorescently labeled effector proteins as well as functional characterization of the components of biotrophic interfaces have led to the recent progress in understanding how eukaryotic filamentous pathogens evade plant recognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. In situ ellipsometric study of surface immobilization of flagellar filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurunczi, S., E-mail: kurunczi@mfa.kfki.hu [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Nemeth, A.; Huelber, T. [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Kozma, P. [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Department of Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, Veszprem, H-8200 (Hungary); Petrik, P. [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Jankovics, H. [Department of Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, Veszprem, H-8200 (Hungary); Sebestyen, A. [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Department of Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, Veszprem, H-8200 (Hungary); Vonderviszt, F. [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Department of Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, Veszprem, H-8200 (Hungary); Institute of Enzymology, Karolina ut 29-33, Budapest, H-1113 (Hungary); and others

    2010-10-15

    Protein filaments composed of thousands of subunits are promising candidates as sensing elements in biosensors. In this work in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry is applied to monitor the surface immobilization of flagellar filaments. This study is the first step towards the development of layers of filamentous receptors for sensor applications. Surface activation is performed using silanization and a subsequent glutaraldehyde crosslinking. Structure of the flagellar filament layers immobilized on activated and non-activated Si wafer substrates is determined using a two-layer effective medium model that accounted for the vertical density distribution of flagellar filaments with lengths of 300-1500 nm bound to the surface. The formation of the first interface layer can be explained by the multipoint covalent attachment of the filaments, while the second layer is mainly composed of tail pinned filaments floating upwards with the free parts. As confirmed by atomic force microscopy, covalent immobilization resulted in an increased surface density compared to absorption.

  13. On viscoelastic instability in polymeric filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    The 3D Lagrangian Integral Method is used to simulate the effects of surface tension on the viscoelastic end-plate instability, occuring in the rapid extension of some polymeric filaments between parallel plates. It is shovn that the surface tension delays the onset of the instability. Furthermore...... it is demonstrated that surface tension plays a key role in the selection of the most unstable mode...

  14. The exo-metabolome in filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Ulf; Andersen, Birgitte; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2007-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are a diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms that have a significant impact on human life as spoilers of food and feed by degradation and toxin production. They are also most useful as a source of bulk and fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. This chapter focuses on the exo...... to applied mycology. Lead discovery is an example of the successful integration of metabolite profiling and natural product chemistry in mycology....

  15. Reduced filamentation in high power semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Peter M. W.; McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter

    1999-01-01

    High brightness semiconductor lasers have applications in fields ranging from material processing to medicine. The main difficulty associated with high brightness is that high optical power densities cause damage to the laser facet and thus require large apertures. This, in turn, results in spatio....... Experimentally, we generate transverse current profiles by using standard lithography to define a digitated contact pad. Experimental results confirm that the current density is significantly altered and show completely filamentation-free operation up to 34 times threshold....

  16. Filamentous ascomycetes fungi as a source of natural pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmoser, Rebecca; Ferreira, Jorge A; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2017-01-01

    Filamentous fungi, including the ascomycetes Monascus, Fusarium, Penicillium and Neurospora, are being explored as novel sources of natural pigments with biological functionality for food, feed and cosmetic applications. Such edible fungi can be used in biorefineries for the production of ethanol, animal feed and pigments from waste sources. The present review gathers insights on fungal pigment production covering biosynthetic pathways and stimulatory factors (oxidative stress, light, pH, nitrogen and carbon sources, temperature, co-factors, surfactants, oxygen, tricarboxylic acid intermediates and morphology) in addition to pigment extraction, analysis and identification methods. Pigmentation is commonly regarded as the output of secondary protective mechanisms against oxidative stress and light. Although several studies have examined pigmentation in Monascus spp., research gaps exist in the investigation of interactions among factors as well as process development on larger scales under submerged and solid-state fermentation. Currently, research on pigmentation in Neurospora spp. is at its infancy, but the increasing interest for biorefineries shows potential for booming research in this area.

  17. Inhibition of vimentin or B1 integrin reverts morphology of prostate tumor cells grown in laminin-rich extracellular matrix gels and reduces tumor growth in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xueping; Fournier, Marcia V; Ware, Joy L; Bissell, Mina J; Yacoub, Adly; Zehner, Zendra E

    2008-06-12

    Prostate epithelial cells grown embedded in laminin-rich extracellular matrix (lrECM) undergo morphologic changes that closely resemble their architecture in vivo. In this study, growth characteristics of three human prostate epithelial sublines derived from the same cellular lineage, but displaying different tumorigenic and metastatic properties in vivo, were assessed in three-dimensional lrECM gels. M12, a highly tumorigenic and metastatic subline, was derived from the immortalized, prostate epithelial P69 cell line by selection in athymic, nude mice and found to contain a deletion of 19p-q13.1. The stable reintroduction of an intact human chromosome 19 into M12 resulted in a poorly tumorigenic subline, designated F6. When embedded in lrECM gels, the parental, nontumorigenic P69 line produced acini with clearly defined lumena. Immunostaining with antibodies to {beta}-catenin, E-cadherin, or {alpha}6 and {beta}1 integrins showed polarization typical of glandular epithelium. In contrast, the metastatic M12 subline produced highly disorganized cells with no evidence of polarization. The F6 subline reverted to acini-like structures exhibiting basal polarity marked with integrins. Reducing either vimentin levels via small interfering RNA interference or the expression of {alpha}6 and {beta}1 integrins by the addition of blocking antibodies, reorganized the M12 subline into forming polarized acini. The loss of vimentin significantly reduced M12-Vim tumor growth when assessed by s.c. injection in athymic mice. Thus, tumorigenicity in vivo correlated with disorganized growth in three-dimensional lrECM gels. These studies suggest that the levels of vimentin and {beta}1 integrin play a key role in the homeostasis of the normal acinus in prostate and that their dysregulation may lead to tumorigenesis. [Mol Cancer Ther 2009;8(3):499-508].

  18. Welding. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Kenneth

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of nine terminal objectives for an intermediate welding course. The materials were developed for a 36-week (3 hours daily) course designed to prepare the student for employment in the field of welding. Electric welding and specialized (TIG & MIG)…

  19. Ca2+ improves organization of single-stranded DNA bases in human Rad51 filament, explaining stimulatory effect on gene recombination.

    KAUST Repository

    Fornander, Louise H

    2012-02-22

    Human RAD51 protein (HsRad51) catalyses the DNA strand exchange reaction for homologous recombination. To clarify the molecular mechanism of the reaction in vitro being more effective in the presence of Ca(2+) than of Mg(2+), we have investigated the effect of these ions on the structure of HsRad51 filament complexes with single- and double-stranded DNA, the reaction intermediates. Flow linear dichroism spectroscopy shows that the two ionic conditions induce significantly different structures in the HsRad51/single-stranded DNA complex, while the HsRad51/double-stranded DNA complex does not demonstrate this ionic dependence. In the HsRad51/single-stranded DNA filament, the primary intermediate of the strand exchange reaction, ATP/Ca(2+) induces an ordered conformation of DNA, with preferentially perpendicular orientation of nucleobases relative to the filament axis, while the presence of ATP/Mg(2+), ADP/Mg(2+) or ADP/Ca(2+) does not. A high strand exchange activity is observed for the filament formed with ATP/Ca(2+), whereas the other filaments exhibit lower activity. Molecular modelling suggests that the structural variation is caused by the divalent cation interfering with the L2 loop close to the DNA-binding site. It is proposed that the larger Ca(2+) stabilizes the loop conformation and thereby the protein-DNA interaction. A tight binding of DNA, with bases perpendicularly oriented, could facilitate strand exchange.

  20. Interaction of in-phase and out-of-phase flexible filament in fish schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ud Din, Emad; Sung, Hyung

    2011-11-01

    Fish schooling is not merely a social behavior; schooling improves the efficiency of movement within the fluid environment. Inspired by the schooling from a hydrodynamic perspective, a group of aquatic animals is modeled as a collection of individuals arranged in a combination of tandem and side-by-side (diamond) formation. The downstream bodies are strongly influenced by the vortices shed by the upstream body shown by vortex-vortex and vortex-body interactions. Trailing fish takes advantage of this flow pattern for energy economy. To investigate the interactions between flexible bodies and vortices, in the present study three flexible flags in viscous flow are solved by numerical simulation using an improved version of the immersed boundary method for in-phase and out-of-phase filaments. The drag coefficient of the downstream filaments drops even below the value of a single flag. Such drag variations are influenced by the interactions between vortices shed by the upstream flexible body and vortices surrounding the downstream filaments. Interaction of the flexible flags is investigated as a function of the gap distance between flags and different bending coefficients, for in-phase and out-of-phase cases at intermediate Reynolds numbers. This study was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives of NRF/MEST (No. 2011-0000423) of Korea.

  1. Determining advection mechanism of plasma filaments in the scrape-off layer of MAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, D.; Hnat, B.; Kirk, A.; Tamain, P.; Ben Ayed, N.; MAST Team

    2012-01-01

    The scrape-off layer (SOL) of fusion devices is typically composed of filamentary structures that propagate with a high radial velocity away from the bulk plasma. When radial and parallel transport times are comparable, these coherent structures constitute an intermittent heat and particle flux which can reach the material wall; in time causing wear to plasma facing components. Qualitative models predict that the parallel currents, driven by the divertor sheath, have a direct impact on this radial velocity. In this work, the predictions for radial velocity of plasma filaments in the SOL from models are tested against data from the MAST tokamak and simulation. We apply a statistical method of window averaging to MAST Langmuir probe data in order to examine the scaling of the radial velocity of filaments with the plasma density inside the filaments. Our analysis strongly suggests that the radial dynamics emerge from the competition of multiple mechanisms and not from a single process. At intermediate distances from the bulk plasma, a new model proposed here, in which the parallel current depends on a constant target density appears to be the most relevant for the MAST plasma. This is confirmed using a TOKAM2D simulation with a modified parallel current term.

  2. Measuring Filament Orientation: A New Quantitative, Local Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C.-E.; Dawson, J. R.; Cunningham, M. R.; Jones, P. A.; Novak, G.; Fissel, L. M.

    2017-09-01

    The relative orientation between filamentary structures in molecular clouds and the ambient magnetic field provides insight into filament formation and stability. To calculate the relative orientation, a measurement of filament orientation is first required. We propose a new method to calculate the orientation of the one-pixel-wide filament skeleton that is output by filament identification algorithms such as filfinder. We derive the local filament orientation from the direction of the intensity gradient in the skeleton image using the Sobel filter and a few simple post-processing steps. We call this the “Sobel-gradient method.” The resulting filament orientation map can be compared quantitatively on a local scale with the magnetic field orientation map to then find the relative orientation of the filament with respect to the magnetic field at each point along the filament. It can also be used for constructing radial profiles for filament width fitting. The proposed method facilitates automation in analyses of filament skeletons, which is imperative in this era of “big data.”

  3. Cluster analysis of immunohistochemical profiles delineates CK7, vimentin, S100A1 and C-kit (CD117) as an optimal panel in the differential diagnosis of renal oncocytoma from its mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Jason C; Wasco, Matthew J; Kunju, Lakshmi P; Thomas, Dafydd G; Shah, Rajal B

    2011-01-01

    To develop an immunohistochemical strategy for distinguishing renal oncocytoma (RO) from the eosinophilic variant of chromophobe (ChRCC), and papillary (PRCC) and clear cell (CRCC) renal cell carcinoma containing eosinophilic cytoplasm in core biopsy specimens. Cluster analysis was performed on immunohistochemical data from 21 RO, 16 ChRCC, 16 CRCC and 20 PRCC patients. A panel of CK7, C-kit, S100A1 and vimentin clustered into four groups. Cluster A (94% ChRCC) expressed C-kit and CK7 and lacked S100A1 and vimentin. Cluster B (95% RO) expressed C-kit, S100A1, focal CK7 (single or small clusters of cells) and lacked vimentin. Cluster C comprised a mixture of PRCC and CRCC with no expression of C-kit or CK7 and variable S100A1 and vimentin. PRCC with strong expression of CK7 clustered into group D. A panel of S100A1 (positive) and focal CK7 expression distinguished RO from ChRCC with 91% sensitivity and 93% specificity. A panel of vimentin (negative) and C-kit (positive) distinguished RO from CRCC with 83% sensitivity and 86% specificity and RO from PRCC with 79% sensitivity and 88% specificity. Hierarchical cluster analysis is an effective approach to analyse high-volume immunohistochemical data to generate an optimal panel in the differential diagnosis of oncocytoma from its mimics. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  4. Expression of collagen I, smooth muscle alpha-actin, and vimentin during the healing of alkali-burned and lacerated corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, M; Zhu, G; Haseba, T; Shafer, S S; Kao, W W

    1993-11-01

    Alkali-burned corneas can seldom heal properly to restore corneal transparency. To provide a better understanding of this devastating corneal injury, we compared the expression of collagen I, smooth muscle alpha-actin (alpha-SMA), and vimentin in lacerated and alkali-burned rabbit corneas. A radiolabeled cDNA probe of alpha 1(I) chain was used in slot-blot hybridization to determine the levels of alpha 1(I) mRNA in alkali-burned corneas. In situ hybridization was used to identify the cell types that express the alpha 1(I) chain. Antibodies against collagen I, alpha-SMA, and vimentin were used in immunohistochemical studies to determine the tissue distribution of collagen I and to identify cells expressing alpha-SMA and vimentin. The levels of alpha 1(I) mRNA in alkali-burned corneas increased steadily after the alkali burn and reached a plateau within 2 weeks. One day after alkali burn, specific in situ hybridization signals were detected in stromal cells immediately surrounding the edge of the corneal injury. As the healing proceeded, the fibroblastic cells migrated into the injured stroma, and they showed positive reactions by in situ hybridization and by immunostaining with anti-collagen I probes. In alkali-burned corneas, retrocorneal membranes were formed 1 week after injury. This fibrillar membrane was stained by anti-collagen I antibody, and the fibroblastic cells in the membrane were hybridized by the 3H-labeled alpha 1(I) cDNA probe. No retrocorneal membrane was formed in the lacerated corneas, even after the injured corneas were allowed to heal for 3 weeks. The epithelial cells in the epithelial plug of lacerated corneas were positive by in situ hybridization, whereas the epithelial cells in the regenerated epithelium of alkali-burned cornea was not. Antibodies against alpha-SMA reacted with the migrating fibroblastic cells but did not react with epithelial cells or endothelial cells in the injured corneas. Anti-vimentin antibody reacted with fibroblastic

  5. Heterocyst placement strategies to maximize growth of cyanobacterial filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Aidan I

    2012-01-01

    Under conditions of limited fixed-nitrogen, some filamentous cyanobacteria develop a regular pattern of heterocyst cells that fix nitrogen for the remaining vegetative cells. We examine three different heterocyst placement strategies by quantitatively modelling filament growth while varying both external fixed-nitrogen and leakage from the filament. We find that there is an optimum heterocyst frequency which maximizes the growth rate of the filament; the optimum frequency decreases as the external fixed-nitrogen concentration increases but increases as the leakage increases. In the presence of leakage, filaments implementing a local heterocyst placement strategy grow significantly faster than filaments implementing random heterocyst placement strategies. With no extracellular fixed-nitrogen, consistent with recent experimental studies of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the modelled heterocyst spacing distribution using our local heterocyst placement strategy is qualitatively similar to experimentally observed patterns...

  6. Self-assembly of nematic liquid crystal elastomer filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei-Shao; Xia, Yu; Yang, Shu; Yodh, A. G.

    In this work we investigate the self-assembly of nematic liquid crystal polymer (NLCP) filaments and their corresponding cross-linked elastomer structures. Specifically, by fine-tuning surfactant concentration, prepolymer chain length, and temperature within a background aqueous phase we can generate filaments composed of oligomerized LC monomers. Filaments with narrowly dispersed diameters ranging from one hundred nanometers to a few micrometers can be obtained. Using polarization optical microscopy, we show that the nematic LCs within the filaments have an escaped radial structure. After photo-cross-linking, nematic liquid crystal elastomer filaments are obtained with well-maintained directors and smooth surface structure. Since these materials are elastomers, the size and mechanical and optical response of the filaments can be ''tuned'' near the nematic to isotropic phase transition temperature. This work is supported by NSF DMR16-07378, PENN MRSEC Grant DMR11-20901, and NASA Grant NNX08AO0G.

  7. Concentration profiles in drying cylindrical filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaputa, Klaus; Brenn, Günter; Meile, Walter

    2008-12-01

    We analyze theoretically the drying of cylindrical filaments. For modelling the mass transfer on the gas side of the liquid-gas interface of the shrinking circular cylindrical filament, we apply the model of Abramzon and Sirignano, which was originally developed for spherical geometry. As a consequence of mass transfer at constant Sherwood number, we obtain a d2-law for the shrinkage of the cylinder as in the case of the spherical geometry, which expresses that the cross-sectional area of the cylinder shrinks at a constant rate with time. For this situation, the diffusion equation for the liquid phase mixture components becomes separable upon transformation into similarity coordinates and is solved analytically to obtain the concentration profiles inside the filament as functions of time. The dependency of the profiles on the radial coordinate is determined by a series of Kummer’s functions. Applying this result, we study the evolution of the concentration profiles in the liquid phase with time as dependent on a parameter given as the ratio of rate of shrinkage of the cross-sectional area of the cylinder to liquid-phase diffusion coefficient, which was identified as relevant for the shape of the concentration profiles formed in the liquid during the drying process. As an example, we present computed results for the constant evaporation rate regime in the dry-spinning process of a polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA)-water system. Comparison of our analytical results with full numerical solutions of the diffusion equation from the literature, achieved with concentration-dependent diffusion coefficient, reveals very good agreement.

  8. Concentration profiles in drying cylindrical filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaputa, Klaus; Brenn, Guenter; Meile, Walter [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, Graz (Austria)

    2008-12-15

    We analyze theoretically the drying of cylindrical filaments. For modelling the mass transfer on the gas side of the liquid-gas interface of the shrinking circular cylindrical filament, we apply the model of Abramzon and Sirignano, which was originally developed for spherical geometry. As a consequence of mass transfer at constant Sherwood number, we obtain a d{sup 2}-law for the shrinkage of the cylinder as in the case of the spherical geometry, which expresses that the cross-sectional area of the cylinder shrinks at a constant rate with time. For this situation, the diffusion equation for the liquid phase mixture components becomes separable upon transformation into similarity coordinates and is solved analytically to obtain the concentration profiles inside the filament as functions of time. The dependency of the profiles on the radial coordinate is determined by a series of Kummer's functions. Applying this result, we study the evolution of the concentration profiles in the liquid phase with time as dependent on a parameter given as the ratio of rate of shrinkage of the cross-sectional area of the cylinder to liquid-phase diffusion coefficient, which was identified as relevant for the shape of the concentration profiles formed in the liquid during the drying process. As an example, we present computed results for the constant evaporation rate regime in the dry-spinning process of a polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA)-water system. Comparison of our analytical results with full numerical solutions of the diffusion equation from the literature, achieved with concentration-dependent diffusion coefficient, reveals very good agreement. (orig.)

  9. Studies of Solar Flares and Erupting Filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    j eruption ot such a quiescent filament Is: P = 55 + 14Kf1 + 4Kf 2 - 1 8 Kf3 -. . .DD . JAN 73 1473 ._.,_. ._._._____ _ ,_ _._.- SECURITY...Harvey, J.W., Harvey, K.L. and Martin, S.F.: 1975, Solar Phys. 40, 87. Martin, S.F., Dezso, L., Antalova, A., Kucera , A.0 and Harvey, K.L.: 1982...Edberg, S.J., Hermans, L.M., and Dunn, J.4. 155th Meting of the American Astronomical Society, San Francisco, California, 13-18 Jan . 1980 7. On the

  10. Magnetic filaments associated radio-source feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkinshaw, Mark; Worrall, Diana

    2015-08-01

    Heating of the intergalactic medium by radio sources must be associated with magnetization. We present a case study of a double radio galaxy system that shows extensive field injection through two different radio plume morphologies that both extend hundreds of kpc. One plume exhibits two exceptionally narrow radio-bright features which extend along much of its length. The extreme length-to-width radio of these filaments suggests that they trace organized and stable magnetic ropes that have been drawn out by the motion of the radio galaxy through the intergalactic mediu, and that dissipate only slowly.

  11. Filamentous bacteria transport electrons over centimetre distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeffer, Christian; Larsen, Steffen; Song, Jie

    2012-01-01

    across centimetre-wide zones. Here we present evidence that the native conductors are long, filamentous bacteria. They abounded in sediment zones with electric currents and along their length they contained strings with distinct properties in accordance with a function as electron transporters. Living......Oxygen consumption in marine sediments is often coupled to the oxidation of sulphide generated by degradation of organic matter in deeper, oxygen-free layers. Geochemical observations have shown that this coupling can be mediated by electric currents carried by unidentified electron transporters...

  12. Native bare zone assemblage nucleates myosin filament assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederman, R; Peters, L K

    1982-11-15

    Native myosin filaments from rabbit psoas muscle are always 1.5 micrometer long. The regulated assembly of these filaments is generally considered to occur by an initial antiparallel and subsequent parallel aggregation of identical myosin subunits. In this schema myosin filament length is controlled by either a self-assembly or a Vernier process. We present evidence which refines these ideas. Namely, that the intact myosin bare zone assemblage nucleates myosin filament assembly. This suggestion is based on the following experimental evidence. (1) A native bare zone assemblage about 0.3 micrometer long can be formed by dialysis of native myosin filaments to either a pH 8 or a 0.2 M-KCl solution. (2) Upon dialysis back to 0.1 M-KCl, bare zone assemblages and distal myosin molecules recombine to form 1.5 micrometer long bipolar filaments. (3) The bare zone assemblage can be separated from the distal myosin molecules by column chromatography in 0.2 M-KCl. Upon dialysis of the fractionated subsets back to 0.1 M-KCl, the bare zone assemblage retains its length of about 0.3 micrometer. However, the distal molecules reassemble to form filaments about 5 micrometers long. (4) Filaments are formed from mixes of the isolated subsets. The lengths of these filaments vary with the amount of distal myosin present. (5) When native filaments, isolated bare zone assemblages or distal myosin molecules are moved sequentially to 0.6 M-KCl and then to 0.1 M-KCl, the final filament lengths are all about 5 micrometers. The capacity of the bare zone assemblage to nucleate filament assembly may be due to the bare zone myosin molecules, the associated M band components or both.

  13. Filament poisoning at typical carbon nanotube deposition conditions by hot-filament CVD

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oliphant, CJ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available -carbides form within the first 5 min. Cracks and graphitic microspheres form on the carbide layer during the first 15 min at the temperatures =1600 °C. The microspheres subsequently coalesce to form a graphite layer, encapsulating a fully carburized filament...

  14. An invertebrate smooth muscle with striated muscle myosin filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulbarán, Guidenn; Alamo, Lorenzo; Pinto, Antonio; Márquez, Gustavo; Méndez, Franklin; Padrón, Raúl; Craig, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Muscle tissues are classically divided into two major types, depending on the presence or absence of striations. In striated muscles, the actin filaments are anchored at Z-lines and the myosin and actin filaments are in register, whereas in smooth muscles, the actin filaments are attached to dense bodies and the myosin and actin filaments are out of register. The structure of the filaments in smooth muscles is also different from that in striated muscles. Here we have studied the structure of myosin filaments from the smooth muscles of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni. We find, surprisingly, that they are indistinguishable from those in an arthropod striated muscle. This structural similarity is supported by sequence comparison between the schistosome myosin II heavy chain and known striated muscle myosins. In contrast, the actin filaments of schistosomes are similar to those of smooth muscles, lacking troponin-dependent regulation. We conclude that schistosome muscles are hybrids, containing striated muscle-like myosin filaments and smooth muscle-like actin filaments in a smooth muscle architecture. This surprising finding has broad significance for understanding how muscles are built and how they evolved, and challenges the paradigm that smooth and striated muscles always have distinctly different components. PMID:26443857

  15. Automated image analysis for quantification of filamentous bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, Marlene; Rosenvinge, Flemming Schønning; Spillum, Erik

    2015-01-01

    displaying different resistant profiles and differences in filamentation kinetics were used to study a novel image analysis algorithm to quantify length of bacteria and bacterial filamentation. A total of 12 beta-lactam antibiotics or beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations were analyzed......Background: Antibiotics of the beta-lactam group are able to alter the shape of the bacterial cell wall, e.g. filamentation or a spheroplast formation. Early determination of antimicrobial susceptibility may be complicated by filamentation of bacteria as this can be falsely interpreted as growth...

  16. Plasma temperature clamping in filamentation laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Yeak, J.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2015-10-19

    Ultrafast laser filament induced breakdown spectroscopy is a very promising method for remote material detection. We present characteristics of plasmas generated in a metal target by laser filaments in air. Our measurements show that the temperature of the ablation plasma is clamped along the filamentation channel due to intensity clamping in a filament. Nevertheless, significant changes in radiation intensity are noticeable, and this is essentially due to variation in the number density of emitting atoms. The present results also partly explains the reason for the occurrence of atomic plume during fs LIBS in air compared to long-pulse ns LIBS.

  17. Dynamics of stellar filaments in f(G) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Fatima, H. Ismat

    2017-03-01

    We discuss the dynamics of stellar filaments with cylindrical symmetry in the context of f( G) gravity. For this purpose, we consider the modified gravity coupled with a dissipative anisotropic fluid and construct scalar functions through orthogonal splitting of the Riemann tensor. We formulate the set of equations governing the evolution and structure of stellar filaments in terms of these scalars. Finally, we discuss all static solutions for cylindrical filaments with anisotropy as well as isotropy and conclude that stellar filaments are necessarily inhomogeneous in this gravity.

  18. Intermediate ions in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammet, Hannes; Komsaare, Kaupo; Hõrrak, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    Intermediate air ions are charged nanometer-sized aerosol particles with an electric mobility of about 0.03-0.5 cm2 V- 1 s- 1 and a diameter of about 1.5-7.5 nm. Intensive studies of new particle formation provided good knowledge about intermediate ions during burst events of atmospheric aerosol nucleation. Information about intermediate ions during quiet periods between the bursts remained poor. The new mobility analyzer SIGMA can detect air ions at concentrations of mobility fractions of about 1 cm- 3 and enables studying intermediate ions during quiet periods. It became evident that intermediate ions always exist in atmospheric air and should be considered an indicator and a mediator of aerosol nucleation. The annual average concentration of intermediate ions of one polarity in Tartu, Estonia, was about 40 cm- 3 while 5% of the measurements showed a concentration of less than 10 cm- 3. The fraction concentrations in logarithmic 1/8-decade mobility bins between 0.1 and 0.4 cm2 V- 1 s- 1 often dropped below 1 cm- 3. The bursts of intermediate ions at stations separated by around 100 km appeared to be correlated. The lifespan of intermediate ions in the atmosphere is a few minutes, and they cannot be carried by wind over long distances. Thus the observed long-range correlation of intermediate ions is explained by simultaneous changes in air composition in widely spaced stations. A certain amount of intermediate ion bursts, predominantly of negative polarity, are produced by the balloelectric effect at the splashing of water drops during rain. These bursts are usually excluded when speaking about new particle formation because the balloelectric particles are assumed not to grow to the size of the Aitken mode. The mobility distribution of balloelectric ions is uniform in shape in all measurements. The maximum is located at a mobility of about 0.2 cm2 V- 1 s- 1, which corresponds to the diameter of particles of about 2.5 nm.

  19. Morgellons disease: a filamentous borrelial dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Middelveen MJ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Marianne J Middelveen, Raphael B Stricker International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USA Abstract: Morgellons disease (MD is a dermopathy characterized by multicolored filaments that lie under, are embedded in, or project from skin. Although MD was initially considered to be a delusional disorder, recent studies have demonstrated that the dermopathy is associated with tickborne infection, that the filaments are composed of keratin and collagen, and that they result from proliferation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in epithelial tissue. Culture, histopathological and molecular evidence of spirochetal infection associated with MD has been presented in several published studies using a variety of techniques. Spirochetes genetically identified as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto predominate as the infective agent in most of the Morgellons skin specimens studied so far. Other species of Borrelia including Borrelia garinii, Borrelia miyamotoi, and Borrelia hermsii have also been detected in skin specimens taken from MD patients. The optimal treatment for MD remains to be determined. Keywords: Morgellons disease, dermatitis, Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, spirochetes

  20. The Golgi apparatus: insights from filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazopoulou, Areti

    2016-01-01

    Cargo passage through the Golgi, albeit an undoubtedly essential cellular function, is a mechanistically unresolved and much debated process. Although the main molecular players are conserved, diversification of the Golgi among different eukaryotic lineages is providing us with tools to resolve standing controversies. During the past decade the Golgi apparatus of model filamentous fungi, mainly Aspergillus nidulans, has been intensively studied. Here an overview of the most important findings in the field is provided. Golgi architecture and dynamics, as well as the novel cell biology tools that were developed in filamentous fungi in these studies, are addressed. An emphasis is placed on the central role the Golgi has as a crossroads in the endocytic and secretory-traffic pathways in hyphae. Finally the major advances that the A. nidulans Golgi biology has yielded so far regarding our understanding of key Golgi regulators, such as the Rab GTPases RabC(Rab6) and RabE(Rab11), the oligomeric transport protein particle, TRAPPII, and the Golgi guanine nucleotide exchange factors of Arf1, GeaA(GBF1/Gea1) and HypB(BIG/Sec7), are highlighted. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  1. Morphology and productivity of filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, L H; Kelly, S; Krull, R; Hempel, D C

    2005-12-01

    Cultivation processes involving filamentous fungi have been optimised for decades to obtain high product yields. Several bulk chemicals like citric acid and penicillin are produced this way. A simple adaptation of cultivation parameters for new production processes is not possible though. Models explaining the correlation between process-dependent growth behaviour and productivity are therefore necessary to prevent long-lasting empiric test series. Yet, filamentous growth consists of a complex microscopic differentiation process from conidia to hyphae resulting in various macroscopically visible appearances. Early approaches to model this morphologic development are recapitulated in this review to explain current trends in this area of research. Tailoring morphology by adjusting process parameters is one side of the coin, but an ideal morphology has not even been found. This article reviews several reasons for this fact starting with nutrient supply in a fungal culture and presents recent advances in the investigation of fungal metabolism. It illustrates the challenge to unfold the relationship between morphology and productivity.

  2. Characterising Radio Emissions in Cosmic Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. O.

    2014-02-01

    A growing number of radio studies probe galaxy clusters into the low-power regime in which star formation is the dominant source of radio emission. However, at the time of writing no comparably deep observations have focused exclusively on the radio populations of cosmic filaments. This thesis describes the ATCA 2.1 GHz observations and subsequent analysis of two such regions - labelled Zone 1 (between clusters A3158 and A3125/A3128) and Zone 2 (between A3135 and A3145) - in the Horologium-Reticulum Supercluster (HRS). Source count profiles of both populations are discussed and a radio luminosity function for Zone 1 is generated. While the source counts of Zone 2 appear to be consistent with expected values, Zone 1 exhibits an excess of counts across a wide flux range (1 mJy< S_1.4 < 200 mJy). An excess in radio activity at the lower extent of this range (log P_1.4 < 22.5; within the SF-dominated regime) is also suggested by the radio luminosity function for that region, and brief colour analysis suggests that such an excess is indeed predominantly associated with a starforming population. The differences between the two filamentary zones is attributed to cosmic variation. The regions are both small (~ 1 degree square), and are significantly separated in the HRS. Further radio observations of filaments are required and the results combined into a larger sample size in order to arrive at a generalised model filamentary population.

  3. Physical principles of filamentous protein self-assembly kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Thomas C. T.; Liu, Lucie X.; Meisl, Georg; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.

    2017-04-01

    The polymerization of proteins and peptides into filamentous supramolecular structures is an elementary form of self-organization of key importance to the functioning biological systems, as in the case of actin biofilaments that compose the cellular cytoskeleton. Aberrant filamentous protein self-assembly, however, is associated with undesired effects and severe clinical disorders, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, which, at the molecular level, are associated with the formation of certain forms of filamentous protein aggregates known as amyloids. Moreover, due to their unique physicochemical properties, protein filaments are finding extensive applications as biomaterials for nanotechnology. With all these different factors at play, the field of filamentous protein self-assembly has experienced tremendous activity in recent years. A key question in this area has been to elucidate the microscopic mechanisms through which filamentous aggregates emerge from dispersed proteins with the goal of uncovering the underlying physical principles. With the latest developments in the mathematical modeling of protein aggregation kinetics as well as the improvement of the available experimental techniques it is now possible to tackle many of these complex systems and carry out detailed analyses of the underlying microscopic steps involved in protein filament formation. In this paper, we review some classical and modern kinetic theories of protein filament formation, highlighting their use as a general strategy for quantifying the molecular-level mechanisms and transition states involved in these processes.

  4. Fossil evidence for spin alignment of SDSS galaxies in filaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Bernard J.T.; Weygaert, Rien van de; Arag´on-Calvo, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    We search for and find fossil evidence that the distribution of the spin axes of galaxies in cosmic web filaments relative to their host filaments are not randomly distributed. This would indicate that the action of large scale tidal torques effected the alignments of galaxies located in cosmic

  5. GALAXY SPIN ALIGNMENT IN FILAMENTS AND SHEETS: OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, Elmo [Tartu Observatory, Observatooriumi 1, 61602 Tõravere (Estonia); Libeskind, Noam I., E-mail: elmo@to.ee, E-mail: nlibeskind@aip.de [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    The properties of galaxies are known to be affected by their environment. One important question is how their angular momentum reflects the surrounding cosmic web. We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to investigate the spin axes of spiral and elliptical galaxies relative to their surrounding filament/sheet orientations. To detect filaments, a marked point process with interactions (the {sup B}isous model{sup )} is used. Sheets are found by detecting 'flattened' filaments. The minor axes of ellipticals are found to be preferentially perpendicular to hosting filaments. A weak correlation is found with sheets. These findings are consistent with the notion that elliptical galaxies formed via mergers, which predominantly occurred along the filaments. The spin axis of spiral galaxies is found to align with the host filament, with no correlation between spiral spin and sheet normal. When examined as a function of distance from the filament axis, a much stronger correlation is found in the outer parts, suggesting that the alignment is driven by the laminar infall of gas from sheets to filaments. When compared with numerical simulations, our results suggest that the connection between dark matter halo and galaxy spin is not straightforward. Our results provide an important input to the understanding of how galaxies acquire their angular momentum.

  6. Mapping of cosmic web filaments around A133

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Ralph

    2017-09-01

    We propose to use Chandra to map the large scale structure along the potential Cosmic Web filaments converging on Abell 133 found in the previous Chandra programs. The initial goal is to extend Chandra exposure along the brightest of the three filaments by approximately 1 Mpc.

  7. Design and Optimization of Filament Wound Composite Pressure Vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zu, L.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important issues for the design of filament-wound pressure vessels reflects on the determination of the most efficient meridian profiles and related fiber architectures, leading to optimal structural performance. To better understand the design and optimization of filament-wound

  8. Motility patterns of filamentous sulfur bacteria, Beggiatoa spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunker, Rita; Røy, Hans; Kamp, Anja

    2011-01-01

    was constructed based on our observations. The model was applied to virtual filaments in the oxygen- and sulfide-free zone of the sediment, which is a main habitat of Beggiatoa in the natural environment. The model predicts a long residence time of the virtual filament in the suboxic zone and explains why...

  9. THE APPARATUS FOR ALIGNMENT OF THE PHOTOMETRIC LAMP FILAMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Dlugunovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During photometric measurements involving the use of photometric lamps it is necessary that the filament of lamp takes a strictly predetermined position with respect to the photodetector and the optical axis of the photometric setup. The errors in positioning of alignment filament with respect to the optical axis of the measuring system lead to increase the uncertainty of measurement of the photometric characteristics of the light sources. A typical method for alignment of filament of photometric lamps is based on the use a diopter tubes (telescopes. Using this method, the mounting of filament to the required position is carried out by successive approximations, which requires special concentration and a lot of time. The aim of this work is to develop an apparatus for alignment which allows simultaneous alignment of the filament of lamps in two mutually perpendicular planes. The method and apparatus for alignment of the photometric lamp filament during measurements of the photometric characteristics of light sources based on two digital video cameras is described in this paper. The apparatus allows to simultaneously displaying the image of lamps filament on the computer screen in two mutually perpendicular planes. The apparatus eliminates a large number of functional units requiring elementwise alignment and reduces the time required to carry out the alignment. The apparatus also provides the imaging of lamps filament with opaque coated on the bulb. The apparatus is used at the National standard of light intensity and illuminance units of the Republic of Belarus. 

  10. Classical model of intermediate statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaniadakis, G. (Dipartimento di Fisica, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy))

    1994-06-01

    In this work we present a classical kinetic model of intermediate statistics. In the case of Brownian particles we show that the Fermi-Dirac (FD) and Bose-Einstein (BE) distributions can be obtained, just as the Maxwell-Boltzmann (MD) distribution, as steady states of a classical kinetic equation that intrinsically takes into account an exclusion-inclusion principle. In our model the intermediate statistics are obtained as steady states of a system of coupled nonlinear kinetic equations, where the coupling constants are the transmutational potentials [eta][sub [kappa][kappa][prime

  11. Coexistence of two types of metal filaments in oxide memristors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Xu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available One generally considers the conducting filament in ZnO-based valence change memristors (VCMs as an aggregation of oxygen vacancies. Recently, the transmission electron microscopy observation showed the filament is composed of a Zn-dominated ZnOx. In this study, careful analysis of the temperature dependence of the ON state resistance demonstrates that the formation/rupture of a Zn filament is responsible for the resistive switching in ZnO VCMs. Cu/ZnO/Pt memristive devices can be operated in both VCM and ECM (electrochemical metallization memristor modes by forming different metal filaments including Cu, Zn and a coexistence of these two filaments. The device operation can be reversibly switched between ECM and VCM modes. The dual mode operation capability of Cu/ZnO/Pt provides a wide choice of select devices for constructing memristive crossbar architectures.

  12. Filamentous bacteriophage: biology, phage display and nanotechnology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakonjac, Jasna; Bennett, Nicholas J; Spagnuolo, Julian; Gagic, Dragana; Russel, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    Filamentous bacteriophage, long and thin filaments that are secreted from the host cells without killing them, have been an antithesis to the standard view of head-and-tail bacterial killing machines. Episomally replicating filamentous phage Ff of Escherichia coli provide the majority of information about the principles and mechanisms of filamentous phage infection, episomal replication and assembly. Chromosomally- integrated "temperate" filamentous phage have complex replication and integration, which are currently under active investigation. The latter are directly or indirectly implicated in diseases caused by bacterial pathogens Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Neisseria meningitidis. In the first half of the review, both the Ff and temperate phage are described and compared. A large section of the review is devoted to an overview of phage display technology and its applications in nanotechnology.

  13. Engineering of filamentous bacteriophage for protein sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasino, Michael

    Methods of high throughput, sensitive and cost effective quantification of proteins enables personalized medicine by allowing healthcare professionals to better monitor patient condition and response to treatment. My doctoral research has attempted to advance these methods through the use of filamentous bacteriophage (phage). These bacterial viruses are particularly amenable to both genetic and chemical engineering and can be produced efficiently in large amounts. Here, I discuss several strategies for modifying phage for use in protein sensing assays. These include the expression of bio-orthogonal conjugation handles on the phage coat, the incorporation of specific recognition sequences within the phage genome, and the creation of antibody-phage conjugates via a photo-crosslinking non-canonical amino acid. The physical and chemical characterization of these engineered phage and the results of their use in modified protein sensing assays will be presented.

  14. Filament wound data base development, revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, R. Scott; Braddock, William F.

    1985-01-01

    The objective was to update the present Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) baseline reentry aerodynamic data base and to develop a new reentry data base for the filament wound case SRB along with individual protuberance increments. Lockheed's procedures for performing these tasks are discussed. Free fall of the SRBs after separation from the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle is completely uncontrolled. However, the SRBs must decelerate to a velocity and attitude that is suitable for parachute deployment. To determine the SRB reentry trajectory parameters, including the rate of deceleration and attitude history during free-fall, engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center are using a six-degree-of-freedom computer program to predict dynamic behavior. Static stability aerodynamic coefficients are part of the information required for input into this computer program. Lockheed analyzed the existing reentry aerodynamic data tape (Data Tape 5) for the current steel case SRB. This analysis resulted in the development of Data Tape 7.

  15. Natural Fiber Filament Wound Composites: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ansari Suriyati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent development, natural fibers have attracted the interest of engineers, researchers, professionals and scientists all over the world as an alternative reinforcement for fiber reinforced polymer composites. This is due to its superior properties such as high specific strength, low weight, low cost, fairly good mechanical properties, non-abrasive, eco-friendly and bio-degradable characteristics. In this point of view, natural fiber-polymer composites (NFPCs are becoming increasingly utilized in a wide variety of applications because they represent an ecological and inexpensive alternative to conventional petroleum-derived materials. On the other hand, considerable amounts of organic waste and residue from the industrial and agricultural processes are still underutilized as low-value energy sources. This is a comprehensive review discussing about natural fiber reinforced composite produced by filament winding technique.

  16. Filament formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, J R

    2008-01-01

    Many yeasts can produce filamentous elongated cells identifiable as hyphae, pseudohyphae or invasive filaments. Filament formation has been understood as a foraging response that occurs in nutrient-poor conditions. However, fusel alcohols were observed to induce filament formation in rich nutrient conditions in every yeast species examined. Fusel alcohols, e.g., 3-methyl-1-butanol (3Me-BuOH; 'isoamyl alcohol'), 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutyl alcohol), (-)-2-methyl-1-butanol ('active amyl alcohol'), 2-phenylethanol and 3-(2-hydroxyethyl)indole (tryptophol) (the end products of leucine, valine, isoleucine, phenylalanine and tryptophan catabolism, respectively) are the end products of amino acid catabolism that accumulate when nutrients become limiting. Thus, yeast responds to its own metabolic by-products. Considerable effort was made to define the cell biological and biochemical changes that take place during 3Me-BuOH-induced filamentation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae filaments contain significantly greater mitochondrial mass and increased chitin content in comparison with yeast-form cells. The global transcriptional response of S. cerevisiae during the early stages of 3Me-BuOH-induced filament formation has been described. Four ORFs displayed very significant (more than 10-fold) increases in their RNA species, and 12 ORFs displayed increases in transcription of more than 5-fold. The transcription of five genes (all of which encode transporters) decreased by similar amounts. Where examined, the activity of the proteins encoded reflected the transcriptional pattern of their respective mRNAs. To understand this regulation, studies were performed to see whether deletion or overexpression of key genes affects the ability to filament and invade solid YEPD medium. This has led to identification of those proteins that are essential for filament formation, repressors and those which are simply not required. It also leads to the conclusion that 3Me-BuOH-induced filament

  17. Bundling of elastic filaments induced by hydrodynamic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Yi; Page, William; Poole, Robert J.; Lauga, Eric

    2017-12-01

    Peritrichous bacteria swim in viscous fluids by rotating multiple helical flagellar filaments. As the bacterium swims forward, all its flagella rotate in synchrony behind the cell in a tight helical bundle. When the bacterium changes its direction, the flagellar filaments unbundle and randomly reorient the cell for a short period of time before returning to their bundled state and resuming swimming. This rapid bundling and unbundling is, at its heart, a mechanical process whereby hydrodynamic interactions balance with elasticity to determine the time-varying deformation of the filaments. Inspired by this biophysical problem, we present in this paper what is perhaps the simplest model of bundling whereby two or more straight elastic filaments immersed in a viscous fluid rotate about their centerline, inducing rotational flows which tend to bend the filaments around each other. We derive an integrodifferential equation governing the shape of the filaments resulting from mechanical balance in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds number. We show that such equation may be evaluated asymptotically analytically in the long-wavelength limit, leading to a local partial differential equation governed by a single dimensionless bundling number. A numerical study of the dynamics predicted by the model reveals the presence of two configuration instabilities with increasing bundling numbers: first to a crossing state where filaments touch at one point and then to a bundled state where filaments wrap along each other in a helical fashion. We also consider the case of multiple filaments and the unbundling dynamics. We next provide an intuitive physical model for the crossing instability and show that it may be used to predict analytically its threshold and adapted to address the transition to a bundling state. We then use a macroscale experimental implementation of the two-filament configuration in order to validate our theoretical predictions and obtain excellent agreement. This long

  18. The intermediate state in Patd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to the Greek mind as to the Hebrew. In Homer already there was the belief that the soul had a shadowy existence of its own after death, although far inferior to life on earth (Stacey 1956: 59; cf Nilsson 1949: 137ff). The thought of an intermediate state seemed to have developed in early Orphism. Orphism brought in some ...

  19. AIDS Elementary/Intermediate Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Nancy Rader

    This Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Curriculum was developed for intermediate elementary (5th, 6th, and 7th grade) students. It is an integrated unit that encompasses health, science, social studies, math, and language arts. The curriculum is comprised of nine class activities designed to meet the following objectives: (1) to determine…

  20. Intermediality and the Child Performer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    This report details examples of praxis in the creation and presentation of "Joy Fear and Poetry": an intermedial theatre performance in which children aged 7-12 years generated aesthetic gestures using a range of new media forms. The impetus for the work's development was a desire to make an intervention into habituated patterns of…

  1. Rad52 sumoylation prevents the toxicity of unproductive Rad51 filaments independently of the anti-recombinase Srs2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Esta

    Full Text Available The budding yeast Srs2 is the archetype of helicases that regulate several aspects of homologous recombination (HR to maintain genomic stability. Srs2 inhibits HR at replication forks and prevents high frequencies of crossing-over. Additionally, sensitivity to DNA damage and synthetic lethality with replication and recombination mutants are phenotypes that can only be attributed to another role of Srs2: the elimination of lethal intermediates formed by recombination proteins. To shed light on these intermediates, we searched for mutations that bypass the requirement of Srs2 in DNA repair without affecting HR. Remarkably, we isolated rad52-L264P, a novel allele of RAD52, a gene that encodes one of the most central recombination proteins in yeast. This mutation suppresses a broad spectrum of srs2Δ phenotypes in haploid cells, such as UV and γ-ray sensitivities as well as synthetic lethality with replication and recombination mutants, while it does not significantly affect Rad52 functions in HR and DNA repair. Extensive analysis of the genetic interactions between rad52-L264P and srs2Δ shows that rad52-L264P bypasses the requirement for Srs2 specifically for the prevention of toxic Rad51 filaments. Conversely, this Rad52 mutant cannot restore viability of srs2Δ cells that accumulate intertwined recombination intermediates which are normally processed by Srs2 post-synaptic functions. The avoidance of toxic Rad51 filaments by Rad52-L264P can be explained by a modification of its Rad51 filament mediator activity, as indicated by Chromatin immunoprecipitation and biochemical analysis. Remarkably, sensitivity to DNA damage of srs2Δ cells can also be overcome by stimulating Rad52 sumoylation through overexpression of the sumo-ligase SIZ2, or by replacing Rad52 by a Rad52-SUMO fusion protein. We propose that, like the rad52-L264P mutation, sumoylation modifies Rad52 activity thereby changing the properties of Rad51 filaments. This conclusion is

  2. Harmful impact of filamentous algae (Spirogyra sp. on juvenile crayfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulikowski Dariusz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the impact of filamentous algae on the growth and survival of juvenile narrow-clawed crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus (Esch., in rearing basins. Three stocking variants were used: A - basins with a layer of filamentous algae without imitation mineral substrate; B - basins with a layer of filamentous algae with imitation mineral substrate; C - basins without filamentous algae but with mineral substrate. The crayfish were reared from June 12 to October 10 under natural thermal conditions and fed a commercial feed. The results indicated that the presence of the filamentous algae did not have a statistically significant impact on the growth of the juvenile crayfish (P > 0.05. The presence of the filamentous algae had a strong negative impact on juvenile crayfish survival and stock biomass (P < 0.05. The layer of gravel and small stones that imitated the mineral substrate of natural aquatic basins somewhat neutralized the disadvantageous impact the filamentous algae had on the crayfish.

  3. Cryo-EM structures of tau filaments from Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Anthony W P; Falcon, Benjamin; He, Shaoda; Murzin, Alexey G; Murshudov, Garib; Garringer, Holly J; Crowther, R Anthony; Ghetti, Bernardino; Goedert, Michel; Scheres, Sjors H W

    2017-07-13

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease, and there are no mechanism-based therapies. The disease is defined by the presence of abundant neurofibrillary lesions and neuritic plaques in the cerebral cortex. Neurofibrillary lesions comprise paired helical and straight tau filaments, whereas tau filaments with different morphologies characterize other neurodegenerative diseases. No high-resolution structures of tau filaments are available. Here we present cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) maps at 3.4-3.5 Å resolution and corresponding atomic models of paired helical and straight filaments from the brain of an individual with Alzheimer's disease. Filament cores are made of two identical protofilaments comprising residues 306-378 of tau protein, which adopt a combined cross-β/β-helix structure and define the seed for tau aggregation. Paired helical and straight filaments differ in their inter-protofilament packing, showing that they are ultrastructural polymorphs. These findings demonstrate that cryo-EM allows atomic characterization of amyloid filaments from patient-derived material, and pave the way for investigation of a range of neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. DOG1, cyclin D1, CK7, CD117 and vimentin are useful immunohistochemical markers in distinguishing chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from clear cell renal cell carcinoma and renal oncocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Tian, Bo; Wu, Chao; Peng, Yan; Wang, Hui; Gu, Wen-Li; Gao, Feng-Hou

    2015-04-01

    The distinction between chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC), clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CRCC) and renal oncocytoma may cause a diagnostic dilemma. The usefulness of DOG1, cyclin D1, CK7, CD117 and vimentin in the differential diagnosis of these renal epithelial tumors was investigated. DOG1 was positive in ChRCC (32 of 32, 100%) and in renal oncocytoma (21 of 21, 100%). In contrast, DOG1 was absent in all CRCC (0 of 30). Cyclin D1 was positive in renal oncocytomas (17 of 21, 81%) but negative in the ChRCC (0/23) and CRCC (0 of 30). CK7 was positive in ChRCC (30 of 32, 94%), but was negative in oncocytoma (only scattered single positive cells), and was only focal positive in two cases of CRCC. CD117 was expressed in 88% of ChRCC (28 of 32), 86% of renal oncocytoma (18 of 21), and was negative in all CRCC (0 of 30). Twenty-six of the 30 cases of CRCC were positive (87%) for vimentin with prominent membrane staining patterns. All 23 chromophobe carcinomas were negative for vimentin and 15 of 21 oncocytomas demonstrated focal vimentin positivity, but less than 10%. The above results demonstrate that: (1) DOG1 was very sensitive and specific marker for distinguish ChRCC from CRCC; (2) Cyclin D1 was a useful marker to discriminate between ChRCC and renal oncocytoma; (3) CK7 and CD117 were useful markers to distinguish ChRCC from renal oncocytoma and CRCC. (4) Vimentin was helpful for distinguishing clear cell RCC from chromophobe and oncocytoma (87% of clear cell RCC positive, negative in chromophobe, only focally positive in oncocytoma). (5) CK8/18, CK19, CD10, β-catenin and E-cadherin could not be used to distinguish ChRCC from renal oncocytoma and CRCC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterizing interstellar filaments with Herschel in nearby molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzoumanian, D.; André, P.; Peretto, N.; Könyves, V.; Schneider, N.; Didelon, P.; Palmeirim, P.

    2012-03-01

    Herschel observations of molecular clouds reveal the presence of complex filamentary structures which are shown to be the main sites of core and protostar formation (André et al. 2010). Understanding the properties of these filaments is a first step toward establishing a broader scenario of star formation in the Galaxy. Thanks to their unprecedented spatial dynamic range in the submillimeter regime, the Herschel images provide detailed quantitative information on these filaments, making it possible to characterize their properties in a statistical manner (Arzoumanian et al. 2011). I will discuss the properties of filaments seen by Herschel in 5 regions from the Gould Belt survey (IC5146, Aquila, Pipe, Taurus, Polaris), located at distances from 150 pc to 460 pc and having different star formation activities (filaments with column densities from ˜ 1020 cm-2 in Polaris to >1023 cm-2 in Aquila). The radial density profiles of the filaments show a power-law behavior at large radii of r-2 (shallower than the hydrostatic isothermal Ostriker model described by ρ ˜ r-4 ) with a flat inner part, which is remarkably uniform (˜ 0.1 pc ) for all filaments in our sample (˜ 150 filaments) regardless of column density. The observed filaments are not strictly isothermal, their dust temperature profiles show a slight (˜ 3K) but significant decrease in temperature toward the center. I will complement the analysis based on Herschel with preliminary line-width measurements with the IRAM 30m telescope. We find evidence of an increase in non-thermal velocity dispersion with column density, denser filaments being more turbulent than more diffuse ones (Arzoumanian et al. in prep.).

  6. A study of short wave instability on vortex filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong Yun [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    The numerical stability and accuracy of the vortex method are studied. The effect of the ordinary differential equations (ODE) solver and of the time step on the numerical stability is analyzed. Various ODE solvers are compared and a best performer is chosen. A new constraint on the time step based on numerical stability is proposed and verified in numerical simulations. It is shown through numerical examples that empirical rules for selecting the spatial discretization obtained in simple test problems may not be extended to more general problems. The thin tube vortex filament method is applied to the problem of Widnall's instability on vortex rings. Numerical results different from previous calculations are presented and the source of the discrepancies is explained. The long time behavior of the unstable mode on thin vortex rings is simulated and analyzed. The short wave instability on vortex filaments is investigated both theoretically and numerically. It is shown that the short wave instability always occurs on co-rotating vortex filaments of fixed core structure. Furthermore when they are close to each other, vortex filaments produce short wave unstable modes which lead to wild stretching and folding. However, when the inter-filament distance is large in comparison with the core size of the filaments, unstable modes are bounded by a small fraction of the core size and the vortex filaments do not create hairpins nor wild stretching. These findings may explain the smooth behavior of the superfluid vortices. The formation of hairpin structures on numerical vortex filaments is investigated. It is shown that the formation of hairpin structures is independent of the ODE solver, of the time step and of other numerical parameters. The hairpin structures are primarily caused by short wave instability on co-rotating vortex filaments.

  7. Nonquasineutral relativistic current filaments and their X-ray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeev, A. V.; Losseva, T. V.

    2009-02-01

    Nonquasineutral electron current filaments with the azimuthal magnetic field are considered that arise due to the generation of electron vorticity in the initial (dissipative) stage of evolution of a current-carrying plasma, when the Hall number is small (σ B/ en e c ≪ 1) because of the low values of the plasma conductivity and magnetic field strength. Equilibrium filamentary structures with both zero and nonzero net currents are considered. Structures with a zero net current type form on time scales of t magnetic ( B θ) fields, ultrarelativistic electron beams on the typical charge-separation scale r B = B/(4π en e ) (the so-called magnetic Debye radius) can be generated. It is found that, for comparable electron currents, the characteristic electron energy in filaments with a nonzero net current is significantly lower than that in zero-net-current filaments that form on typical time scales of t repel one another; as a result, both the density and velocity of electrons increase near the filament axis, where the velocities of relativistic electrons are maximum. Filaments with a zero net current can emit X rays with photon energies ℏ ω up to 10 MeV. The electron velocity distributions in filaments, the X-ray emission spectra, and the total X-ray yield per unit filament length are calculated as functions of the current and the electron number density in the filament. Analytical estimates of the characteristic lifetime of a radiating filament and the typical size of the radiating region as functions of the plasma density are obtained. The results of calculations are compared with the available experimental data.

  8. Epiplakin accelerates the lateral organization of keratin filaments during wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kazushi; Sumiyoshi, Hideaki; Matsuo, Noritaka; Takeo, Naoko; Goto, Mizuki; Okamoto, Osamu; Tatsukawa, Shuji; Kitamura, Hirokazu; Fujikura, Yoshihisa; Yoshioka, Hidekatsu; Fujiwara, Sakuhei

    2010-11-01

    Epiplakin (EPPK) belongs to the plakin family of cytolinker proteins and, resembling other members of the plakin family such as BPAG1 (an autoantigen of bullous pemphigoid) and plectin, EPPK has plakin repeat domains (PRDs) that bind to intermediate filaments. Elimination of EPPK by gene targeting in mice resulted in the acceleration of keratinocyte migration during wound healing. EPPK is expressed in proliferating keratinocytes at wound edges and, in view of its putative function in binding to keratin, we postulated that the keratin network in EPPK-null (EPPK(-/-)) mice might be disrupted during wound healing. To examine this hypothesis and to determine the precise localization of EPPK in relation to keratin filaments, we compared the non-wounded and wounded epidermis of wild-type and EPPK(-/-) mice. Non-wounded epidermis and wounded epidermis from wild-type and EPPK(-/-) mice were examined by immunofluorescence staining and electron microscopy before and after double immunostaining. EPPK was colocalized with keratin 17 (K17) more extensively than with other keratins examined in wounded epidermis. The expression of K5, K10, K6, and K17 was the same in EPPK(-/-) mice after wounding as in normal mice, but diameters of keratin filaments were reduced in EPPK(-/-) keratinocytes. Electron microscopy after immunostaining revealed that EPPK colocalized with K5, K10 and K6 after wounding in wild-type mice. Our data indicate that EPPK accelerates keratin bundling in proliferating keratinocytes during wound healing and suggest that EPPK might contribute to reinforcement of keratin networks under mechanical stress. Copyright © 2010 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Organic Acid Production by Filamentous Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnuson, Jon K.; Lasure, Linda L.

    2004-05-03

    Many of the commercial production processes for organic acids are excellent examples of fungal biotechnology. However, unlike penicillin, the organic acids have had a less visible impact on human well-being. Indeed, organic acid fermentations are often not even identified as fungal bioprocesses, having been overshadowed by the successful deployment of the β-lactam processes. Yet, in terms of productivity, fungal organic acid processes may be the best examples of all. For example, commercial processes using Aspergillus niger in aerated stirred-tank-reactors can convert glucose to citric acid with greater than 80% efficiency and at final concentrations in hundreds of grams per liter. Surprisingly, this phenomenal productivity has been the object of relatively few research programs. Perhaps a greater understanding of this extraordinary capacity of filamentous fungi to produce organic acids in high concentrations will allow greater exploitation of these organisms via application of new knowledge in this era of genomics-based biotechnology. In this chapter, we will explore the biochemistry and modern genetic aspects of the current and potential commercial processes for making organic acids. The organisms involved, with a few exceptions, are filamentous fungi, and this review is limited to that group. Although yeasts including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, species of Rhodotorula, Pichia, and Hansenula are important organisms in fungal biotechnology, they have not been significant for commercial organic acid production, with one exception. The yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica, and related yeast species, may be in use commercially to produce citric acid (Lopez-Garcia, 2002). Furthermore, in the near future engineered yeasts may provide new commercial processes to make lactic acid (Porro, Bianchi, Ranzi, Frontali, Vai, Winkler, & Alberghina, 2002). This chapter is divided into two parts. The first contains a review of the commercial aspects of current and potential large

  10. HIERARCHICAL FRAGMENTATION OF THE ORION MOLECULAR FILAMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Satoko; Ho, Paul T. P.; Su, Yu-Nung [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Teixeira, Paula S. [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Universitaet Wien, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180, Wien (Austria); Zapata, Luis A., E-mail: satoko_t@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia, Michoacan 58090 (Mexico)

    2013-01-20

    We present a high angular resolution map of the 850 {mu}m continuum emission of the Orion Molecular Cloud-3 (OMC 3) obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA); the map is a mosaic of 85 pointings covering an approximate area of 6.'5 Multiplication-Sign 2.'0 (0.88 Multiplication-Sign 0.27 pc). We detect 12 spatially resolved continuum sources, each with an H{sub 2} mass between 0.3-5.7 M {sub Sun} and a projected source size between 1400-8200 AU. All the detected sources are on the filamentary main ridge (n{sub H{sub 2}}{>=}10{sup 6} cm{sup -3}), and analysis based on the Jeans theorem suggests that they are most likely gravitationally unstable. Comparison of multi-wavelength data sets indicates that of the continuum sources, 6/12 (50%) are associated with molecular outflows, 8/12 (67%) are associated with infrared sources, and 3/12 (25%) are associated with ionized jets. The evolutionary status of these sources ranges from prestellar cores to protostar phase, confirming that OMC-3 is an active region with ongoing embedded star formation. We detect quasi-periodical separations between the OMC-3 sources of Almost-Equal-To 17''/0.035 pc. This spatial distribution is part of a large hierarchical structure that also includes fragmentation scales of giant molecular cloud ( Almost-Equal-To 35 pc), large-scale clumps ( Almost-Equal-To 1.3 pc), and small-scale clumps ( Almost-Equal-To 0.3 pc), suggesting that hierarchical fragmentation operates within the Orion A molecular cloud. The fragmentation spacings are roughly consistent with the thermal fragmentation length in large-scale clumps, while for small-scale cores it is smaller than the local fragmentation length. These smaller spacings observed with the SMA can be explained by either a helical magnetic field, cloud rotation, or/and global filament collapse. Finally, possible evidence for sequential fragmentation is suggested in the northern part of the OMC-3 filament.

  11. Failure and nonfailure of fluid filaments in extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Kolte, Mette Irene; Renardy, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The phenomenon of ductile failure of Newtonian and viscoelastic fluid filaments without surface tension is studied by a 2D finite element method and by ID non-linear analysis. The viscoelastic fluids are described by single integral constitutive equations. The main conclusions are: (1) Newtonian...... fluid filaments do not exhibit ductile failure without surface tension; (2) some viscoelastic fluids form stable filaments while other fluids exhibit ductile failure as a result of an elastic instability; (3) for large Deborah numbers, the Considere condition may be used to predict the Hencky strain...

  12. Recent developments in effector biology of filamentous plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Ricardo; Win, Joe; Raffaele, Sylvain; Boutemy, Laurence; Bozkurt, Tolga O; Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Segretin, Maria Eugenia; Stam, Remco; Schornack, Sebastian; Cano, Liliana M; van Damme, Mireille; Huitema, Edgar; Thines, Marco; Banfield, Mark J; Kamoun, Sophien

    2010-06-01

    Filamentous pathogens, such as plant pathogenic fungi and oomycetes, secrete an arsenal of effector molecules that modulate host innate immunity and enable parasitic infection. It is now well accepted that these effectors are key pathogenicity determinants that enable parasitic infection. In this review, we report on the most interesting features of a representative set of filamentous pathogen effectors and highlight recent findings. We also list and describe all the linear motifs reported to date in filamentous pathogen effector proteins. Some of these motifs appear to define domains that mediate translocation inside host cells.

  13. Larval helminths in intermediate hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Poulin, R

    2005-01-01

    Density-dependent effects on parasite fitness have been documented from adult helminths in their definitive hosts. There have, however, been no studies on the cost of sharing an intermediate host with other parasites in terms of reduced adult parasite fecundity. Even if larval parasites suffer...... a reduction in size, caused by crowding, virtually nothing is known about longer-lasting effects after transmission to the definitive host. This study is the first to use in vitro cultivation with feeding of adult trematodes to investigate how numbers of parasites in the intermediate host affect the size...... and fecundity of adult parasites. For this purpose, we examined two different infracommunities of parasites in crustacean hosts. Firstly, we used experimental infections of Maritrema novaezealandensis in the amphipod, Paracalliope novizealandiae, to investigate potential density-dependent effects in single...

  14. Testing the stress gradient hypothesis in herbivore communities facilitation peaks at intermediate nutrient levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Elisabeth S; Dobrescu, Ioana; Straile, Dietmar; Holmgren, Milena

    2013-08-01

    The role of positive interactions in structuring plant and animal communities is increasingly recognized, but the generality of current theoretical models has remained practically unexplored in animal communities. The stress gradient hypothesis predicts a linear increase in the intensity of facilitation as environmental conditions become increasingly stressful, whereas other theoretical models predict a maximum at intermediate environmental stress. We tested how competition and facilitation between herbivores change over a manipulated gradient of nutrient availability. We studied the effect of grazing by pond snails (Lymnaea stagnalis L.) as bulk grazers on aquatic caterpillars (Acentria ephemerella Denis and Schiffermüller) as small specialist grazers along an experimental gradient of environmental nutrient concentration. Higher nutrient levels increased overall total plant biomass but induced a shift toward dominance of filamentous algae at the expense of macrophytes. Facilitation of caterpillars by snail presence peaked at intermediate nutrient levels. Both caterpillar biomass and caterpillar grazing on macrophytes were highest at intermediate nutrient levels. Snails facilitated caterpillars possibly by removing filamentous algae and increasing access to the macrophyte resource, whereas they did not affect macrophyte biomass or C: nutrient ratios, a measure of food quality. We conclude that competition and facilitation in herbivore communities change along nutrient availability gradients that affect plant biomass and community composition. Understanding how interspecific interactions may change in strength and direction along environmental gradients is important to predict how the diversity and structure of communities may respond to the introduction or removal of herbivore species in ecosystems.

  15. Filament wound metal lined propellant tanks for future Earth-to-orbit transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macconochie, Ian O.; Davis, Robert B.; Freeman, William T., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    For future Earth-to-orbit transport vehicles, reusability and lighter weights are sought for the main propellant tanks. To achieve this, a filament wound tank with a metal liner and an intermediate layer of foam-filled honeycomb is proposed. A hydrogen tank is used as an example. To accommodate mismatches in the expansion of liner and overwrap a design is proposed wherin the liner is configured so that the extension of the liner under pressure matches the expected contraction of the same liner due to the presence of a cryogen. In operation, the liner is pressurized at a rate such that the pressure strain matches the contraction due to decrease in temperature. As an alternate approach, compressive pre-stress is placed in the liner such that it will not separate from the overwrap. A finite element program is used to show stresses in the liner and overwrap for various tank pressures for the pre-stressed liner concept. A fracture mechanics analysis is made of the liners to determine tank life. The tank concept shown has a similar weight to the Shuttle external hydrogen tank, but the filament wound tank is expected to be reusable. Integration of the propellant tanks into a future transport vehicle is discussed.

  16. PERIPHERAL RETINOSCHISIS IN INTERMEDIATE UVEITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichi, Francesco; Srivastava, Sunil K; Nucci, Paolo; Baynes, Kimberly; Neri, Piergiorgio; Lowder, Careen Y

    2017-11-01

    To examine cases of intermediate uveitis complicated by retinoschisis and review the pathogenetic hypothesis. A retrospective chart review of patients with intermediate uveitis. Data were collected at three uveitis referral centers on sex, age, best-corrected visual acuity, degree of vitritis, extent and location of snowbanking, presence of hard exudates, neovascularization, vitreous hemorrhage, and extent and nature of retinal elevations. A series of 23 eyes of 20 patients were examined; patient's age ranged from 10 years to 70 years and follow-up period from 8 months to 6 years. Twenty-two eyes had retinoschisis (95.6%), and 1 had retinoschisis associated with serous retinal detachment (4.3%). Extensive inferior pars plana exudates with snowbanking were present in 12 eyes (52.2%), whereas 3 eyes had inferior snowballs over the elevated retina. Neovascularization of the vitreous base accompanied by vitreous hemorrhage occurred in one eye. There was no coexisting macular pathology in 16 eyes, whereas 4 eyes had cystoid macular edema. The appearance of peripheral retinoschisis in this series of uncontrolled intermediate uveitis patients seems to be secondary to a complex balance between the persistent fluorescein leakage, a subclinical peripheral ischemia, and the constant low-grade vitreous inflammation that causes vitreous shrinkage and traction. The results of this study suggest that the absence of macroscopic changes in the retina does not preclude ischemic peripheral abnormalities, and the detection of a peripheral retinoschisis in an intermediate uveitis patient with active fluorescein leakage must suggest the need for a more aggressive form of treatment despite the good visual acuity.

  17. Radial interchange motions of plasma filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, O.E.; Bian, N.H.; Fundamenski, W.

    2006-01-01

    Radial convection of isolated filamentary structures due to interchange motions in magnetized plasmas is investigated. Following a basic discussion of vorticity generation, ballooning, and the role of sheaths, a two-field interchange model is studied by means of numerical simulations on a biperio......Radial convection of isolated filamentary structures due to interchange motions in magnetized plasmas is investigated. Following a basic discussion of vorticity generation, ballooning, and the role of sheaths, a two-field interchange model is studied by means of numerical simulations...... on a biperiodic domain perpendicular to the magnetic field. It is demonstrated that a blob-like plasma structure develops dipolar vorticity and electrostatic potential fields, resulting in rapid radial acceleration and formation of a steep front and a trailing wake. While the dynamical evolution strongly depends...... as the acoustic speed times the square root of the structure size relative to the length scale of the magnetic field. The plasma filament eventually decelerates due to mixing and collisional dissipation. Finally, the role of sheath dissipation is investigated. When included in the simulations, it significantly...

  18. Enhancing Nonribosomal Peptide Biosynthesis in Filamentous Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, Alexandra A; Keller, Nancy P; Wiemann, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are historically known as rich sources for production of biologically active natural products, so-called secondary metabolites. One particularly pharmaceutically relevant chemical group of secondary metabolites is the nonribosomal peptides synthesized by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). As most of the fungal NRPS gene clusters leading to production of the desired molecules are not expressed under laboratory conditions, efforts to overcome this impediment are crucial to unlock the full chemical potential of each fungal species. One way to activate these silent clusters is by overexpressing and deleting global regulators of secondary metabolism. The conserved fungal-specific regulator of secondary metabolism, LaeA, was shown to be a valuable target for sleuthing of novel gene clusters and metabolites. Additionally, modulation of chromatin structures by either chemical or genetic manipulation has been shown to activate cryptic metabolites. Furthermore, NRPS-derived molecules seem to be affected by cross talk between the specific gene clusters and some of these metabolites have a tissue- or developmental-specific regulation. This chapter summarizes how this knowledge of different tiers of regulation can be combined to increase production of NRPS-derived metabolites in fungal species.

  19. Specificity of peptidases secreted by filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamin Neto, Youssef Ali Abou; da Rosa Garzon, Nathália Gonsales; Pedezzi, Rafael; Cabral, Hamilton

    2017-08-31

    Peptidases are enzymes that cleave peptide bonds, yielding proteins and peptides. Enzymes in this class also perform several other functions, regulating the activation or inactivation of target substrates via proteolysis. Owing to these functions, peptidases have been extensively used in industrial and biotechnological applications. Given their potential functions, it is important to optimize the use of these enzymes, which requires determination of the specificity of each peptidase. The peptidase specificity must be taken into account in choosing a peptidase to catalyze the available protein source within the desired application. The specificity of a peptidase defines the profile of enzyme-substrate interactions, and for this the catalytic site and the arrangement of the amino acid residues involved in peptide bond cleavage need to be known. The catalytic sites of peptidases may be composed of several subsites that interact with amino acid residues for proteolysis. Filamentous fungi produce peptidases with varying specificity, and here we provide a review of those reported to date and their potential applications.

  20. Equilibrium theory for braided elastic filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Gert

    Motivated by supercoiling of DNA and other filamentous structures, we formulate a theory for equilibria of 2-braids, i.e., structures formed by two elastic rods winding around each other in continuous contact and subject to a local interstrand interaction. Unlike in previous work no assumption is made on the shape of the contact curve. Rather, this shape is found as part of the solution. The theory is developed in terms of a moving frame of directors attached to one of the strands with one of the directors pointing to the position of the other strand. The constant-distance constraint is automatically satisfied by the introduction of what we call braid strains. The price we pay is that the potential energy involves arclength derivatives of these strains, thus giving rise to a second-order variational problem. The Euler-Lagrange equations for this problem give balance equations for the overall braid force and moment referred to the moving frame as well as differential equations that can be interpreted as effective constitutive relations encoding the effect that the second strand has on the first as the braid deforms under the action of end loads. Simple analytical cases are discussed first and used as starting solutions in parameter continuation studies to compute classes of both open and closed (linked or knotted) braid solutions.

  1. Shaping of a scroll wave filament by cardiac fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berenfeld, Omer; Wellner, Marcel; Jalife, Jose; Pertsov, Arkady M.

    2001-06-01

    Scroll waves of electrical excitation in heart tissue are implicated in the development of lethal cardiac arrhythmias. Here we study the relation between the geometry of myocardial fibers and the equilibrium shape of a scroll wave filament. Our theory accommodates a wide class of myocardial models with spatially varying diffusivity tensor, adjusted to fit fiber geometry. We analytically predict the exact equilibrium shapes of the filaments. The major conclusion is that the filament shape is a compromise between a straight line and full alignment with the fibers. The degree of alignment increases with the anisotropy ratio. The results, being purely geometrical, are independent of details of ionic membrane mechanisms. Our theoretical predictions have been verified to excellent accuracy by numerically simulating the stable equilibration of a scroll filament in a model of the FitzHugh-Nagumo type.

  2. Health Risks Associated with Exposure to Filamentous Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Augustina Egbuta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi occur widely in the environment, contaminating soil, air, food and other substrates. Due to their wide distribution, they have medical and economic implications. Regardless of their use as a source of antibiotics, vitamins and raw materials for various industrially important chemicals, most fungi and filamentous fungi produce metabolites associated with a range of health risks, both in humans and in animals. The association of filamentous fungi and their metabolites to different negative health conditions in humans and animals, has contributed to the importance of investigating different health risks induced by this family of heterotrophs. This review aims to discuss health risks associated with commonly occurring filamentous fungal species which belong to genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium, as well as evaluating their pathogenicity and mycotoxic properties.

  3. Persistence of strain in motor-filament assemblies

    CERN Document Server

    Gopinath, Arvind; Mahadevan, L

    2015-01-01

    Crosslinked semi-flexible and flexible filaments that are actively deformed by molecular motors occur in various natural settings, such as the ordered eukaryotic flagellum, and the disordered cytoskeleton. The deformation of these composite systems is driven by active motor forces and resisted by passive filament elasticity, and structural constraints due to permanent cross-links. Using a mean field theory for a one-dimensional ordered system, we show that the combination of motor activity and finite filament extensibility yields a characteristic persistence length scale over which active strain decays. This decay length is set by the ability of motors to respond to combination of the weak extensional elasticity, passive shear resistance and the viscoelastic properties of the motor assembly, and generalizes the notion of persistence in purely thermal filaments to active systems.

  4. On the interaction of scrape off layer filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, F.; Dudson, B.; Easy, L.; Kirk, A.; Naylor, P.

    2017-12-01

    The interaction of L-mode and inter-ELM scrape-off layer (SOL) filaments is investigated by simulating the dynamics of two seeded density perturbations with different initial separation. A numerical campaign of 2D and 3D simulations is presented to explore the effect that different filaments’ perpendicular size and relative distance have on their reciprocal action. It is shown that the interaction is weak unless the filaments are in close proximity, i.e. with a separation of the order of the filaments’ diameter in the drift plane. The interaction occurs when the dipolar electrostatic fields associated with the filaments merge or cancel each other and it leads to changes in the radial velocity in the centre of mass of the system that are modest (≤slant 50 % ) and quickly decaying with separation. These results show that filaments travelling in the SOL can be considered to a good approximation as independent entities.

  5. Biofilms from a Brazilian water distribution system include filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, V M; Oliveira, H M B; Santos, C; Paterson, R R M; Gusmão, N B; Lima, N

    2013-03-01

    Filamentous fungi in drinking water can block water pipes, can cause organoleptic biodeterioration, and are a source of pathogens. There are increasing reports of the involvement of the organisms in biofilms. This present study describes a sampling device that can be inserted directly into pipes within water distribution systems, allowing biofilm formation in situ. Calcofluor White M2R staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization with morphological analyses using epifluorescent microscopy were used to analyse biofilms for filamentous fungi, permitting direct observation of the fungi. DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) was applied to detect bacteria. Filamentous fungi were detected in biofilms after 6 months on coupons exposed to raw water, decanted water and at the entrance of the water distribution system. Algae, yeast, and bacteria were also observed. The role of filamentous fungi requires further investigations.

  6. Health Risks Associated with Exposure to Filamentous Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbuta, Mary Augustina; Mwanza, Mulunda

    2017-01-01

    Filamentous fungi occur widely in the environment, contaminating soil, air, food and other substrates. Due to their wide distribution, they have medical and economic implications. Regardless of their use as a source of antibiotics, vitamins and raw materials for various industrially important chemicals, most fungi and filamentous fungi produce metabolites associated with a range of health risks, both in humans and in animals. The association of filamentous fungi and their metabolites to different negative health conditions in humans and animals, has contributed to the importance of investigating different health risks induced by this family of heterotrophs. This review aims to discuss health risks associated with commonly occurring filamentous fungal species which belong to genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium, as well as evaluating their pathogenicity and mycotoxic properties. PMID:28677641

  7. Monetary value of the impacts of filamentous green algae on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    control mechanisms to ..... as farmers neither quantify nor keep a record of the volumes of filamentous green algae removed, the ..... A survey and critical appraisal of available techniques and an applica- tion. Sci. Total Environ. 365 105–122.

  8. Scrape Off Layer profiles interpreted with filament dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Militello, F

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical framework is developed to link the density profiles in the Scrape Off Layer (SOL) with the fluctuations (filaments) that generate them. The framework is based on the dynamics of independent filaments and their statistical behaviour and can be used to rigorously understand the mechanisms that lead to flattening and broadening of the SOL profiles as well as the radial increase of the relative fluctuation amplitude.

  9. Sapphire Multiple Filament and Large Plate Growth Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-10-01

    the setup by focusing its objective lens onto the detector. Focusing is accomplished by the operator sighting through the eyepiece in the back of...filament. The coating can be burned off or removed with a solvent (MEK) and the original diameter of the filament measured to arrive at the coating...temperature slightly above the normal operating temperature. Considerable smoke will be produced as the impurities burn off, and the absence of smoke can be

  10. Transient filament stretching rheometer I: force balance analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The filament stretching device which is used increasingly as an apparatus for measuring extensional properties of polymeric liquids isanalysed. A force balance that includes the effects of inertia and surface tension is derived.The force balance may be used to correct for the effects of inertia...... and surface tension, provided online measurements of the filament surface shape are available. In addition the question of initial asymmetry due to gravity is addressed....

  11. A filament of dark matter between two clusters of galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Jörg P.; Werner, Norbert; Clowe, Douglas; Finoguenov, Alexis; Kitching, Tom; Miller, Lance; Simionescu, Aurora

    2012-01-01

    It is a firm prediction of the concordance Cold Dark Matter (CDM) cosmological model that galaxy clusters live at the intersection of large-scale structure filaments. The thread-like structure of this "cosmic web" has been traced by galaxy redshift surveys for decades. More recently the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM) residing in low redshift filaments has been observed in emission and absorption. However, a reliable direct detection of the underlying Dark Matter skeleton, which should c...

  12. Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparian, Jérôme; Wolf, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-07

    We review the properties and applications of ultrashort laser pulses in the atmosphere, with a particular focus on filamentation. Filamentation is a non-linear propagation regime specific of ultrashort and ultraintense laser pulses in the atmosphere. Typical applications include remote sensing of atmospheric gases and aerosols, lightning control, laser-induced spectroscopy, coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering, and the generation of sub-THz radiation.

  13. UHECR acceleration in dark matter filaments of cosmological structure formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, M. A.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Diamond, P. H.

    2011-04-01

    A mechanism for proton acceleration to ~ 1021 eV is suggested. It may operate in accretion flows onto thin dark matter filaments of cosmic structure formation. The flow compresses the ambient magnetic field to strongly increase and align it with the filament. Particles begin the acceleration by E × B drift with the accretion flow. The energy gain in the drift regime is limited by the conservation of the adiabatic invariant p⊥2/B(r). Upon approaching the filament, the drift turns into the gyro-motion around the filament so that the particle moves parallel to the azimuthal electric field. In this `betatron' regime the acceleration speeds up to rapidly reach the electrodynamic limit cpmax = eBR for an accelerator with magnetic field B and the orbit radius R (Larmor radius). The periodic orbit becomes unstable and the particle slings out of the filament to the region of a weak (uncompressed) magnetic field, which terminates the acceleration. To escape the filament, accelerated particles must have gyro-radii comparable with the filament radius. Therefore, the mechanism requires pre-acceleration that is likely to occur in large scale shocks upstream or nearby the filament accretion flow. Previous studies identify such shocks as efficient proton accelerators, with a firm upper limit ~ 1019.5 eV placed by the catastrophic photo-pion losses. The present mechanism combines explosive energy gain in its final (betatron) phase with prompt particle release from the region of strong magnetic field. It is this combination that allows protons to overcome both the photo-pion and the synchrotron-Compton losses and therefore attain energy ~ 1021 eV. A customary requirement on accelerator power to reach a given Emax, which is placed by the accelerator energy dissipation proptoEmax2/Z0 due to the finite vacuum impedance Z0, is circumvented by the cyclic operation of the accelerator.

  14. INF2-mediated severing through actin filament encirclement and disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurel, Pinar S; Ge, Peng; Grintsevich, Elena E; Shu, Rui; Blanchoin, Laurent; Zhou, Z Hong; Reisler, Emil; Higgs, Henry N

    2014-01-20

    INF2 is a formin protein with the unique ability to accelerate both actin polymerization and depolymerization, the latter requiring filament severing. Mutations in INF2 lead to the kidney disease focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and the neurological disorder Charcot-Marie Tooth disease (CMTD). Here, we compare the severing mechanism of INF2 with that of the well-studied severing protein cofilin. INF2, like cofilin, binds stoichiometrically to filament sides and severs in a manner that requires phosphate release from the filament. In contrast to cofilin, however, INF2 binds ADP and ADP-Pi filaments equally well. Furthermore, two-color total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy reveals that a low number of INF2 molecules, as few as a single INF2 dimer, are capable of severing, while measurable cofilin-mediated severing requires more extensive binding. Hence, INF2 is a more potent severing protein than cofilin. While a construct containing the FH1 and FH2 domains alone has some severing activity, addition of the C-terminal region increases severing potency by 40-fold, and we show that the WH2-resembling DAD motif is responsible for this increase. Helical 3D reconstruction from electron micrographs at 20 Å resolution provides a structure of filament-bound INF2, showing that the FH2 domain encircles the filament. We propose a severing model in which FH2 binding and phosphate release causes local filament deformation, allowing the DAD to bind adjacent actin protomers, further disrupting filament structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of Submesoscale Processes on Dynamics of Phytoplankton Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-12

    RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 29-04-2015 Journal Article Impact of submesoscale processes on dynamics of phytoplankton ...in contrast to the earlier summer time, when the ASC mixes phytoplankton much deeper to the area below of the euphotic depth, and chlorophyll a...filaments are 3 -4 times weaker. coastal processes; upwelling, submesoscale processes, phytoplankton filaments Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified UU 13 Igor Shulman (228) 688-5646 Reset

  16. Trigger of Successive Filament Eruptions Observed by SDO and STEREO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, Sajal Kumar; Belur, Ravindra; Kumar, Pankaj; Banyal, Ravinder Kumar; Mathew, Shibu K.; Joshi, Bhuwan

    2017-10-01

    Using multiwavelength observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO), we investigate the mechanism of two successive eruptions (F1 and F2) of a filament in active region NOAA 11444 on 27 March 2012. The filament was inverse J-shaped and lay along a quasi-circular polarity inversion line (PIL). The first part of the filament erupted at ˜2{:}30 UT on 27 March 2012 (F1), the second part at around 4:20 UT on the same day (F2). A precursor or preflare brightening was observed below the filament main axis about 30 min before F1. The brightening was followed by a jet-like ejection below the filament, which triggered its eruption. Before the eruption of F2, the filament seemed to be trapped within the overlying arcade loops for almost 1.5 h before it successfully erupted. Interestingly, we observe simultaneously contraction (˜12 km s^{-1}) and expansion (˜20 km s^{-1}) of arcade loops in the active region before F2. Magnetograms obtained with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) show converging motion of the opposite polarities, which result in flux cancellation near the PIL. We suggest that flux cancellation at the PIL resulted in a jet-like ejection below the filament main axis, which triggered F1, similar to the tether-cutting process. F2 was triggered by removal of the overlying arcade loops via reconnection. Both filament eruptions produced high-speed (˜1000 km s^{-1}) coronal mass ejections.

  17. KAO and AAT observations of the Galactic Center filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Edwin F.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Simpson, Janet P.; Rubin, Robert H.; Haas, Michael R.; Morris, M.; Cotera, A. S.; Allen, David A.; Burton, Michael G.

    1995-01-01

    We have used the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) and the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) to investigate the nature of the filamentary radio emission from the Galactic center region. KAO observations of the FIR line and continuum emission from the radio peak G0.095+0.012 and the E2 thermal radio filament northeast of the Galactic center can be produced by numerous nearby stars with T(sub eff) approx. 35,000 K; these can account for both the FIR luminosity and the excitation of the gas. Much of the FIR continuum and most of the strong (Si II) (34.8 micron) line emission are probably produced in the ionized gas of the filament. The FIR (O III) 52 and 88 micron lines imply an electron density of a few hundred; when compared with the radio emission measure, this implies the filament is roughly tubular or somewhat flattened in the plane of the sky. The (O III) and (S III) lines show higher excitation associated with the filament, and suggest that exciting stars may be located within the filaments and/or southeast of the E2 filament. AAT observations in the near infrared (NIR) in fact reveal a nearby cluster of hot stars southeast of the E2 filament. Additional hot stars, not identifiable from their NIR spectra, are likely to be present. These stars and those in the cluster can plausibly produce the observed radio and FIR emission in the region. The morphology of the filament is not explained by existing information however.

  18. High Current, Multi-Filament Photoconductive Semiconductor Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    excellent approach, if the lasing uniformity could be maintained to assure current - sharing Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers ( VCSELs ) Figure 9...development of VCSELS with sufficient intensity and uniformity to trigger current -sharing, linear filaments has been slow. To date, two parallel filaments...have been triggered with VCSELS emitting dashed lines to improve their uniformity [18 The simplest approach to triggering current -sharing, linear

  19. The architecture and fine structure of gill filaments in the brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Special attention was paid to filament architecture, ennervation of filaments, number and type of cells populating filament epithelia and variations in epithelial cell morphology and cilia ultrastructure. Filament shape was maintained by thickened chi-tln and strategically placed smooth myocytes. The epithelium was populated ...

  20. The architecture and fine structure of gill filaments in the brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    healthy, adult brown mussels were studied by light and transmission electron microscopy. Special attention was paid to filament architecture, ennervation of filaments, number and type of cells populating filament epithelia and variations in epithelial cell morphology and cilia ultrastructure. Filament shape was maintained by ...

  1. “IF-pathies”: a broad spectrum of intermediate filament–associated diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omary, M. Bishr

    2009-01-01

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) are encoded by the largest gene family among the three major cytoskeletal protein groups. Unique IF compliments are expressed in selective cell types, and this expression is reflected in their involvement, upon mutation, as a cause of or predisposition to more than 80 human tissue-specific diseases. This Review Series covers diseases and functional and structural aspects pertaining to IFs and highlights the molecular and functional consequences of IF-associated diseases (IF-pathies). Exciting challenges and opportunities face the IF field, including developing both a better understanding of the pathogenesis of IF-pathies and targeted therapeutic approaches. PMID:19587450

  2. Dynamical ejections of stars due to an accelerating gas filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekholt, T. C. N.; Stutz, A. M.; Fellhauer, M.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Matus Carrillo, D. R.

    2017-11-01

    Observations of the Orion A integral shaped filament (ISF) have shown indications of an oscillatory motion of the gas filament. This evidence is based on both the wave-like morphology of the filament and the kinematics of the gas and stars, where the characteristic velocities of the stars require a dynamical heating mechanism. As proposed by Stutz & Gould, such a heating mechanism (the `Slingshot') may be the result of an oscillating gas filament in a gas-dominated (as opposed to stellar-mass dominated) system. Here we test this hypothesis with the first stellar-dynamical simulations in which the stars are subjected to the influence of an oscillating cylindrical potential. The accelerating, cylindrical background potential is populated with a narrow distribution of stars. By coupling the potential to N-body dynamics, we are able to measure the influence of the potential on the stellar distribution. The simulations provide evidence that the slingshot mechanism can successfully reproduce several stringent observational constraints. These include the stellar spread (both in projected position and in velocity) around the filament, the symmetry in these distributions, and a bulk motion of the stars with respect to the filament. Using simple considerations, we show that star-star interactions are incapable of reproducing these spreads on their own when properly accounting for the gas potential. Thus, properly accounting for the gas potential is essential for understanding the dynamical evolution of star-forming filamentary systems in the era of Gaia (Gaia Collaboration 2016).

  3. Molecular tools for gene manipulation in filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shunxian; Chen, Haiqin; Tang, Xin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Chen, Yong Q

    2017-11-01

    Functional genomics of filamentous fungi has gradually uncovered gene information for constructing 'cell factories' and controlling pathogens. Available gene manipulation methods of filamentous fungi include random integration methods, gene targeting technology, gene editing with artificial nucleases and RNA technology. This review describes random gene integration constructed by restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI); Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT); transposon-arrayed gene knockout (TAGKO); gene targeting technology, mainly about homologous recombination; and modern gene editing strategies containing transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/associated protein system (CRISPR/Cas) developed in filamentous fungi and RNA technology including RNA interference (RNAi) and ribozymes. This review describes historical and modern gene manipulation methods in filamentous fungi and presents the molecular tools available to researchers investigating filamentous fungi. The biggest difference of this review from the previous ones is the addition of successful application and details of the promising gene editing tool CRISPR/Cas9 system in filamentous fungi.

  4. Mid-infrared laser filaments in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, A. V.; Voronin, A. A.; Sidorov-Biryukov, D. A.; Pugžlys, A.; Stepanov, E. A.; Andriukaitis, G.; Flöry, T.; Ališauskas, S.; Fedotov, A. B.; Baltuška, A.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Filamentation of ultrashort laser pulses in the atmosphere offers unique opportunities for long-range transmission of high-power laser radiation and standoff detection. With the critical power of self-focusing scaling as the laser wavelength squared, the quest for longer-wavelength drivers, which would radically increase the peak power and, hence, the laser energy in a single filament, has been ongoing over two decades, during which time the available laser sources limited filamentation experiments in the atmosphere to the near-infrared and visible ranges. Here, we demonstrate filamentation of ultrashort mid-infrared pulses in the atmosphere for the first time. We show that, with the spectrum of a femtosecond laser driver centered at 3.9 μm, right at the edge of the atmospheric transmission window, radiation energies above 20 mJ and peak powers in excess of 200 GW can be transmitted through the atmosphere in a single filament. Our studies reveal unique properties of mid-infrared filaments, where the generation of powerful mid-infrared supercontinuum is accompanied by unusual scenarios of optical harmonic generation, giving rise to remarkably broad radiation spectra, stretching from the visible to the mid-infrared. PMID:25687621

  5. Design and optimize of 3-axis filament winding machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanjin, Ma; Rejab, M. R. M.; Idris, M. S.; Bachtiar, B.; Siregar, J. P.; Harith, M. N.

    2017-10-01

    Filament winding technique is developed as the primary process for composite cylindrical structures fabrication at low cost. Fibres are wound on a rotating mandrel by a filament winding machine where resin impregnated fibres pass through a pay-out eye. This paper aims to develop and optimize a 3-axis, lightweight, practical, efficient, portable filament winding machine to satisfy the customer demand, which can fabricate pipes and round shape cylinders with resins. There are 3 main units on the 3-axis filament winding machine, which are the rotary unit, the delivery unit and control system unit. Comparison with previous existing filament winding machines in the factory, it has 3 degrees of freedom and can fabricate more complex shape specimens based on the mandrel shape and particular control system. The machine has been designed and fabricated on 3 axes movements with control system. The x-axis is for movement of the carriage, the y-axis is the rotation of mandrel and the z-axis is the movement of the pay-out eye. Cylindrical specimens with different dimensions and winding angles were produced. 3-axis automated filament winding machine has been successfully designed with simple control system.

  6. The Weak Lensing Masses of Filaments between Luminous Red Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Seth D.; Hudson, Michael J.

    2017-07-01

    In the standard model of non-linear structure formation, a cosmic web of dark-matter-dominated filaments connects dark matter haloes. In this paper, we stack the weak lensing signal of an ensemble of filaments between groups and clusters of galaxies. Specifically, we detect the weak lensing signal, using CFHTLenS galaxy ellipticities, from stacked filaments between Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-III/Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey luminous red galaxies (LRGs). As a control, we compare the physical LRG pairs with projected LRG pairs that are more widely separated in redshift space. We detect the excess filament mass density in the projected pairs at the 5σ level, finding a mass of (1.6 ± 0.3) × 1013 M⊙ for a stacked filament region 7.1 h-1 Mpc long and 2.5 h-1 Mpc wide. This filament signal is compared with a model based on the three-point galaxy-galaxy-convergence correlation function, as developed in Clampitt et al., yielding reasonable agreement.

  7. Force-velocity measurements of a few growing actin filaments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraline Brangbour

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The polymerization of actin in filaments generates forces that play a pivotal role in many cellular processes. We introduce a novel technique to determine the force-velocity relation when a few independent anchored filaments grow between magnetic colloidal particles. When a magnetic field is applied, the colloidal particles assemble into chains under controlled loading or spacing. As the filaments elongate, the beads separate, allowing the force-velocity curve to be precisely measured. In the widely accepted Brownian ratchet model, the transduced force is associated with the slowing down of the on-rate polymerization. Unexpectedly, in our experiments, filaments are shown to grow at the same rate as when they are free in solution. However, as they elongate, filaments are more confined in the interspace between beads. Higher repulsive forces result from this higher confinement, which is associated with a lower entropy. In this mechanism, the production of force is not controlled by the polymerization rate, but is a consequence of the restriction of filaments' orientational fluctuations at their attachment point.

  8. Experimental study of infrared filaments under different initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirell, Daniel Joseph

    In 1964, four years after the first working laser was constructed, long skinny damage tracks and fluorescence trails were seen inside of certain transparent media that were excited by intense light pulses [1]. What was so remarkable about these features was the narrowness of the spatial profile and their long propagation length in the beam in concert with the very high intensity of the light that would be necessary to produce them. A purely linear model of light propagation through such media was insufficient to explain the results of these experiments and hence a new area of nonlinear optics, latex coined filamentation (to describe the length, slimness, and intensity of the light field), was born. Filament studies begin with a medium that has a nonlinear index of refraction, n¯2, that interacts with an intense beam of light so as to cause it to self-focus. The n¯2 of liquid and solid transparent media is much higher than the n¯ 2 of gases and therefore a much higher intensity of laser source would need to be invented to begin the study of filaments in air. With the advent of the Ti-Sapphire Kerr-lens modelocked laser [2], working in combination with the development of the chirped pulse amplifier system in the mid-1990's, light intensities sufficient to produce filaments in air was realized. Since that time much experimental and theoretical work has been done to better understand some of the additional complexities that arise specifically in the filamentation of light in air using several different wavelengths (UV to IR) and pulsewidths (femto- to pico-seconds). Many theoretical models exist each with a different emphasis on the various physical mechanisms that may produce the features experimentally observed in filaments. The experimental work has sought to give the theoretician better data on some of the properties of filaments such as the: (a) spatial and temporal structure of the beam and of the produced plasma (that arises due to the high intensity light

  9. Pelamis WEC - intermediate scale demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yemm, R.

    2003-07-01

    This report describes the successful building and commissioning of an intermediate 1/7th scale model of the Pelamis Wave Energy Converter (WEC) and its testing in the wave climate of the Firth of Forth. Details are given of the design of the semi-submerged articulated structure of cylindrical elements linked by hinged joints. The specific programme objectives and conclusions, development issues addressed, and key remaining risks are discussed along with development milestones to be passed before the Pelamis WEC is ready for full-scale prototype testing.

  10. ESL intermediate/advanced writing

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz Page, Mary Ellen; Jaskiewicz, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Master ESL (English as a Second Language) Writing with the study guide designed for non-native speakers of English. Skill-building lessons relevant to today's topics help ESL students write complete sentences, paragraphs, and even multi-paragraph essays. It's perfect for classroom use or self-guided writing preparation.DETAILS- Intermediate drills for improving skills with parallel structure, mood, correct shifting errors & dangling participles- Advanced essay drills focusing on narrative, descriptive, process, reaction, comparison and contrast- Superb preparation for students taking the TOEFL

  11. Immunophenotyping of congenital myopathies: disorganization of sarcomeric, cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ven, P. F.; Jap, P. H.; ter Laak, H. J.; Nonaka, I.; Barth, P. G.; Sengers, R. C.; Stadhouders, A. M.; Ramaekers, F. C.

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the expression and distribution patterns of the intermediate filament proteins desmin and vimentin, the sarcomere components titin, nebulin and myosin, the basement membrane constituents collagen type IV and laminin, and the reticular layer component collagen type VI in skeletal

  12. Large-amplitude Longitudinal Oscillations in a Solar Filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q. M.; Li, T.; Zheng, R. S.; Su, Y. N.; Ji, H. S.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we report our multiwavelength observations of the large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations of a filament observed on 2015 May 3. Located next to active region 12335, the sigmoidal filament was observed by the ground-based Hα telescopes from the Global Oscillation Network Group and by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The filament oscillations were most probably triggered by the magnetic reconnection in the filament channel, which is characterized by the bidirectional flows, brightenings in EUV and soft X-ray, and magnetic cancellation in the photosphere. The directions of oscillations have angles of 4°-36° with respect to the filament axis. The whole filament did not oscillate in phase as a rigid body. Meanwhile, the oscillation periods (3100-4400 s) have a spatial dependence, implying that the curvature radii (R) of the magnetic dips are different at different positions. The values of R are estimated to be 69.4-133.9 Mm, and the minimum transverse magnetic field of the dips is estimated to be 15 G. The amplitudes of S5-S8 grew with time, while the amplitudes of S9-S14 damped with time. The oscillation amplitudes range from a few to ten Mm, and the maximum velocity can reach 30 km s-1. Interestingly, the filament experienced mass drainage southward at a speed of ˜27 km s-1. The oscillations continued after the mass drainage and lasted for more than 11 hr. After the mass drainage, the oscillation phases did not change much. The periods of S5-S8 decreased, while the periods of S9-S14 increased. The amplitudes of S5-S8 damped with time, while the amplitudes of S9-S14 grew. Most of the damping (growing) ratios are between -9 and 14. We offer a schematic cartoon to explain the complex behaviors of oscillations by introducing thread-thread interaction.

  13. Large-amplitude Longitudinal Oscillations Triggered by the Merging of Two Solar Filaments: Observations and Magnetic Field Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, M.; Su, Y.; Schmieder, B.; Chandra, R.; Kucera, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    We follow the eruption of two related intermediate filaments observed in Hα (from GONG) and EUV (from Solar Dynamics Observatory SDO/Atmospheric Imaging assembly AIA) and the resulting large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations of the plasma in the filament channels. The events occurred in and around the decayed active region AR12486 on 2016 January 26. Our detailed study of the oscillation reveals that the periods of the oscillations are about one hour. In Hα, the period decreases with time and exhibits strong damping. The analysis of 171 Å images shows that the oscillation has two phases: an initial long-period phase and a subsequent oscillation with a shorter period. In this wavelength, the damping appears weaker than in Hα. The velocity is the largest ever detected in a prominence oscillation, approximately 100 {km} {{{s}}}-1. Using SDO/HMI magnetograms, we reconstruct the magnetic field of the filaments, modeled as flux ropes by using a flux-rope insertion method. Applying seismological techniques, we determine that the radii of curvature of the field lines in which cool plasma is condensed are in the range 75–120 Mm, in agreement with the reconstructed field. In addition, we infer a field strength of ≥7 to 30 Gauss, depending on the electron density assumed, that is also in agreement with the values from the reconstruction (8–20 Gauss). The poloidal flux is zero and the axis flux is on the order of 1020 to 1021 Mx, confirming the high shear existing even in a non-active filament.

  14. Adhesion properties, intermediate filaments and malignant behaviour of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomson, AM; Scholma, J; Koning, JGJ; deJong, KMD; vanderWerf, M; Meijer, B.C

    1996-01-01

    This study compared phenotype and behaviour of seven head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines and normal epithelial cells, Indications were found that in HNSCC cells: 1) loss of the tell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin was correlated with loss of epithelioid cell morphology but not

  15. Role of the stem cell-associated intermediate filament nestin in malignant proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenguang Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nestin is associated with neoplastic transformation, but the mechanisms by which nestin contributes to invasion and malignancy of lung cancer remain unknown. Considering that proliferation is necessary for malignant behavior, we investigated the mechanism of nestin action in association with the proliferative properties of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. METHODS: Nestin expression was examined in NSCLC specimens and cell lines. Associations with clinicopathological features, including prognosis and proliferative markers, were evaluated. Effects of nestin knockdown on proliferation and the signaling pathways involved were further investigated. RESULTS: Nestin was expressed in most cancer specimens and all the tumor cell lines analyzed. High nestin expression in malignant tissue was associated with high Ki-67 or PCNA levels and poor patient outcomes. Conversely, knockdown of nestin expression led to significant inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, decreased colony forming ability, and cell cycle G1 arrest. Furthermore, nestin knockdown resulted in inhibition of Akt and GSK3β activation. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that nestin expression in NSCLC cells is associated with poor prognosis of patients and tumor cell proliferation pathway. Downregulation of nestin efficiently inhibited lung cancer cell proliferation, which might be through affecting cell cycle arrest and Akt-GSK3β-Rb signaling pathway.

  16. Dynamic Star Formation in the Massive DR21 Filament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, N.; /Saclay; Csengeri, T.; /Saclay; Bontemps, S.; /OASU, Floirac; Motte, F.; /Saclay; Simon, R.; /Cologne U.; Hennebelle, P.; /Paris Observ.; Federrath, C.; /ZAH, Heidelberg; Klessen, R.; /ZAH, Heidelberg /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2010-08-25

    The formation of massive stars is a highly complex process in which it is unclear whether the star-forming gas is in global gravitational collapse or an equilibrium state supported by turbulence and/or magnetic fields. By studying one of the most massive and dense star-forming regions in the Galaxy at a distance of less than 3 kpc, i.e. the filament containing the well-known sources DR21 and DR21(OH), we attempt to obtain observational evidence to help us to discriminate between these two views. We use molecular line data from our {sup 13}CO 1 {yields} 0, CS 2 {yields} 1, and N{sub 2}H{sup +} 1 {yields} 0 survey of the Cygnus X region obtained with the FCRAO and CO, CS, HCO{sup +}, N{sub 2}H{sup +}, and H{sub 2}CO data obtained with the IRAM 30m telescope. We observe a complex velocity field and velocity dispersion in the DR21 filament in which regions of the highest column-density, i.e., dense cores, have a lower velocity dispersion than the surrounding gas and velocity gradients that are not (only) due to rotation. Infall signatures in optically thick line profiles of HCO{sup +} and {sup 12}CO are observed along and across the whole DR21 filament. By modelling the observed spectra, we obtain a typical infall speed of {approx}0.6 km s{sup -1} and mass accretion rates of the order of a few 10{sup -3} M{sub {circle_dot}} yr{sup -1} for the two main clumps constituting the filament. These massive clumps (4900 and 3300 M{sub {circle_dot}} at densities of around 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3} within 1 pc diameter) are both gravitationally contracting. The more massive of the clumps, DR21(OH), is connected to a sub-filament, apparently 'falling' onto the clump. This filament runs parallel to the magnetic field. Conclusions. All observed kinematic features in the DR21 filament (velocity field, velocity dispersion, and infall), its filamentary morphology, and the existence of (a) sub-filament(s) can be explained if the DR21 filament was formed by the convergence of flows

  17. Direct imaging of reptation for semiflexible actin filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käs, J; Strey, H; Sackmann, E

    1994-03-17

    According to the reptation model of polymer diffusion, a polymer chain exhibits snake-like motion through the entangled mesh of surrounding molecules, in which the undulations of the chain are restricted to a tube-like region. The reptation model can account for many of the dynamic properties of entangled polymer solutions and melts, and has received support from observations of block copolymer diffusion across an interface; but reptative motion has not previously been imaged directly. Here we report such a direct observation of reptation, obtained by video microscopy of fluorescently labelled single, semiflexible filaments of actin in a solution of unlabelled actin filaments. From the restricted thermal undulations of these filaments we can measure the diameter of the confining tube, and we also observe the characteristic thermally excited sliding of the filament out of the end of the tube. We find that the chain self-diffusion coefficient decreases approximately linearly as the filament length increases, in agreement with the reptation model.

  18. Manipulation of flow around bluff bodies by flexible slender filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidyeganeh, Mohammad; Pinelli, Alfredo

    2016-11-01

    Manipulation of bluff bodies wakes to control the intensity of fluid forces and the induced solid vibrations is of paramount importance. A biomimetic passive control based on the use of flexible slender appendages protruding from the body into the separated region has shown promising achievements in drag reduction and moderating force fluctuations. The present research aimed at understating and optimizing the physical properties and the arrangement of elongated flexible filaments to delay the 3D transition of the wake in terms of Reynolds number, mean drag reduction, and mitigation of the force fluctuations. The numerical campaign unveiled the role of flexural stiffness of the filaments: matching the natural frequency with the vortex shedding frequency enhances the mixing at the lee side. However, softer filaments (i.e. larger time scales) lock-in on either side of mid plane breaking the symmetry of the flow field (inducing a net lift force). In addition to 2D effects, the presence of filaments can interfere with the 3D bifurcation process resulting in a delay of the spanwise destabilization of the wake. The most effective parameter for this transitional interference is the spacing between filaments that should be smaller than the wavelength of the dominant 3D unstable mode.

  19. Ack kinase regulates CTP synthase filaments during Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strochlic, Todd I; Stavrides, Kevin P; Thomas, Sam V; Nicolas, Emmanuelle; O'Reilly, Alana M; Peterson, Jeffrey R

    2014-11-01

    The enzyme CTP synthase (CTPS) dynamically assembles into macromolecular filaments in bacteria, yeast, Drosophila, and mammalian cells, but the role of this morphological reorganization in regulating CTPS activity is controversial. During Drosophila oogenesis, CTPS filaments are transiently apparent in ovarian germline cells during a period of intense genomic endoreplication and stockpiling of ribosomal RNA. Here, we demonstrate that CTPS filaments are catalytically active and that their assembly is regulated by the non-receptor tyrosine kinase DAck, the Drosophila homologue of mammalian Ack1 (activated cdc42-associated kinase 1), which we find also localizes to CTPS filaments. Egg chambers from flies deficient in DAck or lacking DAck catalytic activity exhibit disrupted CTPS filament architecture and morphological defects that correlate with reduced fertility. Furthermore, ovaries from these flies exhibit reduced levels of total RNA, suggesting that DAck may regulate CTP synthase activity. These findings highlight an unexpected function for DAck and provide insight into a novel pathway for the developmental control of an essential metabolic pathway governing nucleotide biosynthesis. © 2014 The Authors.

  20. Heat Transport in Interacting Magnetized Electron Temperature Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydora, Richard; Karbashewski, Scott; van Compernolle, Bart; Poulos, Matt; Morales, George

    2017-10-01

    Results are presented from basic heat transport experiments and numerical simulations of multiple magnetized electron temperature filaments in close proximity. This arrangement samples cross-field transport from nonlinear drift-Alfven waves and large scale convective cells. Experiments are performed in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA. The setup consists of three biased CeB6 crystal cathodes that inject low energy electrons (below ionization energy) along a strong magnetic field into a pre-existing large and cold plasma forming 3 electron temperature filaments embedded in a colder plasma, and far from the machine walls. A triangular spatial pattern is chosen for the thermal sources and multiple axial and transverse probe measurements allow for determination of the cross-field mode patterns and axial filament length. We have characterized the spontaneous thermal waves and drift-Alfven waves that develop on an individual filament when a single source is activated. When the 3 sources are activated, and in close proximity, a complex wave pattern emerges due to interference of the various wave modes leading to enhanced cross-field transport and chaotic mixing. Steep thermal gradients develop in a periphery region of the filaments where higher azimuthal wavenumber drift-Alfven modes are excited. Detailed spectral analysis and comparison with nonlinear fluid and gyrokinetic simulations will be reported. Work Supported by NSERC, Canada and NSF-DOE, USA.

  1. A filament of dark matter between two clusters of galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Jörg P; Werner, Norbert; Clowe, Douglas; Finoguenov, Alexis; Kitching, Tom; Miller, Lance; Simionescu, Aurora

    2012-07-12

    It is a firm prediction of the concordance cold-dark-matter cosmological model that galaxy clusters occur at the intersection of large-scale structure filaments. The thread-like structure of this 'cosmic web' has been traced by galaxy redshift surveys for decades. More recently, the warm–hot intergalactic medium (a sparse plasma with temperatures of 10(5) kelvin to 10(7) kelvin) residing in low-redshift filaments has been observed in emission and absorption. However, a reliable direct detection of the underlying dark-matter skeleton, which should contain more than half of all matter, has remained elusive, because earlier candidates for such detections were either falsified or suffered from low signal-to-noise ratios and unphysical misalignments of dark and luminous matter. Here we report the detection of a dark-matter filament connecting the two main components of the Abell 222/223 supercluster system from its weak gravitational lensing signal, both in a non-parametric mass reconstruction and in parametric model fits. This filament is coincident with an overdensity of galaxies and diffuse, soft-X-ray emission, and contributes a mass comparable to that of an additional galaxy cluster to the total mass of the supercluster. By combining this result with X-ray observations, we can place an upper limit of 0.09 on the hot gas fraction (the mass of X-ray-emitting gas divided by the total mass) in the filament.

  2. Filamentous hydrous ferric oxide biosignatures in a pipeline carrying acid mine drainage at Iron Mountain Mine, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amy J.; Alpers, Charles N.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Campbell, Kate M.

    2017-01-01

    A pipeline carrying acidic mine effluent at Iron Mountain, CA, developed Fe(III)-rich precipitate caused by oxidation of Fe(II)aq. The native microbial community in the pipe included filamentous microbes. The pipe scale consisted of microbial filaments, and schwertmannite (ferric oxyhydroxysulfate, FOHS) mineral spheres and filaments. FOHS filaments contained central lumina with diameters similar to those of microbial filaments. FOHS filament geometry, the geochemical environment, and the presence of filamentous microbes suggest that FOHS filaments are mineralized microbial filaments. This formation of textural biosignatures provides the basis for a conceptual model for the development and preservation of biosignatures in other environments.

  3. Proteomic profiling of adipose tissue from Zmpste24-/- mice, a model of lipodystrophy and premature aging, reveals major changes in mitochondrial function and vimentin processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado, Juan R; Quirós, Pedro M; Pulido, Marina R; Mariño, Guillermo; Martínez-Chantar, Maria L; Vázquez-Martínez, Rafael; Freije, José M P; López-Otín, Carlos; Malagón, María M

    2011-11-01

    Lipodystrophy is a major disease involving severe alterations of adipose tissue distribution and metabolism. Mutations in genes encoding the nuclear envelope protein lamin A or its processing enzyme, the metalloproteinase Zmpste24, cause diverse human progeroid syndromes that are commonly characterized by a selective loss of adipose tissue. Similarly to humans, mice deficient in Zmpste24 accumulate prelamin A and display phenotypic features of accelerated aging, including lipodystrophy. Herein, we report the proteome and phosphoproteome of adipose tissue as well as serum metabolome in lipodystrophy by using Zmpste24(-/-) mice as experimental model. We show that Zmpste24 deficiency enhanced lipolysis, fatty acid biogenesis and β-oxidation as well as decreased fatty acid re-esterification, thus pointing to an increased partitioning of fatty acid toward β-oxidation and away from storage that likely underlies the observed size reduction of Zmpste24-null adipocytes. Besides the mitochondrial proteins related to lipid metabolism, other protein networks related to mitochondrial function, including those involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, were up-regulated in Zmpste24(-/-) mice. These results, together with the observation of an increased mitochondrial response to oxidative stress, support the relationship between defective prelamin A processing and mitochondrial dysfunction and highlight the relevance of oxidative damage in lipoatrophy and aging. We also show that absence of Zmpste24 profoundly alters the processing of the cytoskeletal protein vimentin and identify a novel protein dysregulated in lipodystrophy, High-Mobility Group Box-1 Protein. Finally, we found several lipid derivates with important roles in energy balance, such as Lysophosphatidylcholine or 2-arachidonoylglycerol, to be dysregulated in Zmpste24(-/-) serum. Together, our findings in Zmpste24(-/-) mice may be useful to unveil the mechanisms underlying adipose tissue

  4. Anti-Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide (Anti-CCP and Anti-Mutated Citrullinated Vimentin (Anti-MCV Relation with Extra-Articular Manifestations in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gonzalez-Lopez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the association between anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP and anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin antibodies (anti-MCV with the presence of extra-articular (ExRA manifestations in 225 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Ninety-five patients had ExRA and 130 had no ExRA. There was no association of anti-CCP and anti-MCV levels with the presence of ExRA as total group (P=0.40 and P=0.91, resp.. Making an analysis of individual manifestations, rheumatoid nodules were associated with positivity for rheumatoid factor (RF; (P=0.01, anti-CCP (P=0.048, and anti-MCV (P=0.02. Instead, RF, anti-CCP, or anti-MCV were not associated with SS, chronic anemia, or peripheral neuropathy. Levels of anti-CCP correlated with the score of the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-Di (r=0.154, P=0.03, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR; (r=0.155, P=0.03, and RF (P=0.254, P<0.001, whereas anti-MCV titres only correlated with RF (r=0.169, P=0.02. On adjusted analysis, ExRA was associated with longer age (P=0.015, longer disease duration (P=0.007, higher DAS-28 score (P=0.002, and higher HAQ-DI score (P=0.007, but serum levels of anti-CCP and anti-MCV were not associated. These findings show the need to strengthen the evaluation of the pathogenic mechanisms implied in each specific ExRA manifestation.

  5. Undulatory locomotion of finite filaments: lessons from C. elegans

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, R; Sznitman, J; Leshansky, A

    2013-01-01

    Undulatory swimming is a widespread propulsion strategy adopted by many small-scale organisms including various single-cell eukaryotes and nematodes. In this work, we report a comprehensive study of undulatory locomotion of a finite filament using (i) approximate resistive force theory (RFT) assuming a local nature of hydrodynamic interaction between the filament and the surrounding viscous liquid, and (ii) particle-based numerical computations taking into account the intra-filament hydrodynamic interaction. Using the ubiquitous model of a propagating sinusoidal waveform, we identify the limit of applicability of the RFT and determine the optimal propulsion gait in terms of (i) swimming distance per period of undulation and (ii) hydrodynamic propulsion efficiency. The occurrence of the optimal swimming gait maximizing hydrodynamic efficiency at finite wavelength in particle-based computations diverges from the prediction of the RFT. To compare the model swimmer powered by sine wave undulations to biological u...

  6. Actin filaments growing against a barrier with fluctuating shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, Raj Kumar; Chatterjee, Sakuntala

    2016-06-01

    We study force generation by a set of parallel actin filaments growing against a nonrigid obstacle, in the presence of an external load. The filaments polymerize by either moving the whole obstacle, with a large energy cost, or by causing local distortion in its shape which costs much less energy. The nonrigid obstacle also has local thermal fluctuations due to which its shape can change with time and we describe this using fluctuations in the height profile of a one-dimensional interface with Kardar-Parisi-Zhang dynamics. We find the shape fluctuations of the barrier strongly affect the force generation mechanism. The qualitative nature of the force-velocity curve is crucially determined by the relative time scale of filament and barrier dynamics. The height profile of the barrier also shows interesting variation with the external load. Our analytical calculations within mean-field theory show reasonable agreement with our simulation results.

  7. Vortex Filaments in Grids for Scalable, Fine Smoke Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhang; Weixin, Si; Yinling, Qian; Hanqiu, Sun; Jing, Qin; Heng, Pheng-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Vortex modeling can produce attractive visual effects of dynamic fluids, which are widely applicable for dynamic media, computer games, special effects, and virtual reality systems. However, it is challenging to effectively simulate intensive and fine detailed fluids such as smoke with fast increasing vortex filaments and smoke particles. The authors propose a novel vortex filaments in grids scheme in which the uniform grids dynamically bridge the vortex filaments and smoke particles for scalable, fine smoke simulation with macroscopic vortex structures. Using the vortex model, their approach supports the trade-off between simulation speed and scale of details. After computing the whole velocity, external control can be easily exerted on the embedded grid to guide the vortex-based smoke motion. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of using the proposed scheme for a visually plausible smoke simulation with macroscopic vortex structures.

  8. A Breakout Model for Solar Coronal Jets with Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyper, P. F.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.

    2018-01-01

    Recent observations have revealed that many solar coronal jets involve the eruption of miniature versions of large-scale filaments. Such “mini-filaments” are observed to form along the polarity inversion lines of strong, magnetically bipolar regions embedded in open (or distantly closing) unipolar field. During the generation of the jet, the filament becomes unstable and erupts. Recently we described a model for these mini-filament jets, in which the well-known magnetic-breakout mechanism for large-scale coronal mass ejections is extended to these smaller events. In this work we use 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations to study in detail three realizations of the model. We show that the breakout-jet generation mechanism is robust and that different realizations of the model can explain different observational features. The results are discussed in relation to recent observations and previous jet models.

  9. Probing the effective length of plasma inside a filament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaoxiang; Wang, Tiejun; Chen, Na; Du, Shengzhe; Ju, Jingjing; Sun, Haiyi; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jiansheng; Lu, Haihe; Chin, See Leang; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan; Wang, Zhanshan

    2017-05-15

    We present a novel method based on plasma-guided corona discharges to probe the plasma density longitudinal distribution, which is particularly good for the weakly ionized plasmas (~10(14) cm(-3)). With this method, plasma density longitudinal distribution inside both a weakly ionized plasma and a filament were characterized. When a high voltage electric field was applied onto a plasma channel, the original ionization created by a laser pulse would be enhanced and streamer coronas formed along the channel. By measuring the fluorescence of enhanced ionization, in particular, on both ends of a filament, the weak otherwise invisible plasma regions created by the laser pulse were identified. The observed plasma guided coronas were qualitatively understood by solving a 3D Maxwell equation through finite element analysis. The technique paves a new way to probe low density plasma and to precisely measure the effective length of plasma inside a filament.

  10. Genetics, Molecular, and Proteomics Advances in Filamentous Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma Ghimire, Prakriti; Jin, Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Filamentous fungi play a dynamic role in health and the environment. In addition, their unique and complex hyphal structures are involved in their morphogenesis, integrity, synthesis, and degradation, according to environmental and physiological conditions and resource availability. However, in biotechnology, it has a great value in the production of enzymes, pharmaceuticals, and food ingredients. The beginning of nomenclature of overall fungi started in early 1990 after which the categorization, interior and exterior mechanism, function, molecular and genetics study took pace. This mini-review has emphasized some of the important aspects of filamentous fungi, their pattern of life cycle, history, and development of different strategic methods applied to exploit this unique organism. New trends and concepts that have been applied to overcome obstacle because of their basic structure related to genomics and systems biology has been presented. Furthermore, the future aspects and challenges that need to be deciphered to get a bigger and better picture of filamentous fungi have been discussed.

  11. Current state of genome-scale modeling in filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Julian; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2015-01-01

    The group of filamentous fungi contains important species used in industrial biotechnology for acid, antibiotics and enzyme production. Their unique lifestyle turns these organisms into a valuable genetic reservoir of new natural products and biomass degrading enzymes that has not been used to full...... testing them in vivo. The increasing availability of high quality models and molecular biological tools for manipulating filamentous fungi renders the model-guided engineering of these fungal factories possible with comprehensive metabolic networks. A typical fungal model contains on average 1138 unique...... metabolic reactions and 1050 ORFs, making them a vast knowledge-base of fungal metabolism. In the present review we focus on the current state as well as potential future applications of genome-scale models in filamentous fungi....

  12. Filament characterization via resonance absorption of terahertz wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhigang; Huang, Yindong; Guo, Quan; Meng, Chao; Lü, Zhihui; Wang, Xiaowei; Zhao, Jing; Meng, Congsen; Zhang, Dongwen; Yuan, Jianmin; Zhao, Zengxiu

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we characterize the transmission properties of the focusing-laser-induced filament by using terahertz (THz) time domain spectroscopy. Significant resonance absorption of the THz wave is identified, which is attributed to the dynamic screening of the ionized electrons. The polarization and intensity of the filament-generated pulse have been varied to study their influences on the resonance absorption. Our results suggest that the electron density of the filament can be determined by fitting the phase shifts and absorption properties around the absorption. This method provides not only an alternative to the plasma diagnostics with plasma frequency at the THz range, but also a supplement to the existing generation theory of THz waves from plasma.

  13. Trivalent Cation Induced Bundle Formation of Filamentous fd Phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz Zirpel, Nuriye; Park, Eun Jin

    2015-09-01

    Bacteriophages are filamentous polyelectrolyte viral rods infecting only bacteria. In this study, we investigate the bundle formation of fd phages with trivalent cations having different ionic radii (Al(3+) , La(3+) and Y(3+) ) at various phage and counterion concentrations, and at varying bundling times. Aggregated phage bundles were detected at relatively low trivalent counterion concentrations (1 mM). Although 10 mM and 100 mM Y(3+) and La(3+) treatments formed larger and more intertwined phage bundles, Al(3+) and Fe(3+) treatments lead to the formation of networking filaments. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses confirmed the presence of C, N and O peaks on densely packed phage bundles. Immunofluorescence labelling and ELISA analyses with anti-p8 antibodies showed the presence of phage filaments after bundling. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Science-based bioprocess design for filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, Andreas E; Herwig, Christoph; Spadiut, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Industrial bioprocesses are commonly based on empiricism rather than scientific process understanding. In this review, we summarize current strategies for science-based bioprocess design and control for filamentous fungi aiming at reducing development times and increasing process economics. We discuss recent developments and trends regarding three crucial aspects throughout the bioprocess life cycle of filamentous fungi, namely (i) strain and inoculum characterization, (ii) morphology, and (iii) rheology, as well as their effects on process performance. Complex interconnections between strain, inoculum, morphology, rheology, and process design are outlined and discussed. Only combining different hard type sensors with soft sensor technology and the development of simplified mechanistic models can enable science-based bioprocess design for filamentous fungi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Clinical significance of positive sputum culture for filamentous fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Chun; Liu, Zheng-Yin; Xu, Ying-Chun; Wang, Ai-Xia

    2010-01-26

    To investigate the clinical significance of positive sputum culture for filamentous fungi. The medical data of 140 patients positive for filamentous fungi in sputum culture at Peking Union Medical College Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Based on the diagnostic criteria by European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group, invasive pulmonary fungal infection (IPFI) was diagnosed. The clinical characteristics of cases with and without IPFI were analyzed respectively. Among all 140 cases positive for filamentous fungi in sputum culture, only 22 cases could be diagnosed as IPFI. Two of 22 IPFI cases were confirmed by post-operative pathology, 1 case was confirmed by positive blood culture for filamentous fungi and the remaining 19 cases were diagnosed clinically according to the nature of hosts, characteristics of pulmonary infections and microbiological evidence (positive sputum culture for filamentous fungi, 2 - 5 times for each case). Most of etiological fungi in IPFI patients belonged to Aspergillus. And the identity of isolated fungal strain was mostly one strain for each patient. In IPFI group, patients who had been treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics (100%), steroids (13, 59.1%) or immunosuppressant (7, 31.8%) or who had pulmonary X-ray imaging changes (100%), primary diseases (21, 95.5%), hypoalbuminemia (18, 81.8%) or hemoptysis (10, 45.5%), were significantly more than those in non-IPFI group (66.9%, 34.7%, 18.6%, 79.7%, 72.0%, 45.8% and 4.2% respectively; P significance of positive sputum culture for filamentous fungi are associated with the times of positive culture, the number and species of isolated fungal strains. Meanwhile it is important to determine whether there is IPFI according to the nature and clinical characteristics of patients.

  16. Design of the klystron filament power supply control system for EAST LHCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zege; Wang, Mao; Hu, Huaichuan; Ma, Wendong; Zhou, Taian; Zhou, Faxin; Liu, Fukun; Shan, Jiafang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-09-15

    A filament is a critical component of the klystron used to heat the cathode. There are totally 44 klystrons in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) systems. All klystron filaments are powered by AC power suppliers through isolated transformers. In order to achieve better klystron preheat, a klystron filament power supply control system is designed to obtain the automatic control of all filament power suppliers. Klystron filament current is measured by PLC and the interlock between filament current and klystron high voltage system is also implemented. This design has already been deployed in two LHCD systems and proves feasible completely.

  17. Surface discharge induced interactions of filaments in argon dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuechen; Zhang, Panpan; Chu, Jingdi; Zhang, Qi; Lin, Xiaotong; Jia, Pengying; Dong, Lifang

    2017-10-01

    A needle-plate geometry is used to generate two barrier-discharge filaments composed of volume discharge and surface discharge in atmospheric pressure argon, interactions of which are investigated for the first time on the nanosecond timescale using an intensified charge-coupled device. The results indicate that the onset of volume discharges for the two filaments have a periodical discharge sequence, which implies interactions of the two filaments. Moreover, strong interactions of the two filaments are controlled through surface discharges, one of which is induced by that of the other filament during the positive discharge. Different from repulsive streamers, counter-propagating streamers are attractive between the two filaments.

  18. RHIZOME AND DISCOURSE OF INTERMEDIALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л Н Синельникова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhizomaticity is a strategy and a regularity of text creation in a lot of modern commu-nicative discourse practices. What remains urgent is the problem of the systematic interdisciplinary de-scription of texts whose structure and language qualities are determined by the signs of the rhizome - a concept of post-modern philosophy introduced into the scientific field by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and the psychotherapist Félix Guattari (Deleuze, Guattari 1996. The rhizome (Fr. rhizome - rootstock, tuber, bulb, mycelium possesses the following qualities: it is non-linear, open and directed towards the unpredictability of discourse transformations through the possibilities of structure development in any direction; there is no centre or periphery in the rhizome, and any discourse element can become ‘a vital structure’ for text-creation. The rhizome does not have non-intersecting boundaries; and in the space of the rhizomatic discourse environment, an increase of reality facets takes place, non-standard associative con-nections appear, multiplication effects are formed, which create new meanings. Rhizomaticity is the quality of texts being organised by the laws of rhizomatic logic (V.F. Sharkov 2007, by the terms of which ‘su-perposition’ of discourses can take place, a transition from one semiotic system to another. The article makes an attempt to correlate the qualities of the rhizome with the signs of the intermedia discourse, which is built on the semiotic interaction of different media. The moving lines of the rhizome, its ‘branch-ing’ qualities can be found in poetic texts, in the evaluating segments of political discourse, in advertising discourse, in internet communications, which represent rhizomorphic environments. An analysis of examples from these spheres has shown that the rhizomatic approach opens new facets of intermediality. The author uses the methods of discourse analysis to prove that the openness and non

  19. Analytical & Numerical Modelings of Elliptical Superconducting Filament Magnetization

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Bouillault, F; Devred, Arnaud

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the two-dimensional computation of magnetization in an elliptic superconducting filament by using numerical and analytical methods. The numerical results are obtained from the finite element method and by using Bean's model. This model is well adapted for Low Tc superconductor studies. We observe the effect of the axis ratio and of the field angle to the magnetic moment per unit length at saturation, and also to the cycle of magnetization. Moreover, the current density and the distribution of the electromagnetic fields in the superconducting filament are also studied.

  20. Strength analysis of filament-wound composite tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasović Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this work is focused on strength analysis of filament-wound composite tubes made of E glass/polyester under internal pressure. The primary attention of this investigation is to develop a reliable computation procedure for stress, displacement and initial failure analysis of layered composite tubes. For that purpose we have combined the finite element method (FEM with corresponding initial failure criterions. In addition, finite element analyses using commercial code, MSC/NASTRAN, were performed to predict the behavior of filament wound structures. Computation results are compared with experiments. Good agreement between computation and experimental results are obtained.

  1. Mineralized Remains of Morphotypes of Filamentous Cyanobacteria in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    The quest for conclusive evidence of microfossils in meteorites has been elusive. One difficulty arises from the fact than many abiotic or inorganic microstructures, mineral grains, and coating artifacts can mimic the smaller representatives of the microbial world that possess very simple morphologies (unicellular cocci or bacilli). However, there exist a wide variety of large, filamentous trichomic prokaryotic microorganisms (cyanobacteria and sulfur bacteria) with sufficiently well known and complex morphologies that they can be recognized and are known to be of unquestionable biogenic origin. The taphonomic modes of fossilization and their of their life habits and processes frequently result in distinctive chemical biosignatures associated with carbonization, silicification, calcification, phosphatization and metal-binding properties of their cell-walls, trichomes, sheaths and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Strong differences of mineral concentrations in closely associated and visibly differentiated cellular microstructures provide strong evidence of biogenicity. This evidence is further enhanced by the detection of recognizable and distinct microstructures (e.g., uniseriate or multiseriate filaments, trichomes, sheaths, cells of proper sizes and size distributions) and growth characteristics (e.g., basal or apical cells, true or false branching of trichomes, tapered or uniform filaments, robust or thin sheaths) and reproductive and nitrogen fixation habits (e.g., baeocytes, hormogonia, akinetes and heterocysts), Microfossils of cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial mats and stromatolites have been recognized a described from many of the most ancient rocks on Earth. The crucial problem lies in developing valid protocols and methodologies for establishing that the putative microfossils are truly indigenous and not merely recent microbial contaminants. During the past several years, we have conducted Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM

  2. Stress generation and filament turnover during actin ring constriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zumdieck

    Full Text Available We present a physical analysis of the dynamics and mechanics of contractile actin rings. In particular, we analyze the dynamics of ring contraction during cytokinesis in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. We present a general analysis of force balances and material exchange and estimate the relevant parameter values. We show that on a microscopic level contractile stresses can result from both the action of motor proteins, which cross-link filaments, and from the polymerization and depolymerization of filaments in the presence of end-tracking cross-linkers.

  3. Methods for isolation and cultivation of filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Helena; Kautto, Liisa; Te'o, Junior

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are important organisms for basic discovery, industry, and human health. Their natural growth environments are extremely variable, a fact reflected by the numerous methods developed for their isolation and cultivation. Fungal culture in the laboratory is usually carried out on agar plates, shake flasks, and bench top fermenters starting with an inoculum that typically features fungal spores. Here we discuss the most popular methods for the isolation and cultivation of filamentous fungi for various purposes with the emphasis on enzyme production and molecular microbiology.

  4. Three-dimensional simulations of viscoelastic instability in polymeric filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    The three-dimensional Langrangian integral method is used to simulate the elastic end-plate instability that occurs in the rapid extension of some polymeric filaments between parallel plates. It is demonstrated that the upper convected Maxwell model describes the essential features of the instabi......The three-dimensional Langrangian integral method is used to simulate the elastic end-plate instability that occurs in the rapid extension of some polymeric filaments between parallel plates. It is demonstrated that the upper convected Maxwell model describes the essential features...

  5. Filamentous bacteriophage fd as an antigen delivery system in vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisco, Antonella; De Berardinis, Piergiuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Peptides displayed on the surface of filamentous bacteriophage fd are able to induce humoral as well as cell-mediated immune responses, which makes phage particles an attractive antigen delivery system to design new vaccines. The immune response induced by phage-displayed peptides can be enhanced by targeting phage particles to the professional antigen presenting cells, utilizing a single-chain antibody fragment that binds dendritic cell receptor DEC-205. Here, we review recent advances in the use of filamentous phage fd as a platform for peptide vaccines, with a special focus on the use of phage fd as an antigen delivery platform for peptide vaccines in Alzheimer's Disease and cancer.

  6. Experiments in intermediate energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehnhard, D.

    2003-02-28

    Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers.

  7. Intermedial Strategies of Memory in Contemporary Novels

    OpenAIRE

    Tanderup, Sara

    2014-01-01

    In her article "Intermedial Strategies and Memory in Contemporary Novels" Sara Tanderup discusses a tendency in contemporary literature towards combining intermedial experiments with a thematic preoccupation with memory and trauma. Analyzing selected works by Steven Hall, Jonathan Safran Foer, and Judd Morrissey and drawing on the theoretical perspectives of N. Katherine Hayles (media studies) and Andreas Huyssen (cultural memory studies), Tanderup argues that recent intermedial novels reflec...

  8. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Chiral Pharmaceutical Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh N. Patel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of single enantiomers of drug intermediates has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. Chiral intermediates and fine chemicals are in high demand from both the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries for the preparation of bulk drug substances and agricultural products. The enormous potential of microorganisms and enzymes for the transformation of synthetic chemicals with high chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivities has been demonstrated. In this article, biocatalytic processes are described for the synthesis of chiral pharmaceutical intermediates.

  9. Intermediality, Translation, Comparative Literature, and World Literature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schlumpf, Erin; Schlumpf, Erin

    2011-01-01

    In her article "Intermediality, Translation, Comparative Literature, and World Literature" Erin Schlumpf postulates that the study of literature today is best performed in a framework of comparative...

  10. Mechanosensing in myosin filament solves a 60 years old conflict in skeletal muscle modeling between high power output and slow rise in tension

    CERN Document Server

    Marcucci, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Almost 60 years ago Andrew Huxley with his seminal paper \\cite{Huxley1957} laid the foundation of modern muscle modeling, linking chemical events to mechanical performance. He described mechanics and energetics of muscle contraction through the cyclical attachment and detachment of myosin motors to the actin filament with ad hoc assumptions on the dependence of the rate constants on the strain of the myosin motors. That relatively simple hypothesis is still present in recent models, even though with several modifications to adapt the model to the different experimental constraints which became subsequently available. However, already in that paper, one controversial aspect of the model became clear. Relatively high attachment and detachment rates of myosin to the actin filament were needed to simulate the high power output at intermediate velocity of contraction. However, these rates were incompatible with the relatively slow rise in tension after activation, despite the rise should be generated by the same r...

  11. Genome Sequence of the Filamentous Actinomycete Kitasatospora viridifaciens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramijan, Carmiol A.K.; Wezel, van G.P.; Claessen, D.

    2017-01-01

    The vast majority of antibiotics are produced by filamentous soil bacteria called actinomycetes. We report here the genome sequence of the tetracycline producer "Streptomyces viridifaciens" DSM 40239. Given that this species has the hallmark signatures characteristic of the Kitasatospora genus, we

  12. Formation of Solar Filaments by Steady and Nonsteady Chromospheric Heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, C.; Chen, P.F.; Keppens, R.; van Marle, A. -J

    2011-01-01

    It has been established that cold plasma condensations can form in a magnetic loop subject to localized heating of its footpoints. In this paper, we use grid-adaptive numerical simulations of the radiative hydrodynamic equations to investigate the filament formation process in a pre-shaped loop with

  13. Formation of solar filaments by steady and nonsteady chromospheric heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, C.; Chen, P. F.; Keppens, R.; van Marle, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    It has been established that cold plasma condensations can form in a magnetic loop subject to localized heating of its footpoints. In this paper, we use grid-adaptive numerical simulations of the radiative hydrodynamic equations to investigate the filament formation process in a pre-shaped loop with

  14. Cellulase activity of filamentous fungi induced by rice husk | Oliveros ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential of different filamentous fungi to degrade cellulose in rice husk pre-treated with steam explosion or alkaline hydrolysis. A preliminary test performed with carboxymethyl cellulose and nine fungi (Trichoderma 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; Trichoderma reesei; Aspergillus niger; Rhizopus ...

  15. Evaluation of filamentous green algae as feedstocks for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Yonggang; Cui, Binjie; Wang, Hui; Liu, Tianzhong

    2016-11-01

    Compared with unicellular microalgae, filamentous algae have high resistance to grazer-predation and low-cost recovery in large-scale production. Green algae, as the most diverse group of algae, included numerous filamentous genera and species. In this study, records of filamentous genera and species in green algae were firstly censused and classified. Then, seven filamentous strains subordinated in different genera were cultivated in bubbled-column to investigate their growth rate and energy molecular (lipid and starch) capacity. Four strains including Stigeoclonium sp., Oedogonium nodulosum, Hormidium sp. and Zygnema extenue were screened out due to their robust growth. And they all could accumulate triacylglycerols and starch in their biomass, but with different capacity. After nitrogen starvation, Hormidium sp. and Oedogonium nodulosum respectively exhibited high capacity of lipid (45.38% in dry weight) and starch (46.19% in dry weight) accumulation, which could be of high potential as feedstocks for biodiesel and bioethanol production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Collapsing vortex filaments and the spectrum of quantum turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andryushchenko, V. A.; Nemirovskii, S. K.

    2017-01-01

    The method of correlation functions and the method of quantum vortex configurations are used to calculate the energy spectrum of a three-dimensional velocity field that is induced by collapsing (immediately before reconnection) vortex filaments. The formulation of this problem is motivated by the idea of modeling classical turbulence by a set of chaotic quantized vortex filaments. Among the various arguments that support the idea of quasi-classical behavior for quantum turbulence, the most persuasive is probably the resulting Kolmogorov energy spectrum resembling E ( k ) ∝ k - 5 / 3 that was obtained in a number of numerical studies. Another goal is associated with an important and intensely studied theme that relates to the role of hydrodynamic collapse in the formation of turbulence spectra. Calculations have demonstrated that vortex filaments create a velocity field at the moment of contact, which has a singularity. This configuration of vortex filaments generates the spectrum E(k), which bears the resemblance to the Kolmogorov law. A possible cause for this observation is discussed, as well as the likely reasons behind any deviations. The obtained results are discussed from the perspective of both classical and quantum turbulence.

  17. Tensile Property Evaluation of Polycrystalline Alumina Filaments and Their Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    fiber surfaces examined. The residue is probably an acrylic that is used by DuPont in its fabrication process and can be easily burned off without...from longitudinal filament surveys at 660 magnification with a calibrated filar eyepiece micrometer was 20.4 Am (0.803 x 10- 3 inches) with an 8.0

  18. Sensitivity of RF-driven Plasma Filaments to Trace Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burin, M. J.; Czarnocki, C. J.; Czarnocki, K.; Zweben, S. J.; Zwicker, A.

    2011-10-01

    Filamentary structures have been observed in many types of plasma discharges in both natural (e.g. lightning) and industrial systems (e.g. dielectric barrier discharges). Recent progress has been made in characterizing these structures, though various aspects of their essential physics remain unclear. A common example of this phenomenon can be found within a toy plasma globe (or plasma ball), wherein a primarily neon gas mixture near atmospheric pressure clearly and aesthetically displays filamentation. Recent work has provided the first characterization of these plasma globe filaments [Campanell et al., Physics of Plasmas 2010], where it was noticed that discharges of pure gases tend not to produce filaments. We have extended this initial work to investigate in greater detail the dependence of trace gases on filamentation within a primarily Neon discharge. Our preliminary results using a custom globe apparatus will be presented, along with some discussion of voltage dependencies. Newly supported by the NSF/DOE Partnership in Basic Plasma Science and Engineering.

  19. Filamentation of ultrashort laser pulses of different wavelengths in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We investigate the filaments formed by the ultrashort laser pulses with different wavelengths of 400 nm, 586 nm and 800 nm propagating in argon. Numerical results show that, when the input power or the ratio of the input power to the critical power is given, the pulse with 400 nm wavelength has the largest on-axis intensity, ...

  20. The cell wall of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damveld, Robbert A.

    2005-01-01

    Fungi are a very successful species and are distributed worldwide. However, the presence of fungi is not always desired. Filamentous fungi can grow on living or dead organic material and even inside the host. Current methods to prevent fungal growth are insufficient, causing fatality after fungal

  1. Filament identification and dominance of Eikelboom Type 0092 in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Routine characterisation of activated sludge and identification of the filamentous population by microscopic and/or other non-culture dependent techniques can assist in diagnosing the aetiology of poor performance of wastewater treatment works (WWTWs). In South Africa, most facilities rely solely on physicochemical ...

  2. Automated image analysis for quantification of filamentous bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, Marlene; Rosenvinge, Flemming Schønning; Spillum, Erik

    2015-01-01

    in systems relying on colorimetry or turbidometry (such as Vitek-2, Phoenix, MicroScan WalkAway). The objective was to examine an automated image analysis algorithm for quantification of filamentous bacteria using the 3D digital microscopy imaging system, oCelloScope. Results Three E. coli strains displaying...

  3. Biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal by filamentous bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ☎+2731 204-2345; fax:+2731 204-2778; e-mail: JuniorR@dut.ac.za. Biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal by filamentous bacteria in pure culture. TR Ramothokang*, SC Simelane, and F Bux. Centre for Water and Wastewater Technology, Durban Institute of Technology, PO Box 1334, Durban 4000, South Africa.

  4. Alignments of galaxies within cosmic filaments from SDSS DR7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Youcai; Yang, Xiaohu [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Nandan Road 80, Shanghai 200030 (China); Wang, Huiyuan [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Wang, Lei [Purple Mountain Observatory, the Partner Group of MPI für Astronomie, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Mo, H. J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9305 (United States); Van den Bosch, Frank C., E-mail: yczhang@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: xyang@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    Using a sample of galaxy groups selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we examine the alignment between the orientation of galaxies and their surrounding large-scale structure in the context of the cosmic web. The latter is quantified using the large-scale tidal field, reconstructed from the data using galaxy groups above a certain mass threshold. We find that the major axes of galaxies in filaments tend to be preferentially aligned with the directions of the filaments, while galaxies in sheets have their major axes preferentially aligned parallel to the plane of the sheets. The strength of this alignment signal is strongest for red, central galaxies, and in good agreement with that of dark matter halos in N-body simulations. This suggests that red, central galaxies are well aligned with their host halos, in quantitative agreement with previous studies based on the spatial distribution of satellite galaxies. There is a luminosity and mass dependence that brighter and more massive galaxies in filaments and sheets have stronger alignment signals. We also find that the orientation of galaxies is aligned with the eigenvector associated with the smallest eigenvalue of the tidal tensor. These observational results indicate that galaxy formation is affected by large-scale environments and strongly suggest that galaxies are aligned with each other over scales comparable to those of sheets and filaments in the cosmic web.

  5. Analysis of filament statistics in fast camera data on MAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Tom; Militello, Fulvio; Walkden, Nick; Harrison, James; Silburn, Scott; Bradley, James

    2017-10-01

    Coherent filamentary structures have been shown to play a dominant role in turbulent cross-field particle transport [D'Ippolito 2011]. An improved understanding of filaments is vital in order to control scrape off layer (SOL) density profiles and thus control first wall erosion, impurity flushing and coupling of radio frequency heating in future devices. The Elzar code [T. Farley, 2017 in prep.] is applied to MAST data. The code uses information about the magnetic equilibrium to calculate the intensity of light emission along field lines as seen in the camera images, as a function of the field lines' radial and toroidal locations at the mid-plane. In this way a `pseudo-inversion' of the intensity profiles in the camera images is achieved from which filaments can be identified and measured. In this work, a statistical analysis of the intensity fluctuations along field lines in the camera field of view is performed using techniques similar to those typically applied in standard Langmuir probe analyses. These filament statistics are interpreted in terms of the theoretical ergodic framework presented by F. Militello & J.T. Omotani, 2016, in order to better understand how time averaged filament dynamics produce the more familiar SOL density profiles. This work has received funding from the RCUK Energy programme (Grant Number EP/P012450/1), from Euratom (Grant Agreement No. 633053) and from the EUROfusion consortium.

  6. Bundling Actin Filaments From Membranes: Some Novel Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément eThomas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Progress in live-cell imaging of the cytoskeleton has significantly extended our knowledge about the organization and dynamics of actin filaments near the plasma membrane of plant cells. Noticeably, two populations of filamentous structures can be distinguished. On the one hand, fine actin filaments which exhibit an extremely dynamic behavior basically characterized by fast polymerization and prolific severing events, a process referred to as actin stochastic dynamics. On the other hand, thick actin bundles which are composed of several filaments and which are comparatively more stable although they constantly remodel as well. There is evidence that the actin cytoskeleton plays critical roles in trafficking and signaling at both the cell cortex and organelle periphery but the exact contribution of actin bundles remains unclear. A common view is that actin bundles provide the long-distance tracks used by myosin motors to deliver their cargo to growing regions and accordingly play a particularly important role in cell polarization. However, several studies support that actin bundles are more than simple passive highways and display multiple and dynamic roles in the regulation of many processes, such as cell elongation, polar auxin transport, stomatal and chloroplast movement, and defense against pathogens. The list of identified plant actin-bundling proteins is ever expanding, supporting that plant cells shape structurally and functionally different actin bundles. Here I review the most recently characterized actin-bundling proteins, with a particular focus on those potentially relevant to membrane trafficking and/or signaling.

  7. Isolation and cultivation of filamentous bacteria implicated in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Filamentous bacteria have long been associated with activated sludge bulking and foaming and are known to be the main cause of this problem. Chemical control methods such as chlorination and the use of hydrogen peroxide have been, and still are, used to cure bulking and foaming but are only effective as interim ...

  8. Tesla coil discharges guided by femtosecond laser filaments in air

    OpenAIRE

    Brelet, Yohann; Houard, Aurélien; Arantchouk, Leonid; Forestier, Benjamin; Liu, Yi; Prade, Bernard; Carbonnel, Jérôme; André, Yves-Bernard; Mysyrowicz, André

    2012-01-01

    International audience; A Tesla coil generator was designed to produce high voltage pulses oscillating at 100 kHz synchronisable with a nanosecond temporal jitter. Using this compact high voltage generator, we demonstrate reproducible meter long discharges in air at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. Triggering and guiding of the discharges are performed in air by femtosecond laser filaments.

  9. Tesla coil discharges guided by femtosecond laser filaments in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brelet, Yohann; Houard, Aurélien; Arantchouk, Leonid; Forestier, Benjamin; Liu, Yi; Prade, Bernard; Carbonnel, Jérôme; André, Yves-Bernard; Mysyrowicz, André

    2012-04-01

    A Tesla coil generator was designed to produce high voltage pulses oscillating at 100 kHz synchronisable with a nanosecond temporal jitter. Using this compact high voltage generator, we demonstrate reproducible meter long discharges in air at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. Triggering and guiding of the discharges are performed in air by femtosecond laser filaments.

  10. Protein secretion in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenink, Xavier Oswin

    2008-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are multicellular eukaryotic organisms, which represent a separate taxonomic group organisms within the fungal kingdom, apart from the yeasts. These fungi always need a substrate to grow on, this can be living or dead material. Fungi possess the capacity to secrete high levels of

  11. Directed Evolution of a Filamentous Fungus for Thermotolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filamentous fungi represent the most widely used eukaryotic biocatalysts in industrial and chemical applications. Metarhizium anisopliae is a broad-host-range entomopathogenic fungus currently under intensive investigation as a biologically based alternative to chemical pesticides. One of the most p...

  12. Multifunction of autophagy-related genes in filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Irshad Ali; Lu, Jian-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Rehman, Abdur; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2012-06-20

    Autophagy (macroautophagy), a highly conserved eukaryotic mechanism, is a non-selective degradation process, helping to maintain a balance between the synthesis, degradation and subsequent recycling of macromolecules to overcome various stress conditions. The term autophagy denotes any cellular process which involves the delivery of cytoplasmic material to the lysosome for degradation. Autophagy, in filamentous fungi plays a critical role during cellular development and pathogenicity. Autophagy, like the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade and nutrient-sensing cyclic AMP (cAMP) pathway, is also an important process for appressorium turgor accumulation in order to penetrate the leaf surface of host plant and destroy the plant defense. Yeast, an autophagy model, has been used to compare the multi-valued functions of ATG (autophagy-related genes) in different filamentous fungi. The autophagy machinery in both yeast and filamentous fungi is controlled by Tor kinase and both contain two distinct phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complexes. In this review, we focus on the functions of ATG genes during pathogenic development in filamentous fungi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of macroautophagy in development of filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoszewska, Magdalena; Kiel, Jan A K W

    2011-06-01

    Autophagy (macroautophagy) is a bulk degradative pathway by which cytoplasmic components are delivered to the vacuole for recycling. This process is conserved from yeast to human, where it is implicated in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. During the last decade, many ATG genes involved in autophagy have been identified, initially in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This review summarizes the knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of autophagy using yeast as model system. Although many of the core components involved in autophagy are conserved from yeast to human, there are, nevertheless, significant differences between these organisms, for example, during autophagy initiation. Autophagy also plays an essential role in filamentous fungi especially during differentiation. Remarkably, in these species autophagy may reflect features of both yeast and mammals. This is exemplified by the finding that filamentous fungi lack the S. cerevisiae clade-specific Atg31 protein, but contain Atg101, which is absent in this clade. A reappraisal of genome data further suggests that, similar to yeast and mammals, filamentous fungi probably also contain two distinct phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complexes. This review also summarizes the state of knowledge on the role of autophagy in filamentous fungi during differentiation, such as pathogenic development, programmed cell death during heteroincompatibility, and spore formation.

  14. Yeast and filamentous fungi as model organisms in microbody research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klei, Ida J. van der; Veenhuis, Marten

    2006-01-01

    Yeast and filamentous fungi are important model organisms in microbody research. The value of these organisms as models for higher eukaryotes is underscored by the observation that the principles of various aspects of microbody biology are strongly conserved from lower to higher eukaryotes. This has

  15. Solar Tornadoes Triggered by Interaction between Filaments and EUV Jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Huadong; Zhang, Jun; Ma, Suli [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Yan, Xiaoli [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Xue, Jianchao, E-mail: hdchen@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory for Dark Matter and Space Science, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2017-05-20

    We investigate the formations and evolutions of two successive solar tornadoes in/near AR 12297 during 2015 March 19–20. Recurrent EUV jets close to two filaments were detected along a large-scale coronal loop prior to the appearances of the tornadoes. Under the disturbances from the activities, the filaments continually ascended and finally interacted with the loops tracked by the jets. Subsequently, the structures of the filaments and the loop were merged together, probably via magnetic reconnections, and formed tornado-like structures with a long spiral arm. Our observations suggest that solar tornadoes can be triggered by the interaction between filaments and nearby coronal jets, which has rarely been reported before. At the earlier development phase of the first tornado, about 30 small-scale sub-jets appeared in the tornado’s arm, accompanied by local EUV brightenings. They have an ejection direction approximately vertical to the axis of the arm and a typical maximum speed of ∼280 km s{sup −1}. During the ruinations of the two tornadoes, fast plasma outflows from the strong EUV brightenings inside tornadoes are observed, in company with the untangling or unwinding of the highly twisted tornado structures. These observational features indicate that self reconnections probably occurred between the tangled magnetic fields of the tornadoes and resulted in the rapid disintegrations and disappearances of the tornadoes. According to the reconnection theory, we also derive the field strength of the tornado core to be ∼8 G.

  16. Solar Tornadoes Triggered by Interaction between Filaments and EUV Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huadong; Zhang, Jun; Ma, Suli; Yan, Xiaoli; Xue, Jianchao

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the formations and evolutions of two successive solar tornadoes in/near AR 12297 during 2015 March 19-20. Recurrent EUV jets close to two filaments were detected along a large-scale coronal loop prior to the appearances of the tornadoes. Under the disturbances from the activities, the filaments continually ascended and finally interacted with the loops tracked by the jets. Subsequently, the structures of the filaments and the loop were merged together, probably via magnetic reconnections, and formed tornado-like structures with a long spiral arm. Our observations suggest that solar tornadoes can be triggered by the interaction between filaments and nearby coronal jets, which has rarely been reported before. At the earlier development phase of the first tornado, about 30 small-scale sub-jets appeared in the tornado’s arm, accompanied by local EUV brightenings. They have an ejection direction approximately vertical to the axis of the arm and a typical maximum speed of ˜280 km s-1. During the ruinations of the two tornadoes, fast plasma outflows from the strong EUV brightenings inside tornadoes are observed, in company with the untangling or unwinding of the highly twisted tornado structures. These observational features indicate that self reconnections probably occurred between the tangled magnetic fields of the tornadoes and resulted in the rapid disintegrations and disappearances of the tornadoes. According to the reconnection theory, we also derive the field strength of the tornado core to be ˜8 G.

  17. Carbazole hydroxylation by the filamentous fungi of the Cunninghamella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzka, K; Bernat, P; Felczak, A; Lisowska, K

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen heterocyclic compounds, especially carbazole, quinolone, and pyridine are common types of environmental pollutants. Carbazole has a toxic influence on living organisms, and the knowledge of its persistence and bioconversion in ecosystems is still not complete. There is an increasing interest in detoxification of hazardous xenobiotics by microorganisms. In this study, the ability of three filamentous fungi of the Cunninghamella species to eliminate carbazole was evaluated. The Cunninghamella elegans IM 1785/21Gp and Cunninghamella echinulata IM 2611 strains efficiently removed carbazole. The IM 1785/21Gp and IM 2611 strains converted 93 and 82 % of the initial concentration of the xenobiotic (200 mg L(-1)) after 120 h incubation. 2-Hydroxycarbazole was for the first time identified as a carbazole metabolite formed by the filamentous fungi of the Cunninghamella species. There was no increase in the toxicity of the postculture extracts toward Artemia franciscana. Moreover, we showed an influence of carbazole on the phospholipid composition of the cells of the tested filamentous fungi, which indicated its harmful effect on the fungal cell membrane. The most significant modification of phospholipid levels after the cultivation of filamentous fungi with the addition of carbazole was showed for IM 1785/21Gp strain.

  18. Motility patterns of filamentous sulfur bacteria, Beggiatoa spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunker, Rita; Røy, Hans; Kamp, Anja

    2011-01-01

    The large sulfur bacteria, Beggiatoa spp., live on the oxidation of sulfide with oxygen or nitrate, but avoid high concentrations of both sulfide and oxygen. As gliding filaments, they rely on reversals in the gliding direction to find their preferred environment, the oxygen–sulfide interface. We...

  19. Alignments of Galaxies within Cosmic Filaments from SDSS DR7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youcai; Yang, Xiaohu; Wang, Huiyuan; Wang, Lei; Mo, H. J.; van den Bosch, Frank C.

    2013-12-01

    Using a sample of galaxy groups selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we examine the alignment between the orientation of galaxies and their surrounding large-scale structure in the context of the cosmic web. The latter is quantified using the large-scale tidal field, reconstructed from the data using galaxy groups above a certain mass threshold. We find that the major axes of galaxies in filaments tend to be preferentially aligned with the directions of the filaments, while galaxies in sheets have their major axes preferentially aligned parallel to the plane of the sheets. The strength of this alignment signal is strongest for red, central galaxies, and in good agreement with that of dark matter halos in N-body simulations. This suggests that red, central galaxies are well aligned with their host halos, in quantitative agreement with previous studies based on the spatial distribution of satellite galaxies. There is a luminosity and mass dependence that brighter and more massive galaxies in filaments and sheets have stronger alignment signals. We also find that the orientation of galaxies is aligned with the eigenvector associated with the smallest eigenvalue of the tidal tensor. These observational results indicate that galaxy formation is affected by large-scale environments and strongly suggest that galaxies are aligned with each other over scales comparable to those of sheets and filaments in the cosmic web.

  20. Decidable and undecidable arithmetic functions in actin filament networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is very sensitive to its environment, and reacts to stimuli with appropriate motions. Both the sensory and motor stages of these reactions are explained by hydrodynamic processes, based on fluid dynamics, with the participation of actin filament networks. This paper is devoted to actin filament networks as a computational medium. The point is that actin filaments, with contributions from many other proteins like myosin, are sensitive to extracellular stimuli (attractants as well as repellents), and appear and disappear at different places in the cell to change aspects of the cell structure—e.g. its shape. By assembling and disassembling actin filaments, some unicellular organisms, like Amoeba proteus, can move in response to various stimuli. As a result, these organisms can be considered a simple reversible logic gate—extracellular signals being its inputs and motions its outputs. In this way, we can implement various logic gates on amoeboid behaviours. These networks can embody arithmetic functions within p-adic valued logic. Furthermore, within these networks we can define the so-called diagonalization for deducing undecidable arithmetic functions.

  1. Propulsion by passive filaments and active flagella near boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Arthur A.; Lauga, Eric

    2010-10-01

    Confinement and wall effects are known to affect the kinematics and propulsive characteristics of swimming microorganisms. When a solid body is dragged through a viscous fluid at constant velocity, the presence of a wall increases fluid drag, and thus the net force required to maintain speed has to increase. In contrast, recent optical trapping experiments have revealed that the propulsive force generated by human spermatozoa is decreased by the presence of boundaries. Here, we use a series of simple models to analytically elucidate the propulsive effects of a solid boundary on passively actuated filaments and model flagella. For passive flexible filaments actuated periodically at one end, the presence of the wall is shown to increase the propulsive forces generated by the filaments in the case of displacement-driven actuation, while it decreases the force in the case of force-driven actuation. In the case of active filaments as models for eukaryotic flagella, we demonstrate that the manner in which a solid wall affects propulsion cannot be known a priori, but is instead a nontrivial function of the flagellum frequency, wavelength, its material characteristics, the manner in which the molecular motors self-organize to produce oscillations (prescribed activity model or self-organized axonemal beating model), and the boundary conditions applied experimentally to the tethered flagellum. In particular, we show that in some cases, the increase in fluid friction induced by the wall can lead to a change in the waveform expressed by the flagella, which results in a decrease in their propulsive force.

  2. Organic acid production in Aspergillus niger and other filamentous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odoni, Dorett I.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to increase the understanding of organic acid production in Aspergillus niger and other filamentous fungi, with the ultimate purpose to improve A. niger as biotechnological production host. In Chapter 1, the use of microbial cell-factories for the

  3. Transportation of Nanoscale Cargoes by Myosin Propelled Actin Filaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persson, Malin; Gullberg, Maria; Tolf, Conny; Lindberg, A. Michael; Mansson, Alf; Kocer, Armagan

    2013-01-01

    Myosin II propelled actin filaments move ten times faster than kinesin driven microtubules and are thus attractive candidates as cargo-transporting shuttles in motor driven lab-on-a-chip devices. In addition, actomyosin-based transportation of nanoparticles is useful in various fundamental studies.

  4. Genome sequencing and analysis of the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Marco A.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Badger, Jonathan H.; Daran, Jean-Marc; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Garcia-Estrada, Carlos; Fedorova, Natalie D.; Harris, Diana M.; Heijne, Wilbert H. M.; Joardar, Vinita; Kiel, Jan A. K. W.; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Martin, Juan F.; Nierman, William C.; Nijland, Jeroen G.; Pronk, Jack T.; Roubos, Johannes A.; van der Klei, Ida J.; van Peij, Noel N. M. E.; Veenhuis, Marten; von Doehren, Hans; Wagner, Christian; Wortman, Jennifer; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.

    2008-01-01

    Industrial penicillin production with the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum is based on an unprecedented effort in microbial strain improvement. To gain more insight into penicillin synthesis, we sequenced the 32.19 Mb genome of P. chrysogenum Wisconsin54-1255 and identified numerous genes

  5. Spin alignment of dark matter haloes in filaments and walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aragón-Calvo, M. A.; Weygaert, R. van de; Jones, B. J. T.; Hulst, T. van der

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: The MMF technique is used to segment the cosmic web as seen in a cosmological N-body simulation into wall-like and filament-like structures. We find that the spins and shapes of dark matter haloes are significantly correlated with each other and with the orientation of their host

  6. Spin alignment of dark matter halos in filaments and walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A.; van de Weygaert, Rien; Jones, Bernard J. T.; van der Hulst, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    The MMF technique is used to segment the cosmic web as seen in a cosmological N-body simulation into wall-like and filament-like structures. We find that the spins and shapes of dark matter halos are significantly correlated with each other and with the orientation of their host structures. The

  7. Filamentous fungi as cell factories for heterologous protein production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, P.J.; Biezen, N. van; Conesa, A.; Albers, A.; Mangnus, J.; Hondel, C. van den

    2002-01-01

    Filamentous fungi have been used as sources of metabolites and enzymes for centuries. For about two decades, molecular genetic tools have enabled us to use these organisms to express extra copies of both endogenous and exogenous genes. This review of current practice reveals that molecular tools

  8. 3D Filament Network Segmentation with Multiple Active Contours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Vavylonis, Dimitrios; Huang, Xiaolei

    2014-03-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is frequently used to study two and three dimensional network structures formed by cytoskeletal polymer fibers such as actin filaments and microtubules. While these cytoskeletal structures are often dilute enough to allow imaging of individual filaments or bundles of them, quantitative analysis of these images is challenging. To facilitate quantitative, reproducible and objective analysis of the image data, we developed a semi-automated method to extract actin networks and retrieve their topology in 3D. Our method uses multiple Stretching Open Active Contours (SOACs) that are automatically initialized at image intensity ridges and then evolve along the centerlines of filaments in the network. SOACs can merge, stop at junctions, and reconfigure with others to allow smooth crossing at junctions of filaments. The proposed approach is generally applicable to images of curvilinear networks with low SNR. We demonstrate its potential by extracting the centerlines of synthetic meshwork images, actin networks in 2D TIRF Microscopy images, and 3D actin cable meshworks of live fission yeast cells imaged by spinning disk confocal microscopy.

  9. Monetary value of the impacts of filamentous green algae on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents estimates of the monetary value of the impact of eutrophication (algae) on commercial agriculture in two different catchments in South Africa. A production function approach is applied to estimate the monetary value of the impact of filamentous green algae on commercial agriculture in the Dwars River, ...

  10. Very Fast Temperature Measurement with a Thin Lamp Filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Calza, Gratton, L. M.; Lopez-Arias, T.; Oss, S.

    2012-01-01

    We construct a thermometer exploiting the electric resistance of the filament of a small lamp used in micro-illumination settings. The instrument may guarantee a response time better than 10 ms, i.e. much faster than commercial thermocouples or other quite expensive devices. This makes our thermometer a useful one in several processes which are…

  11. Self-assembly of designed supramolecular magnetic filaments of different shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, E. V.; Rozhkov, D. A.; Sanchez, P. A.; Kantorovich, S. S.

    2017-06-01

    In the present work we study via molecular dynamics simulations filaments of ring and linear shape. Filaments are made of magnetic nanoparticles, possessing a point dipole in their centres. Particles in filaments are crosslinked in a particular way, so that the deviation of the neighbouring dipoles from the head-to-tail orientation is penalised by the bond. We show how the conformation of a single chain and ring filament changes on cooling for different lengths. We also study filament pairs, by fixing filaments at a certain distance and analysing the impact of inter-filament interaction on the equilibrium configurations. Our study opens a perspective to investigate the dispersions of filaments, both theoretically and numerically, by using effective potentials.

  12. Influence of plasma background including neutrals on scrape-off layer filaments using 3D simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schwörer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of the plasma background, including neutrals in a self-consistent way, on filaments in the scrape-off layer (SOL of fusion devices. A strong dependency of filament motion on background density and temperature is observed. The radial filament motion shows an increase in velocity with decreasing background density and increasing background temperature. In the simulations presented here, three neutral-filament interaction models have been compared, one with a static neutral background, one with no interaction between filaments and neutrals, and one co-evolving the neutrals self consistently with the filaments. With the background conditions employed here, which do not show detachment, there are no significant effects of neutrals on filaments, as by the time the filament reaches maximum velocity, the neutral density has not changed significantly.

  13. Microfluidics-Assisted TIRF Imaging to Study Single Actin Filament Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Shashank

    2017-12-11

    Dynamic assembly of actin filaments is essential for many cellular processes. The rates of assembly and disassembly of actin filaments are intricately controlled by regulatory proteins that interact with the ends and the sides of filaments and with actin monomers. TIRF-based single-filament imaging techniques have proven instrumental in uncovering mechanisms of actin regulation. In this unit, novel single-filament approaches using microfluidics-assisted TIRF imaging are described. These methods can be used to grow anchored actin filaments aligned in a flow, thus making the analysis much easier as compared to open flow cell approaches. The microfluidic nature of the system also enables rapid change of biochemical conditions and allows simultaneous imaging of a large number of actin filaments. Support protocols for preparing microfluidic chambers and purifying spectrin-actin seeds used for nucleating anchored filaments are also described. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Frequency and diagnostic significance of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACCP and anti-modified citrullinated vimentin antibodies (AMCV in children with early juvenile arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S O Salugina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine frequency of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACCP and anti-modified citrullinated vimentin antibodies (AMCV elevation and their diagnostic significance in children with early juvenile arthritis (JA. Material and methods. ACCP were evaluated in serum of 80 pts with early JA (36 girls, 44 boys, mean age 8,5±5,03 years, AMCV — in 85 pts with early JA (49 girls and 36 boys aged from 1,5 to 16 years (mean age 8,7±4,9 years. Disease duration in all children was less than 6 months. Control group included 54 grown up pts with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA, 27 - with undifferentiated arthritis (UDA and 37 conditionally healthy children. АССР was assessed by immuno-enzyme assay (IEA with commercial kits “Axis Shield Diagnostics" (Great Britain, upper normal limit 5,0 U/ml. AMCV was examined by IEA with commercial kits “Orgentec Diagnostics” (Germany, upper normal limit — 25 U/ml. Results. ACCP was elevated in 7 children with early JA (8,8%. Frequency was higher than in healthy children but lower than in grown up pts with early RA and comparable with UDA. In juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA ACCP were more frequent than in juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA. Concentration was higher in rheumatoid factor (RF positive pts with polyarticular JA. AMCV level was elevated in in 23 (27,1% pts with early JA (more frequent than in healthy donors but less frequent than in grown up pts with early RA and UDA. AMCV was significantly more frequent in JRA than in JCA and in RF positive than in RF negative pts. AMCV concentration in JA was higher than in healthy children but lower than in grown up pts with RA. It was also higher in RF+ than RF- JA. ACCP and AMCV correlated with swollen joint count, tender joint count and RF. AMCV also correlated with ESR and CRP. Conclusion. In pts with early JA ACCP and AMCV are equally or more frequent than RF. In spite of low sensitivity they have high specificity for JRA in contrast

  15. Antagonistic interactions between filamentous heterotrophs and the cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf Sarah; van Moorsel Sofia J; Saladin Bianca; Svercel Miroslav; Bagheri Homayoun C

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Little is known about interactions between filamentous heterotrophs and filamentous cyanobacteria. Here, interactions between the filamentous heterotrophic bacteria Fibrella aestuarina (strain BUZ 2) and Fibrisoma limi (BUZ 3) with an axenic strain of the autotrophic filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum (SAG 25.82) were studied in mixed cultures under nutrient rich (carbon source present in medium) and poor (carbon source absent in medium) conditions. Findings F. aes...

  16. Antagonistic interactions between filamentous heterotrophs and the cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Sarah

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about interactions between filamentous heterotrophs and filamentous cyanobacteria. Here, interactions between the filamentous heterotrophic bacteria Fibrella aestuarina (strain BUZ 2 and Fibrisoma limi (BUZ 3 with an axenic strain of the autotrophic filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum (SAG 25.82 were studied in mixed cultures under nutrient rich (carbon source present in medium and poor (carbon source absent in medium conditions. Findings F. aestuarina BUZ 2 significantly reduced the cyanobacterial population whereas F. limi BUZ 3 did not. Physical contact between heterotrophs and autotroph was observed and the cyanobacterial cells showed some level of damage and lysis. Therefore, either contact lysis or entrapment with production of extracellular compounds in close vicinity of host cells could be considered as potential modes of action. The supernatants from pure heterotrophic cultures did not have an effect on Nostoc cultures. However, supernatant from mixed cultures of BUZ 2 and Nostoc had a negative effect on cyanobacterial growth, indicating that the lytic compounds were only produced in the presence of Nostoc. The growth and survival of tested heterotrophs was enhanced by the presence of Nostoc or its metabolites, suggesting that the heterotrophs could utilize the autotrophs and its products as a nutrient source. However, the autotroph could withstand and out-compete the heterotrophs under nutrient poor conditions. Conclusions Our results suggest that the nutrients in cultivation media, which boost or reduce the number of heterotrophs, were the important factor influencing the outcome of the interplay between filamentous heterotrophs and autotrophs. For better understanding of these interactions, additional research is needed. In particular, it is necessary to elucidate the mode of action for lysis by heterotrophs, and the possible defense mechanisms of the autotrophs.

  17. Antagonistic interactions between filamentous heterotrophs and the cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svercel, Miroslav; Saladin, Bianca; van Moorsel, Sofia J; Wolf, Sarah; Bagheri, Homayoun C

    2011-09-13

    Little is known about interactions between filamentous heterotrophs and filamentous cyanobacteria. Here, interactions between the filamentous heterotrophic bacteria Fibrella aestuarina (strain BUZ 2) and Fibrisoma limi (BUZ 3) with an axenic strain of the autotrophic filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum (SAG 25.82) were studied in mixed cultures under nutrient rich (carbon source present in medium) and poor (carbon source absent in medium) conditions. F. aestuarina BUZ 2 significantly reduced the cyanobacterial population whereas F. limi BUZ 3 did not. Physical contact between heterotrophs and autotroph was observed and the cyanobacterial cells showed some level of damage and lysis. Therefore, either contact lysis or entrapment with production of extracellular compounds in close vicinity of host cells could be considered as potential modes of action.The supernatants from pure heterotrophic cultures did not have an effect on Nostoc cultures. However, supernatant from mixed cultures of BUZ 2 and Nostoc had a negative effect on cyanobacterial growth, indicating that the lytic compounds were only produced in the presence of Nostoc.The growth and survival of tested heterotrophs was enhanced by the presence of Nostoc or its metabolites, suggesting that the heterotrophs could utilize the autotrophs and its products as a nutrient source. However, the autotroph could withstand and out-compete the heterotrophs under nutrient poor conditions. Our results suggest that the nutrients in cultivation media, which boost or reduce the number of heterotrophs, were the important factor influencing the outcome of the interplay between filamentous heterotrophs and autotrophs. For better understanding of these interactions, additional research is needed. In particular, it is necessary to elucidate the mode of action for lysis by heterotrophs, and the possible defense mechanisms of the autotrophs.

  18. [Comparison of genomes between Aspergillus nidulans and 30 filamentous ascomycetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhao-Qing; Zhao, Fu-Yong; Hsiang, Tom; Yu, Zhi-He

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the conserved homologs of filamentous ascomycetes genomes, the local fungal genome database used in this analysis was established, which consisted of 31 latest and complete genome data publicly available on the Internet. An expectation value cutoff of 0.1 was used to identify significant hits. Each complete gene set of the query genome Aspergillus nidulans genome with 10,560 annotated genes was splitted into individual FASTA files with Seqverter and then compared separately against each filamentous ascomycete genome using Standalone BLASTN. The result indicated that the number of matches reflected the evolutional relationships of the filamentous ascomycetes analysed. Of 10,560 genes in Aspergillus nidulans genome, 924 had match sequences with other 30 filamentous ascomycetes ones. The number of homology sequences were 6, 3, 6, and 6 at E-values in the range of 10(-5) to 0.1, 10(-30) to 10(-5), 10(-100) to 10(-30) and 0 to 1000(-100), respectively. Six homologs at E-values ranging from 10(-5) to 0.1 and 3 at E-values ranging from 10(-30) to 10(-5) were variable, while the 6 at E-values ranging from 0 to 10(-100) were highly conserved based on the alignments using ClustalX. Six homologs were relatively conserved at E-values in the range of 10(-100) to 10(-30), which can be used in phylogeny of these filamentous ascomycetes in this study.

  19. Some Intermediate-Level Violin Concertos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Contends that many violin students attempt difficult concertos before they are technically or musically prepared. Identifies a variety of concertos at the intermediate and advanced intermediate-level for students to study and master before attempting the advanced works by Bach and Mozart. Includes concertos by Vivaldi, Leclair, Viotti, Haydn,…

  20. Air Conditioning. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, William

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of seven terminal objectives for an intermediate air conditioning course. The titles of the seven terminal objectives are Refrigeration Cycle, Job Requirement Skills, Air Conditioning, Trouble Shooting, Performance Test, Shop Management, and S.I.E.…

  1. Intermedial Strategies of Memory in Contemporary Novels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Sara

    2014-01-01

    In her article "Intermedial Strategies and Memory in Contemporary Novels" Sara Tanderup discusses a tendency in contemporary literature towards combining intermedial experiments with a thematic preoccupation with memory and trauma. Analyzing selected works by Steven Hall, Jonathan Safran Foer...... of digital media while also highlighting the influence of new media on our cultural understanding and representation of memory and the past....

  2. Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marion

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of six terminal objectives presented in this curriculum guide for an intermediate gasoline engine mechanics course at the secondary level. (For the beginning course guide see CE 010 947.) The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hour…

  3. 19 CFR 122.84 - Intermediate airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermediate airport. 122.84 Section 122.84... Intermediate airport. (a) Application. The provisions of this section apply at any U.S. airport to which an... aircraft arrives at the next airport, the aircraft commander or agent shall make entry by filing the: (1...

  4. A metabolic model for the 0092 morphotype associated with filamentous bulking problems in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Karst, Søren Michael; Nierychlo, Marta

    Overgrowth of filamentous bacteria in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) leads to impaired sludge settleability, a condition known as bulking, which is a common operational problem worldwide. The B45 genus-level-taxon, exhibiting the Eikelboom 0092 bulking filament morphotype...... on an uncultured genus of filamentous organisms from activated sludge....

  5. The Weak Lensing Mass of Cosmic Web Filaments and Modified Gravity (MOG)

    OpenAIRE

    Moffat, J. W.

    2017-01-01

    The weak lensing of cosmic web filaments is investigated in modified gravity (MOG) and it is demonstrated that the detected galaxies and baryonic gas of order $5-15 \\%$ in filaments can with the enhanced value of the strength of gravity agree with the lensing data for filaments without dark matter.

  6. Fossil evidence for spin alignment of Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies in filaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Bernard J. T.; van de Weijgaert, Marinus; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    We search for and find fossil evidence that the spin axes of galaxies in cosmic web filaments relative to their host filaments are not randomly distributed. This indicates the fact that the action of large-scale tidal torques affected the alignments of galaxies located in cosmic filaments. To this

  7. Filamentous bacteria inhabiting the sheaths of marine Thioploca spp. on the Chilean continental shelf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teske, Andreas; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Gallardo, Victor A.

    2009-01-01

    A new component of the benthic Thioploca mat microbial ecosystem on the Chilean continental shelf was detected by epifluorescence microscopy: filamentous, bacterial endobionts of 4-5-μm filament diameter and length sometimes exceeding 1 mm. These filaments were identified as growing within...

  8. Non-linear elasticity of stiff filament networks: Strain stiffening, negative normal stress, and filament alignment in fibrin gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyeran; Wen, Qi; Janmey, Paul A; Tang, Jay X.; Conti, Enrico; MacKintosh, Fred C.

    2011-01-01

    Many biomaterials formed by crosslinked semiflexible or rigid filaments exhibit non-linear rheology in the form of strain-stiffening and negative normal stress when samples are deformed in simple shear geometry. Two different classes of theoretical models have been developed to explain this non-linear elastic response, which is neither predicted by rubber elasticity theory nor observed in elastomers or gels formed by flexible polymers. One model considers the response of isotropic networks of semiflexible polymers that have non-linear force-elongation relations arising from their thermal fluctuations. The other considers networks of rigid filaments with linear force-elongation relations in which non-linearity arises from non-affine deformation and a shift from filament bending to stretching at increasing strains. Fibrin gels are a good experimental system to test these theories because the fibrin monomer assembles under different conditions to form either thermally fluctuating protofibrils with persistence length on the order of the network mesh size, or thicker rigid fibers. Comparison of rheologic and optical measurements shows that strain stiffening and negative normal stress appear at smaller strains than those at which filament orientation is evident from birefringence. Comparisons of shear to normal stresses and the strain-dependence of shear moduli and birefringence suggest methods to evaluate the applicability of different theories of rod-like polymer networks. The strain-dependence of the ratio of normal stress to shear stress is one parameter that distinguishes semi-flexible and rigid filament models, and comparisons with experiments reveal conditions under which specific theories may be applicable. PMID:19243107

  9. Origin of Enigmatic Galactic-center Filaments Revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Twenty years ago, astronomers discovered a number of enigmatic radio-emitting filaments concentrated near the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. These features initially defied explanation, but a new study of radio images of the Galactic center may point to their possible source. By combining data from the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) and Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) astronomer Farhad Yusef-Zadeh of Northwestern University has found evidence that at least some of the filaments spring from the concentrated star-formation regions that populate the Galactic center. Galatic Center Combined VLA and GBT image (green) of the Galactic center, with red inset of GBT data only (red). Bright region on right is location of supermassive black hole. Linear filaments are visible above this area. CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Yusef-Zadeh, et.al. (Click on Image for Larger Version) Yusef-Zadeh presented his findings at the Denver, Colorado, meeting of the American Astronomical Society. William Cotton of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Charlottesville, Virginia, and William Hewitt of Northwestern University also contributed to this research. "Astronomers have long puzzled over the cause of these striking features," said Yusef-Zadeh, "and the turbulent nature of the Galactic center has made detailed analysis difficult. With new multi-wavelength radio images of the Galactic center, however, we can finally see a link between areas of starburst activity and these long-linear filaments." The filaments, which range from 10 to 100 light-years in length and are perhaps little more than 1 to 3 light-years across, occur only in a very narrow area, within approximately two degrees of the Galactic center (which translates to approximately 900 light-years across). Early theories about the origin of these filaments suggested that they were somehow related to the Milky Way’s own magnetic field. This was due to the fact that the first filaments detected

  10. Passive oscillations of two tandem flexible filaments in a flowing soap film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lai-Bing; Yin, Xie-Zhen

    2008-06-06

    The passive oscillations of flexible filaments in a flowing soap film were investigated to learn the serial interaction between them. When arranged in tandem, the downstream filament flaps at the same frequency as that of the upstream one, but with a larger amplitude, whereas the upstream one is almost unaffected compared to the single filament case. The data analysis shows the downstream filament indeed extracts energy from the vortex street and receives greater force than the upstream one or a single filament in a uniform flow.

  11. Language in use intermediate : teacher's book

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, Adrian

    1998-01-01

    Each of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit www.cambridge.org/elt/liu or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.

  12. Language in use intermediate : classroom book

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, Adrian

    1995-01-01

    ach of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit www.cambridge.org/elt/liu or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.

  13. Differential scanning calorimetry study of glycerinated rabbit psoas muscle fibres in intermediate state of ATP hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkas Nelli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermal denaturation experiments were extended to study the thermal behaviour of the main motor proteins (actin and myosin in their native environment in striated muscle fibres. The interaction of actin with myosin in the highly organized muscle structure is affected by internal forces; therefore their altered conformation and interaction may differ from those obtained in solution. The energetics of long functioning intermediate states of ATP hydrolysis cycle was studied in muscle fibres by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Results SETARAM Micro DSC-II was used to monitor the thermal denaturation of the fibre system in rigor and in the presence of nucleotide and nucleotide analogues. The AM.ADP.Pi state of the ATP hydrolysis cycle has a very short lifetime therefore, we mimicked the different intermediate states with AMP.PNP and/or inorganic phosphate analogues Vi and AlF4 or BeFx. Studying glycerol-extracted muscle fibres from the rabbit psoas muscle by DSC, three characteristic thermal transitions were detected in rigor. The thermal transitions can be assigned to myosin heads, myosin rods and actin with transition temperatures (Tm of 52.9 ± 0.7°C, 57.9 ± 0.7°C, 63.7 ± 1.0°C. In different intermediate states of the ATP hydrolysis mimicked by nucleotide analogues a fourth thermal transition was also detected which is very likely connected with nucleotide binding domain of myosin and/or actin filaments. This transition temperature Tm4 depended on the mimicked intermediate states, and varied in the range of 66°C – 77°C. Conclusion According to DSC measurements, strongly and weakly binding states of myosin to actin were significantly different. In the presence of ADP only a moderate change of the DSC pattern was detected in comparison with rigor, whereas in ADP.Pi state trapped by Vi, AlF4 or BeFx a remarkable stabilization was detected on the myosin head and actin filament which is reflected in a 3.0 – 10.0

  14. Gliding motility driven by individual cell-surface movements in a multicellular filamentous bacterium Chloroflexus aggregans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Shun-Ichi; Morohoshi, Sho; Hanada, Satoshi; Matsuura, Katsumi; Haruta, Shin

    2016-04-01

    Chloroflexus aggregans is an unbranched multicellular filamentous bacterium having the ability of gliding motility. The filament moves straightforward at a constant rate, ∼3 μm sec(-1) on solid surface and occasionally reverses the moving direction. In this study, we successfully detected movements of glass beads on the cell-surface along long axis of the filament indicating that the cell-surface movement was the direct force for gliding. Microscopic analyses found that the cell-surface movements were confined to a cell of the filament, and each cell independently moved and reversed the direction. To understand how the cellular movements determine the moving direction of the filament, we proposed a discrete-time stochastic model; sum of the directions of the cellular movements determines the moving direction of the filament only when the filament pauses, and after moving, the filament keeps the same directional movement until all the cells pause and/or move in the opposite direction. Monte Carlo simulation of this model showed that reversal frequency of longer filaments was relatively fixed to be low, but the frequency of shorter filaments varied widely. This simulation result appropriately explained the experimental observations. This study proposed the relevant mechanism adequately describing the motility of the multicellular filament in C. aggregans. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. An Early Cretaceous heterodontosaurid dinosaur with filamentous integumentary structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao-Ting; You, Hai-Lu; Xu, Xing; Dong, Zhi-Ming

    2009-03-19

    Ornithischia is one of the two major groups of dinosaurs, with heterodontosauridae as one of its major clades. Heterodontosauridae is characterized by small, gracile bodies and a problematic phylogenetic position. Recent phylogenetic work indicates that it represents the most basal group of all well-known ornithischians. Previous heterodontosaurid records are mainly from the Early Jurassic period (205-190 million years ago) of Africa. Here we report a new heterodontosaurid, Tianyulong confuciusi gen. et sp. nov., from the Early Cretaceous period (144-99 million years ago) of western Liaoning Province, China. Tianyulong extends the geographical distribution of heterodontosaurids to Asia and confirms the clade's previously questionable temporal range extension into the Early Cretaceous period. More surprisingly, Tianyulong bears long, singular and unbranched filamentous integumentary (outer skin) structures. This represents the first confirmed report, to our knowledge, of filamentous integumentary structures in an ornithischian dinosaur.

  16. Rapid microfabrication of transparent materials using filamented femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkus, S.; Gaižauskas, E.; Paipulas, D.; Viburys, Ž.; Kaškelyė, D.; Barkauskas, M.; Alesenkov, A.; Sirutkaitis, V.

    2014-01-01

    Microfabrication of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses has showed good potential towards industrial application. Maintaining pulse energies exceeding the critical self-focusing threshold by more than 100-fold produced filaments that were used for micromachining purposes. This article demonstrates two different micromachining techniques using femtosecond filaments generated in different transparent media (water and glass). The stated micromachining techniques are cutting and welding of transparent samples. In addition, cutting and drilling experiments were backed by theoretical modelling giving a deeper insight into the whole process. We demonstrate cut-out holes in soda-lime glass having thickness up to 1 mm and aspect ratios close to 20, moreover, the fabrication time is of the order of tens of seconds, in addition, grooves and holes were fabricated in hardened 1.1 mm thick glass (Corning Gorilla glass). Glass welding was made possible and welded samples were achieved after several seconds of laser fabrication.

  17. Coordinated process of polarized growth in filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Norio

    2016-09-01

    Filamentous fungi are extremely polarized organisms, exhibiting continuous growth at their hyphal tips. The hyphal form is related to their pathogenicity in animals and plants, and their high secretion ability for biotechnology. Polarized growth requires a sequential supply of proteins and lipids to the hyphal tip. This transport is managed by vesicle trafficking via the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. Therefore, the arrangement of the cytoskeleton is a crucial step to establish and maintain the cell polarity. This review summarizes recent findings unraveling the mechanism of polarized growth with special emphasis on the role of actin and microtubule cytoskeleton and polarity marker proteins. Rapid insertions of membranes via highly active exocytosis at hyphal tips could quickly dilute the accumulated polarity marker proteins. Recent findings by a super-resolution microscopy indicate that filamentous fungal cells maintain their polarity at the tips by repeating transient assembly and disassembly of polarity sites.

  18. Prokaryotic DNA segregation by an actin-like filament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Bugge Jensen, Rasmus; Löwe, Jan

    2002-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for prokaryotic DNA segregation are largely unknown. The partitioning locus (par) encoded by the Escherichia coli plasmid R1 actively segregates its replicon to daughter cells. We show here that the ParM ATPase encoded by par forms dynamic actin-like filaments...... was ATP dependent, and depolymerization of ParM filaments required nucleotide hydrolysis. Our in vivo and in vitro results indicate that ParM polymerization generates the force required for directional movement of plasmids to opposite cell poles and that the ParR-parC complex functions as a nucleation...... point for ParM polymerization. Hence, we provide evidence for a simple prokaryotic analogue of the eukaryotic mitotic spindle apparatus....

  19. [Treatment of polluted urban river water using filamentous green algae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xia; Li, Xiao-Ping

    2008-01-01

    Filamentous green algae dominated treatment system was set up to remove contaminants from polluted urban river water under lab conditions. Experiments show that TP is decreased up to 50%, associated with 72% removal of TSS. The removal efficiencies of soluble species, PO4(3-) and NH4(+)-N, are up to 90% and 85% respectively. Under heavily polluted conditions (TP > 3.0 mg x L(-1), TN > 22.0 mg x L(-1)), the average removal efficiencies of TP and TN are 89% and 45% respectively, while under light polluted conditions (TP filamentous green algae is increased significantly (38.78%), and at the same time a large number of unicellular Chlorophytes and Cyanophytes species are occurred on the interior wall surface of experimental fertility. The maximum biomass occurs at the highest concentration of DO.

  20. Mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria in carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-09-01

    The quest for conclusive evidence of microfossils in meteorites has been elusive. Abiotic microstructures, mineral grains, and even coating artifacts may mimic unicellular bacteria, archaea and nanobacteria with simple spherical or rod morphologies (i.e., cocci, diplococci, bacilli, etc.). This is not the case for the larger and more complex microorganisms, colonies and microbial consortia and ecosystems. Microfossils of algae, cyanobacteria, and cyanobacterial and microbial mats have been recognized and described from many of the most ancient rocks on Earth. The filamentous cyanobacteria and sulphur-bacteria have very distinctive size ranges, complex and recognizable morphologies and visibly differentiated cellular microstructures. The taphonomic modes of fossilization and the life habits and processes of these microorganisms often result in distinctive chemical biosignatures associated with carbonization, silicification, calcification, phosphatization and metal-binding properties of their cell-walls, trichomes, sheaths and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Valid biogenicity is provided by the combination of a suite of known biogenic elements (that differ from the meteorite matrix) found in direct association with recognizable and distinct biological features and microstructures (e.g., uniseriate or multiseriate filaments, trichomes, sheaths and cells of proper size/size range); specialized cells (e.g., basal or apical cells, hormogonia, akinetes, and heterocysts); and evidence of growth characteristics (e.g., spiral filaments, robust or thin sheaths, laminated sheaths, true or false branching of trichomes, tapered or uniform filaments) and evidence of locomotion (e.g. emergent cells and trichomes, coiling hormogonia, and hollow or flattened and twisted sheaths). Since 1997 we have conducted Environmental and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM and FESEM) studies of freshly fractured interior surfaces of carbonaceous meteorites, terrestrial

  1. Platinum coating of solution-spun Y 1Ba 2Cu 3O X filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tomoko; Niwa, Masato; Kawanaka, Asaichi

    1992-05-01

    Platinum coating of partially melted Y 1Ba 2Cu 3O X filament produced by solution spinning is examined in order to enhance the Jc of the filament. The filament was prepared by solution spinning through a homogeneous aqueous solution containing mixed acetates of Y, Ba and Cu, polyvinyl alcohol and organic acids. The heated filaments are dip-coated in aquious solution of Pt chlorate. By controlling the melt-growth process of the filament, dense and highly oriented textures are produced and a maximum transport JCT of 36 000 A/cm 2 at 77 K and 0 T is achieved. The fiber axis of the filament appears to coincide with the direction perpendicular to the c-axis of the orthorhombic phase in the superconducting layer. The JCT of the filament is strongly dependent on the degree of crystal orientation.

  2. Resolving the fragmentation of high line-mass filaments with ALMA: the integral shaped filament in Orion A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainulainen, J.; Stutz, A. M.; Stanke, T.; Abreu-Vicente, J.; Beuther, H.; Henning, T.; Johnston, K. G.; Megeath, S. T.

    2017-04-01

    We study the fragmentation of the nearest high line-mass filament, the integral shaped filament (ISF, line-mass 400 M⊙ pc-1) in the Orion A molecular cloud. We have observed a 1.6 pc long section of the ISF with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimeter Array (ALMA) at 3 mm continuum emission, at a resolution of 3″ (1200 AU). We identify from the region 43 dense cores with masses about a solar mass. 60% of the ALMA cores are protostellar and 40% are starless. The nearest neighbour separations of the cores do not show a preferred fragmentation scale; the frequency of short separations increases down to 1200 AU. We apply a two-point correlation analysis on the dense core separations and show that the ALMA cores are significantly grouped at separations below 17 000 AU and strongly grouped below 6000 AU. The protostellar and starless cores are grouped differently: only the starless cores group strongly below 6000 AU. In addition, the spatial distribution of the cores indicates periodic grouping of the cores into groups of 30 000 AU in size, separated by 50 000 AU. The groups coincide with dust column density peaks detected by Herschel. These results show hierarchical, two-mode fragmentation in which the maternal filament periodically fragments into groups of dense cores. Critically, our results indicate that the fragmentation models for lower line-mass filaments ( 16 M⊙ pc-1) fail to capture the observed properties of the ISF. We also find that the protostars identified with Spitzer and Herschel in the ISF are grouped at separations below 17 000 AU. In contrast, young stars with disks do not show significant grouping. This suggests that the grouping of dense cores is partially retained over the protostar lifetime, but not over the lifetime of stars with disks. This is in agreement with a scenario where protostars are ejected from the maternal filament by the slingshot mechanism, a model recently proposed for the ISF. The separation distributions of the dense

  3. Directed evolution of a filamentous fungus for thermotolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Crecy, Eudes; Jaronski, Stefan; Lyons, Benjamin; Lyons, Thomas J; Keyhani, Nemat O

    2009-08-26

    Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotic biocatalysts in industrial and chemical applications. Consequently, there is tremendous interest in methodology that can use the power of genetics to develop strains with improved performance. For example, Metarhizium anisopliae is a broad host range entomopathogenic fungus currently under intensive investigation as a biologically based alternative to chemical pesticides. However, it use is limited by the relatively low tolerance of this species to abiotic stresses such as heat, with most strains displaying little to no growth between 35-37 degrees C. In this study, we used a newly developed automated continuous culture method called the Evolugator, which takes advantage of a natural selection-adaptation strategy, to select for thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae strain 2575 displaying robust growth at 37 degrees C. Over a 4 month time course, 22 cycles of growth and dilution were used to select 2 thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae. Both variants displayed robust growth at 36.5 degrees C, whereas only one was able to grow at 37 degrees C. Insect bioassays using Melanoplus sanguinipes (grasshoppers) were also performed to determine if thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae retained entomopathogenicity. Assays confirmed that thermotolerant variants were, indeed, entomopathogenic, albeit with complex alterations in virulence parameters such as lethal dose responses (LD50) and median survival times (ST50). We report the experimental evolution of a filamentous fungus via the novel application of a powerful new continuous culture device. This is the first example of using continuous culture to select for complex phenotypes such as thermotolerance. Temperature adapted variants of the insect-pathogenic, filamentous fungus M. anisopliae were isolated and demonstrated to show vigorous growth at a temperature that is inhibitory for the parent strain. Insect virulence assays confirmed that pathogenicity can be

  4. Discrimination of motile bacteria from filamentous fungi using dynamic speckle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murialdo, Silvia E.; Passoni, Lucía I.; Guzman, Marcelo N.; Sendra, G. Hernán; Rabal, Héctor; Trivi, Marcelo; Gonzalez, J. Froilán

    2012-05-01

    We present a dynamic laser speckle method to easily discriminate filamentous fungi from motile bacteria in soft surfaces, such as agar plate. The method allows the detection and discrimination between fungi and bacteria faster than with conventional techniques. The new procedure could be straightforwardly extended to different micro-organisms, as well as applied to biological and biomedical research, infected tissues analysis, and hospital water and wastewaters studies.

  5. Filamentous fungi from the Atlantic marine sponge Dragmacidon reticulatum

    OpenAIRE

    Passarini, Michel. R. Z.; Santos, C; Lima, Nelson; Berlinck, Roberto G.S.; Sette, Lara D

    2012-01-01

    Dragmacidon reticulatum is a marine sponge of wide occurrence in the Eastern and Western Atlantic. Little is known about D. reticulatum fungal diversity. Filamentous fungi recovered from D. reticulatum were assessed in the present study using a polyphasic taxonomic approach, including classical morphology, molecular biology and MALDI-TOF ICMS. Ninety-eight fungal strains were isolated from two D. reticulatum samples by using six different culture media, which were identified up to the genus l...

  6. Finite element modeling of the filament winding process using ABAQUS

    OpenAIRE

    Miltenberger, Louis C.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive stress model of the filament winding fabrication process, previously implemented in the finite element program, WACSAFE, was implemented using the ABAQUS finite element software package. This new implementation, referred to as the ABWACSAFE procedure, consists of the ABAQUS software and a pre/postprocessing routine that was developed to prepare necessary ABAQUS input files and process ABAQUS displacement results for stress and strain computation. The ABWACSAF...

  7. Biotransformation of adrenosterone by filamentous fungus, Cunninghamella elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Khan, Naik T; Musharraf, Syed G; Anjum, Shazia; Atta-Ur-Rahman

    2007-12-01

    Microbial transformation of adrenosterone (1) by suspended-cell cultures of the filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans resulted in the production of five metabolites 2-6, which were identified as 9alpha-hydroxyadrenosterone (2), 11-ketotestosterone (3), 6beta-hydroxyadrenosterone (4), 9alpha-hydroxy-11-ketotestosterone (5), and 6beta-hydroxy-11-ketotestosterone (6). Structures of new metabolites 2, 5, and 6 were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.

  8. Regulation of secondary metabolite production in filamentous ascomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwab, E Keats; Keller, Nancy P

    2008-02-01

    Fungi are renowned for their ability to produce bioactive small molecules otherwise known as secondary metabolites. These molecules have attracted much attention due to both detrimental (e.g. toxins) and beneficial (e.g. pharmaceuticals) effects on human endeavors. Once the topic only of chemical and biochemical studies, secondary metabolism research has reached a sophisticated level in the realm of genetic regulation. This review covers the latest insights into the processes regulating secondary metabolite production in filamentous fungi.

  9. Diversity and ecology of filamentous green conjugate algae

    OpenAIRE

    Strouhalová, Pavla

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous conjugating algae have a cosmopolitan distribution. They often inhabit fragile freshwater habitats such as temporary hydrated ditches or puddles of melting snow. Occurrence in this environment entails having to deal with extreme conditions. That helps them to variously adaptation and also the formation of resistant stages. Algae belonging to this group have an important role in nature, because they are often the first species that inhabit newly created habitats and consequently al...

  10. Intermediate/Advanced Research Design and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this module is To provide Institutional Researchers (IRs) with an understanding of the principles of advanced research design and the intermediate/advanced statistical procedures consistent with such designs

  11. Intermedial Representations in Asian Macbeth-s

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, I-Chun; Wang, I-Chun

    2011-01-01

    In her article "Intermedial representations in Asian Macbeth-s" I-Chun Wang discusses three Asian versions of Macbeths that exemplify the cultural meanings through the interaction of landscape, body...

  12. On financial equilibrium with intermediation costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markeprand, Tobias Ejnar

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the set of competitive equilibria in financial economies with intermediation costs. We consider an arbitrary dividend structure, which includes options and equity with limited liabilities.We show a general existence result and upper-hemi continuity of the equilibrium correspond......This paper studies the set of competitive equilibria in financial economies with intermediation costs. We consider an arbitrary dividend structure, which includes options and equity with limited liabilities.We show a general existence result and upper-hemi continuity of the equilibrium...... correspondence. Finally, we prove that when intermediation costs approach zero, unbounded volume of asset trades is a necessary and sufficient condition, provided that, there is no financial equilibrium without intermediation costs....

  13. Development of controller strategies for a robotized filament winding equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Edgar; Machado, José; Mendonça, João P.

    2013-10-01

    The composites reinforced with continuous fibers of polymeric material are increasingly used in applications where it is essential to reduce weight, mainly due to their high ratio of strength/weight and rigidity/weight. A conventional application are pressure vessels, used for storing liquids or gases subjected to low or high pressure, where the tape continuous fiber-reinforced polymeric matrix material is wound around a mandrel defining the final geometry. In this context the filament winding process is a very attractive process for the production of composite components. For optimal structural performance, and greater weight saving, an optimal path should be adopted, resulting only in axial tension in the longitudinal direction (slip). Such path is the geodesic winding and diverse equipment may be used to guarantee the process automation of the winding. This work herein presented is focused on the study and development of the controller program for a robotized filament winding equipment, taking into account customization of possible trajectories controlling filament winding. The automation of the custom path according to user needs increases exponentially the capabilities, where the use of a robotized solution increases process flexibility and repeatability.

  14. Investigation on mechanical behavior of filament-wound CFRP tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangquan; Li, Hui

    2011-04-01

    Firstly, two types of CFRP tubes are designed using the filament-wound forming technology. These tubes are winded by carbon fibers with a filament winding pattern of [(900/00)2]S. The compression and tensile test are also carried out to investigate the stress-strain relationship, ultimate strength and macroscopic failure mode of the former CFRP tube. The results demonstrate that the former CFRP tube has a much larger ultimate tensile stress and strain than compressive stress and strain. However, the elastic modules of CFRP tubes under tension and compression are similar and the failure mode of these CFRP tubes is brittle under compression and tension. Secondly, the stress and strain analysis method of filament-wound CFRP tube is investigated according to anisotropic elasticity theory and lamination theory of composite material. Then, the strength of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic tubes is obtained. In addition, the comparison of theoretical analysis results and experimental results shows that the theoretical analysis results are reliable.

  15. Phalloidin unzips nebulin from thin filaments in skeletal myofibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, X; Lehrer, S S

    1995-11-01

    Fluorescent phallotoxins such as rhodamine-phalloidin take hours to bind uniformly to thin filaments of skeletal myofibrils, after fast initial binding to both ends of thin filaments. Observation of this process in skeletal and cardiac myofibrils and of the resulting re-distribution of nebulin using anti-nebulin antibody showed that: (1) rhodamine-phalloidin binds uniformly to actin in cardiac myofibrils within minutes, in contrast to skeletal myofibrils; (2) overnight pre-incubation of skeletal myofibrils with phalloidin results in uniform initial binding of rhodamine-phalloidin and a changed nebulin localization; (3) pre-incubation of skeletal myofibrils with Ca(2+)-calmodulin results in uniform initial binding of rhodamine-phalloidin; (4) the binding of rhodamine-phalloidin to actin in skeletal myofibrils is unidirectional, i.e. the fluorescence of incorporated rhodamine-phalloidin moves from the pointed ends where it is bound initially toward the barbed end at the Z-band; (5) the unidirectional binding of rhodamine-phalloidin results in redistribution of nebulin, i.e. the initial fluorescent bands associated with the epitopes of bound nebulin antibody change to a single band located close to Z-line. These results indicate that nebulin inhibits rhodamine-phalloidin binding to actin and suggests that the unidirectional rhodamine-phalloidin binding may be due to cooperative competitive binding, i.e. phalloidin 'unzips' nebulin starting from the pointed ends of the thin filaments.

  16. Are fibres in molecular cloud filaments real objects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Avilés, Manuel; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier; Hartmann, Lee W.

    2017-11-01

    We analyse the morphology and kinematics of dense filamentary structures produced in a numerical simulation of a star-forming cloud of 1.4 × 104 M⊙ evolving under their own self-gravity in a magnetized media. This study is motivated by recent observations of velocity-coherent substructures (`fibres') in star-forming filaments. We find such `fibres'ubiquitously in our simulated filament. We found that a fibre in one projection is not necessarily a fibre in another projection, and thus, caution should be taken into account when considering them as real objects. We found that only the densest parts of the filament (˜30 per cent of the densest volume, which contains ˜70 per cent of the mass) belongs to fibres in two projections. Moreover, it is quite common that they are formed by separated density enhancements superposed along the line of sight. Observations of fibres can yield insight into the level of turbulent substructure driven by gravity, but care should be taken in interpreting the results given the problem of line-of-sight superposition. We also studied the morphology and kinematics of the 3D skeleton (spine), finding that subfilaments accrete structured material mainly along the magnetic field lines, which are preferentially perpendicular to the skeleton. The magnetic field is at the same time dragged by the velocity field due to the gravitational collapse.

  17. Natural products from filamentous fungi and production by heterologous expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Fabrizio; Foster, Gary D; Bailey, Andy M

    2017-01-01

    Filamentous fungi represent an incredibly rich and rather overlooked reservoir of natural products, which often show potent bioactivity and find applications in different fields. Increasing the naturally low yields of bioactive metabolites within their host producers can be problematic, and yield improvement is further hampered by such fungi often being genetic intractable or having demanding culturing conditions. Additionally, total synthesis does not always represent a cost-effective approach for producing bioactive fungal-inspired metabolites, especially when pursuing assembly of compounds with complex chemistry. This review aims at providing insights into heterologous production of secondary metabolites from filamentous fungi, which has been established as a potent system for the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds. Numerous advantages are associated with this technique, such as the availability of tools that allow enhanced production yields and directing biosynthesis towards analogues of the naturally occurring metabolite. Furthermore, a choice of hosts is available for heterologous expression, going from model unicellular organisms to well-characterised filamentous fungi, which has also been shown to allow the study of biosynthesis of complex secondary metabolites. Looking to the future, fungi are likely to continue to play a substantial role as sources of new pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals-either as producers of novel natural products or indeed as platforms to generate new compounds through synthetic biology.

  18. Current state of genome-scale modeling in filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, Julian; Andersen, Mikael R

    2015-06-01

    The group of filamentous fungi contains important species used in industrial biotechnology for acid, antibiotics and enzyme production. Their unique lifestyle turns these organisms into a valuable genetic reservoir of new natural products and biomass degrading enzymes that has not been used to full capacity. One of the major bottlenecks in the development of new strains into viable industrial hosts is the alteration of the metabolism towards optimal production. Genome-scale models promise a reduction in the time needed for metabolic engineering by predicting the most potent targets in silico before testing them in vivo. The increasing availability of high quality models and molecular biological tools for manipulating filamentous fungi renders the model-guided engineering of these fungal factories possible with comprehensive metabolic networks. A typical fungal model contains on average 1138 unique metabolic reactions and 1050 ORFs, making them a vast knowledge-base of fungal metabolism. In the present review we focus on the current state as well as potential future applications of genome-scale models in filamentous fungi.

  19. CRISPR system in filamentous fungi: Current achievements and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huaxiang; Gao, Ruijie; Liao, Xiangru; Cai, Yujie

    2017-09-05

    As eukaryotes, filamentous fungi share many features with humans, and they produce numerous active metabolites, some of which are toxic. Traditional genetic approaches are generally inefficient, but the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system that has been widely used for basic research on bacteria, mammals and plants offers a simple, fast, versatile technology for systemic research on filamentous fungi. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge on Cas9 and its variants, various selective markers used to screen positive clones, different ways used to detect off-target mutations, and different approaches used to express and transform the CRISPR complex. We also highlight several methods that improve the nuclease specificity and efficiency, and discuss current and potential applications of CRISPR/Cas9 system in filamentous fungi for pathogenesis decoding, confirmation of the gene and pathway, bioenergy process, drug discovery, and chromatin dynamics. We also describe how the synthetic gene circuit of CRISPR/Cas9 systems has been used in the response to various complex environmental signals to redirect metabolite flux and ensure continuous metabolite biosynthesis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Insights into the cellular responses to hypoxia in filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmann, Falk; Shekhova, Elena; Kniemeyer, Olaf

    2015-08-01

    Most eukaryotes require molecular oxygen for growth. In general, oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor of the respiratory chain and represents an important substrate for the biosynthesis of cellular compounds. However, in their natural environment, such as soil, and also during the infection, filamentous fungi are confronted with low levels of atmospheric oxygen. Transcriptome and proteome studies on the hypoxic response of filamentous fungi revealed significant alteration of the gene expression and protein synthesis upon hypoxia. These analyses discovered not only common but also species-specific responses to hypoxia with regard to NAD(+) regeneration systems and other metabolic pathways. A surprising outcome was that the induction of oxidative and nitrosative stress defenses during oxygen limitation represents a general trait of adaptation to hypoxia in many fungi. The interplay of these different stress responses is poorly understood, but recent studies have shown that adaptation to hypoxia contributes to virulence of pathogenic fungi. In this review, results on metabolic changes of filamentous fungi during adaptation to hypoxia are summarized and discussed.