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Sample records for villosa t5vsbull5dl translocation

  1. NEW PROAZULENE GUAIANOLIDES FROM THAPSIA-VILLOSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smitt, U. W.; Cornett, Claus; Andersen, A.

    1990-01-01

    Four new guaianolides 2-5 possessing the terpenoid skeleton of archangelolide [6] were isolated from a speciment of Thapsia villosa [chromosome number 2n = 66 ( = 6x)]. Attempts to hydrolyze the natural products 2-6 yielded azulenes, mainly 7-acetyl-1,4-dimethylazulene [9].......Four new guaianolides 2-5 possessing the terpenoid skeleton of archangelolide [6] were isolated from a speciment of Thapsia villosa [chromosome number 2n = 66 ( = 6x)]. Attempts to hydrolyze the natural products 2-6 yielded azulenes, mainly 7-acetyl-1,4-dimethylazulene [9]....

  2. [Studies on chemical constituents of Patrinia villosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jin-Yong; Fan, Guo-Rong; Wu, Yu-Tian

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of Patrinia villosa. The chemical constituents were isolated by silica gel column chromatography and semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, and identified by physicochemical properties and spectral analysis (MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR). Seven compounds were isolated from ethyl acetate and n-butanol extract and identified as: 5-hydroxyl-7, 3', 4'-trimethoxy flavone (I), 5-hydroxyl-7, 4'-dimethoxy flavone (II), luteolin (III), quercetin (IV), isoorientin (V), isovitexin (VI) and 8-C glucosylprunetin (VII). Compounds I , II, III, V, VI and VIII were obtained from the plant of genus Patrinia for the first time, compound IV was separated from P. villosa for the first time.

  3. Lipidated Steroid Saponins from Dioscorea villosa (Wild Yam)†

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    Dong, Shi-Hui; Cai, Geping; Napolitano, José G.; Nikolić, Dejan; Lankin, David C.; McAlpine, James B.; van Breemen, Richard B.; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Pauli, Guido F.; Chen, Shao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Two groups of lipidated steroid saponins including seven new compounds (2, 3, 5, and 7–10) were isolated from the widely used botanical, wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), employing a fractionation protocol of metabolomic mining. This methodology has very recently led to the isolation of 14 diarylheptanoids from the same plant. Together with these lipidated steroid saponins, they establish additional new markers for Dioscorea villosa. The lipidation of steroids with analogue long-chain fatty acids containing different degrees of unsaturation generates entire series of compounds which are difficult to purify and analyze. The structures of the two series of lipidated steroid saponins (series A and B) were demonstrated by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR as well as GC-MS after chemical modification. Series A was determined to be a mixture of lipidated spirostanol glycosides (1–5), while series B (6–10) proved to be a mixture of five lipidated clionasterol glucosides. The latter group represents the first derivatives of clionasterol to be found in D. villosa. The discovery of this specific structural type of aliphatic esters of steroid saponins expands the characterization of the secondary metabolome of D. villosa. It also may inspire biological studies which take into account the lipophilic character and significantly altered physiochemical characteristics of these otherwise relatively polar phytoconstituents. PMID:23968665

  4. Brassica villosa, a system for studying non-glandular trichomes and genes in the Brassicas.

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    Nayidu, Naghabushana K; Tan, Yifang; Taheri, Ali; Li, Xiang; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Nowak, Jacek; Wishart, David S; Hegedus, Dwayne; Gruber, Margaret Y

    2014-07-01

    Brassica villosa is a wild Brassica C genome species with very dense trichome coverage and strong resistance to many insect pests of Brassica oilseeds and vegetables. Transcriptome analysis of hairy B. villosa leaves indicated higher expression of several important trichome initiation genes compared with glabrous B. napus leaves and consistent with the Arabidopsis model of trichome development. However, transcripts of the TRY inhibitory gene in hairy B. villosa were surprisingly high relative to B. napus and relative transcript levels of SAD2, EGL3, and several XIX genes were low, suggesting potential ancillary or less important trichome-related roles for these genes in Brassica species compared with Arabidopsis. Several antioxidant, calcium, non-calcium metal and secondary metabolite genes also showed differential expression between these two species. These coincided with accumulation of two alkaloid-like compounds, high levels of calcium, and other metals in B. villosa trichomes that are correlated with the known tolerance of B. villosa to high salt and the calcium-rich natural habitat of this wild species. This first time report on the isolation of large amounts of pure B. villosa trichomes, on trichome content, and on relative gene expression differences in an exceptionally hairy Brassica species compared with a glabrous species opens doors for the scientific community to understand trichome gene function in the Brassicas and highlights the potential of B. villosa as a trichome research platform.

  5. Comparison of Five Major Trichome Regulatory Genes in Brassica villosa with Orthologues within the Brassicaceae

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    Nayidu, Naghabushana K.; Kagale, Sateesh; Taheri, Ali; Withana-Gamage, Thushan S.; Parkin, Isobel A. P.; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Gruber, Margaret Y.

    2014-01-01

    Coding sequences for major trichome regulatory genes, including the positive regulators GLABRA 1(GL1), GLABRA 2 (GL2), ENHANCER OF GLABRA 3 (EGL3), and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1) and the negative regulator TRIPTYCHON (TRY), were cloned from wild Brassica villosa, which is characterized by dense trichome coverage over most of the plant. Transcript (FPKM) levels from RNA sequencing indicated much higher expression of the GL2 and TTG1 regulatory genes in B. villosa leaves compared with expression levels of GL1 and EGL3 genes in either B. villosa or the reference genome species, glabrous B. oleracea; however, cotyledon TTG1 expression was high in both species. RNA sequencing and Q-PCR also revealed an unusual expression pattern for the negative regulators TRY and CPC, which were much more highly expressed in trichome-rich B. villosa leaves than in glabrous B. oleracea leaves and in glabrous cotyledons from both species. The B. villosa TRY expression pattern also contrasted with TRY expression patterns in two diploid Brassica species, and with the Arabidopsis model for expression of negative regulators of trichome development. Further unique sequence polymorphisms, protein characteristics, and gene evolution studies highlighted specific amino acids in GL1 and GL2 coding sequences that distinguished glabrous species from hairy species and several variants that were specific for each B. villosa gene. Positive selection was observed for GL1 between hairy and non-hairy plants, and as expected the origin of the four expressed positive trichome regulatory genes in B. villosa was predicted to be from B. oleracea. In particular the unpredicted expression patterns for TRY and CPC in B. villosa suggest additional characterization is needed to determine the function of the expanded families of trichome regulatory genes in more complex polyploid species within the Brassicaceae. PMID:24755905

  6. Comparison of five major trichome regulatory genes in Brassica villosa with orthologues within the Brassicaceae.

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    Naghabushana K Nayidu

    Full Text Available Coding sequences for major trichome regulatory genes, including the positive regulators GLABRA 1(GL1, GLABRA 2 (GL2, ENHANCER OF GLABRA 3 (EGL3, and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1 and the negative regulator TRIPTYCHON (TRY, were cloned from wild Brassica villosa, which is characterized by dense trichome coverage over most of the plant. Transcript (FPKM levels from RNA sequencing indicated much higher expression of the GL2 and TTG1 regulatory genes in B. villosa leaves compared with expression levels of GL1 and EGL3 genes in either B. villosa or the reference genome species, glabrous B. oleracea; however, cotyledon TTG1 expression was high in both species. RNA sequencing and Q-PCR also revealed an unusual expression pattern for the negative regulators TRY and CPC, which were much more highly expressed in trichome-rich B. villosa leaves than in glabrous B. oleracea leaves and in glabrous cotyledons from both species. The B. villosa TRY expression pattern also contrasted with TRY expression patterns in two diploid Brassica species, and with the Arabidopsis model for expression of negative regulators of trichome development. Further unique sequence polymorphisms, protein characteristics, and gene evolution studies highlighted specific amino acids in GL1 and GL2 coding sequences that distinguished glabrous species from hairy species and several variants that were specific for each B. villosa gene. Positive selection was observed for GL1 between hairy and non-hairy plants, and as expected the origin of the four expressed positive trichome regulatory genes in B. villosa was predicted to be from B. oleracea. In particular the unpredicted expression patterns for TRY and CPC in B. villosa suggest additional characterization is needed to determine the function of the expanded families of trichome regulatory genes in more complex polyploid species within the Brassicaceae.

  7. Productivity of Local Goats Supplemented with Acacia villosa and Coripha gebanga

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    A. M. Fuah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most feed for goats in the villages of West Timor, Indonesia, came from communal grazing areas, consist of native grass during wet season, crop residues and tree leaves (Sesbania and Acacia species in dry season. This study was aiming at examining the growth of goat supplemented with local feed. Twenty four goats were used, the average initial live weight was 12.5 kg. Four feeding treatments were applied: T1-200 g cut grass; T2–200 g Acacia villosa; T3–200 g Coripha gebanga; T4–100 g A. villosa + 100 g C. gebanga. Live weights and feed consumption were analyzed using repeated measures, analysis of variance. The average live weight showed a small increase, as well as daily weight gain of goats of which different significantly (P<0.05 amongst treatments (17, 36, 42, and 43 g/d/head, during the first 6 wk, followed by a sharp drop after 8 wk. The average supplemented feed consumption was 52, 35, 85, and 75 g/d/animal, for cut grass, A. villosa, C. gebanga, and A. villosa plus C. gebanga, respectively. Goats given C. gebanga and mixed Acacia and C. gebanga gave higher average weight gain, but also consumed more feed than those given cut grass or A.villosa (P<0.01. Supplementing feed to maintain growth of goats during dry seasons was better on A. villosa than on palm pith and its combination.

  8. Hydrocarbon circulation and colonial signature in Pachycondyla villosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C; Pho, D B; Fresneau, D; Jallon, J M

    2004-07-01

    In ants, both cuticular and postpharyngeal gland (PPG) hydrocarbons (HCs) have been involved in nestmate recognition. However, no detailed comparison is available. A comparative study including also high density lipophorin (HDLp), an internal HC carrier, was therefore undertaken on Pachycondyla villosa. Purified HDLp is an 820 kDa lipoprotein with a density of 1.114 g/ml and two 245 and 80 kDa apo-proteins. Its hydrocarbon profile is very similar with the cuticular one, in agreement with its hydrocarbon carrier function. Conversely, n-alkanes and externally branched monomethylalkanes are markedly decreased in the PPG. According to their physical properties, this suggests that they are involved in waterproofing on the cuticle. The PPG actually contains only internally branched mono-, dimethylalkanes or monomethylalkenes; their greater fluidity is more adequate for chemical communication. The percentages of some of them are statistically not different between the cuticle and PPG. Their mixtures vary with colonies and they may thus be involved in colonial signature. A scheme for hydrocarbon circulation is discussed, involving lipophorin, cuticle, PPG and self-grooming in one individual, a pathway complementary or alternative to the selective delivery by lipophorin in some other insects. HCs are then distributed between nestmates' cuticles through allo-grooming and physical contacts.

  9. Antitrypanosomal Activity of Senna villosa in Infected Balb/C Mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antitrypanosomal activity of chloroform extract of Senna villosa leaves was evaluated in the sub acute phase of mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Oral doses of 3.3, 6.6 and 13.2 μg/g were tested during 15 days on infected mice BALB/c, beginning treatment 40 days after infection to evaluate specifically the ...

  10. Number of queens in founding associations of the ponerine ant Pachycondyla villosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Kellner, K.; Delabie, J. H. C.

    2005-01-01

    In the ant Pachycondyla villosa, new colonies are usually started cooperatively by two or more young queens who establish a dominance order with a division of labour. Co-founding can lead to primary polygyny, where queens stay together after workers have emerged. Here we show that two queens...

  11. Robertsonian translocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 27, describes the occurrence of Robertsonian translocations (RTs), which refer to the recombination of whole chromosome arms, in both monocentric and dicentric chromosomes. The nonrandom participation of acrocentric chromosomes in RTs is documented by various methods, including unbiased ascertainment and ascertainment through trisomy, infertility, unspecified mental retardation, and Prader-Willi syndrome. Causes of nonrandom participation of chromosomes in RTs is presented, as are the following topics: segregation in carriers of RTs and segregation in sperm cells of RT carriers, interchromosomal effects and conclusions. 48 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. A new sesquiterpene lactone glycoside and a new quinic acid methyl ester from Patrinia villosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong-Fen; Ma, Hong-Mei; Chen, Gang; Wang, Hai-Feng; Xiang, Zheng; Feng, Qing-Mei; Hua, Hui-Ming; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2016-10-01

    A new sesquiterpene lactone glycoside (1) and a new quinic acid methyl ester (2) were isolated from Patrinia villosa, together with another two known compounds chlorogenic acid n-butyl ester (3), 3, 4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (4). Their structures were established using 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and comparing with spectroscopic data reported in the literature.

  13. Antifungal Activity of Thapsia villosa Essential Oil against Candida, Cryptococcus, Malassezia, Aspergillus and Dermatophyte Species

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    Eugénia Pinto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil (EO of Thapsia villosa (Apiaceae, isolated by hydrodistillation from the plant’s aerial parts, was analysed by GC and GC-MS. Antifungal activity of the EO and its main components, limonene (57.5% and methyleugenol (35.9%, were evaluated against clinically relevant yeasts (Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia furfur and moulds (Aspergillus spp. and dermatophytes. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were measured according to the broth macrodilution protocols by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. The EO, limonene and methyleugenol displayed low MIC and MFC (minimum fungicidal concentration values against Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, dermatophytes, and Aspergillus spp. Regarding Candida species, an inhibition of yeast–mycelium transition was demonstrated at sub-inhibitory concentrations of the EO (MIC/128; 0.01 μL/mL and their major compounds in Candida albicans. Fluconazole does not show this activity, and the combination with low concentrations of EO could associate a supplementary target for the antifungal activity. The association of fluconazole with T. villosa oil does not show antagonism, but the combination limonene/fluconazole displays synergism. The fungistatic and fungicidal activities revealed by T. villosa EO and its main compounds, associated with their low haemolytic activity, confirm their potential antimicrobial interest against fungal species often associated with human mycoses.

  14. A phenylpropanoid, a slovenolide, two sulphur-containing germacranes and Ca+2-ATPase inhibitors from Thapsia villosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubal, Juan J; Moreno-Dorado, F Javier; Guerra, Francisco M

    2010-01-01

    A phenylpropanoid 1, a slovenolide 2, and two germacranes bearing a methylthiopropenoate moiety, 3 and 4, along with twenty known metabolites have been isolated from the roots of THAPSIA VILLOSA var. VILLOSA L. The structures of two known phenylpropanoids 5 and 6 have been corrected. Compounds 7 ...

  15. [Phenolic compounds in leaves insertions of Mentha × villosa Huds. cv. Snežná].

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    Tekeľová, Daniela; Bittner Fialová, Silvia; Tóth, Jaroslav; Czigle, Szilvia

    Lamiaceae plants mostly accumulate active ingredients in their leaves. The subfamily Nepetoideae, including the genus Mentha L., is characterized by the presence of essential oil and antioxidant phenolics, chiefly hydroxycinnamic acids with predominance of rosmarinic acid, and flavonoids. Mentha × piperita and M. spicata are the most broadly used mints in both medicine and industry, while M. x villosa is less known in our country. Herbal drugs in the form of leaves are usually analysed unpartitioned, while single leaves insertions have only been studied occasionally. Therefore, the aim of this work was the quantification of the active compounds content in the leaves pairs of Mentha × villosa Huds. cv. Snežná, using pharmacopoeial methods: total hydroxycinnamic derivatives expressed as rosmarinic acid (THD) and luteolin-type flavonoids. THD content ranged from 6.7% to 9.4% in the leaves pairs water extracts, and from 6.6% to 14.0% in methanol extracts. Flavonoids contents, expressed as luteolin-7-O-glucoside, ranged from 4.0% to 8.8% in water extracts, and from 4.0% to 10.5% in methanol extracts. Antioxidant activity (DPPH) expressed as SC50 ranged from 10.2 to 16.9 μg.ml-1 (drug dry weight) in water extracts, and from 10.7 to 21.6 μg.ml-1 in methanol extracts. The highest content of phenolic compounds as well as the highest antioxidant activity were found to be in the top sheet, while the lowest content of phenolic compounds and lowest antioxidant activity were detected in the leaves of the middle stem part.Key words: Mentha × villosa Huds cv. Snežná hydroxycinnamic derivatives rosmarinic acid luteolin-7-O-glucoside DPPH.

  16. Organogenesis and plant regeneration of Arachis villosa Benth. (Leguminosae) through leaf culture.

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    Fontana, María Laura; Mroginski, Luis Amado; Rey, Hebe Yolanda

    2009-12-01

    With the aim of developing an efficient plant regeneration protocol, leaflet explants of three accessions of Arachis villosa Benth. (S2866, S2867 and L97) were cultured on basic Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with different combinations of plant growth regulators: alpha-naphthalenacetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, 6-benzylaminopurine, kinetin and thidiazuron. The accession L97 was the only one able to differentiate buds through indirect organogenesis. The most suitable combination for bud regeneration was the basic medium added with 13.62 microM thidiazuron and 4.44 microM 6-benzylaminopurine. These results show the important role of the genotype in morphogenetic responses and the organogenetic effect of thidiazuron in Arachis villosa accession L97. A thidiazuron lacking media (only 0.54 microM alpha-naphthalenacetic acid, 13.95 microM kinetin and 13.32 microM 6-benzylaminopurine were added) promoted the elongation of the regenerated buds. Adventitious rooting was achieved 90 days after the isolated shoots were transferred to a rooting medium containing 0.54 microM alpha-naphthalenacetic acid.

  17. Pentacyclic triterpenoids of Mentha villosa: structural identification and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C resonance assignments; Triterpenoides pentaciclicos de Mentha villosa: identificacao estrutural e atribuicao dos deslocamentos quimicos dos atomos de hidrogenio e carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monte, Francisco J. Queiroz; Oliveira, Eliete F. de [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Braz Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais

    2001-08-01

    The structures of seven oleanene and ursene triterpenoids (1-7) isolated from aerial parts of Mentha villosa were identified. In addition, the complete {sup 1} H and {sup 13} C resonance assignments of these triterpenoids were accomplished using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic experiments. (author)

  18. Ocorrência de Commelina villosa como planta daninha em áreas agrícolas no estado do Paraná-PR, Brasil Occurence of Commelina villosa as weed in Paraná State, Brazil

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    Dalva C. Rocha

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available As trapoerabas pertencem à família Commelinaceae e são plantas daninhas de difícil controle em diferentes regiões do país. No Brasil, a espécie Commelina benghalensis destaca-se como a principal trapoeraba infestante nas culturas de soja, milho, café e citros. Outras duas espécies desse gênero, Commelina diffusa e Commelina erecta, também são conhecidas como infestantes de ocorrência freqüente no território nacional. Commelina villosa está registrada, até o momento, apenas para os Estados da Bahia e Goiás além do Distrito Federal. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos caracterizar e registrar a ocorrência de C. villosa no Estado do Paraná, onde pode estar sendo confundida com outras trapoerabas, principalmente C. benghalensis. Exemplares de C. villosa e C. benghalensis foram coletados, de forma aleatória, em lavouras de soja, feijão e milho, nos municípios de Ponta Grossa, Tibagi, Piraí do Sul, Guarapuava, Pato Branco, Francisco Beltrão, Cascavel, Campo Mourão e Londrina. Parte desse material foi herborizado para a confecção de exsicatas e outra parte foi mantida in vivo, cultivada no Departamento de Botânica, do Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu-UNESP. Caracteres morfológicos descritivos e quantitativos foram avaliados e as espécies comparadas entre si. C. villosa distinguiu-se de C. benghalensis por apresentar folhas maiores (9,76 x 3,26 cm, elíptica a elípticaestreita, sésseis, de coloração verde escura com manchas violáceas na face inferior, filetes translúcidos, entre outras características. A ocorrência de C. villosa no Paraná foi constatada em todos os municípios amostrados, com exceção de Campo Mourão e Londrina.Commelinaceae are weeds with unsatisfactory control in different parts of the country. Commelina benghalensis is the main Commelinaceae weed in soybean, corn, coffee and orange crops in Brazil. Commelina diffusa and Commelina erecta are also known as common weeds in national

  19. Re-engineering of the Pm21 transfer from Haynaldia villosa to bread wheat by induced homoeologous recombination

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    Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, the cause of powdery mildew, can generate serious grain yield losses in wheat. To expand the range of resistance genes freely available to wheat breeders, a Haynaldia villosa derived resistance gene Pm21 was transferred to chromosome 6AS of wheat by homoeologous rec...

  20. Larvicidal, antimicrobial and brine shrimp activities of extracts from Cissampelos mucronata and Tephrosia villosa from coast region, Tanzania

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    2011-01-01

    Background The leaves and roots of Cissampelos mucronata A. Rich (Menispermaceae) are widely used in the tropics and subtropics to manage various ailments such as gastro-intestinal complaints, menstrual problems, venereal diseases and malaria. In the Coast region, Tanzania, roots are used to treat wounds due to extraction of jigger. Leaves of Tephrosia villosa (L) Pers (Leguminosae) are reported to be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in India. In this study, extracts from the roots and aerial parts of C. mucronata and extracts from leaves, fruits, twigs and roots of T. villosa were evaluated for larvicidal activity, brine shrimps toxicity and antimicrobial activity. Methods Powdered materials from C. mucronata were extracted sequentially by dichloromethane followed by ethanol while materials from T.villosa were extracted by ethanol only. The extracts obtained were evaluated for larvicidal activity using Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae, cytotoxicity using brine shrimp larvae and antimicrobial activity using bacteria and fungi. Results Extracts from aerial parts of C. Mucronata exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Bacillus anthracis, Streptococcus faecalis and antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. They exhibited very low toxicity to brine shrimps and had no larvicidal activity. The root extracts exhibited good larvicidal activity but weak antimicrobial activity. The root dichloromethane extracts from C. mucronata was found to be more toxic with an LC50 value of 59.608 μg/mL while ethanolic extracts from root were not toxic with LC50>100 μg/mL). Ethanol extracts from fruits and roots of T. villosa were found to be very toxic with LC50 values of 9.690 μg/mL and 4.511 μg/mL, respectively, while, ethanol extracts from leaves and twigs of T. villosa were found to be non toxic (LC50>100 μg/mL). Conclusion These results

  1. Larvicidal, antimicrobial and brine shrimp activities of extracts from Cissampelos mucronata and Tephrosia villosa from coast region, Tanzania

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    Erasto Paul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The leaves and roots of Cissampelos mucronata A. Rich (Menispermaceae are widely used in the tropics and subtropics to manage various ailments such as gastro-intestinal complaints, menstrual problems, venereal diseases and malaria. In the Coast region, Tanzania, roots are used to treat wounds due to extraction of jigger. Leaves of Tephrosia villosa (L Pers (Leguminosae are reported to be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in India. In this study, extracts from the roots and aerial parts of C. mucronata and extracts from leaves, fruits, twigs and roots of T. villosa were evaluated for larvicidal activity, brine shrimps toxicity and antimicrobial activity. Methods Powdered materials from C. mucronata were extracted sequentially by dichloromethane followed by ethanol while materials from T.villosa were extracted by ethanol only. The extracts obtained were evaluated for larvicidal activity using Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae, cytotoxicity using brine shrimp larvae and antimicrobial activity using bacteria and fungi. Results Extracts from aerial parts of C. Mucronata exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Bacillus anthracis, Streptococcus faecalis and antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. They exhibited very low toxicity to brine shrimps and had no larvicidal activity. The root extracts exhibited good larvicidal activity but weak antimicrobial activity. The root dichloromethane extracts from C. mucronata was found to be more toxic with an LC50 value of 59.608 μg/mL while ethanolic extracts from root were not toxic with LC50>100 μg/mL. Ethanol extracts from fruits and roots of T. villosa were found to be very toxic with LC50 values of 9.690 μg/mL and 4.511 μg/mL, respectively, while, ethanol extracts from leaves and twigs of T. villosa were found to be non toxic (LC50>100

  2. Impact of bee pollinators on seed set and yield of Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa (Leguminosae grown under semiarid conditions

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    Shahera Zaitoun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during 2005/2006 at Jordan University of Science and Technology campus (32°30” N, 35°59” E, Irbid, Jordan, to study the role of bee visitors on seed set and production of Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa grown under semiarid conditions. Two treatments were imposed on Vicia villosa plants before flowering: 1 Plants were covered in cages (control or 2 Plants were left uncovered to permit bee visiting. The results of this experiment showed that V. villosa flowers were very attractive to worker honeybees as well as to few numbers of wild bees. The most frequent visitor species were A. mellifera and Anthophora albigena of family Apidae. V. villosa flowers attracted most of the bee visitors in the early hours of the day. The duration of their visit on the flowers also peaked early in the day and decreased toward the end of the day. The percentage of pod set of the un-covered plants averaged 14% out of the total florets on the plants, which was significantly higher than the covered plants (2%. These results indicated that the percentage of flower abscission was high and averaged more than 86%. Plant covering significantly reduced seed yield by reducing seed and pod number per plant and seed number per pod, but had no effect on individual seed weight. In conclusion, preventing bees from visiting during flowering of V. villosa spp. dasycarpa decreased seed set, seed yield and yield components. Further studies are needed to understand the high flower abscission and failure of seed set in this species.

  3. In vitro activity of Lantana camara, Alpinia zerumbet, Mentha villosa and Tagetes minuta decoctions on Haemonchus contortus eggs and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Iara T F; Bevilaqua, Claudia M L; de Oliveira, Lorena M B; Camurça-Vasconcelos, Ana L F; Morais, Selene M; Machado, Lyeghyna K A; Ribeiro, Wesley L C

    2012-12-21

    The resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to anthelmintics has increased the need to evaluate natural products that can replace or assist current strategies to control gastrointestinal nematodes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of decoctions of Lantana camara (DLc), Alpinia zerumbet (DAz), Mentha villosa (DMv) and Tagetes minuta (DTm) on Haemonchus contortus by two in vitro tests. The effects of increasing concentrations of lyophilized decoctions (0.31 to 10mg/ml) were assessed using the egg hatch test (EHT). The decoctions were then tested in the larval artificial exsheathment assay. H. contortus third stage larvae (L3) were exposed to 0.31 mg/ml A. zerumbet and M. villosa decoctions and 0.62 mg/ml T. minuta and L. camara decoctions for 3h and then exsheathment procedure at 10 min intervals. An inhibitor of tannins, polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP), was used to study if tannins were responsible for the inhibitory effect on hatching and exsheathment of larvae. A. zerumbet, M. villosa and T. minuta showed a dose-dependent effect in the EHT, which did not disappear after the addition of PVPP. No effect was observed for L. camara in the EHT. However, the decoctions inhibited the process of larval exsheathment, which may be related to tannin action because the addition of PVPP reversed the inhibitory effect. A. zerumbet, M. villosa and T. minuta decoctions showed inhibitory activity on H. contortus larvae hatching and exsheathing. The decoctions of these plants could be used to control gastrointestinal nematodes following confirmation of their anthelmintic activity in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Physiology in conservation translocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarszisz, Esther; Dickman, Christopher R.; Munn, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation translocations aim to restore species to their indigenous ranges, protect populations from threats and/or reinstate ecosystem functions. They are particularly important for the conservation and management of rare and threatened species. Despite tremendous efforts and advancement in recent years, animal conservation translocations generally have variable success, and the reasons for this are often uncertain. We suggest that when little is known about the physiology and wellbeing of individuals either before or after release, it will be difficult to determine their likelihood of survival, and this could limit advancements in the science of translocations for conservation. In this regard, we argue that physiology offers novel approaches that could substantially improve translocations and associated practices. As a discipline, it is apparent that physiology may be undervalued, perhaps because of the invasive nature of some physiological measurement techniques (e.g. sampling body fluids, surgical implantation). We examined 232 publications that dealt with translocations of terrestrial vertebrates and aquatic mammals and, defining ‘success’ as high or low, determined how many of these studies explicitly incorporated physiological aspects into their protocols and monitoring. From this review, it is apparent that physiological evaluation before and after animal releases could progress and improve translocation/reintroduction successes. We propose a suite of physiological measures, in addition to animal health indices, for assisting conservation translocations over the short term and also for longer term post-release monitoring. Perhaps most importantly, we argue that the incorporation of physiological assessments of animals at all stages of translocation can have important welfare implications by helping to reduce the total number of animals used. Physiological indicators can also help to refine conservation translocation methods. These approaches fall

  5. Induction of quinone reductase (QR) by withanolides isolated from Physalis angulata L. var. villosa Bonati (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hui; Hu, Zhijuan; Yu, Liyan; Ma, Zhongjun; Ma, Xiaoqiong; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Xiaofeng

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, the EtOAc extract of the persistent calyx of Physalis angulata L. var. villosa Bonati (PA) was tested for its potential quinone reductase (QR) inducing activity with glutathione (GSH) as the substrate using an UPLC-ESI-MS method. The result revealed that the PA had electrophiles that could induce quinone reductase (QR) activity, which might be attributed to the modification of the highly reactive cysteine residues in Keap1. Herein, three new withanolides, compounds 3, 6 and 7, together with four known withanolides, compounds 1, 2, 4 and 5 were isolated from PA extract. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques, including (1)H-, (13)C NMR (DEPT), and 2D-NMR (HMBC, HMQC, (1)H, (1)H-COSY, NOESY) experiments, as well as by HR-MS. All the seven compounds were tested for their QR induction activities towards mouse hepa 1c1c7 cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An evaluation of selective feeding by three age-groups of the rainbow mussel Villosa iris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, K.; Neves, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    A tri-algal diet was fed to three age-groups of the rainbow mussel Villosa iris: ages 2-3 d, 50-53 d, and 3-6 years. Changes in the relative abundance of each algal species were determined in 5-h feeding trials from feeding chambers and by gut content analyses. All age-groups rejected Scenedesmus quadricauda and preferentially selected Nannochloropsis oculata and Selenastrum capricornutum, principally on the basis of size. Changes in the relative abundance of algae in feeding chambers did not differ significantly among age-groups. Observed differences in the ingested quantities of the similar-sized N. oculata and S. capricornutum were attributed to other particle-related characteristics. Results indicate that the rainbow mussel can be fed similar-sized algae at ali ages in captive propagation facilities. When developing a suitable algal diet for rearing juvenile mussels, one probably need not investigate different species at each stage of development if the algae used are in the 2.8-8.5-??m size range.

  7. Oncogene Translocations and NHL

    Science.gov (United States)

    A colloboration with several large population-based cohorts to determine whether the prevalence or level of t14;18 is associated with risk of NHL and to investigate the clonal relationship between translocation-bearing cells and subsequent tumors

  8. Preliminary study of the antimicrobial activity of Mentha x villosa Hudson essential oil, rotundifolone and its analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thúlio. A. Arruda

    Full Text Available Essential oils present antimicrobial activity against a variety of bacteria and yeasts, including species resistant to antibiotics and antifungicals. In this context, this work aims at the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa Hudson ("hortelã da folha miúda", its major component (rotundifolone and four similar analogues of rotundifolone (limonene oxide, pulegone oxide, carvone epoxide and (+-pulegone against strain standards of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, E. coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomona aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Candida albicans ATCC 76645 and one strain of meticilin - resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA (171c from human clinic. The method of the diffusion in plates with solid medium was used. The results showed that the oil of Mentha x villosa, rotundifolone, limonene oxide and (+-pulegone, are similar regarding the antimicrobial activity against the tested strains of S. aureus and C. albicans. All of the products present antimocrobial potential with antibacterial activity for S. aureus ATCC 25923 and antifungal activity for C. albicans ATCC 76645. None of the products presented antimicrobial activity for the strains of E. coli ATCC 25922 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, representatives of the Gram negative bacteria.

  9. Bioassay-Guided Chemical Study of the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Senna villosa (Miller H.S. Irwin & Barneby (Leguminosae in TPA-Induced Ear Edema

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    Ana del Carmen Susunaga-Notario

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Senna villosa (Miller is a plant that grows in México. In traditional Mexican medicine, it is used topically to treat skin infections, pustules and eruptions and to heal wounds by scar formation. However, studies of its potential anti-inflammatory effects have not been performed. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of extracts from the leaves of Senna villosa and to perform a bioassay-guided chemical study of the extract with major activity in a model of ear edema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA. The results reveal that the chloroform extract from Senna villosa leaves has anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties. Nine fractions were obtained from the bioassay-guided chemical study, including a white precipitate from fractions 2 and 3. Although none of the nine fractions presented anti-inflammatory activity, the white precipitate exhibited pharmacological activity. It was chemically characterized using mass spectrometry and infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, resulting in a mixture of three aliphatic esters, which were identified as the principal constituents: hexyl tetradecanoate (C20H40O2, heptyl tetradecanoate (C21H42O2 and octyl tetradecanoate (C22H44O2. This research provides, for the first time, evidence of the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties of compounds isolated from Senna villosa.

  10. The anticancer potential of steroidal saponin, dioscin, isolated from wild yam (Dioscorea villosa) root extract in invasive human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we observed that wild yam (Dioscorea villosa) root extract (WYRE) was able to activate GATA3 in human breast cancer cells targeting epigenome. This study aimed to 'nd out if dioscin (DS), a bioactive compound of WYRE, can modulate GATA3 functions and cellular invasion in human breast can...

  11. Granulomatous myelitis associated with hemorrhagic syndrome due to consumption of Vicia villosa by cattle Mielite granulomatosa associada à síndrome hemorrágica devido ao consumo de Vicia villosa em um bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Sonne

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An unusual case of spontaneous Vicia villosa poisoning affected a 6-year-old Holstein cow. Although the most striking findings included a generalized hemorrhagic condition associated with granulomatous myelitis, histological lesions typically seen with the vetch-associated systemic granulomatous syndrome were also present. Prominent gross findings were bloody nasal and oral discharges, disseminated hemorrhages, and bloody feces. Generalized hemorrhages associated with infiltration of numerous organs by lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, multinucleated giants cells, and eosinophils were the main microscopic findings. Anti-CD68 immunostaining confirmed the presence of moderate histiocytic infiltrate and multinucleated giant cells in the bone marrow. These changes in the bone marrow probably caused the generalized hemorrhagic changes described here.Um bovino Holandês de seis anos naturalmente intoxicado pela Vicia villosa apresentou lesões não comumente encontradas nessa intoxicação. Embora a lesão mais evidente fosse hemorragia generalizada associada à mielite granulomatosa, as lesões granulomatosas típicas da intoxicação pela ervilhaca também estavam presentes histologicamente. Os principais achados macroscópicos foram hemorragias nasal e oral, hemorragias generalizadas e fezes com sangue. Lesões hemorrágicas generalizadas associadas com infiltrado inflamatório de linfócitos, plasmócitos, macrófagos, células gigantes multinucleadas e eosinófilos foram os principais achados microscópicos encontrados. O teste imuno-histoquímico anti-CD68 confirmou a presença de infiltrado moderado de macrófagos e de células gigantes multinucleadas na medula óssea. As alterações na medula óssea provavelmente constituem a causa da hemorragia generalizada descrita nesse caso.

  12. The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of Patrinia villosa and its mechanism on the proinflammatory cytokines of rats with pelvic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Jin, Yue; Zhu, Hai-Bin; Xu, Shao-Ting; Xia, Ya-Xian; Huang, Yue

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of Patrinia villosa, a Chinese medicinal plant, and to explore its effects on the proinflammatory cytokines of the rats with pelvic inflammation model. The animals were randomly divided into Patrinia villosa group (PV group), dexamethasone group (DEX group), and model-control group (CON group) to perform an ear edema test, a carrageenin-induced paw edema test, a cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation test, and an acetic acid-induced writhing test. The model rats with pelvic inflammation were established, and the serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in each group was detected with the Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). The results of the ear edema test, carrageenin-induced paw edema test, cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation test, and acetic acid-induced writhing test all showed that Patrinia villosa had strong anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects. In the experiment using model rats with pelvic inflammation, we found that the serum levels of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α in PV and DEX group were all significantly lower than those of the CON group, and the serum levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in PV group were significantly lower than those of the DEX group. Patrinia villosa, with its strong anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities, can be used to treat pelvic inflammation and to relieve the associated pain.

  13. Human Disturbance Threats the Red-Listed Macrolichen Seirophora villosa (Ach.) Frödén in Coastal Juniperus Habitats: Evidence From Western Peninsular Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesperi, Renato; Lastrucci, Lorenzo; Nascimbene, Juri

    2013-10-01

    In Europe, coastal dune systems with Juniperus spp. (Natura 2000 habitat code 2250) are a priority habitat for conservation according to the Natura 2000 policies. Currently, anthropogenic pressure is threatening the biodiversity of this habitat. While the impact of human pressure on animals and vascular plants is already documented, information is still scanty for other organisms such as epiphytic lichens. The main aim of this study is to test the effect of human disturbance on the occurrence and abundance of the red-listed macrolichen Seirophora villosa. We also tested the effect of human disturbance on the whole community of epiphytic lichens in terms of species richness and composition. The study was performed along the coast of Tuscany by comparing both disturbed and undisturbed Juniperus stands according to a stratified random sampling design. Our results provided evidence that in coastal systems the long-term conservation of the red-listed macrolichen S. villosa and its characteristic community composed by several Mediterranean species of conservation concern depends on the maintenance of undisturbed Juniperus habitats. Results also support the possibility of using S. villosa as an indicator species of habitat conservation importance and habitat integrity since its occurrence is predicted on nestedness in term of species composition, assemblages of species poor disturbed stands being subsets of those of richer undisturbed stands.

  14. Inhibition of raffinose family oligosaccharides and galactosyl pinitols breakdown delays germination of winter vetch (Vicia villosa Roth. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Beside RFOs, which are commonly present in legume seeds, seeds of some species contain galactosyl pinitols (GPs. These carbohydrates, like RFOs, have been hypothesized to constitute an important energy and carbon skeletal source during germination. To test this hypothesis we have applied a specific α-galactosidase inhibitor (1-deoxygalactonojirimycin, DGJ to germinating winter vetch (Vicia villosa Roth. seeds, containing more galactosyl pinitols than RFOs. The breakdown of RFOs but not that of GPs was completely blocked in both embryonic axes and cotyledons tissues, during the first 18 h of imbibition in DGJ. The inhibitor only decreased the rate of GPs degradation. The inhibitory effect of DGJ on GPs degradation was partially alleviated by addition of sucrose or galactose to DGJ solutions. After three days of germination in water, RFOs and GPs disappeared in axial tissues of seeds imbibed in water, galactose or sucrose. Eighteen-hour imbibition of seeds in DGJ drastically reduced germination, by ca 50%, during the first three days. The inhibitory effect of DGJ decreased during the next seven days of germination. The presence of galactose or sucrose in imbibition solution initially stimulated seed germination, but later this effect was not statistically significant. Our study provides clear evidence that galactosyl pinitols play an important role in early winter vetch seeds germination. Additionally, we suggest that galactosyl pinitols can replace RFOs as reserve material necessary for early germination.

  15. Morphology and histochemistry of glandular trichomes in Hyptis villosa Pohl ex Benth. (Lamiaceae and differential labeling of cytoskeletal elements

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    Luiz Ricardo dos Santos Tozin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Lamiaceae contains many species known for their aromatic properties that are produced by the production of essential oils in glandular trichomes. Hyptis is one of the most common genera of Lamiaceae in the Brazilian flora, and includes several species with medicinal value. However, studies on the morphology and functioning of their glandular trichomes are lacking. We analyzed the morphology, histochemistry and ultrastructure of the glandular trichomes in leaves of H. villosa, emphasizing the differential distribution of actin filaments and microtubules in cells secreting hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. Four morphotypes of glandular trichomes were identified. Total lipid, terpenes, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, proteins and polysaccharides were histochemically detected in all morphotyes. This evidences the mixed nature of the secretions of this species, although there are differences in the prevalence of lipophilic and hydrophilic components among the glandular morphotypes and among the cells of the same trichome. The actin microfilaments are more abundant in cells that secrete mainly hydrophilic compounds, and microtubules predominate in cells that secrete lipophilic compounds. Our results corroborate the correlation between the glandular morphotype and the composition of the secretion produced, with a differential distribution of the cytoskeletal elements according to the prevalence of either hydrophilic or lipophilic substances.

  16. Role of cuticular hydrocarbons in the chemical recognition between ant species in the Pachycondyla villosa species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C; Pho, D B; Jallon, J M; Fresneau, D

    2005-10-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (HCs) play important roles in insect communication but few studies clearly demonstrate the direct link between HCs and nestmate recognition. Therefore, cuticular lipids were extracted from ants, their HC and non-HC fractions as well as the three principal classes of HCs (n-alkanes, branched alkanes and alkenes) were purified and tested using an immobilizing "joust" device which allowed quantification of early pairwise behavioural responses, mandibular opening and antennal retraction, without occurrence of subsequent damages as in classic dyadic encounters. Chemical recognition of ants was studied at three levels of interactions (intra-colonial, intra-specific and inter-specific). Three closely related species already chemically characterized were used: Pachycondyla villosa (Pv), P. inversa (Pi) and P. subversa (Ps). Each species had its own behavioural responses. Moreover, responses of Pi and Ps towards Pv were significantly longer, than they were between themselves whereas Pv ants were equally aggressive towards Pi and Ps. These differences are in agreement with the results of the cluster analysis of the cuticular HCs profiles that place Pi closer to Ps. In support of the idea that components of cuticular lipids profiles are important for recognition, we found that only the HC fraction and its branched subfraction elicited a behavioural response of Ps workers. It is suggested that internally branched methyl- and dimethylalkanes are involved in recognition behaviour.

  17. Ultramorphology and histochemistry of fat body cells from last instar larval of the Pachycondyla (=Neoponera) villosa (Fabricius) (Formicidae: Ponerinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, F J; Caetano, F H

    2004-08-01

    The fat body cells of Pachycondyla (=Neoponera) villosa are disposed in a single layer between the cuticle and the digestive tract, forming a group of cells enclosed by a thin membrane. Histological studies have revealed three different cellular types: trophocyte (more abundant), urate, (located among the trophocytes), and oenocyte (the scarcest), usually observed laying near the cuticle. Histochemically, the trophocytes showed a positive reaction for basic proteins in the nucleus and cytoplasm, as well as a strong positive reaction in the cytoplasmic granules. The test for carbohydrates showed a strong positive reaction throughout the cytoplasm, while the test for lipids was positive for the cytoplasmic vesicles. The urate cells showed a positive reaction for basic proteins in the nucleus and in the areas of the cytoplasm surrounding the vesicles. These cells did not react to the PAS test or to Sudan Black B. The oenocytes showed a weak positive reaction to PAS and a strong positive reaction to Sudan Black B and Mercuric-bromophenol Blue.

  18. Electochemical detection of chromosome translocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Dimaki, Maria; Silahtaroglu, Asli

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetics is a study of the cell structure with a main focus on chromosomes content and their structure. Chromosome abnormalities, such as translocations may cause various genetic disorders and heametological malignancies. Chromosome translocations are structural rearrangements of two...... chromosomes that results in formation of derivative chromosomes with a mixed DNA sequence. The method currently used for their detection is Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization, which requires a use of expensive, fluorescently labeled probes that target the derivative chromosomes. We present here a double...... hybridization approach developed for label-free detection of the chromosome translocations. For specific translocation detection it is necessary to determine that the two DNA sequences forming a derivative chromosome are connected, which is achieved by two subsequent hybridization steps. The electrochemical...

  19. Structural insights into ribosome translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Clarence; Ermolenko, Dmitri N

    2016-09-01

    During protein synthesis, tRNA and mRNA are translocated from the A to P to E sites of the ribosome thus enabling the ribosome to translate one codon of mRNA after the other. Ribosome translocation along mRNA is induced by the universally conserved ribosome GTPase, elongation factor G (EF-G) in bacteria and elongation factor 2 (EF-2) in eukaryotes. Recent structural and single-molecule studies revealed that tRNA and mRNA translocation within the ribosome is accompanied by cyclic forward and reverse rotations between the large and small ribosomal subunits parallel to the plane of the intersubunit interface. In addition, during ribosome translocation, the 'head' domain of small ribosomal subunit undergoes forward- and back-swiveling motions relative to the rest of the small ribosomal subunit around the axis that is orthogonal to the axis of intersubunit rotation. tRNA/mRNA translocation is also coupled to the docking of domain IV of EF-G into the A site of the small ribosomal subunit that converts the thermally driven motions of the ribosome and tRNA into the forward translocation of tRNA/mRNA inside the ribosome. Despite recent and enormous progress made in the understanding of the molecular mechanism of ribosome translocation, the sequence of structural rearrangements of the ribosome, EF-G and tRNA during translocation is still not fully established and awaits further investigation. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:620-636. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1354 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 The Authors. WIREs RNA published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Overexpression of ERF1-V from Haynaldia villosa Can Enhance the Resistance of Wheat to Powdery Mildew and Increase the Tolerance to Salt and Drought Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Xing

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The APETALA 2/Ethylene-responsive element binding factor (AP2/ERF transcription factor gene family is widely involved in the biotic and abiotic stress regulation. Haynaldia villosa (VV, 2n = 14, a wild species of wheat, is a potential gene pool for wheat improvement. H. villosa confers high resistance to several wheat diseases and high tolerance to some abiotic stress. In this study, ERF1-V, an ethylene-responsive element-binding factor gene of the AP2/ERF transcription factor gene family from wild H. villosa, was cloned and characterized. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed that ERF1-V is a deduced B2 type ERF gene. ERF1-V was first identified as a Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt up-regulated gene, and later found to be induced by drought, salt and cold stresses. In responses to hormones, ERF1-V was up-regulated by ethylene and abscisic acid, but down-regulated by salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. Over expression of ERF1-V in wheat could improve resistance to powdery mildew, salt and drought stress. Chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activity were significantly differences between the recipient Yangmai158 and the transgenic plants following salt treatment. Furthermore, the expression levels of some stress responsive genes were differences after drought or salt treatments. Although ERF1-V was activated by the constitutive promoter, the agronomic traits, including flowering time, plant height, effective tiller number, spikelet number per spike and grain size, did not changed significantly. ERF1-V is a valuable gene for wheat improvement by genetic engineering.

  1. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante das espécies Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. e Mentha x villosa (Huds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Correia Freitas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas medicinais com potencial terapêutico tem motivado a realização de estudos através de ensaios experimentais que visam fornecer informações úteis e de extrema importância. Assim o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante das espécies de Coleus amboinicus (Lour. e Mentha x villosa (Huds. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de difusão em disco, cepas bacterianas padronizadas Gram negativas Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 e ATCC 35218, cepas Gram positivas Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 e S. aureus ATCC 27853, assim como fungos padrões de Cryptococcus neoformans (pertencentes à coleção de microrganismos do CESMAC. Como controle positivo foi usado o imipenem e fluconazol e como controle negativo um disco com etanol absoluto. A determinação do potencial antioxidante foi realizada utilizando os métodos DPPH, FTC e determinação de compostos fenólicos. Os extratos etanólicos de C. amboinicus e M. x villosa apresentaram excelentes resultados tanto relacionado à atividade antimicrobiana quanto à antioxidante. Nossos resultados mostram a potencialidade das plantas analisadas na prevenção e no combate de doenças.

  2. Suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, Jennifer M; Bishop, Phillip J

    2009-02-01

    Translocations are important tools in the field of conservation. Despite increased use over the last few decades, the appropriateness of translocations for amphibians and reptiles has been debated widely over the past 20 years. To provide a comprehensive evaluation of the suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation, we reviewed the results of amphibian and reptile translocation projects published between 1991 and 2006. The success rate of amphibian and reptile translocations reported over this period was twice that reported in an earlier review in 1991. Success and failure rates were independent of the taxonomic class (Amphibia or Reptilia) released. Reptile translocations driven by human-wildlife conflict mitigation had a higher failure rate than those motivated by conservation, and more recent projects of reptile translocations had unknown outcomes. The outcomes of amphibian translocations were significantly related to the number of animals released, with projects releasing over 1000 individuals being most successful. The most common reported causes of translocation failure were homing and migration of introduced individuals out of release sites and poor habitat. The increased success of amphibian and reptile translocations reviewed in this study compared with the 1991 review is encouraging for future conservation projects. Nevertheless, more preparation, monitoring, reporting of results, and experimental testing of techniques and reintroduction questions need to occur to improve translocations of amphibians and reptiles as a whole.

  3. Translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins JA. Diseases of white blood cells, lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC, eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 13.

  4. Problems with mitigation translocation of herpetofauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Brian K; Nowak, Erika M; Kwiatkowski, Matthew A

    2015-02-01

    Mitigation translocation of nuisance animals is a commonly used management practice aimed at resolution of human-animal conflict by removal and release of an individual animal. Long considered a reasonable undertaking, especially by the general public, it is now known that translocated subjects are negatively affected by the practice. Mitigation translocation is typically undertaken with individual adult organisms and has a much lower success rate than the more widely practiced conservation translocation of threatened and endangered species. Nonetheless, the public and many conservation practitioners believe that because population-level conservation translocations have been successful that mitigation translocation can be satisfactorily applied to a wide variety of human-wildlife conflict situations. We reviewed mitigation translocations of reptiles, including our own work with 3 long-lived species (Gila monsters [Heloderma suspectum], Sonoran desert tortoises [Gopherus morafkai], and western diamond-backed rattlesnakes [Crotalus atrox]). Overall, mitigation translocation had a low success rate when judged either by effects on individuals (in all studies reviewed they exhibited increased movement or increased mortality) or by the success of the resolution of the human-animal conflict (translocated individuals often returned to the capture site). Careful planning and identification of knowledge gaps are critical to increasing success rates in mitigation translocations in the face of increasing pressure to find solutions for species threatened by diverse anthropogenic factors, including climate change and exurban and energy development. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Balanced Reciprocal Translocations Detected at Amniocentesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: Balanced reciprocal translocations detected at amniocentesis may be associated with fetal anomalies in cases of concomitant aneuploidy, de novo X-autosome translocation or de novo CCR. Genetic counseling of a de novo simple reciprocal translocation at amniocentesis remains difficult because approximately one-fourth of the parents opt for termination of the pregnancy, and detailed ultrasonography and array comparative genomic hybridization are helpful for parental counseling under such circumstances.

  6. Polymer translocation through nanopore into active bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Mingfeng; Jiang, Huijun; Hou, Zhonghuai

    2016-11-01

    Polymer translocation through nanopores into a crowded environment is of ubiquitous importance in many biological processes. Here we investigate polymer translocation through a nanopore into an active bath of self-propelled particles in two-dimensional space using Langevin dynamics simulations. Interestingly, we find that the mean translocation time can show a bell-shape dependence on the particle activity Fa at a fixed volume fraction ϕ, indicating that the translocation process may become slower for small activity compared to the case of the passive media, and only when the particle activity becomes large enough can the translocation process be accelerated. In addition, we also find that can show a minimum as a function of ϕ if the particle activity is large enough, implying that an intermediate volume fraction of active particles is most favorable for the polymer translocation. Detailed analysis reveals that such nontrivial behaviors result from the two-fold effect of active bath: one that active particles tend to accumulate near the pore, providing an extra pressure hindering the translocation, and the other that they also aggregate along the polymer chain, generating an effective pulling force accelerating the translocation. Such results demonstrate that active bath plays rather subtle roles on the polymer translocation process.

  7. Translocations affecting human immunoglobulin heavy chain locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sklyar I. V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Translocations involving human immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH locus are implicated in different leukaemias and lymphomas, including multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. We have analysed published data and identified eleven breakpoint cluster regions (bcr related to these cancers within the IgH locus. These ~1 kbp bcrs are specific for one or several types of blood cancer. Our findings could help devise PCR-based assays to detect cancer-related translocations, to identify the mechanisms of translocations and to help in the research of potential translocation partners of the immunoglobulin locus at different stages of B-cell differentiation.

  8. Haloarchaeal Protein Translocation via the Twin Arginine Translocation Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohlschroder Mechthild

    2009-02-03

    Protein transport across hydrophobic membranes that partition cellular compartments is essential in all cells. The twin arginine translocation (Tat) pathway transports proteins across the prokaryotic cytoplasmic membranes. Distinct from the universally conserved Sec pathway, which secretes unfolded proteins, the Tat machinery is unique in that it secretes proteins in a folded conformation, making it an attractive pathway for the transport and secretion of heterologously expressed proteins that are Sec-incompatible. During the past 7 years, the DOE-supported project has focused on the characterization of the diversity of bacterial and archaeal Tat substrates as well as on the characterization of the Tat pathway of a model archaeon, Haloferax volcanii, a member of the haloarchaea. We have demonstrated that H. volcanii uses this pathway to transport most of its secretome.

  9. Translocality in Global Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Søderberg, Anne-Marie; Krishna, S.

    2017-01-01

    What happens when agile methods are introduced in global outsourcing set-ups? Agile methods are designed to empower IT developers in decision-making through self-managing collocated teams. We studied how agile methods were introduced into global outsourcing from the Indian IT vendor’s perspective....... We explored how agile processes in global outsourcing impacts work conditions of the Indian IT developers, and were surprised to find that agile methodologies, even after 3 years of implementation, created a stressful and inflexible work environment negatively impacting their personal lives. Many...... of the negative aspects of work, which agile methodologies were developed to reduce, were evident in the global agile outsourcing set-up. We propose translocality to repudiate the dichotomy of global/local reminding us that methodologies and technologies must be understood as immediately localized and situated...

  10. PHARMACOBOTANICAL STUDIES ON ‘SHVET SHARPUNKHA’ – A COMPARATIVE DIAGNOSTIC ACCOUNT OF TEPHROSIA VILLOSA PERS. AND T. PURPUREA (LINN.) PERS. FORM ALBIFLORA S. R. PAUL et. R. C. GUPTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    Two kinds of ‘shapunkha’, the ‘Shvet’ (white) and ‘Rakta’ (red) are described in some of the Ayurvedic texts and the former is reported therapeutically more effective. Some of the Ayurvedic physicians use T. villosa Pers. as ‘Shvet sharpunkha’ due to its persistently villous silky white parts. While others have advocated white colour of flowers as main feature for distinguishing “Shvet sharpunkha’. A white flowered form of Tephrosia purpurea which is found in association with red or purple flowered ones is reported by us as T. purpurea (Linn.) Pers. Form albiflora S. R. Paul et R. C. Gupta. In the present work, however, detailed comparative pharmacognosy of all vegetable parts of T. villosa and T. purpurea f. albiflora have been carried out. Also the study reveals that two species exhibit great similarity in their macro – an microscopical feature. PMID:22557616

  11. Translocations used to generate chromosome segment duplications ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary figure 1. (a–i) Putative novel genes created by the breakpoints. Translocation chromosomes are shown with the translocated segment indicated in red and the untranslocated segments in black or blue. Purple arrows indicate whether the chromosome is a donor (arrow pointing up) or a recipient (arrow ...

  12. Translocations used to generate chromosome segment duplications ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    progeny bearing a duplication (Dp) of the translocated chromosome segment. Here, 30 ... [Singh P K, Iyer V S, Sowjanya T N, Raj B K and Kasbekar D P 2010 Translocations used to generate chromosome segment duplications in. Neurospora can ... of this work, namely, the definition of breakpoint junction sequences of 12 ...

  13. RNA polymerase stalls in a post-translocated register and can hyper-translocate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedialkov, Yuri A; Nudler, Evgeny; Burton, Zachary F

    2012-01-01

    Exonuclease (Exo) III was used to probe translocation states of RNA polymerase (RNAP) ternary elongation complexes (TECs). Escherichia coli RNAP stalls primarily in a post-translocation register that makes relatively slow excursions to a hyper-translocated state or to a pre-translocated state. Tagetitoxin (TGT) strongly inhibits hyper-translocation and inhibits backtracking, so, as indicated by Exo III mapping, TGT appears to stabilize both the pre- and probably a partially post-translocation state of RNAP. Because the pre-translocated to post-translocated transition is slow at many template positions, these studies appear inconsistent with a model in which RNAP makes frequent and rapid (i.e., millisecond phase) oscillations between pre- and post-translocation states. Nine nucleotides (9-nt) and 10-nt TECs, and TECs with longer nascent RNAs, have distinct translocation properties consistent with a 9-10 nt RNA/DNA hybrid. RNAP mutant proteins in the bridge helix and trigger loop are identified that inhibit or stimulate forward and backward translocation.

  14. Habitat drives dispersal and survival of translocated juvenile desert tortoises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafus, Melia G.; Esque, Todd C.; Averill-Murray, Roy C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Swaisgood, Ronald R.

    2017-01-01

    1.In spite of growing reliance on translocations in wildlife conservation, translocation efficacy remains inconsistent. One factor that can contribute to failed translocations is releasing animals into poor quality or otherwise inadequate habitat.

  15. Influência do cultivo em consórcio na produção de fitomassa e óleo essencial de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.) e hortelã (Mentha x villosa Huds.) Influence of intercropping on phytomass and essential oil production in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and mint (Mentha x villosa Huds.)

    OpenAIRE

    J.T.L.S. Maia; E.R. Martins; C.A. Costa; E.O.F. Ferraz; I.C.A. Alvarenga; I.T. Souza Júnior; S.V. Valadares

    2009-01-01

    As plantas medicinais produzem seus princípios ativos de acordo com os estímulos do ambiente, por isso a presença de outras plantas pode comprometer a produção dos metabólicos secundários. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do cultivo consorciado sobre a produção de fitomassa e o teor de óleo essencial de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.) e hortelã (Mentha x villosa Huds.). O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental do Núcleo de Ciências Agrárias da Universida...

  16. Avaliação de substratos orgânicos na produção de mudas de hortelã (Mentha gracilis R. Br. e Mentha x villosa Huds. Evaluation of organic substrates on mint (Mentha gracilis R. Br. and Mentha x villosa Huds. seedling production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Paulus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A determinação de substratos alternativos viáveis para a produção de mudas de plantas medicinais é de grande relevância, pois o aproveitamento de resíduos de atividades agrícolas representa alternativa para problemas ambientais e sociais. Os experimentos foram realizados em ambiente protegido e a campo, na Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Campus Dois Vizinhos, com o objetivo de avaliar substratos orgânicos para produção de mudas de hortelã para cultivo a campo. O delineamento experimental foi blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em esquema fatorial, sendo avaliados quatro substratos [esterco bovino + vermiculita + areia (1:1:1, esterco bovino + areia + solo (1:1:1, solo + vermiculita + cama-de-aviário (1:1:1 e substrato organo-mineral Plantmax® HA] e duas espécies de menta (Mentha gracilis e Mentha x villosa. Foram analisadas a altura da plantas e o número de folhas aos 07, 14 e 21 dias após o transplantio, índice de mortalidade, massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e das raízes. Não houve interação entre as espécies de menta e substratos para as variáveis analisadas. O substrato organo-mineral Plantmax® apresentou os melhores resultados para o número de folhas (8,44, altura (8,46 cm, produção de massa fresca (1,56 g planta-1, seca (0,23 g planta-1 e 100% de pegamento de mudas a campo o que para o produtor de menta é de grande interesse. Com base nos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que para a produção de mudas de Mentha gracilis e Mentha villosa o substrato Plantmax® HA é o mais recomendado.The determination of viable alternative substrates is of great importance for the production of medicinal seedlings since the use of residues from agricultural activities represents an alternative to solve environmental and social problems. The experiments were carried out in protected environment and in the field, located in the Federal Technological University of Paraná, Dois Vizinhos Campus, Paran

  17. Computer simulations and theory of protein translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Dmitrii E

    2009-02-17

    The translocation of proteins through pores is central to many biological phenomena, such as mitochondrial protein import, protein degradation, and delivery of protein toxins to their cytosolic targets. Because proteins typically have to pass through constrictions that are too narrow to accommodate folded structures, translocation must be coupled to protein unfolding. The simplest model that accounts for such co-translocational unfolding assumes that both translocation and unfolding are accomplished by pulling on the end of the polypeptide chain mechanically. In this Account, we describe theoretical studies and computer simulations of this model and discuss how the time scales of translocation depend on the pulling force and on the protein structure. Computationally, this is a difficult problem because biologically or experimentally relevant time scales of translocation are typically orders of magnitude slower than those accessible by fully atomistic simulations. For this reason, we explore one-dimensional free energy landscapes along suitably defined translocation coordinates and discuss various approaches to their computation. We argue that the free energy landscape of translocation is often bumpy because confinement partitions the protein's configuration space into distinct basins of attraction separated by large entropic barriers. Favorable protein-pore interactions and nonnative interactions within the protein further contribute to the complexity. Computer simulations and simple scaling estimates show that forces of just 2-6 pN are often sufficient to ensure transport of unstructured polypeptides, whereas much higher forces are typically needed to translocate folded protein domains. The unfolding mechanisms found from simulations of translocation are different from those observed in the much better understood case of atomic force microscopy (AFM) pulling studies, in which proteins are unraveled by stretching them between their N- and C-termini. In contrast to

  18. DNA nanopore translocation in glutamate solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plesa, C.; Van Loo, N.; Dekker, C.

    2015-01-01

    Nanopore experiments have traditionally been carried out with chloride-based solutions. Here we introduce silver/silver-glutamate-based electrochemistry as an alternative, and study the viscosity, conductivity, and nanopore translocation characteristics of potassium-, sodium-, and lithium-glutamate

  19. Dudleya Variegata Translocation - San Diego [ds654

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — At Mission Trails Regional Park, a translocation project of Dudleya variegata was conducted in efforts to save the population from a private property undergoing...

  20. Translocation of polymers in a lattice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, S; Kośmider, M; Drzewiński, A; van Leeuwen, J M J

    2012-06-01

    Voltage-driven polymer translocation is studied by means of a stochastic lattice model. The model incorporates voltage drop over the membrane as a bias in the hopping rate through the pore and exhibits the two main ingredients of the translocation process: driven motion through the pore and diffusive supply of chain length towards the pore on the cis-side and the drift away from the pore on the trans-side. The translocation time is either bias limited or diffusion limited. In the bias-limited regime the translocation time is inversely proportional to the voltage drop over the membrane. In the diffusion-limited regime the translocation time is independent of the applied voltage, but it is rather sensitive to the motion rules of the model. We find that the whole regime is well described by a single curve determined by the initial slope and the saturation value. The dependence of these parameters on the length of the chain, the motion rules and the repton statistics are established. Repulsion of reptons as well as the increase of chain length decrease the throughput of the polymer through the pore. As for free polymers, the inclusion of a mechanism for hernia creations/annihilations leads to the cross-over from Rouse-like behaviour to reptation. For the experimentally most relevant case (Rouse dynamics) the bimodal power law dependence of the translocation time on the chain length is found.

  1. Stress and translocation: alterations in the stress physiology of translocated birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Molly J.; Delehanty, David J.; Romero, L. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Translocation and reintroduction have become major conservation actions in attempts to create self-sustaining wild populations of threatened species. However, avian translocations have a high failure rate and causes for failure are poorly understood. While ‘stress’ is often cited as an important factor in translocation failure, empirical evidence of physiological stress is lacking. Here we show that experimental translocation leads to changes in the physiological stress response in chukar partridge, Alectoris chukar. We found that capture alone significantly decreased the acute glucocorticoid (corticosterone, CORT) response, but adding exposure to captivity and transport further altered the stress response axis (the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis) as evident from a decreased sensitivity of the negative feedback system. Animals that were exposed to the entire translocation procedure, in addition to the reduced acute stress response and disrupted negative feedback, had significantly lower baseline CORT concentrations and significantly reduced body weight. These data indicate that translocation alters stress physiology and that chronic stress is potentially a major factor in translocation failure. Under current practices, the restoration of threatened species through translocation may unwittingly depend on the success of chronically stressed individuals. This conclusion emphasizes the need for understanding and alleviating translocation-induced chronic stress in order to use most effectively this important conservation tool. PMID:19324794

  2. Molecular studies of free and translocation trisomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, W.P.; Bernasconi, F.; Lefort, G. [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Twenty cases of trisomy 13 were examined with molecular markers to determine the origin of the extra chromosome. Six cases had translocation trisomy: two de novo rob(13q;14q), one paternally derived rob(13q;14q), two de novo t(13q;13q), and one mosaic de novo t(13q;14q), one paternally derived rob(13q;14q), two de novo t(13q;13q), and one mosaic de novo t(13q;13q)r(13). Eighteen of nineteen informative patients were consistant with a maternal origin of the extra chromosome. Lack of a third allele at any locus in any of the three t(13q;13q) cases indicate that all were most likely isochromosomes of post-meiotic origin. In addition, two free trisomy cases were compatible with a somatic origin. Two mosaic free trisomy-13 cases, however, were both consistent with a maternal meiotic origin. The patient with a paternal inheritance of the translocation chromosome was purely coincidental. Since there is not a significantly increased risk for unbalanced offspring of a t(13;14) carrier and most trisomies are maternal in origin, this result should not be surprising; however it illustrates that one cannot infer the origin of translocation trisomy based on parental origin of the translocation. One balanced (non-trisomic) case with a non-mosaic 45,-13,-13,+t(13;13) karyotype was also investigated and was determined to be a somatic Robertsonian translocation between the maternal and paternal homologs, as has been found for all homologous Robertsonian translocations so far investigated. It is therefore also incorrect to assume in de novo translocation cases that the two involved chromosomes are even from the same parent. We cannot therefore infer anything about the origin of the chromosomes 13 and 14 involved in the two cases with de novo t(13q;14q) plus a maternally derived trisomy 13.

  3. Stochastic resonance during a polymer translocation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Debasish; Muthukumar, M

    2016-04-14

    We have studied the occurrence of stochastic resonance when a flexible polymer chain undergoes a single-file translocation through a nano-pore separating two spherical cavities, under a time-periodic external driving force. The translocation of the chain is controlled by a free energy barrier determined by chain length, pore length, pore-polymer interaction, and confinement inside the donor and receiver cavities. The external driving force is characterized by a frequency and amplitude. By combining the Fokker-Planck formalism for polymer translocation and a two-state model for stochastic resonance, we have derived analytical formulas for criteria for emergence of stochastic resonance during polymer translocation. We show that no stochastic resonance is possible if the free energy barrier for polymer translocation is purely entropic in nature. The polymer chain exhibits stochastic resonance only in the presence of an energy threshold in terms of polymer-pore interactions. Once stochastic resonance is feasible, the chain entropy controls the optimal synchronization conditions significantly.

  4. Coatings comprising chitosan and Mentha piperita L. or Mentha × villosa Huds essential oils to prevent common postharvest mold infections and maintain the quality of cherry tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Ingrid Conceição Dantas; de Oliveira, Priscila Dinah Lima; Pontes, Alline Lima de Souza; Lúcio, Ana Sílvia Suassuna Carneiro; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Madruga, Marta Suely; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-12-02

    In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of coatings comprising shrimp chitosan (CHI) and Mentha piperita L. (MPEO) or Mentha × villosa Huds (MVEO) essential oils to control mold infections caused by Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum and Rhizopus stolonifer in cherry tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum L.) during storage at room temperature (25°C for 12 days) and low temperature (12°C for 24 days). The effects of the coatings on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of cherry tomato fruits during storage were also assessed. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CHI against all test fungi was 8 mg/mL, whereas the MIC for both MPEO and MVEO was 5 μL/mL. Combinations of CHI at 4 mg/mL and MPEO or MVEO at 2.5 or 1.25 μL/mL strongly inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of target fungi. The coatings comprising CHI and MPEO or CHI and MVEO at the different tested concentrations delayed the growth of decay-causing fungi in artificially contaminated tomato fruit during storage at either room temperature or low temperature. The assayed coatings preserved the quality of cherry tomato fruit during storage, in terms of physicochemical and sensory attributes. These results indicate that coatings comprising CHI and MPEO or CHI and MVEO represent promising postharvest treatments to prevent common postharvest mold infections in cherry tomato fruit during storage without affecting the quality of the fruit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular characterisation of the broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew conferred by the Stpk-V gene from the wild species Haynaldia villosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, C; Cui, C; Wang, X; Zhou, C; Hu, P; Li, M; Li, R; Xiao, J; Wang, X; Chen, P; Xing, L; Cao, A

    2017-11-01

    A key member of the Pm21 resistance gene locus, Stpk-V, derived from Haynaldia villosa, was shown to confer broad-spectrum resistance to wheat powdery mildew. The present study was planned to investigate the resistance mechanism mediated by Stpk-V. Transcriptome analysis was performed in Stpk-V transgenic plants and recipient Yangmai158 upon Bgt infection, and detailed histochemical observations were conducted. Chromosome location of Stpk-V orthologous genes in Triticeae species was conducted for evolutionary study and over-expression of Stpk-V both in barley and Arabidopsis was performed for functional study. The transcriptome results indicate, at the early infection stage, the ROS pathway, JA pathway and some PR proteins associated with the SA pathway were activated in both the resistant Stpk-V transgenic plants and susceptible Yangmai158. However, at the later infection stage, the genes up-regulated at the early stage were continuously held only in the transgenic plants, and a large number of new genes were also activated in the transgenic plants but not in Yangmai158. Results indicate that sustained activation of the early response genes combined with later-activated genes mediated by Stpk-V is critical for resistance in Stpk-V transgenic plants. Stpk-V orthologous genes in the representative grass species are all located on homologous group six chromosomes, indicating that Stpk-V is an ancient gene in the grasses. Over-expression of Stpk-V enhanced host resistance to powdery mildew in barley but not in Arabidopsis. Our results enable a better understanding of the resistance mechanism mediated by Stpk-V, and establish a solid foundation for its use in cereal breeding as a gene resource. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. [Dendritic arborization patterns of interneurons labeled with a lectin, Vicia villosa, in rat cerebral cortex: studies by intracellular injection of lucifer yellow using aldehyde-fixed slices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, H

    1993-04-01

    In order to characterize the dendritic field of a number of interneurons in the cerebral cortex, the labeling of extracellular sugar chains which define a subset of interneurons was combined with the subsequent intracellular filling of dyes in aldehyde-fixed tissue. Neurons whose cell body had been outlined by a lectin, Vicia villosa (VVA), which recognizes terminal N-acetylgalactosamine, were intracellularly injected with a fluorescent tracer, Lucifer yellow (LY), in the rat parietal cortex under direct visualization. After immunohistochemical detection of LY, somal morphology and the dendritic fields of injected neurons were reconstructed from serial sections and characterized in each of the layers II/III, IV, V and VI. Multipolar, flask-shaped and bitufted somata were VVA-positive. Multipolar neurons with round soma and spherical dendritic field were found in layers II/III, IV and V, while those with vertically elongated dendritic fields were found in layer VI. Cell bodies were located roughly in the center of the spherical or cylindrical dendritic fields. Neurons with apparently multipolar but flask- or pear-shaped soma were found frequently in layer IV, and much less frequently in layer II/III and VI. The majority of the dendrites originated from the neck portion of flask and formed a roughly spherical dendritic field with the cell body located more or less eccentrically. Some neurons in layer IV had an oval, somewhat vertically elongated soma and displayed a typical bitufted dendritic arborization pattern with vertically elongated dendritic fields. The overall dendritic field sizes of the cells gradually increased at deeper layers of the cortex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Influence de l'environnement pre-imaginal et precoce dans le choix du site de nidification de Pachycondyla (=Neoponera) villosa (Fabr.) (formicidae, ponerinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, A

    1990-06-01

    In the Biosphera Reserve of Sian Ka'an, State of Quintana Roo in Mexico, it was observed that Pachycondyla villosa nest almost exclusively in Bromeliad epiphytes Aechmea bracteata. It is possible that winged females seek this plant to build their society. From this fact two hypothesis may be formulated. Two lots comprising workers and winged females were tested. In each case, the lot controlled comprised of individuals found in nature (societies settled on Aechmea). The tested lots were produced and bred in laboratory. The first lot was put in contact with a piece of Schomburgkia tibicinis, the second lot had no contact with a plant. At the time of the experiment, each lot was faced with a choice between two tubes. One contained a piece of Aechmea, the other was empty (1st series of tests), or contained a piece of Schomburgkia (2nd series of tests). The first series of tests permits to show that controls (individuals that have contact with Aechmea in nature) settle in tubes containing a piece of Aechmea whereas individuals from the other two lots settle indiscriminately in either of the tubes. The second series of tests permits to show that controls also settle in the tube containing Aechmea, that individuals raised in contact with Schomburgkia choose the tube containing this plant and that individuals raised in the absence of plant contact settle indiscriminately in either of the tubes. The influence of the original environmental influence on individuals in the choice between two types of tubes is thus demonstrated. This influence is due to an imprinting during larval life, and strenghened at the beginning of imago life. Copyright © 1990. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Potencial alelopático de extratos aquosos de Melissa officinalis L. e Mentha x villosa L. na germinação e vigor de sementes de Plantago major L. Allelopathic effect of extracts of Melissa officinallis L. and Mentha x villosa L. on seed germination and vigor of Plantago major L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P.G. Bonfim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos extratos aquosos de hortelã e melissa na germinação e vigor de sementes de tanchagem. O experimento foi conduzido no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, no mês de abril de 2011. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos (testemunha, 25%, 50%, 75% e 100 % do extrato aquoso de hortelã e melissa e quatro repetições. Os extratos foram preparados utilizando a parte aérea das plantas, na proporção de 100g de planta para 1 L de água destilada. Foram utilizadas 50 sementes de tanchagem em cada caixa gerbox, previamente umedecido com os extratos aquosos (correspondentes aos tratamentos, estas foram levadas para germinar em câmara de germinação, em temperatura de 20°C, fotoperíodo de 16 horas luz e 8 horas escuro, por 14 dias. Durante esse tempo foram feitas às contagens diárias das sementes germinadas para calcular o índice de velocidade de germinação e ao final dos 14 dias foi calculada a porcentagem de germinação. Sementes de tanchagem não submetidas aos extratos aquosos de melissa e hortelã apresentaram-se mais vigorosas quando comparado com as concentrações, evidenciando o potencial alelopático de melissa e hortelã sobre a sua qualidade fisiológica.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of Melissa officinallis and Mentha x villosa for the germination and vigor of Plantago major seeds. The experiment was conducted at the Plant Science Department, Federal University of Viçosa, in April 2011. The design was a completely randomized design with five treatments (control, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the aqueous extract of Mentha x villosa and Melissa Officinallis and four replications. The extracts were prepared utulizando the shoots of plants at the rate of 100g of plant to 1 L of distilled water. We used 50 Plantago major seeds in each box incubator and these were subsequently placed in a

  9. Rank Modulation for Translocation Error Correction

    CERN Document Server

    Farnoud, Farzad; Milenkovic, Olgica

    2012-01-01

    We consider rank modulation codes for flash memories that allow for handling arbitrary charge drop errors. Unlike classical rank modulation codes used for correcting errors that manifest themselves as swaps of two adjacently ranked elements, the proposed \\emph{translocation rank codes} account for more general forms of errors that arise in storage systems. Translocations represent a natural extension of the notion of adjacent transpositions and as such may be analyzed using related concepts in combinatorics and rank modulation coding. Our results include tight bounds on the capacity of translocation rank codes, construction techniques for asymptotically good codes, as well as simple decoding methods for one class of structured codes. As part of our exposition, we also highlight the close connections between the new code family and permutations with short common subsequences, deletion and insertion error-correcting codes for permutations and permutation arrays.

  10. Nuclear translocation and retention of growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertani, Hichem C; Raccurt, Mireille; Abbate, Aude

    2003-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that GH is subject to rapid receptor-dependent nuclear translocation. Here, we examine the importance of ligand activation of the GH-receptor (GHR)-associated Janus kinase (JAK) 2 and receptor dimerization for hormone internalization and nuclear translocation by use...... of cells stably transfected with cDNA for the GHR. Staurosporine and herbimycin A treatment of cells did not affect the ability of GH to internalize but resulted in increased nuclear accumulation of hormone. Similarly, receptor mutations, which prevent the association and activation of JAK2, did not affect...... the ability of the hormone to internalize or translocate to the nucleus but resulted in increased nuclear accumulation of GH. These results were observed both by nuclear isolation and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Staurosporine treatment of cells in which human GH (hGH) was targeted to the cytoplasm...

  11. Streptococcus pyogenes translocates across an epithelial barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumitomo, Tomoko

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a β-hemolytic organism responsible for a wide variety of human diseases that commonly occur as self-limiting purulent diseases of the pharynx and skin. Although the occurrence of invasive infections by S. pyogenes is rare, mortality rates remain high even with progressive medical therapy. As a prerequisite for causing the severe invasive disease, S. pyogenes must invade underlying sterile tissues by translocating across the epithelial barrier. In this study, streptolysin S and SpeB were identified as the novel factors that facilitate bacterial translocation via degradation of intercellular junctions. Furthermore, we found that S. pyogenes exploits host plasminogen for acceleration of bacterial invasion into deeper tissues via tricellular tight junctions. Here, I would like to show our study on bacterial translocation across the epithelial barrier through paracellular route.

  12. Case Report: Extrauterine Translocated Contraceptive Device: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three of the five translocated intraperitoneal devices were recovered by laparotomy and the forth by laparoscopy. The fifth patient, pregnant, defaulted with the device still retained. We are of the opinion that primary iatrogenic uterine perforation occurs occasionally. Other possible translocatory mechanisms include ...

  13. Familial cryptic translocation in Angelman syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyerts, L.K.; Wiley, J.E.; Loud, K.M. [ECU School of Medicine, Greenville, NC (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The majority of patients with Angelman syndrome have been shown to have a cytogenetic or molecular deletion on the maternally derived chromosome 15. We report on a case of Angelman syndrome in which this deletion occurs as an unbalanced cryptic translocation involving chromosomes 14 and 15. The proband was diagnosed clinically as having Angelman syndrome. Multiple cytogenetic studies were done without detecting any deletion. When DNA probes (Oncor) specific for the Prader Willi/Angelman locus became available, the patient was restudied and found to be deleted for {open_quotes}region A{close_quotes} (D15S11) but not for {open_quotes}region B{close_quotes} (GABRB3). No other abnormality was detected. The proband`s mother was then studied. The chromosome 15 marker probe and D15S11 were detected on different chromosomes. Using alpha-satellite probes, a cryptic 14;15 translocation was uncovered. This balanced translocation was also found to be carried by the sister of the proband. This case, along with a case presented at the 1993 ASHG meeting, illustrates the need for using acrocentric probes when studying Angelman syndrome patients. The proband was studied using additional probes specific for this region and found to be deleted for SNRPN but not for D15S10. The breakpoint of the translocation in this patient delineates the smallest deletion of the Angelman syndrome region reported to date and therefore may represent the specific gene involved.

  14. Ultramorphology and histochemistry of fat body cells from last Instar larval of the Pachycondyla (=Neoponera villosa (Fabricius (Formicidae: Ponerinae Ultramorfologia e histoquímica do corpo gorduroso de larvas de último estágio de Pachycondyla (=Neoponera villosa (Fabricius (Formicidae: Ponerinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Zara

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The fat body cells of Pachycondyla (=Neoponera villosa are disposed in a single layer between the cuticle and the digestive tract, forming a group of cells enclosed by a thin membrane. Histological studies have revealed three different cellular types: trophocyte (more abundant, urate, (located among the trophocytes, and oenocyte (the scarcest, usually observed laying near the cuticle. Histochemically, the trophocytes showed a positive reaction for basic proteins in the nucleus and cytoplasm, as well as a strong positive reaction in the cytoplasmic granules. The test for carbohydrates showed a strong positive reaction throughout the cytoplasm, while the test for lipids was positive for the cytoplasmic vesicles. The urate cells showed a positive reaction for basic proteins in the nucleus and in the areas of the cytoplasm surrounding the vesicles. These cells did not react to the PAS test or to Sudan Black B. The oenocytes showed a weak positive reaction to PAS and a strong positive reaction to Sudan Black B and Mercuric-bromophenol Blue.As células do corpo gorduroso de Pachycondyla (=Neoponera villosa distribuem-se como uma única camada entre a cutícula e o trato digestivo, formando um conjunto de células agrupadas e recobertas por uma fina membrana. Não foram identificados tipos celulares distintos por meio da ultramorfologia, porém a histologia revelou três tipos celulares distintos: os trofócitos, mais abundantes, as células de urato, distribuídas por entre os trofócitos, e os enócitos, menos abundantes que os demais. Os enócitos são comumente observados próximos da cutícula. Histoquimicamente, os trofócitos apresentaram reação positiva para proteínas básicas no núcleo e no citoplasma e reação fortemente positiva nos grânulos citoplasmáticos. O teste para carboidratos foi fortemente positivo em todo o citoplasma, enquanto para os lipídeos observou-se reação positiva nas vesículas citoplasmáticas. Em relação

  15. Financial costs of large carnivore translocations--accounting for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian J Weise

    Full Text Available Human-carnivore conflict continues to present a major conservation challenge around the world. Translocation of large carnivores is widely implemented but remains strongly debated, in part because of a lack of cost transparency. We report detailed translocation costs for three large carnivore species in Namibia and across different translocation scenarios. We consider the effect of various parameters and factors on costs and translocation success. Total translocation cost for 30 individuals in 22 events was $80,681 (US Dollars. Median translocation cost per individual was $2,393, and $2,669 per event. Median cost per cheetah was $2,760 (n = 23, and $2,108 per leopard (n = 6. One hyaena was translocated at a cost of $1,672. Tracking technology was the single biggest cost element (56%, followed by captive holding and feeding. Soft releases, prolonged captivity and orphaned individuals also increased case-specific costs. A substantial proportion (65.4% of the total translocation cost was successfully recovered from public interest groups. Less than half the translocations were confirmed successes (44.4%, 3 unknown with a strong species bias. Four leopards (66.7% were successfully translocated but only eight of the 20 cheetahs (40.0% with known outcome met these strict criteria. None of the five habituated cheetahs was translocated successfully, nor was the hyaena. We introduce the concept of Individual Conservation Cost (ICC and define it as the cost of one successfully translocated individual adjusted by costs of unsuccessful events of the same species. The median ICC for cheetah was $6,898 and $3,140 for leopard. Translocations are costly, but we demonstrate that they are not inherently more expensive than other strategies currently employed in non-lethal carnivore conflict management. We conclude that translocation should be one available option for conserving large carnivores, but needs to be critically evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  16. Financial costs of large carnivore translocations--accounting for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Florian J; Stratford, Ken J; van Vuuren, Rudolf J

    2014-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflict continues to present a major conservation challenge around the world. Translocation of large carnivores is widely implemented but remains strongly debated, in part because of a lack of cost transparency. We report detailed translocation costs for three large carnivore species in Namibia and across different translocation scenarios. We consider the effect of various parameters and factors on costs and translocation success. Total translocation cost for 30 individuals in 22 events was $80,681 (US Dollars). Median translocation cost per individual was $2,393, and $2,669 per event. Median cost per cheetah was $2,760 (n = 23), and $2,108 per leopard (n = 6). One hyaena was translocated at a cost of $1,672. Tracking technology was the single biggest cost element (56%), followed by captive holding and feeding. Soft releases, prolonged captivity and orphaned individuals also increased case-specific costs. A substantial proportion (65.4%) of the total translocation cost was successfully recovered from public interest groups. Less than half the translocations were confirmed successes (44.4%, 3 unknown) with a strong species bias. Four leopards (66.7%) were successfully translocated but only eight of the 20 cheetahs (40.0%) with known outcome met these strict criteria. None of the five habituated cheetahs was translocated successfully, nor was the hyaena. We introduce the concept of Individual Conservation Cost (ICC) and define it as the cost of one successfully translocated individual adjusted by costs of unsuccessful events of the same species. The median ICC for cheetah was $6,898 and $3,140 for leopard. Translocations are costly, but we demonstrate that they are not inherently more expensive than other strategies currently employed in non-lethal carnivore conflict management. We conclude that translocation should be one available option for conserving large carnivores, but needs to be critically evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  17. Measurement of background translocation frequencies in individuals with clones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, Marcelle J. [California State Univ. (CalState), Hayward, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    In the leukemia case the unseparated B and T lymphocytes had a high translocation frequency even after 0.0014, respectively. After purging all clones from the data, the translocation frequencies for Bio 8 and Bio 23 were 0.00750.0014 and 0.0073 metaphases were scored for chromosomal aberrations,, specifically reciprocal translocations, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Metaphase spreads were used from two healthy, unexposed individuals (not exposed to radiation, chemotherapy or radiotherapy) and one early B- precursor acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) patient (metaphase spreads from both separated T lymphocytes and unseparated B and T lymphocytes were scored). All three individuals had an abnormally high translocation frequency. The high translocation frequencies resulted from clonal expansion of specific translocated chromosomes. I show in this thesis that by purging (discounting or removing) clones from the data of unexposed individuals, one can obtain true background translocation frequencies. In two cases, Bio 8 and Bio 23, the measured translocation frequency for chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 was 0.0124 purging all of the clones from the data. This high translocation frequency may be due to a low frequency of some clones and may not be recognized. The separated T lymphocytes had a higher translocation frequency than expected.

  18. Translocation can drive the unfolding of a preprotein domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkowitz, R A; Joly, J C; Wickner, W

    1993-01-01

    Precursor proteins are believed to have secondary and tertiary structure prior to translocation across the Escherichia coli plasma membrane. We now find that preprotein unfolding during translocation can be driven by the translocation event itself. At certain stages, translocation and unfolding can occur without exogenous energy input. To examine this unfolding reaction, we have prepared proOmpA-Dhfr, a fusion protein of the well studied cytosolic enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (Dhfr) connected to the C-terminus of proOmpA, the precursor form of outer membrane protein A. At an intermediate stage of its in vitro translocation, the N-terminal proOmpA domain has crossed the membrane while the folded Dhfr portion, stabilized by its ligands NADPH and methotrexate, has not. When the ligands are removed from this intermediate, translocation occurs by a two-step process. First, 20-30 amino acid residues of the fusion protein translocate concomitant with unfolding of the Dhfr domain. This reaction requires neither ATP, delta mu H+ nor the SecA subunit of translocase. Strikingly, this translocation accelerates the net unfolding of the Dhfr domain. In a second step, SecA and ATP hydrolysis drive the rapid completion of translocation. Thus energy derived from translocation can drive the unfolding of a substantial protein domain.

  19. Influência do cultivo em consórcio na produção de fitomassa e óleo essencial de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.) e hortelã (Mentha x villosa Huds.)

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, J.T.L.S.; Martins, E.R.; Costa, C.A.; Ferraz, E.O.F.; Alvarenga, I.C.A.; Souza Júnior, I.T.; Valadares, S.V.

    2009-01-01

    As plantas medicinais produzem seus princípios ativos de acordo com os estímulos do ambiente, por isso a presença de outras plantas pode comprometer a produção dos metabólicos secundários. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do cultivo consorciado sobre a produção de fitomassa e o teor de óleo essencial de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.) e hortelã (Mentha x villosa Huds.). O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental do Núcleo de Ciências Agrárias da Universida...

  20. Microdeletion syndromes, balanced translocations, and gene mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinzel, A

    1988-01-01

    High resolution prometaphase chromosome banding has allowed the detection of discrete chromosome aberrations which escaped earlier metaphase examinations. Consistent tiny deletions have been detected in some well established malformation syndromes: an interstitial deletion in 15q11/12 in the majority of patients with the Prader-Willi syndrome and in a minority of patients with the Angelman (happy puppet) syndrome; a terminal deletion of 17p13.3 in most patients examined with the Miller-Dieker syndrome; an interstitial deletion of 8q23.3/24.1 in a large majority of patients with the Giedion-Langer syndrome; an interstitial deletion of 11p13 in virtually all patients with the WAGR (Wilms' tumour-aniridia-gonadoblastoma-retardation) syndrome; and an interstitial deletion in 22q11 in about one third of patients with the DiGeorge sequence. In addition, a combination of chromosome prometaphase banding and DNA marker studies has allowed the localisation of the genes for retinoblastoma and for Wilms' tumour and the clarification of both the autosomal recessive nature of the mutation and the possible somatic mutations by which the normal allele can be lost in retina and kidney cells. After a number of X linked genes had been mapped, discrete deletions in the X chromosome were detected by prometaphase banding with specific attention paid to the sites of the gene(s) in males who had from one to up to four different X linked disorders plus mental retardation. Furthermore, the detection of balanced translocations in probands with disorders caused by autosomal dominant or X linked genes has allowed a better insight into the localisation of these genes. In some females with X linked disorders, balanced X; autosomal translocations have allowed the localisation of X linked genes at the breakpoint on the X chromosome. Balanced autosome; autosome translocations segregating with autosomal dominant conditions have provided some clues to the gene location of these conditions. In two

  1. Mechanism for translocation of fluoroquinolones across lipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramariuc, O.; Rog, T.; Javanainen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Classical atom-scale molecular dynamics simulations, constrained free energy calculations, and quantum mechanical (QM) calculations are employed to study the diffusive translocation of ciprofloxacin (CPFX) across lipid membranes. CPFX is considered here as a representative of the fluoroquinolone....... Subsequent QM analysis of the observed molecular stacking shows the important role of partial charge neutralization in the stacks, highlighting how the zwitterionic form of the drug is neutralized for translocation. The findings propose a translocation mechanism in which zwitterionic CPFX molecules approach...

  2. Metallic oxide nanoparticle translocation across the human bronchial epithelial barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Isabelle; Naudin, Grégoire; Boland, Sonja; Mornet, Stéphane; Contremoulins, Vincent; Beugnon, Karine; Martinon, Laurent; Lambert, Olivier; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle

    2015-03-14

    Inhalation is the most frequent route of unintentional exposure to nanoparticles (NPs). Our aim was to quantify the translocation of different metallic NPs across human bronchial epithelial cells and to determine the factors influencing this translocation. Calu-3 cells forming a tight epithelial barrier when grown on a porous membrane in a two compartment chamber were exposed to fluorescently labelled NPs to quantify the NP translocation. NP translocation and uptake by cells were also studied by confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Translocation was characterized according to NP size (16, 50, or 100 nm), surface charge (negative or positive SiO2), composition (SiO2 or TiO2), presence of proteins or phospholipids and in an inflammatory context. Our results showed that NPs can translocate through the Calu-3 monolayer whatever their composition (SiO2 or TiO2), but this translocation was increased for the smallest and negatively charged NPs. Translocation was not associated with an alteration of the integrity of the epithelial monolayer, suggesting a transcytosis of the internalized NPs. By modifying the NP corona, the ability of NPs to cross the epithelial barrier differed depending on their intrinsic properties, making positively charged NPs more prone to translocate. NP translocation can be amplified by using agents known to open tight junctions and to allow paracellular passage. NP translocation was also modulated when mimicking an inflammatory context frequently found in the lungs, altering the epithelial integrity and inducing transient tight junction opening. This in vitro evaluation of NP translocation could be extended to other inhaled NPs to predict their biodistribution.

  3. Longing Itineraries: Building the Translocal Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo López Angel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Migration has reshaped social practices, the sense of belonging has been rethought, and the membership is renegotiated and contended; this is why strategies for their sustainability have been generated. The translocal community operates through multilocated relationships that reveal the ways in which migrants are adapting to the new demands of the community. We emphasize the emotional impulse of nostalgia as one of the vehicles of sustainability for the community. The community is redefined and understood in a set of socio-cultural relationships its members generate, and where the locality is not central, but the connection. A new dimension of the social community space is not just the community gathered in a specific place, but also that agreements, commitments, and acknowledgments are exhibited and settled in the cyberspace; this cyberspace gives cohesion and brings a dynamic element to preserve the community, despite the fact that it is even less concrete than the spatial notion of territory. Facebook, YouTube and a blog are the web platforms of the virtual space where "neighbors, compatriots and citizens" (categories of ascription from the migration get together, where there is a reproduction of social practices (even the most ancient and fundamental ones, to give a new dimension to a translocal, multilocated and ciberlocated community.

  4. Another reptile translocation to a national park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.R. Branch

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available On 4 May 1988 a sub-adult (50 mm snout-vent length, 42 mm tail Jones' girdled lizard Cordylus tropidosternum jonesi was collected in a pile of wood being off-loaded at the new restcamp in the Karoo National Park, Beaufort West. The wood had been transported by lorry from the Kruger National Park. The specimen is deposited in the herpetological collection of the Port Elizabeth Museum (PEM R 4584. Jones' girdled lizard is a small, arboreal cordylid that shelters under tree bark and in hollow logs. It is common and widely-distributed in the Kruger National Park (Pienaar, Haacke & Jacobsen 1983, The Reptiles of the Kruger National Park, 3rd edition. Pretoria: National Parks Board and adjacent lowveld, being replaced in northern Zimbabwe and East Africa by the nominate race. Hewitt & Power (1913, Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 3: 147-176, 1913 reported a similar translocation of the species to Kimberley in association with timber brought to the diamond mining camps. One of us noted recently the ease and danger of the unwitting spread of commensal reptile species into conservation areas (Branch 1978, Koedoe 30: 165, and this is confirmed by this additional example. We recommend that should similar shipments of wood be considered essential, then they be fumigated to prevent the translocation of other alien organisms that may potentially have more dangerous consequences.

  5. Chaperone-assisted translocation of flexible polymers in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhonen, P. M.; Linna, R. P.

    2016-01-01

    Polymer translocation through a nanometer-scale pore assisted by chaperones binding to the polymer is a process encountered in vivo for proteins. Studying the relevant models by computer simulations is computationally demanding. Accordingly, previous studies are either for stiff polymers in three dimensions or flexible polymers in two dimensions. Here, we study chaperone-assisted translocation of flexible polymers in three dimensions using Langevin dynamics. We show that differences in binding mechanisms, more specifically, whether a chaperone can bind to a single site or multiple sites on the polymer, lead to substantial differences in translocation dynamics in three dimensions. We show that the single-binding mode leads to dynamics that is very much like that in the constant-force driven translocation and accordingly mainly determined by tension propagation on the cis side. We obtain β ≈1.26 for the exponent for the scaling of the translocation time with polymer length. This fairly low value can be explained by the additional friction due to binding particles. The multiple-site binding leads to translocation the dynamics of which is mainly determined by the trans side. For this process we obtain β ≈1.36 . This value can be explained by our derivation of β =4 /3 for constant-bias translocation, where translocated polymer segments form a globule on the trans side. Our results pave the way for understanding and utilizing chaperone-assisted translocation where variations in microscopic details lead to rich variations in the emerging dynamics.

  6. Chromosomal Translocations: Chicken or Egg? | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many tumor cells have abnormal chromosomes. Some of these abnormalities are caused by chromosomal translocations, which occur when two chromosomes break and incorrectly rejoin, resulting in an exchange of genetic material. Translocations can activate oncogenes, silence tumor suppressor genes, or result in the creation of completely new fusion gene products. While there is little doubt that chromosomal translocations can contribute to cancer, there is an active "chicken and the egg" discussion about the role translocations and other chromosomal abnormalities play—do they actually cause cancer or merely occur because of other changes within the cancer cell.  

  7. Translocation of cell-penetrating peptides into Candida fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zifan; Karlsson, Amy J

    2017-09-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are small peptides capable of crossing cellular membranes while carrying molecular cargo. Although they have been widely studied for their ability to translocate nucleic acids, small molecules, and proteins into mammalian cells, studies of their interaction with fungal cells are limited. In this work, we evaluated the translocation of eleven fluorescently labeled peptides into the important human fungal pathogens Candida albicans and C. glabrata and explored the mechanisms of translocation. Seven of these peptides (cecropin B, penetratin, pVEC, MAP, SynB, (KFF)3 K, and MPG) exhibited substantial translocation (>80% of cells) into both species in a concentration-dependent manner, and an additional peptide (TP-10) exhibiting strong translocation into only C. glabrata. Vacuoles were involved in translocation and intracellular trafficking of the peptides in the fungal cells and, for some peptides, escape from the vacuoles and localization in the cytosol were correlated to toxicity toward the fungal cells. Endocytosis was involved in the translocation of cecropin B, MAP, SynB, MPG, (KFF)3 K, and TP-10, and cecropin B, penetratin, pVEC, and MAP caused membrane permeabilization during translocation. These results indicate the involvement of multiple translocation mechanisms for some CPPs. Although high levels of translocation were typically associated with toxicity of the peptides toward the fungal cells, SynB was translocated efficiently into Candida cells at concentrations that led to minimal toxicity. Our work highlights the potential of CPPs in delivering antifungal molecules and other bioactive cargo to Candida pathogens. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  8. An Updated View of Translocator Protein (TSPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzio Denora

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Decades of study on the role of mitochondria in living cells have evidenced the importance of the 18 kDa mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO, first discovered in the 1977 as an alternative binding site for the benzodiazepine diazepam in the kidneys. This protein participates in a variety of cellular functions, including cholesterol transport, steroid hormone synthesis, mitochondrial respiration, permeability transition pore opening, apoptosis, and cell proliferation. Thus, TSPO has become an extremely attractive subcellular target for the early detection of disease states that involve the overexpression of this protein and the selective mitochondrial drug delivery. This special issue was programmed with the aim of summarizing the latest findings about the role of TSPO in eukaryotic cells and as a potential subcellular target of diagnostics or therapeutics. A total of 9 papers have been accepted for publication in this issue, in particular, 2 reviews and 7 primary data manuscripts, overall describing the main advances in this field.

  9. The mathematical simulation of carbohydrate translocation in natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbohydrate translocation within plants, in each growth stage, is driven by the ration of the existing mass of given plant parts to the total plant mass. The mass in each plant organ strives to attain an optimal proportion of the total plant mass by means of the translocation of carbohydrate. In each growth stage a maximum ...

  10. Label Free Chromosome Translocation Detection with Silicon nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Frøhling, Kasper Bayer

    HROMOSOME translocation, which is a rearrangement of arms between two chromosomes, is a major group of chromosome abnormalities leading to cancer. As a result, two derivative chromosomes with sequences coming from both chromosomes are formed. The current translocation detection method is a Fluore...

  11. Multistep Current Signal in Protein Translocation through Graphene Nanopores

    KAUST Repository

    Bonome, Emma Letizia

    2015-05-07

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. In nanopore sensing experiments, the properties of molecules are probed by the variation of ionic currents flowing through the nanopore. In this context, the electronic properties and the single-layer thickness of graphene constitute a major advantage for molecule characterization. Here we analyze the translocation pathway of the thioredoxin protein across a graphene nanopore, and the related ionic currents, by integrating two nonequilibrium molecular dynamics methods with a bioinformatic structural analysis. To obtain a qualitative picture of the translocation process and to identify salient features we performed unsupervised structural clustering on translocation conformations. This allowed us to identify some specific and robust translocation intermediates, characterized by significantly different ionic current flows. We found that the ion current strictly anticorrelates with the amount of pore occupancy by thioredoxin residues, providing a putative explanation of the multilevel current scenario observed in recently published translocation experiments.

  12. Range-wide success of red-cockaded woodpecker translocations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, John W; Costa, Ralph

    2004-12-31

    Edwards, John W.; Costa, Ralph. 2004. Range-wide success of red-cockaded woodpecker translocations. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 6. Translocation. Pp 307-311. Abstract: Red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) have declined range-wide during the past century, suffering from habitat loss and the effects of fire exclusion in older southern pine forests. Red-cockaded woodpecker translocations are a potentially important tool in conservation efforts to reestablish red-cockaded woodpeckers in areas from which they have been extirpated. Currently, translocations are critical in ongoing efforts to save and restore the many existing small populations. We examined the effects of demographic and environmental factors on the range-wide success of translocations between 1989 and 1995.

  13. MYC translocation partner gene determines survival of patients with large B-cell lymphoma with MYC- or double-hit MYC/BCL2 translocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mette Ø; Gang, Anne O; Poulsen, Tim S

    2014-01-01

    data were collected from patient files. MYC translocation was identified in 28/225 patients. IG-MYC translocation partner gene was identified in 12/24 patients. DH translocation was identified in 23/228 patients. IG-MYC translocation partner gene was identified in 9/19 DH patients. Neither MYC-nor DH...

  14. Mechanisms underlying stage-1 TRPL channel translocation in Drosophila photoreceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh-Ha Lieu

    Full Text Available TRP channels function as key mediators of sensory transduction and other cellular signaling pathways. In Drosophila, TRP and TRPL are the light-activated channels in photoreceptors. While TRP is statically localized in the signaling compartment of the cell (the rhabdomere, TRPL localization is regulated by light. TRPL channels translocate out of the rhabdomere in two distinct stages, returning to the rhabdomere with dark-incubation. Translocation of TRPL channels regulates their availability, and thereby the gain of the signal. Little, however, is known about the mechanisms underlying this trafficking of TRPL channels.We first examine the involvement of de novo protein synthesis in TRPL translocation. We feed flies cycloheximide, verify inhibition of protein synthesis, and test for TRPL translocation in photoreceptors. We find that protein synthesis is not involved in either stage of TRPL translocation out of the rhabdomere, but that re-localization to the rhabdomere from stage-1, but not stage-2, depends on protein synthesis. We also characterize an ex vivo eye preparation that is amenable to biochemical and genetic manipulation. We use this preparation to examine mechanisms of stage-1 TRPL translocation. We find that stage-1 translocation is: induced with ATP depletion, unaltered with perturbation of the actin cytoskeleton or inhibition of endocytosis, and slowed with increased membrane sterol content.Our results indicate that translocation of TRPL out of the rhabdomere is likely due to protein transport, and not degradation/re-synthesis. Re-localization from each stage to the rhabdomere likely involves different strategies. Since TRPL channels can translocate to stage-1 in the absence of ATP, with no major requirement of the cytoskeleton, we suggest that stage-1 translocation involves simple diffusion through the apical membrane, which may be regulated by release of a light-dependent anchor in the rhabdomere.

  15. Minimizing the cost of translocation failure with decision-tree models that predict species' behavioral response in translocation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mehregan; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Bull, C Michael

    2015-08-01

    The high number of failures is one reason why translocation is often not recommended. Considering how behavior changes during translocations may improve translocation success. To derive decision-tree models for species' translocation, we used data on the short-term responses of an endangered Australian skink in 5 simulated translocations with different release conditions. We used 4 different decision-tree algorithms (decision tree, decision-tree parallel, decision stump, and random forest) with 4 different criteria (gain ratio, information gain, gini index, and accuracy) to investigate how environmental and behavioral parameters may affect the success of a translocation. We assumed behavioral changes that increased dispersal away from a release site would reduce translocation success. The trees became more complex when we included all behavioral parameters as attributes, but these trees yielded more detailed information about why and how dispersal occurred. According to these complex trees, there were positive associations between some behavioral parameters, such as fight and dispersal, that showed there was a higher chance, for example, of dispersal among lizards that fought than among those that did not fight. Decision trees based on parameters related to release conditions were easier to understand and could be used by managers to make translocation decisions under different circumstances. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Does translocation influence physiological stress in the desert tortoise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, K.K.; Nussear, K.E.; Esque, T.C.; Barber, A.M.; Vittum, K.M.; Medica, P.A.; Tracy, C.R.; Hunter, K.W.

    2012-01-01

    Wildlife translocation is increasingly used to mitigate disturbances to animals or habitat due to human activities, yet little is known about the extent to which translocating animals causes stress. To understand the relationship between physiological stress and translocation, we conducted a multiyear study (2007–2009) using a population of desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) near Fort Irwin, California. Blood samples were collected from adult tortoises in three treatment groups (resident, translocated and control) for 1 year prior to and 2 years after translocation. Samples were analyzed by radioimmunoassay for plasma total corticosterone (CORT), a glucocorticoid hormone commonly associated with stress responses in reptiles. CORT values were analyzed in relation to potential covariates (animal sex, date, behavior, treatment, handling time, air temperature, home-range size, precipitation and annual plant production) among seasons and years. CORT values in males were higher than in females, and values for both varied monthly throughout the activity season and among years. Year and sex were strong predictors of CORT, and translocation explained little in terms of CORT. Based on these results, we conclude that translocation does not elicit a physiological stress response in desert tortoises.

  17. Mode of ATM-dependent suppression of chromosome translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, Motohiro, E-mail: motoyama@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Suzuki, Keiji; Oka, Yasuyoshi; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yamashita, Shunichi [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We addressed how ATM suppresses frequency of chromosome translocation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses translocation frequency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ATM and DNA-PKcs function in a common pathway to suppress translocation. -- Abstract: It is well documented that deficiency in ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein leads to elevated frequency of chromosome translocation, however, it remains poorly understood how ATM suppresses translocation frequency. In the present study, we addressed the mechanism of ATM-dependent suppression of translocation frequency. To know frequency of translocation events in a whole genome at once, we performed centromere/telomere FISH and scored dicentric chromosomes, because dicentric and translocation occur with equal frequency and by identical mechanism. By centromere/telomere FISH analysis, we confirmed that chemical inhibition or RNAi-mediated knockdown of ATM causes 2 to 2.5-fold increase in dicentric frequency at first mitosis after 2 Gy of gamma-irradiation in G0/G1. The FISH analysis revealed that ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses dicentric frequency, since RNAi-mediated knockdown of p53 elevated dicentric frequency by 1.5-fold. We found ATM also suppresses dicentric occurrence independently of its checkpoint role, as ATM inhibitor showed additional effect on dicentric frequency in the context of p53 depletion and Chk1/2 inactivation. Epistasis analysis using chemical inhibitors revealed that ATM kinase functions in the same pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to suppress dicentric frequency. From the results in the present study, we conclude that ATM minimizes translocation frequency through its commitment to G1 checkpoint and DNA double-strand break repair pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-PKcs.

  18. Translocation of threatened plants as a conservation measure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Ren, Hai; Liu, Qiang; Wen, XiangYing; Maunder, Michael; Gao, JiangYun

    2015-12-01

    We assessed the current status of plant conservation translocation efforts in China, a topic poorly reported in recent scientific literature. We identified 222 conservation translocation cases involving 154 species, of these 87 were Chinese endemic species and 101 (78%) were listed as threatened on the Chinese Species Red List. We categorized the life form of each species and, when possible, determined for each case the translocation type, propagule source, propagule type, and survival and reproductive parameters. A surprisingly large proportion (26%) of the conservation translocations in China were conservation introductions, largely implemented in response to large-scale habitat destruction caused by the Three-Gorge Dam and another hydropower project. Documentation and management of the translocations varied greatly. Less than half the cases had plant survival records. Statistical analyses showed that survival percentages were significantly correlated with plant life form and the type of planting materials. Thirty percent of the cases had records on whether or not individuals flowered or fruited. Results of information theoretic model selection indicated that plant life form, translocation type, propagule type, propagule source, and time since planting significantly influenced the likelihood of flowering and fruiting on the project level. We suggest that the scientific-based application of species conservation translocations should be promoted as part of a commitment to species recovery management. In addition, we recommend that the common practice of within and out of range introductions in nature reserves to be regulated more carefully due to its potential ecological risks. We recommend the establishment of a national office and database to coordinate conservation translocations in China. Our review effort is timely considering the need for a comprehensive national guideline for the newly announced nation-wide conservation program on species with extremely

  19. Microbiome and bacterial translocation in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Hurtado, Isabel; Such, José; Francés, Rubén

    2016-12-01

    Qualitative and quantitative changes in gut microbiota play a very important role in cirrhosis. Humans harbour around 100 quintillion gut bacteria, thus representing around 10 times more microbial cells than eukaryotic ones. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest surface area in the body and it is subject to constant exposure to these living microorganisms. The existing symbiosis, proven by the lack of proinflammatory response against commensal bacteria, implies the presence of clearly defined communication lines that contribute to the maintenance of homeostasis of the host. Therefore, alterations of gut flora seem to play a role in the pathogenesis and progress of multiple liver and gastrointestinal diseases. This has made its selective modification into an area of high therapeutic interest. Bacterial translocation is defined as the migration of bacteria or bacterial products from the intestines to the mesenteric lymph nodes. It follows that alteration in gut microbiota have shown importance, at least to some extent, in the pathogenesis of several complications arising from terminal liver disease, such as hepatic encephalopathy, portal hypertension and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. This review sums up, firstly, how liver disease can alter the common composition of gut microbiota, and secondly, how this alteration contributes to the development of complications in cirrhosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U., AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  20. Fragility in the 14q21q translocation region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy R. Denison

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aphidicolin (APC-induced chromosomal breakage was analyzed for women representing three generations of a single family and carrying a Robertsonian translocation rob(14q21q. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis confirmed the dicentric constitution of the derived chromosome and indicated the absence of beta-satellite signal at the translocation region. Per-individual analysis of metaphases from APC-treated peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures identified significantly nonrandom chromosomal breakage at the translocation region in all three individuals examined. The APC-inducible fragility at the 14q21q translocation region suggests that this rearrangement was the result of chromosomal mutation at fragile site(s in the progenitor chromosomes, or that this fragility was the result of the fusion of nonfragile progenitor chromosomes.

  1. TRANSLOCATION OF BACTERIA AND ENDOTOXIN IN ORGAN DONORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Harry; Rosman, C; Kooi, K; Wubbels, GH; Bleichrodt, RP

    1994-01-01

    Objective: To determine if bacterial translocation and endotoxin absorption occur in organ donors with an anatomically intact gastrointestinal tract. Design: Case series. Setting: Intensive care units in general and university hospitals. Patients: Twenty-one (multiple) organ donors. Intervention:

  2. Evaluation of cadmium bioaccumulation and translocation by Hopea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    leaves. In order to evaluate the potential of species selected as phytoremediator, three indicators were used namely, bioconcentration factor (BCF, the metal concentration ratio of plant roots to soil), translocation factor (TF, the metal concentration ...

  3. DNA Translocations through Solid-State Plasmonic Nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Nanopores enable label-free detection and analysis of single biomolecules. Here, we investigate DNA translocations through a novel type of plasmonic nanopore based on a gold bowtie nanoantenna with a solid-state nanopore at the plasmonic hot spot. Plasmonic excitation of the nanopore is found to influence both the sensor signal (nanopore ionic conductance blockade during DNA translocation) and the process that captures DNA into the nanopore, without affecting the duration time of the translocations. Most striking is a strong plasmon-induced enhancement of the rate of DNA translocation events in lithium chloride (LiCl, already 10-fold enhancement at a few mW of laser power). This provides a means to utilize the excellent spatiotemporal resolution of DNA interrogations with nanopores in LiCl buffers, which is known to suffer from low event rates. We propose a mechanism based on plasmon-induced local heating and thermophoresis as explanation of our observations. PMID:25347403

  4. Molecular studies of translocations and trisomy involving chromosome 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, W.P.; Bernasconi, F.; Dutly, F.; Schinzel, A.A. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)] [and others

    1996-01-11

    Twenty-four cases of trisomy 13 and one case with disomy 13, but a de novo dic(13,13)(p12p12) chromosome, were examined with molecular markers to determine the origin of the extra (or rearranged) chromosome. Twenty-one of 23 informative patients were consistent with a maternal origin of the extra chromosome. Lack of a third allele at any locus in both paternal origin cases indicate a somatic duplication of the paternal chromosome occurred. Five cases had translocation trisomy. The patient with a paternal rob(13q14q) had a maternal meiotic origin of the trisomy; thus, the paternal inheritance of the translocation chromosome was purely coincidental. Since there is not a significantly increased risk for unbalanced offspring of a t(13q14q) carrier and most trisomies are maternal in origin, this result should not be surprising; however, it illustrates that one cannot infer the origin of translocation trisomy based on parental origin of the translocation. Lack of a third allele at any locus in one of the three t(13q13q) cases indicates that it was most likely an isochromosome of postmeiotic origin, whereas the other two cases showed evidence of recombination. One balanced (nontrisomic) case with a nonmosaic 45, -13, -13, +t(13;13) karyotype was also investigated and was determined to be a somatic Robertsonian translocation between the maternal and paternal homologues, as has been found for all balanced homologous Robertsonian translocations so far investigated. Thus, it is also incorrect to assume in de novo translocation cases that the two involved chromosomes are even from the same parent. Despite a maternal origin of the trisomy, we cannot therefore infer anything about the parental origin of the chromosomes 13 and 14 involved in the translocation in the de novo t(13q14q) case nor for the two t(13;13) chromosomes showing a meiotic origin of the trisomy. 30 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Role of non-equilibrium conformations on driven polymer translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkar, H. H.; Muthukumar, M.

    2018-01-01

    One of the major theoretical methods in understanding polymer translocation through a nanopore is the Fokker-Planck formalism based on the assumption of quasi-equilibrium of polymer conformations. The criterion for applicability of the quasi-equilibrium approximation for polymer translocation is that the average translocation time per Kuhn segment, ⟨τ⟩/NK, is longer than the relaxation time τ0 of the polymer. Toward an understanding of conditions that would satisfy this criterion, we have performed coarse-grained three dimensional Langevin dynamics and multi-particle collision dynamics simulations. We have studied the role of initial conformations of a polyelectrolyte chain (which were artificially generated with a flow field) on the kinetics of its translocation across a nanopore under the action of an externally applied transmembrane voltage V (in the absence of the initial flow field). Stretched (out-of-equilibrium) polyelectrolyte chain conformations are deliberately and systematically generated and used as initial conformations in translocation simulations. Independent simulations are performed to study the relaxation behavior of these stretched chains, and a comparison is made between the relaxation time scale and the mean translocation time (⟨τ⟩). For such artificially stretched initial states, ⟨τ⟩/NK theory of polyelectrolyte dynamics reveals that the Zimm relaxation time (τZimm) is shorter than the mean translocation time for several polymers including single stranded DNA (ssDNA), double stranded DNA (dsDNA), and synthetic polymers. Even when these data are rescaled assuming a constant effective velocity of translocation, it is found that for flexible (ssDNA and synthetic) polymers with NK Kuhn segments, the condition ⟨τ⟩/NK < τZimm is satisfied. We predict that for flexible polymers such as ssDNA, a crossover from quasi-equilibrium to non-equilibrium behavior would occur at NK ˜ O(1000).

  6. Slowing DNA Translocation in a Nanofluidic Field-Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifan; Yobas, Levent

    2016-04-26

    Here, we present an experimental demonstration of slowing DNA translocation across a nanochannel by modulating the channel surface charge through an externally applied gate bias. The experiments were performed on a nanofluidic field-effect transistor, which is a monolithic integrated platform featuring a 50 nm-diameter in-plane alumina nanocapillary whose entire length is surrounded by a gate electrode. The field-effect transistor behavior was validated on the gating of ionic conductance and protein transport. The gating of DNA translocation was subsequently studied by measuring discrete current dips associated with single λ-DNA translocation events under a source-to-drain bias of 1 V. The translocation speeds under various gate bias conditions were extracted by fitting event histograms of the measured translocation time to the first passage time distributions obtained from a simple 1D biased diffusion model. A positive gate bias was observed to slow the translocation of single λ-DNA chains markedly; the translocation speed was reduced by an order of magnitude from 18.4 mm/s obtained under a floating gate down to 1.33 mm/s under a positive gate bias of 9 V. Therefore, a dynamic and flexible regulation of the DNA translocation speed, which is vital for single-molecule sequencing, can be achieved on this device by simply tuning the gate bias. The device is realized in a conventional semiconductor microfabrication process without the requirement of advanced lithography, and can be potentially further developed into a compact electronic single-molecule sequencer.

  7. Success of Delayed Translocation of Loggerhead Turtle Nests

    OpenAIRE

    Abella, Elena; Marco, Adolfo; López-Jurado, Luis F.

    2007-01-01

    Sea turtle embryo mortality in natural nests due to environmental and anthropogenic factors can be very high. To increase hatching success of these endangered species, nest translocation to hatcheries immediately after egg-laying is a common management tool. To test the viability of delayed translocation, we moved 50 loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nests to a beach hatchery after various times (0– 96 hr) after egg-laying at Boavista Island (Republic of Cabo Verde, western Af...

  8. Conflict bear translocation: investigating population genetics and fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh

    Full Text Available The Asiatic black bear population in Dachigam landscape, Jammu and Kashmir is well recognized as one of the highest density bear populations in India. Increasing incidences of bear-human interactions and the resultant retaliatory killings by locals have become a serious threat to the survivorship of black bears in the Dachigam landscape. The Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu and Kashmir has been translocating bears involved in conflicts, henceforth 'conflict bears' from different sites in Dachigam landscape to Dachigam National Park as a flagship activity to mitigate conflicts. We undertook this study to investigate the population genetics and the fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park. We identified 109 unique genotypes in an area of ca. 650 km2 and observed bear population under panmixia that showed sound genetic variability. Molecular tracking of translocated bears revealed that mostly bears (7 out of 11 bears returned to their capture sites, possibly due to homing instincts or habituation to the high quality food available in agricultural croplands and orchards, while only four bears remained in Dachigam National Park after translocation. Results indicated that translocation success was most likely to be season dependent as bears translocated during spring and late autumn returned to their capture sites, perhaps due to the scarcity of food inside Dachigam National Park while bears translocated in summer remained in Dachigam National Park due to availability of surplus food resources. Thus, the current management practices of translocating conflict bears, without taking into account spatio-temporal variability of food resources in Dachigam landscape seemed to be ineffective in mitigating conflicts on a long-term basis. However, the study highlighted the importance of molecular tracking of bears to understand their movement patterns and socio-biology in tough terrains like Dachigam landscape.

  9. Conflict bear translocation: investigating population genetics and fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukesh; Sharma, Lalit Kumar; Charoo, Samina Amin; Sathyakumar, Sambandam

    2015-01-01

    The Asiatic black bear population in Dachigam landscape, Jammu and Kashmir is well recognized as one of the highest density bear populations in India. Increasing incidences of bear-human interactions and the resultant retaliatory killings by locals have become a serious threat to the survivorship of black bears in the Dachigam landscape. The Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu and Kashmir has been translocating bears involved in conflicts, henceforth 'conflict bears' from different sites in Dachigam landscape to Dachigam National Park as a flagship activity to mitigate conflicts. We undertook this study to investigate the population genetics and the fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park. We identified 109 unique genotypes in an area of ca. 650 km2 and observed bear population under panmixia that showed sound genetic variability. Molecular tracking of translocated bears revealed that mostly bears (7 out of 11 bears) returned to their capture sites, possibly due to homing instincts or habituation to the high quality food available in agricultural croplands and orchards, while only four bears remained in Dachigam National Park after translocation. Results indicated that translocation success was most likely to be season dependent as bears translocated during spring and late autumn returned to their capture sites, perhaps due to the scarcity of food inside Dachigam National Park while bears translocated in summer remained in Dachigam National Park due to availability of surplus food resources. Thus, the current management practices of translocating conflict bears, without taking into account spatio-temporal variability of food resources in Dachigam landscape seemed to be ineffective in mitigating conflicts on a long-term basis. However, the study highlighted the importance of molecular tracking of bears to understand their movement patterns and socio-biology in tough terrains like Dachigam landscape.

  10. Computer simulation of viral-assembly and translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalik, Jyoti Prakash

    We investigated four different problems using coarse grained computational models : self-assembly of single stranded (ss) DNA virus, ejection dynamics of double stranded(ds) DNA from phages, translocation of ssDNA through MspA protein pore, and segmental dynamics of a polymer translocating through a synthetic nanopore. In the first part of the project, we investigated the self-assembly of a virus with and without its genome. A coarse-grained model was proposed for the viral subunit proteins and its genome (ssDNA). Langevin dynamics simulation, and replica exchange method were used to determine the kinetics and energetics of the self-assembly process, respectively. The self-assembly follows a nucleation-growth kind of mechanism. The ssDNA plays a crucial role in the self-assembly by acting as a template and enhancing the local concentration of the subunits. The presence of the genome does not changes the mechanism of the self-assembly but it reduces the nucleation time and enhances the growth rate by almost an order of magnitude. The second part of the project involves the investigation of the dynamics of the ejection of dsDNA from phages. A coarse-grained model was used for the phage and dsDNA. Langevin dynamics simulation was used to investigate the kinetics of the ejection. The ejection is a stochastic process and a slow intermediate rate kinetics was observed for most ejection trajectories. We discovered that the jamming of the DNA at the pore mouth at high packing fraction and for a disordered system is the reason for the intermediate slow kinetics. The third part of the project involves translocation of ssDNA through MspA protein pore. MspA protein pore has the potential for genome sequencing because of its ability to clearly distinguish the four different nucleotides based on their blockade current, but it is a challenge to use this pore for any practical application because of the very fast traslocation time. We resolved the state of DNA translocation

  11. Identification of chromosomal translocation hotspots via scan statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Israel T; Rosales, Rafael A; Holanda, Adriano J; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Jankovic, Mila

    2014-09-15

    The detection of genomic regions unusually rich in a given pattern is an important undertaking in the analysis of next-generation sequencing data. Recent studies of chromosomal translocations in activated B lymphocytes have identified regions that are frequently translocated to c-myc oncogene. A quantitative method for the identification of translocation hotspots was crucial to this study. Here we improve this analysis by using a simple probabilistic model and the framework provided by scan statistics to define the number and location of translocation breakpoint hotspots. A key feature of our method is that it provides a global chromosome-wide nominal control level to clustering, as opposed to previous methods based on local criteria. While being motivated by a specific application, the detection of unusual clusters is a widespread problem in bioinformatics. We expect our method to be useful in the analysis of data from other experimental approaches such as of ChIP-seq and 4C-seq. The analysis of translocations from B lymphocytes with the method described here reveals the presence of longer hotspots when compared with those defined previously. Further, we show that the hotspot size changes substantially in the absence of DNA repair protein 53BP1. When 53BP1 deficiency is combined with overexpression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase, the hotspot length increases even further. These changes are not detected by previous methods that use local significance criteria for clustering. Our method is also able to identify several exclusive translocation hotspots located in genes of known tumor supressors. The detection of translocation hotspots is done with hot_scan, a program implemented in R and Perl. Source code and documentation are freely available for download at https://github.com/itojal/hot_scan. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Hinge action versus grip in translocation by RNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedialkov, Yuri A; Opron, Kristopher; Caudill, Hailey L; Assaf, Fadi; Anderson, Amanda J; Cukier, Robert I; Wei, Guowei; Burton, Zachary F

    2018-01-01

    Based on molecular dynamics simulations and functional studies, a conformational mechanism is posited for forward translocation by RNA polymerase (RNAP). In a simulation of a ternary elongation complex, the clamp and downstream cleft were observed to close. Hinges within the bridge helix and trigger loop supported generation of translocation force against the RNA-DNA hybrid resulting in opening of the furthest upstream i-8 RNA-DNA bp, establishing conditions for RNAP sliding. The β flap tip helix and the most N-terminal β' Zn finger engage the RNA, indicating a path of RNA threading out of the exit channel. Because the β flap tip connects to the RNAP active site through the β subunit double-Ψ-β-barrel and the associated sandwich barrel hybrid motif (also called the flap domain), the RNAP active site is coupled to the RNA exit channel and to the translocation of RNA-DNA. Using an exonuclease III assay to monitor translocation of RNAP elongation complexes, we show that K + and Mg 2+ and also an RNA 3'-OH or a 3'-H 2 affect RNAP sliding. Because RNAP grip to template suggests a sticky translocation mechanism, and because grip is enhanced by increasing K + and Mg 2+ concentration, biochemical assays are consistent with a conformational change that drives forward translocation as observed in simulations. Mutational analysis of the bridge helix indicates that 778-GARKGL-783 (Escherichia coli numbering) is a homeostatic hinge that undergoes multiple bends to compensate for complex conformational dynamics during phosphodiester bond formation and translocation.

  13. A somatic origin of homologous Robertsonian translocations and isochromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, W.P.; Bernasconi, F.; Schinzel, A.A. (Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland)); Basaran, S.; Yueksel-Apak, M. (Univ. of Istanbul (Turkey)); Neri, G. (Universita Cattolica, Rome (Italy)); Serville, F. (Hopital d' Enfants Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France)); Balicek, P.; Haluza, R. (Univ. Hospital of Hradeck Kralove, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)); Farah, L.M.S. (Escuola Paulista de Medicina, Sao Paulo (Brazil)) (and others)

    1994-02-01

    One t(14q 14q), three t(15q 15q), two t(21q21q), and two t(22q22q) nonmosaic, apparently balanced, de novo Robertsonian translocation cases were investigated with polymorphic markers to establish the origin of the translocated chromosomes. Four cases had results indicative of an isochromosome: one t(14q14q) case with mild mental retardation and maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) for chromosome 14, one t(15q15q) case with the Prader-Willi syndrome and UPD(15), a phenotypically normal carrier of t(22q22q) with maternal UPD(22), and a phenotypically normal t(21q21q) case of paternal UPD(21). All UPD cases showed complete homozygosity throughout the involved chromosome, which is supportive of a postmeiotic origin. In the remaining four cases, maternal and paternal inheritance of the involved chromosome was found, which unambiguously implies a somatic origin. One t(15q15q) female had a child with a ring chromosome 15, which was also of probable postmeiotic origin as recombination between grandparental haplotypes had occurred prior to ring formation. UPD might be expected to result from de novo Robertsonian translocations of meiotic origin; however, all de novo homologous translocation cases, so far reported, with UPD of chromosomes 14, 15, 21, or 22 have been isochromosomes. These data provide the first direct evidence that nonmosaic Robertsonian translocations, as well as isochromosomes, are commonly the result of a mitotic exchange. 75 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  14. Electrostatics of polymer translocation events in electrolyte solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukdagli, Sahin; Ala-Nissila, T

    2016-07-07

    We develop an analytical theory that accounts for the image and surface charge interactions between a charged dielectric membrane and a DNA molecule translocating through the membrane. Translocation events through neutral carbon-based membranes are driven by a competition between the repulsive DNA-image-charge interactions and the attractive coupling between the DNA segments on the trans and the cis sides of the membrane. The latter effect is induced by the reduction of the coupling by the dielectric membrane. In strong salt solutions where the repulsive image-charge effects dominate the attractive trans-cis coupling, the DNA molecule encounters a translocation barrier of ≈10 kBT. In dilute electrolytes, the trans-cis coupling takes over image-charge forces and the membrane becomes a metastable attraction point that can trap translocating polymers over long time intervals. This mechanism can be used in translocation experiments in order to control DNA motion by tuning the salt concentration of the solution.

  15. Nonabsorbable Antibiotics Reduce Bacterial and Endotoxin Translocation in Hepatectomised Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Kakkos

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that septic complications, occurring after major hepatectomies, may be caused by gram negative bacteria, translocating from the gut. We investigated in rats, the effect of extended hepatectomy on the structure and morphology of the intestinal mucosa as well as on the translocation of intestinal bacteria and endotoxins. We also examined the effect of nonabsorbable antibiotics on reducing the intestinal flora and consequently the phenomenon of translocation by administering neomycin sulphate and cefazoline. Hepatectomy was found to increase translocation, while administration of nonabsorbable antibiotics decreased it significantly. In addition, hepatectomy increased the aerobic cecal bacterial population, which normalised in the group receiving antibiotics. Among the histological parameters evaluated, villus height demonstrated a significant reduction after hepatectomy, while the number of villi per cm and the number of mitoses per crypt, remained unchanged. Our results indicate that administration of nonabsorbable antibiotics presents a positive effect on bacterial and endotoxin translocation after extended hepatectomy, and this may be related to reduction of colonic bacterial load as an intraluminal effect of antibiotics.

  16. Understanding publication bias in reintroduction biology by assessing translocations of New Zealand's herpetofauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kimberly A; Bell, Trent P; Germano, Jennifer M

    2014-08-01

    The intentional translocation of animals is an important tool for species conservation and ecosystem restoration, but reported success rates are low, particularly for threatened and endangered species. Publication bias further distorts success rates because the results of successful translocations may be more likely to be published than failed translocations. We conducted the first comprehensive review of all published and unpublished translocations of herpetofauna in New Zealand to assess publication bias. Of 74 translocations of 29 species in 25 years, 35 have been reported in the published literature, and the outcomes of 12 have been published. Using a traditional definition of success, publication bias resulted in a gross overestimate of translocation success rates (41.7% and 8.1% for published and all translocations, respectively), but bias against failed translocations was minimal (8.3% and 6.8%, respectively). Publication bias against translocations with uncertain outcomes, the vast majority of projects, was also strong (50.0% and 85.1% for published and all translocations, respectively). Recent translocations were less likely to be published than older translocations. The reasons behind translocations were related to publication. A greater percentage of translocations for conservation and research were published (63.3% and 40.0%, respectively) than translocations for mitigation during land development (10.0%). Translocations conducted in collaboration with a university were more frequently published (82.7% and 24.4%, respectively). To account for some of this publication bias, we reassessed the outcome of each translocation using a standardized definition of success, which takes into consideration the species' life history and the time since release. Our standardized definition of translocation success provided a more accurate summary of success rates and allows for a more rigorous evaluation of the causes of translocation success and failure in large

  17. Tracking GLUT2 Translocation by Live-Cell Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsytkin-Kirschenzweig, Sabina; Cohen, Merav; Nahmias, Yaakov

    2018-01-01

    The facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT) family plays a key role in metabolic homeostasis, controlling the absorption rates and rapid response to changing carbohydrate levels. The facilitative GLUT2 transporter is uniquely expressed in metabolic epithelial cells of the intestine, pancreas, liver, and kidney. GLUT2 dysfunction is associated with several pathologies, including Fanconi-Bickel syndrome, a glycogen storage disease, characterized by growth retardation and renal dysfunction. Interestingly, GLUT2 activity is modulated by its cellular localization. Membrane translocation specifically regulates GLUT2 activity in enterocytes, pancreatic β-cells, hepatocytes, and proximal tubule cells. We have established a system to visualize and quantify GLUT2 translocation, and its dynamics, by live imaging of a mCherry-hGLUT2 fusion protein in polarized epithelial cells. This system enables testing of putative modulators of GLUT2 translocation, which are potential drugs for conditions of impaired glucose homeostasis and associated nephropathy.

  18. Translocation techniques used to establish pen farmed Alaskan reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Dieterich

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Small herds of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus frequently have been needed to be established in fenced holding pens for research or commercial reasons in Alaska and other areas. Native ranges of reindeer in Alaska were not on road systems, and the diet of the native reindeer had to be changed when they were translocated to small pens. Economics of transportation and feeding played an important role in the feasibility of translocation. Gathering and holding of reindeer for shipment, transport methods, adjustment of free-ranging reindeer to confinement, and a new diet were primary considerations to insure survival. Minimal psychologic stress of short duration, thermoregulation, and physical comfort were extremely important in carrying out a successful translocation. Receiving facilities, feed, and personnel were equally important. A minimum of one month was required to adjust reindeer to confinement and diet change.

  19. Metabolism and long-distance translocation of cytokinins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Toru; Kiba, Takatoshi; Sakakibara, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    During plant development, distantly-located organs must communicate in order to adapt morphological and physiological features in response to environmental inputs. Among the recognized signaling molecules, a class of phytohormones known as the cytokinins functions as both local and long-distance regulatory signals for the coordination of plant development. This cytokinin-dependent communication system consists of orchestrated regulation of the metabolism, translocation, and signal transduction of this phytohormone class. Here, to gain insight into this elaborate signaling system, we summarize current models of biosynthesis, trans-membrane transport, and long-distance translocation of cytokinins in higher plants.

  20. Role of non-equilibrium conformations on driven polymer translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkar, H H; Muthukumar, M

    2018-01-14

    One of the major theoretical methods in understanding polymer translocation through a nanopore is the Fokker-Planck formalism based on the assumption of quasi-equilibrium of polymer conformations. The criterion for applicability of the quasi-equilibrium approximation for polymer translocation is that the average translocation time per Kuhn segment, ⟨τ⟩/NK, is longer than the relaxation time τ0 of the polymer. Toward an understanding of conditions that would satisfy this criterion, we have performed coarse-grained three dimensional Langevin dynamics and multi-particle collision dynamics simulations. We have studied the role of initial conformations of a polyelectrolyte chain (which were artificially generated with a flow field) on the kinetics of its translocation across a nanopore under the action of an externally applied transmembrane voltage V (in the absence of the initial flow field). Stretched (out-of-equilibrium) polyelectrolyte chain conformations are deliberately and systematically generated and used as initial conformations in translocation simulations. Independent simulations are performed to study the relaxation behavior of these stretched chains, and a comparison is made between the relaxation time scale and the mean translocation time (⟨τ⟩). For such artificially stretched initial states, ⟨τ⟩/NK equilibrium approximation. Nevertheless, we observe a scaling of ⟨τ⟩ ∼ 1/V over the entire range of chain stretching studied, in agreement with the predictions of the Fokker-Planck model. On the other hand, for realistic situations where the initial artificially imposed flow field is absent, a comparison of experimental data reported in the literature with the theory of polyelectrolyte dynamics reveals that the Zimm relaxation time (τZimm) is shorter than the mean translocation time for several polymers including single stranded DNA (ssDNA), double stranded DNA (dsDNA), and synthetic polymers. Even when these data are rescaled assuming a

  1. Identification of the chromosomes of the rye translocation tester set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybenga, J; van Eden, J; van der Meijs, Q G; Roeterdink, B W

    1985-05-01

    Intercrossing the Wageningen translocation tester set of rye and the series of 'Imperial' rye additions to 'Chinese Spring' wheat of Sears yielded 29 chromosome disomic translocation hybrids. Observation of trivalents led to the identification of the chromosomes of the tester set in terms of the terminology system used in the Triticinae. The analysis was complicated by very low chiasma frequencies in some short chromosome segments in the hybrids. Nevertheless, it could be safely concluded that 1R=VII; 2R=III; 3R=II; 4R=IV; 5R=VI; 6R=V; 7R=I, which deviates slightly from previous classifications based on other methods.

  2. Thr translocation of C-14-assimilates in Eragrostis curvula: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In intact plants C-14-assimilates were translocated from the treated leaf on the primary tiller to young leaves on that tiller, to secondary tillers, and also to the roots. Plants defoliated after labeling revealed movement of materials from the storage organs to all the new leaves. Here these materials were used as a respiratory ...

  3. Introduction: translocal development, development corridors and development chains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoomers, E.B.; Westen, A.C.M. van

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers an introduction to this Special Issue of International Development Planning Review. It uses the concepts of translocal development, development corridors and development chains to secure a better grasp of what development means in the context of globalisation and how ‘local

  4. The human minisatellite consensus at breakpoints of oncogene translocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krowczynska, A.; Krontiris, T.G. (New England Medical Center Hospitals, Boston, MA (United States) Tufts Univ. School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)); Rudders, R.A. (New England Medical Center Hospitals, Boston, MA (United States))

    1990-03-11

    A reexamination of human minisatellite (hypervariable) regions following the cloning and sequencing of the new minisatellite, VTR1. 1, revealed that many of these structures possessed a strongly conserved copy of the chi-like octamer, GC(A/T)GG(A/T)GG. In oncogene translocations apparently created by aberrant VDJ recombinase activity, this VTR octamer was often found within a few bases of the breakpoint. Three bcl2 rearrangements which occurred within 2 bp of one another were located precisely adjacent to this consensus; it defined the 5{prime} border of that oncogene's major breakpoint cluster. Several c-myc translocations also occurred within 2 bp of this sequence. While the appearance of a chi-like element in polymorphic minisatellite sequences is consistent with a role promoting either recombination or replication slippage, the existence of such elements at sites of somatic translocations suggests chi function in site-specific recombination, perhaps as a subsidiary recognition signal in immunoglobulin gene rearrangement. The authors discuss the implications of these observations for mechanisms by which oncogene translocations and minisatellite sequences are generated.

  5. Passage Times for Polymer Translocation Pulled through a Narrow Pore

    CERN Document Server

    Panja, Debabrata

    2007-01-01

    We study the passage times of a translocating polymer of length $N$ in three dimensions, while it is pulled through a narrow pore with a constant force $F$ applied to one end of the polymer. At small to moderate forces, satisfying the condition $FN^{\

  6. 3D view of chromosomes, DNA damage, and translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michal; Hakim, Ofir

    2014-04-01

    The cell nucleus is a busy and organized organelle. In this megalopolis made of billions of nucleotides, protein factors find their target loci to exert nuclear functions such as transcription and replication. Remarkably, despite the lack of internal membrane barrier, the interlinked and tightly regulated nuclear processes occur in spatially organized fashion. These processes can lead to double-strand breaks (DSBs) that compromise the integrity of the genome. Moreover, in some cells like lymphocytes, DNA damage is also targeted within the context of immunoglobulin gene recombination. If not repaired correctly, DSBs can cause chromosomal rearrangements, including translocations which are etiological in numerous tumors. Therefore, the chromosomal locations of DSBs, as well as their spatial positioning, are important contributors to formation of chromosomal translocations at specific genomic loci. To obtain a mechanistic understanding of chromosomal translocations these parameters should be accounted for in a global and integrative fashion. In this review we will discuss recent findings addressing how genome architecture, DNA damage, and repair contribute to the genesis of chromosomal translocations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of cadmium bioaccumulation and translocation by Hopea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    parisa

    2012-04-10

    Apr 10, 2012 ... the metal concentration ratio of plant roots to soil), translocation factor (TF, the metal concentration ratio of plant shoots to .... pH (1:2.5 soil to water). 4.62 ..... with high levels of CdSo4 (50 µM) in hydroponic culture. Cadmium ...

  8. 40 CFR 798.5460 - Rodent heritable translocation assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Genetic Toxicity § 798.5460 Rodent... fertile animals for cytological confirmation as translocation heterozygotes. (3) Animal selection—(i... animals shall be used. (iii) Number. (A) The number of male animals necessary is determined by the...

  9. A de novo X;13 translocation with abnormal phenotype.

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, S V; Barber, J C; Dowie, A; Dubowitz, V

    1986-01-01

    We describe a female infant who presented with hypotonia and developmental delay. Her karyotype showed a de novo balanced translocation between the X chromosome and chromosome 13, with breakpoints at Xq13 and 13p11. The normal X was late replicating in all cells examined. The cause of this patient's abnormal phenotype is discussed.

  10. Three cases of mosaicism for balanced reciprocal translocations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegte, B; Sikkema-Raddatz, B; Hordijk, R; Bouman, K; van Essen, T; Castedo, S; de Jong, B

    1998-01-01

    Mosaicism for a balanced reciprocal translocation (BRTM) is rare. As far as we know only 26 cases of BRTM, demonstrated in lymphocyte cultures, have been described, five of which had an abnormal phenotype. Prenatally three confirmed cases with a normal phenotypic outcome have been described. Here we

  11. Black Rhino Translocations within Africa | Knight | Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The responsibility for the conservation of the critically endangered Black Rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, lies within Africa. This species is managed at the subspecies level and we document nine international translocation case studies involving South Africa since 1962 aimed at re-establishing or boosting populations ...

  12. Chromosomal Translocation in a Child with SLI and Apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weistuch, Lucille; Schiff-Myers, Naomi B.

    1996-01-01

    This case study of a 5-year-old boy diagnosed with a specific expressive language impairment with verbal apraxia reports on chromosomal, neurological, speech/language, cognitive, and play evaluations. Evaluation found a chromosomal translocation and a severe expressive speech-language deficit but good nonverbal cognitive and communicative skills.…

  13. Bladder calculus resulting from an intravesical translocation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although perforation of the uterus by an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is commonly encountered, intravesical translocation and secondary calculus formation is a very rare complication.We report a case of a 60-year old multiparous woman in whom an intrauterine contraceptive Copper-T device inserted 12 years ...

  14. Translocation of radioactive paraquat in some veld grasses | TD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In two pot experiments radioactive paraquat was applied to certain important veld grasses (Experiment I-Aristida junciformis, Themeda triandra, Elyonuris argenteus, Andropogon filifolius, Eragrostis curvula; Experiment II-A. junciformis, E. argenteus) to determine the extent of translocation at a young stage of growth with ...

  15. Centrifugally driven microfluidic disc for detection of chromosomal translocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Anna Line; Kwasny, Dorota; Bosco, Filippo G.

    2012-01-01

    and prognosis of patients. In this work we demonstrate a novel, centrifugally-driven microfluidic system for controlled manipulation of oligonucleotides and subsequent detection of chromosomal translocations. The device is fabricated in the form of a disc with capillary burst microvalves employed to control...

  16. Single Molecule Fluorescence Measurements of Ribosomal Translocation Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunlai; Stevens, Benjamin; Kaur, Jaskarin; Cabral, Diana; Liu, Hanqing; Wang, Yuhong; Zhang, Haibo; Rosenblum, Gabriel; Smilansky, Zeev; Goldman, Yale E.; Cooperman, Barry S.

    2011-01-01

    We employ single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) to study structural dynamics over the first two elongation cycles of protein synthesis, using ribosomes containing either Cy3-labeled ribosomal protein L11 and A- or P-site Cy5-labeled tRNA or Cy3 and Cy5 labeled tRNAs. Pre-translocation (PRE) complexes demonstrate fluctuations between classical and hybrid forms, with concerted motions of tRNAs away from L11 and from each other when classical complex converts to hybrid complex. EF-G·GTP binding to both hybrid and classical PRE complexes halts these fluctuations prior to catalyzing translocation to form the post-translocation (POST) complex. EF-G dependent translocation from the classical PRE complex proceeds via transient formation of a short-lived hybrid intermediate. A-site binding of either EF-G to the PRE complex or of aminoacyl-tRNA·EF-Tu ternary complex to the POST complex markedly suppresses ribosome conformational lability. PMID:21549313

  17. Atlas of alien and translocated indigenous aquatic animals in southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Moor, IJ

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available This report serves as an introduction to the problem of alien and translocated aquatic animals in southern Africa is given followed by checklists of the different species which have been introduced into or translocated within the subcontinent...

  18. Microbial Translocation in HIV Infection is Associated with Dyslipidemia, Insulin Resistance, and Risk of Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karin Kaereby; Pedersen, Maria; Trøseid, Marius

    2013-01-01

    Microbial translocation has been suggested to be a driver of immune activation and inflammation. We hypothesized that microbial translocation may be related to dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and the risk of coronary heart disease in HIV-infected individuals.......Microbial translocation has been suggested to be a driver of immune activation and inflammation. We hypothesized that microbial translocation may be related to dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and the risk of coronary heart disease in HIV-infected individuals....

  19. Meiotic behaviour and spermatogenesis in male mice heterozygous for translocation types also occurring in man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhoff, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis a start was made with meiotic observations of mouse translocation types - a Robertsonian translocation and a translocation between a metacentric and an acrocentric chromosome - which also occur in man. It is generally accepted that, when no chromosomal rearrangements are involved, man

  20. Protein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane in cold-adapted organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römisch, Karin; Collie, Nicola; Soto, Nelyn; Logue, James; Lindsay, Margaret; Scheper, Wiep; Cheng, Chi-Hing C.

    2003-01-01

    Secretory proteins enter the secretory pathway by translocation across the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via a channel formed primarily by the Sec61 protein. Protein translocation is highly temperature dependent in mesophilic organisms. We asked whether the protein translocation

  1. Translocation as a conservation tool for Agassiz's desert tortoises: Survivorship, reproduction, and movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. E. Nussear; C. R. Tracy; P. A. Medica; D. S. Wilson; R. W. Marlow; P. S. Corn

    2012-01-01

    We translocated 120 Agassiz's desert tortoises to 5 sites in Nevada and Utah to evaluate the effects of translocation on tortoise survivorship, reproduction, and habitat use. Translocation sites included several elevations, and extended to sites with vegetation assemblages not typically associated with desert tortoises in order to explore the possibility of moving...

  2. 40 CFR 798.5955 - Heritable translocation test in drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... drosophila melanogaster. 798.5955 Section 798.5955 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....5955 Heritable translocation test in drosophila melanogaster. (a) Purpose. The heritable translocation test in Drosophila measures the induction of chromosomal translocations in germ cells of insects...

  3. Carnivore translocations and conservation: insights from population models and field data for fishers (Martes pennanti)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey C. Lewis; Roger A. Powell; William J. Zielinski

    2012-01-01

    Translocations are frequently used to restore extirpated carnivore populations. Understanding the factors that influence translocation success is important because carnivore translocations can be time consuming, expensive, and controversial. Using population viability software, we modeled reintroductions of the fisher, a candidate for endangered or threatened status in...

  4. Slowing down DNA translocation by a nanofiber meshed layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Xie, Wanyi; Tian, Enling; Ren, Yiwei; Zhu, Jifeng; Deng, Yunsheng; He, Shixuan; Liang, Liyuan; Wang, Yunjiao; Zhou, Daming; Wang, Deqiang

    2018-01-01

    Due to the weak interaction between DNA molecules and the inner surface of nanopores, DNA translocation is very fast, just leaving a short current drop without sufficient information to recognise the nucleotide sequence in the strand. In this paper, we propose a nanopore-nanofiber mesh hybridized structure to decelerate DNA translocation speed. Experimental results reveal that due to hydrophobic interaction between the DNA fragments and the nanofibers, the DNA moving speed can be retarded to two orders of magnitude slower. Furthermore, according to theory simulations, the additional fiber layer will reduce the electric field in the channel but elongate the capture region at the pore orifice, which will be helpful for increasing the capture rate and extending the DNA dwelling time in the meanwhile.

  5. Balanced reciprocal translocation 5,18: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Savad

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: A balanced reciprocal translocation carrier is phenotypically normal, but during meiosis І, carrier chromosomes cant pair normally and form quadrivalant instead of bivalant that depend on type of their segregation (alternate, adjacent 1, adjacent 2,3:1,4:0, produce gametes that are chromosomally unbalanced which can result in early fetus abortion. Considering the number of abnormal gametes, the most effective way to help couples with this problem seems to be PGD 24sure, since it can identify reciprocal and Robertsonian translocation and allows concurrent screening of all chromosomes for aneuploidy. Another technique that can be compared with PGD 24sure is fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, but it has several technical limitations such as it is expensive and complexity, in addition it has only few probes (for chromosomes 21, 13, 18, X, Y so sometimes necessary to create patient specific protocols.

  6. The Social Construction of Guangzhou as a Translocal Trading Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Guangzhou has become a key destination for sub-Saharan African traders. These traders have established multilocal forms of business organisation and, in so doing, have developed diverse practices to overcome geographical, political and cultural boundaries. This paper focuses on these practices, looking at the ways in which the movements, relations and interactions within these organisational formations are produced, transformed and lived. A close ethnographic examination was made of the livelihoods of 33 African traders from 13 sub-Saharan African countries. Through the concept of trans-locality, the organisational formations of these Africans are conceptualised as links between different places on a larger geographical scale; these links then meet on a local scale in the specific place of Guangzhou. Following a relational understanding of spatial constructions in social science, these links are conceptualised as one of the main drivers for the social construction and transformation of the city as a trans-local trading place.

  7. Particles translocate from the vagina to the oviducts and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehner, A.P.; Hall, A.S.; Weller, R.E.; Lepel, E.A.; Schirmer, R.E.

    1985-03-01

    To investigate whether particles deposited in the vagina translocate to the oviducts, 0.3 ml of a 4% bone black suspension was deposited in the posterior vaginal fornix of each of five cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) during their mid-menstrual cycle. Simultaneously, each animal received 10 units of oxytocin by intramuscular injection. The oviducts of three animals were removed 1 hr after administration of the bone black, while those of the remaining two animals were removed 72 hr after dosing. The removed oviducts were flushed with Hank's solution and then with collagenase solution. The solutions were collected in clean vials and filtered. The filters were examined for bone black particles by light microscopy, as were filters through which solution blanks (negative controls) had been passed. Particles resembling bone black were found on all filters. There were no appreciable differences in the number or shape of these particles between the solution-blank filters and the oviduct-flush filters. The particles on both the solution-blank filters and on the oviduct-flush filters probably originated from environmental contamination by ubiquitous carbon particles. While these results suggested that no translocation took place, translocation could not be ruled out with certainty in the absence of quantitative analyses. A more definitive pilot study was then conducted with two dosed monkeys and one control, using talc labelled by neutron activation to circumvent the problem of environmental contamination. Gamma-Ray analysis of tissue and peritoneal lavage samples for the radionuclides /sup 46/Sc, /sup 59/Fe and /sup 60/Co indicated that no measurable quantities (i.e. greater than 0.5 micrograms) of talc translocated from the deposition site in the vagina to the uterine cavity and beyond.

  8. "Translocal Express" juba täna! / Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    2009-01-01

    27. märtsil algab Kumu Kunstimuuseumis "Public Preparation'i" ("Avalik ettevalmistus") sarja rahvusvaheline seminar "Translocal Express. Golden Age" ("Translokaalne ekspress. Kuldaeg"), kus on kõne all ajalookirjutamise ja kollektiivse mälu roll praegu domineerivas natsionalistlikus diskursuses ja selle käsitlemine kaasaegses kunstis. Seminaril on lähtutud eelkõige kunstnike Martin Krenni (Viin) ja Kristina Normani teoste tutvustamisest

  9. Identity of distributions of direct uphill and downhill translocation times for particles traversing membrane channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M; Hummer, Gerhard; Bezrukov, Sergey M

    2006-07-14

    We study the distribution of direct translocation times for particles passing through membrane channels connecting two reservoirs. The direct translocation time is a conditional first-passage time defined as the residence time of the particle in the channel while passing to the other side of the membrane directly, i.e., without returning to the reservoir from which it entered. We show that the distributions of direct translocation times are identical for translocation in both directions, independent of any asymmetry in the potential across the channel and, hence, the translocation probabilities.

  10. Black bears in Arkansas: Characteristics of a successful translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly G.; Clark, Joseph D.

    1994-01-01

    In 1958, the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission began translocating black bears (Ursus americanus) from Minnesota to the Interior Highlands (Ozark and Ouachita mountains) of Arkansas where bears had been extirpated early in this century. This project continued for 11 years with little public imput, during which time an estimated 254 bears were released. We estimate there are now >2,500 bears in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma, making it one of the most successful translocations of a Carnivora. Factors that contributed to the success include use of wild-captured animals, elimination of major factors associated with extirpation, release into prime habitats within the former range, multiple release sites, release of 20–40 animals/year for eight years, and release of mostly males prior to release of mostly females. Studies on two allopatric populations demonstrate that they are now diverging in some demographic characteristics, including litter size, cub survivorship, and adult sex-ratio. Translocation of black bears to the Interior Highlands is successful in terms of numbers of animals, but it will not be truly successful until people accept black bears as part of the regional fauna. To that end, those associated with management and research of bears in Arkansas are now focussing on public education and control of nuisance bears.

  11. Spatial behaviour and survival of translocated wild brown hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer, C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fragility of many populations of brown hares in Western Europe is a concern for managers, hunters and naturalists. We took advantage of a locally high density population to use wild individuals to restock areas where the species had disappeared or was close to disappearing. The aim of the project was to assess the evolution of the spatial behaviour after release using radio–tracking. Over 150 wild brown hares were translocated, one third of which were fitted with radio collars. In addition, fifteen individuals were radio–tagged and released back into the source population as a control. Most individuals settled in less than two months and their seasonal home range, once settled, was similar to that observed in the source population. Mean duration of tracking was not significantly different between the two groups. Moreover, two years after the last translocation, tagged individuals can still be observed, but most hares present are not tagged, which indicates natural reproduction of the released individuals. The translocation of wild individuals thus appears to give encouraging results.

  12. Dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations are a major component of radiation or chemically induced genetic damage in mammalian germ cells. The types of aberration produced are dependent upon the mutagen used and the germ-cell stage treated. For example, in male meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells certain alkylating chemicals induce both dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations while others induce primarily dominant-lethal mutations. Production of these two endpoints appears to be determined by the stability of alkylation products with the chromosomes. If the reaction products are intact in the male chromosomes at the time of sperm entry, they may be repaired in fertilized eggs. If repair is not effected and the alkylation products persist to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication, they lead to chromatid-type aberrations and eventually to dominant-lethality. The production of heritable translocations, on the other hand, requires a transformation of unstable alkylation products into suitable intermediate lesions. The process by which these lesions are converted into chromosome exchange within the male genome takes place after sperm enters the egg but prior to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication (i.e., chromosome-type). Thus, dominant-lethal mutations result from both chromatid- and chromosome-type aberrations while heritable translocations result primarily from the latter type. DNA target sites associated with the production of these two endpoints are discussed.

  13. A WRKY Transcription Factor Regulates Fe Translocation under Fe Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing Ying; Li, Chun Xiao; Sun, Li; Ren, Jiang Yuan; Li, Gui Xin; Ding, Zhong Jie; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2016-07-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency affects plant growth and development, leading to reduction of crop yields and quality. Although the regulation of Fe uptake under Fe deficiency has been well studied in the past decade, the regulatory mechanism of Fe translocation inside the plants remains unknown. Here, we show that a WRKY transcription factor WRKY46 is involved in response to Fe deficiency. Lack of WRKY46 (wrky46-1 and wrky46-2 loss-of-function mutants) significantly affects Fe translocation from root to shoot and thus causes obvious chlorosis on the new leaves under Fe deficiency. Gene expression analysis reveals that expression of a nodulin-like gene (VACUOLAR IRON TRANSPORTER1-LIKE1 [VITL1]) is dramatically increased in wrky46-1 mutant. VITL1 expression is inhibited by Fe deficiency, while the expression of WRKY46 is induced in the root stele. Moreover, down-regulation of VITL1 expression can restore the chlorosis phenotype on wrky46-1 under Fe deficiency. Further yeast one-hybrid and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that WRKY46 is capable of binding to the specific W-boxes present in the VITL1 promoter. In summary, our results demonstrate that WRKY46 plays an important role in the control of root-to-shoot Fe translocation under Fe deficiency condition via direct regulation of VITL1 transcript levels. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. A family with Robertsonian translocation: a potential mechanism of speciation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jieping; Li, Xi; Sun, Lei; Xu, Shuqin; Liu, Nian; Yao, Yanyi; Liu, Zhi; Wang, Weipeng; Rong, Han; Wang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Robertsonian translocations occur in approximately one in every 1000 newborns. Although most Robertsonian translocation carriers are healthy and have a normal lifespan, they are at increased risk of spontaneous abortions and risk of producing unbalanced gametes and, therefore unbalanced offspring. Here we reported a previously undescribed Robertsonian translocation. We identified three Robertsonian translocation carriers in this family. Two were heterozygous translocation carriers of 45,XX or XY,der(14;15)(q10;q10) and their son was a homozygous translocation carrier of a 44,XY,der(14;15)(q10;q10), der(14;15)(q10;q10) karyotype. Chromosomal analysis of sperm showed 99.7 % of sperm from the homozygous translocation carrier were normal/balanced while only 79.9 % of sperm from the heterozygous translocation carrier were normal/balanced. There was a significantly higher frequency of aneuploidy for sex chromosome in the heterozygous translocation carrier. The reproductive fitness of Robertsonian translocation carriers is reduced. Robertsonian translocation homozygosity can be a potential speciation in humans with 44 chromosomes.

  15. De novo reciprocal translocation t(5;11)(q22;p15) associated with hydrops fetalis (reciprocal translocation and hydrops fetalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Halil Gursoy; Artunc-Ulkumen, Burcu; Uyar, Yildiz; Bal, Filiz; Baytur, Yesim Bulbul; Koyuncu, Faik Mumtaz

    2015-02-01

    This is a case of a prenatally diagnosed non-immune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) associated with translocation t(5;11)(q22;p15). An association between NIHF and this translocation has not been reported previously. The patient was referred to the perinatology clinic with hydrops fetalis diagnosis at 23 weeks' gestation. We noted that the fetus had bilateral pleural effusion, ascites, widespread subcutaneous edema, membranous ventricular septal defect, hypoplastic fifth finger middle phalanx, clinodactyly, single umbilical artery. We performed cordocentesis. Chromosomal analysis on blood showed a balanced translocation between the long arm of chromosome 5 and the short arm of chromosome 11 with karyotype of 46,XX,t(5;11)(q22;p15). We present prenatal diagnosis of a de novo translocation (5;11) in a hydropic fetus with ultrason abnormalities. In our case, karyotype analysis of the fetus, mother and father provided evidence of a de novo translocation, that might explain the NIHF.

  16. Efficient induction of Wheat-agropyron cristatum 6P translocation lines and GISH detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Song

    Full Text Available The narrow genetic background restricts wheat yield and quality improvement. The wild relatives of wheat are the huge gene pools for wheat improvement and can broaden its genetic basis. Production of wheat-alien translocation lines can transfer alien genes to wheat. So it is important to develop an efficient method to induce wheat-alien chromosome translocation. Agropyroncristatum (P genome carries many potential genes beneficial to disease resistance, stress tolerance and high yield. Chromosome 6P possesses the desirable genes exhibiting good agronomic traits, such as high grain number per spike, powdery mildew resistance and stress tolerance. In this study, the wheat-A. cristatum disomic addition was used as bridge material to produce wheat-A. cristatum translocation lines induced by (60Co-γirradiation. The results of genomic in situ hybridization showed that 216 plants contained alien chromosome translocation among 571 self-pollinated progenies. The frequency of translocation was 37.83%, much higher than previous reports. Moreover, various alien translocation types were identified. The analysis of M2 showed that 62.5% of intergeneric translocation lines grew normally without losing the translocated chromosomes. The paper reported a high efficient technical method for inducing alien translocation between wheat and Agropyroncristatum. Additionally, these translocation lines will be valuable for not only basic research on genetic balance, interaction and expression of different chromosome segments of wheat and alien species, but also wheat breeding programs to utilize superior agronomic traits and good compensation effect from alien chromosomes.

  17. Translocation of positively and negatively charged polystyrene nanoparticles in an in vitro placental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloet, Samantha K; Walczak, Agata P; Louisse, Jochem; van den Berg, Hans H J; Bouwmeester, Hans; Tromp, Peter; Fokkink, Remco G; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2015-10-01

    To obtain insight in translocation of nanoparticles across the placental barrier, translocation was studied for one positively and two negatively charged polystyrene nanoparticles (PS-NPs) of similar size in an in vitro model. The model consisted of BeWo b30 cells, derived from a human choriocarcinoma grown on a transwell insert forming a cell layer that separates an apical from a basolateral compartment. PS-NPs were characterized with respect to size, surface charge, morphology and protein corona. Translocation of PS-NPs was not related to PS-NP charge. Two PS-NPs were translocated across the BeWo transwell model to a lower extent than amoxicillin, a model compound known to be translocated over the placental barrier to only a limited extent, whereas one PS-NP showed a slightly higher translocation. Studies on the effect of transporter inhibitors on the translocation of the PS-NPs indicated that their translocation was not mediated by known transporters and mainly dependent on passive diffusion. It is concluded that the BeWo b30 model can be used as an efficient method to get an initial qualitative impression about the capacity of NPs to translocate across the placental barrier and set priorities in further in vivo studies on translocation of NPs to the fetus. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosomal inversion, translocation and deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Ren, Meihong; Song, Guining; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Xuexia; Zhang, Xiaohong; Wang, Jianliu

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform comprehensive prenatal diagnosis using various detection techniques on a fetus in a high‑risk pregnant woman, and to provide genetic counseling for the patient and her family so as to avoid birth defects. The routine karyotype analysis via amniocentesis, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and whole genome microarray technique were performed for the prenatal diagnosis of the fetus. The fetal karyotype was 46,X,ish der(X) inv(X)(p22.3q28)t(X;Y)(q28;q11.2)(XYqter+,SRY‑,DXZ1+, RP11‑64L19+,STS+,XYpter+); namely, one fetal X chromosome belonged to the derivative imbalanced chromosome and this chromosome demonstrated complex chromosomal rearrangements involving inversion, translocation and deletion. Notably, pericentric inversion between Xp22.3 and Xq28 was identified, and the chromosomal microarray technique confirmed that the long arm q28 of the derivative X chromosome had a 1.241‑Mb deletion in Xq28, which included Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man genes such as coagulation factor VIII, glucose‑6‑phosphate dehydrogenase, inhibitor of nuclear factor‑κB kinase subunit γ, trimethyllysine hydroxylase ε, Ras‑related protein Rab‑39B and chloride intracellular channel 2. In addition, this chromosome also exhibited the local translocation of fragment Yq11.21‑q11.23, which did not include the sex determining region Y gene. This fetus demonstrated deletion, inversion and translocation syndrome, and may exhibit the corresponding clinical phenotypes (e.g., intellectual disability or general delayed development) (1) of such chromosome abnormalities after birth. Therefore, in prenatal diagnosis, a variety of genetic diagnostic techniques should be comprehensively used based on specific clinical situations, which may accurately reveal the nature, sources and manifestations of the derivative chromosome abnormalities and avoid the birth of children with defects.

  19. International study of factors affecting human chromosome translocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, Alice J.; Ha, Mina; Hauptmann, Michael; Bhatti, Parveen; Sram, Radim J.; Beskid, Olena; Tawn, E. Janet; Whitehouse, Caroline A.; Lindholm, Carita; Nakano, Mimako; Kodama, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Nori; Vorobtsova, Irena; Oestreicher, Ursula; Stephan, Günther; Yong, Lee C.; Bauchinger, Manfred; Schmid, Ernst; Chung, Hai Won; Darroudi, Firouz; Roy, Laurence; Voisin, Phillipe; Barquinero, Joan F.; Livingston, Gordon; Blakey, David; Hayata, Isamu; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Chunyan; Bennett, L. Michelle; Littlefield, L. Gayle; Edwards, Alan A.; Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Tucker, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Chromosome translocations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of normal, healthy humans increase with age, but the effects of gender, race, and cigarette smoking on background translocation yields have not been examined systematically. Further, the shape of the relationship between age and translocation frequency (TF) has not been definitively determined. We collected existing data from sixteen laboratories in North America, Europe, and Asia on TFs measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes by fluorescence in situ hybridization whole chromosome painting among 1933 individuals. In Poisson regression models, age, ranging from newborns (cord blood) to 85 years, was strongly associated with TF and this relationship showed significant upward curvature at older ages vs. a linear relationship (p <0.001). Ever smokers had significantly higher TFs than non-smokers (rate ratio (RR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09–1.30) and smoking modified the effect of age on TFs with a steeper age-related increase among ever smokers compared to non-smokers (p<0.001). TFs did not differ by gender. Interpreting an independent effect of race was difficult owing to laboratory variation. Our study is three times larger than any pooled effort to date, confirming a suspected curvilinear relationship of TF with age. The significant effect of cigarette smoking has not been observed with previous pooled studies of TF in humans. Our data provide stable estimates of background TF by age, gender, race, and smoking status and suggest an acceleration of chromosome damage above age 60 and among those with a history of smoking cigarettes. PMID:18337160

  20. Biopersistence and brain translocation of aluminum adjuvants of vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Kroum Gherardi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum oxyhydroxide (alum is a crystaline compound widely used as an immunologic adjuvant of vaccines. Concerns linked to the use of alum particles emerged following recognition of their causative role in the so-called macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF lesion detected in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue/syndrome. MMF revealed an unexpectedly long-lasting biopersistence of alum within immune cells in presumably susceptible individuals, stressing the previous fundamental misconception of its biodisposition. We previously showed that poorly biodegradable aluminum-coated particles injected into muscle are promptly phagocytozed in muscle and the draining lymph nodes, and can disseminate within phagocytic cells throughout the body and slowly accumulate in brain. This strongly suggests that long-term adjuvant biopersistence within phagocytic cells is a prerequisite for slow brain translocation and delayed neurotoxicity. The understanding of basic mechanisms of particle biopersistence and brain translocation represents a major health challenge, since it could help to define susceptibility factors to develop chronic neurotoxic damage. Biopersistence of alum may be linked to its lysosome-destabilizing effect, which is likely due to direct crystal-induced rupture of phagolysosomal membranes. Macrophages that continuously perceive foreign particles in their cytosol will likely reiterate, with variable interindividual efficiency, a dedicated form of autophagy (xenophagy until they dispose of alien materials. Successful compartmentalization of particles within double membrane autophagosomes and subsequent fusion with repaired and re-acidified lysosomes will expose alum to lysosomal acidic pH, the sole factor that can solubilize alum particles. Brain translocation of alum particles is linked to a Trojan horse mechanism previously described for infectious particles (HIV, HCV, that obeys to CCL2 signaling the major inflammatory monocyte

  1. Markers of immunity and bacterial translocation in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    , in 38 patients with ascites, we found no association between bDNA and immunity, in contrast to some previous findings. In the final paper, exploring one possible translocation route, we hypothesized a difference in bDNA levels between the blood from the veins draining the gut on one hand and the liver...... some concepts of current thinking on cirrhosis pathophysiology, including the relationship of markers of inflammation to haemodynamics, disease stage and prognosis. Our results also add to a growing body of evidence suggesting that bDNA is not a clinically relevant marker of BT....

  2. Microbial translocation and microbiome dysbiosis in HIV-associated immune activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevin, Alexander S; McKinnon, Lyle; Burgener, Adam; Klatt, Nichole R

    2016-03-01

    This article describes the mechanisms and consequences of both microbial translocation and microbial dysbiosis in HIV infection. Microbes in HIV are likely playing a large role in contributing to HIV pathogenesis, morbidities and mortality. Two major disruptions to microbial systems in HIV infection include microbial translocation and microbiome dysbiosis. Microbial translocation occurs when the bacteria (or bacterial products) that should be in the lumen of the intestine translocate across the tight epithelial barrier into systemic circulation, where they contribute to inflammation and pathogenesis. This is associated with poorer health outcomes in HIV-infected individuals. In addition, microbial populations in the gastrointestinal tract are also altered after HIV infection, resulting in microbiome dysbiosis, which further exacerbates microbial translocation, epithelial barrier disruption, inflammation and mucosal immune functioning. Altered microbial regulation in HIV infection can lead to poor health outcomes, and understanding the mechanisms underlying microbial dysbiosis and translocation may result in novel pathways for therapeutic interventions.

  3. Use of chromosome translocations for measuring prior environment exposures in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, J. D.

    1997-05-01

    Recent advances in cytogenetic methodology are beginning to have a major impact upon our ability to provide assessments of environmental exposure in humans. The advent of fluorescent-based techniques for `painting` whole chromosomes has made the analysis of chromosome translocations rapid, specific, sensitive and routine. Chromosome painting has been used to address a wide variety of scientific questions, resulting in an increased understanding of the biological consequences of adverse environmental exposure. This paper describes the use of chromosome translocations as a biological marker of exposure and effect in humans. The relevance of translocations is discussed, as are the advantages and disadvantages of painting compared to classical cytogenetic methods for translocation evaluation. The factors to consider in the use of translocations as a retrospective indicator of exposure are then described. Several theoretical parameters that are important to the use of translocations are provided, and the paper concludes with a vision for the future of cytogenetic methodology.

  4. Insulin-induced translocation of IR to the nucleus in insulin responsive cells requires a nuclear translocation sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesten, Dov; Horovitz-Fried, Miriam; Brutman-Barazani, Tamar; Sampson, Sanford R

    2018-04-01

    Insulin binding to its cell surface receptor (IR) activates a cascade of events leading to its biological effects. The Insulin-IR complex is rapidly internalized and then is either recycled back to the plasma membrane or sent to lysosomes for degradation. Although most of the receptor is recycled or degraded, a small amount may escape this pathway and migrate to the nucleus of the cell where it might be important in promulgation of receptor signals. In this study we explored the mechanism by which insulin induces IR translocation to the cell nucleus. Experiments were performed cultured L6 myoblasts, AML liver cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Insulin treatment induced a rapid increase in nuclear IR protein levels within 2 to 5 min. Treatment with WGA, an inhibitor of nuclear import, reduced insulin-induced increases nuclear IR protein; IR was, however, translocated to a perinuclear location. Bioinformatics tools predicted a potential nuclear localization sequence (NLS) on IR. Immunofluorescence staining showed that a point mutation on the predicted NLS blocked insulin-induced IR nuclear translocation. In addition, blockade of nuclear IR activation in isolated nuclei by an IR blocking antibody abrogated insulin-induced increases in IR tyrosine phosphorylation and nuclear PKCδ levels. Furthermore, over expression of mutated IR reduced insulin-induced glucose uptake and PKB phosphorylation. When added to isolated nuclei, insulin induced IR phosphorylation but had no effect on nuclear IR protein levels. These results raise questions regarding the possible role of nuclear IR in IR signaling and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The absorption and translocation of imazaquin in green manures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Garcia Florido

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Green manure species that are tolerant to the herbicide imazaquin can be used in crop rotation schemes that aim to reduce herbicide carryover to sensitive plants such as sunflower or corn. Three different doses of imazaquin (0, 0.15 and 0.28 kgha-1 were applied during the pre-emergence growth stage to Dolichos lablab, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia ensiformis, Crotalaria juncea, C. breviflora, C. spectabilis, Mucuna deeringiana, M. cinerea, M. aterrima, Lupinus albus, Helianthus annuus, Pennisetum glaucum, Avena strigosa and Raphanus sativus, and the results were evaluated in a greenhouse. C. ensiformis and M. cinerea were selected from these species for being the most tolerant, and they were then evaluated for absorption and translocation of 14C-imazaquin in two different growth stages: the cotyledonary stage and the emergence of the first pair of true leaves. M. cinerea individuals showed the best potential for translocating imazaquin to the shoot when compared to C. ensiformes, which accumulated the herbicide mostly in its roots. These plants had a higher ability to accumulate herbicide during their most advanced stage of development, which demonstrates their potential for use in areas that have residual imazaquin.

  6. Clinical Expression of an Inherited Unbalanced Translocation in Chromosome 6

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    Bani Bandana Ganguly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Unbalanced chromosomal rearrangements are not common; however, they have a significant clinical expression. The parental balanced translocation produces unbalanced chromosome, which is transmitted to next generation through fertilization of gametes carrying the derivative chromosome. The carriers of balanced rearrangements mostly do not have recognizable phenotypic expression. We report a family comprising of healthy and non-consanguineous young parents and their preemie newborn severely affected with congenital anomalies and systemic disorders. Conventional Gbanding analysis of somatic chromosomes identified a balanced translocation, t(6;10(p23;q24, in mother and an unbalanced rearrangement, der(6t(6:10(p23;q24mat, in the child. The child has inherited a derivative chromosome 6 with partial deletion of 6(p23-pter and partial trisomy 10(q24-qter, which has resulted in fusion of genes of two different chromosomes. The prominent phenotypic features of del(6p, including high forehead, flat nasal bridge, agenesis of left ear, atrial septal defect (ASD, craniosynostosis, and growth retardation, are overlapping with specific Axenfeld-Reiger-, Larsen-, and Ritscher-Sinzel/3-C syndromes, however, lacking in ocular anomalies, skeletal laxity, or cerebellar malformation. Therefore, this paper rules out the isolated effect of del(6p23 or trisomy 10(q24 on distinct previously reported syndromes and proposes the combined effect of unbalanced chromosomal alteration.

  7. Pore formation by T3SS translocators: liposome leakage assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faudry, Eric; Perdu, Caroline; Attrée, Ina

    2013-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria utilize a dedicated membrane-embedded apparatus, the type III secretion system (T3SS), to inject proteins into host cells. The passage of the proteins across the target membrane is accomplished by a proteinaceous pore-the translocon-formed within the host-cell cytoplasmic membrane. Translocators bound to their chaperones can be expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently dissociated from the chaperone by guanidine treatment. The pore formation properties of the translocators can then be studied by an in-vitro liposome leakage assay. Sulforhodamine-B is encapsulated within lipid vesicles during liposome preparation. At high concentration, this fluorochrome exhibits self-quenching limiting fluorescence emission. Upon pore formation, liposome leakage leads to the dilution of Sulforhodamine-B in the medium and fluorescence emission increases. Alternatively, fluorochromes coupled to large dextran molecules can be encapsulated in order to estimate pore dimensions. Here we describe protein expression and purification, dye-liposome preparation, and leakage assay conditions.

  8. Translocation of the neonicotinoid seed treatment clothianidin in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Adam; Krupke, Christian H

    2017-01-01

    Neonicotinoid seed treatments, typically clothianidin or thiamethoxam, are routinely applied to >80% of maize (corn) seed grown in North America where they are marketed as a targeted pesticide delivery system. Despite this widespread use, the amount of compound translocated into plant tissue from the initial seed treatment to provide protection has not been reported. Our two year field study compared concentrations of clothianidin seed treatments in maize to that of maize without neonicotinoid seed treatments and found neonicotinoids present in root tissues up to 34 days post planting. Plant-bound clothianidin concentrations followed an exponential decay pattern with initially high values followed by a rapid decrease within the first ~20 days post planting. A maximum of 1.34% of the initial seed treatment was successfully recovered from plant tissues in both study years and a maximum of 0.26% was recovered from root tissue. Our findings show neonicotinoid seed treatments may provide protection from some early season secondary maize pests. However, the proportion of the neonicotinoid seed treatment clothianidin translocated into plant tissues throughout the growing season is low overall and this observation may provide a mechanism to explain reports of inconsistent efficacy of this pest management approach and increasing detections of environmental neonicotinoids.

  9. Macular translocation surgery: computer simulation of visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D; Liazos, S; Mehta, J; Farnell, D J J

    2008-06-01

    Macular translocation can be associated with visual improvement, but patients often experience symptoms of confusion or diplopia. There is a high incidence of suppression of the operated or the fellow eye. The aim of this study is to use computer software to examine the pre- and post-operative fundal images, in order to better understand how patients see after macular translocation surgery. We created a graphical user interface that allowed a user to identify and record common landmark points in pre- and post-operative fundal images. We used these points to carry out interpolations using two algorithms, namely bilinear and thin-plate spline transformations. The transformations were applied to the Mona Lisa in order to appreciate how patients might see. Given two sets of corresponding points, both algorithms were able to approximate the effect of the surgery. Bilinear transformation was able to account for changes to the retina as a whole, including rotation, stretches, compression and shear. The thin-plate spline algorithm additionally accounted for the considerable regional and uneven local effects. Applying the later algorithm to the Mona Lisa produced inconsistent and warped images. Our results confirmed that neurosensory redistribution was associated with most cases of MT360. We infer from these results that corresponding retinal elements between two eyes would no longer correspond after surgery. The distortion of images from the operated eye could not be completely corrected by squint surgery, and this may account for the high incidence of suppression of the fellow or the operated eye after surgery.

  10. Upward and lateral translocation of /sup 32/P supplied to roots of apple and citrus trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, K.K. (City Coll. of Seoul); Chung, K.H.; Kwon, S.H.

    1976-09-01

    Phosphorus-32 was supplied to the roots of stem-ringed 1-year-old apple trees and 2-year-old citrus trees on which bark segments were isolated above and below the ring. /sup 32/P was translocated to shoots and leaves although considerable translocation occurred especially in wood and bark tissues. The accumulation of /sup 32/P in isolated bark segments indicated that the occurrence of these materials in this tissue was via radial translocation from xylem tissue, and that the main upward translocation pathway of /sup 32/P supplied to roots is through the xylem.

  11. Bordetella effector BopN is translocated into host cells via its N-terminal residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Akio; Nishimura, Ryutaro; Kuwae, Asaomi

    2017-06-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica infects a wide variety of mammals, the type III secretion system (T3SS) being involved in long-term colonization by Bordetella of the trachea and lung. T3SS translocates virulence factors (commonly referred to as effectors) into host cells, leading to alterations in the host's physiological function. The Bordetella effectors BopN and BteA are known to have roles in up-regulation of IL-10 and cytotoxicity, respectively. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which BopN is translocated into host cells has not been examined in sufficient detail. Therefore, to determine the precise mechanisms of translocation of BopN into host cells, truncated derivatives of BopN were built and the derivatives' ability to translocate into host cells evaluated by adenylate cyclase-mediated translocation assay. It was found that N-terminal amino acid (aa) residues 1-200 of BopN are sufficient for its translocation into host cells. Interestingly, BopN translocation was completely blocked by deletion of the N-terminal aa residues 6-50, indicating that the N-terminal region is critical for BopN translocation. Furthermore, BopN appears to play an auxiliary role in BteA-mediated cytotoxicity. Thus, BopN can apparently translocate into host cells and may facilitate activity of BteA. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Uptake, translocation and metabolism of aminocyclopyrachlor in prickly lettuce, rush skeletonweed and yellow starthistle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jared L; Burke, Ian C; Prather, Timothy S

    2011-10-01

    Aminocyclopyrachlor is a new herbicide proposed to control broadleaf weeds and shrubs in non-crop and rangeland systems. To gain a better understanding of observed field efficacy, the uptake and translocation of foliar-applied aminocyclopyrachlor (DPX-MAT28) and aminocyclopyrachlor methyl ester (DPX-KJM44) were evaluated in two annuals, prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.) and yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L.), and one perennial, rush skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea L.). Absorption and translocation varied between species. While absorption of DPX-KJM44 was greater than absorption of DPX-MAT28, rush skeletonweed absorbed the most, followed by yellow starthistle and prickly lettuce. Overall, the total translocation of either herbicide was highest in yellow starthistle, followed by rush skeletonweed and prickly lettuce. Proportional herbicide movement between species was similar, with the majority translocating to developing shoots. However, in rush skeletonweed, early translocation was directed to root tissue. In rush skeletonweed, no DPX-MAT28 metabolism occurred, while DPX-KJM44 was rapidly de-esterified and translocated as DPX-MAT28. Aminocyclopyrachlor absorption and translocation are dependent on active ingredient structure and species sensitivity. Highly sensitive species such as prickly lettuce absorb and translocate less material than relatively less sensitive species such as rush skeletonweed. De-esterification of DPX-KJM44 appears to delay translocation of the resulting acid in yellow starthistle and rush skeletonweed. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. The role of the mature domain of proOmpA in the translocation ATPase reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassilana, M; Arkowitz, R A; Wickner, W

    1992-12-15

    The export of proOmpA, the precursor of outer membrane protein A from Escherichia coli, requires preprotein translocase, which is comprised of SecA, SecY/E, and acidic phospholipids. Previous studies of proOmpA translocation intermediates (Schiebel, E., Driessen, A. J. M., Hartl, F.-U., and Wickner, W. (1991) Cell 64, 927-939) suggested that the "slippage" of the translocating polypeptide chain and the high level of ATP hydrolysis, characteristic of the "translocation ATPase," were part of a futile cycle. To examine the role of the mature domain of proOmpA in its translocation-dependent ATP hydrolysis, we used chemical cleavage to generate NH2-terminal fragments of this preprotein. Each fragment contained the 21-residue leader region and either 53 or 228 residues of the mature domain (preproteins P74 and P249, respectively). As observed with full-length proOmpA, the translocation of each fragment requires ATP and both the SecA and SecY/E domains of translocase and is stimulated by the transmembrane proton electrochemical gradient. The apparent maximal velocities of P74 and proOmpA translocation are similar. While the translocation of P74 and of proOmpA show the same apparent Km for ATP, far less ATP is hydrolyzed during the translocation of P74. Thus, the mature carboxyl-terminal domain of proOmpA has a major role in supporting the translocation ATPase.

  14. Use of wild–caught individuals as a key factor for success in vertebrate translocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummel, L.; MartInez-AbraIn, A.; Mayol, J.; Ruiz-Olmo, J.; Mañas, F.; Jimenez, J.; Gomez, J.A.; Oro, D.

    2016-07-01

    Success of vertebrate translocations is crucial to improve efficacy and efficiency of conservation actions but it is often difficult to assess because negative results (failed translocations) are seldom published. We developed surveys and sent them to heads of conservation services in three major Spanish Mediterranean regions. The purpose of our surveys was to determine which methodological factor, that could easily be implemented in practice, was more influential for translocation success. These factors included the origin of translocated individuals (captive or wild) and translocation effort (propagule size and program duration). After analyzing 83 programs, corresponding to 34 different vertebrate species, by means of generalized linear mixed modelling, we found that ‘origin’ was more relevant for translocation success than ‘effort’, although we could not rule out some role of translocation effort. Variance in success of translocation programs involving individuals from wild sources was smaller and consequently results more predictable. Origin interacted with taxa so that success was higher when using wild birds and especially wild fish and mammals, but not when releasing reptiles. Hence, we suggest that, for any given effort, translocation results will be better for most vertebrate taxa if individuals from wild sources are used. When this is not feasible, managers should release captive–reared individuals for a long number of years rather than a short number of years. (Author)

  15. Identification of rye chromosomes: the Giemsa banding pattern and the translocation tester set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, J M; Sybenga, J

    1976-01-01

    The Giemsa banding pattern is given for eleven reciprocal translocations of rye, Secale cereale L., together involving all chromosomes at least once, and one telocentric substitution. It is possible to correlate the identification system based on the Giemsa pattern with that based on the translocation tester set. The location of the translocation break points could be determined very exactly for a number of translocations, somewhat less exactly for others. The variations in the banding pattern, resulting from genetic, environmental and technical variation, make definite identification with the nomenclature system of the different rye additions to wheat difficult. An attempt is made, but some caution is necessary.

  16. Physical insights into the blood-brain barrier translocation mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorakis, Panagiotis E.; Müller, Erich A.; Craster, Richard V.; Matar, Omar K.

    2017-08-01

    The number of individuals suffering from diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) is growing with an aging population. While candidate drugs for many of these diseases are available, most of these pharmaceutical agents cannot reach the brain rendering most of the drug therapies that target the CNS inefficient. The reason is the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a complex and dynamic interface that controls the influx and efflux of substances through a number of different translocation mechanisms. Here, we present these mechanisms providing, also, the necessary background related to the morphology and various characteristics of the BBB. Moreover, we discuss various numerical and simulation approaches used to study the BBB, and possible future directions based on multi-scale methods. We anticipate that this review will motivate multi-disciplinary research on the BBB aiming at the design of effective drug therapies.

  17. Microbial translocation and cardiometabolic risk factors in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trøseid, Marius; Manner, Ingjerd W; Pedersen, Karin K

    2014-01-01

    The widespread access to antiretroviral treatment during the past decades has transformed HIV infection from a lethal disease to a chronic condition, in which the relative burden of non-AIDS-related chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease, malignancy, renal, liver, and bone disease has...... is crucial in order to tailor novel strategies for prophylaxis and treatment. This review will focus on advances in the field that possibly link HIV-induced alterations of the gut mucosa and consequent microbial translocation to cardiometabolic risk factors in HIV infection. Recent work suggests that markers...... increased. The adjusted relative risk for myocardial infarction is reported to be around 2-fold compared to that of the general population, which over time is likely to translate into increased absolute risk in an aging population. Thus, delineating potentially HIV-specific pathogenetic mechanisms...

  18. Logic Gate Operation by DNA Translocation through Biological Nanopores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Yasuga

    Full Text Available Logical operations using biological molecules, such as DNA computing or programmable diagnosis using DNA, have recently received attention. Challenges remain with respect to the development of such systems, including label-free output detection and the rapidity of operation. Here, we propose integration of biological nanopores with DNA molecules for development of a logical operating system. We configured outputs "1" and "0" as single-stranded DNA (ssDNA that is or is not translocated through a nanopore; unlabeled DNA was detected electrically. A negative-AND (NAND operation was successfully conducted within approximately 10 min, which is rapid compared with previous studies using unlabeled DNA. In addition, this operation was executed in a four-droplet network. DNA molecules and associated information were transferred among droplets via biological nanopores. This system would facilitate linking of molecules and electronic interfaces. Thus, it could be applied to molecular robotics, genetic engineering, and even medical diagnosis and treatment.

  19. Logic Gate Operation by DNA Translocation through Biological Nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuga, Hiroki; Kawano, Ryuji; Takinoue, Masahiro; Tsuji, Yutaro; Osaki, Toshihisa; Kamiya, Koki; Miki, Norihisa; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Logical operations using biological molecules, such as DNA computing or programmable diagnosis using DNA, have recently received attention. Challenges remain with respect to the development of such systems, including label-free output detection and the rapidity of operation. Here, we propose integration of biological nanopores with DNA molecules for development of a logical operating system. We configured outputs "1" and "0" as single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that is or is not translocated through a nanopore; unlabeled DNA was detected electrically. A negative-AND (NAND) operation was successfully conducted within approximately 10 min, which is rapid compared with previous studies using unlabeled DNA. In addition, this operation was executed in a four-droplet network. DNA molecules and associated information were transferred among droplets via biological nanopores. This system would facilitate linking of molecules and electronic interfaces. Thus, it could be applied to molecular robotics, genetic engineering, and even medical diagnosis and treatment.

  20. A new reciprocal translocation in a subfertile bull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darré Roland

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three bulls of the Montbéliarde breed that exhibited fertility rates lower than 30% following more than 400 artificial inseminations were examined. Semen quality (sperm motility and morphology from these bulls was normal. Fertilizing ability estimated from in vitro embryo production results was studied for two of them. In vitro production rate was very low for one bull (A and normal for the other (B. Cytogenetic analyses were carried out on the three bulls using chromosome banding techniques. These analyses revealed a reciprocal translocation (12;17(q22;q14 in bull B. Based on family analyses, the hypothesis of a de novo origin of this rearrangement is proposed.

  1. Generation, translocation, and action of nitric oxide in living systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Andrew G; Lippard, Stephen J

    2011-10-28

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous diatomic radical that is involved in a wide range of physiological and pathological functions in biology. Conceptually, the biochemistry of NO can be separated into three stages: generation (stage 1), translocation (stage 2), and action (stage 3). In stage 1 the oxygenase domain of NO synthase converts L-arginine to L-citrulline and NO (g). Owing to its short-lived nature, this molecule is converted into a different nitrogen oxide such as NO(2), an organonitrosyl such as a nitrosothiol, or a metal nitrosyl such as a heme-nitrosyl, for transportation in stage 2. Each of these derivatives features unique physical characteristics, chemical reactivity, and biological activity. Upon delivery in stage 3, NO exerts its physiological or pathological function by reaction with biomolecules containing redox-active metals or other residues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of bacterial translocation in patients with chronic HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, Daniela; Negru, Anca; Radulescu, Mihaela; Mihailescu, Raluca; Arama, St S; Arama, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    The factors involved in the progression of liver disease towards decompensated cirrhosis are not completely elucidated. It seems that bacterial translocation (BT) from the gut to the systemic blood flow has an important role in the disease progression, but literature data are controversial. Our objectives were to evaluate the presence of BT in patients with chronic HCV infection and to assess the correlation between BT and liver fibrosis stages and inflammatory state. We conducted a cross-sectional study on patients with chronic HCV infection in a tertiary care hospital between January and July 2013. Blood samples were collected for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, platelets, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumor necrosis-alpha (TNFα). Plasma LPS were measured by ELISA (Kamiya Biomedical Company Seattle, SUA) and TNFα by DIAsource ImmunoAssay (Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium) kits. Liver fibrosis was evaluated by means of FibroMax (BioPredictive, Paris, France) in all patients. We enrolled 116 patients with CHC, with a sex ratio M/F of 0.55 and a median age of 54 (45-61) years. Most of the patients (32) had compensated cirrhosis (F4). LPS levels were higher in patients with mild fibrosis--median value of 60.34 (32-91.7) ng/mL, than in cirrhotic patients--median value 40.39 (20.2-74.4) ng/mL (p = 0.051). We found no statistical correlation between LPS levels and fibrosis (p = 0.068) or TNFα levels (p = 0.097) CONCLUSIONS: There was BT in patients with CHC but it was not correlated with liver fibrosis stages or systemic inflammation. This may suggest that LPS evaluation may not be the best technique to assess baterial translocation, but further studies are needed.

  3. Resolution of ion translocating proteolipid subclasses active in bacterial calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, L.D.; Renthal, R.D.; Boyan, B.D. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (USA))

    1989-06-01

    Formation of calcium hydroxyapatite occurs on membrane surfaces via interaction of calcium, inorganic phosphate, phospholipids, calcifiable proteolipids, and ion flux to and from the nucleating site. Recently, this laboratory reported that proteolipids from the calcifying bacterium, Bacterionema matruchotti, act as an ionophore when reconstituted into bacteriorhodopsin-proteoliposomes. This ionophoric activity is blocked by (14C)dicyclohexylcarbodiimide ((14C)DCCD). SDS-PAGE shows that (14C)DCCD binds to a single band of Mr 8500. To determine whether proteins other than the (14C)DCCD-binding protein are involved, we examined the function of proteolipid species extracted by solvents of differing polarity. Proteolipids were isolated independently from chloroform:methanol (2:1) and chloroform:methanol:HCl (200:100:1) extracts of the bacteria by Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and were electrophoresed on 12.5% acrylamide gels. The chloroform:methanol extract contained a major hand at Mr 10,000 that was not present in gels of proteolipid isolated by acidified solvent. Proteolipids extracted in chloroform:methanol:HCl included a broad band at Mr 8500, which co-migrated with the (14C) DCCD-binding protein. The rate and extent of proton translocation were not altered when either proteolipid extract was added individually to bacteriorhodopsin proteoliposomes. However, when proteolipids isolated from the chloroform:methanol and chloroform:methanol:HCl extracts were combined, the rate and extent of translocation were increased. These data demonstrate that at least two proteolipid proteins are necessary for ionophoric activity, the Mr 10,000 protein isolated by chloroform:methanol 2:1 and the (14C)DCCD-binding protein requiring acidified solvent for extraction.

  4. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis by fluorescence in situ hybridization of reciprocal and Robertsonian translocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Kai Chen

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: There is a trend whereby the outcome for Robertsonian translocation group carriers is better than that for reciprocal translocation group carriers. Aneuploidy screening may possibly be added in order to improve the outcome, especially for individuals with an advanced maternal age. The emergence of an array-based technology should help improve this type of analysis.

  5. ATM modulates the loading of recombination proteins onto a chromosomal translocation breakpoint hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiying Sun

    Full Text Available Chromosome translocations induced by DNA damaging agents, such as ionizing radiation and certain chemotherapies, alter genetic information resulting in malignant transformation. Abrogation or loss of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM protein, a DNA damage signaling regulator, increases the incidence of chromosome translocations. However, how ATM protects cells from chromosome translocations is still unclear. Chromosome translocations involving the MLL gene on 11q23 are the most frequent chromosome abnormalities in secondary leukemias associated with chemotherapy employing etoposide, a topoisomerase II poison. Here we show that ATM deficiency results in the excessive binding of the DNA recombination protein RAD51 at the translocation breakpoint hotspot of 11q23 chromosome translocation after etoposide exposure. Binding of Replication protein A (RPA and the chromatin remodeler INO80, which facilitate RAD51 loading on damaged DNA, to the hotspot were also increased by ATM deficiency. Thus, in addition to activating DNA damage signaling, ATM may avert chromosome translocations by preventing excessive loading of recombinational repair proteins onto translocation breakpoint hotspots.

  6. Orientation of native versus translocated juvenile lesser spotted eagles (Clanga pomarina) on the first autumn migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyburg, Bernd-U; Bergmanis, Ugis; Langgemach, Torsten; Graszynski, Kai; Hinz, Arno; Börner, Ingo; Meyburg, Christiane; Vansteelant, Wouter M G

    2017-08-01

    The ontogeny of migration routines used by wild birds remains unresolved. Here we investigated the migratory orientation of juvenile lesser spotted eagles (LSE; Clanga pomarina) based on translocation and satellite tracking. Between 2004 and 2016, 85 second-hatched juveniles (Abels) were reared in captivity for release into the declining German population, including 50 birds that were translocated 940 km from Latvia. In 2009, we tracked 12 translocated juveniles, as well as eight native juveniles and nine native adults, to determine how inexperienced birds come to use strategic migration routes. Native juveniles departed around the same time as the adults and six of eight used the eastern flyway around the Mediterranean, which was used by all adults. In contrast, translocated juveniles departed on average 6 days before native LSEs, and five travelled southward and died in the central Mediterranean region. Consequently, fewer translocated juveniles (4/12) than native juveniles (7/8) reached Africa. We conclude that juvenile LSEs have a much better chance of learning the strategic southeastern flyway if they leave at an appropriate time to connect with experienced elders upon departure. It is not clear why translocated juveniles departed so early. Regardless, by the end of the year, most juveniles had perished, whether they were translocated (10/12) or not (6/8). The small number of surviving translocated juveniles thus still represents a significant increase in the annual productivity of the German LSE population in 2009. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Simulations of two-dimensional unbiased polymer translocation using the bond fluctuation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panja, D.; Barkema, G.T.

    2010-01-01

    We use the bond fluctuation model (BFM) to study the pore-blockade times of a translocating polymer of length N in two dimensions, in the absence of external forces on the polymer (i.e., unbiased translocation) and hydrodynamic interactions (i.e., the polymer is a Rouse polymer), through a narrow

  8. INTESTINAL BACTERIAL TRANSLOCATION IN EXPERIMENTALLY BURNED MICE WITH WOUNDS COLONIZED BY PSEUDOMONAS-AERUGINOSA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MANSON, WL; COENEN, JMFH; KLASEN, HJ; HORWITZ, EH

    1992-01-01

    Translocation of micro-organisms from the gastrointestinal tract may play a role in the pathogenesis of septic complications in severely burned patients. We therefore investigated the influence of burn wound infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa on translocation in experimentally burned mice. The P.

  9. Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma diagnosed by immunohistochemistry and cytogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit Dey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinomas (TRCCs are a group of neoplasms with distinct clinical, histopathological appearance, immunohistochemical, and cytogenetic profile. We report a case of Xp11.2 translocation TRCC in an 11-year-old male diagnosed based on immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization.

  10. Live birth from a patient with a three-way balanced translocation t(5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Array comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH) was used to screen embryos for chromosome imbalances. Methods. Embryo biopsy, preimplantation genetic diagnosis using a 24sure+ kit to detect translocations in embryos. Results. Of 10 embryos tested, 2 were found to have an unbalanced translocation, ...

  11. ESX-1-mediated translocation to the cytosol controls virulence of mycobacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Houben, Diane

    2012-05-08

    Mycobacterium species, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, are among the most potent human bacterial pathogens. The discovery of cytosolic mycobacteria challenged the paradigm that these pathogens exclusively localize within the phagosome of host cells. As yet the biological relevance of mycobacterial translocation to the cytosol remained unclear. In this current study we used electron microscopy techniques to establish a clear link between translocation and mycobacterial virulence. Pathogenic, patient-derived mycobacteria species were found to translocate to the cytosol, while non-pathogenic species did not. We were further able to link cytosolic translocation with pathogenicity by introducing the ESX-1 (type VII) secretion system into the non-virulent, exclusively phagolysosomal Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Furthermore, we show that translocation is dependent on the C-terminus of the early-secreted antigen ESAT-6. The C-terminal truncation of ESAT-6 was shown to result in attenuation in mice, again linking translocation to virulence. Together, these data demonstrate the molecular mechanism facilitating translocation of mycobacteria. The ability to translocate from the phagolysosome to the cytosol is with this study proven to be biologically significant as it determines mycobacterial virulence. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Camplyobacter jejuni translocation across intestinal epithelial cells is facilitated by ganglioside-like lipooligosaccharide structures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, E.E.S.; Louwen, R.; Marrewijk, L. van; Horst, D.; Ruiter, L. de; Heikema, A.P.; Wamel, W.J. van; Wagenaar, J.A.; Endtz, H.P.; Samsom, J.N.; Baarlen, P. van; Akhmanova, A.S.; Belkum, A. van

    2012-01-01

    Translocation across intestinal epithelial cells is an established pathogenic feature of the zoonotic bacterial species Campylobacter jejuni. The number of C. jejuni virulence factors known to be involved in translocation is limited. In the present study we investigated whether sialylation of C.

  13. Campylobacter jejuni Translocation across Intestinal Epithelial Cells Is Facilitated by Ganglioside-Like Lipooligosaccharide Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, R.; Nieuwenhuis, E.E.S.; Marrewijk, van L.; Horst-Kreft, D.; Ruiter, de L.; Heikema, A.P.; Wamel, van W.J.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Endtz, H.P.; Samsom, J.; Baarlen, van P.; Akhmanova, A.; Belkum, van A.

    2012-01-01

    Translocation across intestinal epithelial cells is an established pathogenic feature of the zoonotic bacterial species Campylobacter jejuni. The number of C. jejuni virulence factors known to be involved in translocation is limited. In the present study, we investigated whether sialylation of C.

  14. Campylobacter jejuni translocation across intestinal epithelial cells is facilitated by ganglioside-like lipooligosaccharide structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.L. Louwen (Rogier); E.E.S. Nieuwenhuis (Edward); L. van Marrewijk (Leonie); D. Horst-Kreft (Deborah); L.F. de Ruiter (Lilian); A.P. Heikema (Astrid); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem); J.A. Wagenaar (Jaap); H.P. Endtz (Hubert); J.N. Samsom (Janneke); P. van Baarlen (Peter); A.S. Akhmanova (Anna); A.F. van Belkum (Alex)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractTranslocation across intestinal epithelial cells is an established pathogenic feature of the zoonotic bacterial species Campylobacter jejuni. The number of C. jejuni virulence factors known to be involved in translocation is limited. In the present study, we investigated whether

  15. Competition between Sec- and TAT-dependent protein translocation in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristóbal, S.; de Gier, J.-W.; Nielsen, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Recently, a new protein translocation pathway, the twin-arginine translocation (TAT) pathway, has been identified in both bacteria and chloroplasts. To study the possible competition between the TAT- and the well-characterized Sec translocon-dependent pathways in Escherichia coli, we have fused...

  16. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for X;autosome translocations : lessons from a case of misdiagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Echten-Arends, J.; Coonen, E.; Reuters, B.; Suijkerbuijk, R. F.; Dul, E. C.; Land, J. A.; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, C. M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is offered to couples carrying a reciprocal translocation in an attempt to increase their chance of phenotypically normal offspring. For the selection of embryos that are balanced for the translocation chromosomes, it is critical to use a combination of DNA

  17. Orientation of native versus translocated juvenile lesser spotted eagles (Clanga pomarina) on the first autumn migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmanis, Ugis; Langgemach, Torsten; Graszynski, Kai; Hinz, Arno; Börner, Ingo; Meyburg, Christiane; Vansteelant, Wouter M. G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ontogeny of migration routines used by wild birds remains unresolved. Here we investigated the migratory orientation of juvenile lesser spotted eagles (LSE; Clanga pomarina) based on translocation and satellite tracking. Between 2004 and 2016, 85 second-hatched juveniles (Abels) were reared in captivity for release into the declining German population, including 50 birds that were translocated 940 km from Latvia. In 2009, we tracked 12 translocated juveniles, as well as eight native juveniles and nine native adults, to determine how inexperienced birds come to use strategic migration routes. Native juveniles departed around the same time as the adults and six of eight used the eastern flyway around the Mediterranean, which was used by all adults. In contrast, translocated juveniles departed on average 6 days before native LSEs, and five travelled southward and died in the central Mediterranean region. Consequently, fewer translocated juveniles (4/12) than native juveniles (7/8) reached Africa. We conclude that juvenile LSEs have a much better chance of learning the strategic southeastern flyway if they leave at an appropriate time to connect with experienced elders upon departure. It is not clear why translocated juveniles departed so early. Regardless, by the end of the year, most juveniles had perished, whether they were translocated (10/12) or not (6/8). The small number of surviving translocated juveniles thus still represents a significant increase in the annual productivity of the German LSE population in 2009. PMID:28768749

  18. Live birth from a patient with a three-way balanced translocation t(5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Three-way balanced translocations are unusual and can lead to infertility as well as abnormal embryos. In this case report, we describe a couple who experienced repeated miscarriages as a result of the male partner being a carrier of a three-way translocation t(5;8;12). Objectives: Array comparative genomic ...

  19. Diagnosis of parental balanced reciprocal translocations by trophectoderm biopsy and comprehensive chromosomal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundheimer, L W; Liu, L; Buyalos, R P; Hubert, G; Al-Safi, Z; Shamonki, M

    2017-09-12

    This study investigates a case series of eight couples who underwent trophectoderm (TE) biopsy and comprehensive chromosomal screening (CCS) for routine aneuploidy screening and were found to have CCS results concerning for previously undetected parental balanced reciprocal translocations. In each case, controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and in vitro fertilization (IVF) yielded multiple blastocysts that each underwent CCS with high-density oligonucleotide microarray comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Parental translocations were suspected based on the finding of identical break point mutations in multiple embryos from each couple. Confirmation of these suspected translocations within blastocysts was performed with next-generation sequencing (NGS). Subsequent parental karyotypic evaluation resulted in a diagnosis of parental balanced reciprocal translocation in each case. We demonstrated that high-resolution aCGH and NGS on TE biopsies can accurately detect parental reciprocal translocations when previously unrecognized.

  20. Uptake, translocation, and toxicity of gold nanorods in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Shahmansouri, Nastaran

    Nanomaterials are widely used in many different products, such as electronics, cosmetics, industrial goods, biomedical uses, and other material applications. The heavy emission of nanomaterials into the environment has motived increasing concern regarding the effects on ecosystems, food chains, and, human health. Plants can tolerate a certain amount of natural nanomaterials, but large amounts of ENMs released from a variety of industries could be toxic to plants and possibly threaten the ecosystem. Employing phytoremediation as a contamination treatment method may show promise. However a pre-requisite to successful treatment is a better understanding of the behavior and effects of nanomaterials within plant systems. This study is designed to investigate the uptake, translocation, bioavailability, and toxicity of gold nanorods in maize plants. Maize is an important food and feed crop that can be used to understand the potential hazardous effects of nanoparticle uptake and distribution in the food chain. The findings could be an important contribution to the fields of phytoremediation, agri-nanotechnology, and nanoparticle toxicity on plants. In the first experiment, hydroponically grown maize seedlings were exposed to similar doses of commercial non-coated gold nanorods in three sizes, 10x34 nm, 20x75 nm, and 40x96 nm. The three nanorod species were suspended in solutions at concentrations of 350 mg/l, 5.8 mg/l, and 14 mg/l, respectively. Maize plants were exposed to all three solutions resulting in considerably lower transpiration and wet biomass than control plants. Likewise, dry biomass was reduced, but the effect is less pronounced than that of transpiration and wet biomass. The reduced transpiration and water content, which eventually proved fatal to exposed plants, were most likely a result of toxic effect of gold nanorod, which appeared to physically hinder the root system. TEM images proved that maize plants can uptake gold particles and accumulate them in

  1. The impact of translocations on neutral and functional genetic diversity within and among populations of the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, David J.; Spurgin, Lewis G.; Collar, Nigel J.; Komdeur, Jan; Burke, Terry; Richardson, David S.

    Translocations are an increasingly common tool in conservation. The maintenance of genetic diversity through translocation is critical for both the short- and long-term persistence of populations and species. However, the relative spatio-temporal impacts of translocations on neutral and functional

  2. Mechanism of Cationic Nanoparticles and Cell-Penetrating Peptides Direct Translocate Across Cell Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiaqi; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2014-03-01

    Cationic Nanoparticles (NPs) and cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are known effective intracellular delivery agents. These positively charged particles can bypass traditional endocytosis route to enter the cytosol, which is known as direct translocation. However, mechanism of direct translocation of both NPs and CPPs is not well understood. Using Coarse-grained (CG) molecular dynamics simulation, we found that gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as well as HIV-1 Tat peptides can translocate across model biological membranes through nanoscale holes under a transmembrane (TM) potential. After the translocation, the TM is strongly weakened and the holes gradually reseal themselves, while the NPs/CPPs roam freely in the ``intracellular region.'' Both size and shape of the NPs/ CPPs are found to be a determine factor of their translocation behaviour, and the relationship between direct translocation and endocytosis is also discussed. The results provided here establish fundamental rules of direct translocation entry of NPs/CPPs, which may guide the rational design of cationic intracellular nanocarriers.

  3. Lactobacillus plantarum prevents bacterial translocation in rats following ischemia and reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Huang, Qian; Zhang, Wei; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2011-11-01

    Bacterial translocation is considered a major cause of initiation and development of systemic sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction in clinic. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of a defined Lactobacillus plantarum to prevent ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induced intestinal infection. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into three groups: (1) controls (sham-operated, no treatment), (2) ischemia/reperfusion and (3) ischemia/reperfusion and Lactobacillus plantarum treatment. Lactobacillus plantarum L2 was administered daily intragastrically 14 days prior to induction of I/R. Rats were then sacrificed, and tissue and blood samples were cultured to determine bacterial translocation. Cytokines in plasma were detected by ELISA. Ileal segments were removed for morphological examination. Intestinal I/R induced excess pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and barrier dysfunction (increased epithelial cell apoptosis, cecal flora dysbiosis, disruption of mucosa and multiple erosions) in the intestine, associated with increased bacterial translocation to extraintestinal sites. Approximately 87.5% of rats exposed to I/R had bacterial translocation while there was no bacterial translocation in controls. However, pretreatment of animals with Lactobacillus plantarum completely prevented I/R induced bacterial translocation, reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine release, and intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, resulting in recovered microflora and mucosal integrity. These findings indicate that Lactobacillus plantarum L2 can prevent I/R-induced bacterial translocation and intestinal barrier dysfunction and, thereby, exert beneficial effects in the intestinal tract.

  4. Quantitative Analysis of the Nanopore Translocation Dynamics of Simple Structured Polynucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schink, Severin; Renner, Stephan; Alim, Karen; Arnaut, Vera; Simmel, Friedrich C.; Gerland, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Nanopore translocation experiments are increasingly applied to probe the secondary structures of RNA and DNA molecules. Here, we report two vital steps toward establishing nanopore translocation as a tool for the systematic and quantitative analysis of polynucleotide folding: 1), Using α-hemolysin pores and a diverse set of different DNA hairpins, we demonstrate that backward nanopore force spectroscopy is particularly well suited for quantitative analysis. In contrast to forward translocation from the vestibule side of the pore, backward translocation times do not appear to be significantly affected by pore-DNA interactions. 2), We develop and verify experimentally a versatile mesoscopic theoretical framework for the quantitative analysis of translocation experiments with structured polynucleotides. The underlying model is based on sequence-dependent free energy landscapes constructed using the known thermodynamic parameters for polynucleotide basepairing. This approach limits the adjustable parameters to a small set of sequence-independent parameters. After parameter calibration, the theoretical model predicts the translocation dynamics of new sequences. These predictions can be leveraged to generate a baseline expectation even for more complicated structures where the assumptions underlying the one-dimensional free energy landscape may no longer be satisfied. Taken together, backward translocation through α-hemolysin pores combined with mesoscopic theoretical modeling is a promising approach for label-free single-molecule analysis of DNA and RNA folding. PMID:22225801

  5. Quantitative analysis of the nanopore translocation dynamics of simple structured polynucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schink, Severin; Renner, Stephan; Alim, Karen; Arnaut, Vera; Simmel, Friedrich C; Gerland, Ulrich

    2012-01-04

    Nanopore translocation experiments are increasingly applied to probe the secondary structures of RNA and DNA molecules. Here, we report two vital steps toward establishing nanopore translocation as a tool for the systematic and quantitative analysis of polynucleotide folding: 1), Using α-hemolysin pores and a diverse set of different DNA hairpins, we demonstrate that backward nanopore force spectroscopy is particularly well suited for quantitative analysis. In contrast to forward translocation from the vestibule side of the pore, backward translocation times do not appear to be significantly affected by pore-DNA interactions. 2), We develop and verify experimentally a versatile mesoscopic theoretical framework for the quantitative analysis of translocation experiments with structured polynucleotides. The underlying model is based on sequence-dependent free energy landscapes constructed using the known thermodynamic parameters for polynucleotide basepairing. This approach limits the adjustable parameters to a small set of sequence-independent parameters. After parameter calibration, the theoretical model predicts the translocation dynamics of new sequences. These predictions can be leveraged to generate a baseline expectation even for more complicated structures where the assumptions underlying the one-dimensional free energy landscape may no longer be satisfied. Taken together, backward translocation through α-hemolysin pores combined with mesoscopic theoretical modeling is a promising approach for label-free single-molecule analysis of DNA and RNA folding. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Tourette syndrome in a pedigree with a 7;18 translocation: Identification of a YAC spanning the translocation breakpoint at 18q22.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boghosian-Sell, L.; Overhauser, J. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Comings, D.E. [City of Hope Medical Center, Duarte, CA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by the presence of multiple, involuntary motor and vocal tics. Associated pathologies include attention deficit disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Extensive linkage analysis based on an autosomal dominant mode of transmission with reduced penetrance has failed to show linkage with polymorphic markers, suggesting either locus heterogeneity or a polygenic origin for Tourette syndrome. An individual diagnosed with Tourette syndrome has been described carrying a constitutional chromosome translocation. Other family members carrying the translocation exhibit features seen in Tourette syndrome including motor tics, vocal tics, and OCD. Since the disruption of specific genes by a chromosomal rearrangement can elicit a particular phenotype, we have undertaken the physical mapping of the 7;18 translocation such that genes mapping at the site of the breakpoint can be identified and evaluated for a possible involvement in Tourette syndrome. Using somatic cell hybrids retaining either the der(7) or the der(18), a more precise localization of the breakpoints on chromosomes 7 and 18 have been determined. Furthermore, physical mapping has identified two YAC clones that span the translocation breakpoint on chromosome 18 as determined by FISH. These YAC clones will be useful for the eventual identification of genes that map to chromosomes 7 and 18 at the site of the translocation. 41 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. A voltage-gated pore for translocation of tRNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koley, Sandip; Adhya, Samit, E-mail: nilugrandson@gmail.com

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •A tRNA translocating complex was assembled from purified proteins. •The complex translocates tRNA at a membrane potential of ∼60 mV. •Translocation requires Cys and His residues in the Fe–S center of RIC6 subunit. -- Abstract: Very little is known about how nucleic acids are translocated across membranes. The multi-subunit RNA Import Complex (RIC) from mitochondria of the kinetoplastid protozoon Leishmania tropica induces translocation of tRNAs across artificial or natural membranes, but the nature of the translocation pore remains unknown. We show that subunits RIC6 and RIC9 assemble on the membrane in presence of subunit RIC4A to form complex R3. Atomic Force Microscopy of R3 revealed particles with an asymmetric surface groove of ∼20 nm rim diameter and ∼1 nm depth. R3 induced translocation of tRNA into liposomes when the pH of the medium was lowered to ∼6 in the absence of ATP. R3-mediated tRNA translocation could also be induced at neutral pH by a K{sup +} diffusion potential with an optimum of 60–70 mV. Point mutations in the Cys{sub 2}–His{sub 2} Fe-binding motif of RIC6, which is homologous to the respiratory Complex III Fe–S protein, abrogated import induced by low pH but not by K{sup +} diffusion potential. These results indicate that the R3 complex forms a pore that is gated by a proton-generated membrane potential and that the Fe–S binding region of RIC6 has a role in proton translocation. The tRNA import complex of L. tropica thus contains a novel macromolecular channel distinct from the mitochondrial protein import pore that is apparently involved in tRNA import in some species.

  8. Histone deacetylase 3 promotes RCAN1 stability and nuclear translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyung Ah; Kang, Hye Seon; Lee, Jee Won; Yoo, Lang; Im, Eunju; Hong, Ahyoung; Lee, Yun Ju; Shin, Woo Hyun; Chung, Kwang Chul

    2014-01-01

    Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1; also referred as DSCR1 or MCIP1) is located in close proximity to a Down syndrome critical region of human chromosome 21. Although RCAN1 is an endogenous inhibitor of calcineurin signaling that controls lymphocyte activation, apoptosis, heart development, skeletal muscle differentiation, and cardiac function, it is not yet clear whether RCAN1 might be involved in other cellular activities. In this study, we explored the extra-functional roles of RCAN1 by searching for novel RCAN1-binding partners. Using a yeast two-hybrid assay, we found that RCAN1 (RCAN1-1S) interacts with histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in mammalian cells. We also demonstrate that HDAC3 deacetylates RCAN1. In addition, HDAC3 increases RCAN1 protein stability by inhibiting its poly-ubiquitination. Furthermore, HDAC3 promotes RCAN1 nuclear translocation. These data suggest that HDAC3, a new binding regulator of RCAN1, affects the protein stability and intracellular localization of RCAN1.

  9. Histone deacetylase 3 promotes RCAN1 stability and nuclear translocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Ah Han

    Full Text Available Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1; also referred as DSCR1 or MCIP1 is located in close proximity to a Down syndrome critical region of human chromosome 21. Although RCAN1 is an endogenous inhibitor of calcineurin signaling that controls lymphocyte activation, apoptosis, heart development, skeletal muscle differentiation, and cardiac function, it is not yet clear whether RCAN1 might be involved in other cellular activities. In this study, we explored the extra-functional roles of RCAN1 by searching for novel RCAN1-binding partners. Using a yeast two-hybrid assay, we found that RCAN1 (RCAN1-1S interacts with histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3 in mammalian cells. We also demonstrate that HDAC3 deacetylates RCAN1. In addition, HDAC3 increases RCAN1 protein stability by inhibiting its poly-ubiquitination. Furthermore, HDAC3 promotes RCAN1 nuclear translocation. These data suggest that HDAC3, a new binding regulator of RCAN1, affects the protein stability and intracellular localization of RCAN1.

  10. Disrupting Dimerization Translocates Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase to Peroxisomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W Nelson

    Full Text Available The epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET neutralizing enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH is a neuronal enzyme, which has been localized in both the cytosol and peroxisomes. The molecular basis for its dual localization remains unclear as sEH contains a functional peroxisomal targeting sequence (PTS. Recently, a missense polymorphism was identified in human sEH (R287Q that enhances its peroxisomal localization. This same polymorphism has also been shown to generate weaker sEH homo-dimers. Taken together, these observations suggest that dimerization may mask the sEH PTS and prevent peroxisome translocation. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that dimerization is a key regulator of sEH subcellular localization. Specifically, we altered the dimerization state of sEH by introducing substitutions in amino acids responsible for the dimer-stabilizing salt-bridge. Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP fusions of each of mutants were co-transfected into mouse primary cultured cortical neurons together with a PTS-linked red fluorescent protein to constitutively label peroxisomes. Labeled neurons were analyzed using confocal microscopy and co-localization of sEH with peroxisomes was quantified using Pearson's correlation coefficient. We find that dimer-competent sEH constructs preferentially localize to the cytosol, whereas constructs with weakened or disrupted dimerization were preferentially targeted to peroxisomes. We conclude that the sEH dimerization status is a key regulator of its peroxisomal localization.

  11. Statistical Inference of DNA Translocation using Parallel Expectation Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Kevin; Rosenstein, Jacob; Pfau, David; Bamberger, Akiva; Shepard, Ken; Wiggins, Chris

    2013-03-01

    DNA translocation through a nanopore is an attractive candidate for a next-generation DNA sequencing platform, however the stochastic motion of the molecules within the pore, allowing both forward and backward movement, prevents easy inference of the true sequence from observed data. We model diffusion of an input DNA sequence through a nanopore as a biased random walk with noise, and describe an algorithm for efficient statistical reconstruction of the input sequence, given data consisting of a set of time series traces. The data is modeled as a Hidden Markov Model, and parallel expectation maximization is used to learn the most probable input sequence generating the observed traces. Bounds on inference accuracy are analyzed as a function of model parameters, including forward bias, error rate, and the number of traces. The number of traces is shown to have the strongest influence on algorithm performance, allowing for high inference accuracy even in extremely noisy environments. Incorrectly identified state transitions account for the majority of inference errors, and we introduce entropy-based metaheuristics for identifying and eliminating these errors. Inference is robust, fast, and scales to input sequences on the order of several kilobases.

  12. Disrupting Dimerization Translocates Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase to Peroxisomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jonathan W; Das, Anjali J; Barnes, Anthony P; Alkayed, Nabil J

    2016-01-01

    The epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) neutralizing enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a neuronal enzyme, which has been localized in both the cytosol and peroxisomes. The molecular basis for its dual localization remains unclear as sEH contains a functional peroxisomal targeting sequence (PTS). Recently, a missense polymorphism was identified in human sEH (R287Q) that enhances its peroxisomal localization. This same polymorphism has also been shown to generate weaker sEH homo-dimers. Taken together, these observations suggest that dimerization may mask the sEH PTS and prevent peroxisome translocation. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that dimerization is a key regulator of sEH subcellular localization. Specifically, we altered the dimerization state of sEH by introducing substitutions in amino acids responsible for the dimer-stabilizing salt-bridge. Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) fusions of each of mutants were co-transfected into mouse primary cultured cortical neurons together with a PTS-linked red fluorescent protein to constitutively label peroxisomes. Labeled neurons were analyzed using confocal microscopy and co-localization of sEH with peroxisomes was quantified using Pearson's correlation coefficient. We find that dimer-competent sEH constructs preferentially localize to the cytosol, whereas constructs with weakened or disrupted dimerization were preferentially targeted to peroxisomes. We conclude that the sEH dimerization status is a key regulator of its peroxisomal localization.

  13. Fusion genes and chromosome translocations in the common epithelial cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Paul A W

    2010-01-01

    It has been known for 25 years that fusion genes play a central role in leukaemias and sarcomas but they have been neglected in the common carcinomas, largely because of technical limitations of cytogenetics. In the last few years it has emerged that gene fusions, caused by chromosome translocations, inversions, deletions, etc., are important in the common epithelial cancers, such as prostate and lung carcinoma. Most prostate cancers, for example, have an androgen-regulated fusion of one of the ETS transcription factor gene family. Early results of genome-wide searches for gene fusions in breast and other epithelial cancers suggest that most individual tumours will have several fused genes. Fusion genes are exceptionally powerful mutations. In their simplest form they can turn on expression by promoter insertion but they can also, for example, force dimerization of a protein or change its subcellular location. They are correspondingly important clinically, in classification and management and as targets for therapy. This review surveys what we know of fusion genes in the carcinomas, summarizes the technical advances that now make it possible to search systematically for such genes, and concludes by putting fusion genes into the current picture of mutation in cancers.

  14. Ready Experimental Translocation of Mycobacterium canettii Yields Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Fériel; Brégeon, Fabienne; Lepidi, Hubert; Donoghue, Helen D; Minnikin, David E; Drancourt, Michel

    2017-12-01

    Mycobacterium canettii, which has a smooth colony morphology, is the tuberculous organism retaining the most genetic traits from the putative last common ancestor of the rough-morphology Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. To explore whether M. canettii can infect individuals by the oral route, mice were fed phosphate-buffered saline or 106M. canettii mycobacteria and sacrificed over a 28-day experiment. While no M. canettii was detected in negative controls, M. canettii-infected mice yielded granuloma-like lesions for 4/4 lungs at days 14 and 28 postinoculation (p.i.) and positive PCR detection of M. canettii for 5/8 mesenteric lymph nodes at days 1 and 3 p.i. and 5/6 pooled stools collected from day 1 to day 28 p.i. Smooth M. canettii colonies grew from 68% of lungs and 36% of spleens and cervical lymph nodes but fewer than 20% of axillary lymph nodes, livers, brown fat samples, kidneys, or blood samples throughout the 28-day experiment. Ready translocation in mice after digestive tract challenge demonstrates the potential of ingested M. canettii organisms to relocate to distant organs and lungs. The demonstration of this relocation supports the possibility that populations may be infected by environmental M. canettii. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Cholesterol Hydroperoxide Generation, Translocation, and Reductive Turnover in Biological Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotti, Albert W; Korytowski, Witold

    2017-12-01

    Cholesterol is like other unsaturated lipids in being susceptible to peroxidative degradation upon exposure to strong oxidants like hydroxyl radical or peroxynitrite generated under conditions of oxidative stress. In the eukaryotic cell plasma membrane, where most of the cellular cholesterol resides, peroxidation leads to membrane structural and functional damage from which pathological states may arise. In low density lipoprotein, cholesterol and phospholipid peroxidation have long been associated with atherogenesis. Among the many intermediates/products of cholesterol oxidation, hydroperoxide species (ChOOHs) have a number of different fates and deserve special attention. These fates include (a) damage-enhancement via iron-catalyzed one-electron reduction, (b) damage containment via two-electron reduction, and (c) inter-membrane, inter-lipoprotein, and membrane-lipoprotein translocation, which allows dissemination of one-electron damage or off-site suppression thereof depending on antioxidant location and capacity. In addition, ChOOHs can serve as reliable and conveniently detected mechanistic reporters of free radical-mediated reactions vs. non-radical (e.g., singlet oxygen)-mediated reactions. Iron-stimulated peroxidation of cholesterol and other lipids underlies a newly discovered form of regulated cell death called ferroptosis. These and other deleterious consequences of radical-mediated lipid peroxidation will be discussed in this review.

  16. Movilidad y desarrollo translocal en la Nicaragua (semi-rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griet Steel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende contribuir al debate sobre los vínculos entre la movilidad y el desarrollo, explorando el concepto de desarrollo translocal. Basado en trabajo de campo en los municipios de Matiguás y Muy Muy, éste analiza cómo la movilidad da forma a las estrategias de vida de los hogares (semi-rurales en Nicaragua, y explora cómo los diferentes miembros de un hogar utilizan la movilidad física como una estrategia de vida. Argumenta que los habitantes de áreas (semi-rurales consideran distintos tipos de movimientos como estrategias importantes para establecer enlaces entre personas y lugares, y para alcanzar un mejor bienestar en su comunidad natal. Al mismo tiempo muestra cómo la movilidad se forma en una arena de poder, lo que afecta su potencial. De esta manera, este artículo contribuye a un entendimiento dinámico y multidimensional de cómo los procesos de desarrollo dan forma a – y son formados por – la movilidad y la interconectividad.

  17. Fiber: effect on bacterial translocation and intestinal mucin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, W; Zhang, W; Singh, A; Bain, A; Satchithanandam, S; Klurfeld, D; Rombeau, J

    1995-01-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and elemental diet (ED) produce intestinal atrophy and increase bacterial translocation (BT) to mesenteric lymph nodes. The increased rate of BT may be due to alterations in mucosal structure, enzyme activity, or mucin content. Fiber improves intestinal structure and function in rats and may reduce the rate of BT. This study determined whether the addition of fiber to TPN or ED would maintain intestinal integrity and decrease BT to the mesenteric lymph nodes. Fifty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent placement of jugular catheters and were assigned to one of five dietary groups: TPN, TPN+oral oat fiber (TPNF) 2 g/day, ED, ED+oral oat fiber (EDF) 2 g/day, or AIN-76 (control); they were pair-fed for 7 days. On day 8 the mesenteric lymph nodes were removed for bacterial cultures; and jejunal mucosal weight, DNA, protein, alkaline phosphatase, maltase, and jejunal mucin content were measured. Enteral nutrition significantly decreased BT when compared to parenteral feeding, and fiber significantly decreased BT when administered to rats receiving TPN or ED. Improvements in intestinal mucosal structure were not consistently associated with decreased rates of BT. Additionally, BT occurred independently of jejunal mucin concentration. Mechanisms other than maintenance of mucosal structure or mucin content are important in the mediation of fiber-induced decreased BT in rats receiving TPN or ED.

  18. Decitabine represses translocated MYC oncogene in Burkitt lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Hanfeng; Xie, Linka; Klapproth, Kay; Weitzer, Clarissa D; Wirth, Thomas; Ushmorov, Alexey

    2013-04-01

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is caused by translocation of the MYC gene to an immunoglobulin locus resulting in its constitutive expression depending on the activity of the immunoglobulin (Ig) enhancer elements. Treatment of BL cell lines with epigenetic modifiers is known to repress B-cell-specific genes and to up-regulate B-cell-inappropriate genes including the transcription repressor ID2 expression. We found that the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor decitabine/5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) represses the MYC oncogene on RNA and protein levels by inducing ID2. Down-regulation of MYC was associated with repression of transcriptional activity of the Ig locus and with inhibition of proliferation. The induction of ID2 can be in part explained by activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. We conclude that up-regulation of ID2 contributes to anti-tumour activity of 5-aza-dC via repression of Ig locus activity and consequently MYC expression. Copyright © 2013 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Nanomaterial translocation - the biokinetics, tissue accumulation, toxicity and fate of materials in secondary organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kermanizadeh, Ali; Balharry, Dominique; Wallin, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    into the toxicity posed by the NMs in these secondary organs is expanding due to the realisation that some materials may reach and accumulate in these target sites. The translocation to secondary organs includes, but is not limited to, the hepatic, central nervous, cardiovascular and renal systems. Current data...... indicates that pulmonary exposure is associated with low (inhalation route-0.00001-1% of total applied dose-24 h) translocation of virtually insoluble NMs such as iridium, carbon black, gold and polystyrene, while slightly higher translocation has been observed for NMs with either slow (e.g. silver, cerium...

  20. Imaging of Carbon Translocation to Fruit Using Carbon-11-Labeled Carbon Dioxide and Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawachi, Naoki; Kikuchi, Kaori; Suzui, Nobuo; Ishii, Satomi; Fujimaki, Shu; Ishioka, Noriko S.; Watabe, Hiroshi

    2011-04-01

    Carbon kinetics into the fruit is an agricultural issue on the growth and development of the sink organs to be harvested. Particularly, photoassimilate translocation and distribution are important topics for understanding the mechanism. In the present work, carbon-11 (11C) labeled photoassimilate translocation into fruits of tomato has been imaged using carbon-11-labeled carbon dioxide and the positron emission tomography (PET). Dynamice PET data of gradual increasing of 11C activity and its distribution is acquired quantitatively in intact plant body. This indicates that the 3-D photoassimilate translocation into the fruits is imaged successfully and carbon kinetics is analyzable to understand the plant physiology and nutrition.

  1. Variant Philadelphia translocations with different breakpoints in six chronic myeloid leukemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilhan Kuru

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Philadelphia (Ph chromosome, consisting of the t(9;22(q34;q11 translocation, is observed in ~90% of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. Variant Ph translocations are observed in 5%-10% of CML patients. In variant translocations 3 and possibly more chromosomes are involved. Herein we report 6 CML patients with variant Ph translocations.Materials and Methods: Bone marrow samples were examined using conventional cytogenetic meth ods. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with whole-chromosome paints and BCR-ABL 1D probes were used to confirm and/or complement the findings, and identify rearrangements beyond the resolution of conventional cytogenetic methods. Results: Variant Ph translocations in the 6 patients were as follows: t(7;22(p22;q11, t(9;22;15(q34;q11;q22, t(15;22(p11;q11, t(1;9;22;3(q24;q34;q11;q21, t(12;22(p13;q11, and t(4;8;9;22(q11;q13;q34;q11.Conclusion: Among the patients, 3 had simple and 3 had complex variant Ph translocations. Two of the presented cases had variant Ph chromosomes not previously described, 1 of which had a new complex Ph translocation involving chromosomes 1, 3, 9, 22, and t(1;9;22;3(q24;q34;q11;q21 apart from a clone with a classical Ph, and the other case had variant Ph translocation with chromosomes 4, 8, 9, and 22, and t(4;8;9;22(q11;q13;q34;q11 full complex translocation. Number of studies reported that some patients with variant Ph translocation were poor responders to imatinib. All of our patients with variant Ph translocations had suboptimal responses to imatinib, denoting a poor prognosis also. Variant Ph translocations may be important as they are associated with prognosis and therapy for CML patients.

  2. Using Qualitative Disease Risk Analysis for Herpetofauna Conservation Translocations Transgressing Ecological and Geographical Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla Suarez, Mariana; Ewen, John G; Groombridge, Jim J; Beckmann, K; Shotton, J; Masters, N; Hopkins, T; Sainsbury, Anthony W

    2017-03-01

    Through the exploration of disease risk analysis methods employed for four different UK herpetofauna translocations, we illustrate how disease hazards can be identified, and how the risk of disease can be analysed. Where ecological or geographical barriers between source and destination sites exist, parasite populations are likely to differ in identity or strain between the two sites, elevating the risk from disease and increasing the number and category of hazards requiring analysis. Simplification of the translocation pathway through the avoidance of these barriers reduces the risk from disease. The disease risk analysis tool is intended to aid conservation practitioners in decision making relating to disease hazards prior to implementation of a translocation.

  3. Major E. coli heat-stress protein do not translocate: implications for cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatvin, M B; Clark, A W; Siegel, F L

    1987-10-01

    When Escherichia coli are exposed to heat stress, the majority of proteins in the process of synthesis at the time of heat stress are rapidly translocated to the outer membrane of the bacterium. The synthesis of most of these proteins appears to take place on membrane-bound polyribosomes. With the temperature shift, overall protein synthesis is inhibited while the synthesis of a small group of proteins is initiated. These proteins are not translocated, but remain in the cytosolic compartment, and they are identifiable as heat-stress proteins. Both the translocation phenomenon and the retention of heat-stress proteins in the cytosolic compartment in proximity to the nucleoid could counteract the effects of heat stress. The translocated proteins may operate by stabilizing the outer membrane prior to the induction of heat-stress proteins and the latter, which are confined to the cytoplasmic compartment, may serve to protect the integrity of the nucleoid structures.

  4. Cri du chat syndrome after preimplantation genetic diagnosis for reciprocal translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yinghui; Luo, Yuqin; Qian, Yuli; Xu, Chenming; Jin, Fan

    2011-07-01

    To report the first case of cri du chat syndrome after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for reciprocal translocation. Case report. In vitro fertilization center in a university affiliated hospital. A woman carrying a t(11;22)(q23;q11.2) translocation. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis was performed, and the woman became pregnant. Successful PGD for reciprocal translocation and diagnosis of Cri du chat syndrome for the baby. A male baby was born at 36 weeks' gestation. However, the baby presented with a high-pitched, cat-like cry. Cytogenetic study revealed a rare case of cri du chat syndrome associated with t(11;22)(q23;q11.2) translocation. Chromosomal abnormalities, including the rare cru du chat syndrome, may occur after fluorescent in situ hybridization-based preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A single recruitment maneuver in ventilated critically ill children can translocate pulmonary cytokines into the circulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halbertsma, F.J.; Vaneker, M.; Pickkers, P.; Neeleman, C.; Scheffer, G.J.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recruitment maneuvers (RMs) are advocated to prevent pulmonary collapse during low tidal volume ventilation and improve oxygenation. However, convincing clinical evidence for improved outcome is lacking. Recent experimental studies demonstrate that RMs translocate pulmonary

  6. ATM modulates the loading of recombination proteins onto a chromosomal translocation breakpoint hotspot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Sun (Jiying); Y. Oma (Yukako); M. Harata (Masahiko); K. Kono (Kazuteru); H. Shima (Hiroki); A. Kinomura (Aiko); T. Ikura (Tsuyoshi); H. Suzuki (Hidekazu); S. Mizutani (Shuki); R. Kanaar (Roland); S. Tashiro (Satoshi)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractChromosome translocations induced by DNA damaging agents, such as ionizing radiation and certain chemotherapies, alter genetic information resulting in malignant transformation. Abrogation or loss of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein, a DNA damage signaling regulator,

  7. Advances in chromosomal translocations and fusion genes in sarcomas and potential therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xin; Garbutt, Cassandra C; Hornicek, Francis; Guo, Zheng; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2018-02-01

    Chromosomal translocations and fusion genes are very common in human cancer especially in subtypes of sarcomas, such as rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, synovial sarcoma and liposarcoma. The discovery of novel chromosomal translocations and fusion genes in different tumors are due to the advancement of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies such as whole genome sequencing. Recently, many novel chromosomal translocations and gene fusions have been identified in different types of sarcoma through NGS approaches. In addition to previously known sarcoma fusion genes, these novel specific fusion genes and associated molecular events represent important targets for novel therapeutic approaches in the treatment of sarcomas. This review focuses on recent advances in chromosomal translocations and fusion genes in sarcomas and their potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of sarcomas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The use of new technologies in the detection of balanced translocations in hematologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Lisa G; Schultz, Roger A; Ballif, Blake C

    2012-06-01

    The cytogenetic evaluation of hematologic disease can confirm a diagnosis, determine treatment options, and provide prognostic information to the patient. Among the potential cytogenetic aberrations that can be identified are certain balanced translocations with recurrent breakpoints that provide disease classification and define the sites of disease-causing or disease-promoting genes. In this review, we discuss the importance of balanced translocation identification, the methods traditionally used to identify balanced translocations in the cytogenetics laboratory, and the application of new methodologies such as next generation (NextGen) sequencing and array-based translocation identification through a linear amplification application. These new technologies have the potential to identify all currently known diagnostically and prognostically important rearrangements as well as novel alterations that may provide new therapeutic targets to enhance treatment of hematologic disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Crystal Structures of EF-G-Ribosome Complexes Trapped in Intermediate States of Translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jie; Lancaster, Laura; Donohue, John Paul; Noller, Harry F. [UCSC

    2013-11-12

    Translocation of messenger and transfer RNA (mRNA and tRNA) through the ribosome is a crucial step in protein synthesis, whose mechanism is not yet understood. The crystal structures of three Thermus ribosome-tRNA-mRNA–EF-G complexes trapped with β,γ-imidoguanosine 5'-triphosphate (GDPNP) or fusidic acid reveal conformational changes occurring during intermediate states of translocation, including large-scale rotation of the 30S subunit head and body. In all complexes, the tRNA acceptor ends occupy the 50S subunit E site, while their anticodon stem loops move with the head of the 30S subunit to positions between the P and E sites, forming chimeric intermediate states. Two universally conserved bases of 16S ribosomal RNA that intercalate between bases of the mRNA may act as “pawls” of a translocational ratchet. These findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of ribosomal translocation.

  10. Two pathways regulate cortical granule translocation to prevent polyspermy in mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeseman, Liam P; Boulanger, Jérôme; Bond, Lisa M; Schuh, Melina

    2016-12-19

    An egg must be fertilized by a single sperm only. To prevent polyspermy, the zona pellucida, a structure that surrounds mammalian eggs, becomes impermeable upon fertilization, preventing the entry of further sperm. The structural changes in the zona upon fertilization are driven by the exocytosis of cortical granules. These translocate from the oocyte's centre to the plasma membrane during meiosis. However, very little is known about the mechanism of cortical granule translocation. Here we investigate cortical granule transport and dynamics in live mammalian oocytes by using Rab27a as a marker. We show that two separate mechanisms drive their transport: myosin Va-dependent movement along actin filaments, and an unexpected vesicle hitchhiking mechanism by which cortical granules bind to Rab11a vesicles powered by myosin Vb. Inhibiting cortical granule translocation severely impaired the block to sperm entry, suggesting that translocation defects could contribute to miscarriages that are caused by polyspermy.

  11. High positive end-expiratory pressure levels promote bacterial translocation in experimental pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lachmann, Robert A.; van Kaam, Anton H.; Haitsma, Jack J.; Lachmann, Burkhard

    2007-01-01

    A previous study in piglets with experimental pneumonia showed that reducing atelectasis by means of open lung ventilation attenuated bacterial translocation compared to conventional ventilation settings. This study examined the effect of open lung ventilation with higher than necessary positive

  12. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge trumperter swan translocation project : Issues/action items

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Background information and current issues regarding the trumpeter swan translocation project at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge. Major issues include harvesting of...

  13. Complex Variant t(9;22 Chromosome Translocations in Five Cases of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Valencia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Philadelphia (Ph1 chromosome arising from the reciprocal t(9;22 translocation is found in more than 90% of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML patients and results in the formation of the chimeric fusion gene BCR-ABL. However, a small proportion of patients with CML have simple or complex variants of this translocation, involving various breakpoints in addition to 9q34 and 22q11. We report five CML cases carrying variant Ph translocations involving both chromosomes 9 and 22 as well as chromosomes 3, 5, 7, 8, or 10. G-banding showed a reciprocal three-way translocation involving 3q21, 5q31, 7q32, 8q24, and 10q22 bands. BCR-ABL fusion signal on der(22 was found in all of the cases by FISH.

  14. Mechanisms of Selenium Uptake, Translocation and Chemical Speciation Transformation in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Xiao-fang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarized the uptake, translocation and metabolism mechanisms of selenium (Se in plants. Water-soluble Se, including selenate, selenite and some organic selenium, was the predominant form taken up by plants. The active uptake of selenate in plant could be mediated by high affinity sulfate transporters. The mechanism of selenite uptake was not well understood, however, recent studies suggested that selenite uptake was probably mediated by Pi transporters. The translocation of Se from root to shoot was dependent on the form of Se supplied. The selenate taken up by plants was readily translocated to the shoots and reduced to selenite in leaves, then converted to organic Se compound. By contrast, most of the selenite taken up by plants in the roots and only a small fraction was translocated to the shoots. Se could be assimilated to seleno amino acids or selenoprotein after plant uptake, and then involved in the metabolism of plants.

  15. Bacterial Translocation as a Cause of Postoperative Sepsis in Surgical Patients Undergoing Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Thapa

    2014-12-01

    Bacterial translocation was identified in 22 (44.8% patients. The most common organism identified was Escherichia coli (n=11, 50%. Both enteric bacteria, typical of indigenous intestinal flora, and non-enteric bacteria were isolated. Postoperative septic complications developed in four (11% patients. Septic morbidity was more frequent when a greater diversity of bacteria resided within the mesenteric lymph nodes. Conclusion: Bacterial translocation is associated with an increase in the development of postoperative sepsis in surgical patients. The organisms responsible for septic morbidity are similar in spectrum to those observed in the mesenteric lymph nodes. These data strongly support the gut origin hypothesis of sepsis in humans. Besides, there is increased bacterial translocation in patients undergoing emergency procedures. Keywords: bacteria • laparotomy • postoperative • sepsis • translocation

  16. Damaged intestinal epithelial integrity linked to microbial translocation in pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob D Estes

    Full Text Available The chronic phase of HIV infection is marked by pathological activation of the immune system, the extent of which better predicts disease progression than either plasma viral load or CD4(+ T cell count. Recently, translocation of microbial products from the gastrointestinal tract has been proposed as an underlying cause of this immune activation, based on indirect evidence including the detection of microbial products and specific immune responses in the plasma of chronically HIV-infected humans or SIV-infected Asian macaques. We analyzed tissues from SIV-infected rhesus macaques (RMs to provide direct in situ evidence for translocation of microbial constituents from the lumen of the intestine into the lamina propria and to draining and peripheral lymph nodes and liver, accompanied by local immune responses in affected tissues. In chronically SIV-infected RMs this translocation is associated with breakdown of the integrity of the epithelial barrier of the gastrointestinal (GI tract and apparent inability of lamina propria macrophages to effectively phagocytose translocated microbial constituents. By contrast, in the chronic phase of SIV infection in sooty mangabeys, we found no evidence of epithelial barrier breakdown, no increased microbial translocation and no pathological immune activation. Because immune activation is characteristic of the chronic phase of progressive HIV/SIV infections, these findings suggest that increased microbial translocation from the GI tract, in excess of capacity to clear the translocated microbial constituents, helps drive pathological immune activation. Novel therapeutic approaches to inhibit microbial translocation and/or attenuate chronic immune activation in HIV-infected individuals may complement treatments aimed at direct suppression of viral replication.

  17. Leaves Of Cut Rose Flower Convert Exogenously Applied Glucose To Sucrose And Translocate It To Petals

    OpenAIRE

    Horibe Takanori; Yamaki Shohei; Yamada Kunio

    2014-01-01

    To understand the role that the leaves play in the translocation of soluble carbohydrates in cut rose flowers, we first evaluated the effect of leaf removal on flower quality and the sugar content in petals. Cut rose flowers with leaves had higher soluble sugar content in petals compared with cut flower without leaves. Next, we treated cut flowers with radioactive glucose to clarify translocation routes of exogenously applied sugar. There was no significant difference between the specific rad...

  18. Using SNP array to identify aneuploidy and segmental imbalance in translocation carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, B.; Tan, K.; Tan, Y.Q.; Gong, F.; Zhang, S.P.; Lu, C.F.; Luo, K.L.; Lu, G.X.; Lin, G.

    2014-01-01

    Translocation is one of the more common structural rearrangements of chromosomes, with a prevalence of 0.2%. The two most common types of chromosomal translocations, Robertsonian and reciprocal, usually result in no obvious phenotypic abnormalities when balanced. However, these are still associated with reproductive risks, such as infertility, spontaneous abortion and the delivery of babies with mental retardation or developmental delay. In recent years, array-based whole-genome amplification...

  19. Increased frequency of chromosome translocations in airline pilots with long-term flying experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, L C; Sigurdson, A J; Ward, E M; Waters, M A; Whelan, E A; Petersen, M R; Bhatti, P; Ramsey, M J; Ron, E; Tucker, J D

    2009-01-01

    Chromosome translocations are an established biomarker of cumulative exposure to external ionising radiation. Airline pilots are exposed to cosmic ionising radiation, but few flight crew studies have examined translocations in relation to flight experience. We determined the frequency of translocations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 83 airline pilots and 50 comparison subjects (mean age 47 and 46 years, respectively). Translocations were scored in an average of 1039 cell equivalents (CE) per subject using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) whole chromosome painting and expressed per 100 CE. Negative binomial regression models were used to assess the relationship between translocation frequency and exposure status and flight years, adjusting for age, diagnostic x ray procedures, and military flying. There was no significant difference in the adjusted mean translocation frequency of pilots and comparison subjects (0.37 (SE 0.04) vs 0.38 (SE 0.06) translocations/100 CE, respectively). However, among pilots, the adjusted translocation frequency was significantly associated with flight years (p = 0.01) with rate ratios of 1.06 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.11) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.16 to 2.82) for a 1- and 10-year incremental increase in flight years, respectively. The adjusted rate ratio for pilots in the highest compared to the lowest quartile of flight years was 2.59 (95% CI 1.26 to 5.33). Our data suggests that pilots with long-term flying experience may be exposed to biologically significant doses of ionising radiation. Epidemiological studies with longer follow-up of larger cohorts of pilots with a wide range of radiation exposure levels are needed to clarify the relationship between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk.

  20. Maternal transmission of translocation 2;21 associated with Down's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Kotwaliwale, S V; Dicholkar, V V; Motashaw, N D

    1991-01-01

    An unusual 2;21 translocation associated with Down's syndrome is reported. The proband was a 3 year old boy, clinically diagnosed as having Down's syndrome and with a family history of Down's syndrome. Maternal age at the time of study was 28 years. Out of the four sibs with Down's syndrome three had died. Two pregnancies ended in first trimester miscarriage. The proband was found to have trisomy 21 associated with a 2;21 translocation inherited from his mother.

  1. The impact of transportation and translocation on dispersal behaviour in the invasive cane toad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Lachlan; Greenlees, Matthew; Shine, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Biological invasions transport organisms to novel environments; but how does the translocation process influence movement patterns of the invader? Plausibly, the stress of encountering a novel environment, or of the transport process, might induce rapid dispersal from the release site-potentially enhancing (or reducing) invader success and spread. We investigated the effect of transportation and release to novel environments on dispersal-relevant traits of one of the world's most notorious invaders, the cane toad (Rhinella marina). We collected toads in northern New South Wales from heath and woodland habitats, manipulated the level of transport stress and either returned toads to their exact collection point (residents) or reciprocally translocated them to a novel site. Both translocation and the level of transport stress drastically altered toad dispersal rates for at least 5 days post-release. Translocated toads (depending on their level of transport stress and release habitat) moved on average two to five times further per day (mean range 67-148 m) than did residents (mean range 22-34 m). Translocated toads also moved on more days, and moved further from their release point than did resident toads, but did not move in straighter lines. A higher level of transport stress (simulating long-distance translocation) had no significant effect on movements of resident toads but amplified the dispersal of translocated toads only when released into woodland habitat. These behavioural shifts induced by translocation and transportation may affect an invader's ability to colonise novel sites, and need to be incorporated into plans for invader control.

  2. Structural insights into Omp85-mediated protein translocation and insertion in the bacterial outer membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Gruss, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Proteins of the Omp85 superfamily reside in the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts and are responsible for the insertion of outer membrane β-barrel proteins into or the translocation of soluble proteins across the membrane. They contain a C-terminal membrane-embedded 16-stranded β-barrel and soluble substrate-interacting POTRA domains, which in Gram-negative bacteria locate to the periplasm. The underlying translocation and insertion mechanisms are poorly...

  3. Short-Term Space-Use Patterns of Translocated Mojave Desert Tortoise in Southern California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Farnsworth

    Full Text Available Increasingly, renewable energy comprises a larger share of global energy production. Across the western United States, public lands are being developed to support renewable energy production. Where there are conflicts with threatened or endangered species, translocation can be used in an attempt to mitigate negative effects. For the threatened Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii, we sought to compare habitat- and space-use patterns between short-distance translocated, resident, and control groups. We tested for differences in home range size based on utilization distributions and used linear mixed-effects models to compare space-use intensity, while controlling for demographic and environmental variables. In addition, we examined mean movement distances as well as home range overlap between years and for male and female tortoises in each study group. During the first active season post-translocation, home range size was greater and space-use intensity was lower for translocated tortoises than resident and control groups. These patterns were not present in the second season. In both years, there was no difference in home range size or space-use intensity between control and resident groups. Translocation typically resulted in one active season of questing followed by a second active season characterized by space-use patterns that were indistinguishable from control tortoises. Across both years, the number of times a tortoise was found in a burrow was positively related to greater space-use intensity. Minimizing the time required for translocated tortoises to exhibit patterns similar to non-translocated individuals may have strong implications for conservation by reducing exposure to adverse environmental conditions and predation. With ongoing development, our results can be used to guide future efforts aimed at understanding how translocation strategies influence patterns of animal space use.

  4. Effects of age and sex ratios on offspring recruitment rates in translocated black rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedir, Jay V; Law, Peter R; du Preez, Pierre; Linklater, Wayne L

    2017-09-22

    Success of animal translocations depends on improving postrelease demographic rates toward establishment and subsequent growth of released populations. Short-term metrics for evaluating translocation success and its drivers, like postrelease survival and fecundity, are unlikely to represent longer-term outcomes. We used information theory to investigate 25 years of data on black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) translocations. We used the offspring recruitment rate (ORR) of translocated females-a metric integrating survival, fecundity, and offspring recruitment at sexual maturity-to detect determinants of success. Our unambiguously best model (AICω = 0.986) predicted that ORR increases with female age at release as a function of lower postrelease adult rhinoceros sex ratio (males:females). Delay of first postrelease reproduction and failure of some females to recruit any calves to sexual maturity most influenced the pattern of ORRs, and the leading causes of recruitment failure were postrelease female death (23% of all females) and failure to calve (24% of surviving females). We recommend translocating older females (≥6 years old) because they do not exhibit the reproductive delay and low ORRs of juveniles (<4 years old) or the higher rates of recruitment failure of juveniles and young adults (4-5.9 years old). Where translocation of juveniles is necessary, they should be released into female-biased populations, where they have higher ORRs. Our study offers the unique advantage of a long-term analysis across a large number of replicate populations-a science-by-management experiment as a proxy for a manipulative experiment, and a rare opportunity, particularly for a large, critically endangered taxon such as the black rhinoceros. Our findings differ from previous recommendations, reinforce the importance of long-term data sets and comprehensive metrics of translocation success, and suggest attention be shifted from ecological to social constraints on population

  5. Y autosome translocation and complex chromosome rearrangement in cri du chat syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, J F; Mattei, M G; Coignet, J; Giraud, F

    1978-01-01

    An unbalanced Y autosome translocation t(5;Y) and an apparently balanced translocation t(2;13) are identified with the Q and R banding in a 7-year-old boy with severe encephalopathy and a multiple malformation syndrome. At birth, the clinical diagnosis of 'cri du chat' syndrome based on the characteristic crying was not confirmed after karyotyping, using conventional staining techniques. Images PMID:641952

  6. Cytogenetics and reproduction of sheep with multiple centric fusions (Robertsonian translocations).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruère, A N; Ellis, P M

    1979-11-01

    The significance of centric fusions (Robertsonian translocations) in domestic animals, with special reference to sheep, is reviewed. The mating is described of a further 856 ewes with either a normal chromosome number 2n = 54 or carrying one or more of the three different translocations (centric fusions) t1, t2 and t3 in various heterozygous and homozygous arrangements. Rams which were used in the matings were homozygous for one of the translocation chromosomes (2n = 52), double heterozygotes (2n = 52), triple heterozygotes (2n = 51) or were carriers of 4 translocation chromosomes (2n = 50) and 5 translocation chromosomes (2n = 49). A remarkably even distribution of segregation products was recorded in the progeny of all combinations of translocation ewes x translocation rams in those groups in which sufficient animals were available for statistical analysis. Forty-eight chromosomally different groups of animals were mated. Further, the overall fertility of the translocation sheep, measured by conception rate to first service, lambing percentage and number of ewes which did not breed a lamb, was not significantly different from New Zealand national sheep breeding data. In some groups the poorer reproductive performance could be explained by the age structure of the flock and inbreeding depression, which probably affected the performance of some animals. Sheep with progressively decreasing chromosome numbers, due to centric fusion, 2n = 50, 2n = 49 and 2n = 48, are reported. The 2n = 48 category represents a triple homozygous ewe and a triple homozygous ram and is the first report of the viable evolution of such domestic animals. Less than 1% of phenotypically abnormal lambs were recorded in a total of 1995 progeny born over 10 years. It is now considered that there is little or no evidence to suggest that centric fusions in a variety of combinations affect the total productive fitness of domestic sheep. It is suggested that future research should be more actively

  7. Gel mesh as ``brake'' to slow down DNA translocation through solid-state nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhipeng; Liang, Zexi; Lu, Bo; Li, Ji; Hu, Rui; Zhao, Qing; Yu, Dapeng

    2015-07-01

    Agarose gel is introduced onto the cis side of silicon nitride nanopores by a simple and low-cost method to slow down the speed of DNA translocation. DNA translocation speed is slowed by roughly an order of magnitude without losing signal to noise ratio for different DNA lengths and applied voltages in gel-meshed nanopores. The existence of the gel moves the center-of-mass position of the DNA conformation further from the nanopore center, contributing to the observed slowing of translocation speed. A reduced velocity fluctuation is also noted, which is beneficial for further applications of gel-meshed nanopores. The reptation model is considered in simulation and agrees well with the experimental results.Agarose gel is introduced onto the cis side of silicon nitride nanopores by a simple and low-cost method to slow down the speed of DNA translocation. DNA translocation speed is slowed by roughly an order of magnitude without losing signal to noise ratio for different DNA lengths and applied voltages in gel-meshed nanopores. The existence of the gel moves the center-of-mass position of the DNA conformation further from the nanopore center, contributing to the observed slowing of translocation speed. A reduced velocity fluctuation is also noted, which is beneficial for further applications of gel-meshed nanopores. The reptation model is considered in simulation and agrees well with the experimental results. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03084f

  8. Translocation mechanism(s) of cell-penetrating peptides: biophysical studies using artificial membrane bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pisa, Margherita; Chassaing, Gérard; Swiecicki, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-20

    The ability of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) to cross cell membranes has found numerous applications in the delivery of bioactive compounds to the cytosol of living cells. Their internalization mechanisms have been questioned many times, and after 20 years of intense debate, it is now widely accepted that both energy-dependent and energy-independent mechanisms account for their penetration properties. However, the energy-independent mechanisms, named "direct translocation", occurring without the requirement of the cell internalization machinery, remain to be fully rationalized at the molecular level. Using artificial membrane bilayers, recent progress has been made toward the comprehension of the direct translocation event. This review summarizes our current understanding of the translocation process, starting from the adsorption of the CPP on the membrane to the membrane crossing itself. We describe the different key steps occurring before direct translocation, because each of them can promote and/or hamper translocation of the CPP through the membrane. We then dissect the modification to the membranes induced by the presence of the CPPs. Finally, we focus on the latest studies describing the direct translocation mechanisms. These results provide an important framework within which to design new CPPs and to rationalize an eventual selectivity of CPPs in their penetration ability.

  9. Gut Microbial Translocation in Critically Ill Children and Effects of Supplementation with Pre- and Pro Biotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Papoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial translocation as a direct cause of sepsis is an attractive hypothesis that presupposes that in specific situations bacteria cross the intestinal barrier, enter the systemic circulation, and cause a systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Critically ill children are at increased risk for bacterial translocation, particularly in the early postnatal age. Predisposing factors include intestinal obstruction, obstructive jaundice, intra-abdominal hypertension, intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury and secondary ileus, and immaturity of the intestinal barrier per se. Despite good evidence from experimental studies to support the theory of bacterial translocation as a cause of sepsis, there is little evidence in human studies to confirm that translocation is directly correlated to bloodstream infections in critically ill children. This paper provides an overview of the gut microflora and its significance, a focus on the mechanisms employed by bacteria to gain access to the systemic circulation, and how critical illness creates a hostile environment in the gut and alters the microflora favoring the growth of pathogens that promote bacterial translocation. It also covers treatment with pre- and pro biotics during critical illness to restore the balance of microbial communities in a beneficial way with positive effects on intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation.

  10. Nitric oxide-derived urinary nitrate as a marker of intestinal bacterial translocation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudenhoven, I M; Klaasen, H L; Lapré, J A; Weerkamp, A H; Van der Meer, R

    1994-07-01

    Bacterial translocation across the gut wall may lead to bacteremia and sepsis. Bacteriological analyses are laborious and time consuming, which precludes a rapid diagnosis of bacterial translocation. Synthesis of nitric oxide by macrophages is a primary response to bacterial infections. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether NO-derived nitrate excretion in urine can be used as a rapid and quantitative marker of intestinal bacterial translocation. The kinetics of urinary nitrate excretion was determined in rats intraperitoneally injected with increasing doses of Salmonella enteritidis lipopolysaccharide. Subsequently, the response to bacterial translocation was studied in rats infected orally with different doses of viable, invasive S. enteritidis. Increasing the lipopolysaccharide dose from 0.05 to 0.50 mg/kg resulted in a transient, dose-dependent, almost 10-fold increase in urinary nitrate excretion. Administration of the NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester merely inhibited the increase in nitrate excretion after lipopolysaccharide injection. Increasing the infective dose of viable Salmonella resulted in a time- and dose-dependent exponential increase in nitrate output. Translocation was a prerequisite for provoking a nitrate response. Total urinary nitrate excretion after infection and classical infection parameters, such as weight of the mesenteric lymph nodes and population levels of Salmonella in feces, were highly correlated. Urinary nitrate excretion is a quantitative, noninvasive biomarker of intestinal bacterial translocation, which can be used to follow the course of a systemic infection.

  11. Movements and survival of black-footed ferrets associated with an experimental translocation in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, D.E.; Godbey, J.L.; Horton, B.M.; Livieri, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) apparently were extirpated from all native habitats by 1987, and their repatriation requires a combination of captive breeding, reintroductions, and translocations among sites. Improvements in survival rates of released ferrets have resulted from experience in quasi-natural environments during their rearing. Reestablishment of a self-sustaining wild population by 1999 provided the 1st opportunity to initiate new populations by translocating wild-born individuals. Using radiotelemetry, we compared behaviors and survival of 18 translocated wild-born ferrets and 18 pen-experienced captive-born ferrets after their release into a prairie dog colony not occupied previously by ferrets. Translocated wild-born ferrets moved significantly less and had significantly higher short-term survival rates than their captive-born counterparts. Using markrecapture methods, we also assessed potential impacts to the established donor population of removing 37% of its estimated annual production of kits. Annual survival rates for 30 ferret kits remaining at the donor subcomplex were higher than rates for 54 ferret kits at the control subcomplex (unmanipulated) for males (+82%) and females (+32%). Minimum survival of translocated kits did not differ significantly from survival of those at the control subcomplex. Direct translocation of young, wild-born ferrets from site to site appears to be an efficient method to establish new populations. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  12. Translocation dynamics of a short polymer driven by an oscillating force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzolato, Nicola; Fiasconaro, Alessandro; Adorno, Dominique Persano; Spagnolo, Bernardo

    2013-02-07

    We study the translocation dynamics of a short polymer moving in a noisy environment and driven by an oscillating force. The dynamics is numerically investigated by solving a Langevin equation in a two-dimensional domain. We consider a phenomenological cubic potential with a metastable state to model the polymer-pore interaction and the entropic free energy barrier characterizing the translocation process. The mean first translocation time of the center of inertia of polymers shows a nonmonotonic behavior, with a minimum, as a function of the number of the monomers. The dependence of the mean translocation time on the polymer chain length shows a monotonically increasing behavior for high values of the number of monomers. Moreover, the translocation time shows a minimum as a function of the frequency of the oscillating forcing field for all the polymer lengths investigated. This finding represents the evidence of the resonant activation phenomenon in the dynamics of polymer translocation, whose occurrence is maintained for different values of the noise intensity.

  13. Structure of a translocation signal domain mediating conjugative transfer by type IV secretion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redzej, Adam; Ilangovan, Aravindan; Lang, Silvia; Gruber, Christian J; Topf, Maya; Zangger, Klaus; Zechner, Ellen L; Waksman, Gabriel

    2013-07-01

    Relaxases are proteins responsible for the transfer of plasmid and chromosomal DNA from one bacterium to another during conjugation. They covalently react with a specific phosphodiester bond within DNA origin of transfer sequences, forming a nucleo-protein complex which is subsequently recruited for transport by a plasmid-encoded type IV secretion system. In previous work we identified the targeting translocation signals presented by the conjugative relaxase TraI of plasmid R1. Here we report the structure of TraI translocation signal TSA. In contrast to known translocation signals we show that TSA is an independent folding unit and thus forms a bona fide structural domain. This domain can be further divided into three subdomains with striking structural homology with helicase subdomains of the SF1B family. We also show that TSA is part of a larger vestigial helicase domain which has lost its helicase activity but not its single-stranded DNA binding capability. Finally, we further delineate the binding site responsible for translocation activity of TSA by targeting single residues for mutations. Overall, this study provides the first evidence that translocation signals can be part of larger structural scaffolds, overlapping with translocation-independent activities. © 2013 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Connecting the kinetics and energy landscape of tRNA translocation on the ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Paul C; Blanchard, Scott C; Cate, Jamie H D; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y

    2013-01-01

    Functional rearrangements in biomolecular assemblies result from diffusion across an underlying energy landscape. While bulk kinetic measurements rely on discrete state-like approximations to the energy landscape, single-molecule methods can project the free energy onto specific coordinates. With measures of the diffusion, one may establish a quantitative bridge between state-like kinetic measurements and the continuous energy landscape. We used an all-atom molecular dynamics simulation of the 70S ribosome (2.1 million atoms; 1.3 microseconds) to provide this bridge for specific conformational events associated with the process of tRNA translocation. Starting from a pre-translocation configuration, we identified sets of residues that collectively undergo rotary rearrangements implicated in ribosome function. Estimates of the diffusion coefficients along these collective coordinates for translocation were then used to interconvert between experimental rates and measures of the energy landscape. This analysis, in conjunction with previously reported experimental rates of translocation, provides an upper-bound estimate of the free-energy barriers associated with translocation. While this analysis was performed for a particular kinetic scheme of translocation, the quantitative framework is general and may be applied to energetic and kinetic descriptions that include any number of intermediates and transition states.

  15. Translocation of mercury and cadmium into the fruiting bodies of six higher fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnert, H.; Zadrazil, F.

    1983-01-01

    The species- and metal-specific translocation of cadmium and mercury from the substrate to the fruiting bodies of 6 higher fungi has been investigated. The 6 species differed greatly in their ability to translocate cadmium and mercury. The highest translocation rates displayed Pleurotus flabellatus: 75.0% of the applied cadmium and 38.5% of the mercury could be recovered from the fruiting bodies. High translocation rates also found with Pleurotus ostreatus (19.3 and 38.5% for cadmium and mercury, respectively). This compares with only 1.27% of cadmium and 8.42% of mercury in Agaricus bisporus or 3.71% of cadmium and 3.63% of mercury in Pleurotus sajor caju. For Agaricus bisporus it was shown that there was proportionality of translocation over a 1:10 concentration range. In 4 out of 6 species there was a tendency towards higher heavy metal contents in later crops, when calculated on the basis of ..mu..g/g of dry fruiting body. In 4 out of 6 more mercury than cadmium was translocated into the fruiting bodies, the Cd/Hg ratios being 6.6, 2.0, 5.6, and 3.2, respectively. In Pleurotus sajor caju the ratio was about 1. Only in Pleurotus flabellatus more cadmium than mercury was found in the fruiting bodies (Cd/Hg ratio 0.65).

  16. Long-distance translocations to create a second millerbird population and reduce extinction risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly Freifeld,; Sheldon Plentovich,; Chris Farmer,; Charles Kohley,; Peter Luscomb,; Work, Thierry M.; Daniel Tsukayama,; George Wallace,; Mark MacDonald,; Sheila Conant,

    2016-01-01

    Translocation is a conservation tool used with increasing frequency to create additional populations of threatened species. In addition to following established general guidelines for translocations, detailed planning to account for unique circumstances and intensive post-release monitoring to document outcomes and guide management are essential components of these projects. Recent translocation of the critically endangered Nihoa millerbird (Acrocephalus familiaris kingi) provides an example of this planning and monitoring. The Nihoa millerbird is a passerine bird endemic to Nihoa Island in the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. The closely related, ecologically similar Laysan millerbird (Acrocephalus familiaris familiaris) went extinct on Laysan Island in the early 20th century when the island was denuded by introduced rabbits. To reduce extinction risk, we translocated 50 adult Nihoa millerbirds more than 1000 km by sea to Laysan, which has recovered substantially in the past century and has ample habitat and a rich prey-base for millerbirds. Following five years of intensive background research and planning, including development of husbandry techniques, fundraising, and regulatory compliance, translocations occurred in 2011 and 2012. Of 11 females in each cohort, 8 (2011 cohort) and 11 (2012 cohort) produced at least one brood of fledglings during their first year on Laysan. At the conclusion of monitoring in September 2014, 37 of the translocated birds were known to survive, and the population was estimated at 164 birds. The reintroduction of millerbirds to Laysan represents a milestone in the island's ongoing restoration.

  17. Engineering protein folding and translocation improves heterologous protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hongting; Bao, Xiaoming; Shen, Yu; Song, Meihui; Wang, Shenghuan; Wang, Chengqiang; Hou, Jin

    2015-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used as a producer of heterologous proteins of medical and industrial interest. Numerous efforts have been made to overcome bottlenecks in protein expression and secretion. However, the effect of engineering protein translocation to heterologous protein secretion has not been studied extensively in S. cerevisiae. In this work, we confirmed that heterologous protein expression in S. cerevisiae induced the unfolded protein response (UPR). To enhance protein folding capacity, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein BiP and the disulfide isomerase Pdi1p were each over-expressed, and the secretion of three heterologous proteins, β-glucosidase, endoglucanase, and α-amylase, was improved. The impact of engineering key translocation components was also studied. The over-expression of co-translational translocation components Srp14p and Srp54p enhanced the secretion of three heterologous proteins (β-glucosidase, endoglucanase, and α-amylase), but over-expressing the cytosolic chaperone Ssa1p (involved in post-translational translocation) only enhanced the secretion of β-glucosidase. By engineering both co-translational translocation and protein folding, we obtained strains with β-glucosidase, endoglucanase, and α-amylase activities increased by 72%, 60%, and 103% compared to the controls. Our results show that protein translocation may be a limiting factor for heterologous protein production. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Synergistic effects of hypoglycaemic sulphonylureas and antibiotic ionophores upon calcium translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, E.; Malaisse, W. J.

    1980-01-01

    1 Hypoglycaemic sulphonylureas, such as tolbutamide and gliclazide, provoke the translocation of calcium from an aqueous medium into or across a hydrophobic region. The combined effect of sulphonylureas and antibiotic ionophores upon such a process was investigated. 2 The magnitude of the sulphonylurea-induced translocation of calcium was more marked in the presence than in the absence of A23187. Gliclazide and tolbutamide also enhanced, although less markedly, X537A-mediated calcium translocation. The effect of the sulphonylureas was even less marked in the presence of both ionophores, which acted synergistically in causing calcium translocation. 3 A non-hypoglycaemic sulphonylurea and diazoxide failed to affect ionophore-mediated calcium translocation. Gliclazide failed to enhance X537A-mediated sodium translocation. 4 It is proposed that the primary site of action of hypoglycaemic sulphonylureas upon calcium-dependent physiological processes may correspond to a drug-induced facilitation of calcium transport across the plasma membrane, as mediated by native ionophores. PMID:6781574

  19. Uptake and translocation of imidacloprid, clothianidin and flupyradifurone in seed-treated soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Mitchell D; Heng-Moss, Tiffany M; Baxendale, Frederick P; Siegfried, Blair D; Blankenship, Erin E; Nauen, Ralf

    2016-06-01

    Seed treatment insecticides have become a popular management option for early-season insect control. This study investigated the total uptake and translocation of seed-applied [(14) C]imidacloprid, [(14) C]clothianidin and [(14) C]flupyradifurone into different plant parts in three soybean vegetative stages (VC, V1 and V2). The effects of soil moisture stress on insecticide uptake and translocation were also assessed among treatments. We hypothesized that (1) uptake and translocation would be different among the insecticides owing to differences in water solubility, and (2) moisture stress would increase insecticide uptake and translocation. Uptake and translocation did not follow a clear trend in the three vegetative stages. Initially, flupyradifurone uptake was greater than clothianidin uptake in VC soybeans. In V1 soybeans, differences in uptake among the three insecticides were not apparent and unaffected by soil moisture stress. Clothianidin was negatively affected by soil moisture stress in V2 soybeans, while imidacloprid and flupyradifurone were unaffected. Specifically, soil moisture stress had a positive effect on the distribution of flupyradifurone in leaves. This was not observed with the neonicotinoids. This study enhances our understanding of the uptake and distribution of insecticides used as seed treatments in soybean. The uptake and translocation of these insecticides differed in response to soil moisture stress. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. The Semiflexible Polymer Translocation into Laterally Unbounded Region between Two Parallel Flat Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yong Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the dynamic Monte Carlo method, we investigate dynamics of semiflexible polymer translocation through a nanopore into laterally unbounded region between two parallel flat membranes with separation R in presence of an electric field inside the pore. The average translocation time τ initially decreases rapidly with increase of R in the range of R < 10 and then almost keeps constant for R ≥ 10, and the decline range increases with increase of dimensionless bending stiffness κ. We mainly study the effect of chain length N, κ and electric field strength E on the translocation process for R = 5. The translocation dynamics is significantly altered in comparison to an unconfined environment. We find τ ~ Nα, where the exponent α increases with increase of E for small κ. α initially increases slowly with increase of E and then keeps constant for moderate κ. α decreases with increase of E for large κ. However, α decreases with increase of κ under various E. In addition, we find τ ~ κβ. β decreases with increase of N under various E. These behaviors are interpreted in terms of the probability distribution of translocation time and the waiting time of an individual monomer segment passing through the pore during translocation.

  1. Cryptic genomic imbalances in patients with de novo or familial apparently balanced translocations and abnormal phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanavakis Emanuel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carriers of apparently balanced translocations are usually phenotypically normal; however in about 6% of de novo cases, an abnormal phenotype is present. In the current study we investigated 12 patients, six de novo and six familial, with apparently balanced translocations and mental retardation and/or congenital malformations by applying 1 Mb resolution array-CGH. In all de novo cases, only the patient was a carrier of the translocation and had abnormal phenotype. In five out of the six familial cases, the phenotype of the patient was abnormal, although the karyotype appeared identical to other phenotypically normal carriers of the family. In the sixth familial case, all carriers of the translocations had an abnormal phenotype. Results Chromosomal and FISH analyses suggested that the rearrangements were "truly balanced" in all patients. However, array-CGH, revealed cryptic imbalances in three cases (3/12, 25%, two de novo (2/12, 33.3% and one familial (1/12, 16.6%. The nature and type of abnormalities differed among the cases. In the first case, what was identified as a de novo t(9;15(q31;q26.1, a complex rearrangement was revealed involving a ~6.1 Mb duplication on the long arm of chromosome 9, an ~10 Mb deletion and an inversion both on the long arm of chromosome 15. These imbalances were located near the translocation breakpoints. In the second case of a de novo t(4;9(q25;q21.2, an ~6.6 Mb deletion was identified on the short arm of chromosome 7 which is unrelated to the translocation. In the third case, of a familial, t(4;7(q13.3;p15.3, two deletions of ~4.3 Mb and ~2.3 Mb were found, each at one of the two translocation breakpoints. In the remaining cases the translocations appeared balanced at 1 Mb resolution. Conclusion This study investigated both de novo and familial apparently balanced translocations unlike other relatively large studies which are mainly focused on de novo cases. This study provides additional

  2. Disease dynamics during wildlife translocations: disruptions to the host population and potential consequences for transmission in desert tortoise contact networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Christina M.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Walde, Andrew D.; Esque, Todd C.; Emblidge, Patrick G.; Sah, Pratha; Bansal, S.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife managers consider animal translocation a means of increasing the viability of a local population. However, augmentation may disrupt existing resident disease dynamics and initiate an outbreak that would effectively offset any advantages the translocation may have achieved. This paper examines fundamental concepts of disease ecology and identifies the conditions that will increase the likelihood of a disease outbreak following translocation. We highlight the importance of susceptibility to infection, population size and population connectivity – a characteristic likely affected by translocation but not often considered in risk assessments – in estimating outbreak risk due to translocation. We then explore these features in a species of conservation concern often translocated in the presence of infectious disease, the Mojave Desert tortoise, and use data from experimental tortoise translocations to detect changes in population connectivity that may influence pathogen transmission. Preliminary analyses comparing contact networks inferred from spatial data at control and translocation plots and infection simulation results through these networks suggest increased outbreak risk following translocation due to dispersal-driven changes in contact frequency and network structure. We outline future research goals to test these concepts and aid managers in designing effective risk assessment and intervention strategies that will improve translocation success.

  3. The translocated c-myc oncogene of Raji Burkitt lymphoma cells is not expressed in human lymphoblastoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikura, K; Erikson, J; ar-Rushdi, A; Huebner, K; Croce, C M

    1985-01-01

    We hybridized Raji Burkitt lymphoma cells, which carry a t(8;14) chromosome translocation, with human lymphoblastoid cells to study the expression of the translocated cellular myc oncogene (c-myc) in the hybrid cells. In Raji cells the c-myc oncogene is translocated to a switch region of the gamma heavy chain locus (S gamma). Because of sequence alterations in the 5' exon of the translocated c-myc oncogene in this cell line, it is possible to distinguish the transcripts of the translocated c-myc gene and of the normal c-myc gene. S1 nuclease protection experiments with a c-myc first exon probe indicate that Raji cells express predominantly the translocated c-myc gene, while the level of expression of the normal c-myc gene is less than 2% of that of the translocated c-myc gene. Somatic cell hybrids between Raji and human lymphoblastoid cells retain the lymphoblastoid phenotype and express only the normal c-myc oncogene. This result indicates that the activation of a c-myc oncogene translocated to a S region depends on the stage of B-cell differentiation of the cells harboring the translocated c-myc gene and not on alterations in the structure of the translocated c-myc oncogene. Images PMID:3857623

  4. Bim nuclear translocation and inactivation by viral interferon regulatory factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Bong Choi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Viral replication efficiency is in large part governed by the ability of viruses to counteract pro-apoptotic signals induced by infection of the host cell. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8 uses several strategies to block the host's innate antiviral defenses via interference with interferon and apoptotic signaling. Contributors include the four viral interferon regulatory factors (vIRFs 1-4, which function in dominant negative fashion to block cellular IRF activities in addition to targeting IRF signaling-induced proteins such as p53 and inhibiting other inducers of apoptosis such as TGFbeta receptor-activated Smad transcription factors. Here we identify direct targeting by vIRF-1 of BH3-only pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bim, a key negative regulator of HHV-8 replication, to effect its inactivation via nuclear translocation. vIRF-1-mediated relocalization of Bim was identified in transfected cells, by both immunofluorescence assay and western analysis of fractionated cell extracts. Also, co-localization of vIRF-1 and Bim was detected in nuclei of lytically infected endothelial cells. In vitro co-precipitation assays using purified vIRF-1 and Bim revealed direct interaction between the proteins, and Bim-binding residues of vIRF-1 were mapped by deletion and point mutagenesis. Generation and experimental utilization of Bim-refractory vIRF-1 variants revealed the importance of vIRF-1:Bim interaction, specifically, in pro-replication and anti-apoptotic activity of vIRF-1. Furthermore, blocking of the interaction with cell-permeable peptide corresponding to the Bim-binding region of vIRF-1 confirmed the relevance of vIRF-1:Bim association to vIRF-1 pro-replication activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an IRF protein that interacts with a Bcl-2 family member and of nuclear sequestration of Bim or any other member of the family as a means of inactivation. The data presented reveal a novel mechanism utilized by a virus to control

  5. A comparative study on the uptake and translocation of organochlorines by Phragmites australis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Miguel, Angélique; Ravanel, Patrick [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, UMR CNRS n°5553, Université Joseph Fourier, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Raveton, Muriel, E-mail: muriel.raveton@ujf-grenoble.fr [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, UMR CNRS n°5553, Université Joseph Fourier, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► This study compares uptake/translocation of organochlorine congeners in macrophytes. ► First, root OC uptake was strongly linked with the partitioning/diffusion process. ► With time exposure, bioconcentration increased with OC solubility and volatility. ► Translocation was linked to the combination of water flow and vapor flux transfers. ► The most volatile OCs might be phytovolatilized from foliar surfaces. -- Abstract: Organochlorines (OCs) are persistent chemicals found in various environmental compartments. The differences in the uptake of {sup 14}C-labeled 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB), 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γHCH) by Phragmites australis were investigated under hydroponic conditions. The first step in sorption appears to be correlated with the hydrophobic nature of the compounds, since log-linear correlations were obtained between root concentration factor and partition coefficient (LogK{sub ow}). After 7 days of exposure, plant uptake of DCB, TCB, γHCH was significant with bioconcentration factors reaching 14, 19 and 15, respectively. Afterwards, uptake and translocation were seen to be more complex, with a loss of the simple relationship between uptake and LogK{sub ow}. Linear correlations between the bioconcentration/translocation factors and the physico-chemical properties of OCs were shown, demonstrating that translocation from roots to shoots increases with solubility and volatility of the OCs. This suggests that OC-translocation inside plants might result from the combination of two processes, xylem sap flow and vapor fluxes. {sup 14}C-phytovolatilization was measured and was correlated with the volatility of the compounds; the more volatile OCs being most the likely to be phytovolatilized from foliar surfaces (p = 0.0008). Thus, OC-uptake/translocation appears to proceed at a rate that depends mostly on the OCs hydrophobicity, solubility and volatility.

  6. Driven polymer translocation in good and bad solvent: Effects of hydrodynamics and tension propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisio, J E; Piili, J; Linna, R P

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the driven polymer translocation through a nanometer-scale pore in the presence and absence of hydrodynamics both in good and bad solvent. We present our results on tension propagating along the polymer segment on the cis side that is measured for the first time using our method that works also in the presence of hydrodynamics. For simulations we use stochastic rotation dynamics, also called multiparticle collision dynamics. We find that in the good solvent the tension propagates very similarly whether hydrodynamics is included or not. Only the tensed segment is by a constant factor shorter in the presence of hydrodynamics. The shorter tensed segment and the hydrodynamic interactions contribute to a smaller friction for the translocating polymer when hydrodynamics is included, which shows as smaller waiting times and a smaller exponent in the scaling of the translocation time with the polymer length. In the bad solvent hydrodynamics has a minimal effect on polymer translocation, in contrast to the good solvent, where it speeds up translocation. We find that under bad-solvent conditions tension does not spread appreciably along the polymer. Consequently, translocation time does not scale with the polymer length. By measuring the effective friction in a setup where a polymer in free solvent is pulled by a constant force at the end, we find that hydrodynamics does speed up collective polymer motion in the bad solvent even more effectively than in the good solvent. However, hydrodynamics has a negligible effect on the motion of individual monomers within the highly correlated globular conformation on the cis side and hence on the entire driven translocation under bad-solvent conditions.

  7. Trigenomic chromosomes by recombination of Thinopyrum intermedium and Th. ponticum translocations in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Navarrete, L; Bariana, H S; Singh, R P; Gibson, J M; Mechanicos, A A; Larkin, P J

    2007-12-01

    Rusts and barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) are among the main diseases affecting wheat production world wide for which wild relatives have been the source of a number of translocations carrying resistance genes. Nevertheless, along with desirable traits, alien translocations often carry deleterious genes. We have generated recombinants in a bread wheat background between two alien translocations: TC5, ex-Thinopyrum (Th) intermedium, carrying BYDV resistance gene Bdv2; and T4m, ex-Th. ponticum, carrying rust resistance genes Lr19 and Sr25. Because both these translocations are on the wheat chromosome arm 7DL, homoeologous recombination was attempted in the double hemizygote (TC5/T4m) in a background homozygous for the ph1b mutation. The identification of recombinants was facilitated by the use of newly developed molecular markers for each of the alien genomes represented in the two translocations and by studying derived F(2), F(3) and doubled haploid populations. The occurrence of recombination was confirmed with molecular markers and bioassays on families of testcrosses between putative recombinants and bread wheat, and in F(2) populations derived from the testcrosses. As a consequence it has been possible to derive a genetic map of markers and resistance genes on these previously fixed alien linkage blocks. We have obtained fertile progeny carrying new tri-genomic recombinant chromosomes. Furthermore we have demonstrated that some of the recombinants carried resistance genes Lr19 and Bdv2 yet lacked the self-elimination trait associated with shortened T4 segments. We have also shown that the recombinant translocations are fixed and stable once removed from the influence of the ph1b. The molecular markers developed in this study will facilitate selection of individuals carrying recombinant Th. intermedium-Th. ponticum translocations (Pontin series) in breeding programs.

  8. PAK1 translocates into nucleus in response to prolactin but not to estrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oladimeji, Peter, E-mail: Peter.Oladimeji@rockets.utoledo.edu; Diakonova, Maria, E-mail: mdiakon@utnet.utoledo.edu

    2016-04-22

    Tyrosyl phosphorylation of the p21-activated serine–threonine kinase 1 (PAK1) has an essential role in regulating PAK1 functions in breast cancer cells. We previously demonstrated that PAK1 serves as a common node for estrogen (E2)- and prolactin (PRL)-dependent pathways. We hypothesize herein that intracellular localization of PAK1 is affected by PRL and E2 treatments differently. We demonstrate by immunocytochemical analysis that PAK1 nuclear translocation is ligand-dependent: only PRL but not E2 stimulated PAK1 nuclear translocation. Tyrosyl phosphorylation of PAK1 is essential for this nuclear translocation because phospho-tyrosyl-deficient PAK1 Y3F mutant is retained in the cytoplasm in response to PRL. We confirmed these data by Western blot analysis of subcellular fractions. In 30 min of PRL treatment, only 48% of pTyr-PAK1 is retained in the cytoplasm of PAK1 WT clone while 52% re-distributes into the nucleus and pTyr-PAK1 shuttles back to the cytoplasm by 60 min of PRL treatment. In contrast, PAK1 Y3F is retained in the cytoplasm. E2 treatment causes nuclear translocation of neither PAK1 WT nor PAK1 Y3F. Finally, we show by an in vitro kinase assay that PRL but not E2 stimulates PAK1 kinase activity in the nuclear fraction. Thus, PAK1 nuclear translocation is ligand-dependent: PRL activates PAK1 and induces translocation of activated pTyr-PAK1 into nucleus while E2 activates pTyr-PAK1 only in the cytoplasm. - Highlights: • Prolactin but not estrogen causes translocation of PAK1 into nucleus. • Tyrosyl phosphorylation of PAK1 is required for nuclear localization. • Prolactin but not estrogen stimulates PAK1 kinase activity in nucleus.

  9. Effects of different ligands on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nuclear translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Jerusa A.Q.A.; Andrade, Carolina de; Goes, Alfredo M. [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil); Rodrigues, Michele A. [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil); Department of General Pathology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil); Gomes, Dawidson A., E-mail: dawidson@ufmg.br [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil)

    2016-09-09

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated through binding to specific ligands and generates signals for proliferation, differentiation, migration, and cell survival. Recent data show the role of nuclear EGFR in tumors. Although many EGFR ligands are upregulated in cancers, little is known about their effects on EGFR nuclear translocation. We have compared the effects of six EGFR ligands (EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α, β-Cellulin, amphiregulin, and epiregulin) on nuclear translocation of EGFR, receptor phosphorylation, migration, and proliferation. Cell fractionation and confocal immunofluorescence detected EGFR in the nucleus after EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, amphiregulin and epiregulin did not generate nuclear translocation of EGFR. EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin showed correlations between a higher rate of wound closure and increased phosphorylation of residues in the carboxy-terminus of EGFR, compared to amphiregulin and epiregulin. The data indicate that EGFR is translocated to the nucleus after stimulation with EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin, and that these ligands are related to increased phosphorylation of EGFR tyrosine residues, inducing migration of SkHep-1 cells. - Highlights: • EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α, β-Cellulin are involved in the EGFR nuclear translocation. • Amphiregulin and epiregulin did not promote nuclear translocation of EGFR. • EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin have a role in SkHep-1 cells migration. • EGFR ligands associated with better prognosis don't stimulate EGFR translocation.

  10. Clostridium difficile toxins A and B: Receptors, pores, and translocation into cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrell, Kathleen E; Zhang, Zhifen; Sugiman-Marangos, Seiji N; Melnyk, Roman A

    2017-08-01

    The most potent toxins secreted by pathogenic bacteria contain enzymatic moieties that must reach the cytosol of target cells to exert their full toxicity. Toxins such as anthrax, diphtheria, and botulinum toxin all use three well-defined functional domains to intoxicate cells: a receptor-binding moiety that triggers endocytosis into acidified vesicles by binding to a specific host-cell receptor, a translocation domain that forms pores across the endosomal membrane in response to acidic pH, and an enzyme that translocates through these pores to catalytically inactivate an essential host cytosolic substrate. The homologous toxins A (TcdA) and Toxin B (TcdB) secreted by Clostridium difficile are large enzyme-containing toxins that for many years have eluded characterization. The cell-surface receptors for these toxins, the non-classical nature of the pores that they form in membranes, and mechanism of translocation have remained undefined, exacerbated, in part, by the lack of any structural information for the central ∼1000 amino acid translocation domain. Recent advances in the identification of receptors for TcdB, high-resolution structural information for the translocation domain, and a model for the pore have begun to shed light on the mode-of-action of these toxins. Here, we will review TcdA/TcdB uptake and entry into mammalian cells, with focus on receptor binding, endocytosis, pore formation, and translocation. We will highlight how these toxins diverge from classical models of translocating toxins, and offer our perspective on key unanswered questions for TcdA/TcdB binding and entry into mammalian cells.

  11. A β-Lactamase based reporter system for ESX dependent protein translocation in mycobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Rosenberger

    Full Text Available Protein secretion is essential for all bacteria in order to interact with their environment. Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends on protein secretion to subvert host immune response mechanisms. Both the general secretion system (Sec and the twin-arginine translocation system (Tat are functional in mycobacteria. Furthermore, a novel type of protein translocation system named ESX has been identified. In the genome of M. tuberculosis five paralogous ESX regions (ESX-1 to ESX-5 have been found. Several components of the ESX translocation apparatus have been identified over the last ten years. The ESX regions are composed of a basic set of genes for the translocation machinery and the main substrate - a heterodimer. The best studied of these heterodimers is EsxA (ESAT-6/EsxB (CFP-10, which has been shown to be exported by ESX-1. EsxA/B is heavily involved in virulence of M. tuberculosis. EsxG/H is exported by ESX-3 and seems to be involved in an essential iron-uptake mechanism in M. tuberculosis. These findings make ESX-3 components high profile drug targets. Until now, reporter systems for determination of ESX protein translocation have not been developed. In order to create such a reporter system, a truncated β-lactamase ('bla TEM-1 was fused to the N-terminus of EsxB, EsxG and EsxU, respectively. These constructs have then been tested in a β-lactamase (BlaS deletion strain of Mycobacterium smegmatis. M. smegmatis ΔblaS is highly susceptible to ampicillin. An ampicillin resistant phenotype was conferred by translocation of Bla TEM-1-Esx fusion proteins into the periplasm. BlaTEM-1-Esx fusion proteins were not found in the culture filtrate suggesting that plasma membrane translocation and outer membrane translocation are two distinct steps in ESX secretion. Thus we have developed a powerful tool to dissect the molecular mechanisms of ESX dependent protein translocation and to screen for novel components of the ESX systems on a large scale.

  12. All-Atom Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Protein Translocation through an α-Hemolysin Nanopore

    KAUST Repository

    Di Marino, Daniele

    2015-08-06

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Nanopore sensing is attracting the attention of a large and varied scientific community. One of the main issues in nanopore sensing is how to associate the measured current signals to specific features of the molecule under investigation. This is particularly relevant when the translocating molecule is a protein and the pore is sufficiently narrow to necessarily involve unfolding of the translocating protein. Recent experimental results characterized the cotranslocational unfolding of Thioredoxin (Trx) passing through an α-hemolisin pore, providing evidence for the existence of a multistep process. In this study we report the results of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the same system. Our data indicate that Trx translocation involves two main barriers. The first one is an unfolding barrier associated with a translocation intermediate where the N-terminal region of Trx is stuck at the pore entrance in a conformation that strongly resembles the native one. After the abrupt unfolding of the N-terminal region, the Trx enters the α-hemolisin vestibule. During this stage, the constriction is occupied not only by the translocating residue but also by a hairpin-like structure forming a tangle in the constriction. The second barrier is associated with the disentangling of this region.

  13. Biphasic and directed translocation of protein kinase Cα inside cultured endothelial cells before migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Arai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical wounding of an endothelial monolayer induces an immediate Ca2+ wave. Several hours later, the denuded area is covered by endothelial cells (ECs that migrate to the wound. This migration process is closely related to protein kinase Cα (PKCα, a Ca2+-dependent protein that translocates from the cytosol to the cell membrane. Because the cells adjacent to the wounded area are the first to migrate into the wound, we investigated whether a mechanical wound immediately induces PKCα translocation in adjacent cells. We monitored Ca2+ dynamics and PKCα translocation simultaneously using fluorescent microscopy. For this simultaneous observation, we used Fura-2–acetoxymethyl ester to visualize Ca2+ and constructed a green fluorescent protein-tagged fusion protein to visualize PKCα. Mechanical wounding of the endothelial monolayer induced an immediate Ca2+ wave in cells adjacent to the wounded cells before their migration. Almost concurrently, PKCα in the neighboring cells translocated to the cell membrane, then accumulated at the periphery near the wounded cell. This report is the first description of this biphasic and directed translocation of PKCα in cells before cell migration. Our results may provide new insights into the directed migration of ECs.

  14. Ganglioside inhibition of glutamate-mediated protein kinase C translocation in primary cultures of cerebellar neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaccarino, F.; Guidotti, A.; Costa, E.

    1987-12-01

    In primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells, protein kinase C (PKC) translocation and activation can be triggered by the stimulation of excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter receptors. Glutamate evokes a dose-related translocation of 4-..beta..-(/sup 3/H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate /(/sup 3/H)-P(BtO)/sub 2// binding sites from the cytosol to the neuronal membrane and stimulates the incorporation of /sup 32/P into a number of membrane proteins, particularly protein bands in the range of 80, 50, and 40 kDa. The glutamate-evoked PKC translocation is Mg/sup 2 +/ sensitive, is prevented by 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate and phencyclidine, is not inhibited by nitrendipine (a voltage-dependent Ca/sup 2 +/-channel-blocker) but is abolished by the removal of Ca/sup 2 +/ from the incubation medium, suggesting that glutamate-mediated Ca/sup 2 +/ influx is operative in the redistribution of PKC. Exposure of granule cells to the gangliosides trisialosylgangliotetraglycosylceramide (GT1b) of monosialosylgangliotetraglycosylceramide (GM1) inhibits the translocation and activation of PKC evoked by glutamate. These glycosphingolipids fail to interfere with glutamate binding to its high-affinity recognition site of with the (/sup 3/H)P(BtO)/sub 2/ binding, nor do they affect the Ca/sup 2 +/ influx. These gangliosides may prevent PKC translocation by interfering with the PKC binding to the neuronal membrane phosphatidylserine.

  15. Chromosome translocation activates heterogeneously initiated, bipolar transcription of a mouse c-myc gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabi, F; Neuberger, M S

    1985-01-01

    In many mouse plasmacytomas, the active c-myc gene has been truncated by chromosome translocation with the resultant severance of the protein-coding sequence from the normal promoter. Transcripts of such truncated c-myc genes were analyzed by Northern blotting, nuclease S1 mapping, primer extension assays and cDNA cloning. We conclude that transcription originates from multiple initiation sites on both c-myc coding and non-coding strands with the two-sets of transcripts derived from adjacent but essentially non-overlapping regions located greater than 1 kb from the translocation junction. In X63Ag8, where c-myc is translocated to the immunoglobulin C gamma 2b gene, the c-myc non-coding strand transcripts include the translocation junction and then splice directly into the gamma 2b CH1 exon. We propose that chromosome translocation activates a cryptic promoter in the first intron and that the heterogeneously initiated, bipolar transcription reflects the absence of a suitably placed TATA box element. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3924591

  16. Specific chromosomal IG translocations have different prognoses in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Khac, Florence; Chapiro, Elise; Lesty, Claude; Grelier, Aurore; Luquet, Isabelle; Radford-Weiss, Isabelle; Lefebvre, Christine; Fert-Ferrer, Sandra; Callet-Bauchu, Evelyne; Lippert, Eric; Raggueneau, Victoria; Michaux, Lucienne; Barin, Carole; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnes; Mugneret, Francine; Eclache, Virginie; Taviaux, Sylvie; Dastugue, Nicole; Richebourg, Steven; Struski, Stéphanie; Talmant, Pascaline; Baranger, Laurence; Gachard, Nathalie; Gervais, Carine; Quilichini, Benoit; Settegrana, Catherine; Maloum, Karim; Davi, Frederic; Merle-Béral, Hélène

    2011-01-01

    Background Chromosomal translocations are usually analyzed as a single entity, and are associated with a poor outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Translocations involving immunoglobulin genes are recurrent, but uncommon (published series of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with t(14;19) (BCL3-CLLs, n=29). Results Compared with BCL3-CLLs, lymphocytosis was lower in BCL2-CLLs (p4 (p<0.001) in the BCL2-CLLs group, and less CD38 expression (p<0.04). More variant BCL2-translocations were observed (t(18;22), n=11; 2t(2;18), n=2; p<0.02), and BCL2-translocation was frequently single (p<0.002). Complex karyotypes (p<0.02), trisomy 12 (p<0.03), 6q deletion (p<0.002) and TP53 deletion (p<0.02) were less frequent in BCL2-CLLs, whereas 13q deletion was more frequent (p<0.005). The IGHV gene was frequently mutated in BCL2-CLLs (p<0.0001). Treatment-free survival was longer in BCL2-CLLs (p<0.0001). Conclusions BCL2-CLL.S express CD5 and lack expression of CD38, and have a Matutes score ≥4, frequent trisomy 12, no ATM and 6q deletions, and a mutated IGHV status. Compared to BCL3-CLLs, BCL2-CLLs are much less aggressive; indicating that identifying individual translocations and cytogenetic partners would allow improved patient stratification. PMID:22432063

  17. RNA/DNA hybrid binding affinity determines telomerase template-translocation efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaodong; Xie, Mingyi; Brown, Andrew F; Bley, Christopher J; Podlevsky, Joshua D; Chen, Julian J-L

    2012-01-01

    Telomerase synthesizes telomeric DNA repeats onto chromosome termini from an intrinsic RNA template. The processive synthesis of DNA repeats relies on a unique, yet poorly understood, mechanism whereby the telomerase RNA template translocates and realigns with the DNA primer after synthesizing each repeat. Here, we provide evidence that binding of the realigned RNA/DNA hybrid by the active site is an essential step for template translocation. Employing a template-free human telomerase system, we demonstrate that the telomerase active site directly binds to RNA/DNA hybrid substrates for DNA polymerization. In telomerase processivity mutants, the template-translocation efficiency correlates with the affinity for the RNA/DNA hybrid substrate. Furthermore, the active site is unoccupied during template translocation as a 5 bp extrinsic RNA/DNA hybrid effectively reduces the processivity of the template-containing telomerase. This suggests that strand separation and template realignment occur outside the active site, preceding the binding of realigned hybrid to the active site. Our results provide new insights into the ancient RNA/DNA hybrid binding ability of telomerase and its role in template translocation. PMID:21989387

  18. Translocation of {sup 99m}Tc labelled bacteria after intestinal ischemia and reperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joao, Samir Assi; Alencar, Suelene Suassuna Silvestre de [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Nucleo de Cirurgia Experimental]. E-mail: aldo@ufrnet.br; Diniz, Simone Otilia Fernandes; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Lab. de Radioisotopo; Brandt, Carlos Teixeira [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia

    2004-08-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion of the small intestine disrupts gut barrier, causes bacterial translocation and activates inflammatory responses. An experimental study was planned to evaluate if {sup 99m}Tc labelled Escherichia coli translocates to mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen, lung and serum of rats submitted to mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion. Additionally, it was observed if the time of reperfusion influences the level of translocation. Forty male Wistar rats underwent 45 minutes of gut ischemia by occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery. The translocation of labelled bacteria to different organs and portal serum was determined in rats reperfused for 30 minutes, 24 hours, sham(S) and controls(C), using radioactivity count and colony forming units/g (CFU). All the organs from rats observed for 24 hours after reperfusion had higher levels of radioactivity and positive cultures (CFU) than did the organs of rats reperfused for 30 minutes, C and S, except in the spleen (p<0,01). The results of this study indicated that intestinal ischemia/reperfusion led to bacterial translocation, mostly after 24 hours of reperfusion. (author)

  19. The c-myc oncogene is translocated to the involved chromosome 12 in mouse plasmacytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, J; Miller, D A; Miller, O J; Abcarian, P W; Skurla, R M; Mushinski, J F; Croce, C M

    1985-01-01

    Although it is known that the c-myc oncogene is rearranged in a head-to-head fashion with the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus in mouse plasmacytomas, it has not been clear whether the c-myc oncogene is translocated to the heavy chain locus on mouse chromosome 12 or whether the heavy chain locus is translocated to the c-myc locus on mouse chromosome 15. To determine which of these two possibilities is correct, we hybridized Chinese hamster fibroblasts with J558 mouse plasmacytoma cells that carry a reciprocal chromosome translocation between chromosomes 12 and 15, and we examined the segregating hybrids for the presence of the normal and rearranged mouse c-myc genes, for the presence of different regions of the mouse heavy chain locus, and for the presence of genes located on mouse chromosomes 12 and 15. The results of this analysis indicate that, as in human Burkitt lymphomas with the 8;14 chromosome translocation, the c-myc gene is translocated to the heavy chain locus in mouse plasmacytomas. Thus the orientation of the heavy chain locus on mouse chromosome 12 and of the c-myc gene on mouse chromosome 15 is the same as the orientation of the homologous loci in man. Images PMID:3923490

  20. A recurrent translocation is mediated by homologous recombination between HERV-H elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermetz Karen E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosome rearrangements are caused by many mutational mechanisms; of these, recurrent rearrangements can be particularly informative for teasing apart DNA sequence-specific factors. Some recurrent translocations are mediated by homologous recombination between large blocks of segmental duplications on different chromosomes. Here we describe a recurrent unbalanced translocation casued by recombination between shorter homologous regions on chromosomes 4 and 18 in two unrelated children with intellectual disability. Results Array CGH resolved the breakpoints of the 6.97-Megabase (Mb loss of 18q and the 7.30-Mb gain of 4q. Sequencing across the translocation breakpoints revealed that both translocations occurred between 92%-identical human endogenous retrovirus (HERV elements in the same orientation on chromosomes 4 and 18. In addition, we find sequence variation in the chromosome 4 HERV that makes one allele more like the chromosome 18 HERV. Conclusions Homologous recombination between HERVs on the same chromosome is known to cause chromosome deletions, but this is the first report of interchromosomal HERV-HERV recombination leading to a translocation. It is possible that normal sequence variation in substrates of non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR affects the alignment of recombining segments and influences the propensity to chromosome rearrangement.

  1. Pyruvate Formate-Lyase Interacts Directly with the Formate Channel FocA to Regulate Formate Translocation

    OpenAIRE

    Doberenz, Claudia; Zorn, Michael; Falke, Dörte; Nannemann, David; Hunger, Doreen; Beyer, Lydia; Christian H Ihling; Meiler, Jens; Sinz, Andrea; Sawers, R. Gary

    2014-01-01

    The FNT (formate-nitrite transporters) form a superfamily of pentameric membrane channels that translocate monovalent anions across biological membranes. FocA (formate channel A) translocates formate bidirectionally but the mechanism underlying how translocation of formate is controlled and what governs substrate specificity remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that the normally soluble dimeric enzyme pyruvate formate-lyase (PflB), which is responsible for intracellular formate generation in ...

  2. A cohort of balanced reciprocal translocations associated with dyslexia: identification of two putative candidate genes at DYX1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buonincontri, Roberta; Bache, Iben; Silahtaroglu, Asli

    2011-01-01

    Dyslexia is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders where likely many genes are involved in the pathogenesis. So far six candidate dyslexia genes have been proposed, and two of these were identified by rare chromosomal translocations in affected individuals. By systematic re......-examination of all translocation carriers in Denmark, we have identified 16 different translocations associated with dyslexia. In four families, where the translocation co-segregated with the phenotype, one of the breakpoints concurred (at the cytogenetic level) with either a known dyslexia linkage region--at 15q21...

  3. Uptake, translocation, and control of trumpet flower (Tecoma stans) with aminocyclopyrachlor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Fabrícia Cristina Dos; Tornisielo, Valdemar Luis; Cason, João Batista; Dias, Ana Carolina Ribeiro; Freitas, Melissa; Sotomayor, Jaime Felipe; Barroso, Arthur A M; Victória Filho, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the physiology of the herbicide aminocyclopyrachlor in young plants of trumpet flower, the uptake and translocation were evaluated after the application of herbicide. This was determined by treating individual leaves with formulated herbicides plus (14)C-aminocyclopyrachlor after the application of the formulated herbicide. This experiment used a randomized experimental design with three replications. In addition, field studies were conducted to assess the effectiveness of foliar applications of aminocyclopyrachlor in association with metsulfuton-methyl. The plant absorbed 20% of the herbicide applied. The translocation percentage did not surpass 5% of the total amount applied. Only 1% of the herbicide applied was translocated to the roots. Rate of 40 + 13 g a.i. 100 L(-1) of aminocyclopyrachlor+metsulfuron-methyl was effective to control T. stans.

  4. Influence of nitrogen supply on uptake and translocation of strontium and calcium in wheat seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. J.; Jackson, W. A.

    1971-01-01

    Supplying nitrate to N-depleted wheat seedlings (Triticum vulgare cv. Knox) stimulated the uptake and translocation of both 83Sr and 45Ca. Since the increase in 45Ca accumulation was greater, the 85Sr/45Ca ratio in the plant tissue was decreased. Nitrate had relatively little influence...... on the amount of the divalent cations and 85Sr/45Ca ratio in the exchangeable fraction on the root surfaces, whereas it greatly increased the uptake into root tissue and translocation to shoots. The increase in percent transported to shoots occurred largely in the period of most rapid nitrate uptake. A split...... root study indicated that nitrate was ineffective when it was supplied to a different portion of the root system than that exposed to 85Sr and 45Ca. Nevertheless, ammonium and urea also increased the translocation of the two cations, indicating that the effects of nitrate could not entirely be ascribed...

  5. Prenatal diagnosis of two different unbalanced forms of an inherited (Y;12) translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mademont-Soler, Irene; Morales, Carme; Madrigal, Irene; Margarit, Ester; Bruguera, Jordi; Clusellas, Núria; Martínez, José M; Borrell, Antoni; Sánchez, Aurora; Soler, Anna

    2009-12-01

    The identification of an unexpected structural chromosome rearrangement at prenatal diagnosis can be problematic and raises unique genetic counseling issues. We describe two consecutive prenatal cases within a family with an inherited unbalanced (Y;12) translocation and discuss the genotype-phenotype correlation. The first fetus presented with 12qter monosomy and pseudoautosomal region 2 trisomy, while the second fetus had the alternative unbalanced state. Although the first fetus had a structural heart defect, such small imbalances might not give sonographic findings, making their prenatal diagnosis difficult. However, congenital abnormalities are expected in both unbalanced forms of the translocation, including mental retardation, which could be explained by the gene dosage variation of P2RX2. To our knowledge, these are the first published cases reporting this subtype of (Y;12) translocation, in both balanced and unbalanced states.

  6. [Nutrient content in litterfall and its translocation in plantation forests in south China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Lin, Y; Peng, S

    2000-06-01

    The amounts of litterfall, nutrient content in it and leaves of five plantation forests in south China were determined. The order of litterfall biomass was in sequence of Acacia mangium (11.1 t.hm-2) > Pinus elliotii (7.3 t.hm-2) > Schima superba (6.5 t.hm-2) > Acacia auriculaiformis (4.8 t.hm-2) > Eucalyptus citriodora (2.6 t.hm-2). A. mangium returned soil much more nutrient to soil through litterfall than other forests did. N, P and K were largely translocated from senescing leaves for all the five forests, and especially for A. mangium. Nutrient translocated varied greatly with seasons. The translocation of other elements was not definite.

  7. A new translocation between chromosomes 6 and 9 helps to establish diagnosis of renal oncocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudacko, Rachel; May, Michael; Aviv, Hana

    2011-08-01

    Renal oncocytomas are benign epithelial tumors of the kidney. Histologically, they resemble certain malignant renal tumors, such as chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and the eosinophilic or granular form of clear cell renal carcinoma. It is, therefore, important to be able to differentiate among these tumors. Cytogenetic analysis is an important adjunct to the diagnosis of renal tumors, as the various subtypes have specific acquired chromosome abnormalities. Oncocytomas present either with loss of chromosome 1 and a sex chromosome, or with recurring translocations involving chromosome 11. We describe 2 patients with renal oncocytoma and a new translocation between chromosomes 6 and 9. The tumors in both patients were histologically virtually identical. The t(6;9)(p21;p23) may be a new translocation associated with renal oncocytomas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A cryptic translocation leading to NUP98-PHF23 fusion in AML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yi

    2016-12-01

    Chromosome translocations leading to gene fusions have emerged as important oncogenic drivers of various types of malignancies. Detection and characterization of these fusion genes not only help diagnosis and management of specific malignancies, but also contribute to our understanding of the genetic basis and pathogenesis of these diseases. NUP98 gene encodes a 98 kDa nucleoporin, which is a component of the nuclear pore complex that mediates transport of mRNA and proteins between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Due to its participation in translocations leading to the formation of fusion with at least 29 different partner genes, NUP98 is considered one of the most promiscuous fusion genes in hematologic malignancies. We discuss our identification and characterization of a NUP98-PHF23 fusion from a cryptic translocation in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibition of protein translocation at the endoplasmic reticulum promotes activation of the unfolded protein response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbin, Craig; Mares, Alina; Piacenti, Michela; Williams, Helen; Roboti, Peristera; Puumalainen, Marjo; Callan, Anna C; Lesiak-Mieczkowska, Karolina; Linder, Stig; Harant, Hanna; High, Stephen; Flitsch, Sabine L; Whitehead, Roger C; Swanton, Eileithyia

    2012-03-15

    Selective small-molecule inhibitors represent powerful tools for the dissection of complex biological processes. ES(I) (eeyarestatin I) is a novel modulator of ER (endoplasmic reticulum) function. In the present study, we show that in addition to acutely inhibiting ERAD (ER-associated degradation), ES(I) causes production of mislocalized polypeptides that are ubiquitinated and degraded. Unexpectedly, our results suggest that these non-translocated polypeptides promote activation of the UPR (unfolded protein response), and indeed we can recapitulate UPR activation with an alternative and quite distinct inhibitor of ER translocation. These results suggest that the accumulation of non-translocated proteins in the cytosol may represent a novel mechanism that contributes to UPR activation.

  10. Bax translocation into mitochondria during dihydroartemisinin(DHA)-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying-ying; Chen, Tong-sheng; Qu, Jun-Le

    2009-02-01

    Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin, isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Artemisia annua, has been shown to possess promising anticancer activities and induce cancer cell death through apoptotic pathways. However, the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. This study was investigated in human lung adenocarconoma ASTC-a-1 cell line and aimed to determine whether the apoptotic process was mediated by Bax activation and translocation during DHA-induced apoptosis. In this study, DHA induced a time-dependent apoptotic cell death, which was assayed by Cell Counting Kit (CCK-8) and Hoechst 33258 staining. Detection of Bax aggregation and translocation to mitochondria was observed in living cells which were co-transfected with GFP-Bax and Dsred-mito plasmid using confocal fluorescence microscope technique. Overall, these results demonstrated that Bax activation and translocation to mitochondria occurred during DHA-induced apoptosis.

  11. The effect of using a "soft" release on translocation success of red-cockaded woodpeckers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2004-12-31

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E. 2004 The effect of using a "soft" release on translocation success of red-cockaded woodpeckers. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 6. Translocation. Pp 301-306. Abstract: Translocations of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker have been conducted since 1986 to enhance critically small subpopulations, to minimize the likelihood of local extirpations, and to reduce the adverse effects of fragmentation and isolation among existing populations. Such attempts have had mixed success. This article compares "hard" releases with a "soft" release technique where the birds are temporarily interned in a large aviary at the release point for a period of 9 to 14 days.

  12. c-Met must translocate to the nucleus to initiate calcium signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Dawidson A; Rodrigues, Michele A; Leite, M Fatima; Gomez, Marcus V; Varnai, Peter; Balla, Tamas; Bennett, Anton M; Nathanson, Michael H

    2008-02-15

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is important for cell proliferation, differentiation, and related activities. HGF acts through its receptor c-Met, which activates downstream signaling pathways. HGF binds to c-Met at the plasma membrane, where it is generally believed that c-Met signaling is initiated. Here we report that c-Met rapidly translocates to the nucleus upon stimulation with HGF. Ca(2+) signals that are induced by HGF result from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation within the nucleus rather than within the cytoplasm. Translocation of c-Met to the nucleus depends upon the adaptor protein Gab1 and importin beta1, and formation of Ca(2+) signals in turn depends upon this translocation. HGF may exert its particular effects on cells because it bypasses signaling pathways in the cytoplasm to directly activate signaling pathways in the nucleus.

  13. Molecular signals regulating translocation and toxicity of graphene oxide in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiuli; Zhao, Yunli; Li, Yiping; Wang, Dayong

    2014-09-01

    Both in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the toxic effects of graphene oxide (GO). However, the molecular basis for the translocation and toxicity of GO is still largely unclear. In the present study, we employed an in vivo Caenorhabditis elegans assay system to identify molecular signals involved in the control of the translocation and toxicity of GO. We identified 7 genes whose mutations altered both the translocation and toxicity of GO. Mutations of the hsp-16.48, gas-1, sod-2, sod-3, and aak-2 genes caused greater GO translocation into the body and toxic effects on both primary and secondary targeted organs compared with wild type; however, mutations of the isp-1 and clk-1 genes resulted in significantly decreased GO translocation into the body and toxicity on both primary and secondary targeted organs compared with wild-type. Moreover, mutations of the hsp-16.48, gas-1, sod-2, sod-3, and aak-2 genes caused increased intestinal permeability and prolonged mean defecation cycle length in GO-exposed nematodes, whereas mutations of the isp-1 and clk-1 genes resulted in decreased intestinal permeability in GO-exposed nematodes. Therefore, for the underlying mechanism, we hypothesize that both intestinal permeability and defecation behavior may have crucial roles in controlling the functions of the identified molecular signals. The molecular signals may further contribute to the control of transgenerational toxic effects of GO. Our results provide an important insight into understanding the molecular basis for the in vivo translocation and toxicity of GO.Both in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the toxic effects of graphene oxide (GO). However, the molecular basis for the translocation and toxicity of GO is still largely unclear. In the present study, we employed an in vivo Caenorhabditis elegans assay system to identify molecular signals involved in the control of the translocation and toxicity of GO. We identified 7 genes whose mutations

  14. Assessment of an in vitro model of pulmonary barrier to study the translocation of nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Dekali

    2014-01-01

    The use of Calu-3 cells allowed high transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER values (>1000 Ω cm2 in co-cultures with or without macrophages. After 24 h of exposure to non-cytotoxic concentrations of non-functionalized PS nanobeads, the relative TEER values (%/t0 were significantly decreased in co-cultures. Epithelial cells and macrophages were able to internalize PS nanobeads. Regarding translocation, Transwell® membranes per se limit the passage of nanoparticles between apical and basal side. However, small non-functionalized PS nanobeads (51 nm were able to translocate as they were detected in the basal side of co-cultures. Altogether, these results show that this co-culture model present good barrier properties allowing the study of nanoparticle translocation but research effort need to be done to improve the neutrality of the porous membrane delimitating apical and basal sides of the model.

  15. Translocation frequency of double-stranded DNA through a solid-state nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nicholas A. W.; Muthukumar, Murugappan; Keyser, Ulrich F.

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state nanopores are single-molecule sensors that measure changes in ionic current as charged polymers such as DNA pass through. Here, we present comprehensive experiments on the length, voltage, and salt dependence of the frequency of double-stranded DNA translocations through conical quartz nanopores with mean opening diameter 15 nm. We observe an entropic barrier-limited, length-dependent translocation frequency at 4M LiCl salt concentration and a drift-dominated, length-independent translocation frequency at 1M KCl salt concentration. These observations are described by a unifying convection-diffusion equation, which includes the contribution of an entropic barrier for polymer entry. PMID:26986356

  16. WARBURG EFFECT AND TRANSLOCATION-INDUCED GENOMIC INSTABILITY: TWO YEAST MODELS FOR CANCER CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eTosato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeast has been established as an efficient model system to study biological principles underpinning human health. In this review we focus on yeast models covering two aspects of cancer formation and progression i the activity of pyruvate kinase (PK, which recapitulates metabolic features of cancer cells, including the Warburg effect, and ii Bridge-Induced chromosome Translocation (BIT mimicking genome instability in cancer. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model to study cancer cell metabolism, as exponentially growing yeast cells exhibit many metabolic similarities with rapidly proliferating cancer cells. The metabolic reconfiguration includes an increase in glucose uptake and fermentation, at the expense of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation (the Warburg effect, and involves a broad reconfiguration of nucleotide and amino acid metabolism. Both in yeast and humans, the regulation of this process seems to have a central player, pyruvate kinase, which is up-regulated in cancer, and to occur mostly on a post-transcriptional and posttranslational basis. Furthermore, BIT allows to generate selectable translocation-derived recombinants (translocants, between any two desired chromosomal locations, in wild-type yeast strains transformed with a linear DNA cassette carrying a selectable marker flanked by two DNA sequences homologous to different chromosomes. Using the Bridge-Induced Translocation system, targeted non-reciprocal translocations in mitosis are easily inducible. An extensive collection of different yeast translocants exhibiting genome instability and aberrant phenotypes similar to cancer cells has been produced and subjected to analysis. In this review, we hence provide an overview upon two yeast cancer models, and extrapolate general principles for mimicking human disease mechanisms in yeast.

  17. Chromosomal Translocations in Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae-Facilitators of Adaptive Radiation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H Adler

    Full Text Available A macrogenomic investigation of a Holarctic clade of black flies-the Simulium cholodkovskii lineage-provided a platform to explore the implications of a unique, synapomorphic whole-arm interchange in the evolution of black flies. Nearly 60 structural rearrangements were discovered in the polytene complement of the lineage, including 15 common to all 138 analyzed individuals, relative to the central sequence for the entire subgenus Simulium. Three species were represented, of which two Palearctic entities (Simulium cholodkovskii and S. decimatum were sympatric; an absence of hybrids confirmed their reproductive isolation. A third (Nearctic entity had nonhomologous sex chromosomes, relative to the other species, and is considered a separate species, for which the name Simulium nigricoxum is revalidated. A cytophylogeny is inferred and indicates that the two Palearctic taxa are sister species and these, in turn, are the sister group of the Nearctic species. The rise of the S. cholodkovskii lineage encompassed complex chromosomal and genomic restructuring phenomena associated with speciation in black flies, viz. expression of one and the same rearrangement as polymorphic, fixed, or sex linked in different species; taxon-specific differentiation of sex chromosomes; and reciprocal translocation of chromosome arms. The translocation is hypothesized to have occurred early in male spermatogonia, with the translocated chromosomal complement being transmitted to the X- and Y-bearing sperm during spermatogenesis, resulting in alternate disjunction of viable F1 translocation heterozygotes and the eventual formation of more viable and selectable F2 translocation homozygous progeny. Of 11 or 12 independently derived whole-arm interchanges known in the family Simuliidae, at least six are associated with subsequent speciation events, suggesting a facilitating role of translocations in adaptive radiations. The findings are discussed in the context of potential

  18. Role of intestinal bacterial overgrowth and intestinal motility in bacterial translocation in experimental cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, E; Casafont, F; Guerra, A; de Benito, I; Pons-Romero, F

    2005-11-01

    Intestinal bacterial overgrowth (IBO) is related to small bowel motility and has been involved in the pathogenesis of bacterial translocation (BT) in experimental models, and both overgrowing gut flora and translocating bacteria to mesenteric lymph nodes are common features in cirrhosis. The aims of this study were to analyze cecal aerobic bacteria and intestinal transit in cirrhotic rats, and their relationship with BT, evaluating the role of intestinal bacterial overgrowth and small bowel dismotility in the development of BT in experimental cirrhosis. We included twenty-seven male Sprague-Dawley rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis without ascites and ten controls. Cultures of mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), peripheral and portal blood, liver, spleen and cecal samples were carried out. Small intestinal transit was determined in ten cirrhotic rats and in ten control rats. The prevalence of bacterial translocation was 56%. Total cecal aerobic bacteria count was significantly higher in cirrhotic rats than in control rats (p < 0.001). Cirrhotic rats with translocated bacteria had higher total aerobic intestinal counts than culture-negative MLN bacteria (p < 0.05). The prevalence of total intestinal bacterial overgrowth in cirrhotic animals was 67%, and 0% in control animals (p < 0.001). According to BT, total IBO was more frequent in cirrhotic rats with BT versus those without BT (93 vs. 33%) (p < 0.001). Of the translocating bacteria, 95.6% were found to be overgrown in the cecum. The small-intestinal transit was slower in cirrhotic rats (60.5 +/- 12.7 cm vs. 81.2 +/- 5.7 cm) than in control animals (p < 0.001). These results suggest that the increase of intestinal aerobic bacteria in experimental cirrhosis is associated with translocation. In addition, IBO is frequent in cirrhotic rats, and is supposed to play an important role in the development of BT. Impaired motility of the small intestine is a common feature in cirrhosis and may be implicated in the

  19. Use of experimental translocations of Allegheny woodrat to decipher causal agents of decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyser, Timothy J; Johnson, Scott A; Page, L Kristen; Hudson, Cassie M; Rhodes, Olin E

    2013-08-01

    Translocations are an important tool for wildlife conservation, although progress in the field of reintroduction biology has been hindered by the ad hoc and opportunistic nature of many translocations. We used an experimental translocation to elucidate the role of raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) and inbreeding depression in the decline of the Allegheny woodrat (Neotoma magister), an endangered species. We translocated woodrats from genetically diverse populations in the core of the species range to 4 previously occupied sites (reintroductions) and 2 sites supporting genetically depauperate populations (reinforcements) in Indiana (U.S.A.). In 2 reintroduction sites and 1 reinforcement site, we distributed anthelmintic baits to passively deworm raccoons and reduce the risk of woodrat exposure to roundworms. The remaining sites served as controls. We used raccoon latrine surveys and fecal flotation to monitor temporal variability in roundworm prevalence and effect of treatment. We used live trapping and microsatellite genotyping to monitor the demographic and genetic response of translocated populations over the following 54 months. At the conclusion of the study, 4 of 6 translocations were successfully maintaining abundance through local recruitment. The distribution of anthelmintic baits reduced levels of roundworm contamination, but levels of contamination were also low in 2 of 3 control sites. Reintroductions failed at control sites, one of which was due to high roundworm exposure. The other failed control reintroduction was likely attributable to demographic stochasticity and limited reproductive potential following initial mortality within the first 4 months. In both control and treatment reinforcements, increases in both allelic richness and heterozygosity were accompanied by increases in abundance, which is suggestive of genetic rescue. Our results demonstrate that mitigation of roundworm exposure through the distribution of anthelmintic baits can

  20. PRIMA-1MET induces nucleolar translocation of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded EBNA-5 protein

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    Rökaeus Nina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The low molecular weight compound, PRIMA-1MET restores the transcriptional transactivation function of certain p53 mutants in tumor cells. We have previously shown that PRIMA-1MET induces nucleolar translocation of p53, PML, CBP and Hsp70. The Epstein-Barr virus encoded, latency associated antigen EBNA-5 (also known as EBNA-LP is required for the efficient transformation of human B lymphocytes by EBV. EBNA-5 associates with p53-hMDM2-p14ARF complexes. EBNA-5 is a nuclear protein that translocates to the nucleolus upon heat shock or inhibition of proteasomes along with p53, hMDM2, Hsp70, PML and proteasome subunits. Here we show that PRIMA-1MET induces the nucleolar translocation of EBNA-5 in EBV transformed B lymphoblasts and in transfected tumor cells. The PRIMA-1MET induced translocation of EBNA-5 is not dependent on the presence of mutant p53. It also occurs in p53 null cells or in cells that express wild type p53. Both the native and the EGFP or DSRed conjugated EBNA-5 respond to PRIMA-1MET treatment in the same way. Image analysis of DSRed-EBNA-5 expressing cells, using confocal fluorescence time-lapse microscopy showed that the nucleolar translocation requires several hours to complete. FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and FLIP (fluorescence loss in photobleaching measurements on live cells showed that the nucleolar translocation was accompanied by the formation of EBNA-5 aggregates. The process is reversible since the aggregates are dissolved upon removal of PRIMA-1MET. Our results suggest that mutant p53 is not the sole target of PRIMA-1MET. We propose that PRIMA-1MET may reversibly inhibit cellular chaperons that prevent the aggregation of misfolded proteins, and that EBNA-5 may serve as a surrogate drug target for elucidating the precise molecular action of PRIMA-1MET.

  1. Polymer translocation through a nanopore in presence of attractive binding particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Aniket; Luo, Kaifu; Ala-Nissila, Tapio; Ying, See-Chen

    2008-03-01

    We use Brownian dynamics simulation to study the translocation of a flexible linear polymer chain through a nanopore into a cell containing particles those bind reversibly to the chain. We study the role of these binding particles [1] by monitoring the mean first passage time, the diffusion of the center of mass, and the net force on the translocating chain as a function of the density of these particles and the strength of the attractive interaction. [1] Roya Zandi,David Reguera, Joseph Rudnick and William M. Gelbart, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100 8649 (2003). aniket@bhattacharya: /aps/aps08

  2. Molecular dynamics and mutational analysis of the catalytic and translocation cycle of RNA polymerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kireeva Maria L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During elongation, multi-subunit RNA polymerases (RNAPs cycle between phosphodiester bond formation and nucleic acid translocation. In the conformation associated with catalysis, the mobile “trigger loop” of the catalytic subunit closes on the nucleoside triphosphate (NTP substrate. Closing of the trigger loop is expected to exclude water from the active site, and dehydration may contribute to catalysis and fidelity. In the absence of a NTP substrate in the active site, the trigger loop opens, which may enable translocation. Another notable structural element of the RNAP catalytic center is the “bridge helix” that separates the active site from downstream DNA. The bridge helix may participate in translocation by bending against the RNA/DNA hybrid to induce RNAP forward movement and to vacate the active site for the next NTP loading. The transition between catalytic and translocation conformations of RNAP is not evident from static crystallographic snapshots in which macromolecular motions may be restrained by crystal packing. Results All atom molecular dynamics simulations of Thermus thermophilus (Tt RNAP reveal flexible hinges, located within the two helices at the base of the trigger loop, and two glycine hinges clustered near the N-terminal end of the bridge helix. As simulation progresses, these hinges adopt distinct conformations in the closed and open trigger loop structures. A number of residues (described as “switch” residues trade atomic contacts (ion pairs or hydrogen bonds in response to changes in hinge orientation. In vivo phenotypes and in vitro activities rendered by mutations in the hinge and switch residues in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc RNAP II support the importance of conformational changes predicted from simulations in catalysis and translocation. During simulation, the elongation complex with an open trigger loop spontaneously translocates forward relative to the elongation complex with a

  3. Laboratory evalution of a translocation double heterozygote for genetic control of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, D K; Curtis, C F; Soni, V K

    1978-07-01

    Two pure translocation homozygote stocks, T1/T1 and T3/T3, were used to produce a double translocation heterozygote system designated T1/T3, employing T1/T1 as the male and T3/T3 as the female parent. The double heterozygote showed 73 % sterility when mated to wild females. Tests on mating competitiveness, recombination frequency in the differential segment, insemination rate and inheritance of sterility after release, for four generations in laboratory cages, have been carried out to evaluate the efficiency of this strain as an agent for a population control programme.

  4. Increased translocation of bacteria from the gastrointestinal tracts of tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, R L; Maca, R D; Berg, R D

    1985-03-01

    Aerobic gram-negative bacilli and other indigenous gastrointestinal (GI) bacteria are important opportunistic pathogens in immunosuppressed cancer patients. These same bacteria frequently translocate from the GI tracts of mice immunosuppressed by single injections of certain anticancer drugs or by T-lymphocyte impairments. Since similar cellular and humoral immune deficiencies may be present in the tumor-bearing host, we sought to determine if progressive growth of a tumor alone would be sufficient to enhance the translocation of indigenous bacteria from the murine GI tract. Pathogen-free DBA/2 mice were injected intraperitoneally with 10(6) viable sarcoma 180 (S-180) cells or 0.5 ml of sterile buffer. Mesenteric lymph nodes, livers, spleens, and kidneys were tested for the presence of translocated aerobic GI bacteria on various days after tumor injection. Immunity was assessed by measuring footpad delayed-type hypersensitivity and serum hemagglutinins to sheep erythrocytes. Overall, translocated aerobic GI bacteria infected 33 of 92 S-180-bearing mice (36%) and only 9 of 99 control mice (9%) (P less than 10(-6)). Cumulatively, 50 of 460 sites (10.9%) in S-180-bearing mice were infected with translocated GI bacteria as opposed to only 9 of 485 sites (1.9%) in control animals (P less than 10(-7)). GI bacteria often translocated to infect more than one site in tumor-bearing mice, but not in controls. Aerobic gram-negative bacilli translocated 11 times in tumor-bearing mice, but only once in controls, even though the mean cecal population levels of these bacteria were relatively low (range, 4.33 to 5.28 log10 bacteria per g). The population levels of cecal aerobic bacteria were similar in S-180 and control mice throughout the period of observation. S-180 mice had significantly suppressed (P less than 0.04) delayed-type hypersensitivity and serum hemagglutinin responses when sensitized 4 or 8 days after S-180 injection. S-180 growth was associated with a neutrophilic

  5. Kinetics of contraction-induced GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle fibers from living mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Hans Peter M. Mortensen; Galbo, Henrik; Toyoda, Taro

    2010-01-01

    Exercise is an important strategy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. This is due in part to an increase in glucose transport that occurs in the working skeletal muscles. Glucose transport is regulated by GLUT4 translocation in muscle, but the molecular machinery mediating this process is poorly...... understood. The purpose of this study was to 1) use a novel imaging system to elucidate the kinetics of contraction-induced GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle and 2) determine the function of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha2 (AMPKalpha2) in this process....

  6. [Effects of rhubarb on intestinal flora and bacterial translocation in rats with sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, De-chang; Ma, Li-qiong; Liu, Shao-ze

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effects of rhubarb on intestinal flora and bacterial translocation in septic rats. One hundred and four Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into normal control group, burn group, sepsis group, and sepsis with rhubarb treatment group. All the animals except those in the normal control group were given 30% total body surface area (TBSA) III degree burn on their back followed by endotoxin challenge intraperitoneally in a dose of 20 mg/kg 24 hours after the burn injury. The animals were treated with intraperitoneal injection of ceftriaxone 24 hours after the second hit in various groups in a dose of 60 mg/kg, twice a day with a interval of 12 hours. Rhubarb was also given orally with a dose of 50 mg/kg, twice a day with an interval of 12 hours, at the same time. On 1, 3 and 9 days after treatment, intestinal bacilli in colon and the incidence of bacterial translocation in content of large intestine, liver, lung, mesenteric lymph node and blood in each group were determined. Neither intestinal bacilli in colon nor bacterial translocation showed significant change after the burn injury [(5.86+/-0.62) log cfu/g vs. (5.52+/-0.41) log cfu/g]. The second hit with endotoxin obviously increased the number of intestinal bacilli in colon [(8.96+/-0.73) log cfu/g, Pflora. At the same time, the incidence of Colibacillus translocation was also very high. The antibiotic ceftriaxone markedly reduced the number of Colibacillus on the 3rd and 9th day after the therapy [(4.43+/-0.64) log cfu/g, (5.82+/-0.99) log cfu/g, both Pflora in gut. Furthermore, the species of bacterial translocation also switched to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Baumanii from Colibacillus. Rhubarb could prevent the loss of enteric bacilli in gut [(8.24+/-1.32) log cfu/g]. Moreover, it also extenuated the effects of antibiotics in diminishing commensal flore in gut. Lastly, the rhubarb could inhibit bacterial translocation at the early stage of sepsis (incidence of translocation on 1 th

  7. Construindo uma política feminista translocal da tradução Enacting a Translocal Feminist Politics of Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia E Alvarez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nosso projeto coletivo Translocalities/Translocalidades: Feminist Politics of Translation in the Latin/a Américas (Políticas Feministas de Tradução na América Latina explora como discursos e práticas feministas viajam por uma variedade de lugares e direções e acabam se tornando paradigmas interpretativos para a leitura/escrita de questões de classe, gênero, sexualidade, migração, saúde, cidadania, política e circulação de identidades e textos. Sustentamos que a tradução é política e teoricamente indispensável para forjar epistemologias e alianças políticas feministas, antirracistas e pós-coloniais/pós-ocidentais, pois as Américas Latinas - enquanto formação cultural transfronteiriça e não territorialmente delimitada - devem ser entendidas como translocais em dois sentidos. O primeiro sentido que usamos - o de translocalidade - parte de movimentos além das concepções da "política da localização" empregadas pelo feminismo terceiro-mundista estadunidense. Mais do que "migrar" e "se assimilar", muitas pessoas nas Américas Latinas cada vez mais se movem de um lado para outro entre localidades, entre lugares historicamente situados e culturalmente específicos, ainda que porosos, atravessando múltiplas fronteiras, e não apenas entre nações (como deixa a entender o termo "migração transnacional", por exemplo. Empregamos a expressão translocal, então, em um segundo sentido, que chamamos de translocalidades, precisamente para capturar esses cruzamentos e movimentos multidirecionaisOur collective project on Translocalities/Translocalidades: Feminist Politics of Translation in the Latin/a Américas explores how feminist discourses and practices travel across a variety of sites and directionalities to become interpretive paradigms to read/write issues of class, gender, race, sexuality, migration, health, social movements, citizenship, politics, and the circulation of identities and texts. Translation is

  8. Impaired translocation and activation of mitochondrial Akt1 mitigated mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation Complex V activity in diabetic myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jia-Ying; Deng, Wu; Chen, Yumay; Fan, Weiwei; Baldwin, Kenneth M; Jope, Richard S; Wallace, Douglas C; Wang, Ping H

    2013-06-01

    Insulin can translocate Akt to mitochondria in cardiac muscle. The goals of this study were to define sub-mitochondrial localization of the translocated Akt, to dissect the effects of insulin on Akt isoform translocation, and to determine the direct effect of mitochondrial Akt activation on Complex V activity in normal and diabetic myocardium. The translocated Akt sequentially localized to the mitochondrial intermembrane space, inner membrane, and matrix. To confirm Akt translocation, in vitro import assay showed rapid entry of Akt into mitochondria. Akt isoforms were differentially regulated by insulin stimulation, only Akt1 translocated into mitochondria. In the insulin-resistant Type 2 diabetes model, Akt1 translocation was blunted. Mitochondrial activation of Akt1 increased Complex V activity by 24% in normal myocardium in vivo and restored Complex V activity in diabetic myocardium. Basal mitochondrial Complex V activity was lower by 22% in the Akt1(-/-) myocardium. Insulin-stimulated Complex V activity was not impaired in the Akt1(-/-) myocardium, due to compensatory translocation of Akt2 to mitochondria. Akt1 is the primary isoform that relayed insulin signaling to mitochondria and modulated mitochondrial Complex V activity. Activation of mitochondrial Akt1 enhanced ATP production and increased phosphocreatine in cardiac muscle cells. Dysregulation of this signal pathway might impair mitochondrial bioenergetics in diabetic myocardium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Light-dependent uptake, translocation and foliar release of phosphorus by the intertidal seagrass Zostera noltii Hornem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Lloréns, J.J.; De Visscher, P.R.M.; Nienhuis, P.H.; Niell, F.X.

    1993-01-01

    Light-dependent P uptake by root-rhizomes, acropetal translocation and subsequent foliar release by Zostera noltii Hornem. was studied under laboratory conditions in two-compartment chambers using 32P. The uptake by underground parts was unaffected by light conditions but the acropetal translocation

  10. Fine mapping of the human renal oncocytoma-associated translocation (5;11)(q35;q13) breakpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinke, RJ; Dijkhuizen, T; Janssen, B; Weghuis, DO; Merkx, G; vandenBerg, E; Schuuring, E; Meloni, AM; deJong, B; vanKessel, AG

    1997-01-01

    Recent cytogenetic analysis of a series of human renal oncocytomas revealed the presence of a recurring chromosomal translocation (5;11)(q35;q13) as sole anomaly in a subset of the tumors. The molecular characterization of this translocation was initiated using two primary t(5;11)-positive renal

  11. Specific Targeting of the Metallophosphoesterase YkuE to the Bacillus Cell Wall Requires the Twin-arginine Translocation System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteferrante, Carmine G.; Miethke, Marcus; van der Ploeg, Rene; Glasner, Corinna; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2012-01-01

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway is dedicated to the transport of fully folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membranes of many bacteria and the chloroplast thylakoidal membrane. Accordingly, Tat-dependently translocated proteins are known to be delivered to the periplasm of

  12. OK-432 reduces mortality and bacterial translocation in irradiated and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-treated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nose, Masako; Uzawa, Akiko; Ogyu, Toshiaki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Suzuki, Gen

    2001-06-01

    Acute radiation induces bacterial translocation from the gut, followed by systemic infection and sepsis. In order to reduce the mortality after acute whole body irradiation, it is essential to control bacterial translocation. In this study, we established a bacterial translocation assay as a sensitive method to detect minor mucosal injury by radiation. By utilizing this assay, we evaluated the adverse effects, if any, of hematopoietic reagents on the mucosal integrity in the respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts. Bacterial translocation to the liver and spleen occurred after whole-body irradiation if the dose exceeded 6 Gy. The administration of G-CSF unexpectedly increased the bacterial translocation in 8 Gy-irradiated mice. The pharmaceutical preparation of low-virulent Streptococcus pyogenes, OK-432, significantly reduced the endotoxin levels in peripheral blood without any reduction of bacterial translocation. A combined treatment with G-CSF and OK-432 decreased bacterial translocation and prevented death. This result indicates that the early administration of G-CSF has an adverse effect on bacterial translocation, and that a combined treatment of G-CSF and OK-432 attenuates the adverse effect of G-CSF and improves the survival rate after acute irradiation. (author)

  13. Biological characterization of adult MYC-translocation-positive mature B-cell lymphomas other than molecular Burkitt lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aukema, Sietse M.; Kreuz, Markus; Kohler, Christian W.; Rosolowski, Maciej; Hasenclever, Dirk; Hummel, Michael; Kueppers, Ralf; Lenze, Dido; Ott, German; Pott, Christiane; Richter, Julia; Rosenwald, Andreas; Szczepanowski, Monika; Schwaenen, Carsten; Stein, Harald; Trautmann, Heiko; Wessendorf, Swen; Truemper, Lorenz; Loeffler, Markus; Spang, Rainer; Kluin, Philip M.; Klapper, Wolfram; Siebert, Reiner

    Chromosomal translocations affecting the MYC oncogene are the biological hallmark of Burkitt lymphomas but also occur in a subset of other mature B-cell lymphomas. If accompanied by a chromosomal break targeting the BCL2 and/or BCL6 oncogene these MYC translocation-positive (MYC+) lymphomas are

  14. The Pontin series of recombinant alien translocations in bread wheat: single translocations integrating combinations of Bdv2, Lr19 and Sr25 disease-resistance genes from Thinopyrum intermedium and Th. ponticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Navarrete, L I; Mechanicos, A A; Gibson, J M; Singh, D; Bariana, H S; Fletcher, J; Shorter, S; Larkin, Philip J

    2013-10-01

    Two bread wheat lines each with a translocation on chromosome 7DL from either Thinopyrum intermedium (TC5 and TC14) or Thinopyrum ponticum (T4m), were hybridized in a ph1b mutant background to enhance recombination between the two translocated chromosomal segments. The frequency of recombinants was high in lines derived from the larger and similar-sized translocations (TC5/T4m), but much lower when derived from different-sized translocations (TC14/T4m). Recombinant translocations contained combinations of resistance genes Bdv2, Lr19 and Sr25 conferring resistance to Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), leaf rust and stem rust, respectively. Their genetic composition was identified using bioassays and molecular markers specific for the two progenitor Thinopyrum species. This set of 7DL Th. ponticum/intermedium recombinant translocations was termed the Pontin series. In addition to Thinopyrum markers, the size of the translocation was estimated with the aid of wheat markers mapped on each of the 7DL deletion bins. Bioassays for BYDV, leaf rust and stem rust were performed under greenhouse and field conditions. Once separated from ph1b background, the Pontin recombinant translocations were stable and showed normal inheritance in successive backcrosses. The reported Pontin translocations integrate important resistance genes in a single linkage block which will allow simultaneous selection of disease resistance. Combinations of Bdv2 + Lr19 or Lr19 + Sr25 in both long and short translocations, are available to date. The smaller Pontins, comprising only 20 % of the distal portion of 7DL, will be most attractive to breeders.

  15. Use of solid-state nanopores for sensing co-translocational deformation of nano-liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Gaurav; Darvish, Armin; Kim, Min Jun

    2015-07-21

    Membrane deformation of nano-vesicles is crucial in many cellular processes such as virus entry into the host cell, membrane fusion, and endo- and exocytosis; however, studying the deformation of sub-100 nm soft vesicles is very challenging using the conventional techniques. In this paper, we report detecting co-translocational deformation of individual 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) nano-liposomes using solid-state nanopores. Electrokinetic translocation through the nanopore caused the soft DOPC liposomes (85 nm diameter) to change their shape, which we attribute to the strong electric field strength and physical confinement inside the pore. The experiments were performed at varying transmembrane voltages and the deformation was observed to mount up with increasing applied voltage and followed an exponential trend. Numerical simulations were performed to simulate the concentrated electric field strength inside the nanopore and a field strength of 14 kV cm(-1) (at 600 mV applied voltage) was achieved at the pore center. The electric field strength inside the nanopore is much higher than the field strength known to cause deformation of 15-30 μm giant membrane vesicles. As a control, we also performed experiments with rigid polystyrene beads that did not show any deformation during translocation events, which further established our hypothesis of co-translocational deformation of liposomes. Our technique presents an innovative and high throughput means for investigating deformation behavior of soft nano-vesicles.

  16. Agrobacterium infection : translocation of virulence proteins and role of VirF in host cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurado Jácome, Esmeralda

    2011-01-01

    The VirB/D4 Type four secretion system (T4SS) is a bacterial multiprotein complex that spans the bacterial envelope, which mediates the translocation of T-DNA and effector virulence proteins into recipient cell. My research revealed that the Agrobacterium VirE3 and VirD2 proteins are effector

  17. Absorption, translocation and metabolism of bispyribac-sodium on rice seedlings under cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Luiz Fernando D; Burgos, Nilda R; Noldin, José Alberto; de Avila, Luis Antonio; Salas, Reiofeli A

    2015-07-01

    Rice production is highly affected by weed competition. The efficacy of chemical weed control and crop safety is a function of absorption, translocation and metabolism of herbicides. This study investigates the effect of cold stress 22/16 °C (day/night) on absorption, translocation and metabolism of (14)C-bispyribac-sodium on rice seedlings. Maximum (14)C-bispyribac-sodium absorption occurred at 24 h after herbicide treatment and was stimulated by the warm 30/22 °C (day/night) temperature. A large amount of total absorbed herbicide was retained in the treated leaf, indicating that bispyribac-sodium had minimal translocation to other plant parts. Piperonyl-butoxide (a P450 inhibitor) plus herbicide caused greater injury than the herbicide alone. In addition, injury on rice plants was enhanced by exposure to cold, emphasizing the negative effect on herbicide metabolism. In the thin-layer chromatography metabolism experiment, cold-grown plants had higher injury and retained more of the parent herbicide than plants grown at a warm temperature. Cold stress reduces bispyribac-sodium absorption and metabolism in rice, but has no effect on translocation. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Bacterial translocation in D-galactosamine-treated rats in a burn model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, HM; Manson, WL; Blaauw, B; Klasen, HJ; deSmet, B

    Bacteria and endotoxins can pass through the gut barrier under certain conditions. This process of bacterial translocation (BT) may occur after thermal injury in animals and is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of septic complications in severely burned patients. The current study was

  19. Mobilizing Learning Resources in a Transnational Classroom: Translocal and Digital Resources in a Community Technology Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguerón-Liu, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from transnational and activity theory frameworks, this study analyzes the ways translocal flows shape learning in a community technology center serving adult immigrants in the US Southwest. It also explores students' constructions of the transnational nature of the courses they took, where they had access to both online and face-to-face…

  20. DNA Translocation through Nanopores at Physiological Ionic Strengths Requires Precise Nanoscale Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franceschini, Lorenzo; Brouns, Tine; Willems, Kherim; Carlon, Enrico; Maglia, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Many important processes in biology involve the translocation of a biopolymer through a nanometer-scale pore. Moreover, the electrophoretic transport of DNA across nanopores is under intense investigation for single-molecule DNA sequencing and analysis. Here, we show that the precise patterning of

  1. Improving protein secretion by engineering components of the bacterial translocation machinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braun, P.G; Gerritse, G; van Dijl, J.M; Quax, Wim

    The increased insight into the mechanism of bacterial protein translocation has resulted in new concepts for the production of heterologous proteins. The periplasm of Gram-negative bacteria is revealed to have a role as a 'protein construction compartment', which can be used to fold complex

  2. Post-translocational adaptation drives evolution through genetic selection and transcriptional shift in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosato, Valentina; Sims, Jason; West, Nicole; Colombin, Martina; Bruschi, Carlo V

    2017-05-01

    Adaptation by natural selection might improve the fitness of an organism and its probability to survive in unfavorable environmental conditions. Decoding the genetic basis of adaptive evolution is one of the great challenges to deal with. To this purpose, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been largely investigated because of its short division time, excellent aneuploidy tolerance and the availability of the complete sequence of its genome with a thorough genome database. In the past, we developed a system, named bridge-induced translocation, to trigger specific, non-reciprocal translocations, exploiting the endogenous recombination system of budding yeast. This technique allows users to generate a heterogeneous population of cells with different aneuploidies and increased phenotypic variation. In this work, we demonstrate that ad hoc chromosomal translocations might induce adaptation, fostering selection of thermo-tolerant yeast strains with improved phenotypic fitness. This "yeast eugenomics" correlates with a shift to enhanced expression of genes involved in stress response, heat shock as well as carbohydrate metabolism. We propose that the bridge-induced translocation is a suitable approach to generate adapted, physiologically boosted strains for biotechnological applications.

  3. Recycling of protein subunits during DNA translocation and cleavage by Type I restriction-modification enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Michelle; Szczelkun, Mark D

    2011-09-01

    The Type I restriction-modification enzymes comprise three protein subunits; HsdS and HsdM that form a methyltransferase (MTase) and HsdR that associates with the MTase and catalyses Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP)-dependent DNA translocation and cleavage. Here, we examine whether the MTase and HsdR components can 'turnover' in vitro, i.e. whether they can catalyse translocation and cleavage events on one DNA molecule, dissociate and then re-bind a second DNA molecule. Translocation termination by both EcoKI and EcoR124I leads to HsdR dissociation from linear DNA but not from circular DNA. Following DNA cleavage, the HsdR subunits appear unable to dissociate even though the DNA is linear, suggesting a tight interaction with the cleaved product. The MTases of EcoKI and EcoAI can dissociate from DNA following either translocation or cleavage and can initiate reactions on new DNA molecules as long as free HsdR molecules are available. In contrast, the MTase of EcoR124I does not turnover and additional cleavage of circular DNA is not observed by inclusion of RecBCD, a helicase-nuclease that degrades the linear DNA product resulting from Type I cleavage. Roles for Type I restriction endonuclease subunit dynamics in restriction alleviation in the cell are discussed.

  4. Do inhaled carbon nanoparticles translocate directly into the circulation in humans?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, Nicholas L; Amin, Nadia; Robinson, Simon D; Anand, Atul; Davies, John; Patel, Dilip; Fuente, Jesus M de la; Cassee, Flemming R; Boon, Nicholas A; Macnee, William; Millar, Alistair M; Donaldson, Ken; Newby, David E

    2006-01-01

    RATIONALE: Increased exposure to particulate air pollution (PM(10)) is a risk factor for death and hospitalization with cardiovascular disease. It has been suggested that the nanoparticulate component of PM(10) is capable of translocating into the circulation with the potential for direct effects on

  5. Increased plant carbon translocation linked to overyielding in grassland species mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deyn, de G.B.; Quirk, H.; Oakley, S.; Ostle, N.J.; Bardgett, R.D.

    2012-01-01

    Plant species richness and productivity often show a positive relationship, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, especially at the plant species level. We examined how growing plants in species mixture influences intraspecific rates of short-term carbon (C-) translocation, and

  6. A New Noncanonical Anionic Peptide That Translocates a Cellular Blood–Brain Barrier Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Neves-Coelho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to transport therapeutic molecules across the blood–brain barrier (BBB represents a breakthrough in the development of tools for the treatment of many central nervous system (CNS-associated diseases. The BBB, while being protective against infectious agents, hinders the brain uptake of many drugs. Hence, finding safe shuttles able to overcome the BBB is of utmost importance. Herein, we identify a new BBB-translocating peptide with unique properties. For years it was thought that cationic sequences were mandatory for a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP to achieve cellular internalization. Despite being anionic at physiological pH, PepNeg (sequence (SGTQEEY is an efficient BBB translocator that is able to carry a large cargo (27 kDa, while maintaining BBB integrity. In addition, PepNeg is able to use two distinct methods of translocation, energy-dependent and -independent, suggesting that direct penetration might occur when low concentrations of peptide are presented to cells. The discovery of this new anionic trans-BBB peptide allows the development of new delivery systems to the CNS and contributes to the need to rethink the role of electrostatic attraction in BBB-translocation.

  7. Sustainable Development Mechanism of Food Culture’s Translocal Production Based on Authenticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Zeng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Food culture is a kind of non-material culture with authenticity. To achieve sustainable development of translocal heritage and food culture, we must protect its authenticity. By selecting the cases of the Dongbeiren Flavor Dumpling Restaurant and the Daozanjia Northeast Dumpling Restaurant and using the in-depth interview method, this study discusses how northeastern Cuisine in Guangzhou balances the inheritance and innovation of authenticity, how producers and customers negotiate, and how to realize sustainable development. The main conclusions are: first, there are two different paths of translocal food culture production, which are “authentic food culture production” and “differentiated food culture production”. Second, what translocal enterprises produce is not objective authenticity, but constructive authenticity, or even existential authenticity. Third, compared with differentiated food culture production, authentic food culture production is helpful for the sustainable development of local food culture production. It protects the locality while transmitting and developing the local culture. Fourth, translocal food culture production is a process in which the producers and consumers continue to interact to maintain a state of equilibrium, which informs the sustainable development mechanism with a high degree of authenticity.

  8. Fall fertilization enhanced nitrogen storage and translocation in Larix olgensis seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. Zhu; R. K. Dumroese; G. L. Li; J. R. Pinto; Y. Liu

    2013-01-01

    Fall nutrient loading of deciduous forest nursery seedlings is of special interest because of foliage abscission and varied translocation patterns. For non-deciduous seedlings in the nursery, fall fertilization typically can reverse nutrient dilution and possibly increase nutrient reserves; however, this technique has received little attention with deciduous conifer...

  9. Effect of height of cut on translocation of C-14-labelled assimilates in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pot experiment was conducted in the glasshouse to determine the effect of three heights of cut on translocation of C-14-labelled assimilates in Eragrostis curvula cv. Ermelo. Autoradiographs revealed that to produce regrowth plants defoliated to a height of 7,5 cm did not draw on their reserves significantly and that both ...

  10. Trisomy greatly enhances interstitial crossing over in a translocation heterozygote of Secale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sybenga, J.; Verhaar, H.M.; Botje, D.G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements, including reciprocal translocations, may prevent recombinational transfer of genes from a donor genotype to a recipient, especially when the gene is located in an interstitial segment. The effect of trisomy of chromosome arm 1RS on recombination was studied in

  11. Assessing the ability of Salmonella enterica to translocate Type III effectors into plant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella enterica, a human enteric pathogen, has the ability to multiply and survive endophytically in plants, and mutations in genes encoding the type III secretion system (T3SS) or its effectors (T3Es) may contribute to this colonization. Two reporter plasmids for T3E translocation into plant ce...

  12. Comparative Genomics of Interreplichore Translocations in Bacteria: A Measure of Chromosome Topology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedkar, Supriya; Seshasayee, Aswin Sai Narain

    2016-06-01

    Genomes evolve not only in base sequence but also in terms of their architecture, defined by gene organization and chromosome topology. Whereas genome sequence data inform us about the changes in base sequences for a large variety of organisms, the study of chromosome topology is restricted to a few model organisms studied using microscopy and chromosome conformation capture techniques. Here, we exploit whole genome sequence data to study the link between gene organization and chromosome topology in bacteria. Using comparative genomics across ∼250 pairs of closely related bacteria we show that: (a) many organisms show a high degree of interreplichore translocations throughout the chromosome and not limited to the inversion-prone terminus (ter) or the origin of replication (oriC); (b) translocation maps may reflect chromosome topologies; and (c) symmetric interreplichore translocations do not disrupt the distance of a gene from oriC or affect gene expression states or strand biases in gene densities. In summary, we suggest that translocation maps might be a first line in defining a gross chromosome topology given a pair of closely related genome sequences. Copyright © 2016 Khedkar and Seshasayee.

  13. Alien and translocated aquatic animals in Southern Africa: a general introduction, checklist and bibliography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bruton, MN

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available A list of references to research and records of alien and translocated aquatic animals in southern Africa is given, as well as a general introduction to the problem of invasive aquatic animals. Reference is made to 5&7 publications. The genera...

  14. [Discovery of analogous balanced translocation syndrome and its clinical genetics research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheng-xiang; Liu, Li; Wu, Han-wen

    2003-04-01

    To find out the clinical genetic law of relation between a group of special chromosomal structural abnormality including bit Y, inv(9), S+, No. 1, 9, 16 chromosomal qh+/-, and the balanced translocation. By means of binomial distribution method, 980 cases were analyzed for balanced chromosome translocation, big Y, inv(9), S+ and qh+/-, and according to the clinical features the 980 cases were divided into 4 groups: spontaneous abortion, abnormal sexual development, labouring disease and disabled or diseased condition of the patient. In these 980 cases of balanced translocation, big Y, inv(9), S+ and qh+/-, the chief clinical features caused by the various different conditions have a high similarity (P > 0.20-0.50). The big Y, inv(9), S+, and qh+/- leading to the occurrence of the chief clinical features belong to the analogous balanced translocation syndrome. This fact indicates that in the process of sexual reproduction, the minute unequivalent exchange in the molecular level of gamete is possible to have genetic effect in the descendants, and may cause a corresponding clinical feature, present the abnormal sex differentiation, in varying degrees, and influence the abnormal phenotype or the health of individuals.

  15. Population-based survey of cancer risks in chromosome 3 translocation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodward, Emma R; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Cruger, Dorthe G

    2010-01-01

    Familial renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is genetically heterogeneous and may be associated with germline mutations in a number of genes. Twelve different constitutional translocations involving chromosome 3 have also been described in association with inherited RCC. In some families the lifetime risk...

  16. Hydration and translocation of an excess proton in water clusters: An ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The hydration structure and translocation of an excess proton in hydrogen bonded water clusters of two different sizes are investigated by means of finite temperature quantum simulations. The simulations are performed by employing the method of Car–Parrinello molecular dynamics where the forces on the nuclei are ...

  17. Monitoring for the management of disease risk in animal translocation programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James D.; Hollmen, Tuula E.; Grand, James B.

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring is best viewed as a component of some larger programme focused on science or conservation. The value of monitoring is determined by the extent to which it informs the parent process. Animal translocation programmes are typically designed to augment or establish viable animal populations without changing the local community in any detrimental way. Such programmes seek to minimize disease risk to local wild animals, to translocated animals, and in some cases to humans. Disease monitoring can inform translocation decisions by (1) providing information for state-dependent decisions, (2) assessing progress towards programme objectives, and (3) permitting learning in order to make better decisions in the future. Here we discuss specific decisions that can be informed by both pre-release and post-release disease monitoring programmes. We specify state variables and vital rates needed to inform these decisions. We then discuss monitoring data and analytic methods that can be used to estimate these state variables and vital rates. Our discussion is necessarily general, but hopefully provides a basis for tailoring disease monitoring approaches to specific translocation programmes.

  18. Jumping translocation of 15q24-qter resulting in partial trisomy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czakó, Márta; Hadzsiev, Kinga; Melegh, Béla; Kosztolányi, György

    2012-07-15

    We report on a jumping translocation with five different cell lines detected in four tissues in a 2-year-old patient. This rare type of chromosomal abnormality (not more than 30 cases published so far) proved to be a series of non-reciprocal translocations of the 15q24-qter donor chromosome segment to the telomeric region of chromosomes 5q, 10q, 16q and 19p, respectively. The process, in addition to a few cells without translocation, resulted in partial trisomy of 15q24-qter which was associated with somatic overdevelopment in the patient, with hemihypertrophy and minor anomalies. The phenotype of our patient was different from that of the other two patients found in the literature having the same donor chromosome segment involved in a similar rearrangement. Possibly, the difference in the phenotype lies in the various ratios of somatic mosaicism with five cell lines, in particular the presence of normal one which is extremely rare in patients with jumping translocation. Here we discuss the various ways on how the rearrangement could arise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Four centuries of translocal development in cities and regions in Northwest Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terlouw, K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses how the fates of different peripheral localities (Emsland, Gütersloh, and Lippe in Germany) were linked to the outside world in the course of the seventeenth to twentieth centuries. In the first centuries, these localities' translocal relations with the world economy were

  20. Theoretical and experimental determination of phloem translocation speeds in gymnosperm and angiosperm trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liesche, Johannes; Jensen, K.; Minchin, P.

    2013-01-01

    In trees, carbohydrates produced in photosynthesizing leaves are transported to roots and other sink organs over distances of up to 100 m inside a specialized transport tissue, the phloem. Carbohydrate translocation in the phloem is a fundamental aspect of tree physiology with relevance for tree ...

  1. A Steered Molecular Dynamics Study of Binding and Translocation Processes in the GABA Transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovstrup, Soren; David, Laurent; Taboureau, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    The entire substrate translocation pathway in the human GABA transporter (GAT-1) was explored for the endogenous substrate GABA and the anti-convulsive drug tiagabine. Following a steered molecular dynamics (SMD) approach, in which a harmonic restraining potential is applied to the ligand...

  2. Continuous translocation of Rac2 and the NADPH oxidase component p67(phox) during phagocytosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bruggen, Robin; Anthony, Eloise; Fernandez-Borja, Mar; Roos, Dirk

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the translocation of the NADPH oxidase components p67(phox) and Rac2 was studied during phagocytosis in living cells. For this purpose, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged versions of these proteins were expressed in the myeloid cell line PLB-985. First, the correct localization of

  3. Development and viability of a translocated beaver Castor fiber population in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, B.A.; Baveco, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    We monitored survival, reproduction and emigration of a translocated beaver Castor fiber population in the Netherlands for five years and used a stochastic model to assess its viability. Between 1988 and 1991, 42 beavers were released in the Biesbosch National Park. The mortality was initially high

  4. Influence of artificial cavity age on red-cockaded woodpecker translocation success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer; Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Dawn K. Carrie; M. Stephen Best

    2004-01-01

    Red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) translocations have been used to bolster woodpecker populations and to fill breeding vacancies. Artificial, insert cavities have been used to offset cavity shortages in woodpecker clusters and are the primary cavity type used in recruitment clusters in Texas and Arkansas, but inserts may lose their...

  5. Infectious diseases as main causes of mortality to beavers Castor fiber after translocation to the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, B.A.; Broekhuizen, S.; Dorrestein, G.M.; Rienks, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    Between 1988 and 1994, 58 beavers were translocated from the Elbe region (Germany) to the Netherlands. In 43 animals, radio-transmitters were implanted with a pulse interval which was dependent on body temperature; subsequently, 22 of the released animals were found dead and the cause of death was

  6. Comparative Genomics of Interreplichore Translocations in Bacteria: A Measure of Chromosome Topology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Khedkar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Genomes evolve not only in base sequence but also in terms of their architecture, defined by gene organization and chromosome topology. Whereas genome sequence data inform us about the changes in base sequences for a large variety of organisms, the study of chromosome topology is restricted to a few model organisms studied using microscopy and chromosome conformation capture techniques. Here, we exploit whole genome sequence data to study the link between gene organization and chromosome topology in bacteria. Using comparative genomics across ∼250 pairs of closely related bacteria we show that: (a many organisms show a high degree of interreplichore translocations throughout the chromosome and not limited to the inversion-prone terminus (ter or the origin of replication (oriC; (b translocation maps may reflect chromosome topologies; and (c symmetric interreplichore translocations do not disrupt the distance of a gene from oriC or affect gene expression states or strand biases in gene densities. In summary, we suggest that translocation maps might be a first line in defining a gross chromosome topology given a pair of closely related genome sequences.

  7. Free Radicals Generated by Ionizing Radiation Signal Nuclear Translocation of p53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, J. D.; Pennington, M. E.; Craven, M. T.; Warters, R. L.

    1997-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor is a transcription factor that regulates several pathways, which function collectively to maintain the integrity of the genome. Nuclear localization is critical for wild-type function. However, the signals that regulate subcellular localization of p53 have not been identified. Here, we examine the effect of ionizing radiation on the subcellular localization of p53 in two cell lines in which p63 is normally sequestered in the cytoplasm and found that ionizing radiation caused a biphasic translocation response. p53 entered the nucleus 1-2 hours postirradiation (early response), subsequently emerged from the nucleus, and then again entered the nucleus 12-24 hours after the cells had been irradiated (delayed response). These changes in subcellular localization could be completely blocked by the free radical scavenger, WR1065. By comparison, two DNA-damaging agents that do not generate free radicals, mitomycin C and doxorubicin, caused translocation only after 12-24 h of exposure to the drugs, and this effect could not be inhibited by WR1065. Hence, although all three DNA-damaging agents induced relocalization of p53 to the nucleus, only the translocation caused by radiation was sensitive to free radical scavenging. We suggest that the free radicals generated by ionizing radiation can signal p53 translocation to the nucleus.

  8. Real-time single cell analysis of Bid cleavage and translocation in cisplatin-induced apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Xing, Da; Pei, Yihui; Chen, Wei R.

    2007-02-01

    Cancer cell apoptosis can be induced by cisplatin, an efficient anticancer agent. However, its mechanism is not fully understood. Bcl-2 homology domain (BH) 3-only proteins couple stress signals to mitochondrial apoptotic pathways. Calpain-mediated cleavage of the BH3-only protein Bid into a 14 kD truncated protein (tBid) has been implicated in cisplatin-induced apoptotic pathway. We utilized a recombinant fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) Bid probe to determine the kinetics of Bid cleavage during cisplatin-induced apoptosis in ASTC-a-1 cells. The cells were also co-transfected with Bid-CFP and DsRed-Mit to dynamically detect tBid translocation. Cells showed a cleavage of the Bid-FRET probe occurring at about 4-5 h after treated with 20 µM cisplatin. Cleavage of the Bid-FRET probe coincided with a translocation of tBid from the cytosolic to the mitochondria, and the translocation lasted about 1.5 h. Using real-time single-cell analysis, we first observed the kinetics of Bid cleavage and translocation to mitochondria in living cells during cisplatin-induced apoptosis.

  9. Requirements for carnitine shuttle-mediated translocation of mitochondrial acetyl moieties to the yeast cytosol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, Harmen M.; Kozak, B.U.; Niemeijer, M.S.; Dykstra, James C.; Luttik, M.A.H.; Daran, J.G.; van Maris, A.J.A.; Pronk, J.T.

    2016-01-01

    In many eukaryotes, the carnitine shuttle plays a key role in intracellular transport of acyl moieties. Fatty acidgrown Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells employ this shuttle to translocate acetyl units into their mitochondria. Mechanistically, the carnitine shuttle should be reversible, but previous

  10. In-vitro photo-translocation of antiretroviral drug delivery into TZMbl cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malabi, Rudzani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to use femtosecond laser pulses in a photo-translocation system to deliver ARVs into HIV infected TZMbl cells, and to investigate the influence of ARVs and laser on cellular processes using different molecular...

  11. "Translocal Express" tembutab jälle / Rael Artel, Airi Triisberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    Korraldajad 22. ja 23. II Okupatsioonide Muuseumis toimuvast rahvusvahelisest seminarist "Translocal Express. Jubilee Edition", kus vaatluse all on kaasaegse kunsti ja natsionalismi suhted. Seminari kava. Eesti kunstnikest esineb Flo Kasearu, esitletakse Rael Arteli ja Airi Triisbergi raamatut "Public Preparation - Biennale of Young Artists"

  12. Literacy as a Translocal Practice: Digital Multimodal Literacy Practices among Girls Resettled as Refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omerbašic, Delila

    2015-01-01

    Situated in critical sociocultural theory of literacy with a particular focus on literacy in relation to space and displacement, this qualitative study considers how nine teenage girls who were resettled as refugees from Thailand engage in productions of translocality through multimodal literacy practices in digital spaces. The girls are…

  13. Theory of polymer translocation through a flickering nanopore under an alternating driving force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabadani, Jalal; Ikonen, Timo; Ala-Nissila, Tapio

    2015-08-21

    We develop a theory for polymer translocation driven by a time-dependent force through an oscillating nanopore. To this end, we extend the iso-flux tension propagation theory [Sarabadani et al., J. Chem. Phys. 141, 214907 (2014)] for such a setup. We assume that the external driving force in the pore has a component oscillating in time, and the flickering pore is similarly described by an oscillating term in the pore friction. In addition to numerically solving the model, we derive analytical approximations that are in good agreement with the numerical simulations. Our results show that by controlling either the force or pore oscillations, the translocation process can be either sped up or slowed down depending on the frequency of the oscillations and the characteristic time scale of the process. We also show that while in the low and high frequency limits, the translocation time τ follows the established scaling relation with respect to chain length N0, in the intermediate frequency regime small periodic, fluctuations can have drastic effects on the dynamical scaling. The results can be easily generalized for non-periodic oscillations and elucidate the role of time dependent forces and pore oscillations in driven polymer translocation.

  14. Research methods in weed science: herbicide absorption and translocation in plants using radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide absorption and translocation in plants is a key component in the study of herbicide physiology, mode of action, selectivity, resistance mechanisms, and in the registration process. Radioactive herbicides have been in use for over half-a-century in the research and study of herbicide absorp...

  15. Design Principles of DNA Enzyme-Based Walkers: Translocation Kinetics and Photoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Tae-Gon; Pan, Jing; Chen, Haorong; Robinson, Heather N; Li, Xiang; Mao, Chengde; Choi, Jong Hyun

    2015-07-29

    Dynamic DNA enzyme-based walkers complete their stepwise movements along the prescribed track through a series of reactions, including hybridization, enzymatic cleavage, and strand displacement; however, their overall translocation kinetics is not well understood. Here, we perform mechanistic studies to elucidate several key parameters that govern the kinetics and processivity of DNA enzyme-based walkers. These parameters include DNA enzyme core type and structure, upper and lower recognition arm lengths, and divalent metal cation species and concentration. A theoretical model is developed within the framework of single-molecule kinetics to describe overall translocation kinetics as well as each reaction step. A better understanding of kinetics and design parameters enables us to demonstrate a walker movement near 5 μm at an average speed of ∼1 nm s(-1). We also show that the translocation kinetics of DNA walkers can be effectively controlled by external light stimuli using photoisomerizable azobenzene moieties. A 2-fold increase in the cleavage reaction is observed when the hairpin stems of enzyme catalytic cores are open under UV irradiation. This study provides general design guidelines to construct highly processive, autonomous DNA walker systems and to regulate their translocation kinetics, which would facilitate the development of functional DNA walkers.

  16. Disruption of Netrin G1 by a balanced chromosome translocation in a girl with Rett syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Isabella; Freude, Kristine; Kübart, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    We have identified a girl with characteristic features of Rett syndrome (RTT) who carries a de novo balanced translocation involving chromosomes 1 and 7. Both breakpoints were mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization with selected genomic clones from the regions of interest. Southern blot...

  17. Controlling polymer capture and translocation by electrostatic polymer-pore interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukdagli, Sahin; Ala-Nissila, T.

    2017-09-01

    Polymer translocation experiments typically involve anionic polyelectrolytes such as DNA molecules driven through negatively charged nanopores. Quantitative modeling of polymer capture to the nanopore followed by translocation therefore necessitates the consideration of the electrostatic barrier resulting from like-charge polymer-pore interactions. To this end, in this work we couple mean-field level electrohydrodynamic equations with the Smoluchowski formalism to characterize the interplay between the electrostatic barrier, the electrophoretic drift, and the electro-osmotic liquid flow. In particular, we find that due to distinct ion density regimes where the salt screening of the drift and barrier effects occurs, there exists a characteristic salt concentration maximizing the probability of barrier-limited polymer capture into the pore. We also show that in the barrier-dominated regime, the polymer translocation time τ increases exponentially with the membrane charge and decays exponentially fast with the pore radius and the salt concentration. These results suggest that the alteration of these parameters in the barrier-driven regime can be an efficient way to control the duration of the translocation process and facilitate more accurate measurements of the ionic current signal in the pore.

  18. Enzymatic evidence for the key role of arginine in nitrogen translocation by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz, C.; Egsgaard, Helge; Trujillo, C.

    2007-01-01

    Key enzymes of the urea cycle and N-15-labeling patterns of arginine (Arg) were measured to elucidate the involvement of Arg in nitrogen translocation by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Mycorrhiza was established between transformed carrot (Daucus carota) roots and Glomus intraradices in two- ...

  19. Characterization of the plastidic phosphate translocators in the inducible crassulacean acid metabolism plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kore-eda, Shin; Nozawa, Akira; Okada, Yusuke; Takashi, Kazuki; Azad, Muhammad Abul Kalam; Ohnishi, Jun-ichi; Nishiyama, Yoshitaka; Tozawa, Yuzuru

    2013-01-01

    In plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, which has the inducible crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), isoforms of plastidic phosphate translocators (pPTs) are categorized into three subfamilies: the triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (McTPT1), the phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator (McPPT1), and the glucose 6-phosphate/phosphate translocator (McGPT1 and McGPT2). In order to elucidate the physiological roles of these pPTs in M. crystallinum, we determined the substrate specificity of each pPT isoform. The substrate specificities of McTPT1, McPPT1, and McGPT1 showed overall similarities to those of orthologs that have been characterized. In contrast, for glucose 6-phosphate, McGPT2 showed higher selectivity than McGPT1 and other GPT orthologs. Because the expression of McGTP2 is specific to CAM while that of McGTP1 is constitutively expressed in both the C3- and the CAM-state in M. crystallinum, we propose that McGPT2 functions as a CAM system-specific GPT in this plant.

  20. The efficacy of translocating little penguins Eudyptula minor during an oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, Cindy L.; Hindell, Mark A.; Moyle, Diane I. [University of Tasmania, Zoology Dept., Hobart, TAS (Australia); Gales, Rosemary P.; Brothers, Nigel P. [Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Meggs, Ross A. [Faunatech, Eltham, VIC (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    As a consequence of the ship The Iron Baron running aground at Low Head in northern Tasmania, Australia, an unknown number of little penguins Eudyptula minor were contaminated with bunker fuel oil. Of these, 1894 were brought into captivity and cleaned of oil. The area was still contaminated with oil when the penguins were ready for release and, rather than prolong captivity with its associated risk of disease and stress at a time when breeding was imminent, a translocation strategy was trialled, the results of which are reported here. Twenty-five penguins equipped with VHF transmitters were translocated 360 km to the east coast of Tasmania, and their movements tracked from the air. Two birds returned to the capture site in 3 days, insufficient time for clean-up to be completed, prompting a new release site 120 km further south. A further six penguins were tracked at nearby Ninth Island to monitor foraging behaviour. Fifty-six per cent of the birds released at the translocation sites returned to Low Head in 4 months. This is a conservative estimate, and subsequent monitoring found no differences in the survival rate of translocated and control birds. (author)

  1. Energetics of Ortho-7 (oxime drug translocation through the active-site gorge of tabun conjugated acetylcholinesterase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Sinha

    Full Text Available Oxime drugs translocate through the 20 Å active-site gorge of acetylcholinesterase in order to liberate the enzyme from organophosphorus compounds' (such as tabun conjugation. Here we report bidirectional steered molecular dynamics simulations of oxime drug (Ortho-7 translocation through the gorge of tabun intoxicated enzyme, in which time dependent external forces accelerate the translocation event. The simulations reveal the participation of drug-enzyme hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions and water bridges between them. Employing nonequilibrium theorems that recovers the free energy from irreversible work done, we reconstruct potential of mean force along the translocation pathway such that the desired quantity represents an unperturbed system. The potential locates the binding sites and barriers for the drug to translocate inside the gorge. Configurational entropic contribution of the protein-drug binding entity and the role of solvent translational mobility in the binding energetics is further assessed.

  2. The study of the mechanisms of the different phenotypical manifestations in patients with reciprocal translocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozynskyi, Rostyslav; Lozynska, Maria

    2006-04-01

    Cytogenetical study of lymphocytes using the light microscopy could reveal a large amount of chromosomal abnormalities, which determine corresponding hereditary disorders. However, geneticists sometimes observe the cases where the same chromosomal rearrangements seen in light microscope cause quite different phenotype (from normal to abnormal) in relatives. The aim of the study was to explain the mechanisms of the different phenotype appearance in family members carrying the same reciprocal translocations. It was carried out the standard chromosome analysis in 12 families, where some relatives had reciprocal translocations. Chromosomes were differentially stained using G-method. The samples were analysed in optical microscope (x1000). Using OMIM gene map, UCSC Genome Browser, eGenome Release v2.3 and Unigene databases it was revealed transposons and transposon derivates in chromosome regions involved in translocations. We suppose that the variability of clinical manifestations in translocation-bearing patient is caused by the influence of the transposons, such as Hsmar2, Alu-elements or some others. We propose the following mechanisms of transposone action in these patients. The first may lie on recombination between the 2 specific DNA-transposon containing sites on different chromosomes resulting in balanced reciprocal translocation with no significant influence on the most genes' activity in corresponding regions. The weakening of transposase repression, which may follow in gametes, increases the transposase activity, and hereby, the probability of transposon dislocation. Dislocation can change the activity of groups of genes, because transposons often carry the regulatory sequences. This can induce multiply innate disorders in the progeny of the phenotypically healthy parents, carrying the translocation. According to the second mechanism, the reciprocal translocation is caused by recombination between 2 Alu repeats. These repeats can undergo reverse

  3. Single-molecule imaging reveals the translocation and DNA looping dynamics of hepatitis C virus NS3 helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chang-Ting; Tritschler, Felix; Lee, Kyung Suk; Gu, Meigang; Rice, Charles M; Ha, Taekjip

    2017-07-01

    Non-structural protein 3 (NS3) is an essential enzyme and a therapeutic target of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Compared to NS3-catalyzed nucleic acids unwinding, its translation on single stranded nucleic acids have received relatively little attention. To investigate the NS3h translocation with single-stranded nucleic acids substrates directly, we have applied a hybrid platform of single-molecule fluorescence detection combined with optical trapping. With the aid of mechanical manipulation and fluorescence localization, we probed the translocase activity of NS3h on laterally stretched, kilobase-size single-stranded DNA and RNA. We observed that the translocation rate of NS3h on ssDNA at a rate of 24.4 nucleotides per second, and NS3h translocates about three time faster on ssRNA, 74 nucleotides per second. The translocation speed was minimally affected by the applied force. A subpopulation of NS3h underwent a novel translocation mode on ssDNA where the stretched DNA shortened gradually and then recovers its original length abruptly before repeating the cycle repetitively. The speed of this mode of translocation was reduced with increasing force. With corroborating data from single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) experiments, we proposed that NS3h can cause repetitive looping of DNA. The smFRET dwell time analysis showed similar translocation time between sole translocation mode versus repetitive looping mode, suggesting that the motor domain exhibits indistinguishable enzymatic activities between the two translocation modes. We propose a potential secondary nucleic acids binding site at NS3h which might function as an anchor point for translocation-coupled looping. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  4. SecD and SecF are required for the proton electrochemical gradient stimulation of preprotein translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkowitz, R A; Wickner, W

    1994-02-15

    Mutations in secD and secF show impaired protein translocation across the inner membrane of Escherichia coli. We investigated the effect of SecD and SecF (SecD/F) depletion on preprotein translocation into inverted inner membrane vesicles (IMVs). Both IMVs and cells which were depleted of SecD/F were defective in their ability to maintain a proton electrochemical gradient. The translocation of pre-maltose binding protein (preMBP), which is strongly delta microH+ dependent, showed a 5-fold decreased rate with IMVs lacking SecD/F. In contrast, proteolytic processing of preMBP to MBP by leader peptidase was similar in IMVs containing and lacking SecD/F, consistent with earlier findings that only ATP-dependent translocation is required for the initiation of translocation. In the absence of a delta microH+, with ATP as the sole energy source, preMBP translocation into IMVs which contained or were depleted of SecD/F was identical. Translocation of the precursor of outer membrane protein A (proOmpA) in the presence of subsaturating ATP also required a generated delta microH+ and, under these conditions, proOmpA translocation required SecD/F. With saturating concentrations of ATP, where delta microH+ has little effect on in vitro proOmpA translocation, SecD/F also had little effect on translocation. These results explain why SecD/F effects are precursor protein dependent in vitro.

  5. Dynamic Phenylalanine Clamp Interactions Define Single-Channel Polypeptide Translocation through the Anthrax Toxin Protective Antigen Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Koyel; Colby, Jennifer M; Das, Debasis; Joy, Stephen T; Arora, Paramjit S; Krantz, Bryan A

    2017-03-24

    Anthrax toxin is an intracellularly acting toxin where sufficient detail is known about the structure of its channel, allowing for molecular investigations of translocation. The toxin is composed of three proteins, protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and edema factor (EF). The toxin's translocon, PA, translocates the large enzymes, LF and EF, across the endosomal membrane into the host cell's cytosol. Polypeptide clamps located throughout the PA channel catalyze the translocation of LF and EF. Here, we show that the central peptide clamp, the ϕ clamp, is a dynamic site that governs the overall peptide translocation pathway. Single-channel translocations of a 10-residue, guest-host peptide revealed that there were four states when peptide interacted with the channel. Two of the states had intermediate conductances of 10% and 50% of full conductance. With aromatic guest-host peptides, the 50% conducting intermediate oscillated with the fully blocked state. A Trp guest-host peptide was studied by manipulating its stereochemistry and prenucleating helix formation with a covalent linkage in the place of a hydrogen bond or hydrogen-bond surrogate (HBS). The Trp peptide synthesized with ʟ-amino acids translocated more efficiently than peptides synthesized with D- or alternating D,ʟ-amino acids. HBS stapled Trp peptide exhibited signs of steric hindrance and difficulty translocating. However, when mutant ϕ clamp (F427A) channels were tested, the HBS peptide translocated normally. Overall, peptide translocation is defined by dynamic interactions between the peptide and ϕ clamp. These dynamics require conformational flexibility, such that the peptide productively forms both extended-chain and helical states during translocation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Controlling effects of irradiance and heterotrophy on carbon translocation in the temperate coral Cladocora caespitosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Tremblay

    Full Text Available Temperate symbiotic corals, such as the Mediterranean species Cladocora caespitosa, live in seasonally changing environments, where irradiance can be ten times higher in summer than winter. These corals shift from autotrophy in summer to heterotrophy in winter in response to light limitation of the symbiont's photosynthesis. In this study, we determined the autotrophic carbon budget under different conditions of irradiance (20 and 120 µmol photons m(-2 s(-1 and feeding (fed three times a week with Artemia salina nauplii, and unfed. Corals were incubated in H(13CO(3 (--enriched seawater, and the fate of (13C was followed in the symbionts and the host tissue. The total amount of carbon fixed by photosynthesis and translocated was significantly higher at high than low irradiance (ca. 13 versus 2.5-4.5 µg cm(-2 h(-1, because the rates of photosynthesis and carbon fixation were also higher. However, the percent of carbon translocation was similar under the two irradiances, and reached more than 70% of the total fixed carbon. Host feeding induced a decrease in the percentage of carbon translocated under low irradiance (from 70 to 53%, and also a decrease in the rates of carbon translocation per symbiont cell under both irradiances. The fate of autotrophic and heterotrophic carbon differed according to irradiance. At low irradiance, autotrophic carbon was mostly respired by the host and the symbionts, and heterotrophic feeding led to an increase in host biomass. Under high irradiance, autotrophic carbon was both respired and released as particulate and dissolved organic carbon, and heterotrophic feeding led to an increase in host biomass and symbiont concentration. Overall, the maintenance of high symbiont concentration and high percentage of carbon translocation under low irradiance allow this coral species to optimize its autotrophic carbon acquisition, when irradiance conditions are not favourable to photosynthesis.

  7. Intestinal microbiota, microbial translocation, and systemic inflammation in chronic HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Duy M; Volpe, Gretchen E; Duffalo, Chad; Bhalchandra, Seema; Tai, Albert K; Kane, Anne V; Wanke, Christine A; Ward, Honorine D

    2015-01-01

    Despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), patients with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have increased microbial translocation and systemic inflammation. Alterations in the intestinal microbiota may play a role in microbial translocation and inflammation. We profiled the fecal microbiota by pyrosequencing the gene encoding 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and measured markers of microbial translocation and systemic inflammation in 21 patients who had chronic HIV infection and were receiving suppressive ART (cases) and 16 HIV-uninfected controls. The fecal microbial community composition was significantly different between cases and controls. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Enterobacteriales, Enterobacteriaceae, Erysipelotrichi, Erysipelotrichales, Erysipelotrichaceae, and Barnesiella was significantly enriched in cases, whereas that of Rikenellaceae and Alistipes was depleted. The plasma soluble CD14 level (sCD14) was significantly higher and the endotoxin core immunoglobulin M (IgM) level lower in cases, compared with controls. There were significant positive correlations between the relative abundances of Enterobacteriales and Enterobacteriaceae and the sCD14 level; the relative abundances of Gammaproteobacteria, Enterobacteriales, and Enterobacteriaceae and the interleukin 1β (IL-1β) level; the relative abundances of Enterobacteriales and Enterobacteriaceae and the interferon γ level; and the relative abundances of Erysipelotrichi and Barnesiella and the TNF-α level. There were negative correlations between endotoxin core IgM and IL-1β levels. Patients who have chronic HIV infection and are receiving suppressive ART display intestinal dysbiosis associated with increased microbial translocation and significant associations between specific taxa and markers of microbial translocation and systemic inflammation. This was an exploratory study, the findings of which need to be confirmed. © The Author 2014

  8. A framework for assessing the feasibility of native fish conservation translocations: Applications to threatened bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Benjamin T.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Guy, Christopher S.; Downs, Christopher C.; Fredenberg, Wade A.

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to consider more aggressive and direct interventions for the conservation of freshwater fishes that are threatened by invasive species, habitat loss, and climate change. Conservation introduction (moving a species outside its indigenous range to other areas where conditions are predicted to be more suitable) is one type of translocation strategy that fisheries managers can use to establish new conservation populations in areas of refugia. To date, however, there are few examples of successful conservation-based introductions. Many attempts fail to establish new populations—in part because environmental factors that might influence success are inadequately evaluated before the translocation is implemented. We developed a framework to assess the feasibility of rescuing threatened fish populations through translocation into historically unoccupied stream and lake habitats. The suitability of potential introduction sites was evaluated based on four major components: the recipient habitat, recipient community, donor population, and future threats. Specific questions were then developed to evaluate each major component. The final assessment was based on a scoring system that addressed each question by using criteria developed from characteristics representative of highly suitable habitats and populations. This framework was used to evaluate the proposed within-drainage translocation of three Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus populations in Glacier National Park, Montana. Our results indicated that within-drainage translocation is a feasible strategy for conserving locally adapted populations of Bull Trout through the creation of new areas of refugia in Glacier National Park. The framework provides a flexible platform that can help managers make informed decisions for moving threatened fishes into new areas of refugia for conservation and recovery programs.

  9. Effect of mesalazine, metronidazole and gentamicin on bacterial translocation in experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigitler, Cengizhan; Gulec, Bulent; Aydogan, Hakan; Ozcan, Ayhan; Kilinc, Metin; Yigit, Taner; Kozak, Orhan; Pekcan, Mesut

    2004-10-01

    In inflammatory bowel disease it has been established that enteric microorganisms are present in the final stage of the active inflammatory process. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of mesalazine, and metronidazole-gentamicin combination, on bacterial translocation in an animal colitis model. Fifty rats were stratified into five groups. The control group (group NC) was given only 2 mL saline enema and the remaining four groups were given 2 mL acetic acid enema. Group CC was the diseased control group. The treatment regimens started on the fifth day: mesalazine enema in group MesC, metronidazole-gentamicin in group MGC, and mesalazine + metronidazole + gentamicin in group MesMGC. After death on day 10, 2.5-cm colonic segments from all groups were weighed separately. In all rats, histopathological scoring was done, and samples from feces, blood, liver and spleen underwent microbiological analyses. For all diseased rats, both mean weight loss and colonic segment weight/bodyweight ratio was significantly higher than that in the sham group. As compared with other groups, body and colonic segment changes as well as histopathological scoring in rats receiving mesalazine enema either solely or in combination with the antibiotics were lower. No bacterial growth was found in the blood, liver and spleen of the rats in the control group while enteric bacteria, mainly Escherichia coli (35%) were the most common bacteria translocated to that in the latter. Antibiotic combination, alone or in combination with mesalazine was effective in reducing the bacterial translocation while mesalazine administration did not properly influence its regression. Gram-negative enteric bacteria, predominantly E. coli, was the most common bacteria isolated in bacterial translocation occurring in acetic acid-induced colitis. This trial showed that mesalazine alone did not incorporate the reduction of infectious events, despite its beneficial effect on inflammatory

  10. HELICOBACTER PYLORI AND t(11;18(q21;q21 TRANSLOCATION IN GASTRIC MALT LYMPHOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Sampaio LIMA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma is clearly associated with Helicobacter pylori gastritis and can be cured with anti- H pylori therapy alone. The presence of t(11;18(q21;q21 translocation is thought to predict a lower response rate to anti- H pylori treatment. Objectives To study the presence of t(11;18(q21;q21 genetic translocation and its clinical impact in low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma Brazilian patients. Methods A consecutive series of eight patients with gastric MALT lymphoma were submitted to gastroscopy, endoscopic ultrasound, histopathological examination, H pylori search and RT-PCR-based methodology. All patients received anti-H pylori treatment. Eradicated patients were followed-up every 3-6 months for 2 years. Results Eight patients were studied. All patients had tumor involvement restricted to the mucosa or submucosa and seven patients had low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma. All infected patients achieved H pylori eradication. Histological tumor regression was observed in 5/7 (71% of the low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma patients. The presence of t(11;18(q21;q21 translocation was found in 4 (57% of these patients; among them only two had histological tumor regression following H pylori eradication. Conclusions RT-PCR is a feasible and efficient method to detect t(11;18(q21;q21 translocation, being carried out in routine molecular biology laboratories. The early detection of such translocation can be very helpful for better targeting the therapy to be applied to gastric MALT lymphoma patients.

  11. Controlling Effects of Irradiance and Heterotrophy on Carbon Translocation in the Temperate Coral Cladocora caespitosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Pascale; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Maguer, Jean François; Rottier, Cécile; Legendre, Louis; Grover, Renaud

    2012-01-01

    Temperate symbiotic corals, such as the Mediterranean species Cladocora caespitosa, live in seasonally changing environments, where irradiance can be ten times higher in summer than winter. These corals shift from autotrophy in summer to heterotrophy in winter in response to light limitation of the symbiont’s photosynthesis. In this study, we determined the autotrophic carbon budget under different conditions of irradiance (20 and 120 µmol photons m−2 s−1) and feeding (fed three times a week with Artemia salina nauplii, and unfed). Corals were incubated in H13CO3−-enriched seawater, and the fate of 13C was followed in the symbionts and the host tissue. The total amount of carbon fixed by photosynthesis and translocated was significantly higher at high than low irradiance (ca. 13 versus 2.5–4.5 µg cm−2 h−1), because the rates of photosynthesis and carbon fixation were also higher. However, the percent of carbon translocation was similar under the two irradiances, and reached more than 70% of the total fixed carbon. Host feeding induced a decrease in the percentage of carbon translocated under low irradiance (from 70 to 53%), and also a decrease in the rates of carbon translocation per symbiont cell under both irradiances. The fate of autotrophic and heterotrophic carbon differed according to irradiance. At low irradiance, autotrophic carbon was mostly respired by the host and the symbionts, and heterotrophic feeding led to an increase in host biomass. Under high irradiance, autotrophic carbon was both respired and released as particulate and dissolved organic carbon, and heterotrophic feeding led to an increase in host biomass and symbiont concentration. Overall, the maintenance of high symbiont concentration and high percentage of carbon translocation under low irradiance allow this coral species to optimize its autotrophic carbon acquisition, when irradiance conditions are not favourable to photosynthesis. PMID:22970284

  12. Identification of an Essential Region for Translocation of Clostridium difficile Toxin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyi Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile toxin A (TcdA and toxin B (TcdB are the major virulence factors involved in C. difficile-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. TcdA and TcdB both contain at least four distinct domains: the glucosyltransferase domain, cysteine protease domain, receptor binding domain, and translocation domain. Few studies have investigated the translocation domain and its mechanism of action. Recently, it was demonstrated that a segment of 97 amino acids (AA 1756–1852, designated D97 within the translocation domain of TcdB is essential for the in vitro and in vivo toxicity of TcdB. However, the mechanism by which D97 regulates the action of TcdB in host cells and the important amino acids within this region are unknown. In this study, we discovered that a smaller fragment, amino acids 1756–1780, located in the N-terminus of the D97 fragment, is essential for translocation of the effector glucosyltransferase domain into the host cytosol. A sequence of 25AA within D97 is predicted to form an alpha helical structure and is the critical part of D97. The deletion mutant TcdB∆1756–1780 showed similar glucosyltransferase and cysteine protease activity, cellular binding, and pore formation to wild type TcdB, but it failed to induce the glucosylation of Rho GTPase Rac1 of host cells. Moreover, we found that TcdB∆1756–1780 was rapidly degraded in the endosome of target cells, and therefore its intact glucosyltransferase domain was unable to translocate efficiently into host cytosol. Our finding provides an insight into the molecular mechanisms of action of TcdB in the intoxication of host cells.

  13. CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation induced by gastrin promotes gastric cancer cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hui-Hong; Meng, Juan; Wang, Jing-Bo; Liu, Zhen-Xiong; Li, Yuan-Fei; Feng, Shan-Shan

    2014-08-07

    To investigate the role of nuclear translocation of calcyclin binding protein, also called Siah-1 interacting protein (CacyBP/SIP), in gastric carcinogenesis. The expression of CacyBP/SIP protein in gastric cancer cell lines was detected by Western blot. Immunofluorescence experiments were performed on gastric cancer cell lines that had been either unstimulated or stimulated with gastrin. To confirm the immunofluorescence findings, the relative abundance of CacyBP/SIP in nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments was assessed by Western blot. The effect of nuclear translocation of CacyBP/SIP on cell proliferation was examined using MTT assay. The colony formation assay was used to measure clonogenic cell survival. The effect of CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation on cell cycle progression was investigated. Two CacyBP/SIP-specific siRNA vectors were designed and constructed to inhibit CacyBP/SIP expression in order to reduce the nuclear translocation of CacyBP/SIP, and the expression of CacyBP/SIP in stably transfected cells was determined by Western blot. The effect of inhibiting CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation on cell proliferation was then assessed. CacyBP/SIP protein was present in most of gastric cancer cell lines. In unstimulated cells, CacyBP/SIP was distributed throughout the cytoplasm; while in stimulated cells, CacyBP/SIP was found mainly in the perinuclear region. CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation generated a growth-stimulatory effect on cells. The number of colonies in the CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation group was significantly higher than that in the control group. The percentage of stimulated cells in G1 phase was significantly lower than that of control cells (69.70% ± 0.46% and 65.80% ± 0.60%, control cells and gastrin-treated SGC7901 cells, P = 0.008; 72.99% ± 0.46% and 69.36% ± 0.51%, control cells and gastrin-treated MKN45 cells, P = 0.022). CacyBP/SIPsi1 effectively down-regulated the expression of CacyBP/SIP, and cells stably transfected by Cacy

  14. Importance of No. 21 chromosome in translocation t(8:21) in acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) to the genesis of the disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, T.; Minamihisamatsu, M.

    1986-05-01

    The results are reported of the chromosome analysis of 17 cases of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), mostly belonging to M2 of the FAB classification, especially on the translocation t(8:21) and its variant translocations. The presence of two cases with simple variant translocation not involving No. 8 chromosome seems to suggest that No. 21 chromosome is more important to the genesis of AML than the No. 8 chromosome. This assumption appears to be supported by findings on cases with complex translocation: In two cases with complex translocation, the portion translocated from No. 21 chromosome onto No. 8 was firmly maintained in the specific site (q21) on No. 8 whereas the portion translocated from No. 8 chromosome onto No. 21 was involved in further translocation with another chromosome, onto which it was re-translocated. The results of the present cytogenetic study indicate that the analysis of variant translocations in various specific chromosome translocations in leukemia and other malignant disorders is very useful to elucidate the problem as to whether the genesis of such disorders lies in either one or both of the pair of chromosomes involved in the specific translocations of the respective diseases.

  15. A Proteome Translocation Response to Complex Desert Stress Environments in Perennial Phragmites Sympatric Ecotypes with Contrasting Water Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Chen, Xiaodan; Shi, Lu; Wang, Chuanjing; Fu, Bing; Qiu, Tianhang; Cui, Suxia

    2017-01-01

    After a long-term adaptation to desert environment, the perennial aquatic plant Phragmites communis has evolved a desert-dune ecotype. The desert-dune ecotype (DR) of Phragmites communis showed significant differences in water activity and protein distribution compared to its sympatric swamp ecotype (SR). Many proteins that were located in the soluble fraction of SR translocated to the insoluble fraction of DR, suggesting that membrane-associated proteins were greatly reinforced in DR. The unknown phenomenon in plant stress physiology was defined as a proteome translocation response. Quantitative 2D-DIGE technology highlighted these 'bound' proteins in DR. Fifty-eight kinds of proteins were identified as candidates of the translocated proteome in Phragmites. The majority were chloroplast proteins. Unexpectedly, Rubisco was the most abundant protein sequestered by DR. Rubisco activase, various chaperons and 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin were major components in the translocation response. Conformational change was assumed to be the main reason for the Rubisco translocation due to no primary sequence difference between DR and SR. The addition of reductant in extraction process partially reversed the translocation response, implying that intracellular redox status plays a role in the translocation response of the proteome. The finding emphasizes the realistic significance of the membrane-association of biomolecule for plant long-term adaptation to complex stress conditions.

  16. Dynamic monitoring of p53 translocation to mitochondria for the analysis of specific inhibitors using luciferase-fragment complementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Natsumi; Awais, Raheela; Sutton, Robert; Awais, Muhammad; Ozawa, Takeaki

    2017-12-01

    Intracellular protein translocation plays a pivotal role in regulating complex biological processes, including cell death. The tumor suppressor p53 is a transcription factor activated by DNA damage and oxidative stress that also translocates from the cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix to facilitate necrotic cell death. However, specific inhibitors of p53 mitochondrial translocation are largely unknown. To explore the inhibitors of p53, we developed a bioluminescent probe to monitor p53 translocation from cytosol to mitochondria using luciferase fragment complementation assays. The probe is composed of a novel pair of luciferase fragments, the N-terminus of green click beetle luciferase CBG68 (CBGN) and multiple-complement luciferase fragment (McLuc1). The combination of luciferase fragments showed significant luminescence intensity and high signal-to-background ratio. When the p53 connected with McLuc1 translocates from cytosol into mitochondrial matrix, CBGN in mitochondrial matrix enables to complement with McLuc1, resulting in the restoration of the luminescence. The luminescence intensity was significantly increased under hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress following the complementation of CBGN and McLuc1. Pifithrin-μ, a selective inhibitor of p53 mitochondrial translocation, prevented the mitochondrial translocation of the p53 probe in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the high luminescence intensity made it easier to visualize the p53 translocation at a single cell level under a bioluminescence microscope. This p53 mitochondrial translocation assay is a new tool for high-throughput screening to identify novel p53 inhibitors, which could be developed as drugs to treat diseases in which necrotic cell death is a major contributor. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Simultaneous localization of MLL, AF4 and ENL genes in interphase nuclei by 3D-FISH: MLL translocation revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Jian-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haematological cancer is characterised by chromosomal translocation (e.g. MLL translocation in acute leukaemia and two models have been proposed to explain the origins of recurrent reciprocal translocation. The first, established from pairs of translocated genes (such as BCR and ABL, considers the spatial proximity of loci in interphase nuclei (static "contact first" model. The second model is based on the dynamics of double strand break ends during repair processes (dynamic "breakage first" model. Since the MLL gene involved in 11q23 translocation has more than 40 partners, the study of the relative positions of the MLL gene with both the most frequent partner gene (AF4 and a less frequent partner gene (ENL, should elucidate the MLL translocation mechanism. Methods Using triple labeling 3D FISH experiments, we have determined the relative positions of MLL, AF4 and ENL genes, in two lymphoblastic and two myeloid human cell lines. Results In all cell lines, the ENL gene is significantly closer to the MLL gene than the AF4 gene (with P value loci would indicate a greater probability of the occurrence of t(11;19(q23;p13.3 compared to t(4;11(q21;q23. However this is in contradiction to the epidemiology of 11q23 translocation. Conclusion The simultaneous multi-probe hybridization in 3D-FISH is a new approach in addressing the correlation between spatial proximity and occurrence of translocation. Our observations are not consistent with the static "contact first" model of translocation. The recently proposed dynamic "breakage first" model offers an attractive alternative explanation.

  18. Ratchet rectification effect on the translocation of a flexible polyelectrolyte chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Debasish; Muthukumar, M.

    2016-01-01

    We report a three dimensional Langevin dynamics simulation of a uniformly charged flexible polyelectrolyte chain, translocating through an asymmetric narrow channel with periodically varying cross sections under the influence of a periodic external electric field. When reflection symmetry of the channel is broken, a rectification effect is observed with a favored direction for the chain translocation. For a given volume of the channel unit and polymer length, the rectification occurs below a threshold frequency of the external periodic driving force. We have also observed that the extent of the rectification varies non-monotonically with increasing molecular weight and the strength of geometric asymmetry of the channel. Observed non-monotonicity of the rectification performance has been interpreted in terms of a competition between two effects arising from the channel asymmetry and change in conformational entropy. An analytical model is presented with predictions consistent with the simulation results. PMID:27586945

  19. [Expression, subcellular localization and nuclear translocation of transcription factor up stream stimulatory factor-1 in odontoblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-An; Wen, Ling-Ying; Yang, Fu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Fang, Jun

    2007-09-01

    To examine the expression and subcellular localization of transcription factor USF1 in odontoblasts and investigate whether nuclear translocation occurs under stimuli. Odontoblasts MDPC-23 were cultured on coverslips and divided into 2 groups. Group 1 received no stimuli, and group 2 was stimulated by nicotine with various concentrations respectively for 1h. Then the mountings of odontoblasts were prepared and immunocytochemical staining was performed with specific USF1 antibody via SABC method. Hela cells were used as positive control. The staining was positive in the cytoplasm of odontoblasts in group 1, but in the nuclei of Hela cells and in 100 mg/L nicotine-stimulated odontoblasts in group 2. There exists USF1 protein in odontoblasts, which locates in the cytoplasm and could translocate into nuclei under the stimulation of nicotine.

  20. Xp11 Translocation Renal Cell Carcinoma: Unusual Variant Masquerading as Upper Tract Urothelial Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Akhavein

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (TRCC is a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma characterized by chromosomal translocations involving the TFE3 gene located at the Xp11.2 locus. Initial cases were more common in children, but cases in older adults have begun to accrue and suggest a relatively more aggressive course. We report a case of Xp11 TRCC in a 63-year-old female patient with initial presentation mimicking upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinoma, with biopsy proving TRCC. She underwent a radical nephrectomy and paracaval lymph node dissection and is followed up with the intent to initiate vascular endothelial growth factor–targeted therapy in case of recurrence.

  1. Nuclear translocation of glutathione transferase omega is a progression marker in Barrett's esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piaggi, Simona; Marchi, Santino; Ciancia, Eugenio

    2009-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) represents a major risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma (AC). For this reason, patients with BE are subjected to a systematic endoscopic surveillance to detect initial evolution towards non-invasive neoplasia (NiN) and cancer, that eventually occurs only in a small f...... fraction of BE patients. This study was aimed to investigate the possible role of glutathione-S-transferase-omega 1 (GSTO1), a recently discovered member of the glutathione-S-transferase family, as a progression marker in the Barrett's disease in order to improve the diagnosis of Ni...... equally divided between nuclear, cytoplasmic and diffuse staining (2 each, respectively). Experiments in vitro showed that in human HeLa cancer cells, GSTO1 translocates into the nucleus as a consequence of heath shock. These findings suggested that the nuclear translocation of glutathione-S-transferase-omega...

  2. Glyphosate accumulation, translocation, and biological effects in Coffea arabica after single and multiple exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrübbers, Lars Christoph; Valverde, Bernal E.; Strobel, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    In perennial crops like coffee, glyphosate drift exposure can occur multiple times during its commercial life span. Due to limited glyphosate degradation in higher plants, a potential accumulation of glyphosate could lead to increased biological effects with increased exposure frequency....... In this study, we investigated glyphosate translocation over time, and its concentration and biological effects after single and multiple simulated spray-drift exposures. Additionally, shikimic acid/glyphosate ratios were used as biomarkers for glyphosate binding to its target enzyme.Four weeks after...... the exposure, glyphosate was continuously translocated. Shikimic acid levels were lin-ear correlated with glyphosate levels. After two months, however, glyphosate appeared to have reduced activity. In the greenhouse, multiple applications resulted in higher internal glyphosate concentrations.The time...

  3. [The intestines, their role in the critical patient and the concept of bacterial translocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, J

    1993-07-01

    The gut is a central organ during critical illnesses that occur as a result of injuries or postoperative infections. After the successful treatment of shock, pulmonary and renal failure, a prolonged septic state emerges, frequently without apparent origin. An immunological host defense failure, associated with the intensive care support that fails to provide the essential amino acid glutamine to the gut, promotes a iatrogenic host invasion by microorganism or soilage by their toxins. This process is called "Bacterial Translocation". The increased permeability of the intestine, coupled with changes in intestinal flora, allows the bowel to serve as a reservoir of pathogens that can enter the portal and systemic circulations and fuel the ongoing septic process. Activating the hepatic reticuloendothelial system, bacterial translocation initiates the Multiple Organ Failure Syndrome. We discuss new therapeutic approaches derived from the aforementioned concepts.

  4. Lymphomas with concurrent BCL2 and MYC translocations: the critical factors associated with survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nathalie A; Savage, Kerry J; Ludkovski, Olga; Ben-Neriah, Susana; Woods, Ryan; Steidl, Christian; Dyer, Martin J S; Siebert, Reiner; Kuruvilla, John; Klasa, Richard; Connors, Joseph M; Gascoyne, Randy D; Horsman, Douglas E

    2009-09-10

    BCL2 and MYC are oncogenes commonly deregulated in lymphomas. Concurrent BCL2 and MYC translocations (BCL2(+)/MYC(+)) were identified in 54 samples by karyotype and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization with the aim of correlating clinical and cytogenetic characteristics to overall survival. BCL2(+)/MYC(+) lymphomas were diagnosed as B-cell lymphoma unclassifiable (BCLU; n = 36) with features intermediate between Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL); DLBCL (n = 17), or follicular lymphoma (n = 1). Despite the presence of a t(14;18), 5 cases were BCL2 protein-negative. Nonimmunoglobulin gene/MYC (non-IG/MYC) translocations occurred in 24 of 54 cases (44%) and were highly associated with DLBCL morphology (P survival. A comprehensive cytogenetic analysis of BCL2 and MYC status on all aggressive lymphomas may identify a group of high-risk patients who may benefit from chemotherapeutic regimens that include rituximab and/or BCL2-targeted therapy.

  5. Plant P4-ATPases: lipid translocators with a role in membrane traficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    members of this family with respect to their localization, substrate specificity, physiological role and requirement for the presence of a ß-subunit [9,13-15]. At the moment we are working on understanding the mechanism of lipid trasnsport and the regulation of these pumps. In this context, we have...... a large family of membrane proteins involved in pumping different physiologically-relevant substrates across biological membranes [4]. The members of the P4 subfamily (also known as flippases) catalyze the energy-driven translocation of lipids necessary for establishing transbilayer lipid asymmetry [5...... of lipid translocation, our results suggest that the different transport features of these proteins might be related to their physiological function at the membrane where they are located....

  6. Unusual localization and translocation of TRPV4 protein in cultured ventricular myocytes of the neonatal rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available TRPV4 protein forms a Ca2+-permeable channel that is sensitive to osmotic and mechanical stimuli and responds to warm temperatures, and expresses widely in various kinds of tissues. As for cardiac myocytes, TRPV4 has been detected only at the mRNA level and there were few reports about subcellular localization of the protein. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the expression profile of TRPV4 protein in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Using Western blots, immunofluorescence, confocal microscopy and immuno-electron microscopy, we have shown that TRPV4 protein was predominantly located in the nucleus of cultured neonatal myocytes. Furthermore, cardiac myocytes responded to hypotonic stimulation by translocating TRPV4 protein out of the nucleus. The significance and mechanism concerning the unusual distribution and translocation of TRPV4 protein in cardiac myocytes remain to be clarified.

  7. Effect of Nanopore Length on the Translocation Process of a Biopolymer: Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Kweon Suh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we simulate the electrophoretic motion of a bio-polymer through a synthetic nanopore in the presence of an external bias voltage by considering the hydrodynamic interactions between the polymer and the fluid explicitly. The motion of the polymer is simulated by 3D Langevin dynamics technique by modeling the polymer as a worm-like-chain, while the hydrodynamic interactions are incorporated by the lattice Boltzmann equation. We report the simulation results for three different lengths of the nanopore. The translocation time increases with the pore length even though the electrophoretic force on the polymer is the same irrespective of the pore length. This is attributed to the fact that the translocation velocity of each bead inside the nanopore decreases with the pore length due to the increased fluid resistance force caused by the increase in the straightened portion of the polymer. We confirmed this using a theoretical formula.

  8. Investigation of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles translocation through a Caco-2 monolayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, E; Jugan, M-L; Carriere, M [Laboratoire de Structure et Dynamique par Resonance Magnetique, UMR3299 CEA-CNRS, Saclay (France); Herlin-Boime, N [Laboratoire Francis Perrin, URA2453 CEA-CNRS, Saclay (France); Jaillard, D [Centre Commun de Microscopie Electronique d' Orsay, UMR8195 CNRS-univ. Paris Sud, Orsay (France); Fayard, B [ID21 beamline, ESRF, Grenoble, France and Laboratoire de Physique du Solide, UMR8502 CNRS-univ. Paris Sud, Orsay (France); Flank, A-M [LUCIA beamline, SOLEIL synchrotron, Saint-Aubin (France); Mabondzo, A, E-mail: marie.carriere@cea.fr [Laboratoire d' Etude du Metabolisme du Medicament, CEA, Saclay (France)

    2011-07-06

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are introduced in a growing number of commercial products, including food and beverage but their effects on gastrointestinal tract are poorly investigated. Here we focused on the translocation of TiO{sub 2} NPs through Caco-2 monolayers exposed to anatase and rutile NPs up to 24 h. Internalization was followed by transmission electronic microscopy and {mu}-XRF elemental mapping, coupled to XAS analysis of Ti atoms environment. This innovative technique is among the best techniques to get insights on NP fate after internalization. The originality of this project relies on the panel of microscopy techniques implemented to investigate digestive barrier translocation, bringing together biologists, chemists and physicists in a pluridisciplinary research program.

  9. Modelling uptake into roots and subsequent translocation of neutral and ionisable organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    A study on uptake of neutral and dissociating organic compounds from soil solution into roots, and their subsequent translocation, was undertaken using model simulations. The model approach combines the processes of lipophilic sorption, electrochemical interactions, ion trap, advection in xylem...... with the dynamic model, but still gave deviations up to factor of ten or more. The dominating process for monovalent weak electrolytes was found to be the ion trap effect. C 2000 Society of Chemical Industry...

  10. Uptake, translocation and transformation of antimony in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Fei; Ren, Jinghua; Tao, Shu; Wang, Xilong

    2016-02-01

    Antimony (Sb), as a toxic metalloid, has been gaining increasing research concerns due mainly to its severe pollution in many places. Rice has been identified to be the dominant intake route of Sb by residents close to the Sb mining areas. A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the difference in uptake, translocation and transformation of Sb in rice seedlings of four cultivars exposed to 0.2 or 1.0 mg/L of Sb(V). The results showed that mass concentration of iron plaque (mg/kg FW) formed at the root surfaces of cultivar N was the highest among all tested cultivars at both low and high exposure levels of Sb(V). The accumulated Sb concentration in iron plaque significantly increased with an increase in mass concentration of iron plaque formed at the rice root. The total amount of iron plaque (mg/pot) at rice root generally increased with increasing exposed Sb(V) concentration, which was closely associated with the increasing lipid peroxidation in roots. Concentration percentage of Sb in rice root significantly reduced as the corresponding value in the iron plaque increased, suggesting that iron plaque formation strongly suppressed uptake of Sb by rice root. Sb concentration in rice tissues followed an order: root > stem, leaf. The japonica rice (cultivars N and Z) exhibited a stronger translocation tendency of Sb from root to stem than indica hybrid rice (cultivars F and G). Translocation of Sb from root of cultivar F to its stem and leaf was sharply enhanced with increasing Sb exposure concentration. Sb(V) could be reduced to Sb(III) in rice tissues, especially in stems (10-26% of the total Sb). For the sake of food safety, the difference in uptake, translocation and transformation of Sb in rice species planted in Sb-contaminated soils should be taken into consideration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nonmuscle myosin II exerts tension but does not translocate actin in vertebrate cytokinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuefei; Kovács, Mihály; Conti, Mary Anne; Wang, Aibing; Zhang, Yingfan; Sellers, James R; Adelstein, Robert S

    2012-03-20

    During vertebrate cytokinesis it is thought that contractile ring constriction is driven by nonmuscle myosin II (NM II) translocation of antiparallel actin filaments. Here we report in situ, in vitro, and in vivo observations that challenge this hypothesis. Graded knockdown of NM II in cultured COS-7 cells reveals that the amount of NM II limits ring constriction. Restoration of the constriction rate with motor-impaired NM II mutants shows that the ability of NM II to translocate actin is not required for cytokinesis. Blebbistatin inhibition of cytokinesis indicates the importance of myosin strongly binding to actin and exerting tension during cytokinesis. This role is substantiated by transient kinetic experiments showing that the load-dependent mechanochemical properties of mutant NM II support efficient tension maintenance despite the inability to translocate actin. Under loaded conditions, mutant NM II exhibits a prolonged actin attachment in which a single mechanoenzymatic cycle spans most of the time of cytokinesis. This prolonged attachment promotes simultaneous binding of NM II heads to actin, thereby increasing tension and resisting expansion of the ring. The detachment of mutant NM II heads from actin is enhanced by assisting loads, which prevent mutant NM II from hampering furrow ingression during cytokinesis. In the 3D context of mouse hearts, mutant NM II-B R709C that cannot translocate actin filaments can rescue multinucleation in NM II-B ablated cardiomyocytes. We propose that the major roles of NM II in vertebrate cell cytokinesis are to bind and cross-link actin filaments and to exert tension on actin during contractile ring constriction.

  12. Evaluation of wheat chromosome translocation lines for high temperature stress tolerance at grain filling stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Prasad Pradhan

    Full Text Available High temperature (HT, heat stress is detrimental to wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production. Wild relatives of bread wheat may offer sources of HT stress tolerance genes because they grow in stressed habitats. Wheat chromosome translocation lines, produced by introgressing small segments of chromosome from wild relatives to bread wheat, were evaluated for tolerance to HT stress during the grain filling stage. Sixteen translocation lines and four wheat cultivars were grown at optimum temperature (OT of 22/14°C (day/night. Ten days after anthesis, half of the plants were exposed to HT stress of 34/26°C for 16 d, and other half remained at OT. Results showed that HT stress decreased grain yield by 43% compared with OT. Decrease in individual grain weight (by 44% was the main reason for yield decline at HT. High temperature stress had adverse effects on leaf chlorophyll content and Fv/Fm; and a significant decrease in Fv/Fm was associated with a decline in individual grain weight. Based on the heat response (heat susceptibility indices, HSIs of physiological and yield traits to each other and to yield HSI, TA5594, TA5617, and TA5088 were highly tolerant and TA5637 and TA5640 were highly susceptible to HT stress. Our results suggest that change in Fv/Fm is a highly useful trait in screening genotypes for HT stress tolerance. This study showed that there is genetic variability among wheat chromosome translocation lines for HT stress tolerance at the grain filling stage and we suggest further screening of a larger set of translocation lines.

  13. High dietary niacin intake is associated with decreased chromosome translocation frequency in airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Lee C; Petersen, Martin R

    2011-02-01

    Experimental studies suggest that B vitamins such as niacin, folate, riboflavin, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 may protect against DNA damage induced by ionising radiation (IR). However, to date, data from IR-exposed human populations are not available. We examined the intakes of these B vitamins and their food sources in relation to the frequency of chromosome translocations as a biomarker of cumulative DNA damage, in eighty-two male airline pilots. Dietary intakes were estimated by using a self-administered semi-quantitative FFQ. Translocations in peripheral blood lymphocytes were scored by using fluorescence in situ hybridisation whole-chromosome painting. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate rate ratios and 95 % CI, adjusted for age and occupational and lifestyle factors. We observed a significant inverse association between translocation frequency and dietary intake of niacin (P = 0·02): adjusted rate ratio for subjects in the highest tertile compared with the lowest tertile was 0·58 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·83). Translocation frequency was not associated with total niacin intake from food and supplements as well as dietary or total intake of folate, riboflavin or vitamin B6 or B12. However, the adjusted rate ratios were significant for subjects with ≥ median compared with < median intake of whole grains (P = 0·03) and red and processed meat (P = 0·01): 0·69 (95 % CI 0·50, 0·96) and 1·56 (95 % CI 1·13, 2·16), respectively. Our data suggest that a high intake of niacin from food or a diet high in whole grains but low in red and processed meat may protect against cumulative DNA damage in IR-exposed persons.

  14. Conformational Changes of the Clamp of the Protein Translocation ATPase SecA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Bauer, Benedikt W; Rapoport, Tom A; Gumbart, James C

    2015-07-17

    Post-translational protein translocation across the bacterial plasma membrane is mediated by the interplay of the SecA ATPase and the protein-conducting SecY channel. SecA consists of several domains, including two nucleotide-binding domains (NBD1 and NBD2), a polypeptide cross-linking domain (PPXD), a helical scaffold domain (HSD), and a helical wing domain (HWD). PPXD, HSD, and NBD2 form a clamp that positions the polypeptide substrate above the channel so that it can be pushed into the channel by a two-helix finger of the HSD. How the substrate is accommodated in the clamp during translocation is unclear. Here, we report a crystal structure of Thermotoga maritima SecA at 1.9 Å resolution. Structural analysis and free-energy calculations indicate that the new structure represents an intermediate state during the transition of the clamp from an open to a closed conformation. Molecular dynamics simulations show that closure of the clamp occurs in two phases, an initial movement of PPXD, HSD, and HWD as a unit, followed by a movement of PPXD alone toward NBD2. Simulations in the presence of a polypeptide chain show that the substrate associates with the back of the clamp by dynamic hydrogen bonding and that the clamp is laterally closed by a conserved loop of the PPXD. Mutational disruption of clamp opening or closure abolishes protein translocation. These results suggest how conformational changes of SecA allow substrate binding and movement during protein translocation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Familial cryptic translocation resulting in Angelman syndrome: Implications for imprinting or location of the Angelman gene?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, L.W.; Wiley, J.E.; Smith, A.J.W.; Kushnick, T. [East Carolina Univ. School of Medicine, Greenville, NC (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is associated with a loss of maternal genetic information, which typically occurs as a result of a deletion at 15q11-q13 or paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15. We report a patient with AS as a result of an unbalanced cryptic translocation whose breakpoint, at 15q11.2, falls within this region. The proband was diagnosed clinically as having Angelman syndrome, but without a detectable cytogenetic deletion, by using high-resolution G-banding. FISH detected a deletion of D15S11 (IR4-3R), with an intact GABRB3 locus. Subsequent studies of the proband`s mother and sister detected a cryptic reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 14 and 15 with the breakpoint being between SNRPN and D15S10. The proband was found to have inherited an unbalanced form, being monosomic from 15pter through SNRPN and trisomic for 14pter to 14q11.2. DNA methylation studies showed that the proband had a paternal-only DNA methylation pattern at SNRPN, D15S63 (PW71), and ZNF127. The mother and unaffected sister, both having the balanced translocation, demonstrated normal DNA methylation patterns at all three loci. These data suggest that the gene for AS most likely lies proximal to D15S10, in contrast to the previously published position, although a less likely possibility is that the maternally inherited imprinting center acts in trans in the unaffected balanced translocation carrier sister. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Pericentromeric organization at the fusion point of mouse Robertsonian translocation chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garagna, Silvia; Marziliano, Nicola; Zuccotti, Maurizio; Searle, Jeremy B.; Capanna, Ernesto; Redi, Carlo Alberto

    2001-01-01

    In mammals, Robertsonian (Rb) translocation (the joining of two telo/acrocentric chromosomes at their centromere to form a metacentric) is the most effective process in chromosomal evolution leading to speciation; its occurrence also affects human health (through the induction of trisomies) and the fertility of farm animals. To understand the mechanism of Rb translocation, we used the house mouse as a model system and studied the organization of pericentromeric satellite DNAs (satDNA) of telocentrics and Rb chromosomes, both minor and major satDNA. The chromosome-orientation fluorescence in situ hybridization (CO-FISH) technique was used to analyze the major satDNA. To detect the very small amount of minor satDNA, a procedure was developed that combines CO-FISH with primed in situ labeling and conventional FISH and is five times more sensitive than the CO-FISH procedure alone. It was found that both the major and the minor satDNA tandem repeats are oriented head-to-tail in telocentric and Rb chromosomes, and their polarity is always the same relative to the centromere. We suggest that all tandemly repetitive satDNAs in a species probably are locked into such a symmetry constraint as a universal consequence of chromosomal evolution. Rb translocation breakpoints were found localized within the minor satDNA of telocentrics, and these sequences contributed symmetrically to the formation of the centromeric region of the Rb chromosomes. These results are important for an understanding of the geometry of Rb translocations and suggest the study of DNA orientation as a new tool for investigating these rearrangements. PMID:11136254

  17. Increased translocation of bacteria from the gastrointestinal tracts of tumor-bearing mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Penn, R L; Maca, R D; Berg, R D

    1985-01-01

    Aerobic gram-negative bacilli and other indigenous gastrointestinal (GI) bacteria are important opportunistic pathogens in immunosuppressed cancer patients. These same bacteria frequently translocate from the GI tracts of mice immunosuppressed by single injections of certain anticancer drugs or by T-lymphocyte impairments. Since similar cellular and humoral immune deficiencies may be present in the tumor-bearing host, we sought to determine if progressive growth of a tumor alone would be suff...

  18. Mitochondrial translocation of Nur77 induced by ROS contributed to cardiomyocyte apoptosis in metabolic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Aibin; Liu, Jingyi [Department of Cardiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an (China); Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, General Hospital of Beijing Command, PLA, Beijing (China); Liu, Peilin; Jia, Min; Wang, Han [Department of Cardiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an (China); Tao, Ling, E-mail: lingtao2006@gmail.com [Department of Cardiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an (China)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Metabolic syndrome exacerbated MI/R induced injury accompanied by decreased Nur77. • ROS led to Nur77 translocation in metabolic syndrome. • Inhibiting relocation of Nur77 to mitochondria reduced ROS-induced cardiomyocyte injury in metabolic syndrome. - Abstract: Metabolic syndrome is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis which contributes to cardiac dysfunction after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Nur77, a nuclear orphan receptor, is involved in such various cellular events as apoptosis, proliferation, and glucose and lipid metabolism in several cell types. Apoptosis is positively correlated with mitochondrial translocation of Nur77 in the cancer cells. However, the roles of Nur77 on cardiac myocytes in patients with metabolic syndrome remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether Nur77 may contribute to cardiac apoptosis in patients with metabolic syndrome after I/R injury, and, if so, to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible. We used leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice to make metabolic syndrome models. In this report, we observed that, accompanied by the substantial decline in apoptosis inducer Nur77, MI/R induced cardiac dysfunction was manifested as cardiomyopathy and increased ROS. Using the neonatal rat cardiac myocytes cultured in a high-glucose and high-fat medium, we found that excessive H{sub 2}O{sub 2} led to the significant alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential and translocation of Nur77 from the nucleus to the mitochondria. However, inhibition of the relocation of Nur77 to mitochondria via Cyclosporin A reversed the changes in membrane potential mediated by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and reduced myocardial cell injury. Therefore, these data provide a potential underlying mechanism for cardiac dysfunction in metabolic syndrome and the suppression of Nur77 translocation may provide an effective approach to reduce cardiac injury in the

  19. Typical and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli bacterial translocation associated with tissue hypoperfusion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.A. Liberatore

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC are well-recognized diarrheal agents, their ability to translocate and cause extraintestinal alterations is not known. We investigated whether a typical EPEC (tEPEC and an atypical EPEC (aEPEC strain translocate and cause microcirculation injury under conditions of intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Bacterial translocation (BT was induced in female Wistar-EPM rats (200-250 g by oroduodenal catheterization and inoculation of 10 mL 10(10 colony forming unit (CFU/mL, with the bacteria being confined between the duodenum and ileum with ligatures. After 2 h, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN, liver and spleen were cultured for translocated bacteria and BT-related microcirculation changes were monitored in mesenteric and abdominal organs by intravital microscopy and laser Doppler flow, respectively. tEPEC (N = 11 and aEPEC (N = 11 were recovered from MLN (100%, spleen (36.4 and 45.5%, and liver (45.5 and 72.7% of the animals, respectively. Recovery of the positive control E. coli R-6 (N = 6 was 100% for all compartments. Bacteria were not recovered from extraintestinal sites of controls inoculated with non-pathogenic E. coli strains HB101 (N = 6 and HS (N = 10, or saline. Mesenteric microcirculation injuries were detected with both EPEC strains, but only aEPEC was similar to E. coli R-6 with regard to systemic tissue hypoperfusion. In conclusion, overgrowth of certain aEPEC strains may lead to BT and impairment of the microcirculation in systemic organs.

  20. Structure and operation of the DNA-translocating type I DNA restriction enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Kennaway, Christopher K.; Taylor, James E.; Song, Chun Feng; Potrzebowski, Wojciech; Nicholson, William; White, John H.; Swiderska, Anna; Obarska-Kosinska, Agnieszka; Callow, Philip; Cooper, Laurie P.; Roberts, Gareth A.; Artero, Jean-Baptiste; Bujnicki, Janusz M.; Trinick, John; Kneale, G. Geoff

    2012-01-01

    Type I DNA restriction/modification (RM) enzymes are molecular machines found in the majority of bacterial species. Their early discovery paved the way for the development of genetic engineering. They control (restrict) the influx of foreign DNA via horizontal gene transfer into the bacterium while maintaining sequence-specific methylation (modification) of host DNA. The endonuclease reaction of these enzymes on unmethylated DNA is preceded by bidirectional translocation of thousands of base ...

  1. Laboratory evaluation of interception and translocation of {sup 131}I in fenugreek and Okra plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, R.K.; Narayanan, U.; Bhat, I.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay (India)

    1994-11-01

    The work reported here deals with the study of interception and translocation of airborne {sup 131}I in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and okra (Hibiscus esculentus), two very common vegetables in India. Activity was injected into the experimental chamber in the form of iodide aerosols having a size distribution of 0.3 to 5.0 {mu}m (AMAD). Samples of plants were collected over a period of a few days at different time intervals after injection of the aerosols. Evaluation of interception with deposition and translocation of {sup 131}I was done from the activity measured in air and in plant parts. For the deposition factor, the values are 1.22 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} for fenugreek leaves, and 1.49 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} for the plant as a whole. For okra plants these values are 0.02 and 0.16 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} in edible okra and leaves, respectively. For the okra plant as a whole, the value is 0.19 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1}. The translocation factors vary from 0.62 to 0.86 and 0.47 to 0.87 for leaves and stem, respectively, in the case of fenugreek plants. For okra plants, the translocation factor varies from 0.21 to 0.82, 0.53 to 0.93, and 0.42 to 0.81 in edible okra, leaves, and stems, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Translocation of an Intrauterine Contraceptive Device: Incidental Finding in the Rectosigmoid Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vilallonga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of an intrauterine device (IUD within the colon is rare. Complications have been reported with IUDs among which uterine perforation. Translocation of IUDs to the uterine cavity, to the bladder and also through the wall of the bowel, and sigmoid colon has been reported. We believe there may be a case that surgeons should know the result of despite being a priori gynaecological complication. This paper reports on a case of colon perforation by an IUD.

  3. Enantioselective uptake, translocation and degradation of the chiral pesticides tebuconazole and imazalil by Phragmites australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Tao; Carvalho, Pedro N; Casas, Mònica Escolà; Bollmann, Ulla E; Arias, Carlos A; Brix, Hans; Bester, Kai

    2017-10-01

    Phytoremediation of realistic environmental concentrations (10 μg L-1) of the chiral pesticides tebuconazole and imazalil by Phragmites australis was investigated. This study focussed on removal dynamics, enantioselective mechanisms and transformation products (TPs) in both hydroponic growth solutions and plant tissues. For the first time, we documented uptake, translocation and metabolisation of these pesticides inside wetland plants, using enantioselective analysis. Tebuconazole and imazalil removal efficiencies from water reached 96.1% and 99.8%, respectively, by the end of the experiment (day 24). Removal from the solutions could be described by first-order removal kinetics with removal rate constants of 0.14 d-1 for tebuconazole and 0.31 d-1 for imazalil. Removal of the pesticides from the hydroponic solution, plant uptake, within plant translocation and degradation occurred simultaneously. Tebuconazole and imazalil concentrations inside Phragmites peaked at day 10 and 5d, respectively, and decreased thereafter. TPs of tebuconazole i.e., (5-(4-Chlorophenyl)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)-1,3-pentanediol and 5-(3-((1H-1,2,4-Triazol-1-yl)methyl)-3-hydroxy-4,4-dimethylpentyl)-2-chlorophenol) were quantified in solution, while the imazalil TPs (α-(2,4-Dichlorophenyl)-1H-imidazole-1-ethanol and 3-[1-(2,4-Dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethoxy]-1,2-propanediol) were quantified in both solution and plant tissue. Pesticide uptake by Phragmites was positively correlated with evapotranspiration. Pesticide removal from the hydroponic solution was not enantioselective. However, tebuconazole was degraded enantioselectively both in the roots and shoots. Imazalil translocation and degradation inside Phragmites were also enantioselective: R-imazalil translocated faster than S-imazalil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Translocation and degradation of tebuconazole and prothioconazole in wheat following fungicide treatment at flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoczki-Krsjak, Szabolcs; Varga, Mónika; Szabó-Hevér, Ágnes; Mesterházy, Ákos

    2013-11-01

    Prothioconazole and tebuconazole are among the most effective fungicides against Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The translocation between the ears and the flag leaves and the kinetics of degradation may influence field efficacy of these active ingredients (AIs). In greenhouse experiments, only traces (tebuconazole. Cultivar and environmental effects influenced the degradation kinetics of these AIs, but a high level of protection against FHB was maintained. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. A Balanced Chromosomal Translocation Disrupting ARHGEF9 Is Associated With Epilepsy, Anxiety, Aggression, and Mental Retardation

    OpenAIRE

    Kalscheuer, Vera M.; Musante, Luciana; Fang, Cheng; Hoffmann, Kirsten; Fuchs, Celine; Carta, Eloisa; Deas, Emma; Venkateswarlu, Kanamarlapudi; Menzel, Corinna; Ullmann, Reinhard; Tommerup, Niels; Dalprà, Leda; Tzschach, Andreas; Selicorni, Angelo; Lüscher, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Clustering of inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) and glycine receptors at synapses is thought to involve key interactions between the receptors, a “scaffolding” protein known as gephyrin and the RhoGEF collybistin. We report the identification of a balanced chromosomal translocation in a female patient presenting with a disturbed sleep-wake cycle, late-onset epileptic seizures, increased anxiety, aggressive behavior, and mental retardation, but not hyperekplexia. Fine mapping of the brea...

  6. Proton translocation in cytochrome c oxidase: insights from proton exchange kinetics and vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigami, Izumi; Hikita, Masahide; Egawa, Tsuyoshi; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Rousseau, Denis L

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase is the terminal enzyme in the electron transfer chain. It reduces oxygen to water and harnesses the released energy to translocate protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The mechanism by which the oxygen chemistry is coupled to proton translocation is not yet resolved owing to the difficulty of monitoring dynamic proton transfer events. Here we summarize several postulated mechanisms for proton translocation, which have been supported by a variety of vibrational spectroscopic studies. We recently proposed a proton translocation model involving proton accessibility to the regions near the propionate groups of the heme a and heme a3 redox centers of the enzyme based by hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange Raman scattering studies (Egawa et al., PLoS ONE 2013). To advance our understanding of this model and to refine the proton accessibility to the hemes, the H/D exchange dependence of the heme propionate group vibrational modes on temperature and pH was measured. The H/D exchange detected at the propionate groups of heme a3 takes place within a few seconds under all conditions. In contrast, that detected at the heme a propionates occurs in the oxidized but not the reduced enzyme and the H/D exchange is pH-dependent with a pKa of ~8.0 (faster at high pH). Analysis of the thermodynamic parameters revealed that, as the pH is varied, entropy/enthalpy compensation held the free energy of activation in a narrow range. The redox dependence of the possible proton pathways to the heme groups is discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vibrational spectroscopies and bioenergetic systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mental retardation due to chromosomal translocation in an Iranian consanguineous family: report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental retardation is defined as impaired mental capacity and ability to comply with environmental and social conditions. Chromosomal abnormalities are the most important causes of mental retardation. Carriers of balanced chromosomal translocation are phenotypically normal, although they may be at risk of infertility, recurrent miscarriage or giving birth to mentally retarded children. These abnormalities are caused because chromosomes participated in the reciprocal translocations produce quadrivalents at meiosis. These quadrivalents segregate and lead to several different meiotic outcomes, just two of which are normal or balanced. Case Presentation: A consanguineous family with three mentally retarded daughters at the ages of 24, 18 and 10 years was referred to Comprehensive Medical Genetics Centre, Shiraz, Iran in 2015. Family history showed a case of unexplained infant death as well as a spontaneous abortion. Three survived siblings had hypotonia and severe developmental delay during infantile period. In addition, they suffer from primary amenorrhea. Two siblings have vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. Cytogenetic analysis of two patients showed 46,XX,t(6;12(q23;q22,der(9t(8;9(q24;p24 with partial monosomy of chromosome 9 and partial trisomy of 8q24 segment, while the other patient had 46,XX,der(12t(6;12(q23;q22 with partial monosomy of 12q22qter and partial trisomy of 6q23qter segment. Their mother had two balanced chromosomal translocations (46, XX, t(6,12(q21;q22, t(8,9(q24;p24. Conclusion: The above presented case is another example for the rare occurrence of double balanced chromosomal translocations in a phenotypically normal person. Although the most important causes of mental retardation in consanguineous marriages are autosomal recessive disorders, the role of chromosomal aberrations in mental retardation in these families must not be neglected. In other words, cytogenetic studies should be performed as a first line test in

  8. Molecular sublocalization and characterization of the 11; 22 translocation breakpoint in a malignant rhabdoid tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsham, I.; Daub, D.; Besnard-Guerin, C.; Cavenee, W. (Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States))

    1994-02-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumors are extremely aggressive soft-tissue sarcomas that tend to be widely metastatic at diagnosis. These tumors were first described as variants of the kidney neoplasm Wilms' tumor, although tumors of similar clinicopathologic features have been cited in a variety of extrarenal sites. Here, the authors have characterized the chromosomal translocation t(11;22)(p15.5;q11.23) from a retroperitoneal rhabdoid tumor. Somatic cell hybrids with segregated copies of the derivative 11 and derivative 22 chromosomes allowed sublocalization of the chromosome 11 breakpoint to a 1- to 2-Mb region between the proximal marker D11S12 and the distal locus tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Translocation-associated aberrant fragments were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, with the smallest resulting from BssHII digestion as detected with a probe for TH. These data indicate that the locus or loci disrupted by this genetic abnormality might lie less than 60 kb proximal to this marker and place it in the chromosomal vicinity of genes involved in the etiologies of rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms' tumor, and the congenital overgrowth disorder, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Analysis of two other tumor-associated loci, EWS1 and NF2, that have been mapped to the general region of 22q11.2 indicated that they were not involved in this translocation breakpoint. Isolation of the genes present at this translocation junction on both chromosomes 11 and 22 may yield important clinicopathologic and genetic markers for this enigmatic tumor as well as other pediatric diseases. 45 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Multilevel description of the DNA molecule translocation in solid-state synthetic nanopores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosik, V. L., E-mail: v-nosik@yandex.ru; Rudakova, E. B. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    Interest of researchers in micro- and nanofluidics of polymer solutions and, in particular, DNA ionic solutions is constantly increasing. The use of DNA translocation with a controlled velocity through solid-state nanopores and pulsed X-ray beams in new sequencing schemes opens up new possibilities for studying the structure of DNA and other biopolymers. The problems related to the description of DNA molecular motion in a limited volume of nanopore are considered.

  10. Verification by the FISH translocation assay of historic doses to Mayak workers from external gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotnik, Natalia V.; Azizova, Tamara V. [Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI), Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk Region (Russian Federation); Darroudi, Firouz [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden (Netherlands); College of North Atlantic, Department of Health Science, Centre for Human Safety and Environmental Research, Doha (Qatar); Ainsbury, Elizabeth A.; Moquet, Jayne E.; Lloyd, David C.; Hone, Pat A.; Edwards, Alan A. [Public Health England, Chilton, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Fomina, Janna [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this study was to apply the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) translocation assay in combination with chromosome painting of peripheral blood lymphocytes for retrospective biological dosimetry of Mayak nuclear power plant workers exposed chronically to external gamma radiation. These data were compared with physical dose estimates based on monitoring with badge dosimeters throughout each person's working life. Chromosome translocation yields for 94 workers of the Mayak production association were measured in three laboratories: Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, Leiden University Medical Center and the former Health Protection Agency of the UK (hereinafter Public Health England). The results of the study demonstrated that the FISH-based translocation assay in workers with prolonged (chronic) occupational gamma-ray exposure was a reliable biological dosimeter even many years after radiation exposure. Cytogenetic estimates of red bone marrow doses from external gamma rays were reasonably consistent with dose measurements based on film badge readings successfully validated in dosimetry system ''Doses-2005'' by FISH, within the bounds of the associated uncertainties. (orig.)

  11. Translocation-coupled DNA cleavage by the Type ISP restriction-modification enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Mahesh K; Nirwan, Neha; Diffin, Fiona M; van Aelst, Kara; Kulkarni, Manasi; Pernstich, Christian; Szczelkun, Mark D; Saikrishnan, Kayarat

    2015-11-01

    Production of endonucleolytic double-strand DNA breaks requires separate strand cleavage events. Although catalytic mechanisms for simple, dimeric endonucleases are known, there are many complex nuclease machines that are poorly understood. Here we studied the single polypeptide Type ISP restriction-modification (RM) enzymes, which cleave random DNA between distant target sites when two enzymes collide after convergent ATP-driven translocation. We report the 2.7-Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of a Type ISP enzyme-DNA complex, revealing that both the helicase-like ATPase and nuclease are located upstream of the direction of translocation, an observation inconsistent with simple nuclease-domain dimerization. Using single-molecule and biochemical techniques, we demonstrate that each ATPase remodels its DNA-protein complex and translocates along DNA without looping it, leading to a collision complex in which the nuclease domains are distal. Sequencing of the products of single cleavage events suggests a previously undescribed endonuclease model, where multiple, stochastic strand-nicking events combine to produce DNA scission.

  12. Leaves Of Cut Rose Flower Convert Exogenously Applied Glucose To Sucrose And Translocate It To Petals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horibe Takanori

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To understand the role that the leaves play in the translocation of soluble carbohydrates in cut rose flowers, we first evaluated the effect of leaf removal on flower quality and the sugar content in petals. Cut rose flowers with leaves had higher soluble sugar content in petals compared with cut flower without leaves. Next, we treated cut flowers with radioactive glucose to clarify translocation routes of exogenously applied sugar. There was no significant difference between the specific radioactivity of sucrose and glucose in leaves, but specific radioactivity of sucrose in petals was much higher than that of glucose. These results suggested that most of the exogenously applied glucose first moved to the leaves, where it was converted into sucrose and then the synthesised sucrose was translocated to the petals. Our results showed that the leaves of cut rose flowers play an important role in the metabolism and transportation of exogenously applied soluble carbohydrates toward the petals, thus contributing to sustaining the post-harvest quality.

  13. Cloning and characterization of the t(15;17) translocation breakpoint region in acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, R S; Eilender, D; Waldmann, R A; Rebentisch, M; Frej, A K; Ledbetter, D H; Willman, C; McConnell, T; O'Connell, P

    1990-07-01

    A reciprocal chromosomal translocation, t(15;17)(q22;q11.2-12), is characteristic of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) of French-American-British (FAB) subtype M3, and is not associated with any other human malignancy. The non-random pattern of the APL translocations suggests that specific genes on chromosomes 15 and 17 are somehow altered or deregulated as a consequence of the rearrangement. Translocation breakpoints in APL patients provide physical landmarks that suggest an approach to isolating the APL gene(s). Genetic and physical maps constructed for the APL breakpoint region on chromosome 17 have indicated that two fully-linked DNA markers, defining loci for THRA1 and D17S80, map to opposite sides of an APL breakpoint yet reside on a common 350-kb Clal fragment. Cosmid-walking experiments to clone this APL breakpoint have revealed a 38-kilobase deletion on chromosome 17. Studies in additional APL patients have shown that the breakpoint region on chromosome 17 spans at least 80 kilobases.

  14. HIV enteropathy and aging: gastrointestinal immunity, mucosal epithelial barrier, and microbial translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyin; Kotler, Donald P

    2014-07-01

    Despite decreases in morbidity and mortality as a result of antiretroviral therapy, gastrointestinal dysfunction remains common in HIV infection. Treated patients are at risk for complications of 'premature' aging, such as cardiovascular disease, osteopenia, neurocognitive decline, malignancies, and frailty. This review summarizes recent observations in this field. Mucosal CD4 lymphocytes, especially Th17 cells, are depleted in acute HIV and simian immune deficiency virus (SIV) infections, although other cell types also are affected. Reconstitution during therapy often is incomplete, especially in mucosa. Mucosal barrier function is affected by both HIV infection and aging and includes paracellular transport via tight junctions and uptake through areas of apoptosis; other factors may affect systemic antigen exposure. The resultant microbial translocation is associated with systemic immune activation in HIV and SIV infections. There is evidence of immune activation and microbial translocation in the elderly. The immune phenotypes of immunosenescence in HIV infection and aging appear similar. There are several targets for intervention; blockage of residual mucosal virus replication, preventing antigen uptake, modulating the microbiome, improving T cell recovery, combining therapies aimed at mucosal integrity, augmenting mucosal immunity, and managing traditional risk factors for premature aging in the general population. Aging may interact with HIV enteropathy to enhance microbial translocation and immune activation.

  15. Uptake and translocation of Cd and Zn in two lettuce cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENILDES L.F. FONTES

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Excess of heavy metals in agricultural soils is a matter of concern since it may decrease economic yield as a result of toxicity and lower product quality as a result of metal accumulation in edible plant parts. Among plant species and among cultivars within species a natural variation in uptake, translocation and distribution of trace elements occur. The transference of Cd and Zn, from soil to two lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cultivars grown in greenhouse, was evaluated in separate experiments for Cd and Zn.Plant dry and fresh matter yield and plant Cd and Zn concentrations were determined. Cultivar CRV showed greater potential for yield than CMM in both experiments. Cadmium and Zn translocation from roots to shoots increased with the increase of soil Cd or Zn, for both cultivars. There was Cd translocation from young to old leaves in CMM but not in CRV whereas for Zn it occurred in both cultivars, being higher in CRV. In both cultivars, old leaves had higher Cd and Zn concentrations (and lower dry matter yield than young leaves. The CRV and CMM cultivars accumulate Cd differently in the leaves and the higher accumulation occurs in the former. Cultivar CRV also accumulates more Zn compared to CMM.

  16. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE INFLUENCE OF COMPLEXATION IN THE COPPER UPTAKE AND TRANSLOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEMAGHIUL BIRGHILA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The actual knowledge about food and the environment underlines the fact that agricultural and environmental sciences must solve various problems regarding copper uptake from soil to plants and its bioaccumulation, being important issues for copper concentration in crops and also for phytoremediation of polluted soils. We studied the relation between the form in which copper is applied to soil and the consequential copper bioavailability, uptake and translocation, using as examples simple and complex copper compounds. The copper concentration in basil plants harvested from soils treated with copper compounds and the calculated values of transfer coefficient, translocation factor, bioaccumulation factor, and uptake coefficient demonstrated that the ionic copper (from simple salts is not necessarily easier to uptake than complex ions, but is easier translocated in plants, while the copper given as complex ions is most likely to be retained by roots. The results indicated that the involvement of copper complexes in agricultural treatments is a solution for soils phytoremediation, concerning the phytostabilization technology.

  17. Identification and analysis of proton-translocating pyrophosphatases in the methanogenic archaeon Methansarcina mazei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäumer, Sebastian; Lentes, Sabine; Gottschalk, Gerhard; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2002-03-01

    Analysis of genome sequence data from the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 revealed the existence of two open reading frames encoding proton-translocating pyrophosphatases (PPases). These open reading frames are linked by a 750-bp intergenic region containing TC-rich stretches and are transcribed in opposite directions. The corresponding polypeptides are referred to as Mvp1 and Mvp2 and consist of 671 and 676 amino acids, respectively. Both enzymes represent extremely hydrophobic, integral membrane proteins with 15 predicted transmembrane segments and an overall amino acid sequence similarity of 50.1%. Multiple sequence alignments revealed that Mvp1 is closely related to eukaryotic PPases, whereas Mvp2 shows highest homologies to bacterial PPases. Northern blot experiments with RNA from methanol-grown cells harvested in the mid-log growth phase indicated that only Mvp2 was produced under these conditions. Analysis of washed membranes showed that Mvp2 had a specific activity of 0.34 U mg (protein)(-1). Proton translocation experiments with inverted membrane vesicles prepared from methanol-grown cells showed that hydrolysis of 1 mol of pyrophosphate was coupled to the translocation of about 1 mol of protons across the cytoplasmic membrane. Appropriate conditions for mvp1 expression could not be determined yet. The pyrophosphatases of M. mazei Gö1 represent the first examples of this enzyme class in methanogenic archaea and may be part of their energy-conserving system.

  18. Probing the SecYEG translocation pore size with preproteins conjugated with sizable rigid spherical molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonardi, Francesco; Halza, Erik; Walko, Martin; Du Plessis, François; Nouwen, Nico; Feringa, Ben L.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Protein translocation in Escherichia coli is mediated by the translocase that in its minimal form consists of the protein-conducting channel SecYEG, and the motor protein, SecA. SecYEG forms a narrow pore in the membrane that allows passage of unfolded proteins only. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the maximal width of the central pore of SecYEG is limited to . To access the functional size of the SecYEG pore, the precursor of outer membrane protein A was modified with rigid spherical tetraarylmethane derivatives of different diameters at a unique cysteine residue. SecYEG allowed the unrestricted passage of the precursor of outer membrane protein A conjugates carrying tetraarylmethanes with diameters up to , whereas a sized molecule blocked the translocation pore. Translocation of the protein-organic molecule hybrids was strictly proton motive force-dependent and occurred at a single pore. With an average diameter of an unfolded polypeptide chain of , the pore accommodates structures of at least , which is vastly larger than the predicted maximal width of a single pore by molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:21518907

  19. In-vitro photo-translocation of antiretroviral drug delivery into TZMbl cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malabi, Rudzani; Manoto, Sello; Ombinda-Lemboumba, Saturnin; Maaza, Malik; Mthunzi-Kufa, Patience

    2017-02-01

    The current human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment regime possesses the ability to diminish the viral capacity to unnoticeable levels; however complete eradication of the virus cannot be achieved while latent HIV-1 reservoirs go unchallenged. Therapeutic targeting of HIV therefore requires further investigation and current therapies need modification in order to address HIV eradication. This deflects research towards investigating potential novel antiretroviral drug delivery systems. The use of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses in promoting targeted optical drug delivery of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) into TZMbl cells revolves around using ultrafast laser pulses that have high peak powers, which precisely disrupt the cell plasma membrane in order to allow immediate transportation and expression of exogenous material into the live mammalian cells. A photo-translocation optical setup was built and validated by characterisation of the accurate parameters such as wavelength (800 nm) and pulse duration (115 fs). Optimisation of drug translocation parameters were done by performing trypan blue translocation studies. Cellular responses were determined via cell viability (Adenosine Triphosphate activity) and cell cytotoxicity (Lactate Dehydrogenase) assays which were done to study the influence of the drugs and laser exposure on the cells. After laser irradiation, high cell viability was observed and low toxicity levels were observed after exposure of the cells to both the ARVs and the laser. Our results confirmed that, with minimal damage and high therapeutic levels of ARVs, the fs laser assisted drug delivery system is efficient with benefits of non-invasive and non-toxic treatment to the cells.

  20. Translocation and early post-release demography of endangered Laysan teal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, M.H.; Seavy, N.E.; Vekasy, M.S.; Klavitter, J.L.; Laniawe, L.P.

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce the high extinction risk inherent to small island populations, we translocated wild Laysan teal Anas laysanensis to a portion of its presumed prehistoric range. Most avian translocations lack the strategic post-release monitoring needed to assess early population establishment or failure. Therefore, we monitored the survival and reproduction of all founders, and their first-generation offspring using radio telemetry for 2 years after the first release. Forty-two Laysan teal were sourced directly from the only extant population on Laysan Island and transported 2 days by ship to Midway Atoll. All birds survived the translocation with nutritional and veterinary support, and spent between 4 and 14 days in captivity. Post-release survival of 42 founders was 0.857 (95% CI 0.86-0.99) during 2004-2006 or annualized 0.92 (95% CI 0.83-0.98). Seventeen of 18 founding hens attempted nesting in the first two breeding seasons. Fledgling success was 0.57 (95% CI 0.55-0.60) in 2005 and 0.63 (95% CI 0.62-0.64) in 2006. The effective founding female population (Ne) was 13. We applied these initial demographic rates to model population growth. The nascent population size increased to >100 after only 2 years post-release (?? = 1.73). If this growth rate continues, the size of the Midway population could surpass the source population before 2010. ?? 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2008 The Zoological Society of London.

  1. AIRE-induced apoptosis is associated with nuclear translocation of stress sensor protein GAPDH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liiv, Ingrid, E-mail: ingrid.liiv@ut.ee [Molecular Pathology, Institute of General and Molecular Pathology, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Haljasorg, Uku; Kisand, Kai; Maslovskaja, Julia; Laan, Martti; Peterson, Paert [Molecular Pathology, Institute of General and Molecular Pathology, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia)

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIRE induces apoptosis in epithelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CARD domain of AIRE is sufficient for apoptosis induction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIRE induced apoptosis involves GAPDH translocation to the nuclei. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deprenyl inhibits AIRE induced apoptosis. -- Abstract: AIRE (Autoimmune Regulator) has a central role in the transcriptional regulation of self-antigens in medullary thymic epithelial cells, which is necessary for negative selection of autoreactive T cells. Recent data have shown that AIRE can also induce apoptosis, which may be linked to cross-presentation of these self-antigens. Here we studied AIRE-induced apoptosis using AIRE over-expression in a thymic epithelial cell line as well as doxycycline-inducible HEK293 cells. We show that the HSR/CARD domain in AIRE together with a nuclear localization signal is sufficient to induce apoptosis. In the nuclei of AIRE-positive cells, we also found an increased accumulation of a glycolytic enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAPDH) reflecting cellular stress and apoptosis. Additionally, AIRE-induced apoptosis was inhibited with an anti-apoptotic agent deprenyl that blocks GAPDH nitrosylation and nuclear translocation. We propose that the AIRE-induced apoptosis pathway is associated with GAPDH nuclear translocation and induction of NO-induced cellular stress in AIRE-expressing cells.

  2. Translocations as Experiments in the Ecological Resilience of an Asocial Mega-Herbivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linklater, Wayne L.; Gedir, Jay V.; Law, Peter R.; Swaisgood, Ron R.; Adcock, Keryn; du Preez, Pierre; Knight, Michael H.; Kerley, Graham I. H.

    2012-01-01

    Species translocations are remarkable experiments in evolutionary ecology, and increasingly critical to biodiversity conservation. Elaborate socio-ecological hypotheses for translocation success, based on theoretical fitness relationships, are untested and lead to complex uncertainty rather than parsimonious solutions. We used an extraordinary 89 reintroduction and 102 restocking events releasing 682 black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) to 81 reserves in southern Africa (1981–2005) to test the influence of interacting socio-ecological and individual characters on post-release survival. We predicted that the socio-ecological context should feature more prominently after restocking than reintroduction because released rhinoceros interact with resident conspecifics. Instead, an interaction between release cohort size and habitat quality explained reintroduction success but only individuals' ages explained restocking outcomes. Achieving translocation success for many species may not be as complicated as theory suggests. Black rhino, and similarly asocial generalist herbivores without substantial predators, are likely to be resilient to ecological challenges and robust candidates for crisis management in a changing world. PMID:22295100

  3. Barriers, pathways and processes for uptake, translocation and accumulation of nanomaterials in plants--Critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Fabienne; Zhai, Guangshu; Kern, Meaghan; Turner, Amalia; Schnoor, Jerald L; Wiesner, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Uptake, transport and toxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) into plant cells are complex processes that are currently still not well understood. Parts of this problem are the multifaceted plant anatomy, and analytical challenges to visualize and quantify ENMs in plants. We critically reviewed the currently known ENM uptake, translocation, and accumulation processes in plants. A vast number of studies showed uptake, clogging, or translocation in the apoplast of plants, most notably of nanoparticles with diameters much larger than the commonly assumed size exclusion limit of the cell walls of ∼5-20 nm. Plants that tended to translocate less ENMs were those with low transpiration, drought-tolerance, tough cell wall architecture, and tall growth. In the absence of toxicity, accumulation was often linearly proportional to exposure concentration. Further important factors strongly affecting ENM internalization are the cell wall composition, mucilage, symbiotic microorganisms (mycorrhiza), the absence of a cuticle (submerged plants) and stomata aperture. Mostly unexplored are the roles of root hairs, leaf repellency, pit membrane porosity, xylem segmentation, wounding, lateral roots, nodes, the Casparian band, hydathodes, lenticels and trichomes. The next steps towards a realistic risk assessment of nanoparticles in plants are to measure ENM uptake rates, the size exclusion limit of the apoplast and to unravel plant physiological features favoring uptake.

  4. [Surgical management of monocular torsion and head tilt after macular translocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klainguti, G; Nguyen, C

    2005-03-01

    Macular translocation following 360 degrees retinotomy is a possible surgical treatment of patients with age-related macular degeneration. However, it produces important subjective disturbances with diplopia and head tilt due to cyclodeviation. Complex surgical procedures involving both oblique muscles and two or four recti have been advocated. Four symptomatic patients with macular translocation underwent counter-rotating surgery by very large recession and advancement of both oblique muscles of the affected eye. Preoperative subjective cyclo-deviations varied between 25 degrees and 60 degrees and head tilt ranged between 25 degrees and 45 degrees . Reduction of cyclodeviation ranged between 22 degrees ant 30 degrees in our four patients. Two patients showed residual cyclo-deviations of 3 degrees and 7 degrees with complete recovery of the head tilt. The remaining two patients showed significant subjective improvements and important reductions of head tilt, in spite of a large residual cyclodeviation. No patient exhibited binocular vision. Without jeopardizing the anterior segment blood supply of these elderly patients, a combined surgical procedure on both oblique muscles has shown to be sufficiently effective in reducing subjective cyclodeviation and head tilt in four cases of macular translocation. A complete counter-rotation does not seem to be required to achieve an important improvement of subjective symptoms. This may be due to sensorial adaptation.

  5. Mitochondrial translocation of EGFR regulates mitochondria dynamics and promotes metastasis in NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Ting-Fang; Lin, Ching-Wen; Wu, Yi-Ying; Chen, Yu-Ju; Han, Chia-Li; Chang, Yih-leong; Wu, Chen-Tu; Hsiao, Tzu-Hung; Hong, Tse-Ming; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    2015-11-10

    Dysfunction of the mitochondria is well-known for being associated with cancer progression. In the present study, we analyzed the mitochondria proteomics of lung cancer cell lines with different invasion abilities and found that EGFR is highly expressed in the mitochondria of highly invasive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. EGF induces the mitochondrial translocation of EGFR; further, it leads to mitochondrial fission and redistribution in the lamellipodia, upregulates cellular ATP production, and enhances motility in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, EGFR can regulate mitochondrial dynamics by interacting with Mfn1 and disturbing Mfn1 polymerization. Overexpression of Mfn1 reverses the phenotypes resulting from EGFR mitochondrial translocation. We show that the mitochondrial EGFR expressions are higher in paired samples of the metastatic lymph node as compared with primary lung tumor and are inversely correlated with the overall survival in NSCLC patients. Therefore, our results demonstrate that besides the canonical role of EGFR as a receptor tyrosine, the mitochondrial translocation of EGFR may enhance cancer invasion and metastasis through regulating mitochondria dynamics.

  6. Intestinal Dysbiosis, Barrier Dysfunction, and Bacterial Translocation Account for CKD-Related Systemic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Kirstin; Kesper, Marie Sophie; Marschner, Julian A; Konrad, Lukas; Ryu, Mi; Kumar Vr, Santhosh; Kulkarni, Onkar P; Mulay, Shrikant R; Romoli, Simone; Demleitner, Jana; Schiller, Patrick; Dietrich, Alexander; Müller, Susanna; Gross, Oliver; Ruscheweyh, Hans-Joachim; Huson, Daniel H; Stecher, Bärbel; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2017-01-01

    CKD associates with systemic inflammation, but the underlying cause is unknown. Here, we investigated the involvement of intestinal microbiota. We report that collagen type 4 α3-deficient mice with Alport syndrome-related progressive CKD displayed systemic inflammation, including increased plasma levels of pentraxin-2 and activated antigen-presenting cells, CD4 and CD8 T cells, and Th17- or IFNγ-producing T cells in the spleen as well as regulatory T cell suppression. CKD-related systemic inflammation in these mice associated with intestinal dysbiosis of proteobacterial blooms, translocation of living bacteria across the intestinal barrier into the liver, and increased serum levels of bacterial endotoxin. Uremia did not affect secretory IgA release into the ileum lumen or mucosal leukocyte subsets. To test for causation between dysbiosis and systemic inflammation in CKD, we eradicated facultative anaerobic microbiota with antibiotics. This eradication prevented bacterial translocation, significantly reduced serum endotoxin levels, and fully reversed all markers of systemic inflammation to the level of nonuremic controls. Therefore, we conclude that uremia associates with intestinal dysbiosis, intestinal barrier dysfunction, and bacterial translocation, which trigger the state of persistent systemic inflammation in CKD. Uremic dysbiosis and intestinal barrier dysfunction may be novel therapeutic targets for intervention to suppress CKD-related systemic inflammation and its consequences. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  7. Arabidopsis ABCG14 protein controls the acropetal translocation of root-synthesized cytokinins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Novak, Ondrej; Wei, Zhaoyang; Gou, Mingyue; Zhang, Xuebin; Yu, Yong; Yang, Huijun; Cai, Yuanheng; Strnad, Miroslav; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2014-02-01

    Cytokinins are a major group of phytohormones regulating plant growth, development and stress responses. However, in contrast to the well-defined polar transport of auxins, the molecular basis of cytokinin transport is poorly understood. Here we show that an ATP-binding cassette transporter in Arabidopsis, AtABCG14, is essential for the acropetal (root to shoot) translocation of the root-synthesized cytokinins. AtABCG14 is expressed primarily in the pericycle and stelar cells of roots. Knocking out AtABCG14 strongly impairs the translocation of trans-zeatin (tZ)-type cytokinins from roots to shoots, thereby affecting the plant’s growth and development. AtABCG14 localizes to the plasma membrane of transformed cells. In planta feeding of C14 or C13-labelled tZ suggests that it acts as an efflux pump and its presence in the cells directly correlates with the transport of the fed cytokinin. Therefore, AtABCG14 is a transporter likely involved in the long-distance translocation of cytokinins in planta.

  8. Lycopersicon esculentum submitted to Cd-stressful conditions in nutrition solution: Nutrient contents and translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Bertoli, Alexandre; Gabriel Cannata, Marcele; Carvalho, Ruy; Ribeiro Bastos, Ana Rosa; Puggina Freitas, Matheus; dos Santos Augusto, Amanda

    2012-12-01

    The increasing number of cases on soil contamination by heavy metals has affected crop yields, besides representing an imminent risk to food. Some of these contaminants, such as cadmium, are very similar to micronutrients and thus more easily absorbed by the plants. This study assessed the effect of increasing amounts of cadmium on the content and translocation of micro and macronutrients in tomato. Tomatoes were grown in Clark's nutrient solution and subjected to increasing levels of Cd: 0, 0.025, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0mg L(-1). The plants contaminated by cadmium had a maximum reduction in the aerial part compared to the control of: 2.25g kg(-1), 2.80g kg(-1), 18.93mg kg(-1) and 14.15mg kg(-1) for K, Ca, Mn and Zn, respectively. In other parts of the tomato were reduced from 2.3g kg(-1) K in fruits and 280.5mg kg(-1) of Mn in the roots. In addition to changes in the levels of some nutrients, the restricted Cd translocation in 1.15 percent P and 2.8 percent Cu to shoots compared to control, but did not affect the translocation of K, Ca, Mg and Zn. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Eeyarestatin I inhibits Sec61-mediated protein translocation at the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Benedict C S; McKibbin, Craig; Callan, Anna C; Roboti, Peristera; Piacenti, Michela; Rabu, Catherine; Wilson, Cornelia M; Whitehead, Roger; Flitsch, Sabine L; Pool, Martin R; High, Stephen; Swanton, Eileithyia

    2009-12-01

    Production and trafficking of proteins entering the secretory pathway of eukaryotic cells is coordinated at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a process that begins with protein translocation via the membrane-embedded ER translocon. The same complex is also responsible for the co-translational integration of membrane proteins and orchestrates polypeptide modifications that are often essential for protein function. We now show that the previously identified inhibitor of ER-associated degradation (ERAD) eeyarestatin 1 (ES(I)) is a potent inhibitor of protein translocation. We have characterised this inhibition of ER translocation both in vivo and in vitro, and provide evidence that ES(I) targets a component of the Sec61 complex that forms the membrane pore of the ER translocon. Further analyses show that ES(I) acts by preventing the transfer of the nascent polypeptide from the co-translational targeting machinery to the Sec61 complex. These results identify a novel effect of ES(I), and suggest that the drug can modulate canonical protein transport from the cytosol into the mammalian ER both in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Controlling DNA Translocation Speed through Solid-State Nanopores by Surface Charge Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, Amit

    2013-03-01

    The Nanopore method is an emerging technique, which extends gel-electrophoresis to the single-molecule level and allows the analysis of DNAs, RNAs and DNA-protein complexes. The strength of the technique stems from two fundamental facts: First, nanopores due to their nanoscale size can be used to uncoil biopolymers, such as DNA or RNA and slide them in a single file manner that allows scanning their properties. Consequently, the method can be used to probe short as well as extremely long biopolymers, such as genomic DNA with high efficiency. Second, electrostatic focusing of charged biopolymers into the nanopore overcomes thermally driven diffusion, thus facilitating an extremely efficient end-threading (or capture) of DNA. Thus, nanopores can be used to detect minute DNA copy numbers, circumventing costly molecular amplification such as Polymerase Chain Reaction. A critical factor, which determines the ability of nanopore to distinguish fine properties within biopolymers, such as the location of bound small-molecules, proteins, or even the nucleic acid's sequence, is the speed at which molecules are translocated through the pore. When the translocation speed is too high the electrical noise masks the desired signal, thus limiting the utility of the method. Here I will discuss new experimental results showing that modulating the surface charge inside the pore can effectively reduce the translocation speed through solid-state nanopores fabricated in thin silicon nitride membranes. I will present a simple physical model to account for these results.

  11. Translocations as experiments in the ecological resilience of an asocial mega-herbivore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne L Linklater

    Full Text Available Species translocations are remarkable experiments in evolutionary ecology, and increasingly critical to biodiversity conservation. Elaborate socio-ecological hypotheses for translocation success, based on theoretical fitness relationships, are untested and lead to complex uncertainty rather than parsimonious solutions. We used an extraordinary 89 reintroduction and 102 restocking events releasing 682 black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis to 81 reserves in southern Africa (1981-2005 to test the influence of interacting socio-ecological and individual characters on post-release survival. We predicted that the socio-ecological context should feature more prominently after restocking than reintroduction because released rhinoceros interact with resident conspecifics. Instead, an interaction between release cohort size and habitat quality explained reintroduction success but only individuals' ages explained restocking outcomes. Achieving translocation success for many species may not be as complicated as theory suggests. Black rhino, and similarly asocial generalist herbivores without substantial predators, are likely to be resilient to ecological challenges and robust candidates for crisis management in a changing world.

  12. Partial trisomy 9p derivatived from a maternal reciprocal translocation 9;15. Case reports.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodia Torres

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to highlight the importance of performing karyotype in children with congenital malformations in order to have a confirmatory diagnosis, in parents to exclude the possibility of being carriers of chromosomal abnormalities and perform the genetic counseling. Clinical cases description: Female patient with 3 years and 2 months old to whom karyotype was performed by global neurodevelopmental delay and microcephaly, and her mother with 34 years old without any clinical manifestations, to both patients, lymphocyte culture and chromosomal analysis with a High Resolution Banding techniques GTG and C were performed. The mother’s karyotype was 46,XX,t(9;15(q10;q10(p10;p10,add14p. The father’s karyotype was normal, 46,XY, and the girl’s karyotype resulted in a pure Trisomy 9p:  47,XX,+del(9(q11. Discussion: This chromosomal rearrangement in mother included a nonhomologous reciprocal translocation between the long arms of pair chromosomes 9 and 15 and between the short arms of the same chromosomes, additional to it, an unknown origin material was also observed in short arm from one chromosome of the 14 pair. In meiosis of this type of rearrangement, the father’s normal homologous chromosomes are paired with the mother’s translocated chromosomes and as a result of 3:1 segregation a gamete with one chromosome else was originated that after fertilization resulted in an unbalanced translocation confirming the pure trisomy in the patient.

  13. PRODUCTION OF A NOVEL ROBERTSONIAN TRANSLOCATION FROM THINOPYRUM BESSARABICUM INTO BREAD WHEAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, S; Mirzaghaderi, G; Majdi, M

    2015-01-01

    Development of wheat-alien translocation lines will facilitate its practical utilization in wheat improvement. The objective of the present study was to produce compensating wheat--Thinopyrum bessarabicum whole arm Robertsonian translocations (RobTs) involving chromosomes 2B of wheat and 2E(b) of Th. bessarabicum through the mechanism of centric breakage-fusion. F2 population from crosses between DS2E(b)(2B) substitution line and bread wheat 'Roushan' (2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) as female parent were made. Forty one F2 lines (L1 to L41) were screened for their chromosome composition. Three 2E(b) specific PCR-based Landmark Unique Gene (PLUG) markers were used for screening F2 progeny derived from plants double-monosomic for chromosome 2B and 2E(b). Two Rob Ts (-5%) were observed among F2 plants. Homozygous translocation (T2E(b)S.2BL) with good plant vigor and full fertility were selected from F3 families. The T2E(b)S.2BL stock has longer awn than that of its parents. It is cytogenetically stable, and may be useful in wheat improvement.

  14. A translocation breakpoint disrupts the ASPM gene in a patient with primary microcephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon, Bruno; Vankerckhove, Sophie; Bourrouillou, Georges; Duprez, Laurence; Abramowicz, Marc J

    2004-05-01

    Primary microcephaly (microcephalia vera) is a developmental abnormality resulting in a small brain, with mental retardation. It is usually transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait, and six loci have been reported to date. We analyzed a translocation breakpoint previously reported in a patient with apparently sporadic primary microcephaly, at 1q31, where locus MCPH5 maps. The patient was lost to follow-up, and we sampled a maternal aunt who carried the familial translocation. FISH analyses showed that the insert of BAC clone RP11-32D17 spanned the breakpoint. The breakpoint was further located within a fragment of this insert corresponding to intron 17 of the ASPM gene, resulting in a predicted transcript truncated of more than half of its coding sequence. It is very likely that the proband carried a second ASPM mutation in trans, but he was not available for sampling and hence we could not confirm this hypothesis. Our observation adds to the mutation spectrum of ASPM in primary microcephaly, and is to our knowledge the second example of a constitutional, reciprocal translocation responsible for a bona fide autosomal recessive phenotype.

  15. [Nitrogen metabolism and translocation in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiote and its ecological implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Jing; Liu, Zhi-Lei; He, Xing-Yuan; Tian, Chun-jie

    2013-03-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can form mutually beneficial relations with more than 80% of vascular plants, and the existence of the symbiote is of significance in promoting the growth and stress tolerance of host plants. AMF can obtain the photosynthate carbohydrates from host plants, and in the meantime, effectively promote the nitrogen (N) uptake by host plants via the absorption of various N sources by mycorrhiza mycelia, resulting in the N exchange at population or community level, the improvement of host plants nutrition and metabolism, and the strengthening of the stress tolerance of host plants. However, there are still in debates in which ways the symbiote absorbs and transfers N and what the mechanisms the N metabolism and translocation from AMF to host plants. This paper reviewed the mechanisms of N metabolism and translocation in the symbiote and the effects of carbon and phosphorous on the N metabolism and translocation. The roles of AMF in the N allocation in host plants and the related ecological significance at community and ecosystem levels were briefly elucidated, and some issues to be further studied on the N metabolism in the symbiote were addressed.

  16. Bacterial translocation and mortality on rat model of intestinal ischemia and obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rafael Izar Domingues da; Rasslan, Roberto; Koike, Marcia Kiyomi; Utiyama, Edivaldo Massazo; Montero, Edna Frasson de Souza

    2017-08-01

    To develop an experimental model of intestinal ischemia and obstruction followed by surgical resection of the damaged segment and reestablishment of intestinal transit, looking at bacterial translocation and survival. After anesthesia, Wistar rats was subject to laparotomy, intestinal ischemia and obstruction through an ileal ligature 1.5cm of ileum cecal valve; and the mesenteric vessels that irrigate upstream of the obstruction site to approximately 7 to 10 cm were ligated. Abdominal wall was closed. Three, six or twenty-four hours after, rats were subject to enterectomy followed by an end to end anastomosis. After 24h, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen and lung tissues were surgically removed. It was studied survival rate and bacterial translocation. GraphPadPrism statistical program was used. Animals with intestinal ischemia and obstruction for 3 hours survived 24 hours after enterectomy; 6hx24h: survival was 70% at 24 hours; 24hx24h: survival was 70% and 40%, before and after enterectomy, respectively. Culture of tissues showed positivity on the 6hx24h and negativity on the 3hx24h. The model that best approached the clinic was the one of 6x24h of ischemia and intestinal obstruction, in which it was observed bacterial translocation and low mortality rate.

  17. Translocation of latex beads after laser ablation of the avian neural crest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulombe, J N; Bronner-Fraser, M

    1984-11-01

    Previous studies from this laboratory (M.E. Bronner-Fraser, 1982, Dev. Biol. 91, 50-63) have demonstrated that latex beads translocate ventrally after injection into avian embryos during the phase of neural crest migration, to settle in the vicinity of neural-crest-derived structures. In order to examine the role of host neural crest cells in the ventral translocation of implanted beads, latex beads have been injected into regions of embryos from which the neural crest cells have been ablated using a laser microbeam. Prior to their migratory phase, neural crest cells reside in the dorsal portion of the neural tube. Laser irradiation of the dorsal neural tube was used to reproducibly achieve either partial or complete ablation of neural crest cells from the irradiated regions. The effectiveness of the ablation was assessed by the degree of reduction in dorsal root ganglia, a neural crest derivative. Because of the rapidity and precision of this technique, it was possible to selectively remove neural crest cells without significantly altering other embryonic structures. The results indicate that, after injection of latex beads into the somites of embryos whose neural crest cells were removed by laser irradiation, the beads translocate ventrally in the absence of the endogenous neural crest.

  18. Enhanced translocation of bacteria across metabolically stressed epithelia is reduced by butyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kimberley; Lutgendorff, Femke; Phan, Van; Söderholm, Johan D; Sherman, Philip M; McKay, Derek M

    2010-07-01

    The gut microflora in some patients with Crohn's disease can be reduced in numbers of butyrate-producing bacteria and this could result in metabolic stress in the colonocytes. Thus, we hypothesized that the short-chain fatty acid, butyrate, is important in the maintenance and regulation of the barrier function of the colonic epithelium. Confluent monolayers of the human colon-derived T84 or HT-29 epithelial cell lines were exposed to dinitrophenol (DNP (0.1 mM), uncouples oxidative phosphorylation) + Escherichia coli (strain HB101, 10(6) cfu) +/- butyrate (3-50 mM). Transepithelial resistance (TER), and bacterial internalization and translocation were assessed over a 24-hour period. Epithelial ultrastructure was assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Epithelia under metabolic stress display decreased TER and increased numbers of pseudopodia that is consistent with increased internalization and translocation of the E. coli. Butyrate (but not acetate) significantly reduced the bacterial translocation across DNP-treated epithelia but did not ameliorate the drop in TER in the DNP+E. coli exposed monolayers. Inhibition of bacterial transcytosis across metabolically stressed epithelia was associated with reduced I-kappaB phosphorylation and hence NF-kappaB activation. Reduced butyrate-producing bacteria could result in increased epithelial permeability particularly in the context of concomitant exposure to another stimulus that reduces mitochondria function. We speculate that prebiotics, the substrate for butyrate synthesis, is a valuable prophylaxis in the regulation of epithelial permeability and could be of benefit in preventing relapses in IBD.

  19. Mechanism study of sulfur fertilization mediating copper translocation and biotransformation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijuan; Yang, Jianjun; Fang, Huaxiang; Xu, Chen; Peng, Cheng; Huang, Haomin; Lu, Lingli; Duan, Dechao; Zhang, Xiangzhi; Shi, Jiyan

    2017-07-01

    Metabolism of sulfur (S) is suggested to be an important factor for the homeostasis and detoxification of Cu in plants. We investigated the effects of S fertilizers (S0, Na2SO4) on Cu translocation and biotransformation in rice plants by using multiple synchrotron-based techniques. Fertilization of S increased the biomass and yield of rice plants, as well as the translocation factor of Cu from root to shoot and shoot to grain, resulting in enhanced Cu in grain. Sulfur K-edge X-ray near edge structure (XANES) analysis showed that fertilization of S increased the concentration of glutathione in different rice tissues, especially in rice stem and leaf. Copper K-edge XANES results indicated that a much higher proportion of Cu (I) species existed in rice grain than husk and leaf, which was further confirmed by soft X-ray scanning transmission microscopy results. Sulfur increased the proportion of Cu (I) species in rice grain, husk and leaf, suggesting the inducing of Cu (II) reduction in rice tissues by S fertilization. These results suggested that fertilization of S in paddy soils increased the accumulation of Cu in rice grain, possibly due to the reduction of Cu (II) to Cu (I) by enhancing glutathione synthesis and increasing the translocation of Cu from shoot to grain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Opi1p translocation to the nucleus is regulated by hydrogen peroxide in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo, Carolina; Vilas-Boas, Filipe; Cepeda, Andreia Pereira; Real, Carla; Barros-Martins, Joana; Pinto, Francisco; Soares, Helena; Marinho, H Susana; Cyrne, Luisa

    2017-09-01

    During exposure of yeast cells to low levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), the expression of several genes is regulated for cells to adapt to the surrounding oxidative environment. Such adaptation involves modification of plasma membrane lipid composition, reorganization of ergosterol-rich microdomains and altered gene expression of proteins involved in lipid and vesicle traffic, to decrease permeability to exogenous H2 O2 . Opi1p is a transcriptional repressor that is inactive when present at the nuclear membrane/endoplasmic reticulum, but represseses transcription of inositol upstream activating sequence (UASINO )-containing genes, many of which are involved in the synthesis of phospholipids and fatty acids, when it is translocated to the nucleus. We investigated whether H2 O2 in concentrations inducing adaptation regulates Opi1p function. We found that, in the presence of H2 O2 , GFP-Opi1p fusion protein translocates to the nucleus and, concomitantly, the expression of UASINO -containing genes is affected. We also investigated whether cysteine residues of Opi1p were implicated in the H2 O2 -mediated translocation of this protein to the nucleus and identified cysteine residue 159 as essential for this process. Our work shows that Opi1p is redox-regulated and establishes a new mechanism of gene regulation involving Opi1p, which is important for adaptation to H2 O2 in yeast cells. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The longitudinal translocation characters and the influencing factors of Hg, Cd in the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yujuan

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Combining the methods of simulation test and field survey, the longitudinal distribution and the influencing factors of Hg and Cd in the profile in the typical sewage irrigation area were studied in this paper and the result shows: (1 the content distribution of Hg, Cd in the superficial soil profile was higher than that in the bottom and the content decreased with the increase of the depth, the translocation ability of the Hg, Cd in the garden mould and cinnamon soil were lower than that in the paddy soil and fluve-aquic soil, the longitudinal translocation ability of the Cd in the soil profile was stronger than that of Hg; (2 Hg was accumulated in the different soil and has the highest accumulation rate in the paddy soil and the lowest in the cinnamon soil; the translocation order of the Cd in the different was: garden mould > paddy soil > cinnamon soil > fluve-aquic soil; (3 the concentration of Hg, Cd in the soil leacheate increased with the concentration increase of Hg, Cd in the sewage, the migration rate increased with the roughness of the soil quality and decreased with the increase of pH and soil organic matter.

  2. Trisomy greatly enhances interstitial crossing over in a translocation heterozygote of Secale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybenga, J; Verhaar, H M; Botje, D G A

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements, including reciprocal translocations, may prevent recombinational transfer of genes from a donor genotype to a recipient, especially when the gene is located in an interstitial segment. The effect of trisomy of chromosome arm 1RS on recombination was studied in translocation heterozygote T248W of rye ( Secale cereale ), involving chromosome arms 1RS and 6RS. (Pro)metaphase I configuration frequencies were analyzed. Crossing over, estimated as chiasma parameters, in five genetically different euploid heterozygotes was compared with those of 10 different single arm trisomics. The addition of 1RS greatly altered the crossing over pattern around the translocation break point, with a special increase in the interstitial segment of 6RS and adjoining regions, normally hardly accessible to recombination. Furthermore, there was considerable variation between plants of closely related genotypes. Heterogeneity widens the distribution of crossing overs, including segments normally not accessible to recombination, but decreases average recombination in other segments. The extra chromosome and abnormal segregants are eliminated by using the trisomic as the pollen parent.

  3. Phenylmethimazole Blocks dsRNA-Induced IRF3 Nuclear Translocation and Homodimerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Courreges

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies revealed that phenylmethimazole (C10 inhibits IRF3 signaling, preventing dsRNA-induction of type 1 interferon gene expression, production, and downstream signaling. In the present study, we investigated the molecular basis for C10 inhibition of dsRNA-stimulated IRF3 signaling. IRF-3 Trans-AM assays were used to measure C10 effects on dsRNA induction of IRF3 DNA binding. Green fluorescent protein-labeled IRF3 was used to measure C10 effects on dsRNA-induced IRF3 nuclear translocation. Native PAGE, SDS PAGE, and western blotting were used to identify effects of C10 on IRF3 homodimer formation and phosphorylation, respectively. There was a significant impairment of dsRNA-induced IRF3 DNA binding activity in human embryonic kidney and pancreatic cancer cells with C10 treatment. C10 also blocked dsRNA-induced IRF3 nuclear translocation and homodimer formation without blocking serine 396 phosphorylation of IRF3. Together, these results indicate that C10 interferes with IRF3 signaling by blocking dsRNA-induced IRF3 homodimer formation, a prerequisite for nuclear translocation and DNA binding activities.

  4. FtsK translocation on DNA stops at XerCD-dif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, James E; Sivanathan, Viknesh; Sherratt, David J; Arciszewska, Lidia K

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli FtsK is a powerful, fast, double-stranded DNA translocase, which can strip proteins from DNA. FtsK acts in the late stages of chromosome segregation by facilitating sister chromosome unlinking at the division septum. KOPS-guided DNA translocation directs FtsK towards dif, located within the replication terminus region, ter, where FtsK activates XerCD site-specific recombination. Here we show that FtsK translocation stops specifically at XerCD-dif, thereby preventing removal of XerCD from dif and allowing activation of chromosome unlinking by recombination. Stoppage of translocation at XerCD-dif is accompanied by a reduction in FtsK ATPase and is not associated with FtsK dissociation from DNA. Specific stoppage at recombinase-DNA complexes does not require the FtsKgamma regulatory subdomain, which interacts with XerD, and is not dependent on either recombinase-mediated DNA cleavage activity, or the formation of synaptic complexes.

  5. The role of protein kinase C alpha translocation in radiation-induced bystander effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zihui; Xu, An; Wu, Lijun; Hei, Tom K; Hong, Mei

    2016-05-11

    Ionizing radiation is a well known human carcinogen. Evidence accumulated over the past decade suggested that extranuclear/extracellular targets and events may also play a critical role in modulating biological responses to ionizing radiation. However, the underlying mechanism(s) of radiation-induced bystander effect is still unclear. In the current study, AL cells were irradiated with alpha particles and responses of bystander cells were investigated. We found out that in bystander AL cells, protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) translocated from cytosol to membrane fraction. Pre-treatment of cells with PKC translocation inhibitor chelerythrine chloride suppressed the induced extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) activity and the increased cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression as well as the mutagenic effect in bystander cells. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) was elevated in directly irradiated but not bystander cells; while TNFα receptor 1 (TNFR1) increased in the membrane fraction of bystander cells. Further analysis revealed that PKC activation caused accelerated internalization and recycling of TNFR1. Our data suggested that PKCα translocation may occur as an early event in radiation-induced bystander responses and mediate TNFα-induced signaling pathways that lead to the activation of ERK and up-regulation of COX-2.

  6. Satellite tracking reveals long distance coastal travel and homing by translocated estuarine crocodiles, Crocodylus porosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Read

    Full Text Available Crocodilians have a wide distribution, often in remote areas, are cryptic, secretive and are easily disturbed by human presence. Their capacity for large scale movements is poorly known. Here, we report the first study of post-release movement patterns in translocated adult crocodiles, and the first application of satellite telemetry to a crocodilian. Three large male Crocodylus porosus (3.1-4.5 m were captured in northern Australia and translocated by helicopter for 56, 99 and 411 km of coastline, the last across Cape York Peninsula from the west coast to the east coast. All crocodiles spent time around their release site before returning rapidly and apparently purposefully to their capture locations. The animal that circumnavigated Cape York Peninsula to return to its capture site, travelled more than 400 km in 20 days, which is the longest homeward travel yet reported for a crocodilian. Such impressive homing ability is significant because translocation has sometimes been used to manage potentially dangerous C. porosus close to human settlement. It is clear that large male estuarine crocodiles can exhibit strong site fidelity, have remarkable navigational skills, and may move long distances following a coastline. These long journeys included impressive daily movements of 10-30 km, often consecutively.

  7. Observing GLUT4 Translocation in Live L6 Cells Using Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 plays a key role in maintaining whole body glucose homeostasis. Tracking GLUT4 in space and time can provide new insights for understanding the mechanisms of insulin-regulated GLUT4 translocation. Organic dyes and fluorescent proteins were used in previous studies for investigating the traffic of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle cells and adipocytes. Because of their relative weak fluorescent signal against strong cellular autofluorescence background and their fast photobleaching rate, most studies only focused on particular segments of GLUT4 traffic. In this study, we have developed a new method for observing the translocation of GLUT4 targeted with photostable and bright quantum dots (QDs in live L6 cells. QDs were targeted to GLUT4myc specifically and internalized with GLUT4myc through receptor-mediated endocytosis. Compared with traditional fluorescence dyes and fluorescent proteins, QDs with high brightness and extremely photostability are suitable for long-term single particle tracking, so individual GLUT4-QD complex can be easily detected and tracked for long periods of time. This newly described method will be a powerful tool for observing the translocation of GLUT4 in live L6 cells.

  8. Hereditary pancreatitis associated with a balanced translocation (5q;11p)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasouki, J.J.; Summar, M.L.; Mixon, C. [Vanderbilt Univ. Medical Center and Cytogenetics Lab Inc., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Dominantly inherited pancreatitis was first described by Comfort and Steinberg in 1952. It is estimated to account for <1% of all childhood pancreatitis cases. Patients as young as 17 months of age were reported. Presentation varies from acute abdominal pain mimicking familial Mediterranean fever to more chronic steatorrhea causing malabsorption. Urinary excretion of cystine in both affected and unaffected family members is an unexplained feature. Our 37 year old, G{sub 1}P{sub 0{minus}1} proband is known to have familial pancreatitis which complicated her current pregnancy. Family history was also positive in her mother and a sister who has a 12 year old daughter with recurrent abdominal pain. The proband sought genetic counselling because her amniocentesis showed a male fetus with an apparently balanced reciprocal translocation: t(5;11)(q13;p15). A detailed fetal ultrasound examination failed to show any abnormality. On chromosomal analysis, the proband was found to have a similar translocation. Her plasma aminogram was normal, however the spot and 24 hour urine aminograms demonstrated generalized aminoaciduria. This is the first report of hereditary pancreatitis with a segregating balanced autosomal translocation which may be etiologically important. In addition, unlike what was described previously, the aminoaciduria was generalized and nonspecific. Molecular analysis of the genes located in the breakpoint region may prove to be helpful in identifying the responsible gene and the delineation of the pathogenesis of this developmental disorder.

  9. The mechanism of coupling between oxido-reduction and proton translocation in respiratory chain enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Sergio; Capitanio, Giuseppe; Papa, Francesco

    2017-06-21

    The respiratory chain of mitochondria and bacteria is made up of a set of membrane-associated enzyme complexes which catalyse sequential, stepwise transfer of reducing equivalents from substrates to oxygen and convert redox energy into a transmembrane protonmotive force (PMF) by proton translocation from a negative (N) to a positive (P) aqueous phase separated by the coupling membrane. There are three basic mechanisms by which a membrane-associated redox enzyme can generate a PMF. These are membrane anisotropic arrangement of the primary redox catalysis with: (i) vectorial electron transfer by redox metal centres from the P to the N side of the membrane; (ii) hydrogen transfer by movement of quinones across the membrane, from a reduction site at the N side to an oxidation site at the P side; (iii) a different type of mechanism based on co-operative allosteric linkage between electron transfer at the metal redox centres and transmembrane electrogenic proton translocation by apoproteins. The results of advanced experimental and theoretical analyses and in particular X-ray crystallography show that these three mechanisms contribute differently to the protonmotive activity of cytochrome c oxidase, ubiquinone-cytochrome c oxidoreductase and NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase of the respiratory chain. This review considers the main features, recent experimental advances and still unresolved problems in the molecular/atomic mechanism of coupling between the transfer of reducing equivalents and proton translocation in these three protonmotive redox complexes. © 2017 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  10. Sodium-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase as a redox-driven ion pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhovsky, Michael I; Bogachev, Alexander V

    2010-01-01

    The Na+-translocating NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) is a component of the respiratory chain of various bacteria. This enzyme is an analogous but not homologous counterpart of mitochondrial Complex I. Na+-NQR drives the same chemistry and also uses released energy to translocate ions across the membrane, but it pumps Na+ instead of H+. Most likely the mechanism of sodium pumping is quite different from that of proton pumping (for example, it could not accommodate the Grotthuss mechanism of ion movement); this is why the enzyme structure, subunits and prosthetic groups are completely special. This review summarizes modern knowledge on the structural and catalytic properties of bacterial Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductases. The sequence of electron transfer through the enzyme cofactors and thermodynamic properties of those cofactors is discussed. The resolution of the intermediates of the catalytic cycle and localization of sodium-dependent steps are combined in a possible molecular mechanism of sodium transfer by the enzyme. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Engineering human tumour-associated chromosomal translocations with the RNA-guided CRISPR-Cas9 system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Torres, R; Martin, M C; Garcia, A; Cigudosa, Juan C; Ramirez, J C; Rodriguez-Perales, S

    2014-01-01

    .... Here we present a strategy for generating cancer-related human chromosomal translocations in vitro based on the ability of the RNA-guided CRISPR-Cas9 system to induce DSBs at defined positions...

  12. Glucosamine induces insulin resistance in vivo by affecting GLUT 4 translocation in skeletal muscle. Implications for glucose toxicity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baron, A D; Zhu, J S; Zhu, J H; Weldon, H; Maianu, L; Garvey, W T

    1995-01-01

    Glucosamine (Glmn), a product of glucose metabolism via the hexosamine pathway, causes insulin resistance in isolated adipocytes by impairing insulin-induced GLUT 4 glucose transporter translocation to the plasma membrane...

  13. Observations of translocated Aleutian Canada geese following their release at Nizki/Alaid Island in August 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Using available information, we estimate that 19 of the 20 birds in the first translocated flock were still alive 2 days after their release, and at least 8 birds...

  14. Julia Butler Hansen NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Post-translocation Monitoring of Columbian White-tailed Deer

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A large part of CWTD Recovery has hinged on translocation of deer to their former range. Much of CWTD historical range, however, is now on or near private land....

  15. Accurate Breakpoint Mapping in Apparently Balanced Translocation Families with Discordant Phenotypes Using Whole Genome Mate-Pair Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aristidou, Constantia; Koufaris, Costas; Theodosiou, Athina

    2017-01-01

    -MPS) was applied to map the breakpoints in nine two-way ABT carriers from four families. Translocation breakpoints and patient-specific structural variants were validated by Sanger sequencing and quantitative Real Time PCR, respectively. Identical sequencing patterns and breakpoints were identified in affected......Familial apparently balanced translocations (ABTs) segregating with discordant phenotypes are extremely challenging for interpretation and counseling due to the scarcity of publications and lack of routine techniques for quick investigation. Recently, next generation sequencing has emerged...... as an efficacious methodology for precise detection of translocation breakpoints. However, studies so far have mainly focused on de novo translocations. The present study focuses specifically on familial cases in order to shed some light to this diagnostic dilemma. Whole-genome mate-pair sequencing (WG...

  16. The effect of several stress conditions and growth regulators on photosynthesis and translocation of assimilates in the bean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Strack

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were performed on young bean plants, grown in water culture. The effect of salt stress, X-flays and flooding on growth, photosynthesis and translocation of assimilates was investigated. Salt stress (NaCl and Na2SO4, especially at - 4.5 atm. of water potential, depressed all the mentioned processes, but most dramatically - photosynthesis. Export of photosynthetes from the blades decreased. Salt stress not only reduced the rate of translocation, but also influenced the pattern of 14C-distoibution, especially inhibited transport to apical part, with growth seriously retarded. Gibberellin (GA3, 100 ppm sprayed on leaves counteracted the negative effects caused by salinization, but did not affected either photosynthesis, or translocation in plants from normal nutrient solution. The conclusion may be advanced, that salt stress disturbed the balance of plant hormones especially gibberellins, which probably participate in. regulation of assimilate translocation.

  17. Distal 5q trisomy resulting from an X;5 translocation detected by chromosome painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, D N; Ahsanuddin, A N; Mark, H F

    2000-10-23

    We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl with an apparently de novo unbalanced translocation resulting in the presence of additional chromosomal material on the short arm of one X chromosome, which was detected by conventional G-banding studies. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using the Chromoprobe Multiprobe-M protocol confirmed that the additional chromosomal material originated from chromosome 5. The karyotype of this patient is now established to be 46,X,der(X) t(X;5)(p22.3;q33), with a deletion of Xp22.3-pter and partial trisomy of 5q33-qter. The distal 5q trisomy genotype has been associated with clinical signs that include growth and mental retardation, eczema, craniofacial anomalies, and malformations of heart, lungs, abdomen, limbs, and genitalia. Our patient also has short stature, a prominent nasal bridge, a flat philtrum, a thin upper lip, dental caries, and limb and cardiac malformations, but she appears to be mildly affected compared with previously reported cases. This is the first case of distal 5q trisomy arising from a translocation with the X chromosome. Replication studies on this patient show that the derivative t(X;5) chromosome is late replicating in almost all cells examined, which indicates that this chromosome is preferentially inactivated. However, the translocated segment of chromosome 5 appears to be early replicating, which implies that the trisomic 5q segment is transcriptionally active. We cannot determine from these studies whether all or only some genes in this segment are expressed, but this patient's relatively mild clinical signs suggest that the critical region(s) that contribute to the distal 5q trisomy phenotype are at least partly suppressed. A review of other patients with X-chromosome translocations indicates that many but not all of them also have attenuated phenotypes. The mechanism of inactivation of autosomal material attached to the X chromosome is complex, with varying effects on the phenotype of the

  18. Insights into the mechanism of isoenzyme-specific signal peptide peptidase-mediated translocation of heme oxygenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Schaefer

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown that signal peptide peptidase (SPP can catalyze the intramembrane cleavage of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 that leads to translocation of HO-1 into the cytosol and nucleus. While there is consensus that translocated HO-1 promotes tumor progression and drug resistance, the physiological signals leading to SPP-mediated intramembrane cleavage of HO-1 and the specificity of the process remain unclear. In this study, we used co-immunoprecipitation and confocal laser scanning microscopy to investigate the translocation mechanism of HO-1 and its regulation by SPP. We show that HO-1 and the closely related HO-2 isoenzyme bind to SPP under normoxic conditions. Under hypoxic conditions SPP mediates intramembrane cleavage of HO-1, but not HO-2. In experiments with an inactive HO-1 mutant (H25A we show that translocation is independent of the catalytic activity of HO-1. Studies with HO-1 / HO-2 chimeras indicate that the membrane anchor, the PEST-domain and the nuclear shuttle sequence of HO-1 are necessary for full cleavage and subsequent translocation under hypoxic conditions. In the presence of co-expressed exogenous SPP, the anchor and the PEST-domain are sufficient for translocation. Taken together, we identified the domains involved in HO-1 translocation and showed that SPP-mediated cleavage is isoform-specific and independent of HO-activity. A closer understanding of the translocation mechanism of HO-1 is of particular importance because nuclear HO-1 seems to lead to tumor progression and drug resistance.

  19. The Legionella pneumophila IcmSW complex interacts with multiple Dot/Icm effectors to facilitate type IV translocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Cambronne

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Many gram-negative pathogens use a type IV secretion system (T4SS to deliver effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The fidelity of protein translocation depends on the efficient recognition of effector proteins by the T4SS. Legionella pneumophila delivers a large number of effector proteins into eukaryotic cells using the Dot/Icm T4SS. How the Dot/Icm system is able to recognize and control the delivery of effectors is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that the IcmS and IcmW proteins interact to form a stable complex that facilitates translocation of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm system by an unknown mechanism. Here we demonstrate that the IcmSW complex is necessary for the productive translocation of multiple Dot/Icm effector proteins. Effector proteins that were able to bind IcmSW in vitro required icmS and icmW for efficient translocation into eukaryotic cells during L. pneumophila infection. We identified regions in the effector protein SidG involved in icmSW-dependent translocation. Although the full-length SidG protein was translocated by an icmSW-dependent mechanism, deletion of amino terminal regions in the SidG protein resulted in icmSW-independent translocation, indicating that the IcmSW complex is not contributing directly to recognition of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm system. Biochemical and genetic studies showed that the IcmSW complex interacts with a central region of the SidG protein. The IcmSW interaction resulted in a conformational change in the SidG protein as determined by differences in protease sensitivity in vitro. These data suggest that IcmSW binding to effectors could enhance effector protein delivery by mediating a conformational change that facilitates T4SS recognition of a translocation domain located in the carboxyl region of the effector protein.

  20. Delayed translocation of NGFI-B/RXR in glutamate stimulated neurons allows late protection by 9-cis retinoic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathisen, Gro H.; Fallgren, Asa B.; Strom, Bjorn O.; Boldingh Debernard, Karen A.; Mohebi, Beata U. [Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1068, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Paulsen, Ragnhild E., E-mail: r.e.paulsen@farmasi.uio.no [Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1068, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} NGFI-B and RXR translocate out of the nucleus after glutamate treatment. {yields} Arresting NGFI-B/RXR in the nucleus protects neurons from excitotoxicity. {yields} Late protection by 9-cis RA is possible due to a delayed translocation of NGFI-B/RXR. -- Abstract: Nuclear receptor and apoptosis inducer NGFI-B translocates out of the nucleus as a heterodimer with RXR in response to different apoptosis stimuli, and therefore represents a potential pharmacological target. We found that the cytosolic levels of NGFI-B and RXR{alpha} were increased in cultures of cerebellar granule neurons 2 h after treatment with glutamate (excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, involved in stroke). To find a time-window for potential intervention the neurons were transfected with gfp-tagged expressor plasmids for NGFI-B and RXR. The default localization of NGFI-Bgfp and RXRgfp was nuclear, however, translocation out of the nucleus was observed 2-3 h after glutamate treatment. We therefore hypothesized that the time-window between treatment and translocation would allow late protection against neuronal death. The RXR ligand 9-cis retinoic acid was used to arrest NGFI-B and RXR in the nucleus. Addition of 9-cis retinoic acid 1 h after treatment with glutamate reduced the cytosolic translocation of NGFI-B and RXR{alpha}, the cytosolic translocation of NGFI-Bgfp observed in live neurons, as well as the neuronal death. However, the reduced translocation and the reduced cell death were not observed when 9-cis retinoic acid was added after 3 h. Thus, late protection from glutamate induced death by addition of 9-cis retinoic acid is possible in a time-window after apoptosis induction.

  1. Techniques for quantifying effects of dietary antioxidants on transcription factor translocation and nitric oxide production in cultured cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ewins, B. A.; Vassiliadou, M.; Minihane, A. M.; Rimbach, G. H.; Weinberg, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants can affect cellular processes relevant to chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. We have used non-standard techniques to quantify effects of the antioxidant soy isoflavones genistein and daidzein on translocation of Nuclear Factor-KB (NF-KB) and nitric oxide (NO) production, which are important in these diseases. Translocation was quantified using confocal immunofluoresecence microscopy and ratiometric image analysis. NO was quantified by an electrochemica...

  2. The Potential of Lr19 and Bdv2 Translocations to Improve Yield and Disease Resistance in the High Rainfall Wheat Zones of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Rosewarne

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal translocations in wheat derived from alien species are a valuable source of genetic diversity that have provided increases in resistance to various diseases and improved tolerance to abiotic stresses in wheat. These alien genomic segments can also affect multiple traits, with a concomitant ability to alter yield potential in either a positive or negative fashion. The aim of this work was to characterize the effects on yield of two types of translocations, namely T4-derived translocations from Thinopyrum ponticum, carrying the leaf rust resistance gene Lr19, and the TC14 translocation from Th. intermedium, carrying the barley yellow dwarf virus resistance gene Bdv2, in Australian adapted genetic backgrounds and under Australian conditions. A large range of germplasm was developed by crossing donor sources of the translocations into 24 Australian adapted varieties producing 340 genotypes. Yield trials were conducted in 14 environments to identify effects on yield and yield components. The T4 translocations had a positive effect on yield in one high yielding environment, but negatively affected yield in low-yielding environments. The TC14 translocation was generally benign, however, it was associated with a negative impact on yield and reduced height in two genetic backgrounds. The translocation was also associated with a delayed maturity in several backgrounds. The T4 translocations results were consistent with previously published data, whilst this is the first time that such an investigation has been undertaken on the TC14 translocation. Our data suggests a limited role for each of these translocations in Australia. The T4 translocations may be useful in high yielding environments, such as under irrigation in NSW and in the more productive high rainfall regions of south-eastern Australia. Traits associated with the TC14 translocation, such as BYDV resistance and delayed maturity, would make this translocation useful in BYDV

  3. QTL dissection of Lag phase in wine fermentation reveals a new translocation responsible for Saccharomyces cerevisiae adaptation to sulfite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Zimmer

    Full Text Available Quantitative genetics and QTL mapping are efficient strategies for deciphering the genetic polymorphisms that explain the phenotypic differences of individuals within the same species. Since a decade, this approach has been applied to eukaryotic microbes such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to find natural genetic variations conferring adaptation of individuals to their environment. In this work, a QTL responsible for lag phase duration in the alcoholic fermentation of grape juice was dissected by reciprocal hemizygosity analysis. After invalidating the effect of some candidate genes, a chromosomal translocation affecting the lag phase was brought to light using de novo assembly of parental genomes. This newly described translocation (XV-t-XVI involves the promoter region of ADH1 and the gene SSU1 and confers an increased expression of the sulfite pump during the first hours of alcoholic fermentation. This translocation constitutes another adaptation route of wine yeast to sulfites in addition to the translocation VIII-t-XVI previously described. A population survey of both translocation forms in a panel of domesticated yeast strains suggests that the translocation XV-t-XVI has been empirically selected by human activity.

  4. Fluctuations between multiple EF-G-induced chimeric tRNA states during translocation on the ribosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adio, Sarah; Senyushkina, Tamara; Peske, Frank; Fischer, Niels; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang; Rodnina, Marina V.

    2015-06-01

    The coupled translocation of transfer RNA and messenger RNA through the ribosome entails large-scale structural rearrangements, including step-wise movements of the tRNAs. Recent structural work has visualized intermediates of translocation induced by elongation factor G (EF-G) with tRNAs trapped in chimeric states with respect to 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits. The functional role of the chimeric states is not known. Here we follow the formation of translocation intermediates by single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Using EF-G mutants, a non-hydrolysable GTP analogue, and fusidic acid, we interfere with either translocation or EF-G release from the ribosome and identify several rapidly interconverting chimeric tRNA states on the reaction pathway. EF-G engagement prevents backward transitions early in translocation and increases the fraction of ribosomes that rapidly fluctuate between hybrid, chimeric and posttranslocation states. Thus, the engagement of EF-G alters the energetics of translocation towards a flat energy landscape, thereby promoting forward tRNA movement.

  5. Microscopy of bacterial translocation during small bowel obstruction and ischemia in vivo – a new animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafner Mathias

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing animal models provide only indirect information about the pathogenesis of infections caused by indigenous gastrointestinal microflora and the kinetics of bacterial translocation. The aim of this study was to develop a novel animal model to assess bacterial translocation and intestinal barrier function in vivo. Methods In anaesthetized male Wistar rats, 0.5 ml of a suspension of green fluorescent protein-transfected E. coli was administered by intraluminal injection in a model of small bowel obstruction. Animals were randomly subjected to non-ischemic or ischemic bowel obstruction. Ischemia was induced by selective clamping of the terminal mesenteric vessels feeding the obstructed bowel loop. Time intervals necessary for translocation of E. coli into the submucosal stroma and the muscularis propria was assessed using intravital microscopy. Results Bacterial translocation into the submucosa and muscularis propria took a mean of 36 ± 8 min and 80 ± 10 min, respectively, in small bowel obstruction. Intestinal ischemia significantly accelerated bacterial translocation into the submucosa (11 ± 5 min, p E. coli were visible in frozen sections of small bowel, mesentery, liver and spleen taken two hours after E. coli administration. Conclusions Intravital microscopy of fluorescent bacteria is a novel approach to study bacterial translocation in vivo. We have applied this technique to define minimal bacterial transit time as a functional parameter of intestinal barrier function.

  6. Angelman Syndrome due to familial translocation: unexpected additional results characterized by Microarray-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama-Rebollar, Emiy; Ruiz-Herrera, Adriana; Lieberman-Hernández, Esther; Del Castillo-Ruiz, Victoria; Sánchez-Sandoval, Silvia; Ávila-Flores, Silvia M; Castrillo, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    The 15q11q13 region is subject to imprinting and is involved in various structural rearrangements. Less than 1% of Angelman Syndrome patients are due to translocations involving 15q11q13. These translocations can arise de novo or result from the segregation of chromosomes involved in a familial balanced translocation. A 5-year-old Mexican girl presented with developmental delay, minor dysmorphic features and history of exotropia. G-banding chromosome analysis established the diagnosis of Angelman Syndrome resulting from a familial translocation t(10;15) involving the 15q11.2 region. The available family members were studied using banding and molecular cytogenetic techniques, including Microarray-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization, which revealed additional unexpected results: a coincidental and smaller 15q deletion, asymptomatic duplications in 15q11.2 and Xp22.31 regions. This report demonstrates the usefulness of array CGH for a detailed characterization of familial translocations, including the detection of submicroscopic copy number variations, which would otherwise be missed by karyotype analysis alone. Our report also expands two molecularly characterized rare patient cohorts: Angelman Syndrome patients due to familial translocations and patients with 15q11.2 duplications of paternal origin.

  7. HMA P-type ATPases are the major mechanism for root-to-shoot Cd translocation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chong Kum Edwin; Cobbett, Christopher S

    2009-01-01

    The Zn/Cd-transporting ATPases, HMA2 and HMA4, essential for root-to-shoot Zn translocation, are also able to transport Cd. Phytochelatins (PCs) are a major mechanism of Cd detoxification through the sequestration of PC-Cd complexes in vacuoles. The roles of HMA2 and HMA4 in root-to-shoot Cd translocation and Cd tolerance were investigated in the PC-deficient, cad1-3 mutant and CAD1 backgrounds. Six lines, with all possible combinations of hma2, hma4 and cad1 mutations, were constructed. The lines were tested for Cd-sensitivity on agar medium, and radioactive (109)Cd was used to measure Cd uptake and translocation from root to shoot over periods of up to 6 d. In hma4 and hma2,hma4, but not hma2, root-to-shoot Cd translocation was decreased to about 60 and 2%, respectively, of that in the wild-type. Cd sensitivity increased approximately twofold in the hma2,hma4 mutant in both CAD1 and cad1 backgrounds. PC deficiency resulted in an increase in shoot Cd concentrations. The near-complete abolition of root-to-shoot Cd translocation resulting from the loss of function of HMA2 and HMA4 demonstrates they are the major mechanism for Cd translocation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  8. The impact of translocations on neutral and functional genetic diversity within and among populations of the Seychelles warbler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David J; Spurgin, Lewis G; Collar, Nigel J; Komdeur, Jan; Burke, Terry; Richardson, David S

    2014-05-01

    Translocations are an increasingly common tool in conservation. The maintenance of genetic diversity through translocation is critical for both the short- and long-term persistence of populations and species. However, the relative spatio-temporal impacts of translocations on neutral and functional genetic diversity, and how this affects genetic structure among the conserved populations overall, have received little investigation. We compared the impact of translocating different numbers of founders on both microsatellite and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I diversity over a 23-year period in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). We found low and stable microsatellite and MHC diversity in the source population and evidence for only a limited loss of either type of diversity in the four new populations. However, we found evidence of significant, but low to moderate, genetic differentiation between populations, with those populations established with fewer founders clustering separately. Stochastic genetic capture (as opposed to subsequent drift) was the main determinant of translocated population diversity. Furthermore, a strong correlation between microsatellite and MHC differentiation suggested that neutral processes outweighed selection in shaping MHC diversity in the new populations. These data provide important insights into how to optimize the use of translocation as a conservation tool. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Nanopore Sensing in Aqueous Two-Phase System: Simultaneous Enhancement of Signal and Translocation Time via Conformal Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Jun; Kang, Ji Yoon; Choi, Wonjoon; Kwak, Rhokyun

    2017-01-01

    Nanofluidic resistive pulse sensing (RPS) has been extensively used to measure the size, concentration, and surface charge of nanoparticles in electrically conducting solutions. Although various methods have been explored for improving detection performances, intrinsic problems including the extremely low particle-to-pore volume ratio (aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in a nanofluidic RPS for amplifying translocation signals and decreasing translocation speeds simultaneously. Two immiscible aqueous liquids build a liquid-liquid interface inside nanopores. As particles translocate from a high-affinity liquid phase into a lower-affinity one, the high-affinity liquid forms a conformal coating on the particles, which increases the effective particle size and amplifies the current-blockage signal. The translocation time is also increased, as the ATPS interface impedes the particle translocation. For 20 nm particles, 7.92-fold and 5.82-fold enhancements of signal magnitude and translocation time can be achieved. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to improve nanofluidic RPS by treating an interface of solution reservoirs for manipulating target particles rather than nanopores. This direct particle manipulation allows us to solve the two intrinsic problems all at once. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Dot/Icm Effector Translocation by Legionella longbeachae Creates a Replicative Vacuole Similar to That of Legionella pneumophila despite Translocation of Distinct Effector Repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Rebecca E; Newton, Patrice; Latomanski, Eleanor A; Newton, Hayley J

    2015-10-01

    Legionella organisms are environmental bacteria and accidental human pathogens that can cause severe pneumonia, termed Legionnaires' disease. These bacteria replicate within a pathogen-derived vacuole termed the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). Our understanding of the development and dynamics of this vacuole is based on extensive analysis of Legionella pneumophila. Here, we have characterized the Legionella longbeachae replicative vacuole (longbeachae-LCV) and demonstrated that, despite important genomic differences, key features of the replicative LCV are comparable to those of the LCV of L. pneumophila (pneumophila-LCV). We constructed a Dot/Icm-deficient strain by deleting dotB and demonstrated the inability of this mutant to replicate inside THP-1 cells. L. longbeachae does not enter THP-1 cells as efficiently as L. pneumophila, and this is reflected in the observation that translocation of BlaM-RalFLLO (where RalFLLO is the L. longbeachae homologue of RalF) into THP-1 cells by the L. longbeachae Dot/Icm system is less efficient than that by L. pneumophila. This difference is negated in A549 cells where L. longbeachae and L. pneumophila infect with similar entry dynamics. A β-lactamase assay was employed to demonstrate the translocation of a novel family of proteins, the Rab-like effector (Rle) proteins. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that these proteins enter the host cell during infection and display distinct subcellular localizations, with RleA and RleC present on the longbeachae-LCV. We observed that the host Rab GTPase, Rab1, and the v-SNARE Sec22b are also recruited to the longbeachae-LCV during the early stages of infection, coinciding with the LCV avoiding endocytic maturation. These studies further our understanding of the L. longbeachae replicative vacuole, highlighting phenotypic similarities to the vacuole of L. pneumophila as well as unique aspects of LCV biology. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights

  11. Nuclear translocation of the cytoplasmic domain of HB-EGF induces gastric cancer invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Membrane-anchored heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (proHB-EGF) yields soluble HB-EGF, which is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand, and a carboxy-terminal fragment of HB-EGF (HB-EGF-CTF) after ectodomain shedding. We previously reported that HB-EGF-CTF and unshed proHB-EGF which has the cytoplasmic domain of proHB-EGF (HB-EGF-C), translocate from the plasma membrane to the nucleus and regulate cell cycle after shedding stimuli. However, the significance of nuclear exported HB-EGF-C in human gastric cancer is unclear. Methods We investigated the relationship between intracellular localization of HB-EGF-C and clinical outcome in 96 gastric cancer patients treated with gastrectomy. Moreover, we established stable gastric cancer cell lines overexpressing wild-type HB-EGF (wt-HB-EGF) and mutated HB-EGF (HB-EGF-mC), which prevented HB-EGF-C nuclear translocation after shedding. Cell motility between these 2 gastric cancer cell lines was investigated using a transwell invasion assay and a wound healing assay. Results Of the 96 gastric cancer cases, HB-EGF-C immunoreactivity was detected in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in 19 cases (19.8 %) and in the cytoplasm only in 25 cases (26.0 %). The nuclear immunoreactivity of HB-EGF-C was significantly increased in stage pT3/4 tumors compared with pT1/2 tumors (T1/2 vs. T3/4: 11.1 % vs. 36.4 %, P HB-EGF- and HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells significantly increased compared with control cells, but the growth of HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells was significantly decreased compared with wt-HB-EGF-expressing cells. Gastric cancer cell invasion obviously increased in wt-HB-EGF-expressing cells, but invasion in HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells showed a slight increase compared with control cells. Moreover, wt-HB-EGF overexpression increased the effectiveness of wound healing, but had no significant effect in HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells. Conclusions Both the function of HB-EGF as an EGFR ligand

  12. Identification of copy number variations and translocations in cancer cells from Hi-C data.

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    Chakraborty, Abhijit; Ay, Ferhat

    2017-10-18

    Eukaryotic chromosomes adapt a complex and highly dynamic three-dimensional (3D) structure, which profoundly affects different cellular functions and outcomes including changes in epigenetic landscape and in gene expression. Making the scenario even more complex, cancer cells harbor chromosomal abnormalities (e.g., copy number variations (CNVs) and translocations) altering their genomes both at the sequence level and at the level of 3D organization. High-throughput chromosome conformation capture techniques (e.g., Hi-C), which are originally developed for decoding the 3D structure of the chromatin, provide a great opportunity to simultaneously identify the locations of genomic rearrangements and to investigate the 3D genome organization in cancer cells. Even though Hi-C data has been used for validating known rearrangements, computational methods that can distinguish rearrangement signals from the inherent biases of Hi-C data and from the actual 3D conformation of chromatin, and can precisely detect rearrangement locations de novo have been missing. In this work, we characterize how intra and inter-chromosomal Hi-C contacts are distributed for normal and rearranged chromosomes to devise a new set of algorithms (i) to identify genomic segments that correspond to CNV regions such as amplifications and deletions (HiCnv), (Nurtdinov et al.) to call inter-chromosomal translocations and their boundaries (HiCtrans) from Hi-C experiments, and (iii) to simulate Hi-C data from genomes with desired rearrangements and abnormalities (AveSim) in order to select optimal parameters for and to benchmark the accuracy of our methods. Our results on 10 different cancer cell lines with Hi-C data show that we identify a total number of 105 amplifications and 45 deletions together with 90 translocations, whereas we identify virtually no such events for two karyotypically normal cell lines. Our CNV predictions correlate very well with whole genome sequencing (WGS) data among chromosomes

  13. A novel translocation breakpoint within the BPTF gene is associated with a pre-malignant phenotype.

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    Yosef Buganim

    Full Text Available Partial gain of chromosome arm 17q is an abundant aberrancy in various cancer types such as lung and prostate cancer with a prominent occurrence and prognostic significance in neuroblastoma--one of the most common embryonic tumors. The specific genetic element/s in 17q responsible for the cancer-promoting effect of these aberrancies is yet to be defined although many genes located in 17q have been proposed to play a role in malignancy. We report here the characterization of a naturally-occurring, non-reciprocal translocation der(Xt(X;17 in human lung embryonal-derived cells following continuous culturing. This aberrancy was strongly correlated with an increased proliferative capacity and with an acquired ability to form colonies in vitro. The breakpoint region was mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH to the 17q24.3 locus. Further characterization by a custom-made comparative genome hybridization array (CGH localized the breakpoint within the Bromodomain PHD finger Transcription Factor gene (BPTF, a gene involved in transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling. Interestingly, this translocation led to elevation in the mRNA levels of the endogenous BPTF. Knock-down of BPTF restricted proliferation suggesting a role for BPTF in promoting cellular growth. Furthermore, the BPTF chromosomal region was found to be amplified in various human tumors, especially in neuroblastomas and lung cancers in which 55% and 27% of the samples showed gain of 17q24.3, respectively. Additionally, 42% percent of the cancer cell lines comprising the NCI-60 had an abnormal BPTF locus copy number. We suggest that deregulation of BPTF resulting from the translocation may confer the cells with the observed cancer-promoting phenotype and that our cellular model can serve to establish causality between 17q aberrations and carcinogenesis.

  14. Post-splenectomy infections in chronic schistosomiasis as a consequence of bacterial translocation

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    Kedma de Magalhães Lima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Bacterial translocation is the invasion of indigenous intestinal bacteria through the gut mucosa to normally sterile tissues and internal organs. Schistosomiasis may cause alterations in the immune system and damage to the intestines, portal system and mesenteric lymph nodes. This study investigated bacterial translocation and alterations in the intestinal microbiota and mucosa in schistosomiasis and splenectomized mice. METHODS : Forty female 35-day-old Swiss Webster mice were divided into the following four groups with 10 animals each: schistosomotic (ESF, splenectomized schistosomotic (ESEF, splenectomized (EF and control (CF. Infection was achieved by introduction of 50 Schistosoma mansoni (SLM cercariae through the skin. At 125 days after birth, half of the parasitized and unparasitized mice were subjected to splenectomy. Body weights were recorded for one week after splenectomy; then, the mice were euthanized to study bacterial translocation, microbiota composition and intestinal morphometry. RESULTS : We observed significant reductions in the weight increases in the EF, ESF and ESEF groups. There were increases of at least 1,000 CFU of intestinal microbiota bacteria in these groups compared with the CF. The EF, ESF and ESEF mice showed decreases in the heights and areas of villi and the total villus areas (perimeter. We observed frequent co-infections with various bacterial genera. CONCLUSIONS : The ESEF mice showed a higher degree of sepsis. This finding may be associated with a reduction in the immune response associated with the absence of the spleen and a reduction in nutritional absorption strengthened by both of these factors (Schistosoma infection and splenectomy.

  15. Increased plant carbon translocation linked to overyielding in grassland species mixtures.

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    Gerlinde B De Deyn

    Full Text Available Plant species richness and productivity often show a positive relationship, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, especially at the plant species level. We examined how growing plants in species mixture influences intraspecific rates of short-term carbon (C- translocation, and determined whether such short-term responses are reflected in biomass yields. We grew monocultures and mixtures of six common C3 grassland plant species in outdoor mesocosms, applied a (13C-CO(2 pulse in situ to trace assimilated C through plants, into the soil, and back to the atmosphere, and quantified species-specific biomass. Pulse derived (13C enrichment was highest in the legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium repens, and relocation (i.e. transport from the leaves to other plant parts of the recently assimilated (13C was most rapid in T. repens grown in 6-species mixtures. The grass Anthoxanthum odoratum also showed high levels of (13C enrichment in 6-species mixtures, while (13C enrichment was low in Lolium perenne, Plantago lanceolata and Achillea millefolium. Rates of C loss through respiration were highest in monocultures of T. repens and relatively low in species mixtures, while the proportion of (13C in the respired CO(2 was similar in monocultures and mixtures. The grass A. odoratum and legume T. repens were most promoted in 6-species mixtures, and together with L. corniculatus, caused the net biomass increase in 6-species mixtures. These plant species also had highest rates of (13C-label translocation, and for A. odoratum and T. repens this effect was greatest in plant individuals grown in species mixtures. Our study reveals that short-term plant C translocation can be accelerated in plant individuals of legume and C3 grass species when grown in mixtures, and that this is strongly positively related to overyielding. These results demonstrate a mechanistic coupling between changes in intraspecific plant carbon physiology and increased

  16. Rapid Karyotype Evolution in Lasiopodomys Involved at Least Two Autosome – Sex Chromosome Translocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemskaya, Natalya A.; Serdyukova, Natalya A.; O’Brien, Patricia C. M.; Kovalskaya, Julia M.; Smorkatcheva, Antonina V.; Golenishchev, Feodor N.; Perelman, Polina L.; Trifonov, Vladimir A.; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A.; Yang, Fengtang; Graphodatsky, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    The generic status of Lasiopodomys and its division into subgenera Lasiopodomys (L. mandarinus, L. brandtii) and Stenocranius (L. gregalis, L. raddei) are not generally accepted because of contradictions between the morphological and molecular data. To obtain cytogenetic evidence for the Lasiopodomys genus and its subgenera and to test the autosome to sex chromosome translocation hypothesis of sex chromosome complex origin in L. mandarinus proposed previously, we hybridized chromosome painting probes from the field vole (Microtus agrestis, MAG) and the Arctic lemming (Dicrostonyx torquatus, DTO) onto the metaphases of a female Mandarin vole (L. mandarinus, 2n = 47) and a male Brandt's vole (L. brandtii, 2n = 34). In addition, we hybridized Arctic lemming painting probes onto chromosomes of a female narrow-headed vole (L. gregalis, 2n = 36). Cross-species painting revealed three cytogenetic signatures (MAG12/18, 17a/19, and 22/24) that could validate the genus Lasiopodomys and indicate the evolutionary affinity of L. gregalis to the genus. Moreover, all three species retained the associations MAG1bc/17b and 2/8a detected previously in karyotypes of all arvicolins studied. The associations MAG2a/8a/19b, 8b/21, 9b/23, 11/13b, 12b/18, 17a/19a, and 5 fissions of ancestral segments appear to be characteristic for the subgenus Lasiopodomys. We also validated the autosome to sex chromosome translocation hypothesis on the origin of complex sex chromosomes in L. mandarinus. Two translocations of autosomes onto the ancestral X chromosome in L. mandarinus led to a complex of neo-X1, neo-X2, and neo-X3 elements. Our results demonstrate that genus Lasiopodomys represents a striking example of rapid chromosome evolution involving both autosomes and sex chromosomes. Multiple reshuffling events including Robertsonian fusions, chromosomal fissions, inversions and heterochromatin expansion have led to the formation of modern species karyotypes in a very short time, about 2.4 MY. PMID

  17. Understanding phosphorus status and P translocation within wheat plant in a split-root system

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    Rubya Shabnam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are not uniform in their nutritional requirements, most of them survive under adverse conditions of humidity, temperature, and nutrients. Because they are genetically adapted to their habitats and even some varieties of the same species show differences in absorption, translocation, accumulation and nutrient use. This study is aimed at examining the phosphorus (P status in the different parts of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. plant and its influence on plant growth and P translocation in a split-root soil culture. KH2PO4 was used as the source of phosphorus for the different level of P application. Two recently BARI developed wheat varieties namely BARI GOM 25 and BARI GOM 26 were used as testing plants. . Result showed the growth parameter increased with the increase of P application. Likewise, P uptake by wheat plant also increases with the elevated P application. However, no significant differences were observed between wheat varieties irrespective of growth and P uptake by wheat plant. Moreover, elevated P concentrations in the shoot of wheat plants probably provide more P for shoot unloading of P and for P assimilation in the controlled roots. This phenomenon results in increased P concentrations in the roots of wheat plants that mean translocation of P in the roots. These findings indicate that the added soluble P increases the absorption of nutrients from the soil solution. So, this study concluded that the application of elevated P in split-root system is efficient both for increasing shoot development and root growth and plays significant role in thePtranslocationwithin the wheat plants.

  18. Identification and analysis of proton-translocating pyrophosphatases in the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäumer, Sebastian; Lentes, Sabine; Gottschalk, Gerhard; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of genome sequence data from the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 revealed the existence of two open reading frames encoding proton-translocating pyrophosphatases (PPases). These open reading frames are linked by a 750-bp intergenic region containing TC-rich stretches and are transcribed in opposite directions. The corresponding polypeptides are referred to as Mvp1 and Mvp2 and consist of 671 and 676 amino acids, respectively. Both enzymes represent extremely hydrophobic, integral membrane proteins with 15 predicted transmembrane segments and an overall amino acid sequence similarity of 50.1%. Multiple sequence alignments revealed that Mvp1 is closely related to eukaryotic PPases, whereas Mvp2 shows highest homologies to bacterial PPases. Northern blot experiments with RNA from methanol-grown cells harvested in the mid-log growth phase indicated that only Mvp2 was produced under these conditions. Analysis of washed membranes showed that Mvp2 had a specific activity of 0.34 U mg (protein)–1. Proton translocation experiments with inverted membrane vesicles prepared from methanol-grown cells showed that hydrolysis of 1 mol of pyrophosphate was coupled to the translocation of about 1 mol of protons across the cytoplasmic membrane. Appropriate conditions for mvp1 expression could not be determined yet. The pyrophosphatases of M. mazei Gö1 represent the first examples of this enzyme class in methanogenic archaea and may be part of their energy-conserving system. Abbreviations: DCCD, N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide; PPase, inorganic pyrophosphatase; PPi, inorganic pyrophosphate; Δp, proton motive force. PMID:15803653

  19. Electrostatic control of DNA intersegmental translocation by the ETS transcription factor ETV6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Tam; Wang, Shuo; Poon, Gregory M K; Wilson, W David

    2017-08-11

    To find their DNA target sites in complex solution environments containing excess heterogeneous DNA, sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins execute various translocation mechanisms known collectively as facilitated diffusion. For proteins harboring a single DNA contact surface, long-range translocation occurs by jumping between widely spaced DNA segments. We have configured biosensor-based surface plasmon resonance to directly measure the affinity and kinetics of this intersegmental jumping by the ETS-family transcription factor ETS variant 6 (ETV6). To isolate intersegmental target binding in a functionally defined manner, we pre-equilibrated ETV6 with excess salmon sperm DNA, a heterogeneous polymer, before exposing the nonspecifically bound protein to immobilized oligomeric DNA harboring a high-affinity ETV6 site. In this way, the mechanism of ETV6-target association could be toggled electrostatically through varying NaCl concentration in the bulk solution. Direct measurements of association and dissociation kinetics of the site-specific complex indicated that 1) freely diffusive binding by ETV6 proceeds through a nonspecific-like intermediate, 2) intersegmental jumping is rate-limited by dissociation from the nonspecific polymer, and 3) dissociation of the specific complex is independent of the history of complex formation. These results show that target searches by proteins with an ETS domain, such as ETV6, whose single DNA-binding domain cannot contact both source and destination sites simultaneously, are nonetheless strongly modulated by intersegmental jumping in heterogeneous site environments. Our findings establish biosensors as a general technique for directly and specifically measuring target site search by DNA-binding proteins via intersegmental translocation. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. The potential for translocation of marine species via small-scale disruptions to antifouling surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piola, Richard F; Johnston, Emma L

    2008-01-01

    Vessel hull fouling is a major vector for the translocation of nonindigenous species (NIS). Antifouling (AF) paints are the primary method for preventing the establishment and translocation of fouling species. However, factors such as paint age, condition and method of application can all reduce the effectiveness of these coatings. Areas of hull that escape AF treatment (through limited application or damage) constitute key areas that may be expected to receive high levels of fouling. The investigation focused on whether small-scale (mm(2) to cm(2)) areas of unprotected surface or experimental 'scrapes' provided sufficient area for the formation of fouling assemblages within otherwise undamaged AF surfaces. Recruitment of fouling taxa such as algae, spirorbids and hydroids was recorded on scrapes as narrow as 0.5 cm wide. The abundance and species richness of fouling assemblages developing on scrapes > or =1 cm often equalled or surpassed levels observed in reference assemblages totally unprotected by AF coatings. Experiments were conducted at three sites within the highly protected and isolated marine park surrounding Lady Elliott Island at the southernmost tip of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Several NIS were recorded on scrapes of AF coated surfaces at this location, with 1-cm scrapes showing the greatest species richness and abundance of NIS relative to all other treatments (including controls) at two of the three sites investigated. Slight disruptions to newly antifouled surfaces may be all that is necessary for the establishment of fouling organisms and the translocation of a wide range of invasive taxa to otherwise highly protected marine areas.

  1. Diagnostic X-ray examinations and increased chromosome translocations: evidence from three studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Parveen; Yong, Lee C; Doody, Michele M; Preston, Dale L; Kampa, Diane M; Ramsey, Marilyn J; Ward, Elizabeth M; Edwards, Alan A; Ron, Elaine; Tucker, James D; Sigurdson, Alice J

    2010-11-01

    Controversy regarding potential health risks from increased use of medical diagnostic radiologic examinations has come to public attention. We evaluated whether chromosome damage, specifically translocations, which are a potentially intermediate biomarker for cancer risk, was increased after exposure to diagnostic X-rays, with particular interest in the ionizing radiation dose-response below the level of approximately 50 mGy. Chromosome translocation frequency data from three separately conducted occupational studies of ionizing radiation were pooled together. Studies 1 and 2 included 79 and 150 medical radiologic technologists, respectively, and study 3 included 83 airline pilots and 50 university faculty members (total = 155 women and 207 men; mean age = 62 years, range 34-90). Information on personal history of radiographic examinations was collected from a detailed questionnaire. We computed a cumulative red bone marrow (RBM) dose score based on the numbers and types of X-ray examinations reported with 1 unit approximating 1 mGy. Poisson regression analyses were adjusted for age and laboratory method. Mean RBM dose scores were 49, 42, and 11 for Studies 1-3, respectively (overall mean = 33.5, range 0-303). Translocation frequencies significantly increased with increasing dose score (P < 0.001). Restricting the analysis to the lowest dose scores of under 50 did not materially change these results. We conclude that chromosome damage is associated with low levels of radiation exposure from diagnostic X-ray examinations, including dose scores of approximately 50 and lower, suggesting the possibility of long-term adverse health effects.

  2. Comprehensive postmortem analyses of intestinal microbiota changes and bacterial translocation in human flora associated mice.

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    Markus M Heimesaat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postmortem microbiological examinations are performed in forensic and medical pathology for defining uncertain causes of deaths and for screening of deceased tissue donors. Interpretation of bacteriological data, however, is hampered by false-positive results due to agonal spread of microorganisms, postmortem bacterial translocation, and environmental contamination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a kinetic survey of naturally occurring postmortem gut flora changes in the small and large intestines of conventional and gnotobiotic mice associated with a human microbiota (hfa applying cultural and molecular methods. Sacrificed mice were kept under ambient conditions for up to 72 hours postmortem. Intestinal microbiota changes were most pronounced in the ileal lumen where enterobacteria and enterococci increased by 3-5 orders of magnitude in conventional and hfa mice. Interestingly, comparable intestinal overgrowth was shown in acute and chronic intestinal inflammation in mice and men. In hfa mice, ileal overgrowth with enterococci and enterobacteria started 3 and 24 hours postmortem, respectively. Strikingly, intestinal bacteria translocated to extra-intestinal compartments such as mesenteric lymphnodes, spleen, liver, kidney, and cardiac blood as early as 5 min after death. Furthermore, intestinal tissue destruction was characterized by increased numbers of apoptotic cells and neutrophils within 3 hours postmortem, whereas counts of proliferative cells as well as T- and B-lymphocytes and regulatory T-cells decreased between 3 and 12 hours postmortem. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that kinetics of ileal overgrowth with enterobacteria and enterococci in hfa mice can be used as an indicator for compromized intestinal functionality and for more precisely defining the time point of death under defined ambient conditions. The rapid translocation of intestinal bacteria starting within a few minutes after death will help

  3. α-Synuclein overexpression impairs mitochondrial function by associating with adenylate translocator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuangang; Duan, Chunli; Lü, Li; Gao, Hua; Zhao, Chunli; Yu, Shun; Uéda, Kenji; Chan, Piu; Yang, Hui

    2011-05-01

    α-Synuclein (α-syn), a protein involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), is known to accumulate in mitochondria, disrupt mitochondrial function. However, the molecular mechanisms that link these pathological responses have not been investigated. In rats overexpressing α-syn in the substantia nigra (SN) through adeno-associated virus (AAV) transduction, about 50% of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons were lost after 24 weeks. Overexpression of α-syn was also associated with morphological deformation of mitochondria and depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). Both co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy demonstrated that mitochondrial α-syn associated with adenylate translocator (ANT), a component of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). The depolarization of ΔΨm was partially reversed in vitro by bongkrekic acid (BKA), an inhibitor of ANT, suggesting that the molecular association between α-syn and ANT facilitated ΔΨm depolarization. Concomitant with α-syn accumulation in mitochondria, abnormal mitochondrial morphology, ΔΨm depolarization, and loss of TH-positive neurons, there was a decrease in apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) within the mitochondrial matrix, suggesting possible translocation to the cytosol. Our findings suggest that overexpression of α-syn may cause mitochondrial defects in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra through an association with adenylate translocator and activation of mitochondria-dependent cell death pathways. Disruption of normal mitochondrial function may contribute to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing the potential of translocating vulnerable forest birds by searching for novel and enduring climatic ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Lucas B.; Kaiser, Lauren R.; Vorsino, Adam E.; Paxton, Eben H.; Jacobi, James D.

    2017-01-01

    Hawaiian forest birds are imperiled, with fewer than half the original >40 species remaining extant. Recent studies document ongoing rapid population decline and pro- ject complete climate-based range losses for the critically endangered Kaua’i endemics ‘akeke’e (Loxops caeruleirostris) and ‘akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) by end-of-century due to projected warming. Climate change facilitates the upward expansion of avian malaria into native high elevation forests where disease was historically absent. While intensi- fied conservation efforts attempt to safeguard these species and their habitats, the magnitude of potential loss and the urgency of this situation require all conservation options to be seriously considered. One option for Kaua’i endemics is translocation to islands with higher elevation habitats. We explored the feasibility of interisland translocation by projecting baseline and future climate-based ranges of ‘akeke’e and ‘akikiki across the Hawaiian archipelago. For islands where compatible climates for these spe- cies were projected to endure through end-of-century, an additional climatic niche overlap analysis compares the spatial overlap between Kaua’i endemics and current native species on prospective destination islands. Suitable climate-based ranges exist on Maui and Hawai’i for these Kaua’i endemics that offer climatically distinct areas compared to niche distributions of destination island endemics. While we recognize that any decision to translocate birds will include assessing numerous additional social, political, and biological factors, our focus on locations of enduring and ecologically compatible climate-based ranges represents the first step to evaluate this potential conservation option. Our approach considering baseline and future distributions of species with climatic niche overlap metrics to identify undesirable range overlap provides a method that can be utilized for other climate-vulnerable species with

  5. Centromeric alpha satellite DNA amplification and translocation in an unusually large chromosome 14p+ variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, S; Earle, E; Voullaire, L; Rogers, J; Choo, K H

    1989-05-01

    We report cytogenetic and molecular studies on a family that carries, in the father, an unusually large chromosome 14p+ variant [WSi-var(14)(p+)] and, in one of his children, a translocation [DSi-der(14)] involving the variant chromosome. Increase in the size of WSi-var(14)(p+) was estimated to be approximately 35% that of a normal chromosome 14. Presence of extra chromosomal material in this variant chromosome was demonstrated by G-banding using trypsin and staining with Leishman, G-banding using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and Giemsa, and R-banding using BrdU and Giemsa. This material was positive using C-banding with BaOH and staining with Giemsa and negative in DAPI/distamycin staining, suggesting that it contained repetitive DNA but probably not of the types found in the heterochromatic regions of chromosomes 1, 9, 15, 16, and Y. Staining of the nucleolus organiser region (NOR) with AgNO3 indicated the retention of the NOR in WSi-var(14)(p+) but not in DSi-der(14). In situ hybridisation of metaphase cells with an alpha satellite DNA probe specific for human acrocentric chromosomes demonstrated a significantly increased amount of centromeric alpha sequences in WSi-var(14)(p+). Most or all of the extra alpha sequences were retained in DSi-der(14), indicating translocation near the very distal end of the enlarged region. The extra alpha satellite DNA material may have originated through amplification of some centromeric segments. The possible role of the amplified DNA in chromosomal translocations is discussed.

  6. Serological markers for inflammatory bowel disease in AIDS patients with evidence of microbial translocation.

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    Anupa Kamat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breakdown of the gut mucosal barrier during chronic HIV infection allows translocation of bacterial products such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS from the gut into the circulation. Microbial translocation also occurs in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. IBD serological markers are useful in the diagnosis of IBD and to differentiate between Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC. Here, we evaluate detection of IBD serological markers in HIV-infected patients with advanced disease and their relationship to HIV disease markers. METHODS: IBD serological markers (ASCA, pANCA, anti-OmpC, and anti-CBir1 were measured by ELISA in plasma from AIDS patients (n = 26 with low CD4 counts (<300 cells/µl and high plasma LPS levels, and results correlated with clinical data. For meta-analysis, relevant data were abstracted from 20 articles. RESULTS: IBD serological markers were detected in approximately 65% of AIDS patients with evidence of microbial translocation. An antibody pattern consistent with IBD was detected in 46%; of these, 75% had a CD-like pattern. Meta-analysis of data from 20 published studies on IBD serological markers in CD, UC, and non-IBD control subjects indicated that IBD serological markers are detected more frequently in AIDS patients than in non-IBD disease controls and healthy controls, but less frequently than in CD patients. There was no association between IBD serological markers and HIV disease markers (plasma viral load and CD4 counts in the study cohort. CONCLUSIONS: IBD serological markers may provide a non-invasive approach to monitor HIV-related inflammatory gut disease. Further studies to investigate their clinical significance in HIV-infected individuals are warranted.

  7. Nuclear translocation of doublecortin-like protein kinase and phosphorylation of a transcription factor JDP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagamine, Tadashi; Nomada, Shohgo; Onouchi, Takashi; Kameshita, Isamu; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki, E-mail: sueyoshi@ag.kagawa-u.ac.jp

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Doublecortin-like protein kinase (DCLK) is a microtubule-associated protein kinase. • In living cells, DCLK was cleaved into two functional fragments. • zDCLK(kinase) was translocated into the nucleus by osmotic stresses. • Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2) was identified as zDCLK(kinase)-binding protein. • JDP2 was efficiently phosphorylated by zDCLK(kinase) only when histone was present. - Abstract: Doublecortin-like protein kinase (DCLK) is a microtubule-associated protein kinase predominantly expressed in brain. In a previous paper, we reported that zebrafish DCLK2 (zDCLK) was cleaved into two functional fragments; the N-terminal zDCLK(DC + SP) with microtubule-binding activity and the C-terminal zDCLK(kinase) with a Ser/Thr protein kinase activity. In this study, we demonstrated that zDCLK(kinase) was widely distributed in the cytoplasm and translocated into the nucleus when the cells were treated under hyperosmotic conditions with NaCl or mannitol. By two-hybrid screening using the C-terminal domain of DCLK, Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2), a nuclear transcription factor, was identified as zDCLK(kinase)-binding protein. Furthermore, JDP2 served as an efficient substrate for zDCLK(kinase) only when histone was present. These results suggest that the kinase fragment of DCLK is translocated into the nucleus upon hyperosmotic stresses and that the kinase efficiently phosphorylates JDP2, a possible target in the nucleus, with the aid of histones.

  8. Comprehensive postmortem analyses of intestinal microbiota changes and bacterial translocation in human flora associated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimesaat, Markus M; Boelke, Silvia; Fischer, André; Haag, Lea-Maxie; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Kühl, Anja A; Göbel, Ulf B; Bereswill, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Postmortem microbiological examinations are performed in forensic and medical pathology for defining uncertain causes of deaths and for screening of deceased tissue donors. Interpretation of bacteriological data, however, is hampered by false-positive results due to agonal spread of microorganisms, postmortem bacterial translocation, and environmental contamination. We performed a kinetic survey of naturally occurring postmortem gut flora changes in the small and large intestines of conventional and gnotobiotic mice associated with a human microbiota (hfa) applying cultural and molecular methods. Sacrificed mice were kept under ambient conditions for up to 72 hours postmortem. Intestinal microbiota changes were most pronounced in the ileal lumen where enterobacteria and enterococci increased by 3-5 orders of magnitude in conventional and hfa mice. Interestingly, comparable intestinal overgrowth was shown in acute and chronic intestinal inflammation in mice and men. In hfa mice, ileal overgrowth with enterococci and enterobacteria started 3 and 24 hours postmortem, respectively. Strikingly, intestinal bacteria translocated to extra-intestinal compartments such as mesenteric lymphnodes, spleen, liver, kidney, and cardiac blood as early as 5 min after death. Furthermore, intestinal tissue destruction was characterized by increased numbers of apoptotic cells and neutrophils within 3 hours postmortem, whereas counts of proliferative cells as well as T- and B-lymphocytes and regulatory T-cells decreased between 3 and 12 hours postmortem. We conclude that kinetics of ileal overgrowth with enterobacteria and enterococci in hfa mice can be used as an indicator for compromized intestinal functionality and for more precisely defining the time point of death under defined ambient conditions. The rapid translocation of intestinal bacteria starting within a few minutes after death will help to distinguish between relevant bacteria and secondary contaminants thus providing

  9. Arf6-Dependent Intracellular Trafficking of Pasteurella multocida Toxin and pH-Dependent Translocation from Late Endosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy P. M. Chong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The potent mitogenic toxin from Pasteurella multocida (PMT is the major virulence factor associated with a number of epizootic and zoonotic diseases caused by infection with this respiratory pathogen. PMT is a glutamine-specific protein deamidase that acts on its intracellular G-protein targets to increase intracellular calcium, cytoskeletal, and mitogenic signaling. PMT enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and then translocates into the cytosol through a pH-dependent process that is inhibited by NH4Cl or bafilomycin A1. However, the detailed mechanisms that govern cellular entry, trafficking, and translocation of PMT remain unclear. Co-localization studies described herein revealed that while PMT shares an initial entry pathway with transferrin (Tfn and cholera toxin (CT, the trafficking pathways of Tfn, CT, and PMT subsequently diverge, as Tfn is trafficked to recycling endosomes, CT is trafficked retrograde to the ER, and PMT is trafficked to late endosomes. Our studies implicate the small regulatory GTPase Arf6 in the endocytic trafficking of PMT. Translocation of PMT from the endocytic vesicle occurs through a pH-dependent process that is also dependent on both microtubule and actin dynamics, as evidenced by inhibition of PMT activity in our SRE-based reporter assay, with nocodazole and cytochalasin D, respectively, suggesting that membrane translocation and cytotoxicity of PMT is dependent on its transfer to late endosomal compartments. In contrast, disruption of Golgi-ER trafficking with brefeldin A increased PMT activity, suggesting that inhibiting PMT trafficking to non-productive compartments that do not lead to translocation, while promoting formation of an acidic tubulovesicle system more conducive to translocation, enhances PMT translocation and activity.

  10. Melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer: report of a case with a unique intratumoral sarcoid-like reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterhouse, Lauren L; Cykowski, Matthew D; Hassell, Lewis A; Slobodov, Gennady; Bane, Barbara L

    2014-04-15

    Melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer is a rare tumor belonging to the family of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiTF)/transcription factor E (TFE) neoplasms. This tumor family also includes alveolar soft part sarcoma, perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms, Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma, and melanoma. To date, six confirmed melanotic Xp11 translocation cancers (five renal, one ovarian) have been reported in the literature. Here, we report the clinical, histologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of a unique melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer arising in a 34-year-old African-American female. Histologically, the tumor was composed of epithelioid tumor cells arranged in a nested pattern. The cells had clear to eosinophilic granular cytoplasm, vesicular nuclear chromatin, and prominent nucleoli. Multifocal intracytoplasmic deposits of granular brown melanin pigment were identified and confirmed by Fontana-Masson stain. An unusual histologic feature, not previously reported in melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer, was a sarcoid-like granulomatous reaction consisting of tight epithelioid granulomas with lymphocytic cuffing, numerous giant cells, and calcifications. Nuclear transcription factor E3 expression was identified by immunohistochemistry and TFE3 rearrangement was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Additional immunohistochemical findings included immunoreactivity for HMB45, cathepsin K, and progesterone receptor; negative staining was seen with actin, desmin, cytokeratins, epithelial membrane antigen, CD10, vimentin, and PAX-8. The patient is currently free of disease, two years following initial clinicoradiologic presentation and twenty-two months following partial nephrectomy without additional therapy. This report further expands the spectrum of morphologic and clinical findings previously described in melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer, a distinctive tumor showing overlapping

  11. Arf6-dependent intracellular trafficking of Pasteurella multocida toxin and pH-dependent translocation from late endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repella, Tana L; Ho, Mengfei; Chong, Tracy P M; Bannai, Yuka; Wilson, Brenda A

    2011-03-01

    The potent mitogenic toxin from Pasteurella multocida (PMT) is the major virulence factor associated with a number of epizootic and zoonotic diseases caused by infection with this respiratory pathogen. PMT is a glutamine-specific protein deamidase that acts on its intracellular G-protein targets to increase intracellular calcium, cytoskeletal, and mitogenic signaling. PMT enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and then translocates into the cytosol through a pH-dependent process that is inhibited by NH(4)Cl or bafilomycin A1. However, the detailed mechanisms that govern cellular entry, trafficking, and translocation of PMT remain unclear. Co-localization studies described herein revealed that while PMT shares an initial entry pathway with transferrin (Tfn) and cholera toxin (CT), the trafficking pathways of Tfn, CT, and PMT subsequently diverge, as Tfn is trafficked to recycling endosomes, CT is trafficked retrograde to the ER, and PMT is trafficked to late endosomes. Our studies implicate the small regulatory GTPase Arf6 in the endocytic trafficking of PMT. Translocation of PMT from the endocytic vesicle occurs through a pH-dependent process that is also dependent on both microtubule and actin dynamics, as evidenced by inhibition of PMT activity in our SRE-based reporter assay, with nocodazole and cytochalasin D, respectively, suggesting that membrane translocation and cytotoxicity of PMT is dependent on its transfer to late endosomal compartments. In contrast, disruption of Golgi-ER trafficking with brefeldin A increased PMT activity, suggesting that inhibiting PMT trafficking to non-productive compartments that do not lead to translocation, while promoting formation of an acidic tubulovesicle system more conducive to translocation, enhances PMT translocation and activity.

  12. Fitness consequences of northward dispersal as possible adaptation to climate change, using experimental translocation of a migratory passerine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Burger

    Full Text Available Climate change leads to rapid, differential changes in phenology across trophic levels, often resulting in temporal mismatches between predators and their prey. If a species cannot easily adjust its timing, it can adapt by choosing a new breeding location with a later phenology of its prey. In this study, we experimentally investigated whether long-distance dispersal to northern breeding grounds with a later phenology could be a feasible process to restore the match between timing of breeding and peak food abundance and thus improve reproductive success. Here, we report the successful translocation of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca to natural breeding sites 560 km to the Northeast. We expected translocated birds to have a fitness advantage with respect to environmental phenology, but to potentially pay costs through the lack of other locally adapted traits. Translocated individuals started egg laying 11 days earlier than northern control birds, which were translocated only within the northern site. The number of fledglings produced was somewhat lower in translocated birds, compared to northern controls, and fledglings were in lower body condition. Translocated individuals were performing not significantly different to control birds that remained at the original southern site. The lack of advantage of the translocated individuals most likely resulted from the exceptionally cold spring in which the experiment was carried out. Our results, however, suggest that pied flycatchers can successfully introduce their early breeding phenotype after dispersing to more northern areas, and thus that adaptation through dispersal is a viable option for populations that get locally maladapted through climate change.

  13. IGH@ translocations are prevalent in teenagers and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and are associated with a poor outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Lisa J; Enshaei, Amir; Jones, Lisa; Erhorn, Amy; Masic, Dino; Bentley, Helen; Laczko, Karl S; Fielding, Adele K; Goldstone, Anthony H; Goulden, Nicholas; Mitchell, Christopher D; Wade, Rachel; Vora, Ajay; Moorman, Anthony V; Harrison, Christine J

    2014-05-10

    To determine the prevalence and prognostic association of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH@) translocations in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The cohort comprised 3,269 patients treated on either the UKALL2003 trial for children and adolescents (1 to 24 years old) or the UKALLXII trial for adolescents and adults (15 to 59 years old). High-throughput fluorescent in situ hybridization was used to detect IGH@ translocations. We identified IGH@ translocations in 5% of patients with ALL (159 of 3,269 patients), in patients with both B-cell (148 of 2,863 patients) and T-cell (11 of 408 patients) disease. Multiple partner genes were identified including CRLF2 (n = 35), five members of the CEPB gene family (n = 17), and ID4 (n = 11). The level of the IGH@-positive clone varied and indicated that some IGH@ translocations were primary events, whereas others were secondary aberrations often associated with other established aberrations. The age profile of patients with IGH@ translocations was distinctive, with a median age of 16 years and peak incidence of 11% among 20- to 24-year-old patients. Among patients with B-cell precursor ALL who were Philadelphia chromosome negative, those with an IGH@ translocation had an inferior overall survival compared with other patients (UKALL2003: hazard ratio, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.34 to 4.18; P = .003; UKALLXII: hazard ratio, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.47; P = .002). However, this adverse effect was not independent of age or minimal residual disease status and did not seem to be driven by an increased risk of relapse. IGH@ translocations define a genetic feature that is frequent among adolescents and young adults with ALL. Although associated with an adverse outcome in adults, it is not an independent prognostic factor in children and adolescents.

  14. A t (9;11 translocation in childhood acute mixed leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Lopes Ferrari Chauffaille

    Full Text Available We present the case of a child with acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL who was morphologically classified as FAB L1 (PAS and peroxidase were negative. Remission was achieved with an ALL-type protocol (GBTLI. Five months after the discontinuation of therapy, the patient presented mixed leukemia (CD10, CD19, CD13 and CD33 were positive with t (9;11 (p21;q23 translocation. Unfortunately, as cytogenetic and immunophenotype studies were not performed at diagnosis, two possibilities could be considered for the relapse; secondary mixed leukemia with clonal chromosome changes, or mixed leukemia from the beginning.

  15. Translocation and potential neurological effects of fine and ultrafine particles a critical update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geiser Marianne

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Particulate air pollution has been associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Evidence for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative effects of ambient particles was reviewed as part of a workshop. The purpose of this critical update is to summarize the evidence presented for the mechanisms involved in the translocation of particles from the lung to other organs and to highlight the potential of particles to cause neurodegenerative effects. Fine and ultrafine particles, after deposition on the surfactant film at the air-liquid interface, are displaced by surface forces exerted on them by surfactant film and may then interact with primary target cells upon this displacement. Ultrafine and fine particles can then penetrate through the different tissue compartments of the lungs and eventually reach the capillaries and circulating cells or constituents, e.g. erythrocytes. These particles are then translocated by the circulation to other organs including the liver, the spleen, the kidneys, the heart and the brain, where they may be deposited. It remains to be shown by which mechanisms ultrafine particles penetrate through pulmonary tissue and enter capillaries. In addition to translocation of ultrafine particles through the tissue, fine and coarse particles may be phagocytized by macrophages and dendritic cells which may carry the particles to lymph nodes in the lung or to those closely associated with the lungs. There is the potential for neurodegenerative consequence of particle entry to the brain. Histological evidence of neurodegeneration has been reported in both canine and human brains exposed to high ambient PM levels, suggesting the potential for neurotoxic consequences of PM-CNS entry. PM mediated damage may be caused by the oxidative stress pathway. Thus, oxidative stress due to nutrition, age, genetics among others may increase the susceptibility for neurodegenerative diseases. The relationship between PM exposure and CNS

  16. Uptake and translocation of radiocesium in cedar leaves following the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikiori, Tatsuhiro [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Watanabe, Mirai, E-mail: watanabe.mirai@nies.go.jp [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Koshikawa, Masami K.; Takamatsu, Takejiro; Ishii, Yumiko; Ito, Shoko [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Takenaka, Akio [Center for Environmental Biology and Ecosystem Studies, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Watanabe, Keiji [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Center for Environmental Science in Saitama, 914 Kamitanadare, Kazo, Saitama 347-0115 (Japan); Hayashi, Seiji [Center for Regional Environment Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    Cryptomeria japonica trees in the area surrounding Fukushima, Japan, intercepted {sup 137}Cs present in atmospheric deposits soon after the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011. To study the uptake and translocation of {sup 137}Cs in C. japonica leaves, we analyzed activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and the concentration ratios of {sup 137}Cs to {sup 133}Cs ({sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs) in old and new leaves of C. japonica collected from a forest on Mount Tsukuba between 9 and 15 months after the accident. Both isotopes were also analyzed in throughfall, bulk precipitation and soil extracts. Water of atmospheric and soil origin were used as proxies for deciphering the absorption from leaf surfaces and root systems, respectively. Results indicate that 20–40% of foliar {sup 137}Cs existed inside the leaf, while 60–80% adhered to the leaf surface. The {sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs ratios inside leaves that had sprouted before the accident were considerably higher than that of the soil extract and lower than that of throughfall and bulk precipitation. Additionally, more than 80% of {sup 137}Cs in throughfall and bulk precipitation was present in the dissolved form, which is available for foliar uptake, indicating that a portion of the {sup 137}Cs inside old leaves was presumably absorbed from the leaf surface. New leaves that sprouted after the accident had similar {sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs ratios to that of the old leaves, suggesting that internal {sup 137}Cs was translocated from old to new leaves. For 17 species of woody plants other than C. japonica, new leaves that sprouted after the accident also contained {sup 137}Cs, and their {sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs ratios were equal to or higher than that of the soil extract. These results suggested that foliar uptake and further translocation of {sup 137}Cs is an important vector of contamination in various tree species during or just after radioactive fallout. - Highlights: • {sup 137}Cs was absorbed into cedar leaves

  17. Accumulation of numerical and structural chromosome imbalances in spermatozoa from reciprocal translocation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godo, A; Blanco, J; Vidal, F; Anton, E

    2013-03-01

    Is there a relationship between the occurrence of specific segregation modes and the production of additional numerical abnormalities in spermatozoa from reciprocal translocation carriers? The production of aneuploid and diploid spermatozoa tends to be associated with an unbalanced segregation outcome of the rearranged chromosomes. Carriers of reciprocal translocations have an increased genetic reproductive risk as a consequence of producing higher numbers of unbalanced spermatozoa. These imbalances can originate during the segregation of the rearranged chromosomes and also from the occurrence of interchromosomal effects (ICEs). Usually, the outcome of both events is studied independently by means of sperm fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). We designed a sequential FISH protocol based on two successive hybridization rounds to study the segregation outcome of the rearranged chromosomes and the presence of additional numerical abnormalities in the same sperm nuclei. The study was performed between February 2010 and February 2012. Sperm samples from eight reciprocal translocation carriers were processed for FISH analysis. Numerical abnormalities for chromosomes X, Y, 13, 18 and 21 were evaluated in the first hybridization round. The aneuploid and diploid nuclei were relocated and analysed for the segregation outcome of the rearranged chromosomes in the second hybridization round. In every carrier, another population of non-selected spermatozoa was also analysed with the aim of defining the general segregation outcome of each reorganization event. Overall, the selected population of aneuploid and diploid spermatozoa showed significant increased frequencies of unbalanced segregation modes of the rearranged chromosomes (3:1, 4:0 and 'other') when compared with the non-selected population of spermatozoa. A P-value of chromosomes. Information about the content of additional chromosomes would have been useful in order to broaden the number of aneuploid spermatozoa

  18. Robertsonian (15q;15q) translocation in a child with Angelman syndrome: Evidence of uniparental disomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonk, V.; Schultz, R.A.; Wilson, G.N.; Schultz, R.A. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-30

    A balanced Robertsonian translocation 45,XY,t(15q15q) was detected in a patient with mental retardation, microcephaly, and hypertonia. Deletion of the 15q11q13 region was unlikely based on fluorescence in situ hybridization studies that revealed hybridization of appropriate DNA probes to both arms of the Robertsonian chromosome. Inheritance of alleles from 13 highly polymorphic DNA markers on chromosome 15 showed paternal uniparental isodisomy. The clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular results are consistent with a diagnosis of Angelman syndrome. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Long insert whole genome sequencing for copy number variant and translocation detection

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Winnie S.; Aldrich, Jessica; Tembe, Waibhav; Kurdoglu, Ahmet; Cherni, Irene; Phillips, Lori; Reiman, Rebecca; Baker, Angela; Weiss, Glen J.; Carpten, John D.; Craig, David W.

    2013-01-01

    As next-generation sequencing continues to have an expanding presence in the clinic, the identification of the most cost-effective and robust strategy for identifying copy number changes and translocations in tumor genomes is needed. We hypothesized that performing shallow whole genome sequencing (WGS) of 900–1000-bp inserts (long insert WGS, LI-WGS) improves our ability to detect these events, compared with shallow WGS of 300–400-bp inserts. A priori analyses show that LI-WGS requires less s...

  20. Rifaximin has minor effects on bacterial composition, inflammation and bacterial translocation in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimer, Nina; Pedersen, Julie S.; Tavenier, Juliette

    2018-01-01

    with rifaximin may reduce bacterial translocation (BT) and decrease inflammation. In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial investigated the effects of rifaximin on inflammation and BT in decompensated cirrhosis. METHODS: Fifty-four out-patients with cirrhosis and ascites were randomized, mean age 56 years (±8...... by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. RESULTS: Circulating markers of inflammation, including TNFα, interleukin-6, 10 and 18, Stromal cell-derived factor 1-α, transforming growth factor β-1 and high sensitivity CRP, were unaltered by rifaximin treatment. Rifaximin altered abundance of bacterial taxa in blood...