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Sample records for viia lepane marina

  1. Wendelstein VII-A in torsatron mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmeyer, E.; Kisslinger, J.; Rau, F.; Wobig, H.

    1985-03-01

    Variable shear - positive or negative, up to about 20 percent - can be introduced into the Wendelstein VII-A Stellarator vacuum field configuration by different currents in the two helix systems, and balancing the resulting vertical field. (orig.)

  2. Myosin VIIa as a common component of cilia and microvilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfrum, U; Liu, X; Schmitt, A; Udovichenko, I P; Williams, D S

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of myosin VIIa, which is defective or absent in Usher syndrome 1B, was studied in a variety of tissues by immunomicroscopy. The primary aim was to determine whether this putative actin-based mechanoenzyme is a common component of cilia. Previously, it has been proposed that defective ciliary function might be the basis of some forms of Usher syndrome. Myosin VIIa was detected in cilia from cochlear hair cells, olfactory neurons, kidney distal tubules, and lung bronchi. It was also found to cofractionate with the axonemal fraction of retinal photoreceptor cells. Immunolabeling appeared most concentrated in the periphery of the transition zone of the cilia. This general presence of a myosin in cilia is surprising, given that cilia are dominated by microtubules, and not actin filaments. In addition to cilia, myosin VIIa was also found in actin-rich microvilli of different types of cell. We conclude that myosin VIIa is a common component of cilia and microvilli.

  3. Factor VIIa binding and internalization in hepatocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortoe, G; Sorensen, B B; Petersen, L C

    2005-01-01

    The liver is believed to be the primary clearance organ for coagulation proteases, including factor VIIa (FVIIa). However, at present, clearance mechanisms for FVIIa in liver are unknown. To obtain information on the FVIIa clearance mechanism, we investigated the binding and internalization...... no effect. HEPG2 cells internalized FVIIa with a rate of 10 fmol 10(-5) cells h(-1). In contrast to HEPG2 cells, FVIIa binding to primary rat hepatocytes was completely independent of TF, and excess unlabeled FVIIa partly reduced the binding of 125I-FVIIa to rat hepatocytes. Further, compared with HEPG2...... cells, three- to fourfold more FVIIa bound to rat primary hepatocytes, and the bound FVIIa was internalized at a faster rate. Similar FVIIa binding and internalization profiles were observed in primary human hepatocytes. Plasma inhibitors had no effect on FVIIa binding and internalization in hepatocytes...

  4. Perturbation fields in W VII-AS and Helias configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmeyer, E.; Kisslinger, J.; Montvai, A.; Rau, F.; Wobig, H.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of pertubed topologies of the W VII-AS vacuum fields on the configuration with rational and irrational rotational transform are illustrated. Even small perturbation fields are unacceptable at rational values of the rotational transform. For example at a rotational transform = 1/2 in W VII-AS, when exceeding an effective homogeneous Bx/B = 3 x 10 -4 , the size of the rotational transform = 1/2 = 5/10 islands is doubled. At irrational values a Bx/B = 1/2% shows tolerable effects, for both W VII-AS and HS4-12. At rational values of the rotational transform = 1 near the edge, Bx/B values = 1/4 to 1/8% show a rather large increase of the aspect ratio, so an edge value of rotational transform = 1 should be avoided

  5. Neutron flux measurements at the Wendelstein VII-A stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, A.; Maassberg, H.

    1985-10-01

    In addition to charge exchange analysis (CX) and charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS), the time evolution of the central ion temperature during neutral beam heated plasma discharges in the Wendelstein VII-A stellarator is derived from the neutron flux from thermal D-D reactions. In general, good quantitative agreement between the different methods is obtained. Neutron flux measurements also permit to investigate the slowing down of fast D + -ions from neutral beam injection (NBI). The results agree well with the predictions based on the assumption of a collisional slowing down mechanism. (orig.)

  6. Technical progress report on Wendelstein VII-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapper, J.

    1985-01-01

    The modification of the WENDELSTEIN experiment at Garching into an advanced version with modular design was approved in 1982, after a planning time of one and a half year. The essential components /1,2/ of the new WENDELSTEIN VII-AS device are: - A modular field system instead of a helix and TF-system, consisting of 45 nonplanar coils. - A modular vacuum vessel, adapted to the coil system. - An additional TF-system for t-variation, consisting of 10 plane coils. - A structure shell for the modular field coils so that the vessel is free of coil forces

  7. Saprobic analysis to Marina coastal, Semarang city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuriasih, D. M.; Anggoro, S.; Haeruddin

    2018-02-01

    Semarang city is one of coastal city in Indonesia, that antropogenic activities have impact to coastal of Semarang, including Marina beach. Therefore, it is important to study the quality of seawater related with antropogenic activities. The research purpose was to analyze the saprobic level of Marina beach as an indicator of marine pollution. This case study research used survey method. Purposive method was used for sampling the seawater at five stations at the beach. This research can be concluded that TSI (Tropic Saprobic Index) higher than standard that indicated the Marina Beach Seawaters polution at level of β - Mesosaprobic.

  8. Transmission lines and launching systems for ECRH on the garching stellarators W VIIa and W VII-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumm, M.; Janzen, G.; Mueller, G.; Schueller, P.G.; Wilhelm, R.; Erckmann, V.

    1983-01-01

    The transmission lines and launching systems for non ohmic plasma production and heating by ECR-waves at 28 GHz (200 kW, 40 ms) and 70 GHz (200 kW, 100 ms) in the Garching Wendelstein Stellarator W VIIa and at 70 GHz (800 kW, cw) in the future Advanced Stellarator W VII-AS are described. The ECRH systems meet the requirements for neutral gas breakdown (R-wave), heating of a cold plasma (X-mode) and heating of a warm plasma (0-mode) in a combined way. Periodically modulated wall mode converters (sinusoidal m=0 radius modulation, a 0 =31.75 mm at 28 GHz, a 0 =13.9 mm at 70 GHz) convert the circular electric TE/sub on/ gyrotron output mode mixture (mainly TE 02 mode) into a pure TE 01 wave which is used for the long distance transmission in smooth overmoded waveguides (I.D. = 63.5 mm). At the converter inputs the phases between the TE/sub on/ modes are matched by phase shifters. The measured conversion efficiency for characteristic mode mixtures (TE 02 /TE 01 /TE 03 ) at 28 GHz is about 98 %. For the geometrical and electrical matching of different waveguide diameters waveguide tapers with approximate Tschebycheff mode-conversion responses are used

  9. Louisiana Marinas and Boat Launches, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [marinas_LOSCO_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The dataset defines the location and supplemental information for marinas and boat launches in southern Louisiana. The boat launch database includes public and...

  10. Hindi tagandamine võib viia võimukoalitsiooni lagunemiseni Kohtla-Järvel / Erik Gamzejev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gamzejev, Erik, 1967-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 26. sept. lk. 1. Keskerakonna soov saada endale Kohtla-Järve linnapea ametikoht võib viia Keskerakonna ja endiste Res Publica liikmete vahel sõlmitud koalitsiooni lagunemiseni

  11. Patrimonio Natural y Reservas Marinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel de la Cruz Modino

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Las reservas marinas intentan preservar ciertas zonas de especial interés biológico de los excesos de la pesca con el fin de asegurar la protección, la regeneración y el desarrollo de los recursos marinos. Con ellas se aspira a regular las diferentes actividades que en estas áreas se llevan a cabo y conjugar los usos turísticos y recreativos que se pueden realizar con la conservación de sus valores naturales. Sin embargo, por norma general, la regulación sobre los usos que pueden desarrollarse en áreas naturales especialmente frágiles como éstas, se restringe a establecer una serie de limitaciones sobre las actividades que son llevadas a cabo en la zona. La implantación de figuras como éstas, dentro de un contexto turístico, puede alentar y promover el desarrollo de actividades recreativas frente a los usos tradicionales, que han podido quedar limitados en el área protegida

  12. Production and properties of monoclonal antibodies to human blood coagulation factor VII and factor VIIa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, P.; Nesbitt, J.A.; Ge, M.; Kisiel, W.

    1986-01-01

    Human factor VII is a trace vitamin K-dependent protein that circulates in blood as a single-chain precursor to a serine protease. Upon activation, two-chain factor VIIa activates factor x in the presence of tissue factor and calcium. Purified preparations of single-chain (SC) human factor VII and two-chain (TC) factor VIIa were utilized to immunize Balb/c mice. Spleen cells from these immunized mice were fused to a non-secreting NS-1 derivative of X63-Ag8 myeloma cells and grown in selective medium. Analysis of culture supernatants by EIA revealed several hybridomas that were secreting IgG specific for Sc-factor VII and TC-factor VIIa. In addition, several hybridomas secreted IgG that reacted equally well with factor VII and factor VIIa. One of the latter McAb (A-29) reacted with the heavy chain of factor VIIa and the intact factor VII molecule equally as judged by Western blotting. A-29 was produced in ascites fluid, purified and coupled to activated CH-Sepharose. Application of one liter of normal human plasma to 10 ml of this immunoadsorbent column, elution of factor VII and subsequent Western blot using 125 I-rabbit anti-human factor VII indicated a single species of factor VII(M/sub r/ = 50 KDa) in normal plasma. These specific factor VII/VIIa McAbs may prove useful in the analysis of these factors, and in the separation of SC-factor VII from TC-factor VIIa

  13. Human myosin VIIa is a very slow processive motor protein on various cellular actin structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Osamu; Komatsu, Satoshi; Sakai, Tsuyoshi; Tsukasaki, Yoshikazu; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Mizutani, Takeomi; Watanabe, Tomonobu M; Ikebe, Reiko; Ikebe, Mitsuo

    2017-06-30

    Human myosin VIIa (MYO7A) is an actin-linked motor protein associated with human Usher syndrome (USH) type 1B, which causes human congenital hearing and visual loss. Although it has been thought that the role of human myosin VIIa is critical for USH1 protein tethering with actin and transportation along actin bundles in inner-ear hair cells, myosin VIIa's motor function remains unclear. Here, we studied the motor function of the tail-truncated human myosin VIIa dimer (HM7AΔTail/LZ) at the single-molecule level. We found that the HM7AΔTail/LZ moves processively on single actin filaments with a step size of 35 nm. Dwell-time distribution analysis indicated an average waiting time of 3.4 s, yielding ∼0.3 s -1 for the mechanical turnover rate; hence, the velocity of HM7AΔTail/LZ was extremely slow, at 11 nm·s -1 We also examined HM7AΔTail/LZ movement on various actin structures in demembranated cells. HM7AΔTail/LZ showed unidirectional movement on actin structures at cell edges, such as lamellipodia and filopodia. However, HM7AΔTail/LZ frequently missed steps on actin tracks and exhibited bidirectional movement at stress fibers, which was not observed with tail-truncated myosin Va. These results suggest that the movement of the human myosin VIIa motor protein is more efficient on lamellipodial and filopodial actin tracks than on stress fibers, which are composed of actin filaments with different polarity, and that the actin structures influence the characteristics of cargo transportation by human myosin VIIa. In conclusion, myosin VIIa movement appears to be suitable for translocating USH1 proteins on stereocilia actin bundles in inner-ear hair cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Inhibition of thrombin generation by the zymogen factor VII: implications for the treatment of hemophilia A by factor VIIa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Veer, C.; Golden, N. J.; Mann, K. G.

    2000-01-01

    Factor VII circulates as a single chain inactive zymogen (10 nmol/L) and a trace ( approximately 10-100 pmol/L) circulates as the 2-chain form, factor VIIa. Factor VII and factor VIIa were studied in a coagulation model using plasma concentrations of purified coagulation factors with reactions

  15. Confinement of Stellarator plasmas with neutral beam and RF heating in W VII-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieger, G.; Cattanei, G.; Dorst, D.

    1986-01-01

    WENDELSTEIN VII-A has been operated for ten years. It is a low-shear, high-aspect-ratio device. The confinement properties have been thoroughly studied for both ohmically heated and net-current free plasmas. For the latter case, NBI- and ECF-maintained plasmas were of particular importance. It was found that under optimized conditions the core of high-pressure, net-current free plasmas is mainly governed by collisional effects. The experiment will now be shut down for upgrading it into the Advanced Stellarator WEDNDELSTEIN VII-AS. (author)

  16. ECRH experiments on the W VII-A stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whilelm, R.; Erckmann, V.; Janzen, G.; Mueller, G.; Schueller, P. G.; Schwoerer, K.; Thumm, H.

    1985-01-01

    Plasma build-up and heating of a ''currentless'' plasma by means of ECR wave irradiation were studied at the Garching W VII-A stellarator. The experiments were performed at 28 GHz with approx. 200 kW RF power and a pulse duration 02 mode corresponding to a 50% O-mode and 50% X-mode mixture) was launched directly into the plasma from the low field side. In a second step the radiation was converted into the almost linearly polarized TE 11 mode and irradiated in O-mode orientation (E-tilde parallel to B-barsub(o), k-bar perpendicular to B-barsub(o)) into the torus, the nonabsorbed part of the RF power was reflected into the plasma in the X-mode by a focussing polarization twist reflector mounted to the inner torus wall. As a main result the heating efficiency has been slightly improved by the transition from ''simple'' to ''advanced'' wave launching (up to 50% instead of approx. 40%). The central electron temperatures were remarkably increased from approx. 700 eV to 1200 eV due to the well localized O-mode absorption of the TE 11 beam, however. The X-mode from the mirror on the other hand does not contribute to the total plasma energy as expected. This is explained by a local absorption of the arising Bernstein waves due to a macroscopically turbulent behaviour of the plasma in the outer regions. Possibly as a result of wave decay into lower hybrid waves pronounced ion tail heating was observed. For both kinds of wave irradiation toroidal plasma currents were generated. This seems to be caused by asimmetrically confined co- and counter-streaming fast electrons

  17. Impurity transport in the Wendelstein VII-A stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Impurity radiation losses in net-current-free neutral-beam-heated plasmas in the Wendelstein W VII-A stellarator are the combined effect of particularly strong impurity sources and improved particle confinement as compared with ohmically heated tokamak-like plasma discharges. Experiments are described and conclusions are drawn about the impurity species, their origin and their transport behaviour. The impurity transport is modelled by a 1-D impurity transport and radiation code. The evolution of the total radiation in time and space deduced from soft-X-ray and bolometer measurements can be fairly well simulated by the code. Experimentally, oxygen was found to make the main contribution to the radiation losses. In the calculations, an influx of cold oxygen desorbed from the walls of the order of 10 13 -10 14 cm -2 .s -1 and a rate of fast injected oxygen corresponding to a 1% impurity content of the neutral beams in combination with neoclassical impurity transport leads to quantitative agreement between the simulation and the observed radiation. The transport of A1 trace impurities injected by the laser blow-off technique was experimentally studied by soft-X-ray measurements using a differential method allowing extraction of the time evolution of A1 XII, XIII radial profiles. These are compared with code predictions, together with additional spectroscopic measurements. The main features of the impurity transport are consistent with neoclassical predictions, which explain particularly the central impurity accumulation. Some details, however, seem to require additional 'anomalous' transport. Such an enhancement is correlated with distortions of the magnetic configuration around resonant magnetic surfaces. (author)

  18. Investigation of current drive possibilities with the present ICRH system in Wendelstein VII-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    With the double antenna configuration, designed for first heating tests on W VII-AS, a maximum driven current of 390 A/MW coupled can be expected when using a frequency of 75 MHz and a phasing of π/2. (orig.)

  19. Efficacy of recombinant factor VIIa administered by continuous infusion to haemophilia patients with inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauser-Bunschoten, EP; Koopman, MMW; Goede-Bolder, ADE; Leebeek, FWG; Van der Meer, J; Kooij, GMV; Van der Linden, PWG

    We have prospectively monitored treatment of haemophilia patients with inhibitors by recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) administered by continuous infusion to obtain more insight in the underlying factors of the clinical efficacy of this administration method. At present, 43 treatment episodes of 14

  20. Influence of cardiopulmonary bypass on the interaction of recombinant factor VIIa with activated platelets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjalke, M.; Runge, M.; Rojkjaer, R.

    2009-01-01

    Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) interacts preferentially with coated platelets characterized by a high exposure of phosphatidyl serine (PS), FV, FVIII, FIX, and FX binding, and fibrinogen. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is known to impair platelet function. In this study, the influence of CPB...

  1. Grindeks saab Tallinna Farmaatsiatehase börsilt ära viia / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2005-01-01

    Tallinna Farmaatsiatehase ostnud Läti Grindeks on kätte saanud vajalikud 95% aktsiatest, mis võimaldavad firma börsilt ära viia. Diagramm: Grindeksi käive ja aktsia. Vt. samas: Lauri Matsulevitsh. Investor teenis Grindeksiga 40 000 krooni

  2. Hydrocarbon pollution from marinas in estuarine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudrias, Evangelos A.; Smith, Craig L.

    1986-03-01

    A measure of the impact of marinas on three Eastern Virginia estuarine creeks was obtained by a study of hydrocarbons in their sediments. Two of the creeks support considerable marine activity, including pleasure boat marinas, boat repair facilities, and commercial fishing operations. The third creek, which served as a control, is seldom used by boats, and is surrounded by marsh and woodland. Sediments from the creeks with marinas contained significantly higher levels of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons than did the control. Differences in the concentrations of certain oil-pollution indicators, such as the 17α,21β-hopane homologs and phytane, and low molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons, are indicative of light petroleum fractions. Most of the aromatic hydrocarbons from all creeks, however, appear to have a pyrogenic origin. Although hydrocarbons from three probable origins (petroleum, pyrogenesis, and recent biosynthesis) were detected in all locations, the petroleum-derived and pyrogenic hydrocarbons were of only minor importance relative to the biogenic hydrocarbons in the control creek.

  3. Allelopathic effect of Chattonella marina var. marina (Raphidophyceae) on Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophycea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Herrera, Leyberth J; Band-Schmidt, Christine J; López-Cortés, David J; Hernández-Guerrero, Claudia J; Bustillos-Guzmán, José J; Núñez-Vázquez, Erick

    2016-01-01

    The allelopathic effect of the raphidophyte Chattonella marina var. marina on the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum was determined. Both species are harmful algal bloom forming algae, produce toxic metabolites, and can co-exist in the environment. In general, raphidophytes tend to dominate over dinoflagellates, which may indicate an allelopathic effect of the former algae. Strains of C. marina var. marina and G. catenatum isolated from Bahía de La Paz were cultured in bi-algal cultures with and without cell contact. Additionally, cultures of G. catenatum were exposed to cell-free culture filtrates of the raphidophyte to test whether soluble allelopathic molecules are active. During late stationary phase, both species were cultivated in mixed cultures for 72h using the following cell abundance proportions: 20×10 3 cellsL -1 : 20×10 3 cellsL -1 (1:1; G. catenatum: C. marina); 10×10 3 cellsL -1 : 20×10 3 cellsL -1 (1:2), and 20×10 3 cellsL -1 : 10×10 3 cellsL -1 (2:1). Cells of G. catenatum were also exposed to different volumes of cell filtrates of C. marina (10, 20, and 50mL) using the same cell abundance proportions for 24h. Samples were taken daily for cell counts and microscopic observations. Growth inhibition was higher when there was cell contact between both species, however mortality of G. catenatum was also observed without direct cell contact, indicating that toxic metabolites are liberated to the culture medium. Changes in cell morphology of G. catenatum occurred in the presence of cells and filtrates of C. marina, such as loss of flagella and motility, swelling, loss of girdle and sulci, prominent nucleus, rupture of cell membrane, and cell lysis. Induction of temporary cysts was also observed. These results suggest that toxic metabolites are liberated to the medium by C. marina, affecting G. catenatum by inhibiting its growth and causing changes in its life history, providing new insights of interactions between raphidophytes and

  4. Marina Laikjõe : palm on eestlasele puhkuse sünonüüm / Marina Laikjõe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laikjõe, Marina, 1967-

    2003-01-01

    Reisikorraldusfirma Domina World Traveli tegevjuht Marina Laikjõe annab ülevaate eestlaste reisimisharjumustest, populaarsematest sihtkohtadest ning prognoosib võimalikke trende Eesti turismiturul.

  5. The Effect of Recombinant Factor VIIa and Fibrinogen on Bleeding from Grade V Liver Injuries in Coagulopathic Swine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brundage, Susan

    2003-01-01

    This was a 2 part study. The first part of the study was performed to determine if recombinant factor VIIa would reduce bleeding after a grade V liver injury in hypothermic, dilutionally coagulopathic pigs when used...

  6. The use of recombinant factor VIIa in a patient with Noonan syndrome and life-threatening bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofil, Nancy M; Winkler, Margaret K; Watts, Raymond G; Noonan, Jacqueline

    2005-05-01

    To present a case report of a patient with Noonan syndrome who developed life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding shortly after cardiac surgery that was successfully treated with recombinant factor VIIa. Case report. Pediatric intensive care unit of a children's hospital. Ten-month-old with Noonan syndrome and massive gastrointestinal bleeding resulting in severe hypovolemic shock. Recombinant factor VIIa was used in this patient's severe bleeding associated with Noonan syndrome after no other supportive measures were successful. Recombinant Factor VIIa significantly decreased the patient's bleeding and allowed his hypovolemic shock to improve. Ultimately, the patient made a complete recovery. Noonan syndrome has a constellation of both cardiac and noncardiac malformations including an increased risk of bleeding, and recombinant factor VIIa is an important agent in the treatment of significant bleeding.

  7. Monocytes can be induced by lipopolysaccharide-triggered T lymphocytes to express functional factor VII/VIIa protease activity

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    In the present study we demonstrate that human monocytes can be induced by the model stimulus, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), to produce and assemble on their surface functional Factor VII/VIIa. This protease was not induced in relatively purified monocytes alone following exposure to LPS; but was induced in the presence of Leu-3a positive helper/inducer T cells. The Factor VII/VIIa protease activity represented 35-40% of the potential initiating activity for the extrinsic coagulation pathway and ...

  8. Marina Kaljurand : Venemaad ei tohi karta! Siin pole midagi karta! / Marina Kaljurand ; interv. Jaanus Piirsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaljurand, Marina, 1962-

    2008-01-01

    Intervjuu kolm aastat Moskvas töötanud Eesti suursaadiku Marina Kaljurannaga, kes vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Eesti-Vene suhteid, saadikutööd, diplomaatiat, aprillirahutusi, naiste osakaalu diplomaatide seas ja erilisi suhteid patriarh Aleksius II-ga

  9. Armastus teeb tugevaks / Marina Laikjõe ; interv. Verni Leivak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laikjõe, Marina, 1967-

    2008-01-01

    Turismifirma Tez Tour tegevjuht ning reisifirma Travel-In juht Marina Laikjõe vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema tegevust ja karjääri turisminduses, suhteid kolleegidega ning perekonna toetust raske haigusega võitlemise ajal. Kommenteerivad Reet Kivi, Tiit Pärnik. Lisa: Marina Laikjõe

  10. Recombinant factor VIIa treatment for asymptomatic factor VII deficient patients going through major surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livnat, Tami; Shenkman, Boris; Spectre, Galia; Tamarin, Ilia; Dardik, Rima; Israeli, Amnon; Rivkind, Avraham; Shabtai, Moshe; Marinowitz, Uri; Salomon, Ophira

    2012-07-01

    Factor VII deficiency is the most common among the rare autosomal recessive coagulation disorders worldwide. In factor VII deficient patients, the severity and clinical manifestations cannot be reliably determined by factor VII levels. Severe bleeding tends to occur in individuals with factor VII activity levels of 2% or less of normal. Patients with 2-10% factor VII vary between asymptomatic to severe life threatening haemorrhages behaviour. Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) is the most common replacement therapy for congenital factor VII deficiency. However, unlike haemophilia patients for whom treatment protocols are straight forward, in asymptomatic factor VII deficiency patients it is still debatable. In this study, we demonstrate that a single and very low dose of recombinant factor VIIa enabled asymptomatic patients with factor VII deficiency to go through major surgery safely. This suggestion was also supported by thrombin generation, as well as by thromboelastometry.

  11. Analüütikud soovitavad Eesti Energia börsile viia / Piret Reiljan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reiljan, Piret, 1983-

    2008-01-01

    Kohalikud analüütikud soovitavad viia Eesti Energia börsile, kuna see elavdaks aktsiaturgu ja tõmbaks ligi välisinvestoreid. Vt. samas: Raivo Vare: raske aeg töötab Eesti Energia börsiletoomise kasuks; Analüüs ootab pääsu valitsuskabinetti; Juhid ei püsi enam Eesti Energias. Diagrammid: Majandusnäitajad; Varade maht

  12. Draft genome of the emerging pathogen, Kocuria marina, isolated from a wild urban rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih Keng Loong

    Full Text Available Kocuria marina has recently emerged as a cause for catheter-related bloodstream infections in patients with underlying health complications. One K. marina strain was recently isolated from the lung tissues of a wild urban rat (Rattus rattus diardii caught during rodent surveillance. Here, we present the draft genome of the first K. marina animal isolate, K. marina TRE150902.

  13. Environmental and ecological changes associated with a marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Natalie K; Dafforn, Katherine A; Coleman, Melinda A; Johnston, Emma L

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic modifications to waterways are common and their ecological consequences must be understood to effectively conserve local biodiversity. The facilitation of recreational boating activities often requires substantial alteration of natural areas, however the environmental and ecological consequences of such alterations are rarely described in the scientific literature. In this study, ecological and physico-chemical conditions were investigated in a recreational boating marina, located inside a marine park on the south-east coast of Australia. Recruitment panels were deployed for 8 weeks both inside and outside the marina, and differences in the composition of the developing fouling communities were observed. The recruitment of taxa, which often have short-lived larvae, was increased inside the marina (bryozoans, spirorbids and sponges) while the recruitment of taxa, which often have longer-lived larvae, was reduced or absent (barnacles, solitary ascidians and non-spirorbid polychaetes). Differences were also observed in environmental conditions inside the marina cf. directly outside. The marina environment had higher turbidity, temperature and pH along with higher concentrations of lead and copper in suspended sediments, while flow rates and trapped sediment loads were reduced inside the marina. The differences observed in the study suggest that there may be marked environmental changes associated with marina developments. The potential ecological consequences of these changes should be a primary consideration during the planning process, particularly for developments in locations of notable ecological value.

  14. Myosin VIIa, harmonin and cadherin 23, three Usher I gene products that cooperate to shape the sensory hair cell bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boëda, Batiste; El-Amraoui, Aziz; Bahloul, Amel; Goodyear, Richard; Daviet, Laurent; Blanchard, Stéphane; Perfettini, Isabelle; Fath, Karl R.; Shorte, Spencer; Reiners, Jan; Houdusse, Anne; Legrain, Pierre; Wolfrum, Uwe; Richardson, Guy; Petit, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Deaf-blindness in three distinct genetic forms of Usher type I syndrome (USH1) is caused by defects in myosin VIIa, harmonin and cadherin 23. Despite being critical for hearing, the functions of these proteins in the inner ear remain elusive. Here we show that harmonin, a PDZ domain-containing protein, and cadherin 23 are both present in the growing stereocilia and that they bind to each other. Moreover, we demonstrate that harmonin b is an F-actin-bundling protein, which is thus likely to anchor cadherin 23 to the stereocilia microfilaments, thereby identifying a novel anchorage mode of the cadherins to the actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, harmonin b interacts directly with myosin VIIa, and is absent from the disorganized hair bundles of myosin VIIa mutant mice, suggesting that myosin VIIa conveys harmonin b along the actin core of the developing stereocilia. We propose that the shaping of the hair bundle relies on a functional unit composed of myosin VIIa, harmonin b and cadherin 23 that is essential to ensure the cohesion of the stereocilia. PMID:12485990

  15. The regulation of the factor VII-dependent coagulation pathway: rationale for the effectiveness of recombinant factor VIIa in refractory bleeding disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van't Veer, C.; Mann, K. G.

    2000-01-01

    We have explored the molecular basis of the clinical therapeutic effect of factor VIIa in hemophilia A using empirical reconstituted in vitro thrombin generation models. Tissue factor acts as a receptor and activator of preexistent but virtually inactive two-chain plasma factor VIIa. However, most

  16. Esteroles libres de la estrella marina echinaster sentus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosabel Segura de Correa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available La fracción lipídica de la estrella marina Echinaster sentus se estudió para conocer su composición esterólica. Las estrellas marinas son especies de invertebrados-que pertenecen al phylumechinodermata de la clase Asteroidea. Poseen entre otros componentes esteroides de tipo saponina, esteróles libres polihidroxilados y monohidroxilados.

  17. Proyecto integral Marina del Sol S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Palacios Barra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available El megaproyecto Marina del Sol del Gran Concepción, se emplaza en el sector del canal Ifarle a espaldas del Aeropuerto Carriel Sur en la comuna de Talcahuano. Recientemente entró a funcionar el Casino Marina del Sol, el que está inscrito en el marco de los 15 proyectos autorizados en el 2006 por la Superintendencia de Juego que buscan promover el desarrollo de este sector a nivel del país.

  18. Current driven drift instability in the W VII-A stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, R.; Wobig, H.

    1978-12-01

    The instability region and growth rates of current driven drift modes in the W VII-A stellarator are calculated. Several theoretical results are evaluated for specific temperature and density profiles. It is found that in the outer region of the plasma-column (r > 6 cm) collisional drift waves with wavelengths (k 2 x + K 2 y)sup(-1/2) = 0.13 - 0.3 cm exist. In this region also the electron thermal conductivity determined experimentally appears to be large. (orig./GG) [de

  19. Vacuum magnetic field and modular coil system of the advanced stellarator Wendelstein VII-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, F.; Kisslinger, J.; Wobig, H.

    1982-06-01

    The vacuum field and the modular coils of the advanced stellarator WENDELSTEIN VII-AS are described. Each of the five field periods contains 9 different twisted coils, one of them with increased dimensions and current in order to provide sufficient access. The standard vacuum field configuration (B=3 T, t=0.39, aspect ratio approx. equal to 10, low shear, and magnetic well) can be varied by toroidal and vertical fields, or by changing independently the current in the large special coils. From a study of magnetic field perturbations some estimates are derived for the admissible coil tolerances. (orig.)

  20. Bioaccumulation of trace elements by Avicennia marina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandasamy Kathiresan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the concentrations of 12 micro-nutrients (Al, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in different plant parts of Avicennia marina and its rhizosphere soil of the south east coast of India. Methods: The samples were acid digested, then analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma system (ICP-Optical Emission Spectrophotometer. Results: Levels of metals were found in the decreasing order: Cd>Co>Ni>Pb>B >Cr>Zn>Mg>Mn>Cu>Fe>Al. The soil held more levels of metals than plant parts, but within the permissible limits of concentration. Bark and root accumulated higher levels of trace elements in a magnitude of 10-80 folds than other plant parts. The overall bioaccumulation factor in the sampling sites of Vellar, Pichavaram and Cuddalore was 2.88, 1.42 0.47 respectively. Essential elements accumulate high in mature mangroves forest while non-essential elements accumulate high in the industrially polluted mangroves. Conclusions: The ratio between essential and non-essential elements was found higher in young mangrove forest than that in mature mangrove forest and polluted mangrove areas. Thus, the ratio of accumulation can be used as an index of the growth and pollution status of mangroves.

  1. Magnetic surfaces and localized perturbations in the Wendelstein VII-A stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobig, H.

    1986-09-01

    The critical dependence of plasma confinement in low-shear stellarators, such as Wendelstein VII-A, on the external rotational transform can be explained on the basis of magnetic surface destruction. External symmetry-breaking perturbations generate islands on the low order rational magnetic surfaces. The islands are largest at t=1/2 and t=1/3. Confinement is optimum in close proximity to these values. In order to study the structure of surfaces under the influence of perturbations, a mapping procedure is used instead of field line integration. It is found that the neighbourhood of low- order rational surfaces is particularly robust against surface destruction. The reason is that in this vicinity only rational surfaces with large m and n exist (t=m/n). On these surfaces the external perturbation only generates small islands. In W VII-A the current leads to the helical windings are one symmetry- breaking perturbation, and there might also be others. It is possible to avoid field errors of this kind in future stellarators. (orig.)

  2. Neutral gas transport and particle recycling in the W VII-AS stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardei, F.; Ringler, H.; Dodhy, A.; Kuehner, G.

    1990-01-01

    Neutral gas transport simulations with the 3D DEGAS code were applied to model plasmas before the W VII-AS operation was started. For a source of neutrals due to limiter recycling the calculated neutral density distribution is strongly affected by the asymmetries of the magnetic flux surfaces, limiter and wall structures. For a typical ECF heated deuterium discharge from the first months of W VII-AS operation the time histories of H α signals at five toroidal positions provide information about the neutral fluxes due to limiter and wall recycling and to gas puffing. The H α signals are used to scale the calculated 3D distributions of the neutrals and the radial profiles of the ion sources as obtained from the DEGAS code. By comparing the results for the three different neutral sources the limiter is found to provide more than 80% of the plasma refuelling, with a recycling coefficient of about 95%. The calculated total particle fluxes resulting from the integrated ion sources are consistent with neoclassical predictions in the temperature gradient region. Near the plasma edge, however, the fluxes are strongly anomalous. The diffusion coefficient estimated from the fluxes and the measured density gradients (with z eff approx. 3) is about 1/10 - 1/20 of the electron heat conductivity. (author). 6 refs, 10 figs

  3. 75 FR 4783 - Federal Consistency Appeal by Villa Marina Yacht Harbour, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Federal Consistency Appeal by Villa Marina Yacht Harbour, Inc. AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... days, closure of the decision record in an administrative appeal filed by Villa Marina Yacht Harbour...

  4. Evaluating the antibacterial and anticandidal potency of mangrove, Avicennia marina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseer Manilal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antibiotic activity of mangrove plant, Avicennia marina (A. marina against human and shrimp pathogens and to delineate bioactive constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS profiling. Methods: The antimicrobial activity of the different polar and non-polar extracts of A. marina was inspected by well diffusion technique against 16 bacterial pathogens and two fungal pathogens. Results: Of the six organic extracts examined, methanolic extract of A. marina fairly repressed the growth of all bacterial and fungal pathogenic strains tested. In general, mangrove extract was more active against the bacterial pathogens while against yeasts, the activity was lesser. The antibiotic activity was attributed to the presence of diverse bioactive secondary metabolites. The chemical profiling of the methanolic extract was performed by GC combined with mass spectrometry. The results of GC-MS showed that the main phytoconstituents were benzeneethanol,4-hydroxy- (RT = 12.173, followed by benzaldehyde,3-methyl- (RT = 6.811. Finally, the GC-MS data evinced that the antimicrobial activity of A. marina was due to the synergistic effect of all constituents or the activity of major constituents. Conclusions: Considering the urgent need of novel antibiotics, the present study brings out a new insight on the exploration of mangroves for antibiotic production in future.

  5. 76 FR 37650 - Safety Zone; 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks Display Berkeley, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks Display Berkeley, CA AGENCY: Coast... the 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks Display. Unauthorized persons or vessels are... display. Background and Purpose The City of Berkeley Marina will sponsor the 4th of July Festival Berkeley...

  6. Human recombinant factor VIIa may improve heat intolerance in mice by attenuating hypothalamic neuronal apoptosis and damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chuan-Chih; Chen, Sheng-Hsien; Lin, Cheng-Hsien; Yung, Ming-Chi

    2014-10-01

    Intolerance to heat exposure is believed to be associated with hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis impairment [reflected by decreases in blood concentrations of both adrenocorticotrophic-hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone]. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of human recombinant factor VIIa (rfVIIa) on heat intolerance, HPA axis impairment, and hypothalamic inflammation, ischemic and oxidative damage, and apoptosis in mice under heat stress. Immediately after heat stress (41.2 °C for 1 h), mice were treated with vehicle (1 mL/kg of body weight) or rfVIIa (65-270 µg/kg of body weight) and then returned to room temperature (26 °C). Mice still alive on day 4 of heat exposure were considered survivors. Cellular ischemia markers (e.g., glutamate, lactate-to-pyruvate ratio), oxidative damage markers (e.g., nitric oxide metabolite, hydroxyl radials), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α) in hypothalamus were determined. In addition, blood concentrations of both ACTH and corticosterone were measured. Hypothalamic cell damage was assessed by determing the neuronal damage scores, whereas the hypothalamic cell apoptosis was determined by assessing the numbers of cells stained with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated αUTP nick-end labeling, caspase-3-positive cells, and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecula-1-positive cells in hypothalamus. Compared with vehicle-treated heated mice, rfVIIa-treated heated mice had significantly higher fractional survival (8/10 vs 1/10), lesser thermoregulatory deficit (34.1 vs 24.8 °C), lesser extents of ischemic, oxidative, and inflammatory markers in hypothalamus, lesser neuronal damage scores and apoptosis in hypothalamus, and lesser HPA axis impairment. Human recombinant factor VIIa appears to exert a protective effect against heatstroke by attenuating hypothalamic cell apoptosis (due to ischemic, inflammatory, and oxidative damage

  7. Tres grandes plataformas marinas Mar del Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soulas, R.

    1978-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the different building stages of three large sea platforms. After studying the structure's main characteristics, preparing scale models and calculating ail the elements, platform construction was carried out in three stages: — Dry-dock construction of the hull base. — Installation in the water and finishing the structure. — Immersion and bridge installation. Finally, the necessary operations to move the platform to its definite location were carried out. The structures are formed by a parallelepiped hull of reinforced concrete, divided into compartments by means of vertical orthogonals panels on top of which 2 or 4 piles are placed to support the bridge.

    En este artículo se analizan las diversas etapas en la realización de tres grandes plataformas marinas. Después de un estudio de las características principales de la estructura, ensayos en modelo reducido y cálculo de todos los elementos, se procede a la construcción de las plataformas en tres fases: — Construcción en seco de la base del casco. — Colocación en el agua y acabado de la estructura. — Inmersión y colocación del puente. Por último, se realizan las operaciones necesarias para llevar la plataforma a su ubicación definitiva. Las estructuras están formadas por un casco paralelepipédico de hormigón armado, dividido en compartimientos mediante tabiques verticales ortogonales y sobre el que se han colocado 2 ó 4 pilas que soportan el puente.

  8. Tissue factor activates allosteric networks in factor VIIa through structural and dynamic changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jesper Jonasson; Persson, E.; Olsen, O. H.

    2015-01-01

    that are not likely to be inferred from mutagenesis studies. Furthermore, paths from Met306 to Ile153 (N-terminus) and Trp364, both representing hallmark residues of allostery, are 7% and 37% longer, respectively, in free FVIIa. Thus, there is significantly weaker coupling between the TF contact point and key......Background: Tissue factor (TF) promotes colocalization of enzyme (factorVIIa) and substrate (FX or FIX), and stabilizes the active conformation of FVIIa. Details on how TF induces structural and dynamic changes in the catalytic domain of FVIIa to enhance its efficiency remain elusive. Objective......: To elucidate the activation of allosteric networks in the catalytic domain of the FVIIa protease it is when bound to TF.MethodsLong-timescale molecular dynamics simulations of FVIIa, free and in complex with TF, were executed and analyzed by dynamic network analysis. Results: Allosteric paths of correlated...

  9. Postpartum hemorrhage in a Jehovah's Witness patient controlled with Tisseel, tranexamic acid, and recombinant factor VIIa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Tarek Samir; Al-Wazzan, Ahmad Bakr; Maslow, Ken

    2010-10-01

    The management of a patient refusing blood transfusion who subsequently experiences a severe postpartum hemorrhage is a particular clinical challenge. A 30-year-old nulliparous patient (who was a Jehovah's Witness) had labour induced for post-dates at 41+4 weeks' gestational age after an uncomplicated pregnancy. She delivered by Caesarean section for dystocia and suspected chorioamnionitis, and subsequently developed postpartum hemorrhage that required management with oxytocin, ergometrine, carboprost, uterine artery ligation, and Hayman compression sutures. The patient ultimately required two additional visits to the operating room, culminating in hysterectomy. Use of tranexamic acid, recombinant factor VIIa, and Tisseel was instrumental in halting the ongoing hemorrhage. Optimal management of a patient refusing administration of blood products requires a multidisciplinary approach as well as a combination of traditional and novel therapies.

  10. Marina Abramović on kohal / Bianka Marran

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Marran, Bianka

    2010-01-01

    Jugoslaavia kunstniku Marina Abramovići performance'itest. Pikemalt tema teosest "The Artist is Present" New Yorgi Moodsa Kunsti Muuseumis 14. märtsist 31. maini 2010. Koostööst saksa fotograafi ja performance'ikunstniku Ulay'ga (kodanikunimi Frank Uwe Laysiepen)

  11. Characterization of single nucleotide polymorphism markers for eelgrass (Zostera marina)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferber, Steven; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.; Stam, Wytze T.; Olsen, Jeanine L.

    We characterized 37 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) makers for eelgrass Zostera marina. SNP markers were developed using existing EST (expressed sequence tag)-libraries to locate polymorphic loci and develop primers from the functional expressed genes that are deposited in The ZOSTERA database

  12. The identity of zostera marina var. angustifolia Hornemann (Potamogetonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den C.

    1972-01-01

    Since Hornemann (Fl. Dan. 9, 1816, p. 3, pl. 1501) published the name Zostera marina var. angustifolia together with a very poor drawing and the extremely short diagnosis ‘foliis subenerviis’ several interpretations of the identity of this taxon have been given. Some authors regarded it as a

  13. Effect of Recombinant Factor VIIa as an Adjunctive Therapy in Damage Control for Wartime Vascular Injuries: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Axillary 1 1 2 4 Iliac 2 2 4 Profunda femoral 1 3 4 Femoral 3 1 1 1 2 1 8 Popliteal 1 2 3 Total 9 1 2 4 25 6 20 2 3 72 * Followed by SV graft...VIIa [database on the Internet ]: US Department of Defense. Available at: https://jpta.fhp.osd.mil. Accessed 2007. 10. Boffard KD, Riou B, Warren B, et al

  14. Human Usher 1B/mouse shaker-1: the retinal phenotype discrepancy explained by the presence/absence of myosin VIIA in the photoreceptor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Amraoui, A; Sahly, I; Picaud, S; Sahel, J; Abitbol, M; Petit, C

    1996-08-01

    Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1) associates severe congenital deafness, vestibular dysfunction and progressive retinitis pigmentosa leading to blindness. The gene encoding myosin VIIA is responsible for USH1B. Mutations in the murine orthologous gene lead to the shaker-1 phenotype, which manifests cochlear and vestibular dysfunction, without any retinal defect. To address this phenotypic discrepancy, the expression of myosin VIIA in retinal cells was analyzed in human and mouse during embryonic development and adult life. In the human embryo, myosin VIIA was present first in the pigment epithelium cells, and later in these cells as well as in the photoreceptor cells. In the adult human retina, myosin VIIA was present in both cell types. In contrast, in mouse, only pigment epithelium cells expressed the protein throughout development and adult life. Myosin VIIA was also found to be absent in the photoreceptor cells of other rodents (rat and guinea-pig), whereas these cells expressed the protein in amphibians, avians and primates. These observations suggest that retinitis pigmentosa of USH1B results from a primary rod and cone defect. The USH1B/shaker-1 paradigm illustrates a species-specific cell pattern of gene expression as a possible cause for the discrepancy between phenotypes involving defective orthologous genes in man and mouse. Interestingly, in the photoreceptor cells, myosin VIIA is mainly localized in the inner and base of outer segments as well as in the synaptic ending region where it is co-localized with the synaptic vesicles. Therefore, we suggest that myosin VIIA might play a role in the trafficking of ribbon-synaptic vesicle complexes and the renewal processes of the outer photoreceptor disks.

  15. The M358R variant of α{sub 1}-proteinase inhibitor inhibits coagulation factor VIIa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, William P., E-mail: sheffiel@mcmaster.ca [Canadian Blood Services, Centre for Innovation, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Bhakta, Varsha [Canadian Blood Services, Centre for Innovation, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-12

    The naturally occurring M358R mutation of the plasma serpin α{sub 1}-proteinase inhibitor (API) changes both its cleavable reactive centre bond to Arg–Ser and the efficacy with which it inhibits different proteases, reducing the rate of inhibition of neutrophil elastase, and enhancing that of thrombin, factor XIa, and kallikrein, by several orders of magnitude. Although another plasma serpin with an Arg–Ser reactive centre, antithrombin (AT), has been shown to inhibit factor VIIa (FVIIa), no published data are available with respect to FVIIa inhibition by API M358R. Recombinant bacterially-expressed API M358R and plasma-derived AT were therefore compared using gel-based and kinetic assays of FVIIa integrity and activity. Under pseudo-first order conditions of excess serpin over protease, both AT and API M358R formed denaturation-resistant inhibitory complexes with FVIIa in reactions accelerated by TF; AT, but not API M358R, also required heparin for maximal activity. The second order rate constant for heparin-independent API M358R-mediated FVIIa inhibition was determined to be 7.8 ± 0.8 × 10{sup 2} M{sup −1}sec{sup −1}. We conclude that API M358R inhibits FVIIa by forming inhibitory complexes of the serpin type more rapidly than AT in the absence of heparin. The likely 20-fold excess of API M358R over AT in patient plasma during inflammation raises the possibility that it could contribute to the hemorrhagic tendencies manifested by rare individuals expressing this mutant serpin. - Highlights: • The inhibitory specificity of the serpin alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (API) is sharply altered in the M358R variant. • API M358R forms denaturation-resistant complexes with coagulation factor VIIa at a rate accelerated by tissue factor but unaffected by heparin. • Complex formation was shown by gel-based assays and quantified kinetically by inhibition of FVIIa-dependent amidolysis.

  16. The M358R variant of α_1-proteinase inhibitor inhibits coagulation factor VIIa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, William P.; Bhakta, Varsha

    2016-01-01

    The naturally occurring M358R mutation of the plasma serpin α_1-proteinase inhibitor (API) changes both its cleavable reactive centre bond to Arg–Ser and the efficacy with which it inhibits different proteases, reducing the rate of inhibition of neutrophil elastase, and enhancing that of thrombin, factor XIa, and kallikrein, by several orders of magnitude. Although another plasma serpin with an Arg–Ser reactive centre, antithrombin (AT), has been shown to inhibit factor VIIa (FVIIa), no published data are available with respect to FVIIa inhibition by API M358R. Recombinant bacterially-expressed API M358R and plasma-derived AT were therefore compared using gel-based and kinetic assays of FVIIa integrity and activity. Under pseudo-first order conditions of excess serpin over protease, both AT and API M358R formed denaturation-resistant inhibitory complexes with FVIIa in reactions accelerated by TF; AT, but not API M358R, also required heparin for maximal activity. The second order rate constant for heparin-independent API M358R-mediated FVIIa inhibition was determined to be 7.8 ± 0.8 × 10"2 M"−"1sec"−"1. We conclude that API M358R inhibits FVIIa by forming inhibitory complexes of the serpin type more rapidly than AT in the absence of heparin. The likely 20-fold excess of API M358R over AT in patient plasma during inflammation raises the possibility that it could contribute to the hemorrhagic tendencies manifested by rare individuals expressing this mutant serpin. - Highlights: • The inhibitory specificity of the serpin alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (API) is sharply altered in the M358R variant. • API M358R forms denaturation-resistant complexes with coagulation factor VIIa at a rate accelerated by tissue factor but unaffected by heparin. • Complex formation was shown by gel-based assays and quantified kinetically by inhibition of FVIIa-dependent amidolysis.

  17. [Epidemiology of urinary calculi in the Marina Alta (Alicante) region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Pérez, P; Amat Cecilia, M

    1992-06-01

    An epidemiological study on urolithiasis was conducted in the Borough of Marina Alta from December 1989 to December 1990. The Health Care region of Marina Alta includes 11 health care areas, all centralized into one single Local Hospital offering service to an estimated population of 125,290 inhabitants, which experiences a remarkable increase over the summer months. During the study period 1,792 patients, 350 (20%) of which were lithiasis cases were seen in the Urology Unit. 2.80 per thousand of the studied population had urolithiasis-related signs. Incidence is higher in males than in females, as well as in patients with prior lithiasic diseases, surgery and urinary infections. Urinary infection was present in 20% of patients. Nine percent of patients had some type of associated urinary malformation. The most frequent mineral composition of the lithiasis was: Calcium oxalate (52%), uric acid (20%) and oxalate plus uric acid (9%).

  18. Contaminación marina en el Perú.

    OpenAIRE

    Guillen., Oscar; Ashtu, Victor; Aquino, Rosa

    1980-01-01

    Inventario de las principales fuentes de contaminación marina, debido a los desechos domésticos e industriales, hidrocarburos de petróleo e hidrocarburos clorinados, afín de mostrar el estado actual de la contaminación y su problemática, así como su legislación. Informe IMARPE; n° 77, 1980, 70 p. IMARPE

  19. Reflectometry observations of density fluctuations in Wendelstein VII-AS stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.; Hartfuss, H.J.; Anabitarte, E.; Navarro, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    In the almost shearless stellarator Wendelstein VII-AS strong correlation between the confinement properties and the rotational transform iota has been found. Reduced confinement was observed for the low order rational values 1/2 and 1/3. In their vicinity best confinement is observed. In general optimum confinement is obtained in the low shear configuration if the 'resonant' iota values can be excluded from the plasma column. The iota profile inside the plasma is affected by toroidal currents and beta effects. Although the global net current can be kept at zero level using a small OH induced current opposed to the gradient driven bootstrap current, the different currents flow at different radial positions affecting the iota profile. Tools for configuration control inside the plasma are besides OH current vertical fields and the currents driven by the NBI and most promising the ECH heating systems. In this context experimental information on the iota profile is highly needed. The localization of rational surfaces by reflectometry seems possible. Radially resolved density fluctuation measurements have been carried out by means of a simple microwave reflectometry system. The method is based on the reflection of microwave radiation in the millimeter range at the plasma cutoff layer. (orig./AH)

  20. Mode and sawtooth behaviour during neutral beam injection in the W VII-A stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieger, G.; Renner, H.; Sapper, J.; Wobig, H.; Dorst, D.; Cattanei, G.; Javel, P.; Rau, F.; Zippe, M.; Jaeckel, H.

    1980-02-01

    The mode behaviour during Neutral Beam Injection in the WENDELSTEIN VII-A stellarator is presented. The analysis is mainly relying on soft X-ray measurements. Two types of discharges were found during Neutral Beam Injection with plasma currents >= 20 kA. The first type is dominated by large, regular and long sawteeth, which are caused by a (m,n) = (1,1) mode. In the second type the sawteeth disappear completely. Later in the discharge a local disruption causes a transition to the first type; this disruption has a (3,2) mode precursor. A new mode (2,2) is found and phase coupled to the (3,2) mode. Even at a high external rotational transform (t 0 = 0.23) a large (2,1) mode is found after the (3,2) mode has caused the local disruption. At slightly lower external rotational transform values major current disruptions may even occur. This is mainly due to the enhanced edge heating by the Neutral Beam Injection. Results of simulations of the mode structures are also presendet. (orig./GG)

  1. Two Finnish USH1B patients with three novel mutations in myosin VIIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vastinsalo, Hanna; Isosomppi, Juha; Aittakorpi, Anne; Sankila, Eeva-Marja

    2006-09-21

    Usher syndrome (USH) is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting in retinal degeneration and sensorineural deafness caused by mutations in at least 10 gene loci. USH is divided into three main clinical types: USH1 (33-44%), USH2 (56-67%), and USH3. Worldwide, USH1 and USH2 account for most of the Usher syndrome cases with rare occurrence of USH3. In Finland, however, USH3 is the most common type (40%), explained by genetic and geographical isolation accompanied with a founder mutation, while USH1 is estimated to comprise 34% and USH2 12% of all USH cases. We examined two unrelated Finnish USH1 patients by sequencing. We found three new myosin VIIA (MYO7A) mutations: p.K923AfsX8, p.Q1896X, and p.E1349K. The p.K923AfsX8 mutation was present in both patients as well as in one of 200 Finnish control chromosomes. This is the first molecular genetic study of USH1 in Finland. We have found three new pathological mutations causing either premature termination of translation or replacement of an evolutionary conserved MYO7A amino acid.

  2. Large enhancement of functional activity of active site-inhibited factor VIIa due to protein dimerization: insights into mechanism of assembly/disassembly from tissue factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Matthew D; Harvey, Stephen B; Martinez, Michael B; Bach, Ronald R; Nelsestuen, Gary L

    2005-04-26

    Active site-inhibited blood clotting factor VIIa (fVIIai) binds to tissue factor (TF), a cell surface receptor that is exposed upon injury and initiates the blood clotting cascade. FVIIai blocks binding of the corresponding enzyme (fVIIa) or zymogen (fVII) forms of factor VII and inhibits coagulation. Although several studies have suggested that fVIIai may have superior anticoagulation effects in vivo, a challenge for use of fVIIai is cost of production. This study reports the properties of dimeric forms of fVIIai that are cross-linked through their active sites. Dimeric wild-type fVIIai was at least 75-fold more effective than monomeric fVIIai in blocking fVIIa association with TF. The dimer of a mutant fVIIai with higher membrane affinity was 1600-fold more effective. Anticoagulation by any form of fVIIai differed substantially from agents such as heparin and showed a delayed mode of action. Coagulation proceeded normally for the first minutes, and inhibition increased as equilibrium binding was established. It is suggested that association of fVIIa(i) with TF in a collision-dependent reaction gives equal access of inhibitor and enzyme to TF. Assembly was not influenced by the higher affinity and slower dissociation of the dimer. As a result, anticoagulation was delayed until the reaction reached equilibrium. Properties of different dissociation experiments suggested that dissociation of fVIIai from TF occurred by a two-step mechanism. The first step was separation of TF-fVIIa(i) while both proteins remained bound to the membrane, and the second step was dissociation of the fVIIa(i) from the membrane. These results suggest novel actions of fVIIai that distinguish it from most of the anticoagulants that block later steps of the coagulation cascade.

  3. Rhizosphere microbiome metagenomics of gray mangroves (Avicennia marina) in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Alzubaidy, Hanin S.; Essack, Magbubah; Malas, Tareq Majed Yasin; Bokhari, Ameerah; Motwalli, Olaa Amin; Kamanu, Frederick Kinyua; Jamhor, Suhaiza; Mokhtar, Noor Azlin; Antunes, Andre; Simoes, Marta; Alam, Intikhab; Bougouffa, Salim; Lafi, Feras Fawzi; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Archer, John A.C.

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first metagenomic study on the microbiome of mangroves in the Red Sea, and the first application of unbiased 454-pyrosequencing to study the rhizosphere microbiome associated with A. marina. Our results provide the first insights into the range of functions and microbial diversity in the rhizosphere and soil sediments of gray mangrove (A. marina) in the Red Sea.

  4. Phenology of Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. in a Disjunctly-zoned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avicennia marina in Gazi Bay, Kenya, displays a disjunct zonation pattern across the intertidal zone with a seaward and a landward A. marina fringe. Earlier studies revealed significant differences in its vegetation structure, physiognomy, root system and leaf morphology, which can be attributed to salinity and tidal ...

  5. 18 CFR 1304.403 - Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marina sewage pump-out... OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.403 Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks. All pump... purposes of inspection; (i) Spill-proof features adequate for transfer of sewage from all movable floating...

  6. Ala397Asp mutation of myosin VIIA gene segregating in a Spanish family with type-Ib Usher syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinós, C; Millán, J M; Sánchez, F; Beneyto, M; Nájera, C

    1998-06-01

    In the current study, 12 Spanish families affected by type-I Usher syndrome, that was previously linked to chromosome 11q, were screened for the presence of mutations in the N-terminal coding portion of the motor domain of the myosin VIIA gene by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of the first 14 exons. A mutation (Ala397Asp) segregating with the disease was identified, and several polymorphisms were also detected. It is presumed that the other USHIB mutations in these families could be located in the unscreened regions of the gene.

  7. Comparison of 3-Factor Prothrombin Complex Concentrate and Low-Dose Recombinant Factor VIIa for Warfarin Reversal

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Scott A; Irwin, Eric D; Abou-Karam, Nada M; Rupnow, Nichole M; Hutson, Katherine E; Vespa, Jeffrey; Roach, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) and recombinant Factor VIIa (rFVIIa) have been used for emergent reversal of warfarin anticoagulation. Few clinical studies have compared these agents in warfarin reversal. We compared warfarin reversal in patients who received either 3 factor PCC (PCC3) or low-dose rFVIIa (LDrFVIIa) for reversal of warfarin anticoagulation. Methods Data were collected from medical charts of patients who received at least one dose of PCC3 (20 units/kg) or LDr...

  8. Extensive small-angle X-ray scattering studies of blood coagulation factor VIIa reveal interdomain flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Charlotte Rode; Nolan, David; Persson, Egon

    2010-01-01

    Blood coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) is used in the treatment of replacement therapy resistant hemophilia patients, and FVIIa is normally activated upon complex formation with tissue factor (TF), potentially in context with structural rearrangements. The solution behavior of uncomplexed FVIIa...... is important for understanding the mechanism of activation and for the stability and activity of the pharmaceutical product. However, crystal structures of FVIIa in complex with TF and of truncated free FVIIa reveal different overall conformations while previous small-angle scattering studies suggest FVIIa...... causing resistance to activation, thereby emphasizing the connection between the distribution of different conformations of FVII and the mechanism of activation....

  9. Thermal analysis of W VII-AS limiter system and presentation of a graphite-block concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.; Grigull, P.

    1989-01-01

    A 2D-finite element thermal analysis of the initial W VII-AS limiter system has been performed and is discussed. Furhter to this analysis a graphite block concept is presented. This concept has been numerically analyzed for applications as a limiter in plasma and nuclear fusion experimental devices. The results are described in this paper. This block concept seems to be also applicable to first wall and divertor designs; the graphite elements could be replaced by ceramic ones. (author). 10 refs.; 13 figs

  10. Rab GTPases Regulate Endothelial Cell Protein C Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis and Trafficking of Factor VIIa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ramesh C.; Keshava, Shiva; Esmon, Charles T.; Pendurthi, Usha R.; Rao, L. Vijaya Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have established that factor VIIa (FVIIa) binds to the endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR). FVIIa binding to EPCR may promote the endocytosis of this receptor/ligand complex. Rab GTPases are known to play a crucial role in the endocytic and exocytic pathways of receptors or receptor/ligand complexes. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of Rab GTPases in the intracellular trafficking of EPCR and FVIIa. CHO-EPCR cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were transduced with recombinant adenoviral vectors to express wild-type, constitutively active, or dominant negative mutant of various Rab GTPases. Cells were exposed to FVIIa conjugated with AF488 fluorescent probe (AF488-FVIIa), and intracellular trafficking of FVIIa, EPCR, and Rab proteins was evaluated by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. In cells expressing wild-type or constitutively active Rab4A, internalized AF488-FVIIa accumulated in early/sorting endosomes and its entry into the recycling endosomal compartment (REC) was inhibited. Expression of constitutively active Rab5A induced large endosomal structures beneath the plasma membrane where EPCR and FVIIa accumulated. Dominant negative Rab5A inhibited the endocytosis of EPCR-FVIIa. Expression of constitutively active Rab11 resulted in retention of accumulated AF488-FVIIa in the REC, whereas expression of a dominant negative form of Rab11 led to accumulation of internalized FVIIa in the cytoplasm and prevented entry of internalized FVIIa into the REC. Expression of dominant negative Rab11 also inhibited the transport of FVIIa across the endothelium. Overall our data show that Rab GTPases regulate the internalization and intracellular trafficking of EPCR-FVIIa. PMID:23555015

  11. The protozoa dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina contains selenoproteins and the relevant translation apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaka, Takashi; Beika, Asa; Hattori, Asuka; Kohno, Yoshinori; Kato, Koichi H.; Mizutani, Takaharu

    2003-01-01

    In the phylogenetic tree, selenoproteins and the corresponding translation machinery are found in Archaea, Eubacteria, and animals, but not in fungi and higher plants. As very little is known about Protozoa, we searched for the presence of selenoproteins in the primitive dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina, belonging to the Protoctista kingdom. Four selenoproteins could be obtained from O. marina cells cultured in the presence of 75 Se. Using O. marina or bovine liver cytosolic extracts, we could serylate and selenylate in vitro total O. marina tRNAs. Moreover, the existence of a tRNA Sec could be deduced from in vivo experiments. Lastly, an anti-serum against the specialized mammalian translation elongation factor mSelB reacted with a protein of 48-kDa molecular mass. Altogether, our data showed that O. marina contains selenoproteins and suggests that the corresponding translation machinery is related to that found in animals

  12. Role of commercial harbours and recreational marinas in the spread of non-indigenous fouling species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Jasmine; Caronni, Sarah; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Marchini, Agnese

    2017-09-01

    The role of commercial harbours as sink and source habitats for non-indigenous species (NIS) and the role of recreational boating for their secondary spread were investigated by analysing the fouling community of five Italian harbours and five marinas in the western Mediterranean Sea. It was first hypothesised that NIS assemblages in the recreational marinas were subsets of those occurring in commercial harbours. However, the data did not consistently support this hypothesis: the NIS pools of some marinas significantly diverged from harbours even belonging to the same coastal stretches, including NIS occurring only in marinas. This study confirms harbours as hotspots for marine NIS, but also reveals that numbers of NIS in some marinas is higher than expected, suggesting that recreational vessels effectively facilitate NIS spread. It is recommended that this vector of NIS introduction is taken into account in the future planning of sustainable development of maritime tourism in Europe.

  13. The Phenomenon of the Marina Development to Support the European Model of Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kizielewicz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of marinas on the seas, rivers, lakes and canals of Europe occurs in two different forms: (1 as a private investment project, and (2 as an urban municipal investment. Both forms of investment and development of marinas satisfy the criteria of entrepreneurship, which is important for each global and European economy. The purpose of this research is explanation of the possibilities for development of marinas and their immediate and distant destination which supports the development of the local economy. The scientific and research achievements were applied and, for the purpose of transparency, a case study showing several marinas and the examples of two basic models of development are presented. Structurally, this research consists of two parts, namely (1 a theoretical part, where a definition of nautical tourism and its classification are presented and (2 the development of specific indicators of marinas in Europe are explored.

  14. Sulfide Intrusion and Detoxification in the Seagrass Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Gaseous sulfide intrusion into seagrasses growing in sulfidic sediments causes little or no harm to the plant, indicating the presence of an unknown sulfide tolerance or detoxification mechanism. We assessed such mechanism in the seagrass Zostera marina in the laboratory and in the field...... as sulfate throughout the plant. We conclude that avoidance of sulfide exposure by reoxidation of sulfide in the rhizosphere or aerenchyma and tolerance of sulfide intrusion by incorporation of sulfur in the plant are likely major survival strategies of seagrasses in sulfidic sediments....

  15. Nuevas aportaciones a la ictiofauna marina de Galicia

    OpenAIRE

    Bañón, R.; Cerdeira, J.D.; Ferreiro, P.; Sande, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    El número de especies de peces nuevas o raras en Galicia se ha incrementado en los últimos años gracias a un mayor esfuerzo científico y un contacto más estrecho con el sector pesquero, lo cual ha permitido obtener un mejor conocimiento de la ictiofauna marina (Bañón, 2002). En este trabajo se aportan nuevas citas sobre la presencia de cuatro especies de osteictios raras o poco conocidas para las aguas de Galicia. La biometría de los ejemplares analizados se da e...

  16. Eelgrass (Zostera marina) food web structure in different environmental settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thormar, Jonas Gjaldbæk; Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Baden, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    his study compares the structure of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) meadows and associated food webs in two eelgrass habitats in Denmark, differing in exposure, connection to the open sea, nutrient enrichment and water transparency. Meadow structure strongly reflected the environmental conditions...... composition and food web structure also differed markedly between sites with the eutrophicated, enclosed site having higher biomass of consumers and less complex food web. These relationships resulted in a column shaped biomass distribution of the consumers at the eutrophicated site whereas the less nutrient...

  17. Atlas de Riesgo Ambiental Aplicado en Marinas del Espacio SUDOE

    OpenAIRE

    Avendaño Castro, Pablo A.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN: Se analizan 418 marinas del sudoeste europeo utilizando una metodología de evaluación de riesgo ambiental diseñada en el IH Cantabria por Gómez et al. (2016). La zona de estudio es la zona costera del área elegible SUDOE y la región de la Macaronesia, comprendiendo las naciones de Francia (sudoeste), España, Portugal y Reino Unido (Gibraltar). Se obtiene el valor del riesgo ambiental a partir de la estimación de las consecuencias (factores de navegación, dragado y entorno), vulnerabi...

  18. Comparison of the calculated neutral beam shinethrough of the Wendelstein VII-A injection with calorimetric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penningsfeld, F.P.

    1987-06-01

    Density profiles of the Wendelstein VII-A plasma as measured by Thomson scattering are used to calculate the temporally and spatially varying power density of the neutral beam shinethrough on the torus calorimeter for several shot series. The total energy deposited by the three beam species is obtained by integrating the transmitted power density in space and time. This global quantity is compared with the calorimetric measurements routinely performed for each shot. The agreement between calculated and measured energy is found to be ΔE/E = 2.3 ± 11% confirming the error estimation for the NEUDEN program used, which was only slightly modified to calculate the power density transmitted in the target plane. From this good agreement it is concluded that the program contains a realistic beam model and reliable cross-sections for the beam attenuation which is important for further applications. Furthermore, the same comparison was done with old results of the ODIN code by analyzing the corresponding raw data as far as they could be recovered, obtaining a similarly good consistency. A possible increase of 10 to 20% of the beam stopping cross section which could be expected for Wendelstein VII-A conditions by the effect of multistep collision processes as suggested by Boley et al. is discussed also. (orig.)

  19. Identification and molecular modelling of a mutation in the motor head domain of myosin VIIA in a family with autosomal dominant hearing impairment (DFNA11)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijendijk, M.W.J.; Wijk, E. van; Bischoff, A.M.L.C.; Krieger, E.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Pennings, R.J.E.; Brunner, H.G.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Kremer, J.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Myosin VIIA is an unconventional myosin that has been implicated in Usher syndrome type 1B, atypical Usher syndrome, non-syndromic autosomal recessive hearing impairment (DFNB2) and autosomal dominant hearing impairment (DFNA11). Here, we present a family with non-syndromic autosomal dominant

  20. Identification and molecular modelling of a mutation in the motor head domain of myosin VIIA in a family with autosomal dominant hearing impairment (DFNA11).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijendijk, M.W.J.; Wijk, E. van; Bischoff, A.M.L.C.; Krieger, E.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Pennings, R.J.E.; Brunner, H.G.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Kremer, J.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Myosin VIIA is an unconventional myosin that has been implicated in Usher syndrome type 1B, atypical Usher syndrome, non-syndromic autosomal recessive hearing impairment (DFNB2) and autosomal dominant hearing impairment (DFNA11). Here, we present a family with non-syndromic autosomal dominant

  1. The glycoprotein Ib-IX-V complex contributes to tissue factor-independent thrombin generation by recombinant factor VIIa on the activated platelet surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeterings, Cees; de Groot, Philip G.; Adelmeijer, Jelle; Lisman, Ton

    2008-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) is able to activate factor X on an activated platelet, in a tissue factor-independent manner. We hypothesized that, besides the anionic surface, a receptor on the activated platelet surface is involved in this process. Here, we

  2. Recombinant nematode anticoagulant protein c2, an inhibitor of tissue factor/factor VIIa, attenuates coagulation and the interleukin-10 response in human endotoxemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Pont, A. C. J. M.; Moons, A. H. M.; de Jonge, E.; Meijers, J. C. M.; Vlasuk, G. P.; Rote, W. E.; Büller, H. R.; van der Poll, T.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.

    2004-01-01

    The tissue factor-factor (F)VIIa complex (TF/FVIIa) is responsible for the initiation of blood coagulation under both physiological and pathological conditions. Recombinant nematode anticoagulant protein c2 (rNAPc2) is a potent inhibitor of TF/FVIIa. mechanistically distinct from tissue factor

  3. Influence of neighboring plants on shading stress resistance and recovery of eelgrass, Zostera marina L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Gustafsson

    Full Text Available Stressful environments may enhance the occurrence of facilitative interspecific interactions between plants. In several regions, Zostera marina occurs in mixed assemblages. However, the potential effects of plant diversity on stress responses and stability properties of Z. marina are poorly understood. We investigated the resistance and recovery of Z. marina subjected to shading (1 mo in a field experiment lasting 2.5 mo. We shaded Z. marina planted in mono- and polycultures (Potamogeton perfoliatus, P. pectinatus, P. filiformis in a factorial design (Shading×Richness at 2 m depth. We estimated the resistance and recovery of Z. marina by measuring four response variables. Polyculture Z. marina lost proportionally less biomass than monocultures, thus having a greater resistance to shading. In contrast, after a 1 mo recovery period, monocultures exhibited higher biomass gain, and a faster recovery than polycultures. Our results suggest that plant species richness enhances the resistance of Z. marina through facilitative mechanisms, while the faster recovery in monocultures is possibly due to interspecific competition. Our results highlight the need of a much better understanding of the effects of interspecific interactions on ecosystem processes in mixed seagrass meadows, and the preservation of diverse plant assemblages to maintain ecosystem functioning.

  4. Cost effectiveness of recombinant factor VIIa for treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckman Mark H

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phase I/II placebo-controlled clinical trials of recombinant Factor VIIa (rFVIIa suggested that administration of rFVIIa within 4 hours after onset of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is safe, limits ICH growth, and improves outcomes. We sought to determine the cost-effectiveness of rFVIIa for acute ICH treatment, using published Phase II data. We hypothesized that rFVIIa would have a low marginal cost-effectiveness ratio (mCER given the poor neurologic outcomes after ICH with conventional management. Methods We performed an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis from the societal perspective, considering conventional management vs. 80 ug/kg rFVIIa treatment for acute ICH cases meeting Phase II inclusion criteria. The time frame for the analysis was 1. 25 years: data from the Phase II trial was used for 90 day outcomes and rFVIIa complications – arterial thromboembolic events (ATE. We assumed no substantial cost differences in care between the two strategies except: 1 cost of rFVIIa (for an 80 mcg/kg dose in an 80 kg patient, assumed cost of $6,408; 2 cost of ATE side effects from rFVIIa (which also decrease quality of life and increase the chance of death; and 3 differential monetary costs of outcomes and their impact on quality of life, including disposition (home vs. nursing home, and outpatient vs. inpatient rehabilitation. Sensitivity analyses were performed to explore uncertainty in parameter estimates, impact of rFVIIa cost, direct cost of neurologic outcomes, probability of ATE, and outcomes after ATE. Results In the "base case", treating ICH with rFVIIa dominates the usual care strategy by being more effective and less costly. rFVIIa maintained a mCER Conclusion Based on data from preliminary trials, treating selected ICH patients with rFVIIa results in lower cost and improved clinical outcomes. This potential cost-effectiveness must be considered in light of the Phase III trial results.

  5. Diurnal effects of anoxia on the metabolome of the seagrass Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    Environmental metabolomics has become interesting in marine ecological studies. One example is the revealing of new insights in stress response of Zostera marina. This is essential to understand how, at which level and to what extend aquatic plants adapt, tolerate and react to environmental...... stressors. We exposed Z. marina to water column anoxia and assessed the diurnal metabolomic response by GC-TOF-MS based metabolomics identifying 109 known and 217 unknown metabolites. During day time photosynthetic oxygen production prevents severe effects of anoxia on the metabolome (complete set of small...... the applicability of metabolomics to assess environmental stress responses of Zostera marina....

  6. Pembuatan Alur Pelayaran dalam Rencana Pelabuhan Marina Pantai Boom, Banyuwangi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Didi Darmawan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pantai Boom merupakan pantai yang ada di Kabupaten Banyuwangi. Pantai ini terletak di Kelurahan Kampung Mandar, Kecamatan Banyuwangi, Banyuwangi, Jawa Timur. Pantai tersebut rencananya akan dibangun pelabuhan marina. Pelabuhan harus dilengkapi dengan beberapa fasilitas untuk mendukung rencana tersebut seperti salah satunya adalah alur pelayaran. Untuk membuat alur pelayaran diperlukan penelitian mengenai pasang surut, topografi dasar laut, serta jenis kapal yang melintas untuk memastikan kapal yang berlayar aman dari kemungkinan kecelakaan. Penelitian ini menggunakan data hasil pemeruman, data pasang surut yang diperoleh dari pengamatan langsung, serta berbagai jenis kapal yacht. Hasil dari penelitian ini didapatkan bahwa rencana dermaga sebaiknya dibangun 60 meter menjorok ke arah laut dengan panjang dermaga 25 meter. Dalam keadaan air rendah terendah (LLWL, ketiga jenis kapal yang ditentukan dapat merapat ke rencana Dermaga Pelabuhan Marina Pantai Boom, Banyuwangi. Daerah yang tidak bisa dilewati pada saat LLWL, pada saat MSL daerah tersebut sudah dapat dilewati oleh ketiga jenis kapal tersebut. Pada keadaan muka air tinggi tertinggi (HHWL, Kapal Yacht Class 8 dan 6 dapat melewati sebagian perairan sungai Pantai Boom.         Waktu yang tidak tepat untuk melakukan pelayaran pada saat LLWL dari alur pelayaran yang telah dibuat yaitu antara pukul 04:00 – 06:00 WIB pada saat bulan November 2015-Februari 2016 dan pukul 16:00-18:00 pada saat bulan Juni-Agustus 2016. Sedangkan Waktu yang tepat untuk melakukan pelayaran pada saat HHWL yaitu antara pukul 20:00–23:00 WIB pada saat bulan Desember 2015- Maret 2016 dan pukul 8:00-11:00 pada saat bulan Juni-September 2016.

  7. Marina Caffiero (Hg.: Rubare le anime. Roma: Viella 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Unfer Lukoschik

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In den Akten des päpstlichen Staatsarchivs und der römischen jüdischen Gemeinde finden sich zeitgenössische Zeugnisse für die im päpstlichen Rom vom 16. bis zum 19. Jahrhundert nicht seltene Zwangskonvertierung jüdischer Mädchen und Frauen zum Katholizismus. Eines der wertvollsten Dokumente dieser Konversionspraxis liegt nunmehr in einer kommentierten Neuedition vor: das Tagebuch der 1749 sich erfolgreich der versuchten Zwangskonvertierung widersetzenden 18-jährigen Anna del Monte. In ihrer Einleitung ordnet die Herausgeberin Marina Caffiero dieses außergewöhliche Einzelschicksal in die zeitgleich und parallel laufenden Assimilations- und Emanzipationsprozesse ein, die sich in der mit aufklärerischem Gedankengut ‚infizierten‘ jüdischen Oberschicht Roms im 18. Jahrhundert abzeichneten.Contemporary reports on the forced conversion of Jewish girls and woman to Catholicism, not a rare occurrence in papal Rome from the 16th to the 19th centuries, can be found in the files of the official papal archive and the Roman Jewish community. One of the most valuable documents of this conversion practice has now been published in a new annotation edition: The diary of 18-year-old Anna del Monte, who was able to successfully resist the attempted forced conversion in 1749. In her introduction the editor Marina Caffiero places this extraordinary individual fate within the concurrent and parallel processes of assimilation and emancipation. These emerge in 18th century Rome’s Jewish upper class, which was “infected” with Enlightenment ideas.

  8. Assessment of Marinas in the Mediterranean and the Position of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Pinar Genc

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The most important organizations for developing and advertisingthe yacht tourism in a country are the marinas.Yachting tourism, being a part of maritime sector tends to playa part in the tourist activities and provides important resourcesfor the general economy.In this study, the developments in yachting tourism are aplainedby considering the cu"ent status of the marinas in theMedite"anean countries. Basic characteristics of different marinasof the Medite"anean countries will be discussed and alsostatistical figures will be given. The yachting routes and the potentialof Turkey will be analyzed by emphasizing operational,infrastructural and service characteristics. The factors thatshould be taken into consideration and the methods used formarina marketing will be explained. By considering strengths,weaknesses, opportunities and threats, a SWOT analysis will bemade for Turkey marinas. Suggestions will be given fur furtherdevelopment of marina management in Turkey.

  9. Restoring Eelgrass (Zostera marina) from Seed: A Comparison of Planting Methods for Large-Scale Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Orth, Robert; Marion, Scott; Granger, Steven; Traber, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) seeds are being used in a variety of both small- and large-scale restoration activities and have been successfully used to initiate recovery of eelgrass in the Virginia seaside coastal lagoons...

  10. DIGESTIVE BIOAVAILABILITY TO A DEPOSIT FEDDER (ARENICOLA MARINA) OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ASSOCIATED WITH ANTHRPOGENIC PARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine sediments around urban areas serve as catch basins for anthropogenic particles containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Using incubations with gut fluids extracted from a deposit-feeding polychaete (Arenicola marina), we determined the digestive bioavailability ...

  11. Recolonization of intertidal Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) following experimental shoot removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recovery of eelgrass (Zostera marina) from physical disturbances is understudied and no attention has been given to the likely differences in damage recovery rates between the continuous lower intertidal perennial meadows and higher intertidal eelgrass patches. In the present...

  12. Eesti suursaadik Moskvas : "Okupatsiooni eest vastutab režiim" / Marina Kaljurand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaljurand, Marina, 1962-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje, 31. jaan. 2007, lk. 2. Eesti Vabariigi erakorraline ja täievoliline suursaadik Vene Föderatsioonis Marina Kaljurand andis Venemaa Interneti-väljaandele Expert.ru online-intervjuu

  13. Baltoscandali avavad vigurmarss ja Schubert / Marina Steinmo ; interv. Eva Kübar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Steinmo, Marina

    2008-01-01

    Baltoscandali teatrifestivalil esineva Eesti päritolu Rootsi tantsija ja koreograafi Charlotte Engelkesi klassikalisel muusikal põhinevatest lavastustest "Forellen and Me" ja "Miss Very Wagner" (dramaturg, teksti ja etenduse kontseptsiooni autor on Marina Steinmo)

  14. Rapid assessment of the bryozoan, Zoobotryon verticillatum (Delle Chiaje, 1822) in marinas, Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minchin, Dan

    2012-10-01

    A rapid assessment, using the abundance and distribution range method, was used to evaluate the status of a large branching bryozoan, Zoobotryon verticillatum attached to the immersed part of marina pontoons in the Canary Islands. Colonies were also found attached to the hulls of leisure craft berthed alongside pontoons at three marinas in Lanzarote during 2012. Low levels of abundance and distribution of the bryozoan occurred in marinas with a freshwater influence whereas in a sheltered marina lacking direct freshwater inputs colonies occurred at ∼2 per metre of combined pontoon length. While the occurrence of this bryozoan is recent it may be expected to occur elsewhere in Macaronesia most probably spread by leisure craft. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Stabilization of the (2,1) tearing mode and of the current disruption in the W VII-A stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, D.V.; Cannici, G.; Cattanei, G.

    1980-01-01

    A numerical code based on a Δ'-analysis is applied to calculate the saturated amplitude of tearing modes dependent on the current density profile. The only stellarator effect included is the additional, shearless external rotational transform in the safety factor profile q(r). In this way, the stellarator field shifts the resonant q=2 surface toward the outside, where the current density gradient is smaller, and stabilizes the (2,1) mode as observed experimentally. Also the measured dependence of the (2,1) mode amplitude on electron density and plasma current can be absolutely predicted by the calculations. - In addition to stabilizing the (2,1) tearing mode, the current disruption is suppressed in Ohmically heated W VII-A discharges for approximately >0.15. The experimental findings, together with the calculated island widths, are compared with the predictions of a theoretical model proposed by several authors to explain the current disruption. (author)

  16. A combined structural dynamics approach identifies a putative switch in factor VIIa employed by tissue factor to initiate blood coagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole H; Rand, Kasper D; Østergaard, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) requires tissue factor (TF) to attain full catalytic competency and to initiate blood coagulation. In this study, the mechanism by which TF allosterically activates FVIIa is investigated by a structural dynamics approach that combines molecular dynamics (MD......) simulations and hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HX) mass spectrometry on free and TF-bound FVIIa. The differences in conformational dynamics from MD simulations are shown to be confined to regions of FVIIa observed to undergo structural stabilization as judged by HX experiments, especially implicating activation...... in the presence of TF or an active-site inhibitor. Based on MD simulations, a key switch of the TF-induced structural changes is identified as the interacting pair Leu305{163} and Phe374{225} in FVIIa, whose mutual conformations are guided by the presence of TF and observed to be closely linked to the structural...

  17. Complete genome of Cobetia marina JCM 21022T and phylogenomic analysis of the family Halomonadaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xianghai; Xu, Kuipeng; Han, Xiaojuan; Mo, Zhaolan; Mao, Yunxiang

    2018-03-01

    Cobetia marina is a model proteobacteria in researches on marine biofouling. Its taxonomic nomenclature has been revised many times over the past few decades. To better understand the role of the surface-associated lifestyle of C. marina and the phylogeny of the family Halomonadaceae, we sequenced the entire genome of C. marina JCM 21022T using single molecule real-time sequencing technology (SMRT) and performed comparative genomics and phylogenomics analyses. The circular chromosome was 4 176 300 bp with an average GC content of 62.44% and contained 3 611 predicted coding sequences, 72 tRNA genes, and 21 rRNA genes. The C. marina JCM 21022T genome contained a set of crucial genes involved in surface colonization processes. The comparative genome analysis indicated the significant differences between C. marina JCM 21022T and Cobetia amphilecti KMM 296 (formerly named C. marina KMM 296) resulted from sequence insertions or deletions and chromosomal recombination. Despite these differences, pan and core genome analysis showed similar gene functions between the two strains. The phylogenomic study of the family Halomonadaceae is reported here for the first time. We found that the relationships were well resolved among every genera tested, including Chromohalobacter, Halomonas, Cobetia, Kushneria, Zymobacter, and Halotalea.

  18. Effect of tearing modes on temperature and density profiles and on the perpendicular transport in the W VII-A stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaenicke, R.

    1988-01-01

    In the ohmically heated W VII-A stellarator, the behaviour of which is similar to that of a medium sized tokamak, the additional shearless external rotational transform t 0 (Δt 0 /t 0 0 perpendicular,e in a one-dimensional heat transport code. In this way, the measured temperature profiles can be reproduced quite well and the energy confinement time of discharges with tearing mode activity can be predicted quantitatively. The transport model is used to investigate the explicit dependence of κ perpendicular,e on the plasma current and to study the importance of plasma current driven instabilities for the energy confinement in the W VII-A stellarator as well as in tokamaks. (author). 19 refs, 14 figs

  19. The origins of enhanced activity in factor VIIa analogs and the interplay between key allosteric sites revealed by hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, Kasper D; Andersen, Mette D; Olsen, Ole H

    2008-01-01

    Factor VIIa (FVIIa) circulates in the blood in a zymogen-like state. Only upon association with membrane-bound tissue factor (TF) at the site of vascular injury does FVIIa become active and able to initiate blood coagulation. Here we used hydrogen exchange monitored by mass spectrometry to invest......Factor VIIa (FVIIa) circulates in the blood in a zymogen-like state. Only upon association with membrane-bound tissue factor (TF) at the site of vascular injury does FVIIa become active and able to initiate blood coagulation. Here we used hydrogen exchange monitored by mass spectrometry...... to investigate the conformational effects of site-directed mutagenesis at key positions in FVIIa and the origins of enhanced intrinsic activity of FVIIa analogs. The differences in hydrogen exchange of two highly active variants, FVIIa(DVQ) and FVIIa(VEAY), imply that enhanced catalytic efficiency was attained...

  20. [Hemoglobins, XXXII. Analysis of the primary structure of the monomeric hemoglobin CTT VIIA (erythrocruorin) or Chironomus thummi thummi, Diptera (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, T; Braunitzer, G

    1980-01-01

    The dimeric hemoglobin CTT VIIA (erythrocruorin) was isolated from the hemolymph of the larva from Chironomus thummi thummi and purified by preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Peptides obtained by limited tryptical digestion were sequenced by automatic Edman degradation. For the elucidation of the sequence in the C-terminal region of the chain, additional cleavages with proteinase of Staphylococcus aureus and chymotrypsin were necessary. CTT VIIA is compared with human beta-chains and other hemoglobins of Chironomus. The amino acid residues in the pocket are especially discussed. Most of them are invariant in all Chironomus hemoglobins, independent of the size of the heme pocket, which is normal in some components and enlarged in others.

  1. Aves marinas de las costas e islas colombianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1947-06-01

    Full Text Available La lista de aves marinas que presento en este artículo se refiere en su mayor parte a especies que varios autores (véase Obras citadas han señalado en las costas e islas marítimas de Colombia o en las aguas extraterritoriales del Mar Caribe y del Océano Pacífico inmediatamente próximas a este país. Los ejemplares examinados que menciono fuera de tales referencias pertenecen casi todos a la colección ornitológica del Instituto de Ciencias Naturales y se señalan con las siglas ICN. Unos pocos son del museo de historia natural del Colegio Biffi, en Barranquilla, a cuyo custodio, el Hermano Hildeberto María, doy las gracias por haberme permitido examinarlos. Los que señalo con las palabras Exped. Askoy, seguidas de un numero (de la serie del American Museum of Natural History, forman parte de una interesante colección que nos envió en 1942 el doctor Robert Cushman Murphy, actual Director del Departamento de Aves del American Museum of Natural History, Nueva York. Estos fueron obtenidos por la expedición oceanográfica que, bajo la dirección del doctor Murphy, realizaron en la goleta "Askoy" varios miembros de aquel museo, acompañados por el Comandante Eduardo Fallon, de la Marina Colombiana, en aguas del Pacifico desde Panamá hasta el Ecuador. La Expedición de la "Askoy", que duró de febrero a mayo de 1941, exploró varias bahías y ensenadas en el litoral del Chocó y del Departamento del Valle, así como las islas de Gorgona y Gorgonilla al norte de la costa de Nariño, y el peñón inhabitado de Malpelo, posesión oceánica colombiana situada a unos 500 kilómetros al occidente de Buenaventura, en la latitud de 3° 59' 07" N. y la longitud de 81° 34' 27" W. de Greenwich, según posición determinada por Murphy (1936, I, p. 319, fig. 49 .

  2. Ecosystem Services of Avicennia marina in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2016-01-01

    The Red Sea is an arid environment, without riverine inputs, oligotrophic waters and extreme temperature and salinity. Avicennia marina is the dominant vegetation in the shores of the Red Sea. However, little is known about their distribution, dynamics, and services. Therefore, the aim of this Ph.D. was to obtain the basic information needed to evaluate their role in the coastal ecosystems and quantify their services. With that objective we 1) estimated the past and present distribution of mangroves in the Red Sea, 2) investigated the growth, leave production and floration 3) examined the growth limiting factors 4) measured the nutrients and heavy metal dynamics in the leaves and 5) estimated carbon sequestration. We found an increase of about 12% in the last 41 years, which contrasts with global trends of decrease. The extreme conditions in the Red Sea contributed to limit their growth resulting in stunted trees. Hence, we surveyed Central Red Sea mangroves to estimate their node production with an average of 9.59 node y-1 then converted that number into time to have a plastochrone interval of 38 days. As mangroves are taller in the southern Red Sea where both temperature and nutrients are higher than the Central Red Sea, we assessed nutrient status Avicennia marina propagules and naturally growing leaves to find the leaves low in nutrient concentrations (N < 1.5 %, P < 0.09 %, Fe < 0.06) and that nutrients are reabsorbed before shedding the leaves (69%, 72% and 35% for N, P, and Fe respectively). As a result, we conducted a fertilization experiment (N, P, Fe and combinations) to find that iron additions alone led to significant growth responses. Moreover, we estimated their leaf production and used our previous estimates of both the total cover mangrove in the Red Sea along with plastochrone interval to assess their total nutrients flux per year to be 2414 t N, 139 t P and 98 t Fe. We found them to sequester 34 g m-2 y-1, which imply 4590 tons of carbon

  3. Ecosystem Services of Avicennia marina in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2016-12-01

    The Red Sea is an arid environment, without riverine inputs, oligotrophic waters and extreme temperature and salinity. Avicennia marina is the dominant vegetation in the shores of the Red Sea. However, little is known about their distribution, dynamics, and services. Therefore, the aim of this Ph.D. was to obtain the basic information needed to evaluate their role in the coastal ecosystems and quantify their services. With that objective we 1) estimated the past and present distribution of mangroves in the Red Sea, 2) investigated the growth, leave production and floration 3) examined the growth limiting factors 4) measured the nutrients and heavy metal dynamics in the leaves and 5) estimated carbon sequestration. We found an increase of about 12% in the last 41 years, which contrasts with global trends of decrease. The extreme conditions in the Red Sea contributed to limit their growth resulting in stunted trees. Hence, we surveyed Central Red Sea mangroves to estimate their node production with an average of 9.59 node y-1 then converted that number into time to have a plastochrone interval of 38 days. As mangroves are taller in the southern Red Sea where both temperature and nutrients are higher than the Central Red Sea, we assessed nutrient status Avicennia marina propagules and naturally growing leaves to find the leaves low in nutrient concentrations (N < 1.5 %, P < 0.09 %, Fe < 0.06) and that nutrients are reabsorbed before shedding the leaves (69%, 72% and 35% for N, P, and Fe respectively). As a result, we conducted a fertilization experiment (N, P, Fe and combinations) to find that iron additions alone led to significant growth responses. Moreover, we estimated their leaf production and used our previous estimates of both the total cover mangrove in the Red Sea along with plastochrone interval to assess their total nutrients flux per year to be 2414 t N, 139 t P and 98 t Fe. We found them to sequester 34 g m-2 y-1, which imply 4590 tons of carbon

  4. Sites involved in intra- and interdomain allostery associated with the activation of factor VIIa pinpointed by hydrogen-deuterium exchange and electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Hongjian; Olsen, Ole H; Persson, Egon

    2014-01-01

    Factor VIIa (FVIIa) is a trypsin-like protease which plays an important role in initiating blood coagulation. Very limited structural information is available for the free, inactive form of FVIIa that circulates in the blood prior to vascular injury and the molecular details of its activity...... signal extends to the EGF1 domain in the light chain of FVIIa, underscoring a remarkable intra- and interdomain allosteric regulation of this trypsin-like protease....

  5. Mutation profile of all 49 exons of the human myosin VIIA gene, and haplotype analysis, in Usher 1B families from diverse origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adato, A; Weil, D; Kalinski, H; Pel-Or, Y; Ayadi, H; Petit, C; Korostishevsky, M; Bonne-Tamir, B

    1997-10-01

    Usher syndrome types I (USH1A-USH1E) are a group of autosomal recessive diseases characterized by profound congenital hearing loss, vestibular areflexia, and progressive visual loss due to retinitis pigmentosa. The human myosin VIIA gene, located on 11q14, has been shown to be responsible for Usher syndrome type 1B (USH1B). Haplotypes were constructed in 28 USH1 families by use of the following polymorphic markers spanning the USH1B locus: D11S787, D11S527, D11S1789, D11S906, D11S4186, and OMP. Affected individuals and members of their families from 12 different ethnic origins were screened for the presence of mutations in all 49 exons of the myosin VIIA gene. In 15 families myosin VIIA mutations were detected, verifying their classification as USH1B. All these mutations are novel, including three missense mutations, one premature stop codon, two splicing mutations, one frameshift, and one deletion of >2 kb comprising exons 47 and 48, a part of exon 49, and the introns between them. Three mutations were shared by more than one family, consistent with haplotype similarities. Altogether, 16 USH1B haplotypes were observed in the 15 families; most haplotypes were population specific. Several exonic and intronic polymorphisms were also detected. None of the 20 known USH1B mutations reported so far in other world populations were identified in our families.

  6. Blue carbon stocks in Baltic Sea eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohr, Maria Emilia; Bostrom, Christoffer; Canal-Vergés, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Although seagrasses cover only a minor fraction of the ocean seafloor, their carbon sink capacity accounts for nearly one-fifth of the total oceanic carbon burial and thus play a critical structural and functional role in many coastal ecosystems. We sampled 10 eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows....... The C-org stock integrated over the top 25 cm of the sediment averaged 627 g C m(-2) in Finland, while in Denmark the average C-org stock was over 6 times higher (4324 g Cm-2). A conservative estimate of the total organic carbon pool in the regions ranged between 6.98 and 44.9 t C ha(-1). Our results...... in Finland and 10 in Denmark to explore seagrass carbon stocks (C-org stock) and carbon accumulation rates (C-org accumulation) in the Baltic Sea area. The study sites represent a gradient from sheltered to exposed locations in both regions to reflect expected minimum and maximum stocks and accumulation...

  7. Antifouling paint booster biocides (Irgarol 1051 and diuron) in marinas and ports of Bushehr, Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Abolfazl; Molaei, Saeideh; Sheijooni Fumani, Neda; Abedi, Ehsan

    2016-04-15

    In the present study, antifouling paint booster biocides, Irgarol 1051 and diuron were measured in ports and marinas of Bushehr, Iran. Results showed that in seawater samples taken from ports and marinas, Irgarol was found at the range of less than LOD to 63.4ngL(-1) and diuron was found to be at the range of less than LOD to 29.1ngL(-1) (in Jalali marina). 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA), as a degradation product of diuron, was also analyzed and its maximum concentration was 390ngL(-1). Results for analysis of Irgarol 1051 in sediments showed a maximum concentration of 35.4ngg(-1) dry weight in Bandargah marina. A comparison between the results of this study and those of other published works showed that Irgarol and diuron pollutions in ports and marinas of Bushehr located in the Persian Gulf were less than the average of reports from other parts of the world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. EKSPEKTASI DAN PERSEPSI WISATAWAN TERHADAP KUALITAS PELAYANAN PADA MARINA SRIKANDI TOUR & TRAVEL DI PADANGBAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Natha Dwipayana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Differences between expectation and perception of visitor about service quality of a travel agency were the background of this research which is entitled “Visitor’s Perception And Expectation of Service Quality At Marina Srikandi Tour And Travel In Padang Bai. Through this research, a thought to maintain professionalism of travel agency with qualified standards, understand different visitor expectations was a major thing that want to be achieved. Background of problem in this research was divided into two problems, such as (1 what are visitor expectation and perception about service quality at Marina Srikandi Tour and travel? (2 How is the visitor’s satisfaction about service quality which is given by Marina Srikandi Tour and travel? Based on the background of problems above, there were two aims of study in this research, they are: (1 to know visitor expectation and perception about service quality at Marina Srikandi Tour and travel, and (2 to know visitor’s satisfaction about service quality which is given by Marina Srikandi Tour and travel.

  9. Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua benefits from the availability of seagrass (Zostera marina nursery habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Lilley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua is a species of significant economic and historic importance but infamous for its decline. Apart from overfishing, the causes of this decline and its subsequent lack of recovery remain largely unresolved. Indeed, the degree to which specific habitats are important for this species remains unquantified at the scale of North Atlantic. Here, the literature on the role of eelgrass meadows (Zostera marina as valuable nursery habitat for the Atlantic cod is reviewed and synthesized. Evidence is presented on relative densities of Atlantic cod in shallow water environments and in eelgrass meadows in comparison to alternative habitats. In addition, evidence pertaining to the ’viability gains’ attributed to the use of eelgrass meadows as nursery habitat (growth and survival by juvenile Atlantic cod is analyzed. Although juvenile Atlantic cod use of Z. marina is found to be facultative, when possible, available literatures indicates that they may select Z. marina as a nursery habitat where they are found in high density (average of at least 246 ha−1. From their use of Z. marina habitat the juvenile Atlantic cod receives viability benefits from it, improving their chances of reaching maturation. This paper provides strong evidence that eelgrass meadows are of significant importance to contributing to Atlantic cod stocks. Keywords: Zostera marina, Eelgrass, Gadus morhua, Fisheries, Juveniles, Nursery habitat

  10. FACTORS CONTROLLING ZOSTERA MARINA L. GROWTH IN THE EASTERN AND WESTERN PACIFIC OCEAN: COMPARISONS BETWEEN SOUTH KOREA AND OREGON, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zostera marina distribution is circum-global and tolerates a wide range of environmental conditions. Consequently, it is likely that populations have adapted to local environmental conditions of light, temperature and nutrient supply. We compared Z. marina growth dynamics over a ...

  11. The radiological exposure of the population of the European Community from radioactivity in North European marine waters Project 'Marina'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Project Marina was set up by the Commission of the European Communities in 1985 to look at the radiological impact of radionuclides, both natural and anthropogenic, in northern European marine waters. This paper is a summary of project Marina's work and its conclusions

  12. El Instituto Hidrográfico de la Marina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Carrillo de Albornoz, Francisco J.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    Se expone en este artículo la amplia labor que desarrolla el Instituto Hidrográfico de la Marina (IHM y su participación en múltiples programas y proyectos nacionales e internacionales, representando a España y manteniendo relaciones permanentes de colaboración con diversas Organizaciones, Comisiones y Comités de carácter supranacional. Tras una síntesis histórica del IHM, cuyos orígenes en el Padrón Real de 1508 le otorgan la rimacía mundial como Instituto Hidrográfico, se describen detalladamente las actividades que desarrolla el Instituto en las diferentes áreas de su competencia (Hidrografia, Geodesia y Fotogrametría, Cartografía, Navegación, Oceanografía, destacando el intenso y continuado trabajo que realizan sus buques hidrográficos y el proceso de transformación que se está llevando a cabo para implantar las modernas tecnologías en todos estos campos de actuación. Haciendo honor a la cita de que «Europa aprendió a navegar en libros españoles», se recogen también en este artículo las numerosas publicaciones que continúa editando el Instituto, como responsable que es de mantener actualizada la cartografía náutica y sus correspondientes avisos y ayudas a la navegación, para finalizar con una referencia a la labor docente que desarrolla su Escuela de Hidrografía.

  13. Comparative Biochemical and Functional Studies on a Branded Human Recombinant Factor VIIa and a Biosimilar Equivalent Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Nasiredin; Kahn, Daniel; Syed, Daneyal; Iqbal, Omer; Abro, Schuharazad; Eshraghi, Reza; Hoppensteadt, Debra; Fareed, Jawed

    2014-09-01

    Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa; NovoSeven, Novo Nordisk, Copenhagen, Denmark) is used to control bleeding in patients with hemophilia. A generic version of FVIIa was developed by AryoGen (Tehran, Iran). This study compared the composition and functional activities of AryoSeven and NovoSeven. Each product was compared at equigravimetric (1 mg/mL) stock solution for protein content. The proteomic profile was obtained using surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis was carried out to determine the protein profile and Western blotting was performed using a polyclonal rabbit antihuman FVIIa antibody. The FVIIa-related antigen was also measured using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Functional assay included the prothrombin time correction in FVII-deficient plasma. The protein content was comparable in 2 products and the mass spectra analysis showed a single peak at 50 kDa in all products. The SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting studies were comparable. Both products exhibited similar coagulant properties in different assays. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Life, limb or off-label recombinant VIIa use in the setting of limited blood assets: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Marcus E; Vickaryous, Brian

    2013-06-01

    Due to the lack of adequate controlled trials, the off-label use of recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) to control hemorrhage in trauma patients remains controversial. The decision regarding when to initiate rFVIIa therapy is particularly problematic. Whereas most reports and trials have delayed use until significant bleeding has occurred, there is some evidence that coagulopathy develops early in some trauma patients, raising the possibility that early rFVIIa use may be more clinically efficacious. Herein, we report the case of a hemodynamically unstable patient with massive blood loss from multiple gunshot wounds and who had a potentially salvageable upper extremity. Rapid hemorrhage despite efforts to surgically control the bleeding resulted in virtual exhaustion of the facilities' limited blood component supply. Hemorrhage was controlled when rFVIIa was added to hypotensive resuscitation allowing salvage of the arm and significant conservation of blood products. This case raises the question as to whether earlier off-label use of this agent should be considered when amputation for hemorrhage control is being considered and/or conservation of limited blood assets is needed.

  15. A massive update of non-indigenous species records in Mediterranean marinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulman, Aylin; Ferrario, Jasmine; Occhpinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Arvanitidis, Christos; Bandi, Ada; Bertolino, Marco; Bogi, Cesare; Chatzigeorgiou, Giorgos; Çiçek, Burak Ali; Deidun, Alan; Ramos-Esplá, Alfonso; Koçak, Cengiz; Lorenti, Maurizio; Martinez-Laiz, Gemma; Merlo, Guenda; Princisgh, Elisa; Scribano, Giovanni; Marchini, Agnese

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is home to over 2/3 of the world's charter boat traffic and hosts an estimated 1.5 million recreational boats. Studies elsewhere have demonstrated marinas as important hubs for the stepping-stone transfer of non-indigenous species (NIS), but these unique anthropogenic, and typically artificial habitats have largely gone overlooked in the Mediterranean as sources of NIS hot-spots. From April 2015 to November 2016, 34 marinas were sampled across the following Mediterranean countries: Spain, France, Italy, Malta, Greece, Turkey and Cyprus to investigate the NIS presence and richness in the specialized hard substrate material of these marina habitats. All macroinvertebrate taxa were collected and identified. Additionally, fouling samples were collected from approximately 600 boat-hulls from 25 of these marinas to determine if boats host diverse NIS not present in the marina. Here, we present data revealing that Mediterranean marinas indeed act as major hubs for the transfer of marine NIS, and we also provide evidence that recreational boats act as effective vectors of spread. From this wide-ranging geographical study, we report here numerous new NIS records at the basin, subregional, country and locality level. At the basin level, we report three NIS new to the Mediterranean Sea ( Achelia sawayai sensu lato , Aorides longimerus , Cymodoce aff. fuscina ), and the re-appearance of two NIS previously known but currently considered extinct in the Mediterranean ( Bemlos leptocheirus, Saccostrea glomerata ). We also compellingly update the distributions of many NIS in the Mediterranean Sea showing some recent spreading; we provide details for 11 new subregional records for NIS ( Watersipora arcuata , Hydroides brachyacantha sensu lato and Saccostrea glomerata now present in the Western Mediterranean; Symplegma brakenhielmi , Stenothoe georgiana , Spirobranchus tertaceros sensu lato , Dendostrea folium sensu lato and Parasmittina egyptiaca now present in

  16. Chasing the Intangible: a Conversation on Theatre, Language, and Artistic Migrations with Irish Playwright Marina Carr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rapetti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Offally born Marina Carr is amongst the most prolific, influential and internationally renowned Irish playwrights of our times. Since her debut on the avant-garde side of the Dublin theatre scene in the late Eighties, she has had  seventeen plays professionally produced, both in and outside Ireland. Her earlier work is influenced by Samuel Beckett’s Absurdist drama, while in her most mature and recent plays she draws on both classical and Irish mythology, Greek tragedies and Shakespeare’s poetics. In this interview, Marina Carr recalls and discusses some pivotal moments of her upbringing and career; she also speaks about language, landscape, dream

  17. Marina Kaljurand: hoolimata kõigest oli möödunud aasta ikkagi hea aasta / Marina Kaljurand ; interv. Igor Taro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaljurand, Marina, 1962-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 3. jaan., lk. 5. Postimehe poolt aasta inimeseks valitud Eesti suursaadik Venemaal vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad hinnangut 2007. aastale, pronkssõduriga seotud sündmuste üleelamist Moskvas, Venemaa poliitikute suhtumist Eestisse, Eesti-Vene suhteid. Kommenteerivad: Urmas Paet, Tiit Matsulevitš, Toomas Hendrik Ilves. Lisa: Marina Kaljurand; Pronkssõduri-sõda

  18. A new marine measure enhancing Zostera marina seed germination and seedling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa, Ana I.; Valdemarsen, Thomas; Lillebø, Ana I.

    2017-01-01

    Seagrass global distribution has declined in the last decades due to many causes, and the implementation of recovery programmes as well as the development of new restoration techniques are needed. This work describes the development of an innovative restoration measure to enhance Zostera marina (...

  19. The genome of the seagrass Zostera marina reveals angiosperm adaptation to the sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsen, Jeanine; Rouzé, Pierre; Verhelst, Bram; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Bayer, Till; Collen, Jonas; Dattolo, Emanuela; De Paoli, Emanuele; Dittami, Simon; Maumus, Florian; Michel, Gurvan; Kersting, Anna; Lauritano, Chiara; Lohaus, Rolf; Töpel, Mats; Tonon, Thierry; Vanneste, Kevin; Amirebrahimi, Mojgan; Brakel, Janina; Boström, Christoffer; Chovatia, Mansi; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry W; Jueterbock, Alexander; Mraz, Amy; Stam, Wytze T; Tice, Hope; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Green, Pamela J; Pearson, Gareth A; Procaccini, Gabriele; Duarte, Carlos M; Schmutz, Jeremy; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Van de Peer, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Seagrasses colonized the sea on at least three independent occasions to form the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems on the planet. Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. This reveals

  20. Physiological Responses of Oxyrrhis marina to the Altered Fatty Acid Composition of Virally Infected Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, A.; Fields, D.; Martinez-Martinez, J.

    2016-02-01

    Emiliania huxleyi is a coccolithophore that forms some of the largest phytoplankton blooms in the ocean. E. huxleyi abundance, distribution, and composition of essential fatty acids make them a key component in marine food webs. E. huxleyi-specific viruses have been shown to control the bloom duration and change the lipid composition of E. huxleyi cells. Alteration of essential fatty acids at the base of the food web may have downstream effects on trophic interactions. Oxyrrhis marina has been studied extensively, and is used as a micrograzer model organism. We investigated differential physiological responses of O. marina to a diet ( 100:1 prey:predator ratio) of virallyinfected versus uninfected E. huxleyi cells over a maximum 7-day period. Our results showed higher O. marina grazing rates on uninfected cells (phuxleyi cells. This suggests a higher nutritional value of infected cells and/or better assimilation by O. marina of infected cells' carbon. In the marine environment this would translate into larger carbon transport to higher trophic levels when blooms become infected.

  1. Differing effects of eelgrass Zostera marina on recruitment and growth of associated blue mussels Mytilus edulis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reusch, B.H.T.

    1998-01-01

    I studied the effects of habitat structure, provided by an eelgrass Zostera marina canopy, on shell growth rate and recruitment of co-occurring blue mussels Mytilus edulis in the Western Baltic Sea. M. edulis in clumps consisting of 10 and 30 individuals were tagged and placed in unvegetated areas

  2. Effects of salinity and water temperature on the ecological performance of Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejrup, Lars Brammer; Pedersen, Morten Foldager

    2008-01-01

    We tested the effects of salinity and water temperature on the ecological performance of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in culture-experiments to identify levels that could potentially limit survival and growth and, thus, the spatial distribution of eelgrass in temperate estuaries. The experiments ...

  3. Mechanisms of seed dormancy in an annual population of Zostera marina (eelgrass) from the Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrison, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    Mechanisms of dormancy of seeds from an annual population of the seagrass Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) in the SW Netherlands were investigated in the laboratory. Both physiological dormancy (a requirement for reduced salinity for germination) and physical dormancy (imposed by the seed coat) existed

  4. Distribution, structure and function of Nordic eelgrass (Zostera marina) ecosystems : Implications for coastal management and conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bostrom, C; Baden, Susanne; Bockelmann, Anna-Christina; Dromph, Karsten; Fredrikssen, Stein; Gustafsson, Camilla; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Moller, Tiia; Nielsen, Soren Laurentius; Olesen, Birgit; Olsen, Jeanine; Pihl, Leif; Rinde, Eli

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the marine foundation eelgrass species, Zostera marina, along a gradient from the northern Baltic Sea to the north-east Atlantic. This vast region supports a minimum of 1480 km2 eelgrass (maximum >2100 km2), which corresponds to more than four times the previously quantified

  5. 77 FR 37604 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, Berkeley Marina, Berkeley, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ...: The Coast Guard will enforce a 1,000 foot safety zone around the Berkeley Pier in position 37[deg]51... Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, Berkeley Marina, Berkeley, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the safety zone for the Berkeley...

  6. 78 FR 29022 - Safety Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, Berkeley Marina, Berkeley, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... Guard will enforce a 1,000 foot safety zone around the Berkeley Pier in approximate position 37[deg]51... Zone; Fourth of July Fireworks, Berkeley Marina, Berkeley, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the safety zone for the Berkeley...

  7. Inventario de las macroalgas dulceacuícolas y marinas de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Bernecker Lucking, Andrea; Morales Zurcher, María

    2011-01-01

    Contiene un listado sobre los diferentes grupos de algas, sobre todo las macro algas de agua dulce y marinas para aumentar la lista de especies de algas de Costa Rica. Universidad de Costa Rica UCR::Docencia::Ciencias Básicas::Facultad de Ciencias::Escuela de Biología

  8. Monitoring of the booster biocide dichlofluanid in water and marine sediment of Greek marinas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamwijk, C.; Schouten, A.; Foekema, E.M.; Ravensberg, J.C.; Collombon, M.T.; Schmidt, K.; Kugler, M.

    2005-01-01

    Dichlofluanid (N-dichlorofluoromethylthio-N′-dimethyl-N- phenylsulphamide) is used as booster biocide in antifouling paints. The occurrence of dichlofluanid and its metabolite DMSA (N′-dimethyl-N-phenyl- sulphamide) was monitored in seawater and marine sediment from three Greek marinas. Seawater and

  9. Effects of bioadvection by Arenicola marina on microphytobenthos in permeable sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chennu, Arjun; Volkenborn, Nils; De Beer, Dirk; Wethey, David S.; Woodin, Sarah A.; Polerecky, Lubos

    2015-01-01

    We used hyperspectral imaging to study short-term effects of bioturbation by lugworms (Arenicola marina) on the surficial biomass of microphytobenthos (MPB) in permeable marine sediments. Within days to weeks after the addition of a lugworm to a homogenized and recomposed sediment, the average

  10. Biodynamic modelling and the prediction of accumulated trace metal concentrations in the polychaete Arenicola marina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado-Martinez, M. Carmen; Smith, Brian D.; DelValls, T. Angel; Luoma, Samuel N.; Rainbow, Philip S.

    2009-01-01

    The use of biodynamic models to understand metal uptake directly from sediments by deposit-feeding organisms still represents a special challenge. In this study, accumulated concentrations of Cd, Zn and Ag predicted by biodynamic modelling in the lugworm Arenicola marina have been compared to measured concentrations in field populations in several UK estuaries. The biodynamic model predicted accumulated field Cd concentrations remarkably accurately, and predicted bioaccumulated Ag concentrations were in the range of those measured in lugworms collected from the field. For Zn the model showed less but still good comparability, accurately predicting Zn bioaccumulation in A. marina at high sediment concentrations but underestimating accumulated Zn in the worms from sites with low and intermediate levels of Zn sediment contamination. Therefore, it appears that the physiological parameters experimentally derived for A. marina are applicable to the conditions encountered in these environments and that the assumptions made in the model are plausible. - Biodynamic modelling predicts accumulated field concentrations of Ag, Cd and Zn in the deposit-feeding polychaete Arenicola marina.

  11. Phylogeographic differentiation versus transcriptomic adaptation to warm temperatures in Zostera marina, a globally important seagrass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jueterbock, Alexander; Franssen, S. U.; Bergmann, N.; Gu, J.; Coyer, J. A.; Reusch, T. B. H.; Bornberg-Bauer, E.; Olsen, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Populations distributed across a broad thermal cline are instrumental in addressing adaptation to increasing temperatures under global warming. Using a space-for-time substitution design, we tested for parallel adaptation to warm temperatures along two independent thermal clines in Zostera marina,

  12. Hemophilia B with mutations at glycine-48 of factor IX exhibited delayed activation by the factor VIIa-tissue factor complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, P C; Hamaguchi, N; Yu, Y S; Shen, M C; Lin, S W

    2000-10-01

    Gly-48 is in the conserved DGDQC sequence (residues 47-51 of human factor IX) of the first EGF (EGF-1)-like domain of factor IX. The importance of the Gly-48 is manifested by two hemophilia B patients; factor IXTainan and factor IXMalmo27, with Gly-48 replaced by arginine (designated IXG48R) and valine (IXG48V), respectively. Both patients were CRM+ exhibiting mild hemophilic episodes with 25% (former) and 19% (latter) normal clotting activities. We characterize both factor IX variants to show the roles of Gly-48 and the conservation of the DGDQC sequence in factor IX. Purified plasma and recombinant factor IX variants exhibited approximately 26%-27% normal factor IX's clotting activities with G48R or G48V mutation. Both variants depicted normal quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence by increasing concentrations of calcium ions and Tb3+, indicating that arginine and valine substitution for Gly-48 did not perturb the calcium site in the EGF-1 domain. Activation of both mutants by factor XIa appeared normal. The reduced clotting activity of factors IXG48R and IXG48V was attributed to the failure of both mutants to cleavage factor X: in the presence of only phospholipids and calcium ions, both mutants showed a 4 to approximately 7-fold elevation in Km, and by adding factor VIIIa to the system, although factor VIIIa potentiated the activation of factor X by the mutants factor IXaG48R and factor IXaG48V, a 2 to approximately 3-fold decrease in the catalytic function was observed with the mutant factor IXa's, despite that they bound factor VIIIa on the phospholipid vesicles with only slightly reduced affinity when compared to wild-type factor IXa. The apparent Kd for factor VIIIa binding was 0.83 nM for normal factor IXa, 1.74 nM for IXaG48R and 1.4 nM for IXaG48V. Strikingly, when interaction with the factor VIIa-TF complex was examined, both mutations were barely activated by the VIIa-TF complex and they also showed abnormal interaction with VIIa-TF in bovine

  13. Klassiõpetaja peab särama / Ly Melesk, Kairis Kontus, Leida Talts, Viia Hang...[jt.] ; küsitles Anu Mõttus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Vestlusringis on Tallinna Kuristiku Gümnaasiumi klassiõpetajad Viia Hang ja Ly Melesk, Tallinna Ülikooli 5. kursuse üliõpilane ja Tallinna Lepistiku Lasteaed-Algkooli õpetaja Kairis Kontus, Tallinna Ülikooli algõpetuse õppetooli juhataja Leida Talts ning algõpetuse õppetooli pedagoogika ja algõpetuse metoodika õppejõud Mare Müürsepp. Kui hästi on Tallinna Ülikool ja tema eelkäijad suutnud algklassiõpetajaid ette valmistada ja mis neil igapäevatöös toime tulla aitab

  14. Pathways of trace metal uptake in the lugworm Arenicola marina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado-Martinez, M.C.; Smith, B.D.; Valls, T.A. del; Rainbow, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    Radiotracer techniques were used to determine the rates of trace metal (Ag, Cd and Zn) uptake and elimination (33 psu, 10 deg. C) from water and sediment by the deposit-feeding polychaete Arenicola marina, proposed as a test species for estuarine-marine sediments in whole-sediment toxicity tests. Metal uptake rates from solution increase with increasing dissolved metal concentrations, with uptake rate constants (± SE) (l g -1 d -1 ) of 1.21 ± 0.11 (Ag), 0.026 ± 0.002 (Zn) and 0.012 ± 0.001 (Cd). Assimilation efficiencies from ingested sediments were measured using a pulse-chase radiotracer feeding technique in two different lugworm populations, one from a commercial supplier (Blyth, Northumberland, UK) and the other a field-collected population from the outer Thames estuary (UK). Assimilation efficiencies ranged from 2 to 20% for Zn, 1 to 6% for Cd and 1 to 9% for Ag for the Northumberland worms, and from 3 to 22% for Zn, 6 to 70% for Cd and 2 to 15% for Ag in the case of the Thames population. Elimination of accumulated metals followed a two-compartment model, with similar efflux rate constants for Zn and Ag and lower rates of elimination of Cd from the slow pool. Efflux rate constants (± SE) of Zn and Ag accumulated from the dissolved phase were 0.037 ± 0.002 and 0.033 ± 0.006 d -1 whereas Cd was eliminated with an efflux rate constant one order of magnitude lower (0.003 ± 0.002 d -1 ). When metals were accumulated from ingested sediments, the efflux rate constants for the slow-exchanging compartment were of the same order of magnitude for the three metals, and of the same order of magnitude as those derived after the dissolved exposure for Zn and Ag (0.042 ± 0.004 and 0.056 ± 0.012 d -1 for Zn and 0.044 ± 0.012 and 0.069 ± 0.016 d -1 for Ag for the Northumberland and Thames populations, respectively). Cd accumulated from ingested sediments was eliminated with a rate constant not different from the fast-exchanging compartment after the water

  15. Identification and biochemical analysis of Slac2-c/MyRIP as a Rab27A-, myosin Va/VIIa-, and actin-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Taruho S; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2005-01-01

    Slac2-c/MyRIP is a specific Rab27A-binding protein that contains an N-terminal synaptotagmin-like protein (Slp) homology domain (SHD, a newly identified GTP-Rab27A-binding motif), but in contrast to the Slp family proteins, it lacks C-terminal tandem C2 domains. In vitro Slac2-c simultaneously directly interacts with both Rab27A and an actin-based motor protein, myosin Va, via its N-terminal SHD and middle region, respectively, consistent with the fact that the overall structure of Slac2-c is similar to that of Slac2-a/melanophilin, a linker protein between Rab27A and myosin Va in the melanosome transport in melanocytes. Unlike Slac2-a, however, the middle region of Slac2-c interacts with two types of myosins, myosin Va and myosin VIIa. In addition, the most C-terminal part of both Slac2-a and Slac2-c functions as an actin-binding domain: it directly interacts with globular and fibrous actin in vitro, and the actin-binding domain of Slac2-a and Slac2-c colocalizes with actin filaments when it is expressed in living cells (i.e., PC12 cells and mouse melanocytes). In this chapter we describe the methods that have been used to analyze the protein-protein interactions of Slac2-c, specifically with Rab27A, myosin Va/VIIa, and actin.

  16. Human myosin VIIA responsible for the Usher 1B syndrome: a predicted membrane-associated motor protein expressed in developing sensory epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, D; Levy, G; Sahly, I; Levi-Acobas, F; Blanchard, S; El-Amraoui, A; Crozet, F; Philippe, H; Abitbol, M; Petit, C

    1996-04-16

    The gene encoding human myosin VIIA is responsible for Usher syndrome type III (USH1B), a disease which associates profound congenital sensorineural deafness, vestibular dysfunction, and retinitis pigmentosa. The reconstituted cDNA sequence presented here predicts a 2215 amino acid protein with a typical unconventional myosin structure. This protein is expected to dimerize into a two-headed molecule. The C terminus of its tail shares homology with the membrane-binding domain of the band 4.1 protein superfamily. The gene consists of 48 coding exons. It encodes several alternatively spliced forms. In situ hybridization analysis in human embryos demonstrates that the myosin VIIA gene is expressed in the pigment epithelium and the photoreceptor cells of the retina, thus indicating that both cell types may be involved in the USH1B retinal degenerative process. In addition, the gene is expressed in the human embryonic cochlear and vestibular neuroepithelia. We suggest that deafness and vestibular dysfunction in USH1B patients result from a defect in the morphogenesis of the inner ear sensory cell stereocilia.

  17. Effects of coexistence between the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and eelgrass Zostera marina on sediment biogeochemistry and plant performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, H.F.; Norling, P.; Kristensen, Per Sand

    2012-01-01

    The habitat-modifying suspension-feeding mussel, Mytilus edulis, may have facilitating or inhibiting effects on seagrass meadows depending on the environmental conditions. We investigated the effects of M. edulis on sediment biogeochemistry in Zostera marina meadows under eutrophic conditions...... in Flensborg fjord, Denmark. Sediment and plant samples were collected at ten stations; five with Z. marina (Eelgrass) and five with Z. marina and M. edulis (Mixed) and at two unvegetated stations; one with mussels (Mussel) and one with sand (Sand). The Mixed sediment was enriched in fine particles (2-3 times...... significantly reduced at Mixed stations suggesting inhibiting effect of M. edulis on Z. marina. Negative correlations between eelgrass measures and sediment sulphide at Mixed stations indicate that presence of mussels increase sulphide invasion in the plants. A survey of 318 stations in Danish fjords suggests...

  18. Genome-wide transcriptomic responses of the seagrasses Zostera marina and Nanozostera noltii under a simulated heatwave confirm functional types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, Susanne U.; Gu, Jenny; Winters, Gidon; Huylmans, Ann-Kathrin; Wienpahl, Isabell; Sparwel, Maximiliane; Coyer, James; Olsen, Jeanine; Reusch, Thorsten; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    Genome-wide transcription analysis between related species occurring in overlapping ranges can provide insights into the molecular basis underlying different ecological niches. The co-occurring seagrass species, Zostera marina and Nanozostera noltii, are found in marine coastal environments

  19. ASOCIACIONES ENTRE AVES MARINAS Y SOTALIA GUIANENSIS EN EL SUR DEL GOLFO DE VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NÍNIVE ESPINOZA-RODRÍGUEZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las asociaciones entre aves marinas y mamíferos marinos es un evento común en todos los mares y océanos del mundo. Muchos autores han denominado estas asociaciones como relaciones comensalistas, oportunistas o parasitarias, según el efecto que dicha interacción resulte sobre una o ambas especies relacionadas. Con la finalidad de describir la existencia de agrupaciones entre Sotalia guianensis y aves marinas en la porción sur del Golfo de Venezuela, desde junio 2011 a junio 2012 se realizaron observaciones en plataformas móviles de grupos de este cetáceo y aves marinas, utilizando el protocolo "group-follow" bajo la metodología de "Ad libitum sampling". Todos los avistamientos fueron georreferenciados, realizándose anotaciones de la ocurrencia o no-asociación con aves marinas, de igual forma, se registró la especie y el número de aves presentes al momento de la interacción. Se realizaron 721 avistamientos, de los cuales en 197 eventos se registró asociación entre aves marinas y Sotalia guianensis. Las especies de aves marinas residentes que presentaron mayor frecuencia en eventos de asociación con S. guianensis fueron: Fregata magnificens (49%; n=98, Phalacrocorax brasilianus (29,5%; n=59 y Pelecanus occidentalis (22,5%; n=45; siendo Thalasseus maxima (71%; n=142 la única especie migratoria. Durante las observaciones realizadas en el período de muestreo se notó la presencia de una especie de golondrina (Riparia riparia en un solo evento de agrupación con Sotalia guianensis. Dichas asociaciones aves-delfines, sólo fueron observadas cuando notables congregaciones de peces fueron registrados, donde el o los grupos de delfines realizaban alguna actividad con grandes movimientos de agua, lo que pudiese permitir a las aves realizar un menor gasto energético en la ubicación y la captura de la presa.

  20. Entamoeba marina n. sp.; a New Species of Entamoeba Isolated from Tidal Flat Sediment of Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratori, Takashi; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro

    2016-05-01

    The genus Entamoeba includes anaerobic lobose amoebae, most of which are parasites of various vertebrates and invertebrates. We report a new Entamoeba species, E. marina n. sp. that was isolated from a sample of tidal flat sediment collected at Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan. Trophozoites of E. marina were 12.8-32.1 μm in length and 6.8-15.9 μm in width, whereas the cysts were 8.9-15.8 μm in diam. and contained four nuclei. The E. marina cells contained a rounded nucleus with a small centric karyosome and uniformly arranged peripheral chromatin. Although E. marina is morphologically indistinguishable from other tetranucleated cyst-forming Entamoeba species, E. marina can be distinguished from them based on the combination of molecular phylogenetic analyses using SSU rDNA gene and the difference of collection sites. Therefore, we propose E. marina as a new species of the genus Entamoeba. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  1. Thromboembolic risks of recombinant factor VIIa Use in warfarin-associated intracranial hemorrhage: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H-Y Chou Sherry

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa may be used for rapid hemostasis in life-threatening hemorrhage. In warfarin-associated intracerebral hemorrhage (wICH, FVIIa use is controversial and may carry significant thromboembolic risks. We compared incidence of baseline thromboembolic risk factors and thromboembolism rates in wICH patients treated with additional rFVIIa to those treated with standard therapy of fresh frozen plasma (FFP and vitamin K alone. Methods We identified 45 consecutive wICH patients treated with additional rFVIIa over 5-year period, and 34 consecutive wICH patients treated with standard therapy alone as comparison group. We compared the incidence of post-hemorrhage cardiac and extra-cardiac thromboembolic complications between two treatment groups, and used logistic regression to adjust for significant confounders such as baseline thromboembolic risk factors. We performed secondary analysis comparing the quantity of FFP transfused between two treatment cohorts. Results Both rFVIIa-treated and standard therapy-treated wICH patients had a high prevalence of pre-existing thromboembolic diseases including atrial fibrillation (73% vs 68%, deep venous thrombosis (DVT or pulmonary embolism (PE (22% vs 18%, coronary artery disease (CAD (38% vs 32%, and abnormal electrocardiogram (EKG (78% vs 85%. Troponin elevation following wICH was prevalent in both groups (47% vs 41%. Clinically significant myocardial infarction (MI, defined as troponin > 1.0 ng/dL, occurred in 13% of rFVIIa-treated and 6% of standard therapy-treated patients (p=0.52. Past history of CAD (p=0.0061 and baseline abnormal EKG (p=0.02 were independently associated with clinically significant MI following wICH while rFVIIa use was not. The incidences of DVT/PE (2% vs 9%; p=0.18 and ischemic stroke (2% vs 0%; p=0.38 were similar between two treatment groups. Recombinant FVIIa-treated patients had lower mean INR at 3 (p=0.0001 and 6 hours (p Conclusions Pre

  2. Diurnal effects of anoxia on the metabolome of the seagrass Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Fragner, Lena; Holmer, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the response, adaptation and tolerance mechanisms of the temperate seagrass Zostera marina to water column anoxia. We exposed Z. marina to a diurnal light/dark cycle under anoxia and assessed the metabolic response by measuring the metabolome with gas chromatography coupled to mass...... spectrometry (GC–MS). During anoxia and light exposure the roots showed an altered metabolome whereas the leaves were only marginally affected, indicating that photosynthetically derived oxygen could satisfy the oxygen demand in the leaves but not in the roots. Nocturnal anoxia caused a biphasic shift...... in the metabolome of roots and leaves. The first phase, after 15 h under anoxia and 3 h of darkness showed a fast increase of lactate, pyruvate, GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid), succinate, alanine and a decrease in glutamate and glutamine. The second phase, after 21 h under anoxia and 9 h of darkness showed a decrease...

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in recreational marina sediments of San Diego Bay, southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Carlos; Vales, Melissa; Mendoza, Guillermo; Hoh, Eunha; Levin, Lisa A

    2018-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were determined in surface sediments from three recreational marinas in San Diego Bay, California. Total PCB concentrations ranged from 23 to 153, 31-294, and 151-1387ngg -1 for Shelter Island Yacht Basin (SIYB), Harbor Island West (HW) and Harbor Island East (HE), respectively. PCB concentrations were significantly higher in HE and PCB group composition differed relative to HW and SIYB, which were not significantly different from each other in concentration or group composition. In marina sediments there was a predominance (82-85%) of heavier molecular weight PCBs with homologous groups (6CL-7CL) comprising 59% of the total. In HE 75% of the sites exceeded the effect range median (ERM), and toxicity equivalence (TEQ dioxin-like PCBs) values were higher relative to those of HW and SIYB, suggesting a potential ecotoxicological risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A massive update of non-indigenous species records in Mediterranean marinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Ulman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea is home to over 2/3 of the world’s charter boat traffic and hosts an estimated 1.5 million recreational boats. Studies elsewhere have demonstrated marinas as important hubs for the stepping-stone transfer of non-indigenous species (NIS, but these unique anthropogenic, and typically artificial habitats have largely gone overlooked in the Mediterranean as sources of NIS hot-spots. From April 2015 to November 2016, 34 marinas were sampled across the following Mediterranean countries: Spain, France, Italy, Malta, Greece, Turkey and Cyprus to investigate the NIS presence and richness in the specialized hard substrate material of these marina habitats. All macroinvertebrate taxa were collected and identified. Additionally, fouling samples were collected from approximately 600 boat-hulls from 25 of these marinas to determine if boats host diverse NIS not present in the marina. Here, we present data revealing that Mediterranean marinas indeed act as major hubs for the transfer of marine NIS, and we also provide evidence that recreational boats act as effective vectors of spread. From this wide-ranging geographical study, we report here numerous new NIS records at the basin, subregional, country and locality level. At the basin level, we report three NIS new to the Mediterranean Sea (Achelia sawayai sensu lato, Aorides longimerus, Cymodoce aff. fuscina, and the re-appearance of two NIS previously known but currently considered extinct in the Mediterranean (Bemlos leptocheirus, Saccostrea glomerata. We also compellingly update the distributions of many NIS in the Mediterranean Sea showing some recent spreading; we provide details for 11 new subregional records for NIS (Watersipora arcuata, Hydroides brachyacantha sensu lato and Saccostrea glomerata now present in the Western Mediterranean; Symplegma brakenhielmi, Stenothoe georgiana, Spirobranchus tertaceros sensu lato, Dendostrea folium sensu lato and Parasmittina egyptiaca now

  5. A survey of antifoulants in sediments from Ports and Marinas along the French Mediterranean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassi, Roberto; Tolosa, Imma; de Mora, Stephen

    2008-11-01

    Due to deleterious effects on non-target organisms, the use of organotin compounds on boat hulls of small vessels (ports and marinas along the France Mediterranean coastline (Cote d'Azur) and analysed for organotin compounds, Irgarol 1051, Sea-nine 211, Chlorothalonil, Dichlofluanid and Folpet. Every port and marina exhibited high levels of organotin compounds, with concentrations in sediments ranging from 37 ng Sn g(-1) dry wt in Menton Garavan to over 4000 ng Sn g(-1) dry wt close to the ship chandler within the port of Villefranche-sur-Mer. TBT degradation indexes suggested that fresh inputs are still made. Among the other antifoulants monitored, only Irgarol 1051 exhibited measurable concentrations in almost every port, with concentrations ranging from 40 ng g(-1) dry wt (Cannes) to almost 700 ng g(-1) dry wt (Villefranche-sur-Mer, ship chandler).

  6. Concentrations of some elements in the coastal sea sediments. Bays with marinas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obhodas, J.; Kutle, A.; Valkovic, V.

    2006-01-01

    Surface sediments and sediment cores from two bays in the Adriatic sea (Punat Bay and Soline Bay, Croatia) have been analyzed for a number of elements, in particular: Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As and Pb, by using XRF. Maps of elemental distribution in surface sediments show increased concentrations for some elements present in antifouling paints (Cu, Zn, Pb) near the service areas in the villages or marinas. Core profiles for these elements were used to evaluate the environmental impact of newly constructed marinas. Source partition indicates the influence of other sources located in near by villages. The critical factor in these considerations was shown to be water exchange with the open sea. (author)

  7. Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Jamur Endofit Akar Bakau Avicennia Marina Terhadap Bakteri Staphylococcus Aureus Dan Escherichia Coli

    OpenAIRE

    Liwang, Firdy

    2014-01-01

    : In this his study we used endophytic fungi isolated from the roots of mangrove Avicennia marina growing on tidal zone around Tasik Ria Minahasa, North Sulawesi. The fungi were isolated and then tested the antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Potato Dextrose agar was used in order to isolate the target fungi. The fungi began to grow on the second day after inoculation. Differentiation and purification processes to isolate the fungus obtained by observing f...

  8. Characterisation of esterases as potential biomarkers of pesticide exposure in the lugworm Arenicola marina (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannam, Marie L.; Hagger, Josephine A.; Jones, Malcolm B.; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we identify and characterise cholinesterase (ChE) and carboxylesterase (CbE) activities in the body tissues of the sediment dwelling worm Arenicola marina. Exposure to the organophosphorus pesticide azamethiphos yielded an in vitro IC 50 of 5 μg l -1 for propionylcholinesterase (PChE). PChE was significantly inhibited in vivo after a 10 day exposure to 100 μg l -1 azamethiphos, equivalent to the recommended aquatic application rate (ANOVA; F = 2.75, P = 0.033). To determine sensitivity to environmental conditions, A. marina were exposed for 10 days to field collected sediments. PChE activity was significantly lower in worms exposed to sediments from an estuary classified to be at high risk from point source pollution by the UK Environment Agency (ANOVA; F = 15.33, P < 0.001). Whilst causality cannot be directly attributed from these latter exposures, they provide an important illustration of the potential utility of esterase activity as a biomarker of environmental quality in this ecologically relevant sentinel species. - This paper provides a preliminary characterisation of esterase enzyme activities in the tissues and body fluids of the sediment dwelling worm Arenicola marina and explores their potential use as biomarkers of organophosphorus pesticide exposure in the marine environment

  9. Characterisation of esterases as potential biomarkers of pesticide exposure in the lugworm Arenicola marina (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannam, Marie L. [Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: marie.hannam@plymouth.ac.uk; Hagger, Josephine A.; Jones, Malcolm B.; Galloway, Tamara S. [Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-15

    Here, we identify and characterise cholinesterase (ChE) and carboxylesterase (CbE) activities in the body tissues of the sediment dwelling worm Arenicola marina. Exposure to the organophosphorus pesticide azamethiphos yielded an in vitro IC{sub 50} of 5 {mu}g l{sup -1} for propionylcholinesterase (PChE). PChE was significantly inhibited in vivo after a 10 day exposure to 100 {mu}g l{sup -1} azamethiphos, equivalent to the recommended aquatic application rate (ANOVA; F = 2.75, P = 0.033). To determine sensitivity to environmental conditions, A. marina were exposed for 10 days to field collected sediments. PChE activity was significantly lower in worms exposed to sediments from an estuary classified to be at high risk from point source pollution by the UK Environment Agency (ANOVA; F = 15.33, P < 0.001). Whilst causality cannot be directly attributed from these latter exposures, they provide an important illustration of the potential utility of esterase activity as a biomarker of environmental quality in this ecologically relevant sentinel species. - This paper provides a preliminary characterisation of esterase enzyme activities in the tissues and body fluids of the sediment dwelling worm Arenicola marina and explores their potential use as biomarkers of organophosphorus pesticide exposure in the marine environment.

  10. La Infantería de Marina, una fuerza para el siglo XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Muñoz, Francisco

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    Nuestra Infantería de Marina es la más antigua del mundo. Sus orígenes se remontan al Tercio de Ñapóles de 1537, y desde entonces sus fuerzas han mantenido su tradición naval y expedicionaria con una permanente vinculación a la Armada. Tras una referencia histórica a las diferentes campañas en que ha participado la Infantería de Marina, el que fue su Comandante General durante los últimos cuatro años nos introduce en las vicisitudes y proceso de evolución de este Cuerpo como componente esencial de la Fuerza Anfibia de la Flota, destacando su versatilidad y capacidad de respuesta a las exigencias de hoy día para actuar como vanguardia de la proyección del poder naval en los nuevos escenarios estratégicos que se nos presentan. El artículo es una excelente síntesis para quien desee conocer qué.esy cómo opera la Infantería de Marina, cuáles son sus capacidades, medios, organización y estructura, y cómo está adaptándose para afrontar los desafíos del futuro a medio plazo.

  11. Litter Decomposition Rate of Avicennia marina and Rhizophora apiculata in Pulau Dua Nature Reserve, Banten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febriana Siska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Litter decomposition rate is useful method to determine forest fertility level. The aims of this study were to measure decomposition rate, and analyze the nutrient content released organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphor from Avicennia marina and Rhizophora apiculata litters during the decomposition process. The research was conducted in the Pulau Dua Nature Reserve, Serang-Banten on A. marina and R. apiculata forest communities. Litter decomposition rate measurements performed in the field. Litter that has been obtained with the trap system is inserted into litter bag and than tied to the roots or trees to avoid drifting sea water. Litter decomposition rate was measured every 15 days and is accompanied by analysis of the content of organic C , total N and P. Our research results showed decomposition rate of A. marina (k= 0.83 was higher than that of R. apiculata (k= 0.41. Differences of  leaf anatomical structure and sea water salinity  influenced to the rate of litter decomposition. Organic C released was declined with longer of litter decomposition, on the contrary of releasing N and P nutrients.

  12. Rhizosphere microbiome metagenomics of gray mangroves (Avicennia marina) in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Alzubaidy, Hanin S.

    2015-11-10

    Mangroves are unique, and endangered, coastal ecosystems that play a vital role in the tropical and subtropical environments. A comprehensive description of the microbial communities in these ecosystems is currently lacking, and additional studies are required to have a complete understanding of the functioning and resilience of mangroves worldwide. In this work, we carried out a metagenomic study by comparing the microbial community of mangrove sediment with the rhizosphere microbiome of Avicennia marina, in northern Red Sea mangroves, along the coast of Saudi Arabia. Our results revealed that rhizosphere samples presented similar profiles at the taxonomic and functional levels and differentiated from the microbiome of bulk soil controls. Overall, samples showed predominance by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, with high abundance of sulfate reducers and methanogens, although specific groups were selectively enriched in the rhizosphere. Functional analysis showed significant enrichment in ‘metabolism of aromatic compounds’, ‘mobile genetic elements’, ‘potassium metabolism’ and ‘pathways that utilize osmolytes’ in the rhizosphere microbiomes. To our knowledge, this is the first metagenomic study on the microbiome of mangroves in the Red Sea, and the first application of unbiased 454-pyrosequencing to study the rhizosphere microbiome associated with A. marina. Our results provide the first insights into the range of functions and microbial diversity in the rhizosphere and soil sediments of gray mangrove (A. marina) in the Red Sea.

  13. Direct uptake of canopy rainwater causes turgor-driven growth spurts in the mangrove Avicennia marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steppe, Kathy; Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Van de Wal, Bart A E; Hoste, Pieter; Guyot, Adrien; Lovelock, Catherine E; Lockington, David A

    2018-03-17

    Mangrove forests depend on a dense structure of sufficiently large trees to fulfil their essential functions as providers of food and wood for animals and people, CO2 sinks and protection from storms. Growth of these forests is known to be dependent on the salinity of soil water, but the influence of foliar uptake of rainwater as a freshwater source, additional to soil water, has hardly been investigated. Under field conditions in Australia, stem diameter variation, sap flow and stem water potential of the grey mangrove (Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh.) were simultaneously measured during alternating dry and rainy periods. We found that sap flow in A. marina was reversed, from canopy to roots, during and shortly after rainfall events. Simultaneously, stem diameters rapidly increased with growth rates up to 70 μm h-1, which is about 25-75 times the normal growth rate reported in temperate trees. A mechanistic tree model was applied to provide evidence that A. marina trees take up water through their leaves, and that this water contributes to turgor-driven stem growth. Our results indicate that direct uptake of freshwater by the canopy during rainfall supports mangrove tree growth and serve as a call to consider this water uptake pathway if we aspire to correctly assess influences of changing rainfall patterns on mangrove tree growth.

  14. Massive decline of Cystoseira abies-marina forests in Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands, eastern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Valdazo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Brown macroalgae within the genus Cystoseira are some of the most relevant “ecosystem-engineers” found throughout the Mediterranean and the adjacent Atlantic coasts. Cystoseira-dominated assemblages are sensitive to anthropogenic pressures, and historical declines have been reported from some regions. In particular, Cystoseira abies-marina, thriving on shallow rocky shores, is a key species for the ecosystems of the Canary Islands. In this work, we analyse changes in the distribution and extension of C. abies-marina in the last decades on the island of Gran Canaria. This alga dominated the shallow rocky shores of the entire island in the 1980s; a continuous belt extended along 120.5 km of the coastline and occupied 928 ha. In the first decade of the 21st century, fragmented populations were found along 52.2 km of the coastline and occupied 12.6 ha. Today, this species is found along 37.8 km of the coastline and occupies only 7.4 ha, mainly as scattered patches. This regression has been drastic around the whole island, even in areas with low anthropogenic pressure; the magnitude of the decline over time and the intensity of local human impacts have not shown a significant correlation. This study highlights a real need to implement conservation and restoration policies for C. abies-marina in this region.

  15. Algunos digéneos de Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae en Colombia Some digeneans of Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Bechara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 40 sapos Rhinella marina Linnaeus, 1758 (24 machos y 16 hembras del Valle de Aburrá, Antioquia, Colombia, 8 de los cuales se encontraron parasitados por 2 especies de digéneos: Pseudosonsinotrema chabaudi (Caballero y Caballero, 1969 Sullivan, 1974 (Pleurogenidae (primer registro para Colombia y para el hospedero y Mesocoelium monas (Rudolphi, 1819 Freitas, 1958 (Brachycoeliidae, previamente registrado para este país. De las 2 especies de helmintos recolectadas, la que alcanzó los mayores niveles de prevalencia (40% y abundancia media (14.7 fue P. chabaudi en San Antonio de Prado, y la intensidad promedio más elevada fue para M. monas, en los sapos de Barbosa (46.7.Eight of 40 Rhinella marina Linnaeus, 1758 (24 males and 16 females from Aburrá Valley, Antioquia, Colombia, were infected with 2 digenea species: Pseudosonsinotrema chabaudi (Caballero y Caballero, 1969 Sullivan, 1974 (Pleurogenidae, which represents new host and country records, and Mesocoelium monas (Rudolphi, 1819 Freitas, 1958 (Brachycoeliidae, which was previously reported for the country. Pseudosonsinotrema chabaudi in San Antonio de Prado reached the highest prevalence levels (40% and mean abundance (14.7, whereas the highest mean intensity was recorded for M. monas in cane toads from Barbosa (46.7.

  16. De novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome of seagrass Zostera marina using Illumina paired-end sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanna Kong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The seagrass Zostera marina is a monocotyledonous angiosperm belonging to a polyphyletic group of plants that can live submerged in marine habitats. Zostera marina L. is one of the most common seagrasses and is considered a cornerstone of marine plant molecular ecology research and comparative studies. However, the mechanisms underlying its adaptation to the marine environment still remain poorly understood due to limited transcriptomic and genomic data. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we explored the transcriptome of Z. marina leaves under different environmental conditions using Illumina paired-end sequencing. Approximately 55 million sequencing reads were obtained, representing 58,457 transcripts that correspond to 24,216 unigenes. A total of 14,389 (59.41% unigenes were annotated by blast searches against the NCBI non-redundant protein database. 45.18% and 46.91% of the unigenes had significant similarity with proteins in the Swiss-Prot database and Pfam database, respectively. Among these, 13,897 unigenes were assigned to 57 Gene Ontology (GO terms and 4,745 unigenes were identified and mapped to 233 pathways via functional annotation against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database (KEGG. We compared the orthologous gene family of the Z. marina transcriptome to Oryza sativa and Pyropia yezoensis and 11,667 orthologous gene families are specific to Z. marina. Furthermore, we identified the photoreceptors sensing red/far-red light and blue light. Also, we identified a large number of genes that are involved in ion transporters and channels including Na+ efflux, K+ uptake, Cl- channels, and H+ pumping. CONCLUSIONS: Our study contains an extensive sequencing and gene-annotation analysis of Z. marina. This information represents a genetic resource for the discovery of genes related to light sensing and salt tolerance in this species. Our transcriptome can be further utilized in future studies on molecular adaptation to

  17. Evolution of radiation losses and importance of charge exchange between plasma impurities and injection beam neutrals in the W VII-A stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeulders, P.

    1981-01-01

    In certain discharges during Neutral Injection (N.I.) (84 0 CO-injection) in the 1 = 2, m = 5 WENDELSTEIN VII-A Stellarator impurity accumulation in the plasma center seems to occur as seen by bolometric, spectroscopic and ultra soft X-ray (USX) measurement. The time evolution of the radiation losses is shown. Three possible sources of the impurities which are responsible for the high central radiation losses are: - Beam injected impurities. - Plasma wall interaction. - Molybdenum protection plates. Possible mechanisms that can be responsible for the central impurity accumulations are: - An inward flow of the plasma or beam impurities. - An increased peaking of the depostion of the beam impurities. Various factors influencing the behaviour of the central radiation are mentioned. (orig./AH)

  18. A tale of two seagrasses: Comparing the science and management of Zostera marina and Zostera japonica in the Pacific Northwest - CERF

    Science.gov (United States)

    On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Z. marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. marina is protected by State and Federal laws as essential fish habitat. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologicall...

  19. Dynamic Changes in Bacterial Population and Corresponding Exoenzyme Activity in Response to a Tropical Phytoplankton Bloom Chattonella marina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anit M. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The raphidophyte Chattonella marina (Subrahmanyan Hara & Chihara bloom which causes lethal effects on marine ecosystem has been reported intermittently from Indian waters. In the present study, periodic samplings were made in a Chattonella marina bloom area, off Mahe, on 27 and 29 October and 1 November 2011 (in different phases of the bloom to assess the associated bacterial population and their exoenzyme activity. Microbial community composition of Chattonella marina bloom revealed a twentyfold increase in bacterial load over the nonbloom area. The bacterial genera, Micrococcus, Flavobacterium, Vibrio, and Pseudomonas, increased significantly during the declining phase of the bloom. An assessment of the extracellular enzyme production also showed a marked increase in percentage of bacterial strains, potent in protease production, suggesting the possible role of proteolytic bacteria in bloom crash. This study reveals the bacterial community succession during the bloom and indicates that bacteria play an important role in bloom regulation.

  20. Light-promoted rhodopsin expression and starvation survival in the marine dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiling Guo

    Full Text Available The discovery of microbial rhodopsins in marine proteobacteria changed the dogma that photosynthesis is the only pathway to use the solar energy for biological utilization in the marine environment. Although homologs of these rhodopsins have been identified in dinoflagellates, the diversity of the encoding genes and their physiological roles remain unexplored. As an initial step toward addressing the gap, we conducted high-throughput transcriptome sequencing on Oxyrrhis marina to retrieve rhodopsin transcripts, rapid amplification of cDNA ends to isolate full-length cDNAs of dominant representatives, and quantitative reverse-transcription PCR to investigate their expression under varying conditions. Our phylogenetic analyses showed that O. marina contained both the proton-pumping type (PR and sensory type (SR rhodopsins, and the transcriptome data showed that the PR type dominated over the SR type. We compared rhodopsin gene expression for cultures kept under light: dark cycle and continuous darkness in a time course of 24 days without feeding. Although both types of rhodopsin were expressed under the two conditions, the expression levels of PR were much higher than SR, consistent with the transcriptomic data. Furthermore, relative to cultures kept in the dark, rhodopsin expression levels and cell survival rate were both higher in cultures grown in the light. This is the first report of light-dependent promotion of starvation survival and concomitant promotion of PR expression in a eukaryote. While direct evidence needs to come from functional test on rhodopsins in vitro or gene knockout/knockdown experiments, our results suggest that the proton-pumping rhodopsin might be responsible for the light-enhanced survival of O. marina, as previously demonstrated in bacteria.

  1. [Vitamin B12-independent strains of Methylophaga marina isolated from Red Sea algae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ts D; Doronina, N V; Ivanova, E G; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2007-01-01

    Two strains (KM3 and KM5) of halophilic methylobacteria isolated from Red Sea algae do not require vitamin B12 for growth and can use methanol, methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, dimethyl sulfide, and fructose as sources of carbon and energy. The cells of these strains are gram-negative motile monotrichous (strain KM3) or peritrichous (strain KM5) rods. The strains are strictly aerobic and require Na+ ions but not growth factors for growth. They are oxidase- and catalase-positive and reduce nitrates to nitrites. Both strains can grow in a temperature range of 4 to 37 degrees C (with optimal growth at 29-34 degrees C), at pH between 5.5 and 8.5 (with optimal growth at pH 7.5-8.0), and in a range of salt concentrations between 0.5 and 15% NaCl (with optimal growth at 5-9% NaCl). The phospholipids of these strains are dominated by phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol and also include phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and cardiolipin. The dominant fatty acids are C(16:1omega7c) and C(16:0). The major ubiquinone is Q8. The cells accumulate ectoin, glutamate, and sucrose as intracellular osmoprotectants. The strains implement the 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate-dependent variant of the ribulose monophosphate pathway. The G+C content of the DNA is 44.4-44.7 mol %. Analysis of the 16S rRNA genes showed that both strains belong to Gammaproteobacteria and have a high degree of homology (99.4%) to Methylophaga marina ATCC 35842T . Based on the data of polyphasic taxonomy, strains KM3 and KM5 are identified as new strains M. marina KM3 (VKM B-2386) and M. marina KM5 (VKM B-2387). The ability of these strains to produce auxins (indole-3-acetic acid) suggests their metabolic association with marine algae.

  2. Propiedades nutritivas y saludables de algas marinas y su potencialidad como ingrediente funcional

    OpenAIRE

    Quitral R, Vilma; Morales G, Carla; Sepúlveda L, Marcela; Schwartz M, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Las algas marinas se han consumido en Asia desde tiempos remotos, mientras que en países occidentales su principal aplicación ha sido como agente gelificante y coloide para la industria de alimentos, farmacéutica y cosmética. Las algas son buena fuente de nutrientes como proteínas, vitaminas, minerales y fibra dietética, al respecto, la fibra dietética de algas es particularmente rica en fracción soluble. Si se comparan las algas con vegetales terrestres, se encuentran más componentes benefic...

  3. Adición a la microflora de diatomeas de las aguas marinas de Cuba.

    OpenAIRE

    Loza, S.; Sánchez, M.; Carmenate, M.; Siqueiros-Beltrones, D.

    2011-01-01

    Se presenta la información sobre la especie de diatomea Campylostylus normannianus (Greville, 1862) Gerloff, Natour & Rivera, 1978 encontrada en la bahía de Jigüey y que no había sido identificada en los estudios taxonómicos de las microalgas de Cuba, por lo que se pudiera considerar una contribución a la diversidad de las microalgas marinas del país. Este es un taxon que crece en ambientes hipersalinos. Sin embargo, en este ecosistema se presenta acompañada de otros taxa de diatomeas...

  4. Indice de la microflora marina de Venezuela: diatomeas, dinoflagelados y cocolitofóridos

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Ramos, José Rafael

    2000-01-01

    Los estudios sobre el fitoplancton marino de Venezuela han sido realizados de manera regular desde mediados del siglo XX. Sin embargo, hasta ahora no se ha realizado un compendio de las especies encontradas que sirva como marco de referencia a los trabajos taxonómicos. En este trabajo se presenta por primera vez un índice de la microflora marina de Venezuela. El índice incluye sólo las diatomeas (89 especies céntricas y 186 especies pennadas), los dinoflagelados (ocho especies atecadas y 154 ...

  5. Contrasting oxygen dynamics in the freshwater isoetid Lobelia dortmanna and the marine seagrass Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Pedersen, Ole; Binzer, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: and Aims Submerged plants possess well-developed aerenchyma facilitating intra-plant gas-phase diffusion of O2 to below-ground tissues, which are usually buried in anoxic sediments. However, aquatic habitats differ in terms of O2 fluctuations in the water column and in O2 consumption...... roots and low O2 consumption of sediments means that sediment, aerenchyma and water are important O2 sources for respiration during the following night, while Z. marina relies on the water column as the sole source of O2 because its sediments are anoxic. These differences between L. dortmanna and Z...

  6. Estado de la contaminación marina en litoral peruano en 1994 y 1995

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Rivas, Guadalupe; Orozco Moreyra, Rita; Jacinto Tayco, María Elena

    1998-01-01

    Se da a conocer el estado de la contaminación marina en el periodo comprendido entre 1994 a 1995 en diferentes áreas del litoral peruano. En el trabajo se consideraron las principales fuentes terrestres de contaminación provenientes de los desechos domésticos e industriales, plaguicidas organoclorados, hidrocarburos de petróleo y metales pesados. Así mismo se evaluaron los efectos de ellos sobre el macrobentos en las áreas estudiadas, contrastando con ensayos de corta duración de toxicidad le...

  7. Obtención de energía a partir de las corrientes marinas

    OpenAIRE

    Echeverría Cabodevilla, Álvaro

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo del proyecto es evaluar la viabilidad de una granja de energía hidrocinética en los territorios marinos españoles. Como se puede observar en el desarrollo del estudio, el resultado es negativo. En España no existe una gran zona que pueda ser utilizada para crear una granja de energía hidrocinética. La energía hidrocinética es aquella que utiliza la energía cinética del agua marina para obtener electricidad, principalmente los movimientos de agua de las corrientes ma...

  8. Antifouling biocides in German marinas: Exposure assessment and calculation of national consumption and emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daehne, Dagmar; Fürle, Constanze; Thomsen, Anja; Watermann, Burkard; Feibicke, Michael

    2017-09-01

    The authorization of biocidal antifouling products for leisure boats is the subject of the European Union Biocides Regulation 528/2012. National specifics may be regarded by the member states in their assessment of environmental risks. The aim of this survey was to collect corresponding data and to create a database for the environmental risk assessment of antifouling active substances in German surface waters. Water concentrations of current antifouling active substances and selected breakdown products were measured in a single-sampling campaign covering 50 marinas at inland and coastal areas. Increased levels were found for Zn, Cu, and cybutryne. For the latter, the maximum allowable concentration according to Directive 2013/39/EU was exceeded at 5 marinas. For Cu, local environmental quality standards were exceeded at 10 marinas. Base data on the total boat inventory in Germany were lacking until now. For that reason, a nationwide survey of mooring berths was conducted by use of aerial photos. About 206 000 mooring berths obviously used by boats with a potential antifouling application were counted. The blind spot of very small marinas was estimated at 20 000 berths. Seventy-one percent of berths were located at freshwater sites, illustrating the importance of navigable inland waterways for leisure boat activities and underlining the need for a customized exposure assessment in these areas. Moreover, the national consumption of all antifouling products for leisure boats was calculated. The total amount of 794 tonnes/annum (t/a) consisted of 179 t/a of inorganic Cu compounds, 19 t/a of organic cobiocides, and 49.5 t/a of Zn. With regard to weight proportion, 141 t/a Cu and 40 t/a Zn were consumed. Assuming an emission ratio of 50% during service life, 70.5 t/a of Cu amounted to 15% of all external sources for Cu release to German surface waters. These figures highlight the need for mitigation measures. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:892-905. © 2017 The

  9. New Antioxidative Secondary Metabolites from the Fruits of a Beibu Gulf Mangrove, Avicennia marina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hai Gao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Further chemical investigation of the fruits of the mangrove, Avicennia marina, afforded three new phenylethyl glycosides, marinoids J–L (1–3, and a new cinnamoyl glycoside, marinoid M (4. The structures of isolates were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and by comparison of the data with those of related secondary metabolites. The antioxidant activity of the isolates was evaluated using the cellular antioxidant assay (CAA, and compounds 1–4 showed antioxidant activities, with EC50 values ranging from 23.0 ± 0.71 μM to 247.8 ± 2.47 μM.

  10. Genetic diversity in three populations of Avicennia marina along the eastcoast of India by RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Dimendra; Thangaraj, M; Sahu, Sunil Kumar; Kathiresan, K

    2013-05-01

    Genetic diversity was analysed in three populations of the mangrove species, Avicennia marina by using random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). Ten random decamer primers were used to score the diversity from three locations of eastcoast of India: Parangipettai (Tamil Nadu), Kakkinada (Andhra Pradesh) and Sundarbans (West Bengal). These primers produced 388 scorable DNA fragments, of which 252 (64.98%) were polymorphic, 182 (46.90%) were monomorphic, and 14 (3.61%) were unique. RAPD banding patterns displayed variations between and within the populations, while, there was no morphological variation.

  11. Implantación de placas solares para mejorar el consumo en calderas marinas

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Ramos, Miguel Daniel

    2017-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se realizarán cálculos a partir de un ciclo de vapor obtenido de una instalación de vapor marina. A partir de estos datos, se calculará el consumo de combustible. Al mismo tiempo se procederá a realizar los cambios oportunos en los valores de partida del ciclo debido a la instalación de las placas solares, y en consecuencia se calcularán nuevamente los valores de consumo, rendimiento, etc. Además, se tendrán en cuenta 3 disposiciones diferentes en l...

  12. Biodisponibilidad y especiación de arsénico en las algas marinas

    OpenAIRE

    García Sartal, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Las algas, desde un punto de vista alimenticio, constituyen una fuente de proteínas, aminoácidos esenciales, vitaminas, lípidos y minerales. Sin embargo, las algas también pueden acumular elementos no esenciales procedentes del agua marina circundante, entre ellos, el arsénico, elemento ampliamente reconocido por su toxicidad. La toxicidad del arsénico depende fundamentalmente de su especiación, resultando más toxicas las especies inorgánicas de arsénico que sus correspondie...

  13. Photosystem Trap Energies and Spectrally-Dependent Energy-Storage Efficiencies in the Chl d-Utilizing Cyanobacterium, Acaryochloris Marina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Steven P.; Kiang, Nancy Y.; Blankenship, Robert E.; Mauzerall, David

    2012-01-01

    Acaryochloris marina is the only species known to utilize chlorophyll (Chl) d as a principal photopigment. The peak absorption wavelength of Chl d is redshifted approx. 40 nm in vivo relative to Chl a, enabling this cyanobacterium to perform oxygenic phototrophy in niche environments enhanced in far-red light. We present measurements of the in vivo energy-storage (E-S) efficiency of photosynthesis in A. marina, obtained using pulsed photoacoustics (PA) over a 90-nm range of excitation wavelengths in the red and far-red. Together with modeling results, these measurements provide the first direct observation of the trap energies of PSI and PSII, and also the photosystem-specific contributions to the total E-S efficiency. We find the maximum observed efficiency in A. marina (40+/-1% at 735 nm) is higher than in the Chl a cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis (35+/-1% at 690 nm). The efficiency at peak absorption wavelength is also higher in A. marina (36+/-1% at 710 nm vs. 31+/-1% at 670 nm). In both species, the trap efficiencies are approx. 40% (PSI) and approx. 30% (PSII). The PSI trap in A. marina is found to lie at 740+/-5 nm, in agreement with the value inferred from spectroscopic methods. The best fit of the model to the PA data identifies the PSII trap at 723+/-3 nm, supporting the view that the primary electron-donor is Chl d, probably at the accessory (ChlD1) site. A decrease in efficiency beyond the trap wavelength, consistent with uphill energy transfer, is clearly observed and fit by the model. These results demonstrate that the E-S efficiency in A. marina is not thermodynamically limited, suggesting that oxygenic photosynthesis is viable in even redder light environments.

  14. An assessment of site suitability for marina construction in Istanbul, Turkey, using GIS and AHP multicriteria decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumusay, Mustafa Umit; Koseoglu, Gokalp; Bakirman, Tolga

    2016-12-01

    Marinas play a key role in sea transportation and tourism. The problem of an insufficient marina capacity has revealed in terms of sea traffic due to the demographic structure and increasing tourism potential of Istanbul which is the biggest metropolitan city of Turkey and has around 600-km-long coastline. Therefore, the study area is mainly focused on the Marmara Sea shoreline of Istanbul. Rather than traditional methods, a rapid and cost-effective solution which considers natural and urban environment conditions is essential to satisfy the need for a marina site selection. Thanks to the latest improvements in geographic information systems, it is convenient to perform location selection analysis of marinas taking advantages of geology, land use, demography and accessibility data sets. The goal of this study is to define the areas that are appropriate for building marinas, with the use of topographic and demographic data in a present shoreline applying analytical hierarchy process multicriteria decision-making method. In this study, erosion, landslide, tsunami, land use, geologically hazardous areas, transfer lines, sea traffic data, neighbourhood scale population, age patterns and house income data have been used. Analytical hierarchy process method is used to give a weight to each data set, and a grading system has been developed for the area selection of marinas. The result maps of the analysis that show study area as classified into four categories from good to not suitable are presented. It is possible to create a decision support system for upper scale plans that enable authorities to perform analysis accurately, cost and time effectively using the proposed methodology that integrates multiple data sets with different scales and types.

  15. Outbreak of Paratyphoid Fever Among Naval Personnel in Peru (Brote de Fiebre Paratifoidea Entre Personal de la Marina Del Peru.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    son menosde 2Okniquecaiusania nvar comun Cs la tifoidea cldsica producida por S parte de las infecciones hunanas La fiebre Isv’lht la parat-foidea. par...TITLE (Include Secunty Clasifi4tin) Brote de Fiebre Parutifoidea Entre Personal de la Marina del Peru 1.PERSON4AL AUTHORCS) Pazzagllia G; Wgnall FS...CLASSIFIATIO F THIS PAGE All othe~redmtons areobolete. ZINCLASSIITIED Best Avai~lable Copy BROTE Dl FIEBRE PARATIFOIDEA ENTRE PERSONAL DE1 LA MARINA DEL PERU G

  16. Effects of algae-mat thickness on survival and growth of eelgrass (Zostera marina) seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jonas; Olesen, Birgit

    A major bottle-neck for eelgrass (Zostera marina) re-colonization is seedling survival and patch establishment as mortality rates among the young seedlings are high even in areas where light conditions and physical exposure should support survival. Since little is known about the reasons for the ......A major bottle-neck for eelgrass (Zostera marina) re-colonization is seedling survival and patch establishment as mortality rates among the young seedlings are high even in areas where light conditions and physical exposure should support survival. Since little is known about the reasons...

  17. A Budget Impact Model of Hemophilia Bypassing Agent Prophylaxis Relative to Recombinant Factor VIIa On-Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Darshan A; Oladapo, Abiola O; Epstein, Joshua D; Novack, Aaron R; Neufeld, Ellis J; Hay, Joel W

    2016-02-01

    Hemophilia patients use factor-clotting concentrates (factor VIII for hemophilia A and factor IX for hemophilia B) for improved blood clotting. These products are used to prevent or stop bleeding episodes. However, some hemophilia patients develop inhibitors (i.e., the patient's immune system develops antibodies against these factor concentrates). Hence, these patients do not respond well to the factor concentrates. A majority of hemophilia patients with inhibitors are managed on-demand with the following bypassing agents: recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) and activated prothrombin complex concentrate (aPCC). The recently published U.S. registries Dosing Observational Study in Hemophilia (DOSE) and Hemostasis and Thrombosis Research Society (HTRS) reported higher rFVIIa on-demand use for bleed management than previously described. To estimate aPCC and rFVIIa prophylaxis costs relative to rFVIIa on-demand treatment cost based on rFVIIa doses reported in U.S. registries. A literature-based cost model was developed assuming a base case on-demand annual bleed rate (ABR) of 28.7 per inhibitor patient, which was taken from a randomized phase 3 clinical trial. The doses for rFVIIa on-demand were taken from the median dose per bleed reported by the DOSE and HTRS registries. Model inputs for aPCC and rFVIIa prophylaxis (i.e., dosing and efficacy) were derived from respective randomized clinical trials. Cost analysis was from the U.S. payer perspective, and only direct drug costs were considered. The drug cost was based on the Medicare Part B 2014 average sale price (ASP). Two-way sensitivity and threshold analyses were performed by simultaneously varying on-demand ABR, prophylaxis efficacy, and unit drug cost. In addition to studying relative costs associated with on-demand and prophylaxis treatments, relative cost per bleeding episode avoided were also calculated for aPCC and rFVIIa prophylaxis treatments. The prophylaxis efficacy reported in the trials were used to

  18. Phenology and Growth dynamics of Avicennia marina in the Central Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almahasheer, Hanan; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2016-01-01

    The formation of nodes, stem elongation and the phenology of stunted Avicennia marina was examined in the Central Red Sea, where Avicennia marina is at the limit of its distribution range and submitted to extremely arid conditions with salinity above 38 psu and water temperature as high as 35° C. The annual node production was rather uniform among locations averaging 9.59 node y−1, which resulted in a plastocron interval, the interval in between production of two consecutive nodes along a stem, of 38 days. However, the internodal length varied significantly between locations, resulting in growth differences possibly reflecting the environmental conditions of locations. The reproductive cycle lasted for approximately 12 months, and was characterized by peak flowering and propagule development in November and January. These phenological observations provide a starting point for research and restoration programs on the ecology of mangroves in the Central Red Sea, while the plastochrone index reported here would allow calculations of the growth and production of the species from simple morphological measurements. PMID:27892956

  19. Bohemia as the Homeland of the Soul in the Letters of Marina Tsvetaeva to Anna Teskova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tria

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the letters sent by Marina Tsvetaeva to the translator and public figure Anna Teskova, who was one of the few poet’s Czech intimate friends, whom she met during her stay in Czechoslovakia (1922-1925. In the first part of the paper the Author focuses on the echoes of Prague and its culture in this specific correspondence, trying to ascertain to which extent Marina Tsvetaeva was acquainted with the cultural world she lived in: the lack of knowledge of the Czech language and the limited relationships with Prague intellectuals didn’t allow her to get a deep insight of the Czech cultural milieu. The textual analysis of the letters, though, on the basis of key concepts as “родной”, “родина”, “честь”, confirms the presence of a persistent feeling of Prague-homesickness in Tsvetaeva’s psycho- logical world, which brought her to develop an alternative model of Homeland, substitute to her native Russia and to Germany, which disappointed her after the rise of the Nazi Regime. Through this unique correspondence (including the first part of her Verses dedicated to Bohemia we gain the certainty that Tsvetaeva discovered in Prague and in the Czech lands an idealized model of a pacific, beautiful and faithful Homeland.

  20. Nutrient Dynamics in an Avicennia marina (Forsk. Vierh., Mangrove Forest in Vamleshwar, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiah Nirmal KUMAR

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine the nutrient budget of plants, sediments and nutrient dynamics in an Avicennia marina (Forsk. Vierh., dominated forest in Vamleshwar near Narmada estuary, West Coast of Gujarat for a period of one year from November 2008 to October 2009. The average tree height of the mangrove is 1.5 to 2 m without much vertical stratification. Allometric methodology was used to measure the biomass, and yield a figure of 86.47 t ha-1 and the litter fall rate amounted to 2.9 t ha-1. Nutrient stocks of N, P and K in this mangrove were 137.05, 14.38 and 241.29 kg ha-1, with an annual accumulation of 55.74, 12.38 and 83.94 kg ha-1, and an annual return of 51.30, 10.83 and 13.52 kg ha-1, respectively, in the form of litter. The annual uptake for N, P and K were 61.04, 14.28 and 97.46 kg ha-1, and turnover rates of N, P and K were estimated at 3, 6 and 14 years, respectively, for the study period. Flow coefficients, which reveal the dynamic processes of nutrients between mangrove plants and sediments, are also explained. The present study concluded that the A. marina dominated mangrove plantation is more efficient in nutrient use and conservation.

  1. Incidencias del fortalecimiento de la Marina Mercante Colombiana en la competitividad logística nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Edison Cabuya Padilla

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se enmarca en la línea de investigación “Gestión Marítima, Fluvial y Portua-ria” específicamente en el tema de “Desarrollo de la Marina Mercante”, del grupo de investigación de la Facultad de Administración de la Escuela Naval de Cadetes “Almirante Padilla”. El propósito de la investigación fue determinar de qué manera afecta el fortalecimiento de la marina mercante a la com-petitividad logística de Colombia; estudiando los índices de competitividad mediante una revisión y análisis de la bibliografía, teoría, encuestas y datos especializados de los temas en cuestión, y un análisis estadístico de los datos de los índices de desempeño logístico a nivel internacional

  2. Seasonal acclimation in metabolism reduces light requirements of eelgrass (Zostera marina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staehr, Peter Anton; Borum, Jens

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the ability of eelgrass (Zostera marina) to adjust light requirements to seasonal changes in temperature, light and nutrient conditions through changes in metabolism, pigment and nutrient content. In agreement with expectations we found that rates of respiration and light saturate...... in a future climate scenario, suggested that expected increases in temperature and nutrient run-off have synergistic negative effects, especially in clear waters, stressing the importance of continued efforts to improve water clarity of coastal waters.......We investigated the ability of eelgrass (Zostera marina) to adjust light requirements to seasonal changes in temperature, light and nutrient conditions through changes in metabolism, pigment and nutrient content. In agreement with expectations we found that rates of respiration and light saturated...... a positive carbon balance increased exponentially with increasing temperature but less so for summer-acclimated than for winter-acclimated plants. However, combining EC vs temperature models for whole-plants with data on daily light availability showed that seasonal acclimation in metabolism increased...

  3. Phenology and Growth dynamics of Avicennia marina in the Central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2016-11-28

    The formation of nodes, stem elongation and the phenology of stunted Avicennia marina was examined in the Central Red Sea, where Avicennia marina is at the limit of its distribution range and submitted to extremely arid conditions with salinity above 38 psu and water temperature as high as 35° C. The annual node production was rather uniform among locations averaging 9.59 node y−1, which resulted in a plastocron interval, the interval in between production of two consecutive nodes along a stem, of 38 days. However, the internodal length varied significantly between locations, resulting in growth differences possibly reflecting the environmental conditions of locations. The reproductive cycle lasted for approximately 12 months, and was characterized by peak flowering and propagule development in November and January. These phenological observations provide a starting point for research and restoration programs on the ecology of mangroves in the Central Red Sea, while the plastochrone index reported here would allow calculations of the growth and production of the species from simple morphological measurements.

  4. Endotoxin Structures in the Psychrophiles Psychromonas marina and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis Contain Distinctive Acyl Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Sweet

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lipid A is the essential component of endotoxin (Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide, a potent immunostimulatory compound. As the outer surface of the outer membrane, the details of lipid A structure are crucial not only to bacterial pathogenesis but also to membrane integrity. This work characterizes the structure of lipid A in two psychrophiles, Psychromonas marina and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis, and also two mesophiles to which they are related using MALDI-TOF MS and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME GC-MS. P. marina lipid A is strikingly similar to that of Escherichia coli in organization and total acyl size, but incorporates an unusual doubly unsaturated tetradecadienoyl acyl residue. P. cryohalolentis also shows structural organization similar to a closely related mesophile, Acinetobacter baumannii, however it has generally shorter acyl constituents and shows many acyl variants differing by single methylene (-CH2- units, a characteristic it shares with the one previously reported psychrotolerant lipid A structure. This work is the first detailed structural characterization of lipid A from an obligate psychrophile and the second from a psychrotolerant species. It reveals distinctive structural features of psychrophilic lipid A in comparison to that of related mesophiles which suggest constitutive adaptations to maintain outer membrane fluidity in cold environments.

  5. Adenosine deaminase production by an endophytic bacterium (Lysinibacillus sp.) from Avicennia marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathiresan, Kandasamy; Saravanakumar, Kandasamy; Sahu, Sunil Kumar; Sivasankaran, Muthu

    2014-06-01

    The present study was carried out with the following objectives: (1) to isolate the endophytic bacilli strains from the leaves of mangrove plant Avicennia marina, (2) to screen the potential strains for the production of adenosine deaminase, (3) to statistically optimize the factors that influence the enzyme activity in the potent strain, and (4) to identify the potent strain using 16S rRNA sequence and construct its phylogenetic tree. The bacterial strains isolated from the fresh leaves of a mangrove A. marina were assessed for adenosine deaminase activity by plating method. Optimization of reaction process was carried out using response surface methodology of central composite design. The potent strain was identified based on 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogeny. Of five endophytic strains, EMLK1 showed a significant deaminase activity over other four strains. The conditions for maximum activity of the isolated adenosine deaminase are described. The potent strain EMLK1 was identified as Lysinibacillus sp. (JQ710723) being the first report as a mangrove endophyte. Mangrove-derived endophytic bacillus strain Lysinibacillus sp. EMLK1 is proved to be a promising source for the production of adenosine deaminase and this enzyme deserves further studies for purification and its application in disease diagnosis.

  6. The Existing Condition of Mangrove Region of Avicenia marina, Its: Distribution and Functional Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Herison

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystem existence is important for environment and other organisms because of its ecological and economical values, so that management and preservation of mangrove ecosystem are needed. The purpose of this research was to determine the existing condition of mangrove, both its distribution and its functional transformation in Indah Kapuk Coastal Area. Avicennia marina becomes important as wave attenuation, a form of abrasion antidote. Transect-Square and Spot-Check methods were used to determine the existing condition of A.marina mangrove forests. Autocad program, coordinate converter, Google Earth, Google Map, and Arc View were applied in process of making mangrove distribution map. In western of research location exactly at Station 1 and Station 2, the density value of mangrove was 450 and 825 tree ha-1, respectively with sparse category because they were contaminated by waste and litter. In eastern of research location namely Station 3, Station 4, and Station 5 the mangroves grow well with density value of 650 (sparse, 1,500 (very dense, and 1,200 tree ha-1 (fair, respectively, eventhough the contamination still happened. The mangrove forests around the stations do not function as wave attenuation because there were many waterfront constructions which have replaced the function of mangrove forests to damp the wave. In short, it can be stated that the mangrove's function has changed in a case of wave attenuation. The function of mangrove forests is not determined by mangrove forest density but it is determined by mangrove's free position.

  7. EVALUACIÓN DE ACTITUDES FRENTE AL USO DE LAS TORTUGAS MARINAS EN PLAYA GANDOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Malaver

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available en el refugio nacional de vida silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo, Costa rica, se creó en 1986 un programa para la protección y conservación de la población anidadora de tortugas marinas. Esta evaluación buscaba identificar los aspectos que predisponen a la población a actuar de una forma determinada utilizando el modelo metodológico denominado teoría de facetas; este modelo parte de una frase mapa que enmarca la hipótesis, y con la cual se elaboró el cuestionario de evaluación que se aplicó a 106 habitantes de la comunidad de Gandoca, lo que corresponde al 40% del total de pobladores según el instituto nacional de estadística y Censos (2000. en general, los resultados mostraron que la actitud de la población de Gandoca hacia el uso que se le debe dar a las tortugas marinas se basa en el elemento emocional, donde el turismo tiene gran aceptación, y donde existe en limitada medida la responsabilidad de las acciones hacia el objeto de la actitud.

  8. The genome of the seagrass Zostera marina reveals angiosperm adaptation to the sea

    KAUST Repository

    Olsen, Jeanine L.

    2016-01-27

    Seagrasses colonized the sea1 on at least three independent occasions to form the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems on the planet2. Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. This reveals unique insights into the genomic losses and gains involved in achieving the structural and physiological adaptations required for its marine lifestyle, arguably the most severe habitat shift ever accomplished by flowering plants. Key angiosperm innovations that were lost include the entire repertoire of stomatal genes3, genes involved in the synthesis of terpenoids and ethylene signalling, and genes for ultraviolet protection and phytochromes for far-red sensing. Seagrasses have also regained functions enabling them to adjust to full salinity. Their cell walls contain all of the polysaccharides typical of land plants, but also contain polyanionic, low-methylated pectins and sulfated galactans, a feature shared with the cell walls of all macroalgae4 and that is important for ion homoeostasis, nutrient uptake and O2/CO2 exchange through leaf epidermal cells. The Z. marina genome resource will markedly advance a wide range of functional ecological studies from adaptation of marine ecosystems under climate warming5, 6, to unravelling the mechanisms of osmoregulation under high salinities that may further inform our understanding of the evolution of salt tolerance in crop plants7.

  9. Effects of barium and cadmium on the population development of the marine nematode Rhabditis (Pellioditis) marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, V F; Santos, G A P; Derycke, S; Larrazabal, M E L; Fonsêca-Genevois, V G; Moens, T

    2011-10-01

    Offshore oil and gas drilling often involves the use of fluids containing barium and traces of other heavy metals. These may affect the environment, but information on their toxicity to benthic biota remains scant. Here, we present results of a 10-day bioassay with the marine nematode Rhabditis (Pellioditis) marina at different loads of barium (0-10 ,000 ppm nominal concentrations) and cadmium (0-12 ppm) in the range of concentrations reported from drilling-impacted sediments. Barium did not affect the fitness and population development of R. (P.) marina at concentrations up to 300 ppm, but did cause a decrease in population abundance and an increase in development time from concentrations of 400-2000 ppm onwards. Increased mortality occurred at 4800 ppm Ba. For cadmium, LOEC and EC₅₀ values for total population abundance were 2.95 and 8.82 ppm, respectively. Cd concentrations as low as 2.40 to 2.68 caused a decrease in the abundance of adult nematodes, indicating that assays covering more generations would likely demonstrate yet more pronounced population-level effects. Our results indicate that oil and gas drilling activities may potentially have important implications for the meiobenthos through the toxicity of barium and associated metals like cadmium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Photoacclimatory Responses of Zostera marina in the Intertidal and Subtidal Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Rul; Kim, Sangil; Kim, Young Kyun; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Kun-Seop

    2016-01-01

    Photoacclimatory responses of the seagrass Zostera marina in the intertidal and subtidal zones were investigated by measuring chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, photosynthetic pigments, leaf δ13C values, and shoot morphology in two bay systems. Intertidal plants had higher carotenoid concentrations than subtidal plants to avoid photodamage under excess light conditions during the day. The maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax) and minimum saturation irradiance (Ek) of the intertidal plants were higher than those of the subtidal plants, whereas photosynthetic efficiency (α) and maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) were higher in subtidal plants. The intertidal plants also had significantly greater Stern-Volmer non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) than that of the subtidal plants. These results suggest that the subtidal plants photoacclimated to use limited light more efficiently, and the intertidal plants exhibited photosynthetic responses to minimize photodamage at excess irradiance. The δ13C values of leaf tissues were more negative in the intertidal plants than those in the subtidal plants, suggesting that the intertidal plants used atmospheric or dissolved CO2 for photosynthesis during emersion. Effective quantum yield (ΔF/Fm´) in the intertidal plants decreased more slowly after emersion than that in the subtidal plants, indicating higher desiccation tolerance of the intertidal plants. The intertidal plants also recovered more rapidly from desiccation damage than the subtidal plants, suggesting photosynthetic adaptation to desiccation stress. The photosynthetic plasticity of Z. marina in response to variable environmental conditions most likely allows this species to occur in the intertidal and subtidal zones.

  11. Potential effects of the invasive species Gracilaria vermiculophylla on Zostera marina metabolism and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lüscher, Johann; Holmer, Marianne

    2010-06-01

    The potential threat to seagrasses of the invasive algae, Gracilaria vermiculophylla was assessed through metabolic indicators under experimental conditions. Net leaf photosynthesis (LNP) and dark respiration (LDR) were measured from leaf segments of Zostera marina shoots under different loads of G. vermiculophylla (control, low 2.2kg FW m(-2) and high 4kg FW m(-2)) in mesocosm experiments separated in tanks at four temperatures (19, 23.5, 26 and 30 degrees C). LNP decreased in the presence of the high density G. vermiculophylla mat (25% on average), being the most severe reductions at 30 degrees C (35% less in high). LDR did not respond significantly to differences in algal biomass, whereas a progressive increase was found with increasing temperatures (3.4 times higher at 30 degrees C than at 19 degrees C). Sulphide in porewater was measured weekly in order clarify the role of sediment conditions on seagrass metabolism, and increased both with algal biomass (29% in high) and temperature (from 0.5mM at 26 degrees C to 2.6mM at 30 degrees C), but changes in LNP and LDR were not correlated with sulphide concentrations. Seagrass survival rates showed decreasing trend with algal biomass at all the temperatures (from 74% to 21% survival). G. vermiculophylla showed harmful effects on Z. marina metabolism and survival with synergistic effects of temperature suggesting greater impact of invasive species under future higher water temperatures.

  12. Understanding the Ecoydrology of Mangroves: A Simple SPAC Model for Avicennia Marina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Saverio; Viola, Francesco; Valerio Noto, Leonardo; Molini, Annalisa

    2015-04-01

    Mangroves represent one of the most carbon-rich ecosystems in the Tropics, noticeably impacting ecosystem services and the economy of these regions. Whether the ability of mangroves to exclude and tolerate salt has been extensively investigated in the literature - both from the structural and functional point of view - their eco-hydrological characteristics remains largely understudied, despite the crucial link with productivity, efficient carbon storage and fluxes. In this contribution we develop a "first-order" Soil Plant Atmosphere Continuum model for Avicennia Marina, a mangrove able to adapt to hyper-arid intertidal zones and characterized by complex morphological and eco-physiological traits. Among mangroves, Avicennia marina is one of the most tolerant to salinity and arid climatic conditions. Our model, based on a simple macroscopic approach, takes into account the specific characteristics of the mangrove ecosystem and in particular, the salinity of the water in the soil and the levels of salt stress to which the plant may be subjected. Mangrove transpiration is hence obtained by solving the plant and leaf water balance and the leaf energy balance, taking explicitly into account the role of osmotic water potential and salinity in governing plant resistance to water fluxes. The SPAC model of Avicennia is hence tested against experimental data obtained from the literature, showing the reliability and effectiveness of this minimalist model in reproducing observed transpiration fluxes. Finally, sensitivity analysis is used to assess whether uncertainty on the adopted parameters could lead to significant errors in the transpiration assessment.

  13. Accumulation and Distribution of Lead and Copper in Avicennia marina and Rhizophora apiculata from Balok Mangrove Forest, Pahang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruzzaman, B.Y.; Sharlinda, M.Z.R.; John, B.A.; Waznah, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of lead and Copper in Avicennia marina and Rhizophora apiculata was studied. Samples of leaves, barks and roots were collected from Balok mangrove forest, Pahang. Pb and Cu accumulation was higher in Avicennia marina root tissue compared to bark and leaf but lower than surrounding sediment level. The average concentration of Pb in A. marina leaf, bark, root and sediment was observed to be 5.39 ppm, 3.63 ppm, 18.21 ppm and 23.13 ppm, and average Cu concentration was 4.13 ppm, 4.27 ppm, 4.81 ppm and 12.33 ppm, respectively. R. apiculata also showed higher concentration of Pb and Cu in root tissue compared to bark and leaf tissues but lower than surrounding sediment. The average concentration of Pb in R. apiculata leaf, bark, root and sediment was observed to be 4.30 ppm, 2.97 ppm, 22.45 ppm and 31.23 ppm, respectively. The average Cu concentration was 2.93 ppm, 4.71 ppm, 4.81 ppm and 15.52 ppm, respectively. Results of concentration factors (CF) showed that the accumulation of Pb and Cu was higher in A. marina than in R. apiculata. (author)

  14. Zostera marina (eelgrass) growth and survival along a gradient ofnutrients and turbidity in the lower Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K.A.; Neckles, H.A.; Orth, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Survival of transplanted Zostera marina L. (eelgrass), Z. marina growth,and environmental conditions were studied concurrently at a number of sitesin a southwestern tributary of the Chesapeake Bay to elucidate the factorslimiting macrophyte distribution in this region. Consistent differences insurvival of the transplants were observed, with no long-term survival at anyof the sites that were formerly vegetated with this species but thatcurrently remain unvegetated. Therefore, the current distribution of Z.marina likely represents the extent of suitable environmental conditions inthe region, and the lack of recovery into historically vegetated sites is notsolely due to lack of propagules. Poor long-term survival was related toseasonally high levels of water column light attenuation. Fall transplantsdied by the end of summer following exposure to levels of high springturbidity (K(d) > 3.0). Accumulation of an epiphyte matrix during the latespring (0.36 to 1.14 g g-1 dry wt) may also have contributed to thisstress. Differences in water column nutrient levels among sites during thefall and winter (10 to 15 ??M dissolved inorganic nitrogen and 1 ??Mdissolved inorganic phosphates) had no observable effect on epiphyteaccumulation or macrophyte growth. Salinity effects were minor and there wereno symptoms of disease. Although summertime conditions resulted indepressions in growth, they did not alone limit long-term survival. It issuggested that water quality conditions enhancing adequate seagrass growthduring the spring may be key to long-term Z. marina survival and successfulrecolonization in this region.

  15. The potential of mangrove Avicennia marina and A. Alba from Nguling district, Pasuruan, East Java as an antioxidant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranawati, F.; Muhammad, F.; Fajri, H.; Kasitowati, R. D.; Arifin, S.

    2018-04-01

    Free radicals are highly reactive molecules due to unpaired electron in their outer orbital. Excess of free radicals inside human body as consequences of environmental exposure such cigarette smoke may lead to degenerative diseases such as diabetic, cancer etc. This negative effect can be limited by the utilization of natural antioxidant substances, especially produced from plant. Avicennia alba dan A. marina are mangrove species that widely distributed in Indonesia and are expected potential as antioxidant. The objective of this study is to evaluated Avicennia alba dan A. marina potency as antioxidant performed with DPPD (1,1-diphenyl-β-picryl hydrazyl) method. Leaf and bark of Avicennia alba dan A. marina were collected from Nguling District, Pasuruan, East Java. Results shows that based on 50% inhibition Concentration (IC50), Avicennia alba leaf were categorized had a very high antioxidant potential (IC50 14,85 ppm) whereas the bark were categorized had a weak antioxidant potential IC50 167,17 ppm). For A. marina, the leaf were categorized had a moderate antioxidant (IC50 123,23 ppm) whereas the bark were categorized had a weak antioxidant potential (IC50 198,15 ppm).

  16. Effects of filamentous macroalgae mats on growth and survival of eelgrass, Zostera marina, seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jonas; Olesen, Birgit; Krause-Jensen, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to assess the effect of filamentous algae mats on the performance of seedlings of the eelgrass, Zostera marina. The seedlings were covered by three levels (3, 6 and 9 cm) of natural (Chaetomorpha linum) and imitation algae mats and it was hypothesized that th...

  17. A tale of two seagrasses: Comparing the science and management of Zostera marina and Zostera japonica in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Zostera marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologically and economically harmful by some, while others consider it benign or perhaps benef...

  18. APPARENT LACK OF VESICULAR-ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA (VAM) IN SEAGRASSES ZOSTERA MARINA L. AND THALASSIA TESTUDIUM BANKS EX KONIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined two populations of Zostera marina L. and one of Thalassia testudinum Banks ex Konig for presence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM). None of these plants showed any VAM colonization. In addition, we were unable to find any literature references on the presence o...

  19. Significance of salinity and silicon levels for growth of a formerly estuarine eelgrass (Zostera marina) population (Lake Grevelingen, the Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamermans, P.; Hemminga, M.A.; De Jong, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, the eelgrass, Zostera marina L., population in the saline Lake Gevelingen, The Netherlands, is rapidly declining. An earlier study, in which long-term data on eelgrass coverage in this former estuary were correlated with several environmental variables, showed only one

  20. Assessment of biotic response to heavy metal contamination in Avicennia marina mangrove ecosystems in Sydney Estuary, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Bibhash; Chaudhuri, Punarbasu; Birch, Gavin

    2014-09-01

    Mangrove forests act as a natural filter of land-derived wastewaters along industrialized tropical and sub-tropical coastlines and assist in maintaining a healthy living condition for marine ecosystems. Currently, these intertidal communities are under serious threat from heavy metal contamination induced by human activity associated with rapid urbanization and industrialization. Studies on the biotic responses of these plants to heavy metal contamination are of great significance in estuary management and maintaining coastal ecosystem health. The main objective of the present investigation was to assess the biotic response in Avicennia marina ecosystems to heavy metal contamination through the determination of metal concentrations in leaves, fine nutritive roots and underlying sediments collected in fifteen locations across Sydney Estuary (Australia). Metal concentrations (especially Cu, Pb and Zn) in the underlying sediments of A. marina were enriched to a level (based on Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines) at which adverse biological effects to flora could occasionally occur. Metals accumulated in fine nutritive roots greater than underlying sediments, however, only minor translocation of these metals to A. marina leaves was observed (mean translocation factors, TFs, for all elements micro-nutrients, Cu, Ni, Mn and Zn) were greater than non-essential elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr and Pb), suggesting that A. marina mangroves of this estuary selectively excluded non-essential elements, while regulating essential elements and limiting toxicity to plants. This study supports the notion that A. marina mangroves act as a phytostabilizer in this highly modified estuary thereby protecting the aquatic ecosystem from point or non-point sources of heavy metal contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Genome-wide transcriptomic responses of the seagrasses Zostera marina and Nanozostera noltii under a simulated heatwave confirm functional types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, Susanne U; Gu, Jenny; Winters, Gidon; Huylmans, Ann-Kathrin; Wienpahl, Isabell; Sparwel, Maximiliane; Coyer, James A; Olsen, Jeanine L; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2014-06-01

    Genome-wide transcription analysis between related species occurring in overlapping ranges can provide insights into the molecular basis underlying different ecological niches. The co-occurring seagrass species, Zostera marina and Nanozostera noltii, are found in marine coastal environments throughout the northern hemisphere. Z. marina is often dominant in subtidal environments and subjected to fewer temperature extremes compared to the predominately intertidal and more stress-tolerant N. noltii. We exposed plants of both species to a realistic heat wave scenario in a common-stress-garden experiment. Using RNA-seq (~7million reads/library), four Z. marina and four N. noltii libraries were compared representing northern (Denmark) and southern (Italy) locations within the co-occurring range of the species' European distribution. A total of 8977 expressed genes were identified, of which 78 were directly related to heat stress. As predicted, both species were negatively affected by the heat wave, but showed markedly different molecular responses. In Z. marina the heat response was similar across locations in response to the heatwave at 26°C, with a complex response in functions related to protein folding, synthesis of ribosomal chloroplast proteins, proteins involved in cell wall modification and heat shock proteins (HSPs). In N. noltii the heat response markedly differed between locations, while HSP genes were not induced in either population. Our results suggest that as coastal seawater temperatures increase, Z. marina will disappear along its southern most ranges, whereas N. noltii will continue to move north. As a consequence, sub- and intertidal habitat partitioning may weaken in more northern regions because the higher thermal tolerance of N. noltii provides a competitive advantage in both habitats. Although previous studies have focused on HSPs, the present study clearly demonstrates that a broader examination of stress related genes is necessary. Copyright

  2. The influence of CO2 enrichment on net photosynthesis of seagrass Zostera marina in a brackish water environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Pajusalu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Seagrasses are distributed across the globe and their communities may play key roles in the coastal ecosystems. Seagrass meadows are expected to benefit from the increased carbon availability which might be used in photosynthesis in a future high CO2 world. The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of elevated pCO2 on the net photosynthesis of seagrass Zostera marina in a brackish water environment. The short-term mesocosm experiments were conducted in Kõiguste Bay (northern part of Gulf of Riga, the Baltic Sea in June-July 2013 and 2014. As the levels of pCO2 naturally range from ca. 150 μatm to well above 1000 μatm under summer conditions in Kõiguste Bay we chose to operate in mesocosms with the pCO2 levels of ca. 2000, ca. 1000 and ca. 200 μatm. Additionally, in 2014 the photosynthesis of Z. marina was measured outside of the mesocosm in the natural conditions. In the shallow coastal Baltic Sea seagrass Z. marina lives in a highly variable environment due to seasonality and rapid changes in meteorological conditions. This was demonstrated by the remarkable differences in water temperatures between experimental years of ca. 8°C. Thus, the current study also investigated the effect of elevated pCO2 in combination with short-term natural fluctuations of environmental factors, i.e. temperature and PAR on the photosynthesis of Z. marina. Our results show that elevated pCO2 alone did not enhance the photosynthesis of the seagrass. The photosynthetic response of Z. marina to CO2 enrichment was affected by changes in water temperature and light availability.

  3. Rhizosphere O2 dynamics in young Zostera marina and Ruppia maritima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, Zeljko; Pedersen, Mia Østergaard; Larsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Zostera marina and Ruppia maritima often share the same habitat, but R. maritima appears more resistant to environmental stress. We investigated the impact of light intensity and water column O2 concentrations on radial oxygen loss (ROL), in young specimens of Z. marina and R. maritima. Planar......, respectively. These values declined by 71 and 60% in darkness. However, both species were able to maintain ROL as long as ambient O2 levels remained >50% air saturation. The calculated ROL integrated over a 24 h cycle was 48.8 ± 10.6 nmol O2 plant−1 d−1 (n = 3) for R. maritima and 30% less for Z. marina...

  4. Avicennia marina

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-23

    Apr 23, 2014 ... radical processes in embryonic axes of the white ... 1Plant Germplasm Conservation Research, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private .... location of staining as criteria (International Seed Testing Asso-.

  5. Cost-utility analysis of an adjunctive recombinant activated factor VIIa for on-demand treatment of bleeding episodes in dengue haemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Poovorawan, Yong; Mak, Joon Wah; Aung, Kyan; Kamolratankul, Pirom

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed to assess the cost-utility analysis of using an adjunctive recombinant activated factor VIIa (rFVIIa) in children for controlling life-threatening bleeding in dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF)/dengue shock syndrome (DSS). We constructed a decision-tree model, comparing a standard care and the use of an additional adjuvant rFVIIa for controlling life-threatening bleeding in children with DHF/DSS. Cost and utility benefit were estimated from the societal perspective. The outcome measure was cost per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Overall, treatment with adjuvant rFVIIa gained QALYs, but the total cost was higher. The incremental cost-utility ratio for the introduction of adjuvant rFVIIa was $4241.27 per additional QALY. Sensitivity analyses showed the utility value assigned for calculation of QALY was the most sensitive parameter. We concluded that despite high cost, there is a role for rFVIIa in the treatment of life-threatening bleeding in patients with DHF/DSS.

  6. Sites involved in intra- and interdomain allostery associated with the activation of factor VIIa pinpointed by hydrogen-deuterium exchange and electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongjian; Olsen, Ole H; Persson, Egon; Rand, Kasper D

    2014-12-19

    Factor VIIa (FVIIa) is a trypsin-like protease that plays an important role in initiating blood coagulation. Very limited structural information is available for the free, inactive form of FVIIa that circulates in the blood prior to vascular injury and the molecular details of its activity enhancement remain elusive. Here we have applied hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry coupled to electron transfer dissociation to pinpoint individual residues in the heavy chain of FVIIa whose conformation and/or local interaction pattern changes when the enzyme transitions to the active form, as induced either by its cofactor tissue factor or a covalent active site inhibitor. Identified regulatory residues are situated at key sites across one continuous surface of the protease domain spanning the TF-binding helix across the activation pocket to the calcium binding site and are embedded in elements of secondary structure and at the base of flexible loops. Thus these residues are optimally positioned to mediate crosstalk between functional sites in FVIIa, particularly the cofactor binding site and the active site. Our results unambiguously show that the conformational allosteric activation signal extends to the EGF1 domain in the light chain of FVIIa, underscoring a remarkable intra- and interdomain allosteric regulation of this trypsin-like protease. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. PENERAPAN MODEL PEMBELAJARAN NUMBER HEADS TOGETHER (NHT UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR SISWA KELAS VIIA SMP NEGERI 2 TUNTANG PADA MATERI SEGITIGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Era Destiyandani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian tindakan kelas ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar dan mendeskripsikan kondisi siswa kelas VIIA SMP Negeri 2 Tuntang pada materi segitiga melalui penerapan model pembelajaran Number Heads Together (NHT. Melalui model pembelajaran NHT, tugas diberikan kepada semua siswa dimana siswa telah diberi nomor berbeda didalam kelompoknya namun masing-masing kelompok menggunakan penomoran yang sama. Pemanggilan nomor siswa secara acak untuk melaporkan hasil diskusi kelompok mendorong setiap siswa secara individu bertanggung jawab atas hasil belajarnya. Instrumen penelitian yang digunakan untuk mengambil data penelitian adalah soal tes dan lembar observasi. Penelitian ini diterapkan pada 31 siswa sebagai subjek dan menggunakan model spiral Kemmis dan McTaggart. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa persentase ketuntasan siswa untuk materi segitiga tentang mengidentifikasi sifat-sifat segitiga berdasarkan sisi dan sudutnya pada siklus I mencapai 87,1% tuntas dan ketuntasan meningkat menjadi 96,77% pada siklus II dengan materi pembelajaran menghitung keliling dan luas segitiga. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan model pembelajaran NHT telah meningkatkan penguasaan materi segitiga oleh siswa.

  8. Release and Consumption of DMSP from Emiliania Huxleyi during grazing by Oxyrrhis Marina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Gordon V.; Sherr, Evelyn B.; Sherr, Barry F.

    1994-01-01

    Degradation and release to solution of intracellular dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) from Emiliania huxleyi 370 was observed during grazing by the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina in 24 h bottle incubations. Between 30 and 70% of the lost algal DMSP was metabolized by the grazers without production of dimethylsulfide (DMS) when grazer densities were 150 to 450/ml. The rest was released to solution and about 30% was converted to DMS by bacteria associated with the grazer culture. These experiments demonstrate that grazing by herbivorous protists may be an important sink for DMSP in marine waters, removing a potential source of DMS. Microzooplankton grazing may also indirectly increase the production of DMS by transferring algal DMSP to the dissolved pool, making it available for bacterial metabolism.

  9. Genotype-specific responses to light stress in eelgrass Zostera marina, a marine foundation plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Tiina Elina; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.

    2015-01-01

    , and their performance during light limitation and 4 wk of recovery was compared to non-shaded controls. In addition to growth and biomass, we investigated storage carbohydrates and quantified the expression of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis and control of oxidative stress. Plants showed......Within mono-specific meadows of clonal plants, genotypic diversity may functionally replace species diversity. Little is known about the variability in performance and plasticity of different genotypes towards anthropogenically induced stressors. In this field experiment we compared light......-limitation stress responses and recovery of different eelgrass Zostera marina genotypes to assess the variability in phenotypic plasticity and gene expression between different genotypes. Replicated monoculture plots of 4 genotypes were subjected to a simulated turbidity period of 4 wk using shading screens...

  10. Kocuria marina BS-15 a biosurfactant producing halophilic bacteria isolated from solar salt works in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafin, Yesurethinam; Donio, Mariathasan Birdilla Selva; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Biosurfactant screening was made among the eight halophilic bacterial genera isolated from Kovalam solar salt works in Kanyakumari of India. After initial screening, Kocuria sp. (Km), Kurthia sp. (Ku) and Halococcus sp. (Hc) were found to have positive biosurfactant activity. Biosurfactant derived from Kocuria sp. emulsified more than 50% of the crude oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil, olive oil and kerosene when compared to the other strains. Further, Kocuria marina BS-15 derived biosurfactant was purified and characterized by TLC, FTIR and GC–MS analysis. The TLC analysis revealed that, the purified biosurfactants belong to the lipopeptide group. The IR spectrum results revealed that functional groups are R2C 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 NN, alkenes and N–H. The GC–MS analysis confirmed the compound as Nonanoic acid and Cyclopropane with the retention time of 12.78 and 24.65, respectively. PMID:25473358

  11. Distribution, structure and function of Nordic eelgrass (Zostera marina) ecosystems: implications for coastal management and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Christoffer; Baden, Susanne; Bockelmann, Anna-Christina; Dromph, Karsten; Fredriksen, Stein; Gustafsson, Camilla; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Möller, Tiia; Nielsen, Søren Laurentius; Olesen, Birgit; Olsen, Jeanine; Pihl, Leif; Rinde, Eli

    2014-06-01

    This paper focuses on the marine foundation eelgrass species, Zostera marina , along a gradient from the northern Baltic Sea to the north-east Atlantic. This vast region supports a minimum of 1480 km 2 eelgrass (maximum >2100 km 2 ), which corresponds to more than four times the previously quantified area of eelgrass in Western Europe.Eelgrass meadows in the low salinity Baltic Sea support the highest diversity (4-6 spp.) of angiosperms overall, but eelgrass productivity is low (borders. Nevertheless, ensuring awareness of their vulnerability remains challenging. Given the areal extent of Nordic eelgrass systems and the ecosystem services they provide, it is crucial to further develop incentives for protecting them. © 2014 The Authors. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Burial of Zostera marina seeds in sediment inhabited by three polychaetes: laboratory and field studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delefosse, Matthieu; Kristensen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The large number of seeds produced by eelgrass, Zostera marina, provides this plant with a potential to disperse widely and colonise newareas. After dispersal, seedsmust be buried into sediment for assuring long-term survival, successful germination and safe seedling development. Seedsmay be buried...... eelgrass seed bank at the ecosystemscale. Some species have a positive effect by burying seeds to shallow depths and thereby reducing seed predation and facilitating seed germination, while other species bury seeds too deep for successful seed germination and seedling development....... passively by sedimentation or actively through sediment reworking by benthic fauna.We evaluated the effect of three polychaetes on the burial rate and depth of eelgrass seeds. Burial was first measured in controlled laboratory experiments using different densities of Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor (400...

  13. Rezension zu: Marina Caffiero (Hg.: Rubare le anime. Roma: Viella 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Unfer Lukoschik

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In den Akten des päpstlichen Staatsarchivs und der römischen jüdischen Gemeinde finden sich zeitgenössische Zeugnisse für die im päpstlichen Rom vom 16. bis zum 19. Jahrhundert nicht seltene Zwangskonvertierung jüdischer Mädchen und Frauen zum Katholizismus. Eines der wertvollsten Dokumente dieser Konversionspraxis liegt nunmehr in einer kommentierten Neuedition vor: das Tagebuch der 1749 sich erfolgreich der versuchten Zwangskonvertierung widersetzenden 18-jährigen Anna del Monte. In ihrer Einleitung ordnet die Herausgeberin Marina Caffiero dieses außergewöhliche Einzelschicksal in die zeitgleich und parallel laufenden Assimilations- und Emanzipationsprozesse ein, die sich in der mit aufklärerischem Gedankengut ‚infizierten‘ jüdischen Oberschicht Roms im 18. Jahrhundert abzeichneten.

  14. High ammonium availability amplifies the adverse effect of low salinity on eelgrass Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villazán, Beatriz; Salo, Tiina Elina; Brun, Fernando G.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change intensifies the frequency and intensity of rainfall events, which increases the discharge of freshwater and nutrients to coastal areas. This may lower salinity and increase nutrient availability and, thus, affect estuarine eelgrass populations. We studied the interactive effect...... of increasing NH4+ levels and low salinity on estuarine eelgrass Zostera marina, grown in microcosm at various combinations of NH4+ enrichment (0, 10 and 25 µM) and salinity (5, 12.5 and 20). Increasing NH4+ had a positive effect on eelgrass performance as long as salinity was kept at ambient level (20). N...... enrichment was followed by an increase in pigments, photosynthesis and various growth variables and a decrease in stored carbon concentrations (sucrose and starch). Low salinity had an overall negative effect on plant fitness; pigment concentration, photosynthesis and growth were reduced while mortality...

  15. Radioactivity in north European waters: report of Working Group 2 of CEC project MARINA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camplin, W.C.; Aarkrog, A.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of Working Group 2 of Project MARINA was to consider recent measurements of environmental radioactivity in north European waters and to use this, and other information, to report likely magnitude of doses to the critical group from marine pathways. The monitoring data were supplemented, where appropriate, with predictions from simple models. The major sources of radioactivity studied were as follows: (i) liquid wastes from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, (Sellafield, Dounreay, Cap de la Hague); (ii) liquid wastes from nuclear power plants and other major nuclear industry sites, (including Belgium, Denmark, France, Finland, GDR, FDR, Netherlands, Sweden, UK, USSR); (iii) solid waste disposal in the deep north-east Atlantic; (iv) fallout from Chernobyl; and (v) naturally-occurring radionuclides. (author)

  16. La pesca comercial y el estudio de la fauna marina en la Argentina, 1890-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana V. Garcia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo examina la relación entre el desarrollo de la pesca comercial marítima y el estudio de la fauna marina en la Argentina de fines del siglo XIX y las primeras décadas del siglo XX. Se analizan las investigaciones ictiológicas, la comercialización de productos marítimos frescos y las oportunidades que ofrecieron los mercados urbanos para la formación de colecciones. También se focaliza en los inicios de la pesca de altura que posibilitaría la captura y estudio de nuevas especies así como la acumulación de información sobre el ambiente marino.

  17. Synergistic effects of altered salinity and temperature on estuarine eelgrass (Zostera marina) seedlings and clonal shoots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Tiina Elina; Pedersen, Morten Foldager

    2014-01-01

    investigated experimentally how different combinations of salinity and temperature affect the physiological performance of adult eelgrass (Zostera marina) shoots and seedlings. Plants were exposed to different combinations of salinity (salinity 5, 12.5 and 20) and temperature (15, 20 and 25 °C) in a 5-week...... and temperature. Seedlings had higher absolute mortality, while adult shoots were relatively more sensitive to unfavorable levels of salinity. Leaf tissue sucrose concentrations in both life stages decreased at low salinity, whereas salinity and temperature resulted in contrasting starch concentrations between...... seedlings and adult shoots. Our results show that altered salinity and temperature may have negative synergistic effects on eelgrass performance. Future climate changes may thus have serious impacts on eelgrass survival and performance....

  18. Photosynthetic carbon fixation pathways in Zostera marina and three Florida seagrasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, S.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1982-06-01

    The photosynthetic carbon fixation pathways of four seagrass species, Zostera marina L. from Alaska and Thalassia testudinum Banks ex Konig, Syringodium filiforme Kutz. and Halodule wrightii Aschers. from the Gulf of Mexico, were investigated with a /sup 14/C pulse-chase technique. All species were found to be principally of the C/sub 3/ type. However, Thalassia and Halodule had higher initial incorporation rates into organic acids than is typical for terrestrial C/sub 3/ plants. Of 11 seagrass species investigated thus far for C/sub 3/ or C/sub 4/ metabolism using this technique, 10 were found to be principally of the C/sub 3/ type while only one exhibited C/sub 4/ metabolism.

  19. Mortality rate estimation for eelgrass Zostera marina (Potamogetonaceae using projections from Leslie matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Flores Uzeta

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to provide estimations of mean mortality rate of vegetative shoots of the seagrass Zostera marina in a meadow near Ensenada Baja California, using a technique that minimizes destructive sampling. Using cohorts and Leslie matrices, three life tables were constructed, each representing a season within the period of monthly sampling (April 1999 to April 2000. Ages for the cohorts were established in terms of Plastochrone Interval (PI. The matrices were projected through time to estimate the mean total number of individuals at time t, n(t as well as mortality. We found no statistical differences between observed and predicted mean values for these variables (t=-0.11, p=0.92 for n(t and t=0.69, p=0.5 for mean rate of mortality. We found high correlation coefficient values between observed and projected values for monthly number of individuals (r=0.70, p=0.007 and monthly mortality rates (r=0.81, p=0.001. If at a certain time t a sudden environmental change occurs, and as long as the perturbation does not provoke the killing of all the individuals of a given age i for 0 ≤ i ≤ x - 1, there will be a prevailing number of individuals of age or stage x at a time t+1. This nondestructive technique reduces the number of field visits and samples needed for the demographic analysis of Z. marina, and therefore decreases the disturbance caused by researches to the ecosystem. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1015-1022. Epub 2008 September 30El propósito principal de este estudio es el de proveer estimaciones de tasas promedio de mortalidad de tallos vegetativos de Zostera marina en una pradera cercana a Ensenada Baja California, utilizando una técnica que minimiza los muestreos destructivos para estos pastos marinos. Mediante la utilización de cohortes y matrices de Leslie, se construyeron tres tablas de vida, cada una representando a una estación dentro de período anual de muestreos mensuales (Abril 1999 a Abril 2000. Las edades

  20. [Prevalence and characteristics of multiple sclerosis in the health district of the Marina Alta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gallego, A; Morera-Guitart, J

    To determine the prevalence and characteristics of multiple sclerosis (EM) in the Marina Alta health district. A descriptive, retrospective study localizing cases (crossed register method). Day of prevalence: 1/05/01. Registers of the area analyzed: hospital admission, Neurology Clinic, Emergency Department of the hospital and Health Centres. The criteria of Poser were used for diagnosis. We analyzed the demographic, clinical and paraclinical aspects of the episodes and treatment (interferon-beta). Male/female ratio: 2.4. Average age: 46.6 years. Prevalence of definite EM: 40.3/100,000. Prevalence of autochthonous cases of EM: 28.7/100,000. Average age at onset: 32.6 years. Average duration of illness: 12.5 years. Commonest clinical form: remitting relapsing (48.1%), followed by progressive relapsing (7%), benign (5.5%) and primary progressive (1.8%). 5.5% died, all with the progressive secondary form. EDSS disability: greater in the progressive secondary form. Magnetic resonance (MR) was the commonest investigation used (84% of the results in concordance and 13% normal). Positive BOC in 70% of cases. We studied 202 episodes. The systems most affected were: sensory and pyramidal. Worsening of EDSS after recovery from the episode: 51.7%. 29% received interferon-beta, with five cases (31%) of major side effects (one psychotic outbursts, three with neutropenia and one generalized allergic reaction). In the Marina Alta the prevalence of EM adjusted for the autochthonous population is in the medium risk zone. The clinical features and course of the disease in our patients are similar to those seen in other national and foreign series. The most worthwhile tests were cranial MR and BOC CSF. Treatment with interferon-beta requires strict control in view of the high frequency of serious side effects seen.

  1. Photoacclimatory Responses of Zostera marina in the Intertidal and Subtidal Zones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Rul Park

    Full Text Available Photoacclimatory responses of the seagrass Zostera marina in the intertidal and subtidal zones were investigated by measuring chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, photosynthetic pigments, leaf δ13C values, and shoot morphology in two bay systems. Intertidal plants had higher carotenoid concentrations than subtidal plants to avoid photodamage under excess light conditions during the day. The maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax and minimum saturation irradiance (Ek of the intertidal plants were higher than those of the subtidal plants, whereas photosynthetic efficiency (α and maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm were higher in subtidal plants. The intertidal plants also had significantly greater Stern-Volmer non-photochemical quenching (NPQ than that of the subtidal plants. These results suggest that the subtidal plants photoacclimated to use limited light more efficiently, and the intertidal plants exhibited photosynthetic responses to minimize photodamage at excess irradiance. The δ13C values of leaf tissues were more negative in the intertidal plants than those in the subtidal plants, suggesting that the intertidal plants used atmospheric or dissolved CO2 for photosynthesis during emersion. Effective quantum yield (ΔF/Fm´ in the intertidal plants decreased more slowly after emersion than that in the subtidal plants, indicating higher desiccation tolerance of the intertidal plants. The intertidal plants also recovered more rapidly from desiccation damage than the subtidal plants, suggesting photosynthetic adaptation to desiccation stress. The photosynthetic plasticity of Z. marina in response to variable environmental conditions most likely allows this species to occur in the intertidal and subtidal zones.

  2. Size matters: insights from an allometric approach to evaluate control methods for invasive Australian Rhinella marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Lynne E; Salice, Christopher J

    2013-10-01

    Invasive species are costly and difficult to control. In order to gain a mechanistic understanding of potential control measures, individual-based models uniquely parameterized to reflect the salient life-history characteristics of invasive species are useful. Using invasive Australian Rhinella marina as a case study, we constructed a cohort- and individual-based population simulation that incorporates growth and body size of terrestrial stages. We used this allometric approach to examine the efficacy of nontraditional control methods (i.e., tadpole alarm chemicals and native meat ants) that may have indirect effects on population dynamics mediated by effects on body size. We compared population estimates resulting from these control methods with traditional hand removal. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis to investigate the effect that model parameters, specifically those associated with growth and body size, had on adult population estimates. Incremental increases in hand removal of adults and juveniles caused nonlinear decreases in adult population estimates, suggesting less return with increased investment in hand-removal efforts. Applying tadpole alarm chemicals or meat ants decreased adult population estimates on the same level as removing 15-25% of adults and juveniles by hand. The combined application of tadpole alarm chemicals and meat ants resulted in approximately 80% decrease in adult abundance, the largest of any applied control method. In further support of the nontraditional control methods, which greatly affected the metamorph stage, our model was most sensitive to changes in metamorph survival, juvenile survival, metamorph growth rate, and adult survival. Our results highlight the use and insights that can be gained from individual-based models that incorporate growth and body size and the potential success that nontraditional control methods could have in controlling established, invasive Rhinella marina populations.

  3. Differences in SEM-AVS and ERM-ERL predictions of sediment impacts from metals in two US Virgin Islands marinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkey, Lynne M; Zaidi, Baqar R

    2007-02-01

    Two US Virgin Islands marinas were examined for potential metal impacts by comparing sediment chemistry data with two sediment quality guideline (SQG) values: the ratio of simultaneously extractable metals to acid volatile sulfides (SEM-AVS), and effects range-low and -mean (ERL-ERM) values. ERL-ERMs predicted the marina/boatyard complex (IBY: 2118 microg/g dry weight total metals, two exceeded ERMs) would have greater impacts than the marina with no boatyard (CBM: 231 microg/g dry weight total metals, no ERMs exceeded). The AVS-SEM method predicted IBY would have fewer effects due to high AVS-forming metal sulfide complexes, reducing trace metal bioavailability. These contradictory predictions demonstrate the importance of validating the results of either of these methods with other toxicity measures before making any management or regulatory decisions regarding boating and marina impacts. This is especially important in non-temperate areas where sediment quality guidelines have not been validated.

  4. Mild Maternal Iron Deficiency Anemia Induces Hearing Impairment Associated with Reduction of Ribbon Synapse Density and Dysregulation of VGLUT3, Myosin VIIa, and Prestin Expression in Young Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Hao, Shuai; Yang, Bo; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Wenyue; Yang, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Mild maternal iron deficiency anemia (IDA) adversely affects the development of cochlear hair cells of the young offspring, but the mechanisms underlying the association are incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether mild maternal IDA in guinea pigs could interrupt inner hair cell (IHC) ribbon synapse density and outer hair cell motility of the offspring. Here, we established a dietary restriction model that allows us to study quantitative changes in the number of IHC ribbon synapses and hearing impairment in response to mild maternal IDA in young guinea pig. The offspring were weaned on postnatal day (PND) 9 and then were given the iron-sufficient diet. On PND 24, pups were examined the hearing function by auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) measurements. Then, the cochleae were harvested for assessment of the number of IHC ribbon synapses by immunofluorescence, the morphology of cochlear hair cells, and spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) by scanning electron microscope and hematoxylin-eosin staining, the location, and expression of vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 3, myosin VIIa, and prestin by immunofluorescence and blotting. Here, we show that mild maternal IDA in guinea pigs induced elevated ABR threshold shifts, declined DPOAE level shifts, and reduced the number of ribbon synapses, impaired the morphology of cochlear hair cells and SGCs in offsprings. In addition, downregulation of VGLUT3 and myosin VIIa, and upregulation of prestin were observed in the cochlea of offsprings from mild maternal IDA in guinea pigs. These data indicate that mild maternal IDA in guinea pigs induced hearing impairment in offsprings, and this deficit may be attributed to the reduction of ribbon synapse density and dysregulation of VGLUT3, myosin VIIa, and prestin.

  5. Orígenes familiares y carrera profesional de Julián de Arriaga, Secretario de Estado de Marina e Indias (1700-1776

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Baudot Monroy

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La Secretaria de Marina surgida de las reformas administrativas de Felipe V con la finalidad de ocuparse específicamente de los asuntos de la Marina, fue dirigida durante el siglo xviii por diez y seis secretarios de Estado de Marina. Actualmente sólo contamos con estudios solventes sobre aquellos cuya gestión reformadora de la Marina destacó sobre la de los demás. Julián de Arriaga fue uno de los secretarios de Marina de los que apenas conocíamos unos rasgos. Este trabajo nos acerca al tiombre que fue y a su familia, y da a conocer su carrera como marino de guerra, desarrollada durante la primera mitad del siglo, antes de acceder a la cartera de Marina. One of the reforms that king Philip V did to modernice the Spanish administration was to create a ministry for the Navy. During the 18th century this ministry had sixteen different ministers. For the moment we know only the biography of the most outstanding ministers, those who did fundamental reforms for the Spanish Navy. Julián de Arriaga is one of the ministers of the Navy of whom we know only some few characteristics. This article deals with his family and his career as a naval oficer before his promotion to the ministry in 1754.

  6. EVALUACIÓN CITOTÓXICA DE FRACCIONES OBTENIDAS DE LA ESPONJA MARINA DEL CARIBE COLOMBIANO Topsentia ophiraphidites

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    LINA BLANDÓN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de las esponjas marinas se han obtenido gran cantidad de sustancias con potencial antitumoral. En este estudio se realizó la evaluación de la actividad citotóxica, de cinco  fracciones de la esponja marina del Caribe colombiano Topsentia ophiraphidites en las líneas celulares Jurkat y CHO, mediante las pruebas de MTT y azul de tripano. Sólo la fracción número 4 (T4 presentó actividad citotóxica significativa, obteniendo una concentración inhibitoria media (IC50 de 33 µg/mL para las células Jurkat y 58 µg/mL para las células CHO, sugiriendo la necesidad de realizar posteriores ensayos de genotoxicidad y efectos sobre el ciclo celular.

  7. [Marina de Vasconcellos and the social sciences in Rio de Janeiro: a study of the social circles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Adelia Maria Miglievich

    2008-06-01

    An investigation of the career of one of the "founding mothers" of the social sciences in Rio de Janeiro, Marina de Vasconcellos, successor of Arthur Ramos, is one way of understanding how anthropology was established in Rio de Janeiro. Conflicts and alliances, continuities and discontinuities, lie behind the pioneering Brazilian Society of Anthropology and Ethnology and the Institute of Social Sciences, both at Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia. Marina de Vasconcellos' professional life bore the marks of the clash between different schools of thought regarding anthropology at a time when university courses were being introduced. As a professor, she was committed to educating new professionals, and in 1968, she was steadfast in the struggle for university autonomy. The study leads to a reflection upon the criteria for success in academia, countering the view that this depends entirely on the publication of books and articles.

  8. RECOMBINANT FACTOR VIIa – NEW TREATMENT OPTION FOR CONTROL OF INTRACTABLE BLEEDING IN SURGICAL AND TRAUMA PATIENTS AND IN OTHER HAEMOSTASIS DISORDERS

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    Samo Zver

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa, which is currently registered only for the treatment of haemophilia A and B patients with inhibitors, is seen increasingly as a possible universal haemostatic agent in untractable bleedings. One possible mechanism for the efficacy rFVIIa may be a consequence of it’s from the tissue factor (TF and from the level of disfunction in haemostatic system independant activity, which generates »thrombin burst« formation. It seems that rFVIIa remains active only at the site of tissue injury/bleeding.Conclusions. There are two components of bleeding in surgery and trauma patients. One is bleeding from large calibre arteries and veins which requires surgical intervention. The other, which goes along with the first one, is coagulopathic bleeding. The latter is a consequence of consumptional and dilutional coagulopathy, hypothermia, multitransfusion syndrom and metabolic disbalances in patients. rFVIIa effects coagulopathic component of the bleeding. For effective treatment with rFVIIa in such patients, replacement therapy with erythrocytes, platelets and fresh frozen plasma is mandatory and requires a haematologist assistance in the treatment strategy.Most reported cases of effective rFVIIa usage are from the field of traumatology. Until now, there have been no universal recommendations when to start treatment with rFVIIa in a bleeding trauma patient. Most experience with rFVIIa are from Israel and their recommendations are perhaps the most valuable ones. rFVIIa was used several times during intra-operative and post-operative bleeding episodes. There are reports of clinical studies and usage in patients with/ after prostate surgery, cardiovascular operations and liver transplants.There are data about effective rFVIIa usage in neurology and neurosurgery patients (intracranial haemorrhages, obstetrics and gynecology field. Possible future indications are thrombocytopenias, thrombocytopathias (Glanzmann

  9. Prediction of post translational modifications in avicennia marina Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase: implication of glycation on the enzyme structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, U.; Salim, A.; Abbasi, A.

    2012-01-01

    3D homology model of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) from Avicennia marina (AMSOD) was constructed using the structural coordinates of Spinach SOD (SSOD). Prediction of post translational modification was done by PROSITE. The predicted sites were examined in the 3D model. AMSOD model was glycated using modeling software and changes in the structure was analyzed after glycation. The analysis revealed some potential sites and structural changes after glycation. (author)

  10. Structure, Aboveground Biomass, and Soil Characterization of Avicennia marina in Eastern Mangrove Lagoon National Park, Abu Dhabi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsumaiti, Tareefa Saad Sultan

    Mangrove forests are national treasures of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and other arid countries with limited forested areas. Mangroves form a crucial part of the coastal ecosystem and provide numerous benefits to society, economy, and especially the environment. Mangrove trees, specifically Avicennia marina, are studied in their native habitat in order to characterize their population structure, aboveground biomass, and soil properties. This study focused on Eastern Mangrove Lagoon National Park in Abu Dhabi, which was the first mangrove protected area to be designated in UAE. In situ measurements were collected to estimate Avicennia marina status, mortality rate (%), height (m), crown spread (m), stem number, diameter at breast height (cm), basal area (m), and aboveground biomass (t ha-1 ). Small-footprint aerial light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data acquired by UAE were processed to characterize mangrove canopy height and aboveground biomass density. This included extraction of LIDAR-derived height percentile statistics, segmentation of the forest into structurally homogenous units, and development of regression relationships between in situ reference and remote sensing data using a machine learning approach. An in situ soil survey was conducted to examine the soils' physical and chemical properties, fertility status, and organic matter. The data of soil survey were used to create soil maps to evaluate key characteristics of soils, and their influence on Avicennia marina in Eastern Mangrove Lagoon National Park. The results of this study provide new insights into Avicennia marina canopy population, structure, aboveground biomass, and soil properties in Abu Dhabi, as data in such arid environments is lacking. This valuable information can help in managing and preserving this unique ecosystem.

  11. Environmental Impact Research Program. The Use of Fertilizer To Enhance Transplants of the Seagrasses Zostera marina and Halodule wrightii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    Bot. Mar. 27:547-555. Smith, R.D., W.C. Dennison, and R.S. Alberte. 1984. Role of seagrass photosynthesis in root aerobic processes. Plant Physiol. 74...IMPACT RESEARCH PROGRAM * TECHNICAL REPORT EL-87-12 THE USE OF FERTILIZER TO ENHANCE TRANSPLANTS OF THE SEAGRASSES ZOSTERA MARINA AND HALODULE WRIGHT...in numerous attempts to transplant most of the North American seagrass species. Transplant ing technology also has rece ived increased at tent ion. b

  12. Análisis preliminar de la estructura primaria y secundaria del ARNtTrp en tortugas marinas

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    Harvey Infante-Rojas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente existen siete especies de tortugas marinas, todas amenazadas o en riesgo inminente de extinción. Los estudios con ADN mitocondrial han permitido hacer acercamientos sobre filogenia, evolución, rutas migratorias y centros de dispersión, además para la identificación de polimorfismos y haplotipos, siendo base para planes de manejo y conservación. El presente estudio representa la primera descripción comparada de la estructura primaria y secundaria del ARNtTrp mitocondrial en tortugas marinas. Se realizó un alineamiento múltiple de 26 secuencias del gen que codifica para el ARNtTrp y se propuso la estructura secundaria utilizando el programa ARWEN. Se identificaron potenciales interacciones terciarias por homología comparada con el ARNtTrp de mamíferos. Los resultados mostraron una secuencia consenso de 76 bases con siete regiones conservadas que representan el 76 % de la molécula. Se identificaron polimorfismos que representan tres haplotipos para C. caretta, dos para C. mydas y uno para cada una de las demás especies. Las estructuras secundarias mostraron cambios nucleotídicos puntuales para cada especie y también mostraron que el tallo aceptor, el brazo TψC y el bucle anticodón son motivos conservados en el ARNtTrp de las tortugas marinas. Se encontró un enlace no canónico tipo A-A en el tallo DHU que podría considerarse característico de tortugas marinas. Además, se obtuvo una estructura secundaria consenso en donde se identificaron las siete regiones conservadas, seis posibles interacciones terciarias y el bucle DHU como región variable.

  13. Texture and composition of the Rosa Marina beach sands (Adriatic coast, southern Italy: a sedimentological/ecological approach

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    Moretti Massimo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Beach sands from the Rosa Marina locality (Adriatic coast, southern Italy were analysed mainly microscopically in order to trace the source areas of their lithoclastic and bioclastic components. The main cropping out sedimentary units were also studied with the objective to identify the potential source areas of lithoclasts. This allowed to establish how the various rock units contribute to the formation of beach sands. The analysis of the bioclastic components allows to estimate the actual role of organisms regarding the supply of this material to the beach. Identification of taxa that are present in the beach sands as shell fragments or other remains was carried out at the genus or family level. Ecological investigation of the same beach and the recognition of sub-environments (mainly distinguished on the basis of the nature of the substrate and of the water depth was the key topic that allowed to establish the actual source areas of bioclasts in the Rosa Marina beach sands. The sedimentological analysis (including a physical study of the beach and the calculation of some statistical parameters concerning the grain-size curves shows that the Rosa Marina beach is nowadays subject to erosion.

  14. Effects of conventional and biodegradable microplastics on a marine ecosystem engineer (Arenicola marina) and sediment nutrient cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Dannielle Senga; Boots, Bas; Sigwart, Julia; Jiang, Shan; Rocha, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Effects of microplastic pollution on benthic organisms and ecosystem services provided by sedimentary habitats are largely unknown. An outdoor mesocosm experiment was done to realistically assess the effects of three different types of microplastic pollution (one biodegradable type; polylactic acid and two conventional types; polyethylene and polyvinylchloride) at increasing concentrations (0.02, 0.2 and 2% of wet sediment weight) on the health and biological activity of lugworms, Arenicola marina (Linnaeus, 1758), and on nitrogen cycling and primary productivity of the sediment they inhabit. After 31 days, A. marina produced less casts in sediments containing microplastics. Metabolic rates of A. marina increased, while microalgal biomass decreased at high concentrations, compared to sediments with low concentrations or without microplastics. Responses were strongest to polyvinylchloride, emphasising that different materials may have differential effects. Each material needs to be carefully evaluated in order to assess their risks as microplastic pollution. Overall, both conventional and biodegradable microplastics in sandy sediments can affect the health and behaviour of lugworms and directly or indirectly reduce primary productivity of these habitats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Moderate Increase in TCO2 Enhances Photosynthesis of Seagrass Zostera japonica, but Not Zostera marina: Implications for Acidification Mitigation

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    Cale A. Miller

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis and respiration are vital biological processes that shape the diurnal variability of carbonate chemistry in nearshore waters, presumably ameliorating (daytime or exacerbating (nighttime short-term acidification events, which are expected to increase in severity with ocean acidification (OA. Biogenic habitats such as seagrass beds have the capacity to reduce CO2 concentration and potentially provide refugia from OA. Further, some seagrasses have been shown to increase their photosynthetic rate in response to enriched total CO2 (TCO2. Therefore, the ability of seagrass to mitigate OA may increase as concentrations of TCO2 increase. In this study, we exposed native Zostera marina and non-native Zostera japonica seagrasses from Padilla Bay, WA (USA to various levels of irradiance and TCO2. Our results indicate that the average maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pmax for Z. japonica as a function of irradiance and TCO2 was 3x greater than Z. marina when standardized to chlorophyll (360 ± 33 μmol TCO2 mg chl−1 h−1 and 113 ± 10 μmol TCO2 mg chl−1 h−1, respectively. Additionally, Z. japonica increased its Pmax ~50% when TCO2 increased from ~1,770 to 2,051 μmol TCO2 kg−1. In contrast, Z. marina did not display an increase in Pmax with higher TCO2, possibly due to the variance of photosynthetic rates at saturating irradiance within TCO2 treatments (coefficient of variation: 30–60% relative to the range of TCO2 tested. Our results suggest that Z. japonica can affect the OA mitigation potential of seagrass beds, and its contribution may increase relative to Z. marina as oceanic TCO2 rises. Further, we extended our empirical results to incorporate various biomass to water volume ratios in order to conceptualize how these additional attributes affect changes in carbonate chemistry. Estimates show that the change in TCO2 via photosynthetic carbon uptake as modeled in this study can produce positive diurnal changes in pH and

  16. The effect of aqueous extract of Avicennia marina (Forsk. Vierh. leaves on liver enzymes' activity, oxidative stress parameters and liver histopathology in male diabetic rats

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    Akram Hamzevi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Avicennia marina has antioxidant and anti-diabetic properties. This study was conducted to examine the effect of aqueous extract of A. marina on liver enzymes' activity, oxidative stress parameters and liver histopathology in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 28 male rats were allocated into the equal groups of control, diabetic control and experimental diabetic 1 and 2. The diabetes in diabetic control and experimental diabetic groups was induced using an intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg alloxan. The experimental diabetic groups received the aqueous extract of A. marina (100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p. in alternate days for one month. Sterile distilled water was injected to the animals of control and diabetic control groups. At the end of the treatment period, serum levels of ALT, AST, GGT and ALP were measured. Then, levels of SOD, GST, CAT and MDA were measured in the liver tissue. The liver sections were prepared and examined by an optical microscope. Results: Results showed that administration of the A. marina extract (100 and 300 mg/kg, ip to the diabetic rats significantly decreased the serum levels of liver enzymes and tissue level of MDA. Also, the activity of the liver tissue's antioxidant enzymes was increased (P<0.05. The A. marina extract dose-dependently decreased liver damages in diabetic rats. Conclusion: Administration of the A. marina extract improves liver tissue oxidative stress indices and decreases the serum level of liver enzymes. Also, A. marina extract improves liver tissue injuries induced by diabetes.

  17. Algas marinas bentónicas de la Isla Gorgona, costa pacífica colombiana

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    Mónica Murillo Muñoz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el listado de las algas marinas bénticas del Parque Nacional Natural Isla Gorgona, el inventario corresponde a la flora algal asociada a los diferentes ambientes marinos de la isla, a saber: arrecifes coralinos y fondos blandos. El monitoreo de las comunidades de algas se llevó a cabo entre octubre de 2010 y mayo de 2011, se realizó una estimación de abundancia y cobertura para lo cual se establecieron transeptos paralelos a la línea de costa y se evaluó el porcentaje de cobertura en cuadrantes de 0.25m². Se reportó un total de 43 especies para los dos ambientes estudiados (coralino y fondos blandos, 24 Rhodophyta, 12 Clorophyta, 6 Ochrophyta y una Cyanobacteria. El grupo más representativo fue el perteneciente a la clase Rhodophyceae, que correspondió al 55.8% de la flora inventariada. Los resultados de nuevos registros en la isla ratifican su importancia fitogeográfica, por cuanto la composición florística insular contribuye significativamente a la biodiversidad de la costa pacífica colombiana, destacándose la presencia de arrecifes coralinos como los principales ambientes marinos para el desarrollo de la flora algal de la región.

  18. Multiple stressors threaten the imperiled coastal foundation species eelgrass (Zostera marina) in Chesapeake Bay, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefcheck, Jonathan S; Wilcox, David J; Murphy, Rebecca R; Marion, Scott R; Orth, Robert J

    2017-09-01

    Interactions among global change stressors and their effects at large scales are often proposed, but seldom evaluated. This situation is primarily due to lack of comprehensive, sufficiently long-term, and spatially extensive datasets. Seagrasses, which provide nursery habitat, improve water quality, and constitute a globally important carbon sink, are among the most vulnerable habitats on the planet. Here, we unite 31 years of high-resolution aerial monitoring and water quality data to elucidate the patterns and drivers of eelgrass (Zostera marina) abundance in Chesapeake Bay, USA, one of the largest and most valuable estuaries in the world, with an unparalleled history of regulatory efforts. We show that eelgrass area has declined 29% in total since 1991, with wide-ranging and severe ecological and economic consequences. We go on to identify an interaction between decreasing water clarity and warming temperatures as the primary drivers of this trend. Declining clarity has gradually reduced eelgrass cover the past two decades, primarily in deeper beds where light is already limiting. In shallow beds, however, reduced visibility exacerbates the physiological stress of acute warming, leading to recent instances of decline approaching 80%. While degraded water quality has long been known to influence underwater grasses worldwide, we demonstrate a clear and rapidly emerging interaction with climate change. We highlight the urgent need to integrate a broader perspective into local water quality management, in the Chesapeake Bay and in the many other coastal systems facing similar stressors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Composición Esterólica de la Esponja Marina Xestospongia Muta

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    Carmenza Duque

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available De la esponja marina Xestospongia muta recolectada en la bahía de Santa Marta, Caribe Colombiano, se aislaron por Cromatografía en Columna (CC sobre Silica gel, eluyendo con Benceno: Acetato de Etilo 10:2, dos fracciones esteróiicas; XMl (Rf = 0,28,Si02/Benceno; AcOEt 10:2 y XM2 (Rf = 0,24,SiO2/Benceno : AcOEt 10:2, Los esteróles presentes en estas dos fracciones fueron sometidos a Cromatografía Liquida de Alta Eficiencia (CLAE preparativa y analizados por Cromatografía de Gases (CG y Cromatografía de Gases acoplada en Espectometrla de Masas (CG-EM, Catorce esteróles fueron separados y 13 idenficados. La mayoría de ellos fueron 3n-0H-A^-Esteróles (Aproximadamente el 87% de los esteróles totales incluyendo al (24R + 24S-5,28-Estigmastadien-3i3-24-diol, mezclaepimérica por primera vez asi reportada en la naturaleza. El porcentaje restante correspondió a Estañóles y a un 6,2% de compuestos sin identificar.

  20. Proteasas extracelulares producidas por bacterias marinas aisladas de aguas contaminadas con efluentes pesqueros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tito Sánchez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Un total de 26 cepas de bacterias marinas con actividad proteolítica fueron aisladas de agua de mar contaminadas con efluentes pesqueros; las mismas que se evaluaron en base al crecimiento y formación de halos de actividad en Agar Marino suplementados con caseína al 1%, pH 8,0 e incubados a 25 ºC por 72 h. Cinco cepas, seleccionadas por presentar los mejores halos de actividad fueron evaluadas a su vez por su crecimiento y producción de proteasas a diferentes concentraciones de NaCl, rangos de temperatura y pH; siendo consideradas finalmente como bacterias halotolerantes, psicrotróficas y alcalófilas moderadas. Estas cepas también fueron evaluadas por su actividad proteolítica específica sobre la caseína, siendo la cepa CM48 (Pseudomonas sp. la que presentó la mejor actividad específica (17,38 U/mg a las 72 horas, y seguidas por las cepas CM45 (Alcaligenes sp. (12,09 U/mg y tres cepas de Aeromonas sp. (CM43, CM44 y CM46 con valores de 12,02; 10,07 y 10,10 U/mg respectivamente.

  1. Actividad antibacteriana y antifúngica de extractos de algas marinas venezolanas

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    Nurby Ríos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evaluaron las propiedades bioactivas antibacterianas y antimicóticas de 33 extractos (etanol, diclorometano, hexano obtenidos de 11 especies de algas marinas recolectadas en las localidades de San Juan de Los Cayos y Chichiriviche, Estado Falcón, Venezuela. La actividad antibiótica y antimicótica de los extractos se evaluó mediante la aparición de halos de inhibición contra bacterias Gram positivas (Staphylococ- cus aureus, Gram negativas (Pseudomona aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli y el hongo Candida albicans. De los 33 extractos ensayados sólo 17 presentaron actividad antibacteriana (5 con etanol, 6 con diclorometano y 6 con hexano, resultando activos 14 frente a las especies Gram(- y 4 contra la especie Gram(+. Las especies algales que mostraron actividad antibacteriana fueron: Acanthophora sp., Bryothamnion triquetrum, Gracilaria sp., Gelidium sp., Caulerpa mexicana, Caulerpa sp., Caulerpa spp., Halimeda incras- sata, Ulva sp., Codium decorticatum, Sargassum sp. Ninguno de los extractos de algas ensayados presentó actividad antimicótica sobre Cándida albicans. Los resultados obtenidos permiten concluir que las algas de la costa occidental de Venezuela, presentan compuestos bioactivos con actividad antibacteriana.

  2. Potential sources of bacteriological pollution for two bays with marinas in Trinidad

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    Christine Ann Bullock

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Welcome Bay and Chaguaramas Bay in the northwest peninsula of Trinidad contain large marinas and smaller sections of bathing beaches.Bacteriological surveys were conducted at both bays to assess water quality and to determine potential sources of pollution.These surveys were conducted during the wet season of 1996 and the dry season of 1997.Eleven sample stations were established at Welcome Bay and 12 at Chaguaramas Bay.Freshwater samples were collected from rivers and drains within the survey area.Marine water samples were collected from marinas,bathing beaches and inshore and outer areas at both bays.Five water samples were collected from each sampling station during the wet season of 1996 and six during the dry season of 1997.The membrane filter technique was used to determine faecal coliform and Escherichia coli levels in all samples. There was a seasonal effect on water quality,with significantly higher faecal coliform levels in the wet season, when water quality was not in compliance with international standards.This represents a potential health risk in bathing areas.Water quality was better at the outer area of both bays.Water quality at the inner bay areas was most likely adversely affected by land-based sources of pollution identified in this study.These sources include three drains and two rivers,which discharged into the bays.Yachts were apparently not a source of sewage pollution:there was no significant relationship between yacht number and faecal coliform levels.Las bahías Welcome y Chaguaramas en la península noroeste de Trinidad tienen grandes marinas y secciones pequeñas de playas para bañistas.Se realizaron sondeos bacteriológicos en ambas bahías para determinar la calidad del agua y para señalar fuentes potenciales de contaminación.Estos sondeos fueron realizados durante la época lluviosa de 1996 y la seca de 1997.Once estaciones de muestreo se establecieron en Bahía Welcome y doce en Bahía Chaguaramas.Muestras de

  3. Nickel, vanadium, and lead as indicators of sediment contamination of marina, refinery, and shipyard areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Thayane Lúcia; Wallner-Kersanach, Mônica; Costa, Luiza Dy Fonseca; Costa, Daniel Pereira; Baisch, Paulo Roberto Martins

    2018-01-01

    Metallic elements found in the aquatic environment may originate in areas where petroleum is refined and vessels are maintained and repaired. This study aims to assess contamination caused by nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and vanadium (V) in sediment of the Lagoa dos Patos estuary (RS, Brazil) and to evaluate them as indicators of areas under the influence of petroleum products and antifouling paints. Surface sediments were collected in summer and in winter in areas of marinas, shipyards, refinery, and a control station. High Pb and V concentrations in shipyards and at the Yacht Club showed that some organisms may be affected by toxicity. High Pb results of the index of geoaccumulation (Igeo) were found at the Yacht Club and shipyards. Al, Ni, and V had similar distribution in the sediment in both seasons. Ni and V had high relation in winter at the Yacht Club and at the Santos Shipyard, thus suggesting that these elements come mainly from petroleum products. The same happened to the relations between Pb and V, as well as Pb and Ni at the Santos Shipyard. These elements are employed as useful tools as indicators to identify places with moderate to high localized anthropogenic inputs of petroleum derivatives and antifouling paints.

  4. Com'è profondo il mare Gli uominiche lo misurano, l'Istituto Idrografico della Marina

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    Alessandro Nobili

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Measuring sea depths: the Italian hydrographic InstituteSince 1873 the Italian Hydrographic Institute (Istituto Idrografico della Marina - IIM has been involved in sea depth measuring in order to improve safety of navigation. The main mission of the institute is to provide hydrographic services for waters of Italian national responsibility required by the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS. This role requires the coordination and determination of policy and standards which covers both hydrographic surveying and charting, as well as contributing tothe coordination, exchange and standards related to geospatial data in general. IIM’s traditions and methods take their origins from the pioneers of hydrography; in this paper the author briefl y describes the main stages in IIM’s history, passing throught scientifi c and international activities and concludine with challenges and prospects of digital era.

  5. Conservation of eelgrass (Zostera marina genetic diversity in a mesocosm-based restoration experiment.

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    Brian S Ort

    Full Text Available Eelgrass (Zostera marina forms the foundation of an important shallow coastal community in protected estuaries and bays. Widespread population declines have stimulated restoration efforts, but these have often overlooked the importance of maintaining the evolutionary potential of restored populations by minimizing the reduction in genetic diversity that typically accompanies restoration. In an experiment simulating a small-scale restoration, we tested the effectiveness of a buoy-deployed seeding technique to maintain genetic diversity comparable to the seed source populations. Seeds from three extant source populations in San Francisco Bay were introduced into eighteen flow-through baywater mesocosms. Following seedling establishment, we used seven polymorphic microsatellite loci to compare genetic diversity indices from 128 shoots to those found in the source populations. Importantly, allelic richness and expected heterozygosity were not significantly reduced in the mesocosms, which also preserved the strong population differentiation present among source populations. However, the inbreeding coefficient F IS was elevated in two of the three sets of mesocosms when they were grouped according to their source population. This is probably a Wahlund effect from confining all half-siblings within each spathe to a single mesocosm, elevating F IS when the mesocosms were considered together. The conservation of most alleles and preservation of expected heterozygosity suggests that this seeding technique is an improvement over whole-shoot transplantation in the conservation of genetic diversity in eelgrass restoration efforts.

  6. A new species of nematode (Molineidae) from Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) in Guerrero, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Torres, Nallely; García-Prieto, Luis; Osorio-Sarabia, David; Violante-González, Juan

    2013-06-01

    Oswaldocruzia lamotheargumedoi n. sp., inhabiting the intestine of the cane toad, Rhinella marina (L.), in Laguna de Coyuca, Guerrero, México, is described here. The new species differs from 10 congeners infecting bufonid hosts because it has a type I bursa. In contrast, 7 of these species have type II bursa and 3 more a type III bursa. The species most similar to the species described herein is Oswaldocruzia pipiens Walton, 1929 . These 2 species share traits such as body size, bursa type, presence of cervical alae, and dorsal ray morphology. Nevertheless, both species can be distinguished based on the number of synlophe ridges at mid-body (54-56 for O. lamotheargumedoi vs. 45-48 for O. pipiens) and by the presence of a chitinous support in the long, and well developed, cervical alae of O. pipiens. In the new species, these structures are short, poorly developed, and lack chitinous support. Previous records of species of Oswaldocruzia in México include Oswaldocruzia subauricularis (Rudolphi, 1819) Travassos, 1917 in the Neotropical Realm and O. pipiens in the Nearctic.

  7. Conservation of eelgrass (Zostera marina) genetic diversity in a mesocosm-based restoration experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ort, Brian S; Cohen, C Sarah; Boyer, Katharyn E; Reynolds, Laura K; Tam, Sheh May; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) forms the foundation of an important shallow coastal community in protected estuaries and bays. Widespread population declines have stimulated restoration efforts, but these have often overlooked the importance of maintaining the evolutionary potential of restored populations by minimizing the reduction in genetic diversity that typically accompanies restoration. In an experiment simulating a small-scale restoration, we tested the effectiveness of a buoy-deployed seeding technique to maintain genetic diversity comparable to the seed source populations. Seeds from three extant source populations in San Francisco Bay were introduced into eighteen flow-through baywater mesocosms. Following seedling establishment, we used seven polymorphic microsatellite loci to compare genetic diversity indices from 128 shoots to those found in the source populations. Importantly, allelic richness and expected heterozygosity were not significantly reduced in the mesocosms, which also preserved the strong population differentiation present among source populations. However, the inbreeding coefficient F IS was elevated in two of the three sets of mesocosms when they were grouped according to their source population. This is probably a Wahlund effect from confining all half-siblings within each spathe to a single mesocosm, elevating F IS when the mesocosms were considered together. The conservation of most alleles and preservation of expected heterozygosity suggests that this seeding technique is an improvement over whole-shoot transplantation in the conservation of genetic diversity in eelgrass restoration efforts.

  8. Monitoreo de tortugas marinas Lepidochelis olivaceae (paslama en playa La Flor - Rivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia María Gutiérrez

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available La tortuga marina Lepidochelis olivaceae desova en forma masiva, solamente en seis playas del mundo. Nicaragua cuenta con dos de estas playas en los sitios geográficos llamados ' “Chacocente", en el Departamento de Carazo y "La Flor", en San Juan del Sur. Esta especie de tortuga se caracteriza por presentar un movimiento sincronizado para su anidación en la playa, el cual se ha denominado arribadas. Durante 5 años consecutivos se realizó en el refugio de vida silvestre "La Flor", un monitoreo de la población anidante y se encontró que cada año durante el período de julio a enero, visitan esta playa aproximadamente, 3,000 a 12,000 tortugas, reportándose entre septiembre y octubre el pico más alto de la población anidante. Paralelo a este estudio, se realizó un diagnóstico rápido en las comunidades aledañas al refugio, el cual refleja que es una práctica tradicional de los pobladores, la extracción de huevos de tortuga para el consumo de la familia y para el comercio. Se considera, sin embargo, que esta práctica no representa económicamente una dependencia absoluta, ya que la población tiene otros tipos de actividades agropecuarias que contribuyen a su subsistencia.

  9. The Complex Transcriptional Response of Acaryochloris marina to Different Oxygen Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Hernández-Prieto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ancient oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes produced oxygen as a waste product, but existed for a long time under an oxygen-free (anoxic atmosphere, before an oxic atmosphere emerged. The change in oxygen levels in the atmosphere influenced the chemistry and structure of many enzymes that contained prosthetic groups that were inactivated by oxygen. In the genome of Acaryochloris marina, multiple gene copies exist for proteins that are normally encoded by a single gene copy in other cyanobacteria. Using high throughput RNA sequencing to profile transcriptome responses from cells grown under microoxic and hyperoxic conditions, we detected 8446 transcripts out of the 8462 annotated genes in the Cyanobase database. Two-thirds of the 50 most abundant transcripts are key proteins in photosynthesis. Microoxic conditions negatively affected the levels of expression of genes encoding photosynthetic complexes, with the exception of some subunits. In addition to the known regulation of the multiple copies of psbA, we detected a similar transcriptional pattern for psbJ and psbU, which might play a key role in the altered components of photosystem II. Furthermore, regulation of genes encoding proteins important for reactive oxygen species-scavenging is discussed at genome level, including, for the first time, specific small RNAs having possible regulatory roles under varying oxygen levels.

  10. Caracterización parcial y espectro antimicrobiano de substancias inhibitorias producidas por Alteromonas marinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge León

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizan parcialmente substancias inhibitorias producidas por cepas marinas del género Alteromonas spp. Pruebas de precipitación de extractos crudos de sobrenadantes de las cepas N22.C y N11.6 con concentraciones saturantes de sulfato de amonio y filtrados en columnas de Sephadex G-25 muestran la producción de substancias inhibitorias (SI de naturaleza proteinácea. Otros ensayos de caracterización revelan que dichas substancias tienen un amplio espectro de actividad antibiótica frente a cepas de colección patógenas de peces, moluscos y crustáceos. Asimismo, muestran a las SI como termosensibles a 90oC en 45 min y con capacidad de mantener estabilidad inhibitoria dentro, del rango de pH de 3,0 a 9,0 hasta por 15 min. La actividad antibiótica de las substancias frente a Vibrio anguillarum NCMB 2133, V. anguillarum ATCC 19264 y Aeromonas salmonicida 67,79 fueron comparativamente equivalentes a 30 ppm del antibiótico oxitetraciclina (OTC.

  11. Petróleo, seguridad ambiental y exploración petrolera marina en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avellaneda Cusaría, Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo reseña un siglo de las actividades petroleras en Colombia, sus consecuencias en los territorios indígenas, así como los riesgos ambientales y para la salud, destacando por -otra parte- el papel que han asumido algunas compañías para controlar esos riesgos. Se discute las implicaciones sociales y ambientales, directas e indirectas, de las distintas fases de las actividades petroleras en la parte continental del país, y sus relaciones históricas con los procesos de violencia donde ha habido explotación petrolera desde el siglo XX. Finalmente, se abre una discusión sobre la nueva política petrolera del Estado colombiano, con la exploración costa fuera y la ausencia de control ambiental para proteger los ecosistemas que subyacen la licitación de áreas para los próximos años, sin asumir el derecho internacional en la protección marina.

  12. Offshore Energy Mapping for Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean: MARINA PLATFORM project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallos, G.; Galanis, G.; Spyrou, C.; Kalogeri, C.; Adam, A.; Athanasiadis, P.

    2012-04-01

    Deep offshore ocean energy mapping requires detailed modeling of the wind, wave, tidal and ocean circulation estimations. It requires also detailed mapping of the associated extremes. An important issue in such work is the co-generation of energy (generation of wind, wave, tides, currents) in order to design platforms on an efficient way. For example wind and wave fields exhibit significant phase differences and therefore the produced energy from both sources together requires special analysis. The other two sources namely tides and currents have different temporal scales from the previous two. Another important issue is related to the estimation of the environmental frequencies in order to avoid structural problems. These are issues studied at the framework of the FP7 project MARINA PLATFORM. The main objective of the project is to develop deep water structures that can exploit the energy from wind, wave, tidal and ocean current energy sources. In particular, a primary goal will be the establishment of a set of equitable and transparent criteria for the evaluation of multi-purpose platforms for marine renewable energy. Using these criteria, a novel system set of design and optimisation tools will be produced addressing new platform design, component engineering, risk assessment, spatial planning, platform-related grid connection concepts, all focussed on system integration and reducing costs. The University of Athens group is in charge for estimation and mapping of wind, wave, tidal and ocean current resources, estimate available energy potential, map extreme event characteristics and provide any additional environmental parameter required.

  13. Effects of Bioadvection by Arenicola marina on Microphytobenthos in Permeable Sediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Chennu

    Full Text Available We used hyperspectral imaging to study short-term effects of bioturbation by lugworms (Arenicola marina on the surficial biomass of microphytobenthos (MPB in permeable marine sediments. Within days to weeks after the addition of a lugworm to a homogenized and recomposed sediment, the average surficial MPB biomass and its spatial heterogeneity were, respectively, 150-250% and 280% higher than in sediments without lugworms. The surficial sediment area impacted by a single medium-sized lugworm (~4 g wet weight over this time-scale was at least 340 cm2. While sediment reworking was the primary cause of the increased spatial heterogeneity, experiments with lugworm-mimics together with modeling showed that bioadvective porewater transport from depth to the sediment surface, as induced by the lugworm ventilating its burrow, was the main cause of the increased surficial MPB biomass. Although direct measurements of nutrient fluxes are lacking, our present data show that enhanced advective supply of nutrients from deeper sediment layers induced by faunal ventilation is an important mechanism that fuels high primary productivity at the surface of permeable sediments even though these systems are generally characterized by low standing stocks of nutrients and organic material.

  14. Effects of Bioadvection by Arenicola marina on Microphytobenthos in Permeable Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennu, Arjun; Volkenborn, Nils; de Beer, Dirk; Wethey, David S; Woodin, Sarah A; Polerecky, Lubos

    2015-01-01

    We used hyperspectral imaging to study short-term effects of bioturbation by lugworms (Arenicola marina) on the surficial biomass of microphytobenthos (MPB) in permeable marine sediments. Within days to weeks after the addition of a lugworm to a homogenized and recomposed sediment, the average surficial MPB biomass and its spatial heterogeneity were, respectively, 150-250% and 280% higher than in sediments without lugworms. The surficial sediment area impacted by a single medium-sized lugworm (~4 g wet weight) over this time-scale was at least 340 cm2. While sediment reworking was the primary cause of the increased spatial heterogeneity, experiments with lugworm-mimics together with modeling showed that bioadvective porewater transport from depth to the sediment surface, as induced by the lugworm ventilating its burrow, was the main cause of the increased surficial MPB biomass. Although direct measurements of nutrient fluxes are lacking, our present data show that enhanced advective supply of nutrients from deeper sediment layers induced by faunal ventilation is an important mechanism that fuels high primary productivity at the surface of permeable sediments even though these systems are generally characterized by low standing stocks of nutrients and organic material.

  15. Radioactivity in north European waters: report of Working Group 2 of CEC project MARINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camplin, W C [Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft (UK). Directorate of Fisheries Research; Aarkrog, A [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of Working Group 2 of Project MARINA was to consider recent measurements of environmental radioactivity in north European waters and to use this, and other information, to report the likely magnitude of doses to the critical group from marine pathways. The monitoring data were supplemented, where appropriate, with predictions from simple models. The major sources of radioactivity studied were as follows: (i) liquid wastes from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants; (ii) liquid wastes from nuclear power plants and other major nuclear industry sites; (iii) solid waste disposal in the deep north-east Atlantic; (iv) fallout from Chernobyl; and (v) naturally-occurring radionuclides. Some of the largest doses from marine pathways are predicted for naturally-occurring radionuclides. In this case, the dominant radionuclide is polonium-210 and the dominant pathway is via consumption of molluscan species. The highest doses from the nuclear industry were due to the operation of the reprocessing plant at Sellafield. Discharges from this site have been decreasing substantially in recent years and, as a consequence, doses have also been reducing. (author).

  16. The impact of the herbicide atrazine on growth and photosynthesis of seagrass, Zostera marina (L.), seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yaping; Fang Jianguang; Zhang Jihong; Ren Lihua; Mao Yuze; Li Bin; Zhang Mingliang; Liu Dinghai; Du Meirong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Impact of the widely used herbicide atrazine on eelgrass seedlings was studied. → Atrazine presents a threat to eelgrass seedlings growth and photosynthesis. → The impact of atrazine on eelgrass seedlings is much higher than for adult plants. - Abstract: The impact of the widely used herbicide atrazine on seedling growth and photosynthesis of eelgrass was determined. The long-term impact of the herbicide atrazine (1, 10 and 100 μg/L) on growth of eelgrass Zostera marina (L.) seedlings, maintained in outdoor aquaria, was monitored over 4 weeks. Exposure to 10 μg/L atrazine resulted in significantly lower plant fresh weight and total chlorophyll concentration and up to 86.67% mortality at the 100 μg/L concentration. Short-term photosynthetic stress on eelgrass seedlings was determined and compared with adult eelgrass using chlorophyll fluorescence. The effective quantum yield in eelgrass seedlings was significantly depressed at all atrazine concentrations (2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 μg/L) even within 2 h and remained at a lower level than for adult plants for each concentration. These results indicate that atrazine presents a potential threat to seagrass seedling functioning and that the impact is much higher than for adult plants.

  17. Phylogeographic differentiation versus transcriptomic adaptation to warm temperatures in Zostera marina, a globally important seagrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jueterbock, A; Franssen, S U; Bergmann, N; Gu, J; Coyer, J A; Reusch, T B H; Bornberg-Bauer, E; Olsen, J L

    2016-11-01

    Populations distributed across a broad thermal cline are instrumental in addressing adaptation to increasing temperatures under global warming. Using a space-for-time substitution design, we tested for parallel adaptation to warm temperatures along two independent thermal clines in Zostera marina, the most widely distributed seagrass in the temperate Northern Hemisphere. A North-South pair of populations was sampled along the European and North American coasts and exposed to a simulated heatwave in a common-garden mesocosm. Transcriptomic responses under control, heat stress and recovery were recorded in 99 RNAseq libraries with ~13 000 uniquely annotated, expressed genes. We corrected for phylogenetic differentiation among populations to discriminate neutral from adaptive differentiation. The two southern populations recovered faster from heat stress and showed parallel transcriptomic differentiation, as compared with northern populations. Among 2389 differentially expressed genes, 21 exceeded neutral expectations and were likely involved in parallel adaptation to warm temperatures. However, the strongest differentiation following phylogenetic correction was between the three Atlantic populations and the Mediterranean population with 128 of 4711 differentially expressed genes exceeding neutral expectations. Although adaptation to warm temperatures is expected to reduce sensitivity to heatwaves, the continued resistance of seagrass to further anthropogenic stresses may be impaired by heat-induced downregulation of genes related to photosynthesis, pathogen defence and stress tolerance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The impact of the herbicide atrazine on growth and photosynthesis of seagrass, Zostera marina (L.), seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yaping; Fang, Jianguang; Zhang, Jihong; Ren, Lihua; Mao, Yuze; Li, Bin; Zhang, Mingliang; Liu, Dinghai; Du, Meirong

    2011-08-01

    The impact of the widely used herbicide atrazine on seedling growth and photosynthesis of eelgrass was determined. The long-term impact of the herbicide atrazine (1, 10 and 100 μg/L) on growth of eelgrass Zostera marina (L.) seedlings, maintained in outdoor aquaria, was monitored over 4 weeks. Exposure to 10 μg/L atrazine resulted in significantly lower plant fresh weight and total chlorophyll concentration and up to 86.67% mortality at the 100 μg/L concentration. Short-term photosynthetic stress on eelgrass seedlings was determined and compared with adult eelgrass using chlorophyll fluorescence. The effective quantum yield in eelgrass seedlings was significantly depressed at all atrazine concentrations (2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 μg/L) even within 2 h and remained at a lower level than for adult plants for each concentration. These results indicate that atrazine presents a potential threat to seagrass seedling functioning and that the impact is much higher than for adult plants. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Growth adaptability of Zostera marina at different habitats of the Swan Lake in Rongcheng, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mei Yu; Li, Wen Tao; Yang, Xiao Long; Zhang, Xiu Mei; Liu, Jian Ying; Li, Chang Jun

    2017-05-18

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina), a seagrass species widely distributed in the coastal regions of northern hemisphere, has suffered with a great decline due to a variety of anthropogenic and environmental stresses. In order to examine the adaptability of eelgrass to different environmental stresses, studies on the morphology and reproductive capacity of eelgrass had been carried out monthly from November 2014 to October 2015 at four different habitats of the Swan Lake, including patch area inintertidal area and subtidal area, eelgrass meadow edge, and eelgrass meadow area. The results showed significant spatio-temporal variations in the morphological parameters and branch frequency of eelgrass shoots at different habitats of the Swan Lake. The highest values of leaf length, leaf width, aboveground/belowground biomass, and internode length/diameter were observed in the meadow area, i.e., 78.54 cm, 7.93 mm, 7.03 and 3.88, respectively, while the highest branch frequency was observed in the meadow edge (88.4%). The plasticity index for aboveground/belowground biomass was higher (ranging from 0.77 to 0.92) at the four habitats, but those for the leaf width was slightly lower (ranging from 0.41 to 0.64). The number of spathes in each shoot showed no significant difference at different habitats, whereas the number of spathes per unit area was significantly different. Clonal reproduction was more dominant in meadow area than in the patch area where human disturbance was high.

  20. The Complex Transcriptional Response of Acaryochloris marina to Different Oxygen Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Prieto, Miguel A.; Lin, Yuankui; Chen, Min

    2016-01-01

    Ancient oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes produced oxygen as a waste product, but existed for a long time under an oxygen-free (anoxic) atmosphere, before an oxic atmosphere emerged. The change in oxygen levels in the atmosphere influenced the chemistry and structure of many enzymes that contained prosthetic groups that were inactivated by oxygen. In the genome of Acaryochloris marina, multiple gene copies exist for proteins that are normally encoded by a single gene copy in other cyanobacteria. Using high throughput RNA sequencing to profile transcriptome responses from cells grown under microoxic and hyperoxic conditions, we detected 8446 transcripts out of the 8462 annotated genes in the Cyanobase database. Two-thirds of the 50 most abundant transcripts are key proteins in photosynthesis. Microoxic conditions negatively affected the levels of expression of genes encoding photosynthetic complexes, with the exception of some subunits. In addition to the known regulation of the multiple copies of psbA, we detected a similar transcriptional pattern for psbJ and psbU, which might play a key role in the altered components of photosystem II. Furthermore, regulation of genes encoding proteins important for reactive oxygen species-scavenging is discussed at genome level, including, for the first time, specific small RNAs having possible regulatory roles under varying oxygen levels. PMID:27974439

  1. The ichthyotoxic alga Chattonella marina induces Na+, K+-ATPase, and CFTR proteins expression in fish gill chloride cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Janet Y.M.; Wong, Chris K.C.; Au, Doris W.T.

    2007-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that the ichthyotoxic Chattonella marina stimulated proliferation of branchial chloride cell (CC) and induced osmotic distress akin to hyperactive elimination of ions in fish (Rhabdosargus sarba). To ascertain the in vivo effects of C. marina on key CC ion transporters, the localization and expression of Na + , K + -ATPase (NKA) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) proteins in response to C. marina exposure were investigated, using a quantitative immunocytochemical approach. The polarized distributions of NKA (α subunit) and CFTR proteins in branchial CCs of R. sarba remained unchanged under C. marina exposure. However, significant inductions of these two ion-transporters were detected in CCs of fish after 6 h exposure. By real-time PCR, no significant changes in gill NKA and CFTR mRNA expressions were detected, suggesting a post-transcriptional pathway is likely involved in regulating the ion transporters abundance. This study is the first to demonstrate the in vivo effects of harmful algal toxin on NKA and CFTR protein expressions in gill transepithelial cells. Taken together, an augmentation of branchial CCs together with hyper-stimulation of NKA and CFTR in CCs attribute to the rapid development of osmotic distress in C. marina susceptible fish

  2. Recombinant Activated Factor VIIa (rFVIIa) Treatment in Very-Low-Birth-Weight (VLBW) Premature Infants with Acute Pulmonary Hemorrhage: A Single-Center, Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosar, Hese; Isik, Halil; Cakır, Salih Cagrı; Yar, Nese; Goksen, Bulent; Tokbay, Hakan; Kertmen, Hasan; Erdoğan, Nihal; Durak, Ikbal

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous administration of recombinant activated factor VIIa (rFVIIa) for acute pulmonary hemorrhage treatment in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) premature infants. This study was carried out retrospectively in premature infants with pulmonary hemorrhage that were ≤30 weeks gestational age or hemorrhage who were hospitalized in our neonatal intensive care unit between 01 January 2013 and 31 December 2015 were evaluated. Group 1 (n = 21) received rFVIIa support within the first 30 min of pulmonary hemorrhage plus conventional treatment, while Group 2 (n = 21) received conventional treatment only. The number of patients whose pulmonary hemorrhage was stopped within the first 2 h was significantly higher in Group 1 than Group 2 (n = 14 vs n = 4; p = 0.002). After pulmonary hemorrhage, hemoglobin values of Group 1 were higher than Group 2 (11.12 ± 1.06 vs 10.14 ± 1.59 g/dL; p = 0.024). Erythrocyte suspension (1.43 ± 4.51 vs 5.71 ± 7.46 mL/kg; p = 0.030) and fresh frozen plasma use (5.71 ± 8.10 vs 19.52 ± 12.44 mL/kg; p hemorrhage after 72 h, overall mortality, mortality from pulmonary hemorrhage, surfactant use, intubation time, hospitalization duration, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), severe IVH, patent ductus arteriosus rates, or short-term complication rates. rFVIIa administration was observed to be effective in stopping pulmonary hemorrhage, reducing blood product requirement, and improving coagulation test parameters. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy, reliability, and long-term results of rFVIIa in the prevention and treatment of pulmonary hemorrhage in premature infants.

  3. Indice de la microflora marina de Venezuela: diatomeas, dinoflagelados y cocolitofóridos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Díaz-Ramos

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios sobre el fitoplancton marino de Venezuela han sido realizados de manera regular desde mediados del siglo XX. Sin embargo, hasta ahora no se ha realizado un compendio de las especies encontradas que sirva como marco de referencia a los trabajos taxonómicos. En este trabajo se presenta por primera vez un índice de la microflora marina de Venezuela. El índice incluye sólo las diatomeas (89 especies céntricas y 186 especies pennadas, los dinoflagelados (ocho especies atecadas y 154 especies tecadas y los cocolitóforidos (24 especies a los cuales se les realizado una diagnosis formal e ilustraciones (dibujos y/o fotografias y que han sido reportados en la literatura científica (revistas y/o tesis de licenciatura o maestría. Esta ordenado según la clase, orden, familia y especie. Además, en el se cita al autor (es de cada taxón.ha.The marine phytoplankton of Venezuela has been studied on a regular basis since the mid 20th century. However, a species checklist that can be used as a framework for taxonomic studies is lacking. In this paper, an index of the marine microflora of Venezuela is presented for the first time. The index includes only those diatoms (89 centric and 186 pennate species, dinoflagellates (eight naked and 154 thecate species and coccolithophores (24 especies for which formal diagnosis and illustrations (drawings and/or photographs have been reported in the scientific literature (journals and/or first degree or master's theses. It is ordered alphabetically according to class, order, family, and species. It includes the author (s of the taxa.

  4. Deterioration of eelgrass, Zostera marina L., meadows by water pollution in Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaki, Hitoshi; Tokuoka, Makoto; Nishijima, Wataru; Terawaki, Toshinobu; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2002-11-01

    Survival of transplanted Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) and environmental conditions (water quality, bottom sediments, sedimentation on leaves and flow regime) were studied concurrently in the center, edge, and at the outside of a eelgrass meadow located in a eutrophic coastal zone in northern Hiroshima Bay, Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Eelgrass transplants at the outside of the meadow declined significantly, whereas those at the center were consistently well established. Silt content in the bottom sediments at the outside was higher than that at the center. The sediment was oxic from the surface to 2 cm deep at the center, whereas those at the edge and the outside were reductive almost from the surface. The sediment characteristics typical in eutrophic water seemed to be a factor responsible for the deterioration of eelgrass meadows. Although suspended solid concentrations in the water columns were almost the same, the amount of sediments deposited on leaves of eelgrass at the outside was higher than that at the center of the meadow. The amount of the deposition at the outside seems to be enough to inhibit photosynthesis; i.e. photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) available for eelgrass was only 36% of that without any deposition. The deposition in the center, however, was small enough to allow 84% of the original PPFD. Flow rates, determined at 30 cm above the bottom, a half height of average eelgrass, suggested that the rate at the outside was not enough to remove deposited sediments from the surface of eelgrass leaves. Thus, the large amount of sediment deposition caused by water pollution and/or eutrophication seemed to be another factor to inhibit the survival of eelgrass at the outside edge of the meadow.

  5. Deterioration of eelgrass, Zostera marina L., meadows by water pollution in Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Hitoshi; Tokuoka, Makoto; Nishijima, Wataru; Terawaki, Toshinobu; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2002-01-01

    Survival of transplanted Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) and environmental conditions (water quality, bottom sediments, sedimentation on leaves and flow regime) were studied concurrently in the center, edge, and at the outside of a eelgrass meadow located in a eutrophic coastal zone in northern Hiroshima Bay, Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Eelgrass transplants at the outside of the meadow declined significantly, whereas those at the center were consistently well established. Silt content in the bottom sediments at the outside was higher than that at the center. The sediment was oxic from the surface to 2 cm deep at the center, whereas those at the edge and the outside were reductive almost from the surface. The sediment characteristics typical in eutrophic water seemed to be a factor responsible for the deterioration of eelgrass meadows. Although suspended solid concentrations in the water columns were almost the same, the amount of sediments deposited on leaves of eelgrass at the outside was higher than that at the center of the meadow. The amount of the deposition at the outside seems to be enough to inhibit photosynthesis; i.e. photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) available for eelgrass was only 36% of that without any deposition. The deposition in the center, however, was small enough to allow 84% of the original PPFD. Flow rates, determined at 30 cm above the bottom, a half height of average eelgrass, suggested that the rate at the outside was not enough to remove deposited sediments from the surface of eelgrass leaves. Thus, the large amount of sediment deposition caused by water pollution and/or eutrophication seemed to be another factor to inhibit the survival of eelgrass at the outside edge of the meadow

  6. On the profile evolution of three artificial pebble beaches at Marina di Pisa, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Duccio; Sarti, Giovanni

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, the profiles of three artificial coarse-grained beaches located at Marina di Pisa (Tuscany, Italy) were monitored from April 2008 to May 2009 in order to define the response of the beaches to major storms that occurred during the study. Two beaches are similar, the third differs in length and in the level of protection, being less than half the length of the others and devoid of an offshore submerged breakwater. The work was achieved by means of accurate topographic surveys intended to reconstruct the beach profile from the backshore up to the foreshore-upper shoreface transition (step). The surveys were performed with an RTK-GPS instrument, which provided extremely precise recording of the beach. The most significant features of the beaches were tracked during each survey; in particular, the landward foot of the storm berm, the crest of the storm berm, the coastline, and the step crest were monitored. Five cross-shore transects were traced on each beach. Along these transects, any meaningful slope change was recorded to obtain accurate sections of the beach. The field datasets were processed with AutoCAD software to compare the beach profile evolution during the year-long research. The results showed a comparable evolution of the twin beaches: the resulting storm berm retreat of about 15 to 19 m is a remarkable feature considering the coarse grain size and the offshore protection. Due to the absence of the breakwater, the third beach was characterized by even higher values of recession (over 20 m), and showed hints of wave reflection-related processes after the huge, steep storm berm had been formed and grown after the high energy events. These processes were not as evident on the twin beaches. These results underline the different response of three similar protection schemes, and the importance that frequent monitoring of the beach morphology holds when it comes to coastal management issues.

  7. [Analysis of the patients who missed their appointments at the neurology clinic of the Marina Alta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera-Guitart, J; Mas-Server, M A; Más-Sesé, G

    To analyze the frequency, reasons and characteristics of patients who missed their appointments (NP) at the Neurology Clinic (CEN). To compare the characteristics of the NP with the patients who did not miss their appointment. Suggest measures to reduce avoidable causes of NP. During the period 1/10/99 to 30/4/2000 the cases of NP were prospectively recorded and compared with a sample of patients who attended the CEN during the same period. We analyze the data on age, sex, distance of home from CEN, diagnosis, type of consultation and date of last consultation. The NP were contacted by phone and asked why they had not gone for their appointments. The reasons given were then classified as avoidable or unavoidable. Of the 1,842 consultations scheduled, 19% were NP. When the NP and the patients who did attend were compared we found statistically significant differences regarding the distance home/CEN. According to the diagnosis, the NP had more 'symptoms/signs' and other MIA, whilst those who attended the clinic had more 'neuropathies' and 'awaiting diagnosis'. The commonest avoidable reasons (55.8%) for NP were forgetting, administrative error and communication failure, and for unavoidable reasons (44.2%) physical disability, other priorities and improvement. There is a large proportion of NP in the CEN of the Marina Alta. The distance from home to CEN (over 25 km) was the main factor affecting the rate of NP. Since 56% of the NP were due to avoidable causes, strategies could be designed to reduce this percentage. In the NP group, the main causes were forgetting, administrative errors and communication failure.

  8. Biocalcarenites as construction materials in Santa Marina de Aguas Santas Church at Cordoba, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meroño, J. E.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study consisted in characterizing the materials used to build Santa Marina de Aguas Santas Church at Cordoba and locating the original quarries. The techniques used in the lithological and chemical characterization included XRD, petrographic microscopy and electron dispersive scanning microscopy. The chemical index of weathering (CIW was used to quantify the state of stone decay. The lithology and different types of alterations observed were mapped. A comparison of the material on the building to ancient quarries identified “Naranjo” as the possible site where the stone was originally quarried.Para la caracterización litológica y determinación del grado de alteración de los materiales pétreos se han empleado las siguientes técnicas: difracción de rayos X (método del polvo, microscopía petrográfica (sobre lámina delgada y microscopía de barrido con EDS (energía dispersiva de rayos X, para determinar la composición química. El estado de degradación del material pétreo se ha cuantificado a partir del índice químico de alteración (CIW. Se han realizado cartografías sobre la fachada oeste: a de las litologías presentes y b de los diferentes tipos de alteración observados. La comparación de muestras del edificio con las de antiguas canteras ha permitido identificar la del Naranjo como la posible cantera de origen.

  9. Expression and characterization analysis of type 2 metallothionein from grey mangrove species (Avicennia marina) in response to metal stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Guoyong, E-mail: huang_gyh@sina.com [Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301 (China); State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang Youshao [Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301 (China)

    2010-08-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of low-molecular-weight cysteine-rich proteins and are thought to play possible roles in metal metabolism or detoxification. To evaluate the roles of metallothioneins in metal homeostasis or tolerance in Avicennia marina, a real-time quantitative PCR protocol was developed to directly evaluate the expression of AmMT2 mRNA, when A. marina seedlings were exposed to different concentrations of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) or lead (Pb) for 3 and 7 d. Real-time quantitative PCR results indicated that the regulation of AmMT2 mRNA expression by Zn, Cu and Pb was strongly dependent on concentration and time of exposure. A significant increase in the transcripts of AmMT2 gene was also found in response to Zn, Cu and Pb, at least under some experimental conditions. When AmMT2 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 as a carboxy-terminal extension of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), the transgenic bacteria showed an increased tolerance to Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd exposure as compared to control strains. Moreover, GST-AmMT2 was purified from E. coli cells grown in the presence of 400 {mu}M Zn, Cu, Pb or Cd. The purified GST-AmMT2 fusion protein could bind higher levels of all four metals than GST alone. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that AmMT2 may be involved in processes of metal homeostasis or tolerance in A. marina.

  10. Long-Term Field Study Reveals Subtle Effects of the Invasive Alga Sargassum muticum upon the Epibiota of Zostera marina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey DeAmicis

    Full Text Available Invasive species can alter coastal ecosystems both directly, e.g. through competition for substratum and nutrients, and indirectly. Indirect effects may be mediated by creation of dissimilar or inimical habitats, changes in predator and/or prey assemblages, alterations in associated biota, and perturbations of water movement and thermal regimes. Previous studies have shown that invasive algae can modify native habitat architecture, disrupt intricately linked food webs and alter epibiotic assemblages. In the UK, the seagrass Zostera marina supports a diverse epibiotic assemblage, influencing key factors such as sediment dynamics, depositional regime and trophic linkages. Increasing encroachment of the invasive alga Sargassum muticum into seagrass meadows changes the physical and chemical characteristics of the local environment and creates the potential for changes in the epibionts associated with the seagrass blades, threatening the integrity of the seagrass ecosystem. We investigated the effects of S. muticum invasion upon the epibiota of Z. marina in a drowned river valley in SW England seasonally from spring to autumn over four years in an in-situ manipulative experiment, comparing permanent quadrats with and without artificially introduced S. muticum. Epibiota were weighed, identified to the most detailed operational taxonomic unit (OTU possible, and unitary organisms were enumerated. Multivariate PERMANOVA+ analysis revealed significant differences in epibiont assemblages between Sargassum treatments. Linear mixed effects models indicated that differences in epibiota assemblage composition were not reflected as significant differences in mean biomass per sample, or number of epibiont OTUs per sample. We conclude that S. muticum invasion into Z. marina meadows may significantly alter the species composition and abundance distribution of epibiotic assemblages found on the blades of the seagrass. Thus S. muticum invasion could have more wide

  11. High genetic diversity and fine-scale spatial structure in the marine flagellate Oxyrrhis marina (Dinophyceae uncovered by microsatellite loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris D Lowe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Free-living marine protists are often assumed to be broadly distributed and genetically homogeneous on large spatial scales. However, an increasing application of highly polymorphic genetic markers (e.g., microsatellites has provided evidence for high genetic diversity and population structuring on small spatial scales in many free-living protists. Here we characterise a panel of new microsatellite markers for the common marine flagellate Oxyrrhis marina. Nine microsatellite loci were used to assess genotypic diversity at two spatial scales by genotyping 200 isolates of O. marina from 6 broad geographic regions around Great Britain and Ireland; in one region, a single 2 km shore line was sampled intensively to assess fine-scale genetic diversity. Microsatellite loci resolved between 1-6 and 7-23 distinct alleles per region in the least and most variable loci respectively, with corresponding variation in expected heterozygosities (H(e of 0.00-0.30 and 0.81-0.93. Across the dataset, genotypic diversity was high with 183 genotypes detected from 200 isolates. Bayesian analysis of population structure supported two model populations. One population was distributed across all sampled regions; the other was confined to the intensively sampled shore, and thus two distinct populations co-occurred at this site. Whilst model-based analysis inferred a single UK-wide population, pairwise regional F(ST values indicated weak to moderate population sub-division (0.01-0.12, but no clear correlation between spatial and genetic distance was evident. Data presented in this study highlight extensive genetic diversity for O. marina; however, it remains a substantial challenge to uncover the mechanisms that drive genetic diversity in free-living microorganisms.

  12. Effects of conventional and biodegradable microplastics on a marine ecosystem engineer (Arenicola marina) and sediment nutrient cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Dannielle Senga; Boots, Bas; Sigwart, Julia; Jiang, Shan; Rocha, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Effects of microplastic pollution on benthic organisms and ecosystem services provided by sedimentary habitats are largely unknown. An outdoor mesocosm experiment was done to realistically assess the effects of three different types of microplastic pollution (one biodegradable type; polylactic acid and two conventional types; polyethylene and polyvinylchloride) at increasing concentrations (0.02, 0.2 and 2% of wet sediment weight) on the health and biological activity of lugworms, Arenicola marina (Linnaeus, 1758), and on nitrogen cycling and primary productivity of the sediment they inhabit. After 31 days, A. marina produced less casts in sediments containing microplastics. Metabolic rates of A. marina increased, while microalgal biomass decreased at high concentrations, compared to sediments with low concentrations or without microplastics. Responses were strongest to polyvinylchloride, emphasising that different materials may have differential effects. Each material needs to be carefully evaluated in order to assess their risks as microplastic pollution. Overall, both conventional and biodegradable microplastics in sandy sediments can affect the health and behaviour of lugworms and directly or indirectly reduce primary productivity of these habitats. - Highlights: • Effects of conventional and biodegradable microplastics on lugworm habitats. • 0.2–2% microplastics (by weight) reduced microalgal biomass of sediment. • Biodegradable (PLA) and conventional (HDPE, PVC) microplastics had similar effects. • High doses (2% by sediment weight) of PVC altered metabolism of lugworms. • Microplastics altered burrowing activity of lugworms measured as casts. - Biodegradable and conventional microplastics altered activities of a key marine ecosystem engineer and reduced primary productivity of sandy sediments.

  13. Carbon sources and trophic structure in an eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) bed based on stable isotope and fatty acid analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Jaschinski, Sybill; Brepohl, Daniela C.; Sommer, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Multiple stable isotope and fatty acid analyses were applied to examine food web dynamics in an eelgrass Zostera marina L. system in the western Baltic Sea. Samples of eelgrass, epiphytic algae, sand microflora, red algae, phytoplankton and main consumer species were collected in June 2002. delta C-13 values of primary producers ranged from -9.6%. for eelgrass to the most depleted value of -34.9%. for the most abundant red alga, Delesseria sanguinea, Epiphyte delta C-13 (-11.3 parts per thous...

  14. Niveles de plomo y cadmio en agua marina y lapas (Patella vulgata L.) de la Ría de Vigo

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pérez López; M.C Nóvoa; J. Alonso; M. A. García Fernández; M.J. Melgar

    2003-01-01

    El empleo de seres vivos para monitorizar la contaminación por metales pesados en los ecosistemas acuáticos es de extremo interés en el campo de la ecotoxicología. En el presente estudio se han recogido muestras de agua marina y de lapas (Patella vulgata L.) de distintos puntos de la Ría de Vigo, con la intención de determinar en ellos los niveles de plomo y cadmio, por medio de una técnica de voltamperometría. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron una relación estrecha entr...

  15. Alternativa de biofertilizante como medio de cultivo para el crecimiento poblacional de dos microalgas marinas empleadas en la camaronicultura

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra Aznay, M.; Pérez Jar, L.; Leal Lorenzo, S.; Jaime Ceballos, B.; Jiménez Cabrera, R.; Pérez Díaz, S.; Bobadilla González, J.

    2012-01-01

    Con el propósito de evaluar el humus de lombriz roja californiana Eisenia foetida como biofertilizante para el crecimiento poblacional de dos microalgas marinas, fueron cultivadas Tetraselmis tetrathele y Chaetoceros muelleri en agua de mar enriquecida con cuatro diluciones (50; 200; 350 y 500 mL) de extracto líquido de humus. La especie T. tetrathele, cultivada en la dilución de 200 mL, no mostró diferencias con el patrón medio f/2 Guillard para los parámetros: concentración celu...

  16. The Influence of CO2 Enrichment on Net Photosynthesis of Seagrass Zostera marina in a Brackish Water Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Pajusalu, Liina; Martin, Georg; Põllumäe, Arno; Paalme, Tiina

    2016-01-01

    Seagrasses are distributed across the globe and their communities may play key roles in the coastal ecosystems. Seagrass meadows are expected to benefit from the increased carbon availability which might be used in photosynthesis in a future high CO2 world. The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of elevated pCO2 on the net photosynthesis of seagrass Zostera marina in a brackish water environment. The short-term mesocosm experiments were conducted in Kõiguste Bay (northern part o...

  17. Contenido de metales pesados en hígado y plumas de aves marinas afectadas por el accidente del "Prestige" en la costa de Galicia

    OpenAIRE

    M Pérez López; F Cid Galán; D Hernández Moreno; AL Oropesa Jiménez; AM López Beceiro; LE Fidalgo Álvarez; F Soler Rodríguez

    2005-01-01

    Las aves marinas son organismos situados en la cumbre de las cadenas alimentarias oceánicas, lo que permite su empleo en programas de biomonitorización para evaluar el efecto de los más diversos contaminantes sobre estos sensibles ecosistemas. En el presente trabajo se han analizado las concentraciones de distintos metales pesados (Pb, Zn, Cd y Cu) en hígado y plumas de tres especies de aves marinas (arao, frailecillo y alca) directamente afectadas por el vertido de crudo...

  18. Documento de conceptualización del sistema de monitoreo del Subsistema de Áreas Marinas Protegidas en Colombia. Invemar, GEF y PNUD.

    OpenAIRE

    Batista Morales, Angélica; Gómez López, Diana Isabel; Navarrete Ramírez, Sandra Milena; Alonso, David

    2014-01-01

    En los últimos 20 años Colombia ha logrado avances importantes para la consolidación del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas -Sinap. Específicamente para el tema de Áreas Marinas Protegidas (AMP), en el año 2001, la Política Nacional Ambiental para el Desarrollo Sostenible de los Espacios Oceánicos y las Zonas Costeras e Insulares de Colombia-Pnaoci” (MMA, 2001) platea como meta especifica el establecimiento de un Subsistema de Áreas Marinas Protegidas-SAMP como parte del Sin...

  19. Diseño de una metodología para la gestión sostenible de los recursos en áreas marinas protegidas

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Aranda, Cesar; Molina Garcia, Agustin; Gonzalez San Martin, M. Blanca

    2010-01-01

    La nueva Política Marina Integrada de la Unión Europea (UE) tiene como objetivo general la optimización y sostenibilidad de la explotación del mar. En este contexto, la figura de las Áreas Marinas Protegidas (AMPs) se plantea como un valioso instrumento para avanzar en la ordenación y gestión sostenible de los recursos marinos, permitiendo una gran variedad de alternativas en función del objetivo de conservación, el nivel de protección y las diferentes posibilidades de aprovechamiento de...

  20. Identificación de las prioridades de conservación de la biodiversidad marina y costera en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Alvarado

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica es un país reconocido por su alta diversidad de especies y ecosistemas, tanto en sus ambientes terrestres como marinos. A pesar de esta importancia, presenta un rezago en la conservación y manejo de la biodiversidad marina y costera, con respecto a la terrestre. Para el año 2006, la superficie marina protegida era de 5 208.8km² y 331.5km de línea costera, en 20 áreas silvestres protegidas. El país ha logrado importantes avances en la selección de sitios prioritarios para la conservación de la biodiversidad terrestre y de aguas continentales, aunque pocos esfuerzos se han realizado hasta el momento en la planificación marina. En este trabajo se muestra el análisis y resultados de un proceso de identificación de vacíos en la representatividad de la biodiversidad marina y costera en el sistema de áreas protegidas de Costa Rica. El estudio se construyó a partir de la información espacial disponible sobre la presencia y distribución de la biodiversidad marina y costera, el establecimiento de metas de conservación y el análisis de amenazas sobre la integridad ecológica de la biodiversidad. Posteriormente, se llevó a cabo la selección de sitios prioritarios mediante técnicas de optimización espacial, y la sobreposición con la actual capa de áreas marinas protegidas, para finalmente identificar los vacíos en la representatividad. En total, se identificaron 19 076km² de vacíos de conservación, 1 323km² en el Caribe y 17 753km² en el Pacífico. Se plantean recomendaciones dirigidas hacia la ampliación y fortalecimiento del sistema de áreas marinas protegidas del país, en el cual se usan los vacíos identificados como marco de referencia. Se espera que los resultados presentes sean parte de la base científica necesaria para la planificación de la conservación y uso sostenible de la biodiversidad marina en el país.

  1. Tissue factor-factor VIIa-specific up-regulation of IL-8 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells is mediated by PAR-2 and results in increased cell migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortoe, Gertrud M; Petersen, Lars C; Albrektsen, Tatjana

    2004-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF), the cellular receptor for factor VIIa (FVIIa), besides initiating blood coagulation, is believed to play an important role in tissue repair, inflammation, angiogenesis, and tumor metastasis. Like TF, the chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) is shown to play a critical role...... in these processes. To elucidate the potential mechanisms by which TF contributes to tumor invasion and metastasis, we investigated the effect of FVIIa on IL-8 expression and cell migration in a breast carcinoma cell line, MDA-MB-231, a cell line that constitutively expresses abundant TF. Expression of IL-8 m......RNA in MDA-MB-231 cells was markedly up-regulated by plasma concentrations of FVII or an equivalent concentration of FVIIa (10 nM). Neither thrombin nor other proteases involved in hemostasis were effective in stimulating IL-8 in these cells. Increased transcriptional activation of the IL-8 gene...

  2. Reversal of coagulopathy in critically ill patients with traumatic brain injury: recombinant factor VIIa is more cost-effective than plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Deborah M; Dutton, Richard P; Kramer, Mary E; Scalea, Thomas M

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability after trauma. Coagulopathy is common in this patient population and requires rapid reversal to allow for safe neurosurgical intervention and prevent worsening of the primary injury. Typically reversal of coagulopathy is accomplished with the use of plasma. Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa; NovoSeven, Novo Nordisk, Bagsvaerd, Denmark) has become increasingly used "off-label" in patients with neurosurgical emergencies to rapidly reverse coagulopathy. We hypothesized that the use of rFVIIa in this patient population would prove to be cost-effective as well as demonstrate clinical benefit. The trauma registry at the R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center was used to identify all coagulopatic trauma patients admitted between January 2002 and December 2007 with relatively isolated TBI (head Abbreviated Injury Scale score of >or=4). The medical records of patients were reviewed and demographics, injury-specific data, medications administered, laboratory values, blood product utilization, neurosurgical procedures, length of stay (LOS), discharge disposition, and outcome data were abstracted. Patients who received rFVIIa for reversal of coagulopathy were compared against those who did not receive rFVIIa. t Tests were used to compare differences between continuous variables, and chi2 analysis was used to compare categorical variables. A p value of percentage of patients with head Abbreviated Injury Scale score of 5 injuries, patients who underwent neurosurgical procedures and patients with preinjury warfarin use. There was no difference in total charges between these groups (mean US $63,403 in the conventionally treated group vs. $66,086). When patients who required admission to the intensive care unit were analyzed (n = 110, 50% received rFVIIa), total mean charges and costs were significantly lower in the group that received rFVIIa (mean US $108,900 vs. $77,907). Hospital LOS, days of mechanical

  3. O tecer e o trajar: metáforas do empoderamento feminino em dois contos de Marina Colasanti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enedir Silva Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Os contos de Marina Colasanti transitam entre o real e o fantástico alinhavando ações que conduzem as relações humanas e seus dilemas. Suas narrativas curtas são retiradas das experiências diárias para suscitar reflexões muito mais abrangentes, pois são entrelaçados de palavras e situações que desvelam o cotidiano e o comportamento exigido da mulher. A partir da análise dos contos “A moça tecelã”, do livro Doze reis e a moça no labirinto do vento (1982, e “Plano matrimonial”, de Contos do amor rasgado (1982, evidenciamos de que forma a autora constrói, metaforicamente, na tessitura narrativa a roupa masculina e o trabalho da tecelã para refletir acerca do empoderamento da mulher. Os contos têm em comum a relação heterossexual das protagonistas intermediada pelos trajes masculinos, que se revestem de simbologia e revelam, no contexto literário, a explanação do lugar social da mulher e do homem, visto como uma das linhas que alinhavam a vivência humana. Desse modo, Marina Colasanti tece na trama discursiva as redes de significações reveladoras do fazer e do ser feminino.

  4. Accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in the grey mangrove, Avicennia marina (Forsk.)Vierh.: biological indication potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, G.R.; Pulkownik, A.; Burchett, M.D.

    2003-01-01

    Mangrove roots may serve as a sensitive bio-indicator for metal pollution in estuarine systems. - The accumulative partitioning of the heavy metals Cu, Pb and Zn in the grey mangrove, Avicennia marina, were studied under field conditions. Copper and Pb were accumulated in root tissue to levels higher than surrounding sediment levels. Zinc was accumulated to levels reflecting sediment concentrations. Strong linear relationships existed for all metals in sediments with metals in root tissue. Accumulation of Cu in leaf tissue followed a linear relationship at lower sediment concentrations, with an exclusion or saturation mechanism at higher sediment concentrations. Lead showed little mobility to leaf tissue. Zn showed restricted accumulation in leaf tissue, which correlated with sediment concentrations. Decreases in sediment pH were found to increase Zn accumulation to root tissue. Increasing concentrations of Pb and Zn in sediments resulted in a greater accumulation of Pb to both root and leaf tissue. A. marina roots may be employed as a biological indicator of environmental exposure of Cu, Pb and Zn and leaves for Zn, with temporal monitoring

  5. Range-edge genetic diversity: locally poor extant southern patches maintain a regionally diverse hotspot in the seagrass Zostera marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Onno E; Serrão, Ester A

    2012-04-01

    Refugial populations at the rear edge are predicted to contain higher genetic diversity than those resulting from expansion, such as in post-glacial recolonizations. However, peripheral populations are also predicted to have decreased diversity compared to the centre of a species' distribution. We aim to test these predictions by comparing genetic diversity in populations at the limits of distribution of the seagrass Zostera marina, with populations in the species' previously described central diversity 'hotspot'. Zostera marina populations show decreased allelic richness, heterozygosity and genotypic richness in both the 'rear' edge and the 'leading' edge compared to the diversity 'hotspot' in the North Sea/Baltic region. However, when populations are pooled, genetic diversity at the southern range is as high as in the North Sea/Baltic region while the 'leading edge' remains low in genetic diversity. The decreased genetic diversity in these southern Iberian populations compared to more central populations is possibly the effect of drift because of small effective population size, as a result of reduced habitat, low sexual reproduction and low gene flow. However, when considering the whole southern edge of distribution rather than per population, diversity is as high as in the central 'hotspot' in the North Sea/Baltic region. We conclude that diversity patterns assessed per population can mask the real regional richness that is typical of rear edge populations, which have played a key role in the species biogeographical history and as marginal diversity hotspots have very high conservation value. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Liver histopathology in the cane toad, Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae), induced by Ortleppascaris sp. larvae (Nematoda: Ascarididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jefferson P E; da Silva, Djane C B; Melo, Francisco T V; Giese, Elane G; Furtado, Adriano P; Santos, Jeannie N

    2013-04-01

    Exposure to parasites is considered to be an important factor in the development of many diseases and histopathologies which are the result of the parasite-host interaction. The present study evaluated the impact of natural infection by larvae of Ortleppascaris sp. (Nematoda: Ascaridida) in the liver of the cane toad Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758). Larvae were encysted in nodules delimited by collagenous fibers and fibroblasts or freely within the hepatic parenchyma, provoking a clear response from the host. The histological examination of the liver revealed viable larvae in a number of different developmental stages, as well as cysts filled with amorphous material and cell residues and surrounded by dense fibrotic tissue. The infection of the liver by these larvae induces a significant increase in the area occupied by melanomacrophages and a reduction or deficit in the vascularization of the liver, hypertrophy of the hepatocytes, vacuolar bodies, and cytoplasmatic granules. Focal concentrations of inflammatory infiltrates were observed enclosing the unencapsulated early-stage larvae. These results indicate that infection by Ortleppascaris sp. induces severe physiological problems and histopathological lesions in the liver of R. marina .

  7. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, Kevin; Rearick, Jolene; Fowler, Megan C.; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alehandro; Ward, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128–0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation.

  8. The structure of genetic diversity in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea coasts of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, Kevin; Rearick, Jolene; Fowler, Megan C.; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alehandro; Ward, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128–0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation.

  9. Characterization of a New Trioxilin and a Sulfoquinovosyl Diacylglycerol with Anti-Inflammatory Properties from the Dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Young Yoon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new compounds—a trioxilin and a sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG—were isolated from the methanolic extract of the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina cultivated by feeding on dried yeasts. The trioxilin was identified as (4Z,8E,13Z,16Z,19Z -7(S,10(S,11(S-trihydroxydocosapentaenoic acid (1, and the SQDG was identified as (2S-1-O-hexadecanosy-2-O-docosahexaenoyl-3-O-(6-sulfo-α-d-quinovopyranosyl-glycerol (2 by a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectra, mass analyses, and chemical reactions. The two compounds were associated with docosahexaenoic acid, which is a major component of O. marina. The two isolated compounds showed significant nitric oxide inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 cells. Compound 2 showed no cytotoxicity against hepatocarcinoma (HepG2, neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a, and colon cancer (HCT-116 cells, while weak cytotoxicity was observed for compound 1 against Neuro-2a cells.

  10. Impact of polychaetes (Nereis spp. and Arenicola marina on carbon biogeochemistry in coastal marine sediments†

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Erik

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Known effects of bioturbation by common polychaetes (Nereis spp. and Arenicola marina in Northern European coastal waters on sediment carbon diagenesis is summarized and assessed. The physical impact of irrigation and reworking activity of the involved polychaete species is evaluated and related to their basic biology. Based on past and present experimental work, it is concluded that effects of bioturbation on carbon diagenesis from manipulated laboratory experiments cannot be directly extrapolated to in situ conditions. The 45–260% flux (e.g., CO2 release enhancement found in the laboratory is much higher than usually observed in the field (10–25%. Thus, the faunal induced enhancement of microbial carbon oxidation in natural sediments instead causes a reduction of the organic matter inventory rather than an increased release of CO2 across the sediment/water interface. The relative decrease in organic inventory (Gb/Gu is inversely related to the relative increase in microbial capacity for organic matter decay (kb/ku. The equilibrium is controlled by the balance between organic input (deposition of organic matter at the sediment surface and the intensity of bioturbation. Introduction of oxygen to subsurface sediment and removal of metabolites are considered the two most important underlying mechanisms for the stimulation of carbon oxidation by burrowing fauna. Introduction of oxygen to deep sediment layers of low microbial activity, either by downward irrigation transport of overlying oxic water or by upward reworking transport of sediment to the oxic water column will increase carbon oxidation of anaerobically refractory organic matter. It appears that the irrigation effect is larger than and to a higher degree dependent on animal density than the reworking effect. Enhancement of anaerobic carbon oxidation by removal of metabolites (reduced diffusion scale may cause a significant increase in total sediment metabolism. This is caused by three

  11. Tutela dei crediti del gestore del porto turistico in Italia = Enforcement and settlement of the marina operator’s claims in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Merialdi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a synthetic analysis of the remedies available under Italian law for the enforcement of claims of marinas towards their clients, with particular regard to the right of retention and conservative arrest of pleasure craft. It considers the reasons why the application of the remedy of retention is problematic in this field and conservative arrest is a preferable option.

  12. Free and Bound Fatty-Acids and Hydroxy Fatty-Acids in the Living and Decomposing Eelgrass Zostera-Marina L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Leeuw, J.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Nienhuis, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    Very early diagenetic processes of free, esterified and amide or glycosidically bound fatty acids and hydroxy fatty acids present in well documented samples of living and decomposing eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) were investigated. Free and esterified fatty acids decreased significantly over a period

  13. Has the rapidly expanding invasive dwarf eelgrass Zostera japonica in Yaquina estuary, Oregon impacted the distribution of native eelgrass Zostera marina – a critical intertidal habitat? - CERF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Native eelgrass, Zostera marina, occupies a significant portion of marine-dominated intertidal and near-subtidal sectors of many coastal estuaries. In recent decades an invasive congener, Z. japonica, has become established in many Pacific Northwest estuaries. We measured the h...

  14. Has the rapidly expanding invasive dwarf eelgrass Zostera japonica in Yaquina estuary, Oregon impacted the distribution of native eelgrass Zostera marina – a critical intertidal habitat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Native eelgrass, Zostera marina, occupies a significant portion of marine-dominated intertidal and near-subtidal sectors of many coastal estuaries. In recent decades an invasive congener, Z. japonica, has become established in many Pacific Northwest estuaries. We measured the h...

  15. Comparison of non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass (Zostera japonica) and native eelgrass (Z. marina) distributions in a northeast Pacific estuary: 1997-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study addressed the following question: In a coastal estuary of the northeastern Pacific Ocean with a relatively large areal extent of the native eelgrass Zostera marina, is an expanding distribution of the non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass Z. japonica accompanied by a measurab...

  16. COMPARISON OF ANNUAL PRODUCTION ECOLOGY OF NATIVE EELGRASS ZOSTERA MARINA AND THE NON-NATIVE DWARF EELGRASS Z. JAPONICA IN YAQUINA BAY, OREGON

    Science.gov (United States)

    When non-native plant species invade a system they often change patterns of primary production. I evaluate the contribution of the seagrass Zostera marina and it's non-native congener Z. japonica to primary production in Yaquina Bay. Few measurements of Z. japonica production e...

  17. MAPPING INTERTIDAL EELGRASS (ZOSTERA MARINA L.) IN THREE COASTAL ESTUARIES OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST USA USING FALSE-COLOUR NEAR-INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes a hybrid technique of digitally classifying aerial photography used for mapping the intertidal habitat of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in Pacific Northwest USA estuaries. The large tidal range (2-3 m) in this region exposes most of this seagrass community at ...

  18. Iguanas and Salmonella marina infection in children: a reflection of the increasing incidence of reptile-associated salmonellosis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermin, J; Hoar, B; Angulo, F J

    1997-03-01

    To investigate clinical aspects and risk factors for Salmonella serotype Marina infection in the United States. We identified all isolates of S Marina reported in 1994 to the National Salmonella Surveillance System. Patients were interviewed about demographic information, clinical course, diet, travel history, and contact with reptiles before illness. Twenty-six (81%) of 32 patients were infants (iguana exposure, only 4 (14%) touched the reptile, and only 12 respondents (43%) realized that it might have been the source of infection. Seven (32%) of 22 families who owned an iguana at the time of illness continued to own an iguana when contacted a median of 28 weeks later. Persons who thought that the iguana was the source of infection were more likely to have given away or sold the pet than those who did not. Four isolates (13%) were from blood. Bacteremia was associated with taking antibiotics during the 30 days before S Marina infection (odds ratio: 24; 95% confidence interval: 1.2-1309). S Marina infection is a potentially serious illness associated with iguana exposure, and it reflects the larger problem of reptile-associated salmonellosis. Many parents do not know that owning an iguana puts their children at risk for Salmonella infection. Pediatricians, veterinarians, and pet store owners should inform their patients and customers of the potential risks of owning reptiles and provide appropriate preventive education.

  19. Biogeografía marina de Chile continental Marine biogeography of continental Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO A. CAMUS

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Por casi un siglo, varios autores han analizado los patrones de distribución de la fauna y flora marina del Pacífico de Sudamérica y de la costa de Chile en particular, con el propósito de establecer el número de las unidades biogeográficas presentes. Si bien los patrones generales actuales son relativamente bien conocidos, la mayoría de los estudios se ha enfocado en las discontinuidades distribucionales y en propuestas de clasificación más que en los factores y procesos dinámicos que han formado las unidades espaciales identificadas. Aun en el caso de las clasificaciones, las conclusiones publicadas se basan principalmente en el análisis de uno o pocos grupos seleccionados, y presentan diferencias importantes en los criterios de selección de los grupos, el número de especies involucrado y la metodología usada. Por otra parte, las discrepancias entre estudios específicos tienden a obscurecer un fenómeno relevante y de mayor escala como es la dinámica de las biotas, uno de los aspectos biogeográficos menos conocidos en Chile. En tal contexto, este trabajo presenta una revisión de literatura sobre la biogeografía marina de Chile y sus aspectos asociados, con los siguientes objetivos: (a resumir las características oceanográficas, climáticas y geomorfológicas de la costa continental de Chile; (b discutir 27 clasificaciones biogeográficas publicadas para la costa chilena, analizando los criterios y procedimientos usados por los autores, sus conclusiones principales, y la concordancia entre los estudios; (c evaluar los procesos dispersivos y vicariantes asociados a los desplazamientos y modificaciones de las biotas de la región, en función de los antecedentes disponibles sobre las condiciones existentes y los principales eventos ocurridos durante los períodos Terciario y Cuaternario; y (d proponer un escenario de cambio biogeográfico basado en determinantes históricas y su influencia en la formación, carácter y din

  20. New Insights into Different Reproductive Effort and Sexual Recruitment Contribution between Two Geographic Zostera marina L. Populations in Temperate China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shaochun; Wang, Pengmei; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Xiaomei; Gu, Ruiting; Liu, Xujia; Liu, Bingjian; Song, Xiaoyue; Xu, Shuai; Yue, Shidong

    2018-01-01

    Seagrasses are important components of global coastal ecosystems, and the eelgrass Zostera marina L. is widely distributed along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts in the temperate northern hemisphere, but limited datum related to the contribution of sexual reproduction to population recruitment have been reported. This study aimed to understand eelgrass sexual reproduction and population recruitment in Swan Lake (SLL), and Huiquan Bay (HQB) was included for comparison. Random sampling, permanent quadrats or cores and laboratory seed germination-based experimental methods were employed. The flowering, seed production, seed banks, seed germination, seedling survival, and seedling growth of eelgrass were investigated from July 2014 to December 2015 to evaluate the contribution of sexual reproduction to population recruitment. Results indicated a dominant role of asexual reproduction in HQB, while sexual reproduction played a relatively important role in SLL. The highest flowering shoot density in SLL was 517.27 ± 504.29 shoots m -2 (June) and represented 53.34% of the total shoots at the center site. The potential seed output per reproductive shoot and per unit area in SLL were 103.67 ± 37.95 seeds shoot -1 and 53,623.66 ± 19,628.11 seeds m -2 , respectively. The maximum seed bank density in SLL was 552.21 ± 204.94 seeds m -2 (October). Seed germination mainly occurred from the middle of March to the end of May, and the highest seedling density was 296.88 ± 274.27 seedlings m -2 in April. The recruitment from seedlings accounted for 41.36% of the Z. marina population recruitment at the center site, while the sexual recruitment contribution at the patch site (50.52%) was greater than that at the center site. Seeds in SLL were acclimated to spring germination, while in HQB, they were acclimated to autumn germination (early October-late November). Seed bank density in HQB was very low, with a value of 254.35 ± 613.34 seeds m -2 (early October). However, seeds in HQB

  1. REPETITION AS A SPECIAL TYPE OF SYNTACTIC RELATIONS IN REPRESENTED SPEECH: BASED ON THE PROSE BY MARINA TSVETAEVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Pavlovna Puchinina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The author studies the peculiarities of repetition, being one of the ways to build syntactic relations in the represented speech structure, based on the prose by Marina Tsvetaeva. The article describes the different types of repetitions, their distinctive features and frequency of usage in the studied tests. The author describes different types of repetitions in the studied cases of represented speech from the point of view of their position. Repetition occurs at the beginning, end of sentences, beginning and end of a statement or paragraph, end of a statement and beginning of the next one; lexical items may be repeated in the middle of a statement. The morphology of repetitions, i.e., the way by what parts of speech the repeated words and structures are expressed, is of interest from the point of view of functional grammar. The author notes that Tsvetaeva repeats different parts of speech: conjunctions, prepositions, particles, nouns, pronouns, adverbs, numerals, verbs, modal words or a combination of two words. Moreover, due to her special intention, Tsvetaeva intensifies repetition through particular phonetic devices, such as alliteration, rhyme and rhythm, which make her prosaic works sound poetic. Purpose. The article is devoted to the topic of rendering another person’s speech, as it continues to be one of the most important issues of modern linguistics. The subject of analysis is repetition and its different types in the structure of represented speech on the material of prose texts by Marina Tsvetaeva. The author’s aims is to reveal the way these types of repetition (lexical, syntactic, semantic ones function in the structure of represented speech and what effect is achieved with their help. Methodology. The research has been conducted using the continuous sampling method and the quantitative estimation method, aimed to identify the frequency of using different types of repetition and repeated parts of speech and constructions in the

  2. Rezension von: Karl Lenz, Marina Adler: Geschlechterverhältnisse. Einführung in die sozialwissenschaftliche Geschlechterforschung Band 1. Weinheim u.a.: Juventa Verlag 2010. — Karl Lenz, Marina Adler: Geschlechterbeziehungen. Weinheim u.a.: Juventa Verlag 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Kahlert

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Karl Lenz und Marina Adler orientieren sich in ihrem zweibändigen Lehrbuch zur sozialwissenschaftlichen Geschlechterforschung an der etablierten Unterscheidung zwischen Makro- und Mikrosoziologie. Im ersten Band werden theoretische Perspektiven der Geschlechterforschung und unterschiedliche Zusammenhänge zu Kultur nachgezeichnet sowie zentrale Themenfelder einer Sozialstrukturanalyse der Geschlechterordnung fokussiert, nämlich Recht, Politik, Bildung und Arbeit. Im zweiten Band stehen neben der Sozialisation ausgewählte Erträge der mikrosoziologischen Geschlechterforschung im Zentrum, nämlich Körper, Sexualität, persönliche Beziehungen, Devianz und Gewalt. In dieser überfälligen, informativen, sorgfältig recherchierten, aber auch vergleichsweise traditionellen und empirisch orientierten Einführung wird die Geschlechterforschung zwar in einer breiteren Diversity-Forschung verortet, das Verhältnis von Diversität und Geschlecht leider aber nicht reflektiert.

  3. NUEVO REGISTRO DE LA NUTRIA MARINA Lontra felina (MOLINA, 1782) AL NORTE DE SU DISTRIBUCIÓN ACTUAL

    OpenAIRE

    Alfaro-Shigueto, Joanna; University of Exeter, Penyrn, Cornwall, TR10 9EZ, United Kingdom.; Valqui, Juan; Centro de Ornitología y Biodiversidad (CORBIDI). Calle Santa Rita 105 Of. 202, Lima 33, Perú.; Mangel, Jeffrey C.; University of Exeter, Penyrn, Cornwall, TR10 9EZ, United Kingdom.

    2011-01-01

    La nutria marina Lontra felina es una especie en peligro de extinción cuyo rango de distribución es controversial, siendo considerada el área de Chimbote (9°10´S) como el límite norte de su distribución actual. Aquí se documenta por primera vez su presencia a 115 km al norte de Chimbote, en el puerto artesanal de Huanchaco (08°04´S). La discusión de esta nota científica busca promover la generación de investigaciones que esclarezcan tanto los factores que determinan la presencia de la nutria ...

  4. New Insights into Different Reproductive Effort and Sexual Recruitment Contribution between Two Geographic Zostera marina L. Populations in Temperate China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaochun Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Seagrasses are important components of global coastal ecosystems, and the eelgrass Zostera marina L. is widely distributed along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts in the temperate northern hemisphere, but limited datum related to the contribution of sexual reproduction to population recruitment have been reported. This study aimed to understand eelgrass sexual reproduction and population recruitment in Swan Lake (SLL, and Huiquan Bay (HQB was included for comparison. Random sampling, permanent quadrats or cores and laboratory seed germination-based experimental methods were employed. The flowering, seed production, seed banks, seed germination, seedling survival, and seedling growth of eelgrass were investigated from July 2014 to December 2015 to evaluate the contribution of sexual reproduction to population recruitment. Results indicated a dominant role of asexual reproduction in HQB, while sexual reproduction played a relatively important role in SLL. The highest flowering shoot density in SLL was 517.27 ± 504.29 shoots m−2 (June and represented 53.34% of the total shoots at the center site. The potential seed output per reproductive shoot and per unit area in SLL were 103.67 ± 37.95 seeds shoot−1 and 53,623.66 ± 19,628.11 seeds m−2, respectively. The maximum seed bank density in SLL was 552.21 ± 204.94 seeds m−2 (October. Seed germination mainly occurred from the middle of March to the end of May, and the highest seedling density was 296.88 ± 274.27 seedlings m−2 in April. The recruitment from seedlings accounted for 41.36% of the Z. marina population recruitment at the center site, while the sexual recruitment contribution at the patch site (50.52% was greater than that at the center site. Seeds in SLL were acclimated to spring germination, while in HQB, they were acclimated to autumn germination (early October–late November. Seed bank density in HQB was very low, with a value of 254.35 ± 613.34 seeds m−2 (early October

  5. El modelo turístico de la Marina Alta: apuntes para una nueva etapa desde la sostenibilidad como referencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fernando Vera Rebollo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de las siguientes reflexiones no es otro que aportar algunas ideas en el marco de un debate necesario sobre el modelo territorial-turístico de la Marina Alta, en el contexto de una nueva filosofía de desarrollo que lleva implícitos, como contenidos clave, la gestión racional de los recursos naturales y culturales y la calidad de vida de las poblaciones locales. Son aspectos a los que el turismo puede aportar argumentos, en tanto que su futuro como actividad ha de estar basado en la calidad, la gestión ambiental y la diferenciación de los espacios de destino

  6. High mortality of Zostera marina under high temperature regimes but minor effects of the invasive macroalgae Gracilaria vermiculophylla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höffle, Hannes; Thomsen, M.S.; Holmer, M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study tested for density-dependent effects of the invasive drift macroalgae Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss on growth and survival of the native eelgrass, Zostera marina L., under different temperature levels. Three weeks laboratory experiments were conducted in Odense......, Denmark, combining three algae densities (control, low 1.9 kg WW m2, high 4.5 kg WW m2) with typical Danish summer temperatures (18 C) and elevated temperatures (21 C and 27 C). There was a significant effect of temperature on shoot survival with on average 68% mortality in the high temperature treatment...... but almost no mortality at the two lower temperatures. The higher mortality was probably caused by high sulphide levels in the sediment pore water (0.6 mmol l1 at 18 C compared to 3.7 mmol l1 at 27 C). Above-ground growth of the surviving shoots was also significantly affected by temperature, with leaf...

  7. EL IMPACTO DE LA AGRICULTURA INTENSIVA EN EL USO TURÍSTICO DE LAS PLAYAS DE MARINA DE COPE (MURCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Belmonte Serrato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de la agricultura intensiva y, especialmente, la ocupación agrícola de los fondos de las ramblas, ha ocasionado un desequilibrio sedimentario en las playas de Marina de COPE. Los retrocesos de la línea de costa oscilan entre 16 y 68 m y la disminución de la superficie se estima en un 50% de la correspondiente a 1956. Esto, ha reducido su capacidad de carga potencial que, para una intensidad de uso de 25 m2/usuario, ha pasado de 4.400 usuarios potenciales por día a 2.200. Lo que implica, para los meses de uso de estas playas, julio y agosto, una pérdida de capacidad de 130.000 usuarios.

  8. The effects of coal dust on photosynthetic performance of the mangrove, Avicennia marina in Richards Bay, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidoo, G.; Chirkoot, D.

    2004-01-01

    Richards Bay, on the northern KwaZulu-Natal coast, is the largest coal exporting port in South Africa. The coal is stored at the Richards Bay Coal Terminal (RBCT) prior to export. Dust from coal operations is a major problem in the Richards Bay area. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that coal dust adversely affects photosynthetic performance of Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh., the dominant mangrove species in the harbour. Photosynthetic performance was determined on 10 trees by measuring carbon dioxide uptake and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters at two elevation sites and on upper and lower leaf surfaces that were covered or uncovered with coal dust. Measurements were made on five clear, sunny days at saturating light (>1000 μmol m -2 s -1 ) and high temperature (28-30 deg. C). Coal dust significantly reduced carbon dioxide exchange of upper and lower leaf surfaces by 17-39%, the reduction being generally greater on the lower leaf surface that is covered by a dense mat of trichomes and salt glands. The reduction in carbon dioxide exchange by coal dust was higher at the high elevation site that supported isolated dwarfed trees. The chlorophyll fluorescence data indicated that leaves coated with dust exhibited significantly lower photosystem II (PS II) quantum yield, lower electron transport rate (ETR) through PSII and reduced quantum efficiency of PSII (F v F m ). The chlorophyll fluorescence data supported the gas exchange measurements and are consistent with reduced photosynthetic performance of leaves coated with coal dust. - Coal dust reduced photosynthetic performance of the mangrove, Avicennia marina

  9. Evidence for strain-specific exometabolomic responses of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi to grazing by the dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey L Poulson-Ellestad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi forms massive blooms and plays a critical role in global elemental cycles, sequestering significant amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide on geological time scales via production of calcium carbonate coccoliths and emitting dimethyl sulfoniopropionate (DMSP which has the potential for increasing atmospheric albedo. Because grazing in pelagic systems is a major top-down force structuring microbial communities, the influence of grazers on E. huxleyi populations has been of interest to researchers. Roles of DMSP (and related metabolites in interactions between E. huxleyi and protist grazers have been investigated, however, little is known about the release of other metabolites that may influence, or be influenced by, such grazing interactions. We used high-resolution mass spectrometry in an untargeted approach to survey the suite of low molecular weight compounds released by four different E. huxleyi strains in response to grazing by the dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina. Overall, a strikingly small number of metabolites were detected from E. huxleyi and O. marina cells, but these were distinctly informative to construct metabolic footprints. At most, E. huxleyi strains shared 25% of released metabolites. Furthermore, there appeared to be no unified metabolic response in E. huxleyi strains to grazing; rather these responses were strain specific. Concentrations of several metabolites also positively correlated with grazer activities, including grazing, ingestion, and growth rates; however, no single metabolite responded uniformly across all strains of E. huxleyi tested. Regardless, grazing clearly transformed the constituents of dissolved organic matter produced by these marine microbes. This study addresses several technical challenges, and presents a platform to further study the influence of chemical cues in aquatic systems and demonstrates the impact of strain diversity and grazing on the complexity of

  10. Consumers' risk elimination in fuel supply chain. The Attica's Marinas yacht fuelling case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liapis, Nikolaos [ELINOIL-HELLENIC PETROLEUM COMPANY, S.A., Kifisia (Greece); Zannikos, Fanourios [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Lab. of Fuels Technology and Lubricants

    2013-06-01

    Oil products distribution system is a complicated supply chain and includes a lot of uncertainties. A limited but quite interesting part of this system is yachting supply in marinas. Yachts usually are equipped with high efficiency and big horsepower modem engines; sea travelling is risky itself so fuel quality contributes significant in safety; many of the yachts are chartered for hired cruises and so operators have the right to purchase tax-free marine diesel, which creates conditions for smuggling and adulteration. All above create a great need for quality control in these fuels, as Greek oil companies do not apply at the moment Total Quality Management (TQM) for securing both quality specifications and quantity paid by the end user. In this research project the Laboratory of Fuel Technology and Lubricants of NTUA collected samples and analysed fuels delivered by tank trucks to yachts in six marinas in the district of Attica. These fuels were marketed by ELINOIL SA, a medium size oil distribution company, operating in Greece. ELINOIL has a market share of 6% of the Greek fuel market but is a market leader in yachting supply in Attica, having more than 50% of the specific market. Problems concerning fuel quality were analysed, direct or indirect causes were tracked, recorded and analysed, always in comparison with data from other Quality Control procedures applied from the company. A specially developed database was updated with facts and figures from incidents and quality issues covering this activity of the company during this period. The project, as it was targeted, detected the quality problems of the specific supply chain and ended to suggestions concerning the building of Quality Assurance System in yachting fuel supply. (orig.)

  11. Population genetic structure of eelgrass (Zostera marina on the Korean coast: Current status and conservation implications for future management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hwan Kim

    Full Text Available Seagrasses provide numerous ecosystem services for coastal and estuarine environments, such as nursery functions, erosion protection, pollution filtration, and carbon sequestration. Zostera marina (common name "eelgrass" is one of the seagrass bed-forming species distributed widely in the northern hemisphere, including the Korean Peninsula. Recently, however, there has been a drastic decline in the population size of Z. marina worldwide, including Korea. We examined the current population genetic status of this species on the southern coast of Korea by estimating the levels of genetic diversity and genetic structure of 10 geographic populations using eight nuclear microsatellite markers. The level of genetic diversity was found to be significantly lower for populations on Jeju Island [mean allelic richness (AR = 1.92, clonal diversity (R = 0.51], which is located approximately 155 km off the southernmost region of the Korean Peninsula, than for those in the South Sea (mean AR = 2.69, R = 0.82, which is on the southern coast of the mainland. South Korean eelgrass populations were substantially genetically divergent from one another (FST = 0.061-0.573, suggesting that limited contemporary gene flow has been taking place among populations. We also found weak but detectable temporal variation in genetic structure within a site over 10 years. In additional depth comparisons, statistically significant genetic differentiation was observed between shallow (or middle and deep zones in two of three sites tested. Depleted genetic diversity, small effective population sizes (Ne and limited connectivity for populations on Jeju Island indicate that these populations may be vulnerable to local extinction under changing environmental conditions, especially given that Jeju Island is one of the fastest warming regions around the world. Overall, our work will inform conservation and restoration efforts, including transplantation for eelgrass populations at the

  12. FACILITIES PLANNING WORKSHOP FOR BLASTING SUPPORT THE ACTIVITY OF DEVELOPMENT AND REPAIR SHIP IN PT. JASA MARINA INDAH UNIT II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Samuel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Blasting in the process of planning the workshop production of new building and ship repair to play a role in providing blasting and paint on the block that will be of erection. As a result of blasting workshop facilities that do not have resulted in low production capacity that can be achieved by this workshop, namely three block ships per month. Capacity blasting and paint shop in this low resulted in low productivity process stage (stage the previous workshops which of course result in a decrease in vessel productivity in general.                 In penelitiaan aims to plan for blasting and paint shop facility which has been adjusted to the planned production capacity of PT. JASA MARINA INDAH II units.                 In this study it - thing to note is to understand the data - the data field for research conducted in terms of both technical and economic terms, with the blasting and paint shop facilities on the construction or repair of ships that have been planned, then the effectiveness of the work and production flow at. Jasa Marina Indah II units can be known.                 Based on the analysis and calculation of both technical and economical it can be identified by the workshop on the process of blasting Blasting efficiency is obtained for 2.55 hours, at 10.16 hours during the painting process, while economical in terms of labor costs can be reduced blasting cost is Rp.930000    for          paint       and         Rp.1.23million

  13. Aerobic scope and cardiovascular oxygen transport is not compromised at high temperatures in the toad Rhinella marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Johannes; Andersen, Jonas L; Findsen, Anders; Pedersen, Pil B M; Hansen, Kasper; Ozolina, Karlina; Wang, Tobias

    2012-10-15

    Numerous recent studies convincingly correlate the upper thermal tolerance limit of aquatic ectothermic animals to reduced aerobic scope, and ascribe the decline in aerobic scope to failure of the cardiovascular system at high temperatures. In the present study we investigate whether this 'aerobic scope model' applies to an air-breathing and semi-terrestrial vertebrate Rhinella marina (formerly Bufo marinus). To quantify aerobic scope, we measured resting and maximal rate of oxygen consumption at temperatures ranging from 10 to 40°C. To include potential effects of acclimation, three groups of toads were acclimated chronically at 20, 25 and 30°C, respectively. The absolute difference between resting and maximal rate of oxygen consumption increased progressively with temperature and there was no significant decrease in aerobic scope, even at temperature immediately below the lethal limit (41-42°C). Haematological and cardiorespiratory variables were measured at rest and immediately after maximal activity at benign (30°C) and critically high (40°C) temperatures. Within this temperature interval, both resting and active heart rate increased, and there was no indication of respiratory failure, judged from high arterial oxygen saturation, P(O2) and [Hb(O2)]. With the exception of elevated resting metabolic rate for cold-acclimated toads, we found few differences in the thermal responses between acclimation groups with regard to the cardiometabolic parameters. In conclusion, we found no evidence for temperature-induced cardiorespiratory failure in R. marina, indicating that maintenance of aerobic scope and oxygen transport is unrelated to the upper thermal limit of this air-breathing semi-terrestrial vertebrate.

  14. The MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy: A Flexible Strategy for Efficient Information Collection and Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Peter M J; Gottardo, Stefania; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J; van Tongeren, Martie; Semenzin, Elena; Fernandes, Teresa F; Hristozov, Danail; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Hunt, Neil; Irfan, Muhammad-Adeel; Landsiedel, Robert; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Sánchez Jiménez, Araceli; van Kesteren, Petra C E; Oomen, Agnes G

    2015-11-27

    An engineered nanomaterial (ENM) may actually consist of a population of primary particles, aggregates and agglomerates of various sizes. Furthermore, their physico-chemical characteristics may change during the various life-cycle stages. It will probably not be feasible to test all varieties of all ENMs for possible health and environmental risks. There is therefore a need to further develop the approaches for risk assessment of ENMs. Within the EU FP7 project Managing Risks of Nanoparticles (MARINA) a two-phase risk assessment strategy has been developed. In Phase 1 (Problem framing) a base set of information is considered, relevant exposure scenarios (RESs) are identified and the scope for Phase 2 (Risk assessment) is established. The relevance of an RES is indicated by information on exposure, fate/kinetics and/or hazard; these three domains are included as separate pillars that contain specific tools. Phase 2 consists of an iterative process of risk characterization, identification of data needs and integrated collection and evaluation of data on the three domains, until sufficient information is obtained to conclude on possible risks in a RES. Only data are generated that are considered to be needed for the purpose of risk assessment. A fourth pillar, risk characterization, is defined and it contains risk assessment tools. This strategy describes a flexible and efficient approach for data collection and risk assessment which is essential to ensure safety of ENMs. Further developments are needed to provide guidance and make the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy operational. Case studies will be needed to refine the strategy.

  15. The MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy: A Flexible Strategy for Efficient Information Collection and Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. J. Bos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An engineered nanomaterial (ENM may actually consist of a population of primary particles, aggregates and agglomerates of various sizes. Furthermore, their physico-chemical characteristics may change during the various life-cycle stages. It will probably not be feasible to test all varieties of all ENMs for possible health and environmental risks. There is therefore a need to further develop the approaches for risk assessment of ENMs. Within the EU FP7 project Managing Risks of Nanoparticles (MARINA a two-phase risk assessment strategy has been developed. In Phase 1 (Problem framing a base set of information is considered, relevant exposure scenarios (RESs are identified and the scope for Phase 2 (Risk assessment is established. The relevance of an RES is indicated by information on exposure, fate/kinetics and/or hazard; these three domains are included as separate pillars that contain specific tools. Phase 2 consists of an iterative process of risk characterization, identification of data needs and integrated collection and evaluation of data on the three domains, until sufficient information is obtained to conclude on possible risks in a RES. Only data are generated that are considered to be needed for the purpose of risk assessment. A fourth pillar, risk characterization, is defined and it contains risk assessment tools. This strategy describes a flexible and efficient approach for data collection and risk assessment which is essential to ensure safety of ENMs. Further developments are needed to provide guidance and make the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy operational. Case studies will be needed to refine the strategy.

  16. Eelgrass Blue Carbon-Quantification of Carbon Stocks and Sequestration Rates in Zostera Marina Beds in the Salish Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, M. D.; Rybczyk, J.; Poppe, K.; Johnson, C.; Kaminsky, M.; Lanphear, M.

    2017-12-01

    Seagrass meadows provide more than habitat, biodiversity support, wave abatement, and water quality improvement; they help mitigate climate change by taking up and storing (sequestering) carbon (C), reportedly at rates only surpassed worldwide by salt marsh and mangrove ecosystems. Now that their climate mitigation capacity has earned seagrass ecosystems a place in the Verified Carbon Standard voluntary greenhouse gas program, accurate ecosystem carbon accounting is essential. Though seagrasses vary in carbon storage and accumulation greatly across species and geography, the bulk of data included in calculating global averages involves tropical and subtropical seagrasses. We know little regarding carbon stocks nor sequestration rates for eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows in the Pacific Northwest. The intent of our study was to quantify carbon stocks and sequestration rates in the central Salish Sea of Washington State. We gathered sediment cores over three bays, as close to 1 m in depth as possible, both on foot and while scuba diving. We measured bulk density, carbon concentration, carbon stock, grain size, and carbon accumulation rate with depth. Results from our study show lower estimated Corg concentration (mean = 0.39% C, SE=0.01, range=0.11-1.75, SE=0.01), Corg stock (mean=24.46 Mg ha-1, SE=0.00, range=16.31-49.99.70), and C sequestration rates (mean=33.96 g m-2yr-1, range=11.4-49.5) than those reported in published studies from most other locations. Zostera marina is highly productive, yet does not seem to have the capacity to store C in its sediments like seagrasses in warmer climes. These data have implications in carbon market trading, when determining appropriate seagrass restoration site dimensions to offset emissions from transportation, industry, and seagrass habitat disturbance. Awareness of lower rates could prevent underestimating the area appropriate for mitigation or restoration.

  17. The experimental studies of influence of hydrogen sulfide on species of eelgrass (Zostera japonica and Zostera marina) in Padilla Bay, coastal waters of southeast Alaska conducted from 2013-06-01 to 2013-09-30 (NCEI Accession 0137907)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Two species of eelgrass can be found in Padilla Bay, Washington (Zostera japonica and Zostera marina) and act as a bioindicators of ecosystem health. Many factors...

  18. Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) on Z. marina seedlings, seed germination and shoot density from 2013-01-16 to 2015-09-11 (NCEI Accession 0156588)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multiple experiments were conducted to determine the effects hydrogen sulfide had on seedlings and seed germination in the seagrass Zostera marina. One study...

  19. Vegetación marina en la elaboración de bloques multinutritivos para la alimentación de rumiantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo F. Castellanos Ruelas

    2010-01-01

    así como sus interacciones. Los resultados indicaron que la vegetación marina tuvo un elevado contenido en proteína y en materia mineral. Al incrementar la melaza en la formulación arriba del 35 % ó el CaOH más allá del 5 %, se redujo la carga máxima de los BM (P<0.01. Lo mismo sucedió al incrementar la urea arriba del 6 % (P<0.05. Se concluye que es factible el empleo de vegetación marina como fuente de proteína y minerales en la elaboración de BM, logrando materiales con buena dureza.

  20. Lethal effects of ichthyotoxic raphidophytes, Chattonella marina, C. antiqua, and Heterosigma akashiwo, on post-embryonic stages of the Japanese pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata martensii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basti, Leila; Nagai, Kiyohito; Go, Jiyoji; Okano, Sho; Oda, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Yuji; Nagai, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    The inimical effects of the ichthyotoxic harmful algal bloom (HAB)-forming raphidophytes Heterosigma akashiwo, Chattonella marina, and Chattonella antiqua on the early-life stages of the Japanese pearl oyster Pinctada fucata martensii were studied. Fertilized eggs and developing embryos were not affected following exposure to the harmful raphidophytes; however, all three algal species severely affected trochophores and D-larvae, early-stage D-larvae, and late-stage pre-settling larvae. Exposure to C. marina (5×10 2 cellsml -1 ), C. antiqua (10 3 cellsml -1 ), and H. akashiwo (5×10 3 cellsml -1 ) resulted in decreased success of metamorphosis to the trochophore stage. A complete inhibition of trochophore metamorphosis was observed following exposure to C. antiqua at 5×10 3 cellsml -1 and C. marina at 8×10 3 cellsml -1 . In all experiments, more than 80% of newly formed trochophores were anomalous, and in the case of exposure to H. akashiwo at 10 5 cellsml -1 more than 70% of D-larvae were anomalous. The activity rates of D-larvae (1-day-old) were significantly reduced following exposure to C. antiqua (8×10 3 cellsml -1 , 24h), C. marina (8×10 3 cellsml -1 , 24h), and H. akashiwo (10 4 cellsml -1 , 24h). The activity rates of pre-settling larvae (21-day-old) were also significantly reduced following exposure to C. antiqua (10 3 cellsml -1 , 24h),C. marina (8×10 3 cellsml -1 , 24h), and H. akashiwo (5×10 4 cellsml -1 , 24h). Significant mortalities of both larval stages were induced by all three raphidophytes, with higher mortality rates registered for pre-settling larvae than D-larvae, especially following exposure to C. marina (5×10 2 -8×10 3 cellsml -1 , 48-86h) and C. antiqua (10 3 -8×10 3 cellsml -1 , 72-86h). Contact between raphidophyte cells and newly metamorphosed trochophores and D-larvae, 1-day-old D-larvae, and 21-day-old larvae resulted in microscopic changes in the raphidophytes, and then, in the motile early-life stages of pearl oysters. Upon

  1. Comparación ontogénica de la frecuencia de muda en Rhinella marina (Anura, Bufonidae Ontogenetic comparison of the molting frequency in Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teófila M. Triana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La muda es un proceso de renovación de la capa externa de la epidermis (estrato corneo de los anfibios, la cual suministra protección contra daños, patógenos y pérdida de agua. Este trabajo evalúa la frecuencia de muda entre juveniles y adultos de Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758 y la tasa de ocurrencia entre el día y la noche. Para esto, se realizaron dos observaciones diarias (7 am y 7 pm, entre Octubre de 2011 y Marzo de 2012, a tres grupos de individuos clasificados según su tamaño longitud rostro-cloaca, como adultos (promedio=80 mm, juveniles medianos (promedio=19 mm y juveniles pequeños (promedio=13 mm. Estos animales fueron colocados en terrarios en el laboratorio y marcados en el dorso a través de un punto hecho con un corrector de tinta. La muda se determinó por la pérdida total de la marca y una coloración brillante en el dorso. Se encontró una diferencia significativa (Kruskal-Wallis, H=19.84, pMolting is a process of constant renewal of the outer layer of epidermis (stratum corneum in amphibians, which provides a barrier against injury, pathogens and evaporative water loss. This paper evaluates the molting frequency between juveniles and adults of Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758 and between the night and day time. Two daily observations, at 7 am and 7 pm, were made between October 2011 and March 2012 to three groups of individuals, classified by their size, snout vent length, as adults (mean=80 mm, medium juveniles (mean=19 mm and small juveniles (mean=13 mm. The animals were placed in terrariums in the laboratory and marked on their back with a spot of correction fluid. The molting was determined by the total loss of the mark and a bright color on the dorsal skin. We found a significant difference (Kruskal-Wallis, H=19.84, p<0.0001 in the molting frequency among the three groups: adults=7.5 days, medium juveniles=5.4 days, and small juveniles=5.3 days. Also, between the number of molting frogs during the night and day

  2. Metabolic engineering of the Chl d-dominated cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina: production of a novel Chl species by the introduction of the chlorophyllide a oxygenase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Tohru; Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Akimoto, Seiji; Tomo, Tatsuya; Tamiaki, Hitoshi; Mimuro, Mamoru

    2012-03-01

    In oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, the properties of photosynthetic reaction systems primarily depend on the Chl species used. Acquisition of new Chl species with unique optical properties may have enabled photosynthetic organisms to adapt to various light environments. The artificial production of a new Chl species in an existing photosynthetic organism by metabolic engineering provides a model system to investigate how an organism responds to a newly acquired pigment. In the current study, we established a transformation system for a Chl d-dominated cyanobacterium, Acaryochloris marina, for the first time. The expression vector (constructed from a broad-host-range plasmid) was introduced into A. marina by conjugal gene transfer. The introduction of a gene for chlorophyllide a oxygenase, which is responsible for Chl b biosynthesis, into A. marina resulted in a transformant that synthesized a novel Chl species instead of Chl b. The content of the novel Chl in the transformant was approximately 10% of the total Chl, but the level of Chl a, another Chl in A. marina, did not change. The chemical structure of the novel Chl was determined to be [7-formyl]-Chl d(P) by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. [7-Formyl]-Chl d(P) is hypothesized to be produced by the combined action of chlorophyllide a oxygenase and enzyme(s) involved in Chl d biosynthesis. These results demonstrate the flexibility of the Chl biosynthetic pathway for the production of novel Chl species, indicating that a new organism with a novel Chl might be discovered in the future.

  3. Turismo versus pesca artesanal. A propósito de la reserva marina de la isla de La Graciosa y los islotes del norte de Lanzarote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Cabrera Socorro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La Reserva Marina de La Graciosa y los Islotes del Norte de Lanzarote (RMLGINL se creó en 1995 y, desde entonces, las actividades pesqueras de la población local y su cultura del mar han ido decreciendo progresivamente mientras que las actividades turísticas siguen emergiendo como la panacea en una pequeña isla, como La Graciosa, con no más de 600 habitantes. En este artículo tratamos de analizar cómo estos dos procesos están relacionados y qué papel está jugando la reserva marina en este caso. Usamos no sólo información cualitativa de los pescadores locales y de sus grupos domésticos, sino también cuantitativa contrastando algunos parámetros concretos como el número de pescadores y los barcos de pesca activos, los negocios relacionados con el sector servicios (restaurantes, apartamentos, etc., antes y después de implementación de la reserva marina. En este sentido, un importante elemento es la percepción de esta institución desde la población local, y la evolución de su actitud a favor o en contra. Estos procesos están relacionados con el diseño institucional de las reservas marinas en las Islas Canarias, en donde la participación de las poblaciones pesqueras locales está severamente limitada.

  4. The interactive effects of the antifouling herbicides Irgarol 1051 and Diuron on the seagrass Zostera marina (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesworth, J C; Donkin, M E; Brown, M T

    2004-02-25

    The herbicides Irgarol 1051 (2-(tert-butylamino)-4-cyclopropylamino)-6-(methylthio)-1,3,5-triazine) and Diuron (3-(3',4'-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) are commonly incorporated into antifouling paints to boost the efficacy of the compound towards algae. Previous investigations have identified environmental concentrations of these herbicides as being a threat to non-target organisms, such as seagrasses. Their individual toxicity has been assessed, but they can co-occur and interact, potentially increasing their toxicity and the threat posed to seagrass meadows. Chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv:Fm) and leaf specific biomass ratio (representing plant growth) were examined in Zostera marina L. after a 10-day exposure to the individual herbicides. The EC20 for each herbicide was determined and these then used in herbicide mixtures to assess their interactive effects. Irgarol 1051 was found to be more toxic than Diuron with lowest observable effect concentrations for Fv:Fm reduction of 0.5 and 1.0 +/- microg/l and 10-day EC50 values of 1.1 and 3.2 microg/l, respectively. Plants exposed to Irgarol 1051 and Diuron showed a significant reduction in growth at concentrations of 1.0 and 5.0 microg/l, respectively. When Z. marina was exposed to mixtures, the herbicides commonly interacted additively or antagonistically, and no significant further reduction in photosynthetic efficiency was found at any concentration when compared to plants exposed to the individual herbicides. However, on addition of the Diuron EC20 to varying Irgarol 1051 concentrations and the Irgarol 1051 EC20 to varying Diuron concentrations, significant reductions in Fv:Fm were noted at an earlier stage. The growth of plants exposed to Diuron plus the Irgarol 1051 EC20 were significantly reduced when compared to plants exposed to Diuron alone, but only at the lower concentrations. Growth of plants exposed to Irgarol 1051 and the Diuron EC20 showed no significant reduction when compared to the growth of

  5. Characterization of the Skin Microbiota of the Cane Toad Rhinella cf. marina in Puerto Rico and Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan G. Abarca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhinella marina is a toad native to South America that has been introduced in the Antilles, likely carrying high loads of microorganisms, potentially impacting local community diversity. The amphibian skin is involved in pathogen defense and its microbiota has been relatively well studied, however, research focusing on the cane toad microbiota is lacking. We hypothesize that the skin microbial communities will differ between toads inhabiting different geographical regions in Central America and the Caribbean. To test our hypothesis, we compared the microbiota of three populations of R. cf. marina toads, two from Costa Rican (native and one Puerto Rican (exotic locations. In Costa Rica, we collected 11 toads, 7 in Sarapiquí and 4 from Turrialba while in Puerto Rico, 10 animals were collected in Santa Ana. Separate swab samples were collected from the dorsal and ventral sites resulting in 42 samples. We found significant differences in the structure of the microbial communities between Puerto Rico and Costa Rica. We detected as much as 35 different phyla; however, communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Alpha diversity and richness were significantly higher in toads from Puerto Rico and betadiversity revealed significant differences between the microbiota samples from the two countries. At the genus level, we found in Santa Ana, Puerto Rico, a high dominance of Kokuria, Niabella, and Rhodobacteraceae, while in Costa Rica we found Halomonas and Pseudomonas in Sarapiquí, and Acinetobacter and Citrobacter in Turrialba. This is the first report of Niabella associated with the amphibian skin. The core microbiome represented 128 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs mainly from five genera shared among all samples, which may represent the symbiotic Rhinella’s skin. These results provide insights into the habitat-induced microbial changes facing this amphibian species. The differences in the microbial

  6. The Importance of Zostera marina to a Local Food Web Based on the Analysis of Compound Specific Isotopes in Maquoit Bay, Gulf of Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, H. A.; Johnson, B. J.; Ambrose, W. G.; Locke, W.; Harris, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    Zostera marina (also known as eelgrass) is an important primary producer in near shore ecosystems in the Gulf of Maine, providing both habitat and nutrients for a variety of organisms (e.g., crustaceans, polychaetes, gastropods, and fish). The purpose of this study is to use compound specific δ13C analyses of essential amino acids to determine the degree to which organic matter derived from isotopically distinct primary producers (e.g., eelgrass, phytoplankton, and epiphytic algae) contribute to the diets of snails, shrimp, and fish in an eelgrass system in Casco Bay. Maquoit Bay, located in northwestern Casco Bay, in the Gulf of Maine, is a shallow estuarine system that is characterized by silt and clay sized sediments and the presence of extensive eelgrass beds. Amino acid concentrations and δ13C compositions were determined for a variety of sample-types collected in July-August, 2010, from three sites in the study area, including muscle tissue from Tautogolabrus adspersus (cunner), Gasterosteus aculeatus (3-spined stickleback), Nassarius obsoletus (snail), and Mysis spp. (shrimp), seston (i.e., phytoplankton), Z. marina, and epiphytic algae. TFAA amino acid derivatives of the total hydrolyzate were analyzed by GC-FID for amino acid concentration, and by GC-c-IRMS- for carbon isotope composition. Muscle tissue was dominated by glutamic and aspartic acids, and leucine, whereas Zostera marina was dominated by aspartic and glutamic acids, and proline. Phenylalanine and leucine in Z. marina are approximately 10 ‰ enriched in 13C relative to these same amino acids in the seston. The carbon isotope values of these essential amino acids are significantly more enriched in 13C for N. obsoletus than for T. adspersus, G. aculeatus, and Mysis spp. These data suggest that organic matter derived from Z. marina and/or epiphytic algae is more important in the diets of N. obsoletus, and organic matter derived from seston is more important for the diets of T. adspersus, G

  7. Carbon isotope fractionation in the mangrove Avicennia marina has implications for food web and blue carbon research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleway, Jeffrey J.; Mazumder, Debashish; Baldock, Jeffrey A.; Saintilan, Neil

    2018-05-01

    The ratio of stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) is commonly used to track the flow of energy among individuals and ecosystems, including in mangrove forests. Effective use of this technique requires understanding of the spatial variability in δ13C among primary producer(s) as well as quantification of the isotopic fractionations that occur as C moves within and among ecosystem components. In this experiment, we assessed δ13C variation in the cosmopolitan mangrove Avicennia marina across four sites of varying physico-chemical conditions across two estuaries. We also compared the isotopic values of five distinct tissue types (leaves, woody stems, cable roots, pneumatophores and fine roots) in individual plants. We found a significant site effect (F3, 36 = 15.78; P 3.0‰) means that it may now be possible to partition the individual contributions of various mangrove tissues to estuarine food webs. Similarly, the contributions of mangrove leaves, woody debris and belowground sources to blue carbon stocks might also be quantified. Above all, however, our results emphasize the importance of considering appropriate mangrove tissue types when using δ13C to trace carbon cycling in estuarine systems.

  8. CO{sub 2}-enrichment effects on eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) and bull kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana (Mert.)P.&R.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorn, R.M. [Battelle/Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.

    1996-04-01

    The author investigated the effect of CO{sub 2}-enrichment on productivity of two aquatic plant species (Zostera marina L., Nereocystis luetkeana (Mert.)P.&R.) that form significant components of coastal ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest. Short-term (i.e., 2-hr) experiments showed that doubling CO{sub 2} resulted in up to a 2.5-fold increase in Zostera net apparent productivity (NAP). Nereocystis NAP was increased 2.2-2.8 fold. In experiments involving seven enrichment treatments, NAP increased with increasing CO{sub 2} between ambient (1.0x) and 2.5x CO{sub 2} in both Zostera and Nereocystis. Nereocystis and Zostera NAP was lowest at highest (i.e., 5x) CO{sub 2} concentrations. In growth experiments, mean growth rate of Zostera increased with increasing CO{sub 2} during one of the two trials. It was concluded that increasing CO{sub 2} in the surface waters of the coastal ocean would predictably result in increased NAP of these two species. These results supplement limited published data showing that shallow estuarine and marine systems are vulnerable to increased carbon dioxide. 25 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Linking Arenicola marina irrigation behavior to oxygen transport and dynamics in sandy sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Karen; Banta, Gary T.; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr

    2007-01-01

    In this study we examine how the irrigation behavior of the common lugworm Arenicola marina affects the distribution, transport and dynamics of oxygen in sediments using microelectrodes, planar optodes and diagenetic modeling. The irrigation pattern was characterized by a regular recurring period...... and only in rare situations with very high pumping rates (>200 ml h-1) and/or a narrow feeding funnel (water....... concentration in the burrow was high (80% air saturation) and oxygen was detected at distances up to 0.7 mm from the burrow wall. Volume specific oxygen consumption rates calculated from measured oxygen profiles were up to 4 times higher for sediments surrounding worm burrows as compared to surface sediments....... Model results indicated that oxygen consumption also was higher in the feeding pocket/funnel compared to the activity in surface sediments. An oxygen budget revealed that 49% of the oxygen pumped into the burrow during lugworm irrigation was consumed by the worm itself while 23% supported the diffusive...

  10. Effects of rearing environment and population origin on responses to repeated behavioural trials in cane toads (Rhinella marina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Jodie; Whiting, Martin J; Brown, Gregory; Shine, Richard

    2018-05-02

    Behavioural response to repeated trials in captivity can be driven by many factors including rearing environment, population of origin, habituation to captivity/trial conditions and an individual's behavioural type (e.g., bold versus shy). We tested the effect of rearing environment (captive raised common-garden versus wild-caught) and population origin (range-edge versus range-front) on the responses of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) to repeated exploration and risk-taking assays in captivity. We found that behavioural responses to identical assays performed on two occasions were complex and showed few consistent patterns based on rearing environment or population of origin. However, behavioural traits were repeatable across Trial Blocks when all sample populations were grouped together, indicating general consistency in individual toad behaviour across repeated behavioural assays. Our findings exemplify the complexity and unpredictability of behavioural responses and their effects on the repeatability and interpretation of behavioural traits across repeated behavioural assays in captivity. To meaningfully interpret the results from repeated behavioural assays, we need to consider how multiple factors may affect behavioural responses to these tests and importantly, how these responses may affect the repeatability of behavioural traits across time. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Isotopic signatures of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) as bioindicator of anthropogenic nutrient input in the western Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, Philipp R.; Karez, Rolf; Reusch, Thorsten B.H.; Dierking, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) inputs are a global problem, but difficult to quantify. • We tested the use of eelgrass δ 15 N as proxy of such inputs in the Baltic Sea. • The method revealed distinct spatial patterns in sewage N across a eutrophic bay. • Traditional eutrophication measures corroborated the results from δ 15 N values. • Eelgrass δ 15 N ratios have high potential as proxy of sewage-derived N in the Baltic. -- Abstract: Eutrophication is a global environmental problem. Better management of this threat requires more accurate assessments of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) inputs to coastal systems than can be obtained with traditional measures. Recently, primary producer N isotopic signatures have emerged as useful proxy of such inputs. Here, we demonstrated for the first time the applicability of this method using the widespread eelgrass (Zostera marina) in the highly eutrophic Baltic Sea. Spatial availability of sewage N across a bay with one major sewage outflow predicted by eelgrass δ 15 N was high near and downstream of the outflow compared to upstream, but returned to upstream levels within 4 km downstream from the outfall. General conclusions were corroborated by traditional eutrophication measures, but in contrast to these measures were fully quantitative. Eelgrass N isotope ratios therefore show high potential for coastal screens of eutrophication in the Baltic Sea, and in other areas with eelgrass meadows

  12. Establishing a baseline for regional scale monitoring of eelgrass (Zostera marina) habitat on the lower Alaska Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogrefe, Kyle R.; Ward, David H.; Donnelly, Tyrone F.; Dau, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Seagrass meadows, one of the world’s most widespread and productive ecosystems, provide a wide range of services with real economic value. Worldwide declines in the distribution and abundance of seagrasses and increased threats to coastal ecosystems from climate change have prompted a need to acquire baseline data for monitoring and protecting these important habitats. We assessed the distribution and abundance of eelgrass (Zostera marina) along nearly 1200 km of shoreline on the lower Alaska Peninsula, a region of expansive eelgrass meadows whose status and trends are poorly understood. We demonstrate the effectiveness of a multi-scale approach by using Landsat satellite imagery to map the total areal extent of eelgrass while integrating field survey data to improve map accuracy and describe the physical and biological condition of the meadows. Innovative use of proven methods and processing tools was used to address challenges inherent to remote sensing in high latitude, coastal environments. Eelgrass was estimated to cover ~31,000 ha, 91% of submerged aquatic vegetation on the lower Alaska Peninsula, nearly doubling the known spatial extent of eelgrass in the region. Mapping accuracy was 80%–90% for eelgrass distribution at locations containing adequate field survey data for error analysis.

  13. Actividad antibacteriana de extractos etanólicos de macroalgas marinas de la costa central del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Magallanes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la actividad antibacteriana de extractos etanólicos de 12 especies de macroalgas marinas. Los extractos fueron obtenidos de acuerdo al protocolo modificado de Vlachos et al. (1996. Cada extracto se enfrentó contra 5 cepas bacterianas de origen clínico y 6 no clínico perteneciente a los géneros Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Salmonella, Aeromonas y Vibrio. De 12 especies de algas ensayadas solamente 5 (Grateloupia doryphora, Ahnfeltiopsis durvillaei, Prionitis decipiens, Petalonia fascia y Bryopsis plumosa presentaron algún efecto antibacteriano. Asimismo, de 11 cepas bacterianas probadas solamente las cepas clínicas Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 y Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 y la cepa no clínica Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6633 fueron sensibles a los extractos algales. El extracto etanólico de B. plumosa presentó el mayor efecto antibacteriano contra las dos cepas de S. aureus, manifestándose en el mayor tamaño de sus halos de inhibición, mientras que el extracto de P. fascia mostró mayor espectro antibacteriano, inhibiendo a las 3 cepas mencionadas.

  14. Desulfovibrio zosterae sp. nov., a new sulfate reducer isolated from surface-sterilized roots of the seagrass Zostera marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J T; Liesack, W; Finster, K

    1999-04-01

    A sulfate-reducing bacterium, designated strain lacT, was isolated from surface-sterilized roots of the benthic macrophyte Zostera marina. Cells were motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Strain lacT utilized lactate, pyruvate, malate, ethanol, L-alanine, fumarate, choline and fructose with sulfate as electron acceptor. In addition, fumarate, pyruvate and fructose were also degraded without an external electron acceptor. Sulfate could be substituted with thiosulfate, sulfite and elemental sulfur. Optimal growth was observed between 32.5 and 34.5 degrees C, at an NaCl concentration of 0.2 M and in a pH range between 6.8 and 7.3. The G + C content of the DNA was 42.7 +/- 0.2 mol%. Desulfoviridin and catalase were present. Strain lacT contained c-type cytochromes. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and the fatty acid pattern grouped this isolate into the genus Desulfovibrio. However, strain lacT differs from all other described Desulfovibrio species on the bases of its 16S rRNA gene sequence, the G + C content, its cellular lipid pattern and the utilization pattern of substrates. These characteristics establish strain lacT (= DSM 11974T) as a novel species of the genus Desulfovibrio, for which the name Desulfovibrio zosterae sp. nov. is proposed.

  15. Disturbance of eelgrass Zostera marina by commercial mussel Mytilus edulis harvesting in Maine: Dragging impacts and habitat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckles, Hilary A.; Short, Frederick T.; Barker, Seth; Kopp, Blaine S.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the effects of commercial harvest of blue mussels Mytilus edulis on eelgrass Zostera marina L. in Maquoit Bay, Maine, USA, at a hierarchy of scales. We used aerial photography, underwater video, and eelgrass population- and shoot-based measurements to quantify dragging impacts within 4 sites that had been disturbed at different times over an approximate 7 yr interval, and to project eelgrass meadow recovery rates. Dragging had disturbed 10% of the eelgrass cover in Maquoit Bay, with dragged sites ranging from 3.4 to 31.8 ha in size. Dragging removed above- and belowground plant material from the majority of the bottom in the disturbed sites. One year following dragging, eelgrass shoot density, shoot height and total biomass of disturbed sites averaged respectively 2 to 3%, 46 to 61% and model based on measured rates of lateral patch-expansion (mean 12.5 cm yr-1) and new-patch recruitment (mean 0.19 patches m-2 yr-1) yielded a mean bed recovery time of 9 to 11 yr following dragging, depending on initial degree of plant removal. Model simulations suggested that with favorable environmental conditions, eelgrass beds might recover from dragging disturbance in 6 yr; conversely, recovery under conditions less conducive to eelgrass growth could require 20 yr or longer. This study shows that mussel dragging poses a severe threat to eelgrass in this region and that regulations to protect eelgrass from dragging impacts would maintain the integrity of a substantial amount of habitat.

  16. Experimental weed control of Najas marina ssp. intermedia and Elodea nuttallii in lakes using biodegradable jute matting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus A. Hoffmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of jute matting in managing the invasive aquatic macrophyte species Elodea nuttallii (Planch. H. St. John and Najas marina ssp. intermedia (Wolfg. ex Gorski Casper (Najas intermedia was studied in laboratory experiments and field trials. Four German lakes with predominant population of Najas intermedia or Elodea nuttalli were chosen for the experiment and areas between 150 and 300 m² were covered with jute textile. The effect of the matting on the growth of invasive and non-invasive macrophytes was determined through comparison with control transects. Biodegradable jute matting successfully suppressed the invasive macrophyte Najas intermedia and significantly reduced the growth of Elodea nuttalli in lakes. The results indicate that the capability of the matting to inhibit the growth of Elodea nuttallii and Najas intermedia depends on the mesh size of the jute weaving and that environmental conditions can affect its efficiency. Various indigenous species like Charales or Potamogeton pusillus L. were able to grow through the jute fabric and populate the treated areas. Until the end of the vegetation period, none of the invasive species were able to penetrate the covering and establish a stable population; in fact, in the subsequent year the jute matting affected only the spread of Najas intermedia. Jute matting proved to be an easy-to-use and cheap method to control the growth of Elodea nuttallii and Najas intermedia.

  17. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. Nematotaeniidae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea, a tapeworm parasite of Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Amphibia: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos Melo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The family Nematotaeniidae, tapeworms commonly found in the small intestines of amphibians and reptiles, includes 27 recognised species distributed among four genera: Bitegmen Jones, Cylindrotaenia Jewell, Distoichometra Dickey and Nematotaenia Lühe. The taxonomy of these cestodes is poorly defined, due in part to the difficulties of observing many anatomical traits. This study presents and describes a new genus and species of nematotaeniid parasite found in cane toads (Rhinella marina from eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The cestodes were collected during the necropsy of 20 hosts captured in the urban area of Belém, Pará. The specimens were fixed and processed for light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and three-dimensional (3D reconstruction. Samples were also collected for molecular analyses. The specimens presented a cylindrical body, two testes and paruterine organs. However, they could not be allocated to any of the four existing nematotaeniid genera due to the presence of two each of dorsal compact medullary testes, cirri, cirrus pouches, genital pores, ovaries and vitelline glands per mature segment. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. is the first nematotaeniid studied using Historesin analysis, SEM and 3D reconstruction, and it is the second taxon for which molecular data have been deposited in GenBank.

  18. An economical non-destructive method for estimating eelgrass, Zostera marina (Potamogetonaceae leaf growth rates: formal development and use in northwestern Baja California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Solana-Arellano

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass beds provide much of the primary production in estuaries; host many fishes and fish larvae, and abate erosion. The present study presents original analytical methods for estimating mean leaf-growth rates of eelgrass (Zostera marina. The method was calibrated by using data collected in a Z. marina meadow at Punta Banda estuary in Baja California, Mexico. The analytical assessments were based on measurements of leaf length and standard regression procedures. We present a detailed explanation of the formal procedures involved in the derivation of these analytical methods. The measured daily leaf-growth rate was 10.9 mm d-1 leaf-1. The corresponding value projected by our method was 10.2 mm d-1 leaf-1. The associated standard errors were of 0.53 and 0.56 mm d-1 leaf-1 respectively. The method was validated by projecting leaf-growth rates from an independent data set, which gave consistent results. The use of the method to obtain the mean leaf growth rate of a transplanted plot is also illustrated. Comparison of our leaf-growth data with previously reported assessments show the significant forcing of sea-surface temperature on eelgrass leaf dynamics. The formal constructs provided here are of general scope and can be applied to equivalent eelgrass data sets in a straightforward manner. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1003-1013. Epub 2008 September 30.Las praderas de pastos marinos abaten la erosión y aportan gran parte de la productividad primaria de los esteros y son refugio de muchos peces y sus larvas. El presente trabajo introduce métodos analíticos para estimar las tasas medias de crecimiento foliar de Zostera marina L. y sus varianzas. La calibración del método se llevó a cabo utilizando datos de una pradera de esta fanerógama en el Estero de Punta Banda Baja California, México. Las referidas estimaciones analíticas, se basan en medias de longitud foliar y en procedimientos estandarizados de regresión. Dichas determinaciones son por

  19. Indirect effects of predators control herbivore richness and abundance in a benthic eelgrass (Zostera marina) mesograzer community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundrud, Sarah L; Srivastava, Diane S; O'Connor, Mary I

    2015-07-01

    Herbivore communities can be sensitive to changes in predator pressure (top-down effects) and resource availability (bottom-up effects) in a wide range of systems. However, it remains unclear whether such top-down and bottom-up effects reflect direct impacts of predators and/or resources on herbivores, or are indirect, reflecting altered interactions among herbivore species. We quantified direct and indirect effects of bottom-up and top-down processes on an eelgrass (Zostera marina) herbivore assemblage. In a field experiment, we factorially manipulated water column nutrients (with Osmocote(™) slow-release fertilizer) and predation pressure (with predator exclusion cages) and measured the effects on herbivore abundance, richness and beta diversity. We examined likely mechanisms of community responses by statistically exploring the response of individual herbivore species to trophic manipulations. Predators increased herbivore richness and total abundance, in both cases through indirect shifts in community composition. Increases in richness occurred through predator suppression of common gammarid amphipod species (Monocorophium acherusicum and Photis brevipes), permitting the inclusion of rarer gammarid species (Aoroides columbiae and Pontogeneia rostrata). Increased total herbivore abundance reflected increased abundance of a caprellid amphipod species (Caprella sp.), concurrent with declines in the abundance of other common species. Furthermore, predators decreased beta diversity by decreasing variability in Caprella sp. abundance among habitat patches. Osmocote(™) fertilization increased nutrient concentrations locally, but nutrients dissipated to background levels within 3 m of the fertilizer. Nutrient addition weakly affected the herbivore assemblage, not affecting richness and increasing total abundance by increasing one herbivore species (Caprella sp.). Nutrient addition did not affect beta diversity. We demonstrated that assemblage-level effects of

  20. Soil and Rhizosphere Associated Fungi in Gray Mangroves (Avicennia marina from the Red Sea — A Metagenomic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Filipa Simões

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Covering a quarter of the world’s tropical coastlines and being one of the most threatened ecosystems, mangroves are among the major sources of terrestrial organic matter to oceans and harbor a wide microbial diversity. In order to protect, restore, and better understand these ecosystems, researchers have extensively studied their microbiology, yet few surveys have focused on their fungal communities. Our lack of knowledge is even more pronounced for specific fungal populations, such as the ones associated with the rhizosphere. Likewise, the Red Sea gray mangroves (Avicennia marina remain poorly characterized, and understanding of their fungal communities still relies on cultivation-dependent methods. In this study, we analyzed metagenomic datasets from gray mangrove rhizosphere and bulk soil samples collected in the Red Sea coast, to obtain a snapshot of their fungal communities. Our data indicated that Ascomycota was the dominant phylum (76%–85%, while Basidiomycota was less abundant (14%–24%, yet present in higher numbers than usually reported for such environments. Fungal communities were more stable within the rhizosphere than within the bulk soil, both at class and genus level. This finding is consistent with the intrinsic patchiness in soil sediments and with the selection of specific microbial communities by plant roots. Our study indicates the presence of several species on this mycobiome that were not previously reported as mangrove-associated. In particular, we detected representatives of several commercially-used fungi, e.g., producers of secreted cellulases and anaerobic producers of cellulosomes. These results represent additional insights into the fungal community of the gray mangroves of the Red Sea, and show that they are significantly richer than previously reported.

  1. Poliquetos (Annelida: Polychaeta como indicadores biológicos de contaminación marina: casos en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Fernández Rodríguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de Indicador Biológico ha sido usado sin mayor precaución al momento de emplear ciertos organismos en programas de monitoreo ambiental, lo cual genera confusión. Uno de los objetivos de este trabajo fue resaltar la importancia en la consolidación de una definición precisa de este concepto a partir de información disponible, proponiendo una definición para el mismo. Las características ecológicas de los poliquetos permiten que, al estar en contacto permanente con diferentes tipos de contaminantes, respondan bioacumulando, disminuyendo o aumentando su abundancia, según sea la especie, hecho que posiciona este tipo de organismos como potenciales indicadores de contaminación marina. En este artículo se presenta de manera concreta un análisis de la literatura disponible para poliquetos en el campo de los indicadores biológicos, resaltando cómo éstos han sido usados en diferentes metodologías, con ejemplos a internacionales, así como una selección especial para Colombia. De los resultados más sobresalientes se encontró que Capitella capitata es la especie más estudiada al estar asociada con ambientes contaminados a causa del incremento de materia orgánica y es la única especie reportada en el país como indicador biológico usando las técnicas clásicas de bioindicación. Finalmente, se reitera la importancia de iniciar investigaciones sobre los aspectos ecológicos, ecotoxicológicos y bioensayos de laboratorio con otras especies de poliquetos para validar cuáles especies y por qué pueden ser consideradas como indicadores biológicos para el país.

  2. Soil and Rhizosphere Associated Fungi in Gray Mangroves (Avicennia marina) from the Red Sea--A Metagenomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Marta Filipa; Antunes, André; Ottoni, Cristiane A; Amini, Mohammad Shoaib; Alam, Intikhab; Alzubaidy, Hanin; Mokhtar, Noor-Azlin; Archer, John A C; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2015-10-01

    Covering a quarter of the world's tropical coastlines and being one of the most threatened ecosystems, mangroves are among the major sources of terrestrial organic matter to oceans and harbor a wide microbial diversity. In order to protect, restore, and better understand these ecosystems, researchers have extensively studied their microbiology, yet few surveys have focused on their fungal communities. Our lack of knowledge is even more pronounced for specific fungal populations, such as the ones associated with the rhizosphere. Likewise, the Red Sea gray mangroves (Avicennia marina) remain poorly characterized, and understanding of their fungal communities still relies on cultivation-dependent methods. In this study, we analyzed metagenomic datasets from gray mangrove rhizosphere and bulk soil samples collected in the Red Sea coast, to obtain a snapshot of their fungal communities. Our data indicated that Ascomycota was the dominant phylum (76%-85%), while Basidiomycota was less abundant (14%-24%), yet present in higher numbers than usually reported for such environments. Fungal communities were more stable within the rhizosphere than within the bulk soil, both at class and genus level. This finding is consistent with the intrinsic patchiness in soil sediments and with the selection of specific microbial communities by plant roots. Our study indicates the presence of several species on this mycobiome that were not previously reported as mangrove-associated. In particular, we detected representatives of several commercially-used fungi, e.g., producers of secreted cellulases and anaerobic producers of cellulosomes. These results represent additional insights into the fungal community of the gray mangroves of the Red Sea, and show that they are significantly richer than previously reported. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Soil and Rhizosphere Associated Fungi in Grey Mangroves (Avicennia marina) from the Red Sea - A Metagenomic Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Simoes, Marta; Antunes, Andre; Ottoni, Cristiane A.; Amini, Mohammad Shoaib; Alam, Intikhab; Alzubaidy, Hanin S.; Mokhtar, Noor Azlin; Archer, John A.C.; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    Covering a quarter of the world’s tropical coastlines and being one of the most threatened ecosystems, mangroves are among the major sources of terrestrial organic matter to oceans and harbor a wide microbial diversity. In order to protect, restore, and better understand these ecosystems, researchers have extensively studied their microbiology, yet few surveys have focused on their fungal communities. Our lack of knowledge is even more pronounced for specific fungal populations, such as the ones associated with the rhizosphere. Likewise, the Red Sea grey mangroves (Avicennia marina) remain poorly characterized, and understanding of their fungal communities still relies on cultivation-dependent methods. In this study, we analyzed metagenomic datasets from grey mangrove rhizosphere and bulk soil samples collected in the Red Sea coast, to obtain a snapshot of their fungal communities. Our data indicated that Ascomycota was the dominant phylum (76%–85%), while Basidiomycota was less abundant (14%–24%), yet present in higher numbers than usually reported for such environments. Fungal communities were more stable within the rhizosphere than within the bulk soil, both at class and genus level. This finding is consistent with the intrinsic patchiness in soil sediments and with the selection of specific microbial communities by plant roots. Our study indicates the presence of several species on this mycobiome that were not previously reported as mangrove-associated. In particular, we detected representatives of several commercially-used fungi, e.g., producers of secreted cellulases and anaerobic producers of cellulosomes. These results represent additional insights into the fungal community of the grey mangroves of the Red Sea, and show that they are significantly richer than previously reported.

  4. Acute thermal stressor increases glucocorticoid response but minimizes testosterone and locomotor performance in the cane toad (Rhinella marina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J Narayan

    Full Text Available Climatic warming is a global problem and acute thermal stressor in particular could be considered as a major stressor for wildlife. Cane toads (Rhinella marina have expanded their range into warmer regions of Australia and they provide a suitable model species to study the sub-lethal impacts of thermal stressor on the endocrine physiology of amphibians. Presently, there is no information to show that exposure to an acute thermal stressor could initiate a physiological stress (glucocorticoid response and secondly, the possible effects on reproductive hormones and performance. Answering these questions is important for understanding the impacts of extreme temperature on amphibians. In this study, we experimented on cane toads from Queensland, Australia by acclimating them to mildly warm temperature (25°C and then exposing to acute temperature treatments of 30°, 35° or 40°C (hypothetical acute thermal stressors. We measured acute changes in the stress hormone corticosterone and the reproductive hormone testosterone using standard capture and handling protocol and quantified the metabolites of both hormones non-invasively using urinary enzyme-immunoassays. Furthermore, we measured performance trait (i.e. righting response score in the control acclimated and the three treatment groups. Corticosterone stress responses increased in all toads during exposure to an acute thermal stressor. Furthermore, exposure to a thermal stressor also decreased testosterone levels in all toads. The duration of the righting response (seconds was longer for toads that were exposed to 40°C than to 30°, 35° or 25°C. The increased corticosterone stress response with increased intensity of the acute thermal stressor suggests that the toads perceived this treatment as a stressor. Furthermore, the results also highlight a potential trade-off with performance and reproductive hormones. Ultimately, exposure acute thermal stressors due to climatic variability could impact

  5. Acute thermal stressor increases glucocorticoid response but minimizes testosterone and locomotor performance in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Edward J; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Climatic warming is a global problem and acute thermal stressor in particular could be considered as a major stressor for wildlife. Cane toads (Rhinella marina) have expanded their range into warmer regions of Australia and they provide a suitable model species to study the sub-lethal impacts of thermal stressor on the endocrine physiology of amphibians. Presently, there is no information to show that exposure to an acute thermal stressor could initiate a physiological stress (glucocorticoid) response and secondly, the possible effects on reproductive hormones and performance. Answering these questions is important for understanding the impacts of extreme temperature on amphibians. In this study, we experimented on cane toads from Queensland, Australia by acclimating them to mildly warm temperature (25°C) and then exposing to acute temperature treatments of 30°, 35° or 40°C (hypothetical acute thermal stressors). We measured acute changes in the stress hormone corticosterone and the reproductive hormone testosterone using standard capture and handling protocol and quantified the metabolites of both hormones non-invasively using urinary enzyme-immunoassays. Furthermore, we measured performance trait (i.e. righting response score) in the control acclimated and the three treatment groups. Corticosterone stress responses increased in all toads during exposure to an acute thermal stressor. Furthermore, exposure to a thermal stressor also decreased testosterone levels in all toads. The duration of the righting response (seconds) was longer for toads that were exposed to 40°C than to 30°, 35° or 25°C. The increased corticosterone stress response with increased intensity of the acute thermal stressor suggests that the toads perceived this treatment as a stressor. Furthermore, the results also highlight a potential trade-off with performance and reproductive hormones. Ultimately, exposure acute thermal stressors due to climatic variability could impact amphibians at

  6. Soil and Rhizosphere Associated Fungi in Grey Mangroves (Avicennia marina) from the Red Sea - A Metagenomic Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Simoes, Marta

    2015-11-05

    Covering a quarter of the world’s tropical coastlines and being one of the most threatened ecosystems, mangroves are among the major sources of terrestrial organic matter to oceans and harbor a wide microbial diversity. In order to protect, restore, and better understand these ecosystems, researchers have extensively studied their microbiology, yet few surveys have focused on their fungal communities. Our lack of knowledge is even more pronounced for specific fungal populations, such as the ones associated with the rhizosphere. Likewise, the Red Sea grey mangroves (Avicennia marina) remain poorly characterized, and understanding of their fungal communities still relies on cultivation-dependent methods. In this study, we analyzed metagenomic datasets from grey mangrove rhizosphere and bulk soil samples collected in the Red Sea coast, to obtain a snapshot of their fungal communities. Our data indicated that Ascomycota was the dominant phylum (76%–85%), while Basidiomycota was less abundant (14%–24%), yet present in higher numbers than usually reported for such environments. Fungal communities were more stable within the rhizosphere than within the bulk soil, both at class and genus level. This finding is consistent with the intrinsic patchiness in soil sediments and with the selection of specific microbial communities by plant roots. Our study indicates the presence of several species on this mycobiome that were not previously reported as mangrove-associated. In particular, we detected representatives of several commercially-used fungi, e.g., producers of secreted cellulases and anaerobic producers of cellulosomes. These results represent additional insights into the fungal community of the grey mangroves of the Red Sea, and show that they are significantly richer than previously reported.

  7. High mortality of Zostera marina under high temperature regimes but minor effects of the invasive macroalgae Gracilaria vermiculophylla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höffle, H.; Thomsen, M. S.; Holmer, M.

    2011-03-01

    The present study tested for density-dependent effects of the invasive drift macroalgae Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss on growth and survival of the native eelgrass, Zostera marina L., under different temperature levels. Three weeks laboratory experiments were conducted in Odense, Denmark, combining three algae densities (control, low 1.9 kg WW m -2, high 4.5 kg WW m -2) with typical Danish summer temperatures (18 °C) and elevated temperatures (21 °C and 27 °C). There was a significant effect of temperature on shoot survival with on average 68% mortality in the high temperature treatment but almost no mortality at the two lower temperatures. The higher mortality was probably caused by high sulphide levels in the sediment pore water (0.6 mmol l -1 at 18 °C compared to 3.7 mmol l -1 at 27 °C). Above-ground growth of the surviving shoots was also significantly affected by temperature, with leaf elongation rates being negatively affected, while the leaf plastochrone interval increased. Relative growth rate was significantly higher at 21 °C than at 18 °C or 27 °C, whereas rhizome elongation was significantly lowest at 27 °C. Elemental sulphur content in the plant tissues increased significantly with temperature and was up to 34 times higher (S 0 in rhizomes) at 27 °C compared to the lower temperatures. In contrast to the temperature effects, cover by G. vermiculophylla did not cause significant effects on any seagrass responses. However, there was a (non-significant) negative effect of algal cover at the highest temperature, where the seagrass is already stressed. The latter results suggest that more studies should test for interaction effects between temperature and other anthropogenic stressors given that temperature is predicted to increase in the near future.

  8. Arquitectura y poder local: los orígenes de la comandancia de marina de Las Palmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Márquez Quevedo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La construcción de edificaciones representativas del poder ha sido siempre una constante. En el caso de Canarias, una región pobre y alejada del centro político de Estado, esta arquitectura tomó una gran relevancia debido a su escasez. En una etapa de creciente rivalidad entre la capital provincial, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, y Las Palmas, ciudad que despuntaba con el auge del Puerto de La Luz, el deseo de contar cuanto antes con un vistoso edificio para la Comandancia de Marina tuvo un evidente objetivo político. Este artículo es un breve repaso a los orígenes de esta construcción y sus dificultades para realizarla.The representative authority building has ever been manifest. In Canary Islands, needy and distant region from metropolis, this architecture obtains large importance owing to her shortness. In the times of increasing competition between the chief town, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, and Las Palmas, one place that expanding through Puerto de La Luz’s summit, to have a desire to count upon a showy commandership building rapidly it was an obvious political objective. In this essay, we will analyse the origins of this building and the objections in order to achieve it.

  9. Desiccation risk drives the spatial ecology of an invasive anuran (Rhinella marina in the Australian semi-desert.

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    Reid Tingley

    Full Text Available Some invasive species flourish in places that impose challenges very different from those faced in their native geographic ranges. Cane toads (Rhinella marina are native to tropical and subtropical habitats of South and Central America, but have colonised extremely arid regions over the course of their Australian invasion. We radio-tracked 44 adult cane toads at a semi-arid invasion front to investigate how this invasive anuran has managed to expand its geographic range into arid areas that lie outside of its native climatic niche. As predicted from their low physiological control over rates of evaporative water loss, toads selected diurnal shelter sites that were consistently cooler and damper (and thus, conferred lower water loss rates than nearby random sites. Desiccation risk also had a profound influence on rates of daily movement. Under wet conditions, toads that were far from water moved further between shelter sites than did conspecifics that remained close to water, presumably in an attempt to reach permanent water sources. However, this relationship was reversed under dry conditions, such that only toads that were close to permanent water bodies made substantial daily movements. Toads that were far from water bodies also travelled along straighter paths than did conspecifics that generally remained close to water. Thus, behavioural flexibility--in particular, an ability to exploit spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the availability of moist conditions--has allowed this invasive anuran to successfully colonize arid habitats in Australia. This finding illustrates that risk assessment protocols need to recognise that under some circumstances an introduced species may be able to thrive in conditions far removed from any that it experiences in its native range.

  10. Identification of light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein genes of Zostera marina L. and their expression under different environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanna; Zhou, Yang; Sun, Peipei; Cao, Min; Li, Hong; Mao, Yunxiang

    2016-02-01

    Photosynthesis includes the collection of light and the transfer of solar energy using light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding (LHC) proteins. In high plants, the LHC gene family includes LHCA and LHCB sub-families, which encode proteins constituting the light-harvesting complex of photosystems I and II. Zostera marina L. is a monocotyledonous angiosperm and inhabits submerged marine environments rather than land environments. We characterized the Lhca and Lhcb gene families of Z. marina from the expressed sequence tags (EST) database. In total, 13 unigenes were annotated as ZmLhc, 6 in Lhca family and 7 in ZmLhcb family. ZmLHCA and ZmLHCB contained the conservative LHC motifs and amino acid residues binding chlorophyll. The average similarity among mature ZmLHCA and ZmLHCB was 48.91% and 48.66%, respectively, which indicated a high degree of divergence within ZmLHChc gene family. The reconstructed phylogenetic tree showed that the tree topology and phylogenetic relationship were similar to those reported in other high plants, suggesting that the Lhc genes were highly conservative and the classification of ZmLhc genes was consistent with the evolutionary position of Z. marina. Real-time reverse transcription (RT) PCR analysis showed that different members of ZmLhca and ZmLhcb responded to a stress in different expression patterns. Salinity, temperature, light intensity and light quality may affect the expression of most ZmLhca and ZmLhcb genes. Inorganic carbon concentration and acidity had no obvious effect on ZmLhca and ZmLhcb gene expression, except for ZmLhca6.

  11. An Assessment of the Accumulation Potential of Pb, Zn and Cd by Avicennia marina (Forssk. Vierh. in Vamleshwar Mangroves, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiah Nirmal KUMAR

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the accumulation of Pb, Zn and Cd in an important mangrove species, Avicennia marina (Forssk. Vierh., in the Vamleshwar mangrove ecosystem, near Narmada estuary, West coast of Gujarat, India with height differences of 0.5, 1.5, 2.5 meters and carried out under field conditions during October, 2009. The site was located on 21�30�11.55�� N latitude and 72�43�53.68�� E longitude. Mangrove receives heavy metal pollution from upstream areas of Narmada estuary and highly populated settlements. However, little is known about the capacity of mangrove plants to take up and store heavy metals in them. Water, sediment and plant parts such as roots, stems and leaves were analyzed for finding the trace metal accumulation of different height groups by Inductive Coupled Plasma Analyser (ICPA. Amount of the content of metals found in the water, sediment and plant parts were in the order of Pb>Zn>Cd. The average contents of heavy metals in the waters were 57.83 mg l-1 for Pb, 3.89 83 mg l-1 for Zn and 0.42 mg l-1 for Cd. It was observed that the average contents of Pb (73.6 mg l-1, Zn (8.1 mg l-1 and Cd (0.73 mg l-1 in the sediments were below the critical soil concentrations. The concentrations of heavy metals in different parts of Avicennia marina were in the order Roots>stem>leaf except for Cd, but Cd found higher in leaf. The ranges of the content of heavy metals in plants were 18.5-102.2 mg l-1 for Pb, 3.5-19.5 mg l-1 for Zn and 0.2-4.1 mg l-1 for Cd. The concentrations of all heavy metals in Avicennia marina except Pb were falling within the normal range and were much more in the plants have the highest height. The present study has shown the potential of Avicennia marina as a phytoremediation species for selected heavy metals in many mangrove ecosystems.

  12. An Assessment of the Accumulation Potential of Pb, Zn and Cd by Avicennia marina (Forssk. Vierh. in Vamleshwar Mangroves, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiah Nirmal KUMAR

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the accumulation of Pb, Zn and Cd in an important mangrove species, Avicennia marina (Forssk. Vierh., in the Vamleshwar mangrove ecosystem, near Narmada estuary, West coast of Gujarat, India with height differences of 0.5, 1.5, 2.5 meters and carried out under field conditions during October, 2009. The site was located on 213011.55 N latitude and 724353.68 E longitude. Mangrove receives heavy metal pollution from upstream areas of Narmada estuary and highly populated settlements. However, little is known about the capacity of mangrove plants to take up and store heavy metals in them. Water, sediment and plant parts such as roots, stems and leaves were analyzed for finding the trace metal accumulation of different height groups by Inductive Coupled Plasma Analyser (ICPA. Amount of the content of metals found in the water, sediment and plant parts were in the order of Pb>Zn>Cd. The average contents of heavy metals in the waters were 57.83 mg l-1 for Pb, 3.89 83 mg l-1 for Zn and 0.42 mg l-1 for Cd. It was observed that the average contents of Pb (73.6 mg l-1, Zn (8.1 mg l-1 and Cd (0.73 mg l-1 in the sediments were below the critical soil concentrations. The concentrations of heavy metals in different parts of Avicennia marina were in the order Roots>stem>leaf except for Cd, but Cd found higher in leaf. The ranges of the content of heavy metals in plants were 18.5-102.2 mg l-1 for Pb, 3.5-19.5 mg l-1 for Zn and 0.2-4.1 mg l-1 for Cd. The concentrations of all heavy metals in Avicennia marina except Pb were falling within the normal range and were much more in the plants have the highest height. The present study has shown the potential of Avicennia marina as a phytoremediation species for selected heavy metals in many mangrove ecosystems.

  13. Maaleht soovitab : Superstaarid esinevad Taskus. Monkist "Saaremaa valsini". Muusikapidu pärimusmuusika keskuses. Suvelõpupidu Marina külas. Hortus Musicus esineb Väravatornis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    18. sept. esinevad Tartus Tasku moe- ja vaba aja keskuses telekonkursil Eesti otsib Superstaari osalenud Jana Kask ja Arno Suislep ning saate "Kaks takti ette" võitja Margus Vaher. 18. sept. toimub Tallinna Kunstihoones kitarristide Tiit Pauluse ja Jaak Sooääre uue CD esitluskontsert. 19. sept. toimub Viljandi pärimusmuusika keskuses maailmamuusika-pidu. Suvelõpupeol 20. sept. Saarde vallas Grossi järve ääres Marina külas esinevad Virve Köster ja Audru Jõelaevanduse Punt. 20. sept. Tallinnas Väravatornis esineb vanamuusikaansambel Hortus Musicus

  14. Caracterización ambiental de la zona de alimentación de tortugas marinas en el litoral del municipio de Guasave, Sinaloa.

    OpenAIRE

    Graciano Obeso, Adalid

    2014-01-01

    Las áreas marinas protegidas (AMPs) son herramientas de conservación muy relevantes para la protección de ecosistemas y para contribuir a generar un uso adecuado de los recursos naturales. La zona marino costera del municipio de Guasave se encuentra ubicada en la región sur del Golfo de California en un área de surgencias costeras estacionales y en la que ocurren una gran cantidad de especies de importancia comercial así como de interés para la conservación. Estudios previos han caracterizado...

  15. Fidelización del mercado británico en el sector turístico de la comarca de la Marina Alta como consecuencia del Brexit.

    OpenAIRE

    BISQUERT MIRALLES, NURIA

    2017-01-01

    Last 23rd June, 2016, a referendum was held in Great Britain, which concluded with the YES on leaving the European Union. Currently we know that negotiations for the departure have begun, which will progress over a couple of years to achieve the wishes manifested by the British. We will focus the study on the Marina Alta region, receiving destination of a significant number of British tourists. In which the effects of the so-called Brexit caused by possible difficulties such as the closure...

  16. Mortandad de aves marinas durante "El Niño 1997-98" en el litoral sur de San Juan de Marcona, Ica -Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Apaza; Aída Figari

    2014-01-01

    Entre agosto de 1997 y abril de 1998, se evaluó, al sur de la punta guanera de San Juan de Marcona, la mortandad de las poblaciones de aves marinas. Especies de alimentación exclusivamente pelágica y de distribución restringida al ámbito de la Corriente Peruana, como las aves guaneras Pelecanus thagus, Sula variegata y Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, el pingüino Spheniscus humboldti y el zarcillo Larosterna inca, mostraron una correlación significativa en el comportamiento mensual, relacionados ...

  17. An examination of photoacclimatory responses of Zostera marina transplants along a depth gradient for transplant-site selection in a disturbed estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Tao; Kim, Seung Hyeon; Kim, Jae Woo; Kim, Jong-Hyeob; Lee, Kun-Seop

    2013-02-01

    Growth and photosynthetic responses of Zostera marina transplants along a depth gradient were examined to determine appropriate transplanting areas for seagrass restoration. Seagrass Z. marina was once widely distributed in the Taehwa River estuary in southeastern Korea, but has disappeared since the 1960s due to port construction and large scale pollutant inputs from upstream industrial areas. Recently, water quality has been considerably improved as a result of effective sewage treatment, and the local government is attempting to restore Z. marina to the estuary. For seagrass restoration in this estuary, a pilot transplantation trial of Z. marina at three water depths (shallow: 0.5 m; intermediate: 1.5 m; deep: 2.5 m relative to MLLW) was conducted in November 2008. The transplant shoot density increased gradually at the intermediate and deep sites, whereas the transplants at the shallow site disappeared after 3 months. To find the optimal transplantation locations in this estuary, the growth and photosynthetic responses of the transplants along a depth gradient were examined for approximately 4 months following transplantation in March 2009. In the 2009 experimental transplantation trial, shoot density of transplants at the shallow site was significantly higher than those at the intermediate and deep sites during the first 3 months following transplantation, but rapidly decreased approximately 4 months after transplantation. The chlorophyll content, photosynthetic efficiency (α), and maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) of the transplants were significantly higher at the deep site than at the shallow site. Shoot size, biomass and leaf productivity were also significantly higher at the deep site than at the shallow site. Although underwater irradiance was significantly lower at the deep site than at the shallow site, transplants at the deep site were morphologically and physiologically acclimated to the low light. Transplants at the shallow site exhibited high

  18. Red de Repositorios IODE/COI/Unesco de acceso abierto en Ciencias Marinas en América Latina y el Caribe: OceanDocs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cristiani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la organización, funciones y evolución de la red de repositorios de acceso abierto OceanDocs, particularmente la experiencia de instituciones vinculadas a las Ciencias Marinas en América Latina y el Caribe. En el marco de las Redes de Datos e Información Oceanográfica de la Comisión Oceanográfica Intergubernamental (COI de UNESCO, surgieron iniciativas de repositorios locales y regionales, que más tarde se consolidan y dan lugar a la red internacional de repositorios en Ciencias Marinas:  OceanDocs. En la actualidad esta red está integrada por repositorios institucionales, repositorios regionales y un repositorio central alojado por la COI. OceanDocs cuenta con políticas comunes definidas, un Grupo Directivo conformado por especialistas de distintas áreas que planifica y establece las directrices para la red, coordinadores nacionales y regionales, Unidades de Información a nivel institucional responsables de la carga de documentos, y una creciente comunidad de usuarios a nivel global.

  19. Distribution patterns of Syllidae (Annelida: Polychaeta from seagrass (Zostera marina and Z. noltei meadows in the Ensenada de O Grove (Galicia, NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Quintas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the distribution and composition of the syllid fauna inhabiting seagrass meadows in the Ensenada de O Grove (NW Spain. Samples were collected on muddy sediments colonized by either Zostera marina L., Zostera noltei Hornemann or by a mixed meadow with both species. Syllids were dominant (13340 individuals; 37% of total polychaete abundance, including 22 species (12 genera. The mixed meadows housed the highest number of species and the Z. noltei meadow had practically no syllids. The dominant species were Exogone naidina, Parapionosyllis elegans, Parexogone hebes and Prosphaerosyllis campoyi ( > 80% of total abundance. Carnivores (mainly species of Parapionosyllis, Amblyosyllis, and Streptosyllis were dominant, especially in muddy sand with either Z. marina or Z. noltei and sandy mud with a mixed meadow. The most important abiotic variables for explaining the composition and distribution of the syllid fauna were bottom water salinity, sorting coefficient and carbonate content. The highest number of species was recorded at sites with a high salinity and carbonate content and the lowest at sites with a high sorting coefficient.

  20. De novo transcriptome analysis of pneumatophores (modified roots in the true mangrove species Avicennia marina and identification of the genes related to root gas exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushothaman Natarajan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves plants which grow in estuaries naturally tolerate extreme conditions of high salinity (90 ppt and high light intensity. Avicennia marina is a true mangrove tree species with physiological adaptations like modified root system (pneumatophores and salt excretion glands in leaves as its one of the unique features to consider. The pneumatophores are a special type of roots with negative geotropism that project above the water surface or the level of flooded soils [1]. In contact with air these roots develop lenticels, which improve gas exchange between roots and environment [2]. In swamps and wetlands the presence of pneumatophores facilitates oxygen diffusion through the tissues, maintaining levels adequate for cellular respiration [3]. Objective of this study was to perform the whole transcriptome analysis of pneumatophore tissue of A. marina by Illumina sequencing and to identify putative genes involved in process of root gas exchange. We generated 19.73 million of paired-end reads and assembled into 86,856 unigenes with an average length of 772 bp. Further, annotation, tissue specific gene expression and genes related to root gas exchange will be presented.

  1. Identificación de las prioridades de conservación de la biodiversidad marina y costera en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Alvarado

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica es un país reconocido por su alta diversidad de especies y ecosistemas, tanto en sus ambientes terrestres como marinos. A pesar de esta importancia, presenta un rezago en la conservación y manejo de la biodiversidad marina y costera, con respecto a la terrestre. Para el año 2006, la superficie marina protegida era de 5 208.8km² y 331.5km de línea costera, en 20 áreas silvestres protegidas. El país ha logrado importantes avances en la selección de sitios prioritarios para la conservación de la biodiversidad terrestre y de aguas continentales, aunque pocos esfuerzos se han realizado hasta el momento en la planificación marina. En este trabajo se muestra el análisis y resultados de un proceso de identificación de vacíos en la representatividad de la biodiversidad marina y costera en el sistema de áreas protegidas de Costa Rica. El estudio se construyó a partir de la información espacial disponible sobre la presencia y distribución de la biodiversidad marina y costera, el establecimiento de metas de conservación y el análisis de amenazas sobre la integridad ecológica de la biodiversidad. Posteriormente, se llevó a cabo la selección de sitios prioritarios mediante técnicas de optimización espacial, y la sobreposición con la actual capa de áreas marinas protegidas, para finalmente identificar los vacíos en la representatividad. En total, se identificaron 19 076km² de vacíos de conservación, 1 323km² en el Caribe y 17 753km² en el Pacífico. Se plantean recomendaciones dirigidas hacia la ampliación y fortalecimiento del sistema de áreas marinas protegidas del país, en el cual se usan los vacíos identificados como marco de referencia. Se espera que los resultados presentes sean parte de la base científica necesaria para la planificación de la conservación y uso sostenible de la biodiversidad marina en el país.Identification of Marine and Coastal biodiversity conservation priorities in Costa Rica. Costa

  2. Optimización de recursos hídricos y armonización de sus usos: el Consorcio de Aguas de la Marina Baja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gil Olcina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En la Marina Baja, comarca alicantina de la seca región climática del Sureste Ibérico, el difícil desafío de conjugar el extraordinario desarrollo turístico y urbano de su franja litoral, que polariza Benidorm, con disponibilidades hídricas exiguas e irregulares, ha requerido un conjunto de actuaciones del mayor interés, para la optimización de éstas y la armonización de sus usos, protagonizadas por el Consorcio de Aguas de la Marina Baja. Dichas iniciativas incluyen: mayor y mejor regulación de recursos epigeos, potenciación sostenible de los subterráneos, y reutilización de aguas depuradas, con superposición de dos sistemas independientes -aguas blancas y depuradas-, que funcionan al unísono; sin que falte, para conjurar el riesgo extremo de una sequía prolongada e intensa, la posibilidad de emplear caudales foráneos.

  3. Comparación de anomalías de gravedad derivadas de altimetría satelital con datos de gravedad marina en el margen continental Argentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Pedraza De Marchi

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se comparan grillas de anomalías de gravedad derivadas de misiones de altimetría satelital con anomalías de gravedad marina a partir de datos de cruceros en el margen continental argentino y zona oceánica adyacente. Se analizan las diferencias entre estas fuentes de datos, ya que es de esperar que éstas sean significativas en zonas costeras o de gradiente horizontal de gravedad abrupto como en el talud continental; se trata de identificar y delimitar dichas zonas. Asimismo se analizan los datos de barco de distintas campañas realizadas en épocas diferentes para organizarlos en una base de datos común, como parte de un proceso de compilación en el que se crearán versiones mejoradas con nuevas correcciones en la medida en que se incorporen más datos en el futuro. Se investiga cuál de las grillas de gravedad derivada de altimetría satelital presenta mejor ajuste con la compilación marina a fin de caracterizarla como la recomendable para su uso en posteriores aplicaciones. Se presentan aquí los resultados de la primera etapa completada en función del alcance los objetivos mencionados.

  4. COMPOSICIÓN QUIMICA Y ACTIVIDAD ANTIFOULING DE LA FRACCION LIPIDICA DE LA ESPONJA MARINA Cliona tenuis (Clionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Castellanos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Del extracto orgánico de la esponja marina Cliona tenuis, recolectada en las Islas del Rosario (Colombia, Mar Caribe, fue obtenida la fracción lipídica, la cual presentó propiedades antifouling en pruebas en campo. Esta fracción fue separada por CC sobre gel de sílice hasta obtener fracciones de ésteres metílicos, glicéridos, glicolípidos, fosfolípidos y ácidos grasos libres, las cuales fueron identificadas por CCD y técnicas de dereplicación (RMN 1H y 13C. Posteriormente, las fracciones de glicéridos, glicolípidos y fosfolípidos fueron hidrolizadas y los ácidos obtenidos, junto con los provenientes de la fracción de ácidos grasos libres, fueron transformados en ésteres metílicos y todos se analizaron por CGAR-EM. Para ubicar las insaturaciones y ramificaciones, los ésteres metílicos se transformaron luego en sus correspondientes pirrolididas, las cuales también se analizaron por CGAR-EM. El estudio cromatográfico (valores de ECL y de los espectros de masas de los ésteres metílicos y de sus derivados pirrolididas permitió identificar 81 ácidos grasos diferentes, de los cuales no habían sido previamente reportados: los ácidos 4,8-hexadecadienoico, 11-metil-4,10-octadecadienoico, 6,9,12,14-icosatetraenoico, y 6,9,12,14,17-icosapentanoico.

  5. Autophagy Inhibition Enhances the Mitochondrial-Mediated Apoptosis Induced by Mangrove (Avicennia marina) Extract in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Esau, Luke

    2015-01-10

    Aims: Avicennia marina (AM) is a widely distributed mangrove plant that has been used in traditional medicine for centuries for the treatment of a number of diseases. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the leaf ethyl acetate extract of AM for its cytotoxic and apoptotic potential along with in-depth investigations of its mechanism of action in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Study Design: The ethyl acetate extract of leaves and stems of AM was tested against estrogen positive breast cancer cell line MCF-7 using various assays. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia, from July 2013-June 2014. Methodology: Dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition of cancer cells was measured using MTT assay. The mechanisms of apoptosis induction were determined using various assays: phosphatidylserine exposure, caspase-3/7 activation, mitochondrial membrane potential disruption, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cell cycle analysis, autophagy, and protein expression using western blotting. The modulation of apoptotic genes (p53, Mdm2, NF-kB, Bad, Bax, Bcl-2 and Casp7) was also determined using real time PCR. Results: The AM extract inhibited breast cancer cell growth and induced apoptosis in a concentration dependent manner. We demonstrated a non-classical mode of apoptosis induction in MCF-7 cells by AM extract, where ROS production altered the mitochondrial membrane potential to induce apoptosis. Breast cancer cells treated with 200 µg/ml concentration of AM extract showed increased ROS production and disrupted MMP but no PARP-1 cleavage and a marked decrease in Caspase-7 protein levels (24 and 48 h) were detected. A significant amount of autophagy was also observed at the same concentration. However, treatment of MCF-7 cells with 200 µg/ml of AM extract along with the inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine, significantly increased the apoptosis from 20% to 45

  6. Comparación ontogénica de la frecuencia de muda en Rhinella marina (Anura, Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teófila M. Triana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La muda es un proceso de renovación de la capa externa de la epidermis (estrato corneo de los anfibios, la cual suministra protección contra daños, patógenos y pérdida de agua. Este trabajo evalúa la frecuencia de muda entre juveniles y adultos de Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758 y la tasa de ocurrencia entre el día y la noche. Para esto, se realizaron dos observaciones diarias (7 am y 7 pm, entre Octubre de 2011 y Marzo de 2012, a tres grupos de individuos clasificados según su tamaño longitud rostro-cloaca, como adultos (promedio=80 mm, juveniles medianos (promedio=19 mm y juveniles pequeños (promedio=13 mm. Estos animales fueron colocados en terrarios en el laboratorio y marcados en el dorso a través de un punto hecho con un corrector de tinta. La muda se determinó por la pérdida total de la marca y una coloración brillante en el dorso. Se encontró una diferencia significativa (Kruskal-Wallis, H=19.84, p<0.0001 en el periodo de muda entre los tres grupos de estudio: adultos=7.5 días, juveniles medianos=5.4 días, juveniles pequeños=5.3 días. También, en la frecuencia de animales que mudaron en el día y la noche (Ji-cuadrado, χ2=7.891, p=0.019, particularmente en los dos grupos de juveniles, quienes lo hicieron en la noche, ya que en los adultos no hubo una diferencia clara. Posiblemente, la mayor frecuencia de la muda en los juveniles puede relacionarse con su condición ontogénica, de un menor tamaño corporal, alta tasa metabólica y mayor tasa de desarrollo.

  7. Trama trófica de una comunidad de peces en una pradera marina en el Caribe Venezolano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana López-Ordaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Las praderas marinas son consideradas sitios importantes de alimentación para una variedad de especies de peces, por lo que en estos sistemas son frecuentes las interacciones tróficas complejas. En el presente trabajo se describió la trama trófica de la ictiofauna en una pradera marina ubicada en el Caribe Venezolano. Adicionalmente, se propuso una medida de la intensidad de consumo de cada presa (IC, considerando dos variables: la abundancia y la frecuencia de uso. Se realizaron ocho muestreos (en 4 horarios: 6:00, 12:00, 18:00 y 24:00 horas en agosto 2005 y enero 2006. Se capturaron 51 especies pertenecientes a 29 familias siendo Haemulidae la más abundante y se identificaron 28 items alimenticios dentro de los cuales, Crustácea fue el más importante como recurso alimenticio. La importancia de los gremios tróficos considerando la abundancia y la riqueza taxonómica de especies fue: bentófago>herbívoro>piscívoro. Las características de la trama trófica fueron las siguientes: 1 una mayor proporción de cadenas cortas (dos eslabones, 2 un elevado número de especies intermedias. 3 un elevado consumo de bentos, 4 unas bajas intensidades de consumo y 5 un reducido número de especies involucradas en el mayor número de uniones tróficas estimadas. Se obtuvieron diferencias temporales (horarias y mensuales en el número de especies (totales, intermedias y topes, de uniones totales, en la conectividad y en la longitud máxima de cadena. No se observó una variación temporal en la conectancia y sus valores resultaron parecidos a los reportados para otros ambientes marinos con distinta riqueza de especies. Por el contrario, los valores de conectividad resultaron menores a los obtenidos en ambientes con menor riqueza de especies. Como en otros reportes, los parámetros tróficos estimados fueron poco sensibles a los cambios intracomunitarios. IC resultó bajo, a excepción de lo obtenido para los copépodos harpacticoides y las larvas de

  8. Modelado Energético de Convertidores Primarios para el Aprovechamiento de las Energías Renovables Marinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amable López

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El objetivo principal de este artículo es presentar los métodos más habituales de aprovechamiento de distintos tipos de energías renovables procedentes del mar y analizar los modelos energéticos de los dispositivos utilizados para su explotación. Estos modelos son necesarios para el diseño del dispositivo así como para el estudio de su comportamiento dinámico. Su conocimiento resulta imprescindible también para su simulación dinámica y para el diseño de los algoritmos de control necesarios para conseguir una optimización energética y económica. En este trabajo se presentan algunos de los diferentes tipos de energías del mar, y se j ustifica el interés en el desarrollo de dispositivos específicos para el aprovechamiento de las corrientes marinas y de las olas, junto con una pequeña clasificación en función de la profundidad del agua en la zona de instalación de estos dispositivos. Para los convertidores de energía de las olas, generalmente, de tipo resonante, se presenta una metodología de tipo general, analizando los distintos campos de fuerzas actuantes y los métodos de obtención de las respuestas temporal y frecuencial. Para los dispositivos de aprovechamiento de las corrientes, se propone una metodología simplificada de modelado dinámico que puede ser utilizada en análisis del dispositivo concreto. Para ello se tiene en cuenta los perfiles hidrodinámicos que utilizan estos dispositivos, los datos del perfil de la corriente con la profundidad y del modelo de oleaje, y la dinámica propia del conjunto multiplicadora y generador eléctrico. La metodología propuesta se aplica al estudio de un caso concreto, correspondiente a un rotor de eje horizontal de un convertidor de energía de las corrientes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten analizar los efectos del oleaje y de las condiciones de flujo de la corriente no uniforme sobre las magnitudes energéticas más importantes. Abstract: The main objective of

  9. Methylarcula marina gen. nov., sp. nov. and Methylarcula terricola sp. nov.: novel aerobic, moderately halophilic, facultatively methylotrophic bacteria from coastal saline environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronina, N V; Trotsenko, Y A; Tourova, T P

    2000-09-01

    A new genus, Methylarcula, with two new species, Methylarcula marina and Methylarcula terricola, are proposed for strains h1T and h37T of moderately halophilic facultatively methylotrophic bacteria isolated from the coastal saline habitats. These methylobacteria are aerobic, Gram-negative, asporogenous, non-motile, colourless rods that multiply by binary fission. Their cellular fatty acids profiles consist primarily of straight-chain unsaturated (C18:1; 70-80%), saturated (C18:0; 14-16%) and cyclopropane (C19:0; 5-6%) acids. The major ubiquinone is Q-10. The dominant phospholipids are phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. Both strains could use methylamine, some sugars and organic acids as carbon and energy sources. They grew well under optimal conditions (29-35 degrees C, pH 7.5-8.5, 0.5-1.0 M NaCl) and accumulated intracellularly poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate and the compatible solute ectoine. The ectoine pool was found to increase upon increasing the external NaCl concentration and accounted for 18% of the dry cellular weight. Both strains oxidized methylamine by the N-methylglutamate (N-MG) pathway enzymes (gamma-glutamylmethylamide synthetase/lyase and N-MG synthetase/lyase) to formaldehyde and assimilated it via the icl- serine pathway. The DNA G+C content was 60-4 mol% for Methylarcula marina h1T and 57.1 mol% for Methylarcula terricola h37T. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strains hl and h37 was 25-30%, although they had a low level of DNA relatedness (5-7%) with the type strains of the serine pathway methylobacteria belonging to the genera Methylobacterium, Aminobacter, Methylorhabdus and Methylopila. A comparative 16S rDNA sequence-based phylogenetic analysis placed the two species of Methylarcula into a separate branch of the alpha-3 subclass of the Proteobacteria. The type strains of the new species are Methylarcula marina h1T (= VKM B-2159T) and Methylarcula terricola h37T (= VKM B-2160T).

  10. Principales características hidrogeoquímicas del acuífero de Balerma-Las Marinas (Almería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Vidal, J. L.

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available The Balerma-Las Marinas aquifer, which features mainly Pliocene calcarenite rocks, is one of the three distinct hydrogeological units that have been identified in the Campo de Dalías area of Almería. Its hydrogeochemistry has been established by analyzing one hundred and eight samples from different points along the aquifer. The high sodium chloride content of the water is put down to fairly recent relative changes in the sea and continent levels, which have left saline water trapped by a series of blocks that divide the aquifer into various separate compartments. This relative lack of hydraulic continuity between the aquifer and the sea, together with fact that its resources are not subject to overuse, make it very unlikely that marine intrusion is the cause of the high saline content of the water. The conclusion to be drawn is that these waters are not very suitable either for human consumption or for irrigation.El acuífero de Balerma-Las Marinas, esencialmente integrado por calcarenitas pliocenas, constituye una unidad hidrogeológica de las tres diferenciadas en el Campo de Dalías. Sobre la base de ciento ocho análisis químicos de muestras de agua recogidas en otros tantos puntos acuíferos se llega a establecer la hidrogeoquímica del acuífero; el predominio de aguas de facies clorurada sódica es interpretado como relicto de movimientos relativos mar-continente, recientes, unido a la existencia de una serie de bloques que compartimentan el acuífero y que han hecho posible que permanezca entrampada el agua salobre. La escasa explotación a que está sometido el acuífero y la baja continuidad hidráulica existente entre el acuífero y el mar descartan los procesos de intrusión marina como responsables del alto contenido salino de las aguas. Consecuentemente con lo expuesto, las aguas tienen calidad mediocre a mala, tanto para consumo humano como para su uso agrícola.

  11. Escenarios relacionados con la intrusión marina. Caso de estudio Cuenca Artemisa – Quivicán, Provincia Habana. La Habana – Cuba Escenarios relacionados con la intrusión marina. Caso de estudio Cuenca Artemisa – Quivicán, Provincia Habana. La Habana – Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Núñez Lafitte

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Sea water intrusion is the process by which the sea water in an aquifer displaces the sweet water as consequence of a sensitive reduction of the hydraulic head, either for natural actions or for anthropic activity Sea water intrusion takes place in the coastal aquifers mainly independently to the predominant lithology. In this work the scenario analysis is approached by studying the effects that sea water intrusion in dry years would produce to the supply of underground water to the City of Havana and Havana Province, when there would be high exploitation of the aquifers without maintenance of recharge works such as in South Dike.There would be a cartography of the scenario in danger to show the presage of the penetration expressed in the longitude of the marine intrusion wedge, taking as contour conditions the variable that may be unfavorable for their temporal variation, such as precipitation and depression. The thickness of the sheet of sweet water is considered constant.La intrusión marina es el proceso por el cual el agua de mar desplaza en un acuífero el agua dulce como consecuencia de una reducción sensible de la carga hidráulica, ya sea por acciones naturales o por actividad antrópica.La intrusión marina tiene lugar principalmente en los acuíferos costeros independientemente a la litología predominante.En este trabajo se aborda el análisis del escenario que en el abasto de agua subterránea a la Ciudad de La Habana y Provincia Habana produciría la intrusión marina durante la ocurrencias de años secos, simultaneados, con altas explotaciones del acuífero y el no mantenimiento de obras de recarga como es el caso del Dique Sur.Se cartografía el escenario de peligro que muestra el pronóstico de la penetración expresada en longitud de la cuña de intrusión marina tomando como condiciones de contorno las variables que pueden ser desfavorables por su variación temporal, tales como la precipitación, explotación y abatimiento

  12. El alga marina Sargassum (Sargassaceae: una alternativa tropical para la alimentación de ganado caprino

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    M Casas-Valdez

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el valor nutricional de varias algas del género Sargassum. Veinte cabras hembras (Nubia en crecimiento (43 semanasse distribuyeron aleatoriamente en dos grupos de 10 cabras y se alojaron en corraletas individuales. Un grupo fue alimentado con una dieta testigo elaborada con insumos regionales y el otro con una dieta que incluyó el 25% de Sargassum spp. Durante 60 días se midieron diariamente y en forma individual, el alimento y agua consumidos, el peso corporal se cuantificó cada 15 días. La composición química proximal de Sargassum fue de: 89% materia seca, 7.7% proteína, 31% cenizas, 2% extracto etéreo y 39% de carbohidratos. También se determinaron las fracciones de fibra, minerales, vitaminas, ácidos grasos y factores antinutricios. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en el peso corporal (8.6 kg grupo control y 9 kg experimental, alimento consumido (1.31 kg grupo control y 1.6 experimentaly tasa de conversión alimenticia (11.1 grupo control y 12.6 experimental entre los tratamientos. El consumo de agua fue mayor en el grupo alimentado con la dieta que incluyó Sargassum spp (5.1 l. De los resultados se deduce que las algas marinas de este género pueden ser utilizadas como un forraje alternativo de mediana calidad para el ganado caprino.The seaweed Sargassum (Sargassaceae as tropical alternative for goats’ feeding. The nutritive value of seaweed (Sargassum spp. was studied in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Twenty female Nubian goats (43-weeks old were randomly distributed into two groups of 10 goats each and were housed in individual pens. One group was fed with a control diet and the other with a diet supplemented with 25% of Sargassum spp. Feed and water intake were recorded daily and individually for 60 days. The weight of each goat was recorded every 15 days. The nutritional content of Sargassum spp. was 89% dry mater, 8% crude protein, 31% ash, 2% ether extract, and 39% carbohydrates. Fiber fractions

  13. Screening of Salt-stress, Antioxidant Enzyme, and Antimicrobial Activity of Leave extracts of Mangroves Avicennia marina L. from Hodaidah, Yemen

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    Maher A. Al Maqtari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the salinity stress, antioxidant enzyme and antimicrobial activities of leaf extract of Avicennia marinawere investigated. As visualized from SDS-PAGE, no differences was found in number of protein band, but the intensities of several protein bands having apparent molecular mass by reduced severely in salt treated samples with enhanced activities of CAT, POX and GPX. Escherichia coli (ATCC8739, Staphylococus aureus (ATCC 6538, and Bacillus subtilis (ATCC6633 and fungus (Candida albicans ATCC 2091, and Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404 were used as the test pathogenic bacteria and fungi, respectively in this study. The Avicennia marina extract possessed antibacterial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, and B. subtilis (12, 6, and 7 mm respectively, with antifungal activity against C. albicans and A. niger (9 and 10 mm.

  14. Valoración económica para la protección socioambiental de la vaquita marina, una especie endémica

    OpenAIRE

    García Gómez, José; Chávez Nungaray, Erika

    2017-01-01

    Resumen: Las prácticas humanas irracionales sobre el medio ambiente hacen indispensable implementar medidas de protección, como la Reserva de la Biosfera del Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Río Colorado, para preservar el entorno natural y los hábitats, y así favorecer la diversidad biológica. En este trabajo se buscó determinar el soporte económico local, a través de la valoración de la vaquita marina, especie endémica en peligro de extinción que habita en la reserva, y también divulgar...

  15. Ultraviolet radiation response of two heterotropy Antarctic marine bacterial; Respuesta a la radiacion ultravioleta de dos cepas bacterianas marinas heterotrofas antarticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Edgardo A [Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica; Ferreyra, Gustavo A; Mac Cormack, Walter P [Direccion Nacional del Antartico, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Instituto Antartico Argentino

    2004-07-01

    Two Antarctic marine bacterial strains, were exposed to different irradiance of ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation using several experimental protocols and interferential filters. Results showed that both, UV-A and UV-B radiation produce deleterious effects on two tested bacterial strains. The mortality values under UVB treatments were higher than those observed under UVA treatments. UVvi strain proved to be more resistant to UV radiation than the UVps strain. (author) [Spanish] Dos cepas marinas antarticas fueron expuestas a diferentes irradiancias de radiacion solar ultravioleta (UV) utilizando diferentes protocolos experimentales y filtros interferenciales. Los resultados mostraron que tanto la radiacion UV-A como UV-B produce efectos deletereos sobre las dos cepas bacterianas analizadas. Los valores de mortalidad bajo tratamiento UV-B fueron mayores que los observados bajo tratamiento UV-A. La cepa UVvi mostro mayor resistencia a la radiacion UV que la cepa UVps. (autor)

  16. Preselección de especies para la piscicultura marina en el Pacífico Sur de México

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    Sergio Escárcega Rodríguez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dada la diversidad de peces en el Pacífico Sur de México y el deterioro que enfrenta más de 50% de las pesquerías que en él existen, se requiere identificar a las especies con los mayores atributos acuícolas para promover su conservación y el desarrollo regional. Se analizaron 36 especies sobre tres precondiciones básicas: valor comercial, eurihalinidad y talla. Resultaron como especies de primera elección: el robalo prieto (Centropomus nigrescens, el mero (Epinephelus itajara y el guachinango del Pacífico (Lutjanus peru. La pesca constituye la mayor fuente de impacto ecológico en los océanos. La piscicultura marina tropical representa una vertiente productiva a impulsarse en México.

  17. Combined impact of water column oxygen and temperature on internal oxygen status and growth of Zostera marina seedlings and adult shoots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Ane-Marie Løvendahl; Borum, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) occasionally experiences severe die-offs during warm summer periods with variable water column oxygen partial pressures (pO). Eelgrass is known to be very intolerant to tissue anoxia with reduced growth and increasing mortality after ≤12h anoxia in the dark...... at temperatures of ≥25°C. In the present study we experimentally examine the impact of combined water column oxygen and temperature on oxygen dynamics in leaf meristems of seedlings and adult shoots to better understand how stressful environmental conditions affect eelgrass oxygen dynamics and subsequent growth...... and mortality. There was a strong interaction between water column oxygen and temperature on meristem pO implying that eelgrass is rather resistant to unfavorable oxygen conditions in winter but becomes increasingly vulnerable in summer, especially at high temperatures. At 25°C meristems became anoxic...

  18. Assessment of heavy metal and petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the Sultanate of Oman with emphasis on harbours, marinas, terminals and ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupp, Barry P; Fowler, Scott W; Dobretsov, Sergey; van der Wiele, Henk; Al-Ghafri, Ahmed

    2017-08-15

    The assessment here includes data on levels of contaminants (petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals) in sediments and biomonitor organisms, including the eulittoral rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata and subtidal biomonitors, the barnacle Balanus trigonus and the antipatharian coral Antipathes sp., at harbours, marinas, terminals and large ports along the coastline of Oman. TBT levels in harbour and port sediments up to a maximum of 100ppb TBT dry weight are highlighted. Oysters contained concentrations up to 367ppm mg TPH/kg dry weight. The maximum levels of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were found in the subtidal sediments and barnacles at the oil tanker loading Single Buoy Mooring stations in Mina Al Fahal. In general, the levels of most of the contaminants analysed are at low to moderate concentrations compared to those in highly contaminated sites such as shipyards and dry docks, but continued monitoring is recommended especially during any dredging campaigns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An approach to 3D modeling of marine platforms in operation; Un enfoque al modelado 3D de plataformas marinas en operacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Camargo, Octavio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    During the useful life of the marine platforms it is of great importance to have an intelligent three-dimensional model, that faithfully represents the facilities, in order to optimize the operative and maintenance procedures as well as to have a real information of the condition of the equipment and of each one of the components to facilitate the decision making, to make a risk analysis and dangerous operation analyses (HAZOP) and to make designs of improvements, modernization, substitutions and extensions. At the moment, the marine platforms are being designed with CAD tools, reason why before its installation they have a 3D model, which is updated as the design advances, until arriving at the approved version for construction. Later, the digital model of the marine platform serves to guide in the construction and follow up the advance of the same. Similarly, the model 3D is due to update with respect to the changes that arise during the construction and installation, until the commissioning of the platform, nevertheless, many of these were constructed when these tools were not yet available, reason why it becomes necessary to construct the digital model according to the present condition they exhibit. In order to develop the digital model of the marine platforms in operation, the activities are grouped in three large stages: specification of scope, retrieval of the information and modeling. [Spanish] Durante la vida util de las plataformas marinas es de gran importancia contar con un modelo tridimensional inteligente, que represente fielmente las instalaciones, con la finalidad de optimizar los procedimientos operativos y de mantenimiento asi como de disponer de informacion real del estado de los equipos y de cada uno de los componentes para facilitar la toma de decisiones, para hacer analisis de riesgos y analisis de operaciones peligrosas (HAZOP) y para hacer disenos de mejoras, modernizaciones, sustituciones y ampliaciones. Actualmente, las plataformas

  20. Marinas e náutica no litoral brasileiro: aportes metodológicos introdutórios para a pesquisa e o planejamento territorial do turismo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hauer Queiroz Telles

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article it is analyzed the concept of territory from non-exclusive conceptions with the intention to understand the marines along the coast of Brazil. The aim is to contribute to the generation of scientific and technological knowledge on the subject, presenting a definition, a classification and a genesis, as well as, highlighting its social relevance. It presents a summarized literature review on the matter and stipulates the cross-scale perspective supported by the approaches that analyze the phenomenon in question. The approaches are based on the productive dimension and the identification of the urban environment; show the importance and necessity of new proposals on the subject matter. Classification and genesis of marinas in Brazil are presented in stages, it is emphasized the importance of tourism in territorial planning to act and narrow the gaps between knowledge and politics; whereas the nautical sector is no subject of discussion in the coastal zone of Brazil.

  1. Study of protective effect of Avicennia marina hydroethanolic leaf extract on testes tissue and spermatogenesis in male rat induced with carbon tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z soleimani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The toxic chemical compounds are widelyused in the world. Carbon tetrachloride which is used in hygiene industries caused tissue disorders. Medicinal plants have protective effects in body tissues. In this study the protective effect of Avicennia marina leaf extract (MLE on spermatogenesis in male rat were induced with ccl4 investigating. Method and materials: The 42 male rats with 220-250 gr body weight were divided randomly in 6 groups(n=7: control (taking normal saline,0.5ml/day, i,p , sham(taking olive oil, 0.5ml/day, i,p single dose,group induced by ccl4(carbon tetrachloride 1:1 with olive oil,0.5ml single dose, i,p, treated groups: (1,2 and3 by carbon tetrachloride 1:1 with olive oil,0.5ml single dose and 200mg/Kg, 400mg/Kg and 800mg/kg MLE /day for 96 hrs, i,p. After the examination the blood samples were collected from heart directly and testosterone , FSH, LH , sperm count, sperm motility and GSI were analyzed and the microscopic studies of testes tissue were done. All data were expressed as mean±SEM. and statistical significance differences were accepted at P<0.05. Results: Our results showed that the carbon tetrachloride has necrotic effect in testes. The number of sperm and motility were increased and microscopic study of testes tissue showed the necrosis and inflammation with decrease in spermatogonia and spermatocytes comparedwith ccl4 induced only group significantly (P<0.001 and treated groups were no changed. Conclusion: the Avicennia marina hydroethanolic extract has antioxidant and flavonoids compounds which can protect the testes tissues from toxic chemical agents.

  2. Report and characterization of alternaria alternata (fr.) keissler on avicennia marina (forsk.) vierh forests of industrial yanb'a city, saudi arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeer, H.; Huqail, A.A.; Allah, E.F.A.; Alqarawi, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the leaf spot disease of Avicennia marina (Forski) Vierh in Saudi Arabia. The leaf spot disease is reported for the first time in mangrove plants of SA. The symptoms of leaf spot disease and the morphological characters of the causal organism are also described. The radial growth and sporulation of A. alternata were variable with obvious trend on the different growth media. The optimum pH range for maximum growth was 6.0 to 6.5 and any fluctuation in pH caused significant decrease in linear growth of the mold. The chromatographic (TLC) analysis of chloroform extract of fungal culture broth indicated clearly that the mold was able to produce both alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether. The gas liquid chromatographic analysis of mycelial fatty acids demonstrated the presence of caproic, caprylic, lauric, myristic, palmitic, margaric, stearic, arachidic, myristoleic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, ? linolenic, Cis-11 eicosenoic, eicosatrienoic and arachidonic fatty acids in the mycelia of the causal organism. The analysis of free amino acids in the mycelia of causal organism indicated the presence of 13 amino acids namely, alanine, threonine, valine, proline, methionine, tryptophan, tyrosine, lysin, cystin, glycine, asparatic acid, tyrosine, and phenyl alanine. The PCR product amplified with A. alternata DNA indicates that the 370-bp PCR product is a useful diagnostic tool to identify the causal organism in mangrove leaves. This study demonstrated that the causal organism of leaf spot disease of A. marina was typically similar to Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler via classical, biochemical and molecular characterization. (author)

  3. Remote Sensing of Shallow Coastal Benthic Substrates: In situ Spectra and Mapping of Eelgrass (Zostera marina in the Gulf Islands National Park Reserve of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Sharma

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Eelgrass (Zostera marina is a keystone component of inter- and sub-tidal ecosystems. However, anthropogenic pressures have caused its populations to decline worldwide. Delineation and continuous monitoring of eelgrass distribution is an integral part of understanding these pressures and providing effective coastal ecosystem management. A proposed tool for such spatial monitoring is remote imagery, which can cost- and time-effectively cover large and inaccessible areas frequently. However, to effectively apply this technology, an understanding is required of the spectral behavior of eelgrass and its associated substrates. In this study, in situ hyperspectral measurements were used to define key spectral variables that provide the greatest spectral separation between Z. marina and associated submerged substrates. For eelgrass classification of an in situ above water reflectance dataset, the selected variables were: slope 500–530 nm, first derivatives (R’ at 566 nm, 580 nm, and 602 nm, yielding 98% overall accuracy. When the in situ reflectance dataset was water-corrected, the selected variables were: 566:600 and 566:710, yielding 97% overall accuracy. The depth constraint for eelgrass identification with the field spectrometer was 5.0 to 6.0 m on average, with a range of 3.0 to 15.0 m depending on the characteristics of the water column. A case study involving benthic classification of hyperspectral airborne imagery showed the major advantage of the variable selection was meeting the sample size requirements of the more statistically complex Maximum Likelihood classifier. Results of this classifier yielded eelgrass classification accuracy of over 85%. The depth limit of eelgrass spectral detection for the AISA sensor was 5.5 m.

  4. Modelling reveals endogenous osmotic adaptation of storage tissue water potential as an important driver determining different stem diameter variation patterns in the mangrove species Avicennia marina and Rhizophora stylosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Guyot, Adrien; Hubeau, Michiel; De Swaef, Tom; Lockington, David A; Steppe, Kathy

    2014-09-01

    Stem diameter variations are mainly determined by the radial water transport between xylem and storage tissues. This radial transport results from the water potential difference between these tissues, which is influenced by both hydraulic and carbon related processes. Measurements have shown that when subjected to the same environmental conditions, the co-occurring mangrove species Avicennia marina and Rhizophora stylosa unexpectedly show a totally different pattern in daily stem diameter variation. Using in situ measurements of stem diameter variation, stem water potential and sap flow, a mechanistic flow and storage model based on the cohesion-tension theory was applied to assess the differences in osmotic storage water potential between Avicennia marina and Rhizophora stylosa. Both species, subjected to the same environmental conditions, showed a resembling daily pattern in simulated osmotic storage water potential. However, the osmotic storage water potential of R. stylosa started to decrease slightly after that of A. marina in the morning and increased again slightly later in the evening. This small shift in osmotic storage water potential likely underlaid the marked differences in daily stem diameter variation pattern between the two species. The results show that in addition to environmental dynamics, endogenous changes in the osmotic storage water potential must be taken into account in order to accurately predict stem diameter variations, and hence growth.

  5. Análisis multicriterio del impacto potencial del turismo en la anidación de las tortugas marinas en Chalacatepec, Jalisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Flores-Monter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El litoral mexicano presenta hábitats aptos para la reproducción, refugio y crianza de tortugas marinas. Sin embargo, en la costa Chalacatepec, Jalisco, esta aptitud puede estar amenazada por el Proyecto Desarrollo Vistas (PDV, un complejo turístico mixto: hotelero, residencial, comercial y deportivo. El objetivo de la presente investigación, es evaluar el impacto potencial del turismo sobre la anidación de tortugas en dos etapas: a Preparación y construcción y b Operación y mantenimiento, como una herramienta de ayuda a la toma de decisiones en la conservación de las especies Lepidochelys olivácea (tortuga golfina, Chelonia agassizii (tortuga prieta y Dermochelys coriácea (tortuga laúd. Método: Se calculó la densidad de anidación (nidos por kilómetro y se utilizó el método de evaluación multicriterio (EMC discreto Proceso Analítico Jerárquico (PAJ, para estimar el impacto de 8 amenazas turísticas: desmonte y despalme, excavaciones, rellenos, contaminación sonora, residuos sólidos, presencia de personal de obra y construcciones provisionales, iluminación artificial del frente de playa y concentración de visitantes. Se construyó una matriz de comparación, se asignó un peso a cada amenaza, y mediante el uso de un SIG se generaron los mapas de impacto potencial del turismo. Resultados: Las amenazas con mayor peso o ponderación (eigenvector total fueron los rellenos (0.36482 y la concentración de visitantes (0.38194. La construcción y operación turística puede afectar el 59.8% de las anidaciones e impactar principalmente en la costa sur el km 1 (1 142 registros de nidos colectados y, en la costa norte el km 1 (329 nidos, km 3 (311 nidos, km 4 (268 nidos y km 5 (151 nidos. Discusión o Conclusión: La playa de anidación en Chalacatepec es de gran importancia para la protección y conservación de las tortugas marinas. La presente EMC fue una herramienta adecuada para estimar las consecuencias del

  6. Evaluación de un filtro biológico como unidad de post-tratamiento de aguas residuales utilizando conchas marinas como material de soporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Galindo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se evaluó la eficiencia de un filtro biológico (FB a escala piloto, utilizando conchas marinas como material de soporte (MS para el post-tratamiento de aguas residuales municipales (ARM que provenían de un tratamiento previo anaerobio-aerobio. El FB se evaluó con diferentes cargas orgánicas, siendo los tiempos de retención hidráulicos (TRH estudiados: 12,85; 10,71; 8,57 y 6,43h. Los parámetros monitoreados fueron: pH, alcalinidad carbónica y total, temperatura, demanda química de oxígeno (DQO, demanda bioquímica de oxígeno (DBO, ácidos grasos volátiles (AGV, nitrógeno total Kjeldahl (NTK, fósforo total, sólidos suspendidos totales (SST, volátiles (SSV y fijos (SSF. Las mejores eficiencias de remoción de materia orgánica se obtuvieron a TRH de 10,71h, registrando remociones de DQOT, DQOS y DBO5,20 en el orden de 51,5; 48,6 y 39,2%. Sin embargo, la mejor eficiencia en la remoción de sólidos suspendidos se observó en el TRH de 6,43h (SST, 29%, SSV, 23,8% y SSF, 50%. A pesar de recibir tratamiento previo, el número de coliformes totales y fecales afluentes al FB fueron altos, presentando órdenes hasta de 107NMP/100ml, la mayores eficiencias en la remoción de Coliformes totales y fecales fueron de 97,24 y 94,63%, respectivamente, registradas en el TRH de 12,85h. Se evidencia que las conchas marinas (Arca zebra son MS sostenibles y con ellas se logran reducciones satisfactorias de materia orgánica en el tratamiento de ARM.

  7. Algas marinas bentónicas de la costa noroccidental de Guerrero, México Benthic marine algae of the west coast of Guerrero, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Elena Mateo-Cid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de un estudio sobre algas marinas bentónicas en 7 localidades de la costa noroccidental de Guerrero, México. Se determinó la presencia de 163 especies de algas marinas. Se identificaron 17 especies de Cyanobacteria, 93 Rhodophyta, 28 Chlorophyta y 25 de Heterokontophyta. Se citan 54 registros nuevos para el litoral de Guerrero, 2 también nuevos, Myrionema strangulans Greville y Acrochaete ramosa (N.L.Gardner O'Kelly para la costa del Pacífico. Cada especie se acompaña de datos sobre su distribución en el área de estudio, su estado reproductivo, nivel de marea, hábitat, observaciones, epifitismo y número de herbario o de recolección. Se comparó la riqueza específica entre la estación climática de lluvias y la de secas. La división Rhodophyta dominó en términos de diversidad en relación con las 3 divisiones restantes. La ficoflora de la costa noroccidental de Guerrero es de afinidad tropical y más diversa en la época de secas.We present results on the study on benthic marine algae in 7 localities from the west coast of Guerrero, Mexico. We report 163 species: 17 Cyanobacteria, 93 Rhodophyta, 28 Chlorophyta and 25 Heterokontophyta. Fifty four are new records for Guerrero; while Myrionema strangulans Greville and Acrochaete ramosa (N.L.Gardner O'Kelly are new to the Pacific coast of Mexico. Each species includes data on its distribution, reproductive stages, tidal level, facies, epiphytism and herbarium's number. Species diversity was compared for 2 different climatic seasons. The Rhodophyta are dominant in terms of diversity in relation to the other groups. The algal flora of the northwest coast of Guerrero is tropical and the greatest diversity was found during dry seasons.

  8. Avicequinone C Isolated from Avicennia marina Exhibits 5α-Reductase-Type 1 Inhibitory Activity Using an Androgenic Alopecia Relevant Cell-Based Assay System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchy Jain

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Avicennia marina (AM exhibits various biological activities and has been traditionally used in Egypt to cure skin diseases. In this study, the methanolic heartwood extract of AM was evaluated for inhibitory activity against 5α-reductase (5α-R [E.C.1.3.99.5], the enzyme responsible for the over-production of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT causing androgenic alopecia (AGA. An AGA-relevant cell-based assay was developed using human hair dermal papilla cells (HHDPCs, the main regulator of hair growth and the only cells within the hair follicle that are the direct site of 5α-DHT action, combined with a non-radioactive thin layer chromatography (TLC detection technique. The results revealed that AM is a potent 5α-R type 1 (5α-R1 inhibitor, reducing the 5α-DHT production by 52% at the final concentration of 10 µg/mL. Activity-guided fractionation has led to the identification of avicequinone C, a furanonaphthaquinone, as a 5α-R1 inhibitor with an IC50 of 9.94 ± 0.33 µg/mL or 38.8 ± 1.29 µM. This paper is the first to report anti-androgenic activity through 5α-R1 inhibition of AM and avicequinone C.

  9. Vitamin A values of wild-caught Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis) and marine toads (Rhinella marina) in whole body, liver, and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kathleen E; Fleming, Greg; Terrell, Scott; Smith, Dustin; Ridgley, Frank; Valdes, Eduardo V

    2014-12-01

    Recent issues surrounding captive amphibians are often nutritionally related problems, such as hypovitaminosis A. Although supplementation of frogs with vitamin A is a topic of investigation, the underlying issue is understanding vitamin A metabolism in amphibian species. To develop a range of "normal" vitamin A concentrations for captive amphibians, baseline vitamin A concentrations must be established in wild amphibian species. In this study, two species, Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis; n = 59) and marine toads (Rhinella marina; n = 20) were collected from the wild as part of an invasive species control program at Zoo Miami, Miami, Florida. Serum, liver, and whole body samples were analyzed for vitamin A content. The Cuban tree frogs showed higher concentrations on average of vitamin A in serum (82.8 ppb), liver (248.3 IU/g), and whole body (5474.7 IU/kg) samples compared with marine toads (60.1 ppb; 105.3 IU/g; 940.7 IU/kg, respectively), but differences were not significant (P = 0.22). What can be considered "normal" values of vitamin A concentrations across different amphibian species requires further investigation. Although all amphibians collected in this study appeared healthy, a larger sample size of animals, with known health histories and diets, may provide stronger evidence of normal expectations.

  10. Accumulation of Trace Metal Elements (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in Surface Sediment via Decomposed Seagrass Leaves: A Mesocosm Experiment Using Zostera marina L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Hosokawa

    Full Text Available Accumulation of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the sediment of seagrass ecosystems was examined using mesocosm experiments containing Zostera marina (eelgrass and reference pools. Lead was approximately 20-fold higher in the surface sediment in the eelgrass pool than in eelgrass leaves and epiphytes on the eelgrass leaves, whereas zinc and cadmium were significantly lower in the surface sediment than in the leaves, with intermediate concentrations in epiphytes. Copper concentrations were similar in both the surface sediment and leaves but significantly lower in epiphytes. Carbon and nitrogen contents increased significantly with increasing δ13C in surface sediments of both the eelgrass and reference pools. Copper, Zn, Cd, and Pb also increased significantly with increasing δ13C in the surface sediment in the eelgrass pool but not in the reference pool. By decomposition of eelgrass leaves with epiphytes, which was examined in the eelgrass pool, copper and lead concentrations increased more than 2-fold and approximately a 10-fold, whereas zinc and cadmium concentrations decreased. The high copper and lead concentrations in the surface sediment result from accumulation in decomposed, shed leaves, whereas zinc and cadmium remobilized from decomposed shed leaves but may remain at higher concentrations in the leaves than in the original sediments. The results of our mesocosm study demonstrate that whether the accumulation or remobilization of trace metals during the decomposition of seagrass leaves is trace metal dependent, and that the decomposed seagrass leaves can cause copper and lead accumulation in sediments in seagrass ecosystems.

  11. Mortandad de aves marinas durante "El Niño 1997-98" en el litoral sur de San Juan de Marcona, Ica -Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Apaza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre agosto de 1997 y abril de 1998, se evaluó, al sur de la punta guanera de San Juan de Marcona, la mortandad de las poblaciones de aves marinas. Especies de alimentación exclusivamente pelágica y de distribución restringida al ámbito de la Corriente Peruana, como las aves guaneras Pelecanus thagus, Sula variegata y Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, el pingüino Spheniscus humboldti y el zarcillo Larosterna inca, mostraron una correlación significativa en el comportamiento mensual, relacionados con la temperatura superficial del mar y con la ausencia del recurso anchoveta Engraulis ringens durante el evento "El Niño". Otras especies consideradas en el análisis presentaron una mortandad diferente, como la gaviota de Franklin Larus pipixcan y la gaviota gris Larus modestus, en ambos casos, las especies se alimentaron de recursos alternativos, como Calosoma sp. y Emeríta analoga, respectivamente.

  12. Top-down impact through a bottom-up mechanism: the effect of limpet grazing on growth, productivity and carbon allocation of Zostera marina L. (eelgrass).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Richard C; Kohrs, Donald G; Alberte, Randall S

    1996-09-01

    The unusual appearance of a commensal eelgrass limpet [Tectura depicta (Berry)] from southern California at high density (up to 10 shoot -1 ) has coincided with the catastrophic decline of a subtidal Zostera marina L. meadow in Monterey Bay, California. Some commensal limpets graze the chloroplast-rich epidermis of eelgrass leaves, but were not known to affect seagrass growth or productivity. We evaluated the effect on eelgrass productivity of grazing by limpets maintained at natural densities (8±2 shoot -1 ) in a natural light mesocosm for 45 days. Growth rates, carbon reserves, root proliferation and net photosynthesis of grazed plants were 50-80% below those of ungrazed plants, but biomass-specific respiration was unaffected. The daily period of irradiance-saturated photosynthesis (H sat ) needed to maintain positive carbon balance in grazed plants approached 13.5 h, compared with 5-6 h for ungrazed plants. The amount of carbon allocated to roots of ungrazed plants was 800% higher than for grazed plants. By grazing the chlorophyll-rich epidermis, T. depicta induced carbon limitation in eelgrass growing in an other-wise light-replete environment. Continued northward movement of T. depicta, may have significant impacts on eelgrass production and population dynamics in the northeast Pacific, even thought this limpet consumes very little plant biomass. This interaction is a dramatic example of top-down control (grazing/predation) of eelgrass productivity and survival operating via a bottom-up mechanism (photosynthesis limitation).

  13. Effect of abalone farming on seawater movement and benthic foraminiferal assemblage of Zostera marina in the inner bay of Wando, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon Gyu; Choi, Yang Ho; Jeong, Da Un; Lee, Jung Sick; Kim, Yong Wan; Park, Jung Jun; Choi, Jae Ung

    2016-08-15

    Tidal current survey as well as geochemical and benthic foraminiferal analyses of sediment cores were conducted in an abalone farm and a Zostera bed to understand the degree to which the abalone farm facilities installed along a channel in a shallow sea affect the benthic environment and ecology. In the abalone farm, Ammonia beccarii-Pseudoparrella naraensis-Elphidium somaense-Rosalina globularis-Trochammina hadai and P. naraensis-E. somaense-A. beccarii-T. hadai assemblages appeared owing to an increase in the total nitrogen content from the biodeposits. The Zostera bed consisted of A. beccarii-P. naraensis-Buccella frigida-T. hadai assemblage owing to the gradual expansion of a brackish shallow-water environment by the rapidly decreasing current speed, and it may have flourished. Moreover, the total sulfur, Zn, Cr, and Cu contents in the sediments decreased remarkably more than those of the pre-abalone farming did, caused by the vigorous activity of Zostera marina physiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification and Analysis of Red Sea Mangrove (Avicennia marina) microRNAs by High-Throughput Sequencing and Their Association with Stress Responses

    KAUST Repository

    Khraiwesh, Basel; Pugalenthi, Ganesan; Fedoroff, Nina V.

    2013-01-01

    Although RNA silencing has been studied primarily in model plants, advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have enabled profiling of the small RNA components of many more plant species, providing insights into the ubiquity and conservatism of some miRNA-based regulatory mechanisms. Small RNAs of 20 to 24 nucleotides (nt) are important regulators of gene transcript levels by either transcriptional or by posttranscriptional gene silencing, contributing to genome maintenance and controlling a variety of developmental and physiological processes. Here, we used deep sequencing and molecular methods to create an inventory of the small RNAs in the mangrove species, Avicennia marina. We identified 26 novel mangrove miRNAs and 193 conserved miRNAs belonging to 36 families. We determined that 2 of the novel miRNAs were produced from known miRNA precursors and 4 were likely to be species-specific by the criterion that we found no homologs in other plant species. We used qRT-PCR to analyze the expression of miRNAs and their target genes in different tissue sets and some demonstrated tissue-specific expression. Furthermore, we predicted potential targets of these putative miRNAs based on a sequence homology and experimentally validated through endonucleolytic cleavage assays. Our results suggested that expression profiles of miRNAs and their predicted targets could be useful in exploring the significance of the conservation patterns of plants, particularly in response to abiotic stress. Because of their well-developed abilities in this regard, mangroves and other extremophiles are excellent models for such exploration. © 2013 Khraiwesh et al.

  15. Del “mar es de todos” al mar reservado: turistas, poblaciones de pescadores y reservas marinas en Canarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Pascual

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Los patrones de desarrollo de las últimas décadas en Canarias y en otras zonas del Estado han originado nuevos usos del espacio marítimo y litoral. Frente a los tradicionales vinculados a la pesca, ahora dominan frecuentemente los turísticos y recreativos. La naturaleza, construida o recreada, se convierte especialmente en los últimos años en un atractivo clave para muchos destinos. En este contexto, las reservas marinas intentan preservar ciertas zonas de especial valor biológico de los excesos de la pesca, a la vez que deberían conjugar los usos turísticos y recreativos a realizar en tales espacios con la conservación de sus valores naturales. En Canarias han constituido uno de los instrumentos claves de la política de conservación y gestión de pesquerías en las áreas costeras de las Islas. Actualmente hay tres en funcionamiento, siguiendo una tendencia cada vez más general en todo el mundo. Pero a la vez que con ellas se controla la extracción de recursos por los profesionales, se impulsan una serie de usos vinculados a determinadas formas de turismo que han generado importantes transformaciones en las poblaciones vinculadas a estas zonas protegidas. Otros impactos inducidos por el turismo o la acuicultura han alterado también sus estrategias económicas o el uso de los espacios tanto en tierra como en el mar

  16. Identification and analysis of red sea mangrove (Avicennia marina microRNAs by high-throughput sequencing and their association with stress responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basel Khraiwesh

    Full Text Available Although RNA silencing has been studied primarily in model plants, advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have enabled profiling of the small RNA components of many more plant species, providing insights into the ubiquity and conservatism of some miRNA-based regulatory mechanisms. Small RNAs of 20 to 24 nucleotides (nt are important regulators of gene transcript levels by either transcriptional or by posttranscriptional gene silencing, contributing to genome maintenance and controlling a variety of developmental and physiological processes. Here, we used deep sequencing and molecular methods to create an inventory of the small RNAs in the mangrove species, Avicennia marina. We identified 26 novel mangrove miRNAs and 193 conserved miRNAs belonging to 36 families. We determined that 2 of the novel miRNAs were produced from known miRNA precursors and 4 were likely to be species-specific by the criterion that we found no homologs in other plant species. We used qRT-PCR to analyze the expression of miRNAs and their target genes in different tissue sets and some demonstrated tissue-specific expression. Furthermore, we predicted potential targets of these putative miRNAs based on a sequence homology and experimentally validated through endonucleolytic cleavage assays. Our results suggested that expression profiles of miRNAs and their predicted targets could be useful in exploring the significance of the conservation patterns of plants, particularly in response to abiotic stress. Because of their well-developed abilities in this regard, mangroves and other extremophiles are excellent models for such exploration.

  17. Efectividad del monitoreo de la anidación de tortugas marinas para determinar el éxito reproductivo en playas del sur de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Azanza-Ricardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El monitoreo de las anidaciones es muy útil como herramienta para la conservación pero el esfuerzo de trabajo en diferentes áreas puede variar grandemente. En Cuba, se aplican cuatro enfoques diferentes: monitoreo sistemático nocturno y diurno (MSN, y monitoreo esporádico con o sin comprobación de nidos (MECC. La cantidad y exactitud de los datos tomados y la calidad de la información derivada de ellos difieren. Por esta razón, en el presente trabajo se evalúa la efectividad de cada enfoque para determinar el éxito reproductivo de tortugas marinas en Cuba. El MSN sólo se realiza en las playas de anidación de la Península de Guanahacabibes, mientras que el MECC es el más extendido en el país. La porción de la temporada de anidación de cada una de las tres especies que anidan en Cuba (Chelonia mydas, Caretta caretta y Eretmochelys imbricata que se cubre con personal de monitoreo es baja para la mayoría de las playas, y sobre todo en el caso de E. imbricata. Se detectaron diferencias entre el monitoreo sistemático y esporádico, por tanto, la capacidad de detectar rastros falsos y verdaderos depende esencialmente de la frecuencia de monitoreo. Esto afecta la capacidad para evaluar el éxito de la anidación por playas. A pesar del incremento en los esfuerzos realizados en Cuba para el seguimiento de las principales colonias de anidación, se deben identificar nuevas estrategias para garantizar la correcta toma de información, y una mayor eficiencia del programa de monitoreo para obtener la mayor información posible de cada una de las especies con un adecuado balance de costo-beneficio.

  18. Fuerzas Armadas y desarrollo energético en la Argentina: el papel de la Marina de Guerra en la primera mitad del siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Pontoriero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El interés de la Armada argentina por lograr el autoabastecimiento energético para movilizar sus buques y asegu-rar la defensa de la soberanía llevó a que un grupo de sus oficiales más destacados reclamaran a la institución y al Estado una actitud más decidida. Las lecciones que dejaron las sucesivas guerras desde fines del siglo XIX sobre el valor estratégico de los recursos energéticos y su disponibilidad para la producción y movilización de los ele-mentos bélicos, acentuaron aún más su preocupación al respecto. La Marina de Guerra intervino en la explora-ción y explotación de los recursos carboníferos, petroleros e hidroeléctricos, y luego su papel fue muy importante en el desarrollo de la energía nuclear en la Argentina. En este trabajo analizaremos los orígenes del proceso de formación de una élite técnica con alto grado de forma-ción profesional y conciencia industrialista en el seno de la Armada, e interesada en el desarrollo del sector ener-gético nacional. En el estudio, durante la primera mitad del siglo XX, utilizaremos artículos, conferencias, memo-rias e información de los expedientes personales de un grupo de oficiales navales que querían aumentar el control estatal sobre los recursos estratégicos y las industrias relacionadas con la defensa.

  19. Pollutant tracking for 3 Western North Atlantic sea grasses by remote sensing: Preliminary diminishing white light responses of Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii, and Zostera marina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorhaug, Anitra; Berlyn, Graeme P.; Poulos, Helen M.; Goodale, Uromi M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sea grass accessory pigments are more important than Chl at medium to low light intensity. • Partial absorption changes in Thalassia and also in Halodule at low intensity visible light ranges. • NDVI and chlNDI do not detect these changes or low light responses of sea grasses. • Intertidal sea grasses are less stressed than the subtidal species at low and high light. • Chl b is an important photosynthetic pigment in tropical/subtropical species. - Abstract: Sea grasses are foundation species for estuarine ecosystems. The available light for sea grasses diminishes rapidly during pollutant spills, effluent releases, disturbances such as intense riverine input, and tidal changes. We studied how sea grasses’ remote-sensing signatures and light-capturing ability respond to short term light alterations. In vivo responses were measured over the entire visible-light spectra to diminishing white-light on whole-living-plants’ spectral reflectance, including 6 h of full oceanic-light fluences from 10% to 100%. We analyzed differences by various reflectance indices. We compared the sea grasses species responses of tropical vs. temperate and intertidals (Halodule wrightii, and Zostera marina) vs. subtidal (Thalassia testudinum). Reflectance diminished with decreasing light intensity that coincided with greater accessory pigment stimulation (anthocyanin, carotenoids, xanthins). Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b differed significantly among species (Thalassia vs. Halodule). Photosynthetic efficiency diminished at high light intensities. The NDVI index was inadequate to perceive these differences. Our results demonstrate the leaf-level utility of data to remote sensing for mapping sea grass and sea grass stress

  20. The Agia Marina Xyliatou Observatory: A remote supersite in Cyprus to monitor changes in the atmospheric composition of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciare, Jean

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East (EMME) region has been identified as one of the hot spot region in the world strongly influenced by climate changes impacts. This region is characterized by rapidly growing population with contrasting economic development, strong environmental gradients and climate extremes. However, long-term observations of the atmospheric constituents (gaseous and particulate) of the atmosphere at a remote site representative of EMME is still missing making difficult to assess current and future impacts on air quality, water resources and climate. In collaboration with the Department of Labour Inspection and in the frame of French research programs (ChArMEx and ENVI-Med "CyAr") and the EU H2020 "ACTRIS-2" (2015-2019) project, CyI and CNRS are putting unprecedented efforts to implement at a rural site of Cyprus (Agia Marina Xyliatou) a unique infrastructure to monitor key atmospheric species relevant to air quality and climate. A large set of real-time instrumentations is currently deployed to characterize reactive gases (incl. O3, CO, NOx, SO2, VOC), in-situ aerosol properties (mass, size distribution, light scatt./absorption/extinction coef. and chemistry) and as well as integrated optical properties (sunphotomer, solar flux). Through Transnational access (H2020 ACTRIS2), this station is offering to (non-)EU partners (Research, SMEs) a new atmospheric facility to monitor long range transported clean/polluted air masses from 3 different continents (Europe, Africa, Middle East) and investigate aerosol-cloud interactions through the use of UAV and a mountain site (Troodos, 1900m asl). We will present here an overview of this new research infrastructure and provide a first glance of key features observed from gas/aerosol measurements obtained in 2015

  1. Seagrass (Zostera marina) Colonization Promotes the Accumulation of Diazotrophic Bacteria and Alters the Relative Abundances of Specific Bacterial Lineages Involved in Benthic Carbon and Sulfur Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feifei; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Qianqian; Liu, Fanghua; Zhang, Jianping; Gong, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Seagrass colonization changes the chemistry and biogeochemical cycles mediated by microbes in coastal sediments. In this study, we molecularly characterized the diazotrophic assemblages and entire bacterial community in surface sediments of a Zostera marina-colonized coastal lagoon in northern China. Higher nitrogenase gene (nifH) copy numbers were detected in the sediments from the vegetated region than in the sediments from the unvegetated region nearby. The nifH phylotypes detected were mostly affiliated with the Geobacteraceae, Desulfobulbus, Desulfocapsa, and Pseudomonas. Redundancy analysis based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that the distribution of nifH genotypes was mostly shaped by the ratio of total organic carbon to total organic nitrogen, the concentration of cadmium in the sediments, and the pH of the overlying water. High-throughput sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of bacterial 16S rRNA genes also indicated the presence of Geobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae phylotypes in these samples. A comparison of these results with those of previous studies suggests the prevalence and predominance of iron(III)-reducing Geobacteraceae and sulfate-reducing Desulfobulbaceae diazotrophs in coastal sedimentary environments. Although the entire bacterial community structure was not significantly different between these two niches, Desulfococcus (Deltaproteobacteria) and Anaerolineae (Chloroflexi) presented with much higher proportions in the vegetated sediments, and Flavobacteriaceae (Bacteroidetes) occurred more frequently in the bare sediments. These data suggest that the high bioavailability of organic matter (indicated by relatively lower carbon-to-nitrogen ratios) and the less-reducing anaerobic condition in vegetated sediments may favor Desulfococcus and Anaerolineae lineages, which are potentially important populations in benthic carbon and sulfur cycling in the highly productive seagrass ecosystem. Copyright © 2015

  2. Identification and Analysis of Red Sea Mangrove (Avicennia marina) microRNAs by High-Throughput Sequencing and Their Association with Stress Responses

    KAUST Repository

    Khraiwesh, Basel

    2013-04-08

    Although RNA silencing has been studied primarily in model plants, advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have enabled profiling of the small RNA components of many more plant species, providing insights into the ubiquity and conservatism of some miRNA-based regulatory mechanisms. Small RNAs of 20 to 24 nucleotides (nt) are important regulators of gene transcript levels by either transcriptional or by posttranscriptional gene silencing, contributing to genome maintenance and controlling a variety of developmental and physiological processes. Here, we used deep sequencing and molecular methods to create an inventory of the small RNAs in the mangrove species, Avicennia marina. We identified 26 novel mangrove miRNAs and 193 conserved miRNAs belonging to 36 families. We determined that 2 of the novel miRNAs were produced from known miRNA precursors and 4 were likely to be species-specific by the criterion that we found no homologs in other plant species. We used qRT-PCR to analyze the expression of miRNAs and their target genes in different tissue sets and some demonstrated tissue-specific expression. Furthermore, we predicted potential targets of these putative miRNAs based on a sequence homology and experimentally validated through endonucleolytic cleavage assays. Our results suggested that expression profiles of miRNAs and their predicted targets could be useful in exploring the significance of the conservation patterns of plants, particularly in response to abiotic stress. Because of their well-developed abilities in this regard, mangroves and other extremophiles are excellent models for such exploration. © 2013 Khraiwesh et al.

  3. Desulfomusa hansenii gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel marine propionate-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from Zostera marina roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, K; Thomsen, T R; Ramsing, N B

    2001-11-01

    The physiology and phylogeny of a novel sulfate-reducing bacterium, isolated from surface-sterilized roots of the marine macrophyte Zostera marina, are presented. The strain, designated P1T, was enriched and isolated in defined oxygen-free, bicarbonate-buffered, iron-reduced seawater medium with propionate as sole carbon source and electron donor and sulfate as electron acceptor. Strain P1T had a rod-shaped, slightly curved cell morphology and was motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Cells generally aggregated in clumps throughout the growth phase. High CaCl2 (10 mM) and MgCl2 (50 mM) concentrations were required for optimum growth. In addition to propionate, strain P1T utilized fumarate, succinate, pyruvate, ethanol, butanol and alanine. Oxidation of propionate was incomplete and acetate was formed in stoichiometric amounts. Strain P1T thus resembles members of the sulfate-reducing genera Desulfobulbus and Desulforhopalus, which both oxidize propionate incompletely and form acetate in addition to CO2. However, sequence analysis of the small-subunit rDNA and the dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene revealed that strain P1T was unrelated to the incomplete oxidizers Desulfobulbus and Desulforhopalus and that it constitutes a novel lineage affiliated with the genera Desulfococcus, Desulfosarcina, Desulfonema and 'Desulfobotulus'. Members of this branch, with the exception of 'Desulfobotulus sapovorans', oxidize a variety of substrates completely to CO2. Strain P1T (= DSM 12642T = ATCC 700811T) is therefore proposed as Desulfomusa hansenii gen. nov., sp. nov. Strain p1T thus illustrates the difficulty of extrapolating rRNA similarities to physiology and/or ecological function.

  4. An Experimental Comparison of the Effects of Zostera marina and Zostera japonica on the Diurnal Variability of the Carbonate System in the Context of a Pacific Northwest Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C.; Love, B. A.; Yang, S.

    2016-02-01

    Atmospheric CO2 emissions are being absorbed at an unprecedented rate by the global and coastal oceans, shifting the baseline pCO2, and inducing anthropogenic ocean acidification (OA). Recent studies have highlighted the potential benefits of near-shore vegetated habitats, such as seagrass beds as carbon sinks, potentially mitigating the effects of OA for vulnerable calcifying organisms. Seagrasses are capable of raising seawater pH and CaCO3 saturation state during times of high photosynthetic activity; however, the converse occurs during periods of dark respiration, resulting in a cyclical pattern of high and low pH and saturation state. A better understanding of diurnal seagrass induced carbonate system variability is needed to determine whether seagrass beds act as refugia from OA, and if individual species differentially affect the carbonate system. We conducted experiments to compare the effects of the native Zostera marina and non-native Zostera japonica on the carbonate system. Leaf clippings were incubated at five different light intensities (including dark) and pCO2 levels, representing the range of light and pCO2 in a given day. Induced changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) via photosynthesis and respiration were measured as well as pH and alkalinity. As irradiance and concentration of bio-available inorganic carbon are the two main drivers of photosynthetic activity, our measurements of the short-term response of photosynthesis to a spectrum of pCO2 and irradiance intensity can predict the diurnal fluctuation of pH and DIC for both species. This lab study provides a mechanistic background for building complex models based on field monitoring of carbonate chemistry in seagrass communities by comparing and integrating our results with in situ measurements. Interpretation of our findings will be placed in the context of short-term seagrass response to the spatiotemporal variability of pCO2 with respect to the progression of ocean acidification.

  5. AKUMULASI LOGAM BERAT Cr DAN Pb PADA TUMBUHAN MANGROVE AVICENNIA MARINA DI MUARA SUNGAI BABON PERBATASAN KOTA SEMARANG DAN KABUPATEN DEMAK JAWA TENGAH (Accumulation of Heavy Metals Cr and Pb in Mangrove Plant Avicennia marina On Babon River’s Estuari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Kartikasari

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Ekosistem mangrove cenderung dapat mengakumulasi unsur-unsur logam berat yang berada dalam perairan sekitar tumbuhan mengrove. Kajian ini dilakukan di muara sungai Babon, Semarang, Jawa Tengah. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui kemampuan tumbuhan mangrove, Avicennia murina, dalam mengakumulasi unsur logam berat Cr dan Pb; mengetahui organ (akar, cabang, dan daun yang paling banyak mengakumulasi unsur logam berat dan mengetahui peran tumbuhan mangrove dalam mengurangi kandungan logam berat (Cr dan Pb yang ada di perairan muara sungai Babon. Penelitian ini dibagi menjadi dua tahap. Tahap observasi pendahuluan ditujukan untuk mengidentifikasi jenis-jenis tumbuhan yang hidup di ekosistem mangrove dan menentukan keberadaan unsur logam berat dalam organ tumbuhan mangrove. Setelah observasi pendahuluan dapat ditentukan lokasi sampling yang ada tumbuhan mangrove A. marina dan lokasi yang tidak ada tumbuhan tersebut. Penelitian utama ditujukan untuk memperoleh data primer konsentrasi Cr dan Pb dengan cara mencuplik dari organ tumbuhan (akar, cabang dan daun, sedimen dan air. Cuplikan dibawa ke laboratorium untuk dikeringkan dengan Microwave Digestion MLS-1200 MEGA dan ditentukan kadar Cr dan Pbnya. Data yang diperoleh kemudian dianalisis secara statistik Uji Non Parametric Kruskal Wallis dan Uji Two Test Kolmogorov Smimov. Hasil penelitian menampakkian Cr terakumulasi lebih banyak daripada Pb di tumbuhan mlangrove. Kecepatan faktor biokonsentrasi untuk Cr adalah 1052.66 dan Pb adalah 349.54. Tempat konsentrasi tertinggi Cr dan Pb dalam organ tumbuhan berturut-turut: akar, cabang dan dedaunan. Daun menyerap unsur Pb lebih besar daripada cabang. Hasil penelitian juga menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi Cr dan Pb di sedimen yang perairannya ditumbuhi mangrove lebilr besar dari pada di sedimen yang perairannya tanpa ditumbuhi mangrove. Konsentrasi unsur logam berat dalam perairan yang ditumbuhi magrove.   ABSTRACT Mangrove have a tendency to accumulate

  6. Empleo de Imágenes satélites ópticas de alta resolución en el planeamiento de las operaciones en la Marina de Guerra del Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Perez Medina, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    En el marco de la reciente adquisición del Sistema de Observación Terrestre realizada por el gobierno peruano, el objetivo de la tesis es formular una propuesta para implementar el empleo de imágenes satelitales en el planeamiento de las operaciones de la Marina. Al respecto, ha sido necesario analizar el estado actual del empleo de imágenes en el planeamiento de las operaciones, a fin de determinar sus fortalezas, debilidades y si son usadas en la actualidad de manera eficiente. La invest...

  7. Identificación y diagnóstico de las fuentes de la basura marina en la costa de Manzanillo, Colima, México, durante las campañas de limpieza 2003-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Silva-Iñiguez, L.; Gutiérrez-Corona, C.G.; Pérez-López, R.; Cervantes, O.

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo describe los resultados obtenidos en las campañas de limpieza de las playas ubicadas en las bahías de Manzanillo (San Pedrito, Brisas y Salagua) y Santiago (Audiencia, Santiago y Miramar), México en el periodo 2003-2006. El análisis de los datos, permitió identificar las fuentes de los desechos, y elaborar un diagnóstico de la basura marina o costera en dichas playas. Los residuos más comunes y abundantes en todas las playas fueron las colillas de cigarro y taparoscas de plástico...

  8. Determinación de los factores que inciden en la captura incidental de aves marinas en la flota palangrera pelágica chilena Determination of factors affecting the bycatch of seabirds in Chilean pelagic longline fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés González

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la relación entre la variabilidad de la tasa de captura incidental de aves marinas en la pesquería palangrera pelágica de pez espada (Xiphias gladius y diversos factores temporales, ambientales, espaciales y pesqueros, entre 2007 y 2009. Los resultados muestran que las operaciones de pesca de esta flota afectan principalmente a los albatros, grupo que concentra el 83,7% de la captura incidental de aves marinas registrada en el período. Esta captura incidental se debe en primera instancia a la presencia del Frente Subtropical del Pacífico Sur, sistema que provoca la sobreposición entre la actividad de esta flota con la distribución espacial de aves marinas durante la fase residente del período no reproductivo. La variabilidad en esta captura incidental estaría fuertemente relacionada a los estímulos visuales (medido mediante el porcentaje de luces químicas y porcentaje de calamar y las condiciones de luminosidad ambiental existentes en los períodos de forrajeo diurno y nocturno de estas aves marinas durante el calado (medido a través del desfase de la hora del ocaso con respecto a la hora de inicio del calado y fase lunar.We analized the relationship between the variability in the rate of seabird bycatch in pelagic longline fishery for swordfish (Xiphias gladius, and several temporary, environmental, spatial and fisheries factors for the fishing period from 2007 to 2009. The results show that the fishing operations of this fleet mainly affect the albatross, group that accounts for 83.7% of the incidental catch of seabirds recorded in the period. This bycatch is due primarily to the presence of the South Pacific Subtropical Front, a system that causes the overlap between the activities of this fleet with the spatial distribution of these seabird species during the resident phase of the nonbreeding period. By the other hand, the variability in bycatch would be strongly linked to visual stimuli (measured by the percentage of

  9. Evaluación de la actividad citotóxica, genotóxica y efecto sobre el ciclo celular de fracciones obtenidas a partir de la esponja marina Iotrochota birotulata

    OpenAIRE

    De la Ossa, Andrés Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Los organismos marinos constituyen una fuente importante de sustancias bioactivas con estructuras novedosas y con propiedades biológicas y farmacológicas potenciales.En este trabajo se evaluaron los efectos citotóxicos, genotóxicos y sobre el ciclo celular con las pruebas de azul de Tripano, MTT, ensayos de clonación, intercambio de cromatides hermanas (ICH), ensayo cometa (SCGE) y función de acumulación respectivamente de dos fracciones obtenidas de la esponja marina Iotrochota birotulata (c...

  10. Repeated thermal stressor causes chronic elevation of baseline corticosterone and suppresses the physiological endocrine sensitivity to acute stressor in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Edward J; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2014-04-01

    Extreme environmental temperature could impact the physiology and ecology of animals. The stress endocrine axis provides necessary physiological stress response to acute (day-day) stressors. Presently, there are no empirical evidences showing that exposure to extreme thermal stressor could cause chronic stress in amphibians. This could also modulate the physiological endocrine sensitivity to acute stressors and have serious implications for stress coping in amphibians, particularly those living in fragmented and disease prone environments. We addressed this important question using the cane toad (Rhinella marina) model from its introduced range in Queensland, Australia. We quantified their physiological endocrine sensitivity to a standard acute (capture and handling) stressor after exposing the cane toads to thermal shock at 35°C for 30min daily for 34 days. Corticosterone (CORT) responses to the capture and handling protocol were measured on three sampling intervals (days 14, 24, and 34) to determine whether the physiological endocrine sensitivity was maintained or modulated over-time. Two control groups (C1 for baseline CORT measurement only and C2 acute handled only) and two temperature treatment groups (T1 received daily thermal shock up to day 14 only and a recovery phase of 20 days and T2 received thermal shock daily for 34 days). Results showed that baseline CORT levels remained high on day 14 (combined effect of capture, captivity and thermal stress) for both T1 and T2. Furthermore, baseline CORT levels decreased for T1 once the thermal shock was removed after day 14 and returned to baseline by day 29. On the contrary, baseline CORT levels kept on increasing for T2 over the 34 days of daily thermal shocks. Furthermore, the magnitudes of the acute CORT responses or physiological endocrine sensitivity were consistently high for both C1 and T1. However, acute CORT responses for T2 toads were dramatically reduced between days 24 and 34. These novel findings

  11. ASPECTOS POBLACIONALES Y ECOLÓGICOS DE PECES DEMERSALES DE LA ZONA NORTE DEL CARIBE COLOMBIANO EN RELACIÓN CON EL HÁBITAT: UNA HERRAMIENTA PARA IDENTIFICAR ÁREAS MARINAS PROTEGIDAS (AMPs PARA EL MANEJO PESQUERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramo Jorge

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Las pesquerías marino-costeras están bajo amenaza de colapso debido al incrementodel esfuerzo pesquero y los impactos antropogénicos que directa e indirectamentedegradan el hábitat y los sistemas ecológicos de los cuales depende la actividadpesquera. La pesca acompañante (bycatch y los descartes globales equivalen a untercio (1/3 de la biomasa total desembarcada. Particularmente, el bycatch de lapesca de arrastre de camarón en aguas tropicales representa el 27 % de todos losdescartes globales, lo cual para el manejo de las pesquerías es un serio problemaecológico. Por lo tanto, hay una necesidad de medidas de manejo adicionales a lasusadas tradicionalmente, que contribuyan a proteger los recursos pesqueros y mejorarla producción pesquera. Las Áreas Marinas Protegidas (AMPs han emergido comouna herramienta para la conservación marina y el manejo de pesquerías. El propósitodel trabajo es identifi car potenciales AMPs para el manejo de los recursos pesqueros 124demersales mediante un análisis de la relación entre la distribución espacial deaspectos poblacionales y ecológicos de estos recursos en la zona norte del Caribecolombiano con las características del hábitat (temperatura, salinidad, profundidad,tipo de sedimento. Se estableció la relación de la estructura poblacional de los pecesdemersales con las condiciones del hábitat, que resultó importante cuando se quiereidentifi car AMPs como una herramienta de manejo pesquero sostenible bajo unenfoque ecosistémico. Mediante modelación espacial se calculó el área de distribuciónespacial de los peces demersales (5805.8 km2 y de ésta, los juveniles se encontraronentre Dibulla y el Río Buritaca en un área de 393.1 km2 y en La Guajira se encontróel área de mayor diversidad 297.0 km2, las cuales representan un 11.9 % del área dedistribución espacial de los peces demersales. Se plantea la implementación de ÁreasMarinas Protegidas de Múltiples Usos (AMP-MU en estos

  12. Conectividad entre comunidades de decápodos asociadas a fondos infralitorales de algas y fanerógamas marinas. "Cuando pequeños fragmentos hacen un todo"

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo-Ramírez, A. (Ángel); Urra, J. (Javier); Rueda, J.L. (José Luis); Marina-Ureña, P. (Pablo); García Raso, J.E. (José Enrique)

    2014-01-01

    La diversidad de especies es, de forma general, mayor en fondos con cobertura vegetal (p.e. fanerógamas marinas, algas fotófilas) que en fondos blandos sin vegetación, por lo que una pérdida parcial de pradera debería traer consigo una pérdida de diversidad. Sin embargo, el efecto de la fragmentación del hábitat dependerá de varios factores, incluyendo el número y tamaño de los parches, la distancia entre ellos y los tipos de hábitats próximos. En este trabajo se ha analizado este...

  13. Los colores de las conchas marinas en el antiguo occidente de México. El caso del Posclásico Seashell color in ancient western Mexico. The case of the Postclassic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gómez-Gastélum

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A partir de los estudios sobre la cosmovisión mesoamericana -en especial aquellos relacionados con el cuerpo humano y las significaciones del color-, se analizan los patrones de uso de las conchas marinas y los objetos elaborados con éstas en las sociedades prehispánicas del occidente de México durante el periodo Posclásico (1100-1350 d.C., con la finalidad de acercarse al simbolismo que les fueron otorgados por parte de quienes las utilizaron.Based on studies of Mesoamerican cosmology, especially with regard to the human body and the meaning of color, we analyzed the use patterns of seashells and objects made from seashells in the Pre-Hispanic societies of western Mexico in the Postclassic period (1100-1530 A.D.. The goal was to understand the symbolism given to these objects by the people who utilized them.

  14. Olaf Kapella, Christiane Rille-Pfeiffer, Marina Rupp, Norbert F. Schneider (Hg.: Die Vielfalt der Familie. Tagungsband zum 3. Europäischen Fachkongress Familienforschung. Opladen u.a.: Verlag Barbara Budrich 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Josephine Kürschner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Der im Anschluss an die 3. Europäische Fachkonferenz für Familienforschung erschienene Sammelband Die Vielfalt der Familie von Olaf Kapella, Christiane Rille-Pfeiffer, Marina Rupp und Norbert F. Schneider greift wichtige Trends in der jüngeren Entwicklung familialen Zusammenlebens in Europa auf. Neben der Formenvielfalt und Dynamik werden unterschied-liche nationale und internationale Rahmenbedingungen und entsprechende Entwicklungen ins Blickfeld genommen.This anthology contains the presentations of the third European symposium on Family Research in June 2008. The articles illustrate from various research perspectives how families live together in modern Europe and what family means today. In addition to the variety of forms and dynamic, various national and international parameters and their respective developments are analyzed.

  15. Bibliografía sobre investigaciones marinas, oceanográficas, geológicas y atmosféricas en el Parque Nacional Isla del Coco y aguas adyacentes, Pacífico de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cortés

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Isla del Coco, Pacífico de Costa Rica, ha sido visitada y se ha escrito sobre ella desde el Siglo XVI. Desde finales del Siglo XIX muchas expediciones han desarrollado investigaciones en el Isla. Aquí compilo las publicaciones sobre biología y geología marina, oceanografía física y química, ciencias atmosféricas y algunos temas sociales. Una lista de 599 artículos y capítulos, 41 libros, Suplementos, tesis, informes y un sitio de internet es incluida, y diez libros históricos donde se describen organismos y ambientes marinos de la Isla del Coco. La mayoría de las publicaciones (425 o 66.4% son sobre biodiversidad marina (descripciones, listas y distribuciones de especies. De los grupos que más publicaciones hay son de los gasterópodos (81 trabajos, decápodos (67 y peces óseos (66. No hay publicaciones de varios grupos de animales que han sido observados en Isla del Coco, por ejemplo, gusanos planos de vida libre, parásitos o nemertinos, entre otros. Temas con muchas publicaciones son: biogeografía con 65, ecología (61 y geología (48; los ecosistemas más estudiados son los arrecifes coralinos con 14 trabajos. Se necesitan más publicaciones en muchos tópicos, tales como el impacto sobre la flora y fauna del Parque Nacional Isla del Coco de la pesca ilegal y el cambio climático.

  16. Impacto de la luz artificial sobre la anidación de la tortuga marina Dermochelys coriacea (Testudines: Dermochelyidae, en playa Cipara, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rondón Médicci

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available En Playa Cipara, Península de Paria, Venezuela, se evaluó el impacto de la luz artificial sobre la anidación de la tortuga cardón. Se estimó el número de anidaciones y su distribución espacial a lo largo de la playa entre los años sin y con iluminación artificial y entre segmentos de playa iluminada y oscura. Se hicieron entrevistas a los residentes para conocer su percepción sobre el impacto de la luz artificial hacia las tortugas marinas. Entre el 2000 y 2005 se registraron 1 217 salidas de tortuga cardón; con 1 056 nidos. El número de nidos con huevos dependió significativamente del año (p=0.035 al igual que el número de nidos totales (p=0.015. En los años previos a la electricidad (2000-2003 se observaron 743 salidas, de las cuales 661 con nido y 374 nidadas confirmadas. En los dos años (2004-2005 con iluminación artificial, se contaron 474 salidas con 395 nidos y 232 nidadas. La proporción de salidas con construcción de nido disminuyó significativamente (p=0.005 en los años con luz eléctrica, pero no varió el éxito de desove (p=0.402. No se encontró diferencia significativa entre el número de salidas por metro de playa en los sectores oscuros y los iluminados (p=0.244, ni entre el número de nidos construidos (p=0.379, ni entre las anidaciones con desove (p=0.516. Tampoco en la proporción de las salidas totales que constituyeron anidaciones (p=0.067 entre los sectores iluminados y oscuros, ni en la proporción de nidos exitosos (p=0.833. El volumen medio de arena por metro de playa fue mayor en La Peña, Cipara y La Remate y menor en Varadero (pImpact of artificial light on nesting in the leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea (Testudines: Dermochelyidae at Cipara beach, Venezuela. The number of Leatherback turtle nests and their spatial distribution was compared between years with and without artificial light, and between dark and lighted beach segments, in Cipara Beach, Paria Peninsula, Venezuela. Residents

  17. El manejo del área marina y costera protegida Actam Chuleb y los beneficios económicos que genera a los usuarios del municipio de San Felipe, Yucatán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilian de Jesús Aguilar Cordero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El área marina y costera protegida (AMyCP Actam Chuleb se ubica en la costa oriente del estado de Yucatán, en el municipio de San Felipe, donde se realizó el estudio con el fin de caracterizar el manejo de los recursos naturales y estimar los beneficios de uso directo. La metodología se desarrolló en dos etapas; en la primera se identificaron y analizaron las prácticas de manejo y conservación, los bienes y los principales usuarios por medio de entrevistas semiestructuradas y un diagnóstico participativo; en la segunda etapa, se estimó el valor de los beneficios económicos de uso directo y su relevancia en la estructura de actividades económicas de la comunidad por medio una encuesta a los usuarios directos. Los resultados mostraron que no existe un plan de manejo comunitario, sólo se cuenta con una normativa que no es cumplida a cabalidad por la comunidad y que hay una falta de conocimientos, participación y comunicación de los actores sociales para el manejo adecuado y una correcta toma de decisiones. Existe una marcada centralización de poderes, además, los usuarios perciben con mayor facilidad los beneficios de uso directo, generados por la pesca y el turismo, debido a su tangibilidad.

  18. Stranded Zostera marina L. vs wrack fauna community interactions on a Baltic sandy beach (Hel, Poland: a short-term pilot study. Part I. Driftline effects of fragmented detritivory, leaching and decay rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin F. Jêdrzejczak

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the beach community structure of macro- and meiofauna on the process of beach wrack decay were investigated by means of a simple field colonisation experiment in a temperate, fine quartz sediment, sandy beach at the end of the Hel Peninsula in Poland. 1260 replicate litterbags of three mesh sizes (12 mm, 0.5 mm, 48 µm containing fresh wrack were used to assess the role of faunal and non-faunal components in the breakdown of stranded Zostera marina. Wrack breakdown was determined during a three-year field study. This paper presents the first part of the results of this field experiment, which refer to the effects of fragmentation detritivory, leaching and decay rates. Material was lost from the bags at a rapid rate, with only 22-32% of the original dry mass remaining after 27 days in the field. This degradation was not directly related to the faunal succession of the eelgrass tissue, which proceeded in two distinct phases throughout the study period. Exclusion of macrofauna from the wrack by the use of finer-mesh litterbags (< 1 mm had no appreciable effect on the rate of dry matter loss. Microbial decay, and abiotic leaching and fragmentation are probably the major causes of seagrass weight loss from the litterbags.

  19. EL JUEGO: UNA ESTRATEGIA PARA LA ENSEÑANZA-APRENDIZAJE EN AMBIENTES VIRTUALES DE LOS SUBOFICIALES DE LA ESCUELA DE FORMACIÓN DE INFANTERÍA DE MARINA DE COVEÑAS SUCRE, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Anderson Cortés otalora

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available El juego adquiere especial relevancia en la vida de los seres humanos en la medida que ayuda a formar nuestra identidad, personalidad y a fortalecer los lazos sociales aceptados y convencionalizados por la cultura. En este sentido, el propósito de este artículo es analizar como el juego trasciende su significación meramente lúdica y de ocio para convertirse en una herramienta que resulta útil en la enseñanza-aprendizaje tradicional, pero también en los ambientes o entornos virtuales de aprendizaje. De ahí que en la primera parte, el planteamiento del problema del juego en relación con la educación se haga explícito. El artículo también se centra en presentar algunos antecedentes del juego y su valor pragmático en la educación, conectado con la didáctica, la pedagogía y las teorías del juego. Finalmente, el artículo señala la utilidad que adquieren los videojuegos en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje en ambientes virtuales para la formación de los suboficiales de la Escuela de Formación de Infantería de Marina de Coveñas, en el departamento de Sucre (Colombia.

  20. ANALISA ELECTRODE CONSUMABLE TYPE OK AUTROD 12.10 PENGELASAN SUBMERGED ARC WELDING PADA BLOK-BLOK KAPAL DCV 18500 DWT DI PT. JASA MARINA INDAH UNIT II SEMARANG

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    Sukanto Jatmiko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this globalization era technological advances growed very fast. In shipping industry of development process shipbuilding of principal feedstock to used steel plate, with construction tacking on using welder method.In this research purpose of lifted is know number of requirement (consumable electrode for welder SAW at block-block ship DCV 18500 DWT in PT. Jasa Marina Indah Semarang.At this experiment specimen applied is low carbon steel of type ST 42 with thickness of 12, 13, 14, 17, 19 dan 24 mm. Research is done by the way of making specimen at every plate thickness. Then is done path measurement of length, used electrode length, and weight flux applied at the welder.From result of gauging and data calculation welder at block DB 5(p/c/s, SS5A(p/s, SS 5B(p/s, UD 5C, and TB 102 (p/c/s will be known number of electrodes applied in welder SAW and number of flux used.

  1. Kuhu riiki oma firma masust taastuma viia? / Villi Tõntson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõntson, Villi, 1975-

    2010-01-01

    PricewaterhouseCoopersi ja Maailmapanga koostöös valminud maksukeskkondade võrdlevast uuringust "Paying Taxes 2010", kus üks hüpoteetiline ettevõte paigutati eri riikidesse ning seejärel reastati riigid vastavalt ettevõtte maksukoormusele, riiklike ja kohalike maksude hulgale ning maksude maksmiseks kulunud ajale. Graafik

  2. Activity of recombinant factor VIIa under different conditions in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Jespersen, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant activated factor VII (NovoSeven; Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv, Denmark) is an effective drug for treatment of bleeding in patients with haemophilia A or B and inhibitors. Little is known about physiological conditions influencing the efficacy of recombinant activated factor VII. We...... investigated the in-vitro effects of pH, temperature, and haemodilution on the activity of recombinant activated factor VII. Samples from eight healthy volunteers were spiked with recombinant activated factor VII (final concentration 1.7 microg/ml) and adjusted to pH 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, and 7.4 or analysed at 30......, 33, 37, and 40 degrees C, or diluted 0, 10, 20, 40, and 60% with dextran before analysis. Samples were analysed as rotational thromboelastometry in whole blood (clotting time, clot formation time, and maximum clot firmness) with and without Innovin (tissue factor), and as factor VII coagulant...

  3. Juhan Parts soovib Res Publica tagasi tippu viia / Toomas Sildam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sildam, Toomas, 1961-

    2004-01-01

    Res Publica esimees peaminister Juhan Parts plaanib minna oma erakonnaga kohalikele valimistele ning uurib võimalusi paremerakondade ühinemiseks. Rakveres toimunud erakonna üldkogust. Lisad: Peaministri neli rasket hetke; Res Publica ministrid said parteilt toetuse. Vt. samas: Reformierakond kiitis Res Publicat hea koostöö eest; Parts: 191 vastuhäält on hea tulemus

  4. Biophysical characterisation of GlycoPEGylated recombinant human factor VIIa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Bitten; Westh, Peter; Nielsen, Anders D.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of GlycoPEGylation on the structural, kinetic and thermal stability of recombinant human FVIIa were investigated using rFVIIa and linear 10 kDa and branched 40 kDa GlycoPEGylated® recombinant human FVIIa derivatives. The secondary and tertiary structure of rFVIIa measured by circular...... dichroism (CD) was maintained upon PEGylation. In contrast, the thermal and kinetic stability of rFVIIa was affected by GlycoPEGylation, as the apparent unfolding temperature Tm measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the temperature of aggregation, Tagg, measured by light scattering (LS......) both increased with GlycoPEGylation. Both Tm and Tagg were independent of the molecular weight and the shape of the PEG chain. From the present biophysical characterisation it is concluded that after GlycoPEGylation, rFVIIa appears to be unaffected structurally (secondary and tertiary structure...

  5. Efecto de la radiación ultravioleta B en la producción de polifenoles en la microalga marina Chlorella sp. Effect of ultraviolet B radiation on the production of polyphenols in the marine microalga Chlorella sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Copia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Las algas marinas son una fuente importante de compuestos antioxidantes (fenoles y polifenoles, generados como mecanismos de defensa frente a factores de estrés (radiación UV, temperatura, herbívora. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la estrategia de adaptación al efecto de la radiación ultravioleta B (RUV-B, 280-315 nm en la microalga marina Chlorella sp. mediante la producción de polifenoles y capacidad antioxidante total. Se expusieron cultivos de Chlorella sp. fueron expuestos a radiación UV-B (470 μW cm-2 por periodo de tiempos ascendentes. Se evaluó la capacidad antioxidante total DPPH, polifenoles totales, clorofila-a y b así como la densidad celular en cultivos expuestos y no expuestos. Los resultados indicaron que la RUV-B genera una disminución de la densidad celular en los cultivos irradiados por primera vez (1ª etapa, existiendo un aumento significativo (P Marine algae are an important source of antioxidant compounds (phenols and polyphenols, generated as defense mechanisms against stress factors (UV radiation, temperature, herbivory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the strategy of adaptation to the effect of ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B, 280-315 nm in the marine microalga Chlorella sp. through, the production of polyphenols and total antioxidant capacity. Chlorella sp. cultures were exposed to UV-B radiation (470 μW cm-2 over increasing time periods. We evaluated the total antioxidant capacity DPPH, total polyphenols, chlorophyll-a and b, and cell densities in exposed and unexposed cultures. The results indicated that UV-B caused a decrease in cell density in cultures irradiated for the first time (1st stage, with a significant increment (P < 0.05, lower than the control in the 2nd and 3rd stages only through the 4th stage (day 7, corresponding to a dose of 16,920 J m-2. The production of total phenols increased significantly (P < 0.05 for the IVth extract with respect to the control, confirming that the

  6. Parámetros reproductivos y poblacionales de Thais chocolata (Duelos, 1832 (Gastropoda, Thaididae, en la reserva marina La Rinconada, Antofagasta, Chile Reproductive and population parameters of Thais chocolata (Duclos, 1832 (Gastropoda, Thaididae in La Rinconada marine reserve, Antofagasta, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Cantillánez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Para obtener antecedentes reproductivos y poblacionales de Thais chocolata que contribuyan a validar su actual normativa pesquera, se realizó un estudio en el área protegida de la reserva marina La Rinconada, Antofagasta, Chile, entre diciembre 2008 y enero 2010. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron a nivel reproductivo, que el desarrollo gonadal de la población es asincrónico, encontrándose ejemplares en diferentes etapas de maduración durante el año. Los individuos maduros se estratificaron entre 5 y 13 m de profundidad, y gran parte del año formaron agregaciones a 5 m de profundidad. Se determinaron períodos de mayor madurez en julio-agosto, y en noviembre-enero, manifestándose las agregaciones más importantes al final de ellos. Una relación se observó entre meses de mayor madurez y registro de agregaciones, con aquellos de mayor variación intradiaria de temperatura. A nivel poblacional los resultados permitieron estimar una población de 2,3*10(6 ejemplares, donde el 39% se encontró sobre la talla mínima legal (TML = 55 mm. Los parámetros de crecimiento mostraron crecimiento relativamente lento, que podría estar influenciado por la alta variabilidad que presenta la temperatura de fondo en este sector. Mientras que su talla crítica, y la talla de primera madurez sexual poblacional, resultaron ser mayores a la TML. Se determinó la necesidad de revisar la normativa pesquera actual de esta especie, y se demostró la efectividad de las reservas marinas propiciadas por el Estado en la conservación de los recursos marinos.Reproductive and population parameters of Thais chocolata that would contribute to the validation of the current extraction standards were obtained by performing a study in the protected area of La Rinconada Marine Reserve, Antofagasta, Chile, from December 2008 to January 2010. In terms of reproduction, the results revealed asynchronic gonad development in the population, with specimens in different stages of

  7. Stress proteins and auxiliary anti-stress compounds in intertidal macroalgae Proteínas de estrés y compuestos anti-estrés auxiliares en algas marinas intermareales

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    Edgardo Cruces

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intertidal macroalgae are exposed to strong variation in the physical environment and thus, diverse anti-stress mechanisms are displayed by these organisms. Stress proteins (also called heat shock proteins, HSPs have been invoked as potential protective mechanism, especially during stressful action of temperature and solar radiation. Therefore, macroalgae have not normally been used as model organisms in studies of these molecules. The present study compiles the existing information from intertidal species in the context of major factors that have been reported to induce them, e.g. temperature, enhanced solar radiation, contaminants, etc. Additionally, in order to address the question whether the expression of these proteins operates in intertidal macroalgae complementarily with other protective mechanisms, a case study of induction of HSPs after exposure to UV radiation and high temperature in two upper littoral species, Ulva sp. and Porphyra columbina, from southern Chile is presented. In parallel, two well-known responses to stress, photoinhibition of photochemical reactions (Fv/Fm and ROS scavenging were measured. The results indicated that, although stress proteins were detected in a time span between 3 and 24 h, the responses were not correlated with photochemical and antioxidative response. Overall, the study outlines a potential role of stress proteins in ecophysiological responses developed to cope mainly with high temperature and UV radiation. However, other rapid metabolic adjustments (e.g. high thermo-tolerance of photosynthesis and efficient ROS scavenging, together with other biomolecules (mycosporines, phenols, polyamines, etc. and morpho-functional adaptations to the intertidal life (e.g. small size, high area/volume ratio are also important.Las macroalgas marinas intermareales están expuestas a extrema variación en las condiciones ambientales y por ello desarrollan una serie de mecanismos anti-estrés. Las proteínas de estr

  8. De Las Vegas a Marina D'or. O como llegar desde el New Jornalism norteamericano de Hunter S. Thompson hasta la nueva narrativa española de Robert Juan-Cantavella

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    María Angulo Egea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The north-american trend called 'New Journalism' born in the 60's, was a revolution for the USA traditional Journalism, for its use of literary elements with other ones that belong to the journalistic research. Hunter S. Thompson, author of Fear and loathing in Las Vegas (1971, with his gonzo style, was going to shed new light on the New Journalism proposals, improving the immersión process using drugs until he gets implied personally in his reports and taking all his narrative influences from the 50's beat movement. Almost 35 years later, in El Dorado, Juan-Cantavella makes a paralellism between Las Vegas and the holiday city in the mediterranean coast, Marina D'Or and he develops in this space a novel, where his alter ego, the punk journalist Escargot, plays the lead. Novel, journalism, gonzo, fiction, story, punk, essay, report, 'aportaje', discursive fragmentation, dialogs, internal monologues, descriptions, memorandums, telegrams, emails, press releases, radio news, songs, slogans, all fits to reenact genres, to re-read journalistic and literary traditions and to build something new. This work analyses this process, that goes from the gonzo journalism of Fear and loathing in Las Vegas to the current Spanish narrative of El Dorado. It tries to distinguish the literary resources that the gonzo journalist uses to build his reports and the journalistic tools that nourish Juan-Cantavella's 'punk narrative'. A particular example of literary-journalistic symbiosisLa corriente norteamericana llamada 'Nuevo periodismo', nacida en los años sesenta, supuso para la Periodística tradicional de Estados Unidos toda una revolución por la combinación de elementos literarios con otros propios de la investigación periodística. Hunter S. Thompson, autor de Miedo y asco en las Vegas (1971, con su periodismo gonzo, le iba a dar una vuelta más a la propuesta del New Journalism, llevando al extremo el proceso de inmersión, hasta implicarse personalmente

  9. Captura incidental de tortugas marinas durante El Niño 1997-1998, en el norte del Perú Sea turtles by-catch during El Niño 1997-1998, in northern Perú

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    Javier Castro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta evidencia del aumento de capturas incidentales de tortugas marinas en el norte del Perú, durante el fenómeno El Niño Oscilación del Sur (ENOS 1997-1998. El área de estudio se ubica frente a Lambayeque, entre 6°20'S y 7°10'S, y desde la costa hasta 35 mn mar afuera. Se analizaron y describieron los aparejos de enmalle por ser los que más interactuaban con estas tortugas, así como las características de las embarcaciones. Se registraron las tortugas capturadas por la flota artesanal entre enero 1996 y diciembre 1998; se identificó las especies capturadas y se analizó la captura por unidad de esfuerzo (CPUE; la información se correlacionó con la temperatura superficial del mar (TSM. Se analizó un total de 265 operaciones de pesca, capturándose un total de 383 tortugas, correspondiendo 80,4% a la tortuga pico de loro (Lepidochelys olivacea, 19,3% a la tortuga verde (Chelonia mydas y 0.2% a la tortuga carey (Eretmochelys imbricata. Se encontró una correlación altamente significativa entre las capturas de tortugas marinas y la TSM con un intervalo de confianza del 99% (Pearson; r = 0,787; σ = 0,000; N = 36. Se recomienda reforzar la colaboración entre entidades públicas y privadas para implementar medidas de manejo adecuadas para la conservación de estas especies amenazadas, sobre todo ante la eventualidad de un fenómeno ENOS.The main purpose of this work is to present evidence of sea turtles by-catch increase in northern Peru during the 1997-1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO process. The study area is located off Lambayeque, between 6°20'S and 7°10'S, and from the coastline up to 35 nm offshore. The gillnet artisanal fishery was analyzed and described, since this was the fishing gear which most interact with sea turtles, the boat characteristics were evaluated as well. Sea turtle captures and species identification were registered from January 1996 until December 1998. The catch per unit effort (CPUE was

  10. Lymph flux rates from various lymph sacs in the cane toad Rhinella marina: an experimental evaluation of the roles of compliance, skeletal muscles and the lungs in the movement of lymph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Stanley S; Hedrick, Michael S; Drewes, Robert C; Withers, Philip C

    2010-09-15

    A new method for quantitatively determining lymph flux from various lymphatic sacs of an anuran, the cane toad, was developed. This method used the dye dilution principle of C(i)V(i)=C(f)V(f) following injection of Evans Blue into specific lymph sacs and measuring its appearance in the venous circulation. The apparent lymph volume was 57 ml kg(-1). The greatest rate of lymph return (0.5-0.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) and best linear fit of Evans Blue appearance in the circulation with time followed injections into the subvertebral lymph sac, which has direct connections to both the anterior and posterior pairs of lymphatic hearts. Rate of lymph flux from the pair of posterior lymph hearts was three times greater than the anterior pair. Rates of lymph flux were only influenced by injection volume in the crural lymph sacs, implicating lymph sac compliance as the source of the pressure for lymph movement from these sacs. Femoral lymph sac fluxes were decreased by 60% following ablation of the tendons of the sphincter ani cloacalis, abdominal crenators and piriformis. This supports a role for these muscles in generating the pressure for vertical lymph movement. Femoral lymph sac fluxes were also decreased by 70% by the insertion of a coil in the subvertebral lymph sac, preventing normal compression and expansion of this sac by the lungs. This supports a role for lung ventilation in generating the pressure for vertical movement of lymph. Contrary to previous hypotheses, fluxes from the brachial sac were not influenced by insertion of the coil into the subvertebral sac. A haemorrhage equivalent to 50% of the blood volume did not change lymph flux rates from the femoral lymph sacs. These data provide the first experimental evidence that actual lymph fluxes in the cane toad Rhinella marina depend on lymph sac compliance, contraction of specific skeletal muscles and lung ventilation to move lymph laterally and vertically to the dorsally located lymphatic hearts.

  11. The rhyme in Marina Tsvetaeva’s ''Poetry of the word'' (with the poem Nebo – sinei znameni! “The sky is bluer than the flag!” as an example

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    Roberta Salvatore

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present one of the main mechanisms of semantic creation in Marina Tsvetaeva’s poetry through the analysis of the poem Небо — синей знамени! (“The Sky is Bluer than the Flag!”, 1935. This text demonstrates the opposition between time and eternity by means of adjoining fi ve nouns which are united by a rather rare infl ectional pattern (neuter nouns with the nominative singular in -мя in rhyming position. The choice of this particular range of vocabulary serves as evidence to the poet’s desire to test the semantic potential of words similar in their declension type rather than in their meaning. In her construction of the text, the language rather than the world is primary, and it is the language that reality is being checked against. The specifi city of this feature to Tsvetaeva’s creative work is proved by examining its realisation in other texts, namely in the poem Променявши на стремя by Tsvetaeva herself and in Akhmatova’s text from the 1960s Из набросков. In the fi rst text, this specifi c rhyming does not cover the whole text, and the theme expressed by its associative range is still one-dimensional. Akhmatova’s poem clearly demonstrates that this technique can be employed in various ways for poetic purposes. The analysis of the text allows us to conclude that the prominence of this technique depends primarily on the role that it plays in expressing the poetic thought, whereas the number of same-type words in the rhyming position is a secondary factor.

  12. Aplicación de la Tecnología SIG para la representación de información climática marina en el Atlántico Sur Application Of Gis Technology For The Representation Of Climate Marine Information In The South Atlantic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa C. Nuré

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una aplicación de la tecnología de Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG a las bases de datos de información meteorológica marina generadas en función de procedimientos estadísticos recomendados por la Organización Meteorológica Mundial para la elaboración de Resúmenes Climáticos Marinos. Este SIG permite una visualización dinámica de valores extremos y frecuencias en forma de mapas, tablas y gráficos, tanto temporales como espaciales, así como de la distribución de las observaciones meteorológicas marinas en el Océano Atlántico Sudoccidental. La información climática regional marina elaborada utilizando esta tecnología, es de interés para toda ciencia o disciplina relacionada con el medio ambiente y constituye un valioso soporte para la planificación de tareas en el ámbito de la seguridad náutica, tanto para el Servicio de Hidrografía Naval como para otras instituciones que desarrollen actividades afines.This article shows a Geographic Information Systems (GIS application to marine climatic information data bases. These data bases are created following the World Meteorological Organization recommendations for applying statistical procedures to marine observations in order to elaborate Marine Climatic Summaries. This GIS allows a dynamic visualization of maps, tables and graphics showing extreme values and frequencies of meteorological variables in time and space as well as the marine meteorological observations distribution over the South Atlantic Ocean. The regional climatic marine information obtained using this technology, will be a useful tool for environmental related disciplines and, it will be also of valuable support for the safety of naval operations.

  13. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Former Fort Ord Army Base Site in Marina, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoltenberg, B.; Konz, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Fort Ord Army Base (FOAB) site in Marina, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  14. Extracellular proteases from the Antarctic marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. P96-47 strain Proteasas extracelulares de la cepa marina antártica Pseudoalteromonas sp. P96-47

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    S.C. Vázquez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular protease-production capacity of 33 bacterial isolates taken from marine biotopes in King George Island, Antarctica, was evaluated in liquid cultures. The P96-47 isolate was selected due to its high production capacity and was identified as Pseudoalteromonas sp. The optimal growth temperature was 20 °C and the optimal for protease production was 15 °C. Proteases were purified from culture supernatants, developing a multiple-band profile in zymograms. They were classified as neutral metalloproteases and worked optimally at 45 °C with an Eact of 47 kJ/ mol. Their stability was higher at neutral pH, retaining more than 80% of activity at pH 6-10 after 3 h incubation at 4 °C. After 90 min incubation at 40 and 50 °C, the percentages of residual activities were 78% and 44%. These results contribute to the basic knowledge of Antarctic marine proteases and also help evaluate the probable industrial applications of P96-47 proteases.La capacidad productora de proteasas extracelulares de 33 aislamientos bacterianos tomados de biotopos marinos en la Isla Rey Jorge, Antártida, fue evaluada en cultivo líquido. El aislamiento P96-47 fue seleccionado debido a su alta capacidad productora y fue identificado como Pseudoalteromonas sp. La temperatura óptima de crecimiento fue de 20 °C y la de producción de 15 °C. Las proteasas fueron purificadas a partir del sobrenadante de cultivo, y en los zimogramas desarrollaron un perfil de múltiples bandas. Estas proteasas fueron clasificadas como metaloproteasas neutras y se observó que trabajan óptimamente a 45 °C, con una Eact de 47 kJ/ mol. Su estabilidad fue superior a pH neutro y retuvieron más del 80% de su actividad a pH 6-10 después de 3 h de incubación a 4 °C. Luego de 90 min de incubación a 40 y 50 °C, las actividades residuales fueron 78% y 44%, respectivamente. Los resultados que se presentan en este trabajo contribuyen al conocimiento básico de las proteasas marinas ant

  15. Umberto Eco : olemise piire kombates / Marina Grishakova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grišakova, Marina, 1961-

    2004-01-01

    Arvustus: Eco, Umberto. Eilse päeva saar / tõlkinud Merike Pau. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 2003 ; Eco, Umberto. Baudolino / itaalia keelest tõlkinud [ja järelsõna:] Ülar Ploom. Tallinn : Varrak, 2003

  16. Port: arstid kasutavad narkootikume / Marina Lohk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lohk, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Tallinna ülikooli terviseteaduste ja spordi instituudi direktor ja spordibioloog Kristjan Port mainis ETV saates "Vabariigi kodanikud", et töövõime taastamiseks kasutatakse sageli narkootilisi aineid ning seda teevad ka arstid. Kristjan Porti selgitused

  17. Sedamoodi 2005 : moda ot shkolnikov / Marina Poltavtseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poltavtseva, Marina

    2005-01-01

    Tallinna koolide õpilaste moekonkursist "Sedamoodi" räägib konkursi organisaator Tallinna Kanutiaia Noortemaja direktor Mari Velleste. Sedamoodi 2005 eri vanusegruppide võitjad. Rändauhinnaks on Tauno Kangro skulptuur

  18. Moda vernulas v Tallin / Marina Poltavtseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poltavtseva, Marina

    2005-01-01

    Tallinnas Viru Keskuses toimuvast moeürituste sarjast FIBIT. Keskne sündmus on Kuldnõela nominentide Katrin Kuldma, Tiina Talumehe, Thea Pilveti ja Evelin Lille kollektsioonide esitamine. Lisas "Primetshai marku!" juttu moekunstnik Oksana Tanditi uuest kollektsioonist, mida näidatakse ka Viru keskuses

  19. "Ne kreshtshenogo, ne otpetogo..." : [luuletused] / Marina Petrova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Petrova, Marina

    2001-01-01

    Sisu: "Ne kreshtshenogo, ne otpetogo..." ; "Inogo mesta vstretshi v mire net..." ; "Moi put lezhit tsherez Moskvu..." ; "Osvoboditelnaja ossen - ..." ; Pjuhtitskim aistam ; "Vesjolõje svetshi kanona..." ; Vjuga ; Materi Bozhijei Pjuhtitskoi ; "Pustõnja moja, pustõnja..." ; "Odinnadtsat let v mojo serdtse gljadjat kupola..."

  20. Moda kak instrument integratsii / Marina Andrejeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Andrejeva, Marina

    2008-01-01

    Moebutiigi Fashion Palace uute kollektsioonide demonstratsioon Tallinna restoranis Gloria. Näidati mudeleid itaalia kaubamärkide P.A.R.O.S.H. ja Ermano Severino ning prantsuse kaubamärgi YSL sügis-talvistest kollektsioonidest 2008/2009. Ehted olid inglise disainerilt Stephen Websterilt. Värvifotod

  1. Marine Biological Investigations at the Eniwetok Test Site; Recherches de Biologie Marine au Centre d'Essais d'Eniwetok; 0411 0414 ; Investigaciones sobre Biologia Marina en la Zona de Ensayo de Eniwetok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowman, Frank G. [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, University of Washington (United States)

    1960-07-01

    The results of marine biological investigations conducted at the Eniwetok Test Site since 1952 are summarized. Radioisotopes introduced into the sea from the tests at various times since then include fission products and other radioisotopes (U{sup 237}, Np{sup 239}, Mn{sup 54}, Fe{sup 55,59}, Co{sup 57,58,60}, Zn{sup 65} and W{sup 185}). The levels of radioisotopes in plankton samples taken 4 days to 6 weeks after contamination are reported and the distribution of the radioactivity between plankton and water is given. Grazing fishes contained Zn{sup 65}, Fe{sup 55}, Co{sup 57,58,60} and Mn{sup 54}. Carnivorous fishes contained mostly Fe{sup 55} and Zn{sup 65}. (author) [French] L'auteur fait le bilan des recherches de biologie marine effectuees depuis 1952 au Centre d'essais d'Eniwetok. Les radioisotopes qui se sont repandus dans la mer a la suite des essais auxquels on a procede a plusieurs reprises depuis cette date comprennent des produits de fission et d'autres isotopes ({sup 237}U, {sup 239}Np, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 55,59}Fe, {sup 57,58,60}Co, {sup 65}Zn et {sup 185}W). L'auteur indique les quantites des radioisotopes presents dans des echantillons de plancton preleves de quatre jours a six semaines apres ia contamination, et la repartition de la radioactivite entre le plancton et l'eau. Les poissons herbivores contenaient du zinc-65, du fer-55, du cobalt-57, 58, 60 et du manganese-54. Les poissons carnassiers contenaient surtout du fer-55 et du zinc-65. (author) [Spanish] En la memoria se resumen los resultados de las investigaciones sobre biologia marina que se vienen realizando desde 1952 en la zona de ensayo de Eniwetok. A consecuencia de los diversos ensayos nucleares efectuados desde esa fecha se han introducido en el mar una serie de productos de fision y otros radioisotopos ({sup 237}U, {sup 239}Np, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 55,59}Fe, {sup 57,58,60}Co, {sup 65}Zn y {sup 185}W). El autor indica la concentracion de los radioisotopos en las muestras de plancton tomadas

  2. Composición química y actividad antioxidante del alga marina roja Bryothamnion triquetrum (S.G.Gmelin Howe Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the red marine algae Bryothamnion triquetrum (S.G.Gmelin Howe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Vidal

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad existe un marcado interés por la búsqueda de antioxidantes de fuentes naturales, incluidas las algas marinas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la composición química y propiedades antioxidantes del alga Bryothamnion triquetrum. Se estudió la composición centesimal y de minerales, identificación de ácidos grasos y sustancias antioxidantes. La composición centesimal es la siguiente: Proteínas (9,5%, Lípidos (1,3%, Carbohidratos (5,9%, Fibras (10,2% y Cenizas (43%. Los resultados de la actividad antioxidante para las diferentes metodologías empleadas fueron: atrapamiento de radicales DPPH• (38%, 4 mg de liofilizado, beta-Caroteno-Linoleico (12%, 4 mg de liofilizado, actividad atrapadora de radicales O2•- (CI50 0,36 mg/mL, de radicales OH• (CI50 2,11 mg/mL y unión al Fe (CI50 0,37 mg/mL. Las propiedades antioxidantes de esta alga parecen explicarse por la capacidad atrapadora de radicales libres, particularmente relacionada con mecanismos de dismutación de radicales O2•-, inactivación de radicales OH• y quelación de Fe. En trabajos previos se identificaron ácidos cinámicos y fenólicos como moléculas que pudieran explicar la actividad antioxidante, sin embargo adicionalmente se debe considerar un efecto sumatorio y/o sinérgico de otros componentes antioxidantes del extracto, como los descritos en este trabajo, incluidos minerales, carotenoides y vitamina C.An increasing interest has been growing during the past years for the search of natural origin antioxidants, particularly those from marine algae. In this context, the main objective of current research was to evaluate the chemical composition and some antioxidant properties of the aqueous extract of the seaweed Bryothamnion triquetrum. The extracts contains: Proteins (9.5%, Lipids (1.3%, Carbohydrates (5.9%, Fibers (10.2% and Ashes (43%. In current approach, the following results were obtained for the different procedures assessed: DPPH

  3. Nymphicidal and Ovipositional Efficacy of Seaweed Sargassum tenerrimum (J. Agardh against Dysdercus cingulatus (Fab. (Pyrrhocoridae Eficacia Ninficida y Ovicida de una Alga Marina Sargassum tenerrimum (J. Agardh contra Dysdercus cingulatus (Fab. (Pyrrhocoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitherian Sahayaraj

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of a brown seaweed alga, Sargassum tenerrimum (J. Agardh, against Dysdercus cingulatus (Fab., which is an economically important cotton pest in many parts of Asia. Sargassum tenerrimum has been used as a source of fertilizers and drugs, but there is no information available in the literature about its use in ecofriendly pest management. The impact of benzene (BN, chloroform (CH, and a mixture of benzene and chloroform (BNCH extracts, as well as two chromatographic fractions of BNCH (FR1 and FR2 were investigated for their insecticidal and ovipositional properties against D. cingulatus. The BE extract showed the best insecticidal activity (LC50 = 0.009%, higher than BNCH (LC50 = 0.021% and CH extracts (LC50 = 0.2481%, and all the extracts reduced the total nymphal developmental period of the pest in a dose-dependent way. Adult longevity of both males and females was reduced by the CH and BE extracts. The CH extract reduced D. cingulatus oviposition, preoviposition, and post-oviposition periods, as well as fecundity. Females emerging from the BE category could not lay eggs. All the extracts significantly reduced both total body protein and genomic DNA content. The BECH fractions, FR1 and FR2, also exhibited nymphicidal activity against the pest. However, these fractions did not significantly alter the nymphal developmental period. Results indicate that these seaweed extracts can be used as biopesticides for pest management.Investigamos el rol de una alga marina café, Sargassum tenerrimum (J. Agardh, contra Dysdercus cingulatus (Fab., una plaga económicamente importante del algodón en muchas partes de Asia. Sargassum tenerrimum ha sido usada como fuente de fertilizantes y drogas, pero en la literatura no hay información disponible sobre su uso en manejo de plagas ecoamigable. Se investigó el impacto de extractos con benceno (BN, cloroformo (CH, y una mezcla de ambos (BNCH así como dos fracciones cromatográficas de

  4. Histología gonadal y criterios fenotípicos de maduración en las tortugas marinas Chelonia mydas y Eretmochelys imbricata (Testudines: Chelonidae de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Pérez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La madurez gonadal se suele evaluar a través del análisis macroscópico de las gónadas. En las tortugas marinas, las etapas de maduración están asociadas con el tamaño del cuerpo, dependiendo de la población estudiada. Los pescadores clasifican las tortugas que miden más de 65.0cm como maduras sexualmente. Si tienen los caracteres sexuales secundarios se registran como machos en edad reproductora. Nosotros comparáramos el tamaño del cuerpo con las características gonadales macroscópicas y microscópicas de dos tortugas de Cuba. Se obtuvieron dieciocho individuos de C. mydas y veinte de E. imbricata en la pesquería legal del Archipiélago Jardines del Rey (Cuba, entre octubre de 2005 y 2006. En los machos, el estado reproductivo (máxima espermiogénesis se comprobó mediante el análisis histológico de los testículos. En las hembras, la madurez sexual fue identificada por la presencia de folículos vitelogénicos u ovarios corpora. La mayoría de los machos eran inmaduros (C. mydas: 79.0cm; E. imbricata: 73.1±4.9cm, n=3 y carecían de los caracteres sexuales secundarios. Algunos E. imbricata que no tenían un pene desarrollado se encontraban en fases espermatogénicas entre II y IV (p. ej. pubescentes. La mayoría de las hembras eran inmaduras (C. mydas: 79.6±7.7cm, n=17; E. imbricata: 69.0±7.1cm, n=16; p. ej. prepubescente y pubescente. Las hembras prepubescentes tenían ovarios con folículos previtelogénicos de cerca de 1.0mm en un estroma compacto y amarillento. Las hembras pubescentes tenían ovarios con folículos previtelogénicos entre 2.0 y 3.0mm. El estroma fue más distendido e irrigado que en las tortugas pubescentes. El hallazgo de actividad espermatogénica en machos pubescentes indica la asincronía entre el desarrollo de testículos y pene en E. imbricata. El criterio fenotípico actual utilizado por los pescadores no es suficiente para determinar la madurez sexual de estas tortugas. La talla mínima tentativa

  5. Ecophysiology of Antarctic macroalgae: effects of environmental light conditions on photosynthetic metabolism Ecofisiología de macroalgas marinas antárticas: efectos de las condiciones de luz sobre el metabolismo fotosintético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. GÓMEZ

    2001-06-01

    from temperate and cold-temperate regions. This clearly indicates a major physiological adaptation to the polar environmentLas variación estacional en la duración del día en los ambientes polares es el principal factor ambiental que regula la actividad fotosintética de las algas marinas. El aparato fotosintético de especies de algas pardas tales como Ascoseira mirabilis o Desmarestia menziesii, pertenecientes al grupo denominado "season anticipators", posee la habilidad de usar la radiación solar incidente durante el período de aumento de horas diarias de luz en el invierno tardío y primavera. El desarrollo estacional y la distribución de biomasa en el talo afectan también la actividad fisiológica de estas algas. De este modo, la diferenciación de la capacidad para fotosintetizar (medida como evolución de oxígeno y fijación de carbono a través de la planta representa una adaptación morfo-funcional que optimiza la conversión de energía lumínica en producción primaria. En Desmarestia menziesii, las fases reproductivas tienen diferentes características fotosintéticas. Las micro-fases, gametofitos y estadíos tempranos de los esporofitos están mejor adaptados para usar niveles más bajos de luz que las plantas adultas (esporofitos, básicamente debido a un mayor contenido de pigmentos por unidad de biomasa, mayor eficiencia fotosintética y muy bajos requerimientos de luz para fotosíntesis. Esta estrategia asegura la consumación del ciclo de vida bajo condiciones variables de luminosidad. Las bajas demandas de luz para crecimiento y fotosíntesis no sólo posibilitan la supervivencia de macroalgas en escenarios lumínicos estacionalmente cambiantes, sino que paralelamente les permite expandir sus límites de distribución en profundidad. La inexistencia de diferencias en capacidad fotosintética máxima (Pmax y eficiencia fotosintética (a de poblaciones de una misma especie habitando diferentes profundidades (entre 10 y 30 m sugiere una baja

  6. Anketa delovoi zhenshtshinõ / Marina Laikjõe ; interv. Marina Andrejeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laikjõe, Marina, 1967-

    2005-01-01

    Laulasmaa Resort juhatuse esimees võimalustest paremini organiseerida oma tööpäeva, oponendi mõjutamisest, meeste osast oma karjääris, karjäärile kaasaaidanud isiklikest omadustest, hingelise tasakaalu saavutamisest, riietumisstiilist, tööle ja perele pühendatud ajast, seni saavutatust. Lisa: CV

  7. Marina Kaljurand - Eesti hääl Moskvas / Marina Kaljurand ; interv. Margus Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaljurand, Marina, 1962-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti suursaadik Moskvas vastab küsimustele, mis on seotud saatkonna ees toimunud meeleavaldustega, saatkonnas valitsenud olukorraga, ajalehe Argumentõ ja Faktõ pressikonverentsil juhtunuga, suursaadiku puhkuselelubamisega, Eesti-Vene suhetega

  8. El paradigma del acceso libre a la gestión de la información científica en ciencias marinas|The paradigm of open access to scientific information management in the marine sciences |O paradigma do acesso livre à informação científica nas ciências marinhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Wulff

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Resúmen El concepto de acceso abierto a las publicaciones juega un papel clave en la economía de la información. La conciencia de muchos de sus beneficios se realiza a expensas del precio y del número de las fuentes de información. A través de un análisis de los diferentes casos de estudio, se presentan las “lecciones aprendidas” y se deducen diversas conclusiones acerca de las características fundamentales de la política de apoyo y del marco legislativo en que se basan diferentes ideas tributarias de la imagen de mejor práctica que tiene el acceso abierto en ciencias marinas. Palabras clave ciencias marinas, acceso abierto, repositorios Abstract The open access concept to the publications shows a key role in the information economy. The conscience of much of its profits is attained in spite of its price and the number of information sources. Throughout the analysis of different cases of study, the “learned lessons” are presented and diverse conclusions are deduced on the fundamental characteristics of the support policies and law frames which base the tributary ideas of the best practice image that open access offers in marine sciences. Keywords marine sciences, open access, repositories Resumo O conceito de acesso livre às publicações desempenha um papel chave na economia da informação. A consciência de muitos dos seus benefícios é alcançada apesar do preço e do número das fontes de informação. Através de uma análise de diversos estudos de caso, apresentam-se as “lições aprendidas” e deduzem-se conclusões a respeito das características fundamentais de uma política de apoio e do marco legislativo em que se baseiam diferentes idéias tributárias da imagem de melhores práticas que tem o acesso aberto em ciências marinhas. Palavras-chave ciências marinhas, acesso livre, repositórios

  9. Evaluación en ambiente natural, del uso de biopelículas marinas en el asentamiento larval de Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819 Evaluation in natural environment of use of marine biofilms, in the larval settlement of Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Cantillánez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En una granja marina ubicada colindante con el área de reserva marina “La Rinconada” (Antofagasta, Chile, se evaluó el asentamiento larval del pectínido Argopecten purpuratus sobre colectores impregnados con películas multi-específicas, de las diatomeas Navicula sp. y Amphora sp., y de la cepa bacteriana NC1, aisladas desde colectores utilizados en captaciones comerciales de esta especie que presentaron altos índices de fijación, y que bajo condiciones controladas de criadero y laboratorio, han mostrando altos niveles de asentamiento larval. Los resultados obtenidos con el uso de estas biopelículas, sobre colectores instalados en forma paralela a los utilizados por la empresa para la captación de semilla con fines comerciales, no mostraron diferencias significativas entre los diferentes tratamientos probados y el control, respecto a las fijaciones ocurridas en un lapso de 30 días de inmersión. Se discute, debido a los tiempos que demandaron las larvas de la primera cohorte en asentarse sobre los colectores tratados, un posible reemplazo de las biopelículas utilizadas, por otra común en todos ellos y atractiva para el asentamiento de las larvas, como causa de la ausencia de efectos significativos de los tratamientos probados en el medio natural. Se recomienda la necesidad de establecer el tiempo de permanencia, en el ambiente natural, de las biopelículas impregnadas a los colectores en laboratorio.In a commercial farm located near the Marine Reserve “La Rinconada” (Antofagasta, Chile the larval settlement of Argopecten purpuratus on artificial collectors impregnated with multiespecific films of marine diatoms Navicula sp. and Amphora sp. and, bacterial strain NC1 were evaluated, These biofilms were isolates from artificial collector used in commercial activities with highest index of settlement in hatchery and laboratory conditions. The results to use this biofilms in collectors installed in same condition of commercial

  10. Micro-Utopías de lo cotidiano, espacios de encuentro en el Arte Relacional: una aproximación a ciertas acciones de Marina Abramović y Tino Sehgal = Micro utopias of the quotidian, meeting spaces in relational art: an approach to some performances of...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Manonelles Moner

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se analiza la concepción de estética relacional de Nicolas Bourriaud, ahondando en la estrecha vinculación de ciertas prácticas artísticas performativas con la participación activa del espectador en la creación de situaciones construidas. A partir de determinadas acciones de Marina Abramović y Tino Sehgal, en las que el público deviene uno de los agentes principales, se bosquejarán los vasos comunicantes entre el creador y la audiencia, entre la experiencia individual y la colectiva. Bajo tales premisas el arte parte de la voluntad de emocionar, conmover, conmocionar, y se establece claramente la conexión entre la esfera pública y la íntima. Dentro de dichos parámetros la obra de arte deviene un intersticio social, un instrumento para esbozar nuevos modos de relación, lo que Bourriaud denomina “utopías de proximidad” o “micro-utopías”. Tales situaciones construidas entienden la creación, en definitiva, como un dispositivo para dar que pensar y fomentar el diálogo y el pensamiento crítico.This paper analyses the concept of relational aesthetics proposed by Nicolas Bourriaud considering the close connections of some performative art practices with the active participation of the spectator in the creation of «constructed situations». I will examine a range on actions of Marina Abramović and Tino Sehgal, in which the audience becomes one of the main agents: stressing the relationship between creator and spectator, between individual and collective experience. Under such premises art shows the will to move, to touch, to affect deeply, connecting the public with the private sphere. Within these parameters, the work of art emerges in the interstices of society as a tool to outline new ways of creating relations, which Bourriaud termed «utopias of proximity» or «micro-utopias». Such situations understand creation as a device to give food for thought and encourage dialogue

  11. Bibliografía sobre investigaciones marinas, oceanográficas, geológicas y atmosféricas en el Parque Nacional Isla del Coco y aguas adyacentes, Pacífico de Costa Rica Bibliography on marine, oceanographic, geological and atmospheric research at Isla del Coco Nacional Park and adjacent waters, Pacific Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cortés

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Isla del Coco, Pacífico de Costa Rica, ha sido visitada y se ha escrito sobre ella desde el Siglo XVI. Desde finales del Siglo XIX muchas expediciones han desarrollado investigaciones en el Isla. Aquí compilo las publicaciones sobre biología y geología marina, oceanografía física y química, ciencias atmosféricas y algunos temas sociales. Una lista de 599 artículos y capítulos, 41 libros, Suplementos, tesis, informes y un sitio de internet es incluida, y diez libros históricos donde se describen organismos y ambientes marinos de la Isla del Coco. La mayoría de las publicaciones (425 o 66.4% son sobre biodiversidad marina (descripciones, listas y distribuciones de especies. De los grupos que más publicaciones hay son de los gasterópodos (81 trabajos, decápodos (67 y peces óseos (66. No hay publicaciones de varios grupos de animales que han sido observados en Isla del Coco, por ejemplo, gusanos planos de vida libre, parásitos o nemertinos, entre otros. Temas con muchas publicaciones son: biogeografía con 65, ecología (61 y geología (48; los ecosistemas más estudiados son los arrecifes coralinos con 14 trabajos. Se necesitan más publicaciones en muchos tópicos, tales como el impacto sobre la flora y fauna del Parque Nacional Isla del Coco de la pesca ilegal y el cambio climático.Isla del Coco (also known as Cocos Island, Pacific Costa Rica, has been visited and written about since the 16th Century, and since the late 1800’s many expeditions and scientists have carried out research in the Island. Here I compiled publications on marine biological, geological, oceanographic and atmospheric research done at Isla del Coco. A list of 599 scientific papers and chapters were compiled, together with 41 books, reports, Special Issues, theses and web sites, and ten historic books with descriptions of marine animals or environemnets. A mayority of the publications (425 or 66.4% are related to marine biodiversity topics (species

  12. Recombinant factor VIIa for variceal bleeding in patients with advanced cirrhosis: A randomized, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosch, Jaime; Thabut, Dominique; Albillos, Agustín

    2008-01-01

    A beneficial effect of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in Child-Pugh class B and C patients with cirrhosis who have variceal bleeding has been suggested. This randomized controlled trial assessed the efficacy and safety of rFVIIa in patients with advanced cirrhosis and active variceal...

  13. Effect of haemodilution, acidosis, and hypothermia on the activity of recombinant factor VIIa (NovoSeven)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viuff, D.; Lauritzen, B.; Pusateri, A.E.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A range of plasma volume expanders is used clinically, often in settings where haemostasis may already be impaired. The haemostatic agent, recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa, NovoSeven), may be used to improve haemostasis but potential interactions with different volume expanders...

  14. Probing the Role of Loops & Domains in Regulating Coagulation Factor VIIa Allostery and Specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Bundgård

    2016-01-01

    The front-page illustrates the protease domain of factor VII in complex with tissue factor, the structure was solved during this dissertation (pdb id 5feo).......The front-page illustrates the protease domain of factor VII in complex with tissue factor, the structure was solved during this dissertation (pdb id 5feo)....

  15. Dabigatran and its reversal with recombinant factor VIIa and prothrombin complex concentrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølbeck, Sacha; Nilsson, Caroline U; Engström, Martin

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Dabigatran is a new oral direct thrombin inhibitor. No specific antidote exists in the event of hemorrhage, but prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) and recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) are suggested therapies. Sonoclot is a bedside viscoelastic instrument for monitoring...... different Sonoclot cuvettes: Glassbead, kaolin and tissue factor (diluted) activated. RESULTS: The Sonoclot detected in vitro-induced anticoagulation due to dabigatran with the glassbead- and kaolin-activated cuvettes. There was no reversing effect of PCC, probably due to the presence of heparin in the PCC...

  16. Engineering the substrate and inhibitor specificities of human coagulation Factor VIIa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Katrine S; Østergaard, Henrik; Bjelke, Jais R

    2007-01-01

    The remarkably high specificity of the coagulation proteases towards macromolecular substrates is provided by numerous interactions involving the catalytic groove and remote exosites. For FVIIa [activated FVII (Factor VII)], the principal initiator of coagulation via the extrinsic pathway, several...... for FVIIa by marked changes in primary substrate specificity and decreased rates of antithrombin III inhibition. Interestingly, these changes do not necessarily coincide with an altered ability to activate Factor X, demonstrating that inhibitor and macromolecular substrate selectivity may be engineered...

  17. Kinetic modeling sheds light on the mode of action of recombinant factor VIIa on thrombin generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrophanov, Alexander Y; Reifman, Jaques

    2011-10-01

    The therapeutic potential of a hemostatic agent can be assessed by investigating its effects on the quantitative parameters of thrombin generation. For recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa)--a promising hemostasis-inducing biologic--experimental studies addressing its effects on thrombin generation yielded disparate results. To elucidate the inherent ability of rFVIIa to modulate thrombin production, it is necessary to identify rFVIIa-induced effects that are compatible with the available biochemical knowledge about thrombin generation mechanisms. The existing body of knowledge about coagulation biochemistry can be rigorously represented by a computational model that incorporates the known reactions and parameter values constituting the biochemical network. We used a thoroughly validated numerical model to generate activated factor VII (FVIIa) titration curves in the cases of normal blood composition, hemophilia A and B blood, blood lacking factor VII, blood lacking tissue factor pathway inhibitor, and diluted blood. We utilized the generated curves to perform systematic fold-change analyses for five quantitative parameters characterizing thrombin accumulation. The largest fold changes induced by increasing FVIIa concentration were observed for clotting time, thrombin peak time, and maximum slope of the thrombin curve. By contrast, thrombin peak height was much less affected by FVIIa titrations, and the area under the thrombin curve stayed practically unchanged. Comparisons with experimental data demonstrated that the computationally derived patterns can be observed in vitro. rFVIIa modulates thrombin generation primarily by accelerating the process, without significantly affecting the total amount of generated thrombin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The molar hydrodynamic volume changes of factor VIIa due to GlycoPEGylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesner, Bitten; Westh, Peter; Hvidt, Søren; Nielsen, Anders D

    2011-06-01

    The effects of GlycoPEGylation on the molar hydrodynamic volume of recombinant human rFVIIa were investigated using rFVIIa and two GlycoPEGylated recombinant human FVIIa derivatives, a linear 10kDa PEG and a branched 40kDa PEG, respectively. Molar hydrodynamic volumes were determined by capillary viscometry and mass spectrometry. The intrinsic viscosities of rFVIIa, its two GlycoPEGylated compounds, and of linear 8kDa, 10kDa, 20kDa and branched 40kDa PEG polymers were determined. The measured intrinsic viscosity of rFVIIa is 6.0mL/g, while the intrinsic viscosities of 10kDa PEG-rFVIIa and 40kDa PEG-rFVIIa are 29.5mL/g and 79.0mL/g, respectively. The intrinsic viscosities of the linear PEG polymers are 20, 22.6 and 41.4mL/g for 8, 10, and 20kDa, respectively, and 61.1mL/g for the branched 40kDa PEG. From the results of the intrinsic viscosity and MALDI-TOF measurements it is evident, that the molar hydrodynamic volume of the conjugated protein is not just an addition of the molar hydrodynamic volume of the PEG and the protein. The molar hydrodynamic volume of the GlycoPEGylated protein is larger than the volume of its composites. These results suggest that both the linear and the branched PEG are not wrapped around the surface of rFVIIa but are chains that are significantly stretched out when attached to the protein. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of recombinant factor VIIA for control of combat-related haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Susan I; Dougherty, Amber L; Dye, Judy L; Mohrle, Charlene R; Galarneau, Michael R

    2010-02-01

    Recombinant activated human coagulation factor VII (rFVIIa), an intravascular strategy to promote clotting, is being used as an adjunct to surgical control of bleeding in combat trauma patients. To describe the initial experiences with rFVIIa administered to combat casualties at US Navy-Marine Corps medical treatment facilities in Iraq, and to compare survival outcomes of those treated with rFVIIa to controls not receiving rFVIIa. Medical encounter data from the US Navy-Marine Corps Combat Trauma Registry were retrospectively reviewed to identify all battle-injured patients documented as having received rFVIIa during the period May 2004 to January 2006 of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Available clinical and injury related data are presented to characterise the patients. To assess effects of rFVIIa on survival outcomes, rFVIIa cases were matched to controls on injury severity and age. 22 battle-injured patients from the Combat Trauma Registry received rFVIIa. Primarily young US Marines, these patients typically had penetrating injuries from improvised explosive devices and gunshot wounds. Injuries were often abdominal. The average dose used was similar to that reported in another study of civilian trauma patients, although dosing varies widely in the existing experimental and anecdotal literature. Over two-thirds (68%) of the rFVIIa patients survived-an identical outcome seen for a matched control group of 22 patients. Survival of seriously injured combat casualties was good, although identical to that of a control group. Methodological limitations of this retrospective study preclude making firm conclusions about the effectiveness of rFVIIa. Future controlled studies are needed for safety and efficacy testing of rFVIIa in combat trauma patients.

  20. Asjatundja soovitab Eesti Energia kiiresti börsile viia / Tiit Nigul ; interv. Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nigul, Tiit

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Energia endine juhatuse liige vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad riigi energiapoliitikat ja -varustust, elektrienergia hinnatõusu, energiafirma börsileminekut, tasakaalu konkurentsiameti ja Eesti Energia vahel, ettevõtte tulusid, Narva Elektrijaamade tootmisvõimsust, koostööd Leedu tuumajaama projektiga, elektriturgu, ettevõtja Urmas Sõõrumaa süüdistamist siseinfo kasutamises, Eesti Energia strateegilist eesmärki saavutada aastaks 2015 kaks miljonit klienti

  1. Upaya Meningkatkan Kompetensi Strategis Matematis Melalui Pendekatan Metaphorical Thinking Siswa Kelas Viia SMP Negeri 11 YOGYAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Sudarsono, Sudarsono; Nurrohmah, Heni

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this research is to improve students' strategic mathematic ability. This research was conducted according to Class VII A Mathematic teacher's explanation that students unable to find the mathematic relation from question and developing an effective solving method. It was supported by the Class VII A students' mid test result, students found it difficult to solve a problem because 85% of 35 students unable to solve it. That means 30 students of Class VII A do not have the ability i...

  2. On see realistlik - 400 ehitust kahe suvega ellu viia? / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2011-01-01

    CO₂ kvoodi müügist rahastatakse üle 400 objekti energiasäästlikumaks renoveerimist. Ehitusettevõtjate liidu tegevdirektori Indrek Petersoni hinnangul töö firmade taha ei jää, pigem nähakse probleemi hankeprotsesside korraldamises ning projekteerimishangete läbiviimises

  3. The molar hydrodynamic volume changes of factor VIIa due to GlycoPEGylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Bitten; Westh, Peter; Hvidt, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The effects of GlycoPEGylation on the molar hydrodynamic volume of recombinant human rFVIIa were investigated using rFVIIa and two GlycoPEGylated recombinant human FVIIa derivatives, a linear 10 kDa PEG and a branched 40 kDa PEG, respectively. Molar hydrodynamic volumes were determined by capillary......, that the molar hydrodynamic volume of the conjugated protein is not just an addition of the molar hydrodynamic volume of the PEG and the protein. The molar hydrodynamic volume of the GlycoPEGylated protein is larger than the volume of its composites. These results suggest that both the linear and the branched...

  4. Human Recombinant Factor VIIa is Neuroprotective in a Model of Traumatic Brain Injury and Secondary Hypoxemia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bauman, R. A; Long, J. B; Ketchum, L. H; Macdonald, V. W

    2004-01-01

    .... In the untraumatized brain, TF is physically isolated from FVII. However, traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently results in the disruption of the vascular endothelium and resultant exposure of FVII to subendothelial TF...

  5. Mechanism of the Ca2+-induced enhancement of the intrinsic factor VIIa activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelke, Jais R; Olsen, Ole H; Fodje, Michel

    2008-01-01

    between the loop and Lys(161) in the N-terminal tail. In support of the first mechanism, the mutations E296V and D212N resulted in similar, about 2-fold, enhancements of the amidolytic activity. Moreover, mutation of the Lys(161)-interactive residue Asp(217) or Asp(219) to Ala reduced the amidolytic...... activity by 40-50%, whereas the K161A mutation resulted in 80% reduction. Hence one of these Asp residues in the Ca(2+)-binding loop appears to suffice for some residual interaction with Lys(161), whereas the more severe effect upon replacement of Lys(161) is due to abrogation of the interaction with the N......-terminal tail. However, Ca(2+) attenuation of the repulsion between Asp(212) and Glu(296) keeps the activity above that of apoFVIIa. Altogether, our data suggest that repulsion involving Asp(212) in the Ca(2+)-binding loop suppresses FVIIa activity and that optimal activity requires a favorable interaction...

  6. Eco-label - simple environmental choice / Andres Viia, Külliki Tafel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viia, Andres

    2003-01-01

    Autorid selgitavad ökomärgistuse olemust ja vajalikkust tarbijate teavitamisel vähem keskkonda kahjustavatest toodetest ning teenustest. Lisatud näiteid regionaalsetest ja rahvuslikest ökomärkidest EL-is, tuntumatest ökomärkidest väljaspool Euroopat, hoiatavatest ja informatiivsetest keskkonnamärkidest ning libaökomärkidest. Vt. samas: North-East Estonia - a seat of an environment-friendly batteries' recycling

  7. Euroopa päevik aitab tunde läbi viia / Epp Adler, Indrek Riigor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Adler, Epp

    2008-01-01

    Jaanuari lõpuni saavad kõik Eesti koolid tellida tasuta Euroopa päevikut, kus lisaks kalendrile on 96 lehekülge tekste tarbimise, ühiskonna ja Euroopa teemadel. Tallinna Nõmme Gümnaasiumi ajaloo, ühiskonnaõpetuse ja filosoofia õpetaja Indrek Riigor on päevikut kolm aastat tundides kasutanud

  8. Rong võib viia Tartust Tallinna kahe tunniga / Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reimer, Andres

    2004-01-01

    Tartu-Tallinna rongid võivad 2005. aasta suvest hakata sõitma kuni 120 kilomeetrit tunnis. Tallinnast Tartusse saab senisest kiiremini aga alles pärast 2007. aastat, selleks investeerib raudtee aastatel 2006-2007 ligi 400 miljonit krooni

  9. Presidendi külalised võib Tartusse ballile viia rong / Ingvar Bärenklau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bärenklau, Ingvar, 1967-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 21. nov. 2006, lk. 2. President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese ettepanekust korraldada presidendi iseseisvuspäeva vastuvõtt Tartus. Külaliste Tallinnast Tartusse sõidutamiseks tellitaks erirong Edelaraudteelt

  10. Diversity, dynamics and biogeography of Chilean benthic nearshore ecosystems: an overview and guidelines for conservation Diversidad, dinámica y biogeografía del ecosistema costero bentónico de Chile: revisión y bases para conservación marina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRIAM FERNANDEZ

    2000-12-01

    characteristics in terms of ecosystem processes (e.g., particular disturbance and upwelling regimes in coastal marine ecosystems and species (e.g., endemic and keystone species. For most marine invertebrates and macroalgae, hotspots in species diversity are present in southern Chile. New studies addressing the causal factors generating these large-scale patterns of species distribution are also needed; information about coastal oceanography and larval supply is still poor. This information crucial for the design of a marine reserve network. The information available on community structure and ecosystem functioning, especially highlighting the effect of human impact, comes from very few geographic regions. More information about community structure for other areas of the coast is required, particularly considering the strong differences in temperature, circulation patterns, habitat heterogeneity, species composition, as well as of upwelling and El Niño effects along the 4,000 km of coastline. Finally, we list what we think are the most harmful human activities by area and environment along the coast, and integrate this information to suggest possible environmental indicators, and basic needs and guidelines for marine conservation in ChileA pesar de que Chile ha sido un país pionero en estudios del efecto del impacto humano sobre la estructura comunitaria en ambientes marinos, y a pesar de la enorme importancia económica y social que el ambiente marino tiene para el país, el desarrollo de programas de conservación marina y de bases científicas para la sustentabilidad no se han generado a la misma tasa a la que han explotado los recursos y se ha utilizado el ambiente costero para diversos fines. Aunque nosotros pensamos que el establecimiento de planes de conservación a lo largo de la costa de Chile debe basarse en varios factores, los principios científicos, biológicos y ecológicos deben guiar muchos de estos esfuerzos, y en este trabajo nosotros intentamos presentar una

  11. Diatomeas marinas de aguas costeras de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina.: III Géneros potencialmente nocivos Asterionellopsis, Cerataulina, Ceratoneis y Leptocylindrus Marine diatoms from Buenos Aires coastal waters (Argentina: Ill Potentially harmful genus Asterionellopsis,Cerataulina, Ceratoneis y Leptocylindrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INÉS SUNESEN

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo está abocado al estudio morfológico, taxonómico y distribucional de las especies de diatomeas pertenecientes a los géneros Asterionellopsis, Cerataulina, Ceratoneis y Leptocylindrus halladas en aguas costeras marinas de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Las muestras planctónicas fueron colectadas en San Clemente del Tuyú, Santa Teresita, La Lucila del Mar, Mar de Ajó, Nueva Atlantis, Pinamar y Villa Gesell, entre noviembre de 1994 y septiembre de 2000. Material sin tratar y tratado fue analizado con microscopio óptico y microscopio electrónico de barrido. Seis taxa correspondientes a los géneros mencionados fueron determinados, de los cuales Cerataulina dentata es citada por primera vez para Argentina y Leptocylindrus minimus es citada por primera vez para el área costera de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Todas las especies reportadas como nocivas no toxígenas para otras áreas geográficas fueron encontradas. Cerataulina pelágica, Ceratoneis closterium y Leptocylindrus minimus, componentes ocasionales del plancton del área siempre en bajas densidades, no fueron nunca asociadas a episodios de floración. Asterionellopsis glacialis, componente habitual del plancton, fue causante de discoloraciones nocivas para el turismo y las actividades recreacionalesThe present work is devoted to the morphological, taxonomic, and distributional study of the diatom species belonging to the genera Asterionellopsis, Cerataulina, Ceratoneis and Leptocylindrus found in the marine coastal waters of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Planktonic samples were collected from November 1994 to September 2000 at San Clemente del Tuyú, Santa Teresita, La Lucila del Mar, Mar de Ajó, Nueva Atlantis, Pinamar and Villa Gesell. Raw and cleaned samples were analysed with light and scanning electron microscopy. Six taxa of the mentioned genera were determined, of which Cerataulina dentata is reported for the first time for Argentina and

  12. Repair and Dredging of Bear Creek Marina Final Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Lagoon and Santa Rosa Sound. Florida Department of Environmental Protection. December 2001. ––––––––, 2002. Technical Report. Florida...Biological Response of Infaunal Macroinvertebrates in the Choctawhatchee Bay System, CARRMA, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL. Minerals

  13. La silla anfibia marina Aquarius vuelve a las playas

    OpenAIRE

    BARBERA GUILLEM, RICARD; Gómez Herrero, Juan Alfonso; Bermejo Bosch, Ignacio; Navarro Garcia, Francisco Jose; SANCHEZ DE LARA, FERNANDO; Puigcerver Palau, Sergio Antonio; Lahuerta Martinez, Ruben; Moraga Maestre, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    [EN] Accessibility to recreational areas is a key aspect of quality of life of people with disa - bilities. In this project we have updated the layout of the amphibious wheelchair Aquarius. We have improved functionality, especially the manoeuvrability on the sand. In addition the new design results more attractive and stylish. This project has been supported by Generalitat Valenciana (Regional Valencian Government) within the II Plan de Competitividad de la Empresa Valenciana (PCEV) ...

  14. Inside i outside : "Svoja drama" / Marina Dmitrijevskaja, Boris Tuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Dmitrijevskaja, Marina

    2006-01-01

    4.-9. septembrini Tartus toimunud "Oma Draama" festivali lavastustest - Merle Karusoo "Misjonärid", Mart Kivastiku "Põrgu wärk" (lavastaja Hendrik Toompere jun) ja "Kits viiuli ja õngega" (lavastaja Aleksander Eelmaa) ning Andrus Kivirähki "Sürrealistid" (lavastaja Hendrik Toompere jun.)

  15. Pervaja ledi, Afrika i skeletõ / Marina Mironova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mironova, Marina

    2006-01-01

    Endine põllumajandusminister Ivari Padar loodab, et presidendiks valitud Toomas Hendrik Ilves suudab maaelu arengusse uusi tuuli tuua, presidendi abikaasa Evelin Ilves peab oma edaspidisteks kohustusteks tegelda heategevusega, hoolitseda oma pere eest ning jääda presidendi kõrval tahaplaanile

  16. El uso de biomarcadores en contaminación marina

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco, Julián

    1999-01-01

    7 páginas, 5 figuras. Los capítulos del libro corresponden a las conferencias presentadas por los autore de las mismas en el "III Curso de Patología, Fisiología y Biotoxicología en Acuicultura" dirigido por las Dras. Carmen Sarasquete, CSIC y M. Luisa González de Canales, UCA y celebrado en Puerto Real (Cádiz) en febrero de 1998.

  17. Rakvere teatrinoored triumfeerisid taas / Aarne Mäe, Marina Loshtshina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mäe, Aarne, 1967-

    2007-01-01

    Saaremaal 16. korda peetud miniteatripäevadel sai Grand prix' Rakvere Gümnaasiumi Teatriansambli näitetrupp Pühapäeval kell 4. Žürii otsust kommenteerivad Velvo Väli, Urmas Lennuk ja Vallo Kirs. Publikupreemia, žürii huumoripreemia sai Rakvere Linnanoorte Näitetrupp Daniil Harmsi looga "Juhtumisi". Ka teistest "Jää jumalaga puberteet!" festivali võitjatest

  18. FIBIT - Fashion is back in Tallinn / Marina Poltavtseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poltavtseva, Marina

    2004-01-01

    Moepäevad FIBIT Viru keskuses. Üks idee algatajaid on moekunstnik Katrin Kuldma. 1. oktoobril näidatakse soome moekunstniku Ritva-Liisa Pohjalaineni kollektsiooni Allergia - From Dreams to the Unique. Teisi moedemonstratsioone, millede stilistideks on Riina Põldroos, Aldo Järvsoo, Tanel Veenre ja Katrin Kuldma. Rõivad on valitud Viru keskuse kauplustest

  19. Biodiversidad marina de Costa Rica: Crustacea: Infraorden Anomura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Vargas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El grupo de los cangrejos anomuros es uno de los mejor conocidos de la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica, pero muy poco conocidos de la costa Caribe. En esta recopilación, basada en la literatura y en las colecciones del Museo de Zoología, Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica, informamos de la presencia de 114 especies del Infraorden Anomura en Costa Rica, 20 especies del Caribe, 96 especies del Pacífico, y dos especies presentes en ambas costa. Veintinueve especies son informes nuevos para Costa Rica, 15 del Caribe (75% del total de especies informadas para esa costa y 14 del Pacífica (15% del total de esa costa. La distribución de diez especies es ampliada hasta Costa Rica, siete en el Caribe y tres en el Pacífico. Seis especies son informadas por primera vez para la Isla del Coco, donde además hay cuatro especies endémicas.Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica: Crustacea: Infraorder Anomura. The anomuran crabs are among the best known crustacean groups from the Pacific coast. However, this group is poorly known from the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. In this compilation based on the literature and the collection at the Zoology Museum, Biology School, University of Costa Rica, we report the presence of 114 species of the Infraorder Anomura for Costa Rica, 20 species from the Caribbean, 96 species from the Pacific (two are present on both coasts. Twenty-nine species are new reports for Costa Rica, 15 from the Caribbean coast (74% of the total of species from that coast and 14 from the Pacific (15% of the total from the Pacific. The range of ten species is extended to Costa Rica, siete from the Caribbean and three from the Pacific. Six species are reported for the first time from Cocos Island, where there are also four endemic species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 461-488. Epub 2006 Jun 01.

  20. Neftetranzit i gossudarstvo = Oil transit and the state / Marina Vijar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vijar, Marina

    2003-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeeriumi asekantsler Andres Tint iseloomustab Eesti transiitkaubanduse sektorit, kaubagruppe ja veomahtusid ning investeeringuid raudtee ja sadamate infrastruktuuride arendamiseks vastavalt riigi transiidipoliitikale

  1. Trends of Avicennia marina Productivity as Influenced by Climatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inorganic ions, sodium (Na) and Chlorine (Cl) started to accumulate in the plant in order to maintain the homeostatic control, turgor pressure and osmotic adjustment. Accumulation of these ions and salts resulted to high productivity of leaf litter in September as a means of removing excess ions and unwanted salts.

  2. Moskovskije oligarhi predpotshitajut / Tatjana Tridvornova ; interv. Marina Poltavtseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tridvornova, Tatjana

    2005-01-01

    Lilleballi ja Lillekleidi konkursi autori Tatjana Tridvornovaga tema tööst Moskvas. Avas Moskvas kunstistuudio Flowers Vasari. Tema abilisteks on eesti lilleseadjad Heiti Põder, Ahti Lyra ja Eve Aben

  3. Võsokaja moda : v muzei ili na prodazhu? / Marina Radina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Radina, Marina

    2006-01-01

    Kõrgmoenädalast kevad/suvi 2006 Pariisis. Tuntud disainerite ja moemajade Jean Paul Gaultier', John Galliano (Christian Diori moemaja), Chaneli, Valentino, Christian Lacroix', Elie Saab'i kollektsioonidest. Chaneli moemaja demonstratsioonil osales ka Carmen Kass

  4. Marina Constantatos (University of Cape Town) Rosanna Bettarini ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    convegni, capitoli di libro, note introduttive, pagine di quotidiani quali “Il. Secolo XIX” e “Il Sole 24 Ore”, sia per quanto concerne gli argomenti trattati, tanto questioni strettamente filologiche quanto problematiche di tipo più ampiamente letterario e anche ricordi autobiografici della propria conoscenza con il poeta.

  5. Sunflower Beauty Contest : tsvetõ zimoi / Marina Poltavtseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poltavtseva, Marina

    2001-01-01

    Lillekleitide võistlusest Sunflower Beauty Contest Tallinna klubis Decolte. Konkursi idee on florist Tatjana Tridvornovalt. Esimese koha sai Viimsi lilleäri lilleseadjate Meri-Liis Kõivu ja Triinu Põlderi lillekleit "Talvepruut"

  6. Cambios en la viabilidad de dos bacterias marinas antárticas expuestas a la radiación solar en la columna de agua: influencia de la mezcla vertical Changes in viability of two Antarctic marine bacteria exposed to solar radiation in the water column: influence of vertical mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Hernández

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de la radiación ultravioleta (RUV sobre dos cepas bacterianas marinas antárticas (UVps y UVvi en la columna de agua de la caleta Potter (Shetland del Sur, Antártida. Frascos de cuarzo con las cepas en estudio fueron expuestos a la radiación solar en superficie, a 1 m y a 3 m de profundidad. Se realizaron ensayos con exposición directa y con filtros interferenciales que discriminaron la radiación UVA y la UVB. En otros ensayos se simuló una mezcla vertical de 4 m/h. Ambas cepas mostraron una disminución significativa del número de unidades formadoras de colonias, tanto en superficie como a 1 m de profundidad, luego de exponerlas a dosis superficiales de UVB de 8,4 kJ m-2. El estudio con filtros interferenciales mostró una disminución significativa de la viabilidad en ambos tratamientos UV en superficie y a 1 m. La cepa UVps mostró mayor sensibilidad a la UVB que a la UVA. La mezcla vertical amortiguó el daño causado por la UVB cuando la dosis en superficie fue de 4,8 kJ m-2. Este efecto amortiguador no se observó cuando la dosis en superficie fue de 7,7 kJ m-2. Estos resultados muestran que el efecto negativo de la RUV sobre el bacterioplancton sería particularmente importante en el primer metro de profundidad de las aguas costeras antárticas con abundante material particulado en suspensión.The effect of UV radiation on two Antarctic marine bacterial strains (UVps and UVvi was studied in the water column of Potter Cove (South Shetland, Antarctica. Quartz flasks were filled with the bacterial suspensions and exposed to solar radiation at 0 m, 1 m and 3 m depth. Assays using flasks exposed to direct solar radiation and others using flasks covered with/by interferential filters which discriminate between UVA and UVB, were performed. In other assays, a vertical mixing of 4 m/h was simulated. Both strains showed a significant decrease in viability (expressed as colony - forming units when exposed to a surface

  7. Marina Kaljurand : ka meie vastutame Lähis-Ida kriisi eest / Marina Kaljurand ; interv. Sten A. Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaljurand, Marina, 1962-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti suursaadik Iisraelis Iisraeli ja palestiinlaste konflikti põhjustest, selle mõjust välismaailmale ja prognoosid tulevikuks. Vt. samas: Eesti ja Iisraeli senised suhted; Eesti mineviku probleemi on Iisraelis siiski võimalik seletada

  8. Observaciones sobre el crecimiento de tortugas marinas en cautividad Observaciones sobre el crecimiento de tortugas marinas en cautividad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufmann Reinhard

    1975-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el crecimiento, en los primeros dos años de vida, de las especies Caretta caretta, Eretmochelys imbricata y Chelonia mydas. Ciertos parámetros se comparan  con los de hembras adultas, anidando en Colombia y otras regiones, Caretta y Eretmochelys aumentaron 9 veces el largo del caparazón, alcanzando aprox. 40 cm. Un cociente de 1,3 entre largo y ancho del caparzón parece típico para los tres géneros. El crecimientoes mucho más rápido en aguas tropicales que en aguas subtropicales, La variacion individual del tamaño y peso es bastante grande.Growth rates of the first two years are given for Caretta, Eretmochelys and Chelonia, maintained in captivity. Some parameters in juveniles are compared with those of adult populations in Colombia and other nesting areas. Caretta and Eretmochelys increased carapax length 9 times, reaching about 40 cm. The ratio of carapax length versus width of 1.3 seems tobe tipical in juveniles and adults of the three observed genera. There are considerable individual variations of size and weight.

  9. Diagnostico de flora, fauna terrestre y aves marinas en el Área Marina Costera Protegida Francisco Coloane. Informe Final.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    De acuerdo con el compromiso contraído por la Fundación Centro de Estudios del Cuaternario Fuego-Patagonia y Antártica (CEQUA) ante la Secretaría Ministerial de Bienes Nacionales XII Región Magallanes y Antártica Chilena, se eleva a consideración de la Unidad Técnica el presente informe que contiene las siguientes partes: a.-Identificar espacialmente los tipos de hábitat en el AMCP “Francisco Coloane”. b.- Determinar la distribución y abundancia relativa de las poblaciones de ...

  10. Diversity of the marine picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus assessed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms of 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer sequences Diversidad de las picocianobacterias marinas Prochlorococcus y Synechococcus por medio de polimorfismos de longitud de fragmentos de restricción terminal en secuencias del espaciador transcrito interno del ARNr 16S - 23S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARIS LAVIN

    2008-12-01

    distribution of these organisms.Con el fin de evaluar la utilización de secuencias del espaciador interno transcrito (ITS en estudios de genética de población de cianobacterias marinas, se amplificó y clonó la secuencia del gen ARNr 16S junto a la region espadadora 16S-23S ARNr de seis cepas de Prochlorococcus y Synechococcus. Se analizaron los amplicones del ITS por electroforesis en gel de gradiente de desnaturalización (DGGE y por polimorfismos de longitud de fragmentos de restricción terminal (T-RFLP. Al aplicar los métodos estándares de estas técnicas, se obtuvo más de una banda o fragmento de restricción terminal (T-RF por cepa o secuencia clonada. Informes en la literatura han sugerido que estas anomalías podrían ser atribuidas a la formación de estructuras secundarias. Por consiguiente, la estructura secundaria de las secuencias de ITS de las cepas de Prochlorococcus y Synechococcus fue modelada a las diferentes temperaturas que se utilizaron durante la reacción en cadena de polimerasa (PCR. Dicho modelamiento predijo la existencia de bucles que podrían persistir incluso durante la temperatura de extensión. Es probable que estos bucles generen productos de PCR con fragmentos incompletos y hebras simples. En este trabajo se modificó el procedimiento del método de T-RFLP añadiendo el partidor marcado en los últimos dos ciclos. Esto resultó, para la mayoría de los casos, la obtención de un solo fragmento de restricción por ribotipo. La aplicación de esta técnica a una muestra del medio ambiente obtenida frente al norte de Chile, demostró que es posible identificar la presencia, y determinar la abundancia relativa, de varios linajes filogenéticos de los géneros Prochlorococcus y Synechococcus que habitan la zona eufótica. El análisis filogenético de las secuencias de ITS obtenidos por clonación y secuenciación de ADN a partir de la misma muestra confirmó la presencia de los diferentes genotipos. Con la modificación propuesta, el m

  11. Effects of solar UV radiation on photosynthesis and enzyme activities (carbonic anhydrase and nitrate reductase in marine macroalgae from southern Spain Efectos de la radiación solar UV sobre la fotosíntesis y actividades enzimáticas (anhidrasa carbónica y nitrato reductasa en macralgas marinas del sur de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÉLIX L. FIGUEROA

    2001-06-01

    nitrogen metabolism under solar radiation. Considering the absence of a significant correlation in U. rigida and the delay observed in maximal activities of P. cartilagineum in the absence of UV, it is suggested that UV radiation acts as an environmental signal involved in the control of cycles. The presence of feedback processes that control nitrogen assimilation as a function of carbon content is proposedEn este trabajo se presenta el efecto de la radiación solar ultravioleta (UV durante el ciclo diario de luz sobre la actividad fotosintética y la de dos enzimas claves en la incorporación de carbono, la anhidrasa carbónica, y en la reducción de nitrógeno inorgánico, la nitrato reductasa, en macroalgas del sur de España. Durante el ciclo diario de luz, la fotoinhibición, expresada como porcentaje de disminución del rendimiento cuántico efectivo desde la mañana al mediodía, estuvo linear y negativamente correlacionada con la irradiancia integrada diaria. Sin embargo, la recuperación, expresada como porcentaje de incremento del rendimiento cuántico efectivo desde el mediodía hasta el atardecer siguió un patrón diferente. Se observó recuperación completa a irradiancias integradas diarias menores a 1.0 x 10(4 kJ m-2. Sin embargo, a irradiancias diarias mayores, la recuperación fue sólo del 50 %. La existencia de fotoinhibición y de una recuperación diaria completa en macroalgas hace pensar que la fotoinhibición está funcionado como un mecanismo de fotoprotección contra radiaciones solares altas como ocurre en plantas terrestres. Además, los patrones de fotoinhición y recuperación tienen relación con la dosis acumulada diaria. Las actividades enzimáticas (anhidrasa carbónica y nitrato reductasa fueron determinadas en tres macroalgas marinas (Plocamium cartilagineum, Ulva rigida y Fucus spiralis bajo radiación solar completa (PAR + UV-A + UV-B y excluyendo la radiación UV (PAR. Bajo PAR + UV-A + UV-B se observó un máximo en la actividad de

  12. Combination of recombinant factor VIIa and fibrinogen corrects clot formation in primary immune thrombocytopenia at very low platelet counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole H; Stentoft, Jesper; Radia, Deepti

    2013-01-01

    Haemostatic treatment modalities alternative to platelet transfusion are desirable to control serious acute bleeds in primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). This study challenged the hypothesis that recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) combined with fibrinogen concentrate may correct whole b...

  13. Amino acid sequence and posttranslational modifications of human factor VIIa from plasma and transfected baby hamster kidney cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thim, L.; Bjoern, S.; Christensen, M.; Nicolaisen, E.M.; Lund-Hansen, T.; Pedersen, A.H.; Hedner, U.

    1988-01-01

    Blood coagulation factor VII is a vitamin K dependent glycoprotein which in its activated form, factor VII a , participates in the coagulation process by activating factor X and/or factor IX in the presence of Ca 2+ and tissue factor. Three types of potential posttranslational modifications exist in the human factor VII a molecule, namely, 10 γ-carboxylated, N-terminally located glutamic acid residues, 1 β-hydroxylated aspartic acid residue, and 2 N-glycosylated asparagine residues. In the present study, the amino acid sequence and posttranslational modifications of recombinant factor VII a as purified from the culture medium of a transfected baby hamster kidney cell line have been compared to human plasma factor VII a . By use of HPLC, amino acid analysis, peptide mapping, and automated Edman degradation, the protein backbone of recombinant factor VII a was found to be identical with human factor VII a . Asparagine residues 145 and 322 were found to be fully N-glycosylated in human plasma factor VII a . In the recombinant factor VII a , asparagine residue 322 was fully glycosylated whereas asparagine residue 145 was only partially (approximately 66%) glycosylated. Besides minor differences in the sialic acid and fucose contents, the overall carbohydrate compositions were nearly identical in recombinant factor VII a and human plasma factor VII a . These results show that factor VII a as produced in the transfected baby hamster kidney cells is very similar to human plasma factor VII a and that this cell line thus might represent an alternative source for human factor VII a

  14. In vitro evidence of a tissue factor-independent mode of action of recombinant factor VIIa in hemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustsson, Cecilia; Persson, Egon

    2014-11-13

    Successful competition of activated factor VII (FVIIa) with zymogen factor VII (FVII) for tissue factor (TF) and loading of the platelet surface with FVIIa are plausible driving forces behind the pharmacological effect of recombinant FVIIa (rFVIIa) in hemophilia patients. Thrombin generation measurements in platelet-rich hemophilia A plasma revealed competition for TF, which potentially could reduce the effective (r)FVIIa:TF complex concentration and thereby attenuate factor Xa production. However, (auto)activation of FVII apparently counteracted the negative effect of zymogen binding; a small impact was observed at endogenous concentrations of FVII and FVIIa but was virtually absent at pharmacological amounts of rFVIIa. Moreover, corrections of the propagation phase in hemophilia A required rFVIIa concentrations above the range where a physiological level of FVII was capable to downregulate thrombin generation. These data strongly suggest that rFVIIa acts independently of TF in hemophilia therapy and that FVII displacement by rFVIIa is a negligible mechanistic component. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  15. Factor VIIa response to a fat-rich meal does not depend on fatty acid composition: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennen, L.; Maat, M. de; Meijer, G.; Zock, P.; Grobbee, D.; Kok, F.; Kluft, C.; Schouten, E.

    1998-01-01

    A fat-rich meal increases activated factor VII (FVIIa), but it is not clear whether this increase depends on the fatty acid composition of the meal. Therefore, we studied the FVIIa response to fat-rich meals with different fatty acid composition in a randomized controlled crossover trial and

  16. Measurements of the radiation energy distribution in the soft X-ray region in the Wendelstein VII-A stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, A.

    1985-10-01

    The soft X-ray radiation power with 400 eV <= E <= 100 eV originating from resonance lines of C-, O-, Fe-, Cr-, Mo-impurities contributes the major part of the total radiation losses from the plasma centre. A coarse discrimination between the most important impurity species can be obtained by using an array of filters consisting of different material. Different energy windows are defined by the energies of the corresponding L-line absorption edges of the filter materials. The radiation power of each energy band is monitored by a set of surface barrier diodes during the plasma discharges. Information about the energy spectrum is also provided by a two filter method giving an estimation of the mean radiation energy. In addition, X-ray pulse height analysis measurements are presented. The results are correlated with spectroscopic measurements. (orig.)

  17. Off-label use of recombinant factor VIIa for treatment of haemorrhage: results from randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar

    2008-01-01

    ) for evidence of such an approach. Methods In October 2007, a review of RCT involving rFVIIa for non-haemophilic indications was performed. The effect of rFVIIa on blood loss and transfusion requirements was recorded. Results Seventeen RCTs were identified concerning different bleeding conditions, for example......, secondary to surgery, infection and stem cell transplantation. Three pilot studies reported a significant reduction in transfusion requirements and/or blood loss in the rFVIIa-treated groups, but these have not been confirmed in large randomized trials. No difference in thromboembolic complications between...

  18. Pseudoderbesia, nuevo género de algas marinas (Bryopsidaceae, Chlorophyta Pseudoderbesia, nuevo género de algas marinas (Bryopsidaceae, Chlorophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calderon Eduardo

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Se aislaron cuatro clones de Pseudoderbesia y se mantuvieron como cultivos unialgales: dos provenientes de la Costa Colombiana del Caribe (P. arbuscula y dos de las Islas Canarias en el Océano Atlántico (Pseudoderbesia sp.. Aunque se conoce solo la fase gametofítica, hay razones suficientes para el establecimiento de un nuevo género. Se describe y discute el crecimiento, variabilidad, producción bajo condiciones de cultivo. Se sugiere la posibilidad que ciertas especies de Derbesia que poseen ramificación dicotómica y filamentos gradualmente atenuados, como D. fastigiata, D. attenuata y D. padinae, sean realmente miembros de Pseudoderbesia. Pseudoderbesia is described as a new genus within the Bryopsidaceae. Four clones of Pseudoderbesia were isolated and kept as unialgal cultures: two from the Caribbean coast of Colombia (P. arbuscula and two from the Canary Islands, Atlantic Ocean (Pseudoderbesia sp.. Although only the gametophytic phase is known, it is distinct enough for the establishement of a new genus. Growth, variability and swarmer production, under culture conditions, are described and discussed. It is suggested, that some little known species of Derbesia with dichotomous branching and gradually attenuated filaments, like D. fastigiata, D. attenuata and D. padinae, could actually be members of Pseudoderbesia.

  19. Estudio topográfico del huerto “Conreu Sereny” en la Serralada Marina. Badalona

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Álvarez, Inés; Corral Valderas, Eva

    2014-01-01

    El presente proyecto nace con la idea de dotar al huerto Conreu Sereny de unas infraestructuras que permitan un mejor aprovechamiento del agua de lluvia. El objetivo es desarrollar los trabajos necesarios para el estudio del terreno y su posterior diseño. Previo al levantamiento topográfico se dota de coordenadas GPS a cuatro bases desde las que se realizará la radiación de puntos.Todo el levantamiento se lleva a cabo con estación total. Las coordenadas obtenidas son UTM huso 3...

  20. Use of oxytocin during Caesarean section at Princess Marina Hospital, Botswana: An audit of clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy M. Tsima

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxytocin is widely used for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage. In the setting of Caesarean section (CS, the dosage and mode of administrating oxytocin differs according to different guidelines. Inappropriate oxytocin doses have been identified ascontributory to some cases of maternal deaths. The main aim of this study was to audit the current standard of clinical practice with regard to the use of oxytocin during CS at a referral hospital in Botswana.Methods: A clinical audit of pregnant women having CS and given oxytocin at the time of the operation was conducted over a period of three months. Data included indications for CS, oxytocin dose regimen, prescribing clinician’s designation, type of anaesthesia for the CS and estimated blood loss.Results: A total of 139 case records were included. The commonest dose was 20 IU infusion (31.7%. The potentially dangerous regimen of 10 IU intravenous bolus of oxytocin was used in 12.9% of CS. Further doses were utilized in 57 patients (41%. The top three indications forCS were fetal distress (36 patients, 24.5%, dystocia (32 patients, 21.8% and a previous CS (25 patients, 17.0%. Estimated blood loss ranged from 50 mL – 2000 mL.Conclusion: The use of oxytocin during CS in the local setting does not follow recommended practice. This has potentially harmful consequences. Education and guidance through evidencebased national guidelines could help alleviate the problem.