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Sample records for views oncold war

  1. Malaria eradication in Mexico: Some historico-parasitological views oncold war, deadly fevers by Marcos Cueto, Ph.D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagón, Filiberto

    2008-01-01

    This review of Professor Marcos Cueto's Cold War Deadly Fevers: Malaria Eradication in Mexico, 1955–1975 discusses some of the historical, sociological, political and parasitological topics included in Dr. Cueto's superbly well-informed volume. The reviewer, a parasitologist, follows the trail illuminated by Dr. Cueto through the foundations of the malaria eradication campaign; the release in Mexico of the first postage stamp in the world dedicated to malaria control; epidemiological facts on malarial morbidity and mortality in Mexico when the campaign began; the emergence of problem areas that impeded eradication; considerations on mosquitoes and malaria transmission in Mexico; the role of business and society in malaria eradication; the results of the campaign; the relationship between malaria and poverty; and the parasitological lessons to be learned from the history of malaria eradication campaigns. Dr. Cueto's excellent and well-informed exploration of malaria – not merely as a disease but as a social, economic and human problem – makes this book required reading.

  2. Children's Understanding of the War in Iraq: Views from Britain and Bosnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ron; Becirevic, Majda; Baker, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    Sixty-one children (aged 9-17) from the United Kingdom (31) and Bosnia (30) were interviewed about the war in Iraq. Significant differences emerged in their views of the war. The Bosnian children were more affected by the Iraq War, more aware of who is involved in it, had different views about its causes, viewed the consequences of the war with…

  3. David Douglas Duncan's Changing Views on War: An Audio-Visual Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politowski, Richard

    This paper is the script for a slide presentation about photographer David Douglas Duncan and his view of war. It is intended to be used with slides made from pictures Duncan took during World War II, the Korean War, and the war in Viet Nam and published in various books and periodicals. It discusses a shift in emphasis to be seen both in the…

  4. The Evolution of Public Views of the Black Sea Province During the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov G. Polyakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the evolution of public views of the Black Sea province during the First World War. The materials of pre-revolutionary periodicals of the Black Sea province became the main source of work. This article employs the records of personal origins. As a result of study, the authors come to the conclusion the First World War began for Russian society with massive patriotic speeches, but at the end of 1916 year for both in Russia in general and in the Black Sea province comes a complex social process that can be described as war weariness. To the reasons for war weariness the authors referred: the protracted war, and as a consequence – the complexity of an economic nature.

  5. The Initial Period of War: A Soviet View,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    the front and rear in a tuture war, and on Marx ist-L1eninist methodology were a major contribution to the development of Soviet military doctrine and...could continue to increase its forces in the east. Thei politica concealment of fascist Germany’s invasion of France, Belgium, and Holland. Political

  6. Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany: from 1936 to the end of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenl, William

    2014-04-01

    This article first shows Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany from 1936 to the beginning of World War II. In a lecture at the Tavistock Clinic, London, in October 1936, he made his strongest and most negative statements to that date about Nazi Germany. While in Berlin in September 1937 for lectures to the Jung Gesellschaft, his observations of Hitler at a military parade led him to conclude that should the catastrophe of war come it would be far more and bloodier than he had previously supposed. After the Sudetenland Crisis in Fall 1938, Jung in interviews made stronger comments on Hitler and Nazi Germany. The article shows how strongly anti-Nazi Jung's views were in relation to events during World War II such as Nazi Germany's invasion of Poland, the fall of France, the bombings of Britain, the U.S. entry into the War, and Allied troops advancing into Germany. Schoenl and Peck, 'An Answer to the Question: Was Jung, for a Time, a "Nazi Sympathizer" or Not?' (2012) demonstrated how his views of Nazi Germany changed from 1933 to March 1936. The present article shows how his views evolved from 1936 to the War's end in 1945. © 2014, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  7. Space View of the 1991 Gulf War Kuwaiti Oil Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, O.; Bhartia, P. K.; Larko, D.

    2014-12-01

    During the 1991 Persian Gulf War, over 700 oil wells in Kuwait were set ablaze by the withdrawing Iraqi army with the apparent intent of hindering satellite reconnaissance and intelligence gathering activities by the coalition of forces repelling Iraq from occupied Kuwait. The oil fires that burned for an estimated 10 months, created a huge smoke plume whose spatial extent went at times beyond the Persian Gulf region, mobilized across the Saharan Desert reaching as far west as the North Atlantic Ocean. The Nimbus-7 TOMS Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, in operation from October 1978 to May 1993, measured the near UV radiances that in the mid-1990's became the input in the calculation of the well know Absorbing Aerosol Index that represented a major breakthrough in satellite-based aerosol remote sensing. Thus, unknowingly to the world, the N7-TOMS sensor was collecting in 1991 an unprecedented daily record of what can be considered the worst environmental catastrophe affecting the atmosphere since the beginning of the era of space-based remote sensing in the 1970's. An overview of the temporal and spatial extent of the synoptic scale 1991 Gulf War smoke plume as seen by the Nimbus-7 TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index will be presented.

  8. Adolescents' Views on War and Peace in the Early Phases of the Iraq Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garatti, Marinella; Rudnitski, Rose A.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents' views of war and peace were assessed among 209 children aged 10-14 who attended a parochial school or its after-school religious program located in a predominantly middle-class, suburban area within commuting distance of New York City. Findings were compared to those of youth surveyed during other armed conflicts, specifically the…

  9. A categorical view toward diagnosis and classification of war-related psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhari SA

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Documented war experiences have provided early descriptions of different group of psychiatric features. A combat soldier with palpitation and chest pains was felt to have a functional cardiac disturbance, called soldier's heart. Anxiety and other symptoms indicating increased arousal were called shell shock and were thought to be related to lesions in the central nervous system (CNS. Describing analytically war events could operate with an enormous emotional intensity breaking through the ego defences and flooding it with an uncontrollable anxiety. Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD delineates a syndrome developing after a discrete traumatic event in a stress setting. Diagnostic conceptualization which tie PTSD to stress and trauma invariably involve two different approaches from two different theoretical bases: the concepts dealing with trauma on the one hand (which could effect on CNS and those dealing with stress-response theory on the other. Author emphasizes on viewing the patients who complain of war psychiatric effects in three categories: (1 Non PTSD diagnoses that the patient ought to be treated accordingly (2 Traumatic neurosis which has overwhelming war stress related emotional aspects and is occurred in predisposed individuals. This category is suggested to be classified as post war stress disorder specifically, to be differentiated from other post traumatic psychiatric categories. (3 Author also suggests the third category as post traumatic war stress syndrome which is thought to have organic origin. Symptoms such as hyperacusis, hyperirritability, tinnitus and particular type of head aches which are mostly refractory to treatment confirm the hypothesis.

  10. The Sacred and the Sword: A Study of how Religions View War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    on 16 observance of benevolence, filial piety and righteousness. Tranquility results from practicing these three principles: Benevolence is the...individual and the Tao. Confucius desired a social order based on benevolence, filial piety and riglteousness. Mo Tau envisioned a world governed by...in human society. Taoism does not take a definitive moral view on war. It is an amoral philosophy. As In nature, there is no morality, no preset

  11. VIEWING THE CONCEPT OF REALISM IN ART THROUGH THE FACT OF WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Aslan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the personal attitudes of the artists towards the wars of the recent history are approached in terms of the relationship they establish between their products and the historical period they witness. History of art has been showing that many of the artists are not indifferent to the social traumas faced; and on the contrary, they include these traumas into the main problems of their producing activities. Art, when described as a kind of mental action in perception of the reality, primarily draws the relationship of the modern culture with the arts to the realistic ground, in the most basic sense. Thus, the relationship between the fact of war and the production of art have been expressed on the axis of comprehending the reality, regarding the artists’ point of views both on the art and the life; and by selecting a series of artworks, which have revealed the ability of art to create deep effects on the social perception, as the subjects for their studies, the possibilities being derived from the historical reserve of art have been examined, at a historical moment that the civilization could not overcome the war and violence cycle.The works, which are on war and reality concepts, of the artists such as Otto Dix, Pablo Picasso and Leon Golub were focused in this study; and the study is limited to the mostly discussed ones among these works.

  12. WAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Elfar; Lindgreen, Stinus

    2008-01-01

    We present an easy-to-use webserver that makes it possible to simultaneously use a number of state of the art methods for performing multiple alignment and secondary structure prediction for noncoding RNA sequences. This makes it possible to use the programs without having to download the code an...... into account is also calculated. This website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. The webserver can be found at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/war....

  13. Soviet Involvement in the Korean War: A New View from the Soviet-era Archives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the Soviet Union's role in the Korean War using the resources of the Soviet-era archives in Russia. Provides historical background about the pre-Korean War era, the start of the war, the Soviet-Chinese relationship, the air and ground battles, and the reasons for ending the Korean War. (CMK)

  14. Hungarian views of the Bunjevci in Habsburg times and the inter-war period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weaver Eric Beckett

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The status and image of minorities often depends not on their self-perceptions, but on the official stance taken by the state in which they live. While identity is commonly recognized as malleable and personal, the official status of minorities is couched in stiff scientific language claiming to be authoritative. But as polities change, these supposedly scientific categorizations of minorities also change. Based on academic reports and parliamentary decisions, in Hungary today the Catholic South Slavs known as Bunjevci are officially regarded as an obscure branch of the Croatian nation. This has not always been the case. Early records of the Bunjevci categorized them in a variety of ways, most commonly as Catholic Serbs, Dalmatians, and Illyrians. In the nineteenth century Bunjevac elites were able to project to the Hungarian public a mythological positive historical image of the Bunjevci, delineating them from the negative stereotypes of other South Slavs. This positive image, fixed in encyclopaedias and maintained until the Second World War, represented the Bunjevci as Catholic Serbs who (unlike Croats or Orthodox Serbs were constantly faithful to the Hungarian state and eager to assimilate. In the 1920s and 1930s traditional Hungarian stereotypes of Bunjevci protected them from abuses suffered by other South Slavs. As political relations transformed, official views of the Bunjevci also changed. With the massive upheaval during and after the Second World War, there was a change in accounts of who the Bunjevci were. The transformation from communism and the break-up of Yugoslavia have also evoked demands for changes in identity from some Bunjevci, and brought new impositions of identity upon them.

  15. The Fluidic Metaphor: A View into the Nature and Future of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    market system will be launched even more in atypical forms…however, regardless of the form the violence takes, war is war.” Liang and Xiangsui...they describe “high viscosity” modeling as “easy to do.” Bjorn Carey, “The Hard Science of Making Videogames ,” Popular Science, October 2007, 70...Journal, 22, 23. Carey, Bjorn. (2007, October). The Hard Science of Making Videogames . Popular Science, 68- 72. Chandler, David G. (1966

  16. Two views on the Yugoslav ideology in Serbian music periodicals between the two world wars

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    Vasić Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between the Yugoslav ideology as exhibited in Serbian music magazines published between the two world wars. These are the following journals: Music (1928-1929, Bulletin of the Music Society „Stanković” (1928-1934, 1938-1941; in January 1931 it was renamed The Musical Gazette, The Sound (1932-1936, Herald of the South Slavic Choral Union (1935-1936, 1938, Slavic music (1939-1941 and Review of Music (1940. I have excluded the magazine Musical Gazette (1922 from consideration because I have already discussed its ideological aspects in an earlier article (2009. Yugoslav topics in interwar music periodicals are addressed in an ecstatic tone by the music writers and editors (particularly immediately after the foundation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes; one also observes open dissent and criticism of undesirable, wasted tendencies. Signs of profound differences with respect to the fundamental aspect of Yugoslav ideology - i.e. on the question of the nature and degree of the unity of nations under the auspices of the ideology, appeared relatively early in these journals. I argue that three elements: open enthusiasm, criticism/polemic and fundamental differences, constituted a framework within which the Yugoslav ideology was expressed in the Serbian musical periodicals. The third aspect has proved to be crucial. One could observe two different and even opposing views on the Yugoslav ideology. While some musicians strongly advocated integral Yugoslavism, others wanted the preservation of distinctive national features within this ideology. This division is illustrated by the writings of Croatian composer and ethnomusicologist Božidar Širola and Serbian composer and music critic Milenko Živković. The division in question culminated in the case of the South Slavic Choral Union, which Croatian Choral Union refused to join. Hence, Serbian music periodicals provide an insight into the fundamental

  17. Understanding Sierra Leonean and Liberian Teachers' Views on Discussing Past Wars in Their Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepler, Susan; Williams, James H.

    2017-01-01

    Various curricular and textbook initiatives exist to aid in the national processes of coming to terms with past violence, often serving the political goals of the victors, sometimes supported by international transitional justice institutions. Sierra Leone and Liberia each experienced a devastating civil war during the 1990s and into the 2000s,…

  18. A View from the South: The Global Creation of the War on Drugs

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    Giovanni Molano Cruz

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper claims that it is necessary to seriously consider facts and phenomena beyond the ‘West’ in order to understand and theorise the complex social practices that shape the world. From a Latin American standpoint, it questions the traditional approach to a global matter: the War on Drugs. Researchers usually see this phenomenon in Latin America as reflecting US domination in the region. However, by identifying how and why the drug issue became a matter of security in Latin America and by specifying the collective countermeasures adopted, Latin American participation becomes more apparent in the construction of the international process that gave rise to the normative framework that holds up the War on Drugs: the 1988 Vienna Convention.

  19. A comparative study of Ayatollah Motahhari’s views on Jihad and Rawls’ views on Humanitarian Wars

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    Amir Maghami

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Since there appears to be a relationship between Ayatollah Mutahhari’s ‘Jihad’ theory and John Rawls’s Humanitarian War theory, and between their shared social concerns, this study aims at investigating whether the two theories are similar or different in terms of legitimacy of war and the use of force. It seems that humanitarian jihad and liberal humanitarian intervention have a similar genesis, the difference being that the former is prescribed on theological foundations and the latter is founded on ethical liberalism, though the two have similar claims. Can this apparently unprofessed resemblance in permissibility of jihad in Jihad theory of Ayatollah Motahhari – as a Muslim jurist and philosopher - and the justification of war to confront violation of human rights in “The Law of Peoples” as a complement to theory of justice of Rawls – as a Kantian liberal philosopher be considered a significant relationship? نسبتی ناخواسته میان نظریه جهاد شهید مرتضی مطهری و جان رالز و مشابهت برخی دغدغه‌های اجتماعی آن‌ها بهانه‌ای است برای کنجکاوی در امکان تشابه یا افتراق نظریه این دو در باب مشروعیت جنگ و توسل ابتدایی به زور. در این بررسی به نظر می‌رسد جهاد بشردوستانه آن گونه که از نامش پیداست سنخیتی با مداخله بشردوستانه دارد؛ با این تفاوت که اولی از منظری ایدئولوژیک و الهی تجویز می‌شود و دومی از منظر لیبرالیسم اخلاقی؛ گر چه هر دو تقریباً مدعای یکسانی دارند. آیا این تشابه علی الظاهر ناخودآگاه در میان موارد تجویز جهاد در نظریه جهاد شهید مطهری به عنوان یک فقیه فلسفه‌گرای مسلمان و توجیه

  20. Nanotechnology in the war against cancer: new arms against an old enemy - a clinical view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Sten; Nyström, Andreas M

    2015-01-01

    Clinical oncology is facing a paradigm shift. A new treatment philosophy is emerging and new targets are appearing that require new active agents. The medical use of nanotechnology - nanomedicine - holds several promising possibilities in the war against cancer. Some of these include: new formats for old drugs, that is, increasing efficacy while diminishing side effects; and new administration routes - that is, dermal, oral and pulmonary. In this overview, we describe some nanoparticles and their medical uses as well as highlight advantages of nanoparticles compared with conventional pharmaceuticals. We also point to some of the many technical challenges and potential risks with using nanotechnology for oncological applications.

  1. Army Transformaton: A View from the U.S. Army War College

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Moreover, the melting away of long-held societal taboos associated with gender and sexual orientation in post-modern society have affected the essence of...Gentler Military: Can America’s Gender -Neutral Fighting Forces Still Win Wars? New York: Scribner, 2000; Leonard Wong, Generations Apart: Xers and Boomers...know, and then after that into a butterfly, I should think it’ll feel a bit queer , don’t you think so?” “Not a bit,” said the caterpillar. “All I know

  2. Military use of space in peace and war from a legal point of view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentzien, J.F.

    1986-12-01

    The author deals with the legal aspects of the military use of space in peace time and in war time. As far as rules in case of an armed conflict in space are touched, he treats the 'ius ad bellum' as well as the 'ius in bello'. The military use of space is restrained, because according to article IV paragraph 1 of the Space Treaty it is not allowed to deploy nuclear weapons in the atmosphere.

  3. The view from everywhere: disciplining diversity in post-World War II international social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcer, Perrin

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the attempt of social scientists associated with Unesco to create a system of knowledge production to provide the international perspective necessary for democratic governance of a world community. Social scientists constructed a federal system of international associations that institutionalized American disciplines on an international scale. An international perspective emerged through the process of interdisciplinary international research. I call this ideal of coordinating multiple subjectivities to produce objectivity the "view from everywhere." Influenced by social psychological "action-research," collaborative research was group therapy. The attempt to operationalize internationalists' rallying slogan, "unity in diversity," illuminated tensions inherent in the mobilization of science for social and political reform.

  4. Malaria eradication in Mexico: Some historico-parasitological views on Cold war, deadly fevers by Marcos Cueto, Ph.D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malagón Filiberto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review of Professor Marcos Cueto's Cold War Deadly Fevers: Malaria Eradication in Mexico, 1955–1975 discusses some of the historical, sociological, political and parasitological topics included in Dr. Cueto's superbly well-informed volume. The reviewer, a parasitologist, follows the trail illuminated by Dr. Cueto through the foundations of the malaria eradication campaign; the release in Mexico of the first postage stamp in the world dedicated to malaria control; epidemiological facts on malarial morbidity and mortality in Mexico when the campaign began; the emergence of problem areas that impeded eradication; considerations on mosquitoes and malaria transmission in Mexico; the role of business and society in malaria eradication; the results of the campaign; the relationship between malaria and poverty; and the parasitological lessons to be learned from the history of malaria eradication campaigns. Dr. Cueto's excellent and well-informed exploration of malaria – not merely as a disease but as a social, economic and human problem – makes this book required reading.

  5. Profile of Vietnam War Veterans (2015).

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Profile of Vietnam War Veterans uses the 2015 ACS to provide a view into the demographic characteristics and socioeconomic conditions of the Vietnam War Veteran...

  6. Representations of Peronism as totalitarianism in the view of the Socialist Party during a Cold War period in Argentina (1950-1955

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    Artinian, Juan Pablo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes forms of cultural production that opposed Peronism in Argentina between 1950 and 1955 in the context of the Cold War. It focuses on representations created by Argentina’s Socialist Party. This party created a series of discourses opposed to Peronism using local and transnational categories that were framed by the country’s own view of the Cold War. The Socialist Party used these discourses to stigmatize Perón’s Argentina as a species of totalitarian state. This article sought to go beyond the traditional perspectives of Cold War historiography, whose focus is on diplomatic and military history and the bulk of whose analysis is devoted to dissecting the United States’ attempts to establish hegemony over Latin America or to describing the phenomenon of justicialismo’s “third position.” This article, on the other hand, sought to use cultural analysis to explore Latin America’s own agency in its adoption of language pertaining to the early Cold War period. Socialists crafted a stylized, and sometimes exaggerated, discourse in which imagery belonging to fascism and, to a lesser extent, Stalinism after the rise of the Iron Curtain, was combined with the local figure of nineteenth century governor Juan Manuel de Rosas.Este artículo analiza formas culturales que se opusieron al Peronismo en Argentina entre 1950 y 1955 en el contexto de la Guerra Fría. El artículo se focaliza en las representaciones creadas por el Partido Socialista Argentino. Este partido creó una serie de discursos opuestos al peronismo a través de categorías e ideas trasnacionales y locales enmarcadas en nociones propias de la Guerra Fría. Así el Partido Socialista estigmatizó al peronismo como una forma de estado totalitario. Este artículo busca ir más allá de las visiones tradicionales de la historiografía sobre la Guerra Fría basadas en la historia diplomática o militar donde gran parte del análisis daba cuenta de los intentos

  7. [Management of war injuries from the anesthesiologic point of view: a report of experiences from the IKRK hospital in Kabul, September 1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursprung, T

    1991-01-01

    We report the medical experience during a 3 week stay in the ICRC hospital of Kabul as anaesthesist. 170 war wounded patients had been treated following clear and simple rools of war surgery. The anaesthetic management and the important role of Ketamin is explained.

  8. Never satisfactory, according to the Finnish standards”. From optimism and interest to disappointment and disillusion: Finnish views on the nations in Eastern Central Europe between the word wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Vares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The questions of national prejudices, xenophobia and enemy images have been lately popular issues. The creation of the ”Other” has been evident in racial issues, like in the ideologies of imperialism or anti-Semitism. However, it is important to see the same mentality inside the European political culture itself, because the images often did and still do divide the nations into different categories. This mentality gained even more impetus after the collapse of the empires in 1918 and yet again in the discussion about ”Old Europe” and ”New Europe”. My purpose is to study how Finland saw Eastern Europe and its political systems and national peculiarities between the World Wars. Finland formed an interesting hinge between Scandinavia and Eastern Europe. On the one hand it wanted to emphasize how Western its mental heritage was; on the other, it had to fight off assumptions that it was still ”half-Russian” and behaving in a ”Balkan” manner. In the early 1920s there were also ideas of similar interests in European politics and similarities of the social structure. In the longer run, the Finns saw Eastern Europe as an area which was not ready for democracy, because it lacked the elements of national cohesion and basic people’s education. Argumentation resembles the German one, but was not necessarily decided by it – rather by own experience or Scandinavian and sometimes Hungarian information. For the Finns, Hungary formed some sort of exception of the prejudiced view because it was considered to be a kindred nation, but the experts could see little similarities even between Finland and Hungary.

  9. War No Longer Exists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    governments and terrorists, warlords, separatists, and in and among nations’ populations. Mary Kaldor echoes this 4 view, arguing that states are...19-20. 7 Mary Kaldor , “Elaborating the ‘New War’ Thesis,” in Isabelle Duyvesteyn and Jan Angstrom, eds., Rethinking the Nature of War (New York

  10. Impact of war on American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Sally Brosz; Hayes, Eileen; Cheever, Kerry H; Addy, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    The impact of the Persian Gulf war on adolescents in Columbia, Charleston, and Sumter, SC. Four semiannual surveys measured adolescents' exposure to and evaluations of the Persian Gulf war, and the relationship between this exposure and mental distress. Of the sample, 814 (65.9%) reported being distressed by the war and 849 (69%) reported feeling better after the war ended. More than half the sample had a friend or relative sent to the war (n = 725, 58.8%), and of these, 458 were African American. Nine percent (n = 111) of the sample had a mother, father, or both a mother and a father in the war. There was a positive correlation between adolescents' ratings on the Negative Impact of War Scores and Mental Distress Scores despite the easy victory and public support for the war in the United States. Females and African Americans viewed the war more negatively than did Caucasian males.

  11. Tolstoy's Mathematics in "War and Peace"

    OpenAIRE

    Vitanyi, Paul

    2001-01-01

    The nineteenth century Russian author Leo Tolstoy based his egalitarian views on sociology and history on mathematical and probabilistic views, and he also proposed a mathematical theory of waging war.

  12. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... of ground war tactics for how we understand political campaigns and what it means to participate in them. He shows how ground wars are waged using resources well beyond those of a given candidate and their staff. These include allied interest groups and civic associations, party-provided technical...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  13. WAR HORSES:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille......-1951), which they became part of. Cobra greatly influenced the development of European modern art after World War II. The exhibition includes over 100 works and reconstructs for the first time the most important exhibition these artists staged in Denmark during the war, 13 Artists in a Tent (1941). It draws...

  14. Life without war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Douglas P

    2012-05-18

    An emerging evolutionary perspective suggests that nature and human nature are less "red in tooth and claw" than generally acknowledged by a competition-based view of the biological world. War is not always present in human societies. Peace systems, defined as groups of neighboring societies that do not make war on each other, exist on different continents. A comparison of three peace systems--the Upper Xingu River basin tribes of Brazil, the Iroquois Confederacy of upper New York State, and the European Union--highlight six features hypothesized to be important in the creation and maintenance of intersocietal peace: (i) an overarching social identity, (ii) interconnections among subgroups, (iii) interdependence, (iv) nonwarring values, (v) symbolism and ceremonies that reinforce peace, and (vi) superordinate institutions for conflict management. The existence of peace systems demonstrates that it is possible to create social systems free of war.

  15. The status and the future of Baltic States and Romania in the strategy of Western Allies in the early years of the Second World War: a comparative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramojus Kraujelis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The fate of Lithuania and Romania as well as future of the whole Central and Eastern European region was determined in the years of the Second World War. The common origin of their tragic and painful history was the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact – the secret deal between Soviet Union and Nazi Germany, which divided Central and Eastern Europe between two totalitarian regimes. In June 1940 the three Baltic States and a part of Romania were directly occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union. The main objective of this paper is to identify, analyze and compare the attitudes of the United States and Great Britain with respect to the annexation of the Baltic States and the Romania territory and discussed the post-war future reserved to them. During the early years of the Second Word War (1940-1942 few interesting international discussions about possible post-war arrangement plans existed. The analysis of the Western attitude would enable us to give answers to certain questions: What could have been done by the Western states for the benefit of Central and Eastern European region; what have they, in fact, done and what did they avoid doing? The year 1943 witnessed the consolidation of the Western attitude with regard to Soviet Union’s western borders, which resulted in the fundamental fact that Moscow did not intend to retract its interests in the Baltic States, Eastern Poland, North Bucovina and Bessarabia while the West did not intend to fight for these territories. Considering the fact that at the Teheran conference (1943 the Western states agreed upon turning the Baltic states into a Soviet interest sphere, the United States and Britain entered the Yalta conference (1945 with no illusions as to the fate of Central and Eastern Europe in general.

  16. On Political War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    history before Hitler: leaving foreign wars aside, deaths through internal repressive measures conducted for ideological reasons amounted in Soviet Russia ... history have suggested keys to an understanding of the individual and social forces behind conflict. Their views have seldom stood the test of reality...who feared damage to his trade initiative), it later surfaced and served as a basis for a history of Muscovy written by Milton. A useful reminder for

  17. New wars, new morality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, T.

    2009-01-01

    Has war fundamentally changed? If so, it may be time for reconsidering accepted moral standards for waging wars and for conduct in war. The new war thesis holds that wars have fundamentally altered since the end of the Cold War. Proponents such as Kaldor and Weiss hold that wars today are intrastate

  18. An accidental sect: how war made belief in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.

    2006-01-01

    Idealists consider beliefs cause wars. Realists consider wars cause beliefs. The war in Sierra Leone offers some scope to test between these two views. The main rebel faction, the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) was, sociologically speaking, an accidental sect. It lost its original ideologues at an

  19. War games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler Imperial War Museum North tegnet af den polsk-amerikanske arkitekt Daniel Libeskind. Det er hans første projekt i Storbritannien og Englands femte krigsmuseum. Libeskind vand konkurrencen allerede i 1997, men først 5. juli 2002 kunne dørene slås op. Artiklen diskuterer om der e...

  20. Rutherford's war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John

    2016-02-01

    Seagulls, sea lions and the comic-book hero Professor Radium were all recruited to fight the threat of submarines during the First World War. But as John Campbell explains, it was Ernest Rutherford who led the way a century ago in using acoustics to deter these deadly craft.

  1. Sketching War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    During the Napoleonic Wars the military croquis, or sketch map, played an important role in the spatial management of the various campaigns. Presumably, many of these sketch maps were destroyed or discarded after their immediate use. Those that survive have received little scholarly notice. Atten...

  2. Science, ethics and war: a pacifist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    2013-06-01

    This article considers the ethical aspects of the question: should a scientist engage in war-related research, particularly use-inspired or applied research directed at the development of the means for the better waging of war? Because scientists are simultaneously professionals, citizens of a particular country, and human beings, they are subject to conflicting moral and practical demands. There are three major philosophical views concerning the morality of war that are relevant to this discussion: realism, just war theory and pacifism. In addition, the requirements of professional codes of ethics and common morality contribute to an ethical analysis of the involvement of scientists and engineers in war-related research and technology. Because modern total warfare, which is facilitated by the work of scientists and engineers, results in the inevitable killing of innocents, it follows that most, if not all, war-related research should be considered at least as morally suspect and probably as morally prohibited.

  3. Social science in the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerman, David C

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines ways in which American social science in the late twentieth century was--and was not--a creature of the Cold War. It identifies important work by historians that calls into question the assumption that all social science during the Cold War amounts to "Cold War social science." These historians attribute significant agency to social scientists, showing how they were enmeshed in both long-running disciplinary discussions and new institutional environments. Key trends in this scholarship include a broadening historical perspective to see social scientists in the Cold War as responding to the ideas of their scholarly predecessors; identifying the institutional legacies of World War II; and examining in close detail the products of extramural--especially governmental--funding. The result is a view of social science in the Cold War in which national security concerns are relevant, but with varied and often unexpected impacts on intellectual life.

  4. The Forgotten War: Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Dan B.; Kaufman, Burton I.

    1990-01-01

    Evaluates the coverage of the Korean War in 12 high school history textbooks. Lists the books, and reviews the coverage of each in the areas of: total coverage and illustrations; Korean war background; causes of the War; the Truman response; waging the War; the Truman-MacArthur controversy; and the results of the War. (GG)

  5. Information War in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita A. Smirnov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, in many countries around the world the role of society in political decision making quickly strengthened, and the population is increasingly affects the position of the state leaders. For countries pretending to have the support of its policies in other regions, public diplomacy is an essential tool. Today, public diplomacy is regularly used in various conflicts, one of which is the civil war in Syria. Media, Internet, social networks and other tools are used daily to cover the events and create the necessary views of the population in different countries. At the beginning of the article the reasons for the outbreak of the war are discussed from the standpoints of the main actors - the current Syrian government and its opposition, as well as their allies and enemies. The causes of the conflict are essential for further evaluation of the evs, so diametrically opposite points of view of the main actors of the events are analyzed in the material. Then we consider the coverage of the war, because period of direct military action is important to assess the behavior of its members. Among the most important and controversial topics covered by the international media in the conflict, are the use of prohibited weapons, killing of civilians, a violation of international agreements. Determination of the prospects of civil war in Syria is also critical when planning further action by all these events. To get the necessary public support, the parties are trying to have different interpretation of further scenarios. Much depends on this: whether the country's population supports the direction of further assistance or troops, how residents of other countries would react to a further continuation of the conflict, or how the representatives of international organizations would answer the question about the legitimacy of any move. The formation of public opinion in different countries aimed at obtaining approval of its policy on the part of the

  6. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  7. Polemological Paradigm of Hybrid War Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Dodonov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the methodological problems and manipulative mechanisms of hybrid warfare. Owing to the polemological (from πολέμιος — war and λόγος — study approach the authors managed to systematize and summarize the theories of war and peace, clarify contemporary western concepts of warfare, outline the specifi cs of the Russian view on the hybrid war concept, assess the signifi cance of information and manipulation technologies for hybrid wars, analyze a number of geopolitical and socio-cultural dimensions of modern hybrid wars. The polemology is a branch of science, which studies the nature of armed confl icts and wars, their role in time and space, cycles, intensity, scope, scale, and causative relations and their classifi cation. Polemology deals with the wars and armed confl icts of the past, present and future. Novel hybrid wars take a respective place among them. They involve using all available warfare, regular and irregular, cyber and those allowing for the use of weapons of mass destruction, and also information, psychological and propaganda war using the latest information and media technologies. According to the classical approach, the state is the only subject of military actions, but today its role has changed dramatically under the infl uence of other political and economic supranational and trans-border factors. For the purpose of studying wars and armed confl icts from the polemological perspective it means the need to focus on social changes in all the areas of human life, on considering various elements of the political, economic or even technological context, which infl uence the war as a social phenomenon.

  8. Mali: Visions of War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Marchal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Political elites in Bamako articulate different understandings of the war in northern Mali, though share the same view on the restoration of Malian sovereignty. Those visions are deeply rooted in an assessment of the past failed peace agreements with Tuareg groups, a focus on social and ethnic differentiations that emphasize the role of Kidal and the will to avoid major reforms in dealing with key issues such as the efficiency of the political system, the role of Islam in the Malian polity and the complicated relations between Bamako and its neighbours. The status of AQIM in the current crisis, contrary to the international narrative, is downplayed while other armed groups, in particular the MNLA, are seen as the real, and, often, only threat.

  9. Total war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratina Boris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In principle, this paper presents critics of Freud's concept of death drive and deals with the consequences of its drawing in the theoretical plane. Namely, the death drive is, besides the original pleasure principle, imported into the selfmediation dialectic of subjectivity. By that, as if a scientific foundation and justification had been given to one of the central tendencies in Western European thought: to the idea of original opposition or eternal war. In our time, violence has entered widely into theoretical reality, which is best witnessed by Derida's thought. Nevertheless, the concept of death drive presents only one of the possible lines of the development of psychoanalysis, the line which is fully avoided in papers and praxis of one different psychoanalyst - very much used but not enough acknowledged - Wilhelm Reich. Reich, namely, succeeded in explanation of masochism problem (as one of the main motives for presenting of death drive by inversion of the pleasure principle, and such interpretation gave results in therapy while the concept of death drive had shown itself apsolutely fruitless (unproductive in that field. In that sense, one could say that it is the matter of different ethoi.

  10. Three Generations, Three Wars: African American Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Helen K

    2016-02-01

    This article emerged from pilot research exploring experiences of war and suffering among African American veterans who served in World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam War. Men's experiences as soldiers reflected both racism and the social change that occurred in the Unites States while they served. We used techniques of narrative elicitation, conducting qualitative, ethnographic interviews with each of five veterans in his home. Interviews focused on unique and shared experiences as an African American man and a soldier. Three important themes emerged: (a) Expectations related to War--Although men viewed service to country as an expected part of life, they also expected equal treatment in war, which did not occur; (b) Suffering as an African American--Informants interpreted experiences of suffering in war as related to the lower status of African American servicemen; and (c) Perception of present identity--Each man was honed by the sum of his experiences, including those of combat, racism, and postwar opportunities and obstacles. From 40 to 70 years after the wars were fought, there are few scholarly narrative studies on African American veterans, despite the fact that Korean War Veterans are entering old-old age and few World War II Veterans are alive. The value of pilot research that offers narratives of unheard voices is significant; larger studies can interview more African American veterans to advance knowledge that might soon be lost. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. A New View of Civil War Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percoco, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Students today are used to a rich visual dimension of living. Students carry with them to school each day devices that allow them to capture their lives in real time. This is possible because of the hard labor of men who toiled for hours to capture for time immemorial images that have become engrained in the American narrative. When teaching the…

  12. The Somali Conflict: From Irredentism to Clannish War for Unification

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the Somali conflict, especially how it degenerated from a simple war of ethnic crisis into one of world's most deadly and persistent crises. The paper investigates the interplay of both local and international factors in the escalation of the war. The paper is of the view that clannish interests and selfish ...

  13. Moving Past the Systematics Wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, Beckett; Lidgard, Scott

    2017-03-02

    It is time to escape the constraints of the Systematics Wars narrative and pursue new questions that are better positioned to establish the relevance of the field in this time period to broader issues in the history of biology and history of science. To date, the underlying assumptions of the Systematics Wars narrative have led historians to prioritize theory over practice and the conflicts of a few leading theorists over the less-polarized interactions of systematists at large. We show how shifting to a practice-oriented view of methodology, centered on the trajectory of mathematization in systematics, demonstrates problems with the common view that one camp (cladistics) straightforwardly "won" over the other (phenetics). In particular, we critique David Hull's historical account in Science as a Process by demonstrating exactly the sort of intermediate level of positive sharing between phenetic and cladistic theories that undermines their mutually exclusive individuality as conceptual systems over time. It is misleading, or at least inadequate, to treat them simply as holistically opposed theories that can only interact by competition to the death. Looking to the future, we suggest that the concept of workflow provides an important new perspective on the history of mathematization and computerization in biology after World War II.

  14. art and propaganda in an age of war: the role of posters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Posters which appeal to the patriotism of those who view it and which attempt to moti- vate them to contribute to the war effort. b. Posters concerning the war effort. These are mainly civilian-orientated and not specifically military, emphasizing the civilian/military in- terrelationship. They deal with the production of war material ...

  15. Masculinity, War and Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    Addressing the relationship between masculinity, war and violence, the book covers these themes broadly and across disciplines. The ten contributions encompass four recurring themes: violent masculinities and how contemporary societies and regimes cope with them; popular written and visual fiction...... about war and masculine rationalties; gender relations in social movements of rebellion and national transformation; and masculinity in civil society under conditions of war and post-war....

  16. Mathematicians at War

    CERN Document Server

    Mazliak, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Italian mathematician Volterra struggled to carry Italy into the World War I in May 1915 and then developed a frenetic activity to support the war effort. This activity found an adequate echo what did his French colleagues Borel, Hadamard and Picard. This book proposes the transcription of the correspondence they exchanged during the war

  17. The American Home Front. Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War 1, World War 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    economic, and politica ! institutions. And like independence, war shaped the "course taken by the new nation as it faced its future. The consequences...Cruden, The War That Never Ended: The American Ci’,il War (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1973), p. 176. 139 190 NOTES. CHAPTER 2 15. Thonas Weber . The

  18. Early Korean War Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond S. H.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the themes of the war front news reported in certain South Korean and United States newspapers during the first 16 days of the Korean War; attempts to determine significant differences in the themes of war front news between the Korean and United States papers. (Author/GT)

  19. Comment sont regardés les films sur la Grande Guerre patriotique dans la Russie actuelle ? How are Films about the Great Patriotic War Viewed in Today’s Russia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Désert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The promoting of a patriotic cinema by the Russian state favored a new production, which appropriates in various ways this topos of the Soviet cinéma which is the patriotic Great War. The variety of the films is actually coupled with a big heterogeneousness of the reactions of the public; therefore the analysis of the comments of the Internet users allows to identify several fractures as for the representation of the war and for the expectations of the spectators. This study illustrates the lack of consensus around the war, it allows to seize the modulations and inflections of the patriotic theme and to understand the indignation, that met Mikhalkov's film Burnt by the Sun 2.

  20. Educational Exchange as a Cold War Weapon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Bo

    2014-01-01

    American President Harry S. Truman called the Cold War a "struggle for the minds of men," and assigned journalists an important role in the conflict. This study finds that the U.S. Depeartment of State, via the American Embassy in Copenhagen, consciously attempted to shape Danish journalits' view...

  1. Always the victim : Israel's present wars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, T.

    2006-01-01

    In the Israeli discourse, Israel has always been the innocent victim of vicious aggression from its neighbors. This perception of reality has only intensified with its two recent wars - against the Palestinians in Gaza and against Lebanon. On this view, in both cases Israel has manifested its good

  2. Observations on the Air War in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Views March–April 2013 Air & Space Power Journal | 147 Observations on the Air War in Syria Lt Col S. Edward Boxx, USAF His face was blackened , his...Furthermore, the regime has used its Mi-8/17 helicopters to toss old storage tanks or sheet metal cylinders packed with explosives and metal scrap—“barrel

  3. Jemen - the Proxy War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena El Ghamari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The military operation in Yemen is significant departure from Saudi Arabia's foreign policy tradition and customs. Riyadh has always relied on three strategies to pursue its interests abroad: wealth, establish a global network and muslim education and diplomacy and meadiation. The term "proxy war" has experienced a new popularity in stories on the Middle East. A proxy war is two opposing countries avoiding direct war, and instead supporting combatants that serve their interests. In some occasions, one country is a direct combatant whilst the other supporting its enemy. Various news sources began using the term to describe the conflict in Yemen immediately, as if on cue, after Saudi Arabia launched its bombing campaign against Houthi targets in Yemen on 25 March 2015. This is the reason, why author try to answer for following questions: Is the Yemen Conflict Devolves into Proxy War? and Who's fighting whom in Yemen's proxy war?" Research area includes the problem of proxy war in the Middle East. For sure, the real problem of proxy war must begin with the fact that the United States and its NATO allies opened the floodgates for regional proxy wars by the two major wars for regime change: in Iraq and Libya. Those two destabilising wars provided opportunities and motives for Sunni states across the Middle East to pursue their own sectarian and political power objectives through "proxy war".

  4. The war veteran identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković-Savić Olivera S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses how war veterans perceive themselves and how they answer the question 'Who am I?'. War veterans face many challenges in the process of re-socialization from a state of war and war traumatization to a peacetime society. There are several reasons why their re-socialization is a slow process: the first one is that a war engagement is in itself a highly stressful situation which carries traumas of different degrees, the other reason is the changed system of values in relation to war engagement. Namely, at the time they went to war, they had a strong social support, but at the time of their return and today this support is lost to the point of judgment. And the third reason which limits their re-socialization is the situation of social transition they found on their return from war, which specifically means that a large percentage of the population in general, and thus the war veterans after returning from the war, lost their jobs, creating a large social group of 'transition losers'. Such a condition often generates an identity crisis. This set of socio-cultural circumstances together with the ontological insecurity carried by war trauma generate an identity crisis, which is manifested among the respondents in nihilistic answers when responding to questions about their own personality. Studying the identity of war veterans, it was found that a strong attachment to the veteran identity is dominant. In fact, this paper discusses the different ways in which this attachment is refracted in the personality and identity of subjects, from negative attitudes to the pride in belonging to a group of war veterans and personal fulfillment in the activism in associations of war participants.

  5. Philosophy of War in Georges Bataille’s Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmont Aleksei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers various conceptualisations of war in works by the French philosopher Georges Bataille as well as their relationship with the notion of the sacred. It is suggested that this philosopher was the first to propose such formulation of the problem that emerged at the intersection of two interrelated views, namely the one about the decline of the sacred in the modern world and about the essential difference between World War ΙΙ and all previous wars. The latter view had made possible speculations as to the “sacred” character of this war. Tracing the development of the philosopher’s views on this subject from the 1930s to 1960s, the paper suggests that he consistently condemns war as an armed political conflict and contrasted it with religious perception of life and with free movement of violence in the forms of revolution, tragedy, and sacrifi ce, thus denying the sacred character of the war. Nevertheless, arguing against the so-called “modern” war, which appears pragmatic, mechanised, profane and threatening humankind with complete devastation, he contrasts it with two other — sacred — types of war. The first is “archaic” war. Its significance is much closer to that of sacrifi ce. It transfigures the human being by putting the latter in the proximity to death. The second is “spiritual fight”, the battle against his or her own subjectivity. Bataille borrowed this conception from Catholic mysticism of the Middle Ages. These different views on war arise from the multifaceted personal experience of the philosopher himself.

  6. The Social Effects of War Photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan DEMİREL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world, knowledge is increasingly impacted via visual representation. The messages sent through various sources, such as newspaper, television and the internet, lead people to form opinions about various topics. In this context, photography is one of the most powerful source of information. Moreover, the visual power and the ability to show nonverbal communication makes it a perfect tool for propaganda. These days, photographs showing war themes are used more often than the past. It can be said that war photographs serve as a tool for showing the world the realities of war to those, even to those who turn their back to massacres. After all, a dead body creates a shocking effect in the seer. In this study, the context of the photographs of the war, examined in sample of photograph of Aylan Kurdi, which became the “icon” of immigration due to Syrian civil war and war it relates to and it is studied to understand how it is assessed and understood considering the environment and conditions on the date the photo was taken, existing values, beliefs and things happened in the world in that time, from a critical point of view.

  7. The War on Drugs - America's Other War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bruske, Jr, James S

    2008-01-01

    The United States Coast Guard, with the assistance of the United States Navy, has been engaged in interdicting drugs in the maritime environment since Richard Nixon declared the War on Drugs thirty-seven years ago...

  8. Commemoration of a cold war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    and heritage sites as case studies, this article sheds new light on the politics of history involved in Cold War commemoration. It suggests that the Cold War is commemorated as a war, yet this war memory is of a particular kind: it is a war memory without victims.......This article brings together the fields of Cold War studies and memory studies. In Denmark, a remarkable institutionalisation of Cold War memory has taken place in the midst of a heated ideological battle over the past and whether to remember the Cold War as a ‘war’. Using Danish Cold War museums...

  9. War veterans as peace builders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Novica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period from 1991. to 1999. over 1500000 people in former Yugoslavia were members of dozens military formations that participated in the war in different manners and with various motives. These persons have actively contributed to the tragedy caused by war, that was and for some time will be the most important factor of social and personal relationships between individuals and the nations in the member states of former Yugoslavia. They are now left on their own and exposed to manipulation by nationalist centers and certain politicians. Because of their wartime past, they are usually depicted as the carriers of nationalistic and warmongering ideas on the 'other' side. However, viewed from the aspect of peace-building, ex-soldiers represent a significant potential, because many of them, in fact, have a need to contribute to building a more just society and feel responsible for what happened. In this paper it is discussed how some war veterans decided to join forces and contribute to the reconciliation in the former Yugoslavia by their joint activities.

  10. Jemen - the Proxy War

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena El Ghamari

    2015-01-01

    The military operation in Yemen is significant departure from Saudi Arabia's foreign policy tradition and customs. Riyadh has always relied on three strategies to pursue its interests abroad: wealth, establish a global network and muslim education and diplomacy and meadiation. The term "proxy war" has experienced a new popularity in stories on the Middle East. A proxy war is two opposing countries avoiding direct war, and instead supporting combatants that serve their interests. In some occas...

  11. The War Transformed Love

    OpenAIRE

    Perrot, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Paris Diderot University - Paris 7 “The war transformed love”, wrote Blaise Cendrars, who himself lived through this dramatic experience. But what else? How did men and women experience the Great War, not only in their affective, romantic and sexual relationships, but more generally in everything forging their relationships: family life, intimacy, the public and the private spheres, work, writing, images, the body and the soul? A poilu's postcard, 1916 The war was first the triumph of the or...

  12. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2009-01-01

    This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non......-international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....

  13. Understanding an Adversary’s Strategic and Operational Calculus: A Late Cold War Case Study with 21st Century Applicability U.S. Views on Soviet Navy Strategy and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    interpretation. Simultaneously, however, there began to develop slowly an interpretation that attempted to move away from an ethnocentric view of the Soviets in... ethnocentric view of the Soviets.” In particular, Robert W. Herrick’s 1968 study of Soviet naval strategy argued for an essentially defensive conception of...interpretation that tried to move away from an ethnocentric view of the Soviet in soviet terms on the basis of the Soviet Union’s values and the view

  14. War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F

    2009-01-01

    .... One issue concerns the division of war powers between the President and Congress, whether the use of armed forces falls within the purview of the congressional power to declare war and the War Powers Resolution (WPR...

  15. The Just War or Just a War? A Proposal for Ethical Joint Doctrine of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schultz, Sarah J

    2005-01-01

    .... Combat now spans both war and "not war" in the new "military operation other than war", and the process of the military government has been completely replaced by the new "civil administration...

  16. Children and War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Mary

    1984-01-01

    War is a stressful social condition that can be considered a form of child abuse. The holocaust experience, Vietnam, and World War II have all had significant effects on children's emotions and behavior. Problems that arise from these traumatic events are explored. (DF)

  17. America's Holy War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parker, John

    2006-01-01

    .... He also contends that the Global War On Terrorism (GWOT) is intrinsically a strategy to combat a "tactic" used by Islamic Extremists versus focusing on the true enemy, the Muslim people who support this Holy War in the name of Islam...

  18. War and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2008-01-01

    ... and Prevention, the International Rescue Committee, and the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, can reduce the impact of war and contribute to its prevention. The participation of respected and trustworthy intermediaries and the willingness of parties to communicate with each other are two key elements in preventing...

  19. Fighting the Drug War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Journal of State Government, 1990

    1990-01-01

    All nine articles in this periodical issue focus on the theme of the war against illegal drug use, approaching the topic from a variety of perspectives. The articles are: "The Drug War: Meeting the Challenge" (Stanley E. Morris); "Ways to Fight Drug Abuse" (Bruce A. Feldman); "Treatment Key to Fighting Drugs" (Stan…

  20. Paying for Hitler's War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)......Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)...

  1. Terrorism, war, and peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÜRGEN STOLZENBER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article tries first to analyse the different use of the concept of war made by George W. Bush with reference to the terrorist attack of 09/11 and to the invasion of Afghanistan. In order to do this, the paper will start from an analysis of the concept of terrorism itself and from the question whether terrorist acts can be designed as acts of war. It turns secondly to the more philosophical aspects of the question of terrorism, war and peace, starting from questions about the applicability of just war theories to the so called “war on terrorism” and discussing finally what is called “The Kantian Project”, that is the Kantian arguments for the establishment of “eternal peace” among the states of the world.

  2. Women and War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Camerablu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional representation of war the protagonist is always the man, the soldier, portrayed in his full virility, strength and justified aggressiveness. In every public discourse on war women are presented as the personification of something to be protected and even the country itself, the homeland, that is in danger of being invaded by the enemy. However this stereotype is far from portraying the full range of women’s activity in war. In many cases throughout history, from the mythical Antigone to the forgotten heroism of resistance of women against Nazi-German occupation in the Second World War, women have taken action both to save human lives and to preserve the values of their communities that war threatens to destroy. Avoiding an essentialist and reductive interpretation that identifies tout court women with peace, this issue explores women’s wartime experiences.

  3. Stretching and Exploiting Thresholds for High-Order War: How Russia, China, and Iran are Eroding American Influence Using Time-Tested Measures Short of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    representative of standard—and long- standing—practices in international behavior.6 The bilateral, nuclear- era Cold War theories of military escalation that...4 Stretching and Exploiting Thresholds for High-Order War of-war actions that Russian president Vladimir Putin has been willing to take in Crimea...the realist precept of international anarchy. Various schools of realism describe this differently, but, at its core, realism views interstate

  4. Somatic hypotheses of war syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetekouw, P.M.M.B.; Vries, M. de; Bergen, L.F.J.M. van; Galama, J.M.D.; Keyser, A.J.M.; Bleijenberg, G.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2000-01-01

    Since the end of the American Civil War, unexplained symptoms in military personnel arising after a war or peace mission have frequently been described. The pattern of symptoms is highly similar for all of the various war syndromes although the conditions of each war or peace mission are widely

  5. Aeschylus and War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume brings together a group of interdisciplinary experts who demonstrate that Aeschylus’ Seven Against Thebes is a text of continuing relevance and value for exploring ancient, contemporary and comparative issues of war and its attendant trauma. The volume features contributions from...... an international cast of experts, as well as a conversation with a retired U.S. Army Lt. Col., giving her perspectives on the blending of reality and fiction in Aeschylus’ war tragedies and on the potential of Greek tragedy to speak to contemporary veterans. This book is a fascinating resource for anyone...... interested in Aeschylus, Greek tragedy and its reception, and war literature....

  6. Terrorism, war, and peace

    OpenAIRE

    JÜRGEN STOLZENBER

    2006-01-01

    The article tries first to analyse the different use of the concept of war made by George W. Bush with reference to the terrorist attack of 09/11 and to the invasion of Afghanistan. In order to do this, the paper will start from an analysis of the concept of terrorism itself and from the question whether terrorist acts can be designed as acts of war. It turns secondly to the more philosophical aspects of the question of terrorism, war and peace, starting from questions about the applicability...

  7. Political Bias and War

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Matthew O.; Morelli, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    We examine how countries' incentives to go to war depend on the "political bias" of their pivotal decision makers. This bias is measured by a decision maker’s risk/ reward ratio from a war compared to that of the country at large. If there is no political bias, then there are mutually acceptable transfers from one country to the other that will avoid a war in the presence of commitment or enforceability of peace treaties. There are cases with a strong enough bias on the part of one or both co...

  8. Gesturing beyond the Frame: Transnational Trauma and US War Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. H. Lahti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The convergent boundary between the fields of trauma theory and US war fiction has resulted in a narrow focus on the subjectivity of the American soldier in war fiction, which partly conditions American war fiction's privileging of the soldier-author. However, this focus on American soldiers does not adequately account for the essentially interactive nature of war trauma, and it elides the experiences of nurses and noncombatants on all sides of the battle while also obscuring women's distinctive war experiences, even when the fiction itself sometimes includes these dimensions. In this essay, Lahti argues that a transnational method can counter these imbalances in trauma theory and in studies of US war fiction. She engages Tim O'Brien's highly influential The Things They Carried from a transnational perspective by interrogating the text's figuring of the survivor author and focusing on critically neglected scenes of interaction between the American soldiers and Vietnamese civilians. In order to discern the way these scenes reveal the text's own struggle with its national US frame, she elaborates a methodology of close reading characters' bodily gestures to foreground the way that fiction offers a glimpse into war as a relational event, always involving two or more participants. In the case of The Things They Carried, this approach brings into view a heretofore unnoticed pattern of mimicry between the American characters and Vietnamese characters that reshapes our scholarly understanding of the text's representation of war trauma.

  9. International Law and the War in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, John C.

    2003-01-01

    Many international legal scholars and foreign governments have argued that the recent war in Iraq violated international law. This paper, published as part of an Agora in the American Journal of International Law, criticizes this view on two grounds. It explains that these scholars have failed to properly read existing United Nations Security Council resolutions that authorized the use of force against Iraq. Even putting the United Nations to one side, this paper explains that the use of forc...

  10. The Vietnam War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, James; Larsen, Chris Holmsted; Rasmussen, Søren Hein

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the role of the Vietnam War in Danish and Norwegian politics. We argue that Danish and Norwegian membership in NATO and an unstable parliamentary situation may explain why these countries, unlike Sweden, did not take on the lead in the international protest against the war...... in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and in all three countries powerful protest movements emerged that were remarkably similar. The Vietnam War strengthened the left in general and promoted a leftist politics of solidarity that influenced Swedish, Danish and Norwegian foreign policy-making of the 1970s........ Non-socialistic coalitions came to power in Norway and Denmark in the latter half of the 1960s which to an extent explains why the social democratic parties in both countries became more critical of the US. By the end of the 1960s, foreign policy as well as public attitudes towards the war converged...

  11. The war hero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Menarini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the phenomenon of war through the transpersonal perspective as an existential way which is independent from subject's intentionality. Therefore war not as a pondered product but as a reproduction of an unthinkable aggressiveness. Within the transpersonal dynamic, those that Bion defined 'basic assumptions' prevail: dependency, attack-escape and pairing. Bion finds in the myth of Palinuro the typical pattern of destructiveness that prevents the birth of the thinkable. Menarini continues Bion's speculation working on the myth of hero Achilles as an archetypal which founds imagery of war and on the figure of Elena as a motor for the destructive act. In fact Elena is considered as a simulacrum, an object that, through the appearance, gives meaning to what would not make sense in absence of it, that is the transpersonal destructiveness. Like Elena every war has its simulacrum, such as the Washington Mall, and history is full of them.

  12. The Canons of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel J. Freeman

    2007-01-01

    .... This Note draws upon the complete set of judicial opinions assessing authorizations for the use of military force in order to propose context-specific canons for interpreting war powers statutes...

  13. The War for Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Fight The current conflict has roots in both Yemen’s history and the Sunni-Shia conflict. However, it has become a bloody , multi-faceted war. The...Iran: Ayatollah Khomeini.” Iran Chamber Society, accessed 15 February 2016, http://www.iranchamber.com/history/rkhomeini/ayatollah_khomeini.php...Studies Institute, US Army War College, Jun 2014, accessed 15 Feb 2016 via https://www.ciaonet.org/attachments/26548/uploads, 21-5, 66 2Iran Chamber

  14. War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    2015-01-01

    The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts....... In this introductory article we present four key themes in this field and discuss perspectives and challenges for the study of violence, war and masculinities....

  15. [The war victim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugeux, P; Barouti, H

    1994-10-01

    Just as the concept of war itself, the concept of the war victim is progressive, necessitating legal, economic, social, sanitary, ethical and political adaptations. In France, the laws of 1919, effective from 2nd August 1914, brought radical reform as laws of public solidarity, which guaranteed by the nation, the support of invalids of the most savage war in history. The collective nature of this new social risk obliged the state to replace a purely financial compensation by a solution of rehabilitation. The "Office National des Mutilés et Réformés", created in March 1916, was put in charge of the organisation of professional reeducation. The "war invalids" category was being transform a logic of assistance into one of social action. Later, the legislative structure made extensions, enlarging the beneficiaries in the "war victim" category. The "Service de Santé des Armées" in its basic mission of support to the armed forces covers many areas. The "Anciens Combattants et Victimes de Guerre" administration disposes of specific instruments, such as the "Institution Nationale des Invalides", the "Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur l'Appareillage des Handicapés", the "Office National des Anciens Combatants". These joint actions, added to the ones of very influential autonomous associations, contribute to give handicapped war victims an honourable citizenship.

  16. From Star Wars to 'turf wars'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    Just as we are witnessing the re-emergence of Star Wars, it seems the 'turf wars' that have dogged A&E care are back. Since its inception as a specialty, A&E nurses have been accused of being 'Jacks (and Jill's, to be politically correct) of all trades and masters of none'. The inference being that all we do is 'mind' patients until they receive definitive care. Clearly this is not the case. As A&E nurses have demonstrated over the years, our skills are in the recognition and management of acute illness or injury, regardless of the patient's age, physical or psychological condition. Rather than being a 'master of none' we are masters of immediate care.

  17. War liver injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Nebojša

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To provide a retrospective analysis of our results and experience in primary surgical treatment of subjects with war liver injuries. Methods. From July 1991 to December 1999, 204 subjects with war liver injuries were treated. A total of 82.8% of the injured were with the liver injuries combined with the injuries of other organs. In 93.7%, the injuries were caused by fragments of explosive devices or bullets of various calibers. In 140 (68.6% of the injured there were minor lesions (grade I to II, treated with simple repair or drainage. There were complex injuries of the liver (grade III-V in 64 (31.4% of the injured. Those injuries required complex repair (hepatorrhaphy, hepatotomy, resection debridement, resection, packing alone. The technique of perihepatic packing and planned reoperation had a crucial and life-saving role when severe bleeding was present. Routine peritoneal drainage was applied in all of the injured. Primary management of 74.0% of the injured was performed in war hospitals. Results. After primary treatment, 72 (35.3% of the injured were with postoperative complications. Reoperation was done in 66 injured. Total mortality rate in 204 injured was 18.1%. All the deceased had significant combined injuries. Mortality rates due to the liver injury of the grade III, IV and V were 16.6%, 70.0% and 83.3%, respectively. Conclusion. Complex liver injuries caused very high mortality rate and the management of the injured was delicate under war circumstances (if the injured reached the hospital alive. Our experience under war circumstances and with war surgeons of limited knowledge of the liver surgery and war surgery, confirmed that it was necessary to apply compressive abdominal packing alone or in combination with other techniques for hemostasis in the treatment of liver injuries grade III-V, resuscitation and rapid transportation to specialized hospitals.

  18. MONUMENTS TO THE PATRIOTIC WAR OF 1812

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Vladimir Pavlovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article covers a relevant historical and cultural problem of elaboration and maintenance of monuments of the military glory of 1812. The author considers various architectural and sculptural monuments illustrating heroic events of Patriotic war of 1812, built in the two Russian capitals - Moscow and Saint Petersburg in different historical periods, and also in primordial Russian towns, such as Smolensk, Vyazma, and Maloyaroslavets. Architectural and composition-related features of this or that monument erected against the background of historic events of the war of 1812 are analyzed in detail. The author demonstrates the links between architecture and sculpture within the framework of town-planning solutions implemented in the pieces that have found their places in the towns enlisted above. The value of symbols of the Victory and Glory of the Russian army and the Russian people is marked. The names of the most famous heroes of this war, starting from a field marshal and ending with a soldier are inscribed. By addressing the historical and cultural heritage of Russia, the author informs readers about the most significant events of the war. The author mentions an acute problem of the modernity, that is, preservation and restoration of monuments, and shares his view point. The value of the historic and cultural heritage of Russia for military and patriotic education is emphasized. The article is prepared within the framework of the year of the Russian history.

  19. Fighting the Last War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Peter

    designed to bring about an early decision rather than being bogged down in a costly war of attrition. Among Chinese combatants, cultural references to World War I abounded. One officer described a period of relative peace as reminiscent of All Quiet on the Western Front. A young pilot found inspiration......Today the conflicts of the 1930s are generally seen as preludes to World War II, but for the contemporaries they were late echoes of the Great War. Few could have known that they lived not in the “postwar era” but the “interwar years”, and that an even bigger cataclysm was approaching. The battle...... between Chinese and Japanese forces for Shanghai from August to November 1937 is a case in point. It took place just 19 years after the end of World War I, reflected in a widespread tendency to look at the hostilities in China’s largest city through the prism of the global conflict two decades earlier...

  20. Congo: Young people's narratives of war and peace in North and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In its analysis, the article exposes a predominant role of 'the Rwandese' in Congolese narratives of war and peace. Influenced by fresh memories of war, various respondents exhibited Manichean views and deep-seated feelings of resentment towards those who were deemed responsible for the Congo's recent suffering.

  1. Writing under wartime conditions : North and South Korean writers during the Korean war (1950-1953)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, Jerôme Willem Andries de

    2015-01-01

    Writing under Wartime Conditions is a study into North and South Korean literature written during the Korean War. It depicts the views and activities of the authors on war and traces the historical and social circumstances under which the writers had to write their literature. The North and South

  2. The Thirty Years War as a prototype of hybrid wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bagaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of the article is to show that the phenomenon of hybrid war, which confidently entered the scientific and official discourse, has a long history. In author’s opinion, the Thirty Years’ War in Central Europe can be characterized as one of the first historical examples of hybrid war.

  3. War and perpetual peace: Hegel, Kant and contemporary war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Borges

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper compares the views of two classical authors about the possibility of peace and the inevitability of war: Kant and Hegel. The paper will argue that the main lines of these two schools are still alive today in our contemporary international politics. The Kantian school, with the possibility of peace, based on a league of nations, has inspired the creation of the United Nations. The Hegelian way of thinking (there is no judge above the national states, besides the history of the world has proven to be as contemporary as ever, once one analyzes some recent events of the international politics. Both Kantian and Hegelian views have weak and strong points, and it is a difficult task to reconcile both of them in a reasonable international politics. At the end, the paper will present JohnRawls´ doctrine of international politics, as stated in The Laws of Peoples, arguing that this doctrine follows the Kantian tradition of a foedus pacificum, while giving room to some Hegelian philosophical conceptions.

  4. Cultural War of Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Cultural War of Values: The Proliferation of Moral Identities In the Danish Public Sphere Peter Hervik (Aalborg University) This chapter looks at the drastic shift in the construction of minority others that came with the emergence of neo-nationalism, neo-racism and radical right populism...... in the post-1989 world. Through an analysis of a political philosophy launched in Denmark in the 1990s called the “Cultural War of Values”, I show that the moral identities proliferating in the Danish public sphere are fundamentally anti-political correct, anti-multiculturalist, and anti......-Marxist as confrontation is also directed at political adversaries. Thus, the chapter’s key argument is that the social construction of thick minority identities can only be understood in relation to the cultural war of value strategy aimed at domestic political opponents....

  5. Wars, disasters and kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameire, N

    2014-12-01

    This paper summarizes the impact that wars had on the history of nephrology, both worldwide and in the Ghent Medical Faculty notably on the definition, research and clinical aspects of acute kidney injury. The paper briefly describes the role of 'trench nephritis' as observed both during World War I and II, supporting the hypothesis that many of the clinical cases could have been due to Hantavirus nephropathy. The lessons learned from the experience with crush syndrome first observed in World War II and subsequently investigated over many decades form the basis for the creation of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force of the International Society of Nephrology. Over the last 15 years, this Task Force has successfully intervened both in the prevention and management of crush syndrome in numerous disaster situations like major earthquakes.

  6. From War to Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The present article analyzes the transformation of the long-term risks of protracted wars from the battlefield to the economic system. Major wars, supplied with strong capacities due to extended manpower resources, advanced logistic capabilities and permanency of campaign, expose their states to ...... the link between the Vietnam War, the Afghanistan War, the Iraq War, and the background for the financial crisis that began in 2008.......The present article analyzes the transformation of the long-term risks of protracted wars from the battlefield to the economic system. Major wars, supplied with strong capacities due to extended manpower resources, advanced logistic capabilities and permanency of campaign, expose their states...... to extremely costly engagements. This includes heavy long-term costs for war veterans. Accordingly, the center of gravity on the battlefield (Clausewitz) is transformed to the financial systems of taxes and credit systems. This is a classical historical lesson; but this story is indeed central to understanding...

  7. Korean War Veterans by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The spreadsheet of Korean War Veterans by State includes the total Korean War Veteran population for each state and broken out by age and gender. It also includes...

  8. Radiological Effects of Nuclear War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Charles S.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the global effects of nuclear war. Discussed are radiation dosages, limited nuclear attacks, strategic arms reductions, and other results reported at the workshop on nuclear war issues in Moscow in March 1988. (CW)

  9. Teaching about World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, Carl S.

    1995-01-01

    Examines a unit approach to World War II that emphasizes totalitarianism, the military conduct of the war, and the Holocaust. Advocates using a variety of teaching strategies, methods, and materials. Includes several examples of innovative materials and activities. (MJP)

  10. Nuclear war effects studied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widespread starvation resulting from changes in climate in the aftermath of a large-scale nuclear war could kill far more people than would the bombs themselves. That prediction was made in a recent study by the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE), an a rm of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). “Noncombatant and combatant countries alike” would risk mass starvation; SCOPE predicted that all told, 2.5 billion people could die as a result of crop failures and breakdowns in food distribution after a nuclear war.

  11. With war in mind: a dialogical analysis of the mindset underlying Blair's case for war with Iraq in 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Steve; Lloyd, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Dialogical Analysis, a tool from Cognitive Analytic Therapy, is used to discover how the mindset of war silences dialogue. The savage costs of war were hidden whilst the United Kingdom government expected to attract the admiration of a grateful world. This article looks at an example of this mindset expressed through Tony Blair MP's speech to the House of Commons on 18 March 2003. The speech aimed at convincing parliament that war was inevitable, necessary and the only obvious choice. It offered an extremely narrow presentation of options available to the government, in which 'staying firm' was coupled with the case for war whilst alternative, peaceful methods of conflict resolution were identified as 'weak and feeble' and viewed as encouraging terrorists.

  12. LITERATURE OF RUSSIAN ABROAD ABOUT MILITARY SPECIALISTS IN THE RED ARMY DURING THE CIVIL WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Baklanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the points of view presented in the literature of Russians abroad, regarding the number of military specialists who served in the Red Army during the Civil War.

  13. In Defence of New Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kaldor

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the literature on ‘new wars’. It argues that ‘new wars’ should be understood not as an empirical category but rather as a way of elucidating the logic of contemporary war that can offer both a research strategy and a guide to policy. It addresses four components of the debate: whether new wars are ‘new’; whether new wars are war or crime; whether the data supports the claims about new wars; and whether new wars are ‘post-Clausewitzean’. It argues that the obsession with the ‘newness’ of wars misses the point about the logic of new wars; that there is a blurring of war and crime but it is important to address the political elements of new wars; that, although the data should be used with caution, it does seem to offer support for some elements of the new war thesis; and that the argument is indeed post-Clausewitzean because new wars are not ‘contests of wills’ but more similar to a mutual enterprise. It concludes that the debate has greatly enriched the overall argument.

  14. The Technological Culture of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Joelien

    2008-01-01

    The article proceeds from the argument that war is a social institution and not a historical inevitability of human interaction, that is, war can be "unlearned." This process involves deconstructing/dismantling war as an institution in society. An important step in this process is to understand the philosophical and cultural bases on…

  15. The Cold War is over. What now?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecker, S.S.

    1995-05-01

    As you might imagine, the end of the Cold War has elicited an intense reexamination of the roles and missions of institutions such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the past few years, the entire defense establishment has undergone substantial consolidation, with a concomitant decrease in support for research and development, including in areas such as materials. The defense industry is down-sizing at a rapid pace. Even universities have experienced significant funding cutbacks from the defense community. I view this as a profound time in history, bringing changes encompassing much more than just the defense world. In fact, support for science and technology is being reexamined across the board more completely than at any other time since the end of World War II.

  16. The Cold War is Over. What Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, S. S.

    1995-04-01

    As you might imagine, the end of the Cold War has elicited an intense reexamination of the roles and missions of institutions such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the past few years, the entire defense establishment has undergone substantial consolidation, with a concomitant decrease in support for research and development, including in areas such as materials. The defense industry is down-sizing at a rapid pace. Even universities have experienced significant funding cutbacks from the defense community. I view this as a profound time in history, bringing changes encompassing much more than just the defense world. In fact, support for science and technology is being reexamined across the board more completely than at any other time since the end of World War II.

  17. 'War neurosis' during the Spanish Civil War (1936-39).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasante, Olga

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this contribution is to analyse the incidence and treatment of war neurosis in Madrid during the Spanish Civil War. First, the scientific papers published on war neurosis during and after the war are examined. Then the work of Gregorio Bermann (1894-1972), a member of the International Brigades who organized the frontline Neuropsychiatric Service at the Hospital de Chamartín de La Rosa (Madrid), is analysed. Las neurosis en la guerra, published in 1941, which recounts Bermann's personal experience in the care of war neurosis in Spain, is also discussed.

  18. Traumatic war stressors and psychiatric symptoms among World War II, Korean, and Vietnam War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, A; Rosenheck, R

    1994-03-01

    Three hypotheses regarding symptoms of war-related posttraumatic stress disorder and general psychiatric distress were tested: that symptoms are more severe the more severe the traumatic exposure, regardless of the war in question; that symptoms are less severe the older the veterans' age; and that symptom levels differ across sociocultural cohorts. A total of 5,138 war zone veterans who were seeking treatment from specialized Veterans Affairs outpatient clinical teams made up the sample: 320 World War II, 199 Korean War, and 4,619 Vietnam War veterans. All hypotheses were supported significantly. The similarity of relationships between traumatic exposure and symptoms across wars testifies to the generality of these experiences. Furthermore, the results suggest the operation of significant effects due both to aging and to cohort differences in sociocultural attitudes toward the stigma of mental illness and the popularity of the wars.

  19. Miloš Crnjanski's metahistorical projection of war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejević Danica T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Great War triggered the establishment of the Serbian literary avant-garde, which was determined against tradition, history, and conventional aesthetics. With a completely new expression, writers of the literary avant-garde articulated the change of consciousness about the world, metamorphosis of the narrative structure of the text, and the modernization of the novelistic form. In the context of the European literature, as well as the Anglo-American, the return of the soldiers from the war was the prominent topic in the works of the so-called 'Lost generation' (Gertrude Stein, E. Hemingway and S. Fitzgerald. The themes of war also occupied writers such as W. Faulkner, T. Wolfe and H. Miller. The greatest poet of the Serbian literature between the two world wars, Miloš Crnjanski, presented the suprahistorical projection of the war and considered the return of the soldiers to be the saddest event in a man's life. The first Serbian modern, lyrical novel, 'Journal of Čarnojević' (Dnevnik o Čarnojeviću, gives a metaphysical picture of history and intimately understood picture of the wartime world, nation and being. This paper follows Crnjanski's views on history and war through the main character, Petar Rajić, and his counterpart of sorts, Čarnojević. Poetics of this modernistic text rests on the fictionalization of fact, metaphorization of war and aestheticization of history. As a resigned pacifist and disappointed melancholic, Rajić perceives the war completely anti-traditionally in comparison to a hero of a classical history novel. Visualization of events and the relativization of war and chronotope in the lyrical discourse of Miloš Crnjanski allow history to disperse into poetry, into the essence of being and the ontological plane of this metahistorical novel.

  20. The American Home Front: Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War I, World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    seems as questionable as alchemy . Congress had little choice. It had no authority to tax individuals or to levy duties on trade. The country had no banks... plasma , penicillin and sulfa drugs. air and motor transport of the wounded. and field hospitals tested during World War I also dramatically reduced

  1. The World of Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    in the future. The “extreme 20th century” will have another history and another impact. Its extremes will be narrated as more extreme, and its temporal bindings become easier to observe. The much celebrated “revolutions in military affairs” will not dominate future war systems. Unipolarity is fading away...

  2. Images of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William C.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes the rise of photography during the Civil War period, and discusses current photographic technology. Examines photography entrepreneurs, and expounds on notable individuals in photography. Describes types of photographs taken, problems encountered in gathering pictures, and popular responses to photography. Concentrates on Civil War…

  3. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    of inoperativity towards a concept of destituent power drawing on his other writings. It makes the argument for thinking civil war and inoperativity – stasis and stasis – together to derive a concept of destituent power as a form of revolution against the sovereign state, which does not constitute a new sovereign...

  4. The theatre of war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte M Holzner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Narrating the fate of the women of Troy, the Greek playwright Euripides provided the script for modern warfare: the murdered children of Hekuba, the sexual slavery of Briseis, Andromache as war prey, Polyxena burned as a sacrifice and Kassandra raped and made bed-maid of the Greek warlord, Agamemnon.

  5. Recent Cold War Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineo, Ronn

    2003-01-01

    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  6. Thucydides: Theorist of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    the unremitting pressures of conflict; and the fundamental nature of war, including the psychological aspects of battle, where soldiers are engaged...this regard edmund burke was particularly perceptive in his understanding of the baleful influence that second- and third-order effects could

  7. Does the Mass Media Influence Women's Attitudes about Nuclear War?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Chris

    Results of this study indicate that the mass media does influence women's attitudes about nuclear war. A total of 45 female college students participated, with 26 students comprising the experimental group which viewed and read mass media materials, including "The Day After" and "Testament." The remainder of the students formed a control group.…

  8. Tracing Cold War in Post-Modern Management's Hot Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Magala (Slawomir)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractTracing Cold War in post-modern managerial science and ideology one encounters hot issues linking contemporary liberal dogmas and romanticized view of organizational leadership to the dismantling of a welfare state disguised as a liberation of an individual employee, empowerment of an

  9. Ronald Reagan's "Star Wars" Address: Mythic Containment of Technical Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Janice Hocker

    1986-01-01

    Views Reagan's "Star Wars" address as part of the culturally evolving myth of the New Frontier. Discusses how the speech creates the illusion of both preserving and transcending science by (1) subordinating technical reasoning to prevent nuclear holocaust and (2) using technoscience to rescript history and remove temporal and spacial…

  10. Commentary: Warring ants: Lessons from Lanchester's laws of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 27; Issue 2. Commentary: Warring ants: Lessons from Lanchester's laws of combat? Renee M Borges. Volume 27 Issue 2 March 2002 pp 75-78. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/027/02/0075-0078 ...

  11. Nontraditional Features of Heinrich Böll's War Books: Innovations of a Pacifist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lee Nahrgang

    1979-08-01

    Full Text Available Heinrich Böll, recipient of the Nobel Prize for literature in 1972, has treated the theme of war throughout his literary career; and in some ways his war books and stories differ considerably from those of other contemporary German writers. In fact, some authorities argue that none of his works are true war books in the traditional sense. Perhaps the most significant difference between Böll's works and the war books of most other authors is that he equates World War II with previous military conflicts, whereas they consider it uniquely evil because of the various crimes of the National Socialists. This nontraditional feature of Böll's works, like all others, emphasizes the negative nature of war in general. In Böll's view, all wars are essentially alike. Even defensive wars are totally negative at all times for all of those who become involved in them. Because they cause immense suffering for such large numbers of ordinary, innocent citizens of all participating countries, no wars can be justified. When Böll feels that it assists him in emphasizing this pacifistic message, he transcends the format of the contemporary German war book and produces works which are unique in many respects.

  12. 'The gut war': Functional somatic disorders in the UK during the Second World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Edgar

    2012-12-01

    Hospital admission and mortality statistics suggested that peptic ulcer reached a peak prevalence in the mid-1950s. During the Second World War, against this background of serious and common pathology, an epidemic of dyspepsia afflicted both service personnel and civilians alike. In the absence of reliable diagnostic techniques, physicians struggled to distinguish between life-threatening illness and mild, temporary disorders. This article explores the context in which non-ulcer stomach conditions flourished. At a time when fear was considered defeatist and overt psychological disorder attracted stigma, both soldiers and civilians exposed to frightening events may have unconsciously translated their distress into gastrointestinal disorders. While the nature of army food was initially identified as the cause of duodenal ulcer in servicemen, the pre-war idea that conscientious and anxious individuals were at high risk gathered support and fed into post-war beliefs that this was a stress-related illness. Diet continued to be employed as a means of management at a time when the nation was preoccupied by food because of the constraints imposed by rationing. The peptic ulcer phenomenon set much of the medical agenda for the war years and conflicted with the commonly held view that the British people had never been healthier.

  13. Sacrifice and Commitment: American Volunteers in the Spanish Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Greenspan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish Civil War (1936-1939 was the last European war before the start of World War II. The war, an ideological struggle between Francisco Franco and his nationalist supporters, aided by the Germans and Italians, sought to remove from power the Spanish Republic, which was aided by the Soviet Union. On both sides of the conflict were volunteers from many countries, including the United States of America. American volunteers fought on both sides of the war, yet more chose the side of the Republicans. Many, but not all, were motivated by political beliefs. Others wanted the perceived romance and excitement of battle, or the sense that they were being of help. The volunteers discussed in this study came from all of these categories, with the ones having political motivation the largest group. They detailed their experiences and their views of the war to their friends, families and comrades back home in the United States. These letters, which come from the Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archives at New York University, form the main part of the study and provide a deeper insight into what these men and women were thinking, as well as providing insight into their desire to fight in Spain. Through their eyes it is possible to gain a deeper understanding of their experiences and their motivations. For many of them, their experiences in Spain formed an important part of their journey in life. Some of them remained loyal to the Communist ideology throughout their lives, while others changed their views as the ruthlessness of Stalin became better known. A modern audience can benefit from a chance to read their thoughts and ideas in an attempt to better understand the events that helped drive the world into the Second World War.

  14. Sacrifice and Commitment: American Volunteers in the Spanish Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Greenspan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish Civil War (1936-1939 was the last European war before the start of World War II. The war, an ideological struggle between Francisco Franco and his nationalist supporters, aided by the Germans and Italians, sought to remove from power the Spanish Republic, which was aided by the Soviet Union. On both sides of the conflict were volunteers from many countries, including the United States of America. American volunteers fought on both sides of the war, yet more chose the side of the Republicans.  Many, but not all, were motivated by political beliefs. Others wanted the perceived romance and excitement of battle, or the sense that they were being of help. The volunteers discussed in this study came from all of these categories, with the ones having political motivation the largest group. They detailed their experiences and their views of the war to their friends, families and comrades back home in the United States.  These letters, which come from the Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archives at New York University, form the main part of the study and provide a deeper insight into what these men and women were thinking, as well as providing insight into their desire to fight in Spain. Through their eyes it is possible to gain a deeper understanding of their experiences and their motivations.  For many of them, their experiences in Spain formed an important part of their journey in life.  Some of them remained loyal to the Communist ideology throughout their lives, while others changed their views as the ruthlessness of Stalin became better known.  A modern audience can benefit from a chance to read their thoughts and ideas in an attempt to better understand the events that helped drive the world into the Second World War.

  15. Children Play War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bankova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects the results from the author’s research project on traditional and modern games of children in Bulgaria. Based on the life stories, interviews, media reports and other sources of information an ethnological reading of the memories of respondents during the Second World War and its impact on aspects of everyday culture, as is children’s play, will be made. Trough different types of narratives (anthropological, ethnographic, film and literary the author represents the children’s play of war as a reflection of the reality in which the children live and at the same time as one of the most vivid examples of how important the peace is for the comprehensive development of the human personality.

  16. The Afghan Air War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    corrup- tion, and build a pure Islamic state. The actual resul t was oppression, austeri ty, and the decay of basic government funct ions. Women ...were forced to wear the al l -conceal ing burkha and soccer - stadium executions and amputat ions terrorized ci t izens. Al though the Tal iban in 2001... Bull -s Eye War: Pinpoint Bombing Shifts Role of GI Joe” Washington Post, Dec. 2, 2001. 27 Jumper, remarks at AFA’s February 2002 symposium in Orlando

  17. Children Play War

    OpenAIRE

    P. Bankova

    2017-01-01

    The article reflects the results from the author’s research project on traditional and modern games of children in Bulgaria. Based on the life stories, interviews, media reports and other sources of information an ethnological reading of the memories of respondents during the Second World War and its impact on aspects of everyday culture, as is children’s play, will be made. Trough different types of narratives (anthropological, ethnographic, film and literary) the author represents the child...

  18. Understanding War in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Works of art or history books showing human faces or female forms were destroyed. The animals in the Kabul Zoo were tortured or killed by Taliban...agronomists to help Afghan agriculture and animal husbandry enter the 21st century. In terms of reconstruction and development, the coalition, rein...in 114 Understanding War in Afghanistan Kabul that is linked into the provinces and districts and able to perform the basic security and welfare

  19. The War on Concepts: The Thought of Jan Patočka and the War on Terror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Scrogin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with the notion of war in general, the so-called war on terror has been, since its inception in 2001, the subject of much debate and theorization. French thinker Gilles Andréani discusses the appropriateness of the term "war" to apply to the present conflict; Antonio Negri has argued how the State's use of the concept of peace justifies its engagement in warfare in general. I approach the conversation, however, by presenting the thoughts of 20th century Czech philosopher Jan Patočka on the relationship between war and peace. Here, I utilize his views, formulated in the context of Soviet control of Eastern Europe, to deconstruct the Bush administration's declaration of war on a concept; in this case, terror. In what follows, I delineate the main aspects of Patočka's understanding of continuous warfare in the 20th century, after which I apply them to some of the central features of the Bush administration's war rhetoric. Additionally, I suggest that Patočka's notion of the solidarity of the shaken may provide a starting point from which all of those involved in the conflict may begin to move forward.

  20. 'The most beautiful of wars' : Carl von Clausewitz and small wars

    OpenAIRE

    Scheipers, Sibylle

    2017-01-01

    Carl von Clausewitz was both an avid analyst of small wars and people’s war and, during the wars of liberation, a practitioner of small war. While Clausewitz scholars have increasingly recognised the centrality of small wars for Clausewitz’s thought, the sources and inspirations of his writings on small wars have remained understudied. This article contextualises Clausewitz’s thought on small wars and people’s war in the tradition of German philosophical and aesthetic discourses around 1800. ...

  1. The Effect of War on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldson, Edward

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of modern war on children in the 20th century, focusing on direct and indirect effects of World War II, Vietnam War, war in Afghanistan, conflicts in Africa and in Central America, and Persian Gulf War. The paper notes the devastating effects on children of disruption of education and other public services in…

  2. Campaign Wars: Health Policy in a Fantasy World

    OpenAIRE

    David M. Cutler

    2016-01-01

    National health reform debates reminds me of a night at the movies. On the one hand, there are true-life stories like “Apollo 13,” that profile actual people and the problems they face. And then there are the fantasies, like “Star Wars,” in which magical things happen and the rules of normal life don’t apply. As I view the world of “Campaign Wars,” I have developed the uneasy impression that Republican health care proposals exist only in a fantasy universe.

  3. The Principles of War Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    consist of a checklist of principles of war. There existed the Art of War (not the Science) and the works of ancient, medieval , and nineteenth...third chapter of the thesis presents the transformation of the concept of the principles of war in the twentieth century. The canonizing of Napoleonic...This maelstrom of opinions, lacking in basic principles and clear laws round which they could be crystallized, was bound to be intellectually

  4. Reconstructive challenges in war wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandari, Prem Singh; Maurya, Sanjay; Mukherjee, Mrinal Kanti

    2012-01-01

    War wounds are devastating with extensive soft tissue and osseous destruction and heavy contamination. War casualties generally reach the reconstructive surgery centre after a delayed period due to additional injuries to the vital organs. This delay in their transfer to a tertiary care centre is responsible for progressive deterioration in wound conditions. In the prevailing circumstances, a majority of war wounds undergo delayed reconstruction, after a series of debridements. In the recent m...

  5. The Macroeconomic Effects of War Finance in the United States: World War II and the Korean War.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohanian, Lee E

    1997-01-01

    During World War II, government expenditures were financed primarily by issuing debt. During the Korean War, expenditures were financed almost exclusively by higher taxes, reflecting President Truman's preference for balanced budgets. This paper evaluates quantitatively the economic effects of the different policies used to finance these two wars. Counterfactual experiments are used to explore the implications of financing World War II like the Korean War, and financing the Korean War like Wo...

  6. Protest Campaigns and Civil Wars : Can continuous processes be studied with a ‘discrete ’ theory?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A. Diaz Sr. (Fabio Andres)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe presence of protests, sometimes during violent conflict and civil war, across the globe, seems to contradict the common view that civil war and protests are mutually exclusive episodes and do not belong to a continuum. Instead, peaceful – and less peaceful – protests can coincide

  7. War Journalism and 'Objectivity'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel McGoldrick

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article opens by considering an apparent paradox. Many professional journalists, working on many media in many countries, consider themselves 'objective'. They do not, at least, set out to skew their coverage of important issues in favour of one side or the other. And yet much of their coverage of conflicts shows a discernible dominant pattern of War Journalism - biased in favour of war. This is not because of a lack of objectivity, the article suggests, but a surfeit. The set of conventions many editors and reporters regard as defining 'objective' journalism arose in response to economic and political conditions which rewarded news that could commend itself as unobjectionable to the maximum number of potential customers. Three of the most important conventions privilege official sources; a dualistic construction of stories and event, over process. Each of these, when applied to the representation of conflicts, leads readers and audiences - or leaves them - to over-value violent, reactive responses and under-value non-violent, developmental responses. Industry conventions sit uneasily alongside equally time-honoured expectations of journalism. These are encoded in rules and regulations governing the content of broadcast news, in many jurisdictions which have a public service concept for radio and television. In some respects, War Journalism can be shown to make it more difficult for broadcast news services to fulfil their public service obligations. Awareness is now growing, of the tension between these two pressures on journalism and its influence on the way pressing public debates are shaped and mediated. More Peace Journalism would help to bring public service news back into line with legitimate public expectations.

  8. W. H. R. Rivers and the war neuroses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A

    1999-01-01

    W. H. R. Rivers was the most famous member of the Cambridge Expedition to the Torres Strait. At the time, he was a physician and had an international reputation as a researcher in physiological psychology. The expedition signaled the beginning of his career in social anthropology, but also a long hiatus in his activities in medicine. His clinical interests revived during World War I. As an officer in the Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC), Rivers became a leading proponent of "psychological medicine." Today, his war-time psychiatry is remembered mainly in association with his patient, Siegfried Sassoon. This article focuses on his wartime activities, his clinical practices, and his theories concerning the war neuroses and the unconscious. The currently popular view of Rivers as a quasi-Freudian humanist is challenged. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. Revisiting and Renegotiating Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    Anri Sala’s film 1395 Days Without Red (2011) provides a kind of reenactment of an accidental day during the 1992-95 siege of Sarajevo. Shot in today’s Sarajevo, the film revisits and embodies some of the widely circulated images of the siege, such as inhabitants sprinting across so-called Sniper...... Alley in order to avoid the bullets of the Bosnian Serbian snipers positioned around the city. Based on a close reading of Sala’s work, this article will scrutinize how subjectivating techniques of power, during times of war, affectively work to create boundaries between those excluded from and those...

  10. Culture Wars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2016-01-01

    In the 1960s high and low culture were brought into sharp conflict i Denmark. In 1961 a Ministry of Culture was established for the first time. The first minister of culture, the social democrat Julius Bomholt, saw art and culture as an important part of education for democracy that should be made...... available to everyone. The general public, however, raised demands for more popular and relaxing entertainment. The confrontation between the cultural elite and popular opinion escalated to a series of veritable culture wars....

  11. War and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2017-01-01

    against straights, dopers versus The Man, nerds contra jocks – in Vineland, Inherent Vice and Bleeding Edge. A number of these conflicts as well as others – both colonial and post-colonial – show up in V. In these novels warfare occasions, illuminates and interrogates the lineaments of power, not only...... – from Dominus Blicero to Gottfried, from Tyrone Slothrop to Clive Mossmoon – it identifies a variety of battle stations and triangulation points in relation to which Pynchon’s fictional conflicts may be mapped: from the concentration camps and nuclear explosions of world war two to the ballistic...

  12. War silver coins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There were two issues of silver 50-para, 1- and 2-dinar coins minted in the Parisian minting house marked with the year 1915 and bearing the image of King Petar I Karadjordjevic. Minted during the I World War, these two issues of silver coins only differed in that the first one had the specified name of the engraver (Schwarte, whereas the second issue had the engraver's name left out. These coins were used as the official legal tender until 28 June 1931.

  13. Young Persons View "The Day After."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadler, Margaret; And Others

    This study examined what secondary students had learned from the television film "The Day After"--a dramatization of the possibility of nuclear war and its horrible consequences--and how they responded to it emotionally. A pre-test and two post-tests (one administered the day after students viewed "The Day After" and a second…

  14. Danish Gulf War Veterans Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Stoltenberg, Christian; Nielsen, Anni B Sternhagen

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the assumption that postdeployment incidence of sickness and other absence from work are higher among Gulf War Veterans compared with nonveterans. METHODS: A prospective registry study including a cohort of 721 Danish Gulf War Veterans and a control cohort of 3,629 nonvetera...

  15. Primary Sources Enliven Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2011-01-01

    Today, a growing number of teachers are moving beyond the textbook in teaching about the war, and U.S. history more broadly. Teachers are digging directly into primary sources and harnessing technology, all in an attempt to help students better understand the past and bring it to life. Doing so may be especially important with the Civil War,…

  16. Encyclopedia of the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War - a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the

  17. Teaching War Literature, Teaching Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Janet M.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores literature taught in three different courses and the peace education approaches used for each, including epics in literature courses, Vietnam War literature, and literature of anger and hope. The author recommends the teaching of war literature as an essential part of a peace education curriculum. Devastating events such as…

  18. Getting the Civil War Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, James W.

    2011-01-01

    William Faulkner famously wrote, "The past is never dead. It's not even past." He would not be surprised to learn that Americans, 150 years after the Civil War began, are still getting it wrong. Did America's most divisive war start over slavery or states' rights? The author says that too many people--including educators--get it wrong. The author…

  19. Does Red China Want War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    acrimonious polemic with the Soviet Union has resulted in a hardening Soviet position toward aid to China. In fact, by late 1964, Soviet deliveries of...the Chinese position on nuclear war. The central issue in the Sino-Soviet polemic regarding nuclear war does not stem from any difference of opinion

  20. Suicide among War Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vsevolod Rozanov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its’ frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles.

  1. Suicide among War Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, Vsevolod; Carli, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its’ frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles. PMID:22851956

  2. European Security Organizations in the Post-Cold-War Security Environment. The New Frame of European Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bugai, Veaceslav

    2006-01-01

    .... In particular, it gives an over view of the transformations that occurred within NATO and OSCE in the post-Cold War period, which have created and developed new security mechanisms and policies for dealing with crises...

  3. "The Path to 9/11" vs. "Stuff Happens": Media and Political Efficacy in the War on Terror

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gipson-King, Jay M

    2010-01-01

    .... These two historical narratives address the "war on terror" from a sweeping, top-down point of view, each taking the September 11 attacks as either the beginning or end of the dramatic conflict...

  4. Commemorating a war that never came:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna

    2017-01-01

    The Cold War never became the global World War III. It was a war that never broke out. Nevertheless, in some countries like for instance Denmark it is commemorated as exactly that: a war. This is particularly apparent at museums and heritage sites, where the narrative and mnemonic frame works used...... and activated in the representations stem from cultural memories of the Second World War. In the proccesses of establishing this Cold War cultural memory as a war memory, it has become part of a transcultural passion for memories of traumatic pasts, but the Cold War as cultural memory is a counter-factual war...... memory. Because the war never broke out, it is a malleable and usable past with a great potential for contestation – and counter-factuality. In Denmark, the Cold War has, moreover, become part of a fierce competition between rivaling memory communities, preventing a common commemoration culture...

  5. View relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the potential of using visual representations to support people in managing, organizing, and understanding relations between multiple visualization views. Multiple views can help people understand different facets of data and data processing, and are a crucial part of data...... analysis particularly when it is done collaboratively. Both the growing use of multiple views and the increasing display sizes have amplified the need to explore how to better help people to understand the relations between many views. To improve our understanding of how to visualize view relations, we...... invited visualization and interaction designers to critique and sketch representations of view relations. The participants provided design critiques, and sketched their own relation representations. Our findings expand the range and palette of ways of visually linking visualization views and suggest new...

  6. The Finitude of War or the Infinite War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Muriel Restrepo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the difference between M. Foucault and Th. Hobbes regarding war as a principle and foundation of power, the article shows the importance of this conceptual difference for contemporary political analyses. Foucault argues that in modern Western societies, the political community and, more specifically, politics itself, has been the space of a war waged by other means. By extension, this thesis entails the inversion of von Clausewitz’s principle, namely, that war is the continuation of politics by other means.

  7. Strategic stability in the Cold War. Lessons for continuing challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yost, D.S.

    2011-10-26

    ;crisis stability', 'first-strike stability', and 'arms race stability' - and policies based on these models - contribute to the avoidance of war between the United States and the Soviet Union? These models assumed that Soviet and U.S. decision-makers had, or would in time adopt, similar deterrence policies and force structures, and that these parallel approaches would provide for strategic stability in the bilateral relationship. Despite the radical simplification of reality in these models, many U.S. analysts and policy-makers attached great importance to them, and relied on them as a key element in decisions about the strategic force structure and doctrine of the United States. However, in light of Soviet and U.S. behavior at the time and in view of what has subsequently been learned about Soviet policies and decision- making, the proponents of these models appear to have overestimated their utility. The expression 'strategic stability' is still widely used to signify the objective of avoiding major-power war. It may therefore be useful to critically examine the cogency and relevance of these U.S. models from the Cold War period with a view to identifying lessons for current challenges. (author)

  8. Maslow, Needs, and War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    fulfillment of the requirements of the Master of Strategic Studies Degree. The views expressed in this student academic research paper are those of the...The views expressed in this student academic research paper are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the...mass marketing and consumerism , he provided a valid starting point for categorizing a society’s needs and how societal behavior is influenced. As

  9. Postmodern Morals, Ends, and Means: Shifting Ideas About Why, How and for Whom Wars are Fought

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    frames it in the context of a parent-child relationship, in which the intervening states “ infantilizes , rather than restores” a state’s sense of...the Need for a Democratic Federation," Journal of Religious Ethics 39, no. 3 (2011). 27 To summarize, just war originated with the view that states...Intervention, and the Need for a Democratic Federation." Journal of Religious Ethics 39, no. 3 (2011): 493-555. Douzinas, C. "Postmodern Just Wars and the

  10. The Caucasian War of the 19th century:civilizational conflict and its functional specifics

    OpenAIRE

    Pashchenko, Irina; Urushadze, Amiran

    2012-01-01

    The authors rely on the civilizational approach and the theory of positive-functional conflict to discuss the nature and specific features of the Caucasian War. They supply new arguments to substantiate the civilizational nature of the Caucasian War of the 19th century. With this aim in view, they identify and analyze its functional repercussions: the emergence and development of cultural bilingualism; the transformations in imperial policy; and the appearance of the Caucasian theme in Russia...

  11. The Lessons of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M., Ed.

    This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…

  12. War and Peace: Toys, Teachers, and Tots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Arleen; And Others

    War play is play with a toy that initiates violence or play that involves the imitation of war. War play can involve: (1) the use of toys based on television cartoon shows to imitate the action in the cartoons; (2) play with replicas of war paraphernalia or manipulatives shaped into guns; and (3) dramatic play. The negative effects on children…

  13. The Spanish Civil War: An Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-31

    later. Although the Spanish Civil War is little covered in American classrooms , its carnage rivals that of the U.S. Civil War: 500,000 deaths, of...October 2003), Spanish Civil War. 3 Felipe Ribeiro de Meneses, Franco and the Spanish Civil War (New York: Routledge, 2001). 4 University of

  14. Australia's South African war 1899-19021

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based on estimates arrived at in Chamberlain, Australians in the South African war, pp 79, 88-9. The standard works on the ... American war, was a consequence of this. As war in South Africa loomed in mid-1899 the ... 1899 the uitlander cause enjoyed a quiet sympathy in many families. As the war broke out, hundreds of ...

  15. Australia's South African war 1899-19021

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Australia's South African war 1899-19021. DR CRAIG WILCOX. Australian WarMemorial historian o/the Anglo-Boer War, Sydney, Australia. Around twenty thousand Australians fought in the great war between the. British empire and the republics of the Orange Free State and the Transvaal. Those. Australians constituted ...

  16. Contributions of Psychology to War and Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Daniel J.; Montiel, Cristina J.

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years…

  17. Just war and the problem of evil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schott, Robin May

    2008-01-01

    In this essay, Robin May Schott criticizes leading proponents of just war theory and introduces the notion of justifiable but illegitimate violence. Instead of legitimating some wars as just, it is better to acknowledge that both the situation of war and moral judgments about war are ambiguous...

  18. Castles at War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    April 29th-30th 2013, its topic was "Castles at War" in particular during the period AD 1000–1660. For the last 20 years, archaeological and historic research has dealt with many aspects of castles, their function as a noble family's seat, their role each as an administrative unit's centre...... and tactical function as a military stronghold that played a central role in the political strategies of the ruling European elite. Even as a threat of force, a castle had the potential to structure a conflict or to structure the rule of a region. This role of castles in medieval warfare has long been...... considered to be a topic primarily for a narrow circle of specialists in military history and archaeologists interested in loop-holes and mining technique. However, the picture has been changing, and both historians and archaeologists have started to recognize the critical relevance of strongholds, castles...

  19. War and society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upeniece V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A discussion of effects of war on society is desirable as it can stimulate nations and their politicians to refrain in their international and non-international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of the state. The prohibition of the use of force is a valid norm of customary international law and is fixed in the Charter of the United Nations. Any specific use of force can be lawful only if it is based on exceptions of this rule (action of self-defence under the Article 51 or action under specific authorization by the Security Council under Chapter VII. However the main issue is how to ensure that the other states respect this principle of non-use of force.

  20. Wars of Forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    , both political and military, war between the two forms, the post-napoleonic, Fichtean notion of nationality (1807-8) and the historical notion of imperium. “Nationality” entered the political semantics witch such a force and shook the existing political order of empires to the ground because of its...... households and fragments of earlier political empires, such as the Danish Realm (rigsfællesskab) with Greenland, The Faroe Islands and the Danish State, poses the important question: how did the replacement and re-formation of the European political system happen? I argue, that we can observe a semantic...... and apply appropriate forms of response. To unravel the two complex cases of political ‘management’ of the rise of german nationality, I have to open up the semantic complex of “crown”, “state”, “kingdom”, prince and government, as they are used in governmental, internal communications, dispatches...

  1. Becoming a warring nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Mads; Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund

    2017-01-01

    This introduction sets the frame for the section’s four articles, all themed on contemporary developments in Denmark in the wake of the country’s involvement in the ‘coalition’ wars of recent decades. During this period, Danish governments have adopted a so-called ‘activist’ foreign policy, a key...... pacifism and a strong foreign policy tradition of non-involvement. We outline this Danish road from ‘adaptation’ to ‘activism’, arguing for a need for a critical, qualitatively based research focus on the social and cultural repercussions of this peculiar ‘military moment’ in Denmark. The four articles...... that make up the themed section are written on the basis of ethnographic case studies that seek to contribute to such a wider discussion....

  2. Critique of the War Reason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    was soldier and prisoner of war from age 15-17, would not write a “Der Krieg der Gesellschaft”. Yet the attempt to narrow this lacuna is indeed a heavy burden and a difficult task, in which, firstly, it is methodologically decisive to get the basic distinctions right about a second order observation of war....... Conflict is basically a problem of essentially contested communication. Once this historical self-reference was established around the 17th century, war, thirdly, became delimited by its structural couplings to religion, mass media (propaganda), finance, welfare for victims and veterans, law, politics...

  3. Wars of Ideas and the War of Ideas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Echevarria, II, Antulio J

    2008-01-01

    ... as such. With that in mind, this monograph offers a brief examination of four common types of wars of ideas, and uses that as a basis for analyzing how the United States and its allies and strategic partners...

  4. Wars of Ideas and the War of Ideas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Echevarria, II, Antulio J

    2008-01-01

    ... of them. They are, indeed, genuine wars, even though the physical violence might be minimal, because they serve a political, socio-cultural, or economic purpose, and they involve hostile intentions...

  5. War and Economics: Spanish Civil War Finances Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Acena, Pablo; Martinez Ruiz, Elena; Pons Brias, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews how the Spanish civil war was financed. We present new evidence to show that the two combatant parties, the Republican government and the Franco administration followed similar financial strategies. In both cases money creation, rather than new taxes or the issue of debt, was the main mechanism used to cover the expenses of the war. We argue, contrary to the established knowledge, that both sides consumed a similar amount of domestic and foreign resources. We also argue tha...

  6. Gulf War Illness and the Health of Gulf War Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    sign. higher; retinol binding protein ns higher 2005: Serum uric acid ns lower Neurocognitive function 1997: Poorer accuracy on automated performance...with muscle metabolism and physical endurance in 49 Gulf War veterans and 61 nonveterans with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).1725 In Gulf War veterans...118. 120. Behan PO, Behan WM, Horrobin D. Effect of high doses of essential fatty acids on the postviral fatigue syndrome . Acta Neurol Scand. 1990;82

  7. Being at war: Cognitive Approaches to Observational War Documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2017-01-01

    : Janus Metz’s Danish ‘Armadillo’ (2010) following a group of soldiers to Afghanistan, and Andreas Dalsgaard and Obiada Zytoon’s Danish-Syrian ‘The War Show’ following a group of young Syrians during the Syrian spring to the civil war and beyond. Based on theories of cognition and emotion and evolutionary...... the different genres address different parts of our cognition and emotion....

  8. Ethnicity and the spread of civil war

    OpenAIRE

    Bosker, Maarten; de Ree, Joppe

    2010-01-01

    Civil wars critically hinder a country's development process. This paper shows that civil wars can also have severe international consequences. Anecdotal evidence highlights that civil wars sometimes spill over international boundaries. Using a more rigorous econometric approach we provide evidence that conflict spillovers are indeed quantitatively very important. Also, they are context dependent. Ethnicity in particular plays a key role in the spread of civil war. Only ethnic civil wars spil...

  9. Rockets in World War I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    World War I enlisted rockets once again for military purposes. French pilots rigged rockets to the wing struts of their airplanes and aimed them at enemy observation balloons filled with highly inflammable hydrogen.

  10. Algeria: An Uncivilized Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robling, Terry

    1995-01-01

    .... Moderates on both sides are seeking peace from the undeclared civil war that resulted when the military-backed regime canceled elections that Islamic fundamentalists were certain to win in 1992...

  11. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toon, Owen B. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado (United States); Robock, Alan [Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Turco, Richard P. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2014-05-09

    A regional war involving 100 Hiroshima-sized weapons would pose a worldwide threat due to ozone destruction and climate change. A superpower confrontation with a few thousand weapons would be catastrophic.

  12. The Korean War and the post-war prisoners of war (POW) regime, 1945-1956

    OpenAIRE

    Wylie, Neville; Crossland, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the framework for the treatment of prisoners of war that emerged after 1945. It focuses on one of the key elements of the post-war prisoner of war (POW) regime, the role of neutral bodies – state authorities acting as ‘protecting powers’ or humanitarian agencies such as the International Committee of the Red Cross – in supervising the implementation of the 1949 POW convention. It examines the importance of neutral supervision for the POW regime, and shows how the events of...

  13. The Angolan Proxy War: A Study of Foreign Intervention and Its Impact on War Fighting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bissonnette, Brian

    2008-01-01

    .... This study examines the influence of foreign intervention on war fighting during the Angolan Civil War and analyzes how the various levels of support impacted the successes and failures of the internal warring factions...

  14. The Nature of War Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    natural selection is the finches of the Galapagos Islands. Simply, those birds, adept at obtaining seeds or those able to get new kinds of foods, were...favorable mutation passed from generation to generation.16 The finches of the Galapagos Islands are an example of evolution at the individual-level... Penguin Books, 1987), Chapter 13. 13Clausewitz, On War, 89. 14Fuller, The Foundations of the Science of War, 66. 15Richard P. Brennan, Dictionary of

  15. Afterword: war on the senses

    OpenAIRE

    Bourke, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Book synopsis: Modern Conflict and the Senses investigates the sensual worlds created by modern war, focusing on the sensorial responses embodied in and provoked by the materiality of conflict and its aftermath. The volume positions the industrialized nature of twentieth-century war as a unique cultural phenomenon, in possession of a material and psychological intensity that embodies the extremes of human behaviour, from total economic mobilization to the unbearable sadness of individual loss...

  16. War veterans as peace builders

    OpenAIRE

    Kostić Novica

    2010-01-01

    In the period from 1991. to 1999. over 1500000 people in former Yugoslavia were members of dozens military formations that participated in the war in different manners and with various motives. These persons have actively contributed to the tragedy caused by war, that was and for some time will be the most important factor of social and personal relationships between individuals and the nations in the member states of former Yugoslavia. They are now left on their own and exposed to manipulati...

  17. Three wars that never happened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, W M S

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses three serious wars that were averted and the three men who averted them. In 1478-79, Pope Sixtus IV's hatred of the Medici culminated in aggressive war against Florence, supported by his powerful ally King Ferrante of Naples. The initial stags of this war were indecisive, but it was about to become much more serious, probably involving all the Italian states and possibly meaning the total destruction of Florence. Lorenzo il Magnifico sailed to Naples, convinced Ferrante this more serious war was against his interests and obtained a generous peace. In 1861, the British Government responded to the boarding of a British ship by a vessel of the American North with a peremptory letter. Albert, Prince Consort, though dying of typhoid fever amended the letter to save Lincoln's face and thus averted war with the North. From 1871 to 1890, Otto von Bismarck worked for a stable peace between the European powers to be attained by arranging meetings of most or all of them to accustom them to solving disputes by negotiation. Two such meetings in Berlin secured 36 years of peace between the powers, despite many disputes, and in particular averted war for possessions in Africa, which could have involved them all.

  18. A Systems Analysis View of the Vietnam War: 1965-1972. Volume 5. The Air War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-02-18

    his forces indcpadcziL3,y of the level or bombir’,, the~ interdiction has failed. Tfie avail~ ab ] e evidence on cnei.y activity in South Vietnam...in the target area. ’ Abe table below shows the average and median tactical air response times for alert and diverted airborne aircraft supporting...financial and produccion planning. The old estimate will be redesignated as the Budget Plan and will appear as such in the OSD SEA Statistical

  19. World War I: an air war of consequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallion, Richard P

    2014-06-01

    On December 17, 1903, the brothers Wilbur and Orville Wright flew the world's first successful airplane, following this with the first military airplane in 1908. (The 1908 Flyer was built by the brothers in response to a 1907 requirements specification for a 2-place aircraft capable of flying at 40 mph and able to be broken down and transported in a horse-drawn wagon. Technically, since it crashed during its demonstration program and was not formally delivered to the Army, it never became Army property. But the trials had been so impressive that the Army ordered a second, delivered in 1909.) Just six years later, Europe erupted in a general war. Often portrayed as a sideshow to the war on land and sea, the air war heralded the advent of mechanized warfare, the airplane being one of four great technological advances--the submarine, the tank, and radio communication--that, together, revolutionized military affairs. Aircraft reconnaissance influenced the conduct of military operations from the war's earliest days, and airborne observers routinely governed the fall of artillery barrages, crucially important in an artillery-dominant war. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Epidemiology of violence and war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvjetanović, B

    2000-06-01

    The magnitude of the threat that violence and war pose to the health, the quality of life, and the very survival of humanity is obvious. A number of scientific disciplines have provided, each through its own methodology, insights into the causation, genesis, and dynamics of violence and war. Although epidemiological and psychological methodologies received priority, the multidisciplinary approach to this problem seems to be the most appropriate. This essay attempts to approach holistically the study of epidemiology of violence and war and the ways of preventing these severe problems of the contemporary society. Conceptual models of the causative mechanisms and dynamics of violence and war, mapping the various psychic, social, and environmental factors, are presented. These models, besides advancing abstract ideas, also provide a concrete framework for determining and exploring the interactions and dynamics of the factors and processes which lead to violence and war. The types of interventions outlined for control and prevention are intended to make an impact upon "critical points" within the dynamics of the process which produces violence and war, and are conceived to be implemented on both the national and international level. The importance of family, community, and school influences is considered, but the role of international organizations, including the United Nations, and other governmental and non-governmental organizations is also stressed. Discussion is focused on the factors which favour peace and hamper aggression, on "internationalization" and global society versus xenophobia and nationalism. The conclusions state that there is sufficient knowhow to devise and implement a reasonable and effective international programme for the control and prevention of violence and war, provided there is adequate public and political willingness and support.

  1. The image of war in the articles and notes of Vas. I. Nemirovich-Danchenko during the Russian-Turkish (1877—1878 and Russian-Japanese (1904—1905 wars: the stories and the social stereotypes which formed it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. NOVIKOVA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the theme of forming the war image, in particular, considering the influence of Russian social stereotypes in the second half of 19th — early 20th century. The main sources of this work were the articles and notes that were creating by the famous journalist and writer Vas. I. Nemirovich-Danchenko. As a war correspondent he participated in almost all major conflicts of the second half of 19th — early 20th century and left a significant mark in j ournalism and literature. All ofthis works were written during Russian-Turkish (1877—1878 and Russian-Japanese (1904—1905 wars. These were not only main social fears and stereotypes of Russian society about coming war and enemy, but also the stories and collective images brought in the articles to make the stereotypes stronger or to deny it. Nemirovich-Danchenko developed his own personal collection of images and techniques, which he managed to convey the most delicate nuances necessary to achieve its objectives. Formed during the Russian-Turkish war this collection of images has undergone only minor changes. It enriched the author’s reflections on the theme of evolution wars that he had seen. Analysis of materials of this article was produced in accordance with modern views of the scientific community on the problems of formation of the images of war. The aim was to show the real influence of public attitudes and views on the development of stereotypes and their expression in the press. First of all it concerns the period immediately before the war and the development of pre-existing views. The author investigated the prognostic and simultaneous steps of forming the images of war, but left beyond reasoning retrospective (final view.

  2. Empowerment or endurance? War wives' experiences of independence during and after the Second World War in Germany, 1939-1948.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaizey, Hester

    2011-01-01

    As German men were conscripted into the armed forces during the Second World War, more and more wives were left to manage their families alone. At the same time more women than ever entered paid employment to fill the gaps in the market left by their soldier husbands. Scholars working in the field have made much of the dislocation to gender roles prompted by the Second World War. This article questions whether women's wartime experiences changed their views on being confined to the home. Ultimately, this article argues, women wanted to return to a sense of normality at the end of the war. In the aftermath of defeat, in which mere survival rather than speculation about potentially improved models of the family set-up were paramount, "normality" was most obviously represented by prewar gender roles. Women were hoping for normalization, not only in the public sphere in the sense of a flourishing economy, but also in the private sphere with the return of the men and a resumption of the old role divisions. It was therefore not only conservative politicians who wished to preserve prewar structures within the home - so too did women themselves. The re-emergence of the traditional family model in the wake of the Second World War was thus as much the result of popular aspirations "from below" as of government policies imposed "from above".

  3. The Russian Chursh Abroad and Vietnam war according to emigre ecclesiastical periodicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anashkin Dmitrii

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soon after the end of World War II, there arose in the world two opposing systems, between which there began an intense conflict. One manifestation of this confl ict was the outbreak of local wars in different parts of the world. The most violent was certainly the war in Vietnam. For the Russian Church Abroad, which comprised the most conservative elements of the Russian emigration, the war in Vietnam was a war with the evil power of this world: communism. In this war the United States protected not only its own interests but also those of the entire free world against the God-fighters who had seized their homeland, Russia. It was precisely communism that the Russian Church Abroad opposed, not the Vietnamese people, towards whom it was very sympathetic. The church press reported enthusiastically about the heroism of American soldiers, particularly those of Russian heritage serving in the American armed forces. At the same time, it noted various problems among the American soldiers in Vietnam, particularly the widespread use of narcotics. The various anti-war demonstrations were regarded by the Church Abroad as a capitulation of the free world in the face of evil. The peace talks in Indochina were likewise regarded negatively. At the same time, this intense anticommunism had its negative sides, making any objective analysis of events very diffi cult, which in turn led to one-sided views.

  4. The demographic impact of the First World War: an anthropometric perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, B

    1993-12-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s Jay Winter published a series of highly influential articles on the demographic impact of the First World War, culminating in his study of The Great War and the British People in 1986. Winter argued that the war led to a dramatic improvement in average living standards, and that the survival chances of most sections of the civilian population improved more rapidly than they might have done if peace had been maintained. This paper seeks to test the strength of Winter's hypothesis in three main ways. Section I examines the arguments which Winter himself put forward to support his view that the war led to a systematic erosion of pre-war differentials in infant mortality. Section III utilizes evidence relating to children's heights to examine the extent to which the war led to improvements in children's 'nutritional status'. The paper's overall conclusion is that the war did not lead to any dramatic improvements in civilian health; the overall impression to be gained from an analysis of wartime health statistics is one of continuity rather than change.

  5. A case study of Ore women victims of Biafra war in Nigeria between 1966 to 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Between 1966 and 1970, Nigeria went through a civil war during which the Eastern State of Biafra tried unsuccessfully to secede from the rest of Nigeria. Ore, a town in Ondo State, was affected during this war. The violations that were committed during the war included massacres, beatings, lootings, torture, and abductions. This article presents a case study of Ore women victims of Biafra war in Nigeria, utilizing documented experiences of such women. Included in this report is a summary of the testimony of Mrs. E, one of the many women victims who suffered atrocities during the war. Overall, the report blames the Nigerian government for doing little or nothing after the war to help the people of Ore in rebuilding and rehabilitating the victims¿ lives, as well as the community. In addition, the victims have never been assisted by nongovernmental organizations since the war ceased; and no research on the women's experiences was carried out before this report. In view of this, a strategy for redress, in which the survivors have suggested various remedies, is recommended.

  6. War rape, natality and genocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Robin May

    2011-01-01

    Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth.

  7. World War II Weather Record Transmittances

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World War II Weather Record Transmittances are a record of the weather and meteorological data observed during World War II and transferred to the archive. It...

  8. Strategic Adaptation in the 'Long War'

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boisselle, James C

    2007-01-01

    .... Also called the Global War on Terrorism, this struggle takes place in an international security environment that has evolved greatly since the end of the Cold War and that now includes many new actors...

  9. The World of WarsRisky systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably on different subjects than we are used to. The paper proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less on tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we have....... The "extreme 20th century" will have another history and another impact. Its extremes will be more extreme and its temporal bindings easier to observe. The much celebrated revolutions in military affairs will not dominate future war systems. Unipolarity is fading away. Kantian convergences may appear....

  10. The war in Iraq and international law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SIMPSON, Gerry

    2005-01-01

    Illegality of the war on Iraq in 2003 - legal justifications offered for the war - self-defence - collective security under Chapter VII of the charter of the United Nations - doctrine of humanitarian...

  11. Former Prisoner of War Statistical Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Former Prisoner of War (POW) Statistical Tracking System database is a registry designed to comply with Public Law 97-37, the Former Prisoner of War Benefits Act...

  12. Failed catharsis after the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijelić Biljana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Second World War is not relevant only in historical and political context. Its unsolved character is usually mentioned as one of the causes of the 1990 war. The after war policy of identity is especially relevant for today’s difficulties in consideration of collective responsibility and achieving reconciliation between communities which were in conflict. Croatian example of war crimes against Serbs in the Second World War is especially illustrative. However, that is only one of many Yugoslavs’ examples, where ethnic violence in after war period was overshadowed by general suffering from foreign occupants and local traitors in the Second World War. Instead of reassessment of existing ethnic and national identities, the process of reconciliation between Croatian and Serbian community after the Second World War was exhilarated with radical changes of collective identities.

  13. A War Within a War: Mizo rebels and the Bangladesh liberation struggle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schendel, W.

    2015-01-01

    In 1971 a war led to the creation of Bangladesh. Instantly three narratives sprang up: the war as a national triumph, the war as betrayal and shame, and the war as a glorious campaign. Today more layered interpretations are superseding these ‘first-generation narratives’. Taking the case of

  14. Thinking war in the 21st century: Introducing non-state actors in Just war theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorda, H.A.

    2016-01-01

    “Thinking War in the 21st Century” develops a theory of war applicable to conflicts with non-state actors such as the “Islamic State”. Just war theory traditionally focuses on states as actors in war. This book moves beyond this narrow lens, arguing that active individual members of organized

  15. Ain't Gonna Study War No More? Explorations of War through Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Patricia A.; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2009-01-01

    At the height of the Vietnam War, Down by the Riverside was transformed from a traditional folk song to a popular anti-war anthem. The raucous and repetitive chorus, "I ain't gonna study war no more ...," became a rallying cry for those who wanted nothing to do with the war and the pain and controversy that surrounded it. Although it seems…

  16. War, peace, and international politics. Fourth edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, D.W. (Western Washington Univ. (US))

    1987-01-01

    We must conclude that war remains a major problem in the last quarter of the twentieth century. My intention in this book is to introduce you to international relations by focusing on this problem. War is not the only problem of international relations, and so this book does not exhaust the field. But war is a central problem, and the possibility of resort to war affects other aspects of international relations. Whatever else we may look at, we cannot avoid looking at war. In fact, in looking at war, we will touch on most of the other subjects important in international relations. War is conflict among states carried on by their armed forces. To distinguish war from border skirmishes and other minor incidents we usually say it must reach a certain magnitude (for example, at least 1,000 soldiers killed in battle over a year). It would be ideal if we could systematically study all the wars in the last hundred years, but such an exhaustive study would be out of place here. At the same time we cannot discuss such subjects as the cause of war or proposals for preventing it without some knowledge about actual wars. We must test theories against historical facts. What follows in Part I is a somewhat detailed history of seven wars (or groups of wars) fought in the last hundred years. These include the most destructive of the wars World War I (1914-1918), World War II (1939-1945), and the Korean War (1950-1953). By way of background to World War I, we will look at the wars of German unification (1864-1871), which preceded and in some ways prepared the way for it. To balance our account, we will also look at several recent wars India and Pakistan (1971), Uganda and Tanzania (1978-1979), and Cambodia, Vietnam, and China (1978-1980). After looking at some of the major wars of the last hundred years, we will look at what people have the about the causes of war in general.

  17. Neurology in the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Carl H; Daroff, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Between December 1965 and December 1971, the United States maintained armed forces in Vietnam never less than 180,000 men and women in support of the war. At one time, this commitment exceeded half a million soldiers, sailors, and airmen from both the United States and its allies. Such forces required an extensive medical presence, including 19 neurologists. All but two of the neurologists had been drafted for a 2-year tour of duty after deferment for residency training. They were assigned to Vietnam for one of those 2 years in two Army Medical Units and one Air Force facility providing neurological care for American and allied forces, as well as many civilians. Their practice included exposure to unfamiliar disorders including cerebral malaria, Japanese B encephalitis, sleep deprivation seizures, and toxic encephalitis caused by injection or inhalation of C-4 explosive. They and neurologists at facilities in the United States published studies on all of these entities both during and after the war. These publications spawned the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Study, which was conceived during the Korean War and continues today as the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Center. It initially focused on post-traumatic epilepsy and later on all effects of brain injury. The Agent Orange controversy arose after the war; during the war, it was not perceived as a threat by medical personnel. Although soldiers in previous wars had developed serious psychological impairments, post-traumatic stress disorder was formally recognized in the servicemen returning from Vietnam. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Operational Lessons Learned in the Korean War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    South Korea - and the Marines - From Extinction (NY, NY: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, 2009), 28-9. 49 Michael Hickey, The Korean War (Woodstock & New...Untold Story of the Most Daring Covert Mission of the Korean War. NY, NY: Putnam Books, 2003. Malcom, Ben S. White Tigers : My Secret War in Korea...and the Marines - From Extinction . NY, NY: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, 2009. Spurr, Russell. Enter the Dragon: China’s Undeclared War Against the

  19. The Great War and German Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)......Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)...

  20. Space technologies and the war in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getsov, Petar

    The paper presents a description of the application of aerospace technologies during the war in Iraq. The specific instrumentation used by the USA and its allies in the field of communication, navigation, and control of weapons and ammunition to schedule war activities is presented. Conclusions are made on the ever growing application of space technologies in modern wars and their impact on the efficiency of decision-making at war times.

  1. Penetrating abdominal war injuries among the war victims at Lacor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective study of patients presenting with penetrating abdominal war injuries over a 15-months period was carried out at Lacor Hospital mission hospital in Gulu town in Northern Uganda. Those with major concomitant injuries to the chest, central nervous and musculo-skeletal systems were excluded from the study.

  2. Do the Principles of War Apply to Cyber War?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    framers of our Constitution, to “provide for the common defense.” Over the past decade, a discussion on the application of cyber war capabilities has...direct forces in contact and even watch the battle occur with live streaming video . Some may contend that these types of control mechanisms have

  3. The State, War, and the State of War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attempts to offer an understanding of the relationship between war making and state creation in the world have been undertaken by many international relations and strategic studies scholars. In most of these attempts attention has been focused on how state making in Europe differed from that in other parts of the world.

  4. Noncombatant Imnmunity and Military Necessity: Ethical Conflict in the Just War Ethics of William V. O'Brien and Paul Ramsey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibbs, Jonathan

    1997-01-01

    William V. O'Brien and Paul Ramsey are two modern just war theorists who have opposite views on the relationship between the jus in bello principle of discrimination and the international law principle of military necessity...

  5. Teaching the Vietnam War: A Sociological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, because of its importance in modern U.S. history, over 300 college courses are taught on the Vietnam War. Asserts that studying the war helps students develop critical thinking skills needed for citizenship. Describes the texts, formats, and assignments used in a college sociology course on the Vietnam War. (CFR)

  6. Churches, chaplains and the Great War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    When in 1914 the European nations mobilised for war, the churches followed suit. Notwithstanding pre-war church peace conferences and close international cooperation, most churches and churchmen immediately and whole-heartedly supported their nation’s participation in war and provided the religious

  7. Trauma and suicidality in war affected communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jankovic, J.; Bremner, S.; Bogic, M.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Ajdukovic, D.; Franciskovic, T.; Galeazzi, G.M.; Kucukalic, A.; Morina, N.; Popovski, M.; Schützwohl, M.; Priebe, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim was to assess whether experiences of war trauma remain directly associated with suicidality in war affected communities when other risk factors are considered. Materials and methods: In the main sample 3313 participants from former Yugoslavia who experienced war trauma were

  8. Developing Convergent Expectations in Slovenia's Secession War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijne, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    This chapter stresses the strategic similarities decision makers continue to face when embarking on the path of war: they develop similar expectations about the outcome of a war as it unfolds. The bargaining model of war posits that a Bayesian process of learning and the process of screening explain

  9. Approaching the War/Game Nexus [Editorial

    OpenAIRE

    Pötzsch, H; Hammond, P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction to co-edited journal special issue, War/Game: Studying Relations Between Violent Conflict, Games, and Play. \\ud War and games are intrinsically connected. The present editorial maps the war/game nexus, locates the issue in academic discourse, and briefly introduces each contribution included in this special issue of Game Studies.

  10. Peace-keeping Forces: YA War Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe Chris

    2000-01-01

    Argues that good young adult books about war can help teenagers appreciate the blessings of peace and the horrors of war, and perhaps may inspire them to do what they can to preserve peace. Describes briefly 71 young adult war books worth reading. (SR)

  11. Echoes of the Great War: The recordings of African prisoners in the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Hoffmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Apart from army registers, some (often anonymous photographs and the files of anthropometric examination, the involvement of thousands of African soldiers in WWI and their presence in POW camps in Europe seems to have left few traces in European archives. Vis-à-vis a mass of autobiographic texts on the Great War, written by Europeans and Americans, there are very few published accounts of African soldiers that would allow for their historical experiences and views to be included in historiographies of WWI. A collection of sound recordings produced with African prisoners of war in German camps by a group of German linguists, musicologists and anthropologists between 1915-18 offers a notable documentation of their presence. Yet, similar to the anthropometric registration, these recordings were not designed to accommodate the soldiers’ accounts, but to create a collection of language recordings. If these cannot be considered as ‘authentic voices from the past’ and unmediated accounts of WWI, how do we understand and theorise these hitherto untranslated voice recordings, their form and content? This essay understands the recordings not as ‘voices’ but as echoes, that is, as mediated, often effaced reverberations of accounts of the self and the war. The notion of echo in this essay grapples with issues of extraction, attenuation, limitation, distance and distortion, or outright effacement, that is the result of the form and the mediation of those speech acts, the belatedness of listening to them, as well as, the gaps in meaning and intelligibility the recordings entail. By conceptualising the recorded voices and their translation as echoes, I seek to understand the status of the recordings, the effects of this linguistic practice and gain a sense of the situation in the camps, so as to position these subaltern articulations in their mediated, distorted form as part of the colonial archive.

  12. This Battlefield Called My Body: Warring over the Muslim Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameelah Medina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This communication centers on the argument that there is an ideological tug-of-war over the Muslim female body. The author discusses how religious and secular patriarchies, as well as feminism all make claims to the bodies of Muslim women and purport to know what is best for her. With particular focus on the headscarf and using comparisons with how non-Muslim women’s bodies are fought over, the author argues that there is a common thread connecting the warring sides as they each employ patriarchal and imperialist views of the Muslim woman that attempt to consume her agency. As the author examines the personal agency and veiling motives of Muslim woman, she counters the idea of Muslim women as passive recipients of mainstream religious and secular narratives imposed upon them by sharing different ways in which they self-author their own narratives in a post-9/11 USA.

  13. For soldier and state: dual loyalty and World War One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, Leo

    2012-01-01

    Military medicine has always been characterized by some form of dual loyalty: physicians have to consider the interests of the individual soldier--patient as well as the interests of the state and the military in general. The way in which each individual doctor responds to this dual loyalty has mostly been viewed as a product of war circumstances on the one hand, and the personal character and/or religious and ideological beliefs of the physician on the other. Taking World War One as an example, this article argues that the nature of the illness or wound also had a part to play in this. The article shows that the disfigured were looked upon mainly in relation to the patient's own interests; the invalided-out through a combination of the patient's as well as the state's interests; and the neurotic mainly out of concern for the interests of the state.

  14. Raymond Carver's "Vitamins" and the Discourses of the Vietnam War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Shariati-Rad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available By integrating the discourses of the Vietnam War into the texture of his short story "Vitamins," Raymond Carver would like to emphasize that the war was not only fought outside the United States. The present paper is an attempt to show how Carver connects the mechanics of the battlefield to the discourses of similar kind present in the individual and social spheres of the latter part of the twentieth century in America – a view consistent with Carver's interest in drawing attention to the contextual motives behind his characters' moods and actions. Providing an understanding of both Carver's short narrative and the period in which it was written and received, this paper investigates the various clashes of the story's characters within the broader social conflicts surrounding the issues of poverty, racism, and sexism.

  15. Russian War Prisoners of the First World War in German Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzhaukhar Kokebayeva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of the custody of Russian war prisoners in German camps. The German authorities treated Russian war prisoners in accordance with the ‘Provision of War Prisoners Custody’, approved by the Emperor on 11 August, 1914. The content of this document mainly corresponded to the Hague Convention Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land. But German authorities discriminated the war prisoners of different nationalities.

  16. Swiss contributions to war surgery during the Great War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draenert, Marcelin Oliver

    2013-08-01

    The role of neutral Switzerland during World War I is somewhat mysterious and its diplomatic history has never been fully disclosed. One of the activities might have determined its role: based on its relationship to the International Committee of the Red Cross, wounded multinational prisoners-of-war were interned in Swiss hospitals and Swiss physicians worked in a medical capacity in military hospitals on both sides of the front. The main question is whether the activities of the Swiss authorities reflected a charitable diplomatic role while retaining the country's traditional neutral stance. Supplementary practical questions included: How did Switzerland carry out the exchange of severely wounded prisoners of war? How did Swiss physicians function in the war zones? What were the medical objectives and the ultimate results of wartime surgery in Switzerland? This study is based on archival material from the Swiss Federal Archive in Bern (BAR) and original publications of Swiss and German physicians in professional journals. The search was performed manually in the BAR evaluating the file "Landesverteidigung (national defense)" from 1848 to 2009. Original publications and journals were searched manually in the central libraries of Munich, Heidelberg, Zurich, and Bern. The evaluation of Swiss diplomatic activities confirmed that Switzerland's charitable mission was aimed to enforce its neutral position and that Swiss authorities were able to efficiently manage the resulting problems. The engagement of Swiss surgeons in war surgery contributed to their experience and knowledge and yielded the development of many innovative medical devices and operating procedures, numerous of which are still known today. While maintaining its neutral position, Switzerland was able to deal with the practical problems while gaining innovative medical knowledge still valid today.

  17. Zograscopic viewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, J.; Wijntjes, M.; Van Doorn, A.

    2013-01-01

    The “zograscope” is a “visual aid” (commonly known as “optical machine” in the 18th century) invented in the mid-18th century, and in general use until the early 20th century. It was intended to view single pictures (thus not stereographic pairs) with both eyes. The optics approximately eliminates

  18. La evolución de la memoria de la Guerra Civil en el espacio urbano de Bilbao: una mirada comparativa La mémoire de la Guerre Civile dans l’espace urbain de Bilbao : un regard comparatif Memory of the Civil War in the urban space of Bilbao: a comparative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alonso Carballés

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo prioritario estudiar las políticas institucionales desplegadas en torno a la memoria de la Guerra Civil en la ciudad de Bilbao. Nuestro trabajo es una tentativa de realizar una «arqueología de la memoria» que nos permita estudiar de forma cronológica la impronta de dichas políticas en el espacio urbano bilbaíno en diferentes momentos históricos : desde la erección de la estatua de Mola en el Arenal bilbaíno en junio de 1937 en el momento de la entrada de las tropas franquistas hasta la reciente inauguración del monumento en homenaje a las víctimas del franquismo. Este estudio de caso se completa con referencias puntuales a la evolución de esta memoria en las simbólicas ciudades de Burgos y de Valencia con el objetivo de ofrecer así una mirada comparativa sobre tres capitales claves del conflicto del 36.Cet article a comme objectif prioritaire d’étudier les politiques institutionnelles développées autour de la mémoire de la Guerre Civile dans la ville de Bilbao. Notre travail est une tentative de réaliser une « archéologie de la mémoire » qui nous permette d’étudier de forme chronologique l’empreinte laissées par ces politiques dans l’espace urbain de Bilbao, depuis l’érection de la statue du général Mola en juin de 1937 au moment de l’entrée des troupes franquistes dans la ville jusqu’à l’érection récente du monument en l’honneur des victimes du franquisme. Cette étude de cas comprend aussi des références ponctuelles à l’évolution de cette mémoire dans les villes symboliques de Burgos et de Valence avec le but d’offrir ainsi un regard comparatif sur trois capitales clés du conflit de 1936.This article’s main objective is to study the institutional politics developed around the memory of the Civil War in the city of Bilbao. Our work is an attempt to develop an «archaeology of memory» which will allow us to study in a chronological fashion the

  19. All That Was Lost. German Life in Kafka’s  Prague Before World War I, During the War, and At Its End

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Northey

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I want to trace briefly how Franz Kafka reacted to some salient cultural features of his time. I will select segments of his writings which I believe reflect his view, or even his characterization of the three main historical periods he lived through: pre-World War I, the war years 1914 to 1918, and five and one half of the postwar years. Of course, this is by no means a complete, thorough discussion of those periods and his works that I mention.

  20. Young Children and War Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Levin, Diane E.

    1988-01-01

    In a recent survey of parents and early childhood professionals the prevalence of war play among children and an increase in the amount of violence in children's play was noted. Outlines how the deregulation of children's television during the Reagan administration has affected children's exposure to violence in children's television programming.…

  1. The Rijksherbarium during the war

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, H.J.

    1945-01-01

    Now that the war in Europe is over it seems appropriate, before returning to our regular duties, to devote soms words to the fate and the activities of our institution during that period. For Dutch readers many particulars may be found in the “Jaarverslagen” (Annual Reports) ; for

  2. WAr on DrugS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-04-12

    againstba- bangida.com/docs/gloriaokon.pdf). The war on drugs took a dramatic turn in 1993 with the ascension to power of a new military administration as a result of an unpopular coup d'etat. Possibly to earn some level of credibility, ...

  3. Ethnicity, class, and civil war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hechter, Michael Norman; Siroky, David

    2016-01-01

    Why are some countries prone to ethno-nationalist conflict, whereas others are plagued by class conflict? This is a question that has seldom been raised and rarely been examined empirically. This paper presents a social-structural theory to account for the variable incidence of these two forms of...... and segmented in societies shapes the type of civil war....

  4. When War Rigs the Vote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bertel Teilfeldt

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of intrastate conflict on electoral manipulation. Using a rationalist bargaining model, it produces a hypothesis stating that actors in post-conflict elections will have increased incentive to reallocate seats through manipulation. To test this causal claim a new...... – in the aftermath of war they tend to tamper with election results in order to gain absolute majority....

  5. Talking resolved the cold war

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kiger, Carol

    2015-01-01

    ... nuclear nation. Historians will remind us that, in the midst of the Cold War with a nuclear arms race between the United States and the former U.S.S.R., the top leaders, Reagan and Gorbachev (who had little reason to trust each other), met in Reykjavik, Iceland, and discussed the reduction of nuclear weapons. The result of their talks was t...

  6. War and Memory in Lebanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Sune

    and cultural renewal. Through an analysis of different cultural productions - media, art, literature, film, posters and architecture - the author shows how the recollection and reconstruction of political and sectarian violence that took place during the war have helped in Lebanon's healing process. He also...

  7. The Politics of Star Wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Lee

    George Lucas's Star Wars trilogy is used as the basis for the creation of a political subtext arising from one of America's most enduring literary myths--the American Adam. That subtext, when translated into a modern political context, pinpoints two central issues to face this democracy in the coming years, as well as a national ambivalence about…

  8. Cold War Geopolitics: Embassy Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeler, Ingolf

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that the geopolitics of the Cold War can be illustrated by the diplomatic ties among countries, particularly the superpowers and their respective allies. Describes a classroom project in which global patterns of embassy locations are examined and compared. Includes five maps and a chart indicating types of embassy locations. (CFR)

  9. Political theology and eschatological war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griško Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The intent of this paper is to describe the antagonism that constitutes the eschatological position, i.e., the inseparability of eschatology from a concept of eschatological war, through 1 the political theology of Carl Schmitt, 2 Orthodox Christological anthropology and 3 the nomadology of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari. Schmitt's political theology can be understood as a theory of eschatological war. The theological character of Schimtt's work entails that 'the secularisation of theological concepts' is constitutive of the eschatological concept of cosmological finitude. Moreover, Schmitt's distinction between friend and enemy, which informs his concept of politics as the 'political', aims to identify the primary antagonism of eschatological history. For Schmitt, the liberal end of history is the absolutisation of the enemy, as liberalism denies the fundamental distinction of the political, namely, liberalism maintains that war is over on the basis of its claim to immanent historical truth. From the position of Orthodox Christological anthropology, liberalism also contains a clear eschatological element. The anthropology of liberalism is consistent with the gnomic will, which, according to St. Maximus the Confessor, is the fallen definition of human freedom, i.e., freedom as choice. Freedom as the natural will, in contrast, determines the ethical mission of man as the soteriological deification of cosmos. The lines of eschatological war can be further illustrated through the work of Deleuze and Guattari as well as Heinz Von Foerster, whose concepts of diagram/ abstract machine and trivial/non-trivial machine may contribute to an understanding of how a concept of war informs the transformative cosmology which belongs to the eschatological logic of cosmic finitude and deification, theosis.

  10. Psychological Effects of U.S. Air Operations in Four Wars, 1941-1991. Lessons for U.S. Commanders,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    of the service war colleges and command and staff schools. Adopt an Overall Campaign Strategy That Promotes Psychologically Effective Attack. The...George B. Allison (Lt Col, USAF), Linebacker II, A View from the Rock, USAF Southeast Asia Monograph Series, Volume VI, Monograph 8, Air War College ...feelings of homesickness and worries about the welfare of their families. UN radio broadcasts echoed many of the themes used in the leaflets. Radio

  11. Sino-Indian War 1962 -- Where do India and China Stand Today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    to describe the Chinese and Indian strategic culture as they viewed each other. Strategic culture is defined as the fundamental and enduring......the common man’s tongue “ Hindi -Chinese Bhai Bhai”–Indian and Chinese are brothers. This image according to Indians was shattered after the war and

  12. The Search for Space Doctrine’s War-Fighting Icon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    strategy from Europe, relying heavily upon the train- ing and guidance of Frenchman Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette —better known today simply as... Lafayette . Up until the Ameri- November–December 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 58 Views can Civil War, European doctrine continued to promulgate

  13. Three lenses on water war, peace and hegemonic struggle on the Nile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    The present contribution will argue that 'water wars' and 'water peace' are not objective 'facts' but narratives reflecting competing world views. The two narratives are lenses shedding different lights on the same phenomenon. In addition to the narratives underlying the water-peace debate a third

  14. History Wars and the Classroom: Global Perspectives. Studies in the History of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tony, Ed.; Guyver, Robert, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The book is entitled History Wars in the Classroom: Global Perspectives and examines how ten separate countries have experienced debates and disputes over the contested nature of the subject, for example the "Black Armband" and "Whitewash" factions in Australia who adopt opposingly celebratory or denigratory views of Australian…

  15. Generational Dimensions to Igbo Nationalism in Post-Civil War Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB) - a second-generation Igbo nationalist movement- this article .... pronounced since Nigeria's return to democracy on 29 May 1999 (Akinyele 2001: 264-. 5; Nolte 2004: 61; ... civil war in 1970, the latter defines itself as the pan-Igbo socio-cultural organization that represents the views of ...

  16. Power Lines: The Rhetoric of Maps as Social Change in the Post-Cold War Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    After the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of state socialism in Eastern and Central Europe, cartographers were faced with choices on how the new post-Cold War political landscape would be mapped. One such group called the Pluto Project had been producing atlases since 1981 with a progressive point of view about the nature of state power…

  17. From War to Politics : Non-State Armed Groups in Transition, 2009 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Toward a Regional Security Architecture for the Horn of Africa - Phase II. The Horn of Africa region has endured decades of destruction and human suffering due to long and interrelated wars. View moreToward a Regional Security Architecture for the Horn of Africa - Phase II ...

  18. Humanism's Sisyphean Task: Curricular Reform at Brown University during the Second World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porwancher, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In the midst of a curricular debate at Brown University during the Second World War, the faculty's humanists seized the opportunity to pen their views on the nature and purpose of higher education. This investigation reveals humanism as a fragmented force, at once principal and peripheral to the American academy. The central argument of this study…

  19. L.D. TROTSKY’S MILITARY AND POLITICAL ACTIVITIES DURING THE CIWIL WAR: HISTORIOGRAPHICAL ESSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Baklanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the point of view represented in the national historiography and Russian literature abroad on individual aspects of the military-political activity of L.D. Trotsky during the civil war: the construction of the Red Army, the defense of Petrograd in 1919, participation in the development of military operations.

  20. "A Hedge against the Future": The Post-Cold War Rhetoric of Nuclear Weapons Modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Rhetoric has traditionally played an important role in constituting the nuclear future, yet that role has changed significantly since the declared end of the Cold War. Viewed from the perspectives of nuclear criticism and postmodern theories of risk and security, current rhetoric of US nuclear modernization demonstrates how contingencies of voice…

  1. The restoration of the gold standard after the US Civil War : A volatility analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulemann, Max; Uebele, Martin; Wilfling, Bernd

    This paper presents a new view on the gold price of greenbacks during and after the American Civil War by analyzing exchange-rate volatility rather than exchange-rate levels. Our empirical investigation detects regimes of high and low volatility alternating in a way that is consistent with a

  2. Chinese Documentaries and the Korean War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezhi Sun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Korean War composed an important part of the history of the new China after its establishment. After the opening and the reform phase, a number of documentaries on the Korean War were produced in China, based on footages and video images filmed earlier. Documentaries produced during this time linked newly discovered information based on the video images with the existing information, and therefore they analyzed and explained issues related to the war in detail. Certain documentaries reinterpreted issues related to the war based on the existing video images by adding the analysis of a researcher on the topic, and others included reenactments and reproductions of the war based on the memories of survivors. Likewise, documentaries about the Korean War that have been produced after the war can be seen as results of the reflection on or reinterpretation of the Korean War. Compared to the documentaries made in the initial phase, these documentaries contained noticeably less political and ideological colors, and focused more on factors for logical and critical thinking. As a result, the documentaries made people reconsider the nature of the war, including the cause of the war and which side actually started the war, and distinctly transformed the perspectives on these issues.

  3. The Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905 and the Evolution of Operational Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    INTRODUCTION On the news that the Tsar had sent the troops icons to boost their morale, General Dragomirov quipped: “The Japanese are beating us with machine...was the Russian war minister paying an official visit to Japan in 1903. His memoirs describe a positive view of Japan, unlike the Tsar , who viewed...proved to be divided, however, General Stoesell sent a letter to the Tsar notifying him that the fall of the fortress was imminent. On 2 January

  4. Ukrainian Hybrid War – Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotărescu Carmen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although it is known for a long time, hybrid war taken place in Ukraine under the umbrella of Russian Federation surprised the whole world and produced the greatest worry for humankind’s fate since the World War II. The political and military analysts appreciate if the World War III does not come will at least follow a long time of a new cold war. Remembering the hybrid war is not declared, can be prolonged in time and the adversary is unknown, thus neither the aggressor state, it is hard to settle which are the countermeasures and how should be act when this clever adversary attacks you using hostile propaganda, to the limit of trick and war perfidy (the first is allowed as method of war, the latter is not, influences the political decision-makers by blackmail, military, economic and energetic deterrence or nuclear bombardments and undergoes subversive, clandestine actions and particularly it is hard to predict their consequences.

  5. War Gamers Handbook: A Guide for Professional War Gamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    depicted in Figure 2. Player activities may include physically placing game pieces on a large map display to facilitate awareness of space , time, and...game objectives. The knowledge manager, in close concert with the Gaming Tech Branch, determines the number of computer work stations required by...USN, and LCDR Savio Cavalcanti, Brazilian Navy, Inter-American War Game 2013 control group members, plot player force positioning using an MTMU

  6. A Guerilla War At Sea: The Sri Lankan Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    city. Casualties were heavy, with company sized units of the Indian Army being annihilated in the labyrinth sections of the city. Perhaps 1000...Robert B. Asprey, War in the Shadows (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1975): 357. 63. Fair, 59. 17 smallwarsjournal.com military activity...LTTE cadres expanded in size and lethality. The LTTE expanded its shadow administration of Tamil controlled areas and infiltrated forces to occupy

  7. Accidental nuclear war--a post-cold war assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrow, L; Blair, B G; Helfand, I; Lewis, G; Postol, T; Sidel, V; Levy, B S; Abrams, H; Cassel, C

    1998-04-30

    In the 1980s, many medical organizations identified the prevention of nuclear war as one of the medical profession's most important goals. An assessment of the current danger is warranted given the radically changed context of the post-Cold War era. We reviewed the recent literature on the status of nuclear arsenals and the risk of nuclear war. We then estimated the likely medical effects of a scenario identified by leading experts as posing a serious danger: an accidental launch of nuclear weapons. We assessed possible measures to reduce the risk of such an event. U.S. and Russian nuclear-weapons systems remain on a high-level alert status. This fact, combined with the aging of Russian technical systems, has recently increased the risk of an accidental nuclear attack. As a conservative estimate, an accidental intermediate-sized launch of weapons from a single Russian submarine would result in the deaths of 6,838,000 persons from firestorms in eight U.S. cities. Millions of other people would probably be exposed to potentially lethal radiation from fallout. An agreement to remove all nuclear missiles from high-level alert status and eliminate the capability of a rapid launch would put an end to this threat. The risk of an accidental nuclear attack has increased in recent years, threatening a public health disaster of unprecedented scale. Physicians and medical organizations should work actively to help build support for the policy changes that would prevent such a disaster.

  8. Psychic disorders in former prisoners of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, Dragan; Sinanović, Osman

    2004-01-01

    To analyze the kind and the representation of psychic disorders in former prisoners of war and war veterans who were not detained in camps. The analyzed sample consisted of 160 respondents divided into two groups. A group of 100 former prisoners of war and a group of 60 war veterans who had not been detained in camps. All the respondents are males and were psychically in healthy condition prior to the war. The modified Harvard Trauma Questionnaire was used to diagnose traumatic experience, and a questionnaire according to the DSM IV criteria was used to diagnose posttraumatic stress disorder. The Depressiveness Scale D-92 was used to diagnose depressiveness; the questionnaire STAI was used to diagnose anxiety; CAGE Questionnaire was used to diagnose alcoholism. The former prisoners of war had traumatic experience at a higher level as compared to the war veterans who had not been detained in camps (P disorder was diagnosed in 52% of camp inmates and 31.7% of war veterans (P psychic disorders (PTSD and depressiveness) in the former prisoners of war as compared to the war veterans.

  9. RADIOLOGICAL TIPS Coronal views of the paediatric mandibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We discuss 4 cases seen over the last 18 months at Red Cross War. Memorial Children's Hospital in an effort to highlight the importance of routinely reviewing coronal views of the mandibular condyle when interpreting trauma-related computerised tomography brain (CTB) studies in a paediatric setting. The mandible is the ...

  10. The Operational Level of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    destroy enemy forces is described. Jacobs , Walter Darnull. "The Art of Operations: Soviet Theoreticians Have Wedged What They Call the Operational Art... Jacobs discusses the historical development of the concept of "operational art" in the Soviet Union and concludes that this concept does not...from initial training through the end of the Lorraine campaig7’. 53 L ,I Scott, Harriet Fast, and William F. Scott, eds. The Soviet Art of War

  11. Economic Analysis of Loudness War

    OpenAIRE

    Vilím, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    This thesis determines whether the loudness war phenomenon has an effect on the success of individual songs on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. Presented theoretical part introduces this rather technical problem to economists, an insight is provided into the distribution chain of music recordings as well as into the decision-making of consumers. The key factors determining the chart position are identified following the research of existing theory and are used to create an ordinary least squares ...

  12. Zograscopic Viewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Koenderink

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The “zograscope” is a “visual aid” (commonly known as “optical machine” in the 18th century invented in the mid-18th century, and in general use until the early 20th century. It was intended to view single pictures (thus not stereographic pairs with both eyes. The optics approximately eliminates the physiological cues (binocular disparity, vergence, accommodation, movement parallax, and image blur that might indicate the flatness of the picture surface. The spatial structure of pictorial space is due to the remaining pictorial cues. As a consequence, many (or perhaps most observers are aware of a heightened “plasticity” of the pictorial content for zograscopic as compared with natural viewing. We discuss the optics of the zograscope in some detail. Such an analysis is not available in the literature, whereas common “explanations” of the apparatus are evidently nonsensical. We constructed a zograscope, using modern parts, and present psychophysical data on its performance.

  13. Globalising Resistance against War? A Critical Analysis of a Theoretical Debate in the Context of the British Anti-War Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Seppälä

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The political revival of the anti-war movement after 9/11 launched a controversial debate on global resistance against war. Liberal cosmopolitans characterise the movement as a consensual force of opposition against war in the form of global civil society acting on thebasis of ‘universal’ values. Radical poststructuralists consider it a preliminary example of the Multitude, waging ‘a war against war’ as a global body of opposition. For statecentrics, these views are utopian in referring to global struggles and political subjects that do not yet exist, and alarming because global resistance escapes power in the ‘postpolitical’ struggle. Here, the theoretical debate is critically analysed from the perspective of ‘critical theory in political practice’. Through an empirical case study of four organisations within the new anti-war movement in Britain, it is demonstrated that these theories’ connection to practice is inadequate, and in many ways problematic due to theirtendency to resort to a dualistic ‘either-or’ logic. The paper introduces a ‘both-and’ approach that not only reflects more accurately the way in which the relationship between global and local is conceived within the movement but also provides a more comprehensive perspective for conceptualising power in the context of social movements generally.

  14. War Violence, Sexual War Violence and Victimhood in Reconciliation Narratives of Survivors from the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Basic, Goran

    2016-01-01

    In this analysis of the retold experiences of 27 survivors of the war in northwestern Bosnia, the aim is to describe the informants’ portrayal of “war violence”, “sexual war violence”, “victimhood”, and “reconciliation” as a social phenomenon as well as analyzing the discursive patterns that contribute to constructing the category “victim” and “perpetrator”. The violence practice during the war is portrayed as organized and ritualized and this creates a picture that the violence practice beca...

  15. The 1967 Arab-Israeli Six-Day War: An Analysis Using the Principles of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glazer, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The 1967 Arab-Israeli Six-Day War provides the operational commander with an excellent opportunity to examine the importance of the application, or misapplication, of the principles of war in a conflict...

  16. Suicide of Australians during the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Ahmadi, Jamshid; Pridmore, William

    2017-10-01

    National suicide rates fall during times of war. This fits with the notion of the population coming together against a common foe. But, what happens in the case of a war which is not fully supported, which draws the population and families apart? We consider this question by examining the Australian suicide rates during the divisive Vietnam War. We graphed and examined the Australian suicide figures for 1921-2010. We found clear evidence of a decrease in the suicide rate for World War II (consistent with other studies), but a marked elevation of suicide during the Vietnam War. The elevation of the Australian suicide rate during the Vietnam War is consistent with Durkheim's social integration model - when social integration is lessened, either by individual characteristics or societal characteristics, the risk of suicide rises.

  17. Illusion Of Defeat: Egyptian Strategic Thinking And The 1973 Yom Kippur War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-04

    stating that due to strategy failing to recover from losing its way during the Cold War, one might conclude that it is dead. Doing so, he says, would...know it or not.26 This is key, as a common view among some is that the perceived bipolar world of the Cold War was a much simpler time, when actually...to his Axis sympathies and desire for Germany to remove the British from Egypt.94 Upon his release from jail , Sadat rejoined the Free Officers

  18. 36 CFR 1229.12 - What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... during a state of war or threatened war? 1229.12 Section 1229.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 1229.12 What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war? (a) Destruction of records... war between the United States and any other nation or when hostile action appears imminent, the head...

  19. If war is "just," so is abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, F

    1991-01-01

    Currently Catholic bishops are applying an inconsistent ethical paradigm to the issues of war and abortion. Based on the seamless garment theory war, abortion and capital punishment are all immoral acts because they are of the same garment. They are all "killing acts" and as such they are immoral. However there is within the Catholic paradigm the idea of a just war. The just war theory states that the destruction of human life in war is justified if it is for a greater good. However abortion has no exceptions, there is no just abortion in the rules of the Catholic Church. The author takes the just war doctrine as presented by the Catholic Church and shows how it could easily apply to abortion. Both war and abortion involve the taking of a human life, but in the case of war the taking of a life is justified if it is done to protect your own life. The same exception in abortion would be to allow abortion when the mother's life is in danger. yet no such exception exists. The just war theory further states that was is necessary to protect national integrity, particularly if the violation erodes the quality of life for its citizens. The same exception for abortion would include allowing abortions for women who already have more children then they can care for or if having the child would erode the quality of life for the woman. Other aspects of the just war theory include the competence and goals of the national leaders. Women must also be allowed to be competent moral agents. Proponents of the seamless garment theory will bring up the fact that in a just war only combatants die yet the fetus is innocent. But no war has ever been fought without the loss of innocent civilians.

  20. Chinese Documentaries and the Korean War

    OpenAIRE

    Kezhi Sun; Dan Xu

    2014-01-01

    The Korean War composed an important part of the history of the new China after its establishment. After the opening and the reform phase, a number of documentaries on the Korean War were produced in China, based on footages and video images filmed earlier. Documentaries produced during this time linked newly discovered information based on the video images with the existing information, and therefore they analyzed and explained issues related to the war in detail. Certain documentaries reint...

  1. Patterns of War Termination: A Statistical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Cambodia-Khmer Rouge War of 1970, the Pinochet Rebellion in Chile in 1973, the Somali Secession from Ethiopia in 1976, the Communist Rebellion in El...Change (days) United States 0.147369 977 Cambodia vs. Khmer Rouge Republic of Vietnam 0.178397 766 Chile vs. Pinochet Rebels Chile 0.335365 5...combatants and geography of these wars. The Cambodia-Khmer Rouge War of 1970, the Pinochet Rebellion in Chile in 1973, the Somali Secession from Ethiopia

  2. American Orthopaedic Surgeons in World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David P; DeLee, Jesse C

    2017-04-05

    On April 6, 1917, the United States declared war on Germany and entered what was then called the Great War. Among the first officers sent to Europe were 21 orthopaedic surgeons in the so-called First Goldthwait Unit. Prior to the war, orthopaedics had been a nonoperative "strap-and-buckle" specialty that dealt primarily with infections, congenital abnormalities, and posttraumatic deformity. The Great War changed all of that forever, creating a new surgical specialty with emphasis on acute treatment, prevention of deformity, restoration of function, and rehabilitation.

  3. Information War Crimes: Mitnick Meets Milosevic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banks, Darwyn

    2001-01-01

    ...) and traditional war crimes as defined by the internationally accepted laws of armed conflict paying special attention to the principles of chivalry, humanity, proportionality, and military necessity...

  4. Food and War in Herodotus’ Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Soares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the way Herodotus relates food and war in his work. In the first part we consider the economic causes of war, those related to populations’ food supplies. In the second part we focus on the role of food in a war scenario. In spite of the great relevance given by Herodotus in the construction of his war narratives to the characters of kings and generals, the Greek historian is perfectly aware of the economic implications the military conflicts usually have throughout the history of mankind.http://dx.doi.org/10.14195/2183-1718_66_7

  5. Winning the War: A Historical Analysis of the FFA during World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Kattlyn J.; Connors, James J.

    2009-01-01

    The United States' participation in World War II affected millions of men, women, and children, both at home and around the world. The war effort also affected the Future Farmers of America (FFA). FFA members, agriculture teachers, and national FFA officers all volunteered to serve their country during the war. Local FFA chapters and individual…

  6. Civil War Preservation Trust Two Week Curriculum for Teaching the Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civil War Preservation Trust, Washington, DC.

    The Civil War was perhaps the greatest turning point in U.S. history. The dual themes of slavery and power deeply divided the growing nation during the first half of the 19th century. The mission of the Civil War Preservation Trust (CWPT) is to preserve the significant Civil War battlefields by protecting the land and educating the public about…

  7. The Quotidianisation of the War in Everyday Life at German Schools during the First World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Joachim; Berdelmann, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    The outbreak of the First World War had a powerful impact on German schools. Undoubtedly, schools were institutions of socialisation that did offer support to the war. Indeed, research has shown that a specific "war pedagogy" made an aggressive propaganda possible in the classroom. This research usually emphasises the enthusiasm for war…

  8. "The Masters of War": Finding Ways to Talk about the First World War Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This article sets out to challenge conventional descriptions and explanations of war and teaching about war. It draws on raw data from three qualitative arts-based projects to illustrate the complexity of cognitive and affective understandings of the place of war, past, present and future, through the jarring dissonance of "mash-up"--a…

  9. Children's Attitudes to War and Peace: When a Peace Agreement Means War

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLernon, Frances; Cairns, Ed

    2006-01-01

    Previous research into children's concepts of peace, war and strategies to attain peace suggests that peace and war are developmentally constructed concepts. In order to examine the impact of the immediate sociocultural context, 343 adolescents in Northern Ireland in 2002 were questioned about their concepts of war and peace, and their strategies…

  10. 77 FR 43117 - Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... National Park Service Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given in accordance... make recommendations to the National Park Service (NPS) concerning the Cold War Theme Study. DATES: The...

  11. In Search of the Good War: Just War and Realpolitik in Our Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    making interstate war a rare phenomenon. The trials at Nuremberg and Tokyo following the war established the precedent that war crimes carried...consequences. Nuremberg seemed an ideal marriage of law and morality, and later treaties banned genocide and created the Inter- national Criminal Court

  12. From Combat to Legacies: Novels of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses novels of the Vietnam War, their usefulness, and the interest they hold for students. Considers four categories of Vietnam novels: the Vietnam experience, the war at home, the refugee experience, and the war's effect on the next generation. (SR)

  13. What Did Peel County Do In the Great War?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Desmond

    1987-01-01

    Describes the strengths and weaknesses of the Canadian War effort during World War I. Specifically focuses on Peel County, Ontario and the particular problems its inhabitants experienced during the war. (BSR)

  14. The First Schleswig War 1848 -1851. Prelude, Events and Consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens Ole; Adriansen, Inge

    The First Schleswig War 1848-1851 offers a reader-friendly overview of the prelude to the war, the events of the war itself, and its wide-ranging, long-lasting consequences.......The First Schleswig War 1848-1851 offers a reader-friendly overview of the prelude to the war, the events of the war itself, and its wide-ranging, long-lasting consequences....

  15. Specters of War in Pyongyang: The Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Suzy Kim

    2015-01-01

    While North Korea accused South Korea of starting a “civil war” (naeran) during the Korean War, it has now moved away from such depictions to paint the war as an American war of imperialist aggression against Korea that was victoriously thwarted under the leadership of Kim Il Sung. In this regard, it may be more than a coincidence that the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in Pyongyang was built in the early 1970s, just as the Vietnam War drew to a close with a Vietnamese victory. T...

  16. War and food security in Eritrea and Ethiopia, 1998-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip

    2005-06-01

    This paper examines the 1998-2000 'border' war between Eritrea and Ethiopia and its continuing legacies from the perspective of food security. Focusing on the food crisis that hit both countries during the same period and was allowed to develop into a famine in southeast Ethiopia, it argues that this was linked with the war in more ways than hitherto recognised. Such connections can be appreciated only by taking a longer-term view of the decline of the rural economy of which this food crisis was part, factoring in the role played by this and other conflicts that have flared up in the region. An analysis of this kind might have helped donors and aid agencies to respond more effectively both to short-term humanitarian needs in the midst of an inter-state war and to the need for longer-term support for food security in a region beset by endemic conflict.

  17. Capital University and the World War: Theory and Practice of ‘Academic Patriotism’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny A. Rostovtsev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the research positions of St. Petersburg State University Corporation during the World War I until the collapse of the Russian Empire in 1917. During the war, professorial part of the University Corporation was an active member of the civil society and was involved in the political processes of pre-revolutionary Russia. The authors reconstruct collective “portrait” of university teachers (especially quantitative, social, confessional aspects, etc., consider problems of “academic patriotism”, “emancipation of the German science”. One of the main aims of this article is to demonstrate influence of war events and condition on the political views and the policy of university administration. The authors also show the changes of pedagogical activity of professors and teachers and science life as a whole. This research used the methods of collective biography construction and prosopography studies.

  18. War of the British Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercau, Ezequiel

    2016-01-01

    The 1982 Falklands War was shrouded in symbolism, bringing to the fore divergent conceptions of Britishness, kinship, and belonging. This article casts light on the persistent purchase of the idea of Greater Britain long after the end of empire, addressing a case that would normally be deemed...... outside its spatial and temporal boundaries. By highlighting the inherent contradictions of this transnational bond, the South Atlantic conflict had a profound effect on an underexposed British community with a lingering attachment to a “British world”: the Anglo-Argentines. As they found themselves...... different “British worlds” against each other....

  19. Crafting forgiveness accounts after war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinert, Lotte; Obika, Julaina; Whyte, Susan Reynolds

    2014-01-01

    After two decades of conflict and internment in camps for Internally Displaced Persons (IDP), the Acholi people have returned to their homes and are trying to heal their wounds after the long war in northern Uganda. Bilateral and multilateral donors, NGOs, cultural organizations, and religious...... institutions are involved in the politically and personally sensitive work of reconciliation. Yet for most people, the actual restoration of peace lies in establishing an everyday life and being able to rebuild relationships with kin, friends and neighbours. In a collaborative project with an installation...

  20. Physicians, triage, and nuclear war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaning, J

    1988-07-30

    Difficult ethical choices imposed by triage, the process of sorting casualties according to severity of illness (need) and priority for treatment (allocation), are discussed in the context of recent disasters such as an Amtrak collision and the Mexico city earthquake. The question of medical response to nuclear war raises issues of professional duty to assist in making plans for morally repugnant events such as mass destruction; the feasibility of triage, as a conscious professional act, during a time of extreme stress and carnage; and fundamental differences among physicians in their beliefs about themselves, their roles, and their moral obligation to the world.

  1. Specters of War in Pyongyang: The Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While North Korea accused South Korea of starting a “civil war” (naeran during the Korean War, it has now moved away from such depictions to paint the war as an American war of imperialist aggression against Korea that was victoriously thwarted under the leadership of Kim Il Sung. In this regard, it may be more than a coincidence that the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in Pyongyang was built in the early 1970s, just as the Vietnam War drew to a close with a Vietnamese victory. This article examines the memorialization of the Korean War in North Korea at two pivotal historical points—the end of the Vietnam War in the 1970s and the end of the Cold War in the 1990s—with a particular focus on contemporary exhibitions at the war museum in Pyongyang. Rather than offering a simple comparison of divergent narratives about the war, the article seeks to illustrate that North Korea’s conception of history and its account of the war are staunchly modernist, with tragic consequences.

  2. Adverse health consequences of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2015-01-01

    The 40th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War is a useful time to review the adverse health consequences of that war and to identify and address serious problems related to armed conflict, such as the protection of noncombatant civilians. More than 58,000 U.S. servicemembers died during the war and more than 150,000 were wounded. Many suffered from posttraumatic stress disorders and other mental disorders and from the long-term consequences of physical injuries. However, morbidity and mortality, although difficult to determine precisely, was substantially higher among the Vietnamese people, with at least two million of them dying during the course of the war. In addition, more than one million Vietnamese were forced to migrate during the war and its aftermath, including many "boat people" who died at sea during attempts to flee. Wars continue to kill and injure large numbers of noncombatant civilians and continue to damage the health-supporting infrastructure of society, expose civilians to toxic chemicals, forcibly displace many people, and divert resources away from services to benefit noncombatant civilians. Health professionals can play important roles in promoting the protection of noncombatant civilians during war and helping to prevent war and create a culture of peace.

  3. Airpower in Three Wars (WWII, Korea, Vietnam)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Momyer, William

    2003-01-01

    When I received the request to update my 1978 foreword to this book, I thought it might be useful to give my perspective of some aspects on the employment of airpower in the Persian Gulf War, the Air War over Serbia...

  4. The Vietnam War and the Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elterman, Howard

    1988-01-01

    Surveys the author's contribution to the Center for Social Studies Education curriculum on the Vietnam War. Focuses on "How the War Was Reported," a unit which raises four questions concerning the responsibilities of the government and the press for keeping the public informed. Encourages use of the curriculum in teaching about the…

  5. Violence and war in agrarian perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, C.; Richards, P.

    2011-01-01

    The bulk of analysis and commentary on violent conflicts in developing countries over the past 20 years or so has neglected the dynamics and tensions of agrarian political economy. Introducing a special issue devoted to these agrarian dimensions of armed conflict, non-war violence and post-war

  6. THE LESSONS OF THE BORDER WAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Willem Scholtz

    spare parts, etc. This was true of the Border War as well. In general, the troops fighting the counter-insurgency war in the north of Namibia were well supplied. Most of the ... body. This meant that the loading of supplies were undertaken haphazardly, without the needs of the frontline troops being taken into account, with the.

  7. private military contractors, war crimes and international

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    HUMANITARIAN LAW. Chukwuma Osakwe, Nigerian Defence Academy, and. Ubong Essien Umoh, University of Uyo. Abstract. The end of the Cold War witnessed the growth and spread of legally established private military contractors (PMCs) playing largely undefined roles in wars, international security and post-conflict ...

  8. Health and Civil War in Rural Burundi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundervoet, Tom; Verwimp, Philip; Akresh, Richard

    2009-01-01

    We combine household survey data with event data on the timing and location of armed conflicts to examine the impact of Burundi's civil war on children's health status. The identification strategy exploits exogenous variation in the war's timing across provinces and the exposure of children's birth cohorts to the fighting. After controlling for…

  9. Looking at the Vietnam War through Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Lisa S.

    1992-01-01

    Suggests a lesson plan in which history students discuss the effects of the Vietnam War on individuals and society. Explains that the students compare their responses before and after hearing a reading of two different works on the war. Includes suggested readings and questions for students to use in interviewing people in the community. (DK)

  10. WOMEN AND WAR: DECONSTRUCTING THE NOTION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    causa finalis) of war. Of course, that imagery had to be deconstructed just like it had been erected: not just by narrative means but also as whole social construct, and so that is the aim of Fatuma Ahmed Ali in her Mujeres y guerra (Women and war).

  11. PEACE, WAR AND AFTERWARDS 1914 TO 1919

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that the ordinary soldier often had very little information on the progress of the war ("You've no idea how difficult it is to get news here where history is in the making."); the fellowship among the men and the sadness when losing a comrade in battle. Wade wrote about the happenings of the war in a rather matter of fact way.

  12. The Chechen War: Another Russian Humiliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    appreciate the dilemma that Russian military planners faced in December 1994, it is helpful to look to Carl Von Clausewitz . “Clausewitz knew that...On War: the Clauswitzian Ideal and Its Implications”, p.8 14 Carl von Clausewitz , On War, edited and translated by Michael Howard and Peter Paret

  13. Women at the Heart of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Anne

    This unit of study explores the experiences and the role of women during World War II. The unit can serve as an introduction or supplement to commonly taught topics such as Nazism in Germany, the Holocaust, the "home front," the USSR's Great Patriotic War, and the struggle between Nationalists and Communists in China. It begins with an…

  14. How Could a Beaver Start a War?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Students gain a better understanding of war and economics when the variables come alive through stories, artifacts, and paintings. In this article, the author describes a short story about the fur trade which can generate lots of student questions about the fur economics, the Eastern Woodland Indians, trade artifacts, and war. The author also…

  15. Defining War for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    in Iraq and Afghanistan arose when the mili- tary’s infatuation with Clausewitz led it to conclude that war has only one grammar . 8 Echevarria then...The motives that lead to war, first identified by the Greek historian Thucydides 2,500 years ago—fear, honor, and interests—persist. And the

  16. The Philosophy of War and Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Bazaluk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the author comprehends ontology of the war and peace. Using the results of empirical and theoretical research in the field of geophilosophy, as well as neuroscience, psychology, social philosophy and military history, the author comprehends the philosophy of war and peace. The author proves that the problem of war and peace originates in the features of forming mentality. War and peace are the ways to achieve a regulatory compromise between manifestations of the active principle, which was initially laid in the foundation of the human mentality, and the influence of the external environment through natural selection; between the complicating needs of mental space as a totality of mentalities at the scale of the Earth and the possibilities of satisfying them; between the proclaimed idea that unites mental space, and the possibility of its implementation. War and Peace regulate high-quality structure and manifestations of mental space: reduce the number of mentalities, whose structures predispose to aggression, and increase the number of mentalities, whose manifestations are directed at integration and cooperation. Through the proposed theory of war and peace, I have come to realize that, the state of peace for the evolving mental space includes the philosophy of war; the transition from peace to war depends mainly on the effectiveness of educational technology.

  17. Clausewitz and Foucault: war and power

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C1ausewitz and Foucault. Clausewitz and Foucault: war and power. Roger Deacon. Abstract. Carl von Clausewitz's On War has influenced theorists across a wide range of disciplines, and one such was the late French philosopher and historian, Michel Foucault. This paper considers what at first sight appears to be ...

  18. Nuclear War from a Cosmic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tegmark, Max

    2015-01-01

    I discuss the impact of computer progress on nuclear war policy, both by enabling more accurate nuclear winter simulations and by affecting the probability of war starting accidentally. I argue that from a cosmic perspective, humanity's track record of risk mitigation is inexcusably pathetic, jeopardizing the potential for life to flourish for billions of years.

  19. Telling War Stories: The Things They Carry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Paige; Warren, Mike

    2010-01-01

    This webtext reveals two modern-day methods for soldiers to share their war stories: 1) soldiers sharing their stories with cadets from West Point through a project linking veterans from the Global War on Terror with composition students; and 2) soldiers learning in online composition classrooms designed specifically for them.

  20. Mental health in war-affected populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, W.F.

    2013-01-01

    This book addresses mental health problems in populations in nonwestern war-affected regions, and methods to mitigate these problems through interventions focusing on social reintegration. It describes a number of studies among war-affected populations in widely different areas: refugees from the

  1. Active war in Sri Lanka: Children's war exposure, coping, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysa, Champika K; Azar, Sandra T

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to active war is understudied among Sinhalese children in Sri Lanka. We investigated PTSD symptom severity in children using child (n = 60) and mother (n = 60) reports; child-reported war exposure and coping; as well as self-reported maternal PTSD symptom severity. The study addressed active war in 2 rural locations (acute and chronic community war exposure). Child-reports were significantly greater than mother-reports of child PTSD symptom severity. Furthermore, children's war exposure, child-reported and mother-reported child PTSD symptom severity, and maternal PTSD symptom severity were significantly greater in the acute versus chronic community war exposure location, but children's approach and avoidance coping did not significantly differ, indicating a potential ceiling effect. Children's war exposure significantly, positively predicted child-reported child PTSD symptom severity, controlling for age, gender, and maternal PTSD symptom severity, but only maternal PTSD symptom severity significantly, positively predicted mother-reported child PTSD symptom severity. Avoidance coping (in both acute and chronic war) significantly positively mediated the children's war exposure-child-reported child PTSD symptom severity relation, but not mother-reports of the same. Approach coping (in chronic but not acute war) significantly, positively mediated the children's war exposure-child-reported and mother-reported child PTSD symptom severity relations. We advanced the literature on long-term active war by confirming the value of children's self-reports, establishing that both approach and avoidance coping positively mediated the war-exposure-PTSD symptom severity relation, and that the mediation effect of approach coping was situationally moderated by acute verses chronic community war exposure among Sri Lankan children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. War as a Social-Psychological Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Natolochnaya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes war as a social-psychological phenomenon. The author dwells upon the difficulties of war veterans’ shift from military to peaceful life. The primary sources for this work are letters, diaries, and memoirs by World War II servicemen and veterans. The author concludes the article by pointing out that the capacity for survival in the extreme conditions of the early post-war years had been buoyed up both by post-victory optimism and hopes engendered by it and the need to withstand post-war hardship – an unsettled everyday life, famine, disease, and crime. Amid all this, Soviet society exhibited a great capacity for life, which testified to its considerable mobilization potential.

  3. The Culture War and Issue Salience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wroe, Andrew; Ashbee, Edward; Gosling, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    by Republicans and Democrats, conservatives and liberals, evangelicals and non-evangelicals, and frequent and infrequent worshippers alike. While the first finding offers support for the saliency hypothesis and the culture war thesis, the second challenges the idea that Americans are engaged in a war over......Despite much talk of a culture war, scholars continue to argue over whether the American public is divided on cultural and social issues. Some of the most prominent work in this area, such as Fiorina's Culture War?, has rejected the idea. However, this work has in turn been criticized for focussing...... only on the distribution of attitudes within the American public and ignoring the possibility that the culture war may also be driven by the increasing strength with which sections of the population hold their opinions. This paper tests the strength, or saliency, hypothesis using individual-level over...

  4. The Star Wars Scroll Illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Star Wars Scroll Illusion is a dynamic version of the Leaning Tower Illusion. When two copies of a Star-Wars-like scrolling text are placed side by side (with separate vanishing points), the two scrolls appear to head in different directions even though they are physically parallel in the picture plane. Variations of the illusion are shown with one vanishing point, as well as from an inverted perspective where the scrolls appear to originate in the distance. The demos highlight the conflict between the physical lines in the picture plane and perspective interpretation: With two perspective points, the scrolling texts are parallel to each other in the picture plane but not in perspective interpretation; with one perspective point, the texts are not parallel to each other in the picture plane but are parallel to each other in perspective interpretation. The size of the effect is linearly related to the angle of rotation of the scrolls into the third dimension; the Scroll Illusion is stronger than the Leaning Tower Illusion for rotation angles between 35° and 90°. There is no effect of motion per se on the strength of the illusion. PMID:27648216

  5. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittock, A. B.

    As the end of the century approaches, humanity is seeking a broader, deeper sense of security. In this context the voice of the international scientific community must be clearly articulated in order to provide scientific judgment and advice to public policy makers: for example, from the likely global catastrophic effects of a major nuclear war to the resolution or avoidance of conventional conflicts; from the control of pollution and the effects of acid rain to the wider consequences of global warming; from the mounting strains that will arise from the world's growing population to the needs for more reliable methods and arrangements for food supply, health, education and sustainable development. The protection of the global environment is the responsibility of, and in the mutual interest of, all nations.In the light of these concerns, the Myrdal Foundation and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences invited an international group of scientists to consider the specific issue of the environmental consequences of nuclear war and to evaluate the 1988 United Nations report on the subject.

  6. The Star Wars Scroll Illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur G. Shapiro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Star Wars Scroll Illusion is a dynamic version of the Leaning Tower Illusion. When two copies of a Star-Wars-like scrolling text are placed side by side (with separate vanishing points, the two scrolls appear to head in different directions even though they are physically parallel in the picture plane. Variations of the illusion are shown with one vanishing point, as well as from an inverted perspective where the scrolls appear to originate in the distance. The demos highlight the conflict between the physical lines in the picture plane and perspective interpretation: With two perspective points, the scrolling texts are parallel to each other in the picture plane but not in perspective interpretation; with one perspective point, the texts are not parallel to each other in the picture plane but are parallel to each other in perspective interpretation. The size of the effect is linearly related to the angle of rotation of the scrolls into the third dimension; the Scroll Illusion is stronger than the Leaning Tower Illusion for rotation angles between 35° and 90°. There is no effect of motion per se on the strength of the illusion.

  7. The Star Wars Scroll Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Arthur G

    2015-10-01

    The Star Wars Scroll Illusion is a dynamic version of the Leaning Tower Illusion. When two copies of a Star-Wars-like scrolling text are placed side by side (with separate vanishing points), the two scrolls appear to head in different directions even though they are physically parallel in the picture plane. Variations of the illusion are shown with one vanishing point, as well as from an inverted perspective where the scrolls appear to originate in the distance. The demos highlight the conflict between the physical lines in the picture plane and perspective interpretation: With two perspective points, the scrolling texts are parallel to each other in the picture plane but not in perspective interpretation; with one perspective point, the texts are not parallel to each other in the picture plane but are parallel to each other in perspective interpretation. The size of the effect is linearly related to the angle of rotation of the scrolls into the third dimension; the Scroll Illusion is stronger than the Leaning Tower Illusion for rotation angles between 35° and 90°. There is no effect of motion per se on the strength of the illusion.

  8. The Zimbabwean liberation war: contesting representations of nation and nationalism in historical fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Muwati

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the array of macro and micro historical factors that stirred historical agency in the 1970s war against colonial settlerism as depicted in selected liberation war fiction. This war eventually led to a negotiated independence in April 1980. Historical fiction in the early 1980s is characterised by an abundance of fictional images that give expression to the macrofactors, while historical fiction in the late 1980s onwards parades a plethora of images which prioritise the microhistorical factors. Against this background, the article problematises the discussion of these factors within the context of postindependence Zimbabwean politics. It argues that the contesting representations of macro- and microfactors in historical fiction on the war symbolise the protean and fluid discourse on nation and nationalism in the Zimbabwean polity. Definitions and interpretations of nation and nationalism are at the centre of Zimbabwean politics, because they are linked to the protracted liberation war against colonialism and the politics of hegemony in the state. Macrofactors express and endorse an official view of nationalism and nation. On the other hand, microfactors problematise and contest the narrow appropriation of nation and nationalism by advocating multiple perspectives on the subject in order to subvert and counter the elite hegemony.

  9. Medical responses to civil war and revolution in Spain, 1936-1939: international aid and local self-organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Elizabeth A

    2008-01-01

    The traditional view that war is 'good' for medicine has been challenged by some historians in recent decades. In the case of the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939, a number of advances in wound treatment, emergency surgery and other areas reputedly occurred, and were important in shaping the medical response to more extended warfare in 1939-1945. At the same time, there was a significant attempt at humanitarian intervention, aiming to provide medical aid and health care for the war's casualties and refugees, in parallel with local transformations in health provision. Political differences within as well as between the contending forces complicated matters. These developments are examined with a view to assessing their implications in the contemporary international context.

  10. The Collision of Romanticism and Modernism in Post-World War II American Cinema: A Theoretical Defense of Intellectual History in the Undergraduate Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Daniel Hunter

    2013-01-01

    The post-World War II era in the United States, which ran from 1945 to 1970, has long been divided into two distinct periods; the late 1940s and 1950s and the 1960s. Out of this separation has come a view of the late 1940s and 1950s as a time dominated by a conservative conformist culture that did little to rival pre-war norms. On the other hand,…

  11. Money and War Murray Rothbard’s A History of Money and Banking in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Zelmanovitz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a presentation and an interpretation of Murray Rothbard’s views on the relation between the fiscal necessities brought by war and interventionism in Money and Banking as read from his book A History of Money and Banking in the United States.

  12. Teaching a Course on World War III: An Introductory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Glenn

    1987-01-01

    Provides a description of an upper division college course on nuclear war. The course, which used an interdisciplinary approach and many resource speakers, was divided into three components: the consequences of World War III, the causes of World War III, and the prevention of World War III. Includes a detailed course outline along with required…

  13. War and Absurdity: Reading the Manifestations of Trauma in Uwem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a result of war; that loss of self that manifests itself in absurdity. Akpan paints poignant and convincing pictures of the horrors of war, of the physical and mental dislocation of individuals in a war situation. This paper finds that for those caught up in the throes of war or conflict, life has one basic meaning – physical survival.

  14. 38 CFR 3.2 - Periods of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Periods of war. 3.2..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.2 Periods of war. This section sets forth the beginning and ending dates of each war period beginning with the Indian wars. Note that the term...

  15. Photojournalism: A Record of War. Learning Page Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Chris; Ritz, Glenda

    Photography has been used to record war since the Crimean War in 1855. This lesson plan explores how and why war has been photographed and also gives students an opportunity to see the bias within the recording/reporting of war. The lesson plan: cites educational objectives; gives time required; recommends a grade level; notes curriculum fit; and…

  16. Russian deserters of World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Os'kin Maksim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Desertion is one of the most active forms of ordinary resistance of the people to the state pressure during the low-popular war which is conducting for the purposes unclear for the people. At the same time, mass desertion is a manifestation of «total» war in the world conflicts of the XX century. During World War I in all armies of the world there was the desertion often accepting mass character. In the Russian army, as well as in other, deserters appeared from the war beginning. Desertion scales in the Russian army explained as objective factors - diffi cult fights, shortage of supply, defeat at the front, and subjective - unwillingness to participate in war, melancholy for the house, desire to help a family the work. Desertion in different years of war had various forms. If at the beginning of war there were mainly «self-arrows», in 1915, during defeats at the front - evasion from entrenchments. By the end of 1916, because of the general fatigue from war, desertion takes the real form - flight from the front to the back. After February revolution desertion becomes mass in which hundreds thousands military personnel take part already. Disorder of army and development of revolutionary process extremely strengthen desertion scales that is explained by the actual lack of punishment for this crime. Destruction of the Russian state during revolution became the main reason of coming to power of Bolsheviks, an exit of Russia from war and the army demobilization which essential part in 1917 already deserted from the front.

  17. State Policy Against Information War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Shibaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most recent and effective method to resolve aconflict between countries is information war. Information warfare, i.e. propaganda, information sabotage, blackmail, could be more damaging than the effects of the traditional methods of war. The government must be prepared to prevent and counteract the bleeding-edge techniques of warfare that is to work out measures, to oppose enemy’s information weapons , to gain information superiority , to develop a society thatis immune to disinformation, to elaborate a concept of information warfare counteraction.The authors have examined both foreign and Russian sources of law which define the requirements for the government activities to oppose information warfare. They also refer to the opinions of foreign and Russian researchers, politicians and public figures who have commented on the concept and features of such political and legal constructs as information warfare and information weapons. The problem of information warfare must be identified as a profoundly serious and damaging threat. This paper provides the features of information warfare and the methods to resist it as well as the proposals to amend the domestic legislation to create conditions for an accurate understanding of this political and legal phenomenon. In addition, it points out that the amendment of the Information Security Doctrine is not sufficient to counterbalance the threat of information warfare. In a certain document it is necessary to recount all notions, requirements and methods for the government actions aimed to gradually change the situation, particularly, the development of sectoral (information security legislation, specialists training to be able to deal with informational and psychological aggression forming public opinion through the government-run mass media, etc.

  18. How to understand the hybrid war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Banasik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the hybrid wars were conducted for centuries, the annexation of the Crimea and the involvement of the Russian Federation in the conflict in the Ukraine calls new discussions over its essence. Evaluation of the theory and practice of the activities carried out by FR indicates that we are dealing with the new generation of war. However, it is not in contradiction with the "Clausewitzian paradigm" of conducting armed struggle, which says that war is merely a continuation of politics by other means. The hybrid actions refer precisely to these measures, whereas the rules of warfare, its nature and objectives are still the same.

  19. Food Security and War in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Clarke

    2000-01-01

    Paul Clark explores the nature of war and famine by looking at the link between food insecurity and the war in Afghanistan over the last 20 years. He examines the effects of war on food security: food production, the transport and marketing of food, and the ability of people to afford that food which appears in the market. He shows how conflict has damaged all three of these elements of food security, but also suggests that a complete understanding of food insecurity in Afghanistan requires u...

  20. Probiotic (VSL# 3) for Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    pain, insomnia, general stiffness and headache) associated with IBS. All of these symptoms are part of the Gulf War illness. We screened our first ...Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0593 TITLE: Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ashok Tuteja, M.D. M.P.H. CONTRACTING...Gulf War Illness 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0593 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6 . AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Ashok Tuteja, M.D. 5e. TASK NUMBER

  1. Keeping Time with the Good War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Shanken

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay suggests several ways to think about changing modes of commemoration of World War II in light of the arbitrary nature of calendars, the reasons we give to justify war, the role of bodies, and, the way we frame memory and history. It proposes an exceptionalist reading of the war and links its singular attributes to the unusual trajectory of its memorialization and commemoration. Finally, it turns to Mircea Eliade’s theory of “eternal return” as a conceptual framework to reconsider the relationship between the uses of history and memory in modern commemorative practices.

  2. Making Sense of War and Peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    When people tell stories about their past experiences, they often include descriptions that infer changes in trust repertoires over time, especially when the stories relate to serious life dramas like war and peace. A happy ending can make a past war appear meaningful. In this case study...... power can provide an alternative framework for sensemaking and trusting. In Aceh, three decades of civil war ended with a peace process in 2005, and extreme distrust was then replaced by institutional trust. Insights from that process are of relevance for the study of trust-repair....

  3. The FARC a way into new wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Valencia Grajales

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This text, first comparing the FARC with the texts of Mao Tse-Tung, Strategic Issues in Guerrilla War Against Japan, with Diana Hernández Hoyos, International Humanitarian Law: How and why to apply international humanitarian law to the law and the internal conflict in Colombia, also Mary Kaldor, New Wars, Chapter 2 and 3, with Peter Waldman and Fernando Reinares, in companies in the Civil War, Chapter 1 and 3, and also that of Eduardo Pizarro Leon Gomez. The FARC, Defense to the Combination of All Forms of Struggle. Chapter 1, second in the comparisons were attempted an analysis of the historical circumstances, to finely make conclusions

  4. Special Issue: War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This special double issue of NORMA explore the mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities, the forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts and the implications for masculinity research. The issues cover a range of historical and current topics, cases...... and analytical approaches. The contributions fall into the following four themes: violent masculine rituals and how contemporary societies cope with extreme violence against women; popular written and visual fiction about war and masculine rationalities; gender relations in social movements of rebellions...... and national transformation and finally masculinity in civil society under conditions of war....

  5. new perspectives on the anglo-boer war by ina snyman, ian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arianne

    larger culture. According to him, the Anglo-Boer War was used during the 20th century to sustain this point of view. As a historian is was difficult to judge the next essay by Petrus de Kock,. Who do the Boers think they are? Reading the book, Op soek na Generaal. Mannetjies Mentz, a few years ago I enjoyed it as a novel as, ...

  6. Trojan War displayed as a full annihilation-diffusion-reaction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, J. C.

    2017-02-01

    The diffusive pair annihilation model with embedded topological domains and archaeological data is applied in an analysis of the hypothetical Trojan-Greek war during the late Bronze Age. Estimations of parameter are explicitly made for critical dynamics of the model. In particular, the 8-metre walls of Troy could be viewed as the effective shield that provided the technological difference between the two armies. Suggestively, the numbers in The Iliad are quite sound, being in accord with Lanchester's laws of warfare.

  7. Terrorism and the Law of War: Trying Terrorists as War Criminals Before Military Commissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-11

    the law of war rather than criminal statutes to prosecute the alleged perpetrators. The report will first present an outline of the sources and...principles of the law of war, including a discussion of whether and how it might apply to the current terrorist crisis. A brief explanation of the background...applying the law of war under United States law, summarize precedent for its application by military commissions, and provide an analysis of the President’s

  8. [War trauma and PTSD among German war survivors. A comparison of former soldiers and women of World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, C; Weierstall, R; Huth, S; Knecht, J; Elbert, T

    2014-03-01

    Stressful war experiences can cause posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors. To what extent were the soldiers and young women of World War II affected by PTSD symptoms over the course of their lives? Do these men and women differ in the traumatic experiences and PTSD symptom severity? To investigate these questions 52 male and 20 female Germans aged 81-95 years were recruited through newspaper advertisements and notices and interviewed regarding war experiences and PTSD symptoms. Of the men 2% and 7% met the criteria for current and lifetime PTSD diagnoses, respectively, as compared to 10% and 30% of the women, respectively. Using multiple linear regression a dose-response relationship between the number of trauma types experienced and PTSD symptom severity could be demonstrated. The slope of the regression curve was steeper for women than for men. When controlling for the number of different traumatic experiences women reported a significantly higher severity of PTSD symptoms than men. It is presumed that this difference in severity of symptoms can be attributed to qualitative differences in the type of traumatic stress factors during the war. The present study provides evidence that even today people continue to be affected by PTSD symptoms due to events which occurred during World War II; therefore, during patient contact with this age group the war experiences specific to each individual need to be considered as potential moderators of symptoms.

  9. Health and the war. Changing schemes and health conditions during the Spanish civil war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barona, Josep L; Perdiguero-Gil, Enrique

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the health reforms during the republican Spain (1931-1939) and the crisis derived from the three-year of civil war. It considers how the war affected the health system and the impairment of health conditions of the population during the late 1930s, considering the changing conditions caused by the conflict. Some of the specific topics analysed are the changing healthcare system, the adaptation of health organization after the outbreak of the war, the impact of the war on the health of the population and epidemiological changes, the problem of the refugees and the clinical studies by experts, mainly on undernourishment.

  10. Bringing the Stories Home: Wafaa Bilal’s War on the Public Narrative of War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Hicks

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to examine some artistic representations that persuade us to read the complexity of the narratives of war. To focus this issue, we will analyze Wafaa Bilal’s Domestic Tension exhibition, work which could be defined as a translation of war self-experience into an artistic frame. In this context Domestic Tension configures a space to examine the effects of war violence in modern societies. Under this perspective, art become more than a simple and empty representation of war, but further more the only possible response to human violence.

  11. Long-term outcomes of war-related death of family members in Kosovar civilian war survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Reschke, Konrad; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to war-related experiences can comprise a broad variety of experiences and the very nature of certain war-related events has generally been neglected. To examine the long-term outcomes of war-related death of family members, the authors investigated the prevalence rates of major depressive episode (MDE), anxiety disorders, and quality of life among civilian war survivors with or without war-related death of first-degree family members 9 years after the war in Kosovo. Compared to participants without war-related death of family members, those who had experienced such loss had signficantly higher prevalence rates of MDE, posttraumatic stress disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, and reported a lower quality of life 9 years after the war. These results indicate that bereaved civilian survivors of war experience significant mental health problems many years after the war.

  12. Democratization and Civil War : Empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cederman, Lars-Erik; Hug, Simon; Krebs, Lutz

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis that democratization triggers political violence has been proposed repeatedly in the quantitative literature, but it remains controversial with respect to both interstate and civil wars. Current empirical research continues to be afflicted by methodological and data problems related

  13. Civil War Railroads: A Revolution in Mobility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bryan, Irby

    2001-01-01

    The Civil War pitted two armies against each other on a grand battlefield in the East that focused on Virginia and its Border States and an equally demanding battlefield in the West for control of the Mississippi River...

  14. Cold-War Echoes in American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Ira Jay

    1984-01-01

    The author believes a cold war ideology permeates our culture and poisons the minds of youth. The challenge to education is to awaken people to a historical and global perspective and raise public consciousness of the necessity for peace. (MD)

  15. Intelligence Sesquicentennial: Testament of Bleeding War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keithly, David

    2015-01-01

      The purpose of this article is to examine human intelligence (humint) and counterintelligence during the American Civil War with an eye to determining effects on military operations and to identifying fundamental shortcomings...

  16. The World Wide Web of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Craig A

    2006-01-01

    Modern communications, combined with the near instantaneous publication of information on the World Wide Web, are providing the means to dramatically affect the pursuit, conduct, and public opinion of war on both sides...

  17. Clausewitz, nonlinearity, and the unpredictability of war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyerchen, A.

    Despite the frequent invocations of his name in recent years, especially during the Gulf War, there is something deeply perplexing about the work of Carl von Clausewitz (1780-1831). In particular, his unfinished magnum opus On War seems to offer a theory of war, at the same time that is perversely denies many of the fundamental preconditions of theory as such - simplification, generalization and prediction, among others. The book continues to draw the attention of both soldiers and theorists of war, although soldiers often find the ideas of Clausewitz too philosophical to appear practical, while analysts usually find his thoughts too empirical to seem elegant. Members of both groups sense that there is too much truth in what he writes to ignore him. Yet, as the German historian Hans Rothfels has bluntly put it, Clausewitz is an author more quoted than actually read.' 84 refs.

  18. Balkan Cooperation on War Crimes Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Julie

    2008-01-01

    .... Only two other ICTY indicted individuals are still at large, including Gen. Ratko Mladic, who along with Karadzic is under indictment for genocide and crimes against humanity occurring during the 1992- 1995 Bosnian war...

  19. Balkan Cooperation on War Crimes Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Julie

    2005-01-01

    In December 2005, top Croatian indicted war crimes fugitive Gen. Ante Gotovina was arrested in Spain and transferred to the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in The Hague...

  20. Turkish Independence War and its consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru‑Nicolae Cucu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the First World War, the Ottoman Empire collapsed and the Great Powers came to take the control of its territories. Having a strategic position at the southern gate of Europe, all of Turkish lands were very important for the First World War winners, both to secure European borders and to develop the trade between Europe and Middle East. On the other side, under Mustafa Kemal Atatürk command, a new Turkey with a strong nationalist way decided to fight for emancipating. Winning the war with the Great Powers not only in a military way, but also from a diplomatic perspective, the new Turkey became a modern regional power, having institutions and laws that assured its prosperity and security. Taking into consideration the independence war evolution, this paper wants also to show the diplomatic capability of Turkish leaders to balance between powers involved in the region.

  1. Q-Ships of the Great War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coder, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    Lacking adequate antisubmarine warfare tactics and technologies to combat the German unrestricted submarine campaign during the Great War, the Allies turned to deception or "ruse de guerre" as a means...

  2. The Chechen War: Another Russian Humiliation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perrin

    2001-01-01

    ...." Thus began the Chechen War in December 1994, sparked by an out-of-control, breakaway republic and fueled by the Kremlin's need to maintain integrity of the Russian Federation and to control strategic resources...

  3. Albert Schweitzer on nuclear war and peace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper contains all of Albert Schweitzer's known writings on the topic of nuclear war and disarmament. Included are speeches as well as correspondence with Norman Cousins, Albert Einstein, Presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy and many others.

  4. The anthropology of war and peace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, P.R.; Pitt, D.

    1989-01-01

    Drawing parallels between tribal behavior and international relations to demonstrate that societies are not inherently aggressive but are led into conflict when pride or in-group pressures push people to fight, this profound look at the chilling reality of cold war and its arsenal of nuclear destruction offers valuable new insights into how prejudices and stereotypes contribute to what may seem like an inexorable drift to war. Yet the authors conclude that war is not inevitable, as they offer suggestions for an end to the arms race in, the nuclear age. Based on original research, this is a long overdue contribution to the study of war and peace in our time and a text for newly emerging courses on the subject.

  5. 100 Years After World War I

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gregory Fontenot

    2017-01-01

      Among the war's lasting legacies: * Compulsory military service and organization of state militias into an organized federal army deployable beyond the nation's borders happened because of the Selective Service Act of 1917...

  6. War, terrorism and the public's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidel, Victor W

    2008-01-01

    War and terrorism, which are inseparable, cause death and disability, profound psychological damage, environmental destruction, disruption of the health infrastructure, refugee crises, and increased interpersonal, self-directed and collective violence. Weapons systems such as weapons of mass destruction and landmines have their own specific devastating effects. Preparation for war and preparedness for terrorism bring constraints on civil liberties and human rights, increase militarism, and divert resources from health care and from other needed services. War and terrorism may be best prevented through addressing their causes, which include limited resources, injustice, poverty and ethnic and religious enmity, and through strengthening the United Nations and the treaties controlling specific weapons systems, particularly weapons of mass destruction. In particular, the United States should cease its interference in the internal affairs of other nations and its advocacy of unilateral pre-emptive war.

  7. Sizing Post-Cold War Nuclear Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oelrich, I

    2001-01-01

    This study addresses the utility of, and need for, nuclear weapons a decade after the end of the Cold War with special focus on the numbers and types of nuclear weapons appropriate for particular requirements...

  8. Church and war: A change in hermeneutical stance among Pentecostals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Nel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At its inception and for the first 40 years of its existence, Pentecostalism was a pacifist movement preaching non-violence and non-retaliation. At the end of the Second World War, the movement changed its stance, in many instances without officially taking a decision at formal platforms, because of the changes that occurred when its members became socially and economically mobile and the movement strove to be accepted in society. The article argues that the changes were, however, essentially because of a change in its hermeneutical viewpoint that introduced a new climate within the movement, accompanied by various changes in viewpoint and practice. After the 1970s, several theologians within the Pentecostal movement formulated a hermeneutics that concurred to a large degree with the way early Pentecostals viewed and interpreted the Bible. This new hermeneutics allows Pentecostals to rethink their non-pacifist stance and the article argues the case for such a reconsideration.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: While the classical Pentecostal movement supported pacifism for the first 30 years of its existence, it changed its stance at the end of the Second World War because of new hermeneutical choices. Recent changes in hermeneutical viewpoint within (a part of the movement require that the ethical issue of pacifism be rethought if it does not want its witness about Jesus Christ as the source of peace to be compromised.

  9. Organization of Sisters of Mercy During World War One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribnaia Anna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the labour organization of Russian sisters of mercy during World War One. The author indicates two periods which took place before and after the February Revolution. Based on archive documents and offi cial publications the article describes general structure of Russian Red Cross Society institutions and basic principles of sisters of mercy communities’ work. It examines the rules of new sisters’ employment, their training, service assignment and professional duties. The emphasis is put on nurses’ work in wartime. During first years of war sisters’ position was stable. Due to specifi c hierarchy in the managing structure sisters’ work was productive and demanded. After the February Revolution the managing system changed drastically as well as the status of sisters of mercy and their reception in society. The author gives a thorough examination of sisters’ position after reorganization of Russian Red Cross Society. In time of political instability Russian sisters of mercy were able to organize themselves into one big organization thus creating All-Russian Union of Sisters of Mercy. This article for the first time ever implements into scientific research a huge amount of documents which allowed a signifi cant extension of views on Bolsheviks’ political approaches to Russian Red Cross Society and institution of sisters of mercy.

  10. Acute military psychiatric casualties from the war in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Mark A; Kiernan, Mathew D; McKechanie, Andrew G; Finch, Peter J C; McManus, Frank B; Neal, Leigh A

    2005-06-01

    The view that most military personnel evacuated from war zones are suffering from combat stress reactions, or are otherwise traumatised by the horrors of war, has an impact on all aspects of military psychiatry. To delineate the reasons for psychiatric aeromedical evacuation from Iraq from the start of build-up of UK forces in January 2003 until the end of October that year, 6 months after the end of formal hostilities. A retrospective study was conducted of field and in-patient psychiatric assessments of 116 military personnel evacuated to the UK military psychiatric in-patient facility in Catterick Garrison. Evacuees were mainly non-combatants (69%). A significant proportion were in reserve service (21%) and had a history of contact with mental health services (37%). Only 3% had a combat stress reaction. In over 85% of cases evacuation was for low mood attributed to separation from friends or family, or difficulties adjusting to the environment. These findings have implications especially for screening for suitability for deployment, and for understanding any longer-term mental health problems arising in veterans from Iraq.

  11. [Order of Malta during First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peureux, Laure; Dubourg, Olivier; Rousseau, Fra Emmanuel; Lefort, Hugues

    2014-06-01

    The sovereign Military Order of Malta is one of the oldest humanitarian organizations still existing today The First World War gave it the opportunity to prove its large knowledge of emergency medicine, under exceptional circumstances, from the front to the hospitals at the back of the front. On all parts of the European conflict the Order took care of more than 800 000 victims of the war.

  12. [German nurses during the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Franz

    2014-06-01

    Nurses from several German organisations participated in the First World War. For the most part, they did not work on the frontline but at the rear, in hospital trains, hospitals or refugee camps. They cared forwounded soldiers and faced epidemics of infectious diseases. The journal of the national association of nurses, which continued to be published during the war, provides a snapshot of their concerns and their questioning regarding the profession and its evolution.

  13. Cyberspace Operations: Influence Upon Evolving War Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t CYBERSPACE OPERATIONS: INFLUENCE UPON EVOLVING WAR THEORY BY COLONEL KRISTIN BAKER United States...DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cyberspace Operations: Influence Upon Evolving War Theory 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... Leadership 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S

  14. The Professional Military and War Toleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    conscription system and that any 1 Maurice Matloff, U.S. Army in WW2 : War Department, Strategic Planning Warfare, citation of interview with General George C...constraints in small wars when they have to maintain the conflicts “morally and in a less costly manner. Democracies can mobilize its technological edge to... British forces lowered public resistance to use of force, and helped the nation absorb the inevitable losses.38 This indicates that democracies with

  15. Theoreticalaspects ofinformation war and national security

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Shumka; P. H. Chernyk

    2015-01-01

    A wide and comprehensive analysis of methods of conducting information war to create an effective mechanism of counteraction has extremely important significance. Information warfare ­ acts committed to achieve information superiority in support of national military strategy due to the impact of information and information systems enemy while ensuring the security of its own information and information systems. Today the term «information war» is used in two areas: in the broadest sense ­ ...

  16. Structural Completeness in The War is Over

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that Nina Mimica's The War is Over achieves structural completeness on the basis of a number of choices regarding its visual style: shot scale, shot length, editing style and camera movement.  ar Udgivelsesdato: Autumn......This article argues that Nina Mimica's The War is Over achieves structural completeness on the basis of a number of choices regarding its visual style: shot scale, shot length, editing style and camera movement.  ar Udgivelsesdato: Autumn...

  17. Command and Control for War and Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    losing some of their autonomy -the time when advances in communications technology 17 Li _I COMMAND AND CONTROL FOR WAR AND PF.ACE were strengthening the...balances; Information and action, another, One of the most important-and most sen- sitive-is the balance between control and the com- mander’s autonomy ...89, 9, Cajus Bekker , Angriffshohe 4000 (1964); republished as The Ltuf•wffe War Diaries, trans, Frank Ziegler (New York: Bal- lantine Books, 1966

  18. ASSESSING SMALL SAMPLE WAR-GAMING DATASETS

    OpenAIRE

    W. J. HURLEY; R. N. FARRELL

    2013-01-01

    One of the fundamental problems faced by military planners is the assessment of changes to force structure. An example is whether to replace an existing capability with an enhanced system. This can be done directly with a comparison of measures such as accuracy, lethality, survivability, etc. However this approach does not allow an assessment of the force multiplier effects of the proposed change. To gauge these effects, planners often turn to war-gaming. For many war-gaming experiments, it i...

  19. boer war (1899–1902) studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ismith

    aspects of the Anglo Boer War that have not yet been researched (or properly researched). In terms of areas still to be researched, he contends that many fields have not yet been addressed and that “most of the theses on the Anglo-Boer War so. 1. This was the date, as far as Wessels could ascertain, when the first thesis on ...

  20. Gulf War Illness Inflammation Reduction Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0477 TITLE: Gulf War Illness Inflammation Reduction Trial PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ronald R. Bach, Ph.D...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Gulf War Illness Inflammation Reduction Trial 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0477 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...GWI). Elevated biomarkers of inflammation were observed in our pilot observational study of GWI. Thus, chronic inflammation appears to be part of

  1. Planning for War Termination with China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    tit-for- tat manner until the Chinese have suffered losses equal to those of the U.S. The U.S. could announce the targeting of the Chinese aircraft...2012). 76 William S. Murray and Gabriel S. Collins. "No Oil for the Lamps of China?" Naval War College Review, Spring 2008, Vol. 61, No. 2...Center for Air Force History, and Ronald H. Cole, (JCS Historical Division, February 14, 1992), Quoted in Williamson Murray , Air War, (Nautical

  2. Dermal Coverage of Traumatic War Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    healing/non-healing of wound and donor site • Graft loss • Heterotrophic ossification • Infection • Scar contracture • Durability (i.e. abrasions/ injuries ...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0004 TITLE: "Dermal Coverage of Traumatic War Wounds ” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Leon Nesti CONTRACTING...REPORT DATE January 2017 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 31 Oct 2012- 30 Oct 2016 " Dermal Coverage of Traumatic War Wounds ” 5a

  3. Preparing for One War and Getting Another?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    that deserves discussion is the FARC. According to some, it became a major political factor in Colom - bia only because the narcotics trade provided...definition of the concept. Moreover, when Joseph Stalin and Mao most de- sired a rapid and decisive campaign in the spring of 1951 to push United...War, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University, 1996. 20. Joseph Maiolo, Cry Havoc: How the Arms Race Drove the World to War 1931-1941, New York: Basic

  4. Preventing Nuclear War: What Physicians Can Achieve

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Don G.

    1986-01-01

    On its fifth anniversary, the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. The organization was conceived by two Boston cardiologists who joined with some Soviet colleagues to create an international forum for considering the medical consequences of and means for preventing nuclear war. This article by the organization's archivist documents its difficult progress yet remarkable growth. Overcoming serious obstacles has added to its strength and ...

  5. Exhaustion: The African Way of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-23

    1994 Rwandan genocide , which ultimately led to a Tutsi-controlled Rwandan government. The Rwandan Hutu fled to overcrowded refugee camps in then DRC...between Hutu and Tutsi created the conditions for the conflict. The Hutu-led Rwandan genocide was the result of historic tensions between the Hutu and...57-62: Christopher Williams, “Explaining the Great War in Africa,” 84-86. 78Gerard Prunier, Africa’s World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide , and

  6. Securing the Peace After Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    86 Luttwak, Edward N. “Give War a Chance.” Foreign Affairs 78, no. 4 (July/August 1999): 36. Mack , Andrew. “Successes and Challenges in Conflict...Chap. 9, In War and Underdevelopment, edited by Frances Stewart, Valpy Fitzgerald and Edmund Fitzgerald. Vol. 2, 240-2872001. McLaughlin, Sara ...America.” Third World Quarterly 20, no. 1 (February 1999): 51-69. Pei, Minxin and Sara Kasper. Lessons from the Past: The American Record on

  7. Wars in the history of rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Some important discoveries in the history of rheumatology happened during war periods. It is well known that arthritis associated with conjunctivitis and urethritis, following dysenteric episodes, has been described during the First World War from the German Hans Reiter and, nearly contemporarily, from the French Nöel Fiessinger and Edgar Leroy. Less known is instead the fact that the first cases of sympathetic algoneurodystrophy have been reported by the American Silas Weir Mitchell in soldiers wounded by fire-arms, during the Civil War of Secession. Other war episodes have been crucial for the development of some drugs now abundantly applied to the care of rheumatic diseases. The discovery of therapeutic effects of immunosuppressive agents, in fact, happened as an indirect consequence of the use of poison gas, already during the First World War (mustard gas, but above all after an episode in the port of Bari in 1943, where an American cargo boat was sunk. It had been loaded with a quantity of cylinders containing a nitrogenous mustard, whose diffusion in the environment provoked more than 80 deaths owing to bone marrow aplasia.Moreover, the history of the cortisone shows a strict link to the Second World War, when Germany imported large quantities of bovine adrenal glands from Argentina, with the purpose of producing some gland extracts for the Luftwasse aviators, in order to increase their performance ability.

  8. Children and war: risk, resilience, and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Emmy E

    2012-05-01

    This article reviews and reflects on studies that have explored the effects of war on children around the world. Most are cross-sectional and based on self-reports. They describe a range of mental health problems, related to dose effects and to the negative impact of being a victim or witness of violent acts, threats to and loss of loved ones, prolonged parental absence, and forced displacement. The more recent the exposure to war, and the older the child, the higher was the likelihood of reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Especially vulnerable to long-term emotional distress were child soldiers, children who were raped, and children who had been forcibly displaced. In adulthood, war-traumatized children displayed significantly increased risks for a wide range of medical conditions, especially cardiovascular diseases. Among protective factors that moderated the impact of war-related adversities in children were a strong bond between the primary caregiver and the child, the social support of teachers and peers, and a shared sense of values. Among the few documented intervention studies for children of war, school-based interventions, implemented by teachers or locally trained paraprofessionals, proved to be a feasible and low-cost alternative to individual or group therapy. More longitudinal research with multiple informants is needed to document the trajectories of risk and resilience in war-affected children, to assess their long-term development and mental health, and to identify effective treatment approaches.

  9. The War (on Terror) on Alzheimer's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Daniel R; Whitehouse, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    In the decade following the tragedies of 9/11, a US-led "War on Terror" has coincided with a US-led "War on Alzheimer's disease". Not only has the rhetoric from these two wars overlapped and produced similar practical and conceptual problems, the campaigns have also become interwoven through the emerging public health issue of war-related head injuries, as well as a shared neglect for environmental contributions to human suffering. This article first explores similarities in the framing and prosecution of both wars, and then considers the long-term consequences of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and traumatic environmental injuries (TEI) in the context of a society facing the increased prevalence of dementia. Ultimately, it is argued that addressing the challenges of cognitive aging and preventing violent social conflict both require a vernacular of higher ideals and values--as well as new language patterns rising out of the ecological movement--to trump the more expedient war rhetoric that has disproportionately marked public discourse around terrorism and Alzheimer's disease during the past decade.

  10. Creatureliness priming reduces aggression and support for war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyl, Matt; Hart, Joshua; Cooper, Douglas P; Heflick, Nathan; Goldenberg, Jamie; Pyszczynski, Tom

    2013-12-01

    Terror management theory (TMT) posits that humans distance themselves from, or elevate themselves above, other animals as a way of denying their mortality. The present studies assessed whether the salience of aggressive tendencies that humans share with other animals make thoughts of death salient and whether depicting human aggression as animalistic can mitigate aggressive behaviour and support for aggression. In Study 1, participants primed with human-animal similarities (i.e., human creatureliness) exhibited elevated death-thought accessibility (DTA) after hitting a punching bag. In Studies 2a and 2b, creatureliness priming caused participants to hit a punching bag with less frequency, perceived force, and comfort. In Study 3, participants primed to view violence as animalistic exhibited increased DTA and reported less support for war against Iran. These studies suggest that portraying violence as creaturely may reduce the intensity of aggressive actions and support for violent solutions to international conflicts. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Cold war, quantum foundations, and East-West collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaar-Jacobsen, Anja [Niels Bohr Archive, Copenhagen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    It is well-known that the cultural cold war changed the ideological line in the Soviet Union from the late 1940s and that this had serious implications for the autonomy of research in genetics and quantum foundations in the East bloc. However, besides the more narrow concern from the point of view of research in quantum foundations, I suggest that the ideological impact on quantum foundations also constituted an obstacle for attempts by Western physicists to bring about a rapprochement between physics in the east and west in general. In connection with re-establishing East-West co-operation between physicists after Stalin's death in 1953 this obstacle needed to be cleared away. In my talk I discuss these issues and how the Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen came to be an important meeting place for physicists from the East and West from the mid-1950s.

  12. C2 Rising: A Historical View of Our Critical Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    of six.11 In 1937 Tukhachevskii even conceptualized these C2 functions performed in the air, where a bird’s-eye view would offer maximum awareness to...terminology. • F1, orient shooters: increase shooter/sensor SA and threat warn- ing by providing SA. Battle management and ISR fusion tasks in this...this era seem to stumble upon the need for high-functioning C2 systems. Carrier war rooms, nuclear reactor control rooms, the National Military

  13. Wars of Ideas and the War of Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    dispute beyond the dialectical quest for knowledge into the baser realm of personal “score-settling.” Even more unfortunately, the timing of...Europe/ Radio Liberty. The remedy, then, according to this view, is to re-engage the world, especially the Arab -Muslim world, by revitalizing both...of conflict. • Armed with this knowledge, the U.S. military must consider revising its corpus of doctrine pertaining to information operations

  14. Influence of World Wars on the Development of International Law on War Prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorov Sergey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Regulations on laws and customs of land warfare of 1907 that existed during World War I did not protect war prisoners. The tragic experience forced us to return tothe problem of protection of the rights of the victims of war. The Geneva Convention on the war prisoners of 1929 was the first document of international law in which the status of war prisoners was determined in detail. The Soviet Union did not join the states which had signed the Convention, and during the World War II it was guided by its national legislation confirmed by the Soviet Government on July 1, 1941. On the whole, the items of the Regulations on War Prisoners adopted in 1941 corresponded to the Geneva Convention. But non-recognition of the international convention provided the heads of fascist Germany with the reason for inhuman treatment of the Soviet captives. Serious consequences of war compelled the world community to pay the closest attention to the issues of military captivity again. On August 12, 1949 in Geneva the Soviet Union joined the new Convention on prisoners.

  15. Major reproductive health characteristics in male Gulf War Veterans. The Danish Gulf War Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishøy, T; Andersson, A M; Suadicani, Poul Vilhelm

    2001-01-01

    The male reproductive system could have been affected by various hazardous agents and exposures during and in the aftermath of the Persian Gulf War scenario. We tested the hypothesis that, compared to controls, male Danish Gulf War Veterans would have adverse sex hormone levels, decreased fertility...

  16. The War on War League: A South African pacifist movement, 1914 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The outbreak of the First World War divided the South African Labour Party, a movement representing the country's white working class. The party's parliamentary delegation supported South African government's participation in the war effort, but many leadership figures within the party and the trade unions disagreed with ...

  17. Between Doomsday and Dismissal; Collective Defence, Cyber War and the Parameters of War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyvesteyn, Isabelle|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/224211889

    2014-01-01

    Cyber operations, the ‘fifth dimension’ of warfare, is a contentious issue in scientific debates. This article analyzes two opposing theoretical frameworks about cyber war: ‘doomsday or dismissal’. Some scholars argue that cyber Armageddon will be upon us, while others claim cyber war does not even

  18. Learning on 'the job': Dutch war volunteers entering the Indonesian war of independence, 1945-49

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, P.; Luttikhuis, B.; Moses, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses the recruitment and first deployment of Dutch ‘war volunteers’ as a part of the effort to restore colonial authority in Indonesia in the aftermath of the Second World War. The central issue is how these men, who had joined the armed resistance against the German occupier of

  19. War and Peace in Literature. Prose, Drama and Poetry Which Illuminate the Problem of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougall, Lucy, Comp.

    Literary works that will help teachers of humanities and conflict resolution courses lead their students to a better understanding of the problems of war and peace are summarized. The document is based on two premises: (1) literature that captures the experience and the meaning of war leads to an understanding of that phenomenon, and (2) the…

  20. Perceptions about civil war in Central Africa: Can war be justified or solve problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitambala Lumbu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Civil war and ethnic violence are major problems in Central Africa and have caused the death and displacement of millions of people over the years. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of religious leaders, lecturers and students in theology at various tertiary institutions in Central Africa with regard to civil war in the region. A structured questionnaire was used to investigate participants� perceptions about and attitudes towards civil war. The questionnaire was completed by 1 364 participants who originated or lived in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC and Rwanda. The results of the study illustrated the severe effect that civil wars had on the participants or their families and further indicated that Rwandans, Tutsis and males were more inclined toward justifying wars and seeing them as solutions for problems. The role of the Church in countering these perceptions is discussed.

  1. The Activities and Attitudes of Armenian-Georgian Troops which Affected the Course of Kösedağ War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÖZMENLİ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The events which occurred during the course of the War of Kösedağ at which the Seljuk Empire of Turkey met the armies under the command of the Mongolian Baycu Noyan are one of the major happenings to be examined in terms of their consequences, ever recorded in Turkish History. Prior to the war, the Seljuks of Turkey were traumatized because of internal rebellions. The Mongol Army gained an easy victory because of the incorrect decisions made Sultan Gıyaseddin Kaykhusraw II from the beginning of the war and of the negative roles of those involved in the war. Anatolia, which was like paradise and whose inhabitants experienced a kind of idyllic bliss and happiness under the administration of The Seljuks, was invaded by the Mongolian army, which advanced facing no resistance and caused mischief on the earth. The sources concerned indicate that the relationship between the Turks, the Armenians and the Georgians coincided with the entrance of the Seljuks into Anatolia. The Armenians, who lived under oppression and tyranny under the administration of the Byzantine Empire, met and viewed the Seljucks as their liberators. However, the Christians during the Crusades provoked and instigated both the Armenians and sometimes the Georgians against the Turks. The Armenians, who captured the Çukurova Region with the help of the Crusaders, established a barony here. During the reign of Alaeddin Keykubâd and İzzeddin Keykavus, the Sultans of the Seljuks of Turkey, the Seljuks made the Armenians subjected to them, but the Armenians did not keep their promise during the war of Kösedağ in 1243. The study focuses on the effects of the course of Armenian and Georgian forces, which played a role in the War of Kösedağ, upon the course of the war. The study also deals, in brief, with the role the statesmen of the Seljuks played in the defeat. Different historical sources written in such various languages as Arabic, Syrian, Armenian, Persian and Georgian on the

  2. Krieg und Literatur War and Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfi N. Theis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Schreiben gegen Krieg und Gewalt heißt der Band 19 der Schriften-Reihe des Erich-Maria-Remarque-Archivs, in dem es um Ingeborg Bachmann und die deutschsprachige Literatur 1945-1980 geht. Der Band enthält die Beiträge zu einem Symposion, das am 14.-15. Januar 2005 an der Universität Nottingham stattgefunden hat. Im Mittelpunkt stand die Frage, welche Strategien im Umgang mit Nationalsozialismus, Holocaust, zweitem Weltkrieg, Kaltem Krieg oder Vietnamkrieg und auch dem deutschen Kolonialismus bei Bachmann und anderen deutschsprachigen Autoren zu finden sind. Anlass zur Tagung war die in Wien und Salzburg konzipierte Ausstellung Schreiben gegen den Krieg: Ingeborg Bachmann, 1926-1973. In insgesamt dreizehn Beiträgen wird im vorliegenden Band die literarische Auseinandersetzung mit dem Thema Gewalt und Krieg beleuchtet.Volume 19 of the series published by the Erich-Maria-Remarque Archive is entitled “Writing against War and Violence” (“Schreiben gegen Krieg und Gewalt” and approaches Ingeborg Bachmann and German language literature from 1945 to 1980. The volume contains contributions based on a symposium that took place at the University of Nottingham on January 14-15, 2005. Central to the symposium was the question as to which strategies Bachmann and other German language authors utilized in their approach to National Socialism, the Holocaust, the Second World War, the Cold War, or the Vietnam War, as well as German colonialism. The impetus for the conference was the exhibition Writing Against the War: Ingeborg Bachmann, 1926-1973 conceived in Vienna and Salzburg. In the volume at hand, thirteen contributions in total illuminate literary confrontations with the themes of war and violence.

  3. The Globar War: The EU’s Apple Tax Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rougé Jean-François

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is often said that globalization is just a new form of war between nations; an economic war. It is also a tax war; fiscal policies are a central point of the competition for territories’ attractiveness (ROUGÉ et CHOPOV 2016. But the global tax war is not only another form of interstates conflict; it is also a brand new kind of war between global firms and state to share the burden of civil society. The aim of this paper is to clarify what is at stake in this war to be able to fight it.

  4. Wars and Suicides in Israel, 1948–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oron (Ostre), Israel

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the characteristics of suicides which occurred during the existential and the non-existential wars in Israel. It provides a first approximation of whether the suicide patterns in each war are consistent with the findings of Morselli and Durkheim, and whether their theoretical interpretations can serve as a preliminary guideline to explaining the Israeli case, which is characterized by short periods of war, social integration during some of the non-existential wars, and a sharp rise in post-war male suicide rates following all of the existential wars. Implications for further studies on the subject in Israel and elsewhere are discussed. PMID:22754482

  5. Wars and suicides in Israel, 1948-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oron Ostre, Israel

    2012-05-01

    This paper reports the characteristics of suicides which occurred during the existential and the non-existential wars in Israel. It provides a first approximation of whether the suicide patterns in each war are consistent with the findings of Morselli and Durkheim, and whether their theoretical interpretations can serve as a preliminary guideline to explaining the Israeli case, which is characterized by short periods of war, social integration during some of the non-existential wars, and a sharp rise in post-war male suicide rates following all of the existential wars. Implications for further studies on the subject in Israel and elsewhere are discussed.

  6. The face that launched a thousand ships: the mating-warring association in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lei; Lu, Hui Jing; Li, Hongli; Li, Tong

    2011-07-01

    Questions about origins of human warfare continue to generate interesting theories with little empirical evidence. One of the proposed explanations is sexual selection theory. Within and supportive of this theoretical framework, the authors demonstrate a mating-warring association among young heterosexual men in four experiments. Male, but not female, participants exposed to attractive, as compared to unattractive, opposite-sex photographs were significantly more likely to endorse war-supporting statements on a questionnaire. The same mating effect was not found in answering trade conflict questions. Male participants primed by attractive faces or legs of young women were significantly faster in responding to images or words of war than those primed by unattractive faces or national flags. The same mating effect was not found in responding to farming concepts or general aggression expressions. Results underscore the link between mating and war, supporting the view that sexual selection provides an ultimate explanation for the origins of human warfare. © 2011 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc

  7. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    His career was. 'suitably varied as well. He took part in both. World Wars and was severely wounded in the first, acquiring a reputation as 'the bravest and dirtiest officer in [the British] army'. He taught and researched for a decade apiece in the three acknowledged centres of British academe :- Oxford, Cambridge, and the.

  8. Civil war and male infertility in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobeissi, Loulou; Inhorn, Marcia C; Hannoun, Antoine B; Hammoud, Najwa; Awwad, Johnny; Abu-Musa, Antoine A

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the long-term impacts of the 15-year Lebanese civil war on male infertility. Clinic-based, case-control study, using reproductive history and risk factor interview data and laboratory-based semen analysis. Two IVF clinics in Beirut, Lebanon, during an 8-month period (January-August 2003). One hundred twenty infertile male cases and 100 fertile male controls, distinguished by semen analysis and reproductive history. None. Standard clinical semen analysis. Infertile male cases were more likely than fertile controls to have lived through the Lebanese civil war and to have experienced war-related trauma (residence in bombing areas, participation in combat, injuries, kidnapping, and displacement from home). Cases had a 57% increase in their odds of exposure to civil war-related trauma. This case-control study demonstrates an association between the Lebanese civil war and male infertility. Wartime and postwar exposure to a number of potential reproductive risk factors-including toxins, injuries, and stress-is believed to be the main factor leading to this finding.

  9. Physics in WWI: Fighting the Acoustic War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevles, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    World War I was the first high-technology war, and when the United States began to prepare for it in 1915 the federal government turned to the storied inventor Thomas Edison. Edison formed a board that included industrial executives and engineers but only one physicist, its members holding that they wanted people who would do things and not just talk about them. However, in 1916, the nation's scientists managed to create a place for themselves in the preparedness effort by organizing the National Research Council under the National Academy of Sciences. Once the United States went to war, in April 1917, the NRC brought academic and industrial physicists together in efforts to detect incoming aircraft, submerged submarines, and the location of long-range artillery. The efforts employed devices that relied in the main on the detection and identification of sound waves from these weapons. The devices were passive responders, but they were marked by increasing sophistication and enabled the United States and its allies to prosecute an acoustic war. That branch of the war was militarily effective, overshadowed the work of Edison's group, and gained physicists high standing among leaders in both the military and industry.

  10. Historical Development of War Stress Reaction Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Nahit Ozmenler

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The battles that have come to this day had spectacular psychologic and psychiatric effects. Battle stres reactions in historical development phase has been mentioned with such different names as nostalgia, shell shock, soldier’s heart, Da Costra Syndrome, old sergeant syndrome, agent orange effect and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD due to the symptoms coming into prominence. On the othere hand they do tend to show similarities (palpilation, stomach complaints, rhomatizmal aches, neurological and psychiatric symptoms, etc. in the context of symptoms and findigs. During the historical phase, the transition of methods have also infliuenced the prominent clinical characteristics of the war stress syndromes. The symptoms that arose during the gulf War have exhibited neither similarities nor explainable characteristics with previous war stress reactions of the past. Therefore, in the context of diagnostics systems, there is no clarity about where it should be incorporated. The inability to find any satisfactory organic pathology in war stress reactions have been the unchanging characteristic of the illness. In collaboration with the increasing mortality and morbidity that arise in wars it is not only an important factor but the resistance of patients, who had been effected, to amelioration is continuing to be an important concern which preoccupies governments, military authorities and doctors. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(1.000: 63-70

  11. Mobile radiography units in Balkan Wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantis, Aristidis; Magiorkinis, E

    2016-02-01

    It is known that the first radiological units were widely used during war conflicts, whereas the first application of military radiology took place during the Greco-Turkish War in 1897. However, until recently automobile radiology units were assumed to be used for the first time during World War I. Historical archives and reports were researched, and extensive research in available literature was also conducted. The automobile radiology units were purchased from France and were probably constructed under the guidance of Marie Curie (1867-1934). The figure of Dr. Dimitrios Vasilidis (?-1937), a pioneer in Radiology in Greece and the first president of the Hellenic Radiological Society, is highlighted. This short historical note describes the first use of a mobile radiology unit during the Balkan Wars (1912-1913), predating its previously presumed first use in World War I. It also briefly highlights the contributions of some notable figures in 20th Century Greek scientific development. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Pharmacy in the American Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, G R

    2000-03-01

    The role of pharmacists and the process of military drug supply in the American Civil War are described. Most raw drugs used in the United States in the mid-1800s were imported. During the Civil War, imports into the North continued, but the Union blockade forced the Confederacy to obtain medicines through means such as smuggling, capture of enemy supplies, and processing of indigenous medicinal plants. Medical supplies for Civil War troops were typically purchased by military physicians called medical purveyors and sometimes by pharmacists serving as acting medical purveyors. In the latter half of the war, U.S. Army medical laboratories, in which many pharmacists were employed, inspected purchases, repackaged supplies bought in bulk, and manufactured medicines from raw materials. The Confederacy also had medical laboratories, which were primarily responsible for manufacturing medicines from indigenous plant material but also inspected drugs that had been smuggled into the South. At a few large Union medical depots, pharmacists called medical storekeepers assumed many of the responsibilities of medical purveyors by receiving, storing, issuing, and accounting for supplies. Noncommissioned officers called hospital stewards assumed diverse duties that included dispensing drugs prescribed by military physicians. Although many hospital stewards were pharmacists or physicians, others had no previous pharmaceutical experience. Civilian pharmacists were employed in the medical laboratories and in military general hospitals. Pharmacists participated in nearly every aspect of military drug supply during the Civil War.

  13. Beyond Pathologizing Harm: Understanding PTSD in the Context of War Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Patricia; Halpern, Jodi; Gordon, Deborah R; Popell, Catherine Long; Kelley, Patricia W

    2018-03-01

    An alternative to objectifying approaches to understanding Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) grounded in hermeneutic phenomenology is presented. Nurses who provided care for soldiers injured in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, and sixty-seven wounded male servicemen in the rehabilitation phase of their recovery were interviewed. PTSD is the one major psychiatric diagnosis where social causation is established, yet PTSD is predominantly viewed in terms of the usual neuro-physiological causal models with traumatic social events viewed as pathogens with dose related effects. Biologic models of causation are applied reductively to both predisposing personal vulnerabilities and strengths that prevent PTSD, such as resiliency. However, framing PTSD as an objective disease state separates it from narrative historical details of the trauma. Personal stories and cultural meanings of the traumatic events are seen as epiphenomenal, unrelated to the understanding of, and ultimately, the therapeutic treatment of PTSD. Most wounded service members described classic symptoms of PTSD: flashbacks, insomnia, anxiety etc. All experienced disturbance in their sense of time and place. Rather than see the occurrence of these symptoms as decontextualized mechanistic reverberations of war, we consider how these symptoms meaningfully reflect actual war experiences and sense of displacement experienced by service members.

  14. Photographic Histories of the Civil War and the First World War and Rebirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Meigs

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article compares The Photographic History of the Civil War published in 1912, with A Photographic History of the First World War, published in 1933. The author is looking for similarities in the reworking of interpretations of war photography after the war and discovers that the photographs in conjunction with their editing can be made to cover up as much as they reveal. The Photographic History of the Civil War, published at the height of the Jim Crow era, with its hugely elaborate editorial structure, manages to deny the importance of slavery to the war and the importance of freed slaves afterwards. Even photographs of the dead of Gettysburg take on a meaning more appropriate to 1912 than to the event that produced them. The comparatively direct A Photographic History of the First World War, manages loyalty only to the thought of the author at the moment of its publication. Other interpretations were possible at other times as the author editor followed literary fashion and history.

  15. War and deforestation in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Robin; Miguel, Edward; Stanton, Charlotte

    2015-09-01

    The impact of armed conflict on the environment is of major public policy importance. We use a geographically disaggregated dataset of civil war violence together with satellite imagery of land cover to test whether war facilitated or prevented forest loss in Sierra Leone. The conflict data set allows us to establish where rebel groups were stationed and where battles and attacks occurred. The satellite data enables to us to monitor the change in forest cover (total, primary, and secondary) in all of Sierra Leone’s 151 chiefdoms, between 1990 (prior to the war) and 2000 (just prior to its end). The results suggest that conflict in Sierra Leone acted as a brake on local deforestation: conflict-ridden areas experienced significantly less forest loss relative to their more conflict-free counterparts.

  16. The public health implications of resource wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klare, Michael T; Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2011-09-01

    Competition for resources between or within nations is likely to become an increasingly common cause of armed conflict. Competition for petroleum is especially likely to trigger armed conflict because petroleum is a highly valuable resource whose supply is destined to contract. Wars fought over petroleum and other resources can create public health concerns by causing morbidity and mortality, damaging societal infrastructure, diverting resources, uprooting people, and violating human rights. Public health workers and the organizations with which they are affiliated can help prevent resource wars and minimize their consequences by (1) promoting renewable energy and conservation, (2) documenting the impact of past and potential future resource wars, (3) protecting the human rights of affected noncombatant civilian populations during armed conflict, and (4) developing and advocating for policies that promote peaceful dispute resolution.

  17. Adverse health consequences of the Iraq War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2013-03-16

    The adverse health consequences of the Iraq War (2003-11) were profound. We conclude that at least 116,903 Iraqi non-combatants and more than 4800 coalition military personnel died over the 8-year course. Many Iraqi civilians were injured or became ill because of damage to the health-supporting infrastructure of the country, and about 5 million were displaced. More than 31,000 US military personnel were injured and a substantial percentage of those deployed suffered post-traumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, and other neuropsychological disorders and their concomitant psychosocial problems. Many family members of military personnel had psychological problems. Further review of the adverse health consequences of this war could help to minimise the adverse health consequences of, and help to prevent, future wars. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Conflict and Conscience: Ideological War and the Albigensian Crusade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bauer, John W

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is a case study on ethics within war. The 13th century Albigensian Crusade was a war against a heretical religious ideology known as Catharism whose tenets threatened the social order of Europe...

  19. Assets, Activity Choices, and Civil War: Evidence from Burundi

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bundervoet, Tom

    2010-01-01

    .... Exploiting the differential degree in asset risk related to the spatial intensity of the civil war, we find that higher asset holdings do not induce households in the war regions to reduce investment...

  20. Designing an interactive multimedia instructional environment: The Civil War Interactive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles S. White

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the rationales behind the design decisions made in creating The Civil War Interactive, an interactive multimedia instructional product based on Ken Burns''s film series The Civil War.

  1. Ford's War on Inflation: A Metaphor That Did Not Cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzner, Hermann G.

    1977-01-01

    Examines former President Ford's consistent use of the war metaphor in an attempt to explain the domestic problem of inflation and posits various reasons for the war metaphor's failure to be accepted by the American public. (MH)

  2. The Effects of Protracted War on Representative Government

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wiersema, Richard E

    2005-01-01

    ... war against transnational terrorism. The paper presents a theory that posits the mechanisms by which protracted war may have demonstrated its corrosive effect on representative government, examines 3 historical case studies, then posits...

  3. Waging War for Peace: Anwar Sadat's October 1973 Offensive

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Allaf, Mohammed F; Shaw, Patrick M; McMullen, Christopher J

    2001-01-01

    Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat's decision to go to war against Israel in 1973 was based on a coherent, consistent, and well-crafted strategy that effectively employed limited war to achieve clearly...

  4. Mitigating Key Intelligence Gaps In Colombian War On Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goebel, Jefferey

    2003-01-01

    Successfully transitioning from a war on drugs to a war on terrorism in Colombia is a national security concern for the United States and poses significant operational readiness challenges for USSOUTHCOM...

  5. The development of Roman imperial attitudes and the Iberian Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W. Bane

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available Rome’s behaviour in the Iberian Wars and its ideological influence at home is studied. The author states that these wars abroad provided an important motivation for the rethinking of Roman imperial policy.

  6. Lessons from the Boer war | de Jong | Scientia Militaria: South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Review of: Jay Stone and Erwin A. Schmidl, The Boer War and Military reforms, Volume 28 of the series "War and Society of East Central Europe", University Press of America, Lanham: New York - London, 1988, 345 pp.

  7. Saddam Hussein's Grand Strategy During the Iran-Iraq War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jensen, Kurtis; Klunder, Matthew

    2001-01-01

    Upon selection of the topic of the Iran-Iraq War, we initially prepared to support the position that Saddam Hussein had carefully utilized all the principles of statecraft and chose war only as his last resort...

  8. War Isn’t Hell, It’s Entertainment: 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    The interdisciplinary anthology War Isn’t Hell, It’s Entertainment analyses the relationship between war and the military on the one hand, and, on the other hand, entertainment, fiction, visual media, and cultural products. It examines war and film stars; war and films; war memorials; war...

  9. Authorities to Use US Military Force Since the Passage of the 1973 War Powers Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    citizen were asked to list their country’s wars since the revolution in 1776, most would likely cite the Civil War, the two world wars, perhaps the...wars in Korea and Vietnam and, of course, our contemporary wars on terror in Iraq and Afghanistan. Some might even name the War of 1812, the Mexican

  10. Comparison of domestic and war ocular injuries during the Lebanese Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmad M; Zein, Wadih M; Sibai, Tarek A; Mehio-Sibai, Abla; Ismail, Hussein; Orm, Sawsan Bu

    2009-01-01

    To examine the differences between war and domestic ocular injuries during the Lebanese Civil War in terms of baseline characteristics, treatment provided and prognosis. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of subjects with traumatic ocular injuries referred to a major medical center from 1980 to 1996. The variables were tabulated according to the international classification of ocular trauma. Compared to domestic ocular injuries, war injuries were significantly more likely to include males (84.7 vs. 75.1%) and adults (72.7 vs. 39.1%), concomitant systemic injury (43.7 vs. 10.1%), and bilateral ocular affection (19.3 vs. 4.4%). Also, patients with war injuries had significantly worse initial and final visual acuities, less visual improvement (28.6 vs. 44.8%), and more intraocular foreign bodies (42.9 vs. 11%), the majority being metallic removed via an electric magnet. Moreover, war injuries had significantly more posterior scleral involvement 5 mm behind the limbus (25.2 vs. 11.6%) with more secondary retinal detachment (10.3 vs. 4.8%) and vitreous hemorrhage (36.6 vs. 17.1%). Primary evisceration was performed significantly more frequently in war injuries (24.0%) than in domestic injuries (7.7%). During the Lebanese Civil War, war injuries compared to domestic ones were severer resulting in more enucleation/evisceration and more retinal detachment, tended to be bilateral, and were accompanied by concurrent systemic injuries and less visual recovery. Wearing special glasses and imposing an international arms embargo are recommended to decrease ocular injuries and blinding consequences in potential future wars. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. War on Drugs Policing and Police Brutality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Hannah L F

    2015-01-01

    War on Drugs policing has failed to reduce domestic street-level drug activity: the cost of drugs remains low and drugs remain widely available. In light of growing attention to police brutality in the United States, this paper explores interconnections between specific War on Drugs policing strategies and police-related violence against Black adolescents and adults in the United States. This paper reviews literature about (1) historical connections between race/ethnicity and policing in the United States; (2) the ways that the War on Drugs eroded specific legal protections originally designed to curtail police powers; and (3) the implications of these erosions for police brutality targeting Black communities. Policing and racism have been mutually constitutive in the United States. Erosions to the 4th Amendment to the Constitution and to the Posse Comitatus Act set the foundations for two War on Drugs policing strategies: stop and frisk and Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams. These strategies have created specific conditions conducive to police brutality targeting Black communities. Conclusions/Importance: War on Drugs policing strategies appear to increase police brutality targeting Black communities, even as they make little progress in reducing street-level drug activity. Several jurisdictions are retreating from the War on Drugs; this retreat should include restoring rights originally protected by the 4th Amendment and Posse Comitatus. While these legal changes occur, police chiefs should discontinue the use of SWAT teams to deal with low-level nonviolent drug offenses and should direct officers to cease engaging in stop and frisk.

  12. The Origins of Operational Depth in the First World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    obstacles served as fundamental barriers to employing fires in depth. The duty of the artillery was to assist the infantry to achieve fire...experience, logistical barriers , and political pressure to amalgamate its army. Prior to the entry into the war, the United States’ operational thought and...195 Lengel, To Conquer Hell : the Meuse-Argonne, 1918 the Epic Battle That Ended the First World War, 61. 196 Coffman, The War to End All Wars: the

  13. The Implications of Preemptive and Preventive War Doctrines: A Reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Unfortunately, this rejection of politically motivated violence has taken root only unevenly around the world. Almost nowhere, save possibly among the older...conventional levers of diplomacy—the routine arrangements of commercial life—suddenly seemed arrayed as a continuum with violence . At the same time, it...preventive war. 49 1. Preventive war is war, and preventive warfare is warfare. It is not a distinctive genus of war and warfare. The distinguishing

  14. Star Wars and the History of Transmedia Storytelling

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    The collection places Star Wars at the center of those studies’ projects by examining video games, novels and novelizations, comics, advertising practices, television shows, franchising models, aesthetic and economic decisions, fandom and cultural responses, and other aspects of Star Wars and its world-building in their multiple contexts of production, distribution, and reception. In emphasizing that Star Wars is both a media franchise and a transmedia storyworld, Star Wars and the History of...

  15. War In Chechnya: Implications for Russian Security Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Tsypkin, Mikhail; Arutiunov, Sergei A.; Belkin, Alexander A.; Felgenhauer, Pavel; Shlykov, Vitaly V.; Averchev, Vladimir P.

    1996-01-01

    Features papers from the War in Chechnya Conference, which was held at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California on November 7 and 8, 1995. Includes discussions on the consequences of the war, the impact on civil-military relations, and the implications for military reform. Introductions and acknowledgements Mikhail Tsypkin. -- Ch. 1. Possible consequences of the Chechnya War for the general situation in the Caucasus. Sergei A. Arutiunov. -- Ch. 2. War in Chechnya: the impact on c...

  16. World War I in the Balkans, 1914-1918 – Third Balkan War?

    OpenAIRE

    MIKIETYŃSKI, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    I would like to moot the question of the significance of the World War 1 in the reference to the Balkan Peninsula. I think, that we need to consider, why South-Eastern Europe became again the area of bloody war after only one year of relative peace. The wording “Third Balkan War” (with the question-mark) is the introduction to more serious and much more detailed historical and political debate. The most important battles of World War 1 took place in the northern France and along vast Eastern...

  17. The environmental effects of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCracken, M.C.

    1988-09-01

    Substantial environmental disruption will significantly add to the disastrous consequences caused by the direct thermal, blast, and radiological effects brought on by a major nuclear war. Local fallout could cover several percent of the Northern Hemisphere with potentially lethal doses. Smoke from post-nuclear fires could darken the skies and induce temperature decreases of tens of degrees in continental interiors. Stratospheric ozone could be significantly reduced due to nitric oxide injections and smoke-induced circulation changes. The environmental effects spread the consequences of a nuclear war to the world population, adding to the potentially large disruptive effects a further reason to avoid such a catastrophe. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Media Power and the Transformation of War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Franco, Chiara

    Do the news media have any role in the transformation of war and warfare? A constellation of labels by academics and practitioners have been coined in the last twenty years to describe the new forms of a phenomenon as old as the human race. However, this book claims that it remains to be fully...... and focusing on the role of television, this book recognises the importance of interactions upon the understanding of any social phenomenon. It suggests that the nature of war is changing partly because it is no longer just a matter of linear strategic interactions but also, and mainly, of 'mediated' ones....

  19. Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0593 TITLE: Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ashok Tuteja, M.D...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0593 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6 . AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...ABSTRACT The overall objective of the study is to determine whether probiotic VSL#3® will improve 1) intestinal symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and 2

  20. Mapping Anomalous Democracies During the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    During the Cold War, a number of countries established stable democracies despite low levels of modernization and a relative lack of democratic neighbour countries—factors otherwise consistently related to the endurance of democracy. Meanwhile, the Cold War superpowers often supported autocracies...... of democratic stability. However, so far no-one has attempted to systematically identify deviant democracies before 1989. This research note does so via a large-N analysis of 125 countries during the first part of the third wave of democratization, i.e., in the period 1975-1988. 11 deviant democracies...

  1. Can Old Regimes Handle New Wars?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Troels

    Research on New Wars argues that since the 1980s states and regimes have become more vulnerable to violence from non-state actors. Two developments in the Sahel region support the New Wars thesis: an increase in Islamist radicalization and new access to the global black market, both of which......, the paper finds that regimes in the Sahel region are still able to cope with the rise in non-state threats. The paper first shortly compares the longevity of the present regimes in the Sahel region to all previous ones, second examines in-depth how Chad and Mali fight the insurgents. Findings are that since...

  2. Persisting nutritional neuropathy amongst former war prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, G V; Bell, D R

    1982-01-01

    Of 898 former Far East prisoners of war, assessed between 1968 and 1981, 49 (5.5%) had evidence of persisting symptomatic neurological disease dating back to their periods of malnutrition in captivity. The commonest syndromes were peripheral neuropathy (often of "burning foot" type), optic atrophy, and sensori-neural deafness. Though nutritional neuropathies disappeared soon after release in most ex-Far East prisoners of war, in some they have persisted up to 36 years since exposure to the nutritional insult. PMID:6292369

  3. On Waging War to Punish Wrongdoers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarvad, Ib Martin

    2005-01-01

    When someone shall prepare to kill strangers as in war it helps to make one’s opponents into wrongdoers to be punished. Grotius -perhaps wrongly- attacked Victoria for denying punitive war and claimed that even if there was no global criminal code then there was a natural right to punish wrongdoers......, as Locke later repeated. Grotius performed a detailed analysis of the concept of punishment combining consequentialist and deontological arguments with his particular version of Christianity resulting in a very narrow applicability of this natural right. I shall argue that the natural law concept...

  4. War, suffering and modern German history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Randall

    2011-01-01

    This introduction proceeds in five steps. First, it briefly considers the etymology of the term "suffering," as well as the way in which scholars from different disciplines have approached it conceptually and empirically. Second, drawing on the contributions to this issue, it raises general themes emerging from the study of the Thirty Years, Franco-Prussian and First World Wars, with particular attention to gender, the disabled, and Jewish-German veterans. Finally, it considers the most politically contested field of German suffering - the Second World War - and reflects on how that suffering can be narrated and understood without running into the intellectual dead ends of either self-pity or collective guilt.

  5. Portuguese man-of-war envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, M B

    1992-02-01

    Portuguese man-of-war and jellyfish stings are common occurrence in the coastal waters of the southern United States. Signs and symptoms of Portuguese man-of-war envenomation usually appear immediately following a sting but may be delayed for several hours. Reactions are commonly localized and comprise pain, paresthesia, and intense burning with a linear, red, papular eruption or urticaria at the contact site. Systemic signs may include nausea, myalgia, headache, chills, or pallor. Cardiovascular collapse and death have been reported. Venom can be inactivated with dilute acetic acid (vinegar), proteolytic meat tenderizer, or baking soda. Tentacle debris should be removed. Resolution of symptoms usually occurs within 72 hours, without sequelae.

  6. Hanoi and the American War: Two International Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C. Stewart

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pierre Asselin, Hanoi’s Road to the Vietnam War, 1954-1965. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013. 319 pp. $55 (cloth Lien-Hang T. Nguyen, Hanoi’s War: An International History of the War for Peace in Vietnam. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2012. 444 pp. $34.95 (cloth.

  7. Fostering Response to Vietnam War Literature through the Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a unit on the literature of the Vietnam War (part of a college course called "Twentieth Century War Literature") which uses the arts to enhance student learning. Discusses activities and assignments in which students create visual representations, conduct research, and prepare oral reports on the Vietnam War literature they…

  8. The World War II Era and Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

    2012-01-01

    International revulsion at the violation of human rights during World War II helped spark a global movement to define and protect individual human rights. Starting with the creation of war crimes tribunals after the war, this newfound awareness stimulated a concerted international effort to establish human rights for all, both in periods of war…

  9. 20 CFR 404.1312 - World War II service included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the United...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1313 World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service of the United...

  11. The lifelong struggle of Finnish World War II veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivala, Sirkka; Sarvimäki, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    In many countries veterans from World War II are growing old. Research has shown that war experiences continue to impact those who have been involved in war for a long time. The present study targets old injured war veterans from World War II in Finland. The aim of this study was to produce knowledge of the impact of war experiences and injuries on the lifespan of Finnish war veterans. The method used was grounded theory. Data were collected by interviewing 20 aged war veterans in their homes. The analysis resulted in four categories, with also subcategories: (1) lost childhood and youth; (2) war traumas impacting life; (3) starting life from scratch; and (4) finding one's own place. A substantive theory of war veterans' lifelong struggle for freedom throughout the lifespan was outlined. The war overshadowed the whole lifespan of the veterans, but in old age they finally felt free. Since war experiences vary depending on historical context, a formal theory would require additional research.

  12. The Coming of Age of the Civil War Novel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James

    2004-01-01

    The Civil War novel for children has come of age. Although Civil War novels with little substance remain in print, more recent novels are serious in tone and readily available for classroom use. This article briefly summarizes a few Civil War novels that would be good in the classroom.

  13. War and Dissent: The Political Values of the American Professoriate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Gordon; Shepherd, Gary

    1994-01-01

    A national survey of 657 college faculty investigated political attitudes at the beginning of the Persian Gulf War (1991). To test hypotheses about the effects of age and cohort variables on faculty political values, reactions to the Gulf War were correlated with indicators of opposition to or support for the Vietnam War. (Author/MSE)

  14. Psychological Assessment of Aviators Captured in World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutker, Patricia B.; Allain, Albert N.

    1995-01-01

    Psychological assessments were administered to 33 World War II aviators who had been prisoners of war (POWs). Aviators showed fewer effects of captivity than age-similar, generally less well-educated, nonaviator POWs, but appeared less psychologically robust than Vietnam War POWs. Implications for the measurement of psychopathology are discussed.…

  15. TURNER LECTURE Military education and the study of War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    class and requiring the mastery of a specified body of knowledge are mostly the result of modem technology. .... Vietnam War. At its conclusion, an eager young participant leapt to his feet and declared that the .... complex in the aftermath of the Cold War's end, and with war unlikely to disappear as a means of regulating ...

  16. Ending War and Making Peace in Scandinavia, 1814–1848

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Morten Nordhagen

    2016-01-01

    The Napoleonic wars had a tremendous impact on the Scandinavian countries. Political and social upheaval and economic disruption ensured that ending war was no straightforward or rapid process. For traumatized veterans and those who had lost a husband or father, war never quite ended, to say...

  17. new perspectives on southern africa's late cold war conflicts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hennie

    former proxy of South Africa, continued the civil war for another dozen years. The landmines remained. In many towns and villages in Angola the maimed and the wounded are still to be seen. In the northern part of Namibia (then called South West Africa) the bush war (or border war) against SWAPO raged since the 1960s.

  18. 19 CFR 145.53 - Firearms and munitions of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Firearms and munitions of war. 145.53 Section 145.53 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... munitions of war. Importations of firearms, munitions of war, and related articles are subject to the import...

  19. 77 FR 18307 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... addressing 1990-1991 Gulf War Veterans' illnesses. The GWVI-TF published its first annual report in September... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force Report AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) established the Gulf War Veterans...

  20. Protection of the Environment During War: A New Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    protections to the environment during war. At the request of the White House, the Department of Defense within the last year has undertaken a review of...ensure the environment receives adequate protection during war, with the President calling for a new international convention to craft a treaty that exclusively addresses environmental law of war issues.

  1. From war economies to peace economies in Africa | Broodryk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One reason for the persistence and protracted nature of conflict on the. African continent is the phenomenon of war economies. These have transformed the nature of war itself where the object is not at neutralizing an enemy but to institutionalize violence at a profitable level of intensity. Transforming war economies into ...

  2. Mental health outcomes of widowed and married mothers after war

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morina, N.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed prevalence rates of mental disorders in 206 mothers who had experienced the Kosovo war 10 years previously: 100 lone mothers widowed by the war, 71 non-bereaved married mothers, and 35 married mothers bereaved since the war (loss of family other than husband). A total of 96% of widowed

  3. Peace Education: How We Come to Love and Hate War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    2011-01-01

    There is a huge volume of work on war and its causes, most of which treats its political and economic roots. In Loving and Hating War: An Approach to Peace Education, Nel Noddings explores the psychological factors that support war: nationalism, hatred, delight in spectacles, masculinity, religious extremism, and the search for existential…

  4. Investigating U.S. Links to Nazi War Criminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    The list of United States government connections with Nazi war criminals is a long one. We must ensure that Nazi war criminals living in America are brought to justice. And we must both explore and expunge the history of our government's relations with Nazi war criminals. (CS)

  5. 78 FR 46245 - National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9000 of July 25, 2013 National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2013 By the... anniversary of the end of the Korean War--a conflict that defined a generation and decided the fate of a... salute to our Korean War veterans. Let us renew the sacred trust we share with all who have served. And...

  6. Cross-Cultural Comparison of Values and Nuclear War Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayton, Daniel M., II; Sangster, Roberta L.

    1992-01-01

    Investigates cross-cultural differences in values and attitudes toward nuclear war between 336 Caucasian and 67 American Indian adolescents in the rural Pacific Northwest. Implications of value ranking differences and differing attitudes about nuclear war, the nuclear freeze, and escalation of war are discussed in their cultural contexts. (SLD)

  7. We Can and SHOULD Teach the War in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, David J.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author stresses the importance of including the discussion of the war in Iraq in the curriculum. He further shares how, in the spring of 2005, he had asked middle school and high school students what they thought about the Iraq War, what they had learned about the war in school, and what they would like to learn. Their answers…

  8. Education, Meritocracy and the Global War for Talent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Phillip; Tannock, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Talk of the rise of a global war for talent and emergence of a new global meritocracy has spread from the literature on human resource management to shape nation-state discourse on managed migration and immigration reform. This article examines the implications that the global war for talent have for education policy. Given that this talent war is…

  9. The American abortion debate: culture war or normal discourse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, M

    1995-01-01

    This paper investigates whether James Hunter's culture war thesis is an apt characterization of the American abortion debate. The author focuses on three arguments central to Hunter's analysis: 1) that the abortion debate involves two paradigmatically opposed world views; 2) that debate about abortion, since it involves moral discourse, is structurally different than other political debates; and 3) that the new alignments in abortion politics are culturally significant. Examining existing research in each of these three domains, the author finds that the debate over abortion is more complex than suggested by Hunter. World views of pro-life and pro-choice activists, for example, share a commitment to some overlapping values; the argumentative structure of abortion discourse has a pattern rather similar to that of political debate more generally, and new alignments on abortion, such as that between the Catholic Church and the Southern Baptist Convention, do not displace historically embedded differences in symbolic resources and cultural orientation. As suggested by the author, it may be more helpful, therefore, to think of the abortion debate as an ongoing public conversation about America's cultural tradition and how it should be variously expressed in contemporary laws and practices.

  10. From the Eighty Years War to the Second World War: New Perspectives on the Economic Effects of War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Hart, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Most historians used to regard war as economically destructive. They focused on short-term damage to the economy, guided by archives that were dominated by documents related to reparation demands and official statistics that did not take the black market and the re-routing of trade into account.

  11. "I Was My War; My War Was I": Vera Brittain, Autobiography and University Fiction during the Great War

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Ann K.

    2016-01-01

    Applying the critical lenses of feminism, autographical theory and literary analysis, this essay performs a triple reading of Vera Brittain's multi-genre writings about gender, war,and university education. Focusing specifically on "The Dark Tide" (1923), "Testament of Youth" (1933) and "The Women of Oxford" (1960),…

  12. Symptoms of Gulf War veterans possibly exposed to organophosphate chemical warfare agents at Khamisiyah, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, L A; Rischitelli, G; Lambert, W E; Lasarev, M; Sticker, D L; Spencer, P S

    2001-01-01

    During the 1991 Gulf War, some Allied troops were potentially exposed to sarin/cyclosarin as the result of the destruction of Iraqi munitions at Khamisiyah. To evaluate the prevalence of past and current symptoms known to be associated with exposure to these chemical warfare agents, the authors conducted a computer-assisted telephone survey of 2,918 U.S. Gulf War veterans. Veterans who had participated in or witnessed the demolition in 1991 were more likely to report historical or extant symptoms than were veterans from other military units. These results should be viewed cautiously because they are based on symptoms recalled nine years after the event without precise characterization of exposure. Nonetheless, the findings suggest that symptoms consistent with low-level sarin exposure may have initially occurred, and health effects may have persisted in the veterans who were nearest to the demolition activity. Further research is warranted.

  13. The Domestic Politics of War - The Iraq War Debate as Viewed Through Three Different Perspectives: Diversionary Theory of War, Coercive Diplomacy, and the Invitation to Struggle Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    the domestic and international arenas. 16 Carl von Clausewitz, Michael Eliot Howard, and Peter Paret...Force: A Research Note," 326. 39 James Meernik, and Peter Waterman, "The Myth of the Diversioanry Use of Force by American Presidents," Political...constitute an axis of evil, arming to threaten the peace of the world.26 23 Frank Pellegrini

  14. War Remembered, Revolution Forgotten: Recasting the Sino-North Korean Alliance in China’s Post-Socialist Media State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available From October 1950 to July 1953, the nascent Chinese state entered into a strategic alliance with North Korea; hundreds of thousands of Chinese soldiers shed blood on the Korean peninsula in defense of the socialist homeland and advancing Communist internationalism. But since the end of the Korean War, China has moved from revolutionary idealism and political radicalism in Mao’s era to the current post-socialist pragmatism and materialism. As the ideological winds shift, China’s contemporary propaganda apparatus must redefine the Korean War in order to reconcile the complexity of the war and wartime alliance with contemporary political concerns and popular views. By focusing on a documentary film, The Unforgettable Victory, produced by China’s leading state-run film studio in 2013, this article explores the ways in which the official media of the post-socialist era presents the past revolutionary war. The new film celebrates the splendid valor of Chinese soldiers, civilians’ heroic sacrifices, and the war’s nationalist legacy; however, it purposefully forgets the revolutionary fervor and internationalist sentiments that once forged the Sino–North Korean alliance and empowered wartime mobilization. This article examines the process of remembering and forgetting, and reveals government propaganda’s latest efforts to demobilize contemporary viewers while infusing the past revolutionary war with ideological clarity and political certainty in post-socialist China.

  15. Lethal Surveillance: Drones and the Geo-History of Modern War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindervater, Katharine Hall

    Interdisciplinary both in scope and method, my dissertation, Lethal Surveillance: Drones and the Geo-History of Modern War, examines the history of drone technology from the start of the 20th century to the present in order to understand the significance of the increasing centrality of drones to current American military engagements and security practices more generally. Much of the scholarship on drones and many other contemporary military technologies tends to view the technology as radically new, missing both the historical development of these objects as well as the perspectives and rationalities that are embedded in their use. For this research, I focused on three main periods of drone research and development: the early years of World War I and II in the UK, the Cold War, and the 1990s. In studying this history of the drone, I found that two key trends emerge as significant: the increasing importance of information to warfare under the rubric of intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance; and a shift toward more dynamic, speedier, and individualized targeting practices. I argue that the widespread use of drones today thus represents the culmination of attempts in war to effectively link these two trends, creating a practice I call lethal surveillance -- with the armed Predator effectively closing the loop between identifying and killing targets. The concept of lethal surveillance, which in my dissertation I place squarely within the histories of modern scientific thinking and Western liberal governance, allows us to see how techniques of Western state power and knowledge production are merging with practices of killing and control in new ways, causing significant changes to both the operations of the state and to practices of war. Framing the drone through the lens of lethal surveillance, therefore, allows us to see the longer histories the drone is embedded in as well as other security practices it is connected to.

  16. Paula Lind Ayers: "song-physician" for troops with shell shock during World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke-Hernandez, Alaine E

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the therapeutic uses of music during the First World War. This historical study provides a biography of Paula Lind Ayers (1891-1974), a vocalist, actress, and YMCA Entertainer who became known as "the girl who could sing away shell shock." The purpose of this study is to describe Paula Lind Ayers' respite services during World War I and provide a contextual biography of her life. The author conducted an exhaustive search regarding Paula Lind Ayers' life and her activities during World War I. Numerous databases were used to locate print sources. Libraries, archives, and organizations were consulted to obtain unpublished primary sources. The author evaluated materials via a recursive process that included corroborating evidence, assessing source reliability, and contextualizing information. Data were synthesized and analyzed for emergent themes. Findings suggest that Paula Lind Ayers developed a systematic approach using familiar, live singing that was effective in alleviating symptoms of shell shock. Her method was replicated by others overseas during World War I. After the war, she returned to a successful performance career until the Great Depression. No information was found about Ayers' life from the year 1929 until her death in 1974. Understanding Paula Lind Ayers' contribution to music therapy provides a deeper awareness of past therapeutic uses of music with soldiers who experienced shell shock. Such understanding helps shape the way we view the present conception of music therapy with veterans and how we might answer questions that will affect the future of the field. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The First World War and the Discussions on Establishing the Universal International Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodnev Aleksandr

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, historians begin the League of Nations’ history with the postwar settlement and the creation of the Versailles system. However, the continuity exists between the First World War and the emergence of international organization. There was no steady institution of multilateral diplomacy for the international arbitration before the War. The Hague Peace Conferences (1899, 1907 were not able to create strong international institutions. The ways out of the Great War and the mechanisms of preventing its repetition had to be looked for in the bloody conflict. The situation in the USA and in the UK differed significantly. The censorship rules that did not allow publishing essays about peace or any negotiations with the enemy were introduced. In the US they could freely discuss these issues. In the US the university academicians, businessmen, and representatives of various faiths, and prominent politicians were involved in the discussions. In the UK, the League of Nations theme was discussed by the pressure groups such as Fabian Society and selected intellectuals such as Leonard Woolf. During 1916–1917 the views of the governments and various social organizations about the League of Nations significantly differed. The public opinion and social groups demanded the creation of the international organization immediately, or as part of the post-war settlement structure. The UK government recognized the need for the creation of the League of Nations only as a part of the United States involving into the war and the strengthening of the British Empire. As a result of the League of Nations carried out signs of hybridity in a dangerous form.

  18. War and Political Participation the Impact of the Vietnam Conflict and Gulf War in America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marine, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    .... By exploring the impact of the Vietnam Conflict and the Gulf War on political participation in the United States, this research provides evidence that American citizens participate at higher rates...

  19. Causes of the Vietnam War: An Academic Look at Wilsoniasm and Cold War Effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belanger, Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    At the end of World War II Europe was divided by two ideological super powers. President Truman had hoped that newly conquered Eastern Europe would hold free elections and determine their own course of government...

  20. Bushwackers and Terrorists: Combatant Status Policy in the Civil War and Global War on Terror

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bateman, Jeffery S

    2006-01-01

    .... This project analyzes U.S. policy on GWOT combatant status by comparing it with Union policy covering the Guerilla fighters in the Border State region, particularly Missouri and Kansas, during the American Civil War...

  1. Psychiatry in the Korean War: perils, PIES, and prisoners of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron

    2002-11-01

    In the initial months of the Korean War, very high numbers of psychological casualties occurred among American troops, 250 per 1,000 per annum. Initially, these men were evacuated to Japan or the United States, and very few of them were returned to duty. Then the principles of early and far-forward treatment, learned in the previous world wars, were reinstituted. Up to 80% of neuropsychiatric casualties were returned to duty. During and after the war, the prisoners of war were believed to have been "brainwashed," have "give-it-upitis," and exhibit apathy and depression. Mistakenly believed to be signs of moral decay, the psychiatric symptoms during and after release were probably a result of extended inhumane treatment and vitamin deficiencies.

  2. War without Violence: Leveraging the Arab Spring to Win the War on Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Proctor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After a decade of war, the United States has failed to eradicate the threat of salafist jihadism. No matter how hard it tries, the United States cannot kill its way to victory in the war on terrorism. Sweeping changes across the Middle East—dubbed the "Arab Spring" by the media—have presented the West with a unique opportunity to pursue an alternative approach. Rather than engaging in war (politics through violence, the United States should engage in mass politics (war without violence to compel the Arab world to reject the salafist jihadism idea. This article proposes a strategy calibrated to defeat international terrorism without unnecessarily antagonizing non-jihadist salafists and political salafists who enjoy broad-based support in the Arab world. The article goes on to identify key political figures already espousing elements of this counternarrative, and it describes the methods the United States should use to empower these and other anti–salafist jihadism activists.

  3. The AEF Way of War: The American Army and Combat in the First World War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grotelueschen, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Many scholars of the First World War have examined the European armies in new ways that have shown not only how those armies actually fought along the Western Front, but how they changed their ideas...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1342 - Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404.1342 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services Amounts of Wage Credits and Limits on Their Use § 404.1342 Limits on granting World War...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1340 - Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wage credits for World War II and post-World... Uniformed Services Amounts of Wage Credits and Limits on Their Use § 404.1340 Wage credits for World War II and post-World War II veterans. In determining your entitlement to, and the amount of, your monthly...

  6. Long-term outcomes of war-related death of family members in Kosovar civilian war survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morina, N.; Reschke, K.; Hofmann, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to war-related experiences can comprise a broad variety of experiences and the very nature of certain war-related events has generally been neglected. To examine the long-term outcomes of war-related death of family members, the authors investigated the prevalence rates of major depressive

  7. Biomarker Discovery in Gulf War Veterans: Development of a War Illness Diagnostic Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    with GWI reflect a persistent disruption in central nervous system (CNS) proinflammatory and neuroendocrine parameters. These processes can...Immunol. 1999;6:6-13. 8. Vojdani A, Thrasher, JD. Cellular and humoral immune abnormalities in Gulf War veterans. Environ Health Perspect. 2004;112...in Gulf War veterans: relationships to posttraumatic stress disorder and health symptoms. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;62:1175-1178. 18. Sastre A, Cook MR

  8. Reconstructing Order: Post-War Reconstruction after the Taiping Civil War, 1864-1874

    OpenAIRE

    Heselton, Christopher Carlton

    2017-01-01

    In the aftermath of the tumultuous Taiping Civil War (1851-1864), Qing officials began imagining a reconstruction of Chinese post-war society through broad programs that resettled refugees, demobilized the army, and rebuilt temples, roads, and academies. This was an ambitious program and unprecedented in the annals of Chinese history, seeking to radically restore Chinese society through government intervention. At the center of their plans, was an administration, the Reconstruction Bureau, th...

  9. The Vietnam War: History, Learning, and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tricia

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the curriculum entitled "Echoes from the Wall: History, Learning and Leadership through the Lens of the Vietnam War Era." Discusses the purpose of the materials. States that the curriculum incorporates primary resources into the classroom while making history more immediate to students. (CMK)

  10. Teaching the Vietnam War: A Conference Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterstein, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    On May 6-7, 2000, the Foreign Policy Research Institute's (FPRI's) sixth History Institute convened with more than 40 high school and college history teachers to seek answers to the question: "How should we teach the history of the Vietnam War to our children today?" Not surprisingly, no simple answers were forthcoming. This conference…

  11. IRELAND'S SOUTH AFRICAN WAR 1899–1902

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Luke

    role in Imperial development, finding employment in administration, politics, the civil service, and in the military and the navy. The once strong military tradition that existed between Ireland and the British Empire was reflected during the South. African War (SAW), where it has been estimated that nearly fifty thousand Irish.

  12. War, Critical Thinking, and Self-Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    2004-01-01

    Can students learn to think critically if they are not asked to engage with critical issues? Fostering critical thinking is frequently stated as a fundamental aim of education, and yet many teachers report that they have been forbidden to discuss such critical issues as current wars, religion, and cultural differences in styles of parenting. The…

  13. War And Reconstruction: Four Comparative Case Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    textbooks against the protests of China and Korea that it does not represent the truth about. Japan's role in the war, ..... The North was a wealthy industrialised and commercial society eager to obtain markets for its manufactures. ... advocated by reformers and abolitionists who were concentrated in the North. Emancipation ...

  14. An Emphasis on World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrabee, Larry

    1995-01-01

    Argues that World War II's central place in 20th century history justifies a longer time unit. Asserts that connections must be drawn between prewar and postwar political events. Contains many suggestions for class activities, including debates, statistical projects, and oral reports. (MJP)

  15. Civil War. NBER Working Paper No. 14801

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattman, Christopher; Miguel, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Most nations have experienced an internal armed conflict since 1960. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of research into the causes and consequences of civil wars, belatedly bringing the topic into the economics mainstream. This article critically reviews this interdisciplinary literature and charts productive paths forward. Formal theory…

  16. The Civil War: Beyond the Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelfried, Steven

    2011-01-01

    According to historian Gary W. Gallagher, "Books about the Civil War have accumulated at the rate of more than a title a day since fighting erupted at Fort Sumter in April 1861." Now, 150 years later, children's authors and illustrators continue to approach this fascinating era in inventive ways. The past decade has brought readers rich portrayals…

  17. The War in Man; Media and Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsen, Frederick D.; Bret, Jane

    The authors present a picture of contemporary man torn by conflicting forces, caught in a psychic house divided against itself, a victim of war between media and machines. Machines, they state, represent the rationalistic tradition which has brought man to the brink of psychic and social disaster. The media they see as offering hope--true…

  18. Small Wars Manual (Reprint of 1940 Edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    Indicate location(s) of copy(ies) of this Manual.) ENCLOSURE(1) SMALL WARS MANUAL UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS 1940 INDEX REPRINT - For Information Only...Religion. (1) l’revaiiing form. (2) Effect (If r(’ligiol]{)nlif(’(]f lwople. (3) Locationof religiouseent (’rs, d. Attitude toua?’d other peoplcx. (1

  19. CHINA'S RISE DOESN'T MEAN WAR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joseph S Nye Jr

    2011-01-01

    .... A century ago, Germany's rise and the fear it created in Britain helped cause World War I. Now, it's become a new conventional wisdom in some circles that China's rise and the fear it is creating in the US -- where recent polls show 60...

  20. Explaining Violence in Sierra Leone's Civil War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Explaining the violence of civil war is never a simple task for the scholar. In the case of the Sierra Leone, paradoxically, the task has in some ways been rendered more difficult by the sheer variety of compelling scholarship on the question. This paper seeks to identify the most useful of the explanations offered thus far, and ...