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Sample records for vietnam study suggests

  1. Study on nuclear power introduction into Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuong Huu Tan

    2000-01-01

    The report presents main results of the study on nuclear power introduction into Vietnam which have been carried out at Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission in collaboration with Ministry of Industry of Vietnam and other countries like Japan, Canada and Korea. The study covers all topics related to the nuclear power introduction into Vietnam such as electricity demands and supply, economics, finance, technology, safety, manpower, site selection etc. (author)

  2. Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    This document presents the energy profile of Vietnam: energy organizations and policy; companies: Petrovietnam (oil), Vietgas (gas), Power Company 1, 2 and 3 (PC1, PC2, PC3) and Electricite du Vietnam (electric power), Vinacoal (coal); supplies (resources, electric power, oil, gas and coal); prices; consumption; projects and perspectives. (J.S.)

  3. Vietnam

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    taken with the eager collaboration of Vietnam's government, have since ... social sciences; and environment and natural resource management) was ... deliberate and increasing openness to the world of trade, investment, and knowl- edge ... Vietnam design trade liberalization and competition policies (in part as preparation.

  4. Partial mitochondrial DNA sequences suggest the existence of a cryptic species within the Leucosphyrus group of the genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae), forest malaria vectors, in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Kohei Takenaka; Nguyen, Ngoc Thi Hong; Nguyen, Binh Thi Huong; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Yasunami, Michio; Nguyen, Manh Duc; Takagi, Masahiro

    2010-04-30

    During the last decade, Southeast Asian countries have been very successful in reducing the burden of malaria. However, malaria remains endemic in these countries, especially in remote and forested areas. The Leucosphyrus group of the genus Anopheles harbors the most important malaria vectors in forested areas of Southeast Asia. In Vietnam, previous molecular studies have resulted in the identification of only Anopheles dirus sensu stricto (previously known as An. dirus species A) among the Leucosphyrus group members. However, Vietnamese entomologists have recognized that mosquitoes belonging to the Leucosphyrus group in northern Vietnam exhibit morphological characteristics similar to those of Anopheles takasagoensis, which has been reported only from Taiwan. Here, we aimed to confirm the genetic and morphological identities of the members of the Leucosphyrus group in Vietnam. In the molecular phylogenetic trees reconstructed using partial COI and ND6 mitochondrial gene sequences, samples collected from southern and central Vietnam clustered together with GenBank sequences of An. dirus that were obtained from Thailand. However, samples from northern Vietnam formed a distinct clade separated from both An. dirus and An. takasagoensis by other valid species. The results suggest the existence of a cryptic species in northern Vietnam that is morphologically similar to, but phylogenetically distant from both An. dirus and An. takasagoensis. We have tentatively designated this possible cryptic species as Anopheles aff. takasagoensis for convenience, until a valid name is assigned. However, it is difficult to distinguish the species solely on the basis of morphological characteristics. Further studies on such as karyotypes and polytene chromosome banding patterns are necessary to confirm whether An. aff. takasagoensis is a valid species. Moreover, studies on (1) the geographic distribution, which is potentially spreading along the Vietnam, China, Laos, and Myanmar borders

  5. Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-02-01

    This document summarizes the main energy facts and data about Vietnam: institutions and energy policy, energy companies (Petrovietnam (oil), Vietgas (gas), Electricity of Vietnam (EVN), Vinacoal (coal)), energy production (resources, electricity, oil, natural gas, coal), energy prices (motor fuels and electricity), energy consumption, and future energy issues and prospects (exploitation of new fossil fuel resources, building of new refineries and power stations). The main economic, supply and demand, and energy balance indicators are summarized in tables and graphics. (J.S.)

  6. Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    Attention in this discussion of Vietnam is directed to the following: people; geography; history; government; the economy (agriculture and industry, trade and balance of payments); foreign relations; and relations between the US and Vietnam. In mid-1983 the population was estimated at 57,610,000 with an annual growth rate of 2.4%. Ethnic Vietnamese constitute almost 90% of the population. Various ethnic groups make up the remaining 10% of the population, with approximately 1.2 million Chinese being the most numerous and concentrated in southern Vietnam. The 2nd largest minority, the Montagnards (mountain tribesmen) comprise 2 main ethnolinguistic groups--Malayo Polynesia and Mon-Khmer. The most important political institution in Vietnam is the Vietnamese Communisty Party. All but 4 party Politburo members concurrently hold high positions in the government. The most important powers within the Vietnamese government, as opposed to the Communisty Party, are the executive agencies. Under the overly ambitious initial 5 year plan and the more conservative 1981-85 plan, the Vietnamese have made little progress in raising output and living standards beyond the levels of the 1960s. Guidelines of the 1981-85 plan call for attaining food self sufficiency, strengthening export and consumer industries, as well as the heavy industries that support them, and improving transport and energy production. The US does not have diplomatic relations with Vietnam.

  7. CASE STUDY: Vietnam — Information brings progress to Vietnam's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The WUNB is the provincial branch of the Vietnam Women's Union, a unique country-wide ... It also serves to monitor and evaluate their performance. ... Vu Thi Tan explains, detailed information is needed for the union to carry out its work.

  8. Partial mitochondrial DNA sequences suggest the existence of a cryptic species within the Leucosphyrus group of the genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae, forest malaria vectors, in northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunami Michio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last decade, Southeast Asian countries have been very successful in reducing the burden of malaria. However, malaria remains endemic in these countries, especially in remote and forested areas. The Leucosphyrus group of the genus Anopheles harbors the most important malaria vectors in forested areas of Southeast Asia. In Vietnam, previous molecular studies have resulted in the identification of only Anopheles dirus sensu stricto (previously known as An. dirus species A among the Leucosphyrus group members. However, Vietnamese entomologists have recognized that mosquitoes belonging to the Leucosphyrus group in northern Vietnam exhibit morphological characteristics similar to those of Anopheles takasagoensis, which has been reported only from Taiwan. Here, we aimed to confirm the genetic and morphological identities of the members of the Leucosphyrus group in Vietnam. Results In the molecular phylogenetic trees reconstructed using partial COI and ND6 mitochondrial gene sequences, samples collected from southern and central Vietnam clustered together with GenBank sequences of An. dirus that were obtained from Thailand. However, samples from northern Vietnam formed a distinct clade separated from both An. dirus and An. takasagoensis by other valid species. Conclusions The results suggest the existence of a cryptic species in northern Vietnam that is morphologically similar to, but phylogenetically distant from both An. dirus and An. takasagoensis. We have tentatively designated this possible cryptic species as Anopheles aff. takasagoensis for convenience, until a valid name is assigned. However, it is difficult to distinguish the species solely on the basis of morphological characteristics. Further studies on such as karyotypes and polytene chromosome banding patterns are necessary to confirm whether An. aff. takasagoensis is a valid species. Moreover, studies on (1 the geographic distribution, which is potentially

  9. Mobile Health Initiatives in Vietnam: Scoping Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jeffrey A; Dang, Linh Thuy; Phan, Ngoc Tran; Trinh, Hue Thi; Vu, Nguyen Cong; Nguyen, Cuong Kieu

    2018-04-24

    Mobile health (mHealth) offers a promising solution to the multitude of challenges the Vietnamese health system faces, but there is a scarcity of published information on mHealth in Vietnam. The objectives of this scoping study were (1) to summarize the extent, range, and nature of mHealth initiatives in Vietnam and (2) to examine the opportunities and threats of mHealth utilization in the Vietnamese context. This scoping study systematically identified and extracted relevant information from 20 past and current mHealth initiatives in Vietnam. The study includes multimodal information sources, including published literature, gray literature (ie, government reports and unpublished literature), conference presentations, Web-based documents, and key informant interviews. We extracted information from 27 records from the electronic search and conducted 14 key informant interviews, allowing us to identify 20 mHealth initiatives in Vietnam. Most of the initiatives were primarily funded by external donors (n=15), while other initiatives were government funded (n=1) or self-funded (n=4). A majority of the initiatives targeted vulnerable and hard-to-reach populations (n=11), aimed to prevent the occurrence of disease (n=12), and used text messaging (short message service, SMS) as part of their intervention (n=14). The study revealed that Vietnamese mHealth implementation has been challenged by factors including features unique to the Vietnamese language (n=4) and sociocultural factors (n=3). The largest threats to the popularity of mHealth initiatives are the absence of government policy, lack of government interest, heavy dependence on foreign funding, and lack of technological infrastructure. Finally, while current mHealth initiatives have already demonstrated promising opportunities for alternative models of funding, such as social entrepreneurship or private business models, sustainable mHealth initiatives outside of those funded by external donors have not yet been

  10. The International Alcohol Control Study in Vietnam | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and, -policies that restrict the physical availability of alcoholic beverages or ... This study will provide internationally comparative data on Vietnam's alcohol policy ... among policymakers, there is substantial potential for the research results to ...

  11. Preliminary studies on trace element contamination in dumping sites of municipal wastes in India and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusa, T.; Kunito, T.; Nakashima, E.; Minh, T. B.; Tanabe, S.; Subramanian, A.; Viet, P. H.

    2003-05-01

    The disposal of wastes in dumping sites has increasingly caused concem about adverse health effects on the populations living nearby. However, no investigation has been conducted yet on contamination in dumping sites of municipal wastes in Asian developing countries. In this study, concentrations of 11 trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb and Pb) were detennined in scalp hair from the population living nearby and in soil from dumping sites and control sites of India and Vietnam. Soil samples in dumping site in India showed significantly higher concentrations of some trace elements than soils in control site, whereas this trend was not notable in Vietnam. This is probably due to the fact that the wastes were covered with the soil in the dumping site of Vietnam. Cadmium concentrations in some hair samples of people living near dumping site in India and Vietnam exceeded the level associated with learning disorder in children. Levels of most of the trace elements in hair were significantly higher in dumping site than those in control site in India and Vietnam, suggesting direct or indirect exposure to those elements from dumping wastes. To our knowledge, this is the first study of trace element contamination in dumping sites in India and Vietnam.

  12. Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    As a Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Viet Nam will make its strong effort to implement the UNFCCC through effective activities in order to reduce GHG emissions as well as enhance carbon sinks in the country. The UNEP/GEF Project `Economics of GHG Limitation - Phase 1: Establishment of a Methodological Framework for Climate Change Mitigation Assessment` developed by the UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) in cooperation with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has been deployed in Viet Nam since 1996. The project deals with GHG mitigation analysis and options, focusing on the main issues: a) Associated macro-economics, b) Energy, c) Land use and forestry. For this study, a number of different data related to energy, industry, forestry and agriculture sectors as well as Viet Nam socio-economic development up to the year 2030, are collected. Besides, several models such as MEDEE-S, EFOM-ENV, COMAP are applied for development and assessment of GHG mitigation options in the next decades. The MEDEE-S and EFOM-ENV models are used as a tool for determining the cost-effective strategies to abate GHG emissions for energy sector while COMAP model is applied for forestry sector. (au) 39 refs.

  13. A study of ribonuclease activity in venom of vietnam cobra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiet Van Nguyen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ribonuclease (RNase is one of the few toxic proteins that are present constantly in snake venoms of all types. However, to date this RNase is still poorly studied in comparison not only with other toxic proteins of snake venom, but also with the enzymes of RNase group. The objective of this paper was to investigate some properties of RNase from venom of Vietnam cobra Naja atra. Methods Kinetic methods and gel filtration chromatography were used to investigate RNase from venom of Vietnam cobra. Results RNase from venom of Vietnam cobra Naja atra has some characteristic properties. This RNase is a thermostable enzyme and has high conformational stability. This is the only acidic enzyme of the RNase A superfamily exhibiting a high catalytic activity in the pH range of 1–4, with pHopt = 2.58 ± 0.35. Its activity is considerably reduced with increasing ionic strength of reaction mixture. Venom proteins are separated by gel filtration into four peaks with ribonucleolytic activity, which is abnormally distributed among the isoforms: only a small part of the RNase activity is present in fractions of proteins with molecular weights of 12–15 kDa and more than 30 kDa, but most of the enzyme activity is detected in fractions of polypeptides, having molecular weights of less than 9 kDa, that is unexpected. Conclusions RNase from the venom of Vietnam cobra is a unique member of RNase A superfamily according to its acidic optimum pH (pHopt = 2.58 ± 0.35 and extremely low molecular weights of its major isoforms (approximately 8.95 kDa for RNase III and 5.93 kDa for RNase IV.

  14. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, M H; Kim, H S; Chung, W S; Yun, S W; Ko, H S; Lee, J K

    2000-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with vietnam and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Vietnam. During the study, current status of use and development of nuclear energy in vietnam, were investigated including nuclear power plant and cooperative relations between two nations were also established. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) holding of policy seminar for high level decision makers of Vietnam 3) cooperaton between KAERI/VAEC, 4) joint feasibility study for the construction of KSNP into Vietnam and technical presentation of KSNP. It is recommended that cooperaion with vietnam be implemented systematically through the long term based basic directions and integrated national strategies.

  15. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Chung, W. S.; Yun, S. W.; Ko, H. S.; Lee, J. K.

    2000-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with vietnam and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Vietnam. During the study, current status of use and development of nuclear energy in vietnam, were investigated including nuclear power plant and cooperative relations between two nations were also established. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) holding of policy seminar for high level decision makers of Vietnam 3) cooperaton between KAERI/VAEC, 4) joint feasibility study for the construction of KSNP into Vietnam and technical presentation of KSNP. It is recommended that cooperaion with vietnam be implemented systematically through the long term based basic directions and integrated national strategies

  16. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  17. Area Handbook Series: Vietnam: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    cough, measles, poliomyelitis, chicken pox , typhoid fever, acute encepha- litis, and acute meningitis. Hanoi claimed in 1970 that alcoholic cirrhosis...Country Study the people of Van Lang grew other grains and beans and raised stock, mainly buffaloes, chickens , and pigs. Pottery-making and bamboo...152 Cuba 550-45 Malaysia 550-22 Cyprus 550-161 Mauritania 550-158 Czechoslovakia 550-79 Mexico 550-36 Dominican Republic/Haiti 550-76 Mongolia 550-52

  18. Inflated medicine prices in Vietnam: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Knight, Rosemary; Mant, Andrea; Razee, Husna; Brooks, Geoffrey; Dang, Thu Ha; Roughead, Elizabeth Ellen

    2017-06-01

    One third of the world's population lacks regular access to essential medicines partly because of the high cost of medicines. In Vietnam, the cost to patients of medicines was 47 times the international reference price for originator brands and 11 times the price for generic equivalents in the public sector. In this article, we report the results of a qualitative study conducted to identify the principal reasons for inflated medicine prices in Vietnam.Between April 2008 and December 2009, 29 semi-structured interviews were conducted with staff from pharmaceutical companies, private pharmacies, the Ministry of Health, and the Ministry of Finance of Vietnam. Study participants were recruited using a combination of purposive and snowball sampling techniques. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and coded using NVivo8® software and analyzed using a framework of structure-conduct-performance (SCP).Participants attributed high prices of originator medicines to a monopoly of supply. The prices of generic medicines were also considered to be excessive, reportedly due to the need to recoup the cost of financial inducements paid to prescribers and procurement officers. These inducements constituted a dominant cost component of the end price of generic medicines. Poor market intelligence about current world prices, as well as failure to achieve economies of scale because of unwarranted duplication in pharmaceutical production and distribution system were also factors contributing to high prices. This was reported to be further compounded by multiple layers in the supply chain and unregulated retail mark-ups.To address these problems a multifaceted approach is needed encompassing policy and legislative responses. Policy options include establishing effective monitoring of medicine quality assurance, procurement, distribution and use. Rationalization of the domestic pharmaceutical production and distribution system to achieve economies of scale is also required. Appropriate

  19. Does Wartime Captivity Affect Late-life Mental Health? A Study of Vietnam-era Repatriated Prisoners of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Crystal L; Kaiser, Anica Pless; Spiro, Avron; King, Daniel W; King, Lynda A

    2012-01-01

    Our earlier study of U.S. prisoners of war in Vietnam (King et al., 2011) examined personal and military demographics and aspects of the stressful experience of wartime imprisonment as they related to psychological well-being shortly after homecoming in 1973. Research with repatriated prisoners of war (RPWs) from other military eras suggests that the severity of captivity stressors might predict long-term distress. However, the extent to which effects of the captivity experience persisted for Vietnam-era RPWs is unknown. The present study extended our previous analyses by examining the associations of demographic factors, captivity stressors, and repatriation mental health with subsequent symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depressive symptoms (measured nearly 30 years later) in a sample of 292 Vietnam-era RPWs. Results indicated that although most of the men in our sample were within normal limits on anxiety and depressive symptoms, a substantial minority reported experiencing clinically significant levels. Levels of PTSD symptoms were generally low, with only a modest proportion demonstrating elevations. Multiple regression analyses showed that age at capture and posttraumatic stress symptoms at repatriation predicted all three long-term mental health outcomes. In addition, physical torture predicted long-term PTSD symptoms. Findings highlight the potential long-term effects of wartime captivity, and also suggest that most Vietnam-era RPWs demonstrate remarkable resilience to extraordinarily stressful life experiences.

  20. A Curriculum For Dispensing Optician A Case Study In Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Dieu MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Until 2011 there had been no full-time training course for dispensing optician diploma in Vietnam. Most of the practicing opticians with no qualification and formal training have learnt their skills through apprentice. In response to the demand of the industry Nguyen Tat Thanh University Vietnam has teamed up with Bradford College United Kingdom to develop a curriculum for a of formal 2-year full-time training for dispensing optician. The curriculum is applied for 4 semesters and graduate gets called Intermediate Professional Diploma level included 4 semesters. In VN after high school students can obtain different many levels of study such as Intermediate Professional Diploma College Bachelor Master and PhD. The 1st semester is basis of Intermediate Professional Diploma level. The 2nd semester is the study of refractive error and primary care each for 4 weeks 100 hours in theory and primary eye care 4 weeks for theory 100 hours. Also in this semester the learners have practiced clinical rotation at the Ophthalmic Hospital Ophthalmic Service in General Hospital for 10 weeks. The 3rd semester is specialized of dispensing Optician included Lenses frame contact lenses and laboratory for optician. In the 4th semester the training concentrates in the management of the eyeglasses shop and practicing in making spectacles for customers are in the 4th semester. The 1st intake of the course was opened started in 2011 and had 30 students graduated in 2013. This paper describes the experience of developing the curriculum in the context of a developing country where the industry is still under regulated and less developed. The first program optician that privileged on primary eye care will be satisfied for community WHO 2020 1 optometrist for 50.000 people and 10 ophthalmologists for 1.000.000 people. Some characteristics of first course students have been noted. The result of this curriculum will be evaluated in the coming time.

  1. Making Polluter Pay Legislation Work - A Study of Vietnam's Decree ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Impacts Of Environmental Regulations On The Food Processing Industry In. Vietnam' by Le ... Natural. Resources and Urban Economics & Management, Hanoi National Economics. University ... fast and is recognised as one of the country's ...

  2. Joint KAERI/VAEC pre-possibility study on a new research reactor for Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheol; Lee, B. C.; Chae, H. T.; Kim, H.; Lee, C. S.; Choi, C. O.; Jun, B. J. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Vien, Luong Ba; Dien, Nguyen Nhi [Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2004-05-01

    Based on the agreement on the technical cooperation for nuclear technology between Korea and Vietnam, a KAERI/VAEC joint study on the pre-possibility of a new research reactor for Vietnam has been carried out in the research reactor area from Nov. 2003 to May 2004. In this report, the results of the pre-possibility study on a new research reactor are described. The report presents the necessity of a new research reactor in Vietnam, and the desired performance requirements of the new research reactor if necessary. The major design characteristics of some existing research reactors and those under planning were also reviewed and the main characteristics which should be considered in selecting a new multipurpose research reactor for Vietnam were drawn. Some recommendations on the considerations for the next step of the feasibility study such as the project formulation, manpower requirements and international co-operation were also briefly touched upon.

  3. Joint KAERI/VAEC pre-possibility study on a new research reactor for Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Cheol; Lee, B. C.; Chae, H. T.; Kim, H.; Lee, C. S.; Choi, C. O.; Jun, B. J.; Vien, Luong Ba; Dien, Nguyen Nhi

    2004-05-01

    Based on the agreement on the technical cooperation for nuclear technology between Korea and Vietnam, a KAERI/VAEC joint study on the pre-possibility of a new research reactor for Vietnam has been carried out in the research reactor area from Nov. 2003 to May 2004. In this report, the results of the pre-possibility study on a new research reactor are described. The report presents the necessity of a new research reactor in Vietnam, and the desired performance requirements of the new research reactor if necessary. The major design characteristics of some existing research reactors and those under planning were also reviewed and the main characteristics which should be considered in selecting a new multipurpose research reactor for Vietnam were drawn. Some recommendations on the considerations for the next step of the feasibility study such as the project formulation, manpower requirements and international co-operation were also briefly touched upon

  4. Brand Launching and Sustainingin a developing country : The case study of Honda on Vietnam Motorcycle Market

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Bich Ngoc; Nguyen, Thi Xuan Thu

    2009-01-01

      Abstract Date May 29th, 2009 Course Master Thesis EFO705, International Marketing Tutor Daniel Tolstoy Authors Thi Bich Ngoc Nguyen Thi Xuan Thu Nguyen Title Brand Launching and Sustaining in a Developing CountryPurpose The project is to investigate the Brand Launching and Sustaining in a The Case Study of Honda on Vietnam Motorcycle Market developing country through the study on how Honda has successfully launched and sustained its Brand on the Motorcycle Market of Vietnam. Problems Hond...

  5. Validation of verbal autopsy methods using hospital medical records: a case study in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hong Thi; Nguyen, Hoa Phuong; Walker, Sue M; Hill, Peter S; Rao, Chalapati

    2018-05-18

    Information on causes of death (COD) is crucial for measuring the health outcomes of populations and progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals. In many countries such as Vietnam where the civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) system is dysfunctional, information on vital events will continue to rely on verbal autopsy (VA) methods. This study assesses the validity of VA methods used in Vietnam, and provides recommendations on methods for implementing VA validation studies in Vietnam. This validation study was conducted on a sample of 670 deaths from a recent VA study in Quang Ninh province. The study covered 116 cases from this sample, which met three inclusion criteria: a) the death occurred within 30 days of discharge after last hospitalisation, and b) medical records (MRs) for the deceased were available from respective hospitals, and c) the medical record mentioned that the patient was terminally ill at discharge. For each death, the underlying cause of death (UCOD) identified from MRs was compared to the UCOD from VA. The validity of VA diagnoses for major causes of death was measured using sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV). The sensitivity of VA was at least 75% in identifying some leading CODs such as stroke, road traffic accidents and several site-specific cancers. However, sensitivity was less than 50% for other important causes including ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and diabetes. Overall, there was 57% agreement between UCOD from VA and MR, which increased to 76% when multiple causes from VA were compared to UCOD from MR. Our findings suggest that VA is a valid method to ascertain UCOD in contexts such as Vietnam. Furthermore, within cultural contexts in which patients prefer to die at home instead of a healthcare facility, using the available MRs as the gold standard may be meaningful to the extent that recall bias from the interval between last hospital discharge and death

  6. Course of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 40 Years After the Vietnam War: Findings From the National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmar, Charles R; Schlenger, William; Henn-Haase, Clare; Qian, Meng; Purchia, Emily; Li, Meng; Corry, Nida; Williams, Christianna S; Ho, Chia-Lin; Horesh, Danny; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Shalev, Arieh; Kulka, Richard A

    2015-09-01

    The long-term course of readjustment problems in military personnel has not been evaluated in a nationally representative sample. The National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study (NVVLS) is a congressionally mandated assessment of Vietnam veterans who underwent previous assessment in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS). To determine the prevalence, course, and comorbidities of war-zone posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) across a 25-year interval. The NVVLS survey consisted of a self-report health questionnaire (n = 1409), a computer-assisted telephone survey health interview (n = 1279), and a telephone clinical interview (n = 400) in a representative national sample of veterans who served in the Vietnam theater of operations (theater veterans) from July 3, 2012, through May 17, 2013. Of 2348 NVVRS participants, 1920 were alive at the outset of the NVVLS, and 81 died during recruitment; 1450 of the remaining 1839 (78.8%) participated in at least 1 NVVLS study phase. Data analysis was performed from May 18, 2013, through January 9, 2015, with further analyses continued through April 13, 2015. Study instruments included the Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related PTSD, PTSD Checklist for DSM-IV supplemented with PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 items (PCL-5+), Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5), and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Nonpatient Version. Among male theater veterans, we estimated a prevalence (95% CI) of 4.5% (1.7%-7.3%) based on CAPS-5 criteria for a current PTSD diagnosis; 10.8% (6.5%-15.1%) based on CAPS-5 full plus subthreshold PTSD; and 11.2% (8.3%-14.2%) based on PCL-5+ criteria for current war-zone PTSD. Among female veterans, estimates were 6.1% (1.8%-10.3%), 8.7% (3.8%-13.6%), and 6.6% (3.5%-9.6%), respectively. The PCL-5+ prevalence (95% CI) of current non-war-zone PTSD was 4.6% (2.6%-6.6%) in male and 5.1% (2.3%-8.0%) in female theater veterans. Comorbid major depression occurred in 36.7% (95% CI, 6

  7. Agent Orange exposure and risk of death in Korean Vietnam veterans: Korean Veterans Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Ryu, So-Yeon; Ohrr, Heechoul; Hong, Jae-Seok

    2014-12-01

    Agent Orange (AO) was a mixture of phenoxy herbicides, containing several dioxin impurities including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Various military herbicides, including AO, were sprayed by the US military and allied forces for military purposes during the Vietnam War. This study was performed to identify the associations between the AO exposure and mortality in Korean Vietnam veterans. From 1 January 1992 to 31 December 2005, 180 639 Korean Vietnam veterans were followed up for vital status and cause of death. The AO exposure index was based on the proximity of the veteran's unit to AO-sprayed areas, using a geographical information system-based model. The adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by Cox's proportional hazard model. The mortality from all causes of death was elevated with AO exposure. The deaths due to all sites of cancers combined and some specific cancers, including cancers of the stomach, small intestine, liver, larynx, lung, bladder and thyroid gland, as well as chronic myeloid leukaemia, were positively associated with AO exposure. The deaths from angina pectoris, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and liver disease including liver cirrhosis were also increased with an increasing AO exposure. Overall, this study suggests that AO/TCDD exposure may account for mortality from various diseases even several decades after exposure. Further research is needed to better understand the long-term effects of AO/TCDD exposure on human health. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  8. Pedagogical Study into Tertiary Learning Styles in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Ramsay

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pedagogical studies for tertiary students in Vietnam are limited and no comparative benchmarking studies with other Asian tertiary students found. As a means to fill this gap and provide a better understanding the following study using Biggs (1987c Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ, a 42-item self-report survey consisting of ratings on a 5-point scale to questions relating to respondents' study motivations and their usual study patterns was conducted with 355 respondents. Findings were consistent with Hong Kong students and supports studies carried out in other countries by Kemper et al. (1989, Kemper and Gow (1991, Niles (1995, Volet and Renshaw (1996, Ramburuth (2001 and Hua, Williams and Hoi (2007. Despite learning in a “rote” manner during their formative years, students have adapted to deeper learning approaches although there is a still a slight but insignificant bias to surface learning. They desire to achieve and get good marks although strategy is limiting their progress. According to Biggs, this is commonly caused by a language problem.

  9. Feasibility study of energy conservation at Vietnam Steel Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Feasibility study was conducted of the project for energy conservation and reduction in greenhouse effect gas emission by introducing the honeycomb type heat storage burner technology to heating furnaces of Vietnam Steel Corporation (VSC). Furnaces for study are the bar mill furnace at Gia Sang plant of TISCO Steelorks, bar mill furnace at Thu Duc plant of SSC Steelworks, billet furnace at new bar mill of SSC Steelworks, slab furnace at new hot strip mill that VSC is now in the planning stage. As a result of the study, the energy conservation amount is 2,900 toe/y at TISCO Steelworks, 2,130 toe/y at SSC Steelworks, and 6,000 toe/y at VSC new hot strip mill, which totaled 11,030 toe/y. The amount of greenhouse effect gas reduction is 9,000 t-CO2/y at TISCO, 6,600 t-CO2/y at SSC, and 18,600 t-CO2/y at VSC, which totaled 34,200 t/y. The total investment amount is 0.23, 0.44, 1.32 and 1.99 billion yen for each. As to the profitability, the internal earning rate is 24%, 86%, 97% and 51% for each, which are all favorable. (NEDO)

  10. The Hidden Burden of Trichinellosis in Vietnam: A Postoutbreak Epidemiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nga Vu Thi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in Muong Lat town (Thanh Hoa province, North Vietnam, following the confirmed diagnosis of trichinellosis in six patients from that town who had eaten hunted wild boar meat during the Vietnamese lunar year celebration. All inhabitants who declared to have eaten undercooked or raw wild boar meat at the celebration and showed at least one clinical symptom compatible with trichinellosis were included in the study and blood sampled. Anti-Trichinella IgG were determined by ELISA and Western Blot. Seropositive persons were given appropriate albendazole treatment and were followed up. A total of 100 inhabitants met the inclusion criteria. Among these, 30 (30% had antibodies to Trichinella. Serologically confirmed cases had fever (90.0%, myalgia (86.7%, facial oedema (63.3%, diarrhoea (53.3%, and pain of the masseter muscles (43.3%. Eosinophilia was detected in 83.3% of these individuals. Clinical symptoms resolved in all patients during albendazole treatment. The results suggest that only a proportion of the trichinellosis cases had sought health care during the outbreak. There is a need to implement surveillance and better diagnosis for trichinellosis and to set up educational programs to prevent infection in North Vietnam.

  11. The impact of economic growth on health care utilization: a longitudinal study in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoa, Nguyen Thi Minh; Thanh, Nguyen Xuan; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Lindholm, Lars

    2013-03-16

    In many developing countries, including Vietnam, out-of-pocket payment is the principal source of health financing. The economic growth is widening the gap between rich and poor people in many aspects, including health care utilization. While inequities in health between high- and low-income groups have been well investigated, this study aims to investigate how the health care utilization changes when the economic condition is changing at a household level. We analysed a panel data of 11,260 households in a rural district of Vietnam. Of the sample, 74.4% having an income increase between 2003 and 2007 were defined as households with economic growth. We used a double-differences propensity score matching technique to compare the changes in health care expenditure as percentage of total expenditure and health care utilization from 2003 to 2005, from 2003 to 2007, and from 2005 to 2007, between households with and without economic growth. Households with economic growth spent less percentage of their expenditure for health care, but used more provincial/central hospitals (higher quality health care services) than households without economic growth. The differences were statistically significant. The results suggest that households with economic growth are better off also in terms of health services utilization. Efforts for reducing inequalities in health should therefore consider the inequality in income growth over time.

  12. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    The Chaine Annamatique represents the last of the three orogenic episodes that shook Indochina and forms most of Vietnam's boundary with Laos, In south Vietnam the mountains which have a north-south trend are formed of granites, gneisses and mica schists and are inseparable from the anti-hercynian formations. Iron ore, gold, lead, copper, tin, wolfraun, bismuth and molybdenium minerals are found. Plans had been made in 1960 to prospect for uranium but no information is available on whether that work was ever done. The only evidence of occurrences of nuclear raw materials is that titaniferous sands occur in several coastal regions and that uranium was once listed as having been produced in Forth Vietnam. Although the geology of Vietnam is not very conducive to the formation and preservation of uranium deposits it is possible that because of the granite terrain and presence of other metalliferous minerals, the Speculative Potential should be stated as in category 2 i.e. from 1,000 to 10,000 tonnes uranium. (author)

  13. Student Plagiarism in Higher Education in Vietnam: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Ba, Khang; Do Ba, Khai; Lam, Quoc Dung; Le, Dao Thanh Binh An; Nguyen, Phuong Lien; Nguyen, Phuong Quynh; Pham, Quoc Loc

    2017-01-01

    This paper assesses and compares the prevalence of plagiarism across different student and assignment characteristics at a university in Vietnam, using the similarity index reported by the text-matching software Turnitin as a proxy measure of plagiarism on a sample of 681 student papers. The findings present a level of match higher than reported…

  14. Agent Orange exposure and disease prevalence in Korean Vietnam veterans: the Korean veterans health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Hong, Jae-Seok; Ohrr, Heechoul; Yi, Jee-Jeon

    2014-08-01

    Between 1961 and 1971, military herbicides were used by the United States and allied forces for military purposes. Agent Orange, the most-used herbicide, was a mixture of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and contained an impurity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Many Korean Vietnam veterans were exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Agent Orange exposure and the prevalence of diseases of the endocrine, nervous, circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems. The Agent Orange exposure was assessed by a geographic information system-based model. A total of 111,726 Korean Vietnam veterans were analyzed for prevalence using the Korea National Health Insurance claims data from January 2000 to September 2005. After adjusting for covariates, the high exposure group had modestly elevated odds ratios (ORs) for endocrine diseases combined and neurologic diseases combined. The adjusted ORs were significantly higher in the high exposure group than in the low exposure group for hypothyroidism (OR=1.13), autoimmune thyroiditis (OR=1.93), diabetes mellitus (OR=1.04), other endocrine gland disorders including pituitary gland disorders (OR=1.43), amyloidosis (OR=3.02), systemic atrophies affecting the nervous system including spinal muscular atrophy (OR=1.27), Alzheimer disease (OR=1.64), peripheral polyneuropathies (OR=1.09), angina pectoris (OR=1.04), stroke (OR=1.09), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) including chronic bronchitis (OR=1.05) and bronchiectasis (OR=1.16), asthma (OR=1.04), peptic ulcer (OR=1.03), and liver cirrhosis (OR=1.08). In conclusion, Agent Orange exposure increased the prevalence of endocrine disorders, especially in the thyroid and pituitary gland; various neurologic diseases; COPD; and liver cirrhosis. Overall, this study suggests that Agent Orange/2,4-D/TCDD exposure several decades earlier may increase morbidity

  15. Main studies results for introduction of EB machine to Vietnam and for its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Khac An; Nguyen, Quoc Hien; Le, Hai

    2004-01-01

    Upon the national program on utilization of EB machine for research and development purposes and the FNCA project on application of electron accelerator, as a counterpart the Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology (VINAGAMMA) is preparing technical, manpower and financial conditions for introduction of an EB machine for R and D purposes. The paper offers main studied results in the field of Radiation Processing aimed at putting applications of EB technology into Vietnam and studies on selection of EB machine for R and D purposes in Vietnam. (author)

  16. Experimental studies of solar heat pipe used to operate absorption chiller in conditions of Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiep, Le Chi [Ho Chi Minh City Univ. of Tech., Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Quoc, Hoang An [Ho Chi Minh City Univ. of Tech. Education, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Hung, Hoang Duong [Danang Univ. of Tech., Danang City (Viet Nam)

    2008-07-01

    Several models of solar heat pipe have been fabricated and tested. The experiments show that the flat plate model could be used to operate absorption chiller in the climate of southern part of Vietnam. Two main advantages of the selected solar heat pipe are low cost and easy fabrication at local conditions. It is expected that the selected solar heat pipe could attract attention of the community to develop the application of solar energy in Vietnam. Based on the current demand, the paper presents the experimental studies of the first generation of low cost solar heat pipe. The paper also discusses the ability of application of solar air conditioning in Vietnam and recommends the suitable diagram mixing solar energy with other heat source to operate stably the system. (orig.)

  17. Recourse seeking and intervention in the context of intimate partner violence in Vietnam: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuler, S.R.; Lenzi, R.; Hoang, T.A.; Vu, S.H.; Yount, K.M.; Quach, T.T

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study examines attitudes toward recourse seeking and intervention in cases of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in periurban Vietnam. The data come from 20 open-ended interviews, 4 focus group discussions, and 40 cognitive interviews conducted with married men and women.

  18. The role of suggestibility in determinations of Miranda abilities: a study of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Richard; Harrison, Kimberly S; Rogstad, Jill E; LaFortune, Kathryn A; Hazelwood, Lisa L

    2010-02-01

    Traditionally, high levels of suggestibility have been widely assumed to be linked with diminished Miranda abilities, especially in relationship to the voluntariness of waivers. The current investigation examined suggestibility on the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales in a multisite study of pretrial defendants. One important finding was the inapplicability of British norms to American jurisdictions. Moreover, suggestibility appeared unrelated to Miranda comprehension, reasoning, and detainees' perceptions of police coercion. In testing rival hypotheses, defendants with high compliance had significantly lower Miranda comprehension and ability to reason about exercising Miranda rights than their counterparts with low compliance. Implications of these findings to forensic practice are examined.

  19. A Matched Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Risk in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vietnam has a low age-standardized incidence of breast cancer, but the incidence is rising rapidly with economic development. We report data from a matched case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in the largest cancer hospital in Vietnam. Methods. 492 incident breast cancer cases unselected for family history or age at diagnosis and 1306 control women age 25–75 were recruited from the National Cancer Hospital (BVK, Hanoi. Structured interviews were conducted and pathology data was centrally reported at the National Cancer Hospital of Vietnam, in Hanoi. Results. Our analysis included 294 matched pairs. Mean age at diagnosis was 46.7 years. Lower mean parity, older age at first parity, increasing weight and BMI at age 18, and increasing BMI at diagnosis were positively correlated with breast cancer cases compared to controls. Age at first menarche and duration of breastfeeding were not statistically different between cases and controls. Conclusions. In this study we demonstrate that breast cancer in Vietnam is associated with some but not all of the published risk factors from Western populations. Our data is consistent with other studies of breast cancer in Asian populations.

  20. Agro-Environmental Determinants of Avian Influenza Circulation: A Multisite Study in Thailand, Vietnam and Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Mathilde C.; Gilbert, Marius; Desvaux, Stéphanie; Rasamoelina Andriamanivo, Harena; Peyre, Marisa; Khong, Nguyen Viet; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Chevalier, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza have occurred and have been studied in a variety of ecological systems. However, differences in the spatial resolution, geographical extent, units of analysis and risk factors examined in these studies prevent their quantitative comparison. This study aimed to develop a high-resolution, comparative study of a common set of agro-environmental determinants of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in domestic poultry in four different environments: (1) lower-Northern Thailand, where H5N1 circulated in 2004–2005, (2) the Red River Delta in Vietnam, where H5N1 is circulating widely, (3) the Vietnam highlands, where sporadic H5N1 outbreaks have occurred, and (4) the Lake Alaotra region in Madagascar, which features remarkable similarities with Asian agro-ecosystems and where low pathogenic avian influenza viruses have been found. We analyzed H5N1 outbreak data in Thailand in parallel with serological data collected on the H5 subtype in Vietnam and on low pathogenic AIV in Madagascar. Several agro-environmental covariates were examined: poultry densities, landscape dominated by rice cultivation, proximity to a water body or major road, and human population density. Relationships between covariates and AIV circulation were explored using spatial generalized linear models. We found that AIV prevalence was negatively associated with distance to the closest water body in the Red River Delta, Vietnam highlands and Madagascar. We also found a positive association between AIV and duck density in the Vietnam highlands and Thailand, and with rice landscapes in Thailand and Madagascar. Our findings confirm the important role of wetlands-rice-ducks ecosystems in the epidemiology of AI in diverse settings. Variables influencing circulation of the H5 subtype in Southeast Asia played a similar role for low pathogenic AIV in Madagascar, indicating that this area may be at risk if a highly virulent strain is introduced. PMID:25029441

  1. Agro-environmental determinants of avian influenza circulation: a multisite study in Thailand, Vietnam and Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Mathilde C; Gilbert, Marius; Desvaux, Stéphanie; Andriamanivo, Harena Rasamoelina; Peyre, Marisa; Khong, Nguyen Viet; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Chevalier, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza have occurred and have been studied in a variety of ecological systems. However, differences in the spatial resolution, geographical extent, units of analysis and risk factors examined in these studies prevent their quantitative comparison. This study aimed to develop a high-resolution, comparative study of a common set of agro-environmental determinants of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in domestic poultry in four different environments: (1) lower-Northern Thailand, where H5N1 circulated in 2004-2005, (2) the Red River Delta in Vietnam, where H5N1 is circulating widely, (3) the Vietnam highlands, where sporadic H5N1 outbreaks have occurred, and (4) the Lake Alaotra region in Madagascar, which features remarkable similarities with Asian agro-ecosystems and where low pathogenic avian influenza viruses have been found. We analyzed H5N1 outbreak data in Thailand in parallel with serological data collected on the H5 subtype in Vietnam and on low pathogenic AIV in Madagascar. Several agro-environmental covariates were examined: poultry densities, landscape dominated by rice cultivation, proximity to a water body or major road, and human population density. Relationships between covariates and AIV circulation were explored using spatial generalized linear models. We found that AIV prevalence was negatively associated with distance to the closest water body in the Red River Delta, Vietnam highlands and Madagascar. We also found a positive association between AIV and duck density in the Vietnam highlands and Thailand, and with rice landscapes in Thailand and Madagascar. Our findings confirm the important role of wetlands-rice-ducks ecosystems in the epidemiology of AI in diverse settings. Variables influencing circulation of the H5 subtype in Southeast Asia played a similar role for low pathogenic AIV in Madagascar, indicating that this area may be at risk if a highly virulent strain is introduced.

  2. Sun-Earth System Interaction studies over Vietnam: an international cooperative project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Amory-Mazaudier

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available During many past decades, scientists from various countries have studied separately the atmospheric motions in the lower atmosphere, in the Earth's magnetic field, in the magnetospheric currents, etc. All of these separate studies lead today to the global study of the Sun and Earth connections, and as a consequence, new scientific programs (IHY- International Heliophysical Year, CAWSES- Climate and Weather in the Sun-Earth System are defined, in order to assume this new challenge. In the past, many scientists did not have the possibility to collect data at the same time in the various latitude and longitude sectors. Now, with the progress of geophysical sciences in many developing countries, it is possible to have access to worldwide data sets. This paper presents the particularities of geophysical parameters measured by the Vietnamese instrument networks. It introduces a cooperative Vietnamese-IGRGEA (International Geophysical Research Group Europe Africa project, and presents, for the first time, to the international community, the geophysical context of Vietnam. Concerning the ionosphere: since 1963, during four solar cycles, the ionosonde at Phu Thuy (North Vietnam was operating. The Phu Thuy data exhibits the common features for the ionospheric parameters, previously observed in other longitude and latitude sectors. The critical frequencies of the E, F1 and F2 ionospheric layers follow the variation of the sunspot cycle. F2 and E critical frequencies also exhibit an annual variation. The first maps of TEC made with data from GPS receivers recently installed in Vietnam illustrate the regional equatorial pattern, i.e. two maxima of electronic density at 15° N and 15° S from the magnetic equator and a trough of density at the magnetic equator. These features illustrate the equatorial fountain effect. Concerning the Earth's magnetic field: a strong amplitude of the equatorial electrojet was first observed by the CHAMP satellite at the height

  3. The mortality and cancer experience of New Zealand Vietnam war veterans: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, David; Cox, Brian; Broughton, John; Tong, Darryl

    2013-09-03

    The aim was to observe the patterns of mortality and cancer incidence in New Zealand Vietnam veterans. The objectives were to assess whether the patterns of disease observed were consistent with those associated with military service in Vietnam, and similar to the patterns identified in other groups of Vietnam veterans. A historical cohort study. Veterans, identified from service records, with Vietnam service between 1964 and 1972. Of the 3322 survivors of Vietnam service, we followed up 2783 (84%). Standardised mortality and incidence ratios (SMRs and SIRs, respectively) were calculated based on the number of deaths and cancer registrations observed, those expected being based on New Zealand national rates. All cause mortality was significantly reduced (SMR 0.85, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.94) and cancer incidence non-significantly increased (SIR 1.06, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.16). The risk of mortality from cancers of the head and neck (SMR 2.20, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.93); oral cavity pharynx and larynx (SMR 2.13, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.81) and the incidence of chronic lymphatic leukaemia (CLL) (SIR 1.91, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.20) were, however, significantly increased. Other lymphohaematopoietic disorders, specifically multiple myeloma and Hodgkin disease, showed non-significant mortality excesses, reflected by a similar increase in incidence. Service in the Vietnam war was associated with defoliant herbicide exposure, including 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, picloram and cacodylic acid. Subsequent reviews of mechanistic, animal and epidemiological evidence led to certain conditions being deemed compensable. The pattern of mortality and cancer incidence is not at odds with the list of compensable conditions and consistent with that found in Australian veterans serving in the same area of Vietnam, but also consistent with smoking and the healthy soldier effect. In common with the Australian experience, this is the only veterans group to show a significant

  4. A Study of Strategic Lessons Learned in Vietnam. Volume 4. US Domestic Factors Influencing Vietnam War Policy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    Andrews, Bruce, Public Constraint and American Policy in Vietnam, London. Sage Publicationsb, 1976. Arendt , Hannah , Crises of the Republic, New York... Hannah , N. B., "Nixon and Watergate-Communist Indochina," National Review, 4 Vol. 28, July 23, 1978, pp. 772-775. Head, R. A. and RohKe, American

  5. Estimating the Cost-Effectiveness of HIV Prevention Programmes in Vietnam, 2006-2010: A Modelling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quang Duy Pham

    Full Text Available Vietnam has been largely reliant on international support in its HIV response. Over 2006-2010, a total of US$480 million was invested in its HIV programmes, more than 70% of which came from international sources. This study investigates the potential epidemiological impacts of these programmes and their cost-effectiveness.We conducted a data synthesis of HIV programming, spending, epidemiological, and clinical outcomes. Counterfactual scenarios were defined based on assumed programme coverage and behaviours had the programmes not been implemented. An epidemiological model, calibrated to reflect the actual epidemiological trends, was used to estimate plausible ranges of programme impacts. The model was then used to estimate the costs per averted infection, death, and disability adjusted life-year (DALY.Based on observed prevalence reductions amongst most population groups, and plausible counterfactuals, modelling suggested that antiretroviral therapy (ART and prevention programmes over 2006-2010 have averted an estimated 50,600 [95% uncertainty bound: 36,300-68,900] new infections and 42,600 [36,100-54,100] deaths, resulting in 401,600 [312,200-496,300] fewer DALYs across all population groups. HIV programmes in Vietnam have cost an estimated US$1,972 [1,447-2,747], US$2,344 [1,843-2,765], and US$248 [201-319] for each averted infection, death, and DALY, respectively.Our evaluation suggests that HIV programmes in Vietnam have most likely had benefits that are cost-effective. ART and direct HIV prevention were the most cost-effective interventions in reducing HIV disease burden.

  6. Estimating the Cost-Effectiveness of HIV Prevention Programmes in Vietnam, 2006-2010: A Modelling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Quang Duy; Wilson, David P.; Kerr, Cliff C.; Shattock, Andrew J.; Do, Hoa Mai; Duong, Anh Thuy; Nguyen, Long Thanh; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Vietnam has been largely reliant on international support in its HIV response. Over 2006-2010, a total of US$480 million was invested in its HIV programmes, more than 70% of which came from international sources. This study investigates the potential epidemiological impacts of these programmes and their cost-effectiveness. Methods We conducted a data synthesis of HIV programming, spending, epidemiological, and clinical outcomes. Counterfactual scenarios were defined based on assumed programme coverage and behaviours had the programmes not been implemented. An epidemiological model, calibrated to reflect the actual epidemiological trends, was used to estimate plausible ranges of programme impacts. The model was then used to estimate the costs per averted infection, death, and disability adjusted life-year (DALY). Results Based on observed prevalence reductions amongst most population groups, and plausible counterfactuals, modelling suggested that antiretroviral therapy (ART) and prevention programmes over 2006-2010 have averted an estimated 50,600 [95% uncertainty bound: 36,300–68,900] new infections and 42,600 [36,100–54,100] deaths, resulting in 401,600 [312,200–496,300] fewer DALYs across all population groups. HIV programmes in Vietnam have cost an estimated US$1,972 [1,447–2,747], US$2,344 [1,843–2,765], and US$248 [201–319] for each averted infection, death, and DALY, respectively. Conclusions Our evaluation suggests that HIV programmes in Vietnam have most likely had benefits that are cost-effective. ART and direct HIV prevention were the most cost-effective interventions in reducing HIV disease burden. PMID:26196290

  7. Vietnam Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, George

    1990-01-01

    Reflections of an Associated Press special correspondent on a return visit to Vietnam 15 years after the war. Discusses the social and economic impact of the war on Vietnam. Examines the plight of the Vietnamese who served in the U.S. military, discussing the problems of Amerasians. Recounts the efforts of U.S. veterans to rebuild Vietnam. (RW)

  8. Economic growth constraints in Vietnam: A study using the growth diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Duc Thanh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have clearly pointed out a decreasing trend of Vietnam’s economic growth in the short and the medium terms. This paper presents a study applying the growth diagnostic method for Vietnam to determine growth constrains. The binding growth constrains of Vietnam are found to include a poor business environment; an underdeveloped infrastructure, especially the transportation network market; failures related to information externalities, learning externalities and coordination failures. Notably, the energy infrastructure could be a vital constraint in a near future, but is not a binding constraint at present. The inefficiency of financial intermediaries and the government’s over-investment could become a binding constraint when the economy returns to its high growth path.

  9. Government Crisis Assessment and Reputation Management. A Case Study of the Vietnam Health Minister's Crises in 2013-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuong-Minh Ly-Le

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Vietnam, many government announcements have gathered negative receptions from the public. Among them, Ms. Nguyen Thi Kim Tien, Vietnam Minister of Health, has received more of it. Through the case study of Ms. Kim Tien’s many scandals during the 2013-2014 period, this study is interested to see if the health scandals eventually elevated into a government crisis, how they affected the minister’s reputation, and what she could have done to better respond to the public. This study examined news articles on such health scandals to confirm whether the health scandals indeed escalated to be a government crisis. It also identified the advantages and disadvantages of Ms. Kim Tien’s responses in restoring her reputation to the public to understand what factors contributed to public dissatisfaction toward the minister. This study concluded that poorly-managed health scandals eventually elevated into a government crisis and greatly affected the minister’s reputation. It is suggested that PR is what the government needs to deal with such situations. The research also leaves room for a quantitative approach to the case to increase the result’s validity and representativeness. Until now, as the health issues and the resignation appeals are still needed, the crisis management effort should get more attention from the government, and such study is needed to better understand the situation.

  10. Prenatal diagnosis and prevention of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Northern Vietnam: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, G Suzanne A; Vu, Thi Lam Binh; Do, Trung Dung; Speybroeck, Niko; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Padalko, Elizaveta; Roets, Ellen; Dorny, Pierre

    2017-05-25

    In Vietnam, no systematic prenatal toxoplasmosis screening is in place, and only few studies have assessed the prevalence and importance of this zoonotic parasite infection. In addition, no studies have been conducted to assess the risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis. This study protocol was developed to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Hanoi and Thai Binh, Northern Vietnam, and to evaluate the association with risk factors and congenital toxoplasmosis. The protocol was developed in a way that it could potentially evolve into a countrywide prenatal diagnosis and prevention program, with the main focus on primary prevention. The collaborating gynaecologists will invite eligible pregnant women attending antenatal care for the first time to participate in the study. At first consult, information about toxoplasmosis and its prevention will be provided. All participants will be asked to fill in a questionnaire, which is designed to analyse socio-demographic and biologically plausible risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis, and blood samples will be collected to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. In case there is suspicion of a primary infection during pregnancy, the concerned women will be followed-up by the gynaecologists according to a predefined protocol. Every participant will be informed on her serological status, risk factors and prevention measures and is offered appropriate medical information and medical follow-up if required. The hypothesis is that congenital toxoplasmosis is an important but currently under-diagnosed public health problem in Vietnam. This study can strengthen sustainable control of toxoplasmosis in Vietnam, provide a protocol for prenatal diagnosis, boost overall awareness, improve the knowledge about toxoplasmosis prevention and can be essential for evidence-based health policy.

  11. A Study of Strategic Lessons Learned in Vietnam. Volume 8. Results of the War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-09

    BDNI CORPORATION Political Bureau Membeirs (Fourth Party Congress ranking order) Le Duan fruong Chinh Phamn Van Dong Phamn Huna Le Duc Tho Vo Nguyen...the Laotian monarchy was abolished and the Democratic People’s Republic of Laos established. In a political trans - formation which passed with little...Strategic Studies, thus observed, " in the particular case of Vietnam, the general effect was to inaugurate a tran - sitional phase of Americao policy which

  12. Using the ENPEP program for nuclear power planning study in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Van Hong; Hamilton, B.; Conzelmann, G.; Phung Manh Duc

    2000-01-01

    In the framework of national R-D project KH-09-04 ''Establishment the fundamental basic for the introduction of nuclear power into Vietnam'', 1996-1998, and Technical cooperation project VIE/0/009 ''Prefeasibility study for the introduction of nuclear power plant into Vietnam'', 1997-1999, planning study of energy and nuclear power has been conducted. Based on 3 scenarios (high, based and low) of the Vietnam socio-economic development up to year 2020, the energy demand (forecasting was carried out using computer model MAED. The electricity demand forecast obtained from the MAED is used as one of the basic inputs to the optimization study of the electricity generating sector using the WASP model. In view of the limited, energy supplies form indigenous resources, it has been assumed that imported coal and nuclear power will be considered as the future energy supply options. From the results of optimal electric system expansion found in the study, it can be concluded that nuclear power should be added to the system from 2016 to 2020 depends on national economic development and availability of domestic natural gas sully (author)

  13. Agent Orange exposure and cancer incidence in Korean Vietnam veterans: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul

    2014-12-01

    During the Vietnam War, US and allied military sprayed approximately 77 million liters of tactical herbicides including Agent Orange, contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. To the authors' knowledge, few studies to date have examined the association between Agent Orange exposure and cancer incidence among Korean veterans who were exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War. An Agent Orange exposure index, based on the proximity of the veteran's military unit to the area that was sprayed with Agent Orange, was developed using a geographic information system-based model. Cancer incidence was followed for 180,251 Vietnam veterans from 1992 through 2003. After adjustment for age and military rank, high exposure to Agent Orange was found to significantly increase the risk of all cancers combined (adjusted hazards ratio [aHR], 1.08). Risks for cancers of the mouth (aHR, 2.54), salivary glands (aHR, 6.96), stomach (aHR, 1.14), and small intestine (aHR, 2.30) were found to be significantly higher in the high-exposure group compared with the low-exposure group. Risks for cancers of all sites combined (aHR, 1.02) and for cancers of the salivary glands (aHR, 1.47), stomach (aHR, 1.03), small intestine (aHR, 1.24), and liver (aHR, 1.02) were elevated with a 1-unit increase in the exposure index. Exposure to Agent Orange several decades earlier may increase the risk of cancers in all sites combined, as well as several specific cancers, among Korean veterans of the Vietnam War, including some cancers that were not found to be clearly associated with exposure to Agent Orange in previous cohort studies primarily based on Western populations. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  14. Review: Results of studying atmospheric corrosion in Vietnam 1995–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Hong Lien, Pham Thy San and Hoang Lam Hong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam is situated in the wet tropical zone; thus, atmospheric conditions are characterized by high temperatures and a long time of wetness (TOW. In addition, the salt air coming in from the sea causes a high chloride concentration in coastal areas. Furthermore, Vietnam is a developing country, which means that air pollution is increasing with the development of industry. These factors result in significant damage to materials by atmospheric corrosion. In this report, the results of a recent study on the corrosion of carbon steel and zinc-galvanized steel at 6–8 testing sites in Vietnam over 10 recent years (1995–2005 are focused on as well as the effects of environmental factors on atmospheric corrosion. The results showed that the corrosion of carbon steel is dominated by TOW, whereas zinc-galvanized-steel corrosion strongly depends on the chloride ion concentration in the air. The corrosion losses of both carbon- and zinc-galvanized steel fit the power model well with high correlation coefficients. In addition, the characteristics of the Vietnamese climate are introduced in the form of distribution maps of temperature (T, relative humidity (RH, total rainfall and TOW. A relationship between TOW, T and RH was found that enabled the calculation of TOW from T and RH data, which are available at meteorological stations. Finally, atmospheric corrosivity is determined on the basis of data on TOW, Cl− and SO2 concentrations, and the carbon steel corrosion rate. It is shown that in Vietnam, TOW is so long that the corrosion rate of carbon steel is in the C3 category; nevertheless, Cl− and SO2 concentrations in the atmosphere are not high.

  15. Nutritional status and postoperative outcomes in patients with gastrointestinal cancer in Vietnam: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loan, Bui Thi Hong; Nakahara, Shinji; Tho, Bui An; Dang, Tran Ngoc; Anh, Le Ngoc; Huy, Nguyen Do; Ichikawa, Masao

    2018-04-01

    Nutritional support for surgical care is crucial because hospital malnutrition is rather common. However, low- and middle-income countries have not adequately addressed nutritional management of surgical patients. To highlight need for nutritional management in surgical patients, the present study aimed to describe preoperative nutritional status in patients who underwent gastrointestinal cancer surgery in Vietnam and to investigate the relationship between preoperative malnutrition and adverse outcomes, such as postoperative complications and prolonged length of hospital stay. We reviewed medical records of patients who underwent a major curative surgery for gastrointestinal cancer at the national hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. We identified preoperative malnutrition based on body mass index and serum albumin level, and postoperative complications in the first 30 d postoperative. We estimated the relative influence of malnutrition on complications and length of hospital stay using multivariate regression models. Of 459 eligible patients, 63% had colorectal cancer, 33% gastric cancer, and 4% esophageal cancer. The prevalence of malnutrition was 19%. No patients died during hospitalization; however, 26% developed complications after surgery. The average length of hospital stay was 14 d. After controlling for potential confounders, preoperative malnutrition was associated with an increased risk of postoperative complications (odds ratio = 1.97) and prolonged hospital stay (2.8 d). Preoperative malnutrition affects surgical outcomes among patients with gastrointestinal cancer in Vietnam. We recommend implementing preoperative nutritional interventions to achieve better outcomes among surgical cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Elevated sister chromatid exchange frequencies in New Zealand Vietnam War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, R E; Edwards, L A; Podd, J V

    2007-01-01

    From July 1965 until November 1971, New Zealand Defence Force Personnel fought in the Vietnam War. During this time more than 76,500,000 litres of phenoxylic herbicides were sprayed over parts of Southern Vietnam and Laos, the most common being known as 'Agent Orange'. The current study aimed to ascertain whether or not New Zealand Vietnam War veterans show evidence of genetic disturbance arising as a consequence of their now confirmed exposure to these defoliants. A sample group of 24 New Zealand Vietnam War veterans and 23 control volunteers were compared using an SCE (sister chromatid exchange) analysis. The results from the SCE study show a highly significant difference (P Vietnam War veterans studied here were exposed to a clastogenic substance(s) which continues to exert an observable genetic effect today, and suggest that this is attributable to their service in Vietnam. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Perspectives of HIV-related stigma in a community in Vietnam: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudine, Alice; Gien, Lan; Thuan, Tran T; Dung, Do V

    2010-01-01

    While HIV/AIDS is increasing in Vietnam, very few published studies focus on HIV-related stigma in Vietnam. This study reports on findings from a community development project to reduce HIV-related stigma within one community in Vietnam. The purpose of this qualitative study is to describe HIV-related stigma from the perspective of three groups within one community in Vietnam: people living with HIV, their family members, and community members and leaders, including health care professionals. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Fifty-eight individuals from a poor, industrial district on the outskirts of a large city participated in the study and were asked to describe HIV-related stigma. Interviews were conducted with 10 people living with HIV, 10 family members of a person living with HIV, and 10 community members and 5 community leaders including health care professionals. We also conducted three focus groups, one with people living with HIV (n=8), one with family members of people living with HIV (n=8), and one with community leaders including health care professionals (n=7). Stigma across the three groups is characterized by four dimensions of HIV-related stigma: feeling shamed and scorned, behaving differently, stigma due to association, and fear of transmission. The manifestation of these dimensions differs for each group. Four themes of HIV-related stigma as described by people living with HIV are: being avoided, experiencing anger and rejection, being viewed as a social ill, and hiding the illness. Seven themes of HIV-related stigma as described by family members are: shunned by neighbors, viewed as poor parents, discriminated by health professionals, overhearing discussions about people with HIV, maintaining the secret, financial hardship for family, and fear of contracting HIV. Four themes of HIV-related stigma as described by community members and leaders including health professionals are: stigma as a fair reward, avoidance and shunning by neighbors

  18. A Multilevel Study of Students in Vietnam: Drinking Motives and Drinking Context as Predictors of Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, Pham Bich; Tan, Frans E S; Knibbe, Ronald A; De Vries, Nanne

    2016-07-13

    This study used multi-level analysis to estimate which type of factor explains most of the variance in alcohol consumption of Vietnamese students. Data were collected among 6011 students attending 12 universities/faculties in four provinces in Vietnam. The three most recent drinking occasions were investigated per student, resulting in 12,795 drinking occasions among 4265 drinkers. Students reported on 10 aspects of the drinking context per drinking occasion. A multi-level mixed-effects linear regression model was constructed in which aspects of drinking context composed the first level; the age of students and four drinking motives comprised the second level. The dependent variable was the number of drinks. Of the aspects of context, drinking duration had the strongest association with alcohol consumption while, at the individual level, coping motive had the strongest association. The drinking context characteristics explained more variance than the individual characteristics in alcohol intake per occasion. These findings suggest that, among students in Vietnam, the drinking context explains a larger proportion of the variance in alcohol consumption than the drinking motives. Therefore, measures that reduce the availability of alcohol in specific drinking situations are an essential part of an effective prevention policy.

  19. The Effect of Culture on Enterprise's Perception of Corporate Social Responsibility: The Case of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truong, Minh Quang; Nguyen, My

    2016-01-01

    including Vietnam, perception of CSR remains vague and the adoption of CSR is limited. This study reviews different approaches to CSR and gives a conceptual framework of how cultural values influence CSR perception of enterprise. Some analysis on culture and data collection in Vietnam's case are carried out...... as example for the proposed framework. The study suggests several directions for future research on CSR....

  20. Impact of perinatal dioxin exposure on infant growth: a cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in dioxin-contaminated areas in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijo, Muneko; Tai, Pham The; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Maruzeni, Shoko; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Luong, Hoang Van; Anh, Tran Hai; Honda, Ryumon; Morikawa, Yuko; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2012-01-01

    Dioxin exposure levels remain elevated in residents living around former US Air Force bases in Vietnam, indicating potential adverse impacts on infant growth. In this study, 210 mother-infant pairs in dioxin-contaminated areas in Vietnam were recruited at the infants' birth and followed up for 4 months. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were estimated by measurement of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans toxic equivalent (PCDDs/Fs-TEQ) in breast milk. The infants' size was measured at birth and 1 and 4 months after birth, and neurodevelopment was evaluated using the Bayley Scales III at 4 months of age. Among 4 dioxin groups (language, and fine motor scores in the ≥75 percentile group were significantly lower than those in the other groups. These results suggested a considerable impact of perinatal dioxin exposure on infant growth, particularly in boys exposed to dioxins at high level of PCDDs/Fs-TEQ.

  1. Impact of Perinatal Dioxin Exposure on Infant Growth: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Studies in Dioxin-Contaminated Areas in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijo, Muneko; Tai, Pham The; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Maruzeni, Shoko; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Honda, Ryumon; Morikawa, Yuko; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2012-01-01

    Dioxin exposure levels remain elevated in residents living around former US Air Force bases in Vietnam, indicating potential adverse impacts on infant growth. In this study, 210 mother–infant pairs in dioxin-contaminated areas in Vietnam were recruited at the infants’ birth and followed up for 4 months. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were estimated by measurement of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans toxic equivalent (PCDDs/Fs-TEQ) in breast milk. The infants’ size was measured at birth and 1 and 4 months after birth, and neurodevelopment was evaluated using the Bayley Scales III at 4 months of age. Among 4 dioxin groups (dioxin levels. Only in boys, cognitive, language, and fine motor scores in the ≥75 percentile group were significantly lower than those in the other groups. These results suggested a considerable impact of perinatal dioxin exposure on infant growth, particularly in boys exposed to dioxins at high level of PCDDs/Fs-TEQ. PMID:22815734

  2. Baby Teeth Link Autism and Heavy Metals, NIH Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Release Thursday, June 1, 2017 Baby teeth link autism and heavy metals, NIH study suggests Cross-section ... Sinai Health System Baby teeth from children with autism contain more toxic lead and less of the ...

  3. Use of oral cholera vaccines in an outbreak in Vietnam: a case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Duc Anh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Killed oral cholera vaccines (OCVs are available but not used routinely for cholera control except in Vietnam, which produces its own vaccine. In 2007-2008, unprecedented cholera outbreaks occurred in the capital, Hanoi, prompting immunization in two districts. In an outbreak investigation, we assessed the effectiveness of killed OCV use after a cholera outbreak began. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 16 to 28 January 2008, vaccination campaigns with the Vietnamese killed OCV were held in two districts of Hanoi. No cholera cases were detected from 5 February to 4 March 2008, after which cases were again identified. Beginning 8 April 2008, residents of four districts of Hanoi admitted to one of five hospitals for acute diarrhea with onset after 5 March 2008 were recruited for a matched, hospital-based, case-control outbreak investigation. Cases were matched by hospital, admission date, district, gender, and age to controls admitted for non-diarrheal conditions. Subjects from the two vaccinated districts were evaluated to determine vaccine effectiveness. 54 case-control pairs from the vaccinated districts were included in the analysis. There were 8 (15% and 16 (30% vaccine recipients among cases and controls, respectively. The vaccine was 76% protective against cholera in this setting (95% CI 5% to 94%, P = 0.042 after adjusting for intake of dog meat or raw vegetables and not drinking boiled or bottled water most of the time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to explore the effectiveness of the reactive use of killed OCVs during a cholera outbreak. Our findings suggest that killed OCVs may have a role in controlling cholera outbreaks.

  4. A Comparative Study of Trade Relations and the Spatial-Temporal Evolution of Geo-Economy between China and Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Ma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing economic importance of the Asia-Pacific Region, the economic interdependence among countries in the region has gradually enhanced. With the continuous opening up of the two countries, Sino-Vietnamese economic relations have also been deepened. However, the export trade between Vietnam and China has been competitive. China and Vietnam seek to dominate or join an agreement that is conducive to their own trade, which also exacerbates the trade competition between the two countries. This paper compares China and Vietnam and analyzes their foreign trade data from 2005 to 2014. By analyzing the competitiveness of export commodities, the trade division effect and spatio-temporal changes of the geo-economic relationship in the Asia-Pacific Region, this study explores Sino-Vietnamese trade relations and compares the pattern of geo-economic evolution between the two countries. The findings show that China and Vietnam have similarities and substitutability in textiles, apparel and footwear in terms of commodity structure. There is already a trade diversion effect between Vietnam and China on these commodities, but it is not substantial. From a geographic perspective, China’s geo-economic relations in the Pacific Rim present an increasingly dispersed trend. However, the spatial pattern of Vietnam’s geo-economy has maintained a low-level and stable spatial agglomeration over the last decade.

  5. Studying Injured Minds’ - The Vietnam Head Injury Study and 40 years of brain injury research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa eRaymont

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of those who have sustained traumatic brain injuries (TBI during military conflicts has greatly facilitated research in the fields of neuropsychology, neurosurgery, psychiatry, neurology and neuroimaging. The Vietnam Head Injury Study (VHIS is a prospective, long-term follow-up study of a cohort of 1,221 Vietnam veterans with mostly penetrating brain injuries, which has stretched over more than 40 years. The scope of this study, both in terms of the types of injury and fields of examination, has been extremely broad. It has been instrumental in extending the field of TBI research and in exposing pressing medical and social issues that affect those who suffer such injuries. This review summarizes the history of conflict-related TBI research and the VHIS to date, as well as the vast range of important findings the VHIS has established.

  6. Maternal vitamin D status and infant outcomes in rural Vietnam: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hanieh

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency affects 1 billion people globally. It has an important role in bone homeostasis, brain development and modulation of the immune system and yet the impact of antenatal vitamin D deficiency on infant outcomes is poorly understood. We assessed the association of 25- hydroxyvitamin D levels (25-OHD in late pregnancy and early infant growth and developmental outcomes in rural Vietnam.A prospective cohort study of 960 women who had previously participated in a double-blind cluster randomized controlled trial of antenatal micronutrient supplementation in rural Vietnam was undertaken. Maternal 25-OHD concentration was measured at 32 weeks gestation, and infants were followed until 6 months of age. Main outcome measures were cognitive, motor, socio-emotional and language scores using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd edition, and infant length-for-age z scores at 6 months of age.60% (582/960 of women had 25-OHD levels <75 nmol/L at 32 weeks gestation. Infants born to women with 25-OHD deficiency (<37.5 nmol/L had reduced developmental language scores compared to those born to women who were vitamin D replete (≥75 nmol/L (Mean Difference (MD -3.48, 95% Confidence Interval (CI -5.67 to -1.28. For every 25 nmol increase in 25-OHD concentration in late pregnancy, infant length-for-age z scores at 6 months of age decreased by 0.08 (95% CI -0.15 to -0.02.Low maternal 25- hydroxyvitamin D levels during late pregnancy are of concern in rural Vietnam, and are associated with reduced language developmental outcomes at 6 months of age. Our findings strengthen the evidence for giving vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy.

  7. Maternal vitamin D status and infant outcomes in rural Vietnam: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanieh, Sarah; Ha, Tran T; Simpson, Julie A; Thuy, Tran T; Khuong, Nguyen C; Thoang, Dang D; Tran, Thach D; Tuan, Tran; Fisher, Jane; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency affects 1 billion people globally. It has an important role in bone homeostasis, brain development and modulation of the immune system and yet the impact of antenatal vitamin D deficiency on infant outcomes is poorly understood. We assessed the association of 25- hydroxyvitamin D levels (25-OHD) in late pregnancy and early infant growth and developmental outcomes in rural Vietnam. A prospective cohort study of 960 women who had previously participated in a double-blind cluster randomized controlled trial of antenatal micronutrient supplementation in rural Vietnam was undertaken. Maternal 25-OHD concentration was measured at 32 weeks gestation, and infants were followed until 6 months of age. Main outcome measures were cognitive, motor, socio-emotional and language scores using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd edition, and infant length-for-age z scores at 6 months of age. 60% (582/960) of women had 25-OHD levels language scores compared to those born to women who were vitamin D replete (≥75 nmol/L) (Mean Difference (MD) -3.48, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) -5.67 to -1.28). For every 25 nmol increase in 25-OHD concentration in late pregnancy, infant length-for-age z scores at 6 months of age decreased by 0.08 (95% CI -0.15 to -0.02). Low maternal 25- hydroxyvitamin D levels during late pregnancy are of concern in rural Vietnam, and are associated with reduced language developmental outcomes at 6 months of age. Our findings strengthen the evidence for giving vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy.

  8. Antecedents of narcotic use and addiction. A study of 898 Vietnam veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helzer, J E; Robins, L N; Davis, D H

    1976-02-01

    Previous studies of predictors of narcotic abuse have been retrospective and based on samples of long-term addicts obtained from legal or medical channels. There are several methodological problems in this approach. The present study is an attempt to test certain alleged predictors of narcotic use in a cohort of 898 Vietnam veterans. The design overcomes several of the methodological weaknesses of previous studies. Eight variables which have been reported as predictors of drug use or addiction in the drug literature were inquired about during a personal interview which included the premilitary life of each subject. The antecedent variables were socioeconomic background, inner city residence, psychiatric illness, broken home, race, employment history, education and antisocial history. Using information obtained from interviews and military records, we then tested the predictive value of each of these antecedents by comparing narcotic used and addiction in Vietman and use after Vietnam in men differing with respect to each antecedent. Results indicate that some of the variables were very poor, and others very good predictors of the various levels of narcotic involvement. The predictive value and overall importance of each of the variables we tested are discussed.

  9. Public Relations in enhancing brand values: case study Virgin Atlantic and Vietnam Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Viet, Thang

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate purpose of this dissertation is to evaluate the Public Relations (PR) activities of Vietnam Airlines and give the airline some recommendations to improve its PR performance. In order to achieve this purpose, there are three issues needed to be solved: 1) how PR helps to enhance brand personality and brand values 2) the differences in PR activities between Vietnam Airlines and Virgin Atlantic and 3) what approaches Vietnam Airlines should implement to improve its PR performance. ...

  10. Postpartum Depressive Symptoms and Associated Factors in Married Women: A Cross-sectional Study in Danang City, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thang Van Vo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionPostpartum depression (PPD among women is a common mental health concern. It occurs at a time of major life change, coupled with the increased responsibilities associated with the care of a newborn infant. In Vietnam, the prevalence of depressive symptoms after giving birth has not been fully investigated. Research in the Northern provinces, in Ho Chi Minh City, and in Hue suggests postnatal depressive symptoms among women are common. This research aims to (1 estimate the prevalence of PPD symptoms among married women in one Vietnam city (Danang and (2 identify the social and personal factors associated with postpartum depressive symptoms.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2013 to August 2014 in 10 wards of Hai Chau District, Danang. A total of 600 mothers who gave birth 4 weeks to 6 months prior to being interviewed were recruited. Interviews were conducted using structured questionnaires, which included several dimensions: demographics, family living arrangements, expectations of pregnancy, expectations of infant gender, the woman’s relationship with her husband, exercise after birth, infant health, and anxiety about matters other than the birth. The Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS was used to examine PPD symptoms, with a cutoff point of 12/13.ResultsEPDS scores indicated the prevalence of PPD symptoms was 19.3% (95% CI: 16.16–22.50. Among women with PPD symptoms, 37.9% had suicidal thoughts in the previous seven days. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that the following key factors were significantly associated with PPD symptoms: Not being able to rely on their husband for help, having a husband who does not spend time to discuss problems, having anxiety about matters other than the birth, not exercising after giving birth, and having an ill baby.ConclusionThese findings should be interpreted in relation to other recent research in Vietnam. A consistent pattern of prevalence

  11. THE VALUE CHAIN OF EXPORTED WHITELEG SHRIMP: CASE STUDY IN KHANH HOA PROVINCE, VIETNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tram Anh Thi Nguyen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on systematic mapping and verification of benefit distribution among stakeholders in the value chain of white-leg shrimp in Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam. The question is, can reorganization of small farmer groups enhance participation and efficiency of the value chain? Convenient sampling and face-to-face interview method were employed in 2014 and 2015 to solicit information from 100 shrimp producers, 10 middlemen and 3 exporters. Males account for 98 percent of small independent producers. There is an involvement of middlemen (middlemen type #1 and middlemen type # 2 in the chain. The middlemen are the drivers in the chain and engage in risk shifting on producers. The distribution of shrimp materials by middlemen type #1 to the processing plant is based on shrimp size. An alternate design to assist collective bargaining by unified small farm *groups shows in order to attain a sustainable value chain for white-leg shrimp, one should improve vertical integration and coordination among the market participants; and seek government intervention to build the image of Vietnam seafood in international markets.

  12. Viral Etiology of Encephalitis in Children in Southern Vietnam: Results of a One-Year Prospective Descriptive Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, L.V.; Qui, P.T.; Ha, D.Q.; Hue, N.B.; Bao, L.Q.; Cam, B.V.; Khanh, T.H.; Hien, T.T.; Chau, N.V.V.; Tram, T.T.; Hien, V.M.; Nga, T.V.T.; Schultsz, C.; Farrar, J.; van Doorn, H.R.; de Jong, M.D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Acute encephalitis is an important and severe disease in children in Vietnam. However, little is known about the etiology while such knowledge is essential for optimal prevention and treatment. To identify viral causes of encephalitis, in 2004 we conducted a one-year descriptive study at

  13. Evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses in Vietnam between 2001 and 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Feng Wan

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 viruses have caused dramatic economic losses to the poultry industry of Vietnam and continue to pose a serious threat to public health. As of June 2008, Vietnam had reported nearly one third of worldwide laboratory confirmed human H5N1 infections. To better understand the emergence, spread and evolution of H5N1 in Vietnam we studied over 300 H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated from Vietnam since their first detection in 2001. Our phylogenetic analyses indicated that six genetically distinct H5N1 viruses were introduced into Vietnam during the past seven years. The H5N1 lineage that evolved following the introduction in 2003 of the A/duck/Hong Kong/821/2002-like viruses, with clade 1 hemagglutinin (HA, continued to predominate in southern Vietnam as of May 2007. A virus with a clade 2.3.4 HA newly introduced into northern Vietnam in 2007, reassorted with pre-existing clade 1 viruses, resulting in the emergence of novel genotypes with neuraminidase (NA and/or internal gene segments from clade 1 viruses. A total of nine distinct genotypes have been present in Vietnam since 2001, including five that were circulating in 2007. At least four of these genotypes appear to have originated in Vietnam and represent novel H5N1 viruses not reported elsewhere. Geographic and temporal analyses of H5N1 infection dynamics in poultry suggest that the majority of viruses containing new genes were first detected in northern Vietnam and subsequently spread to southern Vietnam after reassorting with pre-existing local viruses in northern Vietnam. Although the routes of entry and spread of H5N1 in Vietnam remain speculative, enhanced poultry import controls and virologic surveillance efforts may help curb the entry and spread of new HPAI viral genes.

  14. Acceptability study on locally developed Ready–to–Use Supplementary Food (RUSF) in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, Thi Bao Hoa; Tran, Thuy Nga; Nguyen, Hong Minh; Thi, Phuong Thao Nguyen; Le Danh, Tuyen; Le Thi, Hop; Nguyen, Marie; Berger, Jacques; Wieringa, Frank; Mathisen, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: Despite much progress, the prevalence of stunting and acute malnutrition remains too high in Vietnam. Since 2010, the National Institute of Nutrition, UNICEF-Vietnam and the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement have been working on the development of locally produced ready-to-use foods (RUFs) for severe and moderate acute malnutrition (SAM/MAM). In contrast to clear evidence of the effectiveness of RUFs for SAM in Africa, data are limited with respect to the acceptability and effectiveness of RUFs in South-East Asia. A report from Cambodia showed poor acceptability of peanut-based RUFs. The present study examined the acceptability of a locally produced supplementary RUF in Vietnamese preschool children and their caregivers. Methods: The local produced RUSF was formulated in accordance to the recent WHO guidelines on specifications for RUSF. The study was conducted in two kindergartens in Bac Giang province, Vietnam. Preschool children (n = 61) aged 3-5 years and having WHZ between -3 and -1.0 z-score (mean -1.53 Z-score) and/or a MUAC less than 125 mm, were included in the study. Selected children were given daily one sachet of local RUSF (92g) as snack meal rations for 5 days/week for two consecutive weeks. Weight and height was measured at baseline and endline. In addition, eaten quantity, eating patterns and hedonic evaluation of children and their caregivers were collected. Results: Most children (75.4%) consumed >75% of the offered RUSF with 85.8% (95% CI: 80.5, 91.1) of the offered RUSF consumed. Sex and age of children affected the amount of RUSF eaten. Almost all children and their caregivers scored the product high on organoleptic properties. Children gained on average 2 g/kg body weight per day over the study period. The majority of caregivers reported a willingness to buy the RUSF for their children. Conclusion: The locally produced RUSF had a positive impact on weight gain, and was very well-accepted by Vietnamese

  15. High mortality during tuberculosis treatment does not indicate long diagnostic delays in Vietnam: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy Dinh N

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delay in tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment initiation may increase disease severity and mortality. In evaluations of tuberculosis control programmes high fatality rates during tuberculosis treatment, are used as an indicator of long delays in low HIV-prevalence settings. However, data for this presumed association between delay and fatality are lacking. We assessed the association between diagnostic delay and mortality of new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Vietnam. Methods Follow-up of a patient cohort included in a survey of diagnostic delay in 70 randomly selected districts. Data on diagnosis and treatment were extracted from routine registers. Patients who had died during the course of treatment were compared to those with reported cure, completed treatment or failure (survivors. Results Complete data were available for 1881/2093 (89.9% patients, of whom 82 (4.4% had died. Fatality was 4.5% for patients with ≤ 4 weeks delay, 5.0% for 5- ≤ 8 weeks delay (aOR 1.11, 95%CI 0.67–1.84 and 3.2% for > 9 weeks delay (aOR 0.69, 95%CI 0.37–1.30. Fatality tended to decline with increasing delay but this was not significant. Fatality was not associated with median diagnostic delay at district level (Spearman's rho = -0.08, P = 0.5. Conclusion Diagnostic delay is not associated with treatment mortality in Vietnam at individual nor district level, suggesting that high case fatality should not be used as an indicator of long diagnostic delay in national tuberculosis programmes.

  16. On Suggestibility and Placebo: A Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, Michael; Sheiner, Eli O; Olson, Jay A; Thériault, Rémi; Raz, Amir

    2017-04-01

    Identifying what makes some people respond well to placebos remains a major challenge. Here, we attempt to replicate an earlier study in which we found a relationship between hypnotic suggestibility and subjective ratings of relaxation following the ingestion of a placebo sedative (Sheiner, Lifshitz, & Raz, 2016). To assess the reliability of this effect, we tested 34 participants using a similar design. Participants ingested a placebo capsule in one of two conditions: (1) relaxation, wherein we described the capsule as a herbal sedative, or (2) control, wherein we described the capsule as inert. To index placebo response, we collected measures of blood pressure and heart rate, as well as self-report ratings of relaxation and drowsiness. Despite using a similar experimental design as in our earlier study, we were unable to replicate the correlation between hypnotic suggestibility and placebo response. Furthermore, whereas in our former experiment we observed a change in subjective ratings of relaxation but no change in physiological measures, here we found that heart rate dropped in the relaxation condition while subjective ratings remained unchanged. Even within a consistent context of relaxation, therefore, our present results indicate that placebos may induce effects that are fickle, tenuous, and unreliable. Although we had low statistical power, our findings tentatively accord with the notion that placebo response likely involves a complex, multifaceted interaction between traits, expectancies, and contexts.

  17. Study suggests Arctic sea ice loss not irreversible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-10-01

    The Arctic has been losing sea ice as Earth's climate warms, and some studies have suggested that the Arctic could reach a tipping point, beyond which ice would not recover even if global temperatures cooled down again. However, a new study by Armour et al. that uses a state-of-the-art atmosphere-ocean global climate model found no evidence of such irreversibility. In their simulations, the researchers increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels until Arctic sea ice disappeared year-round and then watched what happened as global temperatures were then decreased. They found that sea ice steadily recovered as global temperatures dropped. An implication of this result is that future sea ice loss will occur only as long as global temperatures continue to rise. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL048739, 2011)

  18. Working in partnership with interpreters: studies on individuals affected by HIV/AIDS in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradik Harris, Lesley; Boggiano, Victoria; Nguyen, Duy Thang; Pham, Le Hoang Linh

    2013-10-01

    This article brings together two American qualitative researchers and two Vietnamese interpreters who investigated the social impacts of HIV/AIDS in Vietnam from the standpoint of the local community. As cultural outsiders with limited Vietnamese language skills, the researchers relied on the insights and expertise of the interpreters to the extent that interpreter roles expanded to become co-researchers. We explain the guidelines we used to work in partnership in the field. We then describe how the relationship between researcher and interpreter developed into co-researching, and how we utilized this relationship to respond to challenges in the work. Despite an increasing number of international qualitative studies, little research has focused on the nuances of a working partnership between researcher and interpreter, and few studies include interpreters as co-researchers. This article contributes to an understanding of how the researcher-interpreter relationship impacts the voice of the participant and, ultimately, the final outcomes of the project.

  19. Climate Change and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    suggests, such action may come at a cost against competing priorities like modernization and economic development. In that context, it bears inquiring...program including India, 29 Rajaram Panda , “Vietnam and the World: Focus on the U.S. and India

  20. Cervical cancer treatment costs and cost-effectiveness analysis of human papillomavirus vaccination in Vietnam: a PRIME modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Minh, Hoang; My, Nguyen Thi Tuyet; Jit, Mark

    2017-05-15

    Cervical cancer is currently the leading cause of cancer mortality among women in South Vietnam and the second leading cause of cancer mortality in North Vietnam. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has the potential to substantially decrease this burden. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that a cost-effectiveness analysis of HPV vaccination is conducted before nationwide introduction. The Papillomavirus Rapid Interface for Modeling and Economics (PRIME) model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccine introduction. A costing study based on expert panel discussions, interviews and hospital case note reviews was conducted to explore the cost of cervical cancer care. The cost of cervical cancer treatment ranged from US$368 - 11400 depending on the type of hospital and treatment involved. Under Gavi-negotiated prices of US$4.55, HPV vaccination is likely to be very cost-effective with an incremental cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted in the range US$780 - 1120. However, under list prices for Cervarix and Gardasil in Vietnam, the incremental cost per DALY averted for HPV vaccination can exceed US$8000. HPV vaccine introduction appears to be economically attractive only if Vietnam is able to procure the vaccine at Gavi prices. This highlights the importance of initiating a nationwide vaccination programme while such prices are still available.

  1. Women with gestational diabetes in Vietnam: a qualitative study to determine attitudes and health behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirst Jane E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is increasing in prevalence globally, notably amongst populations from low- and middle- income countries. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus(GDM, a precursor for type 2 diabetes, is increasing in line with this trend. Few studies have considered the personal and social effects of GDM on women living in low and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was determine attitudes and health behaviours of pregnant women with GDM in Vietnam. Methods This was a qualitative study using focus group methodology conducted in Ho Chi Minh City. Pregnant women, aged over 18 years, with GDM were eligible to participate. Women were purposely sampled to obtain a range of gestational ages and severity of disease. They were invited to attend a 1-hour focus group. Questions were semi structured around six themes. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed, translated and cross-referenced. Non-verbal and group interactions were recorded. Thematic analysis was performed using a theoretical framework approach. Results From December 2010 to February 2011, four focus groups were conducted involving 34 women. Median age was 31.5 years (range 23 to 44, median BMI 21.8 kg/m2. Women felt confusion, anxiety and guilt about GDM. Many perceived their baby to be at increased risk of death. Advice to reduce dietary starch was confusing. Women reported being ‘hungry’ or ‘starving’ most of the time, unaware of appropriate food substitutions. They were concerned about transmission of GDM through breast milk. Several women planned not to breastfeed. All felt they needed more information. Current sources of information included friends, magazines, a health phone line or the Internet. Women felt small group sessions and information leaflets could benefit them. Conclusions This study highlights the need for culturally appropriate clinical education and health promotion activities for women with GDM in Vietnam.

  2. Nursing & parental perceptions of neonatal care in Central Vietnam: a longitudinal qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Katie; Partridge, Colin; Tran, Hoang T; Lubran, Suzanna; Macrae, Duncan

    2017-07-11

    Neonatal mortality accounts for nearly three quarters of all infant deaths in Vietnam. The nursing team are the largest professional group working with newborns, however do not routinely receive neonatal training and there is a lack of research into the impact of educational provision. This study explored changes in nursing perceptions towards their role following a neonatal educational intervention. Parents perceptions of nursing care were explored to determine any changes as nurses gained more experience. Semi-Structured qualitative interviews were conducted every 6 months over an 18 month period with 16 nurses. At each time point, parents whose infant was resident on the neonatal unit were invited to participate in an interview to explore their experiences of nursing care. A total of 67 parents participated over 18 months. Interviews were conducted and transcribed in Vietnamese before translation into English for manifest content analysis facilitated by NVivo V14. Analysis of nursing transcripts identified 14 basic categories which could be grouped (23) into 3 themes: (1) perceptions of the role of the neonatal nurse, (2) perception of the parental role and (3) professional recollections. Analysis of parent transcripts identified 14 basic categories which could be grouped into 3 themes: (1) information sharing, (2) participation in care, and (3) personal experience. Qualitative interviews highlighted the short term effect that the introduction of an educational intervention can have on both nursing attitudes towards and parental experience of care in one neonatal unit in central Vietnam. Nurses shared a growing awareness of their role along with its ethical issues and challenges, whilst parents discussed their overall desire for more participation in their infants care. Further research is required to determine the long term impact of the intervention, the ability of nurses to translate knowledge into clinical practice through assessment of nursing knowledge

  3. Infant growth disparity in the Khanh Hoa province in Vietnam: a follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaktskjold Arild

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveys in Vietnam have indicated that wasting and stunting have been prevalent among children, but the country is undergoing rapid socio-economic changes and little has been known about the relative situation in the different areas of the country. In 2006, the WHO introduced new growth standards applicable to all infant and child populations, which facilitates for improved assessments of the prevalence of growth impairment, independent of time, place and ethnicity. The aim of our study was to assess the growth of singleton infants delivered at term in three main birth clinics in the Khanh Hoa province in Vietnam by using the new WHO standards as reference, and the association between growth and some maternal, birth and health factors. Methods A cohort of 237 singleton infants born in the period May-July 2005 in three main delivery clinics in the Khanh Hoa province were observed prospectively. Their anthropometrical measures a year later were compared to the WHO sex-specific growth standards for weight-for-age, length-for-age, weight-for-length, and BMI-for-age. These measures were analysed as dependent outcomes using multiple linear regression models including the following independent factors: urban vs. rural birth, 1-minute Apgar score, weight and length at birth, duration of lactation, ever had diarrhoea, dengue fever, pneumonia or dysentery, and maternal age, height, gestational duration and parity. Results Compared to the standard distributions, 79% were below the median for weight-for-length; 18.0% were within the 5th percentile for length-for-age, 9.6% for weight-for-age, 20.3% for weight-for-length, and 19.8% for BMI. A lower length- and weight-for-age were statistically associated with being born rurally. Conclusions In this delivery-clinic based sample of children in the Khanh Hoa province in Vietnam, the proportions within the WHO-standard 5th percentiles for length-for-age, weight-for-length and BMI in late

  4. Sexual relationships among men who have sex with men in Hanoi, Vietnam: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Linus; Thorson, Anna; Thanh, Vu Pham Nguyen; Allebeck, Peter; Popenoe, Rebecca

    2013-02-05

    The prevalence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam's two largest cities, Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, may be above 10%. The aim of this study was to explore sexual relationship patterns and experiences among MSM in Hanoi, to inform HIV preventive efforts. Using purposive sampling we recruited 17 MSM in Hanoi, Vietnam, for in-depth interviews. Participants were aged between 19 and 48 years and came from diverse socio-economic backgrounds. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and translated into English. Content analysis was used. Almost all men in the study saw their same-sex attraction as part of their "nature". Many informants had secret but rich social lives within the MSM social circles in Hanoi. However, poor men had difficulties connecting to these networks. Lifetime sexual partner numbers ranged from one to 200. Seven participants had at some point in their lives been in relationships lasting from one to four years. For several men, relationships were not primarily centered on romantic feelings but instead intimately connected to economic and practical dependence. Sexual relationships varied greatly in terms of emotional attachment, commitment, trust, relationship ideals, sexual satisfaction and exchange of money or gifts. Faithfulness was highly valued but largely seen as unobtainable. Several informants felt strong family pressure to marry a woman and have children. This study contextualizes sexual relationships among MSM in Hanoi and highlights the extent to which HIV prevention activities need to not only consider HIV prevention in the context of casual sexual encounters but also how to adequately target preventive efforts that can reach MSM in relationships.

  5. Molecular spectroscopic study for suggested mechanism of chrome tanned leather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashy, Elshahat H. A.; Osman, Osama; Mahmoud, Abdel Aziz; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2012-03-01

    Collagen represents the structural protein of the extracellular matrix, which gives strength of hides and/or skin under tanning process. Chrome tan is the most important tanning agent all over the world. The methods for production of leather evolved over several centuries as art and engineering with little understanding of the underlying science. The present work is devoted to suggest the most probable mechanistic action of chrome tan on hide proteins. First the affect of Cr upon hide protein is indicated by the studied mechanical properties. Then the spectroscopic characterization of the hide protein as well as chrome tanned leather was carried out with Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflection (HATR) FT-IR. The obtained results indicate how the chromium can attached with the active sites of collagen. Molecular modeling confirms that chromium can react with amino as well as carboxylate groups. Four schemes were obtained to describe the possible interactions of chrome tan with hide proteins.

  6. Diabetes in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khue, Nguyen Thy

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence for diabetes, prediabetes, and gestational diabetes in Vietnam are low relative to other parts of the world, but they are increasing at alarming rates. These changes have occurred in the setting of economic and cultural transitions. The aim of this study was to provide relevant information depicting the diabetes burden in Vietnam. Literature was reviewed using PubMed and local Vietnamese sources, including papers published in the Vietnamese language. In 2012, the prevalence of diabetes was 5.4% and prediabetes 13.7%. In 2005, the prevalence of obesity was 1.7%. There is a dual burden of over- and undernutrition observed in Vietnam. Diabetes is associated with an increased waist-to-hip ratio despite normal body mass index. Nutritional transitions occurred with increased protein, fat, and fast foods, and with decreased fresh fruits and vegetables. Tobacco use is very high in Vietnam with 66% of adult men currently smoking. Challenges include endocrinology training, health care coverage, patient education, and lack of coordination among government and specialist agencies. Diabetes is a growing problem in Vietnam and is associated with obesity, changes in dietary patterns, and other cultural transitions. More research is needed to better understand this health care problem and to devise targeted interventions. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mobile phone use among motorcyclists and electric bike riders: A case study of Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Long T; Nguyen, Hang T T; De Gruyter, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Motorcyclist injuries and fatalities are a major concern of many developing countries. In Vietnam, motorcycles are involved in more than 70% of all road traffic crashes. This paper aims to explore the prevalence and factors associated with mobile phone use among motorcyclists and electric bike riders, using a case study of Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional observation survey was undertaken at 12 sites, in which each site was surveyed during a two-hour peak period from 16:30 to 18:30 for two weekdays and one weekend day. A total of 26,360 riders were observed, consisting of 24,759 motorcyclists and 1601 electric bike riders. The overall prevalence of mobile phone use while riding was 8.4% (95% CI: 8.06-8.74%) with calling having higher prevalence than screen operation: 4.64% (95% CI: 4.39-4.90%) vs. 3.76% (95% CI: 3.52-3.99%) respectively. Moreover, the prevalence of mobile phone use was higher among motorcyclists than electric bike riders: 8.66% (95%CI: 8.30-9.01%) vs. 4.43% (95% CI: 3.40-5.47%) respectively. Logistic regression analyses revealed that mobile phone use while riding was associated with vehicle type, age, gender, riding alone, weather, day of week, proximity to city centre, number of lanes, separate car lanes, red traffic light duration, and police presence. Combining greater enforcement of existing legislations with extensive education and publicity programs is recommended to reduce potential deaths and injuries related to the use of mobile phones while riding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Delays in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis patients in Vietnam: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanh Vu T

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment delay is an important indicator of access to tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment. Analyses of patient delay (i.e. time interval between onset of symptoms and first consultation of a health care provider and health care delay (i.e. time interval between first consultation and start of treatment can inform policies to improve access. This study assesses the patient, health care provider and total delay in diagnosis and treatment of new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients, and the risk factors for long delay, in Vietnam. Methods A cross-sectional survey of new patients treated by the National Tuberculosis Control Programme was conducted in 70 randomly selected districts in Vietnam. All consecutively registered patients in one quarter of 2002 were interviewed using a pre-coded structured questionnaire. Results Median (range delay was 4 weeks (1–48 for total, 3 (1–48 weeks for patient and 1 (0–25 week for health care delay. Patients with long total delay (≥ 12 weeks, 15% accounted for 49% of the cumulative number of delay-weeks. Independent risk factors (p 5 km distance from a health facility or in the northern area. For long health care delay (≥ 6 weeks this was urban setting, residence in the central area and initial visit to a communal health post, TB hospital or the private sector. Conclusion Analyses of patient and treatment delays can indicate target groups and areas for health education and strengthening of the referral system, in particular between the private sector and the NTP.

  9. Study on external exposure doses from terrestrial radioactivity in Southern Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huy, N.Q.; Luyen, T.V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the radioactivity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K for 106 samples of surface soil collected in Southern Vietnam. The mean values of mass activity of radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K for Southern Vietnam are 28.6, 50.7 and 292.6 Bq kg -1 , respectively, which lead to the population-weighted absorbed dose rate of 54.5 nGy h -1 . The average annual effective doses outdoors, indoors and in total of Southern Vietnam are estimated to be 0.067, 0.374 and 0. 441 mSv, respectively. The radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index of soil in Southern Vietnam are in the range 23.2-254.1 Bq kg -1 and 0.06-0.69, respectively. (author)

  10. Study on external exposure doses from terrestrial radioactivity in Southern Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huy, N. Q.; Luyen, T. V.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the radioactivity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K for 106 samples of surface soil collected in Southern Vietnam. The mean values of mass activity of radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K for Southern Vietnam are 28.6, 50.7 and 292.6 Bq kg -1 , respectively, which lead to the population-weighted absorbed dose rate of 54.5 nGy h -1 . The average annual effective doses outdoors, indoors and in total of Southern Vietnam are estimated to be 0.067, 0.374 and 0.441 mSv, respectively. The radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index of soil in Southern Vietnam are in the range 23.2-254.1 Bq kg -1 and 0.06-0.69, respectively. (authors)

  11. Differential effects of bilingualism and culture on early attention: a longitudinal study in the U.S., Argentina, and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Crystal D; Arredondo, Maria M; Yoshida, Hanako

    2015-01-01

    A large body of literature suggests that bilingualism strongly influences attentional processes among a variety of age groups. Increasing studies, however, indicate that culture may also have measurable effects on attentional processes. Bilinguals are often exposed to multiple cultural backgrounds, therefore, it is unclear if being exposed to multiple languages and culture together influence attentional processes, or if the effect themselves are uniquely linked to different attentional processes. The present study explores the relevancy of different attentional processes-alerting, orienting, and executive control-to language and to culture. In the present study, 97 3-years-old (Mean age = 38.78 months) monolingual and bilingual children from three countries (the U.S., Argentina, and Vietnam) were longitudinally tested for a total of five time points on a commonly used non-linguistic attentional paradigm-the Attention Network Test. Results demonstrate that when other factors are controlled (e.g., socio-economic status, vocabulary knowledge, age), culture plays an important role on the development of the alerting and executive control attentional network, while language status was only significant on the executive control attentional network. The present study indicates that culture may interact with bilingualism to further explain previous reported advantages, as well as elucidate the increasing disparity surrounding cognitive advantages in bilingual literature.

  12. Lessons learned and advice from Vietnam war nurses: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannell-Desch, Elizabeth A

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe guidance for nurses today from the lessons learned by nurses who served in the Vietnam War. There is little research focusing on nurses' experiences in the Vietnam War. Lessons learned and subsequent advice from nurses who served in Vietnam may be helpful to those serving in current and future wars. A Husserlian phenomenological approach was taken, using interviews with a purposive sample of Registered Nurses who were female, and had served in the United States of America armed forces in Vietnam during the war. Seven theme clusters described the lesson learned and guidance offered by the Vietnam War nurses: advice about journaling, training, caring for yourself, use of support systems, talking about your experiences, understanding the mission, and lack of preparation for war. Much can be learned from the lessons learned and advice given by Vietnam War nurses. These lessons stress that nurses need to take a pro-active role in preparing themselves for deployment to a war zone, and that institutional training for war needs to be intensive and realistic. The environmental, cultural, technological, clinical and psychosocial demands of war nursing need to be comprehensively addressed before nurses deploy to a war.

  13. Animal Rights: Selected Resources and Suggestions for Further Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of selected resources intended to serve as a guide to the growing amount of material on animal rights. Suggestions to aid in additional research include subject headings used to find books, indexes used to locate periodical articles, sources for locating organizations, and a selected list of animal rights organizations.…

  14. Studies and Suggestions on English Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shigao

    2012-01-01

    To improve vocabulary learning and teaching in ELT settings, two questionnaires are designed and directed to more than 100 students and teachers in one of China's key universities. The findings suggest that an enhanced awareness of cultural difference, metaphorical competence, and learners' autonomy in vocabulary acquisition will effectively…

  15. Drivers of coastal shoreline change: case study of hon dat coast, Kien Giang, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai-Hoa; McAlpine, Clive; Pullar, David; Leisz, Stephen Joseph; Galina, Gramotnev

    2015-05-01

    Coastal shorelines are naturally dynamic, shifting in response to coastal geomorphological processes. Globally, land use change associated with coastal urban development and growing human population pressures is accelerating coastal shoreline change. In southern Vietnam, coastal erosion currently is posing considerable risks to shoreline land use and coastal inhabitants. The aim of this paper is to quantify historical shoreline changes along the Hon Dat coast between 1995 and 2009, and to document the relationships between coastal mangrove composition, width and density, and rates of shoreline change. The generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the major biophysical and land-use factors influencing shoreline change rates. Most significant drivers of the rates of change are cutting of mangroves, the dominant mangrove genus, changes in adjacent shoreline land use, changes of shoreline land cover, and width of fringing mangroves. We suggest that a possible and inexpensive strategy for robust mangrove shoreline defense is direct mangrove planting to promote mangrove density with the presence of breakwater structures. In the shorter term, construction of coastal barriers such as fence-structured melaleuca poles in combination with mangrove restoration schemes could help retain coastal sediments and increase the elevation of the accretion zone, thereby helping to stabilize eroding fringe shorelines. It also is recommended that implementation of a system of payments for mangrove ecosystem services and the stronger regulation of mangrove cutting and unsustainable land-use change to strengthen the effectiveness of mangrove conservation programs and coastal land-use management.

  16. Consideration of rainwater quality parameters for drinking purposes: A case study in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minju; Kim, Mikyeong; Kim, Yonghwan; Han, Mooyoung

    2017-09-15

    Rainwater, which is used for drinking purposes near Hanoi, Vietnam, was analysed for water quality based on 1.5 years of monitoring data. In total, 23 samples were collected from different points within two rainwater harvesting systems (RWHSs). Most parameters met the standard except micro-organisms. Coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were detected when the rainwater was not treated with ultraviolet (UV) light; however, analysis of rainwater after UV sterilisation showed no trace of micro-organisms. The RWHSs appear to provide drinking water of relatively good quality compared with surface water and groundwater. The superior quality of the rainwater suggests the necessity for new drinking rainwater standards because applying all of the drinking water quality standards to rainwater is highly inefficient. The traditionally implemented standards could cause more difficulties for developing countries using RWHSs installed decentralized as a source of drinking water, particularly in areas not well supplied with testing equipment, because such countries must bear the expense and time for these measures. This paper proposes the necessity of rainwater quality guideline, which could serve as a safe and cost-effective alternative to provide an access to safe drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Drivers of Coastal Shoreline Change: Case Study of Hon Dat Coast, Kien Giang, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai-Hoa; McAlpine, Clive; Pullar, David; Leisz, Stephen Joseph; Galina, Gramotnev

    2015-05-01

    Coastal shorelines are naturally dynamic, shifting in response to coastal geomorphological processes. Globally, land use change associated with coastal urban development and growing human population pressures is accelerating coastal shoreline change. In southern Vietnam, coastal erosion currently is posing considerable risks to shoreline land use and coastal inhabitants. The aim of this paper is to quantify historical shoreline changes along the Hon Dat coast between 1995 and 2009, and to document the relationships between coastal mangrove composition, width and density, and rates of shoreline change. The generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the major biophysical and land-use factors influencing shoreline change rates. Most significant drivers of the rates of change are cutting of mangroves, the dominant mangrove genus, changes in adjacent shoreline land use, changes of shoreline land cover, and width of fringing mangroves. We suggest that a possible and inexpensive strategy for robust mangrove shoreline defense is direct mangrove planting to promote mangrove density with the presence of breakwater structures. In the shorter term, construction of coastal barriers such as fence-structured melaleuca poles in combination with mangrove restoration schemes could help retain coastal sediments and increase the elevation of the accretion zone, thereby helping to stabilize eroding fringe shorelines. It also is recommended that implementation of a system of payments for mangrove ecosystem services and the stronger regulation of mangrove cutting and unsustainable land-use change to strengthen the effectiveness of mangrove conservation programs and coastal land-use management.

  18. Health and safety management practices of contractors in South East Asia: A multi country study of Cambodia, Vietnam, and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Manu, P.; Mahamadu, A.-M. ed; Phung, V. M.; Nguyen, T. T.; Ath, C.; Heng, A. Y. T.; Kit, S. C.

    2017-01-01

    The construction sector is notorious for accounting for numerous occupational deaths, injuries and illnesses in many countries. In emerging economies this situation could be direr, and health and safety (H&S) management by contractors is important to tackling this. This study investigated the H&S management practices of contractors in three South East Asian countries (Malaysia, Vietnam, and Cambodia) with the view to highlighting implementation issues. A questionnaire instrument containing 40...

  19. CULTURAL VALUES, MARKET INSTITUTIONS, AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP POTENTIAL: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE UNITED STATES, TAIWAN, AND VIETNAM

    OpenAIRE

    THANG V. NGUYEN; SCOTT E. BRYANT; JERMAN ROSE; CHIUNG-HUI TSENG; SUPARA KAPASUWAN

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the impact of national cultural values and the development of market institutions on three aspects of entrepreneurship (desire, intention, and confidence in creating new ventures). We ask: What different kinds of effects do cultural and institutional factors have on different aspects of entrepreneurship? Our samples come from Vietnam, Taiwan, and the United States (US). The use of three countries allows us to distinguish the separate influences of culture and market instit...

  20. Association of Depressive Symptoms and Heart Rate Variability in Vietnam War-Era Twins: A Longitudinal Twin Difference Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Minxuan; Shah, Amit; Su, Shaoyong; Goldberg, Jack; Lampert, Rachel J; Levantsevych, Oleksiy M; Shallenberger, Lucy; Pimple, Pratik; Bremner, J Douglas; Vaccarino, Viola

    2018-05-16

    Depressive symptoms are associated with lower heart rate variability (HRV), an index of autonomic dysregulation, but the direction of the association remains unclear. To investigate the temporal association between depression and HRV. A longitudinal, cross-lagged twin difference study, with baseline assessments from March 2002 to March 2006 (visit 1) and a 7-year follow-up (visit 2) at an academic research center with participants recruited from a national twin registry. Twins (n = 166) from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry, who served in the US military during the Vietnam War, and were discordant for depression at baseline were recruited. At both visits, depressive symptoms were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and HRV was measured through 24-hour electrocardiogram monitoring. To assess the direction of the association, within-pair differences in multivariable mixed-effects regression models were examined, and standardized β coefficients for both pathways were calculated. The associations were evaluated separately in monozygotic and dizygotic twins. In the final analytic sample (N = 146), all participants were men, 138 (95%) were white, and the mean (SD) age was 54 (3) years at baseline. Results showed consistent associations between visit 1 HRV and visit 2 BDI score across all HRV domains and models (β coefficients ranging from -0.14 to -0.29), which were not explained by antidepressants or other participant characteristics. The magnitude of the association was similar in the opposite pathway linking visit 1 BDI score to visit 2 HRV, with β coefficients ranging from 0.05 to -0.30, but it was largely explained by antidepressant use. In stratified analysis by zygosity, significant associations were observed in monozygotic and dizygotic twins for the path linking visit 1 HRV to visit 2 BDI score, although the associations were slightly stronger in dizygotic twins. The association between depression and autonomic dysregulation

  1. Several Suggestions on the Climate Change and Its Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to the abundant studies,the relevant information and comprehensive analysis of the climate changes,several important problems on the climate changes and its studies were proposed.Based on the temporal distribution of the meteorological disaster of agriculture,the wave theory was expounded so as to draw people's attention on climate changes and to be objective,just and careful about the study.

  2. Sustainable Growth and Ethics: A Study of Business Ethics in Vietnam between Business Students and Working Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam D. Nguyen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable growth is not only the ultimate goal of business corporations but also the primary target of local governments as well as regional and global economies. One of the cornerstones of sustainable growth is ethics. An ethical organizational culture provides support to achieve sustain- able growth. Ethical leaders and employees have great potential for positive influence on decisions and behaviors that lead to sustainability. Ethical behavior, therefore, is expected of everyone in the modern workplace. As a result, companies devote many resources and training programs to make sure their employees live according to the high ethical standards. This study provides an analysis of Vietnamese business students’ level of ethical maturity based on gender, education, work ex- perience, and ethics training. The results of data from 260 business students compared with 704 working adults in Vietnam demonstrate that students have a significantly higher level of ethical maturity. Furthermore, gender and work experience are significant factors in ethical maturity. While more educated respondents and those who had completed an ethics course did have a higher level of ethical maturity, the results were not statistically significant. Analysis of the results along with suggestions and implications are provided.

  3. Sustainable Growth and Ethics: A Study of Business Ethics in Vietnam between Business Students and Working Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam D. Nguyen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available 1024x768 Sustainable growth is not only the ultimate goal of business corporations but also the primary target of local governments as well as regional and global economies. One of the cornerstones of sustainable growth is ethics. An ethical organizational culture provides support to achieve sustainable growth. Ethical leaders and employees have great potential for positive influence on decisions and behaviors that lead to sustainability. Ethical behavior, therefore, is expected of everyone in the modern workplace. As a result, companies devote many resources and training programs to make sure their employees live according to the high ethical standards. This study provides an analysis of Vietnamese business students’ level of ethical maturity based on gender, education, work experience, and ethics training. The results of data from 260 business students compared with 704 working adults in Vietnam demonstrate that students have a significantly higher level of ethical maturity. Furthermore, gender and work experience are significant factors in ethical maturity. While more educated respondents and those who had completed an ethics course did have a higher level of ethical maturity, the results were not statistically significant. Analysis of the results along with suggestions and implications are provided. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE

  4. Cooking up the Culinary Nation or Savoring its Regions? Teaching Food Studies in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Annear

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available “In food, as in death, we feel the essential brotherhood of man.” Vietnamese Proverb This paper explores whether or not there is an identifiably Vietnamese national cuisine, one in which the ingredients, recipes, and/or dishes socially, culturally, and politically unite Vietnamese people. It contends that Vietnam, with its long history of foreign invaders, its own appropriation of the middle and southern regions, and its varied regional geographies, provides a critical example for Food Studies of the need to interrogate the idea of a national cuisine and to differentiate it from regional and local cuisines. The paper examines how cookbook authors and cooking schools have more generally sought to represent Vietnamese dishes as national, but that there is a strong argument against the claim of a Vietnamese national cuisine. We advocate a Food Studies methodology that creates an effective pedagogy that explores whether or not national populations are unified as single gastro-states or atomized by a plurality of regional cuisines. Through experiential assignments and student work we illustrate how Food Studies presents the pedagogical opportunity for students to study and learn at the intersection of national politics and the everyday lives of people, providing a framework for understanding connections of labor, gender, class, and, essentially, taste, among many other values. In the case of Vietnamese food, the critical details of ingredients, preparation, and consumption both reveal and conceal truths about the Vietnamese people.

  5. Protocol for hospital based-surveillance of cerebral palsy (CP) in Hanoi using the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance mechanism (PAEDS-Vietnam): a study towards developing hospital-based disease surveillance in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Gulam; Van Bang, Nguyen; Dũng, Trịnh Quang; Giang, Nguyen Thi Huong; Chau, Cao Minh; Van Anh, Nguyen Thi; Van Thuong, Nguyen; Badawi, Nadia; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2017-11-09

    The epidemiology, pathogenesis, management and outcomes of cerebral palsy (CP) in low-income and middle-income countries including Vietnam are unknown because of the lack of mechanisms for standardised collection of data. In this paper, we outline the protocol for developing a hospital-based surveillance system modelled on the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) system in Australia. Using PAEDS-Vietnam we will define the aetiology, motor function and its severity, associated impairments, and nutritional and rehabilitation status of children with CP in Hanoi, Vietnam. These essential baseline data will inform future health service planning, health professional education and training, and family support. This is a hospital-based prospective surveillance of children with CP presenting to the rehabilitation, neurology and general paediatric services at the National Children's Hospital and St Paul Hospital in Hanoi. We will use active, prospective daily case-finding for all children with CP aged CP, known risk factors for CP, and nutrition, immunisation, education and rehabilitation status. This study was approved by the Hanoi Medical University Institutional Review Board (decision no 1722) and The University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee (approval no 2016/456). Establishment of PAEDS-Vietnam will enable hospital-based surveillance of CP for the first time in Vietnam. It will identify preventable causes of CP, patient needs and service gaps, and facilitate early diagnosis and intervention. Study findings will be disseminated through local and international conferences and peer-reviewed publications. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Child witnesses: a study of memory and suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattagliano, I; Berlingerio, I; Lisi, A; Carabellese, F; Catanesi, R

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the influence of various factors on the ability of primary school children (aged 6-9 years) to refer an event that occurred during their life. The factors analyzed were: the time since the event occurred; the role the child had in the event; the type of questions asked to elicit the account. The results of this research indicate that 52.4% of 6-year old children are able to describe the main elements of the event if they are allowed to give a free account. Asking direct questions does not improve the quality of the narrative. By contrast, in 9-year-old children the quantity of data collected is improved if direct questions are asked. A role as a participant in the event improves the quality of the child's evidence but only in the group of children aged 9, whereas in younger children the difference is not significant. At the age of 9, the child's resistance to leading questions is already quite good (40.7%), whereas children of 6 are much more suggestible. The Authors conclude this work by making some reflections on the possible use of these findings in Law Courts, and on the need for a highly specific training of experts involved in the task of collecting evidence from young children.

  7. Oral health status of adults in Southern Vietnam - a cross-sectional epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Nhan B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Before strategies or protocols for oral health care can be advised at population level, epidemiological information on tooth decay patterns and its effects on oral function are indispensable. The aim of this study was to investigate influences of socio-demographic variables on the prevalence of decayed, missing, filled (DMF and sound teeth (St and to determine the relative risk of teeth in different dental regions for D, M, and F, of adults living in urban and rural areas in Southern Vietnam. Methods Cross-sectional DMF and St data of 2965 dentate subjects aged 20 to 95 living in urban and rural areas in three provinces were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire and an oral examination. The sample was stratified by age, gender, residence and province. Results The percentage of subjects having missing teeth was high for all ages while it was low for subjects with decayed and filled teeth. The mean number of missing teeth increased gradually by age from approximately 1 in each jaw at the age of 20 to 8 at the age of 80. The number of decayed teeth was relative low at all ages, being highest in molars at young ages. The mean number of filled teeth was extremely low at all ages in all dental regions. Every additional year of age gives a significantly lower chance for decay, a higher chance for missing, and a lower chance for filled teeth. Molars had a significantly higher risk for decay, missing and filled than premolars and anterior teeth. Females had significantly higher risk for decayed and filled teeth, and less chance for missing teeth than males. Urban subjects presented lower risk for decay, but approximately 4 times greater chance for having fillings than rural subjects. Low socio-economic status (SES significantly increased the chance for missing anterior and molar teeth; subjects with high SES had more often fillings. Conclusions The majority of adults of Southern Vietnam presented a reduced dentition

  8. Studies since 2005 on South African primary schoolchildren suggest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-06

    Dec 6, 2012 ... ranging impact of iron deficiency, with or without anaemia, on ... used TfR and ZPP as iron status indicators in intervention studies.5,6 ... four were conducted in low socio-economic areas and selected ..... serum ferritin analyses on the preselected children (Table III). ..... Basel: Sight and Life Press, 2007; p.

  9. Distribution of heavy metals in urban soils - a case study of Danang-Hoian area (Vietnam)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuy, H.T.T.; Tobschall, H.J. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; An, P.V. [Univ. of Mining and Geology, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2000-04-01

    This work is part of a research study which is intended to study the degree of anthropogenic influences of the trace metal distribution of soils from Danang-Hoian area (Vietnam). Cu, Ni, Zn and Zr show significant effects in most of the cultivated soil categories, especially in the industrial soils. Extremely high levels of Pb (up to 742 {mu}g/g) are observed in the industrial soil category, which shows an enrichment factor 114 as compared to rural soils. Cd shows only a relative local enrichment with the maximum level of 4.6 {mu}g/g in urban soils. Sequential extraction was performed in selected samples to evaluate the geochemical trace metals. The result indicates that Zn and Cr are mainly found in the crystal and amorphous Fe oxide bounded forms. The contents of Cr in these fractions comprise more than 94% of total extractable Cr. In the case of Zn, 85% of total extractable Zn is in fractions F{sub V} and F{sub VI}. Cu is mainly found in the organic fraction at an average of 39.3% of total extractable content. On the other hand, heavy metal contents show an increasing tendency in the fine fraction (slit and clay). (orig.)

  10. Directions in Geoheritage Studies: Suggestions from the Italian Geomorphological Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, Valeria

    2015-04-01

    More and more attention has been focused on geological and geomorphological heritage in the past years, leading to several researches in the framework of conservation projects, both at administrative and at scientific level, involving national and international research groups whose purposes are the promotion of Earth Sciences knowledge and the conservation of geological heritage. This paper presents an overview of research and conservation projects in Italy, mainly focused on the geomorphological heritage. Members of the AIGEO Working Group on geomorphosites and cultural landscape analyzed the historical development, methodological issues and main results of these research projects in order to identify possible innovation lines to improve the awareness and knowledge on geodiversity and geoheritage by a wide public, including education, tourism and conservation sectors. In Italy numerous projects of research have been realized with the main aim of geomorphosites inventory and the proposal of assessment methodologies, and so to the improvement and to the analysis of risks and impacts related to their fruition. At an international level, many Italian researchers have also been involved in studies carried out in the Working Group "Geomorphological sites" of the International Association of Geomorphologists (IAG). At a national level several research lines are under development, offering different responses to methodological issues within the general topic of geodiversity and geoheritage: Geosites inventories and assessment activities are performed with powerful digital techniques and new reference models: among these, the investigation on the ecologic support role for increasing geomorphosites global value and the elaboration of quantitative assessment methods of the scientific quality of Geomorphosites, carried out specifically for territorial planning. Improvements in field data collection and visual representation of landforms lead to new findings in

  11. A Study on Universal Service in Vietnam from an Institutional Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do Manh, Thai; Falch, Morten; Williams, Idongesit

    2016-01-01

    was remarkably affected by directives of the Communist Party of Vietnam as well as the international commitments that Vietnam participated in. It is of a different feature compared to other countries. Furthermore, the implementation of this Program revealed the loose co-operations between central government...... (Ministry of Information and Communications - MIC) and the department of provincial governments (Departments of Information and Communications - DICs) as well as DICs and telecom providers in supervising the implementation of this Program. Consequently, telecom providers overlapped in provision of universal...

  12. Theory of Reasoned Action as a Framework for Communicating Climate Risk: A Case Study of Schoolchildren in the Mekong Delta in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quynh Anh Nguyen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Communicating climate risks to vulnerable groups motivating them to take adaptive actions remains a significant challenge in many populations, especially to children. The theory of reasoned action (TRA suggests that attitude and subjective norms are important for persuasive communication. This study assesses how to apply TRA, its constructs and other relevant factors to predict behavior intention and beliefs and to change behavior tendency. The randomized field experiment method was applied to explore the differences between pre- and post-communication treatments (2 × 2 design. Can Tho city, located in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, was selected as the research context because of its vulnerability to climate change. The results show that, first, TRA was found to be a significant predictor model of children’s climate change behavior intentions. Second, attitude has a significant effect on the children’s intention to act while videos with subjective norm treatment had not. The treatment interaction of both constructs also had a significant effect. Third, TRA theory-based treatments are positively associated with changes in children’ salient beliefs on attitude and normative belief on social norm toward climate change. In addition, past practices, knowledge and gender are further factors that influence children’s behavior intentions. A theory-inspired design of communication strategy allows the prediction and influencing of intentions. This finding has strong implications for both research and development in Vietnam.

  13. The Lessons of the Vietnam War: Unit 13. Teacher's Manual: Strategies and Resources for Teaching the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Social Studies Education, Pittsburgh, PA.

    This teacher's manual is designed to accompany the curriculum "The Lessons of the Vietnam War." For each of 12 units of the curriculum, this manual suggests projects for student research and classroom activities. The 12 units are entitled: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and…

  14. Difficulties in Teaching English for Specific Purposes: Empirical Study at Vietnam Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, Nguy?n Th? T?; Mai, Ph?m Th? Tuy?t

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, teaching English, especially English for specific purposes at Vietnam universities has received a lot of attention from students, teachers, and relevant authorities because of not high teaching effectiveness. This results in the fact that students after graduation do not meet English requirements of employers, so unemployment…

  15. English as a Symbol of Internationalization in Higher Education: A Case Study of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Van Anh; Chua, Catherine S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Vietnam universities have experienced remarkable changes brought about by their internationalization policies. The switch to English as a medium of instruction (EMI) for some academic programs was one of these critical changes. Literature has reported numerous issues related to EMI, including inadequate language proficiency of teaching staff. This…

  16. Master of Business Administration (MBA) Student Outcomes in Vietnam: Graduate Student Insights from a Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Chau Thi Minh; Vickers, Margaret H.; Fernandez, Santha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Exploratory insights into the graduate student experiences of offshore MBA programmes in Vietnam are presented. Students are considered key stakeholders in the higher education (HE) debate, and their views were sought in light of recent shifts in HE worldwide, associated business education changes, nagging questions around the quality of…

  17. Civil society organizations' roles in health development in Vietnam: HIV as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.A.

    2013-01-01

    Civil society in contemporary Vietnam has been recognised as an important force in public health. Based on qualitative interviews and observations of 30 organisations and networks in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, this paper argues that civil society organisations (CSOs) focus almost exclusively on

  18. A multi-country study of the economic burden of dengue fever: Vietnam, Thailand, and Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Seok; Mogasale, Vittal; Lim, Jacqueline K; Carabali, Mabel; Lee, Kang-Sung; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat; Dang, Duc Anh; Palencia-Florez, Diana Cristina; Nguyen, Thi Hien Anh; Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Chanthavanich, Pornthep; Villar, Luis; Maskery, Brian A; Farlow, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    Dengue fever is a major public health concern in many parts of the tropics and subtropics. The first dengue vaccine has already been licensed in six countries. Given the growing interests in the effective use of the vaccine, it is critical to understand the economic burden of dengue fever to guide decision-makers in setting health policy priorities. A standardized cost-of-illness study was conducted in three dengue endemic countries: Vietnam, Thailand, and Colombia. In order to capture all costs during the entire period of illness, patients were tested with rapid diagnostic tests on the first day of their clinical visits, and multiple interviews were scheduled until the patients recovered from the current illness. Various cost items were collected such as direct medical and non-medical costs, indirect costs, and non-out-of-pocket costs. In addition, socio-economic factors affecting disease severity were also identified by adopting a logit model. We found that total cost per episode ranges from $141 to $385 for inpatient and from $40 to $158 outpatient, with Colombia having the highest and Thailand having the lowest. The percentage of the private economic burden of dengue fever was highest in the low-income group and lowest in the high-income group. The logit analyses showed that early treatment, higher education, and better knowledge of dengue disease would reduce the probability of developing more severe illness. The cost of dengue fever is substantial in the three dengue endemic countries. Our study findings can be used to consider accelerated introduction of vaccines into the public and private sector programs and prioritize alternative health interventions among competing health problems. In addition, a community would be better off by propagating the socio-economic factors identified in this study, which may prevent its members from developing severe illness in the long run.

  19. Impact of presumed service-connected diagnosis on the Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare utilization patterns of Vietnam-Theater Veterans: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Dennis A; Rajan, Mangala; Tseng, Chin-Lin; Helmer, Drew

    2018-05-01

    During the Vietnam War, the US military sprayed almost 20 million gallons of Agent Orange (AO), an herbicide contaminated with dioxin, over Vietnam. Approximately, 2.7 million US military personnel may have been exposed to AO during their deployment. Ordinarily, veterans who can demonstrate a nexus between a diagnosed condition and military service are eligible for Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) service-connected disability compensation. Vietnam Veterans have had difficulty, however, establishing a nexus between AO exposure and certain medical conditions that developed many years after the war. In response, VA has designated certain conditions as "presumed service connected" for Vietnam Veterans who were present and possibly exposed. Veterans with any of these designated conditions do not have to document AO exposure, making it easier for them to access the VA disability system. The extent to which VA healthcare utilization patterns reflect easier access afforded those with diagnosed presumptive conditions remains unknown. In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that Vietnam Veterans with diagnosed presumptive conditions would be heavier users of the VA healthcare system than those without these conditions. In our analysis of 85,699 Vietnam Veterans, we used binary and cumulative logit multivariable regression to assess associations between diagnosed presumptive conditions and VA healthcare utilization in 2013. We found that diagnosed presumptive conditions were associated with higher odds of 5+ VHA primary care visits (OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.93-2.07), 5+ specialty care visits (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 2.04-2.18), emergency department use (OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.11-1.34), and hospitalization (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.17-1.29). Consistent with legislative intent, presumptive policies appear to facilitate greater VA system utilization for Vietnam Veterans who may have been exposed to AO.

  20. Population density, water supply, and the risk of dengue fever in Vietnam: cohort study and spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Suzuki, Motoi; Thiem, Vu Dinh; White, Richard G; Tsuzuki, Ataru; Yoshida, Lay-Myint; Yanai, Hideki; Haque, Ubydul; Tho, Le Huu; Anh, Dang Duc; Ariyoshi, Koya

    2011-08-01

    Aedes aegypti, the major vector of dengue viruses, often breeds in water storage containers used by households without tap water supply, and occurs in high numbers even in dense urban areas. We analysed the interaction between human population density and lack of tap water as a cause of dengue fever outbreaks with the aim of identifying geographic areas at highest risk. We conducted an individual-level cohort study in a population of 75,000 geo-referenced households in Vietnam over the course of two epidemics, on the basis of dengue hospital admissions (n = 3,013). We applied space-time scan statistics and mathematical models to confirm the findings. We identified a surprisingly narrow range of critical human population densities between around 3,000 to 7,000 people/km² prone to dengue outbreaks. In the study area, this population density was typical of villages and some peri-urban areas. Scan statistics showed that areas with a high population density or adequate water supply did not experience severe outbreaks. The risk of dengue was higher in rural than in urban areas, largely explained by lack of piped water supply, and in human population densities more often falling within the critical range. Mathematical modeling suggests that simple assumptions regarding area-level vector/host ratios may explain the occurrence of outbreaks. Rural areas may contribute at least as much to the dissemination of dengue fever as cities. Improving water supply and vector control in areas with a human population density critical for dengue transmission could increase the efficiency of control efforts. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  1. Population density, water supply, and the risk of dengue fever in Vietnam: cohort study and spatial analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf-Peter Schmidt

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti, the major vector of dengue viruses, often breeds in water storage containers used by households without tap water supply, and occurs in high numbers even in dense urban areas. We analysed the interaction between human population density and lack of tap water as a cause of dengue fever outbreaks with the aim of identifying geographic areas at highest risk.We conducted an individual-level cohort study in a population of 75,000 geo-referenced households in Vietnam over the course of two epidemics, on the basis of dengue hospital admissions (n = 3,013. We applied space-time scan statistics and mathematical models to confirm the findings. We identified a surprisingly narrow range of critical human population densities between around 3,000 to 7,000 people/km² prone to dengue outbreaks. In the study area, this population density was typical of villages and some peri-urban areas. Scan statistics showed that areas with a high population density or adequate water supply did not experience severe outbreaks. The risk of dengue was higher in rural than in urban areas, largely explained by lack of piped water supply, and in human population densities more often falling within the critical range. Mathematical modeling suggests that simple assumptions regarding area-level vector/host ratios may explain the occurrence of outbreaks.Rural areas may contribute at least as much to the dissemination of dengue fever as cities. Improving water supply and vector control in areas with a human population density critical for dengue transmission could increase the efficiency of control efforts. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  2. Application of tracer techniques in studies of sediment transport in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai, P.S.; Quang, N.H.; Xuan, N.M.; Chuong, P.N.; Hien, P.Z.

    1997-01-01

    As a consequence of intensive erosion processes typical of the humid tropical one, as well as of human activities destroying tropical forests, grasslands and protective mangrove swamps, etc, most navigable estuaries in Vietnam suffer seriously from sedimentation. In order to maintain the necessary depth for the 7.000 ton vessels entering and leaving ports, a large amount of money is spent annually on dredging operation. A lot of hydraulic and sedimentary surveys were carried out in the past by different groups of researchers. However, owing to the complexity of sediment processes in estuarine areas under the hydrometeorological conditions typical of the southwest Pacific, the use of just any modelling approach is not suitable. In many cases, the conclusions inferred from mathematical models have been the controversial matter. The tracer techniques, which have been employed in the country since 1991, have provided a very efficient tool to obtain a dynamic idea of sediment transport. Many investigations of bedload transport using Sc-46 labelled glass and Ir-192 glass as radioactive tracers were carried out from 1992 to 1996 at Haiphong harbour area. Bedload transport rates under effect of northeast monsoon and southeast monsoon at 5 zones located on both sides of the navigation channel were estimated. In bedload transport studies, apart from conventional methods for assessment of transport thickness, a new method using the ratio of photoelectric peak to Compton region of spectra acquired directly on the sea bed was put forward and applied. The influence of dredging materials at two dumping sites under different tidal phases on in fill rate in the access channel was assessed by radioactive tracers. The qualitative and quantitative information on sediment transport at some experimental sites given by tracers was used by modelling specialists who have undertaken hydraulic and sedimentary surveys in this region

  3. REDD+ and climate smart agriculture in landscapes: A case study in Vietnam using companion modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvini, G; Ligtenberg, A; van Paassen, A; Bregt, A K; Avitabile, V; Herold, M

    2016-05-01

    Finding land use strategies that merge land-based climate change mitigation measures and adaptation strategies is still an open issue in climate discourse. This article explores synergies and trade-offs between REDD+, a scheme that focuses mainly on mitigation through forest conservation, with "Climate Smart Agriculture", an approach that emphasizes adaptive agriculture. We introduce a framework for ex-ante assessment of the impact of land management policies and interventions and for quantifying their impacts on land-based mitigation and adaptation goals. The framework includes a companion modelling (ComMod) process informed by interviews with policymakers, local experts and local farmers. The ComMod process consists of a Role-Playing Game with local farmers and an Agent Based Model. The game provided a participatory means to develop policy and climate change scenarios. These scenarios were then used as inputs to the Agent Based Model, a spatially explicit model to simulate landscape dynamics and the associated carbon emissions over decades. We applied the framework using as case study a community in central Vietnam, characterized by deforestation for subsistence agriculture and cultivation of acacias as a cash crop. The main findings show that the framework is useful in guiding consideration of local stakeholders' goals, needs and constraints. Additionally the framework provided beneficial information to policymakers, pointing to ways that policies might be re-designed to make them better tailored to local circumstances and therefore more effective in addressing synergistically climate change mitigation and adaptation objectives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Perceptions of mental health and help-seeking behavior in an urban community in Vietnam: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ham, Lia; Wright, Pamela; Van, Thang Vo; Doan, Vuong D K; Broerse, Jacqueline E W

    2011-10-01

    This explorative study assesses perceptions of mental health and help-seeking behavior among adults in Vietnam. Methods included questionnaires (200) and focus group discussions (eight). Respondents were often unable to name specific mental illnesses. Frequently mentioned symptoms of mental illness were talking nonsense, talking/laughing alone and wandering. Pressure/stress and studying/thinking too much were often identified causes. Most respondents showed a preference for medical treatment options, often in combination with family care. The results show that perceptions of mental health and help-seeking behaviour are influenced by a lack of knowledge and a mix of traditional and modern views.

  5. The Impact of Swedish Investment and Trade on Labour Conditions in Vietnam : A Case-Study of ABB, Ericsson and IKEA in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Annika; Przedpelska, Margareta

    2001-01-01

    This thesis examines labour conditions in Vietnam, and the impact of Swedish investments and trade on these conditions. The thesis is a qualitative investigation that includes a theoretical and an empirical part. The theories we use are international trade theory, focusing on comparative advantage and the Heckscher-Ohlin theory. We also utilise Solow’s growth model and the theory about FDI. The concept of social dumping and the effect of imposing a social clause is also discussed. We are usin...

  6. Burnout Study of Clinical Nurses in Vietnam: Development of Job Burnout Model Based on Leiter and Maslach's Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huong Thi Thu Nguyen, RN, MPH

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to create a Vietnamese version of both the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS and Areas of Worklife Scale (AWS to assess the burnout state of Vietnamese clinical nurses and to develop a causal model of burnout of clinical nurses. Methods: We conducted a descriptive design using a cross-sectional survey. The questionnaire was hand divided directly by nursing departments to 500 clinical nurses in three hospitals. Vietnamese MBI-GS and AWS were then examined for reliability and validity. We used the revised exhaustion +1 burnout classification to access burnout state. We performed path analysis to develop a Vietnamese causal model based on the original model by Leiter and Maslach's theory. Results: We found that both scales were reliable and valid for assessing burnout. Among nurse participants, the percentage of severe burnout was 0.7% and burnout was 15.8%, and 17.2% of nurses were exhausted. The best predictor of burnout was “on-duty work schedule” that clinical nurses have to work for 24 hours. In the causal model, we also found similarity and difference pathways in comparison with the original model. Conclusion: Vietnamese MBI-GS and AWS were applicable to research on occupational stress. Nearly one-fifth of Vietnamese clinical nurses were working in burnout state. The causal model suggested a range of factors resulting in burnout, and it is necessary to consider the specific solution to prevent burnout problem. Keywords: burnout, nurses, Vietnam

  7. Type 2 diabetes in Vietnam: a cross-sectional, prevalence-based cost-of-illness study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le NTD

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nguyen Tu Dang Le, Luyen Dinh Pham, Trung Quang Vo Department of Pharmacy Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy at Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Background: According to the International Diabetes Federation, total global health care expenditures for diabetes tripled between 2003 and 2013 because of increases in the number of people with diabetes as well as in the average expenditures per patient. This study aims to provide accurate and timely information about the economic impacts of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in Vietnam. Method: The cost-of-illness estimates followed a prospective, prevalence-based approach from the societal perspective of T2DM with 392 selected diabetic patients who received treatment from a public hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, during the 2016 fiscal year. Results: In this study, the annual cost per patient estimate was US $246.10 (95% CI 228.3, 267.2 for 392 patients, which accounted for about 12% (95% CI 11, 13 of the gross domestic product per capita in 2017. That includes US $127.30, US $34.40 and US $84.40 for direct medical costs, direct nonmedical expenditures, and indirect costs, respectively. The cost of pharmaceuticals accounted for the bulk of total expenditures in our study (27.5% of total costs and 53.2% of direct medical costs. A bootstrap analysis showed that female patients had a higher cost of treatment than men at US $48.90 (95% CI 3.1, 95.0; those who received insulin and oral antidiabetics (OAD also had a statistically significant higher cost of treatment compared to those receiving OAD, US $445.90 (95% CI 181.2, 690.6. The Gradient Boosting Regression (Ensemble method and Lasso Regression (Generalized Linear Models were determined to be the best models to predict the cost of T2DM (R2=65.3, mean square error [MSE]=0.94; and R2=64.75, MSE=0.96, respectively. Conclusion: The findings of this study serve as a reference for policy decision making in diabetes

  8. Community preferences for a social health insurance benefit package: an exploratory study among the uninsured in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa Thi; Luu, Tinh Viet; Leppert, Gerald; De Allegri, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    Understanding public preferences in terms of health benefit packages (HBPs) remains limited, yet gathering community insights is an important endeavour when developing people-centred health systems and moving towards universal health coverage. Our study aimed to address this gap in knowledge by eliciting community preferences for the social health insurance benefit package among the uninsured in Vietnam. We adopted a mixed methods approach that included a ranking exercise followed by focus group discussions. We collected quantitative and qualitative data from 174 uninsured people in Bac Giang, a province in northern Vietnam. Study participants were purposively selected from 12 communities and assembled in 14 group sessions that entailed three stages: participants first selected and ranked benefit items individually, then in groups and finally they engaged in a discussion regarding their decisions. The majority of respondents (both as individuals and as groups) preferred an HBP that covers both curative and preventive care, with a strong preference for the inclusion of high-cost care, resulting from rare and costly events (inpatient care), as well as frequent and less costly events (drugs, tests and outpatient care). The process of group discussion highlighted how individual choices could be modified in the context of group negotiation. The shift in preferences was motivated by the wish to protect low-income people from catastrophic expenditure while maximising community access to vital yet costly healthcare services. Future research, interventions and policies can built on this initial exploration of preferences to explore how stakeholders can engage communities and support greater public involvement in the development of HBPs in Vietnam and other low-income and middle-income countries.

  9. Prevalence and correlates of hyperglycemia in a rural population, Vietnam: implications from a cross–sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quang Binh Tran

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes in urban areas, relatively little has been known about its actual prevalence and its associations in rural areas, Vietnam. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, diabetes and their risk factors in a rural province, Vietnam. Methods A cross–sectional study with a representative sample was designed to estimate the hyperglycemia prevalence, using 75–g oral glucose tolerance test. Potential risk factors for hyperglycemia were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression, taken into account influences of socio–economic status, anthropometric measures, and lifestyle–related factors. Results The age and sex–adjusted prevalence rates (95% CI of isolated IFG, isolated IGT, combined IFG–IGT, and diabetes were 8.7 (7.0–10.5, 4.3 (3.2−5.4, 1.6 (0.9−2.3, and 3.7% (2.7–4.7%, respectively. There were still 73% of diabetic subjects without knowing the condition. Blood pressure, family history of diabetes, obesity–related measures (waist circumference, waist–hip ratio, body fat percentage, and abdominal obesity were the independent risk factors for hyperglycemia (IFG, IGT, and diabetes. Conclusions The prevalence of hyperglycemia in rural areas has not been as sharply increased as that reported in urban cities, Vietnam. Blood pressure and obesity–related measures were the most significant predictors for hyperglycemia level and they can be taken into account in building prognosis models to early detection of diabetes in rural Vietnamese populations.

  10. The effectiveness of a Supported Self-management task-shifting intervention for adult depression in Vietnam communities: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jill; Goldsmith, Charles H; Jones, Wayne; Oanh, Pham Thi; Nguyen, Vu Cong

    2017-05-05

    Depressive disorders are one of the leading causes of disease and disability worldwide. In Vietnam, although epidemiological evidence suggests that depression rates are on par with global averages, services for depression are very limited. In a feasibility study that was implemented from 2013 to 2015, we found that a Supported Self-management (SSM) intervention showed promising results for adults with depression in the community in Vietnam. This paper describes the Mental Health in Adults and Children: Frugal Innovations (MAC-FI) trial protocol that will assess the effectiveness of the SSM intervention, delivered by primary care and social workers, to community-based populations of adults with depression in eight Vietnamese provinces. The MAC-FI program will be assessed using a stepped-wedge, randomized controlled trial. Study participants are adults aged 18 years and over in eight provinces of Vietnam. Study participants will be screened at primary care centres and in the community by health and social workers using the Self-reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20). Patients scoring >7, indicating depression caseness, will be invited to participate in the study in either the SSM intervention group or the enhanced treatment as usual control group. Recruited participants will be further assessed using the World Health Organization's Disability Assessment Scale (WHODAS 2.0) and the Cut-down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener (CAGE) Questionnaire for alcohol misuse. Intervention-group participants will receive the SSM intervention, delivered with the support of a social worker or social collaborator, for a period of 2 months. Control- group participants will receive treatment as usual and a leaflet with information about depression. SRQ-20, WHODAS 2.0 and CAGE scores will be taken by blinded outcome assessors at baseline, after 1 month and after 2 months. The primary analysis method will be intention-to-treat. This study has the potential to add to the knowledge base about

  11. Toxic metal levels in children residing in a smelting craft village in Vietnam: a pilot biomonitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Alison P; Miller, Sloane K; Nguyen, Viet; Kotch, Jonathan B; Fry, Rebecca C

    2014-02-04

    In Vietnam, environmental pollution caused by small-scale domestic smelting of automobile batteries into lead ingot is a growing concern. The village of Nghia Lo is a smelting craft village located roughly 25 km southeast of Hanoi in the Red River Delta. Despite the concern of toxic metal exposure in the village, biomonitoring among susceptible populations, such as children, has not been previously conducted. The aim of this study was to determine the body burden of toxic metals in children residing in a smelting craft village. Twenty children from Nghia Lo, Vietnam, ages 18 months to four years were selected for capillary whole blood and toenail biomonitoring. Whole blood lead levels (BLLs) were measured using a portable lead analyzer, and toenail levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, and mercury were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The findings show that all of the 20 children had detectable BLLs, and every child had levels that exceeded the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline level of 5 μg/dL. Eighty percent of tested subjects had BLLs higher than 10 μg/dL. Five children (25%) had BLLs greater than 45 μg/dL, the level of recommended medical intervention. In addition to blood lead, all of the children had detectable levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, and mercury in toenail samples. Notably, average toenail lead, manganese, and mercury levels were 157 μg/g, 7.41 μg/g, and 2.63 μg/g respectively, well above levels previously reported in children. Significant Spearman's rank correlations showed that there were relationships between blood and toenail lead levels (r = 0.65, p craft villages in Vietnam are co-exposed to toxic metals. There is an urgent need for mitigation to control metal exposure related to domestic smelting.

  12. A prospective cohort study of stroke characteristics, care, and mortality in a hospital stroke registry in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirschwell David L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As low and middle-income countries such as Vietnam experience the health transition from infectious to chronic diseases, the morbidity and mortality from stroke will rise. In line with the recommendation of the Institute of Medicine’s report on “Promoting Cardiovascular Health in the Developing World” to “improve local data”, we sought to investigate patient characteristics and clinical predictors of mortality among stroke inpatients at Da Nang Hospital in Vietnam. Methods A stroke registry was developed and implemented at Da Nang Hospital utilizing the World Health Organization’s Stroke STEPS instrument for data collection. Results 754 patients were hospitalized for stroke from March 2010 through February 2011 and admitted to either the intensive care unit or cardiology ward. Mean age was 65 years, and 39% were female. Nearly 50% of strokes were hemorrhagic. At 28-day follow-up, 51.0% of patients with hemorrhagic stroke died whereas 20.3% of patients with ischemic stroke died. A number of factors were independently associated with 28-day mortality; the two strongest independent predictors were depressed level of consciousness on presentation and hemorrhagic stroke type. While virtually all patients completed a CT during the admission, evidence-based processes of care such as anti-thrombotic therapy and carotid ultrasound for ischemic stroke patients were underutilized. Conclusions This cohort study highlights the high mortality due in part to the large proportion of hemorrhagic strokes in Vietnam. Lack of hypertension awareness and standards of care exacerbated clinical outcomes. Numerous opportunities for simple, inexpensive interventions to improve outcomes or reduce recurrent stroke have been identified.

  13. Engaging Remote Sensing and Citizen Science into Water Quality Monitoring: A Case Study in Nhue-Day River Basin, Vietnam

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    Thi Van Le, Khoa; Minkman, Ellen; Nguyen Thi Phuong, Thuy; Rutten, Martine; Bastiaanssen, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing and citizen science can be utilized to fulfill the gap of conventional monitoring methods. However, how to engage these techniques, principally taking advantage of local capacities and of globally accessible data for satisfying the continuous data requirements and uncertainties are exciting challenges. Previous studies in Vietnam showed that official documents regulated towards responding the vital need of upgrading national water monitoring infrastructures do not put the huge potentials of free satellite images and crowd-based data collection into account, this factor also limits publications related to these techniques. In this research, a new water monitoring approach will be developed friendly with areas suffering poor quality monitoring works. Particularly, algorithms respecting to the relationship between temperature, total suspended sediment (TSS), chlorophyll and information collected by sensors onboard Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 MSI satellites are built in the study area in Northern Vietnam; additionally, undergraduate student volunteers were sent to the sites with all the measurement activities are designed to coincide with the time when the study area captured by the satellites to compare the results. While conventional techniques are proving their irreplaceable role in the water monitoring network, the utilization of remote sensing techniques and citizen science in this study will demonstrate highly supportive values, saving monitoring costs and time; advantaging local human resources to science; providing an inclusive assessment of water quality changes along with land-use change in the study area, these approaches are excellent alternatives to meet the demand of real-time, continuous data nationwide.

  14. Sleep and resilience: a longitudinal 37-year follow-up study of Vietnam repatriated prisoners of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, Francine; Moore, Jeffrey L; Linnville, Steven; Hoyt, Robert E; Hain, Robert E

    2013-02-01

    This study examined sleep histories associated with resilience after trauma defined as a continuous lack of psychiatric illness across 37 years. Data were drawn from a 37-year follow-up examination of the effects of the Vietnam prisoner of war (POW) experience. The Robert E. Mitchell Center for POW Studies is a unique institution holding the only longitudinal study of the effects of the American POW experience in existence. The study used a sample of 440 Vietnam repatriated prisoners of war (RPWs). Psychiatric disorders were assessed at repatriation (1973) and were continued annually by a psychiatrist or clinical psychologist. Sleep issues before, during, and after captivity were assessed upon repatriation during medical examinations. Odds ratios examining presence of sleep symptoms show resilient RPWs reporting fewer symptoms compared to nonresilient RPWS before, during, and after captivity. Logistic regression comparing before, during, and after indicates fewer reported sleep disturbance symptoms after captivity was the strongest predictor of resilience (b = -0.82, Wald chi2 (1) = 16.70, p < 0.000). Reporting fewer sleep complaints, but not necessarily an absence of them before, during, and after the trauma predicts resilience across time.

  15. A Multi-country Study of the Household Willingness-to-Pay for Dengue Vaccines: Household Surveys in Vietnam, Thailand, and Colombia.

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    Jung-Seok Lee

    Full Text Available The rise in dengue fever cases and the absence of dengue vaccines will likely cause governments to consider various types of effective means for controlling the disease. Given strong public interests in potential dengue vaccines, it is essential to understand the private economic benefits of dengue vaccines for accelerated introduction of vaccines into the public sector program and private markets of high-risk countries.A contingent valuation study for a hypothetical dengue vaccine was administered to 400 households in a multi-country setting: Vietnam, Thailand, and Colombia. All respondents received a description of the hypothetical dengue vaccine scenarios of 70% or 95% effectiveness for 10 or 30 years with a three dose series. Five price points were determined after pilot tests in order to reflect different local situations such as household income levels and general perceptions towards dengue fever. We adopted either Poisson or negative binomial regression models to calculate average willingness-to-pay (WTP, as well as median WTP. We found that there is a significant demand for dengue vaccines. The parametric median WTP is $26.4 ($8.8 per dose in Vietnam, $70.3 ($23.4 per dose in Thailand, and $23 ($7.7 per dose in Colombia. Our study also suggests that respondents place more value on vaccinating young children than school age children and adults.Knowing that dengue vaccines are not yet available, our study provides critical information to both public and private sectors. The study results can be used to ensure broad coverage with an affordable price and incorporated into cost benefit analyses, which can inform prioritization of alternative health interventions at the national level.

  16. Molecular Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection in a Minor Ethnic Group of Vietnam: A Multiethnic, Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binh, Tran Thanh; Tuan, Vo Phuoc; Dung, Ho Dang Quy; Tung, Pham Huu; Tri, Tran Dinh; Thuan, Ngo Phuong Minh; Tam, Le Quang; Nam, Bui Chi; Giang, Do Anh; Hoan, Phan Quoc; Uchida, Tomohisa; Trang, Tran Thi Huyen; Khien, Vu Van; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2018-03-01

    The Helicobacter pylori -induced burden of gastric cancer varies based on geographical regions and ethnic grouping. Vietnam is a multiethnic country with the highest incidence of gastric cancer in Southeast Asia, but previous studies focused only on the Kinh ethnic group. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted using 494 volunteers (18-78 years old), from 13 ethnic groups in Daklak and Lao Cai provinces, Vietnam. H. pylori status was determined by multiple tests (rapid urease test, culture, histology, and serology). cagA and vacA genotypes were determined by PCR-based sequencing. The overall H. pylori infection rate was 38.1%. Multivariate analysis showed that variations in geographical region, age, and ethnicity were independent factors associated with the risk of H. pylori acquisition. Therefore, multicenter, multiethnic, population based study is essential to assess the H. pylori prevalence and its burden in the general population. Only the E De ethnicity carried strains with Western-type CagA (82%) and exhibited significantly lower gastric mucosal inflammation compared to other ethnic groups. However, the histological scores of Western-type CagA and East-Asian-type CagA within the E De group showed no significant differences. Thus, in addition to bacterial virulence factors, host factors are likely to be important determinants for gastric mucosal inflammation and contribute to the Asian enigma.

  17. Factors associated with job satisfaction among district hospital health workers in Northern Vietnam: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy Van; Duong, Huong Thao; Vu, Toan Thinh

    2017-04-01

    In many developing countries, including Vietnam, little is known about job satisfaction among lower level-health staff. The purpose of this study was to assess job satisfaction and its determinants among district hospital health staff. In a cross-sectional quantitative study, 128 health staff from a rural district hospital in Northern Vietnam were approached for data collection. Regression techniques were adopted to assess factors associated with several types of job satisfaction. Overall job satisfaction was moderately high, ranging from 69% to 91%. Across all dimensions, health workers showed their highest satisfaction with co-worker relationships, while, in comparison, it was much lower for their supervisor's style and relationship. However, they claimed their lowest satisfaction with compensation and benefits. In final multivariate models, females and those satisfied with knowledge, skills and job performance were most likely to be satisfied with relationships with co-workers. Staff who were married, received a low pay, who were not satisfied with supervisor style and relationships and who were not satisfied with staff training, development opportunities were least likely to be satisfied with compensation and benefits. The study findings highlight an important need for designing an intervention program that considers organizational factors. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Teaching the Vietnam War: A Sociological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, because of its importance in modern U.S. history, over 300 college courses are taught on the Vietnam War. Asserts that studying the war helps students develop critical thinking skills needed for citizenship. Describes the texts, formats, and assignments used in a college sociology course on the Vietnam War. (CFR)

  19. Exploring the influence of context in a community-based facilitation intervention focusing on neonatal health and survival in Vietnam: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Duc M; Bergström, Anna; Wallin, Lars; Bui, Ha T T; Eriksson, Leif; Eldh, Ann Catrine

    2015-08-22

    In the Neonatal health - Knowledge into Practice (NeoKIP) trial in Vietnam, local stakeholder groups, supported by trained laywomen acting as facilitators, promoted knowledge translation (KT) resulting in decreased neonatal mortality. In general, as well as in the community-based NeoKIP trial, there is a need to further understand how context influences KT interventions in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, the objective of this study was to explore the influence of context on the facilitation process in the NeoKIP intervention. A secondary content analysis was performed on 16 Focus Group Discussions with facilitators and participants of the stakeholder groups, applying an inductive approach to the content on context through naïve understanding and structured analysis. The three main-categories of context found to influence the facilitation process in the NeoKIP intervention were: (1) Support and collaboration of local authorities and other communal stakeholders; (2) Incentives to, and motivation of, participants; and (3) Low health care coverage and utilization. In particular, the role of local authorities in a KT intervention was recognized as important. Also, while project participants expected financial incentives, non-financial benefits such as individual learning were considered to balance the lack of reimbursement in the NeoKIP intervention. Further, project participants recognized the need to acknowledge the needs of disadvantaged groups. This study provides insight for further understanding of the influence of contextual aspects to improve effects of a KT intervention in Vietnam. We suggest that future KT interventions should apply strategies to improve local authorities' engagement, to identify and communicate non-financial incentives, and to make disadvantaged groups a priority. Further studies to evaluate the contextual aspects in KT interventions in LMICs are also needed.

  20. Comparing the social costs of biofuels and fossil fuels: A case study of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Loan T.; Ierland, Ekko C. van; Zhu, Xueqin; Wesseler, Justus; Ngo, Giang

    2013-01-01

    Biofuel substitution for fossil fuels has been recommended in the literature and promoted in many countries; however, there are concerns about its economic viability. In this paper we focus on the cost-effectiveness of fuels, i.e., we compare the social costs of biofuels and fossil fuels for a functional unit defined as 1 km of vehicle transportation. We base our empirical results on a case study in Vietnam and compare two biofuels and their alternative fossil fuels: ethanol and gasoline, and biodiesel and diesel with a focus on the blends of E5 and E10 for ethanol, and B5 and B10 for biodiesel. At the discount rate of 4%, ethanol substitution for gasoline in form of E5 or E10 saves 33% of the social cost of gasoline if the fuel consumption of E5 and E10 is the same as gasoline. The ethanol substitution will be cost-effective if the fuel consumption of E5 and E10, in terms of L km −1 , is not exceeding the consumption of gasoline by more than 1.7% and 3.5% for E5 and E10 respectively. The biodiesel substitution would be cost-effective if the fuel consumption of B5 and B10, in terms of L km −1 compared to diesel, would decrease by more than 1.4% and 2.8% for B5 and B10 respectively at the discount rate of 4%. -- Highlights: •We examine cost-effectiveness of biofuels under efficiency levels of blends. •Cassava-based ethanol used as E5 saves 33% of social cost compared to gasoline. •Ethanol is cost-effective if E5 consumption per km is less than 1.017 times gasoline consumption. •Jatropha-based biodiesel used as B5 or B10 is currently not cost-effective in comparison to diesel. •Biodiesel would be cost-effective if B5 consumption per km would be less than 0.986 times diesel consumption

  1. Social phobia and PTSD in Vietnam veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsillo, S M; Heimberg, R G; Juster, H R; Garrett, J

    1996-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the most prevalent psychological disorder experienced by Vietnam veterans. However, there are many other disorders and problems of adjustment, like social anxiety and social phobia, that have not been fully investigated in this population. This study examined the prevalence of social phobia and the comorbidity of social phobia and PTSD, and tested out a theory of the etiology of social anxiety in trauma victims. Forty one Vietnam combat veterans were interviewed and completed self-report measures assessing PTSD and social phobia. Adversity of homecoming was also assessed. Using a conservative multi-method assessment approach, 32% of the sample were found to be positive for both social phobia and PTSD. Veterans with PTSD were significantly more likely to carry an additional diagnosis of social phobia as compared to veterans without PTSD. Adversity of homecoming and shame about one's experience in Vietnam were significant predictors of current level of social anxiety over and above the effects of pre-military anxiety and severity of combat exposure. These observations suggest that social anxiety and social phobia may be significant problems among individuals with PTSD. Further, these findings offer preliminary support for the theory that posttrauma environment may impact upon the later development of social anxiety.

  2. Real life is different: a qualitative study of why women delay abortion until the second trimester in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Maria F; Nghia, Nguyen C

    2007-05-01

    Although legal and safe-induced abortion services are available on request in Vietnam, second-trimester abortion still occurs. Given the increased risks and higher costs associated with later-term abortions, we conducted a qualitative study to understand the determinants of delaying abortion until the second trimester. We used purposive sampling to conduct semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 60 women aged 14-47 receiving an abortion at 13-24 weeks of gestation in 5 health facilities in 3 provinces in Vietnam. We also interviewed 6 providers from the study facilities. Three broad categories for factors influencing delays in obtaining abortions emerged: most women failed to recognize their pregnancy during the first trimester; women described structural barriers to accessing services earlier; and some women either needed time to make a decision or only decided to abort after other events had transpired. A richer understanding of the factors that prevent women from obtaining an abortion during the first trimester could be useful for informing interventions that support women in receiving care earlier during their pregnancies.

  3. Risk factors for Clonorchis sinensis infection transmission in humans in northern Vietnam: A descriptive and social network analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, Hoang Quang; Phimpraphai, Waraphon; Tangkawattana, Sirikachorn; Smith, John F; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Dung, Do Trung; Duong, Tran Thanh; Sripa, Banchob

    2017-04-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is major fish-borne trematode, endemic in North Vietnam. Risk factors described so far include individual eating behaviors and environmental factors. Here, additional to conventional risk factors, we report on socially influenced liver fluke transmission in endemic communities. A cross-sectional study on risk factors and fish sharing networks was conducted in 4 villages of Gia Thinh Commune, Ninh Binh Province. A total of 510 residents in 272 households were recruited for risk factor analysis while 220 households, 28 fishermen and 10 fish-sellers were enrolled for social network study. Fecal examination for C. sinensis eggs was performed. Average C. sinensis infection rate at Gia Thinh commune was 16.5% (range 2% to 34.4%). Higher infection rates were significantly associated with males, lower educational levels, eating raw fish, and location of the villages. Social network analysis (SNA) showed a strong positive correlation between ego network size (number of households in fish sharing network) and quantity of raw fish consumed (r=0.603, Psinensis infection transmission in northern Vietnam. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Australian Vietnam Veterans Health Study: II. self-reported health of veterans compared with the Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, B I; Marshall, R P; Grayson, D A; Schureck, R J; Dobson, M; Ffrench, M; Pulvertaft, B; Meldrum, L; Bolton, J; Vennard, J

    1996-04-01

    Self-reported physical health status of Australian Vietnam veterans was determined 20-25 years after the war and its relation to combat was investigated. An epidemiological cohort study of a simple random sample of Army veterans posted to Vietnam between 1964 and 1972 was conducted with personal interviews using the Australian Bureau of Statistics Health Interview Survey questionnaire to compare veterans with the Australian population and a 21-item combat exposure index used to measure the relationship of combat to physical health. Veterans reported greater health service usage and more recent health actions than population expectations. They also reported excess health problems in almost all recent illness disease categories except endocrine conditions and cardiovascular conditions; only 6 of 37 chronic disease groups were not elevated compared to the population. Adjustment for non-response changed estimates only slightly. Combat exposure was significantly related to reports of recent and chronic mental disorders, recent hernia and chronic ulcer, recent eczema and chronic rash, deafness, chronic infective and parasitic disease, chronic back disorders and symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions. Combat exposure may have significantly increased reports of only some health problems. A general position to complain as a result of psychological conditions due to combat is not consistent with the lack of relationship between combat and reports of physical conditions.

  5. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  6. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastroduodenal diseases in Vietnam: a cross-sectional, hospital-based study

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    Okimoto Tadayoshi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of H. pylori infection in Vietnam is reportedly high, but the spectrum of H. pylori-associated gastroduodenal diseases has not been systematically investigated. Moreover, despite the similarities of ethnicity and diet, the age-standardized incidence rate of gastric cancer in the northern city of Hanoi is higher than that in the southern city of Ho Chi Minh, but the reason for this phenomenon is unknown. The virulence of Vietnamese H. pylori has also not been investigated in detail. Methods Individuals undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy were randomly recruited. H. pylori infection status was determined based on the combined results of culture, histology, immunohistochemistry, rapid urine test and serum ELISA. Peptic ulcer (PU and gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed by endoscopy, and chronic gastritis was determined histologically. H. pylori virulence factors were investigated by PCR and sequencing. Results Among the examined patients, 65.6% were infected with H. pylori. The prevalence of infection was significantly higher in those over 40 years of age than in those aged ≤40. Chronic gastritis was present in all H. pylori-infected individuals, 83.1% of whom had active gastritis, and 85.3% and 14.7% had atrophy and intestinal metaplasia, respectively. PU was present in 21% of infected patients, whereas its incidence was very low in non-infected individuals. The prevalence of PU was significantly higher in Hanoi than in Ho Chi Minh. The prevalence of vacA m1, which has been identified as an independent risk factor for PU in Vietnam, was significantly higher among H. pylori isolates from Hanoi than among those from Ho Chi Minh. Conclusions H. pylori infection is common in Vietnam and is strongly associated with PU, active gastritis, atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. vacA m1 is associated with an increased risk for PU and might contribute to the difference in the prevalence of PU and gastric cancer between

  7. Tourist Psychology and Sociology: A Case Study of Hoi An, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Gezgin, Ulaş Başar

    2018-01-01

    Hoi An, Vietnam is one of the rising UNESCO World Heritage sites which is getting more popular with the rise of an interest in Asian cities as well as more receptive and positive attitudes of Vietnamese government. Although Hoi An proves to be attractive for tourists due to its ancient center, beaches, village life as well as the mountains and other heritage sites nearby, academic works on Hoi An’s touristic transformation and potential future possibilities are rare. This article aims to fill...

  8. Craft villages and tourism development, a case study in Phu Quoc island of Vietnam

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    Hieu Vu Minh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Craft tourism is attracting many domestic and foreign tourists. In recent years in Vietnam, craft villages have exploited their potentials in tourism industry. For many different causes, tourism activities have yet reached expectations and their potentials for tourism development. This paper is to review their currents, tourism potentials and limitations and then formulate recommendations to the tourism development in Phu Quoc island. The data for this paper are from two sources. Secondary data were collected from the vast literature and journals. Primary data were from interviews with village owners, related authorities, tourists, tourism corporate, etc. and results serve as guidelines to develop the tourism industry and management.

  9. Impact of perinatal dioxin exposure on infant growth: a cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in dioxin-contaminated areas in Vietnam.

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    Muneko Nishijo

    Full Text Available Dioxin exposure levels remain elevated in residents living around former US Air Force bases in Vietnam, indicating potential adverse impacts on infant growth. In this study, 210 mother-infant pairs in dioxin-contaminated areas in Vietnam were recruited at the infants' birth and followed up for 4 months. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were estimated by measurement of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans toxic equivalent (PCDDs/Fs-TEQ in breast milk. The infants' size was measured at birth and 1 and 4 months after birth, and neurodevelopment was evaluated using the Bayley Scales III at 4 months of age. Among 4 dioxin groups (<25, 25-50, 50-75, ≥75 percentile of PCDDs/Fs-TEQ, cross-sectional comparisons of body size and neurodevelopment scales and comparisons of longitudinally assessed body size were performed respectively. At birth, head circumference of girls in the ≥75 percentile group was significantly larger than those in the <25 and 50-75 percentile groups. At 4 months of age, the weight and body mass index (BMI of boys in the ≥75 percentile group were significantly lower than those in the other groups. Increase in weight was significantly lower in the ≥75 percentile group in both sexes from birth to 1 month but only in boys at 1-4 months of age. Estimated marginal mean values in a mixed model of weight and BMI during the first 4 months of life were significantly lower in the ≥75 percentile group in boys. In girls, marginal mean values for head circumference were increased with increase in dioxin levels. Only in boys, cognitive, language, and fine motor scores in the ≥75 percentile group were significantly lower than those in the other groups. These results suggested a considerable impact of perinatal dioxin exposure on infant growth, particularly in boys exposed to dioxins at high level of PCDDs/Fs-TEQ.

  10. The possibility of previous epidemiological data to serve as baseline for future national oral health surveys--a study in Vietnam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van; Truin, G.J.; Can, N.; Khanh, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent epidemiological data (1985-2000) on dental caries and periodontal diseases in Vietnam in an attempt to obtain a 'baseline' for future national oral health surveys. METHODS: Studies on periodontal diseases and caries were included when CPITN

  11. Studying and developing main nuclear analytical techniques for assessment of the present situation of marine environmental radioactivity in some typical regions of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Trong Ngo; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Phan Son Hai; Mai Thi Huong; Nguyen Thi Linh; Nguyen Van Phuc; Le Nhu Sieu; Nguyen Mong Sinh, Truong Y; Le Ngoc Chung

    2003-01-01

    Typical output of the study is presented, including: 1/ establishing standard procedures for the determination of 238 U and 230 Th radionuclide concentration in marine environmental samples; 2/ acquiring baseline data for the main radionuclide concentration in marine environmental materials (water, sediment and biota) collected from suitable key coastal locations of Vietnam. (NTN)

  12. Amphetamine-type stimulant use among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam : Results from a socio-ecological, community-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vu, Nga Thi Thu; Holt, Martin; Phan, Huong Thi Thu; Le, Huong Thi; La, Lan Thi; Tran, Gioi Minh; Doan, Tung Thanh; Nguyen, Trang Nhu Nguyen; de Wit, John

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Amphetamine-type-stimulants (ATS) use is associated with HIV-related sexual risk behaviours and is an emergent problem among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam. The purpose of this study is to describe ATS use patterns and understand the correlates of recent methamphetamine use

  13. The Policy Cycle and Vernacular Globalization: A Case Study of the Creation of Vietnam National University--Hochiminh City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh Ngo, Thanh; Lingard, Bob; Mitchell, Jane

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the policy cycle and vernacular globalization in the context of higher education reform in Vietnam. Through an analysis of the development of the Vietnam National University--Hochiminh City as part of the post-1986 reconstruction of Vietnamese higher education, the article considers the complex interrelationship between…

  14. Citizenship Education about War and Peace: A Study of the History of the Vietnam War through Oral History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses his "History of the Vietnam War" course, which takes oral history as the core of its curriculum. This oral history focuses on personal lives and stories that can bring history to life. The components of the course are as follows: (1) overview of the History of the Vietnam War; (2) email interviews;…

  15. Stigma, an important source of dissatisfaction of health workers in HIV response in Vietnam: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ha Nguyen; Protsiv, Myroslava; Larsson, Mattias; Ho, Hien Thi; de Vries, Daniel H; Thorson, Anna

    2012-12-21

    Like in many other low- and middle-income countries, the recent development of an HIV epidemic in Vietnam has led to a growing need for prevention, treatment, care, and support services for people living with HIV (PLHIV). This puts greater demands on the national HIV services, primarily on health workers, which increases the importance of their job satisfaction and working conditions. This study describes health worker perceptions and explores the factors that influence job satisfaction and dissatisfaction of health personnel working on the HIV response in Vietnam. Spector's job satisfaction model was used as the theoretical framework for the study design and analysis. The study employed a qualitative design with 7 focus group discussions and 15 semi-structured interviews with health workers, purposively selected from national and provincial organizations responsible for HIV services in 5 cities and provinces in Vietnam. Data were analyzed using a hybrid approach of theory-driven and data-driven coding and theme development using qualitative analysis software. HIV services are perceived by Vietnamese health workers as having both positive and negative aspects. Factors related to job satisfaction included training opportunities, social recognition, and meaningful tasks. Factors related to job dissatisfaction included unsatisfactory compensation, lack of positive feedback and support from supervisors, work-related stress from a heavy workload, fear of infection, and HIV-related stigma because of association with PLHIV. An adjusted Spector's model of job satisfaction for HIV service health workers was developed from these results. This study confirmed the relationship between stigmatization of PLHIV and stigma experienced by staff because of association with PLHIV from families, colleagues, and society. The experiencing stigma results in additional work-related stress, low self-esteem, poor views of their profession, and lower income. The study shows the importance of

  16. Stigma, an important source of dissatisfaction of health workers in HIV response in Vietnam: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Ha Nguyen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like in many other low- and middle-income countries, the recent development of an HIV epidemic in Vietnam has led to a growing need for prevention, treatment, care, and support services for people living with HIV (PLHIV. This puts greater demands on the national HIV services, primarily on health workers, which increases the importance of their job satisfaction and working conditions. This study describes health worker perceptions and explores the factors that influence job satisfaction and dissatisfaction of health personnel working on the HIV response in Vietnam. Spector’s job satisfaction model was used as the theoretical framework for the study design and analysis. Methods The study employed a qualitative design with 7 focus group discussions and 15 semi-structured interviews with health workers, purposively selected from national and provincial organizations responsible for HIV services in 5 cities and provinces in Vietnam. Data were analyzed using a hybrid approach of theory-driven and data-driven coding and theme development using qualitative analysis software. Results HIV services are perceived by Vietnamese health workers as having both positive and negative aspects. Factors related to job satisfaction included training opportunities, social recognition, and meaningful tasks. Factors related to job dissatisfaction included unsatisfactory compensation, lack of positive feedback and support from supervisors, work-related stress from a heavy workload, fear of infection, and HIV-related stigma because of association with PLHIV. An adjusted Spector’s model of job satisfaction for HIV service health workers was developed from these results. Conclusion This study confirmed the relationship between stigmatization of PLHIV and stigma experienced by staff because of association with PLHIV from families, colleagues, and society. The experiencing stigma results in additional work-related stress, low self-esteem, poor views of

  17. SWAT use of gridded observations for simulating runoff - a Vietnam river basin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, M. T.; Raghavan, S. V.; Liong, S. Y.

    2012-08-01

    Many research studies that focus on basin hydrology have applied the SWAT model using station data to simulate runoff. But over regions lacking robust station data, there is a problem of applying the model to study the hydrological responses. For some countries and remote areas, the rainfall data availability might be a constraint due to many different reasons such as lacking of technology, war time and financial limitation that lead to difficulty in constructing the runoff data. To overcome such a limitation, this research study uses some of the available globally gridded high resolution precipitation datasets to simulate runoff. Five popular gridded observation precipitation datasets: (1) Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards the Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE), (2) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), (3) Precipitation Estimation from Remote Sensing Information using Artificial Neural Network (PERSIANN), (4) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP), (5) a modified version of Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN2) and one reanalysis dataset, National Centers for Environment Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) are used to simulate runoff over the Dak Bla river (a small tributary of the Mekong River) in Vietnam. Wherever possible, available station data are also used for comparison. Bilinear interpolation of these gridded datasets is used to input the precipitation data at the closest grid points to the station locations. Sensitivity Analysis and Auto-calibration are performed for the SWAT model. The Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) and Coefficient of Determination (R2) indices are used to benchmark the model performance. Results indicate that the APHRODITE dataset performed very well on a daily scale simulation of discharge having a good NSE of 0.54 and R2 of 0.55, when compared to the discharge simulation using station data (0.68 and 0.71). The GPCP proved to be the

  18. SWAT use of gridded observations for simulating runoff – a Vietnam river basin study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Vu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Many research studies that focus on basin hydrology have applied the SWAT model using station data to simulate runoff. But over regions lacking robust station data, there is a problem of applying the model to study the hydrological responses. For some countries and remote areas, the rainfall data availability might be a constraint due to many different reasons such as lacking of technology, war time and financial limitation that lead to difficulty in constructing the runoff data. To overcome such a limitation, this research study uses some of the available globally gridded high resolution precipitation datasets to simulate runoff. Five popular gridded observation precipitation datasets: (1 Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards the Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE, (2 Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM, (3 Precipitation Estimation from Remote Sensing Information using Artificial Neural Network (PERSIANN, (4 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP, (5 a modified version of Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN2 and one reanalysis dataset, National Centers for Environment Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR are used to simulate runoff over the Dak Bla river (a small tributary of the Mekong River in Vietnam. Wherever possible, available station data are also used for comparison. Bilinear interpolation of these gridded datasets is used to input the precipitation data at the closest grid points to the station locations. Sensitivity Analysis and Auto-calibration are performed for the SWAT model. The Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE and Coefficient of Determination (R2 indices are used to benchmark the model performance. Results indicate that the APHRODITE dataset performed very well on a daily scale simulation of discharge having a good NSE of 0.54 and R2 of 0.55, when compared to the discharge simulation using station data (0

  19. Phylodynamic analysis of the dissemination of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Huanan; Tee, Kok Keng; Hase, Saiki; Uenishi, Rie; Li, Xiao-Jie; Kusagawa, Shigeru; Thang, Pham Hong; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Pybus, Oliver G; Takebe, Yutaka

    2009-08-15

    To estimate the epidemic history of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in Vietnam and adjacent Guangxi, China, we determined near full-length nucleotide sequences of CRF01_AE from a total of 33 specimens collected in 1997-1998 from different geographic regions and risk populations in Vietnam. Phylogenetic and Bayesian molecular clock analyses were performed to estimate the date of origin of CRF01_AE lineages. Our study reconstructs the timescale of CRF01_AE expansion in Vietnam and neighboring regions and suggests that the series of CRF01_AE epidemics in Vietnam arose by the sequential introduction of founder strains into new locations and risk groups. CRF01_AE appears to have been present among heterosexuals in South-Vietnam for more than a decade prior to its epidemic spread in the early 1990s. In the late 1980s, the virus spread to IDUs in Southern Vietnam and subsequently in the mid-1990s to IDUs further north. Our results indicate the northward dissemination of CRF01_AE during this time.

  20. Evidence of greater health care needs among older veterans of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Matthew S; Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N

    2008-08-01

    This study examined self-rated health, impairments in activities of daily living, and treatment for eight health conditions among Vietnam War-era veterans, comparing those who served in Vietnam with those who served elsewhere. Data were from the nationally representative 2001 National Survey of Veterans (N = 7,907; 3,923 veterans served in Vietnam). Age-stratified ( or =60 years) analyses included multivariate logistic regression. In adjusted analyses, among those Vietnam had notably poorer self-rated health and higher stroke risk (odds ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.48-1.53); odds of most other conditions were lower. Among those > or =60 years of age, those who served in Vietnam had poorer self-rated health, higher cancer risk (odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-1.35), and more treatment for hypertension, lung conditions, stroke, and hearing loss. Results suggest greater resource use among older veterans who served in Vietnam. Clinicians and the Department of Veterans Affairs should especially note their substantially higher cancer risk.

  1. Evidence of previous but not current transmission of chikungunya virus in southern and central Vietnam: Results from a systematic review and a seroprevalence study in four locations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Minh Quan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Arbovirus infections are a serious concern in tropical countries due to their high levels of transmission and morbidity. With the outbreaks of chikungunya (CHIKV in surrounding regions in recent years and the fact that the environment in Vietnam is suitable for the vectors of CHIKV, the possibility of transmission of CHIKV in Vietnam is of great interest. However, information about CHIKV activity in Vietnam remains limited.In order to address this question, we performed a systematic review of CHIKV in Vietnam and a CHIKV seroprevalence survey. The seroprevalence survey tested for CHIKV IgG in population serum samples from individuals of all ages in 2015 from four locations in Vietnam.The four locations were An Giang province (n = 137, Ho Chi Minh City (n = 136, Dak Lak province (n = 137, and Hue City (n = 136. The findings give us evidence of some CHIKV activity: 73/546 of overall samples were seropositive (13.4%. The age-adjusted seroprevalences were 12.30% (6.58-18.02, 13.42% (7.16-19.68, 7.97% (3.56-12.38, and 3.72% (1.75-5.69 in An Giang province, Ho Chi Minh City, Dak Lak province, and Hue City respectively. However, the age-stratified seroprevalence suggests that the last transmission ended around 30 years ago, consistent with results from the systematic review. We see no evidence for on-going transmission in three of the locations, though with some evidence of recent exposure in Dak Lak, most likely due to transmission in neighbouring countries. Before the 1980s, when transmission was occurring, we estimate on average 2-4% of the population were infected each year in HCMC and An Giang and Hue (though transmision ended earlier in Hue. We estimate lower transmission in Dak Lak, with around 1% of the population infected each year.In conclusion, we find evidence of past CHIKV transmission in central and southern Vietnam, but no evidence of recent sustained transmission. When transmission of CHIKV did occur, it appeared to be widespread and

  2. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Northern Vietnam: Hanoi and Thainguyen case study using the moss biomonitoring technique, INAA and AAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viet, Hung Nguyen; Frontasyeva, Marina Vladimirovna; Thi, Thu My Trinh; Gilbert, Daniel; Bernard, Nadine

    2010-06-01

    The moss technique is widely used to monitor atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in many countries in Europe, whereas this technique is scarcely used in Asia. To implement this international reliable and cheap methodology in the Asian countries, it is necessary to find proper moss types typical for the Asian environment and suitable for the biomonitoring purposes. Such a case study was undertaken in Vietnam for assessing the environmental situation in strongly contaminated areas using local species of moss Barbula indica. The study is focused on two areas characterized by different pollution sources: the Hanoi urban area and the Thainguyen metallurgical zone. Fifty-four moss samples were collected there according to standard sampling procedure adopted in Europe. Two complementary analytical techniques, atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), were used for determination of elemental concentrations in moss samples. To characterize the pollution sources, multivariate statistical analysis was applied. A total of 38 metal elements were determined in the moss by the two analytical techniques. The results of descriptive statistics of metal concentration in moss from the city center and periphery of Hanoi determined by AAS are presented. The similar results for moss from Thainguyen province determined by INAA and AAS are given also. A comparison of mean elemental concentrations in moss of this work with those in different environmental conditions of other authors provides reasonable information on heavy metal atmospheric deposition levels. Factor loadings and factor scores were used to identify and apportion contamination sources at the sampling sites. The values of percentage of total of factors show two highly different types of pollution in the two examined areas-the Hanoi pollution composition with high portion of urban-traffic activity and soil dust (62%), and the one of Thainguyen with factors related to industrial

  3. Citizen science land cover classification based on ground and satellite imagery: Case study Day River in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Son Tung; Minkman, Ellen; Rutten, Martine

    2016-04-01

    Citizen science is being increasingly used in the context of environmental research, thus there are needs to evaluate cognitive ability of humans in classifying environmental features. With the focus on land cover, this study explores the extent to which citizen science can be applied in sensing and measuring the environment that contribute to the creation and validation of land cover data. The Day Basin in Vietnam was selected to be the study area. Different methods to examine humans' ability to classify land cover were implemented using different information sources: ground based photos - satellite images - field observation and investigation. Most of the participants were solicited from local people and/or volunteers. Results show that across methods and sources of information, there are similar patterns of agreement and disagreement on land cover classes among participants. Understanding these patterns is critical to create a solid basis for implementing human sensors in earth observation. Keywords: Land cover, classification, citizen science, Landsat 8

  4. Status of the study on PZC based Tc-99m generator and potential of its commercial production in VIETNAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Duong Van

    2007-01-01

    Tc-99m is the most widely used radioisotope in nuclear medicine. It has been almost produced from the decay of its parent 99 Mo by using the (n,γ) nuclear reaction with natural molybdenum. The technology requirement for this processing is simple, and is used in the most developing countries operating research reactor. Under the framework of Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA) cooperation program, the PZC based technology for production of Tc-99m generator has been studied at Dalat Nuclear Research Institute (DNRI) in the past several years. Some main activities and results of the study on PZC based Tc-99m generator at DNRI so far are given, and the estimation of future applications of PZC-type Tc-99m generator in Vietnam is also discussed in this report. (author)

  5. Air Pollution Modeling at Road Sides Using the Operational Street Pollution Model-A Case Study in Hanoi, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, Ngo Tho; Ketzel, Matthias; Jensen, Steen Solvang

    2010-01-01

    In many metropolitan areas, traffic is the main source of air pollution. The high concentrations of pollutants in streets have the potential to affect human health. Therefore, estimation of air pollution at the street level is required for health impact assessment. This task has been carried out...... in many developed countries by a combination of air quality measurements and modeling. This study focuses on how to apply a dispersion model to cities in the developing world, where model input data and data from air quality monitoring stations are limited or of varying quality. This research uses...... the operational street pollution model (OSPM) developed by the National Environmental Research Institute in Denmark for a case study in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam. OSPM predictions from five streets were evaluated against air pollution measurements of nitrogen oxides (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide...

  6. Potential Economic Impacts of the Vietnam-Korea Free Trade Agreement on Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Hoan Phan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an assessment of the potential economic impacts of the Vietnam-Korea free trade agreement on Vietnam, by using general equilibrium modeling. The results show that Vietnam-Korea FTA will increase aggregate welfare for both countries in the long run. The most important gains accrue from better allocation of resources consequent to trade liberalization. All the sectoral differences and changes are consistent with the trade profiles of the two countries, and the long-run results are more pronounced than those of the short-run. In comparison with other ASEAN countries, the CGE analysis suggests that Vietnam's agriculture exports to Korea would especially rise in the long run. However, there will be strong competition in this sector among ASEAN members. Thus, an earlier conclusion of a comprehensive FTA with Korea is expected to be a good strategy for Vietnam, so as to avoid the direct competition with ASEAN members in the future.

  7. Maternal health care professionals' perspectives on the provision and use of antenatal and delivery care: a qualitative descriptive study in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graner, Sophie; Mogren, Ingrid; Duong, Le Q; Krantz, Gunilla; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie

    2010-10-14

    High quality maternal health care is an important tool to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. Services offered should be evidence based and adapted to the local setting. This qualitative descriptive study explored the perspectives and experiences of midwives, assistant physicians and medical doctors on the content and quality of maternal health care in rural Vietnam. The study was performed in a rural district in northern Vietnam. Four focus group discussions with health care professionals at primary health care level were conducted. The data was analysed using qualitative manifest and latent content analysis. Two main themes emerged: "Contextual conditions for maternal health care" and "Balancing between possibilities and constraints". Contextual conditions influenced both pregnant women's use of maternal health care and health care professionals' performance. The study participants stated that women's uses of maternal health care were influenced by economical constraints and cultural norms that impeded their autonomy in relation to childbearing. Structural constraints within the health care system included inadequate financing of the primary health care, resulting in lack of human resources, professional re-training and adequate equipment. Contextual conditions strongly influenced the performance and interaction between pregnant women and health care professionals within antenatal care and delivery care in a rural district of Vietnam. Although Vietnam is performing comparatively well in terms of low maternal and child mortality figures, this study revealed midwives' and other health care professionals' perceived difficulties in their daily work. It seemed maternal health care was under-resourced in terms of staff, equipment and continuing education activities. The cultural setting in Vietnam constituting a strong patriarchal society and prevailing Confucian norms limits women's autonomy and reduce their possibility to make independent decisions about their

  8. The Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS): A Strategic Approach to Studying Emerging Zoonotic Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaa, Maia A; Tue, Ngo Tri; Phuc, Tran My; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Saylors, Karen; Cotten, Matthew; Bryant, Juliet E; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Pham, Hong Anh; Berto, Alessandra; Phat, Voong Vinh; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Bao, Long Hoang; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Wertheim, Heiman; Nadjm, Behzad; Monagin, Corina; van Doorn, H Rogier; Rahman, Motiur; Tra, My Phan Vu; Campbell, James I; Boni, Maciej F; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; van der Hoek, Lia; Simmonds, Peter; Rambaut, Andrew; Toan, Tran Khanh; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Hien, Tran Tinh; Wolfe, Nathan; Farrar, Jeremy J; Thwaites, Guy; Kellam, Paul; Woolhouse, Mark E J; Baker, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    The effect of newly emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases of zoonotic origin in human populations can be potentially catastrophic, and large-scale investigations of such diseases are highly challenging. The monitoring of emergence events is subject to ascertainment bias, whether at the level of species discovery, emerging disease events, or disease outbreaks in human populations. Disease surveillance is generally performed post hoc, driven by a response to recent events and by the availability of detection and identification technologies. Additionally, the inventory of pathogens that exist in mammalian and other reservoirs is incomplete, and identifying those with the potential to cause disease in humans is rarely possible in advance. A major step in understanding the burden and diversity of zoonotic infections, the local behavioral and demographic risks of infection, and the risk of emergence of these pathogens in human populations is to establish surveillance networks in populations that maintain regular contact with diverse animal populations, and to simultaneously characterize pathogen diversity in human and animal populations. Vietnam has been an epicenter of disease emergence over the last decade, and practices at the human/animal interface may facilitate the likelihood of spillover of zoonotic pathogens into humans. To tackle the scientific issues surrounding the origins and emergence of zoonotic infections in Vietnam, we have established The Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS). This countrywide project, in which several international institutions collaborate with Vietnamese organizations, is combining clinical data, epidemiology, high-throughput sequencing, and social sciences to address relevant one-health questions. Here, we describe the primary aims of the project, the infrastructure established to address our scientific questions, and the current status of the project. Our principal objective is to develop an integrated approach to

  9. Designing a Community Engagement Framework for a New Dengue Control Method: A Case Study from Central Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Darlene; Duong, Thi Thu Huong

    2014-01-01

    Background The Wolbachia strategy aims to manipulate mosquito populations to make them incapable of transmitting dengue viruses between people. To test its efficacy, this strategy requires field trials. Public consultation and engagement are recognized as critical to the future success of these programs, but questions remain regarding how to proceed. This paper reports on a case study where social research was used to design a community engagement framework for a new dengue control method, at a potential release site in central Vietnam. Methodology/Principal Findings The approach described here, draws on an anthropological methodology and uses both qualitative and quantitative methods to design an engagement framework tailored to the concerns, expectations, and socio-political setting of a potential trial release site for Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The process, research activities, key findings and how these were responded to are described. Safety of the method to humans and the environment was the most common and significant concern, followed by efficacy and impact on local lives. Residents expected to be fully informed and engaged about the science, the project, its safety, the release and who would be responsible should something go wrong. They desired a level of engagement that included regular updates and authorization from government and at least one member of every household at the release site. Conclusions/Significance Results demonstrate that social research can provide important and reliable insights into public concerns and expectations at a potential release site, as well as guidance on how these might be addressed. Findings support the argument that using research to develop more targeted, engagement frameworks can lead to more sensitive, thorough, culturally comprehensible and therefore ethical consultation processes. This approach has now been used successfully to seek public input and eventually support for releases Wolbachia

  10. Pharmacy Education in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedouch, Pierrick; Nguyen, Thi-Hoai; Nguyen, Thi-Lien-Huong; Hoang, Thi-Kim-Huyen; Calop, Jean; Allenet, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacy education programs in Vietnam are complex and offer various career pathways. All include theory and laboratory modules in general, foundation, and pharmaceutical knowledge; placements in health facilities; and a final examination. The various pharmacy degree programs allow specialization in 1 or more of 5 main fields: (1) drug management and supply, (2) drug development and production, (3) pharmacology and clinical pharmacy, (4) traditional medicine and pharmacognosy, and (5) drug quality control, which are offered as main specialization options during the reformed undergraduate and postgraduate programs. However, pharmacy education in Vietnam in general remains product oriented and clinical pharmacy training has not received adequate attention. Only students who have obtained the bachelor of pharmacy degree, which requires a minimum of 5 years of study, are considered as fully qualified pharmacists. In contrast, an elementary diploma in pharmacy awarded after 1 year of pharmacy study permits entry into more junior pharmacy positions. Since the 2000s, there has been a surge in the number and types of schools offering pharmacy qualifications at various levels. PMID:23966717

  11. Long-term disability associated with war-related experience among Vietnam veterans: retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip M; Gregory, Robert; Salomon, Joshua A

    2015-05-01

    Recent combat operations have involved large numbers of personnel. Long-term health effects of military deployment remain largely unknown. To examine patterns and trends in long-term disability among combat veterans and to relate disability to aspects of wartime experience. A total of 60,228 Australian military personnel deployed between 1962 and 1975 during the Vietnam War, and 82,877 military personnel who were not deployed overseas. Accepted physician-assessed disability claims were evaluated over follow-up periods up to 50 years after deployment, and compared with age-matched controls. Multivariable analysis was used to examine differences by service branch, rank, age, and deployment duration. The steepest rise in disability incidence was observed among Vietnam veterans starting in the 1990s, around 20-30 years after deployment for most veterans. After 1994, when Statements of Principles were introduced to guide evaluation of disability claims, the hazard ratio for disability incidence was 1.53 (95% confidence interval, 1.32-1.77) compared with the prior period. By January 2011, after an average follow-up of 42.5 years, 69.7% (95% confidence interval, 69.4%-70.1%) of veterans had at least 1 war-related disability. Many veterans had multiple disabilities, with leading causes being eye and ear disorders (48.0%), mental health conditions (47.9%), and musculoskeletal disorders (18.4%). For specific categories of disability, relative risks for accepted claims among veterans compared with controls were highest for mental health disorders, at 22.9 (21.9-24.0) and lowest for injuries, at 1.5 (1.4-1.6) with a relative risk for any disability of 3.7 (3.7-3.8). Veterans with service of >1 year were 2.5 (2.2-2.7) times more likely to have a mental health disability than those who served war-related disability is associated with service history. If similar patterns follow from more recent conflicts, significant additional resources will be needed to prevent and treat long

  12. Impact of service quality on customer satisfaction of automated teller machine service: case study of a private commercial joint stock bank in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Phan, Chi; Nham, Phong

    2015-01-01

    One of key challenge for Vietnamese commercial banks is how to compete in the market place with commonly undifferentiated services. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of service quality performance on customer satisfaction on ATM service in a commercial bank in Vietnam. This study applies SERVPERF framework to analyze the data collected from a questionnaire survey and found that ASSURANCE and TANGIBLES factors significantly impact on the customer satisfaction.

  13. Impact of service quality on customer satisfaction of automated teller machine service: case study of a private commercial joint stock bank in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Phan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of key challenge for Vietnamese commercial banks is how to compete in the market place with commonly undifferentiated services. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of service quality performance on customer satisfaction on ATM service in a commercial bank in Vietnam. This study applies SERVPERF framework to analyze the data collected from a questionnaire survey and found that ASSURANCE and TANGIBLES factors significantly impact on the customer satisfaction.

  14. Parenting Stress and Maternal-Child Interactions Among Preschool Mothers From the Philippines, Korea, and Vietnam: A Cross-Sectional, Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eo, Yong-Sook; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-12-01

    To promote child development, parenting stress, and maternal-child interactions among mothers of various nationalities must be understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate maternal-child interactions according to the mother's nationality among married immigrant mothers from the Philippines, Vietnam, and Korea. This study employed a descriptive, cross-sectional design. Inclusion criteria were mothers who had children of preschool age. A total of 348 mothers were interviewed: 142 Korean mothers, 84 immigrant mothers from the Philippines, and 122 immigrant mothers from Vietnam. Parenting stress ( p maternal-child interactions ( p = .023) differed according to the mother's nationality. By delineating the nurturing characteristics of each country, the results of this study can help immigrant mothers develop maternal-child relationships that aid culturally congruent adjustment to their new culture. The characteristics of maternal-child interactions according to the mother's nationality may inform parent education in multicultural societies.

  15. Household food insecurity, diet, and weight status in a disadvantaged district of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Thuy Ngoc; Gallegos, Danielle; Ramsey, Rebecca

    2015-03-08

    Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, economic and socially acceptable access to safe, sufficient, and adequately nutritious food in order to meet their dietary needs for an active and healthy life. For high income countries and those experiencing the nutrition transition, food security is not only about the quantity of available food but also the nutritional quality as related to over- and under-nutrition. Vietnam is currently undergoing this nutrition transition, and as a result the relationship between food insecurity, socio-demographic factors and weight status is complex. The primary objective of this study was to therefore measure the prevalence of household food insecurity in a disadvantaged urban district in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) in Vietnam using a more comprehensive tool. This study also aims to examine the relationships between food insecurity and socio-demographic factors, weight status, and food intakes. A cross-sectional study was conducted using multi-stage sampling. Adults who were mainly responsible for cooking were interviewed in 250 households. Data was collected on socioeconomic and demographic factors using previously validated tools. Food security was assessed using the Latin American and Caribbean Household Food Security Scale (ELCSA) tool and households were categorized as food secure or mildly, moderately or severely food insecure. Questions regarding food intake were based on routinely used and validated questions in HCMC, weight status was self-reported. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.87, showing the ELCSA had a good internal reliability. Approximately 34.4% of households were food insecure. Food insecurity was inversely related to total household income (OR = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.04 - 0.22) and fruit intakes (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.31 - 4.22). There was no association between weight and food security status. Despite rapid industrialization and modernization, food insecurity remains an important

  16. Prediction of adaptation difficulties by country of origin, cumulate psychosocial stressors and attitude toward integrating: a Swedish study of first-generation immigrants from Somalia, Vietnam and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Ewa; Zolkowska, Krystyna; McNeil, Thomas F

    2015-03-01

    Different types of accumulated stress have been found to have negative consequences for immigrants' capacity to adapt to the new environment. It remains unclear which factors have the greatest influence. The study investigated whether immigrants' experience of great difficulty in adapting to a new country could best be explained by (1) country of origin, (2) exposure to accumulated stressors before arrival or (3) after arrival in the new country and/or (4) reserved attitude toward integrating into the new society. The 119 first-generation immigrants from Somalia, Vietnam and China, living in Malmö, Sweden, were interviewed in a standardized manner. Experiencing great difficulty in adapting to Sweden was independent of length of residence, but significantly related to all four influences, studied one at a time. Country of origin was also related to stressors and attitude. When the effects of the other influences were mutually controlled for, only exposure to accumulated stressors in Sweden (and especially experiencing discrimination/xenophobia/racism) accounted for great adaptation difficulty. Stressors in Sweden had a greater effect if the immigrant had been exposed to stressors earlier. Immigrants' long-term experiences of great difficulty in adapting to a new country were explained primarily by exposure to accumulated stressors while moving to and living in the new country, rather than by their backgrounds or attitudes toward integrating. This suggests promoting strategies to avoid discrimination and other stressors in the host country. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Prediction of adaptation difficulties by country of origin, cumulate psychosocial stressors and attitude toward integrating: A Swedish study of first-generation immigrants from Somalia, Vietnam and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolkowska, Krystyna; McNeil, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    Background: Different types of accumulated stress have been found to have negative consequences for immigrants’ capacity to adapt to the new environment. It remains unclear which factors have the greatest influence. Aims: The study investigated whether immigrants’ experience of great difficulty in adapting to a new country could best be explained by (1) country of origin, (2) exposure to accumulated stressors before arrival or (3) after arrival in the new country and/or (4) reserved attitude toward integrating into the new society. Methods: The 119 first-generation immigrants from Somalia, Vietnam and China, living in Malmö, Sweden, were interviewed in a standardized manner. Results: Experiencing great difficulty in adapting to Sweden was independent of length of residence, but significantly related to all four influences, studied one at a time. Country of origin was also related to stressors and attitude. When the effects of the other influences were mutually controlled for, only exposure to accumulated stressors in Sweden (and especially experiencing discrimination/xenophobia/racism) accounted for great adaptation difficulty. Stressors in Sweden had a greater effect if the immigrant had been exposed to stressors earlier. Conclusions: Immigrants’ long-term experiences of great difficulty in adapting to a new country were explained primarily by exposure to accumulated stressors while moving to and living in the new country, rather than by their backgrounds or attitudes toward integrating. This suggests promoting strategies to avoid discrimination and other stressors in the host country. PMID:24927925

  18. Little effect of praziquantel or artemisinin on clonorchiasis in Northern Vietnam. A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinga, N.; de, N.; Vien, H. V.; Chau, L.; Toan, N. D.; Kager, P. A.; Vries, P. J.

    1999-01-01

    The first choice for treatment of Clonorchis sinensis infections is praziquantel. Experimental data suggest that artemisinin derivatives are active against C. sinensis. The efficacy of both drugs against clonorchiasis was evaluated in a pilot study in clonorchiasis patients in an endemic area in the

  19. Identifying and Improving the image of Vietnam Tourism as a Tourism destination among Finnish tourist

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Anh

    2012-01-01

    This writing attempts to identify the images of Vietnam as a tourism destination for Finnish tourists and suggests marketing solution for Vietnamese traveling company to improve the images of Vietnam by enhancing marketing activities in the Finnish market. Saigontourist Transportation Corporation (STC), Vietnam which is a commissioner of this thesis project, has provided updated information about the current situation of tourism in Vietnam as well as marketing activities of company durin...

  20. A multi-country study of dengue vaccination strategies with Dengvaxia and a future vaccine candidate in three dengue-endemic countries: Vietnam, Thailand, and Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Seok; Lourenço, José; Gupta, Sunetra; Farlow, Andrew

    2018-04-19

    The dengue vaccination era began when Dengvaxia (CYD-TDV) became available in 2016. In addition, several second-generation vaccine candidates are currently in phase 3 trials, suggesting that a broader availability of dengue vaccines may be possible in the near future. Advancing on the recent WHO-SAGE recommendations for the safe and effective use of CYD-TDV at the regional level on average, this study investigates the vaccination impacts and cost-effectiveness of CYD-TDV and of a hypothetical new vaccine candidate (NVC) in a country-specific manner for three endemic countries: Vietnam, Thailand, and Colombia. The vaccination impacts of CYD-TDV and NVC were derived by fitting the empirical seroprevalence rates of 9 year olds into an individual-based meta-population transmission model, previously used for the WHO-SAGE working group. The disability-adjusted life years were estimated by applying country-specific parametric values. The cost-effectiveness analyses of four intervention strategies in combination with routine and catch-up campaigns were compared for both vaccines to inform decision makers regarding the most suitable immunization program in each of the three countries. Both CYD-TDV and NVC could be cost-effective at the DALY threshold cost of $2000 depending upon vaccination costs. With CYD-TDV, targeting 9 year olds in routine vaccination programs and 10-29 year olds as a one-off catch-up campaign was the most cost-effective strategy in all three countries. With NVC, while the most cost-effective strategy was to vaccinate 9-29 and 9-18 year olds in Vietnam and Thailand respectively, vaccinating younger age cohorts between 1 and 5 years old in Colombia was more cost-effective than other strategies. Given that three countries will soon face decisions regarding whether and how to incorporate CYD-TDV or future dengue vaccines into their budget-constrained national immunization programs, the current study outcomes can be used to help decision makers

  1. The legacy of war: an epidemiological study of cluster weapon and land mine accidents in Quang Tri Province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Tran Kim; Le, Viet; Husum, Hans

    2012-07-01

    The study examines the epidemiology of cluster weapon and land mine accidents in Quang Tri Province since the end of the Vietnam War. The province is located just south of the demarcation line and was the province most affected during the war. In 2009, a cross sectional household study was conducted in all nine districts of the province. During the study period of 1975-2009, 7,030 persons in the study area were exposed to unexploded ordnances (UXO) or land mine accidents, or 1.1% of the provincial population. There were 2,620 fatalities and 4,410 accident survivors. The study documents that the main problem is cluster weapons and other unexploded ordnances; only 4.3% of casualties were caused by land mines. The legacy of the war affects poor people the most; the accident rate was highest among villagers living in mountainous areas, ethnic minorities, and low-income families. The most common activities leading to the accidents were farming (38.6%), collecting scrap metal (11.2%), and herding of cattle (8.3%). The study documents that the people of the Quang Tri Province until this day have suffered heavily due to the legacy of war. Mine risk education programs should account for the epidemiological findings when future accident prevention programs are designed to target high-risk areas and activities.

  2. Association Between a Wider Availability of Health Information and Health Care Utilization in Vietnam: Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoang Thuy Linh; Nakamura, Keiko; Seino, Kaoruko; Vo, Van Thang

    2017-12-18

    The rapid and widespread development of mass media sources including the Internet is occurring worldwide. Users are being confronted with a flood of health information through a wide availability of sources. Studies on how the availability of health information has triggered users' interest in utilizing health care services remain limited within the Vietnamese population. This study examined the associations between the wider availability of sources for health information and health care utilization in Vietnam after adjusting for potential confounding variables. The data for this study were drawn from a cross-sectional study conducted over a 6-month period in Hue, a city in central Vietnam. The participants were 993 randomly selected adults aged between 18 and 60 years. Information was collected through face-to-face interviews on the types of information sources that were consulted, including traditional media (television), Internet, and health education courses, as well as the impact of such information on health care use (emergency department visits, hospitalizations, doctor visits). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed at a 95% confidence level. The prevalence of watching television, using the Internet, and attending health education courses to obtain health information were 50.9% (505/993), 32.9% (327/993), and 8.7% (86/993), respectively. After further adjustments for self-reported health status, the presence of health insurance, and monthly income, respondents who watched television and used the Internet to obtain health information were 1.7 times more likely to visit a doctor (television: adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.69, 95% CI 1.30-2.19; Internet: AOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.23-2.19), and also significantly associated with inpatient hospitalization (P=.003). The use of widely available mass media sources (eg, television and the Internet) to obtain health information was associated with higher health care utilization. How this interest in health

  3. Doing Business in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Tran, Thi Thu Yen; Nguyen, Hung Vo

    2005-01-01

    still reflects inheritances from the central plan system, Vietnam today has a vibrant economy with small businesses springing up at every street corner. Foreign investors have been flogging to Vietnam since the early 1990s, with a new peak of FDI inflow in 2004. This paper reviews the Vietnamese economy...

  4. Mobile devices for community-based REDD+ monitoring: a case study for Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Herold, Martin; Avitabile, Valerio; de Bruin, Sytze; Bartholomeus, Harm; Souza, Carlos M; Ribbe, Lars

    2012-12-20

    Monitoring tropical deforestation and forest degradation is one of the central elements for the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) scheme. Current arrangements for monitoring are based on remote sensing and field measurements. Since monitoring is the periodic process of assessing forest stands properties with respect to reference data, adopting the current REDD+ requirements for implementing monitoring at national levels is a challenging task. Recently, the advancement in Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) and mobile devices has enabled local communities to monitor their forest in a basic resource setting such as no or slow internet connection link, limited power supply, etc. Despite the potential, the use of mobile device system for community based monitoring (CBM) is still exceptional and faces implementation challenges. This paper presents an integrated data collection system based on mobile devices that streamlines the community-based forest monitoring data collection, transmission and visualization process. This paper also assesses the accuracy and reliability of CBM data and proposes a way to fit them into national REDD+ Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) scheme. The system performance is evaluated at Tra Bui commune, Quang Nam province, Central Vietnam, where forest carbon and change activities were tracked. The results show that the local community is able to provide data with accuracy comparable to expert measurements (index of agreement greater than 0.88), but against lower costs. Furthermore, the results confirm that communities are more effective to monitor small scale forest degradation due to subsistence fuel wood collection and selective logging, than high resolution remote sensing SPOT imagery.

  5. Environmental Radioactivity Studies Within The Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute During The Time Period 1980 - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Duc Nhan; Pham Duy Hien; Ngo Quang Huy; Nguyen Hao Quang; Nguyen Trong Trang; Tran Ngoc Toan; Vuong Thu Bac; Nguyen Quang Long; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Phan Son Hai; Nguyen Trong Ngo; Truong Y

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes results of the monitoring activities for natural and anthropogenic radioactivity in the environment such as in surface soil, in surface and groundwater, in the atmosphere and food of Viet Nam that have been conducted by the staff of the Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute (VAEI) since the first day of its foundation. Among natural radionuclide, uranium/radium, thorium, potassium-40 in surface soils and 222 Rn in the atmosphere are of particular interest for estimating the annual effective dose resulted from gamma radiation and inhalation to the public. The total annual effective dose (outdoor and indoor dose) from gamma radiation of natural radioactivity (U, Th, 40 K) in surface soil to the public of all the 63 provinces over Viet Nam was estimated as high as 0.54 mSv that is in 10% higher than those reported in the UN SCEAR-2000. The annual effective dose due to inhalation with the air containing 222 Rn to the habitant in the Ha Noi city was found to be as high as 1.13 mSv that is in the range of the dose reported for the Asian region. The anthropogenic radionuclides under the monitoring are 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and 239+240 Pu originated from nuclear weapon tests during the 1950-1960. Concentration of the anthropogenic radionuclide in surface soil gives an idea about the fall-out inventory of the radio-isotopes from the nuclear explosion in the past. This information would be necessary for the Environmental Impact Assessment for the Nuclear Power Construction Project in Viet Nam. The results of environmental radioactivity monitoring activities of the VAEI has been composed in twelve scientific papers published in numerous International Scientific Journals like J. Environ. Radioact. and Radiat. Prot. Dosim. Two books entitled: Radioactivity in the Environment and Radioactivity Measurement Applied in the Environmental Researches has been drafted and submitted to the Science and Technique Publisher for printing out soon. (author)

  6. Neural Correlates of Exposure to Traumatic Pictures and Sound in Vietnam Combat Veterans with and without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Positron Emission Tomography Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J. Douglas; Staib, Lawrence H.; Kaloupek, Danny; Southwick, Steven M.; Soufer, Robert; Charney, Dennis S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show a reliable increase in PTSD symptoms and physiological reactivity following exposure to traumatic pictures and sounds. In this study neural correlates of exposure to traumatic pictures and sounds were measured in PTSD. Methods Positron emission tomography and H2[15O] were used to measure cerebral blood flow during exposure to combat-related and neutral pictures and sounds in Vietnam combat veterans with and without PTSD. Results Exposure to traumatic material in PTSD (but not non-PTSD) subjects resulted in a decrease in blood flow in medial prefrontal cortex (area 25), an area postulated to play a role in emotion through inhibition of amygdala responsiveness. Non-PTSD subjects activated anterior cingulate (area 24) to a greater degree than PTSD patients. There were also differences in cerebral blood flow response in areas involved in memory and visuospatial processing (and by extension response to threat), including posterior cingulate (area 23), precentral (motor) and inferior parietal cortex, and lingual gyrus. There was a pattern of increases in PTSD and decreases in non-PTSD subjects in these areas. Conclusions The findings suggest that functional alterations in specific cortical and subcortical brain areas involved in memory, visuospatial processing, and emotion underlie the symptoms of patients with PTSD. PMID:10202567

  7. Study in Vietnam on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection (I, Cr, Sr, Th, U etc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Mong Sinh

    1998-01-01

    To study on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in Radiological Protection for population in Vietnam we need to select representative population groups. This can be done using some basic information about relevant ethnic, socioeconomic and geographical factors of Vietnam. It is also very importance to know the average food consumption, a characteristics and nutritive value of Vietnamese diet and the daily nutritional intake for this population groups. A general discussion have been made on proposal of sample collection, using analytical techniques to determine the elements of interest. There are also some primary results of analysis of iodine content in different kinds of foodstuffs in natural water and human urine. (author)

  8. Spatiotemporal structure of molecular evolution of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Margaret A; Emch, Michael; Jobe, R Todd; Moody, Aaron; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2010-01-08

    Vietnam is one of the countries most affected by outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. First identified in Vietnam in poultry in 2001 and in humans in 2004, the virus has since caused 111 cases and 56 deaths in humans. In 2003/2004 H5N1 outbreaks, nearly the entire poultry population of Vietnam was culled. Our earlier study (Wan et al., 2008, PLoS ONE, 3(10): e3462) demonstrated that there have been at least six independent H5N1 introductions into Vietnam and there were nine newly emerged reassortants from 2001 to 2007 in Vietnam. H5N1 viruses in Vietnam cluster distinctly around Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. However, the nature of the relationship between genetic divergence and geographic patterns is still unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that genetic distances between H5N1 viruses in Vietnam are correlated with geographic distances, as the result of distinct population and environment patterns along Vietnam's long north to south longitudinal extent. Based on this hypothesis, we combined spatial statistical methods with genetic analytic techniques and explicitly used geographic space to explore genetic evolution of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses at the sub-national scale in Vietnam. Our dataset consisted of 125 influenza viruses (with whole genome sets) isolated in Vietnam from 2003 to 2007. Our results document the significant effect of space and time on genetic evolution and the rise of two regional centers of genetic mixing by 2007. These findings give insight into processes underlying viral evolution and suggest that genetic differentiation is associated with the distance between concentrations of human and poultry populations around Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. The results show that genetic evolution of H5N1 viruses in Vietnamese domestic poultry is highly correlated with the location and spread of those viruses in geographic space. This correlation varies by scale, time, and gene, though a classic isolation by

  9. Spatiotemporal structure of molecular evolution of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A Carrel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam is one of the countries most affected by outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. First identified in Vietnam in poultry in 2001 and in humans in 2004, the virus has since caused 111 cases and 56 deaths in humans. In 2003/2004 H5N1 outbreaks, nearly the entire poultry population of Vietnam was culled. Our earlier study (Wan et al., 2008, PLoS ONE, 3(10: e3462 demonstrated that there have been at least six independent H5N1 introductions into Vietnam and there were nine newly emerged reassortants from 2001 to 2007 in Vietnam. H5N1 viruses in Vietnam cluster distinctly around Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. However, the nature of the relationship between genetic divergence and geographic patterns is still unclear.In this study, we hypothesized that genetic distances between H5N1 viruses in Vietnam are correlated with geographic distances, as the result of distinct population and environment patterns along Vietnam's long north to south longitudinal extent. Based on this hypothesis, we combined spatial statistical methods with genetic analytic techniques and explicitly used geographic space to explore genetic evolution of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses at the sub-national scale in Vietnam. Our dataset consisted of 125 influenza viruses (with whole genome sets isolated in Vietnam from 2003 to 2007. Our results document the significant effect of space and time on genetic evolution and the rise of two regional centers of genetic mixing by 2007. These findings give insight into processes underlying viral evolution and suggest that genetic differentiation is associated with the distance between concentrations of human and poultry populations around Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City.The results show that genetic evolution of H5N1 viruses in Vietnamese domestic poultry is highly correlated with the location and spread of those viruses in geographic space. This correlation varies by scale, time, and gene, though a classic

  10. Seasonal characteristics and current sources of OCPs and PCBs and enantiomeric signatures of chiral OCPs in the atmosphere of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weitao; Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Ruijie; Wang, Shaopeng; Wei, Chaoshuai; Chaemfa, Chakra; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Yu, Kefu

    2016-01-15

    Passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed concurrently at 15 locations (nine urban sites and six rural sites) in Vietnam and exposed for approximately 6 weeks from June 26, 2012 to August 26, 2012 and from December 8, 2012 to February 8, 2013. The concentration, composition and enantiomeric signatures of the target compound and Air Mass Backward Trajectories of the 15 sampling sites are presented and discussed in this study. Relatively clean air mass from ocean and similar concentrations and composition of POPs between the south and north of Vietnam indicate that local emissions is most likely the major source of POPs in Vietnam. Technical DDT and technical HCH were widely used in Vietnam and corresponding quantitative data suggests the sporadic use. The preferential degradation of (+)-α-HCH was found in all sampling sites, which could be a regional characteristic of Vietnam. High trans-/cis-chlordane (TC/CC) ratios indicate the current use of technical chlordane for termite control. PCA estimated that main source of PCBs present in the atmosphere of Vietnam was uncontrolled discarded e-waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Malaria risk factors and care-seeking behaviour within the private sector among high-risk populations in Vietnam: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ingrid; Thanh, Huong Ngo Thi; Lover, Andrew; Thao, Phung Thi; Luu, Tang Viet; Thang, Hoang Nghia; Thang, Ngo Duc; Neukom, Josselyn; Bennett, Adam

    2017-10-16

    Vietnam has successfully reduced malaria incidence by more than 90% over the past 10 years, and is now preparing for malaria elimination. However, the remaining malaria burden resides in individuals that are hardest to reach, in highly remote areas, where many malaria cases are treated through the informal private sector and are not reported to public health systems. This qualitative study aimed to contextualize and characterize the role of private providers, care-seeking behaviour of individuals at high risk of malaria, as well as risk factors that should be addressed through malaria elimination programmes in Vietnam. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 11 key informants in Hanoi, 30 providers, 9 potential patients, and 11 individuals at risk of malaria in Binh Phuoc and Kon Tum provinces. Audio recorded interviews were transcribed and uploaded to Atlas TI™, themes were identified, from which programmatic implications and recommendations were synthesized. Qualitative interviews revealed that efforts for malaria elimination in Vietnam should concentrate on reaching highest-risk populations in remote areas as well their care providers, in particular private pharmacies, private clinics, and grocery stores. Among these private providers, diagnosis is currently based on symptoms, leaving unconfirmed cases that are not reported to public health surveillance systems. Among at-risk individuals, knowledge of malaria was limited, and individuals reported not taking full courses of treatment, a practice that threatens selection for drug resistance. Access to insecticide-treated hammock nets, a potentially important preventive measure for settings with outdoor biting Anopheles vectors, was also limited. Malaria elimination efforts in Vietnam can be accelerated by targeting improved treatment, diagnosis, and reporting practices to private pharmacies, private clinics, and grocery stores. Programmes should also seek to increase awareness and

  12. Association between Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Vietnam: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Toan Ngo; Gammeltoft, Tine; W. Meyrowitsch, Dan; Nguyen Thi Thuy, Hanh; Rasch, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    Background Violence against pregnant women is an increasing public health concern particularly in low- and middle-income countries. The purpose of this study was to measure the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy and the risk of adverse birth outcomes. Methods Prospective cohort study of 1276 pregnant women in Dong Anh district, Vietnam. Women with gestational age less than 24 weeks were enrolled and interviewed. Repeated interviews were performed at 30–34 weeks gestation to assess experience of IPV during pregnancy and again 48 hours post-delivery to assess the birth outcome including birth weight and gestational age at delivery. Results There was a statistically significant association between exposure to physical violence during pregnancy and preterm birth (PTB) or low birth weight (LBW). After adjustment for age, education, occupation, body mass index (BMI), haemoglobin level, previous adverse pregnancy outcomes, the pregnant women who were exposed to physical violence during pregnancy were five times more likely to have PTB (AOR = 5.5; 95%CI: 2.1–14.1) and were nearly six times more likely to give birth to a child of LBW (AOR = 5.7; 95%CI: 2.2–14.9) as compared to those who were not exposed to physical violence. Conclusion Exposure to IPV during pregnancy increases the risk of PTB and LBW. Case-finding for violence in relation to antenatal care may help protect pregnant women and improve pregnancy outcomes. PMID:27631968

  13. Temporal patterns and predictors of bullying roles among adolescents in Vietnam: a school-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Ha Thi Hai; Dunne, Michael P; Campbell, Marilyn A; Gatton, Michelle L; Nguyen, Huong Thanh; Tran, Nam T

    2017-03-01

    Although many cross-sectional studies have examined bullying experiences and correlated factors among adolescents in schools, relatively little is known about the extent to which bullying roles are stable or fluid over time. This short-term quantitative longitudinal study in Vietnam examined temporal patterns and predictors of bullying roles over an academic year. A total of 1424 middle and high school students aged 12-17 years completed two anonymous, self-administered questionnaires six months apart in 2014 and 2015. Young people were classified into different bullying roles as follow: not-involved (38.9%), victims only (24%), bullies only (6.6%), and bully-victims (40.4%) across the two times. About 60% of all surveyed students experienced bullying either as victim, bully, or bully-victim during the year. Of these students, nearly three in four indicated unstable bullying roles over time. Multivariate multinomial logistic regressions indicated factors ranging from individual (age, gender, and mental health) to family (social support, parental supervision and monitoring, witnessing parental violence, and conflict with siblings), school (perceived social support, teachers' attempt to stop bullying at school), and peers (social support, students' attempt to stop bullying at school) have significant associations with levels of bullying involvement. Implications for bullying prevention programs nationally and internationally are discussed.

  14. Training Learners to Use Quizlet Vocabulary Activities on Mobile Phones in Vietnam with Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phone ownership among university students in Vietnam has reached almost 100%, exceeding that of Internet-capable desktop computers. This has made them increasingly popular to allow learners to carry out learning activities outside of the classroom, but some studies have suggested that learners are not always willing to engage in activities…

  15. Bio-politics and the promotion of traditional herbal medicine in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2006-01-01

    traditional herbal medicine came to be recruited as an important component of national efforts to promote the public health of urban and rural populations in Vietnam. Importantly, this has entailed a rejection of a colonial biopolitics that sought to marginalize ‘quackery’ in favour of a postcolonial bio......-politics that aims to promote the ‘appropriate’ use of traditional herbal medicines. While the Vietnamese case bears many parallels to other countries in this respect, notably China, Vietnam's ancient history of medicine, postcolonial isolation and extensive health delivery network have resulted in a unique strategy......It is often suggested that, in the past 50 years, Vietnam has experienced a traditional medicine ‘revival’ that can be traced back to late President Ho Chi Minh's 1955 appeal ‘to study means of uniting the effects of oriental remedies with those of Europe’. In this article, I demonstrate how...

  16. Calling, texting, and searching for information while riding a motorcycle: A study of university students in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Long T; De Gruyter, Chris; Nguyen, Hang T T

    2017-08-18

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of calling, texting, and searching for information while riding a motorcycle among university students and the influences of sociodemographic characteristics, social norms, and risk perceptions on these behaviors. Students at 2 university campuses in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, the 2 largest cities in Vietnam, were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey. Data collection was conducted during March and May 2016. There were 741 respondents, of whom nearly 90% of students (665) were motorcycle riders. Overall prevalence of mobile phone use while riding is 80.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 77.9-83.9%) with calling having a higher level of prevalence than texting or searching for information while riding: 74% (95% CI, 70.7-77.3%) vs. 51.7% (95% CI, 47.9-55.5%) and 49.9% (95% CI, 46.1-53.7%), respectively. Random parameter ordered probit modeling results indicate that mobile phone use while riding is associated with gender, motorcycle license duration, perceived crash risk, perceived risk of mobile phone snatching, and perceptions of friends' mobile phone use while riding. Mobile phone use while riding a motorcycle is highly prevalent among university students. Educational programs should focus on the crash and economic risk of all types of mobile phone use while riding, including calling, texting, and searching for information. In addition, they should consider targeting the influence of social norms and peers on mobile phone use while riding.

  17. Maternal health care professionals' perspectives on the provision and use of antenatal and delivery care: a qualitative descriptive study in rural Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krantz Gunilla

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High quality maternal health care is an important tool to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. Services offered should be evidence based and adapted to the local setting. This qualitative descriptive study explored the perspectives and experiences of midwives, assistant physicians and medical doctors on the content and quality of maternal health care in rural Vietnam. Method The study was performed in a rural district in northern Vietnam. Four focus group discussions with health care professionals at primary health care level were conducted. The data was analysed using qualitative manifest and latent content analysis. Result Two main themes emerged: "Contextual conditions for maternal health care" and "Balancing between possibilities and constraints". Contextual conditions influenced both pregnant women's use of maternal health care and health care professionals' performance. The study participants stated that women's uses of maternal health care were influenced by economical constraints and cultural norms that impeded their autonomy in relation to childbearing. Structural constraints within the health care system included inadequate financing of the primary health care, resulting in lack of human resources, professional re-training and adequate equipment. Conclusion Contextual conditions strongly influenced the performance and interaction between pregnant women and health care professionals within antenatal care and delivery care in a rural district of Vietnam. Although Vietnam is performing comparatively well in terms of low maternal and child mortality figures, this study revealed midwives' and other health care professionals' perceived difficulties in their daily work. It seemed maternal health care was under-resourced in terms of staff, equipment and continuing education activities. The cultural setting in Vietnam constituting a strong patriarchal society and prevailing Confucian norms limits women's autonomy and

  18. "Never Forget the Sacrifice:" A Visit to Chu Van An High School in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, David M.

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a 1993 study tour of Vietnam by educators. Discusses the role of a secondary school during the struggle against French colonialism and the U.S.-Vietnam War. Argues that educators must acknowledge the humanity of the Vietnamese as the first step in designing Vietnam-related social studies curriculum. (CFR)

  19. Culturally adaptive storytelling method to improve hypertension control in Vietnam - "We talk about our hypertension": study protocol for a feasibility cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Jeroan J; Nguyen, Hoa L; Ha, Duc A; Chiriboga, Germán; Ly, Ha N; Tran, Hanh T; Phan, Ngoc T; Vu, Nguyen C; Kim, Minjin; Goldberg, Robert J

    2016-01-14

    Vietnam is experiencing an epidemiologic transition with an increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases. At present, the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are either on the rise or at alarming levels in Vietnam; inasmuch, the burden of CVD will continue to increase in this country unless effective prevention and control measures are put in place. A national survey in 2008 found that the prevalence of hypertension (HTN) was approximately 25 % among Vietnamese adults and it increased with advancing age. Therefore, novel, large-scale, and sustainable interventions for public health education to promote engagement in the process of detecting and treating HTN in Vietnam are urgently needed. A feasibility randomized trial will be conducted in Hung Yen province, Vietnam to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a novel community-based intervention using the "storytelling" method to enhance the control of HTN in adults residing in four rural communities. The intervention will center on stories about living with HTN, with patients speaking in their own words. The stories will be obtained from particularly eloquent patients, or "video stars," identified during Story Development Groups. The study will involve two phases: (i) developing a HTN intervention using the storytelling method, which is designed to empower patients to facilitate changes in their lifestyle practices, and (ii) conducting a feasibility cluster-randomized trial to investigate the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of the intervention compared with usual care in HTN control among rural residents. The trial will be conducted at four communes, and within each commune, 25 individuals 50 years or older with HTN will be enrolled in the trial resulting in a total sample size of 100 patients. This feasibility trial will provide the necessary groundwork for a subsequent large-scale, fully powered, cluster-randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of our novel

  20. Persistent organochlorine residues in human breast milk from Hanoi and Hochiminh City, Vietnam contamination, accumulation kinetics and risk assessment for infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minh, Nguyen Hung; Someya, Masayuki; Minh, Tu Binh; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Iwata, Hisato; Watanabe, Mafumi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Viet, Pham Hung; Tuyen, Bui Cach

    2004-01-01

    Despite the ban on persistent organochlorines (OCs) in most of the developed nations, their usage continued until recently in many Asian developing countries including Vietnam, for agricultural purposes and vector-borne disease eradication programs. In this study, we collected human breast milk samples from the two big cities in Vietnam: Hanoi (n=42) and Hochiminh (n=44) and determined the concentrations of persistent OCs such as PCBs, DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordane compounds (CHLs) and tris-4-chlorophenyl-methane (TCPMe). The contamination pattern of OCs was in the order of DDTs > PCBs > HCHs > CHLs∼HCB∼TCPMe. Compilation of available data indicated that DDT residue levels in human breast milk from Vietnam were among the highest values reported for Asian developing countries as well as developed nations. This result suggests recent usage of DDTs in both north and south Vietnam. Interestingly, in both cities, the p,p'-DDT portion was higher in multiparas than those in primiparas. Considering the fact that the interval between the first and the second child of a mother in Vietnam is usually short, this result probably indicates continuous intake of DDTs in the population. Analysis of infant exposure to DDTs via breast milk suggested that the daily intake rates for number of individuals are close to or above the threshold for adverse effects which may raise concern on children health. - It is suggested that daily intake rates of persistent organochlorines in mothers in Vietnam may result in health risk for nursing children

  1. Barriers to and Facilitators of Female Deans' Career Advancement in Higher Education: An Exploratory Study in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Lan Huong

    2013-01-01

    Although the slow progress of female academics compared to their male colleagues and the challenges that female academic leaders have to face in taking leadership roles have been well-documented, very little is known about female academic leaders and managers' career advancement in developing countries like Vietnam. This paper reports on an…

  2. Stigma, an important source of dissatisfaction of health workers in HIV response in Vietnam: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, H.N.; Protsiv, M.; Larsson, M.; Ho, H.T.; de Vries, D.H.; Thorson, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Like in many other low- and middle-income countries, the recent development of an HIV epidemic in Vietnam has led to a growing need for prevention, treatment, care, and support services for people living with HIV (PLHIV). This puts greater demands on the national HIV services, primarily

  3. Evaluating farmers' knowledge, perceptions and practices: a case study of pest management by fruit farmers in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mele, Van P.

    2000-01-01

    After the Doi moi policy reform of Vietnam in 1986, the government has increasingly emphasized diversification of agricultural production into high value crops. Over the period 1985-1995, fruit production in the Mekong Delta increased from 92,100 to 175,700 ha mainly

  4. Rationale, design, methodology and sample characteristics for the Vietnam pre-conceptual micronutrient supplementation trial (PRECONCEPT: a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Phuong H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low birth weight and maternal anemia remain intractable problems in many developing countries. The adequacy of the current strategy of providing iron-folic acid (IFA supplements only during pregnancy has been questioned given many women enter pregnancy with poor iron stores, the substantial micronutrient demand by maternal and fetal tissues, and programmatic issues related to timing and coverage of prenatal care. Weekly IFA supplementation for women of reproductive age (WRA improves iron status and reduces the burden of anemia in the short term, but few studies have evaluated subsequent pregnancy and birth outcomes. The Preconcept trial aims to determine whether pre-pregnancy weekly IFA or multiple micronutrient (MM supplementation will improve birth outcomes and maternal and infant iron status compared to the current practice of prenatal IFA supplementation only. This paper provides an overview of study design, methodology and sample characteristics from baseline survey data and key lessons learned. Methods/design We have recruited 5011 WRA in a double-blind stratified randomized controlled trial in rural Vietnam and randomly assigned them to receive weekly supplements containing either: 1 2800 μg folic acid 2 60 mg iron and 2800 μg folic acid or 3 MM. Women who become pregnant receive daily IFA, and are being followed through pregnancy, delivery, and up to three months post-partum. Study outcomes include birth outcomes and maternal and infant iron status. Data are being collected on household characteristics, maternal diet and mental health, anthropometry, infant feeding practices, morbidity and compliance. Discussion The study is timely and responds to the WHO Global Expert Consultation which identified the need to evaluate the long term benefits of weekly IFA and MM supplementation in WRA. Findings will generate new information to help guide policy and programs designed to reduce the burden of anemia in women and

  5. Vietnam Report No. 2415

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1982-01-01

    .... This report contains articles about Vietnam. Some topics include military affairs and public security, international relations, party activities and government, economic planning, trade and finance, agriculture, heavy industry and construction...

  6. Vietnam Report No. 2382

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1982-01-01

    .... This document contains articles on Vietnam. Some topics discussed are military affairs and public security, international relations, trade, aid, economic planning, trade and finance, agriculture, heavy industry, construction, transportation...

  7. Census in North Vietnam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1960-01-01

    This population census decree aims at collecting the most fundamental and accurate data on the population situation of North Vietnam to lay the foundation for all plans and public administration policies...

  8. Physics in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, Monica Pepe

    1994-01-01

    Vietnam is a country in rapid evolution, opening up communications with the rest of world and encouraging foreign investors. Although there is more ground to make up, the heady mixture of communism and free market they are aiming for is along the same lines as China. Jean Tran Thanh Van , who left Vietnam about forty years ago, judged that it was the right time to bring together Western and Vietnamese physicists. He promoted and organized the ''Rencontres du Vietnam'' on high energy physics and cosmology, which from December 13-18 brought together about one hundred physicists, half from Vietnam and half from abroad, in Hanoi for an intense programme to review the status of particle physics and its deep implications for cosmology

  9. Physics in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altarelli, Monica Pepe

    1994-03-15

    Vietnam is a country in rapid evolution, opening up communications with the rest of world and encouraging foreign investors. Although there is more ground to make up, the heady mixture of communism and free market they are aiming for is along the same lines as China. Jean Tran Thanh Van , who left Vietnam about forty years ago, judged that it was the right time to bring together Western and Vietnamese physicists. He promoted and organized the ''Rencontres du Vietnam'' on high energy physics and cosmology, which from December 13-18 brought together about one hundred physicists, half from Vietnam and half from abroad, in Hanoi for an intense programme to review the status of particle physics and its deep implications for cosmology.

  10. Vietnam Report 2014

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Vudddn

    entrepreneurship and business development, we believe that GEM Vietnam .... indicators have the highest levels: the dynamics of the domestic market ...... either by selling, shutting down or otherwise discontinuing an owner/management.

  11. Health economics of screening for hypertension in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Thi Phuong Lan

    2016-01-01

    The studies aims to identify the burden of a cardiovascular diseases and solutions to manage it in Vietnam, notably hypertension screening. The studies confirmed that hypertension creates a great burden in Vietnam in terms of cardiovascular diseases, from economic, clinical and social perspectives.

  12. Making History Come Alive with the Nonfiction Literature of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    2003-01-01

    Considers student response to nonfiction Vietnam War literature and discusses why students should study Vietnam War nonfiction. Presents strategies for teaching nonfiction Vietnam War literature. Presents follow-up research and writing activities that are designed to enable students to connect reading, writing, and thinking. Concludes that the…

  13. Associations between attributes of live poultry trade and HPAI H5N1 outbreaks: a descriptive and network analysis study in northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otte Joachim

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The structure of contact between individuals plays an important role in the incursion and spread of contagious diseases in both human and animal populations. In the case of avian influenza, the movement of live birds is a well known risk factor for the geographic dissemination of the virus among poultry flocks. Live bird markets (LBM's contribute to the epidemiology of avian influenza due to their demographic characteristics and the presence of HPAI H5N1 virus lineages. The relationship between poultry producers and live poultry traders (LPT's that operate in LBM's has not been adequately documented in HPAI H5N1-affected SE Asian countries. The aims of this study were to document and study the flow of live poultry in a poultry trade network in northern Vietnam, and explore its potential role in the risk for HPAI H5N1 during 2003 to 2006. Results Our results indicate that LPT's trading for less than a year and operating at retail markets are more likely to source poultry from flocks located in communes with a past history of HPAI H5N1 outbreaks during 2003 to 2006 than LPT's trading longer than a year and operating at wholesale markets. The results of the network analysis indicate that LPT's tend to link communes of similar infection status. Conclusions Our study provides evidence which can be used for informing policies aimed at encouraging more biosecure practices of LPT's operating at authorised LBM's. The results suggest that LPT's play a role in HPAI H5N1 transmission and may contribute to perpetuating HPAI H5N1 virus circulation amongst certain groups of communes. The impact of current disease prevention and control interventions could be enhanced by disseminating information about outbreak risk and the implementation of a formal data recording scheme at LBM's for all incoming and outgoing LPT's.

  14. Associations between attributes of live poultry trade and HPAI H5N1 outbreaks: a descriptive and network analysis study in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Ortiz-Pelaez, Angel; Thi, Kim Lan Lai; Dinh, Quoc Hoang; Otte, Joachim; Pfeiffer, Dirk U

    2010-02-22

    The structure of contact between individuals plays an important role in the incursion and spread of contagious diseases in both human and animal populations. In the case of avian influenza, the movement of live birds is a well known risk factor for the geographic dissemination of the virus among poultry flocks. Live bird markets (LBM's) contribute to the epidemiology of avian influenza due to their demographic characteristics and the presence of HPAI H5N1 virus lineages. The relationship between poultry producers and live poultry traders (LPT's) that operate in LBM's has not been adequately documented in HPAI H5N1-affected SE Asian countries. The aims of this study were to document and study the flow of live poultry in a poultry trade network in northern Vietnam, and explore its potential role in the risk for HPAI H5N1 during 2003 to 2006. Our results indicate that LPT's trading for less than a year and operating at retail markets are more likely to source poultry from flocks located in communes with a past history of HPAI H5N1 outbreaks during 2003 to 2006 than LPT's trading longer than a year and operating at wholesale markets. The results of the network analysis indicate that LPT's tend to link communes of similar infection status. Our study provides evidence which can be used for informing policies aimed at encouraging more biosecure practices of LPT's operating at authorised LBM's. The results suggest that LPT's play a role in HPAI H5N1 transmission and may contribute to perpetuating HPAI H5N1 virus circulation amongst certain groups of communes. The impact of current disease prevention and control interventions could be enhanced by disseminating information about outbreak risk and the implementation of a formal data recording scheme at LBM's for all incoming and outgoing LPT's.

  15. Study On Irradiated Vietnam Java Rambutan Fruit Which Was Postharvested Treatment To Prolong The Shelflife For Export Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thuy Khanh; Nguyen Thi Ly; Doan Thi The; Cao Van Chung; Nguyen Van Phong

    2014-01-01

    The research - Study on irradiated Vietnam Java rambutan fruit which was postharvested treatment to prolong the shelflife for export purposes - was conducted at Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology and Southern Horticultural Research Institute for 12 months. On the one hand, the theme was to study the effects of low-dose radiation in the range (200-500 Gy) combined with two types of packaging: carton boxes and carton boxes + PE perforated cover 0.5% of the area bags. After 13 days monitoring in 13 o C, RH= 85-90% the results showed that Java rambutan fruit which was packed in carton boxes combined PE bags then irradiated at 300 Gy dose could limit the browning pericarp, dehydration through the rate of browning, browning level and the percentage of weight loss. Irradiated ramtuban also remains their pulp quality when testing the soluble solids, the titratable acidity and the ascorbic acid content. Irradiation did not affect the cell structure of pericarp and pulp by investigating the total ion leakage. On the other hand, the topics also examined the influence of some postharvest handling and low-dose radiation on Java rambutan. The results showed that pre-irradiation processing: hot water treatment at 43 o C in 6 minute, dipping in cloruacalxi 0.4% + citric acid 0.5% solution in 3 minutes, packed in carton boxes + PE bags and irradiated at 300 Gy dose capable of maintaining the quality which extends the shelflife of Java rambutan more 4 days when kept under conditions of 13 o C, RH= 85-90%. (author)

  16. Farmers' Perceived Risks of Climate Change and Influencing Factors: A Study in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dang, Hoa; Li, Elton; Nuberg, Ian; Bruwer, Johan

    2014-08-01

    Many countries are confronting climate change that threatens agricultural production and farmers' lives. Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and factors influencing those perceived risks are critical to their adaptive behavior and well-planned adaptation strategies. However, there is limited understanding of these issues. In this paper, we attempt to quantitatively measure farmers' perceived risks of climate change and explore the influences of risk experience, information, belief in climate change, and trust in public adaptation to those perceived risks. Data are from structured interviews with 598 farmers in the Mekong Delta. The study shows that perceived risks to production, physical health, and income dimensions receive greater priority while farmers pay less attention to risks to happiness and social relationships. Experiences of the events that can be attributed to climate change increase farmers' perceived risks. Information variables can increase or decrease perceived risks, depending on the sources of information. Farmers who believe that climate change is actually happening and influencing their family's lives, perceive higher risks in most dimensions. Farmers who think that climate change is not their concern but the government's, perceive lower risks to physical health, finance, and production. As to trust in public adaptation, farmers who believe that public adaptive measures are well co-ordinated, perceive lower risks to production and psychology. Interestingly, those who believe that the disaster warning system is working well, perceive higher risks to finance, production, and social relationships. Further attention is suggested for the quality, timing, and channels of information about climate change and adaptation.

  17. Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and influencing factors: a study in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dang, Hoa; Li, Elton; Nuberg, Ian; Bruwer, Johan

    2014-08-01

    Many countries are confronting climate change that threatens agricultural production and farmers' lives. Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and factors influencing those perceived risks are critical to their adaptive behavior and well-planned adaptation strategies. However, there is limited understanding of these issues. In this paper, we attempt to quantitatively measure farmers' perceived risks of climate change and explore the influences of risk experience, information, belief in climate change, and trust in public adaptation to those perceived risks. Data are from structured interviews with 598 farmers in the Mekong Delta. The study shows that perceived risks to production, physical health, and income dimensions receive greater priority while farmers pay less attention to risks to happiness and social relationships. Experiences of the events that can be attributed to climate change increase farmers' perceived risks. Information variables can increase or decrease perceived risks, depending on the sources of information. Farmers who believe that climate change is actually happening and influencing their family's lives, perceive higher risks in most dimensions. Farmers who think that climate change is not their concern but the government's, perceive lower risks to physical health, finance, and production. As to trust in public adaptation, farmers who believe that public adaptive measures are well co-ordinated, perceive lower risks to production and psychology. Interestingly, those who believe that the disaster warning system is working well, perceive higher risks to finance, production, and social relationships. Further attention is suggested for the quality, timing, and channels of information about climate change and adaptation.

  18. Temporal and spatial assessment of river surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques: a study in Can Tho City, a Mekong Delta area, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Dung; Huang, Cunrui; Rutherford, Shannon; Dwirahmadi, Febi; Chu, Cordia; Wang, Xiaoming; Nguyen, Minh; Nguyen, Nga Huy; Do, Cuong Manh; Nguyen, Trung Hieu; Dinh, Tuan Anh Diep

    2015-05-01

    The present study is an evaluation of temporal/spatial variations of surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques, comprising cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA) and discriminant analysis (DA). Eleven water quality parameters were monitored at 38 different sites in Can Tho City, a Mekong Delta area of Vietnam from 2008 to 2012. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped the 38 sampling sites into three clusters, representing mixed urban-rural areas, agricultural areas and industrial zone. FA/PCA resulted in three latent factors for the entire research location, three for cluster 1, four for cluster 2, and four for cluster 3 explaining 60, 60.2, 80.9, and 70% of the total variance in the respective water quality. The varifactors from FA indicated that the parameters responsible for water quality variations are related to erosion from disturbed land or inflow of effluent from sewage plants and industry, discharges from wastewater treatment plants and domestic wastewater, agricultural activities and industrial effluents, and contamination by sewage waste with faecal coliform bacteria through sewer and septic systems. Discriminant analysis (DA) revealed that nephelometric turbidity units (NTU), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH₃ are the discriminating parameters in space, affording 67% correct assignation in spatial analysis; pH and NO₂ are the discriminating parameters according to season, assigning approximately 60% of cases correctly. The findings suggest a possible revised sampling strategy that can reduce the number of sampling sites and the indicator parameters responsible for large variations in water quality. This study demonstrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques for evaluation of temporal/spatial variations in water quality assessment and management.

  19. Lightning protection for wind turbines in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuan Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy has become increasingly important in the total electrical energy supply mix in Vietnam over the last few years. Small, kW turbines were installed in isolated areas a decade ago, while wind farms of several MW to few hundred MW are now being connected directly to national grid, with many additional projects in planning or under construction to fulfill an objective of 6% of the total installed capacity by 2030 (approximately 6200 MW of wind energy component. The increase in wind farm generation results in increased damage from lightning. In this paper, the annual frequency of lightning strikes to wind turbines in Vietnam is calculated using electrogeometric model. Reported lightning incidents to three major wind farms in Vietnam are summarized. Possible causes of failure are discussed, and an EMTP simulation for each incident was performed accordingly. The simulations suggest the failure mechanisms as well the potential of improved grounding to reduce lightning induced damage in future windfarms.

  20. Pragmatic Development of Chinese EFL Learners--A Study on FL Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Tongqing

    2014-01-01

    While the number of studies on the pragmatic development of nonnative English speakers has been increasing, surprisingly little research has been conducted on the development of the ability of foreign language learners to perform the suggestion speech act, with even less taking Chinese EFL learners as the target group. The present study examines…

  1. Ability to join the workforce and work productivity among drug users under methadone maintenance treatment in a mountainous area of Northern Vietnam: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Vuong Minh; Boggiano, Victoria L; Nguyen, Lan Huong Thi; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Xuan Bach, Tran; Nguyen, Hung Van; Hoang, Canh Dinh; Latkin, Carl A; Vu, Minh Thuc Thi

    2017-07-26

    A major measure of treatment success for drug users undergoing rehabilitation is the ability to enter the workforce and generate income. This study examines the absenteeism and productivity among people who inject drugs (PWID) enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Northern Vietnam. We conducted a cross-sectional study in two clinics in Tuyen Quang province. A total of 241 patients enrolled in MMT. Patients' work productivity was measured using the WPAI-GH instrument (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire: General Health V2.0). We also collected additional characteristics about participants' employment history, such as proficient jobs, whether they actively found a new job and be accepted by employers. Most of the participants (>90%) were employed at the time of the study. Rates of absenteeism (missed work), presenteeism (impairment while working) and overall loss of productivity were 15.8%, 5.6% and 11.2%, respectively, as measured by the WPAI-GH questionnaire. The most proficient job was 'freelancer' (17.5%), followed by 'blue-collar worker' (10.6%) and 'farmer' (10.2%). Only 26.8% of patients reported that they actively sought jobs in the past. About half of them had been refused by employers because of their drug use history and/or HIV status. We found no statistically significant difference between patients enrolled in MMT for 1 year. Factors associated with higher work productivity included not endorsing problems in mobility, self-care or pain; being HIV-negative and having greater MMT treatment adherence. Our study highlights the high employment rate and work productivity among PWID in MMT programmes in remote areas of Northern Vietnam. The results can help to improve the quality and structure of MMT programmes across Vietnam and in other countries. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  2. Ability to join the workforce and work productivity among drug users under methadone maintenance treatment in a mountainous area of Northern Vietnam: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Vuong Minh; Boggiano, Victoria L; Nguyen, Lan Huong Thi; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Xuan Bach, Tran; Nguyen, Hung Van; Hoang, Canh Dinh; Latkin, Carl A; Vu, Minh Thuc Thi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives A major measure of treatment success for drug users undergoing rehabilitation is the ability to enter the workforce and generate income. This study examines the absenteeism and productivity among people who inject drugs (PWID) enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Northern Vietnam. Setting We conducted a cross-sectional study in two clinics in Tuyen Quang province. Participants A total of 241 patients enrolled in MMT. Primary and secondary outcome measures Patients’ work productivity was measured using the WPAI-GH instrument (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire: General Health V2.0). We also collected additional characteristics about participants’ employment history, such as proficient jobs, whether they actively found a new job and be accepted by employers. Results Most of the participants (>90%) were employed at the time of the study. Rates of absenteeism (missed work), presenteeism (impairment while working) and overall loss of productivity were 15.8%, 5.6% and 11.2%, respectively, as measured by the WPAI-GH questionnaire. The most proficient job was ‘freelancer’ (17.5%), followed by ‘blue-collar worker’ (10.6%) and ‘farmer’ (10.2%). Only 26.8% of patients reported that they actively sought jobs in the past. About half of them had been refused by employers because of their drug use history and/or HIV status. We found no statistically significant difference between patients enrolled in MMT for 1 year. Factors associated with higher work productivity included not endorsing problems in mobility, self-care or pain; being HIV-negative and having greater MMT treatment adherence. Conclusion Our study highlights the high employment rate and work productivity among PWID in MMT programmes in remote areas of Northern Vietnam. The results can help to improve the quality and structure of MMT programmes across Vietnam and in other countries. PMID:28751487

  3. Misrepresenting Atrocities: "Kill Anything that Moves" and the Continuing Distortions of the War in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zinoman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nick Turse, Kill Anything that Moves: The Real American War in Vietnam. New York: Picador, 2013. 416 pp. $30 (cloth; $17 (paper; $10 (e-book. While recounting a punishing accumulation of atrocity stories, Kill Anything That Moves advances four relatively straightforward arguments. First, it asserts that this grim dimension of the Vietnam War was ignored at the time, has been neglected in the scholarship, and is today forgotten in popular memory. Second, it claims that American atrocities were pervasive in Vietnam, perpetrated on a massive scale by every military unit, in every theater of battle, during every period of the war. Third, it contends that the proliferation of atrocities and war crimes was largely caused by command policies devised at the highest levels of the U.S. military and government. And fourth, as its subtitle indicates, it suggests that the atrocious record of the U.S. military in Vietnam reveals both the “true nature of the war” (16 and the “true history of Vietnamese civilian suffering” (262 that it left in its wake. In addition to being untrue, these arguments point to the isolation of Turse’s approach from current trends in the historical study of military violence against civilians. For example, most recent work on military atrocities—such as John Horne and Alan Kramer’s magisterial German Atrocities, 1914: A History of Denial (2001—insist that primary and secondary sources on the topic must be treated with special care since they are notoriously vulnerable to politicization and distortion. Turse’s misleading estimate of the size and significance of the existing literature on Vietnam War atrocities flies in the face of this advice. As we will show, academics, lawyers, journalists, activists, and creative artists have been agonizing over American atrocities and war crimes in Vietnam for almost fifty years...

  4. Vulnerability in north- central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Nguyen, Thao Phuong

    2015-01-01

    This article examines changes in livelihood strategies in response to flooding. It does so on the basis of a household survey which was undertaken in three provinces in north central Vietnam. All households in the survey were regularly affected by flooding, but only poor households experience a l...... the impact of flooding in the provinces. The article ends by looking at the vulnerability-resilience debate concluding that the poorer households could enter a vulnerability loop, unless new strategies to cope with natural hazards are suggested....

  5. Vietnam military service history and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritschi Lin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three decades after US and Australian forces withdrew from Vietnam, there has been much public interest in the health consequences of service in Vietnam. One controversial question is whether the risk of prostate cancer amongst Vietnam veterans is increased. This paper examines relationships between military history, family history and risk of prostate cancer in a population-based case control study. Methods Cases were selected from the Cancer Registry of Western Australia as incident cases of histologically-confirmed prostate cancer, and controls were age-matched and selected from the Western Australian electoral roll. Study participants were asked to report any military service history and details about that service. Results Between January 2001 and September 2002, 606 cases and 471 controls aged between 40–75 years were recruited. An increased prostate cancer risk was observed in men reporting they were deployed in Vietnam although this was not statistically significant (OR = 2.12; 95% CI 0.88–5.06. An increased risk was also observed in men reporting prostate cancer in fathers (OR = 1.90; 95% CI 1.20–3.00 or brothers (OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.20–3.50 diagnosed with prostate cancer. Conclusion These findings support a positive association between prostate cancer and military service history in the Vietnam war and a first degree relative family history of prostate cancer.

  6. Analisis Pengaruh Country Risk Terhadap Keputusan Melakukan Foreign Direct Investment (Studi Pada Negara Indonesia, Malaysia, Filipina, Thailand, Dan Vietnam Tahun 2004-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Aprella, Revi; Suhadak, Suhadak

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and explain the effect of 1) macro-economic on Foreign Direct Investment, 2) political risk on Foreign Direct Investment, 3) political risk on macro-economic in the state of Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data used is from AON, World Bank, IMF, UNCTAD, and the BSP. Indicators that affect for each variables is vary between each country, that the factors to be considered are different in each country. The results showed ther...

  7. Knowledge, attitude, and practice on and willingness to pay for human papillomavirus vaccine: a cross-sectional study in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Than, Phung Tat Quoc; Doan, Tien Thuy Ngoc; Nguyen, Huong Lan Thi; Thi Mai, Hue; Nguyen, Trang Huyen Thi; Le, Huong Thi; Latkin, Carl A; Zhang, Melvyn Wb; Ho, Roger Cm

    2018-01-01

    Despite its effectiveness in preventing human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, the rate of uptake of the HPV vaccine is low in Vietnam. This study aimed to investigate barriers related to knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) about the HPV vaccine and willingness to pay (WTP) for the vaccine among those using services in an urban vaccination clinic in Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a vaccination clinic of the Institute for Preventive Medicine and Public Health in Hanoi, Vietnam, from March to April 2016. KAP on the HPV vaccine was collected using a structured questionnaire. Double-bounded dichotomous-choice questions with open-ended questions were used to examine the WTP of respondents. Interval regression and stepwise logistic models were used to identify factors associated with WTP and the average amount that people would be willing to pay for the vaccine. Of 492 vaccination service users, 67.9%, 94.6%, and 12.3% of respondents were aware of the best age for HPV vaccination, its benefits, and the target group for vaccination, respectively. While the majority believed that the HPV vaccine was safe (92.8%) and effective (90.8%), and desired to be vaccinated (71.1%), only 31.8% of users were vaccinated. Most of the respondents were willing to pay for the HPV vaccine (86.6%), and willing to pay an average amount of US$49.3. Those aged 20-29 years and earning more than 22 million VND/month (very rich) were more likely to pay for the HPV vaccine than people aged pay for the vaccine at a lower price than individuals with below secondary-level education and who had not heard about the vaccine from these health professionals. Sexual health education and financial assistance should be imparted alongside the HPV vaccination program.

  8. Postnatal depressive symptoms amongst women in Central Vietnam: a cross-sectional study investigating prevalence and associations with social, cultural and infant factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Linda; Dunne, Michael P; Van Vo, Thang; Anh, Phuong Nguyen Thi; Khawaja, Nigar G; Cao, Thanh Ngoc

    2015-09-30

    This study investigated the prevalence and socio-cultural correlates of postnatal mood disturbance amongst women 18-45 years old in Central Vietnam. Son preference and traditional confinement practices were explored as well as factors such as poverty, parity, family and intimate partner relationships and infant health. A cross-sectional study was conducted in twelve randomly selected Commune Health Centres from urban and rural districts of Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam. Mother-infant dyads one to six months postpartum were invited to participate. Questionnaires from 431 mothers (urban n = 216; rural n = 215) assessed demographic and family characteristics, traditional confinement practices, son preference, infant health and social capital. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and WHO5 Wellbeing Index indicated depressive symptoms and emotional wellbeing. Data were analysed using general linear models. Using an EPDS cut-off of 12/13, 18.1% (n = 78, 95% CI 14.6-22.1) of women had depressive symptoms (20.4% urban; 15.8% rural). Contrary to predictions, infant gender and traditional confinement were unrelated to depressive symptoms. Poverty, food insecurity, being frightened of family members, and intimate partner violence increased both depressive symptoms and lowered wellbeing. The first model accounted for 30.2% of the variance in EPDS score and found being frightened of one's husband, husband's unemployment, breastfeeding difficulties, infant diarrhoea, and cognitive social capital were associated with higher EPDS scores. The second model had accounted for 22% of the variance in WHO5 score. Living in Hue city, low education, poor maternal competence and a negative family response to the baby lowered maternal wellbeing. Traditional confinement practices and son preference were not linked to depressive symptoms among mothers, but were correlates of family relationships and wellbeing. Poverty, food insecurity, violence, infant ill health, and

  9. Pesticide pollution in agricultural areas of Northern Vietnam: Case study in Hoang Liet and Minh Dai communes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoai, Pham Manh; Sebesvari, Zita; Minh, Tu Binh; Viet, Pham Hung; Renaud, Fabrice G.

    2011-01-01

    Soils and agricultural products from the Red River basin in Northern Vietnam were reported to be contaminated by agrichemicals. To assess potential exposure of local farmers and consumers to these contaminants, pesticide use and management practices of local farmers were surveyed and residue concentrations were determined for recently used as well as for banned pesticides in water, soil, vegetables, and fish samples in two communes of Northern Vietnam. DDTs, HCHs, and Drin compounds still persist at relatively high concentrations in soil and occur in vegetable and fish samples. Recently used pesticides, such as fenobucarb, trichlorfon, cyfluthrin, and cypermethrin were detected in vegetable and fish samples. Thresholds for acceptable daily intake levels (ADI) were frequently reached in the analyzed food products pointing to the fact that current pesticide management practices do not only result in a pollution of the environment but also pose threats to human health. - Highlights: → Pesticide use and residue concentrations in the environment and biota was investigated. → Cypermethrin, trichlorfon, fenobucarb, cyfluthrin were frequently detected in biota. → Acceptable daily intake (ADI) levels were repeatedly exceeded in fish and vegetables. → Banned organochlorine pesticides still persist in the environment. → Better information-sharing is required to improve farmers' pesticide management. - Pollution with recently used and banned pesticides was observed in the environment and food products in Northern Vietnam and is discussed in context of human exposure.

  10. Entry modes of European firms in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simonet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the entry modes of EU firms setting up operations in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: we use a case study approach on Haymarket, Cadbury, Creative Education, Fairchild, Aventis and Artemisinin and Farming International using interviews from managerial professionals in Vietnam. Findings: Despite the fact that Vietnam has been opening up for more than 20 years, licensing is the preferred entry mode because of the risks involved in venturing with local firms; that preference signals a low level commitment and a high perception of risk and state interference. In line with Vietnam transition to state - rather than private market - capitalism, a foreign company opting for a joint-venture will do so with a state-owned rather than privately-owned company. The choice of a subsidiary can be explained by the lack of trust in partners and institutions, not by improvement in the socio-political environment. Limitations: In determining the entry mode strategy, the paper focuses on the Uppsala school’s “psychic distance” (e.g. cultural distance, lack of trust rather than on firm-specific advantages (Rugman, 1980; 2006. Key-words: international entry mode; emerging markets; subsidiary; joint-venture; India; Vietnam

  11. Dissociation, personality, suggestibility, alexithymia, and problems with emotional regulation: A correlational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángeles Serrano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper explores the relationship between psychological and somatic dissociation and different personality and emotional variables, including suggestibility, alexithymia, and emotional regulation and dysregulation. The results with a sample of 355 partipants of a normal population reveal that there is a positive relationship between both types of dissociation, suggestibility and emotional dysregulation. Likewise, there were different patterns of personality associated both to psychological and somatic dissociation. Correlations found in this study put forward the importance to take into account both types of dissociactive symptoms, psychological and somatic ones.

  12. Primary healthcare system capacities for responding to storm and flood-related health problems: a case study from a rural district in central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Minh, Hoang; Tuan Anh, Tran; Rocklöv, Joacim; Bao Giang, Kim; Trang, Le Quynh; Sahlen, Klas-Göran; Nilsson, Maria; Weinehall, Lars

    2014-01-01

    As a tropical depression in the East Sea, Vietnam is greatly affected by climate change and natural disasters. Knowledge of the current capacity of the primary healthcare system in Vietnam to respond to health issues associated with storms and floods is very important for policy making in the country. However, there has been little scientific research in this area. This research was to assess primary healthcare system capacities in a rural district in central Vietnam to respond to such health issues. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative methods used self-administered questionnaires. Qualitative methods (in-depth interviews and focus groups discussions) were used to broaden understanding of the quantitative material and to get additional information on actions taken. 1) Service delivery: Medical emergency services, especially surgical operations and referral systems, were not always available during the storm and flood seasons. 2) Governance: District emergency plans focus largely on disaster response rather than prevention. The plans did not clearly define the role of primary healthcare and had no clear information on the coordination mechanism among different sectors and organizations. 3) Financing: The budget for prevention and control of flood and storm activities was limited and had no specific items for healthcare activities. Only a little additional funding was available, but the procedures to get this funding were usually time-consuming. 4) Human resources: Medical rescue teams were established, but there were no epidemiologists or environmental health specialists to take care of epidemiological issues. Training on prevention and control of climate change and disaster-related health issues did not meet actual needs. 5) Information and research: Data that can be used for planning and management (including population and epidemiological data) were largely lacking. The district lacked a disease

  13. Primary healthcare system capacities for responding to storm and flood-related health problems: a case study from a rural district in central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Van Minh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: As a tropical depression in the East Sea, Vietnam is greatly affected by climate change and natural disasters. Knowledge of the current capacity of the primary healthcare system in Vietnam to respond to health issues associated with storms and floods is very important for policy making in the country. However, there has been little scientific research in this area. Objective: This research was to assess primary healthcare system capacities in a rural district in central Vietnam to respond to such health issues. Design: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative methods used self-administered questionnaires. Qualitative methods (in-depth interviews and focus groups discussions were used to broaden understanding of the quantitative material and to get additional information on actions taken. Results: 1 Service delivery: Medical emergency services, especially surgical operations and referral systems, were not always available during the storm and flood seasons. 2 Governance: District emergency plans focus largely on disaster response rather than prevention. The plans did not clearly define the role of primary healthcare and had no clear information on the coordination mechanism among different sectors and organizations. 3 Financing: The budget for prevention and control of flood and storm activities was limited and had no specific items for healthcare activities. Only a little additional funding was available, but the procedures to get this funding were usually time-consuming. 4 Human resources: Medical rescue teams were established, but there were no epidemiologists or environmental health specialists to take care of epidemiological issues. Training on prevention and control of climate change and disaster-related health issues did not meet actual needs. 5 Information and research: Data that can be used for planning and management (including population and epidemiological

  14. The efficiency effects of bank mergers: An analysis of case studies in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu DQ Le

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs Data Envelopment Analysis to examine the relative efficiency for Vietnamese banks from 2008 to 2015. Efficiency level is relatively high and remains stable over the examined period, suggesting the banking system is less affected by the global financial crisis. More specifically, technical efficiency and scale efficiency in Vietnamese banking is examined when controlling for problem loans. We suggest that controlling for the exogenous impact of problem loans is important for joint-stock banks. Furthermore, our results do not support the hypothesis that acquiring banks are more efficient than the acquired banks. The efficiency improved in majority of merger cases and was not related to acquiring bank’s efficiency advantage over its targets. Small-and medium- banks should be promoted in future acquisitions as a means to enjoying efficiency gains. Finally, there are mixed results on the extent to which the benefits of efficiency gains are passed on to the public.

  15. Long-term follow-up study of bilateral above-the-knee amputees from the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, P J

    1999-10-01

    Because caring for patients who have combat-related amputations is a discontinuous practice, military surgeons must relearn treatment techniques during each conflict. The purpose of the present long-term study (average duration of follow-up, 27.5 years) was to document the status of patients who had sustained a bilateral above-the-knee amputation in Vietnam and had been managed by the only separate amputee service in the United States Army. A review of the records of 484 battle amputees identified thirty individuals (6 percent) who had a bilateral above-the-knee amputation. Twenty-six (87 percent) of the thirty patients had been injured by a land mine or a booby trap. Fifty-three (88 percent) of the sixty limbs were amputated because of trauma, and the other seven (12 percent) were amputated secondarily because of infection. Data regarding education, employment, marriage and family life, prosthetic use, and psychological care were collected by mail or telephone for twenty-three (85 percent) of the twenty-seven surviving patients. Respondents also completed the Short Form-36 (SF-36) Health Survey. At the time of the study, five (22 percent) of the twenty-three respondents used prostheses for walking; the devices were used for an average of 7.7 hours per day. Sixteen respondents (70 percent) were or had been employed outside of the home since the time of discharge. The physical functioning score on the SF-36 questionnaire was significantly lower for the study group than it was for a group of age and gender-matched controls (p < 0.001; Student two-tailed t test). With the numbers available, no significant differences could be detected between the groups with regard to physical role functioning (p = 0.377), bodily pain (p = 0.603), general health (p = 0.407), vitality (p = 0.949), social functioning (p = 0.460), emotional role functioning (p = 0.029), or mental health (p = 0.102). The patients in the present study have led relatively normal, productive lives within the

  16. Case study of ISWI in Vietnam: A comparison of ionospheric parameters observed over Ho Chi Minh with IRI predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Hoang Thai; Tam, Dao Ngoc Hanh

    2014-01-01

    For the contribution of Vietnam to ISWI activities, there are 3 GPS receivers, 3 Ionosondes, 1 AWESOME and 1 MAGDAS operating in Vietnam. With a special geographical position stretching from the north tropic to the magnetic equator, Vietnam is an interesting area to supplement the data for the Global Space Weather Model. The Ionosphere is an important indicator of Space Weather and the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model has become widely accepted. The first task of ionospheric science in a new location is often comparing the observed data with IRI. This paper presents the results of comparisons of the foF2 and TEC observed over Ho Chi Minh City (10.51 N, 106.33 E) with the values calculated according to the IRI-2007 in order to evaluate the applicability of the model in forecasting for the equatorial region of Vietnam. We compare the critical frequency of layer F (foF2) and Total Electron Content (TEC) values for two phases of solar activity. The results show very good diurnal correlations between the observed foF2 and TEC with IRI values in the decreasing solar activity period 2003 ± 2006 (the deviation 40. This is a note for correction IRI model applying for Vietnam. The comparison of the TEC shows that the correlation between GPS-TEC and IRI-TEC generally was good with coefficients k > 0.8 and R > 0.9 for the period 2006 - 2010. The worst relationship were March, April, September, October, November and December 2011, corresponding to periods when the TEC gradients are highest. The phenomenon of decline in the TEC at noon over Ho Chi Minh City observed pretty weak. This phenomenon appeared only in a few months from April to September, when the ionization is high. In the period from 0 to 5 am local time, the average minimum GPS-TEC observed over Ho Chi Minh City is about 3 tecu, while the IRI-TEC value is ~ 0.3. Thus, the IRI-TEC values should be recalibrated.

  17. Causes and determinants of inequity in maternal and child health in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Målqvist Mats

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inequities in health are a major challenge for health care planners and policymakers globally. In Vietnam, rapid societal development presents a considerable risk for disadvantaged populations to be left behind. The aim of this review is to map the known causes and determinants of inequity in maternal and child health in Vietnam in order to promote policy action. Methods A review was performed through systematic searches of Pubmed and Proquest and manual searches of “grey literature.” A thematic content analysis guided by the conceptual framework suggested by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health was performed. Results More than thirty different causes and determinants of inequity in maternal and child health were identified. Some determinants worth highlighting were the influence of informal fees and the many testimonies of discrimination and negative attitudes from health staff towards women in general and ethnic minorities in particular. Research gaps were identified, such as a lack of studies investigating the influence of education on health care utilization, informal costs of care, and how psychosocial factors mediate inequity. Conclusions The evidence of corruption and discrimination as mediators of health inequity in Vietnam calls for attention and indicates a need for more structural interventions such as better governance and anti-discriminatory laws. More research is needed in order to fully understand the pathways of inequities in health in Vietnam and suggest areas for intervention for policy action to reach disadvantaged populations.

  18. Causes and determinants of inequity in maternal and child health in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Målqvist, Mats; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong; Thomsen, Sarah

    2012-08-11

    Inequities in health are a major challenge for health care planners and policymakers globally. In Vietnam, rapid societal development presents a considerable risk for disadvantaged populations to be left behind. The aim of this review is to map the known causes and determinants of inequity in maternal and child health in Vietnam in order to promote policy action. A review was performed through systematic searches of Pubmed and Proquest and manual searches of "grey literature." A thematic content analysis guided by the conceptual framework suggested by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health was performed. More than thirty different causes and determinants of inequity in maternal and child health were identified. Some determinants worth highlighting were the influence of informal fees and the many testimonies of discrimination and negative attitudes from health staff towards women in general and ethnic minorities in particular. Research gaps were identified, such as a lack of studies investigating the influence of education on health care utilization, informal costs of care, and how psychosocial factors mediate inequity. The evidence of corruption and discrimination as mediators of health inequity in Vietnam calls for attention and indicates a need for more structural interventions such as better governance and anti-discriminatory laws. More research is needed in order to fully understand the pathways of inequities in health in Vietnam and suggest areas for intervention for policy action to reach disadvantaged populations.

  19. The persistence and oscillations of submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections over time in Vietnam: an open cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy-Nhien; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Nguyen, Tuong-Vy; Truong, Phuc-Nhi; Hung, Son Do; Pham, Huong-Thu; Nguyen, Tam-Uyen; Le, Thanh Dong; Dao, Van Hue; Mukaka, Mavuto; Day, Nicholas Pj; White, Nicholas J; Dondorp, Arjen M; Thwaites, Guy E; Hien, Tran Tinh

    2018-05-01

    A substantial proportion of Plasmodium species infections are asymptomatic with densities too low to be detectable with standard diagnostic techniques. The importance of such asymptomatic plasmodium infections in malaria transmission is probably related to their duration and density. To explore the duration of asymptomatic plasmodium infections and changes in parasite densities over time, a cohort of participants who were infected with Plasmodium parasites was observed over a 2-year follow-up period. In this open cohort study, inhabitants of four villages in Vietnam were invited to participate in baseline and subsequent 3-monthly surveys up to 24 months, which included the collection of venous blood samples. Samples were batch-screened using ultra-sensitive (u)PCR (lower limit of detection of 22 parasites per mL). Participants found to be infected by uPCR during any of these surveys were invited to join a prospective cohort and provide monthly blood samples. We estimated the persistence of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections and changes in parasite densities over a study period of 24 months. Between Dec 1, 2013, and Jan 8, 2016, 356 villagers participated in between one and 22 surveys. These study participants underwent 4248 uPCR evaluations (11·9 tests per participant). 1874 (32%) of 4248 uPCR tests indicated a plasmodium infection; 679 (36%) of 1874 tests were P falciparum monoinfections, 507 (27%) were P vivax monoinfections, 463 (25%) were co-infections with P falciparum and P vivax, and 225 (12%) were indeterminate species of Plasmodium. The median duration of P falciparum infection was 2 months (IQR 1-3); after accounting for censoring, participants had a 20% chance of having parasitaemia for 4 months or longer. The median duration of P vivax infection was 6 months (3-9), and participants had a 59% chance of having parasitaemia for 4 months or longer. The parasite densities of persistent infections oscillated; following ultralow

  20. Taxonomic Notes on the Genus Delta de Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae from Vietnam

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    Nguyen, Lien Thi Phuong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic study of the genus Delta de Saussure, 1855 from Vietnam is presented. A total of four species are recorded: D. campaniforme campaniforme (Fabricius, 1775, D. conoideum (Gmelin, 1790, D. esuriens esuriens (Fabricius, 1787, and D. pyriforme pyriforme (Fabricius, 1775. Of these, D. campaniforme campaniforme was first recorded from Vietnam by de Saussure et al., 1904, under the name Eumenes esuriens and is now reconfirmed to occur in Vietnam after more than 100 years, and D. conoideum is newly recorded from Vietnam. A key to species based on morphological characters is given with illustrations, and distributional records in Vietnam are also provided.

  1. Distance decay in delivery care utilisation associated with neonatal mortality. A case referent study in northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson Leif

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts to reduce neonatal mortality are essential if the Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4 is to be met. The impact of spatial dimensions of neonatal survival has not been thoroughly investigated even though access to good quality delivery care is considered to be one of the main priorities when trying to reduce neonatal mortality. This study examined the association between distance from the mother's home to the closest health facility and neonatal mortality, and investigated the influence of distance on patterns of perinatal health care utilisation. Methods A surveillance system of live births and neonatal deaths was set up in eight districts of Quang Ninh province, Vietnam, from July 2008 to December 2009. Case referent design including all neonatal deaths and randomly selected newborn referents from the same population. Interviews were performed with mothers of all subjects and GIS coordinates for mothers' homes and all health facilities in the study area were obtained. Straight-line distances were calculated using ArcGIS software. Results A total of 197 neonatal deaths and 11 708 births were registered and 686 referents selected. Health care utilisation prior to and at delivery varied with distance to the health facility. Mothers living farthest away (4th and 5th quintile, ≥1257 meters from a health facility had an increased risk of neonatal mortality (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.40 - 2.75, adjusted for maternal age at delivery and marital status. When stratified for socio-economic factors there was an increased risk for neonatal mortality for mothers with low education and from poor households who lived farther away from a health facility. Mothers who delivered at home had more than twice as long to a health facility compared to mothers who delivered at a health care facility. There was no difference in age at death when comparing neonates born at home or health facility deliveries (p = 0.56. Conclusion Distance to the

  2. Common mental disorders among women, social circumstances and toddler growth in rural Vietnam: a population-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J; Tran, T; Nguyen, T T; Nguyen, H; Tran, T D

    2015-11-01

    Common mental disorders (CMD) and adverse social circumstances are widespread among mothers of infants and toddlers in resource-constrained settings. These can undermine early childhood development through compromised caregiving and insufficient access to essential resources. The aim was to examine the effect of maternal CMD and social adversity in the post-partum year on toddler's length-for-age index in a rural low-income setting. A population-based prospective cohort study of women in Ha Nam province, Vietnam who completed baseline assessments in either late pregnancy or 4-6 weeks post partum and were followed up, with their toddlers, 15 months later. CMD were assessed at both points by psychiatrist-administered Structured Clinical Interviews for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Diagnoses. Anthropometric indices were calculated from toddler's age, sex, weight and length using World Health Organization Child Growth Standards. Social adversities were assessed by study-specific questions and locally validated psychometric instruments. The hypothesized model of factors governing toddler's length-for-age Z score (LAZ) was tested using path analysis. In total, 211/234 (90.1%) mother-toddler pairs provided complete data. Baseline prevalence of CMD among women was 33.6% and follow-up was 18.5%. The mean LAZ among toddlers was -1.03 and stunting prevalence (LAZ toddler LAZ via maternal CMD at follow-up (regression coefficient = -0.05, 95% CI -0.11 to -0.01). Maternal CMD at follow-up was associated significantly with toddler LAZ (regression coefficient = -0.15, 95% CI -0.28 to -0.05). Poorer quality of marital relationship, mothers' experiences of childhood abuse and toddler LAZ via maternal CMD. Maternal post-natal CMD are associated with child growth measured by LAZ in this resource-constrained setting. Social adversities affect child growth indirectly through increasing the risk of maternal CMD. Interventions to reduce stunting in

  3. Measuring Service Quality in the Hospitality Industry: A Case Study in Hue City, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Ngoc Liem; Inaba, Yushi

    2015-01-01

    This research is a study on service quality in the hospitality industry in the context of a developing country. The key purposes of this study are twofold. First, it examines the conceptualization and measurement of service quality in the hotel setting. Second, the relationships between service quality, customer satisfaction, and repurchase intention are taken into considerations. The findings from this study confirm that there are three determinants affecting statistically on service quality...

  4. Suicide of Australians during the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Ahmadi, Jamshid; Pridmore, William

    2018-04-01

    National suicide rates fall during times of war. This fits with the notion of the population coming together against a common foe. But, what happens in the case of a war which is not fully supported, which draws the population and families apart? We consider this question by examining the Australian suicide rates during the divisive Vietnam War. We graphed and examined the Australian suicide figures for 1921-2010. We found clear evidence of a decrease in the suicide rate for World War II (consistent with other studies), but a marked elevation of suicide during the Vietnam War. The elevation of the Australian suicide rate during the Vietnam War is consistent with Durkheim's social integration model - when social integration is lessened, either by individual characteristics or societal characteristics, the risk of suicide rises.

  5. Food Irradiation In Vietnam And Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamikazy Kume

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, Japan Atomic Energy Commission of Cabinet Office performed the study of current status of food irradiation in the world. The results showed that the total quantity of irradiated foods in 2005 was 405,000 tons. Seven main countries for food irradiation were China, USA, Ukraine, Brazil, South Africa, Vietnam and Japan. In Japan, only the potato irradiation for sprout inhibition is continued more than 35 years since 1974 but the quantity is decreasing. On the other hand, the food irradiation of Vietnam has been developed rapidly in a short time to export the frozen seafood and fruit. This paper shows the status of food irradiation in Vietnam and Japan, and the progress in both countries after 2005. (author)

  6. Prejudicial Counsel: A Multidimensional Study of Tactical Airpower Between the Korean and Vietnam Wars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banks, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    This study analyzes the Air Force's decisions made concerning the advancement of tactical conventional airpower from 1953 to 1961, This thesis evaluates the decision- making process at three distinct...

  7. Oral health status of adults in Southern Vietnam - a cross-sectional epidemiological study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen-Chau, T.C.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Truong, N.B.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Before strategies or protocols for oral health care can be advised at population level, epidemiological information on tooth decay patterns and its effects on oral function are indispensable. The aim of this study was to investigate influences of socio-demographic variables on the

  8. The International Student's Experience: An Exploratory Study of Students from Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearring, Andrew; Le, Huong; Wilson, Rachel; Arambewela, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    International students are an important part of today's global university sector. This paper explores, through 10 in-depth interviews, the perceptions of Vietnamese international students studying with regard to their experience of teaching and learning in Australia. The findings indicate that Vietnamese students struggle with language,…

  9. Can micro-credit empower HIV+ women? An exploratory case study in Northern Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhoff, P.; Nguyen, T.A.; Pham, N.Y.; Wright, P.; Hardon, A.

    2008-01-01

    Vietnamese women are subject to many restrictions related to gender and their position in the household that affect their ability to make strategic choices. For example, they have unequal access to capital and other resources. Studies have shown how gender inequities cause women, especially poor

  10. Study on Physics of Unstable Nuclei within the Framework of Vietnam-France Joint Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Xuan Chung; Dao Tien Khoa; Nguyen Tuan Khai; Do Cong Cuong; Tran Huu Phat; Bui Minh Loc; Tran Viet Nhan Hao

    2015-01-01

    The study on nuclear physics is presented by both theory and experiment. For theory, we present the analyses on the scatterings of nucleon (proton and neutron) and nucleus. This approach is known as the simplest way to study nuclei of interest because nucleon is screen-tested. Precise nuclear radii of "6","8He has been obtained from the Glauber analysis on the experimental data. The microscopic calculations of elastic nucleon-nucleus scattering off double-closed shell nuclei "1"6O and "2"0"8Pb at energies below 50 MeV were performed. This work will be a key input for the prediction of elastic and inelastic scattering reactions of nuclei far from the stability valley. Through analysis on the charge-exchange ("3He,t) reaction, the neutron skins of "2"0"8Pb and "9"0Zr have been obtained which were in a good agreement with previous works. Further study on elastic α+α scattering at low energy gives possible explanation of a long-standing inconsistency of the double-folding model in its study on this system and α-nucleus scattering using the same realistic density dependent M3Y interaction. For the experiment, the experiments performed at RIKEN and IPN Orsay are reported. The results from the RIKEN experiments shows that the 2"+ and 4"+ energies of "6"6Cr and "7"0","7"2Fe were measured for the first time. The preliminary results on the data of "6"8Fe show 4 de-excited gammas on the spectrum of this isotope. The level scheme of "6"8Fe is built. The results from the IPN Orsay experimental data analysis improved level schemes of the neutron-rich "8"3","8"4Ge and "8"2As isotopes. The experimental data of unstable nuclei is significant in nuclear structure or shell evolution study. (author)

  11. A Combined Hydrological and Hydraulic Model for Flood Prediction in Vietnam Applied to the Huong River Basin as a Test Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Thanh Mai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A combined hydrological and hydraulic model is presented for flood prediction in Vietnam. This model is applied to the Huong river basin as a test case study. Observed flood flows and water surface levels of the 2002–2005 flood seasons are used for model calibration, and those of the 2006–2007 flood seasons are used for validation of the model. The physically based distributed hydrologic model WetSpa is used for predicting the generation and propagation of flood flows in the mountainous upper sub-basins, and proves to predict flood flows accurately. The Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS hydraulic model is applied to simulate flood flows and inundation levels in the downstream floodplain, and also proves to predict water levels accurately. The predicted water profiles are used for mapping of inundations in the floodplain. The model may be useful in developing flood forecasting and early warning systems to mitigate losses due to flooding in Vietnam.

  12. The application of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques for environmental pollution studies in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Mong Sinh

    1992-01-01

    The applicability of neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence and other related techniques to environmental samples from Viet Nam has been investigated. Results show that multielemental analysis of environmental samples and the determination of heavy metal pollution in the environment is best performed by a combination of techniques. Preliminary results of studying the environmental pollution associated with solid wastes are reported. 4 refs, 5 figs, 17 tabs

  13. Clinically isolated syndromes suggestive of multiple sclerosis: an optical coherence tomography study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Oreja-Guevara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT is a simple, high-resolution technique to quantify the thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL, which provides an indirect measurement of axonal damage in multiple sclerosis (MS. This study aimed to evaluate RNFL thickness in patients at presentation with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS suggestive of MS. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross-sectional study. Twenty-four patients with CIS suggestive of MS (8 optic neuritis [ON], 6 spinal cord syndromes, 5 brainstem symptoms and 5 with sensory and other syndromes were prospectively studied. The main outcome evaluated was RNFL thickness at CIS onset. Secondary objectives were to study the relationship between RNFL thickness and MRI criteria for disease dissemination in space (DIS as well as the presence of oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirteen patients had decreased RNFL thickness in at least one quadrant. Mean RNFL thickness was 101.67±10.72 µm in retrobulbar ON eyes and 96.93±10.54 in unaffected eyes. Three of the 6 patients with myelitis had at least one abnormal quadrant in one of the two eyes. Eight CIS patients fulfilled DIS MRI criteria. The presence of at least one quadrant of an optic nerve with a RNFL thickness at a P<5% cut-off value had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 56% for predicting DIS MRI. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this study show that axonal damage measured by OCT is present in any type of CIS; even in myelitis forms, not only in ON as seen up to now. OCT can detect axonal damage in very early stages of disease and seems to have high sensitivity and moderate specificity for predicting DIS MRI. Studies with prospective long-term follow-up would be needed to establish the prognostic value of baseline OCT findings.

  14. Adolescent culture brokering and family functioning: a study of families from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Edison J; Jones, Curtis J

    2007-04-01

    In immigrant families, culture brokering (CB) refers to the ways in which children and adolescents serve as mediator between their family and aspects of the new culture. This study focused on the debate in the literature about whether CB implies "role reversal" in the family and "adultification" of the adolescent or whether CB is better understood as simply one of the many ways that immigrant children contribute to family functioning. Results indicated a mixed picture with respect to this debate. Greater amounts of adolescent CB were indeed related to higher adolescent reports of family conflict, but also to greater family adaptability. In addition, the amount of CB was unrelated to family satisfaction and family cohesion. Secondary questions centered on the relationship of CB to adolescent and parent demographic and acculturation variables. Here, CB was related to parent acculturation patterns but not those of adolescents. Implications for future research on the CB role are discussed. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Historical droughts in northern Vietnam captured by variability in speleothem δ18O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, B. F.; McGee, D.; Burns, S. J.; Hieu, N.; Hieu, D. T.

    2015-12-01

    Speleothem records overlapping with the historical period offer valuable comparisons of documentary evidence with speleothem proxy data. These records provide opportunities to 'ground-truth' the paleo-record, fill in gaps in the historical record, and more confidently extent the paleo-record into deeper time. Here we present isotopic results from a stalagmite collected in northern Vietnam spanning 1200 to 1950 CE, a period with a rich historical record in Vietnam. This sample adds significantly to the relatively sparse paleoclimate record from Southeast Asia. The record includes several multi-decadal positive excursions of ≥1 per mille in calcite δ18O. A preliminary age model, based on six U/Th ages, suggests possible correspondence to noted droughts from the historical record, including the Angkor Droughts, the Ming Dynasty Drought, the Strange Parallels Drought, and the Victorian Holocaust Drought. As modeling studies indicate a strong correlation between rainfall δ18O and both the intensity of summer monsoon winds and summer rainfall over northern Vietnam (e.g., Liu et al., 2014), these excursions are consistent with a decrease in regional precipitation. The Vietnam record shows an overall negative trend during the Little Ice Age. The study site is located well south of the westerly wind belt, ruling out a shift between monsoonal and mid-latitude circulation systems as a likely explanation for the northern Vietnam record. We explore the correspondence between our record and other proxy data from Southeast Asia and suggest possible implications of the differences between Vietnamese and Chinese speleothem records during the Little Ice Age. References cited: Liu Z., Wen X., Brady E. C., Otto-Bliesner B., Yu G., Lu H., Cheng H., Wang Y., Zheng W., Ding Y., Edwards R. L., Cheng J., Liu W. and Yang H. (2014) Chinese cave records and the East Asia Summer Monsoon. Quaternary Science Reviews 83, 115-128.

  16. Psychometric properties of the medical outcomes study: social support survey among methadone maintenance patients in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuong, Long Quynh; Vu, Tuong-Vi Thi; Huynh, Van-Anh Ngoc; Thai, Truc Thanh

    2018-02-14

    Social support plays a crucial role in the treatment and recovery process of patients engaging in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). However, there is a paucity of research about social support among MMT patients, possibly due to a lack of appropriate measuring tools. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Vietnamese version of the Medical Outcomes Study: Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) among MMT patients. A cross-sectional survey of 300 patients was conducted in a methadone clinic in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. MMT patients who agreed to participate in the study completed a face-to-face interview in a private room. The MOS-SSS was translated into Vietnamese using standard forward-backward process. Internal consistency was measured by Cronbach's alpha. The intra-class correlation coefficient was used to determine the test-retest reliability of the MOS-SSS in 75 participants two weeks after the first survey. Concurrent validity of the MOS-SSS was evaluated by correlations with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and the Perceived Stigma of Addiction Scale (PSAS). Construct validity was investigated by confirmatory factor analysis. The MOS-SSS had good internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha from 0.95 to 0.97 for the four subscales and 0.97 for the overall scale. The two-week test-retest reliability was at moderate level with intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.61-0.73 for the four subscales and 0.76 for the overall scale. Strong significant correlations between the MOS-SSS and the MSPSS (r = 0.77; p SSS was established since a final four-factor model fitted the data well with Comparative Fit Index (0.97), Tucker-Lewis Index (0.97), Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (0.03) and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (0.068; 90% CI = 0.059-0.077). The MOS-SSS is a reliable and valid tool for measuring social support in Vietnamese MMT patients. Further studies among methadone patients at

  17. A suggestion for quality assessment in systematic reviews of observational studies in nutritional epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Myon Bae

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It is important to control the quality level of the observational studies in conducting meta-analyses. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS is a representative tool used for this purpose. We investigated the relationship between high-quality (HQ defined using NOS and the results of subgroup analysis according to study design. METHODS: We selected systematic review studies with meta-analysis which performed a quality evaluation on observational studies of diet and cancer by NOS. HQ determinations and the distribution of study designs were examined. Subgroup analyses according to quality level as defined by the NOS were also extracted. Equivalence was evaluated based on the summary effect size (sES and 95% confidence intervals computed in the subgroup analysis. RESULTS: The meta-analysis results of the HQ and cohort groups were identical. The overall sES, which was obtained by combining the sES when equivalence was observed between the cohort and case-control groups, also showed equivalence. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that it is more reasonable to control for quality level by performing subgroup analysis according to study design rather than by using HQ based on the NOS quality assessment tool.

  18. Recognition of earthquake-prone nodes, a case study for North Vietnam (M ⩾ 5.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Huu Tuyen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphostructural nodes in North Vietnam are delineated with the morphostructural zoning (MZ method, and classified into seismogenic and non-seismogenic nodes. The compiled morphostructural map (scale 1: 1000000 shows a three-level hierarchical structure of blocks, boundary zones, and nodes. The identified nodes are classified with the pattern-recognition algorithm CORA-3 into those that are prone to generate M ⩾ 5.0 earthquakes and those that are not. Some of the earthquake-prone nodes coincide with epicenters of M ⩾ 5.0 earthquakes that have occurred; others may coincide with such events in the future.

  19. Neurology in the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Carl H; Daroff, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Between December 1965 and December 1971, the United States maintained armed forces in Vietnam never less than 180,000 men and women in support of the war. At one time, this commitment exceeded half a million soldiers, sailors, and airmen from both the United States and its allies. Such forces required an extensive medical presence, including 19 neurologists. All but two of the neurologists had been drafted for a 2-year tour of duty after deferment for residency training. They were assigned to Vietnam for one of those 2 years in two Army Medical Units and one Air Force facility providing neurological care for American and allied forces, as well as many civilians. Their practice included exposure to unfamiliar disorders including cerebral malaria, Japanese B encephalitis, sleep deprivation seizures, and toxic encephalitis caused by injection or inhalation of C-4 explosive. They and neurologists at facilities in the United States published studies on all of these entities both during and after the war. These publications spawned the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Study, which was conceived during the Korean War and continues today as the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Center. It initially focused on post-traumatic epilepsy and later on all effects of brain injury. The Agent Orange controversy arose after the war; during the war, it was not perceived as a threat by medical personnel. Although soldiers in previous wars had developed serious psychological impairments, post-traumatic stress disorder was formally recognized in the servicemen returning from Vietnam. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. IDRC in Vietnam

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    credible links to policymakers and development practitioners. VERN research findings appear in the coun- try's Human Development Report and its results informed trade policy, includ- ing preparation for Vietnam's accession to the World Trade Organization. Better use of resources. IDRC support since the early 1990s has.

  1. Vietnamese infant and childhood mortality in relation to the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, D A; Thang, N M; Swenson, I E; Stone, E M

    1993-08-01

    There is obvious potential for war to adversely affect infant and childhood mortality through direct trauma and disruption of the societal infrastructure. This study examined trends in Vietnam through the period of the war. The 1988 Vietnam Demographic and Health Survey collected data on reproductive history and family planning from 4172 women aged 15 through 49 years in 12 selected provinces of Vietnam. The 13,137 births and 737 deaths to children younger than age 6 reported by the respondents were analyzed. For the country as a whole, infant and childhood mortality dropped by 30% to 80% from the prewar period to the wartime period and was stable thereafter. In provinces in which the war was most intense, mortality did not decline from the prewar period to the wartime period but declined after the war, consistent with an adverse effect during the wartime period. The data are limited by assignment of birth location on the basis of mother's current residence and by inadequate information on areas of war activity. Nonetheless, the data do not indicate a widespread, sizable adverse effect of the war on national infant and childhood mortality in Vietnam but suggest detrimental effects in selected provinces.

  2. Vietnamese infant and childhood mortality in relation to the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, D A; Thang, N M; Swenson, I E; Stone, E M

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. There is obvious potential for war to adversely affect infant and childhood mortality through direct trauma and disruption of the societal infrastructure. This study examined trends in Vietnam through the period of the war. METHODS. The 1988 Vietnam Demographic and Health Survey collected data on reproductive history and family planning from 4172 women aged 15 through 49 years in 12 selected provinces of Vietnam. The 13,137 births and 737 deaths to children younger than age 6 reported by the respondents were analyzed. RESULTS. For the country as a whole, infant and childhood mortality dropped by 30% to 80% from the prewar period to the wartime period and was stable thereafter. In provinces in which the war was most intense, mortality did not decline from the prewar period to the wartime period but declined after the war, consistent with an adverse effect during the wartime period. CONCLUSIONS. The data are limited by assignment of birth location on the basis of mother's current residence and by inadequate information on areas of war activity. Nonetheless, the data do not indicate a widespread, sizable adverse effect of the war on national infant and childhood mortality in Vietnam but suggest detrimental effects in selected provinces. PMID:8342722

  3. Revitalizing REDD+ Policy Processes in Vietnam: The Roles of State and Non-State Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Ba Huynh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam was one of the first countries to introduce the National REDD+ (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Action Program in 2012. The country has recently revised the Program to aim for a more inclusive 2016–2020 strategy and a vision to 2030. This study explores how Vietnam policy actors view REDD+ policy development and their influence in these processes. The results can contribute to the discussion on how policy actors can effectively influence policy processes in the evolving context of REDD+ and in the types of political arrangements represented in Vietnam. We examined the influence of state and non-state actors on the 2012 National REDD+ Action Program (NRAP processes, and explored factors that may have shaped this influence, using a combination of document analysis and semi-structured interviews with 81 policy actors. It was found that non-state actors in REDD+ are still on the periphery of decision making, occupying “safe” positions, and have not taken either full advantage of their capacities, or of recent significant changes in the contemporary policy environment, to exert stronger influence on policy. We suggest that REDD+ policy processes in Vietnam need to be revitalized with key actors engaging collectively to promote the possibilities of REDD+ within a broader view of social change that reaches beyond the forestry sector.

  4. The Impact of Vietnam's Globalization on National Education Policies and Teacher Training Programs for Teachers of English as an International Language: A Case Study of the University of Pedagogy in Ho Chi Minh City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tri Ly

    2011-01-01

    The Problem: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of Vietnam's globalization on national language education policies and teacher training programs for teachers of English to speakers of other languages. Specifically, this research explored the extent to which the new policies for English language training programs adopted by the…

  5. Environmental comparison of intensive and integrated agriculture-aquaculture systems for striped catfish production in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, based on two existing case studies using life cycle assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluts, I.N.; Potting, J.M.B.; Bosma, R.H.; Phong, L.T.; Udo, H.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Vietnam is the largest producer for the export of striped catfish. Traditionally striped catfish production in the Mekong Delta took place in integrated agriculture–aquaculture systems, but has shifted recently to intensive systems to meet increasing export demands. A recent study quantified the

  6. Study of graduate curriculum in the radiological science: problems and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Seong Jin; Kim, Hwa Gon; Kang, Se Sik; Park, Byeong Rae; Kim, Chang Soo

    2006-01-01

    Currently, Educational program of radiological science is developed in enormous growth, our educational environments leading allied health science education program in the number of super high speed medical industry. Radiological science may be the fastest growing technologies in our medical department today. In this way, Medical industry fields converged in the daily quick, the fact that department of radiological science didn't discharged ones duties on current educational environments. The curriculum of radiological technologists that play an important part between skill and occupation's education as major and personality didn't performed one's part most effectively on current medical environments and digital radiological equipment interface. We expect improvement and suggestion to grow natural disposition as studies in the graduate of radiological science. Therefore, in this paper, current curriculum of radiological science are catched hold of trend and problems on digital radiology environments, on fact the present state of problems, for Graduate program of radiological science, graduate courses of MS and ph.D. are suggested a reform measure of major education curriculum introduction

  7. Using Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups in Genetic Association Studies and Suggested Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzurumluoglu, A Mesut; Baird, Denis; Richardson, Tom G; Timpson, Nicholas J; Rodriguez, Santiago

    2018-01-22

    Y-chromosomal (Y-DNA) haplogroups are more widely used in population genetics than in genetic epidemiology, although associations between Y-DNA haplogroups and several traits, including cardiometabolic traits, have been reported. In apparently homogeneous populations defined by principal component analyses, there is still Y-DNA haplogroup variation which will result from population history. Therefore, hidden stratification and/or differential phenotypic effects by Y-DNA haplogroups could exist. To test this, we hypothesised that stratifying individuals according to their Y-DNA haplogroups before testing for associations between autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and phenotypes will yield difference in association. For proof of concept, we derived Y-DNA haplogroups from 6537 males from two epidemiological cohorts, Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) ( n = 5080; 816 Y-DNA SNPs) and the 1958 Birth Cohort ( n = 1457; 1849 Y-DNA SNPs), and studied the robust associations between 32 SNPs and body mass index (BMI), including SNPs in or near Fat Mass and Obesity-associated protein ( FTO ) which yield the strongest effects. Overall, no association was replicated in both cohorts when Y-DNA haplogroups were considered and this suggests that, for BMI at least, there is little evidence of differences in phenotype or SNP association by Y-DNA structure. Further studies using other traits, phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS), other haplogroups and/or autosomal SNPs are required to test the generalisability and utility of this approach.

  8. Neurotransmitter systems and neurotrophic factors in autism: association study of 37 genes suggests involvement of DDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Claudio; Hervás, Amaia; Balmaña, Noemí; Salgado, Marta; Maristany, Marta; Vilella, Elisabet; Aguilera, Francisco; Orejuela, Carmen; Cuscó, Ivon; Gallastegui, Fátima; Pérez-Jurado, Luis Alberto; Caballero-Andaluz, Rafaela; Diego-Otero, Yolanda de; Guzmán-Alvarez, Guadalupe; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Ribasés, Marta; Bayés, Mònica; Cormand, Bru

    2013-09-01

    Neurotransmitter systems and neurotrophic factors can be considered strong candidates for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems are involved in neurotransmission, brain maturation and cortical organization, while neurotrophic factors (NTFs) participate in neurodevelopment, neuronal survival and synapses formation. We aimed to test the contribution of these candidate pathways to autism through a case-control association study of genes selected both for their role in central nervous system functions and for pathophysiological evidences. The study sample consisted of 326 unrelated autistic patients and 350 gender-matched controls from Spain. We genotyped 369 tagSNPs to perform a case-control association study of 37 candidate genes. A significant association was obtained between the DDC gene and autism in the single-marker analysis (rs6592961, P = 0.00047). Haplotype-based analysis pinpointed a four-marker combination in this gene associated with the disorder (rs2329340C-rs2044859T-rs6592961A-rs11761683T, P = 4.988e-05). No significant results were obtained for the remaining genes after applying multiple testing corrections. However, the rs167771 marker in DRD3, associated with ASD in a previous study, displayed a nominal association in our analysis (P = 0.023). Our data suggest that common allelic variants in the DDC gene may be involved in autism susceptibility.

  9. Primate study suggests pentobarbital may help protect the brain during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolnick, A.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation therapy, an often indispensable treatment for a wide range of brain tumors, is a double-edged sword, especially when used to treat children. Research reported at the 72nd Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, in Atlanta, Ga., now suggests that pentobarbital and perhaps other barbiturates may help protect the brain from radiation-induced damage, especially to the pituitary and hypothalmus, where such damage can lead to serious, life-long problems for children. Jeffrey J. Olson, MD, now assistant professor of neurosurgery at Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, reported the results of a study of the radioprotective effects of pentobarbital on the brain of a primate, which he and colleagues at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recently completed

  10. Vietnam: A Failure of Strategy and Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    AND LEADERSHIP SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MILITARY STUDIES AUTHOR: MAJOR D. M. CROUSORE, USMC...Q__ Date: ’::?:D l:foell 0<..01~ (/ i Executive Summary Title: VIETNAM: A FAILURE OF STRATEGY AND LEADERSHIP Author: Major D. M

  11. Ichthyofauna of the reservoirs of Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Stolbunov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, distribution and abundance of fish in the pelagic and littoral zone of four reservoirs of Central Vietnam (Suoi Chau, Kam Lam, Da Ban and Suoi Dau were studied first. According to the research data the fish community of the reservoirs is represented by 43 species of 19 fish families.

  12. The Vietnam War and the Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elterman, Howard

    1988-01-01

    Surveys the author's contribution to the Center for Social Studies Education curriculum on the Vietnam War. Focuses on "How the War Was Reported," a unit which raises four questions concerning the responsibilities of the government and the press for keeping the public informed. Encourages use of the curriculum in teaching about the…

  13. Genome-wide association studies of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis suggest candidate susceptibility genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Swarkar; Gao, Xiaochong; Londono, Douglas; Devroy, Shonn E.; Mauldin, Kristen N.; Frankel, Jessica T.; Brandon, January M.; Zhang, Dongping; Li, Quan-Zhen; Dobbs, Matthew B.; Gurnett, Christina A.; Grant, Struan F.A.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Dormans, John P.; Herring, John A.; Gordon, Derek; Wise, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is an unexplained and common spinal deformity seen in otherwise healthy children. Its pathophysiology is poorly understood despite intensive investigation. Although genetic underpinnings are clear, replicated susceptibility loci that could provide insight into etiology have not been forthcoming. To address these issues, we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of ∼327 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 419 AIS families. We found strongest evidence of association with chromosome 3p26.3 SNPs in the proximity of the CHL1 gene (P protein related to Robo3. Mutations in the Robo3 protein cause horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS), a rare disease marked by severe scoliosis. Other top associations in our GWAS were with SNPs in the DSCAM gene encoding an axon guidance protein in the same structural class with Chl1 and Robo3. We additionally found AIS associations with loci in CNTNAP2, supporting a previous study linking this gene with AIS. Cntnap2 is also of functional interest, as it interacts directly with L1 and Robo class proteins and participates in axon pathfinding. Our results suggest the relevance of axon guidance pathways in AIS susceptibility, although these findings require further study, particularly given the apparent genetic heterogeneity in this disease. PMID:21216876

  14. The impact of albendazole treatment on the incidence of viral- and bacterial-induced diarrhea in school children in southern Vietnam: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jacqueline M; Hong, Chau Tran Thi; Trung, Nghia Ho Dang; Thi, Hoa Nhu; Minh, Chau Nguyen Ngoc; Thi, Thuy Vu; Hong, Dinh Thanh; Man, Dinh Nguyen Huy; Knowles, Sarah C L; Wolbers, Marcel; Hoang, Nhat Le Thanh; Thwaites, Guy; Graham, Andrea L; Baker, Stephen

    2016-06-06

    Anthelmintics are one of the more commonly available classes of drugs to treat infections by parasitic helminths (especially nematodes) in the human intestinal tract. As a result of their cost-effectiveness, mass school-based deworming programs are becoming routine practice in developing countries. However, experimental and clinical evidence suggests that anthelmintic treatments may increase susceptibility to other gastrointestinal infections caused by bacteria, viruses, or protozoa. Hypothesizing that anthelmintics may increase diarrheal infections in treated children, we aim to evaluate the impact of anthelmintics on the incidence of diarrheal disease caused by viral and bacterial pathogens in school children in southern Vietnam. This is a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effects of albendazole treatment versus placebo on the incidence of viral- and bacterial-induced diarrhea in 350 helminth-infected and 350 helminth-uninfected Vietnamese school children aged 6-15 years. Four hundred milligrams of albendazole, or placebo treatment will be administered once every 3 months for 12 months. At the end of 12 months, all participants will receive albendazole treatment. The primary endpoint of this study is the incidence of diarrheal disease assessed by 12 months of weekly active and passive case surveillance. Secondary endpoints include the prevalence and intensities of helminth, viral, and bacterial infections, alterations in host immunity and the gut microbiota with helminth and pathogen clearance, changes in mean z scores of body weight indices over time, and the number and severity of adverse events. In order to reduce helminth burdens, anthelmintics are being routinely administered to children in developing countries. However, the effects of anthelmintic treatment on susceptibility to other diseases, including diarrheal pathogens, remain unknown. It is important to monitor for unintended consequences of drug treatments in

  15. Identification of important and potentially avoidable risk factors in a prospective audit study of neonatal deaths in a paediatric hospital in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Phuong, Cam N; Ho, Binh T T

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Neonatal deaths (≤28 days) account for more than half of child mortality in Vietnam. Presumably most die in hospital, but data are scarce. This study aimed to identify risk factors of death among hospitalised neonates. METHODS: We prospectively studied all neonatal deaths and expected deaths...... (discharged alive after withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment) in a Vietnamese tertiary paediatric hospital during a 12-month period in 2009-2010. The medical files were audited classifying admission prognosis, discharge outcome, cause of death/expected death according to two classifications, and important...... and potentially avoidable risk factors during the hospital stay. RESULTS: Among 5763 neonates admitted, 235 deaths and 67 expected deaths were included. According to both classifications, major causes were congenital malformations, prematurity and severe infections. Six risk factors were identified in 85% (60...

  16. Food irradiation process control and acceptance. Regional UNDP project for Asia and the Pacific, mission undertaken in Vietnam. Food irradiation programme planning facility operation and pilot scale studies RPFI-Phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the Government of Vietnam, the FAO/IAEA expert undertook a one-week mission to Vietnam between 16 and 23 March 1991, to the Hanoi Irradiation Center of the Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission. This mission included the following: The expert inspected the new Soviet automated, dry storage pilot plant gamma irradiator in the final stages of construction on the outskirts of Hanoi, and met with senior staff of the Hanoi Irradiation Center plus the Center specialized groups to hear and take note of their progress, problems and materials and manpower training expectations, etc. A tour of a large rice and vegetable growing cooperative outside Hanoi was made, followed by a meeting with members of the Cooperative's governing body. This cooperative will participate in pilot scale food irradiation feasibility studies once the new irradiator is operational. The expert provided a technical seminar to the Hanoi Irradiation Center staff, plus a general seminar to members of the Consumers Union of Vietnam plus invited guests, on radiation processing in general and food irradiation in particular, during the week. The expert accompanied Irradiation Center staff to Haiphong to visit the National Institute for Marine Products Research plus two Government-run fishery products processing plants in connection with the marine products side of the national food irradiation programme. He was accompanied to a meeting at the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industry to meet with the Vice-Minister and staff plus food and allied industry representatives. (author)

  17. Creativity at the Place of Work: Studies of Suggestors and Suggestion Systems in Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekvall, Goran

    1976-01-01

    In the context of an industrial organization, the term "suggestion system" means an administrative procedure for collecting, judging, and compensating ideas for improvements conceived by the employees. Four different problem areas of the suggestion system are examined to determine whether the psychological advantages claimed for the suggestion…

  18. Cholera returns to southern Vietnam in an outbreak associated with consuming unsafe water through iced tea: A matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuong V; Pham, Quang D; Do, Quoc K; Diep, Tai T; Phan, Hung C; Ho, Thang V; Do, Hong T; Phan, Lan T; Tran, Huu N

    2017-04-01

    After more than a decade of steadily declining notifications, the number of reported cholera cases has recently increased in Vietnam. We conducted a matched case-control study to investigate transmission of cholera during an outbreak in Ben Tre, southern Vietnam, and to explore the associated risk factors. Sixty of 71 diarrheal patients confirmed to be infected with cholera by culture and diagnosed between May 9 and August 3, 2010 in Ben Tre were consecutively recruited as case-patients. Case-patients were matched 1:4 to controls by commune, sex, and 5-year age group. Risk factors for cholera were examined by multivariable conditional logistic regression. In addition, environmental samples from villages containing case-patients were taken to identify contamination of food and water sources. The regression indicated that drinking iced tea (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 8.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.84-39.25), not always boiling drinking water (aOR = 2.62, 95% CI: 1.03-6.67), having the main source of water for use being close to a toilet (aOR = 4.36, 95% CI: 1.37-13.88), living with people who had acute diarrhea (aOR = 13.72, 95% CI: 2.77-67.97), and little or no education (aOR = 4.89, 95% CI: 1.18-20.19) were significantly associated with increased risk of cholera. In contrast, drinking stored rainwater (aOR = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.04-0.63), eating cooked seafood (aOR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.10-0.73), and eating steamed vegetables (aOR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.07-0.70) were protective against cholera. Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa carrying ctxA was found in two of twenty-five river water samples and one of six wastewater samples. The magnitude of the cholera outbreak in Ben Tre was lower than in other similar settings. This investigation identified several risk factors and underscored the importance of continued responses targeting cholera prevention in southern Vietnam. The association between drinking iced tea and cholera and the spread of V. cholerae O1, altered El Tor strains

  19. Cholera returns to southern Vietnam in an outbreak associated with consuming unsafe water through iced tea: A matched case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuong V Nguyen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available After more than a decade of steadily declining notifications, the number of reported cholera cases has recently increased in Vietnam. We conducted a matched case-control study to investigate transmission of cholera during an outbreak in Ben Tre, southern Vietnam, and to explore the associated risk factors.Sixty of 71 diarrheal patients confirmed to be infected with cholera by culture and diagnosed between May 9 and August 3, 2010 in Ben Tre were consecutively recruited as case-patients. Case-patients were matched 1:4 to controls by commune, sex, and 5-year age group. Risk factors for cholera were examined by multivariable conditional logistic regression. In addition, environmental samples from villages containing case-patients were taken to identify contamination of food and water sources. The regression indicated that drinking iced tea (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 8.40, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.84-39.25, not always boiling drinking water (aOR = 2.62, 95% CI: 1.03-6.67, having the main source of water for use being close to a toilet (aOR = 4.36, 95% CI: 1.37-13.88, living with people who had acute diarrhea (aOR = 13.72, 95% CI: 2.77-67.97, and little or no education (aOR = 4.89, 95% CI: 1.18-20.19 were significantly associated with increased risk of cholera. In contrast, drinking stored rainwater (aOR = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.04-0.63, eating cooked seafood (aOR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.10-0.73, and eating steamed vegetables (aOR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.07-0.70 were protective against cholera. Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa carrying ctxA was found in two of twenty-five river water samples and one of six wastewater samples.The magnitude of the cholera outbreak in Ben Tre was lower than in other similar settings. This investigation identified several risk factors and underscored the importance of continued responses targeting cholera prevention in southern Vietnam. The association between drinking iced tea and cholera and the spread of V. cholerae O1, altered El Tor

  20. Essays on Impact evaluation: new empirical evidence from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Viet Cuong, N.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Credit, cash transfers, remittances, migration, poverty, inequality, impact evaluation, Vietnam, Asia

    This study estimates the impact of various economic flows including government-subsidized micro-credit, informal credit, public and private transfers, international

  1. The Vietnam War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, James; Larsen, Chris Holmsted; Rasmussen, Søren Hein

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the role of the Vietnam War in Danish and Norwegian politics. We argue that Danish and Norwegian membership in NATO and an unstable parliamentary situation may explain why these countries, unlike Sweden, did not take on the lead in the international protest against the war....... Non-socialistic coalitions came to power in Norway and Denmark in the latter half of the 1960s which to an extent explains why the social democratic parties in both countries became more critical of the US. By the end of the 1960s, foreign policy as well as public attitudes towards the war converged...... in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and in all three countries powerful protest movements emerged that were remarkably similar. The Vietnam War strengthened the left in general and promoted a leftist politics of solidarity that influenced Swedish, Danish and Norwegian foreign policy-making of the 1970s....

  2. Study in Vietnam on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection (Cs, I, Sr, U, Th etc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Mong Sinh

    2000-01-01

    This report presents results of our investigation work carried out from November 1996 to April 1998 in the field of 'Study in Vietnam on ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in Radiological Protection'. This work related to the Co-ordinated Research Programme for Reference Asian Man Project, Phase 2. The data reported are the daily individual intake of the elements of interest for some different socio-economic groups of Vietnamese population living in Hanoi, Hochiminh city Vinh Phu and Dalat areas. The obtained results showed that the average content for four elements (Cs, I, U, Th) in Vietnamese dietary intakes slightly changes from area to area in dependence on geographical, natural and socio-economical conditions, on type and composition of foods. (author)

  3. Estimating the welfare loss to households from natural disasters in developing countries: a contingent valuation study of flooding in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrud, Ståle; Tuan, Tran Huu; Tinh, Bui Duc

    2012-01-01

    Background Natural disasters have severe impacts on the health and well-being of affected households. However, we find evidence that official damage cost assessments for floods and other natural disasters in Vietnam, where households have little or no insurance, clearly underestimate the total economic damage costs of these events as they do not include the welfare loss from mortality, morbidity and well-being experienced by the households affected by the floods. This should send a message to the local communities and national authorities that higher investments in flood alleviation, reduction and adaptive measures can be justified since the social benefits of these measures in terms of avoided damage costs are higher than previously thought. Methods We pioneer the use of the contingent valuation (CV) approach of willingness-to-contribute (WTC) labour to a flood prevention program, as a measure of the welfare loss experienced by household due to a flooding event. In a face-to-face household survey of 706 households in the Quang Nam province in Central Vietnam, we applied this approach together with reported direct physical damage in order to shed light of the welfare loss experienced by the households. We asked about households’ WTC labour and multiplied their WTC person-days of labour by an estimate for their opportunity cost of time in order to estimate the welfare loss to households from the 2007 floods. Results The results showed that this contingent valuation (CV) approach of asking about willingness-to-pay in-kind avoided the main problems associated with applying CV in developing countries. Conclusion Thus, the CV approach of WTC labour instead of money is promising in terms of capturing the total welfare loss of natural disasters, and promising in terms of further application in other developing countries and for other types of natural disasters. PMID:22761603

  4. What does living alone really mean for older persons? A comparative study of Myanmar, Vietnam, and Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussarawan Teerawichitchainan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rapid development and social change in Asia have led many to assume that the proportion of elderly people living alone is rising and that they tend to live in destitute situations. These assumptions often lack empirical validation. Objective: We address the trends and correlates of solitary living among older persons in Myanmar, Vietnam, and Thailand. We examine the extent to which this form of living arrangement equates with their financial stress, physical and social isolation, psychological distress, and met need for personal care. Methods: We analyze 2011-12 national surveys of older persons from the three countries. We employ descriptive and multivariate analyses using either binary logistic regression or multiple classification analysis. Results: There has been a modest upward trend in solo living among the elderly in the three countries over the last few decades. The prevalence of solo living remains low, accounting for less than one-tenth of all elders in each setting. A substantial proportion of solo-dwelling elders live in quasi-coresidence. Solo living is not always associated with financial stress. Although solitary dwellers report more psychological distress than others, our evidence does not support the claim that they are socially alienated. Note, however, that solo-living elders who are childless are the most vulnerable group and will need attention from policymakers and social workers. While solitary living tends to be correlated with adverse wellbeing outcomes in Myanmar and Vietnam, this is less the case in Thailand. Conclusions: Our evidence provides a varied and nuanced view regarding the trends and situations of solitary-living elders in developing Southeast Asia.

  5. Dioxin exposure in breast milk and infant neurodevelopment in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Pham The; Nishijo, Muneko; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Honda, Ryumon; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2013-09-01

    Dioxin levels in the breast milk of mothers residing near hot spots of dioxin contamination areas in South Vietnam remain much higher than in unsprayed areas, suggesting that fetuses and breast-fed infants may be exposed to high levels of dioxins. The present study investigated the association of infant neurodevelopment in early infancy and dioxin exposure during the perinatal period. The study involved 216 mother-infant pairs living near the Da Nang airbase, a dioxin contaminated area in Vietnam. Mothers and infants were followed from birth until infants were 4 months old. Dioxin levels in breast milk were measured to estimate the perinatal dioxin exposure, including the infant daily dioxin intake (DDI) via breastfeeding. Infant neurodevelopmental parameters, including cognitive, language and motor domains were assessed at approximately 4 months using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition (Bayley-III). The level of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans-toxic equivalents in breast milk and the infant DDI showed significant inverse correlations with neurodevelopmental scores. When the subjects were divided into four groups according to dioxin levels in breast milk, the moderate and high DDI groups had significantly lower cognitive, composite motor and fine motor scores, and the high polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans-toxic equivalents group had significantly lower fine motor score than the low exposure group. For all domains, neurodevelopmental scores were decreased with increase in the level of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. The present study demonstrates a considerable impact of perinatal dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment in 4-month-old infants living in contaminated areas in Vietnam.

  6. Exploring Vietnam's oil potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review is given of the oil production potential in Vietnam. Since Since 1987, the country has been open to foreign investment in offshore exploration but has suffered from a US embargo on trade and economic ties. Nevertheless some exploration has occurred and twenty production sharing contracts with international oil companies has been signed. To date most of the finds have been non-commercial but optimism remains high. (U.K.)

  7. Acceptance patterns and decision-making for human papillomavirus vaccination among parents in Vietnam: an in-depth qualitative study post-vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover, Jane K; Nghi, Nguyen Quy; LaMontagne, D Scott; Huyen, Dang Thi Thanh; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Nga, Le Thi

    2012-08-09

    The GAVI Alliance's decision in late 2011 to invite developing countries to apply for funding for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine introduction underscores the importance of understanding levels of HPV vaccine acceptance in developing country settings. In this paper, we present findings from qualitative research on parents' rationales for vaccinating or not vaccinating their daughters (vaccine acceptance) and their decision-making process in the context of an HPV vaccination demonstration project in Vietnam (2008-2009). We designed a descriptive qualitative study of HPV vaccine acceptability among parents of girls eligible for vaccination in four districts of two provinces in Vietnama. The study was implemented after each of two years of vaccinations was completed. In total, 133 parents participated in 16 focus group discussions and 27 semi-structured interviews. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with parents of girls vaccinated revealed that they were generally very supportive of immunization for disease prevention and of vaccinating girls against HPV. The involvement of the National Expanded Program of Immunization in the demonstration project lent credibility to the HPV vaccine, contributing to high levels of acceptance. For parents who declined participation, concerns about side effects, the possibility that the vaccine was experimental, and the possible impact of the vaccine on future fertility rose to the surface. In terms of the decision-making process, many parents exhibited 'active decision-making,' reaching out to friends, family, and opinion leaders for guidance prior to making their decision. Vietnam's HPV vaccination experience speaks to the importance of close collaboration with the government to make the most of high levels of trust, and to reduce suspicions about new vaccines that may arise in the context of vaccine introduction in developing country settings.

  8. Cohort profile: maternal lifestyle and diet in relation to pregnancy, postpartum and infant health outcomes in Vietnam: A multicentre prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cong Luat; Nguyen, Phung Thi Hoang; Chu, Tan Khac; Ha, Anh Vo Van; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Duong, Dat Van; Do, Dung Van; Tang, Hong Kim; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H

    2017-09-05

    To determine modifiable maternal risk factors for adverse pregnancy, postpartum maternal and child health outcomes in Vietnam. This prospective cohort study included pregnant women seeking prenatal care at six hospitals in three large cities in Vietnam. After enrolment, eligible participants who gave their consent to participate in the study were interviewed at 24-28 weeks' gestation. Glucose testing was conducted and blood pressure was measured during this period. Each participant will be assessed prospectively during their postnatal visits at delivery, 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months, and will be followed up for 5 years. Of 2248 eligible pregnant women, 2030 were recruited (participation rate 90.3%) between August 2015 and July 2016. All participants completed the baseline assessment. Their mean (SD) age was 27.6 (5.3) years. The mean pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was 20.2 (SD 2.6) kg/m 2 , with nearly two-thirds of participants having a normal pre-pregnancy BMI (18.5 to pregnancy BMI pregnancy BMI ≥23.0 kg/m 2 ) accounted for 12.8%. No pregnant women reported smoking during their pregnancy while 13.4% of them had continued drinking. 22.8% of participants had hyperglycaemia. Their mean systolic blood pressure was 105.6 (SD 8.2) mm Hg, and diastolic blood pressure was 67.4 (SD 7.5) mm Hg. The relationships of maternal lifestyle and nutritional status with the health outcomes of pregnancy, postpartum maternity and infants will be analysed. Meanwhile, participants will be closely tracked to minimise loss to follow-up. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. A project for the strengthening of cooperative relations between Korea and Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Chung, W. S.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, S. W.; Ko, H. S.; Nho, I. Y.

    2002-03-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with Vietnam and strengthening of cooperative relations with Vietnam. During the study, the current status and prospect of electricity, use and development of nuclear energy in vietnam, were investigated including nuclear power plant and cooperative relations between two nations were also established. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) holding of policy seminar for high level decision makers of Vietnam 3) cooperaton between MOST/MOSTE, 4) joint feasibility study for the construction of KSNP into Vietnam and technical presentation of KSNP. It is recommended that cooperaion with Vietnam be implemented systematically through the long term based basic directions and integrated national strategies

  10. Does the Nature of the Experience Influence Suggestibility? A Study of Children's Event Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbo, Camilla; Mega, Carolina; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments examined effects of event modality on young children's memory and suggestibility. Findings indicated that 5-year-olds were more accurate than 3-year-olds and those participating in the event were more accurate than those either observing or listening to a narrative. Assessment method, level of event learning, delay to testing, and…

  11. Mental health inpatients' and staff members' suggestions for reducing physical restraint: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C; Rouse, L; Rae, S; Kar Ray, M

    2018-04-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Restraint has negative psychological, physical and relational consequences for mental health patients and staff. Restraint reduction interventions have been developed (e.g., "Safewards"). Limited qualitative research has explored suggestions on how to reduce physical restraint (and feasibility issues with implementing interventions) from those directly involved. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This paper explores mental health patients' and staff members' suggestions for reducing physical restraint, whilst addressing barriers to implementing these. Findings centred on four themes: improving communication and relationships; staffing factors; environment and space; and activities and distraction. Not all suggestions are addressed by currently available interventions. Barriers to implementation were identified, centring on a lack of time and/or resources; with the provision of more time for staff to spend with patients and implement interventions seen as essential to reducing physical restraint. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Improving communication and relationships between staff/patients, making staffing-related changes, improving ward environments and providing patient activities are central to restraint reduction in mental healthcare. Fundamental issues related to understaffing, high staff turnover, and lack of time and resources need addressing in order for suggestions to be successfully implemented. Introduction Physical restraint has negative consequences for all involved, and international calls for its reduction have emerged. Some restraint reduction interventions have been developed, but limited qualitative research explores suggestions on how to reduce physical restraint (and feasibility issues with implementation) from those directly involved. Aims To explore mental health patients' and staff members' suggestions for reducing physical restraint. Methods Interviews were conducted with 13 inpatients

  12. Developing School Psychology in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Phuong; Hagans, Kristi; Powers, Kristin; Hass, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Like China, Vietnam is a communist country with increasingly capitalist economic policies. A fundamental change occurred in these policies with the enactment of Vietnam's "doi moi" (renovation) policy in 1986 that called for a "free market with socialist orientations." However, this economic modernization has inadvertently…

  13. Demystifying Poverty Measurement in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Demombynes, Gabriel; Hoang Vu, Linh

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of poverty measurement issues in Vietnam for the non-specialist. Vietnam has two main approaches to measuring poverty. An income-based approach is used by the Ministry of Labor, Invalids, and Social Affairs to generate a classification used for determining anti-poverty program eligibility as well as poverty monitoring over the short term. A separate consumpt...

  14. Child and Family Factors Associated With Child Maltreatment in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, N.K. (Nhu K.); van Berkel, S.R. (Sheila R.); IJzendoorn, Rien; Alink, Lenneke R.A.

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis study aims to explore possible risk factors for child maltreatment in Vietnam by investigating the association of child and family factors with different types of child maltreatment (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, witnessing parental conflict, and neglect) and the occurrence of multiple types of child maltreatment. Cross-sectional data of 1,851 secondary and high school students aged 12 to 17 years (47.3% boys) in four provinces of Northern Vietnam were ...

  15. The Lessons of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M., Ed.

    This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…

  16. Genetic studies of Australian Trichomya hirsuta (Bivalvia: Mytilidae suggest antitropical divergence of this species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. Colgan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The hairy mussel Trichomya hirsuta (Lamarck, 1819 has disjunct known ranges in northeast Asia and Australia. There are substantial DNA sequence divergences for mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S ribosomal RNA between specimens from these ranges showing that neither is likely to derive from a recent colonization. The most recent common ancestor of the observed haplotypes may have lived as long ago as the early Pliocene. It is, however, suggested here that the mussels from the two regions continue to be regarded, tentatively, as conspecific because intraspecific divergence of mitochondrial DNA sequences can be very high in Mytilidae. The present knowledge of fossil history suggests that the direction of colonization in Trichomya may have been from the Southern to the Northern Hemisphere in contrast with migrations of other genera of Mytilidae.

  17. Comparing to Prepare: Suggesting Ways to Study Social Media Today—and Tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Olof Larsson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available While the two currently most popular social media services – Twitter and Facebook – are different in terms of technical and end-user details, this paper suggests that a series of similarities can also be found regarding different modes of communication offered by both services. These modes are labeled as Broadcasting, Redistributing, Interacting and Acknowledging. The argument is put forward that such synthesis of communication modes across platform could prove useful for longitudinal and comparative research efforts.

  18. Caulder's Story: "Chinese Handcuffs" and the Untold Story of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philion, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Calls attention to an important instructional resource that high school English and history teachers can use to engage their students in critical thinking about the Vietnam War. Gives some ideas for helping teenagers to make connections between the young adult novel "Chinese Handcuffs" and the Vietnam War. Suggests the integration of "Chinese…

  19. The study on the development of nuclear cooperation policy and the follow-up of nuclear joint committee meeting between Korea and Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, M. H.; Yun, S. W.; Jeong, I.; Choi, P. H.; Seo, M. W

    2004-02-01

    National efforts have been carried out positively to export nuclear technologies to oversee nuclear power markets, which can enable to contribute to enhance the national prestige and the promotion of cooperation foundation in international community. The demand of energy and electricity in Vietnam is continuously increasing due to rapid industrial development and economical development during the last several years. In order to meet the increasing electricity demand, Vietnam has been carrying out positive nuclear R and D and plans to introduce the first nuclear power plant between the year 2015 and 2010. It is necessary to strengthen the cooperative relations with Vietnam to introduce nuclear power plants as well as export of nuclear technologies through various channel such as the exchange of governmental cooperation delegation and the joint meeting of nuclear cooperation between Korea and Vietnam in field of peaceful use and development of nuclear energy between two countries.

  20. The study on the development of nuclear cooperation policy and the follow-up of nuclear joint committee meeting between Korea and Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M. H.; Yun, S. W.; Jeong, I.; Choi, P. H.; Seo, M. W.

    2004-02-01

    National efforts have been carried out positively to export nuclear technologies to oversee nuclear power markets, which can enable to contribute to enhance the national prestige and the promotion of cooperation foundation in international community. The demand of energy and electricity in Vietnam is continuously increasing due to rapid industrial development and economical development during the last several years. In order to meet the increasing electricity demand, Vietnam has been carrying out positive nuclear R and D and plans to introduce the first nuclear power plant between the year 2015 and 2010. It is necessary to strengthen the cooperative relations with Vietnam to introduce nuclear power plants as well as export of nuclear technologies through various channel such as the exchange of governmental cooperation delegation and the joint meeting of nuclear cooperation between Korea and Vietnam in field of peaceful use and development of nuclear energy between two countries

  1. Trade potential of climate smart goods of Vietnam: An application of gravity model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Van Vu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the trade potential of climate smart goods (CSG of Vietnam. In particular, the study employs gravity model with panel data for bilateral trade between Vietnam and its 45 partners from 2002 to 2013 with an objective of identifying the determinants explaining Vietnam's trade of climate smart products. The estimation results reveal that economic size, market size, distance, real exchange rate, border, and the quality of infrastructure of both Vietnam and its trading partners play a major role in bilateral trade of CSG. Additionally, the paper applies the method using speed of convergence and the estimated gravity equation to answer whether Vietnam has fully realized the potential trade of CSG. Accordingly, Vietnam has strong opportunity for trade expansion with 19 out of 45 countries in the scope of this paper.

  2. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in Malaysia and Vietnam; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Malaysia Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This survey arranged the status of coal utilization technology and the status of coal production, supply, etc. in Malaysia and Vietnam, examined/studied coal utilization systems in both countries, and finally assessed feasibility of introducing the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. As a country of primary energy source which is abundant in crude oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, coal, etc., Malaysia now depends on crude oil and natural gas for 80% of its energy, and places emphasis on exploration of natural gas and oil refining. In electric power and cement industries where coal is consumed, effectiveness and environmental issues in association with coal utilization are future subjects. In Vietnam, the north is abundant in hydroelectric power and anthracite, and the south in oil and gas resource, but the north and central districts are in a state of undevelopment. Coal is used for coal thermal power generation, cement industry, and residential/commercial fuel. In the future, effective coal utilization and environmental issues will be subjects. 16 refs., 38 figs., 75 tabs.

  3. Practice of using human excreta as fertilizer and implications for health in Nghean Province, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phuc, P. D.; Konradsen, Flemming; Phuong, P. T.

    2006-01-01

    The ancient practice of applying latrine wastes to agricultural land has maintained soil fertility in Vietnam for several centuries but may be associated with health risks if the wastes are inadequately treated before usage. This study aimed at investigating the perceptions and handling practices...... to respondents with a low educational level (chi2 = 7.6; phealth impacts of latrine waste use in agriculture are to be reduced, then it is suggested that sustainable interventions should take into consideration farmers current excreta-use practices.......The ancient practice of applying latrine wastes to agricultural land has maintained soil fertility in Vietnam for several centuries but may be associated with health risks if the wastes are inadequately treated before usage. This study aimed at investigating the perceptions and handling practices...

  4. Vietnam seeks help expanding voluntary surgical contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piet-pelon, N J; Sukop, S

    1992-07-01

    Recent surveys by the Vietnamese Ministry of Health suggest that 60% of married women desire no more children. Yet only 2% of currently married women and less than 1/2 of 1% of their partners use sterilization. Underscoring the high unmet need for effective family planning, over 1 million abortions (legal in Vietnam for the past 20 years) are performed annually. This rate corresponds to 1 abortion for every live birth. The Ministry of Health has recently welcomed a variety of organizations, including AVSC, whose assistance can help expand the country's family planning programs. Sorely lacking in supplies, equipment, and trained personnel, Vietnam has merited priority status--2nd only to China and India--from the UNFPA, which has committed $36 million over the next 4 years. Other organizations currently working in Vietnam include the Population Council, the Population Crisis Committee, and the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Despite enormous casualties during the war years, and a decrease since the 1970s in average family size from 6 to 4 children, the population of Vietnam has continued to grow rapidly, far outpacing economic growth. Currently 67 million, the population is expected to reach 80 million by the year 2000. The average Vietnamese annual income is only $195, among the lowest in the world. Doi moi, the process of economic reform begun in 1986, coupled with new government incentives for families who have no more than 2 children, is changing the face of family planning in Vietnam. Newly opened pharmacies sell imported birth control pills and condoms (to those who can afford them), while government hospitals and health clinics provide mainly IUDs, in addition to limited supplies of pills and condoms. Throughout the country, some 8000 community-level health centers are staffed by nurse-midwives trained in family planning. Voluntary sterilization is available at the district, provincial, and national hospitals. All married women may obtain family

  5. Factors influencing business of mobile telecommunication service providers in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Thanh Hai

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the Ministry of Information and Communications in Vietnam, as of November 2015, the number of mobile subscribers is over 120 million ones, accounting for over 86% of the total number of telephone subscribers. With a total population of over 92 million Vietnam citizens, a stable national economy and a large populations of young consumers in the country, mobile communication industries still have a huge potentials for future development. Telecommunication service providers in Vietnam are facing fierce competition. Subscribers are expecting OTT (Over the Top applications, good quality service and handset subsidy. This study investigated whether legal frameworks, OTT applications, quality of service and handset subsidy are important components of mobile telecommunication service in Vietnam. This study used quantitative method to distribute surveys to mobile subscribers. Findings found that all four factors significantly influence mobile business in Vietnam. Thus, telecommunication service providers in Vietnam must continuously innovate to enhance operational competitiveness, improve business efficiency, expand business scale, and improve its position in the market in order to ensure sustainable development. Moreover, Vietnamese government needs to develop a legal framework to help mobile telecommunication service providers enhance the common interests and benefits of the entire society.

  6. Genome-wide study of association and interaction with maternal cytomegalovirus infection suggests new schizophrenia loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. Børglum; D. Demontis; J. Grove (Jakob); J. Pallesen (J.); M.V. Hollegaard (Mads V); C.B. Pedersen (C.); A. Hedemand (A.); M. Mattheisen (Manuel); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Nyegaard (M.); T.F. Orntoft (Torben); C. Wiuf (Carsten); M. Didriksen (Michael); M. Nordentoft (M.); M.M. Nö then (M.); M. Rietschel (Marcella); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); S. Cichon (Sven); R.H. Yolken (Robert); D.M. Hougaard (David); P.B. Mortensen; O. Mors

    2014-01-01

    textabstractGenetic and environmental components as well as their interaction contribute to the risk of schizophrenia, making it highly relevant to include environmental factors in genetic studies of schizophrenia. This study comprises genome-wide association (GWA) and follow-up analyses of all

  7. Improvement in engineering properties of soft-soil using cement and lime additives: A case study of southern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    To-Anh Phan, Vu; Ngoc-Anh Pham, Kha

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of using two additives to improve natural soft soil properties in southern Vietnam (i.g., cement and cement-lime mixture). The specimens were prepared by compacting method. Firstly, the natural soil was mixed with cement or cement-lime to determine the optimum water contents of various additive contents. Then, optimum water content was used to produce samples to test some engineering properties such as unconfined compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and Young’s modulus. The specimens were tested by various curing duration of 7, 14, and 28 days. Results indicated that using cement additive is suitable for improvement of soft soil in the local area and cement-soil stabilization can be replaced as the subbase layer of the flexible pavement according to current Vietnamese standard. In addition, a higher cement content has a greater compressive strength as well as tensile strength. Besides, the Young’ modulus has significantly increased with a long-term curing age and more cement content. No evidences of increasing in strength and modulus are found with the cement-lime-soil stabilization. Finally, the best-fit power function is established by the relationships between unconfined compressive strength and splitting tensile strength as well unconfined compressive strength and Young’s Modulus, with the coefficient of determination, R2>0.999.

  8. Assessment of benefits of research reactors in less developed countries. A case study of the Dalat reactor in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hien, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of data on nuclear research reactor (NRR) and socio-economic conditions across countries reveals highly significant relationships of reactor power with GDP and R and D expenditure. The trends revealed can be used as preliminary guides for feasibility assessment of investment in a NRR. Concerning reactor performance, i.e. the number of reactor operation days per year, the covariation with R and D expenditure is most significant, but moderate, implying that there are other controlling factors, e.g. the engagement of country in nuclear power development. Thus, the size of the R and D fund is a most significant indicator to look at in reactor planning. Unfortunately, the lack of adequate R and D funding is a common and chronic problem in less developed countries. As NRR is among the biggest R and D investment in less developed countries, adequate cost benefit assessment is rightfully required. In the case of Vietnam, during 15 years of operation of a 500 kW NRR 2300 Ci of radioisotopes were delivered and 45,000 samples were analysed for multielemental compositions. From a pure financial viewpoint these figures would still be insignificant to justify the investment. However, the impact of the reactor on the technological development seems not to be a matter of pro and cons. The status of reactor utilization and lessons learned are presented and discussed. (author)

  9. Assessment of benefits of research reactors in less developed countries. A case study of the Dalat reactor in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hien, P.D. [Vietnam Atomic Energy Agency, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    1999-08-01

    The analysis of data on nuclear research reactor (NRR) and socio-economic conditions across countries reveals highly significant relationships of reactor power with GDP and R and D expenditure. The trends revealed can be used as preliminary guides for feasibility assessment of investment in a NRR. Concerning reactor performance, i.e. the number of reactor operation days per year, the covariation with R and D expenditure is most significant, but moderate, implying that there are other controlling factors, e.g. the engagement of country in nuclear power development. Thus, the size of the R and D fund is a most significant indicator to look at in reactor planning. Unfortunately, the lack of adequate R and D funding is a common and chronic problem in less developed countries. As NRR is among the biggest R and D investment in less developed countries, adequate cost benefit assessment is rightfully required. In the case of Vietnam, during 15 years of operation of a 500 kW NRR 2300 Ci of radioisotopes were delivered and 45,000 samples were analysed for multielemental compositions. From a pure financial viewpoint these figures would still be insignificant to justify the investment. However, the impact of the reactor on the technological development seems not to be a matter of pro and cons. The status of reactor utilization and lessons learned are presented and discussed. (author)

  10. Armor in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    battles a-Riuot the insurgent enemy, especially with armor. French contingents were present in Tndo Chinh P-w early as 1852, but it was not until 1884...committed to Vietnam were straight infantry. These troons er•A tran -norted in hn4±{ copters and usually airlifted to the battle zone; however, once...0STAINf0 FROM VKTNAM NATIONAL MAP SERVICE (NOS) PHU-YEN OCTOBER 19665 OARLAC ......... KKAN1+ HOA QLWA- DUC TUYEN- DUC PHUOC- NINH_ C;ry OF -10 T CAM RANK TAY

  11. Rural Credit in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders, but formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation. Interest rates fell from 1997...... to 2002, reflecting increased market integration; but the determinants of formal and informal credit demand are distinct. Credit rationing depends on education and credit history, but we find no evidence of a bias against women. Regional differences are striking, and a ‘one size fits all’ approach...... to credit policy is clearly inappropriate....

  12. EU and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    during most of the period since the early 1990s, when aid flows from the EU started growing. Regarding trade relations, we note that the EU’s increasing use of antidumping tariffs against Vietnamese exporters during the past years could be an indication of a less friendly and more competitive attitude...... was limited to aid. The reason is largely Vietnam’s historical experiences from the aid relationship with the Soviet Union, which created dependence and eventually an economic crisis when aid flows dried up in the late 1980s. Instead, there has been substantial tension between the donor community and Vietnam...

  13. Life at extreme conditions: neutron scattering studies of biological molecules suggest that evolution selected dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaccai, Joseph Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    The short review concentrates on recent work performed at the neutrons in biology laboratories of the Institut Laue Langevin and Institut de Biologie Structurale in Grenoble. Extremophile organisms have been discovered that require extreme conditions of temperature, pressure or solvent environment for survival. The existence of such organisms poses a significant challenge in understanding the physical chemistry of their proteins, in view of the great sensitivity of protein structure and stability to the aqueous environment and to external conditions in general. Results of neutron scattering measurements on the dynamics of proteins from extremophile organisms, in vitro as well as in vivo, indicated remarkably how adaptation to extreme conditions involves forces and fluctuation amplitudes that have been selected specifically, suggesting that evolutionary macromolecular selection proceeded via dynamics. The experiments were performed on a halophilic protein, and membrane adapted to high salt, a thermophilic enzyme adapted to high temperature and its mesophilic (adapted to 37 degC) homologue; and in vivo for psychrophilic, mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic bacteria, adapted respectively to temperatures of 4 degC, 37 degC, 75 degC and 85 degC. Further work demonstrated the existence of a water component of exceptionally low mobility in an extreme halophile from the Dead Sea, which is not present in mesophile bacterial cells. (author)

  14. Urinary amino acid alterations in 3-year-old children with neurodevelopmental effects due to perinatal dioxin exposure in Vietnam: a nested case-control study for neurobiomarker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijo, Muneko; Tai, Pham The; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Nghi, Tran Ngoc; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Morikawa, Yuko; Waseda, Tomoo; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study of 3-year-old children in a dioxin contamination hot spot in Vietnam, the high total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ-PCDDs/Fs)-exposed group during the perinatal period displayed lower Bayley III neurodevelopmental scores, whereas the high 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-exposed group displayed increased autistic traits. In autistic children, urinary amino acid profiles have revealed metabolic alterations in the amino acids that serve as neurotransmitters in the developing brain. Therefore, our present study aimed to investigate the use of alterations in urinary amino acid excretion as biomarkers of dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits in highly exposed 3-year-old children in Vietnam. A nested case-control study of urinary analyses was performed for 26 children who were selected from 111 3-year-old children whose perinatal dioxin exposure levels and neurodevelopmental status were examined in follow-up surveys conducted in a dioxin contaminated hot spot. We compared urinary amino acid levels between the following 4 groups: (1) a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD-exposed group; (2) a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD-exposed group; (3) a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and poorly developed group; and (4) a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and well-developed group. Urinary levels of histidine and tryptophan were significantly decreased in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group, as well as in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD group, compared with the low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and well-developed group. However, the ratio of histidine to glycine was significantly lower only in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group. Furthermore, urinary histidine levels and the ratio of histidine to glycine were significantly correlated with neurodevelopmental scores, particularly for language and fine motor skills. These results indicate that urinary histidine is specifically associated with dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits, suggesting that

  15. Urinary amino acid alterations in 3-year-old children with neurodevelopmental effects due to perinatal dioxin exposure in Vietnam: a nested case-control study for neurobiomarker discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneko Nishijo

    Full Text Available In our previous study of 3-year-old children in a dioxin contamination hot spot in Vietnam, the high total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ-PCDDs/Fs-exposed group during the perinatal period displayed lower Bayley III neurodevelopmental scores, whereas the high 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD-exposed group displayed increased autistic traits. In autistic children, urinary amino acid profiles have revealed metabolic alterations in the amino acids that serve as neurotransmitters in the developing brain. Therefore, our present study aimed to investigate the use of alterations in urinary amino acid excretion as biomarkers of dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits in highly exposed 3-year-old children in Vietnam. A nested case-control study of urinary analyses was performed for 26 children who were selected from 111 3-year-old children whose perinatal dioxin exposure levels and neurodevelopmental status were examined in follow-up surveys conducted in a dioxin contaminated hot spot. We compared urinary amino acid levels between the following 4 groups: (1 a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD-exposed group; (2 a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD-exposed group; (3 a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and poorly developed group; and (4 a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and well-developed group. Urinary levels of histidine and tryptophan were significantly decreased in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group, as well as in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD group, compared with the low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and well-developed group. However, the ratio of histidine to glycine was significantly lower only in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group. Furthermore, urinary histidine levels and the ratio of histidine to glycine were significantly correlated with neurodevelopmental scores, particularly for language and fine motor skills. These results indicate that urinary histidine is specifically associated with dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits

  16. Dilemmas in examining understanding of nature of science in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao-Do, Thi Phuong; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2017-06-01

    Scholars proved nature of science (NOS) has made certain contributions to science teaching and learning. Nonetheless, what, how and how much NOS should be integrated in the science curriculum of each country cannot be a benchmark, due to the influence of culture and society. Before employing NOS in a new context, it should be carefully studied. In assessing views of NOS in Vietnam, a developing country with Eastern culture where the NOS is not consider a compulsory learning outcome, there are several issues that researchers and educators should notice to develop an appropriate instrument that can clearly exhibit a NOS view of Vietnamese. They may include: time for the survey; length, content, type, and terms of the questionnaire; Vietnamese epistemology and philosophy; and some other Vietnamese social and cultural aspects. The most important reason for these considerations is that a Vietnamese view of NOS and NOS assessment possibly differs from the Western ideas due to the social and cultural impact. As a result, a Western assessment tool may become less effective in an Eastern context. The suggestions and implications in this study were derived from a prolonged investigation on Vietnamese science teacher educators and student teachers of School of Education, at Can Tho University, a State University in Mekong Delta region, Vietnam.

  17. High Performance Work System and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Multinational Companies in Vietnam: the Mediation Effect of Career Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giang Thi Huong Vu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relationship between high performance work system (HPWS and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB in multinational corporations (MNCs in Vietnam, a fast-developing country with highly economic growth in Asia, was investigated. Besides, the underlying mechanism of this relationship was also explored. From the social exchange approach, an underlying mediated mechanism of career success in the relationship between HPWS and OCB was hypothesized. Data collected from individual employees working in multinational companies in Vietnam was used to test the hypotheses. The research findings supported the partial mediating role of career success in the positive relationship between HPWS and OCB. In addition, research implications as well as suggestions for future research were also presented.   Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Dalam studi ini, hubungan antara high performance work system (HPWS dan organizational citizenship behavior (OCB di multinational corporations (MNC di Vietnam, negara cepat berkembang dengan pertumbuhan ekonomi yang sangat tinggi di Asia, ditelliti. Selain itu, mekanisme yang mendasari hubungan ini juga dieksplorasi. Dari pendekatan pertukaran sosial, mekanisme mediasi yang dimediasi dari kesuksesan karir dalam hubungan antara HPWS dan OCB dihipotesiskan. Data yang dikumpulkan dari masing-masing karyawan yang bekerja di perusahaan multinasional di Vietnam digunakan untuk menguji hipotesis. Temuan penelitian mendukung peran mediasi parsial dari kesuksesan karir dalam hubungan positif antara HPWS dan OCB. Selain itu, implikasi penelitian serta saran untuk penelitian masa depan juga disajikan.

  18. Genome-wide study of association and interaction with maternal cytomegalovirus infection suggests new schizophrenia loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børglum, A D; Demontis, D; Grove, J

    2014-01-01

    Genetic and environmental components as well as their interaction contribute to the risk of schizophrenia, making it highly relevant to include environmental factors in genetic studies of schizophrenia. This study comprises genome-wide association (GWA) and follow-up analyses of all individuals...... born in Denmark since 1981 and diagnosed with schizophrenia as well as controls from the same birth cohort. Furthermore, we present the first genome-wide interaction survey of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. The GWA analysis included 888 cases...... was found for rs7902091 (P(SNP × CMV)=7.3 × 10(-7)) in CTNNA3, a gene not previously implicated in schizophrenia, stressing the importance of including environmental factors in genetic studies....

  19. Contamination by perfluorinated compounds in water near waste recycling and disposal sites in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Isobe, Tomohiko; Misaki, Kentaro; Takahashi, Shin; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-04-01

    There are very few reports on the contamination by perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in the environment of developing countries, especially regarding their emission from waste recycling and disposal sites. This is the first study on the occurrence of a wide range of PFCs (17 compounds) in ambient water in Vietnam, including samples collected from a municipal dumping site (MD), an e-waste recycling site (ER), a battery recycling site (BR) and a rural control site. The highest PFC concentration was found in a leachate sample from MD (360 ng/L). The PFC concentrations in ER and BR (mean, 57 and 16 ng/L, respectively) were also significantly higher than those detected in the rural control site (mean, 9.4 ng/L), suggesting that municipal solid waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment are potential contamination sources of PFCs in Vietnam. In general, the most abundant PFCs were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUDA; waste materials.

  20. Genome-wide study of association and interaction with maternal cytomegalovirus infection suggests new schizophrenia loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børglum, A D; Demontis, D; Grove, J; Pallesen, J; Hollegaard, M V; Pedersen, C B; Hedemand, A; Mattheisen, M; Uitterlinden, A; Nyegaard, M; Ørntoft, T; Wiuf, C; Didriksen, M; Nordentoft, M; Nöthen, M M; Rietschel, M; Ophoff, R A; Cichon, S; Yolken, R H; Hougaard, D M; Mortensen, P B; Mors, O

    2014-03-01

    Genetic and environmental components as well as their interaction contribute to the risk of schizophrenia, making it highly relevant to include environmental factors in genetic studies of schizophrenia. This study comprises genome-wide association (GWA) and follow-up analyses of all individuals born in Denmark since 1981 and diagnosed with schizophrenia as well as controls from the same birth cohort. Furthermore, we present the first genome-wide interaction survey of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. The GWA analysis included 888 cases and 882 controls, and the follow-up investigation of the top GWA results was performed in independent Danish (1396 cases and 1803 controls) and German-Dutch (1169 cases, 3714 controls) samples. The SNPs most strongly associated in the single-marker analysis of the combined Danish samples were rs4757144 in ARNTL (P=3.78 × 10(-6)) and rs8057927 in CDH13 (P=1.39 × 10(-5)). Both genes have previously been linked to schizophrenia or other psychiatric disorders. The strongest associated SNP in the combined analysis, including Danish and German-Dutch samples, was rs12922317 in RUNDC2A (P=9.04 × 10(-7)). A region-based analysis summarizing independent signals in segments of 100 kb identified a new region-based genome-wide significant locus overlapping the gene ZEB1 (P=7.0 × 10(-7)). This signal was replicated in the follow-up analysis (P=2.3 × 10(-2)). Significant interaction with maternal CMV infection was found for rs7902091 (P(SNP × CMV)=7.3 × 10(-7)) in CTNNA3, a gene not previously implicated in schizophrenia, stressing the importance of including environmental factors in genetic studies.

  1. Eye Movement Training and Suggested Gaze Strategies in Tunnel Vision - A Randomized and Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Iliya V; Mackeben, Manfred; Vollmer, Annika; Martus, Peter; Nguyen, Nhung X; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Degenerative retinal diseases, especially retinitis pigmentosa (RP), lead to severe peripheral visual field loss (tunnel vision), which impairs mobility. The lack of peripheral information leads to fewer horizontal eye movements and, thus, diminished scanning in RP patients in a natural environment walking task. This randomized controlled study aimed to improve mobility and the dynamic visual field by applying a compensatory Exploratory Saccadic Training (EST). Oculomotor responses during walking and avoiding obstacles in a controlled environment were studied before and after saccade or reading training in 25 RP patients. Eye movements were recorded using a mobile infrared eye tracker (Tobii glasses) that measured a range of spatial and temporal variables. Patients were randomly assigned to two training conditions: Saccade (experimental) and reading (control) training. All subjects who first performed reading training underwent experimental training later (waiting list control group). To assess the effect of training on subjects, we measured performance in the training task and the following outcome variables related to daily life: Response Time (RT) during exploratory saccade training, Percent Preferred Walking Speed (PPWS), the number of collisions with obstacles, eye position variability, fixation duration, and the total number of fixations including the ones in the subjects' blind area of the visual field. In the saccade training group, RTs on average decreased, while the PPWS significantly increased. The improvement persisted, as tested 6 weeks after the end of the training. On average, the eye movement range of RP patients before and after training was similar to that of healthy observers. In both, the experimental and reading training groups, we found many fixations outside the subjects' seeing visual field before and after training. The average fixation duration was significantly shorter after the training, but only in the experimental training condition

  2. Youth Transition to Employment in Vietnam: A Vulnerable Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi Tuyet

    2018-01-01

    Literature suggests that educational attainment is one of the significant factors affecting youth transition to work. The process of capital accumulation through education is suggested as the key marker of social inclusion and exclusion. This paper compares the educational attainment among youth in Vietnam with their status in employment. It uses…

  3. Eye Movement Training and Suggested Gaze Strategies in Tunnel Vision - A Randomized and Controlled Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliya V Ivanov

    Full Text Available Degenerative retinal diseases, especially retinitis pigmentosa (RP, lead to severe peripheral visual field loss (tunnel vision, which impairs mobility. The lack of peripheral information leads to fewer horizontal eye movements and, thus, diminished scanning in RP patients in a natural environment walking task. This randomized controlled study aimed to improve mobility and the dynamic visual field by applying a compensatory Exploratory Saccadic Training (EST.Oculomotor responses during walking and avoiding obstacles in a controlled environment were studied before and after saccade or reading training in 25 RP patients. Eye movements were recorded using a mobile infrared eye tracker (Tobii glasses that measured a range of spatial and temporal variables. Patients were randomly assigned to two training conditions: Saccade (experimental and reading (control training. All subjects who first performed reading training underwent experimental training later (waiting list control group. To assess the effect of training on subjects, we measured performance in the training task and the following outcome variables related to daily life: Response Time (RT during exploratory saccade training, Percent Preferred Walking Speed (PPWS, the number of collisions with obstacles, eye position variability, fixation duration, and the total number of fixations including the ones in the subjects' blind area of the visual field.In the saccade training group, RTs on average decreased, while the PPWS significantly increased. The improvement persisted, as tested 6 weeks after the end of the training. On average, the eye movement range of RP patients before and after training was similar to that of healthy observers. In both, the experimental and reading training groups, we found many fixations outside the subjects' seeing visual field before and after training. The average fixation duration was significantly shorter after the training, but only in the experimental training

  4. Applying Bayesian statistics to the study of psychological trauma: A suggestion for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalch, Matthew M

    2016-03-01

    Several contemporary researchers have noted the virtues of Bayesian methods of data analysis. Although debates continue about whether conventional or Bayesian statistics is the "better" approach for researchers in general, there are reasons why Bayesian methods may be well suited to the study of psychological trauma in particular. This article describes how Bayesian statistics offers practical solutions to the problems of data non-normality, small sample size, and missing data common in research on psychological trauma. After a discussion of these problems and the effects they have on trauma research, this article explains the basic philosophical and statistical foundations of Bayesian statistics and how it provides solutions to these problems using an applied example. Results of the literature review and the accompanying example indicates the utility of Bayesian statistics in addressing problems common in trauma research. Bayesian statistics provides a set of methodological tools and a broader philosophical framework that is useful for trauma researchers. Methodological resources are also provided so that interested readers can learn more. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The long-term impact of war on health and wellbeing in Northern Vietnam: some glimpses from a recent survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerawichitchainan, Bussarawan; Korinek, Kim

    2012-06-01

    War is deemed a major threat to public health; yet, the long-term effects of war on individual health have rarely been examined in the context of developing countries. Based on data collected as a pilot follow-up to the Vietnam Longitudinal Survey, this study examines current health profiles of northern Vietnamese war survivors who entered early adulthood during the Vietnam War and now represent Vietnam's older adult population. To ascertain how war and military service in the early life course may have had long-term impacts on health status of Vietnam's current older adults, we compare multi-dimensional measures of health among veterans and nonveterans, and within these groups, regardless of their military service, between combatants and noncombatants. Multivariate results suggest that despite prolonged exposure to war, veterans and those who served in combat roles are not significantly different from their civilian and noncombatant counterparts on most health outcomes later in life. This is in contrast to American veterans who fought on the opposing side of the war. The near absence of differences in older adult health among northern Vietnamese with varying degrees of war involvement might be explained by the encompassing extent of war; the notion that time heals; and the hardiness and resilience against ill health that are by-products of shared struggle in war and a victorious outcome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of the white finger risk prediction model in ISO 5349 suggests need for prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemne, G; Lundström, R

    1996-05-01

    The risk prediction model for white fingers in Annex A of ISO 5349 is not likely to offer protection from all tools and all work processes. It is also probable that some work place changes it has initiated are either redundant or lack the intended effect. The main reasons for these shortcomings are the following. The often demonstrated disagreement between predicted and observed white fingers occurrence may be related to the fact that the model is based on latency data. This leads to an overestimation, to an unknown extent, of true group risks. A possible healthy worker effect, resulting in underestimation, has not been considered, and uncertainty because of recall bias is connected with using latency as effect variable in a slowly developing disorder like white fingers. The diagnostic criteria for white fingers have varied over the years, causing a possible inclusion of circulatory disturbances other than those induced by vibration. Among insufficiently clarified matters unrelated to vibration are variations in individual susceptibility and other host factors that modify vibration effects, uncertainty concerning daily or total effective exposure, and the fact that variation in work methods and processes as well as ergonomic factors other than vibration tend to make different groups incomparable form the viewpoint of risk of injury. Lack of sufficient data on vibration measurements and employment durations add to the uncertainty, as do variations in tool conditions (grinder wheels, etc) and inherent difficulties in measurement. Finally, the ISO 5349 frequency-weighting curve only relates to acute sensory effects rather than chronic effects on vascular functions like white fingers, and directional difference in sensitivity has not been incorporated in the curve. Data on exposure-response relationships are needed from prospective studies that monitor the dose of exposure to special vibration types and all relevant environmental agents, employ diagnostics with good

  7. FY 2000 Feasibility study on the environmentally-friendly coal utilization systems as part of the international project for coal utilization measures. Feasibility study on supporting introduction of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization systems in Vietnam (Model project for introduction of advanced coal preparation systems); 2000 nendo kokusai sekitan riyo taisaku jigyo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa jigyo Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo (kodo sentan system donyu model jigyo kanosei chosa jigyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    The feasibility study was conducted on a model project in Vietnam, aimed at solving the environmental pollution problems resulting from use of coal by demonstrating and disseminating the Japan's environmental technologies in the Southeast Asian countries. The feasibility study was conducted for the Cua Ong Coal Preparation Enterprise, which has the largest coal preparation capacity in Vietnam and port facilities. It is treating raw coal from 10 coal mines for classification and preparation, and shipping coal of various types that meet the standards for domestic use and export. The survey results point out that unrecovered coal remains in waste water discharged from the coal preparation plants to pollute the sea area, and that quantity of the refuse increases because of the unrecovered coal it contains. The environmental technologies needed to introduce include modification to variable wave pattern type jigging separator, refuse height measuring instrument and automatic controller, circulating heavy medium gravimeter, highly functional settling pond, and flocculent facilities. (NEDO)

  8. Studying the effectiveness of activated carbon R95 respirators in reducing the inhalation of combustion by-products in Hanoi, Vietnam: a demonstration study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wertheim Heiman FL

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban air pollution is an increasing health problem, particularly in Asia, where the combustion of fossil fuels has increased rapidly as a result of industrialization and socio-economic development. The adverse health impacts of urban air pollution are well established, but less is known about effective intervention strategies. In this demonstration study we set out to establish methods to assess whether wearing an R95 activated carbon respirator could reduce intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH in street workers in Hanoi, Vietnam. Methods In this demonstration study we performed a cross-over study in which non-smoking participants that worked at least 4 hours per day on the street in Hanoi were randomly allocated to specific respirator wearing sequences for a duration of 2 weeks. Urines were collected after each period, i.e. twice per week, at the end of the working day to measure hydroxy PAHs (OH-PAH using gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. The primary endpoint was the urinary concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP. Results Forty-four participants (54.5% male, median age 40 years were enrolled with the majority being motorbike taxi drivers (38.6% or street vendors (34.1%. The baseline creatinine corrected urinary level for 1-OHP was much higher than other international comparisons: 1020 ng/g creatinine (IQR: 604–1551. Wearing a R95 mask had no significant effect on 1-OHP levels: estimated multiplicative effect 1.0 (95% CI: 0.92-1.09 or other OH-PAHs, except 1-hydroxynaphthalene (1-OHN: 0.86 (95% CI: 0.11-0.96. Conclusions High levels of urine OH-PAHs were found in Hanoi street workers. No effect was seen on urine OH-PAH levels by wearing R95 particulate respirators in an area of high urban air pollution, except for 1-OHN. A lack of effect may be de to gaseous phase PAHs that were not filtered efficiently by the respirator. The high levels of urinary OH-PAHs found, urges for effective

  9. The drink driving situation in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Luu Bich; Thieng, Nguyen Thi; Huong, Nguyen Lan

    2012-01-01

    To identify the extent and nature of the problem and the main contributing factors to drink driving crashes; determine the current mechanisms in place, particularly in terms of legislation and its enforcement; and identify baseline data and relevant stakeholders. The situational assessment was based on the collection of secondary data from available reports and documents, in-depth interviews with key representatives at a central level, and field surveys in provinces. Vietnam has experienced phenomenal growth in motor vehicles, especially motorcycles, in the last decade (400%). This initially led to an increase in deaths from road crashes, but since 2006 the number has stayed fairly level according to police statistics. However, comparisons with health data suggest that the number of deaths is much higher and there are clearly a number of problems with the relevant data systems. Data on the percentage of drivers exceeding legal limits are not available, but police statistics indicated that drinking alcohol was a contributory factor in 7 percent of motor vehicle crashes. This is likely to be an underestimate, because the police and health services do not have the equipment to measure the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels of all drivers in crashes. Motorcycle riders and young people are in the high-risk groups. There are strict BAC limits starting at over zero and severe punishments for drunk drivers involved in serious crashes. However, the police do not have adequate manpower or equipment to conduct regular and frequent roadside checking for drivers who have been drinking. There have also been a number of education programs on road safety including drinking and driving, but these have not included sustained and intensive campaigns targeting the high-risk groups. The National Traffic Safety Committee (NTSC) is responsible for coordinating the relevant agencies but there is still a problem with lack of information sharing between agencies. This study completed

  10. Vegetation fires and air pollution in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thanh Ha; Thanh Nguyen, Thi Nhat; Lasko, Kristofer; Ilavajhala, Shriram; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Justice, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Forest fires are a significant source of air pollution in Asia. In this study, we integrate satellite remote sensing data and ground-based measurements to infer fire-air pollution relationships in selected regions of Vietnam. We first characterized the active fires and burnt areas at a regional scale from MODIS satellite data. We then used satellite-derived active fire data to correlate the resulting atmospheric pollution. Further, we analyzed the relationship between satellite atmospheric variables and ground-based air pollutant parameters. Our results show peak fire activity during March in Vietnam, with hotspots in the Northwest and Central Highlands. Active fires were significantly correlated with UV Aerosol Index (UVAI), aerosol extinction absorption optical depth (AAOD), and Carbon Monoxide. The use of satellite aerosol optical thickness improved the prediction of Particulate Matter (PM) concentration significantly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Facilitators and barriers for retention in HIV care between testing and treatment in Asia-A study in Bangladesh, Indonesia, Lao, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines and Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Koirala

    Full Text Available The need for efficient retention in HIV care is more evident than ever because of the expansion of earlier ART initiation and the shift towards 'Test and Treat'. This study assesses factors affecting participation in the HIV care cascade among people living with HIV (PLHIV in the Asia-Pacific Region.A total of 7843 PLHIV aged 18-50 years were recruited using targeted and venue-based sampling between October 1, 2012, and May 31, 2013, across 59 sites in 7 countries (Bangladesh, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines and Vietnam. Statistically significant associations between demographic and health system determinants, and various steps in the HIV care cascade were computed using a generalized structural equation model.A high proportion of PLHIV (40-51% presented late for HIV care and delayed linkage to care in all seven countries. However, once PLHIV enrolled in care, retention in the various steps of the care cascade including adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART was satisfactory. The proportion still engaged in HIV care at 36 months post HIV diagnosis, varied from 78% in Nepal to >90% in Lao PDR. Similarly, the proportion of ART initiation who also were adherent to ART ranged from 91% in Bangladesh to >95% in Philippines/ Vietnam and from 70% in Lao PDR to 89% in the Philippines respectively. The following factors enhanced the likelihood of ART initiation and high adherence to HIV care and ART: good client-provider communication, high HIV treatment literacy, a referral from a health worker and TB/HIV co-infection. The following barriers were identified: young age, sex work, imprisonment, transgender identity, illiteracy, rural residence, alcohol/ injecting drug use, perceived poor health status, lack of health insurance, fear of confidentiality breach, self-referral for HIV testing, and public hospital as the place of HIV diagnosis.HIV programme planners should ensure easy access to HIV testing

  12. Facilitators and barriers for retention in HIV care between testing and treatment in Asia-A study in Bangladesh, Indonesia, Lao, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, Sushil; Deuba, Keshab; Nampaisan, Oranuch; Marrone, Gaetano; Ekström, Anna Mia

    2017-01-01

    The need for efficient retention in HIV care is more evident than ever because of the expansion of earlier ART initiation and the shift towards 'Test and Treat'. This study assesses factors affecting participation in the HIV care cascade among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the Asia-Pacific Region. A total of 7843 PLHIV aged 18-50 years were recruited using targeted and venue-based sampling between October 1, 2012, and May 31, 2013, across 59 sites in 7 countries (Bangladesh, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines and Vietnam). Statistically significant associations between demographic and health system determinants, and various steps in the HIV care cascade were computed using a generalized structural equation model. A high proportion of PLHIV (40-51%) presented late for HIV care and delayed linkage to care in all seven countries. However, once PLHIV enrolled in care, retention in the various steps of the care cascade including adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) was satisfactory. The proportion still engaged in HIV care at 36 months post HIV diagnosis, varied from 78% in Nepal to >90% in Lao PDR. Similarly, the proportion of ART initiation who also were adherent to ART ranged from 91% in Bangladesh to >95% in Philippines/ Vietnam and from 70% in Lao PDR to 89% in the Philippines respectively. The following factors enhanced the likelihood of ART initiation and high adherence to HIV care and ART: good client-provider communication, high HIV treatment literacy, a referral from a health worker and TB/HIV co-infection. The following barriers were identified: young age, sex work, imprisonment, transgender identity, illiteracy, rural residence, alcohol/ injecting drug use, perceived poor health status, lack of health insurance, fear of confidentiality breach, self-referral for HIV testing, and public hospital as the place of HIV diagnosis. HIV programme planners should ensure easy access to HIV testing and earlier

  13. "Causal" Communication: Media Portrayals and Public Attributions for Vietnam Veterans' Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Robert J.; Sen, Shaikat

    A study of "causal" communication, the communication of attribution-related information, investigated the relationship of exposure to mass media (especially film) depictions of Vietnam veterans to perceived causes for the problems facing a number of Vietnam veterans. The study further extends attribution theory to social interaction and…

  14. Disrupting the Forrest Gump Effect: Countering Suggestibility in the Social Studies Classroom through the Use of Actual Footage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Judith Raizy

    2017-01-01

    Film is a tool used in the social studies classroom, even if it contradicts documented history. Suggestibility, the incorporation of misinformation from historical feature film, is commonplace, and some social studies instructional methods exacerbate inaccurate memories. Existing research indicates that attempts to counter suggestibility have met…

  15. Vietnam; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This paper assesses the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper of Vietnam, known as the Comprehensive Poverty Reduction and Growth Strategy (CPRGS). It is an action program to achieve economic growth and poverty reduction objectives. This paper reviews the objectives and tasks of socio-economic development and poverty reduction. The government of Vietnam takes poverty reduction as a cutting-through objective in the process of country socio-economic development and declares its commitment to impleme...

  16. Twenty-Seven-Year Follow-Up of Vietnam Air War USAF POWs and Matched Controls Not Captured: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledge, William; Rozanova, Julia; Dorset, Julianne

    2018-01-01

    To provide a follow up of a 1976 study of the impact of captivity on U.S. Air Force (USAF) POWs and USAF Controls matched for time in Southeast Asia, military rank and aircraft crew position. Qualitative study of replies to open ended questions of positive and negative changes due to their captivity/combat experiences made by participants (POWs and Controls) who replied in both 1976 and in 2003. Both groups acknowledged positive and negative effects of the experiences in 1976. In 1976 and 2003 the POWs mainly reported negative effects on career and family domains but positive effects of individual development and growth. Controls reported mild negative effects on family in 1976, and benefits to their careers and sense of self in both 1976 and 2003. Captivity during the Vietnam War for USAF included two types of extreme duress which were the incarceration itself; and the repatriation experience which entailed re-assimilation despite loss of occupation and disrupted families. Despite these obstacles, POWs exhibited substantial resilience in achieving self-growth and how they regarded themselves psychologically in comparison to their matched control fellow aviators who while also suffering a lesser separation from family, tended to prosper in their careers and were proud of their accomplishments. Long term separation from work, family and friends and the inability to return to their families and careers with the effectiveness demanded by their ambition were a more devastating ongoing consequence of their captivity than the immediate suffering of their imprisonment.

  17. Identification of important and potentially avoidable risk factors in a prospective audit study of neonatal deaths in a paediatric hospital in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Phuong, Cam N; Ho, Binh T T; Stensballe, Lone G; Pedersen, Freddy K; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-02-01

    Neonatal deaths (≤28 days) account for more than half of child mortality in Vietnam. Presumably most die in hospital, but data are scarce. This study aimed to identify risk factors of death among hospitalised neonates. We prospectively studied all neonatal deaths and expected deaths (discharged alive after withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment) in a Vietnamese tertiary paediatric hospital during a 12-month period in 2009-2010. The medical files were audited classifying admission prognosis, discharge outcome, cause of death/expected death according to two classifications, and important and potentially avoidable risk factors during the hospital stay. Among 5763 neonates admitted, 235 deaths and 67 expected deaths were included. According to both classifications, major causes were congenital malformations, prematurity and severe infections. Six risk factors were identified in 85% (60/71) of the neonates with a relatively good prognosis: recognition or response to danger signs, internal transfers, nosocomial infections, sepsis management, access to usual equipment/staff, and family perception. Among 302 neonatal deaths/expected deaths, the major causes were congenital malformations, prematurity and severe infections. Six important and potentially avoidable risk factors could be addressed in the subgroup with relatively good admission prognosis, without implementing new technology or major organisational changes. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Concentrations of organotin compounds in sediment and clams collected from coastal areas in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midorikawa, Sayaka; Arai, Takaomi; Harino, Hiroya; Ohji, Madoka; Nguyen Duc Cu; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2004-01-01

    Levels of butyltin (BT) and phenyltin (PT) compounds were determined in sediments and clam Meretrix spp. collected from north and central coastal areas in Vietnam. Concentrations of TBT in sediments ranged from 0.89 to 34 ng g -1 dry wt and those in clams ranged from 1.4 to 56 ng g -1 wet wt. The levels of TBT in sediments and clams from Vietnam were within limits reported from other countries. Further, the TBT level in clams was lower than the tolerable average residue level (TARL) estimated based on tolerable daily intake (TDI). Trace amounts of PTs were also found in both sediment and clam samples. In sediments from north and central Vietnam, the concentrations of TBT were highest in the order of Hue (28 ng g -1 dry wt), Cua Luc (15 ng g -1 dry wt), Sam Son (6.3 ng g -1 dry wt), and Tra Co (5.5 ng g -1 dry wt). Among the clams from north and central Vietnam, the levels of TBT in clams from Cua Luc were dramatically high at 47 ng g -1 wet wt. TBT formed the principal butyltin species in sediment at all sites studied. The ratios of TBT in sediment were higher among BT compounds at all study sites. Of total BTs, TBT was the dominant species in clams from almost all sites studied. In spatial distribution, TPT showed a pattern similar to TBT, suggesting the use of TPT as an antifouling paint. The partition coefficient between sediment and calms was calculated. The partition coefficients of TBT and TPT were 2.01 (0.56-5.5) and 9.23 (3.1-20), respectively. These results show that sediment-bound TBT is a source of contamination to clams in addition to dissolved TBT

  19. A study on correlation between stereographic cinematography and storytelling: through a documentary film about Ho Quyen-UNESCO World heritage in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yang Hyun; Ahn, Jaehong

    2010-02-01

    Nowadays stereoscopic technology is being paid attention as a leading technology for the next generation film industry in many countries including Korea. In Korean stereoscopic film production, however, the quality but also the quantity of stereoscopic contents still leaves much to be desired, and know-how and skill of stereoscopic film production has been elevated in tardy progress. This paper shows a research on the correlation between stereoscopic cinematography and storytelling. Based on a casestudy of a documentary film about Ho Quyen, UNESCO World Heritage in Vietnam, we could deliver guidelines for the stereoscopic film production and storytelling. For this study, we analyzed scenes and shots of a documentary film script in pre-production stage. These analysis results were reflected on a storyboard. A stereographer grasped the idea of a storytelling that a director had meant through a script and storyboard. Then he applied suitable parameters for a stereoscopic cinematography to every shot with a beamsplitter rig. A researcher wrote major parameters like interaxial distance, convergence angle in every shot. Then average parameter values of scenes were calculated from the parameter database, and the relationship between stereoscopic cinematography and storytelling was derived by shot-by-shot analysis.

  20. Finnish Government contribution in Haiphong Water Supply, Drainage, Sewerage and Sanitation Management Programs in Hai Phong city, Vietnam : A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Hoang, Duy

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the thesis is to bring out a general point of view in the contribution of the Finnish aid of Finnish Government, targeted in the development of urban area as well as water supply and sanitation of Hai Phong city, the most Northern port city of Vietnam, which holds an important role in the economy system of Vietnam. Moreover, Hai Phong is one of three targeted cities that get Foreign Direct Investment as well as support from Finnish government for the development of local wate...

  1. Anemia and intestinal parasite infection in school children in rural Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thi, Le H.; Brouwer, I.D.; Verhoef, H.; Khan, N.C.; Kok, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: This study hypothesized that besides iron deficiency, intestinal parasites infection is also a determinant of anemia in schoolchildren in rural Vietnam. Methods: 400 primary schoolchildren from 20 primary schools in Tam Nong district, a poor rural area in Vietnam, were randomly selected

  2. French Bilingual Classes in Vietnam: Issues and Debates about an Innovative Language Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand-Marconnet, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Despite a long historical French presence in Vietnam, only 0.5% of Vietnamese people speak French today. As in other countries of South East Asia, language instruction in Vietnam has mainly focused on English for several decades. This paper provides an overview of a project called "French bilingual classes". The main aim of the study is…

  3. Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Truong Son

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bat communities of mainland Southeast Asia can be highly diverse. Many are under threat. Despite this, regional faunal composition is not well documented for many areas, including regions of Vietnam.  We assessed the biodiversity of bats in a watershed protection forest in the southeastern Truong Son (Annamite Mountains, southwestern Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam in 2011–2013.  Twenty species of insectivorous bats were documented including a high diversity of Murina species Tube-nosed Bats.  Diversity and abundance indices were compared with that recorded previously in two nature reserves and one national park in Vietnam, and were higher or comparable in several measures despite the lack of a karst substrate for roosts.  Reproduction in the insectivorous bat fauna coincided with the early rainy season.  In the late dry season, pregnant females of several species were observed but volant juveniles were not present, whereas in the early wet season adult females were lactating or post-lactating and volant juveniles of nine species were detected.  We recorded echolocation calls of 14 bat species; for each species, we compared features of calls with those reported previously in other Asian localities.  For some species we found discrepancies in call metrics among studies, perhaps suggesting a greater hidden biodiversity of bats in Southeast Asia.

  4. Profile of Vietnam War Veterans (2015).

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Profile of Vietnam War Veterans uses the 2015 ACS to provide a view into the demographic characteristics and socioeconomic conditions of the Vietnam War Veteran...

  5. Estimating the extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Palmer, Michael; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Duong, Le Bach

    2015-01-01

    Disability is shown to be both a cause and a consequence of poverty. However, relatively little research has investigated the economic cost of living with a disability. This study reports the results of a study on the extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam in 2011. The study was carried out in eight cities/provinces in Vietnam, including Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh cities (two major metropolitan in Vietnam) and six provinces from each of the six socio-economic regions in Vietnam. Costs are estimated using the standard of living approach whereby the difference in incomes between people with disability and those without disability for a given standard of living serves as a proxy for the cost of living with disability. The extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam accounted for about 8.8-9.5% of annual household income, or valued about US$200-218. Communication difficulty was shown to result in highest additional cost of living with disability and self-care difficulty was shown to lead to the lowest levels of extra of living cost. The extra cost of living with disability increased as people had more severe impairment. Interventions to promote the economic security of livelihood for people with disabilities are needed.

  6. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinh, Le Xuan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the job satisfaction of small-scale shrimp trawl fishers in the vicinity of Camau National Park in southern Vietnam. The research sample consisted of 77 fishers who belong to a growing population of shrimp fishers in the region. The results suggest that 60% would change their fishing metier, 78% would leave fishing for…

  7. Investigating the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mulali, Usama; Saboori, Behnaz; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the existence of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in Vietnam during the period 1981–2011. To realize the goals of this study, a pollution model was established applying the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) methodology. The results revealed that the pollution haven hypothesis does exist in Vietnam because capital increases pollution. In addition, imports also increase pollution which indicates that most of Vietnam's imported products are energy intensive and highly polluted. However, exports have no effect on pollution which indicates that the level of exports is not significant enough to affect pollution. Moreover, fossil fuel energy consumption increases pollution while renewable energy consumption has no significant effect in reducing pollution. Furthermore, labor force reduces pollution since most of Vietnam's labor force is in the agricultural and services sectors which are less energy intensive than the industrial sector. Based on the obtained results, the EKC hypothesis does not exist because the relationship between GDP and pollution is positive in both the short and long run. - Highlights: • The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in Vietnam is investigated. • The Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) methodology was utilized. • The EKC hypothesis does not exist

  8. Instructional Suggestions Supporting Science Learning in Digital Environments Based on a Review of Eye-Tracking Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang-Ying; Tsai, Meng-Jung; Chiou, Guo-Li; Lee, Silvia Wen-Yu; Chang, Cheng-Chieh; Chen, Li-Ling

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to provide instructional suggestions for supporting science learning in digital environments based on a review of eye tracking studies in e-learning related areas. Thirty-three eye-tracking studies from 2005 to 2014 were selected from the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) database for review. Through a…

  9. 77 FR 20273 - Vietnam Veterans Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... showing a generation of veterans the respect and support of a grateful Nation. The Vietnam War is a story... with honor, and on March 29, 1973, the last of our troops left Vietnam. Yet, in one of the war's most... commemorate the 50-year anniversary of the Vietnam War. [[Page 20276

  10. Learning Environment in Vietnamese Physics Teacher Education Programme through the Lens of Constructivism: A Case Study of a State University in Mekong Delta Region, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao-Do, Thi Phuong; Bac-Ly, Dang Thi; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2016-01-01

    Constructivism was introduced to Vietnam through many ways such as workshops, books, the Internet, and so on. However, due to the lack of professional education, fundamental ideas of constructivist learning perhaps were missing or neglected through classroom activities. Furthermore, due to the influence of culture and society, Vietnamese…

  11. The Prevalence and Correlates of HIV and Undiagnosed Infection among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Hanoi, Vietnam : Findings from a Cross-sectional, Biobehavioral Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vu, Nga Thi Thu; Holt, Martin; Phan, Huong Thi Thu; La, Lan Thi; Tran, Gioi Minh; Doan, Tung Thanh; de Wit, John

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a key population for HIV infection in Vietnam, and the use of amphetamine type substances (ATS) is prevalent and possibly increasing in this population. The reported analysis examines the association between ATS use before or during sex and HIV

  12. Meanings of epilepsy in its sociocultural context and implications for stigma : Findings from ethnographic studies in local communities in China and Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacoby, A.; Wang, W.; Vu, T.D.; Wu, J.; Snape, D.; Aydemir, N.; Parr, J.; Reis, R.; Begley, C.; de Boer, H.; Prilipko, L.; Baker, G.

    We investigated beliefs about the causes, course, and treatment of epilepsy and its impact on quality of life (QOL) in key target groups, using “mini-ethnographies” involving 141 in-depth interviews and 12 focus groups in China, and 84 in-depth interviews and 16 focus groups in Vietnam. Data were

  13. Maternal mortality in Vietnam in 1994-95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu, D T; Hanenberg, R; Vach, T H; Vinh, D Q; Sokal, D

    1999-12-01

    This report presents the first population-based estimates of maternal mortality in Vietnam. All the deaths of women aged 15-49 in 1994-95 in three provinces of Vietnam were identified and classified by cause. Maternal mortality was the fifth most frequent cause of death. The maternal mortality ratio was 155 deaths per 100,000 live births. This ratio compares with the World Health Organization's estimates of 430 such deaths globally and 390 for Asia. The maternal mortality ratio in the delta regions of these provinces was half that of the mountainous and semimountainous regions. Because a larger proportion of the Vietnamese population live in delta regions than elsewhere, the maternal mortality ratio for Vietnam as a whole may be lower than that of the three provinces studied. Maternal mortality is low in Vietnam primarily because a relatively high proportion of deliveries take place in clinics and hospitals, where few women die in childbirth. Also, few women die of the consequences of induced abortion in Vietnam because the procedure is legal and easily available.

  14. 2The role of controlling behaviour in intimate partner violence and its health effects: a population based study from rural Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krantz Gunilla

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in North America and other high-income regions support the distinction between extreme "intimate terrorism" and occasional "situational couple violence", defined conceptually in terms of the presence or absence of controlling behaviour in the violent member of the couple. Relatively little research has been conducted on the different forms intimate partner violence may take in low-income countries. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these expressions of intimate partner violence in one low-income country, Vietnam, adhere to patterns observed in western industrialised countries as well as to investigate the resulting health effects. Methods This cross-sectional study collected structured interview data from 883 married women aged 17–60, using the Women's Health and Life Experiences questionnaire developed by WHO. Intimate partner violence was assessed by past-year experience of physical or sexual violence and control tactics were assessed using six items combined into a scale. Three different health parameters constituted the dependent variables. Bi- and multivariate analyses, including effect modification analyses, were performed. Results Of the participants, 81 (9.2% had been exposed to physical or sexual violence during the past 12 months; of these, 26 (32.1% had been subjected to one or more controlling behaviours by their partners. The risk of ill health associated with combined exposure was elevated eight to 15 times, compared to a two-fourfold risk increase after exposure to only one of the behaviours, i.e. violent acts or control tactics. Conclusion Physical or sexual violence combined with control tactics acted synergistically to worsen health in rural Vietnamese women. The occurrence of such violence calls for altered policies, increased research and implementation of preventive and curative strategies. The unacceptability of intimate partner violence as a part of normal Vietnamese family life

  15. A prospective descriptive study of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV uninfected patients in Vietnam - high prevalence of Cryptococcus neoformans var grubii in the absence of underlying disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Stephen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most cases of cryptococcal meningitis occur in patients with HIV infection: the course and outcome of disease in the apparently immunocompetent is much more poorly understood. We describe a cohort of HIV uninfected Vietnamese patients with cryptococcal meningitis in whom underlying disease is uncommon, and relate presenting features of patients and the characteristics of the infecting species to outcome. Methods A prospective descriptive study of HIV negative patients with cryptococcal meningitis based at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City. All patients had comprehensive clinical assessment at baseline, were cared for by a dedicated study team, and were followed up for 2 years. Clinical presentation was compared by infecting isolate and outcome. Results 57 patients were studied. Cryptococcus neoformans var grubii molecular type VN1 caused 70% of infections; C. gattii accounted for the rest. Most patients did not have underlying disease (81%, and the rate of underlying disease did not differ by infecting species. 11 patients died while in-patients (19.3%. Independent predictors of death were age ≥ 60 years and a history of convulsions (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals 8.7 (1 - 76, and 16.1 (1.6 - 161 respectively. Residual visual impairment was common, affecting 25 of 46 survivors (54.3%. Infecting species did not influence clinical phenotype or outcome. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of flucytosine and amphotericin B were significantly higher for C. neoformans var grubii compared with C. gattii (p Conclusion In HIV uninfected individuals in Vietnam, cryptococcal meningitis occurs predominantly in people with no clear predisposing factor and is most commonly due to C. neoformans var grubii. The rates of mortality and visual loss are high and independent of infecting species. There are detectable differences in susceptibility to commonly used antifungal drugs between species, but the clinical

  16. Migration and persistence of human influenza A viruses, Vietnam, 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Mai Quynh; Lam, Ha Minh; Cuong, Vuong Duc; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Halpin, Rebecca A; Wentworth, David E; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Thanh, Le Thi; Phuong, Hoang Vu Mai; Horby, Peter; Boni, Maciej F

    2013-11-01

    Understanding global influenza migration and persistence is crucial for vaccine strain selection. Using 240 new human influenza A virus whole genomes collected in Vietnam during 2001-2008, we looked for persistence patterns and migratory connections between Vietnam and other countries. We found that viruses in Vietnam migrate to and from China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Cambodia, Japan, South Korea, and the United States. We attempted to reduce geographic bias by generating phylogenies subsampled at the year and country levels. However, migration events in these phylogenies were still driven by the presence or absence of sequence data, indicating that an epidemiologic study design that controls for prevalence is required for robust migration analysis. With whole-genome data, most migration events are not detectable from the phylogeny of the hemagglutinin segment alone, although general migratory relationships between Vietnam and other countries are visible in the hemagglutinin phylogeny. It is possible that virus lineages in Vietnam persisted for >1 year.

  17. Migration and Persistence of Human Influenza A Viruses, Vietnam, 2001–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Mai Quynh; Lam, Ha Minh; Cuong, Vuong Duc; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Halpin, Rebecca A; Wentworth, David E; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Thanh, Le Thi; Phuong, Hoang Vu Mai; Horby, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Understanding global influenza migration and persistence is crucial for vaccine strain selection. Using 240 new human influenza A virus whole genomes collected in Vietnam during 2001–2008, we looked for persistence patterns and migratory connections between Vietnam and other countries. We found that viruses in Vietnam migrate to and from China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Cambodia, Japan, South Korea, and the United States. We attempted to reduce geographic bias by generating phylogenies subsampled at the year and country levels. However, migration events in these phylogenies were still driven by the presence or absence of sequence data, indicating that an epidemiologic study design that controls for prevalence is required for robust migration analysis. With whole-genome data, most migration events are not detectable from the phylogeny of the hemagglutinin segment alone, although general migratory relationships between Vietnam and other countries are visible in the hemagglutinin phylogeny. It is possible that virus lineages in Vietnam persisted for >1 year. PMID:24188643

  18. Son preference in a rural village in North Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Danièle

    2002-12-01

    This article explores the continuing preference for sons in the context of low fertility in Vietnam. Although the total fertility rate for Vietnam declined from 6.0 children per woman of reproductive age in 1979 to 2.2 children in 1998, demographic evidence shows that son preference remains strong and influences contraceptive and fertility behavior. This study examines the underlying factors for son preference in a rural village in North Vietnam. The methodology includes focus-group discussions, an in-depth study of 25 families, and ethnographic observation. Results indicate that sons are highly desired for their social, symbolic, and economic value. In spite of four decades of socialist policies aimed at reducing gender-based inequalities and at weakening the patriarchal kinship system, the desire for sons continues to drive the family-building process. The article also indicates a gap between discourse and social practice with respect to roles assigned to children on the basis of their sex.

  19. EVALUATION OF THE TRADE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VIETNAM AND CHINA; VIETNAM AND UNITED STATES: A COMPARISON USING GRAVITY MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Thi Dinh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the determinants of trade relationship between two largest trading partners of Vietnam, United States and China. Using gravity model for time series data from 1986 to 2015, the study found that economic growth rate plays a crucial role in stimulating the trade flow. Both trade relationships fit with the practical approach of Heckscher-Ohlin theory, stating that trade flow increases between countries with different income levels. The most important finding of this study lines on the results regarding the impact of trade agreements. While United States-Vietnam bilateral agreement creates trade, the trade agreement between ASEAN and China produced trade diversion. As China expands its markets among ASEAN countries, Vietnam should diversify its export markets to improve its export flow.

  20. Health risk characterization of chlorpyrifos using epidemiological dose-response data and probabilistic techniques: a case study with rice farmers in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Dung Tri; Connell, Des; Yu, Qiming; Chu, Cordia

    2013-09-01

    Various methods for risk characterization have been developed using probabilistic approaches. Data on Vietnamese farmers are available for the comparison of outcomes for risk characterization using different probabilistic methods. This article addresses the health risk characterization of chlorpyrifos using epidemiological dose-response data and probabilistic techniques obtained from a case study with rice farmers in Vietnam. Urine samples were collected from farmers and analyzed for trichloropyridinol (TCP), which was converted into absorbed daily dose of chlorpyrifos. Adverse health response doses due to chlorpyrifos exposure were collected from epidemiological studies to develop dose-adverse health response relationships. The health risk of chlorpyrifos was quantified using hazard quotient (HQ), Monte Carlo simulation (MCS), and overall risk probability (ORP) methods. With baseline (prior to pesticide spraying) and lifetime exposure levels (over a lifetime of pesticide spraying events), the HQ ranged from 0.06 to 7.1. The MCS method indicated less than 0.05% of the population would be affected while the ORP method indicated that less than 1.5% of the population would be adversely affected. With postapplication exposure levels, the HQ ranged from 1 to 32.5. The risk calculated by the MCS method was that 29% of the population would be affected, and the risk calculated by ORP method was 33%. The MCS and ORP methods have advantages in risk characterization due to use of the full distribution of data exposure as well as dose response, whereas HQ methods only used the exposure data distribution. These evaluations indicated that single-event spraying is likely to have adverse effects on Vietnamese rice farmers. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Depressive symptoms and other risk factors predicting suicide in middle-aged men: a prospective cohort study among Korean Vietnam War veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Wook Yi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Few studies have prospectively examined whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are associated with a higher risk of suicide death in individuals other than high-risk populations such as psychiatric patients and individuals with self-harm histories. The purpose of the study is to prospectively examine whether depressive symptoms assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI are associated with greater risk of suicide death and whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are independent predictors of suicide in general-risk populations. Another aim is to evaluate the sensitivity of the BDI for predicting suicide death.Methods. 10,238 Korean Vietnam War veterans (mean age: 56.3 years who participated in two surveys in 2001 were followed up for suicide mortality over 7.5 years.Results. 41 men died by suicide. Severely depressed participants had a higher adjusted hazard ratio (aHR = 3.4; 95% CI [1.5–7.7] of suicide than non-to-moderately depressed ones. Higher suicide risk was associated with more severe depressive symptoms (p for trend = 0.009. After adjustment for depressive symptoms and other factors, very poor health, low education, and past drinking were associated with higher suicide risk, while good health, body mass index, and marital status were not associated with suicide. The sensitivity at the cut-off score of 31 for detecting suicide was higher during the earlier 3.5 years of the follow-up (75%; 95% CI [50–90] than during the latter 4 years (60%; 95% CI [41–76].Conclusions. Depressive symptoms are a strong independent predictor and very poor health, low education, and drinking status may be independent predictors of future suicide. The BDI may have acceptable diagnostic properties as a risk assessment tool for identifying people with depression and suicidal potential among middle-aged men.

  2. Acceptance patterns and decision-making for human papillomavirus vaccination among parents in Vietnam: an in-depth qualitative study post-vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cover Jane K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The GAVI Alliance’s decision in late 2011 to invite developing countries to apply for funding for human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine introduction underscores the importance of understanding levels of HPV vaccine acceptance in developing country settings. In this paper, we present findings from qualitative research on parents’ rationales for vaccinating or not vaccinating their daughters (vaccine acceptance and their decision-making process in the context of an HPV vaccination demonstration project in Vietnam (2008–2009. Methods We designed a descriptive qualitative study of HPV vaccine acceptability among parents of girls eligible for vaccination in four districts of two provinces in Vietnama. The study was implemented after each of two years of vaccinations was completed. In total, 133 parents participated in 16 focus group discussions and 27 semi-structured interviews. Results Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with parents of girls vaccinated revealed that they were generally very supportive of immunization for disease prevention and of vaccinating girls against HPV. The involvement of the National Expanded Program of Immunization in the demonstration project lent credibility to the HPV vaccine, contributing to high levels of acceptance. For parents who declined participation, concerns about side effects, the possibility that the vaccine was experimental, and the possible impact of the vaccine on future fertility rose to the surface. In terms of the decision-making process, many parents exhibited ‘active decision-making,’ reaching out to friends, family, and opinion leaders for guidance prior to making their decision. Conclusion Vietnam’s HPV vaccination experience speaks to the importance of close collaboration with the government to make the most of high levels of trust, and to reduce suspicions about new vaccines that may arise in the context of vaccine introduction in developing country settings.

  3. Depressive symptoms and other risk factors predicting suicide in middle-aged men: a prospective cohort study among Korean Vietnam War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Hong, Jae-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Background. Few studies have prospectively examined whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are associated with a higher risk of suicide death in individuals other than high-risk populations such as psychiatric patients and individuals with self-harm histories. The purpose of the study is to prospectively examine whether depressive symptoms assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are associated with greater risk of suicide death and whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are independent predictors of suicide in general-risk populations. Another aim is to evaluate the sensitivity of the BDI for predicting suicide death. Methods. 10,238 Korean Vietnam War veterans (mean age: 56.3 years) who participated in two surveys in 2001 were followed up for suicide mortality over 7.5 years. Results. 41 men died by suicide. Severely depressed participants had a higher adjusted hazard ratio (aHR = 3.4; 95% CI [1.5-7.7]) of suicide than non-to-moderately depressed ones. Higher suicide risk was associated with more severe depressive symptoms (p for trend = 0.009). After adjustment for depressive symptoms and other factors, very poor health, low education, and past drinking were associated with higher suicide risk, while good health, body mass index, and marital status were not associated with suicide. The sensitivity at the cut-off score of 31 for detecting suicide was higher during the earlier 3.5 years of the follow-up (75%; 95% CI [50-90]) than during the latter 4 years (60%; 95% CI [41-76]). Conclusions. Depressive symptoms are a strong independent predictor and very poor health, low education, and drinking status may be independent predictors of future suicide. The BDI may have acceptable diagnostic properties as a risk assessment tool for identifying people with depression and suicidal potential among middle-aged men.

  4. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  5. Burnout Study of Clinical Nurses in Vietnam: Development of Job Burnout Model Based on Leiter and Maslach's Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong Thi Thu; Kitaoka, Kazuyo; Sukigara, Masune; Thai, Anh Lan

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to create a Vietnamese version of both the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) and Areas of Worklife Scale (AWS) to assess the burnout state of Vietnamese clinical nurses and to develop a causal model of burnout of clinical nurses. We conducted a descriptive design using a cross-sectional survey. The questionnaire was hand divided directly by nursing departments to 500 clinical nurses in three hospitals. Vietnamese MBI-GS and AWS were then examined for reliability and validity. We used the revised exhaustion +1 burnout classification to access burnout state. We performed path analysis to develop a Vietnamese causal model based on the original model by Leiter and Maslach's theory. We found that both scales were reliable and valid for assessing burnout. Among nurse participants, the percentage of severe burnout was 0.7% and burnout was 15.8%, and 17.2% of nurses were exhausted. The best predictor of burnout was "on-duty work schedule" that clinical nurses have to work for 24 hours. In the causal model, we also found similarity and difference pathways in comparison with the original model. Vietnamese MBI-GS and AWS were applicable to research on occupational stress. Nearly one-fifth of Vietnamese clinical nurses were working in burnout state. The causal model suggested a range of factors resulting in burnout, and it is necessary to consider the specific solution to prevent burnout problem. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Coalition building by drug user and sex worker community-based organizations in Vietnam can lead to improved interactions with government agencies: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Leah T; Grau, Lauretta E; Nguyen, Huong H; Khuat, Oanh Hai T; Heimer, Robert

    2015-10-16

    Drug users and female sex workers are among the groups most vulnerable to HIV infection in Vietnam. To address the HIV epidemic within these communities, former drug users and sex workers established the first community-based organizations (CBOs) in 2009. The study provides a focused assessment of CBOs' expanding efforts to advocate for their members that identifies existing collaborations with Vietnamese government programs. This assessment explores the barriers to and facilitators of expansion in order to propose recommendations to improve the working relationship between CBOs and government programs. Thirty-two individuals from drug user and sex worker CBOs (n = 24) and relevant government programs (n = 8) participated in face-to-face interviews in Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, and Hai Phong. Coded interview transcripts were analyzed qualitatively concerning the purpose of CBOs, the interactions between CBOs and government programs, and the perceived barriers, facilitators, and feasibility of future CBO-government program collaborations. Services provided by the CBOs were considered to improve members' quality of life. The formation of coalitions among CBOs increased efficiency in meeting members' specific service needs, in addition to internal capacity building. Government field staff interacted with CBOs by providing CBOs with technical and legal support. CBOs and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics collaborated to help the clinics meet patient enrollment quotas and facilitate entry into treatment for CBO members. Barriers to CBO-government program collaboration included perceived conflicting missions on how to address drug use and sex work in the community, limited CBO-government program communication, CBO mistrust of the MMT system, and lack of legal status for CBOs. To reduce these barriers, we recommend (1) introduction of CBO consultative services at government healthcare centers, (2) enlistment of CBO outreach to ensure full access to the

  7. Antibiotics in Wastewater of a Rural and an Urban Hospital before and after Wastewater Treatment, and the Relationship with Antibiotic Use—A One Year Study from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Thi Quynh Lien

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hospital effluents represent an important source for the release of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment. This study aims to determine concentrations of various antibiotics in wastewater before and after wastewater treatment in a rural hospital (60 km from the center of Hanoi and in an urban hospital (in the center of Hanoi in Vietnam, and it aims to explore the relationship between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before wastewater treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital, over a period of one year in 2013. Water samples were collected using continuous sampling for 24 h in the last week of every month. The data on quantities of antibiotics delivered to all inpatient wards were collected from the Pharmacy department in the rural hospital. Solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were used for chemical analysis. Significant concentrations of antibiotics were present in the wastewater both before and after wastewater treatment of both the rural and the urban hospital. Ciprofloxacin was detected at the highest concentrations in the rural hospital’s wastewater (before treatment: mean = 42.8 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 21.5 µg/L. Metronidazole was detected at the highest concentrations in the urban hospital’s wastewater (before treatment: mean = 36.5 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 14.8 µg/L. A significant correlation between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital was found for ciprofloxacin (r = 0.78; p = 0.01 and metronidazole (r = 0.99; p < 0.001.

  8. Assessment of Tangible Direct Flood Damage Using a Spatial Analysis Approach under the Effects of Climate Change: Case Study in an Urban Watershed in Hanoi, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Kefi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to climate change, the frequency and intensity of Hydro-Meteorological disasters, such as floods, are increasing. Therefore, the main purpose of this work is to assess tangible future flood damage in the urban watershed of the To Lich River in Hanoi, Vietnam. An approach based on spatial analysis, which requires the integration of several types of data related to flood characteristics that include depth, in particular, land-use classes, property values, and damage rates, is applied for the analysis. To simulate the future scenarios of flooding, the effects of climate change and land-use changes are estimated for 2030. Additionally, two scenarios based on the implementation of flood control measures are analyzed to demonstrate the effect of adaptation strategies. The findings show that climate change combined with the expansion of built-up areas increases the vulnerability of urban areas to flooding and economic damage. The results also reveal that the impacts of climate change will increase the total damage from floods by 26%. However, appropriate flood mitigation will be helpful in reducing the impacts of losses from floods by approximately 8% with the restoration of lakes and by approximately 29% with the implementation of water-sensitive urban design (WSUD. This study will be useful in helping to identify and map flood-prone areas at local and regional scales, which can lead to the detection and prioritization of exposed areas for appropriate countermeasures in a timely manner. In addition, the quantification of flood damage can be an important indicator to enhance the awareness of local decision-makers on improving the efficiency of regional flood risk reduction strategies.

  9. Can isotope markers differentiate between wild and captive reptile populations? A case study based on crocodile lizards (Shinisaurus crocodilurus from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona van Schingen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The international wildlife trade in allegedly “captive-bred” specimens has globally increased during recent years, while the legal origin of respective animals frequently remains doubtful. Worldwide, authorities experience strong challenges to effectively control the international trade in CITES-listed species and are struggling to uncover fraudulent claims of “captive-breeding”. Forensic analytical methods are being considered as potential tools to investigate wildlife crime. The present case study is the first of its kind in reptiles that investigates the application of δ13C and δ15N stable isotope ratios to discriminate between captive and wild crocodile lizards from Vietnam. The CITES-listed crocodile lizard Shinisaurus crocodilurus is listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List mainly due to habitat loss and unsustainable exploitation for the international pet trade. Our results revealed significant differences in the composition of the two tested isotope systems between captive and wild individuals. Isotope values of skin samples from captive specimens were significantly enriched in 13C and 15N as compared to specimens from the wild. We also used the weighted k-Nearest Neighbor classifier to assign simulated samples back to their alleged place of origin and demonstrated that captive bred individuals could be distinguished with a high degree of accuracy from specimens that were not born in captivity. We conclude that isotope analysis appears to be highly attractive as a forensic tool to reduce laundering of wild caught lizards via breeding farms, but acknowledge that this potential might be limited to range restricted or ecologically specialist species.

  10. Antibiotics in Wastewater of a Rural and an Urban Hospital before and after Wastewater Treatment, and the Relationship with Antibiotic Use—A One Year Study from Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, La Thi Quynh; Hoa, Nguyen Quynh; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thoa, Nguyen Thi Minh; Phuc, Ho Dang; Diwan, Vishal; Dat, Nguyen Thanh; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2016-01-01

    Hospital effluents represent an important source for the release of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment. This study aims to determine concentrations of various antibiotics in wastewater before and after wastewater treatment in a rural hospital (60 km from the center of Hanoi) and in an urban hospital (in the center of Hanoi) in Vietnam, and it aims to explore the relationship between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before wastewater treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital, over a period of one year in 2013. Water samples were collected using continuous sampling for 24 h in the last week of every month. The data on quantities of antibiotics delivered to all inpatient wards were collected from the Pharmacy department in the rural hospital. Solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were used for chemical analysis. Significant concentrations of antibiotics were present in the wastewater both before and after wastewater treatment of both the rural and the urban hospital. Ciprofloxacin was detected at the highest concentrations in the rural hospital’s wastewater (before treatment: mean = 42.8 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 21.5 µg/L). Metronidazole was detected at the highest concentrations in the urban hospital’s wastewater (before treatment: mean = 36.5 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 14.8 µg/L). A significant correlation between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital was found for ciprofloxacin (r = 0.78; p = 0.01) and metronidazole (r = 0.99; p < 0.001). PMID:27314366

  11. Recent applications of nuclear medicine techniques and results in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Sy An

    2008-01-01

    The author presented recent applications of nuclear medicine techniques and results in Vietnam. The author concentrated some valuable and helpful studies such as functional tests, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, bone, thyroid, lung, kidney and gastrointestinal tract scintigraphy for diagnosis. The results of RIA and IRMA concerning with thyroid diseases, cancer, microalbuminuria and TSH in blood spot on paper for screening of congenital hypothyroidism in new born babies were also given. The report also mentioned results of liver cancer and palliative bone metastasis treatments in Vietnam. A new technique using gamma probe in surgery for breast cancer was presented. The author introduced some modern teleradiotherapeutic modalities such as cyberknif, gamma knife, gamma rotating systeme and linac recently installed in Vietnam. (author)

  12. What are the risk factors for HIV in men who have sex with men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam?- A cross-sectional study

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    Thi My Dung Le

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of people living with HIV (PLWH in Vietnam was estimated to rise from 156,802 in 2009 to 256,000 in 2014. Although the number of new HIV reported cases has decreased by roughly 14,000 cases per year from 2010 to 2013 a concerning increase in HIV prevalence has been identified among men who have sex with men (MSM from 1.7 % in 2005 to 2.4 % in 2013. There are signs of increased HIV (+ prevalence among MSM in a number of cities/provinces, especially in the two largest cities, Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC and Hanoi. HCMC is the country’s major “hot spot” for HIV/AIDS, with over a third of the total national AIDS patients. This paper is based on a secondary analysis of Integrated Biological and Behavioural Surveillance (IBBS data collected in Vietnam in 2009 to examine the research question “Do behavioural risk factors contribute to HIV infection among the MSM population in HCMC?”. Methods A cross-sectional design was employed to sample males aged over 15 from communities in HCMC, who reported having any types of sex with another man at least once during the last 12 months. Participants (399 were recruited using the respondent driven sampling (RDS method and provided both biological data (specimens and behavioural data collected through a questionnaire survey. Results The study found high HIV prevalence (14.8 % among the MSM sample from HCMC. Multivariate analysis found age and level of formal education completed, to be significantly associated with HIV infection. MSM aged over 25 were more likely to be HIV (+ than the younger group (OR = 7.82, 95 %CI = 3.37–18.16, p < 0.001; as were participants who had low educational (OR = 2.74, p < 0.05 and medium educational levels (OR = 2.68, p < 0.05. In addition, those participants who had anal sex with male partners (OR = 2.7, p < 0.05 and whose sexual partners injected drugs (OR = 2.24, p < 0.05 and who felt at risk of

  13. Spatiotemporal Structure of Molecular Evolution of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Carrel, Margaret A.; Emch, Michael; Jobe, R. Todd; Moody, Aaron; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2010-01-01

    Background Vietnam is one of the countries most affected by outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. First identified in Vietnam in poultry in 2001 and in humans in 2004, the virus has since caused 111 cases and 56 deaths in humans. In 2003/2004 H5N1 outbreaks, nearly the entire poultry population of Vietnam was culled. Our earlier study (Wan et al., 2008, PLoS ONE, 3(10): e3462) demonstrated that there have been at least six independent H5N1 introductions into Vietnam and...

  14. Customer Satisfaction in Online Banking : A Comparative Study of Local and Foreign Commercial Banks in the South of Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh City

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Le Ngoc Diep

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to construct a conceptual model with related instruments that affect customer satisfaction in using online banking in Ho Chi Minh City and Southern Vietnam. An important task of this work is the comparison of customer satisfaction in using online banking between customers of Vietnamese local banks and customers of foreign banks. Further discussions of the relationship among online service quality, perceived value, e-trust, relationship quality, customer satisfa...

  15. The association of PTSD with physical and mental health functioning and disability (VA Cooperative Study #569: the course and consequences of posttraumatic stress disorder in Vietnam-era Veteran twins)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magruder, Kathryn M.; Forsberg, Christopher W.; Kazis, Lewis E.; Üstün, T. Bedirhan; Friedman, Matthew J.; Litz, Brett T.; Vaccarino, Viola; Heagerty, Patrick J.; Gleason, Theresa C.; Huang, Grant D.; Smith, Nicholas L.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To assess the relationship of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with health functioning and disability in Vietnamera Veterans. Methods A cross-sectional study of functioning and disability in male Vietnam-era Veteran twins. PTSD was measured by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview; health functioning and disability were assessed using the Veterans RAND 36-Item Health Survey (VR-36) and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0). All data collection took place between 2010 and 2012. Results Average age of the 5,574 participating Veterans (2,102 Vietnam theater and 3,472 non-theater) was 61.0 years. Veterans with PTSD had poorer health functioning across all domains of VR-36 and increased disability for all subscales of WHODAS 2.0 (all p < .001) compared with Veterans without PTSD. Veterans with PTSD were in poorer overall health on the VR-36 physical composite summary (PCS) (effect size = 0.31 in theater and 0.47 in non-theater Veterans; p < .001 for both) and mental composite summary (MCS) (effect size = 0.99 in theater and 0.78 in non-theater Veterans; p < .001 for both) and had increased disability on the WHODAS 2.0 summary score (effect size = 1.02 in theater and 0.96 in non-theater Veterans; p < .001 for both). Combat exposure, independent of PTSD status, was associated with lower PCS and MCS scores and increased disability (all p < .05, for trend). Within-pair analyses in twins discordant for PTSD produced consistent findings. Conclusions Vietnam-era Veterans with PTSD have diminished functioning and increased disability. The poor functional status of aging combat-exposed Veterans is of particular concern. PMID:24318083

  16. The Vietnam Experience in Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurse, Ronald J.; Fleming, Dan B.

    1982-01-01

    Ten recent editions of secondary school-level United States history textbooks were analyzed to determine coverage and balance of the Vietnam War. Treatment of topics such as Vietnamese culture, the roles of wartime leaders, the aims of the United States government, the antiwar movement, and costs of the war are discussed. (PP)

  17. Greening textile industry in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Thi Phuong, L.

    2011-01-01

    The textile and garment industry has made a remarkable contribution to the economic development of Vietnam and employs currently a large labor force of 2.5 million people.However, the textile industry is also seen as a most polluting and unsustainable industry due to the use of

  18. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  19. The role of consumer satisfaction, consideration set size, variety seeking and convenience orientation in explaining seafood consumption in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ninh, Thi Kim Anh

    2010-01-01

    The study examines the relationship betweens convenience food and seafood consumption in Vietnam through a replication and an extension of studies of Rortveit and Olsen (2007; 2009). The main purpose of this study is to give an understanding of the role of consumers’ satisfaction, consideration set size, variety seeking, and convenience in explaining seafood consumption behavior in Vietnam.

  20. Current status of taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De, Nguyen; Le, Thanh Hoa; Lien, Phan Thi Huong; Eom, Keeseon S

    2014-04-01

    Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated.

  1. From Combat to Legacies: Novels of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses novels of the Vietnam War, their usefulness, and the interest they hold for students. Considers four categories of Vietnam novels: the Vietnam experience, the war at home, the refugee experience, and the war's effect on the next generation. (SR)

  2. In-Migration and Housing Choice in Ho Chi Minh City: Toward Sustainable Housing Development in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducksu Seo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the initiation of Vietnam’s Doi Moi policy in 1986, the rate of urbanization has rapidly increased with a great influx of immigrants from rural areas. With such migration becoming a large acceleration factor for urban growth, the shortage of housing has become a critical problem in the cities. The Vietnamese government encouraged self-built housing and public–private partnerships to produce different types of housing stock. There are few available academic studies about housing choice in Vietnam to help understand movement dynamics and to foster sustainable housing development. The purpose of this study is to analyze housing choice and moving determinants in Ho Chi Minh City, and thereby establish recommendations for sustainable housing development in Vietnam. For an empirical study, a citizen questionnaire survey was conducted in HCMC and an in-depth analysis was carried out. The results indicate that the row house type for single-family housing is strongly preferred, but a preference for apartments is also observed for future planning. The factors influencing housing choice and movement are family income, housing ownership, housing typology, and commuting environment. These phenomena suggest that the government should prudently consider affordable housing development in many districts. The results of this study will help to establish policies for sustainable housing development in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

  3. The translucent cadaver: a follow-up study to gauge the efficacy of implementing changes suggested by students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzé, Sanet Henriët; Driescher, Natasha Darné; Mole, Calvin Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In a study conducted in 2011, the use of full body digital X-ray images (Lodox(®) Statscan(®)) and drawings were described for surface anatomy education during which suggestions were made by students on how to improve the method. Educational innovations should continuously be adjusted and improved to provide the best possible scenario for student learning. This study, therefore, reports on the efficacy of implementing some of these suggestions. Suggestions incorporated into the follow-up study included: (1) The inclusion of eight strategically placed labeled digital X-ray images to the dissection halls, (2) The placement of both labeled and unlabeled digital X-ray images online, (3) The inclusion of informal oral questions on surface anatomy during dissection, (4) The requirement of students to submit individual drawings in addition to group drawings into their portfolios, and (5) Integrating information on how to recognize anatomical structures on X-rays into gross anatomy lectures given prior to dissection. Students were requested to complete an anonymous questionnaire. The results of the drawings, tests and questionnaires were compared to the results from the 2011 cohort. During 2012, an increased usage of the digital X-rays and an increase in practical test marks in three out of the four modules (statistically significant only in the cardiovascular module) were reported. More students from the 2012 cohort believed the images enhanced their experience of learning surface anatomy and that its use should be continued in future. The suggested changes, therefore, had a positive effect on surface anatomy education. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. Motivation or demotivation of health workers providing maternal health services in rural areas in Vietnam: findings from a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Nguyen Thi Hoai; Wilson, Andrew; McDonald, Fiona

    2015-12-02

    Motivation is an important driver for health professionals to maintain their professional competencies, continue in the workforce and make a positive contribution to their workplace. While there is some research about the motivation of health workers in low- to middle-income countries, maternal morbidity and mortality remains high and this can be lowered by improving the quality of maternal health services and the training and maintenance of the skills of maternal health workers. This study examines the impact of motivation on maintenance of professional competence among maternal health workers in Vietnam using mixed methods. The study consisted of a survey using a self-administered questionnaire of 240 health workers in five districts across two Vietnamese provinces and in-depth interviews with 43 health workers and health managers at the commune, district and provincial level to explore external factors that influenced motivation. The questionnaire includes a 23-item motivation instrument based on the Kenyan health context, modified for Vietnamese language and culture. The 240 responses represented an estimated 95% of the target sample. Multivariate analysis showed that three factors contributed to the motivation of health workers: access to training (β = -0.14, P = 0.03), ability to perform key tasks (β = 0.22, P = 0.001) and shift schedule (β = -0.13, P = 0.05). Motivation was higher in health workers self-identifying as competent or who were enabled to provide more maternal care services. Motivation was lower in those who worked more frequent night shifts and those who had received training in the last 12 months. The interviews identified that the latter was because they felt the training was irrelevant to them, and in some cases, they do not have the opportunity to practice their learnt skills. The qualitative data also showed other factors relating to service context and organisational management practices contributed to

  5. Participants' Reactions to and Suggestions for Conducting Intimate Partner Violence Research: A Study of Rural Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Katie M; Greaney, Kayleigh; Palmer, Kelly M

    2016-01-01

    To document rural young adults' reasons for emotional reactions to participating in intimate partner violence (IPV) research as well as to hear young adults' perspectives on how to most effectively conduct comprehensive IPV research in their rural communities. The data presented in this paper draw from 2 studies (ie, an online survey study and an in-person or telephone interview study) that included the same 16 US rural counties in New England and Appalachia. Participants, 47% of whom were in both studies, were young (age range 18-24), white (92%-94%), heterosexual (89%-90%), female (62%-68%), and mostly low to middle income. Nine percent of participants reported they were upset by the questions due to personal experiences with IPV or for other reasons not related to personal IPV experiences. Forty percent of participants reported they personally benefited from participating in the study, and they provided various reasons for this benefit. Regarding suggestions for conducting IPV research with rural young adults, participants believed that both online recruitment and online data collection methods were the best ways to engage young adults, although many participants suggested that more than 1 modality was ideal, which underscores the need for multimethod approaches when conducting research with rural young adults. These findings are reassuring to those committed to conducting research on sensitive topics with rural populations and also shed light on best practices for conducting this type of research from the voices of rural young adults themselves. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  6. Mineral resources of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kušnír Imrich

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam je bohatý na nerastné suroviny, ktoré sa nachádzajú prevažne na severe krajiny. Ložiská bauxitov, fosfátov, vzácnych zemín (REE, majú svetový význam. Ale i zásoby celého radu ïalších surovín (ropy, uhlia, zlata, železných rúd, chromitu, cínu, ilmenitu, medi, grafitu, atï. sú významné, ekonomicky ažite¾né a ich potenciál je obrovský. Za uvedené nerastné bohatstvo je „zodpovednᓠrozmanitá geologická stavba krajiny. Taktiež i morfológia a klíma (vlhká, tropická prispeli ku vytvoreniu niektorých ložísk (bauxity v krasových priehlbniach, atï.. Súèasná produkcia, okrem ropy (3,5 Mt/rok, zahròuje: 10,7 Mt uhlia, 3,5 Mt chromitu, asi 1 000 kg zlata, grafitu, kaolínu a mnohé iné minerály. Napriek tomu, je banícky priemysel v porovnaní so surovinovou základòou slabo vyvinutý. K jeho rozvoju urèite prispeje i úèas zahranièných spoloèností, odnedávna prítomných pri prieskume a ažbe surovín urèených pre export. Okrem struèného úvodu do geológie krajiny, obsahuje tento èlánok krátky popis nerastného bohatstva Vietnamu.

  7. Continuous versus intermittent endotracheal cuff pressure control for the prevention of ventilator-associated respiratory infections in Vietnam: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat, Vu Quoc; Geskus, Ronald B; Wolbers, Marcel; Loan, Huynh Thi; Yen, Lam Minh; Binh, Nguyen Thien; Chien, Le Thanh; Mai, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Lan, Nguyen Phu Huong; Hao, Nguyen Van; Long, Hoang Bao; Thuy, Tran Phuong; Kinh, Nguyen Van; Trung, Nguyen Vu; Phu, Vu Dinh; Cap, Nguyen Trung; Trinh, Dao Tuyet; Campbell, James; Kestelyn, Evelyne; Wertheim, Heiman F L; Wyncoll, Duncan; Thwaites, Guy Edward; van Doorn, H Rogier; Thwaites, C Louise; Nadjm, Behzad

    2018-04-04

    Ventilator-associated respiratory infection (VARI) comprises ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT). Although their diagnostic criteria vary, together these are the most common hospital-acquired infections in intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide, responsible for a large proportion of antibiotic use within ICUs. Evidence-based strategies for the prevention of VARI in resource-limited settings are lacking. Preventing the leakage of oropharyngeal secretions into the lung using continuous endotracheal cuff pressure control is a promising strategy. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of automated, continuous endotracheal cuff pressure control in preventing the development of VARI and reducing antibiotic use in ICUs in Vietnam. This is an open-label randomised controlled multicentre trial. We will enrol 600 adult patients intubated for ≤ 24 h at the time of enrolment. Eligible patients will be stratified according to admission diagnosis (180 tetanus, 420 non-tetanus) and site and will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive either (1) automated, continuous control of endotracheal cuff pressure or (2) intermittent measurement and control of endotracheal cuff pressure using a manual cuff pressure meter. The primary outcome is the occurrence of VARI, defined as either VAP or VAT during the ICU admission up to a maximum of 90 days after randomisation. Patients in both groups who are at risk for VARI will receive a standardised battery of investigations if their treating physician feels a new infection has occurred, the results of which will be used by an endpoint review committee, blinded to the allocated arm and independent of patient care, to determine the primary outcome. All enrolled patients will be followed for mortality and endotracheal tube cuff-related complications at 28 days and 90 days after randomisation. Other secondary outcomes include antibiotic use; days ventilated, in ICU and in hospital

  8. The United States and Vietnam Relationship: Benefits and Challenges for Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    the current stage in their bilateral relations. The U.S.-Vietnam relationship has been increasingly cemented in the context of the contemporary...reach the current stage in their bilateral relations. The U.S.-Vietnam relationship has been increasingly cemented in the context of the contemporary...Major Exports to Vietnam aircraft, mining equipment, electronic machinery, steel wire, raw cotton, plastics Source: Mark E. Manyin, The Vietnam

  9. Child and Family Factors Associated With Child Maltreatment in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, N.K. (Nhu K.); van Berkel, S.R. (Sheila R.); M.H. van IJzendoorn (Rien); L.R.A. Alink (Lenneke R.A.)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis study aims to explore possible risk factors for child maltreatment in Vietnam by investigating the association of child and family factors with different types of child maltreatment (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, witnessing parental conflict, and neglect) and

  10. Utilities of Patients with Hypertension in Northern Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Thi-Phuong-Lan; Krabbe, Paul F. M.; Nguyen, Thi-Bach-Yen; Schuiling-Veninga, Catharina C. M.; Wright, E. Pamela; Postma, Maarten J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The study aims to inform potential cost-effectiveness analysis of hypertension management in Vietnam by providing utilities and predictors of utilities in patients with hypertension. Methods Hypertensive patients up to 80 years old visiting the hospital were invited to participate in a

  11. The Heart of School Improvement: A Multi-Site Case Study of Leadership for Teacher Learning in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc H.; Hallinger, Philip; Truong, Thang

    2018-01-01

    This study addressed the research question: How do Vietnamese principals lead the professional learning of teachers? The research was comprised of a multiple-site case study of leadership and teacher learning in four Vietnamese schools. Qualitative data analysis aimed at identifying modal practices adopted by these Vietnamese principals to lead…

  12. Potentials and limitations of energy recovery from municipal solid waste in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulenburg, Hong Giang

    2012-11-01

    The major aim of study is the evaluation of the potentials and limitations of energy recovery from MSW in Vietnam through a comparative assessment of the climate change impacts (via CO2-eq.) among waste-to-energy (WtE) options in order to select the suitable technique for waste management. Recovered energy by these waste management options is assumed to replace the energy from fossil fuels-based sources, including three power possibilities. A survey on national legal and institutional framework for solid waste management was therefore undertaken to point out the strength and weakness and suggest the developing and improvement policies in this field. A view on economic benefit is also one important objective and it represented in terms of ''CO2- Avoidance Cost'' among different investment options. Sensitivity analysis has been carried out with regard to the optimum technical parameters and the change of energy mix in 2020-2030 in order to assess the variations of overall GHGs impacts in Vietnam. Due to waste composition, the energy mix and legal framework on solid waste management at national level are not robust, therefore the outcomes of this study do not aim to select the best waste management approach or to pose the Vietnamese waste managers or decision makers under pressure. Instead, it endeavors to indicate the potential of GHGs savings and the economic benefits that could be gained by introducing WtE practices. It also aims to suggest the improvement of national legal framework in solid waste management and energy development plan in order to transfer the technical knowledge and experience on WtE technology from developed countries to Vietnam.

  13. Health of men, women, and children in post-trafficking services in Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam: an observational cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Ligia; Pocock, Nicola S; Naisanguansri, Varaporn; Suos, Soksreymom; Dickson, Brett; Thuy, Doan; Koehler, Jobst; Sirisup, Kittiphan; Pongrungsee, Nisakorn; Nguyen, Van Anh; Borland, Rosilyne; Dhavan, Poonam; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2015-03-01

    Trafficking is a crime of global proportions involving extreme forms of exploitation and abuse. Yet little research has been done of the health risks and morbidity patterns for men, women, and children trafficked for various forms of forced labour. We carried out face-to-face interviews with a consecutive sample of individuals entering 15 post-trafficking services in Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam. We asked participants about living and working conditions, experience of violence, and health outcomes. We measured symptoms of anxiety and depression with the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist and post-traumatic stress disorder with the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, and used adjusted logistic regression models to estimate the effect of trafficking on these mental health outcomes, controlling for age, sector of exploitation, and time in trafficking. We interviewed 1102 people, of whom 1015 reached work destinations. Participants worked in various sectors including sex work (329 [32%]), fishing (275 [27%]), and factories (136 [13%]). 481 (48%) of 1015 experienced physical violence, sexual violence, or both, with 198 (35%) of 566 women and girls reporting sexual violence. 478 (47%) of 1015 participants were threatened and 198 (20%) were locked in a room. 685 (70%) of 985 who had data available worked 7 days per week and 296 (30%) of 989 worked at least 11 hours per day. 222 (22%) of 983 had a serious injury at work. 61·2% (95% CI 58·2-64·2) of participants reported symptom of depression, 42·8% (39·8-45·9) reported symptoms of anxiety, and 38·9% (36·0-42·0) reported symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. 5·2% (4·0-6·8) had attempted suicide in the past month. Participants who experienced extremely excessive overtime at work, restricted freedom, bad living conditions, threats, or severe violence were more likely to report symptoms of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. This is the first health study of a large and diverse sample of men, women

  14. The role of emotions in time to presentation for symptoms suggestive of cancer: a systematic literature review of quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasooriya-Smeekens, Chantal; Walter, Fiona M; Scott, Suzanne

    2015-12-01

    Emotions may be important in patients' decisions to seek medical help for symptoms suggestive of cancer. The aim of this systematic literature review was to examine quantitative literature on the influence of emotion on patients' help-seeking for symptoms suggestive of cancer. The objectives were to identify the following: (a) which types of emotions influence help-seeking behaviour, (b) whether these form a barrier or trigger for seeking medical help and (c) how the role of emotions varies between different cancers and populations. We searched four electronic databases and conducted a narrative synthesis. Inclusion criteria were studies that reported primary, quantitative research that examined any emotion specific to symptom appraisal or help-seeking for symptoms suggestive of cancer. Thirty-three papers were included. The studies were heterogeneous in their methods and quality, and very few had emotion as the main focus of the research. Studies reported a limited range of emotions, mainly related to fear and worry. The impact of emotions appears mixed, sometimes acting as a barrier to consultation whilst at other times being a trigger or being unrelated to time to presentation. It is plausible that different emotions play different roles at different times prior to presentation. This systematic review provides some quantitative evidence for the role of emotions in help-seeking behaviour. However, it also highlighted widespread methodological, definition and design issues among the existing literature. The conflicting results around the role of emotions on time to presentation may be due to the lack of definition of each specific emotion. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Family physicians' suggestions to improve the documentation, coding, and billing system: a study from the residency research network of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard A; Bayles, Bryan; Hill, Jason H; Kumar, Kaparabonya A; Burge, Sandra

    2014-06-01

    The study's aim was to ascertain family physicians' suggestions on how to improve the commonly used US evaluation and management (E/M) rules for primary care. A companion paper published in Family Medicine's May 2014 journal describes our study methods (Fam Med 2014;46(5):378-84). Study subjects supported preserving the overall SOAP note structure. They especially suggested eliminating bullet counting in the E/M rules. For payment reform, respondents stated that brief or simple work should be paid less than long or complex work, and that family physicians should be paid for important tasks they currently are not, such as spending extra time with patients, phone and email clinical encounters, and extra paperwork. Subjects wanted shared savings when their decisions and actions created system efficiencies and savings. Some supported recent payment reforms such as monthly retainer fees and pay-for-performance bonuses. Others expressed skepticism about the negative consequences of each. Aligned incentives among all stakeholders was another common theme. Family physicians wanted less burdensome documentation requirements. They wanted to be paid more for complex work and work that does not include traditional face-to-face clinic visits, and they wanted the incentives of other stakeholders in the health care systems to be aligned with their priorities.

  16. The effect of pneumatophore density on turbulence: A field study in a Sonneratia-dominated mangrove forest, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Benjamin K.; Mullarney, Julia C.; Bryan, Karin R.; Henderson, Stephen M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper examines the role of mangrove pneumatophore roots as a spatial control over the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) dissipation rate within a natural mangrove forest. Measurements of turbulence at millimeter scales were compared with vegetation geometries reconstructed using a novel photogrammetric technique. These small-scale relationships were then averaged to show larger-scale patterns in turbulence across the mudflat and mangrove fringe-forest transition. Although turbulence estimates varied with across-shore position, TKE dissipation was always elevated in the fringe relative to mudflat and forest interior sample sites. The largest dissipation rates (4.5 × 10-3 W kg-1) were measured as breaking waves propagated over canopies in very shallow water. Dissipation was reduced, but often remained intense (10-5-10-4 W kg-1) under non-breaking waves at the fringe, likely indicating turbulent generation in pneumatophore wakes. Pneumatophore density was positively correlated with the spatial distribution of TKE dissipation. Turbulence was also correlated positively with wave height and negatively with water depth. Fringe sediments were more sandy and less muddy than sediments onshore and offshore, suggesting that the intense turbulence may lead to winnowing of fine-grained sediments at the fringe.

  17. Game Production and Role of Game Producer : Case study: Research on demographic of gamers in Hanoi, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tuan

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was intended to serve as a guideline on how to manage a video game development process as a producer. The study includes basic knowledge of game production process, focusing more on managing the project as a whole, rather than reaching specific technical aspects. The production methodology described here is a combination of several methods used by most studios in the game industry. Additionally, understanding of game producer’s roles and characteristics was also studied to g...

  18. Contribution to Taxonomy and Distribution of the Genus Elaphropoda (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Apinae in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen, Minh Phuong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic notes on the genus Elaphropoda Lieftinck, 1966 (Hymenoptera: Apidae from Vietnam are presented. Two species of the genus are reported: Elaphropoda percarinata (Cockerell, 1930 was first recorded from Vietnam based on specimens collected from Ha Tinh province in 1998, and is reconfirmed with a specimens collected from Bac Kan province in the Northeastern part of the country in this study, and Elaphropoda khasiana (Schulz, 1906 is recorded from Vietnam for the first time. Redescriptions of the male of E. percarinata and the female of E. khasiana are given with illustrations.

  19. Training human resource for NPP in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Trung Tinh; Dam, Xuan Hiep

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam will establish the first NPP in the near future. With us the first important thing is the human resource, but now there is no university in Vietnam training nuclear engineers. In EPU (Electric Power University), now we are preparing for training nuclear engineers. In this paper, we review the nuclear man power and the way to train the high quality human resource for NPP and for other nuclear application in Vietnam. (author)

  20. Number and timing of antenatal HIV testing: Evidence from a community-based study in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanh, Nguyen Tt; Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    scaled up to reach first level health facilities. METHODS: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted among 1108 recently delivered mothers through face-to-face interviews following a structured questionnaire that focused on socio-economic characteristics, experiences of antenatal care and HIV...

  1. Land surface and climate parameters and malaria features in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Y. A.; Anh, N. K.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface parameters may affect local microclimate, which in turn alters the development of mosquito habitats and transmission risks (soil-vegetation-atmosphere-vector borne diseases). Forest malaria is a chromic issue in Southeast Asian countries, in particular, such as Vietnam (in 1991, approximate 2 million cases and 4,646 deaths were reported (https://sites.path.org)). Vietnam has lowlands, sub-tropical high humidity, and dense forests, resulting in wide-scale distribution and high biting rate of mosquitos in Vietnam, becoming a challenging and out of control scenario, especially in Vietnamese Central Highland region. It is known that Vietnam's economy mainly relies on agriculture and malaria is commonly associated with poverty. There is a strong demand to investigate the relationship between land surface parameters (land cover, soil moisture, land surface temperature, etc.) and climatic variables (precipitation, humidity, evapotranspiration, etc.) in association with malaria distribution. GIS and remote sensing have been proven their powerful potentials in supporting environmental and health studies. The objective of this study aims to analyze physical attributes of land surface and climate parameters and their links with malaria features. The outcomes are expected to illustrate how remotely sensed data has been utilized in geohealth applications, surveillance, and health risk mapping. In addition, a platform with promising possibilities of allowing disease early-warning systems with citizen participation will be proposed.

  2. The Impact of Experiential Marketing on Customers Experiential Value and Satisfaction: An Empirical Study in Vietnam Hotel Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Thi Hoa; Huang, Ying-Yuh

    2015-01-01

    Though experience is recognized as a major benefit the hospitality and tourism industry brings, the use of experiential marketing in this industry is not well demonstrated. Thus, this studys purpose is to examine experiential marketing and the components of experiencing process in regard to hotel industry. Eighteen hypotheses were developed to examine relationships among experiential marketing together with the components of experiencing process, experiential value, and customer satisfaction....

  3. Population pharmacokinetic study of benznidazole in pediatric Chagas disease suggests efficacy despite lower plasma concentrations than in adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Altcheh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, can lead to long term cardiac morbidity. Treatment of children with benznidazole is effective, but no pediatric pharmacokinetics data are available and clinical pharmacology information on the drug is scarce.Prospective population pharmacokinetic (PK cohort study in children 2-12 years old with Chagas disease treated with oral benznidazole 5-8 mg/kg/day BID for 60 days. (clinicaltrials.gov #NCT00699387.Forty children were enrolled in the study. Mean age was 7.3 years. A total of 117 samples were obtained from 38 patients for PK analysis. A one compartment model best fit the data. Weight-corrected clearance rate (CL/F showed a good correlation with age, with younger patients having a significantly higher CL/F than older children and adults. Simulated median steady-state benznidazole concentrations, based on model parameters, were lower for children in our study than for adults and lowest for children under 7 years of age. Treatment was efficacious in the 37 patients who completed the treatment course, and well tolerated, with few, and mild, adverse drug reactions (ADRs.Observed benznidazole plasma concentrations in children were markedly lower than those previously reported in adults (treated with comparable mg/kg doses, possibly due to a higher CL/F in smaller children. These lower blood concentrations were nevertheless associated to a high therapeutic response in our cohort. Unlike adults, children have few adverse reactions to the drug, suggesting that there may be a direct correlation between drug concentrations and incidence of ADRs. Our results suggest that studies with lower doses in adults may be warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00699387.

  4. An analysis of interprovincial migration in Vietnam from 1989 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Kim Anh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Vietnam, reports either present general patterns of internal migration or the migration characteristics of specific subgroups. Reports are often based on small numbers and do not examine the relationships between socioeconomic factors and migration. Different reports classify migrant populations differently, presenting difficulties for researchers and policymakers to gain a consistent picture of migration (particularly of interprovincial migration and limiting the ability of policymakers to plan services appropriately. This study describes the characteristics of all migrants in Vietnam, focusing on interprovincial migrants, and examines age and sex trends and correlations among in-migration, urbanization, and individual income. Methods: We analyzed data from the 15% sample survey in the 2009 Population and Housing Census, the 3% sample in the 1999 national census, the 5% sample in the 1989 national census, and selected data from the 2008 Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey. Logistic regression was used to identify socioeconomic factors related to migration. Results: In 2009, of 6.7 million internal migrants (approximately 6.5% of the total population, 3.4 million were interprovincial migrants. Three notable trends were observed between 1989 and 2009: (i the total population is characterized by increasing proportions of migrants; (ii the proportion of female migrants is growing; and (iii the average age of migrants is decreasing. Socioeconomic factors related to interprovincial migration include provincial economic status (monthly income per capita: OR = 4.62, p = 0.005 and urbanization (proportion of urban population: OR = 3.47, p = 0.019, suggesting that provinces with high monthly income per capita and urbanization are more likely to have higher rates of in-migration. Conclusion: These findings reflect the effects of unequally growing labor markets in Vietnamese provinces on migration, and are suggestive of infrastructure

  5. An analysis of interprovincial migration in Vietnam from 1989 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Le Thi Kim; Hoang Vu, Lan; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Schelling, Esther

    2012-12-31

    Background: In Vietnam, reports either present general patterns of internal migration or the migration characteristics of specific subgroups. Reports are often based on small numbers and do not examine the relationships between socioeconomic factors and migration. Different reports classify migrant populations differently, presenting difficulties for researchers and policymakers to gain a consistent picture of migration (particularly of interprovincial migration) and limiting the ability of policymakers to plan services appropriately. This study describes the characteristics of all migrants in Vietnam, focusing on interprovincial migrants, and examines age and sex trends and correlations among in-migration, urbanization, and individual income.Methods: We analyzed data from the 15% sample survey in the 2009 Population and Housing Census, the 3% sample in the 1999 national census, the 5% sample in the 1989 national census, and selected data from the 2008 Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey. Logistic regression was used to identify socioeconomic factors related to migration.Results: In 2009, of 6.7 million internal migrants (approximately 6.5% of the total population), 3.4 million were interprovincial migrants. Three notable trends were observed between 1989 and 2009: (i) the total population is characterized by increasing proportions of migrants; (ii) the proportion of female migrants is growing; and (iii) the average age of migrants is decreasing. Socioeconomic factors related to interprovincial migration include provincial economic status (monthly income per capita: OR = 4.62, p = 0.005) and urbanization (proportion of urban population: OR = 3.47, p = 0.019), suggesting that provinces with high monthly income per capita and urbanization are more likely to have higher rates of in-migration.Conclusion: These findings reflect the effects of unequally growing labor markets in Vietnamese provinces on migration, and are suggestive of infrastructure improvements and

  6. Analysis of recent failures of disease modifying therapies in Alzheimer's disease suggesting a new methodology for future studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanatkar, Hamid Reza; Papagiannopoulos, Bill; Grossberg, George Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies and the NIH have invested heavily in a variety of potential disease-modifying therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) but unfortunately all double-blind placebo-controlled Phase III studies of these drugs have failed to show statistically significant results supporting their clinical efficacy on cognitive measures. These negative results are surprising as most of these medications have the capability to impact the biomarkers which are associated with progression of Alzheimer's disease. Areas covered: This contradiction prompted us to review all study phases of Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG), Bapineuzumab, Solanezumab, Avagacestat and Dimebolin to shed more light on these recent failures. We critically analyzed these studies, recommending seven lessons from these failures which should not be overlooked. Expert commentary: We suggest a new methodology for future treatment research in Alzheimer's disease considering early intervention with more focus on cognitive decline as a screening tool, more sophisticated exclusion criteria with more reliance on biomarkers, stratification of subjects based on the rate of cognitive decline aiming less heterogeneity, and a longer study duration with periodic assessment of cognition and activities of daily living during the study and also after a washout period.

  7. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-06

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  8. Burnout Study of Clinical Nurses in Vietnam: Development of Job Burnout Model Based on Leiter and Maslach's Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Huong Thi Thu Nguyen, RN, MPH; Kazuyo Kitaoka, PhD; Masune Sukigara, PhD; Anh Lan Thai, PhD

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to create a Vietnamese version of both the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) and Areas of Worklife Scale (AWS) to assess the burnout state of Vietnamese clinical nurses and to develop a causal model of burnout of clinical nurses. Methods: We conducted a descriptive design using a cross-sectional survey. The questionnaire was hand divided directly by nursing departments to 500 clinical nurses in three hospitals. Vietnamese MBI-GS and AWS were then exam...

  9. Hydrological and Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change in the Vu Gia-Thu Bon River Basin in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laux, Patrick; Fink, Manfred; Waongo, Moussa; Pedroso, Rui; Salvini, G.; Hoa Tran, Dang; Quang Thinh, Dang; Cullmann, Johannes; Flügel, Wolfgang-Alvert; Kunstmann, H.

    2017-01-01


    This paper summarizes some of the climate (change) impact modeling activities conducted in the Land useandClimate Changeinteractionsin Central Vietnam (LUCCi)project. The study area is the Vu Gia-Thu Bon (VGTB) river basin in Central Vietnam, which is characterized by recurrent floods during

  10. Shoreline changes in and around the Thubon River mouth, Central Vietnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mau, L.D.; Nayak, G.N.; SanilKumar, V.

    Application of GENESIS model (GENEralized model for Simulating Shoreline change) for studying the shoreline change in and around the Thubon River Mouth, Central Vietnam is presented in this paper The input parameters used are the near shore wave...

  11. Environmental hazard mapping using GIS and AHP - A case study of Dong Trieu District in Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, N. K.; Phonekeo, V.; My, V. C.; Duong, N. D.; Dat, P. T.

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, Vietnamese economy has been growing up rapidly and caused serious environmental quality plunging, especially in industrial and mining areas. It brings an enormous threat to a socially sustainable development and the health of human beings. Environmental quality assessment and protection are complex and dynamic processes, since it involves spatial information from multi-sector, multi-region and multi-field sources and needs complicated data processing. Therefore, an effective environmental protection information system is needed, in which considerable factors hidden in the complex relationships will become clear and visible. In this paper, the authors present the methodology which was used to generate environmental hazard maps which are applied to the integration of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Geographical Information system (GIS). We demonstrate the results that were obtained from the study area in Dong Trieu district. This research study has contributed an overall perspective of environmental quality and identified the devastated areas where the administration urgently needs to establish an appropriate policy to improve and protect the environment.

  12. Environmental hazard mapping using GIS and AHP – A case study of Dong Trieu District in Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anh, N K; Duong, N D; Phonekeo, V; My, V C; Dat, P T

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Vietnamese economy has been growing up rapidly and caused serious environmental quality plunging, especially in industrial and mining areas. It brings an enormous threat to a socially sustainable development and the health of human beings. Environmental quality assessment and protection are complex and dynamic processes, since it involves spatial information from multi-sector, multi-region and multi-field sources and needs complicated data processing. Therefore, an effective environmental protection information system is needed, in which considerable factors hidden in the complex relationships will become clear and visible. In this paper, the authors present the methodology which was used to generate environmental hazard maps which are applied to the integration of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Geographical Information system (GIS). We demonstrate the results that were obtained from the study area in Dong Trieu district. This research study has contributed an overall perspective of environmental quality and identified the devastated areas where the administration urgently needs to establish an appropriate policy to improve and protect the environment

  13. A systematic review of taeniasis, cysticercosis and trichinellosis in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng-Nguyen, Dinh; Stevenson, Mark A; Traub, Rebecca J

    2017-03-21

    Taeniasis, cysticercosis and trichinellosis have been ranked as the most important food-borne parasites of humans in terms of public health, socioeconomic and trade impact. Despite this, information on these food-borne zoonoses in Vietnam is scarce and fragmented, and many local reports remain inaccessible to the international research community. This study aims to conduct comprehensive literature searches to report on the incidence and estimate the true prevalence of taeniasis in humans and T. solium cysticercosis in humans and pigs in Vietnam utilizing Bayesian models; in addition, to report the incidence and the distribution of trichinellosis. A Bayesian approach was used to estimate the true prevalence of taeniasis and cysticercosis based on published diagnostic test characteristics used in each published cross-sectional survey. The utilization of coproscopic-based examination of Taenia eggs in stool, although highly specific for genus-level detection, has poor sensitivity and led to an underestimation of the prevalence of human taeniasis. Similarly, post-mortem-based surveys of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs also led to the underestimation of prevalence of porcine cysticercosis. On the other hand, the low specificity of immunodiagnostic methods, in particular Ab-ELISA, led to a likely overestimation of T. solium cysticercosis in humans. Due to the use of imperfect diagnosis tests combined with poor descriptions of sampling methods, our ability to draw solid conclusions from these data is limited. We estimate that the true prevalence of taeniasis and T. solium cysticercosis in rural 'hotspots', is as high as 13% for each, in humans. Taeniasis and T. solium cysticercosis occurs in 60 of the 63 provinces of Vietnam. Most of the information relating to the distribution and prevalence of porcine cysticercosis is limited to commercial abattoir surveys. In Vietnam, Taenia asiatica appears to be confined to the north where it occurs sympatrically with T. solium and

  14. Environmental Radionuclides in Surface Soils of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hien, P.D.; Hiep, H.T.; Quang, N.H.; Luyen, T.V.; Binh, T.V.; Ngo, N.T.; Long, N.Q.; Bac, V.T.

    2012-01-01

    A database on 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs in surface soils was established to provide inputs for the assessment of the collective dose to the population of Vietnam and to support soil erosion studies using 137 Cs as a tracer. A total of 292 soil samples were taken from undisturbed sites across the territory and the concentrations of radionuclides were determined by gamma spectrometry method. The multiple regression of 137 Cs inventories against characteristics of sampling locations allowed us to establish the distribution of 137 Cs deposition density and its relationship with latitude and annual rainfall. The 137 Cs deposition density increases northward and varies from 178 Bq m -2 to 1,920 Bq m -2 . High rainfall areas in the northern and central parts of the country have received considerable 137 Cs inputs exceeding 600 Bq m -2 , which is the maximum value that can be expected for Vietnam from the UNSCEAR global pattern. The mean activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K are 45, 59 and 401 Bq kg- 1 , respectively, which entail an average absorbed dose rate in air of 62 nGy h -1 , which is about 7% higher than the world average. (author)

  15. Use of modern contraceptives among married women in Vietnam: a multilevel analysis using the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (2011) and the Vietnam Population and Housing Census (2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lan Thi Hoang; Oh, Juhwan; Bui, Quyen Thi-Tu; Le, Anh Thi-Kim

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of modern contraceptive use is an important indicator that reflects accessibility to reproductive health services. Satisfying unmet needs for family planning alone could reduce the number of maternal deaths by almost a third. This study uses multiple data sources to examine multilevel factors associated with the use of modern contraceptives among married women in Vietnam aged 15-49 years. Data from different national surveys (Vietnam Population and Housing Census, Vietnam Living Standard Survey, and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey) were linked to create a dataset including individual and contextual (provincial) variables (N=8,341). Multilevel modeling was undertaken to examine the impact of both individual and provincial characteristics on modern contraceptive use. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are reported. Individual factors significantly associated with the use of modern contraceptives were age 30-34 years (reference 15-19 years) (OR=1.63); high socioeconomic status (SES) (OR=0.8); having two living children (OR=2.4); and having a son (OR=1.4). The provincial poverty rate mediated the association between the individual's SES and the likelihood of using modern contraceptives. The proportion of women in Vietnam using modern contraceptive methods has remained relatively high in recent years with significant variation across Vietnam's 63 provinces. Women of lower SES are more likely to use modern contraceptive methods, especially in the poorer provinces. Achieving access to universal reproductive health is one of the Millennium Development Goals. Vietnam must continue to make progress in this area.

  16. Agent Orange exposure and attributed health effects in Vietnam veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alvin L; Cecil, Paul F

    2011-07-01

    Serum dioxin studies of Vietnam (VN) veterans, military historical records of tactical herbicide use in Vietnam, and the compelling evidence of the photodegradation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other aspects of environmental fate and low bioavailability of TCDD are consistent with few, if any, ground troop veterans being exposed to Agent Orange. That conclusion, however, is contrary to the presumption by the Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA) that military service in Vietnam anytime from January 9, 1962 to May 7, 1975 is a proxy for exposure to Agent Orange. The DVA assumption is inconsistent with the scientific principles governing determinations of disease causation. The DVA has nonetheless awarded Agent Orange-related benefits and compensation to an increasing number of VN veterans based on the presumption of exposure and the published findings of the Institute of Medicine that there is sufficient evidence of a "statistical association" (a less stringent standard than "causal relationship") between exposure to tactical herbicides or TCDD and 15 different human diseases. A fairer and more valid approach for VN veterans would have been to enact a program of "Vietnam experience" benefits for those seriously ill, rather than benefits based on the dubious premise of injuries caused by Agent Orange.

  17. Genotypic characterization and species identification of Fasciola spp. with implications regarding the isolates infecting goats in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Giang Thi; Van De, Nguyen; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre; Le, Thanh Hoa

    2009-12-01

    Ribosomal RNA sequences (361 or 362bp) of the second internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) and a portion of mitochondrial cox1 (423bp) for Fasciola spp. obtained from specimens collected in indigenous and hybrid goats and sheep in Vietnam were characterized for genotypic status and hybridization/introgression. Alignment of 48 ITS-2 sequences (also those from goats and sheep in this study) indicates that F. gigantica and F. hepatica differ typically from each other at seven sites whereas one of these is a distinguishing deletion (T) at the 327th position in F. gigantica relative to F. hepatica. The isolates from the mountainous goats in the North of Vietnam (Yen Bai province) showed the ITS-2 composition relatively identical to that of F. hepatica. The ITS-2 sequences from populations of Fasciola isolates in goats had probably experienced introgression/hybridization as reported previously in other ruminants and humans. All Vietnamese goat-of-origin specimens had high pairwise percentage of mitochondrial cox1 sequences to F. gigantica (97-100%), and very low identity to F. hepatica (91-93%), suggesting their maternal linkage to be traced to F. gigantica. The presence of hybrid and/or introgressed populations of liver flukes bearing genetic material from both F. hepatica and F. gigantica in the goats/sheep in Vietnam, regardless of indigenous or imported hosts, appears to be the first demonstration from a tropical country.

  18. Measuring the association between artemisinin-based case management and malaria incidence in southern Vietnam, 1991-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peak, Corey M; Thuan, Phung Duc; Britton, Amadea; Nguyen, Tran Dang; Wolbers, Marcel; Thanh, Ngo Viet; Buckee, Caroline O; Boni, Maciej F

    2015-04-01

    In addition to being effective, fast-acting, and well tolerated, artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are able to kill certain transmission stages of the malaria parasite. However, the population-level impacts of ACTs on reducing malaria transmission have been difficult to assess. In this study on the history of malaria control in Vietnam, we assemble annual reporting on malaria case counts, coverage with insecticide-treated nets (ITN) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), and drug purchases by provincial malaria control programs from 1991 to 2010 in Vietnam's 20 southern provinces. We observe a significant negative association between artemisinin use and malaria incidence, with a 10% absolute increase in the purchase proportion of artemisinin-containing regimens being associated with a 29.1% (95% confidence interval: 14.8-41.0%) reduction in slide-confirmed malaria incidence, after accounting for changes in urbanization, ITN/IRS coverage, and two indicators of health system capacity. One budget-related indicator of health system capacity was found to have a smaller association with malaria incidence, and no other significant factors were found. Our findings suggest that including an artemisinin component in malaria drug regimens was strongly associated with reduced malaria incidence in southern Vietnam, whereas changes in urbanization and coverage with ITN or IRS were not. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Vietnam and the regional crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masina, Pietro Paolo

    2002-01-01

    inflows, should be understood in the broader frame of regional contingencies, and not be simplistically explained as investors' discontent (i.e., in order to pressure Vietnamese authorities into implementing a more orthodox neo-liberal agenda). And in a post-crisis regional economic reorganisation...... that Vietnam can successfully exploit market niches opened up by postcrisis regional economic reorganisation, thus offering some optimism for the country's immediate economic future....

  20. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Teen Pregnancy in Vietnam: Results from Two National Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huong Nguyen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study asked two broad questions: (1 what is the prevalence of teen pregnancy in contemporary Vietnam; and (2 what selected social, family, and individual factors are associated with teen pregnancy in Vietnam? The study utilized Vietnam Survey Assessment of Vietnamese Youth surveys conducted in 2003 and 2008 to answer the two research questions within the context of fast political, economic, and social change in Vietnam in the last two decades. Results of this study show that the prevalence of pregnancy among Vietnamese teenagers in the surveys was stable at 4%, or 40 pregnancies per 1000 adolescent girls aged 14 to 19. Age, experience of domestic violence, and early sexual debut were positively correlated with higher odds of teenage pregnancy for both survey cohorts; however, being an ethnic minority, educational attainment, sexual education at school, Internet use, and depressive symptoms were significantly related to teenage pregnancy only in the 2008 cohort.

  1. Iron Isotope Variations in Reduced Groundwater and in Drinking Water Supplies: A Case Study of Hanoi, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutsch, N.; Berg, M.; von Gunten, U.; Halliday, A.

    2004-12-01

    In reduced groundwater iron is involved in biotic and abiotic transformation processes, both of which could lead to iron isotope fractionation. The reduced groundwater aquifers in the area of the Vietnamese capital of Hanoi are the main drinking water sources for the city. These groundwaters contain arsenic, which imposes a serious health threat to millions of people. Dissolved arsenic is related to the reducing conditions prevalent in the groundwater, and iron and arsenic contents are correlated in the sediments. We are employing iron isotope composition as a tool to better understand the processes leading to the transformation of iron in the groundwater and its role in various biogeochemical processes in reduced environments. Drinking water is supplied to the city of Hanoi from several water treatment plants (WTP) which pump the raw groundwater from a lower aquifer, while the rural surroundings pump untreated groundwater from an upper aquifer by private tubewells. Surface water from the Red River delta is the main source of recharge to these two aquifers. Due to high content of particulate natural organic matter (NOM) in the sediment leading to extensive microbial activity, the groundwaters are anoxic and rich in dissolved iron(II). The iron(II) removal in the WTPs is carried by a multi-step treatment including aeration, settling, filtration, and chlorination. We have collected natural groundwater samples for isotopic analysis from two aquifers at several locations, a groundwater depth profile and its corresponding sediment phases from the upper aquifer and the underlying aquitard, raw and treated water from several WTPs, as well as the corresponding iron(III) precipitates. The iron concentrations of groundwaters analysed in this study range from 3 to 28 mg/L and δ 57Fe (57/54 deviation from IRMM 014) values vary between -1.2 and +1.5 ‰ . The sediment depth profile has a δ 57Fe around +0.3 ‰ , which implies that the high values obtained in the groundwater

  2. Anticommunism as cultural praxis : South Vietnam, war, and refugee memories in the Vietnamese American community

    OpenAIRE

    Vo Dang, Thanh Thuy

    2008-01-01

    In dialogue with new critical scholarship on immigration, refugee, war, and memory studies as well as drawing from the methodologies of cultural studies and ethnography, this dissertation examines "anticommunism" as a set of cultural discourses and practices that shape the past, present, and future of Vietnamese diasporic communities by exploring when, where, and for what purposes South Vietnam emerges in refugee memories. That anticommunism continues to be an important paradigm for Vietnames...

  3. Overview of cleaner production as a result of clean technology research in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam, D.V.; Nhan, T.V.; Lan, N.N. [Hanoi Univ. of Technology (Viet Nam)

    1996-12-31

    Vietnam is beginning its industrialization process, and it currently lacks the capital necessary for expensive pollution control and treatment systems. Pollution strategies are critical for the country. This study evaluates the present status of industry and the pollution problems associated with industrial development in Vietnam. The purpose of the study is to identify sectors that may have potential for promoting cleaner production practices. 4 refs.

  4. Political Connections and Investment in Rural Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses household panel data from rural Vietnam to explore the effects of having a relative in a position of political or bureaucratic power on farmers’ agricultural investment decisions. Our main result is that households significantly increase their investment in land improvement...... as a result of relatives moving into public office. Connections to office holders appear to be important for investment because they strengthen de facto land property rights and improve access to off-farm employment and to informal loans. The findings underline the importance of informal networks for economic...... behaviour in environments with developing institutions and markets. They also suggest the presence of an untapped potential for economic development: if households without connections could obtain equally strong property rights and access to credit and insurance as the well-connected households, investment...

  5. Predictive Studies Suggest that the Risk for the Selection of Antibiotic Resistance by Biocides Is Likely Low in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Blanca Sánchez

    Full Text Available Biocides are used without restriction for several purposes. As a consequence, large amounts of biocides are released without any control in the environment, a situation that can challenge the microbial population dynamics, including selection of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Previous work has shown that triclosan selects Stenotrophomonas maltophilia antibiotic resistant mutants overexpressing the efflux pump SmeDEF and induces expression of this pump triggering transient low-level resistance. In the present work we analyze if two other common biocides, benzalkonium chloride and hexachlorophene, trigger antibiotic resistance in S. maltophilia. Bioinformatic and biochemical methods showed that benzalkonium chloride and hexachlorophene bind the repressor of smeDEF, SmeT. Only benzalkonium chloride triggers expression of smeD and its effect in transient antibiotic resistance is minor. None of the hexachlorophene-selected mutants was antibiotic resistant. Two benzalkonium chloride resistant mutants presented reduced susceptibility to antibiotics and were impaired in growth. Metabolic profiling showed they were more proficient than their parental strain in the use of some dipeptides. We can then conclude that although bioinformatic predictions and biochemical studies suggest that both hexachlorophene and benzalkonium chloride should induce smeDEF expression leading to transient S. maltophilia resistance to antibiotics, phenotypic assays showed this not to be true. The facts that hexachlorophene resistant mutants are not antibiotic resistant and that the benzalkonium chloride resistant mutants presenting altered susceptibility to antibiotics were impaired in growth suggests that the risk for the selection (and fixation of S. maltophilia antibiotic resistant mutants by these biocides is likely low, at least in the absence of constant selection pressure.

  6. Dosing of Milrinone in Preterm Neonates to Prevent Postligation Cardiac Syndrome: Simulation Study Suggests Need for Bolus Infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallik, Maarja; Tasa, Tõnis; Starkopf, Joel; Metsvaht, Tuuli

    2017-01-01

    Milrinone has been suggested as a possible first-line therapy for preterm neonates to prevent postligation cardiac syndrome (PLCS) through decreasing systemic vascular resistance and increasing cardiac contractility. The optimal dosing regimen, however, is not known. To model the dosing of milrinone in preterm infants for prevention of PLCS after surgical closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Milrinone time-concentration profiles were simulated for 1,000 subjects using the volume of distribution and clearance estimates based on one compartmental population pharmacokinetic model by Paradisis et al. [Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2007;92:F204-F209]. Dose optimization was based on retrospectively collected demographic data from neonates undergoing PDA ligation in Estonian PICUs between 2012 and 2014 and existing pharmacodynamic data. The target plasma concentration was set at 150-200 ng/ml. The simulation study used demographic data from 31 neonates who underwent PDA ligation. The median postnatal age was 13 days (range: 3-29) and weight was 760 g (range: 500-2,351). With continuous infusion of milrinone 0.33 μg/kg/min, the proportion of subjects within the desired concentration range was 0% by 3 h, 36% by 6 h, and 61% by 8 h; 99% of subjects exceeded the range by 18 h. The maximum proportion of total simulated concentrations in the target range was attained with a bolus infusion of 0.73 μg/kg/min for 3 h followed by a 0.16-μg/kg/min maintenance infusion. Mathematical simulations suggest that in preterm neonates the plasma time-concentration profile of milrinone can be optimized with a slow loading dose followed by maintenance infusion. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Dengue dynamics in Binh Thuan province, southern Vietnam: periodicity, synchronicity and climate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Khoa T D; Cazelles, Bernard; Nguyen, Nam Van; Vo, Long Thi; Boni, Maciej F; Farrar, Jeremy; Simmons, Cameron P; van Doorn, H Rogier; de Vries, Peter J

    2010-07-13

    Dengue is a major global public health problem with increasing incidence and geographic spread. The epidemiology is complex with long inter-epidemic intervals and endemic with seasonal fluctuations. This study was initiated to investigate dengue transmission dynamics in Binh Thuan province, southern Vietnam. Wavelet analyses were performed on time series of monthly notified dengue cases from January 1994 to June 2009 (i) to detect and quantify dengue periodicity, (ii) to describe synchrony patterns in both time and space, (iii) to investigate the spatio-temporal waves and (iv) to associate the relationship between dengue incidence and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indices in Binh Thuan province, southern Vietnam. We demonstrate a continuous annual mode of oscillation and a multi-annual cycle of around 2-3-years was solely observed from 1996-2001. Synchrony in time and between districts was detected for both the annual and 2-3-year cycle. Phase differences used to describe the spatio-temporal patterns suggested that the seasonal wave of infection was either synchronous among all districts or moving away from Phan Thiet district. The 2-3-year periodic wave was moving towards, rather than away from Phan Thiet district. A strong non-stationary association between ENSO indices and climate variables with dengue incidence in the 2-3-year periodic band was found. A multi-annual mode of oscillation was observed and these 2-3-year waves of infection probably started outside Binh Thuan province. Associations with climatic variables were observed with dengue incidence. Here, we have provided insight in dengue population transmission dynamics over the past 14.5 years. Further studies on an extensive time series dataset are needed to test the hypothesis that epidemics emanate from larger cities in southern Vietnam.

  8. Dengue dynamics in Binh Thuan province, southern Vietnam: periodicity, synchronicity and climate variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoa T D Thai

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is a major global public health problem with increasing incidence and geographic spread. The epidemiology is complex with long inter-epidemic intervals and endemic with seasonal fluctuations. This study was initiated to investigate dengue transmission dynamics in Binh Thuan province, southern Vietnam.Wavelet analyses were performed on time series of monthly notified dengue cases from January 1994 to June 2009 (i to detect and quantify dengue periodicity, (ii to describe synchrony patterns in both time and space, (iii to investigate the spatio-temporal waves and (iv to associate the relationship between dengue incidence and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO indices in Binh Thuan province, southern Vietnam.We demonstrate a continuous annual mode of oscillation and a multi-annual cycle of around 2-3-years was solely observed from 1996-2001. Synchrony in time and between districts was detected for both the annual and 2-3-year cycle. Phase differences used to describe the spatio-temporal patterns suggested that the seasonal wave of infection was either synchronous among all districts or moving away from Phan Thiet district. The 2-3-year periodic wave was moving towards, rather than away from Phan Thiet district. A strong non-stationary association between ENSO indices and climate variables with dengue incidence in the 2-3-year periodic band was found.A multi-annual mode of oscillation was observed and these 2-3-year waves of infection probably started outside Binh Thuan province. Associations with climatic variables were observed with dengue incidence. Here, we have provided insight in dengue population transmission dynamics over the past 14.5 years. Further studies on an extensive time series dataset are needed to test the hypothesis that epidemics emanate from larger cities in southern Vietnam.

  9. The Ri chicken breed and livelihoods in North Vietnam: characterization and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Leroy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For the last twenty years, the consumption of poultry meat has boomed in Vietnam as in the rest of the developing world. Capital-intensive production has grown rapidly to satisfy this demand. Based on a few numbers of genetically uniform strains, these systems threaten biodiversity. In Vietnam, both rural and urban households still keep indigenous chickens as part of a diversified livelihood portfolio. In line with the national in situ conservation strategy, this study approached the context of local poultry keeping in two rural and one suburban districts of Northern Vietnam. It aimed at understanding households’ willingness, constraints and opportunities for practice improvement, including breeds’ management. As the Ri chicken constitutes the large majority of backyard flocks, two particular objectives of this study are the morpho-biometric characterisation of phenotypic diversity among individuals classified as Ri by farmers and an assessment of their productive potential. Chicken was found to hold a different place in livelihoods of the three districts with consequences on the management of genetic resources. The most favourable conditions for improvement of the Ri breed was found in the rural district of Luong-Son, due to market integration. In the more remote district of Ky-Son, living standards were lower and much would be gained from Ri conservation. Ri breed was the most threatened in the suburban Gia-Lam district, where poultry was a minor side-activity, lacking incentive for genetic management. From motives and constraints, tracks about breeding goals are suggested. Further considerations about conservation, improvement, market integration and livelihoods are proposed.

  10. Rapid Ascent From Zero Quality to International Organization for Standardization Accreditation: A Case Study of Hai Duong Preventive Medicine Center in Vietnam, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Cuong Ngoc; Bond, Kyle B; Carvalho, Humberto; Thi Thu, Hien Bui; Nguyen, Thuong; Rush, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    In 2012, the Vietnam Ministry of Health sought to improve the quality of health laboratories by introducing international quality standards. Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA), a year-long, structured, quality improvement curriculum (including projects and mentorship) was piloted in 12 laboratories. Progress was measured using a standardized audit tool (Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation). All 12 pilot laboratories (a mix of hospital and public health) demonstrated improvement; median scores rose from 44% to 78% compliance. The public health laboratory in Hai Duong Province entered the program with the lowest score of the group (28%) yet concluded with the highest score (86%). Five months after the completion of the program, without any additional external support, they were accredited. Laboratory management/staff describe factors key to their success: support from the facility senior management, how-to guidance provided by SLMTA, support from the site mentor, and strong commitment of laboratory staff. Hai Duong preventive medical center is one of only a handful of laboratories to reach accreditation after participation in SLMTA and the only laboratory to do so without additional support. Due to the success seen in Hai Duong and other pilot laboratories, Vietnam has expanded the use of SLMTA. American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Building a Scientifically Based Knowledge for Operating the Ninh Thuan NPP in Vietnam: Case Study on the Aspects of Water Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T. K. D.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: In preparing for the first nuclear power plant in Vietnam, as part of the quality assurance, it is important to educate and train the staff of the plant beforehand. Such training includes, amongst other important subjects, the scientific background on the complex processes, the operational safety, use of the instruments for reading and controlling parameters, evaluation of these data, the quality management system, and staff responsibilities and interactions during routine and non-routine activities. This paper refers to the one aspect of operating a nuclear power plant: the water chemistry. Various important parameters of the plant, such as reactivity, corrosion rate, dose rate, material stress, interreaction and/or behaviour between water coolant and materials, filter lifetime, and heat exchanger efficiency can be influenced and/or controlled in terms of water composition, radionuclides arising during starting stage,during operation and in shutdown stage, its pH, additives, water management and purification. Also, ecologic considerations play an essential role. We report here about a project to establish such education and training as one of the missions of our institute in terms of support for the new nuclear power plants in Vietnam. (author

  12. Mental health priorities in Vietnam: a mixed-methods analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemi Maria

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mental Health Country Profile is a tool that was generated by the International Mental Health Policy and Services Project to inform policy makers, professionals and other key stakeholders about important issues which need to be considered in mental health policy development. The Mental Health Country Profile contains four domains, which include the mental health context, resources, provision and outcomes. We have aimed to generate a Mental Health Country Profile for Vietnam, in order to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the Vietnamese mental health situation, in order to inform future reform efforts and decision-making. Methods This study used snowball sampling to identify informants for generating a Mental Health Country Profile for Vietnam, and the data gathering was done through semi-structured interviews and collection of relevant reports and documents. The material from the interviews and documents was analysed according to qualitative content analysis. Results Marked strengths of the Vietnam mental health system are the aims to move toward community management and detection of mental illness, and the active involvement of several multilateral organizations and NGOs. However, there are a number of shortages still found, including the lack of treatment interventions apart from medications, the high proportion of treatments to be paid out-of-pocket, prominence of large tertiary psychiatric hospitals, and a lack of preventative measures or mental health information to the public. Conclusions At the end of this decade, mental health care in Vietnam is still characterised by unclear policy and poor critical mass especially within the governmental sector. This initial attempt to map the mental health situation of Vietnam suffers from a number of limitations and should be seen as a first step towards a comprehensive profile.

  13. Experimental nuclear physics in Vietnam - recent status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thanh Minh

    1995-01-01

    Status of research works on experimental nuclear physics in Vietnam is reviewed. Vietnam institutions and main instruments for nuclear research are listed. The results on physics and technology of nuclear reactor, neutron physics, nuclear reactions, radiological safety are mentioned. (N.H.A). 6 tabs, 4 figs

  14. Perspectives on the Teaching of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, David M.

    1986-01-01

    Too often seen through the lens of the United States experience in the Vietnam War, this article offers an alternative approach to teaching Vietnam through the development of a cultural and historical perspective. Provides a brief summary of literature on Vietnamese cultural history which is appropriate to high school students. (JDH)

  15. Insulin sensitivity and serum TCDD in Air Force veterans occupationally exposed to herbicides during the Vietnam war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, P.; Said, S. [Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (United States); Jackson, W. Jr; Michalek, J. [Air Force Research Lab., San Antonio (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Between 1961 and 1971, the United States Air Force sprayed 12 million gallons of the defoliant ''Agent Orange'' on 3.6 million acres of Vietnam. Agent Orange was a 1:1 mixture of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4,5- trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was a contaminant of the defoliant, from less than 0.05 to almost 50 parts per million. Numerous Vietnam veterans were exposed to TCDD when Agent Orange and other TCDD-contaminated herbicides were sprayed in large quantities in Vietnam and TCDD has been found at many toxic waste disposal sites in the United States. Some of the highest exposure to TCDD occurred in members of Operation Ranch Hand, the Air Force unit responsible for spraying herbicides from fix-wing aircraft in Vietnam. The Air Force Health Study (AFHS), an epidemiological study of Ranch Hand veterans, was launched in 1980 to address veteran concerns regarding Agent Orange exposure. A link between TCDD and diabetes has been demonstrated in several studies. Among the Ranch Hand veterans with high blood levels of TCDD, there was a significant increase in the prevalence of diabetes and a decrease in the age at which diabetes was diagnosed. In a study from Seveso, Italy, where 45,000 people had varying levels of exposure to TCDD, there were significant increases in mortality from coronary artery disease and diabetes. Several studies have demonstrated a relationship between blood TCDD levels and hyperinsulinemia. The data suggest that non-diabetic individuals exposed to TCDD have an increased risk of insulin-resistance, being able to maintain normal blood glucose levels but only because of very high concentrations of insulin. As a result of available evidence, public policy decisions have been made, such as a decision by the Veterans Administration that diabetes is a service-connected condition in Agent Orange-exposed Vietnam veterans. Here we study the relation between TCDD insulin sensitivity

  16. 45 CFR 506.10 - “Vietnam conflict” defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 506.10 “Vietnam conflict” defined. Vietnam conflict refers to the period beginning February 28, 1961... “Vietnam conflict” for purposes of payment of interest on missing military service members' deposits in the... ending date for the Vietnam conflict for purposes of determining eligibility for compensation under 50 U...

  17. An international observational study suggests that artificial intelligence for clinical decision support optimizes anemia management in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Carlo; Molina, Manuel; Ponce, Pedro; Tothova, Monika; Cattinelli, Isabella; Ion Titapiccolo, Jasmine; Mari, Flavio; Amato, Claudia; Leipold, Frank; Wehmeyer, Wolfgang; Stuard, Stefano; Stopper, Andrea; Canaud, Bernard

    2016-08-01

    Managing anemia in hemodialysis patients can be challenging because of competing therapeutic targets and individual variability. Because therapy recommendations provided by a decision support system can benefit both patients and doctors, we evaluated the impact of an artificial intelligence decision support system, the Anemia Control Model (ACM), on anemia outcomes. Based on patient profiles, the ACM was built to recommend suitable erythropoietic-stimulating agent doses. Our retrospective study consisted of a 12-month control phase (standard anemia care), followed by a 12-month observation phase (ACM-guided care) encompassing 752 patients undergoing hemodialysis therapy in 3 NephroCare clinics located in separate countries. The percentage of hemoglobin values on target, the median darbepoetin dose, and individual hemoglobin fluctuation (estimated from the intrapatient hemoglobin standard deviation) were deemed primary outcomes. In the observation phase, median darbepoetin consumption significantly decreased from 0.63 to 0.46 μg/kg/month, whereas on-target hemoglobin values significantly increased from 70.6% to 76.6%, reaching 83.2% when the ACM suggestions were implemented. Moreover, ACM introduction led to a significant decrease in hemoglobin fluctuation (intrapatient standard deviation decreased from 0.95 g/dl to 0.83 g/dl). Thus, ACM support helped improve anemia outcomes of hemodialysis patients, minimizing erythropoietic-stimulating agent use with the potential to reduce the cost of treatment. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Can urban regeneration programmes assist coping and recovery for people with mental illness? Suggestions from a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Rob; Prince, Martin

    2006-03-01

    Researchers and policy-makers are increasingly recognizing that urban socio-environmental conditions can affect the development and course of numerous health problems. The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact an urban regeneration programme can have on everyday functioning, coping and recovery for people with a mental illness. We were also interested in discerning which component parts of the regeneration are the most important in positively affecting people with mental illness. These questions were explored through an in-depth qualitative case study of the Gospel Oak neighbourhood in London, which recently underwent an intensive urban regeneration programme. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with residents living with a mental illness (n = 16). Relevant participant observation was also conducted. Participants reported that interventions that improved community safety were by far the most important in affecting everyday coping and functioning. Interventions that improved the quantity and quality of shared community facilities had a positive, but milder effect on mental health. Component parts that appeared to have little effect included environmental landscaping and greater community involvement in decision-making processes. Most participants reported that their mental illness was a consequence of severe insults over the life-span, for example childhood neglect or family breakdown. Thus, the regeneration was seen as something that could assist coping, but not something that could significantly contribute to complete recovery. Our results thus suggest that urban regeneration can have a mild impact on people with mental illness, but this appears to be outweighed by life-span experience of severe individual-level risk factors. That said, some of our findings converge with other studies indicating that community safety and community facilities can play a role in positively affecting mental health. Further ethnographic and epidemiological research is

  19. Impact of deforestation on local precipitation patterns over the Da River basin, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Spartà, Daniele; Castelletti, Andrea; Boschetti, Mirco

    2014-05-01

    Change in land cover, e.g. from forest to bare soil, might severely impact the hydrological cycle at the river basin scale by altering the balance between rainfall and evaporation, ultimately affecting streamflow dynamics. These changes generally occur over decades, but they might be much more rapid in developing countries, where economic growth and growing population may cause abrupt changes in landscape and ecosystem. Detecting, analysing and modelling these changes is an essential step to design mitigation strategies and adaptation plans, balancing economic development and ecosystem protection. In this work we investigate the impact of land cover changes on the water cycle in the Da River basin, Vietnam. More precisely, the objective is to evaluate the interlink between deforestation and precipitation. The case study is particularly interesting because Vietnam is one of the world fastest growing economies and natural resources have been considerably exploited to support after-war development. Vietnam has the second highest rate of deforestation of primary forests in the world, second to only Nigeria (FAO 2005), with associated problems like abrupt change in run-off, erosion, sediment transport and flash floods. We performed land cover evaluation by combining literature information and Remote Sensing techniques, using Landsat images. We then analysed time series of precipitation observed on the period 1960-2011 in several stations located in the catchment area. We used multiple trend detection techniques, both state-of-the-art (e.g., Linear regression and Mann-Kendall) and novel trend detection techniques (Moving Average on Shifting Horizon), to investigate trends in seasonal pattern of precipitation. Results suggest that deforestation may induce a negative trend in the precipitation volume. The effect is mainly recognizable at the beginning and at the end of the monsoon season, when the local mechanisms of precipitation formation prevail over the large scale

  20. Current situation of radiation protection in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Toan Ngoc

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam was one of the earliest countries, who applied ionizing radiation in medicine, since 1923, Dr. Marie Curie had supplied radium sources to Hanoi cancer hospital for radiotherapy. However, we did not give sufficient attention to radiation protection involving, e.g. technology, legislation, until 1980s. Recently with the strong support from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Vietnam government nuclear technology has been strongly and widely developed in different branches and radiation protection situation in Vietnam has been improved step by step. Strategy for Peaceful Utilization of Atomic Energy up to 2020 approved by the prime minister on January 3th, 2006 confirms that nuclear power plant will be put in operation by 2020. To ensure the implementation of the strategy, the first priority should be given to radiation protection and nuclear safety. This paper presents shortly some activities of radiation safety in Vietnam. The requirements for developing this field in Vietnam are also discussed. (author)

  1. A Probabilistic Typhoon Risk Model for Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseemkunju, A.; Smith, D. F.; Brolley, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Annually, the coastal Provinces of low-lying Mekong River delta region in the southwest to the Red River Delta region in Northern Vietnam is exposed to severe wind and flood risk from landfalling typhoons. On average, about two to three tropical cyclones with a maximum sustained wind speed of >=34 knots make landfall along the Vietnam coast. Recently, Typhoon Wutip (2013) crossed Central Vietnam as a category 2 typhoon causing significant damage to properties. As tropical cyclone risk is expected to increase with increase in exposure and population growth along the coastal Provinces of Vietnam, insurance/reinsurance, and capital markets need a comprehensive probabilistic model to assess typhoon risk in Vietnam. In 2017, CoreLogic has expanded the geographical coverage of its basin-wide Western North Pacific probabilistic typhoon risk model to estimate the economic and insured losses from landfalling and by-passing tropical cyclones in Vietnam. The updated model is based on 71 years (1945-2015) of typhoon best-track data and 10,000 years of a basin-wide simulated stochastic tracks covering eight countries including Vietnam. The model is capable of estimating damage from wind, storm surge and rainfall flooding using vulnerability models, which relate typhoon hazard to building damageability. The hazard and loss models are validated against past historical typhoons affecting Vietnam. Notable typhoons causing significant damage in Vietnam are Lola (1993), Frankie (1996), Xangsane (2006), and Ketsana (2009). The central and northern coastal provinces of Vietnam are more vulnerable to wind and flood hazard, while typhoon risk in the southern provinces are relatively low.

  2. Meta-analysis of breast cancer microarray studies in conjunction with conserved cis-elements suggest patterns for coordinate regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundberg Cathryn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression measurements from breast cancer (BrCa tumors are established clinical predictive tools to identify tumor subtypes, identify patients showing poor/good prognosis, and identify patients likely to have disease recurrence. However, diverse breast cancer datasets in conjunction with diagnostic clinical arrays show little overlap in the sets of genes identified. One approach to identify a set of consistently dysregulated candidate genes in these tumors is to employ meta-analysis of multiple independent microarray datasets. This allows one to compare expression data from a diverse collection of breast tumor array datasets generated on either cDNA or oligonucleotide arrays. Results We gathered expression data from 9 published microarray studies examining estrogen receptor positive (ER+ and estrogen receptor negative (ER- BrCa tumor cases from the Oncomine database. We performed a meta-analysis and identified genes that were universally up or down regulated with respect to ER+ versus ER- tumor status. We surveyed both the proximal promoter and 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR of our top-ranking genes in each expression group to test whether common sequence elements may contribute to the observed expression patterns. Utilizing a combination of known transcription factor binding sites (TFBS, evolutionarily conserved mammalian promoter and 3'UTR motifs, and microRNA (miRNA seed sequences, we identified numerous motifs that were disproportionately represented between the two gene classes suggesting a common regulatory network for the observed gene expression patterns. Conclusion Some of the genes we identified distinguish key transcripts previously seen in array studies, while others are newly defined. Many of the genes identified as overexpressed in ER- tumors were previously identified as expression markers for neoplastic transformation in multiple human cancers. Moreover, our motif analysis identified a collection of

  3. The relationship between health policy and public health interventions: a case study of the DRIVE project to "end" the HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs in Haiphong, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammett, Theodore M; Trang, Nguyen Thu; Oanh, Khuat Thi Hai; Huong, Nguyen Thi; Giang, Le Minh; Huong, Duong Thi; Nagot, Nicolas; Des Jarlais, Don C

    2018-03-12

    We present a case study of the effects of health policies on the implementation and potential outcomes of a public health intervention, using the DRIVE project, that aims to 'end' the HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs in Haiphong, Vietnam. DRIVE's success depends on two policy transitions: (1) integration of donor-funded HIV outpatient clinics into public health clinics and expansion of social health insurance; (2) implementation of a "Renovation Plan" for substance use treatment. Interviews and focus group discussions with key informants and review of policy documents and clinic data reveal that both policy transitions are underway but face challenges. DRIVE promises to show how evolving policy affects health interventions and how advocacy based on project data can improve policy. Broad lessons include the importance of clear and consistent policies, vigorous enforcement, and adequate funding of promulgated policies.

  4. FY 1998 survey report on the potential study of cooperation related to the activity implementation joint in 6 countries of Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand and Malaysia); 1998 nendo Indoshina 6 kakkoku (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Tai oyobi Malaysia) ni okeru energy kankyo kanren kyodo kenkyu jisshi kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A potential study in FY 1998 was made of the energy/environment related activity implementation joint (COP3 related AIJ) in 6 Southeast Asian countries. Vietnam is a country which is the lowest in greenhouse effect gas (GHG) emission in the world, but they want the international assistance for their continued development and contribution to the global environment. Laos has to continue their economic development for extermination of poverty and improvement of life level. Accordingly, AIJ has to be the one that supports those and is helpful for both industrial development and environmental improvement. The same in Cambodia as in Laos, AIJ has to be the one that is helpful for both industrial development and promotion of environmental improvement. In Myanmar, GHG emits (CO2 conversion) 94.5% in the agricultural sector where methane is emitted from livestock and rice growing. There, the forest protection plays a big role. In Thailand, the use of land and forest protection are subjects mainly with the heightening of energy efficiency and fuel substitution. Malaysia, of course, promotes the economic development, has the leading GHG policy (traffic management in urban area, etc.), and wants the international technology transfer. (NEDO)

  5. Pesticide knowledge and practice among horticultural workers in the Lâm Đồng region, Vietnam: A case study of chrysanthemum and strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbraken, Michael; Bauweraerts, Ingvar; Fevery, Davina; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2016-04-15

    In Vietnam, large amounts of pesticides are being used in agriculture. Next to benefits for agriculture, pesticides impose a huge threat to the environment when they are used in the wrong way. The objective of this work was to determine the level of knowledge and awareness of the smallholder farmers towards the use of pesticides in Vietnam, Dà Lat region. Based on the collected data, an occupational and environmental risk assessment was performed. The results indicate that the majority of the pesticide operators in the strawberry and chrysanthemum crops have a rather high education. Pesticide knowledge, on the other hand, is usually gained through experience with pests and diseases. Only 30% of the farmers consulted a pesticide specialist or government stewardship for information on (new) pesticide products. Pesticide usage is rather high with application frequencies up to once every three days during the wet season. Pesticide packages are stored to be incinerated (51%) or to be thrown away with the garbage/taken to the landfill (37%). Only a small percentage disposes the packages into the local river (2%). The use of personal protection equipment is well established. Occupational risk assessment showed that the re-entry worker is exposed to a high risk. While a general awareness of the hazard of pesticides to human health and the environment is present, practical implementation of this awareness, however, is still limited in strawberry and chrysanthemum crop. The environmental risk evaluation indicated plant protection products of which the use should be limited. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Difficulties in getting treatment for injuries in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, H M; Byass, P

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge about the health-seeking behaviour of injury patients is important for the improvement of community health services. The aims of this study were: (1) to describe the healthcare-seeking behaviour of injury patients; (2) to examine factors associated with injury patients seeking care at health facilities; and (3) to describe the costs of health care for injury patients. This study took place in Bavi District, northern Vietnam within a longitudinal community surveillance site (FilaBavi). All non-fatal unintentional injuries occurring in a sample of 24,776 people during 2000 were recorded. The injury questionnaire included information on care-seeking behaviour, severity and consequences of injury. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to find associations between sociodemographic factors and utilization of any health services, as well as for each type of health service used, compared with the group who did not use any health services. Of 24,776 persons living in the study area, 1917 reported 2079 new non-fatal debilitating injuries during the four 3-month periods of observation. Health-seeking behaviour relating to the first 1917 injuries was analysed. Self-treatment was most common (51.7%), even in cases of severe injury. There was low usage of public health services (23.2%) among injury patients. Long distances, poor economic status and residence in difficult geographic areas such as highlands and mountains were barriers for seeking health services. A large proportion of household income was spent on treating injury patients. Poor people spent a greater proportion of their income on health care than the rich, and often used less qualified or untrained private providers. These results demonstrate the logistical and financial difficulties associated with the treatment of injuries in rural Vietnam. This suggests the need to make public health subsidies available more efficiently and equitably. Whilst this study looked at the

  7. Nonfatal Injuries and Psychosocial Correlates among Middle School Students in Cambodia and Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of nonfatal injury among middle school students in Cambodia and Vietnam. Cross-sectional data from 7137 school children (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 1.4 who were randomly sampled for participation in nationally representative Global School-based Health Surveys (GSHS in Cambodia and Vietnam were analyzed. The proportion of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 22.6% among boys and 17.5% among girls in Cambodia and 34.3% among boys and 25.1% among girls in Vietnam. The most prevalent cause of the most serious injury in Cambodia was traffic injuries (4.7% among boys and 4.3% among girls and in Vietnam it was falls (10.0% among boys and 7.0% among girls. In multinomial logistic regression analyses, experiencing hunger (as an indicator for low socioeconomic status and drug use were associated with having sustained one injury and two or more injuries in the past 12 months in Cambodia. In addition, poor mental health was associated with two or more injuries. In Vietnam, being male, experiencing hunger, current alcohol use, poor mental health and ever having had sex were associated with having sustained one injury and two or more injuries in the past 12 months. Several psychosocial variables were identified which could help in designing injury prevention strategies among middle school children in Cambodia and Vietnam.

  8. Rice-planted area extraction by time series analysis of ENVISAT ASAR WS data using a phenology-based classification approach: A case study for Red River Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, D.; Wagner, W.; Naeimi, V.; Cao, S.

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies have shown the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR) for mapping of rice fields and some other vegetation types. For rice field classification, conventional classification techniques have been mostly used including manual threshold-based and supervised classification approaches. The challenge of the threshold-based approach is to find acceptable thresholds to be used for each individual SAR scene. Furthermore, the influence of local incidence angle on backscatter hinders using a single threshold for the entire scene. Similarly, the supervised classification approach requires different training samples for different output classes. In case of rice crop, supervised classification using temporal data requires different training datasets to perform classification procedure which might lead to inconsistent mapping results. In this study we present an automatic method to identify rice crop areas by extracting phonological parameters after performing an empirical regression-based normalization of the backscatter to a reference incidence angle. The method is evaluated in the Red River Delta (RRD), Vietnam using the time series of ENVISAT Advanced SAR (ASAR) Wide Swath (WS) mode data. The results of rice mapping algorithm compared to the reference data indicate the Completeness (User accuracy), Correctness (Producer accuracy) and Quality (Overall accuracies) of 88.8%, 92.5 % and 83.9 % respectively. The total area of the classified rice fields corresponds to the total rice cultivation areas given by the official statistics in Vietnam (R2  0.96). The results indicates that applying a phenology-based classification approach using backscatter time series in optimal incidence angle normalization can achieve high classification accuracies. In addition, the method is not only useful for large scale early mapping of rice fields in the Red River Delta using the current and future C-band Sentinal-1A&B backscatter data but also might be applied for other rice

  9. The cost of antiretroviral treatment service for patients with HIV/AIDS in a central outpatient clinic in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen LT

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Long Thanh Nguyen,1 Bach Xuan Tran,2 Cuong Tuan Tran,1 Huong Thi Le,1 Son Van Tran1 1Authority of HIV/AIDS Control, Ministry of Health, Hanoi, Vietnam; 2Institute for Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam Introduction: Antiretroviral treatment (ART services are estimated to account for 30% of the total resources needed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS control and prevention in Vietnam during the 2011–2020 timeframe. With international funding decreasing, determining the total cost of HIV/AIDS treatment is necessary in order to develop a master plan for the transition of ART services delivery and management. We analyzed the costs of HIV/AIDS treatment paid by both HIV programs and patients in a central outpatient clinic, and we explored factors associated with the capacity of patients to pay for this service. Methods: Patients (n=315 receiving ART in the Department of Infectious Diseases at Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam, were interviewed. Patient records and expenses were reviewed. Results: The total cost of ART per patient was US$611 (75% from health care providers, 25% from patients or their families. The cost of a second-line regimen was found to be 2.7 times higher than the first-line regimen cost. Most outpatients (73.3% were able to completely pay for all of their ART expenses. Capacity to pay for ART was influenced by five factors, including marital status, distance from house to clinic, patient's monthly income, household economic condition, and health insurance status. Most of the patients (84.8% would have been willing to pay for health insurance if a copayment scheme for ART were to be introduced. Conclusion: This study provides evidence on payment capacity of HIV/AIDS patients in Vietnam and supplies information on ART costs from both provider and patient perspectives. In particular, results from this study suggest that earlier access to ART

  10. PCR detection and genetic diversity of bovine hemoprotozoan parasites in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Lan, Dinh Thi Bich; Long, Phung Thang; Yoshinari, Takeshi; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Guswanto, Azirwan; Okubo, Kazuhiro; Igarashi, Ikuo; Inoue, Noboru; Xuan, Xuenan; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2013-11-01

    Hemoprotozoan infections often cause serious production losses in livestock. In the present study, we conducted a PCR-based survey of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis, Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma theileri, using 423 DNA samples extracted from blood samples of cattle (n=202), water buffaloes (n=43), sheep (n=51) and goats (n=127) bred in the Hue and Hanoi provinces of Vietnam. With the exception of T. annulata and T. evansi, all other parasite species (B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. orientalis and T. theileri) were detected in the cattle populations with B. bovis being the most common among them. Additionally, four water buffaloes and a single goat were infected with B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. The Hue province had more hemoprotozoan-positive animals than those from the Hanoi region. In the phylogenetic analyses, B. bovis-MSA-2b, B. bigemina-AMA-1 and T. theileri-CATL gene sequences were dispersed across four, one and three different clades in the respective phylograms. This is the first study in which the presence of Babesia, Theileria and Trypanosoma parasites was simultaneously investigated by PCR in Vietnam. The findings suggest that hemoprotozoan parasites, some of which are genetically diverse, continue to be a threat to the livestock industry in this country.

  11. Immunotoxicological effects of Agent Orange exposure to the Vietnam War Korean veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Kim, Eun-Mi; Park, Yeong-Chul; Yu, Ji-Yeon; Hong, Seung-Kwon; Jeon, Seong-Hoon; Park, Kui-Lea; Hur, Sook-Jin; Heo, Yong

    2003-07-01

    Immunomodulatory effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) demonstrated using animals are thymic atrophy, downregulation of cytotoxic T or B lymphocyte differentiation or activation, whereas human immunotoxicities have not been investigated well. This study was undertaken to evaluate overall immunologic spectrum of the Vietnam War Korean veterans exposed to Agent Orange contaminated with TCDD. Quantity of red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit in the veterans suffered from chronic diseases associated with Agent Orange exposure (Veterans-patient group) were decreased in comparison with those of the veterans without the diseases and the age-matched healthy controls, but no differences in leukocyte populations. Plasma IgG levels were lowered in the veterans than the controls, owing to significant decrease in the IgG1 levels. Increase in the IgE levels was observed in the plasma from the veterans. Alteration of T cell-mediated immunity was also resulted from activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with polyclonal T cell activators. Production of IFNgamma, a major cytokine mediating host resistance against infection or tumoregenesis, was lowered in the veterans-patient group. However, production of IL-4 and IL-10, representative cytokines involved with hypersensitivity induction, was enhanced in the patient group. Overall, this study suggests that military service in Vietnam and/or Agent Orange exposure disturbs immune-homeostasis resulting in dysregulation of B and T cell activities.

  12. Decarbonization scenarios in the electricity sector in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Van Thanh

    2016-01-01

    shift in policy choices to face the needs of an accelerated but sustainable economic development. Six scenarios were constructed on the basis of a reference scenario, focusing successively on energy efficiency, nuclear, CCS, renewables and a more balanced electricity mix. Environmental constraints (CO_2 emissions reduction) have priority in the scenario building process. This multi-criteria approach is very new in Vietnam, a country more familiar with supply cost-based approach. Scenarios analyzed here take into account the carbon intensity reduction of Vietnam's power sector. It is proposed as the benchmark threshold, the emission level of 50-80 g/kWh (similar to reference level studied in two of Vietnam's neighboring Asian economies such as Indonesia and India). In our research, the different mix of electricity generation offer relevant solutions. They allow meeting the economic and environmental challenges related to the expansion of the Vietnam's electricity sector. The analysis takes into account several dimensions such as the increasing demand pressure, fuels supply security with alternative choices, reduced high electrical production total costs, control of external bill, considered social impact (especially on health of citizens) and land use and, finally, compliance with standards related to the regional, national and global environment/climate protection. (author) [fr

  13. An analysis of thermal comfort in primary schools in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Thi Ho Vi; Gillott, Mark C.; Rodrigues, Lucélia Taranto

    2017-01-01

    There is a trend of installing air conditioning systems in public primary schools that are currently naturally ventilated in Vietnam. A previous study conducted by the authors provided evidence that there is limited need for air conditioning in Vietnamese mid-season and the hottest season.\\ud \\ud In this study, the authors investigated thermal comfort and users’ perceptions in three primary schools in Ho Chi Minh City during the hottest season (April 2016) and the coldest season (December 201...

  14. New Species of Orchids (Orchidaceae in the Flora of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid V. AVERYANOV

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes results of joint efforts of professional botanists and orchid enthusiasts on studies of Vietnamese native orchids during years 2013–2016. It provides new original data about the discovery of 1 genus (Grammatophyllum Blume and 29 orchid species new for the flora of Vietnam. Valid name, main synonyms, data on type, ecology, phenology, estimated IUCN Red List status, distribution, studied specimens, as well as brief taxonomic and biological notes are provided for each species and varieties. Eight species (Bidupia khangii, Bulbophyllum striatulum, B. tipula, Cleisostoma dorsisacculatum, Cymbidium repens, Dendrobium congianum, Flickingeria xanthocheila, Podochilus rotundipetala and two varieties (Phreatia densiflora var. vietnamensis, P. formosana var. continentalis are described as new for science. One combination (Bulbophyllum bicolor var. funingense is proposed. An illustrated annotated list of all studied species and varieties is arranged in alphabetical order. Including present data, the known orchid flora of Vietnam comprises currently at least 1210 documented species from 172 genera.

  15. Carcinogenicity and teratogenicity vs. psychogenicity: Psychological characteristics associated with self-reported Agent Orange exposure among Vietnam combat veterans who seek treatment for substance abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinowitz, R.; Roberts, W.R.; Dolan, M.P.; Patterson, E.T.; Charles, H.L.; Atkins, H.G.; Penk, W.E. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Dallas (USA))

    1989-09-01

    This study asked, What are the psychological characteristics of Vietnam combat veterans who claim Agent Orange exposure when compared with combat-experienced cohorts who do not report such contamination The question was researched among 153 heroin addicts, polydrug abusers, and chronic alcoholics who were seeking treatment: 58 reported moderate to high defoliant exposure while in combat; 95 reported minimal to no exposure while in Vietnam. The null hypothesis was accepted for measures of childhood and present family social climate, premilitary backgrounds, reasons for seeking treatment, patterns and types of illicit drug and alcohol use, interpersonal problems, intellectual functioning, and short-term memory. The null hypothesis was rejected for personality differences, however, those who self-reported high Agent Orange exposure scored significantly higher on MMPI scales F, Hypochondriasis, Depression, Paranoia, Psychasthenia, Schizophrenia, Mania, and Social interoversion. The results suggest that clinicians carefully assess attributional processing of those who report traumatic experience.

  16. Recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Le Van [Radioisotope Dept., Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1998-10-01

    This is a report on the recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam. Using a nuclear research reactor of 500 KW with continuous operation cycles of 100 hours a month, the production of some important radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine and research was routinely carried out. More than 80 per cent of irradiation capacity of reactor for radioisotope production were exploited. The radioactivity of more than 150 Ci of {sup 131}I, {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc, {sup 32}P, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 192}Ir was produced annually. Radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 131}I-Hippuran and in-vivo Kits for {sup 99m}Tc labelling were also prepared routinely and regularly. More than 10 in-vivo Kits including modern radiopharmaceuticals such as HmPAO kit were supplied to hospitals in Vietnam. The research on the improvement of dry distillation technology for production of {sup 131}I was carried out. As a result obtained a new distillation apparatus made from glass was successfully put to routine use in place of expensive quartz distillation furnace. We have also continued the research programme on the development of {sup 99m}Tc generators using low power research reactors. Gel technology using Zr- and Ti- molybdate gel columns for {sup 99m}Tc generator production was developed and improved continually. Portable {sup 99m}Tc generator using Zr-({sup 99}Mo) molybdate gel column and ZISORB adsorbent column for {sup 99m}Tc concentration were developed. The ZISORB adsorbent of high adsorption capacity for {sup 99}Mo and other parent radionuclides was also studied for the development purpose of alternative technology of {sup 99m}Tc and other different radionuclide generator systems. The studies on the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals labelling with {sup 153}Sm and {sup 131}I such as {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, {sup 131}I-MIBG were carried out. (author)

  17. Hygiene and sanitation among ethnic minorities in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Improving sanitation and hygiene to prevent infectious diseases is of high priority in developing countries. This study attempts to gain in-depth understanding of hygiene and sanitation perceptions and practices among four Ethnic Minority Groups (EMGs) in a rural area of northern Vietnam. It is b......-based hygiene promotion is also recommended to curb dependency and spark initiatives in ethnic minority communities. Finally, interventions should focus on hygiene "software"--promoting hygiene behaviour changes known to effectively prevent hygiene related diseases.......Improving sanitation and hygiene to prevent infectious diseases is of high priority in developing countries. This study attempts to gain in-depth understanding of hygiene and sanitation perceptions and practices among four Ethnic Minority Groups (EMGs) in a rural area of northern Vietnam...

  18. Climate change and its gendered impacts on agriculture in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung, P.T

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that Vietnam is one of the countries that most affected by climate change because of its geographical and natural conditions together with its fast but massive and unplanned urbanization. There are many research and studies that have been conducted to assess the impacts of climate change on different sectors in Vietnam. Agriculture plays an important role in the country’s economy in terms of poverty reduction, food security, employment and export but projected to be heavily affected because of sea level rise, floods or droughts etc. A large proportion of Vietnam’s population, especially women, involves with agricultural works and production. So, this paper using a gender perspective will examine possible impacts that climate change has been causing to women and men differently in order to propose some solutions for the facing problems. Since the paper only utilizes available resources, it can serve as a concept note for further works in the future.

  19. Relationship of urinary arsenic metabolites to intake estimates in residents of the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Minh, Tu Binh; Pham Thi Kim Trang; Iwata, Hisato; Pham Hung Viet; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the status of arsenic (As) exposure from groundwater and rice, and its methylation capacity in residents from the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Arsenic levels in groundwater ranged from <1.8 to 486 μg/L. Remarkably, 86% of groundwater samples exceeded WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg/L. Also, estimated inorganic As intake from groundwater and rice were over Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (15 μg/week/kg body wt.) by FAO/WHO for 92% of the residents examined. Inorganic As and its metabolite (monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid) concentrations in human urine were positively correlated with estimated inorganic As intake. These results suggest that residents in these areas are exposed to As through consumption of groundwater and rice, and potential health risk of As is of great concern for these people. Urinary concentration ratios of dimethylarsinic acid to monomethylarsonic acid in children were higher than those in adults, especially among men, indicating greater As methylation capacity in children. - Positive correlations between estimated arsenic intake and urinary inorganic arsenic and its metabolites were observed in human from the Red River Delta, Vietnam

  20. Relationship of urinary arsenic metabolites to intake estimates in residents of the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Enya 89-1, Izumo 693-8501 (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Minh, Tu Binh [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Department of Biology and Chemistry (BCH), City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Pham Thi Kim Trang [Center for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi National University, 334 Nguyen Trai Street, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Pham Hung Viet [Center for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), Hanoi National University, 334 Nguyen Trai Street, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2009-02-15

    This study investigated the status of arsenic (As) exposure from groundwater and rice, and its methylation capacity in residents from the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Arsenic levels in groundwater ranged from <1.8 to 486 {mu}g/L. Remarkably, 86% of groundwater samples exceeded WHO drinking water guideline of 10 {mu}g/L. Also, estimated inorganic As intake from groundwater and rice were over Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (15 {mu}g/week/kg body wt.) by FAO/WHO for 92% of the residents examined. Inorganic As and its metabolite (monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid) concentrations in human urine were positively correlated with estimated inorganic As intake. These results suggest that residents in these areas are exposed to As through consumption of groundwater and rice, and potential health risk of As is of great concern for these people. Urinary concentration ratios of dimethylarsinic acid to monomethylarsonic acid in children were higher than those in adults, especially among men, indicating greater As methylation capacity in children. - Positive correlations between estimated arsenic intake and urinary inorganic arsenic and its metabolites were observed in human from the Red River Delta, Vietnam.

  1. Nature of Science Progression in School Year 1-9: a Case Study of Teachers' Suggestions and Rationales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leden, Lotta; Hansson, Lena

    2017-07-01

    The inclusion of nature of science (NOS) in science education has for a long time been regarded as crucial. There is, however, a lack of research on appropriate NOS aspects for different educational levels. An even more neglected area of research is that focusing on teachers' perspectives on NOS teaching at different levels. The aim of this article is to examine NOS progression in the light of teachers' suggestions and rationales. In order to obtain teachers' informed perspectives, we chose to involve six teachers (teaching grades 1-9) in a 3-year research project. They took part in focus group discussions about NOS and NOS teaching as well as implemented jointly planned NOS teaching sessions. Data that this article builds on was collected at the end of the project. The teachers' suggestions for NOS progression often relied on adding more NOS issues at every stage, thereby creating the foundations of a broader but not necessarily deeper understanding of NOS. Five rationales, for if/when specific NOS issues are appropriate to introduce, emerged from the analysis of the teacher discussions. Some of these rationales, including practice makes perfect and increasing levels of depth can potentially accommodate room for many NOS issues in the science classroom, while maturity and experience instead has a restricting effect on NOS teaching. Also, choice of context and teaching approaches play an important role in teachers' rationales for whether specific NOS issues should be included or not at different stages. The article discusses the implications for teacher education and professional development.

  2. A systematic review of taeniasis, cysticercosis and trichinellosis in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ng-Nguyen, Dinh; Stevenson, Mark A.; Traub, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    Taeniasis, cysticercosis and trichinellosis have been ranked as the most important food-borne parasites of humans in terms of public health, socioeconomic and trade impact. Despite this, information on these food-borne zoonoses in Vietnam is scarce and fragmented, and many local reports remain inaccessible to the international research community. This study aims to conduct comprehensive literature searches to report on the incidence and estimate the true prevalence of taeniasis in humans and ...

  3. Engaged Learning and Filmmaking by Way of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Emmanuel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Virginia Wesleyan professor Steven Emmanuel and five students spent four weeks in Vietnam in the summer of 2007. Their work, supported by an ASIANetwork Student-Faculty Fellows Grant, resulted in a documentary film that won several awards in national and international film festivals. In the following piece, he describes the project and talks about how the grant experience gave him a new perspective on study abroad.

  4. Urban and Rural Dimensions of Income Inequality in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Cam Van Cao; Takahiro Akita

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes urban and rural inequalities in Vietnam by applying two techniques of inequality decomposition by population groups and income sources based on two data sets from the nationwide household surveys in 2002 and 2004. It is found that within-sector inequalities in income distribution are substantially higher than that in expenditure distribution because expenditure level is more dependent on location characteristics of a household, while the determinants of income level seems ...

  5. Sustainable Development of Rural Tourism in An Giang Province, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Thanh Long; Thanh-Lam Nguyen

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at sustainably developing rural tourism in An Giang Province, an agricultural province located in the South of Vietnam, by identifying the determinants of the satisfaction and revisit intention of tourists based on both qualitative and quantitative approaches. From exploratory interviews with experts and comprehensive group discussions, we developed a questionnaire for an official survey of 507 tourists at different tour-sites in An Giang Province. It is found that: (1) there ...

  6. Orchidaceous Additions to the Flora of China and Vietnam (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ormerod

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuing literature and herbarium studies of Chinese and Vietnamese orchids have revealed a variety of new and noteworthy floristic information. One species is newly recorded for the flora of China, one for Yunnan Province, China and one is newly recorded for the flora of Vietnam. One new synonym is proposed in the genus Oberonia. Five new species are proposed, viz. Epigeneium forrestii, Liparis brunnea, L. rockii, L. superposita and L. yuana.

  7. Improved Rice Residue Burning Emissions Estimates: Accounting for Practice-Specific Emission Factors in Air Pollution Assessments of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasko, Kristofer; Vadrevu, Krishna

    2018-01-01

    In Southeast Asia and Vietnam, rice residues are routinely burned after the harvest to prepare fields for the next season. Specific to Vietnam, the two prevalent burning practices include: a). piling the residues after hand harvesting; b). burning the residues without piling, after machine harvesting. In this study, we synthesized field and laboratory studies from the literature on rice residue burning emission factors for Particulate Matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). We found significant differences in the resulting burning-practice specific emission factors, with 16.9 grams per square kilogram (plus or minus 6.9) for pile burning and 8.8 grams per square kilogram (plus or minus 3.5) for non-pile burning. We calculated burning practice specific emissions based on rice area data, region-specific fuel-loading factors, combined emission factors, and estimates of burning from the literature. Our results for year 2015 estimate 180 gigagrams of PM2.5 result from the pile burning method and 130 gigagrams result from non-pile burning method, with the most-likely current emission scenario of 150 gigagrams PM2.5 emissions for Vietnam. For comparison purposes, we calculated emissions using generalized agricultural emission factors employed in global biomass burning studies. These results estimate 80 gigagrams PM2.5, which is only 44 percent of the pile burning-based estimates, suggesting underestimation in previous studies. We compare our emissions to an existing all-combustion sources inventory, results show emissions account for 14-18 percent of Vietnam's total PM2.5 depending on burning practice. Within the highly-urbanized and cloud-covered Hanoi Capital region (HCR), we use rice area from Sentinel-1A to derive spatially-explicit emissions and indirectly estimate residue burning dates. Results from HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) back-trajectory analysis stratified by season show autumn has most emission trajectories originating in

  8. An investigation of clinical studies suggests those with multiple objectives should have at least 90% power for each endpoint.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borm, G.F.; Houben, R.; Welsing, P.M.J.; Zielhuis, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Many clinical studies have more than one objective, either formally or informally, but this is not usually taken into account in the determination of the sample size. We investigated the overall power of a study, that is, the probability that all the objectives will be

  9. Determination of toxic elements in foodstuffs in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Minh; Le Thi Ngoc Trinh; Nguyen Giang; Le Tat Mua; Nguyen Mong Sinh

    2006-01-01

    The studying samples of this work have been collected from different areas of Vietnam including industrial areas in HCM city, Dongnai, Vungtau and non-industrial area, Dalat city. The concentrations of the toxic elements as: As, Hg, Cr, Co, Fe, Cu, Cd, Se, As, Zn, Pb in many foodstuff samples together with intercomparison sample which have been distributed by National Food Administration (Sweden) were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis (RNAA); Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and Anodic Stripping Voltammeter (ASV). The obtained results shown that the concentration of toxic elements in the collected samples from selected industrial areas of Vietnam are lower than the maximum permissible concentrations. (author)

  10. Cost of treatment for breast cancer in central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Hoang Lan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, cases of breast cancer have been on the rise in Vietnam. To date, there has been no study on the financial burden of the disease. This study estimates the direct medical cost of a 5-year treatment course for women with primary breast cancer in central Vietnam. Methods: Retrospective patient-level data from medical records at the Hue Central Hospital between 2001 and 2006 were analyzed. Cost analysis was conducted from the health care payers’ perspective. Various direct medical cost categories were computed for a 5-year treatment course for patients with breast cancer. Costs, in US dollars, discounted at a 3% rate, were converted to 2010 after adjusting for inflation. For each cost category, the mean, standard deviation, median, and cost range were estimated. Median regression was used to investigate the relationship between costs and the stage, age at diagnosis, and the health insurance coverage of the patients. Results: The total direct medical cost for a 5-year treatment course for breast cancer in central Vietnam was estimated at $975 per patient (range: $11.7–$3,955. The initial treatment cost, particularly the cost of chemotherapy, was found to account for the greatest proportion of total costs (64.9%. Among the patient characteristics studied, stage at diagnosis was significantly associated with total treatment costs. Patients at later stages of breast cancer did not differ significantly in their total costs from those at earlier stages however, but their survival time was much shorter. The absence of health insurance was the main factor limiting service uptake. Conclusion: From the health care payers’ perspective, the Government subsidization of public hospital charges lowered the direct medical costs of a 5-year treatment course for primary breast cancer in central Vietnam. However, the long treatment course was significantly influenced by out-of-pocket payments for patients without health insurance.

  11. Child and Family Factors Associated With Child Maltreatment in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nhu K; van Berkel, Sheila R; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Alink, Lenneke R A

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to explore possible risk factors for child maltreatment in Vietnam by investigating the association of child and family factors with different types of child maltreatment (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, witnessing parental conflict, and neglect) and the occurrence of multiple types of child maltreatment. Cross-sectional data of 1,851 secondary and high school students aged 12 to 17 years (47.3% boys) in four provinces of Northern Vietnam were obtained using self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that the likelihood of emotional abuse, witnessing parental conflict, and experiencing multiple types of child maltreatment during lifetime increased with age. Boys had a higher risk than girls on lifetime sexual abuse, and past year and lifetime physical abuse. Living in a single parent family was the risk factor related to most types of child maltreatment including lifetime sexual abuse, neglect, and multiple types of child maltreatment, and both past year and lifetime witnessing parental conflict. Interestingly, low socioeconomic status (SES) and parental unemployment were associated with a decreased risk on experiencing emotional abuse in the past year and during lifetime, respectively. "Tiger parenting," a parenting style observed frequently in East Asian parents, may be more common in families with high SES and might explain this finding. This study highlights the importance of prioritizing single parent families in parenting programs and implementing child maltreatment interventions early because of the risk on child maltreatment increased with age. More research on emotional abuse and "Tiger parenting" in Vietnam could clarify the association of emotional abuse with high SES and parental employment. Finally, the underlying mechanisms of the risk factors in Vietnam should be studied more to inform interventions.

  12. Web-Based Water Accounting Scenario Platform to Address Uncertainties in Water Resources Management in the Mekong : A Case Study in Ca River Basin, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apirumanekul, C.; Purkey, D. R.; Pudashine, J.; Seifollahi-Aghmiuni, S.; Wang, D.; Ate, P.; Meechaiya, C.

    2017-12-01

    Rapid economic development in the Mekong Region is placing pressure on environmental resources. Uncertain changes in land-use, increasing urbanization, infrastructure development, migration patterns and climate risks s combined with scarce water resources are increasing water demand in various sectors. More appropriate policies, strategies and planning for sustainable water resource management are urgently needed. Over the last five years, Vietnam has experienced more frequent and intense droughts affecting agricultural and domestic water use during the dry season. The Ca River Basin is the third largest river basin in Vietnam with 35% of its area located in Lao PDR. The delta landscape comprises natural vegetation, forest, paddy fields, farming and urban areas. The Ca River Basin is experiencing ongoing water scarcity that impacts on crop production, farming livelihoods and household water consumption. Water scarcity is exacerbated by uncertainties in policy changes (e.g. changes in land-use, crop types), basin development (e.g. reservoir construction, urban expansion), and climate change (e.g. changes in rainfall patterns and onset of monsoon). The Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) model, with inputs from satellite-based information and institutional data, is used to estimate water supply, water use and water allocation in various sectors (e.g. household, crops, irrigation and flood control) under a wide range of plausible future scenarios in the Ca River Basin. Web-Based Water Allocation Scenario Platform is an online implementation of WEAP model structured in terms of a gaming experience. The online game, as an educational tool, helps key agencies relevant to water resources management understand and explore the complexity of integrated system of river basin under a wide range of scenarios. Performance of the different water resources strategies in Ca River Basin (e.g. change of dam operation to address needs in various sectors, construction of dams, changes

  13. A simplified study of public perception in the nuclear field: suggestions for educational campaign for different segments of society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Renata Araujo de

    2011-01-01

    During the last years the need for the increase in the electricity energy production as much as in Brazil as in the rest of the world, has raised the tone o the debate about the environmental impacts as a result of these debates, the government and the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO's) have requested several opinion researches aiming at measuring and evaluating the knowledge and perception of the public in relation to the best non-polluting energy sources. Prior to 2001 these researches would not make any sense in Brazil as the majority of its power grid is made of hydroelectric plants, a renewable energy source. However, when in that year it occurred a drought, the competent authorities have faced the necessity of developing a plan, the National Energy Plan (PNE2030) which recommends, among other objectives, finalizing the construction of the Angra 3 plant and the implementation Df new nuclear plants in places still to be determined. Even considering the complexity of the subject, this paper presents a field research realized from September 28th, 2010 to October 28th, 2010 of the current level of perception of the Brazilian population, specifically the residents of three cities of Rio de Janeiro, about the nuclear area. As a result of this work, it is suggested how the competent authorities should proceed to reach in an efficient manner, by means of communication campaigns both informative and educational, a greater understanding of the population about the proposed subject. (author)

  14. Skin care products can aggravate epidermal function: studies in a murine model suggest a pathogenic role in sensitive skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengxiao; Hu, Lizhi; Elias, Peter M; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2018-02-01

    Sensitive skin is defined as a spectrum of unpleasant sensations in response to a variety of stimuli. However, only some skin care products provoke cutaneous symptoms in individuals with sensitive skin. Hence, it would be useful to identify products that could provoke cutaneous symptoms in individuals with sensitive skin. To assess whether vehicles, as well as certain branded skin care products, can alter epidermal function following topical applications to normal mouse skin. Following topical applications of individual vehicle or skin care product to C57BL/6J mice twice daily for 4 days, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) rates, stratum corneum (SC) hydration and skin surface pH were measured on treated versus untreated mouse skin with an MPA5 device and pH 900 pH meter. Our results show that all tested products induced abnormalities in epidermal functions of varying severity, including elevations in TEWL and skin surface pH, and reduced SC hydration. Our results suggest that mice can serve as a predictive model that could be used to evaluate the potential safety of skin care products in humans with sensitive skin. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Records of Wenchengia (Lamiaceae) from Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Peter B; Suddee, Somran

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The monotypic genus Wenchengia (Lamiaceae) has been thought to be endemic to Hainan, China. This paper reports on historic records of Wenchengia alternifolia collected from Vietnam. The recent recuration and modernisation of the Paris herbarium greatly facilitated this discovery. New information During preparatory work supporting the account for the Lamiaceae of the Flora of Thailand, three specimens of Wenchengia from central Vietnam were found in the Herbarium of the Musuem National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris (P), and subsequently two duplicates were found in the Herbarium at Kew (K, abbreviations following Thiers 2016). The specimens were collected in and before 1927 and it is not known if the species is still extant in Vietnam. Searches for extant populations should focus in the Ba Na Hills or Bach Ma National Park, central Vietnam. PMID:27660535

  16. Intervention in Vietnam: President Eisenhower's Foreign Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slaton, James

    1995-01-01

    For a period of thirty years, from 1945 to 1975, the United States employed countless numbers of financial, material, and human resources toward Vietnam in an effort to shape and control that country's political destiny...

  17. Vietnam | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... of its success, local fishery associations secured fishing management rights in 2009, a first in Vietnam. ... We continue to support online education through regional research to improve the quality of distance education. Total IDRC Support ...

  18. Connecting Vietnam's isolated communities to improve healthcare ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-29

    Jan 29, 2018 ... Connecting Vietnam's isolated communities to improve healthcare ... of pregnancy and new motherhood improved their interactions with health workers. ... Return to main page: Overcoming eHealth challenges with social and ...

  19. Intratumor heterogeneous distribution of 10B-compounds suggested by the radiobiological findings from in vivo mouse studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunaga, S.; Ono, K.; Sakurai, Y.; Takagaki, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Kinashi, Y.; Akaboshi, M.; Akuta, K.

    2000-01-01

    After continuous labeling with or without 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), SCC VII tumor-bearing mice received one of the following treatments in vivo; 1) Tumor excision right after thermal neutron irradiation following sodium borocaptate- 10 B (BSH) or p-boronophenylalanine- 10 B (BPA) administration. 2) Tumor excision 5 min through 72 h after thermal neutron or γ-ray irradiation. 3) Determination of hypoxic fraction (HF) of implanted tumors by γ-ray test irradiation 5 min through 72 h after thermal neutron or γ-ray irradiation. 4) Determination of the tumor sensitivity to γ-rays 0-24 h after thermal neutron or γ-ray irradiation. The following results were obtained; 1) BSH and BPA sensitized quiescent (Q) and total (proliferating (P) + Q) tumor cells, respectively, and the use of 10 B-compound, especially BPA, widened the sensitivity difference between Q and total cells. 2) The use of 10 B-compound, especially BPA, increased the repair capacity from potentially lethal damage (PLDR) and induced PLDR pattern like post-γ-ray irradiation. 3) Reoxygenation after thermal neutron irradiation following 10 B-compound, especially BPA, administration occurred slowly, compared with after neutron irradiation only and looked like after γ-ray irradiation. 4) The use of 10 B-compound, especially BPA, promoted sublethal damage repair (SLDR) in total cells and the recruitment from Q to P state, compared with after thermal neutron irradiation alone. All these findings suggested the difficulty in distribution of 10 B-compound, especially BPA, in Q cells and the heterogeneity in intratumor distribution of 10 B-compound. (author)

  20. Genome-Wide Association Studies Suggest Limited Immune Gene Enrichment in Schizophrenia Compared to 5 Autoimmune Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouget, Jennie G; Gonçalves, Vanessa F; Spain, Sarah L

    2016-01-01

    There has been intense debate over the immunological basis of schizophrenia, and the potential utility of adjunct immunotherapies. The major histocompatibility complex is consistently the most powerful region of association in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of schizophrenia and has been...... in immune genes contributes to schizophrenia. We show that there is no enrichment of immune loci outside of the MHC region in the largest genetic study of schizophrenia conducted to date, in contrast to 5 diseases of known immune origin. Among 108 regions of the genome previously associated...

  1. Applications of radioisotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dien, N.N.; Quang, N.H. [Nucealr Research Institute, Dalat, (Viet Nam)

    1997-10-01

    Nowadays, in Vietnam radioisotopes have been used very widely in various socio-economic branches, especially in industry and healthcare. Applications of radioisotopes have significant meaning in economic development, people health protection, as well as in scientific research. In this paper, the present status and main applications of radiation and radioactive isotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam are reported. In order to control and monitor industrial processes, nucleonic control systems and radioactive tracer techniques have been utilized. Actually, sealed source applications are popular in Vietnam industry. A number of nuclear control devices and gauges have been used in the various industrial factories, such as liquid level gauges in steel industry, cement and beverage factories; density and moisture gauges in paper industry, etc. Tracer technique and sealed source applications have also been utilized in industrial production plants and in trouble-shooting in the petroleum industry. For medicine purposes, two departments of nuclear medicine were primarily established at the beginning of the 1970s. At the present time, a number of nuclear medicine departments have been set up and they have been equipped with advanced equipment. Main activities are focused on thyroid function studies, nuclear cardiology, brain scans, gastrointestinal studies, bone scans, etc. Since march 1984 Dalat nuclear research reactor of nominal power of 500 kW has been reconstructed and put into operation. This reactor is unique in Vietnam and has become an important scientific tool for development of nuclear techniques and radioisotope applications for socio-economic progress. Thanks to this important scientific tool, a variety of radioisotopes for medicine and industry applications as well as for scientific research has been produced. Utilization of the Dalat research reactor for radioisotope production is also summarized in this paper

  2. Applications of radioisotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dien, N.N.; Quang, N.H.

    1997-01-01

    Nowadays, in Vietnam radioisotopes have been used very widely in various socio-economic branches, especially in industry and healthcare. Applications of radioisotopes have significant meaning in economic development, people health protection, as well as in scientific research. In this paper, the present status and main applications of radiation and radioactive isotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam are reported. In order to control and monitor industrial processes, nucleonic control systems and radioactive tracer techniques have been utilized. Actually, sealed source applications are popular in Vietnam industry. A number of nuclear control devices and gauges have been used in the various industrial factories, such as liquid level gauges in steel industry, cement and beverage factories; density and moisture gauges in paper industry, etc. Tracer technique and sealed source applications have also been utilized in industrial production plants and in trouble-shooting in the petroleum industry. For medicine purposes, two departments of nuclear medicine were primarily established at the beginning of the 1970s. At the present time, a number of nuclear medicine departments have been set up and they have been equipped with advanced equipment. Main activities are focused on thyroid function studies, nuclear cardiology, brain scans, gastrointestinal studies, bone scans, etc. Since march 1984 Dalat nuclear research reactor of nominal power of 500 kW has been reconstructed and put into operation. This reactor is unique in Vietnam and has become an important scientific tool for development of nuclear techniques and radioisotope applications for socio-economic progress. Thanks to this important scientific tool, a variety of radioisotopes for medicine and industry applications as well as for scientific research has been produced. Utilization of the Dalat research reactor for radioisotope production is also summarized in this paper

  3. A genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa suggests a risk locus implicated in dysregulated leptin signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Dong; Chang, Xiao; Connolly, John J.; Tian, Lifeng; Liu, Yichuan; Bhoj, Elizabeth J.; Robinson, Nora; Abrams, Debra; Li, Yun R.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Kim, Cecilia E.; Li, Jin; Wang, Fengxiang; Snyder, James; Lemma, Maria; Hou, Cuiping; Wei, Zhi; Guo, Yiran; Qiu, Haijun; Mentch, Frank D.; Thomas, Kelly A.; Chiavacci, Rosetta M.; Cone, Roger; Li, Bingshan; Sleiman, Patrick A.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Perica, Vesna Boraska; Franklin, Christopher S.; Floyd, James A.B.; Thornton, Laura M.; Huckins, Laura M.; Southam, Lorraine; Rayner, William N; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Schmidt, Ulrike; Tozzi, Federica; Kiezebrink, Kirsty; Hebebrand, Johannes; Gorwood, Philip; Adan, Roger A.H.; Kas, Martien J.H.; Favaro, Angela; Santonastaso, Paolo; Fernánde-Aranda, Fernando; Gratacos, Monica; Rybakowski, Filip; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Raevuori-Helkamaa, Anu; Furth, Eric F.Van; Slof-Opt Landt, Margarita C.T.; Hudson, James I.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Knudsen, Gun Peggy S.; Monteleone, Palmiero; Karwautz, Andreas; Berrettini, Wade H.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Ando, Tetsuya; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Esko, Toñu; Fischer, Krista; Männik, Katrin; Metspalu, Andres; Baker, Jessica H.; DeSocio, Janiece E.; Hilliard, Christopher E.; O'Toole, Julie K.; Pantel, Jacques; Szatkiewicz, Jin P.; Zerwas, Stephanie; Davis, Oliver S P; Helder, Sietske; Bühren, Katharina; Burghardt, Roland; De Zwaan, Martina; Egberts, Karin; Ehrlich, Stefan; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Herzog, Wolfgang; Imgart, Hartmut; Scherag, André; Zipfel, Stephan; Boni, Claudette; Ramoz, Nicolas; Versini, Audrey; Danner, Unna N.; Hendriks, Judith; Koeleman, Bobby P.C.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Strengman, Eric; van Elburg, Annemarie A.; Bruson, Alice; Clementi, Maurizio; Degortes, Daniela; Forzan, Monica; Tenconi, Elena; Docampo, Elisa; Escaramís, Geòrgia; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rajewski, Andrzej; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Slopien, Agnieszka; Hauser, Joanna; Karhunen, Leila; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Slagboom, P. Eline; Tortorella, Alfonso; Maj, Mario; Dedoussis, George; DIkeos, DImitris; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Tziouvas, Konstantinos; Tsitsika, Artemis; Papezova, Hana; Slachtova, Lenka; Martaskova, Debora; Kennedy, James L.; Levitan, Robert D.; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Huemer, Julia; Koubek, Doris; Merl, Elisabeth; Wagner, Gudrun; Lichtenstein, Paul; Breen, Gerome; Cohen-Woods, Sarah; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter; Cichon, Sven; Giegling, Ina; Herms, Stefan; Rujescu, Dan; Schreiber, Stefan; Wichmann, H-Erich; Dina, Christian; Sladek, Rob; Gambaro, Giovanni; Soranzo, Nicole; Julia, Antonio; Marsal, Sara; Rabionet, Raquel; Gaborieau, Valerie; DIck, Danielle M.; Palotie, Aarno; Ripatti, Samuli; Widén, Elisabeth; Andreassen, Ole A.; Espeseth, Thomas; Lundervold, Astri J; Reinvang, Ivar; Steen, Vidar M.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Mattingsdal, Morten; Ntalla, Ioanna; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Navratilova, Marie; Gallinger, Steven; Pinto, Dalila; Scherer, Stephen W.; Aschauer, Harald; Carlberg, Laura; Schosser, Alexandra; Alfredsson, Lars; Ding, Bo; Klareskog, Lars; Padyukov, Leonid; Finan, Chris; Kalsi, Gursharan; Roberts, Marion; Barrett, Jeff C.; Estivill, Xavier; Hinney, Anke; Sullivan, Patrick F; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steve; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M.; Halmi, Katherine A.; Johnson, Craig; Kaplan, Allan S.; La Via, Maria C.; Mitchell, James R.; Strober, Michael; Rotondo, Alessandro; Treasure, Janet; Woodside, D. Blake; Keel, Pamela K.; Klump, Kelly L.; Lilenfeld, Lisa; Bergen, Andrew W.; Kaye, Walter; Magistretti, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of anorexia nervosa (AN) using a stringently defined phenotype. Analysis of phenotypic variability led to the identification of a specific genetic risk factor that approached genome-wide significance (rs929626 in EBF1 (Early B-Cell Factor 1); P =

  4. Structural studies of three-arm star block copolymers exposed to extreme stretch suggests persistent polymer tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvey, Christopher J.; Almdal, Kristoffer; Dorokhin, Andriy

    2018-01-01

    We present structural SANS-studies of a three-armed polystyrene star polymer with short deuterated segments at the end of each arm. We show that the form factor of the three-armed star molecules in the relaxed state agrees with that of the random phase approximation of Gaussian chains. Upon...

  5. Studies performed in the proper context suggest that antimicrobial use during swine and cattle production minimally impact antimicrobial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States (U.S.) it is estimated that food-animal production agriculture accounts for >70% of antimicrobial (AM) use leading to concerns that agricultural uses are the primary source of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Many studies report AMR in food-animal production settings without comp...

  6. Solar energy and rural development in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Photovoltaic systems have already been present in Vietnam for numerous years. Since 1994 the projects intensified with the launch of the Energy-Solidarity-Vietnam program which has just been concluded in 1999. This paper deals with the different stages of this project: choice of photovoltaic power, the partners engagement, obstacles overcome and the help of the electricity for the economic development. (A.L.B.)

  7. Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of Cat Tien National Park, South Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Y. Sinev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cladocera of Cat Tien National Park, South Vietnam, and the surrounding agricultural area, were surveyed during the spring of 2009 (onset of the wet season and autumn 2010 (end of the wet season. The studied water bodies included two large lakes (Bau Sau and Bau Chim, small lakes and ponds, temporary pools, rivers and streams, as well as rice fields and ponds in an agricultural area beyond the boundaries of the National Park. Fifty three species of Cladocera were found, 18 of them new for Vietnam. Distribution and taxonomical status of the species are discussed. Of the recorded species, 58.5% (31 were found only in the National Park, 34% (18 both in the National Park and the agricultural area, and only 7.5% (4 exclusively in the agricultural area. Of the 20 species new for Vietnam, only one was found both in the National Park and the agricultural area, all others were found in the National Park only. Such a difference can be directly attributed to the loss of natural habitats (forest ponds and streams in agricultural areas and to the pollution by pesticides. Our study shows the importance of surveys in pristine and protected areas, for the full evaluation of regional microcrustacean richness.

  8. Breast cancer services in Vietnam: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Chris; Minh, Luu Ngoc; Anh, Tran Tuan; Ngan, Tran Thu; Tuan, Ngo Tri; Giang, Kim Bao; Hoat, Luu Ngoc; Lohfeld, Lynne; Donnelly, Michael; Van Minh, Hoang; Murray, Liam

    2018-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence has been increasing consistently in Vietnam. Thus far, there have been no analytical reviews of research produced within this area. We sought to analyse the nature andextent of empirical studies about breast cancer in Vietnam, identifying areas for future research and systemsstrengthening. We undertook a scoping study using a five-stage framework to review published and grey literature in English and Vietnamese on breast cancer detection, diagnosis and treatment. We focused specifically on research discussing the health system and service provision. Our results show that breast cancer screening is limited, with no permanent or integrated national screening activities. There is a lack of information on screening processes and on the integration of screening services with other areas of the health system. Treatment is largely centralised, and across all services there is a lack of evaluation and data collection that would be informative for recommendations seeking to improve accessibility and quality of breast cancer services. This paper is the first scoping review of breast cancer services in Vietnam. It outlines areas for future focus for policy makers and researchers with the objective of strengthening service provision to women with breast cancer across the country while also providing a methodological example for how to conduct a collaborative scoping review.

  9. Motorcycle helmets in Vietnam: ownership, quality, purchase price, and affordability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Dang Viet; Stevenson, Mark R; Ivers, Rebecca Q

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated motorcycle helmet ownership, quality, purchase price, and affordability in Vietnam. A random sample of motorcyclists was interviewed to investigate aspects of helmet ownership, the purchase price, and affordability of a motorcycle helmet. Multivariate modeling conducted to determine factors associated with the purchase price and affordability of motorcycle helmets. Helmet quality was assessed based on current legal requirements in Vietnam. The prevalence of helmet use in Vietnam remains low (23.3%) despite a high level of helmet ownership (94%), indicating that this is an important area for public health intervention. Overall the quality of helmets appeared to be good; however, few helmets displayed legally required information. Motorcyclists with a high income purchase more helmets for their household rather than more expensive helmets. To ensure that helmets are accessible to the community, policy-makers need to consider pricing motorcycle helmets at a price indicated by the results of this study. Prior to universal motorcycle helmet legislation, the government will also need to ensure that standard helmets are available and that enforcement is at a level to ensure that motorcycle helmets are actually used.

  10. Clinical and microbiological features of melioidosis in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Doan Mai; Trung, Trinh Thanh; Breitbach, Katrin; Tuan, Nguyen Quang; Nübel, Ulrich; Flunker, Gisela; Khang, Dinh Duy; Quang, Nguyen Xuan; Steinmetz, Ivo

    2008-12-01

    Sporadic cases of melioidosis have been reported from Vietnam for decades, but clinical and epidemiological data for the indigenous population are still scarce. In this study, we reviewed clinical and demographic data of patients with culture-proven melioidosis diagnosed at a single large referral hospital in Hanoi between November 1997 and December 2005. We found that the clinical manifestations of melioidosis (with fatal septicaemia as the most common presentation), a high rate of underlying diseases, and a peak of cases admitted during the wet season, were similar to studies from other endemic areas. The geographical origin of patients with melioidosis showed that melioidosis existed in at least 18 northern provinces. The characterization of clinical Burkholderia pseudomallei strains by multilocus sequence typing identified 17 different sequence types (STs), 11 of which have (as yet) not been found outside Vietnam. Several of these STs presumably were generated through recent evolutionary events in this rapidly diversifying bacterial species, and thus, restricted geographic distribution may be a consequence of limited time passed since emergence. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a series of cases describing clinical and epidemiological features of melioidosis and corresponding B. pseudomallei strains from northern Vietnam.

  11. Challenges for municipal solid waste management practices in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Duc Luong

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste (MSW management is currently one of the major environmental problems facing by Vietnam. Improper management of MSW has caused adverse impacts on the environment, community health, and social-economic development. This study attempts to provide a review of the generation and characterization, disposal and treatment technologies of MSW to evaluate the current status and identify the problems of MSW management practices in Vietnam. Finally, this study is concluded with fruitful recommendations which may be useful in encouraging the responsible agencies to work towards the further improvement of the existing MSW management system.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.17-21Citation:  Luong, N.D., Giang, H.M., Thanh, B.X. and Hung, N.T.  2013. Challenges for municipal solid waste management practices in Vietnam. Waste Technology 1(1:6-9.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.17-21

  12. Serpents in jars: the snake wine industry in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Somaweera

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of snakes in Vietnam takes place for different purposes, and among them the snake wine industry is prominent but has received far less attention than other dealings, such as the pet trade. Despite widespread commercialisation there is a general lack of information about this snake trade, which makes it difficult to evaluate its magnitude and impact on snake populations. This study documents the use of snakes in snake wine in four cities in Vietnam through surveys conducted in 127 locations selling snake wine in September 2009. This study provides a list of species used along with the number of individuals observed. While none of the species involved are listed in the IUCN Red List, seven species are listed in the Vietnam Red Data Book, of which five are regulated by CITES. On the other hand, the most abundant species used in the trade, Xenochrophis flavipunctatus, is not listed in any conservation document. The popularity and economic importance of snakes in the form of snake wine demonstrates the need for the development of sustainable use programs for these species.

  13. Monitoring of spine curvatures and posture during pregnancy using surface topography – case study and suggestion of method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Michoński

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back and pelvic pain is one of the most frequently reported disorders in pregnancy, however etiology and pathology of this problem have not been fully determined. The relationship between back pain experienced during pregnancy and posture remains unclear. It is challenging to measure reliably postural and spinal changes at the time of pregnancy, since most imaging studies cannot be used due to the radiation burden. 3D shape measurement, or surface topogr