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Sample records for vietnam dundalk community

  1. 77 FR 5201 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice... operation of the Baltimore County highway bridge at Wise Avenue across Bear Creek, mile 3.4, between Dundalk... Avenue across Bear Creek, mile 3.4 between Dundalk and Sparrows Point, MD. This change would require the...

  2. Connecting Vietnam's isolated communities to improve healthcare ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-29

    Jan 29, 2018 ... Connecting Vietnam's isolated communities to improve healthcare ... of pregnancy and new motherhood improved their interactions with health workers. ... Return to main page: Overcoming eHealth challenges with social and ...

  3. Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    This document presents the energy profile of Vietnam: energy organizations and policy; companies: Petrovietnam (oil), Vietgas (gas), Power Company 1, 2 and 3 (PC1, PC2, PC3) and Electricite du Vietnam (electric power), Vinacoal (coal); supplies (resources, electric power, oil, gas and coal); prices; consumption; projects and perspectives. (J.S.)

  4. Vietnam

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    taken with the eager collaboration of Vietnam's government, have since ... social sciences; and environment and natural resource management) was ... deliberate and increasing openness to the world of trade, investment, and knowl- edge ... Vietnam design trade liberalization and competition policies (in part as preparation.

  5. Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-02-01

    This document summarizes the main energy facts and data about Vietnam: institutions and energy policy, energy companies (Petrovietnam (oil), Vietgas (gas), Electricity of Vietnam (EVN), Vinacoal (coal)), energy production (resources, electricity, oil, natural gas, coal), energy prices (motor fuels and electricity), energy consumption, and future energy issues and prospects (exploitation of new fossil fuel resources, building of new refineries and power stations). The main economic, supply and demand, and energy balance indicators are summarized in tables and graphics. (J.S.)

  6. Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    Attention in this discussion of Vietnam is directed to the following: people; geography; history; government; the economy (agriculture and industry, trade and balance of payments); foreign relations; and relations between the US and Vietnam. In mid-1983 the population was estimated at 57,610,000 with an annual growth rate of 2.4%. Ethnic Vietnamese constitute almost 90% of the population. Various ethnic groups make up the remaining 10% of the population, with approximately 1.2 million Chinese being the most numerous and concentrated in southern Vietnam. The 2nd largest minority, the Montagnards (mountain tribesmen) comprise 2 main ethnolinguistic groups--Malayo Polynesia and Mon-Khmer. The most important political institution in Vietnam is the Vietnamese Communisty Party. All but 4 party Politburo members concurrently hold high positions in the government. The most important powers within the Vietnamese government, as opposed to the Communisty Party, are the executive agencies. Under the overly ambitious initial 5 year plan and the more conservative 1981-85 plan, the Vietnamese have made little progress in raising output and living standards beyond the levels of the 1960s. Guidelines of the 1981-85 plan call for attaining food self sufficiency, strengthening export and consumer industries, as well as the heavy industries that support them, and improving transport and energy production. The US does not have diplomatic relations with Vietnam.

  7. Anticommunism as cultural praxis : South Vietnam, war, and refugee memories in the Vietnamese American community

    OpenAIRE

    Vo Dang, Thanh Thuy

    2008-01-01

    In dialogue with new critical scholarship on immigration, refugee, war, and memory studies as well as drawing from the methodologies of cultural studies and ethnography, this dissertation examines "anticommunism" as a set of cultural discourses and practices that shape the past, present, and future of Vietnamese diasporic communities by exploring when, where, and for what purposes South Vietnam emerges in refugee memories. That anticommunism continues to be an important paradigm for Vietnames...

  8. A Participatory Systemic Approach To Rural Community Development In Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan M. Ha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Various failures of the traditional approach in community development in developing countries have led to the development of a more appropriate and holistic approach to address complex development issues. Systems approaches and cutting-edge tools have recently been embraced to deal with such complexities under contexts of interwoven relationships amongst social economic political cultural and environmental factors. This paper provides reflections on practical value of the Evolutionary Learning Laboratory ELLab through a case study on improving the quality of life for women farmers in northern Vietnam where gender-bias labour hardship and poor living-standard are evident. The first five steps of the participatory systems-based ELLab were implemented during 2013-2014 providing valuable results that have made both practical and theoretical contributions with substantial implications to community development. Our study finds that the context-based results reshaped the original project goal. The approach and framework helped to identify and engage right stakeholders in problem analyses and decision making activities. Fuzzy problems within the complex web of life of the women and rural households were uncovered using relevant systems tools to develop a big picture systems model of the current situation defining levers for systemic interventions. The ELLab helps to build capacity of local people for taking ownership of the process and outcomes to guarantee sustainability and long-term impacts. It also facilitates true participation and co-learning amongst stakeholders triggering transformative learning. Contributions to action research and an innovative mechanism for sharing reflections and lessons at both local and global levels via the online Think2ImpactTM are discussed.

  9. Dengue risk factors and community participation in Binh Thuan Province, Vietnam, a household survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuong, Hoang Lan; de Vries, Peter J.; Boonshuyar, Chaweewon; Binh, Tran Q.; Nam, Nguyen V.; Kager, Piet A.

    2008-01-01

    To look for risk factors for dengue and community participation in dengue control in Binh Thuan Province, Vietnam, three communes with a low incidence of dengue and three with a high incidence, in Binh Thuan Province, were compared. Knowledge, perception and preventive practice of dengue were

  10. USES OF SOCIAL MEDIA TO PROMOTE ASEAN SOCIO-CULTURAL COMMUNITY IN VIETNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulas Basar Gezgin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The global openness of Vietnam brought out very fast major social changes. The country is a party to a number of international economic agreements and frameworks including World Trade Organization, Trans Pacific Partnership as well as ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations. External economic factors such as those associated with South East Asian integration are coupled with ASEAN’s ambition to set up a socio-cultural community in addition to the economic community. In the meantime, the popularity of social media is rapidly growing in Vietnam with more than 30 million Vietnamese Facebook accounts. Considering these 2 major influences, ie social media and regional integration efforts, this article proposes a number of recommendations to use social media to promote ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community.

  11. Perspectives of HIV-related stigma in a community in Vietnam: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudine, Alice; Gien, Lan; Thuan, Tran T; Dung, Do V

    2010-01-01

    While HIV/AIDS is increasing in Vietnam, very few published studies focus on HIV-related stigma in Vietnam. This study reports on findings from a community development project to reduce HIV-related stigma within one community in Vietnam. The purpose of this qualitative study is to describe HIV-related stigma from the perspective of three groups within one community in Vietnam: people living with HIV, their family members, and community members and leaders, including health care professionals. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Fifty-eight individuals from a poor, industrial district on the outskirts of a large city participated in the study and were asked to describe HIV-related stigma. Interviews were conducted with 10 people living with HIV, 10 family members of a person living with HIV, and 10 community members and 5 community leaders including health care professionals. We also conducted three focus groups, one with people living with HIV (n=8), one with family members of people living with HIV (n=8), and one with community leaders including health care professionals (n=7). Stigma across the three groups is characterized by four dimensions of HIV-related stigma: feeling shamed and scorned, behaving differently, stigma due to association, and fear of transmission. The manifestation of these dimensions differs for each group. Four themes of HIV-related stigma as described by people living with HIV are: being avoided, experiencing anger and rejection, being viewed as a social ill, and hiding the illness. Seven themes of HIV-related stigma as described by family members are: shunned by neighbors, viewed as poor parents, discriminated by health professionals, overhearing discussions about people with HIV, maintaining the secret, financial hardship for family, and fear of contracting HIV. Four themes of HIV-related stigma as described by community members and leaders including health professionals are: stigma as a fair reward, avoidance and shunning by neighbors

  12. Hygiene and sanitation promotion strategies among ethnic minority communities in northern Vietnam: a stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Hoat, Luu Ngoc; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

    2012-10-01

    Effective rural hygiene and sanitation promotion (RHSP) is a major challenge for many low-income countries. This paper investigates strategies and stakeholders' roles and responsibilities in RHSP implementation in a multi-ethnic area of northern Vietnam, in order to identify lessons learned for future RHSP. A stakeholder analysis was performed, based on 49 semi-structured individual interviews and one group interview with stakeholders in RHSP in a northern province of Vietnam. Participants came from three sectors (agriculture, health and education), unions supported by the Vietnamese government and from four administrative levels (village, commune, district and province). The study villages represented four ethnic minority groups including lowland and highland communities. Stakeholders' roles, responsibilities and promotion methods were outlined, and implementation constraints and opportunities were identified and analysed using thematic content analysis. Effective RHSP in Vietnam is severely constrained despite supporting policies and a multi-sectorial and multi-level framework. Four main barriers for effective implementation of RHSP were identified: (1) weak inter-sectorial collaborations; (2) constraints faced by frontline promoters; (3) almost exclusive information-based and passive promotion methods applied; and (4) context unadjusted promotion strategies across ethnic groups, including a limited focus on socio-economic differences, language barriers and gender roles in the target groups. Highland communities were identified as least targeted and clearly in need of more intensive and effective RHSP. It is recommended that the Vietnamese government gives priority to increasing capacities of and collaboration among stakeholders implementing RHSP activities. This should focus on frontline promoters to perform effective behaviour change communication. It is also recommended to support more participatory and community-based initiatives, which can address the

  13. Hygiene and sanitation promotion strategies among ethnic minority communities in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Thanh Xuan, Le Thi; Ngoc Hoat, Luu

    2012-01-01

    on frontline promoters to perform effective behaviour change communication. It is also recommended to support more participatory and community-based initiatives, which can address the complex socio-economic and cultural determinants of health in multi-ethnic population groups. These lessons learned can improve......Effective rural hygiene and sanitation promotion (RHSP) is a major challenge for many low-income countries. This paper investigates strategies and stakeholders' roles and responsibilities in RHSP implementation in a multi-ethnic area of northern Vietnam, in order to identify lessons learned...... for future RHSP.A stakeholder analysis was performed, based on 49 semi-structured individual interviews and one group interview with stakeholders in RHSP in a northern province of Vietnam. Participants came from three sectors (agriculture, health and education), unions supported by the Vietnamese government...

  14. Carlingford Nursing Home, Old Dundalk Road, Carlingford, Louth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLoughlin, Kathleen

    2015-11-24

    For most people, home is the preferred place of care and death. Despite the development of specialist palliative care and primary care models of community based service delivery, people who are dying, and their families\\/carers, can experience isolation, feel excluded from social circles and distanced from their communities. Loneliness and social isolation can have a detrimental impact on both health and quality of life. Internationally, models of social and practical support at the end of life are gaining momentum as a result of the Compassionate Communities movement. These models have not yet been subjected to rigorous evaluation. The aims of the study described in this protocol are: (1) to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and potential effectiveness of The Good Neighbour Partnership (GNP), a new volunteer-led model of social and practical care\\/support for community dwelling adults in Ireland who are living with advanced life-limiting illness; and (2) to pilot the method for a Phase III Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT).

  15. Assessing dietary exposure to cadmium in a metal recycling community in Vietnam: Age and gender aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minh, Ngo Duc; Hough, Rupert Lloyd; Thuy, Le Thi; Nyberg, Ylva; Mai, Le Bach; Vinh, Nguyen Cong; Khai, Nguyen Manh; Öborn, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    This study estimates the dietary exposure to cadmium (Cd), and associated potential health risks, for individuals living and working in a metal recycling community (n = 132) in Vietnam in comparison to an agricultural (reference) community (n = 130). Individual-level exposure to Cd was estimated through analysis of staple foodstuffs combined with information from a food frequency questionnaire. Individual-level exposure estimates were compared with published ‘safe’ doses to derive a Hazard Quotient (HQ) for each member of the study population. Looking at the populations as a whole, there were no significant differences in the diets of the two villages. However, significantly more rice was consumed by working age adults (18–60 years) in the recycling village compared to the reference village (p 3), while 20% of adult participants from the reference village had an HQ > 1. We found an elevated health risk from dietary exposure to Cd in the metal recycling village compared to the reference community. WHO standard of 0.4 mg Cd/kg rice may not be protective where people consume large amounts of rice/have relatively low body weight. - Highlights: ► First individual-level risk assessment of cadmium in recycling villages of Vietnam. ► Dietary analysis undertaken for a recycling community and an agricultural community. ► No significant differences were found between the diets of the two populations. ► 87% of people in the recycling community had elevated health risk. ► WHO standard (0.4 mg Cd/kg rice) may not be protective for rice-based cultures.

  16. The economic burden of unintentional injuries: a community-based cost analysis in Bavi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen Xuan; Hang, Hoang Mihn; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Lindholm, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Relatively little is known about patterns of injury at the community level in Vietnam and their economic consequences. This study sought to estimate the costs of various unintentional injuries in Bavi District during one year; to describe how costs depended on gender, age, circumstances, and severity of injury; and to describe how the economic burden of unintentional injuries was distributed between households, government, and health insurance agency. A cohort study was undertaken, which involved four cross-sectional household surveys among sampled communities in the Bavi District during the year 2000, each asking about injuries in the preceding three months. The costing system in public healthcare in Vietnam was applied as well as information from the victims. The total cost of injuries over one year in Bavi District was estimated to be D3,412,539,000 (Vietnamese dong) (US$235,347), equivalent to the annual income of 1,800 people. In total, 90% of this economic burden fell on households, only 8% on government, and 2% on the health insurance agency. The cost of a severe injury to the corresponded to approximately seven months of earned income. Home and traffic injuries together accounted for more than 80% of the total cost, 45% and 38% respectively. The highest unit cost was related to traffic injuries, followed by home, "other", work-related, and school injuries in descending order. The results can be considered as an economic baseline that can be used in evaluations of future interventions aimed at preventing injuries.

  17. Community-Based Control of Aedes aegypti By Using Mesocyclops in Southern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Vu Sinh; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Duc, Hoang Minh; Tu, Tran Cong; Thang, Vu Trong; Le, Nguyen Hoang; San, Le Hoang; Loan, Luu Le; Huong, Vu Thi Que; Khanh, Ly Huynh Kim; Trang, Huynh Thi Thuy; Lam, Leonie Z. Y.; Kutcher, Simon C.; Aaskov, John G.; Jeffery, Jason A. L.; Ryan, Peter A.; Kay, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported a new community-based mosquito control strategy that resulted in elimination of Aedes aegypti (Linn.) in 40 of 46 communes in northern and central Vietnam, and with annual recurrent total costs (direct and indirect) of only $0.28–$0.89 international dollars per person. This control strategy was extended to four provinces in southern Vietnam in Long An and Hau Giang (2004–2007) and to Long An, Ben Tre, and Vinh Long (2005–2010). In a total of 14 communes with 124,743 residents, the mean ± SD of adult female Ae. aegypti was reduced from 0.93 ± 0.62 to 0.06 ± 0.09, and the reduction of immature Ae. aegypti averaged 98.8%. By the final survey, no adults could be collected in 6 of 14 communes, and one commune, Binh Thanh, also had no immature forms. Although the community-based programs also involved community education and clean-up campaigns, the prevalence of Mesocyclops in large water storage containers > 50 liters increased from 12.77 ± 8.39 to 75.69 ± 9.17% over periods of 15–45 months. At the conclusion of the study, no confirmed dengue cases were detected in four of the five communes for which diagnostic serologic analysis was performed. The rate of progress was faster in communes that were added in stages to the program but the reason for this finding was unclear. At the completion of the formal project, sustainability funds were set up to provide each commune with the financial means to ensure that community-based dengue control activities continued. PMID:22556087

  18. The cost-effectiveness of trivalent and quadrivalent influenza vaccination in communities in South Africa, Vietnam and Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Pieter T; Kelso, Joel K; Halder, Nilimesh; Nguyen, Thi-Phuong-Lan; Moyes, Jocelyn; Cohen, Cheryl; Barr, Ian G; Postma, Maarten J; Milne, George J

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To inform national healthcare authorities whether quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIVs) provide better value for money than trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs), we assessed the cost-effectiveness of TIV and QIV in low-and-middle income communities based in South Africa and Vietnam and

  19. Vectors and malaria transmission in deforested, rural communities in north-central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Manh Cuong

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is still prevalent in rural communities of central Vietnam even though, due to deforestation, the primary vector Anopheles dirus is uncommon. In these situations little is known about the secondary vectors which are responsible for maintaining transmission. Basic information on the identification of the species in these rural communities is required so that transmission parameters, such as ecology, behaviour and vectorial status can be assigned to the appropriate species. Methods In two rural villages - Khe Ngang and Hang Chuon - in Truong Xuan Commune, Quang Binh Province, north central Vietnam, a series of longitudinal entomological surveys were conducted during the wet and dry seasons from 2003 - 2007. In these surveys anopheline mosquitoes were collected in human landing catches, paired human and animal bait collections, and from larval surveys. Specimens belonging to species complexes were identified by PCR and sequence analysis, incrimination of vectors was by detection of circumsporozoite protein using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Over 80% of the anopheline fauna was made up of Anopheles sinensis, Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles harrisoni, Anopheles maculatus, Anopheles sawadwongporni, and Anopheles philippinensis. PCR and sequence analysis resolved identification issues in the Funestus Group, Maculatus Group, Hyrcanus Group and Dirus Complex. Most species were zoophilic and while all species could be collected biting humans significantly higher densities were attracted to cattle and buffalo. Anopheles dirus was the most anthropophilic species but was uncommon making up only 1.24% of all anophelines collected. Anopheles sinensis, An. aconitus, An. harrisoni, An. maculatus, An. sawadwongporni, Anopheles peditaeniatus and An. philippinensis were all found positive for circumsporozoite protein. Heterogeneity in oviposition site preference between species enabled vector densities to be high in both

  20. Assessing dietary exposure to cadmium in a metal recycling community in Vietnam: Age and gender aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, Ngo Duc [Vietnamese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Soils and Fertilizers Research Institute (SFRI), Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hough, Rupert Lloyd, E-mail: rupert.hough@hutton.ac.uk [The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Thuy, Le Thi [Vietnamese Academy of Agriculture Science, Institute of Agricultural Environment (IAE), Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nyberg, Ylva [Department of Crop Production Ecology, PO Box 7043, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Mai, Le Bach [National Institute of Nutrition, 48b Tang Bat Ho, Hoan Kiem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vinh, Nguyen Cong [Vietnamese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Soils and Fertilizers Research Institute (SFRI), Tu Liem, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Khai, Nguyen Manh [Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Ha Noi University of Science (HUS-VNU), 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Oeborn, Ingrid [Department of Crop Production Ecology, PO Box 7043, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-02-01

    This study estimates the dietary exposure to cadmium (Cd), and associated potential health risks, for individuals living and working in a metal recycling community (n = 132) in Vietnam in comparison to an agricultural (reference) community (n = 130). Individual-level exposure to Cd was estimated through analysis of staple foodstuffs combined with information from a food frequency questionnaire. Individual-level exposure estimates were compared with published 'safe' doses to derive a Hazard Quotient (HQ) for each member of the study population. Looking at the populations as a whole, there were no significant differences in the diets of the two villages. However, significantly more rice was consumed by working age adults (18-60 years) in the recycling village compared to the reference village (p < 0.001). Rice was the main staple food with individuals consuming 461 {+-} 162 g/d, followed by water spinach (103 {+-} 51 kg/d). Concentrations of Cd in the studied foodstuffs were elevated in the metal recycling village. Values of HQ exceeded unity for 87% of adult participants of the metal recycling community (39% had a HQ > 3), while 20% of adult participants from the reference village had an HQ > 1. We found an elevated health risk from dietary exposure to Cd in the metal recycling village compared to the reference community. WHO standard of 0.4 mg Cd/kg rice may not be protective where people consume large amounts of rice/have relatively low body weight. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First individual-level risk assessment of cadmium in recycling villages of Vietnam. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dietary analysis undertaken for a recycling community and an agricultural community. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant differences were found between the diets of the two populations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 87% of people in the recycling community had elevated health risk. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer WHO standard (0.4 mg Cd/kg rice) may

  1. Life time suicidal thoughts in an urban community in Hanoi, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leenaars Antoon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicidal thought is a risk factor and a stage in the suicidal process from planning to attempting and dying by suicide. To date, studies on suicidal thought in the general population, especially in Asian communities, have been limited. Method The WHO SUPRE-MISS (the multisite intervention study on suicidal behaviours community survey questionnaire was filled in for 2,280 randomly selected residents of the DongDa district of Hanoi, Vietnam by means of face-to-face interviews. This multi-factor questionnaire includes such variables as sociodemographic information, suicidal thought and history of suicide attempts, physical health, alcohol consumption and medication. Results Prevalence rates for life time suicidal thoughts, suicide plans and suicide attempts were 8.9%, 1.1% and 0.4% respectively. Suicidal thoughts are associated with multiple characteristics, such as female gender, single/widowed/separated/divorced marital status, low income, lifestyle (use of alcohol, sedatives and pain relief medication, but not with low education or employment status. Having no religion and being a Buddhist appear to be protective factors for suicidal thought. The ratio of suicidal thoughts, suicide plans and suicide attempts on a lifetime basis is 22.3:2.8:1. Conclusion In Vietnam, as in Western and other Asian countries, suicidal thoughts are associated with similar negative psychosocial risk factors, lifestyle and emotional problems, which implies that suicide preventive measure developed elsewhere can be adjusted to Vietnamese condition. Understanding the unique and common risks in a culture may assist in prediction and control.

  2. Quality of life among people living with hypertension in a rural Vietnam community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ninh Thi; Duy, Hoa Thi; Le, Ninh Hoang; Khanal, Vishnu; Moorin, Rachael

    2014-08-11

    To respond to growing prevalence of hypertension in Vietnam, it is critical to have an in-depth understanding about quality of life (QOL) among people living with hypertension and related factors. This study aimed to measure QOL among hypertensive people in a rural community in Vietnam, and its association with socio-demographic characteristics and factors related to treatment. This study was conducted in a rural community located 60 km from Ho Chi Minh City. Face-to-face interviews were conducted among 275 hypertensive people aged 50 years and above using WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to examine mean scores of quality of life. Cronbach's alpha coefficient and Pearson's correlation coefficient were applied to estimate the internal consistency, and the level of agreement between different domains of WHOQOL-BREF, respectively. Independent T-test and ANOVA test followed by multiple linear regression analyses were used to measure the association between QOL domains and independent variables. Both overall WHOQOL-BREF and each domain had a good internal consistency, ranging from 0.65 to 0.88. The QOL among hypertensive patients was found moderate in all domains, except for psychological domain that was fairly low (mean = 49.4). Backward multiple linear regressions revealed that being men, married, attainment of higher education, having physical activities at moderate level, and adherence to treatment were positively associated with QOL. However, older age and presence of co-morbidity were negatively associated with QOL. WHOQOL-BREF is a reliable instrument to measure QOL among hypertensive patients. The results revealed low QOL in psychological domain and inequality in QOL across socio-demographic characteristics. Given the results, encouraging physical activities and strengthening treatment adherence should be considered to improve QOL of hypertensive people, especially for psychological aspect. Actions to improve QOL among hypertensive

  3. Mobile devices for community-based REDD+ monitoring: a case study for Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Herold, Martin; Avitabile, Valerio; de Bruin, Sytze; Bartholomeus, Harm; Souza, Carlos M; Ribbe, Lars

    2012-12-20

    Monitoring tropical deforestation and forest degradation is one of the central elements for the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) scheme. Current arrangements for monitoring are based on remote sensing and field measurements. Since monitoring is the periodic process of assessing forest stands properties with respect to reference data, adopting the current REDD+ requirements for implementing monitoring at national levels is a challenging task. Recently, the advancement in Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) and mobile devices has enabled local communities to monitor their forest in a basic resource setting such as no or slow internet connection link, limited power supply, etc. Despite the potential, the use of mobile device system for community based monitoring (CBM) is still exceptional and faces implementation challenges. This paper presents an integrated data collection system based on mobile devices that streamlines the community-based forest monitoring data collection, transmission and visualization process. This paper also assesses the accuracy and reliability of CBM data and proposes a way to fit them into national REDD+ Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) scheme. The system performance is evaluated at Tra Bui commune, Quang Nam province, Central Vietnam, where forest carbon and change activities were tracked. The results show that the local community is able to provide data with accuracy comparable to expert measurements (index of agreement greater than 0.88), but against lower costs. Furthermore, the results confirm that communities are more effective to monitor small scale forest degradation due to subsistence fuel wood collection and selective logging, than high resolution remote sensing SPOT imagery.

  4. The Educational Realities of Hmong Communities in Vietnam: The Voices of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Constance

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the language policy and sociolinguistic realities of Hmong people in Lao Cai province, Vietnam. Minority children, who have their own mother tongue, are educated in Vietnamese, a language that few understand. In response to this situation, the Ministry of Education and Training of Vietnam in collaboration with UNICEF,…

  5. Development of a national injury prevention/safe community programme in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luau, H C; Svanström, L; Ekman, R; Duong, H L; Nguyen, O C; Dahlgren, G; Hoang, P

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the initiation of a national programme on injury prevention/safe community (IP/SC). Market economy, Doi Moi, was introduced in Vietnam in 1986, and since then the injury pattern has been reported to have changed. The number of traffic injury deaths has increased three-fold from 1980 to 1996 and traffic injuries more than four-fold. Injuries are now the leading cause of mortality in hospitals. There are difficulties in obtaining a comprehensive picture of the injury pattern from official statistics and, in conjunction with the work initiated by the Ministry of Health, a number of local reporting systems have already been developed. Remarkable results have been achieved within the IP/SC in a very short time, based on 20 years of experience. An organizational construction system has been built from province to local community areas. Management is based on administrative and legislative documents. IP/SC implementation is considered the duty of the whole community, local authorities and people committees, and should be incorporated into local action plans. The programme is a significant contribution towards creating a safe environment in which everybody may live and work, allowing the stability for society to develop. Implementation of the programme in schools is a special characteristic. The programme will be developed in 800 schools with a large number of pupils (25% of the population). This model for safer schools is considerably concerned and is a good experience to disseminate. The recommendations are that more pilot models of IP/SC should be conducted in other localities and that the programme should be expanded to a national scale. Furthermore, co-operation between sectors and mass organizations should be encouraged and professional skills of key SC members at all levels should be raised.

  6. The effect of participatory community communication on HIV preventive behaviors among ethnic minority youth in central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Huy V

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Vietnam, socially marginalized groups such as ethnic minorities in mountainous areas are often difficult to engage in HIV research and prevention programs. This intervention study aimed to estimate the effect of participatory community communication (PCC on changing HIV preventive ideation and behavior among ethnic minority youth in a rural district from central Vietnam. Methods In a cross-sectional survey after the PCC intervention, using a structured questionnaire, 800 ethnic minority youth were approached for face-to-face interviews. Propensity score matching (PSM technique was then utilized to match these participants into two groups-intervention and control-for estimating the effect of the PCC. Results HIV preventive knowledge and ideation tended to increase as the level of recall changed accordingly. The campaign had a significant indirect effect on condom use through its effect on ideation or perceptions. When intervention and control group statistically equivalently reached in terms of individual and social characteristics by PSM, proportions of displaying HIV preventive knowledge, ideation and condom use were significantly higher in intervention group than in matched control counterparts, accounting for net differences of 7.4%, 12.7% and 5%, respectively, and can be translated into the number of 210; 361 and 142 ethnic minority youth in the population. Conclusions The study informs public health implications both theoretically and practically to guide effective HIV control programs for marginalized communities in resources-constrained settings like rural Vietnam and similar contexts of developing countries.

  7. Investigation of a cluster of children with Down's syndrome born to mothers who had attended a school in Dundalk, Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, G; Nevin, N C; Mikkelsen, M; Karadima, G; Petersen, M B; Kelly, M; O'Sullivan, J

    2000-12-01

    To investigate a reported cluster of Down's syndrome in offspring of former pupils of a girls' school in Ireland, to establish the prevalence of Down's syndrome among live births in the area around the school, and to review the literature on the possible causes of reported clusters of Down's syndrome. Questionnaire survey of obstetric and personal histories of women who had attended the girls' school at Dundalk, County Louth, Republic of Ireland, at some time during 1956-7, and also of women who had attended another, nearby, girls' school during the same period. Comparison of observed numbers of cases of Down's syndrome identified by these surveys with maternal age adjusted expected numbers for the reported live births. Laboratory tests were conducted to verify and characterise the cases of Down's syndrome constituting the cluster. Retrospective collection and collation of data on Down's syndrome occurring among live births, and the compilation of maternal age specific incidences, in County Louth and in Newry and Mourne District in neighbouring Northern Ireland, during 1961-80. These rates were compared with reference rates and rates for other areas of Ireland. Six children with Down's syndrome were confirmed among 387 reported live births to women who had been pupils at the girls' school in Dundalk during 1956-7, compared with 0.69 expected (nominal p<10(-4)). Five of the affected births were to mothers under 30 years of age, against 0.15 expected (nominal p<10(-6)), although only four of these mothers were attending the school at any one time. The origin of the non-disjunction was found to be maternal first meiotic in four children, mitotic after fertilisation in another (with the youngest mother), and in the remaining one could not be determined. The marked excess of Down's syndrome in births to young mothers did not extend to offspring of former pupils of the other Dundalk girls' school surveyed, or to live births in County Louth generally or in adjacent Newry

  8. Understanding smallholder farmers’ capacity to respond to climate change in a coastal community in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuong, Le Thi Hong; Biesbroek, G.R.; Sen, Le Thi Hoa; Wals, Arjen E.J.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change as expressed by erratic rainfall, increased flooding, extended droughts, frequency tropical cyclones or saline water intrusion, poses severe threats to smallholder farmers in Vietnam. Adaptation of the agricultural sector is vital to increase the resilience of smallholder farmers’

  9. Community preferences for a social health insurance benefit package: an exploratory study among the uninsured in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa Thi; Luu, Tinh Viet; Leppert, Gerald; De Allegri, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    Understanding public preferences in terms of health benefit packages (HBPs) remains limited, yet gathering community insights is an important endeavour when developing people-centred health systems and moving towards universal health coverage. Our study aimed to address this gap in knowledge by eliciting community preferences for the social health insurance benefit package among the uninsured in Vietnam. We adopted a mixed methods approach that included a ranking exercise followed by focus group discussions. We collected quantitative and qualitative data from 174 uninsured people in Bac Giang, a province in northern Vietnam. Study participants were purposively selected from 12 communities and assembled in 14 group sessions that entailed three stages: participants first selected and ranked benefit items individually, then in groups and finally they engaged in a discussion regarding their decisions. The majority of respondents (both as individuals and as groups) preferred an HBP that covers both curative and preventive care, with a strong preference for the inclusion of high-cost care, resulting from rare and costly events (inpatient care), as well as frequent and less costly events (drugs, tests and outpatient care). The process of group discussion highlighted how individual choices could be modified in the context of group negotiation. The shift in preferences was motivated by the wish to protect low-income people from catastrophic expenditure while maximising community access to vital yet costly healthcare services. Future research, interventions and policies can built on this initial exploration of preferences to explore how stakeholders can engage communities and support greater public involvement in the development of HBPs in Vietnam and other low-income and middle-income countries.

  10. Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in three communities in north Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, R; Dorny, P; Nguyen, V K; Dang, T C T; Goddeeris, B; Craig, P S; Vercruysse, J

    2006-01-01

    (1) To investigate the response to a serum antigen-detecting ELISA for cysticercosis and a stool coproantigen test for taeniasis in two rural communities (mountainous and coastal areas) and one group of (peri-)urban factory workers; and (2) to examine clinical features of human cysticercosis in northern Vietnam. Villagers and factory workers and their families were informed and invited to participate in the study. Blood and faecal samples were collected from the participants and a simple questionnaire on taeniasis/cysticercosis completed. Serum was examined for the presence of circulating cysticercus antigen by a monoclonal-based sandwich ELISA. Ag-ELISA positive persons underwent a clinical examination and a computed tomography (CT) scan. Stool samples were examined microscopically for the presence of Taenia eggs and for copro-antigens. Tapeworms were identified following therapeutic expulsion using morphology and PCR-RFLP. Circulating cysticercus antigens, suggesting active infection, were detected in 5.3% (16/303), 0.6% (1/175) and 0.0% (0/229) of the sampled individuals from the mountainous, coastal and urban regions, respectively. Clinical examination and CT scan of the cysticercus antigen positive persons showed that active cysticercosis did not cause severe disease in most cases. Taenia copro-antigens were found in 0.3% (1/297), 1.8% (3/166) and 0.0% (0/228) of the stool samples from the mountainous, coastal and urban communities, respectively. Three tapeworms were expelled after treatment: two Taenia solium and one Taenia saginata. This survey points to a focal distribution of taeniasis/cysticercosis and suggests that human cysticercosis is rather acquired due to close contact with a T. solium carrier and self-infection, than through infection from the environment.

  11. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Dundalk Simon Community, Louth

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jerjes, Waseem K

    2011-08-23

    Abstract While histopathology of excised tissue remains the gold standard for diagnosis, several new, non-invasive diagnostic techniques are being developed. They rely on physical and biochemical changes that precede and mirror malignant change within tissue. The basic principle involves simple optical techniques of tissue interrogation. Their accuracy, expressed as sensitivity and specificity, are reported in a number of studies suggests that they have a potential for cost effective, real-time, in situ diagnosis. We review the Third Scientific Meeting of the Head and Neck Optical Diagnostics Society held in Congress Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria on the 11th May 2011. For the first time the HNODS Annual Scientific Meeting was held in association with the International Photodynamic Association (IPA) and the European Platform for Photodynamic Medicine (EPPM). The aim was to enhance the interdisciplinary aspects of optical diagnostics and other photodynamic applications. The meeting included 2 sections: oral communication sessions running in parallel to the IPA programme and poster presentation sessions combined with the IPA and EPPM posters sessions.

  12. Vietnam Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, George

    1990-01-01

    Reflections of an Associated Press special correspondent on a return visit to Vietnam 15 years after the war. Discusses the social and economic impact of the war on Vietnam. Examines the plight of the Vietnamese who served in the U.S. military, discussing the problems of Amerasians. Recounts the efforts of U.S. veterans to rebuild Vietnam. (RW)

  13. Perceptions of community and family level IDU and HIV related stigma, disclosure decisions and experiences with layered stigma among HIV positive injection drug users in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolph, A.E.; Davis, W.W.; Quan, V.M.; Ha, T.V.; Minh, N.L.; Gregowski, A.; Salter, Megan; Celentano, D.D.; Go, V.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores how perceived stigma and layered stigma related to injection drug use and being HIV positive influence the decision to disclose one’s HIV status to family and community and experiences with stigma following disclosure among a population of HIV positive male injection drug users (IDUs) in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam. In qualitative interviews conducted between 2007 and 2008, 25 HIV positive male IDUs described layered stigma in their community but an absence of layered stigma with...

  14. Community-level income inequality and HIV prevalence among persons who inject drugs in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Travis W; Frangakis, Constantine; Latkin, Carl; Ha, Tran Viet; Minh, Nguyen Le; Zelaya, Carla; Quan, Vu Minh; Go, Vivian F

    2014-01-01

    Socioeconomic status has a robust positive relationship with several health outcomes at the individual and population levels, but in the case of HIV prevalence, income inequality may be a better predictor than absolute level of income. Most studies showing a relationship between income inequality and HIV have used entire countries as the unit of analysis. In this study, we examine the association between income inequality at the community level and HIV prevalence in a sample of persons who inject drugs (PWID) in a concentrated epidemic setting. We recruited PWID and non-PWID community participants in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam, and administered a cross-sectional questionnaire; PWID were tested for HIV. We used ecologic regression to model HIV burden in our PWID study population on GINI indices of inequality calculated from total reported incomes of non-PWID community members in each commune. We also modeled HIV burden on interaction terms between GINI index and median commune income, and finally used a multi-level model to control for community level inequality and individual level income. HIV burden among PWID was significantly correlated with the commune GINI coefficient (r = 0.53, p = 0.002). HIV burden was also associated with GINI coefficient (β = 0.082, p = 0.008) and with median commune income (β = -0.018, p = 0.023) in ecological regression. In the multi-level model, higher GINI coefficient at the community level was associated with higher odds of individual HIV infection in PWID (OR = 1.46 per 0.01, p = 0.003) while higher personal income was associated with reduced odds of infection (OR = 0.98 per $10, p = 0.022). This study demonstrates a context where income inequality is associated with HIV prevalence at the community level in a concentrated epidemic. It further suggests that community level socioeconomic factors, both contextual and compositional, could be indirect determinants of HIV infection in PWID.

  15. Designing a Community Engagement Framework for a New Dengue Control Method: A Case Study from Central Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Darlene; Duong, Thi Thu Huong

    2014-01-01

    Background The Wolbachia strategy aims to manipulate mosquito populations to make them incapable of transmitting dengue viruses between people. To test its efficacy, this strategy requires field trials. Public consultation and engagement are recognized as critical to the future success of these programs, but questions remain regarding how to proceed. This paper reports on a case study where social research was used to design a community engagement framework for a new dengue control method, at a potential release site in central Vietnam. Methodology/Principal Findings The approach described here, draws on an anthropological methodology and uses both qualitative and quantitative methods to design an engagement framework tailored to the concerns, expectations, and socio-political setting of a potential trial release site for Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The process, research activities, key findings and how these were responded to are described. Safety of the method to humans and the environment was the most common and significant concern, followed by efficacy and impact on local lives. Residents expected to be fully informed and engaged about the science, the project, its safety, the release and who would be responsible should something go wrong. They desired a level of engagement that included regular updates and authorization from government and at least one member of every household at the release site. Conclusions/Significance Results demonstrate that social research can provide important and reliable insights into public concerns and expectations at a potential release site, as well as guidance on how these might be addressed. Findings support the argument that using research to develop more targeted, engagement frameworks can lead to more sensitive, thorough, culturally comprehensible and therefore ethical consultation processes. This approach has now been used successfully to seek public input and eventually support for releases Wolbachia

  16. Willingness to use and pay for options of care for community-dwelling older people in rural Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Hoi Le

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proportion of people in Vietnam who are 60 years and over has increased rapidly. The emigration of young people and impact of other socioeconomic changes leave more elderly on their own and with less family support. This study assesses the willingness to use and pay for different models of care for community-dwelling elderly in rural Vietnam. Methods In 2007, people aged 60 and older and their family representatives, living in 2,240 households, were randomly selected from the FilaBavi Demographic Surveillance Site. They were interviewed using structured questionnaires to assess dependence in activities of daily living (ADLs, willingness to use and to pay for day care centres, mobile care teams, and nursing centres. Respondent socioeconomic characteristics were extracted from the FilaBavi repeated census. Percentages of those willing to use models and the average amount (with 95% confidence intervals they are willing to pay were estimated. Multivariate analyses were performed to measure the relationship of willingness to use services with ADL index and socioeconomic factors. Four focus group discussions were conducted to explore people's perspectives on the use of services. The first discussion group was with the elderly. The second discussion group was with their household members. Two other discussion groups included community association representatives, one at the communal level and another at the village level. Results Use of mobile team care is the most requested service. The fewest respondents intend to use a nursing centre. Households expect to use services for their elderly to a greater extent than do the elderly themselves. Willingness to use services decreases when potential fees increase. The proportion of respondents who require that services be free-of-charge is two to three times higher than the proportion willing to pay full cost. Households are willing to pay more than the elderly for day care and nursing

  17. Individual-level socioeconomic status and community-level inequality as determinants of stigma towards persons living with HIV who inject drugs in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Travis; Zelaya, Carla; Latkin, Carl; Quan, Vu Minh; Frangakis, Constantine; Ha, Tran Viet; Minh, Nguyen Le; Go, Vivian

    2013-11-13

    HIV infection may be affected by multiple complex socioeconomic status (SES) factors, especially individual socioeconomic disadvantage and community-level inequality. At the same time, stigma towards HIV and marginalized groups has exacerbated persistent concentrated epidemics among key populations, such as persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Vietnam. Stigma researchers argue that stigma fundamentally depends on the existence of economic power differences in a community. In rapidly growing economies like Vietnam, the increasing gap in income and education levels, as well as an individual's absolute income and education, may create social conditions that facilitate stigma related to injecting drug use and HIV. A cross-sectional baseline survey assessing different types of stigma and key socioeconomic characteristics was administered to 1674 PWID and 1349 community members living in physical proximity throughout the 32 communes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam. We created four stigma scales, including HIV-related and drug-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members. We then used ecologic Spearman's correlation, ordinary least-squares regression and multi-level generalized estimating equations to examine community-level inequality associations, individual-level SES associations and multi-level SES associations with different types of stigma, respectively. There was little urban-rural difference in stigma among communes. Higher income inequality was marginally associated with drug-related stigma reported by community members (p=0.087), and higher education inequality was significantly associated with higher HIV-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members (pinequality and HIV-related stigma is superseded by the effect of individual-level education. The results of the study confirm that socioeconomic factors at both the individual level and community level affect different types of stigma in different ways. Attention should be paid to these

  18. Whither voluntary communities of co-located patients in Vietnam? Empirical evidence from a 2016 medical survey dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan-Hoang Vuong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empirical evidence on quality of life of poor patients falls short for policy-making in Vietnam. Financial burdens and isolation give rise to Vietnamese voluntary co-location clusters where patients seek to rely on each other. These communities, although important, have been under-researched. Increasingly, there are questions about their sustainability. Aim & Objectives: This study aims to identify factors that affect sustainability of such co-location clusters, seeking to measure the community prospect through critical determinants as seen by member patients. An in-depth analysis is expected to yield insights that help shape future policies contributing to improvement of healthcare systems.  Material & Method: A dataset containing responses from 336 patients living in four clusters in Hanoi was obtained from a survey during 2015Q4-2016Q1. The processing of data is performed using R 3.2.3, employing baseline category logit models (BCL. Coefficients are estimated to compute empirical probabilities. Results: 1 There is a 50% probability that a patient seeing his/her benefits as unsatisfactory views the community prospect as dim; 2 The more a patient contributes time/effort, the less he/she believes in future growth; 3 There is a 80.8% probability that a patient who makes a significant financial contribution and receives back in-kind benefits predicts no growth. Conclusion: Patients predict community growth when receiving what they need/expect. There exists a kind of “liquidity preference”. Only 14% and 32% make significant financial and labor contributions, respectively. There exists a “risk aversion” attitude, viewing contribution as certain while future benefits to be uncertain.

  19. Community-Level Income Inequality and HIV Prevalence among Persons Who Inject Drugs in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Travis W.; Frangakis, Constantine; Latkin, Carl; Ha, Tran Viet; Minh, Nguyen Le; Zelaya, Carla; Quan, Vu Minh; Go, Vivian F.

    2014-01-01

    Socioeconomic status has a robust positive relationship with several health outcomes at the individual and population levels, but in the case of HIV prevalence, income inequality may be a better predictor than absolute level of income. Most studies showing a relationship between income inequality and HIV have used entire countries as the unit of analysis. In this study, we examine the association between income inequality at the community level and HIV prevalence in a sample of persons who inject drugs (PWID) in a concentrated epidemic setting. We recruited PWID and non-PWID community participants in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam, and administered a cross-sectional questionnaire; PWID were tested for HIV. We used ecologic regression to model HIV burden in our PWID study population on GINI indices of inequality calculated from total reported incomes of non-PWID community members in each commune. We also modeled HIV burden on interaction terms between GINI index and median commune income, and finally used a multi-level model to control for community level inequality and individual level income. HIV burden among PWID was significantly correlated with the commune GINI coefficient (r = 0.53, p = 0.002). HIV burden was also associated with GINI coefficient (β = 0.082, p = 0.008) and with median commune income (β = −0.018, p = 0.023) in ecological regression. In the multi-level model, higher GINI coefficient at the community level was associated with higher odds of individual HIV infection in PWID (OR = 1.46 per 0.01, p = 0.003) while higher personal income was associated with reduced odds of infection (OR = 0.98 per $10, p = 0.022). This study demonstrates a context where income inequality is associated with HIV prevalence at the community level in a concentrated epidemic. It further suggests that community level socioeconomic factors, both contextual and compositional, could be indirect determinants of HIV infection in PWID. PMID

  20. Response process and test–retest reliability of the Context Assessment for Community Health tool in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong M. Duc

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The recently developed Context Assessment for Community Health (COACH tool aims to measure aspects of the local healthcare context perceived to influence knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. The tool measures eight dimensions (organizational resources , community engagement, monitoring services for action, sources of knowledge, commitment to work, work culture, leadership, and informal payment through 49 items. Objective: The study aimed to explore the understanding and stability of the COACH tool among health providers in Vietnam. Designs: To investigate the response process, think-aloud interviews were undertaken with five community health workers, six nurses and midwives, and five physicians. Identified problems were classified according to Conrad and Blair's taxonomy and grouped according to an estimation of the magnitude of the problem's effect on the response data. Further, the stability of the tool was examined using a test–retest survey among 77 respondents. The reliability was analyzed for items (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and percent agreement and dimensions (ICC and Bland–Altman plots. Results: In general, the think-aloud interviews revealed that the COACH tool was perceived as clear, well organized, and easy to answer. Most items were understood as intended. However, seven prominent problems in the items were identified and the content of three dimensions was perceived to be of a sensitive nature. In the test–retest survey, two-thirds of the items and seven of eight dimensions were found to have an ICC agreement ranging from moderate to substantial (0.5–0.7, demonstrating that the instrument has an acceptable level of stability. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that the Vietnamese translation of the COACH tool is generally perceived to be clear and easy to understand and has acceptable stability. There is, however, a need to rephrase and add generic examples to clarify

  1. Response process and test-retest reliability of the Context Assessment for Community Health tool in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Duong M; Bergström, Anna; Eriksson, Leif; Selling, Katarina; Thi Thu Ha, Bui; Wallin, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The recently developed Context Assessment for Community Health (COACH) tool aims to measure aspects of the local healthcare context perceived to influence knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. The tool measures eight dimensions (organizational resources, community engagement, monitoring services for action, sources of knowledge, commitment to work, work culture, leadership, and informal payment) through 49 items. The study aimed to explore the understanding and stability of the COACH tool among health providers in Vietnam. To investigate the response process, think-aloud interviews were undertaken with five community health workers, six nurses and midwives, and five physicians. Identified problems were classified according to Conrad and Blair's taxonomy and grouped according to an estimation of the magnitude of the problem's effect on the response data. Further, the stability of the tool was examined using a test-retest survey among 77 respondents. The reliability was analyzed for items (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and percent agreement) and dimensions (ICC and Bland-Altman plots). In general, the think-aloud interviews revealed that the COACH tool was perceived as clear, well organized, and easy to answer. Most items were understood as intended. However, seven prominent problems in the items were identified and the content of three dimensions was perceived to be of a sensitive nature. In the test-retest survey, two-thirds of the items and seven of eight dimensions were found to have an ICC agreement ranging from moderate to substantial (0.5-0.7), demonstrating that the instrument has an acceptable level of stability. This study provides evidence that the Vietnamese translation of the COACH tool is generally perceived to be clear and easy to understand and has acceptable stability. There is, however, a need to rephrase and add generic examples to clarify some items and to further review items with low ICC.

  2. Community patterns of stigma towards persons living with HIV: A population-based latent class analysis from rural Vietnam

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pharris, Anastasia

    2011-09-18

    Abstract Background The negative effects of stigma on persons living with HIV (PLHIV) have been documented in many settings and it is thought that stigma against PLHIV leads to more difficulties for those who need to access HIV testing, treatment and care, as well as to limited community uptake of HIV prevention and testing messages. In order to understand and prevent stigma towards PLHIV, it is important to be able to measure stigma within communities and to understand which factors are associated with higher stigma. Methods To analyze patterns of community stigma and determinants to stigma toward PLHIV, we performed an exploratory population-based survey with 1874 randomly sampled adults within a demographic surveillance site (DSS) in rural Vietnam. Participants were interviewed regarding knowledge of HIV and attitudes towards persons living with HIV. Data were linked to socioeconomic and migration data from the DSS and latent class analysis and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to examine stigma group sub-types and factors associated with stigma group membership. Results We found unexpectedly high and complex patterns of stigma against PLHIV in this rural setting. Women had the greatest odds of belong to the highest stigma group (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.42-2.37), while those with more education had lower odds of highest stigma group membership (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.32-0.62 for secondary education; OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.10-0.35 for tertiary education). Long-term migration out of the district (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.4-0.91), feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.27-0.66), having heard of HIV from more sources (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.3-0.66), and knowing someone with HIV (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58-0.99) were all associated with lower odds of highest stigma group membership. Nearly 20% of the population was highly unsure of their attitudes towards PLHIV and persons in this group had significantly lower odds of feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.90) or of knowing

  3. Community Inquiry and Curriculum Development: A Relevant Education for Teachers about the Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentith, Audrey M.; McCarry, David S.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an innovative university-based project that connected graduate-level, preservice, and beginning teachers enrolled in a curriculum class for secondary and elementary teaching certification with a community-based war museum memorial and educational center. The course required these teachers to construct units on…

  4. Individual-level socioeconomic status and community-level inequality as determinants of stigma towards persons living with HIV who inject drugs in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Travis; Zelaya, Carla; Latkin, Carl; Quan, Vu Minh; Frangakis, Constantine; Ha, Tran Viet; Minh, Nguyen Le; Go, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction HIV infection may be affected by multiple complex socioeconomic status (SES) factors, especially individual socioeconomic disadvantage and community-level inequality. At the same time, stigma towards HIV and marginalized groups has exacerbated persistent concentrated epidemics among key populations, such as persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Vietnam. Stigma researchers argue that stigma fundamentally depends on the existence of economic power differences in a community. In rapidly growing economies like Vietnam, the increasing gap in income and education levels, as well as an individual's absolute income and education, may create social conditions that facilitate stigma related to injecting drug use and HIV. Methods A cross-sectional baseline survey assessing different types of stigma and key socioeconomic characteristics was administered to 1674 PWID and 1349 community members living in physical proximity throughout the 32 communes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam. We created four stigma scales, including HIV-related and drug-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members. We then used ecologic Spearman's correlation, ordinary least-squares regression and multi-level generalized estimating equations to examine community-level inequality associations, individual-level SES associations and multi-level SES associations with different types of stigma, respectively. Results There was little urban–rural difference in stigma among communes. Higher income inequality was marginally associated with drug-related stigma reported by community members (p=0.087), and higher education inequality was significantly associated with higher HIV-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members (pstigma (HIV and drug related) reported by both PWID and community members. Part-time employed PWID reported more experiences and perceptions of drug-related stigma, while conversely unemployed community members reported enacting lower drug-related stigma

  5. Perceptions of mental health and their influence on help-seeking behavior in an urban community in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ham, A.J.; Wright, P.; Van, T.V.; Doan, V.; Broerse, J.E.W.

    2011-01-01

    This explorative study assesses perceptions of mental health and help-seeking behavior among adults in Vietnam. Methods included questionnaires (200) and focus group discussions (eight). Respondents were often unable to name specific mental illnesses. Frequently mentioned symptoms of mental illness

  6. The effectiveness of a Supported Self-management task-shifting intervention for adult depression in Vietnam communities: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jill; Goldsmith, Charles H; Jones, Wayne; Oanh, Pham Thi; Nguyen, Vu Cong

    2017-05-05

    Depressive disorders are one of the leading causes of disease and disability worldwide. In Vietnam, although epidemiological evidence suggests that depression rates are on par with global averages, services for depression are very limited. In a feasibility study that was implemented from 2013 to 2015, we found that a Supported Self-management (SSM) intervention showed promising results for adults with depression in the community in Vietnam. This paper describes the Mental Health in Adults and Children: Frugal Innovations (MAC-FI) trial protocol that will assess the effectiveness of the SSM intervention, delivered by primary care and social workers, to community-based populations of adults with depression in eight Vietnamese provinces. The MAC-FI program will be assessed using a stepped-wedge, randomized controlled trial. Study participants are adults aged 18 years and over in eight provinces of Vietnam. Study participants will be screened at primary care centres and in the community by health and social workers using the Self-reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20). Patients scoring >7, indicating depression caseness, will be invited to participate in the study in either the SSM intervention group or the enhanced treatment as usual control group. Recruited participants will be further assessed using the World Health Organization's Disability Assessment Scale (WHODAS 2.0) and the Cut-down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener (CAGE) Questionnaire for alcohol misuse. Intervention-group participants will receive the SSM intervention, delivered with the support of a social worker or social collaborator, for a period of 2 months. Control- group participants will receive treatment as usual and a leaflet with information about depression. SRQ-20, WHODAS 2.0 and CAGE scores will be taken by blinded outcome assessors at baseline, after 1 month and after 2 months. The primary analysis method will be intention-to-treat. This study has the potential to add to the knowledge base about

  7. Long-Lasting Insecticidal Hammocks for controlling forest malaria: a community-based trial in a rural area of central Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Duc Thang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In Vietnam, malaria remains a problem in some remote areas located along its international borders and in the central highlands, partly due to the bionomics of the local vector, mainly found in forested areas and less vulnerable to standard control measures. Long Lasting Insecticidal Hammocks (LLIH, a tailored and user-friendly tool for forest workers, may further contribute in reducing the malaria burden. Their effectiveness was tested in a large community-based intervention trial carried out in Ninh Thuan province in Central Vietnam.Thirty villages (population 18,646 were assembled in 20 clusters (1,000 individuals per cluster that were randomly allocated to either the intervention or control group (no LLIH after stratification according to the pre-intervention P. falciparum antibody prevalence ( or =30%. LLIH were distributed to the intervention group in December 2004. For the following 2 years, the incidence of clinical malaria and the prevalence of infection were determined by passive case detection at community level and by bi-annual malariometric surveys. A 2-fold larger effect on malaria incidence in the intervention as compared to the control group was observed. Similarly, malaria prevalence decreased more substantially in the intervention (1.6-fold greater reduction than in the control group. Both for incidence and prevalence, a stronger and earlier effect of the intervention was observed in the high endemicity stratum. The number of malaria cases and infections averted by the intervention overall was estimated at 10.5 per 1,000 persons and 5.6/100 individuals, respectively, for the last half of 2006. In the high endemicity stratum, the impact was much higher, i.e. 29/1000 malaria cases and 15.7 infections/100 individuals averted.LLIH reduced malaria incidence and prevalence in this remote and forested area of Central Vietnam. As the targets of the newly-launched Global Malaria Action Plan include the 75% reduction of the global

  8. Perceptions of mental health and help-seeking behavior in an urban community in Vietnam: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ham, Lia; Wright, Pamela; Van, Thang Vo; Doan, Vuong D K; Broerse, Jacqueline E W

    2011-10-01

    This explorative study assesses perceptions of mental health and help-seeking behavior among adults in Vietnam. Methods included questionnaires (200) and focus group discussions (eight). Respondents were often unable to name specific mental illnesses. Frequently mentioned symptoms of mental illness were talking nonsense, talking/laughing alone and wandering. Pressure/stress and studying/thinking too much were often identified causes. Most respondents showed a preference for medical treatment options, often in combination with family care. The results show that perceptions of mental health and help-seeking behaviour are influenced by a lack of knowledge and a mix of traditional and modern views.

  9. EU and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    during most of the period since the early 1990s, when aid flows from the EU started growing. Regarding trade relations, we note that the EU’s increasing use of antidumping tariffs against Vietnamese exporters during the past years could be an indication of a less friendly and more competitive attitude...... was limited to aid. The reason is largely Vietnam’s historical experiences from the aid relationship with the Soviet Union, which created dependence and eventually an economic crisis when aid flows dried up in the late 1980s. Instead, there has been substantial tension between the donor community and Vietnam...

  10. Implementing knowledge into practice for improved neonatal survival; a cluster-randomised, community-based trial in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huy Tran Q

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, almost 4 million newborns die during the first 4 weeks of life every year. By increased use of evidence-based knowledge in the healthcare system a large proportion of these neonatal deaths could be prevented. But there is a severe lack of knowledge on effective methods for successful implementation of evidence into practice, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Recent studies have demonstrated promising results with increased survival among both mothers and newborns using community-based approaches. In Vietnam evidence-based guidelines on reproductive health were launched in 2003 and revised in 2009. The overall objective of the current project is to evaluate if a facilitation intervention on the community level, with a problem-solving approach involving local representatives if the healthcare system and the community, results in improvements of neonatal health and survival. Methods/Design The study, which has been given the acronym NeoKIP (Neonatal Health - Knowledge Into Practice, took place in 8 districts composed by 90 communes in a province in northern Vietnam, where neonatal mortality rate was 24/1000 in 2005. A cluster randomised design was used, allocating clusters, as defined as a commune and its correponding Commune Health Center (CHC to either intervention or control arm. The facilitation intervention targeted staff at healthcare centres and key persons in the communes. The facilitator role was performed by lay women (Women's Union representatives using quality improvement techniques to initiate and sustain improvement processes targeting identified problem areas. The intervention has been running over 3 years and data were collected on the facilitation process, healthcare staff knowledge in neonatal care and their behaviour in clinical practice, and reproductive and perinatal health indicators. Primary outcome is neonatal mortality. Discussion The intervention is participatory and dynamic

  11. Exploring the influence of context in a community-based facilitation intervention focusing on neonatal health and survival in Vietnam: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Duc M; Bergström, Anna; Wallin, Lars; Bui, Ha T T; Eriksson, Leif; Eldh, Ann Catrine

    2015-08-22

    In the Neonatal health - Knowledge into Practice (NeoKIP) trial in Vietnam, local stakeholder groups, supported by trained laywomen acting as facilitators, promoted knowledge translation (KT) resulting in decreased neonatal mortality. In general, as well as in the community-based NeoKIP trial, there is a need to further understand how context influences KT interventions in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, the objective of this study was to explore the influence of context on the facilitation process in the NeoKIP intervention. A secondary content analysis was performed on 16 Focus Group Discussions with facilitators and participants of the stakeholder groups, applying an inductive approach to the content on context through naïve understanding and structured analysis. The three main-categories of context found to influence the facilitation process in the NeoKIP intervention were: (1) Support and collaboration of local authorities and other communal stakeholders; (2) Incentives to, and motivation of, participants; and (3) Low health care coverage and utilization. In particular, the role of local authorities in a KT intervention was recognized as important. Also, while project participants expected financial incentives, non-financial benefits such as individual learning were considered to balance the lack of reimbursement in the NeoKIP intervention. Further, project participants recognized the need to acknowledge the needs of disadvantaged groups. This study provides insight for further understanding of the influence of contextual aspects to improve effects of a KT intervention in Vietnam. We suggest that future KT interventions should apply strategies to improve local authorities' engagement, to identify and communicate non-financial incentives, and to make disadvantaged groups a priority. Further studies to evaluate the contextual aspects in KT interventions in LMICs are also needed.

  12. Benefits and Limitations of Text Messages to Stimulate Higher Learning Among Community Providers: Participants' Views of an mHealth Intervention to Support Continuing Medical Education in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Lora L; Larson Williams, Anna; Le, Bao Ngoc; Herman, Augusta R; Viet Nguyen, Ha; Albanese, Rebecca R; Xiong, Wenjun; Shobiye, Hezekiah Oa; Halim, Nafisa; Tran, Lien Thi Ngoc; McNabb, Marion; Hoang, Hai; Falconer, Ariel; Nguyen, Tam Thi Thanh; Gill, Christopher J

    2017-06-27

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2015 to evaluate a mobile continuing medical education (mCME) intervention that provided daily text messages to community-based physicians' assistants (CBPAs) in Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam. Although the intervention failed to improve medical knowledge over a 6-month period, a companion qualitative study provided insights on the views and experiences of intervention participants. We conducted focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) among participants randomized to receive text messages containing either simple medical facts or quiz questions. Trained interviewers collected data immediately following the conclusion of the trial in December 2015. Using semi-structured question guides, respondents were queried on their views of the intervention, positive and negative, and perceived impacts of the intervention. During analysis, after learning that the intervention had failed to increase knowledge among participants, we also examined reasons for lack of improvement in medical knowledge. All analyses were performed in NVivo using a thematic approach. A total of 70 CBPAs engaged in one of 8 FGDs or an IDI. One-half were men; average age among all respondents was 40 years. Most (81%) practiced in rural settings and most (51%) focused on general medicine. The mean length of work experience was 3 years. All respondents made positive comments about the intervention; convenience, relevance, and quick feedback (quiz format) were praised. Downsides encompassed lack of depth of information, weak interaction, technology challenges, and challenging/irrelevant messages. Respondents described perceived impacts encompassing increased motivation, knowledge, collegial discussions, Internet use to search for more information, and clinical skills. Overall, they expressed a desire for the intervention to continue and recommended expansion to other medical professionals. Overreliance on the text messages, lack of

  13. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  14. Coalition building by drug user and sex worker community-based organizations in Vietnam can lead to improved interactions with government agencies: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Leah T; Grau, Lauretta E; Nguyen, Huong H; Khuat, Oanh Hai T; Heimer, Robert

    2015-10-16

    Drug users and female sex workers are among the groups most vulnerable to HIV infection in Vietnam. To address the HIV epidemic within these communities, former drug users and sex workers established the first community-based organizations (CBOs) in 2009. The study provides a focused assessment of CBOs' expanding efforts to advocate for their members that identifies existing collaborations with Vietnamese government programs. This assessment explores the barriers to and facilitators of expansion in order to propose recommendations to improve the working relationship between CBOs and government programs. Thirty-two individuals from drug user and sex worker CBOs (n = 24) and relevant government programs (n = 8) participated in face-to-face interviews in Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, and Hai Phong. Coded interview transcripts were analyzed qualitatively concerning the purpose of CBOs, the interactions between CBOs and government programs, and the perceived barriers, facilitators, and feasibility of future CBO-government program collaborations. Services provided by the CBOs were considered to improve members' quality of life. The formation of coalitions among CBOs increased efficiency in meeting members' specific service needs, in addition to internal capacity building. Government field staff interacted with CBOs by providing CBOs with technical and legal support. CBOs and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics collaborated to help the clinics meet patient enrollment quotas and facilitate entry into treatment for CBO members. Barriers to CBO-government program collaboration included perceived conflicting missions on how to address drug use and sex work in the community, limited CBO-government program communication, CBO mistrust of the MMT system, and lack of legal status for CBOs. To reduce these barriers, we recommend (1) introduction of CBO consultative services at government healthcare centers, (2) enlistment of CBO outreach to ensure full access to the

  15. Assessing evidence for avian-to-human transmission of influenza A/H9N2 virus in rural farming communities in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, Le Nguyen Minh; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; My, Pham Ha; Huong, Tran Thi Kieu; Chi, Nguyen Thi Yen; Hau Thu, Trang Thi; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Duong, Mai Thuy; Tho, Nguyen Dang; Hoang, Nguyen Dang; Thanh, To Long; Diep, Nguyen Thi; Duong, Nguyen van; Toan, Tran Khanh; Tung, Trinh Son; Mai, Le Quynh; Iqbal, Munir; Wertheim, Heiman; van Doorn, H Rogier; Bryant, Juliet E; The Vizions Consortium

    2017-08-01

    Rural farming communities in northern Vietnam do not routinely practice vaccination for influenza A viruses (IAV) for either humans or poultry, which enables us to study transmission intensity via seroepidemiology. Using samples from a longitudinal cohort of farming households, we determined the number of symptomatic and asymptomatic human infections for seasonal IAV and avian A/H9 over 2 years. As expected, we detected virologically confirmed acute cases of seasonal IAV in humans, as well as large numbers of subclinical seroconversions to A/H1pdm [55/265 (21 %)], A/H3 [95/265 (36 %)] and A/H9 [24/265 (9 %)]. Five of the A/H9 human seroconverters likely represented true infections rather than heterosubtypic immunity, because the individuals seroconverted solely to A/H9. Among co-located poultry, we found significantly higher seroprevalance for A/H5 compared to A/H9 in both chickens and ducks [for northern study sites overall, 337/1105 (30.5 %) seropositive for A/H5 and 123/1105 (11.1 %) seropositive for A/H9].

  16. Decentralized forest governance in central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Nam, T.; Burgers, P.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in decentralized forest governance in Vietnam is developing a mechanism that would support both reforestation and poverty reduction among people in rural communities. To help address this challenge, Forest Land Allocation (FLA) policies recognize local communities and individuals

  17. Iconic Brand: its componential factors and impacts on brand community : A cross-cultural study in Sweden, Taiwan and Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Chun Tsen; Phuoc Luong, Le

    2012-01-01

    Iconic brand is a new topic in the field of branding that has started to attract researchers’ attentions; yet, it is still mostly discussed in the non-academic field. Brand community is also an evolving topic in marketing. These two new concepts are the focuses of this research. The main subject of this research is to explore the componential factors of iconic brand and brand community and the influences of the former ones on the latter ones. Even though there are few books and articles relat...

  18. Number and timing of antenatal HIV testing: Evidence from a community-based study in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanh, Nguyen Tt; Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    scaled up to reach first level health facilities. METHODS: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted among 1108 recently delivered mothers through face-to-face interviews following a structured questionnaire that focused on socio-economic characteristics, experiences of antenatal care and HIV...

  19. Control of aedes vectors of dengue in three provinces of Vietnam by use of Mesocyclops (Copepoda) and community-based methods validated by entomologic, clinical, and serological surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Brian H; Nam, Vu Sinh; Tien, Tran Van; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Phong, Tran Vu; Diep, Vu Thi Bich; Ninh, Truong Uyen; Bektas, Ahmet; Aaskov, John G

    2002-01-01

    We describe remarkable success in controlling dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), in 6 communes with 11,675 households and 49,647 people in the northern provinces of Haiphong, Hung Yen, and Nam Dinh in Vietnam. The communes were selected for high-frequency use of large outdoor concrete tanks and wells. These were found to be the source of 49.6-98.4% of Ae. aegypti larvae, which were amenable to treatment with local Mesocyclops, mainly M. woutersi Van der Velde, M. aspericornis (Daday) and M. thermocyclopoides Harada. Knowledge, attitude, and practice surveys were performed to determine whether the communities viewed dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever as a serious health threat; to determine their knowledge of the etiology, attitudes, and practices regarding control methods including Mesocyclops; and to determine their receptivity to various information methods. On the basis of the knowledge, attitude, and practice data, the community-based dengue control program comprised a system of local leaders, health volunteer teachers, and schoolchildren, supported by health professionals. Recycling of discards for economic gain was enhanced, where appropriate, and this, plus 37 clean-up campaigns, removed small containers unsuitable for Mesocyclops treatment. A previously successful eradication at Phan Boi village (Hung Yen province) was extended to 7 other villages forming Di Su commune (1,750 households) in the current study. Complete control was also achieved in Nghia Hiep (Hung Yen province) and in Xuan Phong (Nam Dinh province); control efficacy was > or = 99.7% in the other 3 communes (Lac Vien in Haiphong, Nghia Dong, and Xuan Kien in Nam Dinh). Although tanks and wells were the key container types of Ae. aegypti productivity, discarded materials were the source of 51% of the standing crop of Ae. albopictus. Aedes albopictus larvae were eliminated from the 3 Nam Dinh communes, and 86-98% control was achieved in the other 3 communes

  20. Doing Business in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Tran, Thi Thu Yen; Nguyen, Hung Vo

    2005-01-01

    still reflects inheritances from the central plan system, Vietnam today has a vibrant economy with small businesses springing up at every street corner. Foreign investors have been flogging to Vietnam since the early 1990s, with a new peak of FDI inflow in 2004. This paper reviews the Vietnamese economy...

  1. Ichthyofauna of the reservoirs of Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Stolbunov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, distribution and abundance of fish in the pelagic and littoral zone of four reservoirs of Central Vietnam (Suoi Chau, Kam Lam, Da Ban and Suoi Dau were studied first. According to the research data the fish community of the reservoirs is represented by 43 species of 19 fish families.

  2. Amphetamine-type stimulant use among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam : Results from a socio-ecological, community-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vu, Nga Thi Thu; Holt, Martin; Phan, Huong Thi Thu; Le, Huong Thi; La, Lan Thi; Tran, Gioi Minh; Doan, Tung Thanh; Nguyen, Trang Nhu Nguyen; de Wit, John

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Amphetamine-type-stimulants (ATS) use is associated with HIV-related sexual risk behaviours and is an emergent problem among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam. The purpose of this study is to describe ATS use patterns and understand the correlates of recent methamphetamine use

  3. Meanings of epilepsy in its sociocultural context and implications for stigma : Findings from ethnographic studies in local communities in China and Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacoby, A.; Wang, W.; Vu, T.D.; Wu, J.; Snape, D.; Aydemir, N.; Parr, J.; Reis, R.; Begley, C.; de Boer, H.; Prilipko, L.; Baker, G.

    We investigated beliefs about the causes, course, and treatment of epilepsy and its impact on quality of life (QOL) in key target groups, using “mini-ethnographies” involving 141 in-depth interviews and 12 focus groups in China, and 84 in-depth interviews and 16 focus groups in Vietnam. Data were

  4. The Role of Vietnam in The ASEAN Regional Security Cooperation: From Mechanism Construction to Dispute Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chunxia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the integration of ASEAN, Vietnam recognized that the strategic role of ASEAN is in its diplomacy. At the same time, to further improve the status in the region and in the international community, Vietnam has actively been participating in ASEAN affairs. Vietnam not only promoted the integration process of ASEAN, but also promoted the political security cooperation of ASEAN, in which Vietnam has advantages and wants to play a leading role. On the one hand, Vietnam promotes the construction of political security cooperation mechanisms, such as ARF, ADMM+, and so on; on the other hand, Vietnam took the South China Sea as a common concern, actively appeals for a common ASEAN position, to maximize its own benefit. Vietnam will further enhance and consolidate its status and role in ASEAN in the future.

  5. Vietnam Report No. 2415

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1982-01-01

    .... This report contains articles about Vietnam. Some topics include military affairs and public security, international relations, party activities and government, economic planning, trade and finance, agriculture, heavy industry and construction...

  6. Vietnam Report No. 2382

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1982-01-01

    .... This document contains articles on Vietnam. Some topics discussed are military affairs and public security, international relations, trade, aid, economic planning, trade and finance, agriculture, heavy industry, construction, transportation...

  7. Census in North Vietnam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1960-01-01

    This population census decree aims at collecting the most fundamental and accurate data on the population situation of North Vietnam to lay the foundation for all plans and public administration policies...

  8. Physics in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, Monica Pepe

    1994-01-01

    Vietnam is a country in rapid evolution, opening up communications with the rest of world and encouraging foreign investors. Although there is more ground to make up, the heady mixture of communism and free market they are aiming for is along the same lines as China. Jean Tran Thanh Van , who left Vietnam about forty years ago, judged that it was the right time to bring together Western and Vietnamese physicists. He promoted and organized the ''Rencontres du Vietnam'' on high energy physics and cosmology, which from December 13-18 brought together about one hundred physicists, half from Vietnam and half from abroad, in Hanoi for an intense programme to review the status of particle physics and its deep implications for cosmology

  9. Physics in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altarelli, Monica Pepe

    1994-03-15

    Vietnam is a country in rapid evolution, opening up communications with the rest of world and encouraging foreign investors. Although there is more ground to make up, the heady mixture of communism and free market they are aiming for is along the same lines as China. Jean Tran Thanh Van , who left Vietnam about forty years ago, judged that it was the right time to bring together Western and Vietnamese physicists. He promoted and organized the ''Rencontres du Vietnam'' on high energy physics and cosmology, which from December 13-18 brought together about one hundred physicists, half from Vietnam and half from abroad, in Hanoi for an intense programme to review the status of particle physics and its deep implications for cosmology.

  10. Vietnam Report 2014

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Vudddn

    entrepreneurship and business development, we believe that GEM Vietnam .... indicators have the highest levels: the dynamics of the domestic market ...... either by selling, shutting down or otherwise discontinuing an owner/management.

  11. On nuclear manpower development in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phung Van Duan

    2007-01-01

    Vietnam began to be interested in education and training on nuclear sciences and related subjects since the early 1960's. A department of Nuclear Physics and Engineering was established in 1970 at the Hanoi University of Technology (HUT), which is the biggest interdisciplinary technological education centre of the country. In Vietnam there are several institutions where exist programmes of education on nuclear sciences and nuclear engineering. But HUT has been being since 1970 the only institution that has underway programme of education on nuclear engineer degree. Although the Department was renamed and its education programme was adjusted, but the objectives of its education programme have been being followed without changes. These objectives are as follows: 1) To develop peaceful applications of atomic energy in Vietnam; 2) To train up engineers on nuclear instrumentation for supporting the first objective; and 3) To prepare initial manpower for introduction of Nuclear Power in Vietnam. Nuclear community of Vietnam is still not so large. Total number of its members increased until 1986, and then decreases up to now. Present average age of members of the community is of 45. In 15 coming years at least 500-700 young people must be educated on programmes on nuclear engineer degree and on nuclear bachelor degree. This is a very difficult task for a developing country such as Vietnam. From a point of view of development, the above-mentioned number is too small, and it must be much more. This makes the task much more difficult. In addition, education on nuclear engineering in the country at present is in a hard situation because of lacking in experienced people, as well as in teaching material and equipment, and, because of weakness of the education programme. So, it may be impossible to achieve success in realization of the task without a large and effective international cooperation in education on nuclear science and engineering. That is why the Asian Network for

  12. Diabetes in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khue, Nguyen Thy

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence for diabetes, prediabetes, and gestational diabetes in Vietnam are low relative to other parts of the world, but they are increasing at alarming rates. These changes have occurred in the setting of economic and cultural transitions. The aim of this study was to provide relevant information depicting the diabetes burden in Vietnam. Literature was reviewed using PubMed and local Vietnamese sources, including papers published in the Vietnamese language. In 2012, the prevalence of diabetes was 5.4% and prediabetes 13.7%. In 2005, the prevalence of obesity was 1.7%. There is a dual burden of over- and undernutrition observed in Vietnam. Diabetes is associated with an increased waist-to-hip ratio despite normal body mass index. Nutritional transitions occurred with increased protein, fat, and fast foods, and with decreased fresh fruits and vegetables. Tobacco use is very high in Vietnam with 66% of adult men currently smoking. Challenges include endocrinology training, health care coverage, patient education, and lack of coordination among government and specialist agencies. Diabetes is a growing problem in Vietnam and is associated with obesity, changes in dietary patterns, and other cultural transitions. More research is needed to better understand this health care problem and to devise targeted interventions. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. IDRC in Vietnam

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    credible links to policymakers and development practitioners. VERN research findings appear in the coun- try's Human Development Report and its results informed trade policy, includ- ing preparation for Vietnam's accession to the World Trade Organization. Better use of resources. IDRC support since the early 1990s has.

  14. Climate Change and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    suggests, such action may come at a cost against competing priorities like modernization and economic development. In that context, it bears inquiring...program including India, 29 Rajaram Panda , “Vietnam and the World: Focus on the U.S. and India

  15. Community-based intervention for depression management at the primary care level in Ha Nam Province, Vietnam: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Maria; Kiel, Simone; Allebeck, Peter; Hoan, Le Thi

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention including psychoeducation and yoga for depression management at the primary healthcare level in one district in the Hà Nam province, Vietnam. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was used for depression screening and follow-up. Screened patients were further diagnosed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Diagnostic Interview, by a trained general doctor. A linear regression model, adjusted for age, gender and baseline PHQ-9 score was used to assess whether the intervention leads to decreased depression severity compared to standard care in the control communes. Both groups had similar PHQ-9 scores at baseline. The intervention group had on average significantly lower PHQ-9 scores after the intervention than the control group. Almost half of the patients in the intervention group recovered from depression, whereas nobody did in the control group. The results indicate that the intervention can be more effective than standard care in treating depression. The mean change of the PHQ-9 score after the intervention is deemed to be of clinical relevance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Vietnam War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, James; Larsen, Chris Holmsted; Rasmussen, Søren Hein

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the role of the Vietnam War in Danish and Norwegian politics. We argue that Danish and Norwegian membership in NATO and an unstable parliamentary situation may explain why these countries, unlike Sweden, did not take on the lead in the international protest against the war....... Non-socialistic coalitions came to power in Norway and Denmark in the latter half of the 1960s which to an extent explains why the social democratic parties in both countries became more critical of the US. By the end of the 1960s, foreign policy as well as public attitudes towards the war converged...... in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and in all three countries powerful protest movements emerged that were remarkably similar. The Vietnam War strengthened the left in general and promoted a leftist politics of solidarity that influenced Swedish, Danish and Norwegian foreign policy-making of the 1970s....

  17. Vietnam seeks help expanding voluntary surgical contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piet-pelon, N J; Sukop, S

    1992-07-01

    Recent surveys by the Vietnamese Ministry of Health suggest that 60% of married women desire no more children. Yet only 2% of currently married women and less than 1/2 of 1% of their partners use sterilization. Underscoring the high unmet need for effective family planning, over 1 million abortions (legal in Vietnam for the past 20 years) are performed annually. This rate corresponds to 1 abortion for every live birth. The Ministry of Health has recently welcomed a variety of organizations, including AVSC, whose assistance can help expand the country's family planning programs. Sorely lacking in supplies, equipment, and trained personnel, Vietnam has merited priority status--2nd only to China and India--from the UNFPA, which has committed $36 million over the next 4 years. Other organizations currently working in Vietnam include the Population Council, the Population Crisis Committee, and the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Despite enormous casualties during the war years, and a decrease since the 1970s in average family size from 6 to 4 children, the population of Vietnam has continued to grow rapidly, far outpacing economic growth. Currently 67 million, the population is expected to reach 80 million by the year 2000. The average Vietnamese annual income is only $195, among the lowest in the world. Doi moi, the process of economic reform begun in 1986, coupled with new government incentives for families who have no more than 2 children, is changing the face of family planning in Vietnam. Newly opened pharmacies sell imported birth control pills and condoms (to those who can afford them), while government hospitals and health clinics provide mainly IUDs, in addition to limited supplies of pills and condoms. Throughout the country, some 8000 community-level health centers are staffed by nurse-midwives trained in family planning. Voluntary sterilization is available at the district, provincial, and national hospitals. All married women may obtain family

  18. Exploring Vietnam's oil potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review is given of the oil production potential in Vietnam. Since Since 1987, the country has been open to foreign investment in offshore exploration but has suffered from a US embargo on trade and economic ties. Nevertheless some exploration has occurred and twenty production sharing contracts with international oil companies has been signed. To date most of the finds have been non-commercial but optimism remains high. (U.K.)

  19. Developing School Psychology in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Phuong; Hagans, Kristi; Powers, Kristin; Hass, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Like China, Vietnam is a communist country with increasingly capitalist economic policies. A fundamental change occurred in these policies with the enactment of Vietnam's "doi moi" (renovation) policy in 1986 that called for a "free market with socialist orientations." However, this economic modernization has inadvertently…

  20. Demystifying Poverty Measurement in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Demombynes, Gabriel; Hoang Vu, Linh

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of poverty measurement issues in Vietnam for the non-specialist. Vietnam has two main approaches to measuring poverty. An income-based approach is used by the Ministry of Labor, Invalids, and Social Affairs to generate a classification used for determining anti-poverty program eligibility as well as poverty monitoring over the short term. A separate consumpt...

  1. Rural Roads and Local Market Development in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Mu, Ren; van de Walle, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    The authors assess impacts of rural road rehabilitation on market development at the commune level in rural Vietnam and examine the variance of those impacts and the geographic, community, and household factors that explains it. Double difference and matching methods are used to address sources of selection bias in identifying impacts. The results point to significant average impacts on the ...

  2. A new alpheid shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Alpheidae) from South Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyên Van Xuân,

    2001-01-01

    A new alpheid shrimp, Thuylamea camelus gen. nov. & spec. nov., from Dong Hoa, a coastal community of Can Gio district, and northwest of Vung Tau (Cap St. Jacques), Vietnam, is described and illustrated. The new genus appears not to be closely related to any of the previously described genera. It

  3. The Lessons of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M., Ed.

    This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…

  4. Developing adaptive capacity in times of climate change in central rural Vietnam: exploring smallholders’ learning and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, Thi Hong Phuong

    2017-01-01

    Climate change already affects Vietnam in virtually all sectors. Agriculture in small communities is particularly vulnerable to current and projected climate change impacts. Many of the smallholder farmers in Vietnam have limited adaptive capacity to deal with these impacts. Increasingly social

  5. Armor in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    battles a-Riuot the insurgent enemy, especially with armor. French contingents were present in Tndo Chinh P-w early as 1852, but it was not until 1884...committed to Vietnam were straight infantry. These troons er•A tran -norted in hn4±{ copters and usually airlifted to the battle zone; however, once...0STAINf0 FROM VKTNAM NATIONAL MAP SERVICE (NOS) PHU-YEN OCTOBER 19665 OARLAC ......... KKAN1+ HOA QLWA- DUC TUYEN- DUC PHUOC- NINH_ C;ry OF -10 T CAM RANK TAY

  6. Rural Credit in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders, but formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation. Interest rates fell from 1997...... to 2002, reflecting increased market integration; but the determinants of formal and informal credit demand are distinct. Credit rationing depends on education and credit history, but we find no evidence of a bias against women. Regional differences are striking, and a ‘one size fits all’ approach...... to credit policy is clearly inappropriate....

  7. Pharmacy Education in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedouch, Pierrick; Nguyen, Thi-Hoai; Nguyen, Thi-Lien-Huong; Hoang, Thi-Kim-Huyen; Calop, Jean; Allenet, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacy education programs in Vietnam are complex and offer various career pathways. All include theory and laboratory modules in general, foundation, and pharmaceutical knowledge; placements in health facilities; and a final examination. The various pharmacy degree programs allow specialization in 1 or more of 5 main fields: (1) drug management and supply, (2) drug development and production, (3) pharmacology and clinical pharmacy, (4) traditional medicine and pharmacognosy, and (5) drug quality control, which are offered as main specialization options during the reformed undergraduate and postgraduate programs. However, pharmacy education in Vietnam in general remains product oriented and clinical pharmacy training has not received adequate attention. Only students who have obtained the bachelor of pharmacy degree, which requires a minimum of 5 years of study, are considered as fully qualified pharmacists. In contrast, an elementary diploma in pharmacy awarded after 1 year of pharmacy study permits entry into more junior pharmacy positions. Since the 2000s, there has been a surge in the number and types of schools offering pharmacy qualifications at various levels. PMID:23966717

  8. Vietnam; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This paper assesses the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper of Vietnam, known as the Comprehensive Poverty Reduction and Growth Strategy (CPRGS). It is an action program to achieve economic growth and poverty reduction objectives. This paper reviews the objectives and tasks of socio-economic development and poverty reduction. The government of Vietnam takes poverty reduction as a cutting-through objective in the process of country socio-economic development and declares its commitment to impleme...

  9. Periods of child growth up to age 8 years in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam: Key distal household and community factors

    OpenAIRE

    Schott, Whitney B.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; Lundeen, Elizabeth A.; Stein, Aryeh D.; Behrman, Jere R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated some growth recovery among children stunted in infancy. Less is known about key age ranges for such growth recovery, and what factors are correlates with this growth. This study characterized child growth up to age 1 year, and from ages 1 to 5 and 5 to 8 years controlling for initial height-for-age z-score (HAZ), and identified key distal household and community factors associated with these growth measures using longitudinal data on 7,266 children in the Youn...

  10. Profile of Vietnam War Veterans (2015).

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Profile of Vietnam War Veterans uses the 2015 ACS to provide a view into the demographic characteristics and socioeconomic conditions of the Vietnam War Veteran...

  11. Study on nuclear power introduction into Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuong Huu Tan

    2000-01-01

    The report presents main results of the study on nuclear power introduction into Vietnam which have been carried out at Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission in collaboration with Ministry of Industry of Vietnam and other countries like Japan, Canada and Korea. The study covers all topics related to the nuclear power introduction into Vietnam such as electricity demands and supply, economics, finance, technology, safety, manpower, site selection etc. (author)

  12. 77 FR 20273 - Vietnam Veterans Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... showing a generation of veterans the respect and support of a grateful Nation. The Vietnam War is a story... with honor, and on March 29, 1973, the last of our troops left Vietnam. Yet, in one of the war's most... commemorate the 50-year anniversary of the Vietnam War. [[Page 20276

  13. PERAN DIPLOMASI BUDAYA DALAM MEWUJUDKAN KOMUNITAS SOSIAL-BUDAYA ASEAN: KASUS VIETNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Kim Hoang Ha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the era of globalization and international integration, international relationships is an integral part in foreign policy. So that the foreign policy conducted well, all countries must implement diplomacy. Cultural diplomacy is not only the application, the empowering culture to improve the behavior of diplomacy, but also the diplomacy using to respect and preserve the culture. The reality and the implementation of the Vietnam government and Party in recent years will mostly contribute to answer it. From here, the importance of cultural diplomacy in the process of establishing ASEAN Community 2015 will be seen as well. Cultural diplomacy not only improves the position and the authority of Vietnam in the international arena, but also strengthens the relations with other countries and contributes to the formation of ASEAN Social-Cultural Community in particularly and ASEAN Community 2015 in general. Keywords: Vietnam, cultural diplomacy, ASEAN Social-Cultural Community

  14. A systematic review of taeniasis, cysticercosis and trichinellosis in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ng-Nguyen, Dinh; Stevenson, Mark A.; Traub, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    Taeniasis, cysticercosis and trichinellosis have been ranked as the most important food-borne parasites of humans in terms of public health, socioeconomic and trade impact. Despite this, information on these food-borne zoonoses in Vietnam is scarce and fragmented, and many local reports remain inaccessible to the international research community. This study aims to conduct comprehensive literature searches to report on the incidence and estimate the true prevalence of taeniasis in humans and ...

  15. Opportunities for Partnership in the Pacific Rim: Reflections on a Visit to Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Abel B., Jr.

    Community colleges are poised to play a vital role in Vietnam and other Pacific Rim nations currently seeking to develop their business sectors and economies. Projects and partnerships with U.S. community colleges are currently in progress in India, Malaysia, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Korea. In addition, the Vietnamese Ministry of Education and…

  16. Models to Predict the Burden of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in a Rural Mountainous Region of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Thi Phuong Lan; Schuiling-Veninga, Nynke; Nguyen, Thi Bach Yen; Hang, Vu Thi Thu; Wright, E. Pamela; Postma, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare and identify the most appropriate model to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a rural area in Northern Vietnam, using data on hypertension from the communities. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted including all residents in selected communities, aged 34 to 65

  17. Public Opinion on Long Island about the Vietnam War: A School Year Project Using Local Sources and Perspectives in the Classroom and in Student Research Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Charles

    2004-01-01

    A school-year research experiment using primary resources to teach an important national issue--protest movements against the Vietnam War at the local level--is an excellent way to motivate students and energize classroom teaching. Every local community in America has its own story to tell about the war in Vietnam. Whether it is about a local son…

  18. CASE STUDY: Vietnam — Information brings progress to Vietnam's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The WUNB is the provincial branch of the Vietnam Women's Union, a unique country-wide ... It also serves to monitor and evaluate their performance. ... Vu Thi Tan explains, detailed information is needed for the union to carry out its work.

  19. Mental health priorities in Vietnam: a mixed-methods analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemi Maria

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mental Health Country Profile is a tool that was generated by the International Mental Health Policy and Services Project to inform policy makers, professionals and other key stakeholders about important issues which need to be considered in mental health policy development. The Mental Health Country Profile contains four domains, which include the mental health context, resources, provision and outcomes. We have aimed to generate a Mental Health Country Profile for Vietnam, in order to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the Vietnamese mental health situation, in order to inform future reform efforts and decision-making. Methods This study used snowball sampling to identify informants for generating a Mental Health Country Profile for Vietnam, and the data gathering was done through semi-structured interviews and collection of relevant reports and documents. The material from the interviews and documents was analysed according to qualitative content analysis. Results Marked strengths of the Vietnam mental health system are the aims to move toward community management and detection of mental illness, and the active involvement of several multilateral organizations and NGOs. However, there are a number of shortages still found, including the lack of treatment interventions apart from medications, the high proportion of treatments to be paid out-of-pocket, prominence of large tertiary psychiatric hospitals, and a lack of preventative measures or mental health information to the public. Conclusions At the end of this decade, mental health care in Vietnam is still characterised by unclear policy and poor critical mass especially within the governmental sector. This initial attempt to map the mental health situation of Vietnam suffers from a number of limitations and should be seen as a first step towards a comprehensive profile.

  20. A systematic review of taeniasis, cysticercosis and trichinellosis in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng-Nguyen, Dinh; Stevenson, Mark A; Traub, Rebecca J

    2017-03-21

    Taeniasis, cysticercosis and trichinellosis have been ranked as the most important food-borne parasites of humans in terms of public health, socioeconomic and trade impact. Despite this, information on these food-borne zoonoses in Vietnam is scarce and fragmented, and many local reports remain inaccessible to the international research community. This study aims to conduct comprehensive literature searches to report on the incidence and estimate the true prevalence of taeniasis in humans and T. solium cysticercosis in humans and pigs in Vietnam utilizing Bayesian models; in addition, to report the incidence and the distribution of trichinellosis. A Bayesian approach was used to estimate the true prevalence of taeniasis and cysticercosis based on published diagnostic test characteristics used in each published cross-sectional survey. The utilization of coproscopic-based examination of Taenia eggs in stool, although highly specific for genus-level detection, has poor sensitivity and led to an underestimation of the prevalence of human taeniasis. Similarly, post-mortem-based surveys of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs also led to the underestimation of prevalence of porcine cysticercosis. On the other hand, the low specificity of immunodiagnostic methods, in particular Ab-ELISA, led to a likely overestimation of T. solium cysticercosis in humans. Due to the use of imperfect diagnosis tests combined with poor descriptions of sampling methods, our ability to draw solid conclusions from these data is limited. We estimate that the true prevalence of taeniasis and T. solium cysticercosis in rural 'hotspots', is as high as 13% for each, in humans. Taeniasis and T. solium cysticercosis occurs in 60 of the 63 provinces of Vietnam. Most of the information relating to the distribution and prevalence of porcine cysticercosis is limited to commercial abattoir surveys. In Vietnam, Taenia asiatica appears to be confined to the north where it occurs sympatrically with T. solium and

  1. The medical libraries of Vietnam--a service in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennen, P W

    1992-07-01

    The medical libraries of Vietnam maintain high profiles within their institutions and are recognized by health care professionals and administrators as an important part of the health care system. Despite the multitude of problems in providing even a minimal level of medical library services, librarians, clinicians, and researchers nevertheless are determined that enhanced services be made available. Currently, services can be described as basic and unsophisticated, yet viable and surprisingly well organized. The lack of hard western currency required to buy materials and the lack of library technology will be major obstacles to improving information services. Vietnam, like many developing nations, is about to enter a period of technological upheaval, which ultimately will result in a transition from the traditional library limited by walls to a national resource that will rely increasingly on electronic access to international knowledge networks. Technology such as CD-ROM, Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), and satellite telecommunication networks such as Internet can provide the technical backbone to provide access to remote and widely distributed electronic databases to support the information needs of the health care community. Over the long term, access to such databases likely will be cost-effective, in contrast to the assuredly astronomical cost of building a comparable domestic print collection. The advent of new, low-cost electronic technologies probably will revolutionize health care information services in developing nations. However, for the immediate future, the medical libraries of Vietnam will require ongoing sustained support from the international community, so that minimal levels of resources will be available to support the information needs of the health care community. It is remarkable, and a credit to the determination of Vietnam's librarians that, in a country with a legacy of war, economic deprivation, and international isolation

  2. The Vietnam Experience in Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurse, Ronald J.; Fleming, Dan B.

    1982-01-01

    Ten recent editions of secondary school-level United States history textbooks were analyzed to determine coverage and balance of the Vietnam War. Treatment of topics such as Vietnamese culture, the roles of wartime leaders, the aims of the United States government, the antiwar movement, and costs of the war are discussed. (PP)

  3. Greening textile industry in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Thi Phuong, L.

    2011-01-01

    The textile and garment industry has made a remarkable contribution to the economic development of Vietnam and employs currently a large labor force of 2.5 million people.However, the textile industry is also seen as a most polluting and unsustainable industry due to the use of

  4. From Combat to Legacies: Novels of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses novels of the Vietnam War, their usefulness, and the interest they hold for students. Considers four categories of Vietnam novels: the Vietnam experience, the war at home, the refugee experience, and the war's effect on the next generation. (SR)

  5. HIV Prevention, Stigma, and Care in Ho Chi Minh City and Da Lat Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Rosanna F; Cao, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    A four-week interdisciplinary student/faculty research project in Vietnam served as a focused experience in understanding Vietnamese healthcare structures, functions, outcomes. Testing the validity and feasibility of a successful US HIV intervention program called Women's Voices Women's Lives© using group and individual interviews. Healthcare inequities and poverty were found to paralyze individual, family, and community mobilization in HIV testing while stigma is a key barrier to both testing and care seeking. Vietnam has become a place where living with HIV infection challenges communities in a distinct socio-cultural context while incidence and prevalence rates continue to rise.

  6. Mineral resources of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kušnír Imrich

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam je bohatý na nerastné suroviny, ktoré sa nachádzajú prevažne na severe krajiny. Ložiská bauxitov, fosfátov, vzácnych zemín (REE, majú svetový význam. Ale i zásoby celého radu ïalších surovín (ropy, uhlia, zlata, železných rúd, chromitu, cínu, ilmenitu, medi, grafitu, atï. sú významné, ekonomicky ažite¾né a ich potenciál je obrovský. Za uvedené nerastné bohatstvo je „zodpovednᓠrozmanitá geologická stavba krajiny. Taktiež i morfológia a klíma (vlhká, tropická prispeli ku vytvoreniu niektorých ložísk (bauxity v krasových priehlbniach, atï.. Súèasná produkcia, okrem ropy (3,5 Mt/rok, zahròuje: 10,7 Mt uhlia, 3,5 Mt chromitu, asi 1 000 kg zlata, grafitu, kaolínu a mnohé iné minerály. Napriek tomu, je banícky priemysel v porovnaní so surovinovou základòou slabo vyvinutý. K jeho rozvoju urèite prispeje i úèas zahranièných spoloèností, odnedávna prítomných pri prieskume a ažbe surovín urèených pre export. Okrem struèného úvodu do geológie krajiny, obsahuje tento èlánok krátky popis nerastného bohatstva Vietnamu.

  7. Hygiene and sanitation among ethnic minorities in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Improving sanitation and hygiene to prevent infectious diseases is of high priority in developing countries. This study attempts to gain in-depth understanding of hygiene and sanitation perceptions and practices among four Ethnic Minority Groups (EMGs) in a rural area of northern Vietnam. It is b......-based hygiene promotion is also recommended to curb dependency and spark initiatives in ethnic minority communities. Finally, interventions should focus on hygiene "software"--promoting hygiene behaviour changes known to effectively prevent hygiene related diseases.......Improving sanitation and hygiene to prevent infectious diseases is of high priority in developing countries. This study attempts to gain in-depth understanding of hygiene and sanitation perceptions and practices among four Ethnic Minority Groups (EMGs) in a rural area of northern Vietnam...

  8. Infrastructure investments in developing economies the case of Vietnam

    CERN Document Server

    Dang, Giang

    2015-01-01

    This book aims to provide knowledge on how infrastructure is planned and built in a typical developing country, and what key variables are there in the system limiting the efficient use of public investments in infrastructure. The book begins with a comprehensive literature review on construction and economic development, and trade and economic development. The focus of the book is on the case of Vietnam, with lessons drawn for other developing economies. The book employs the mixed use of data to provide a stronger basis for analysis and interpretation of related government policies. Based on the research findings, the book recommends significant capacity building work for Vietnam to develop capacities that would remove constraints on the efficient use of public investments in infrastructure. The general principles of significant capacity building work which are useful for policy implications are introduced in the book. Analysts, academics, public and private communities in developing countries can adopt the ...

  9. The United States and Vietnam Relationship: Benefits and Challenges for Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    the current stage in their bilateral relations. The U.S.-Vietnam relationship has been increasingly cemented in the context of the contemporary...reach the current stage in their bilateral relations. The U.S.-Vietnam relationship has been increasingly cemented in the context of the contemporary...Major Exports to Vietnam aircraft, mining equipment, electronic machinery, steel wire, raw cotton, plastics Source: Mark E. Manyin, The Vietnam

  10. Building Connections While Conducting Qualitative Health Fieldwork in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L. Boggiano

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Researchers are increasingly embarking on international qualitative health research projects, where unknown social structures and government systems make inquiry uniquely challenging. In this article, we document our experiences conducting two related studies on HIV/AIDS in Northern Vietnam. We describe how our research relied on harnessing the social capital of vital community stakeholders, such as key informants, interpreters, and host organizations, to effectively engage with government bodies on a macro level and with local communities on a microlevel. By highlighting our processes, pitfalls, and successes, we provide current and future scholars with strategies to use when conducting cross-national field research.

  11. Training human resource for NPP in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Trung Tinh; Dam, Xuan Hiep

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam will establish the first NPP in the near future. With us the first important thing is the human resource, but now there is no university in Vietnam training nuclear engineers. In EPU (Electric Power University), now we are preparing for training nuclear engineers. In this paper, we review the nuclear man power and the way to train the high quality human resource for NPP and for other nuclear application in Vietnam. (author)

  12. Vietnam and the regional crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masina, Pietro Paolo

    2002-01-01

    inflows, should be understood in the broader frame of regional contingencies, and not be simplistically explained as investors' discontent (i.e., in order to pressure Vietnamese authorities into implementing a more orthodox neo-liberal agenda). And in a post-crisis regional economic reorganisation...... that Vietnam can successfully exploit market niches opened up by postcrisis regional economic reorganisation, thus offering some optimism for the country's immediate economic future....

  13. Motorcycle helmets in Vietnam: ownership, quality, purchase price, and affordability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Dang Viet; Stevenson, Mark R; Ivers, Rebecca Q

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated motorcycle helmet ownership, quality, purchase price, and affordability in Vietnam. A random sample of motorcyclists was interviewed to investigate aspects of helmet ownership, the purchase price, and affordability of a motorcycle helmet. Multivariate modeling conducted to determine factors associated with the purchase price and affordability of motorcycle helmets. Helmet quality was assessed based on current legal requirements in Vietnam. The prevalence of helmet use in Vietnam remains low (23.3%) despite a high level of helmet ownership (94%), indicating that this is an important area for public health intervention. Overall the quality of helmets appeared to be good; however, few helmets displayed legally required information. Motorcyclists with a high income purchase more helmets for their household rather than more expensive helmets. To ensure that helmets are accessible to the community, policy-makers need to consider pricing motorcycle helmets at a price indicated by the results of this study. Prior to universal motorcycle helmet legislation, the government will also need to ensure that standard helmets are available and that enforcement is at a level to ensure that motorcycle helmets are actually used.

  14. Challenges for municipal solid waste management practices in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Duc Luong

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste (MSW management is currently one of the major environmental problems facing by Vietnam. Improper management of MSW has caused adverse impacts on the environment, community health, and social-economic development. This study attempts to provide a review of the generation and characterization, disposal and treatment technologies of MSW to evaluate the current status and identify the problems of MSW management practices in Vietnam. Finally, this study is concluded with fruitful recommendations which may be useful in encouraging the responsible agencies to work towards the further improvement of the existing MSW management system.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.17-21Citation:  Luong, N.D., Giang, H.M., Thanh, B.X. and Hung, N.T.  2013. Challenges for municipal solid waste management practices in Vietnam. Waste Technology 1(1:6-9.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.17-21

  15. Experimental nuclear physics in Vietnam - recent status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thanh Minh

    1995-01-01

    Status of research works on experimental nuclear physics in Vietnam is reviewed. Vietnam institutions and main instruments for nuclear research are listed. The results on physics and technology of nuclear reactor, neutron physics, nuclear reactions, radiological safety are mentioned. (N.H.A). 6 tabs, 4 figs

  16. Perspectives on the Teaching of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, David M.

    1986-01-01

    Too often seen through the lens of the United States experience in the Vietnam War, this article offers an alternative approach to teaching Vietnam through the development of a cultural and historical perspective. Provides a brief summary of literature on Vietnamese cultural history which is appropriate to high school students. (JDH)

  17. Teaching the Vietnam War: A Sociological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, because of its importance in modern U.S. history, over 300 college courses are taught on the Vietnam War. Asserts that studying the war helps students develop critical thinking skills needed for citizenship. Describes the texts, formats, and assignments used in a college sociology course on the Vietnam War. (CFR)

  18. Integrated agriculture-aquaculture systems in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: an analysis of recent trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh Phong, Le; Udo, H.M.J.; Mensvoort, van M.E.F.; Bosma, R.H.; Quang Tri, Le; Nhan, D.K.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2008-01-01

    In order to explain the trends in the development and farm attributes of Integrated Agriculture-Aquaculture (IAA) systems in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, a participatory community appraisal and two surveys are carried out in three districts with contrasting fish culture input systems. The first

  19. 45 CFR 506.10 - “Vietnam conflict” defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 506.10 “Vietnam conflict” defined. Vietnam conflict refers to the period beginning February 28, 1961... “Vietnam conflict” for purposes of payment of interest on missing military service members' deposits in the... ending date for the Vietnam conflict for purposes of determining eligibility for compensation under 50 U...

  20. Current situation of radiation protection in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Toan Ngoc

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam was one of the earliest countries, who applied ionizing radiation in medicine, since 1923, Dr. Marie Curie had supplied radium sources to Hanoi cancer hospital for radiotherapy. However, we did not give sufficient attention to radiation protection involving, e.g. technology, legislation, until 1980s. Recently with the strong support from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Vietnam government nuclear technology has been strongly and widely developed in different branches and radiation protection situation in Vietnam has been improved step by step. Strategy for Peaceful Utilization of Atomic Energy up to 2020 approved by the prime minister on January 3th, 2006 confirms that nuclear power plant will be put in operation by 2020. To ensure the implementation of the strategy, the first priority should be given to radiation protection and nuclear safety. This paper presents shortly some activities of radiation safety in Vietnam. The requirements for developing this field in Vietnam are also discussed. (author)

  1. A Probabilistic Typhoon Risk Model for Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseemkunju, A.; Smith, D. F.; Brolley, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Annually, the coastal Provinces of low-lying Mekong River delta region in the southwest to the Red River Delta region in Northern Vietnam is exposed to severe wind and flood risk from landfalling typhoons. On average, about two to three tropical cyclones with a maximum sustained wind speed of >=34 knots make landfall along the Vietnam coast. Recently, Typhoon Wutip (2013) crossed Central Vietnam as a category 2 typhoon causing significant damage to properties. As tropical cyclone risk is expected to increase with increase in exposure and population growth along the coastal Provinces of Vietnam, insurance/reinsurance, and capital markets need a comprehensive probabilistic model to assess typhoon risk in Vietnam. In 2017, CoreLogic has expanded the geographical coverage of its basin-wide Western North Pacific probabilistic typhoon risk model to estimate the economic and insured losses from landfalling and by-passing tropical cyclones in Vietnam. The updated model is based on 71 years (1945-2015) of typhoon best-track data and 10,000 years of a basin-wide simulated stochastic tracks covering eight countries including Vietnam. The model is capable of estimating damage from wind, storm surge and rainfall flooding using vulnerability models, which relate typhoon hazard to building damageability. The hazard and loss models are validated against past historical typhoons affecting Vietnam. Notable typhoons causing significant damage in Vietnam are Lola (1993), Frankie (1996), Xangsane (2006), and Ketsana (2009). The central and northern coastal provinces of Vietnam are more vulnerable to wind and flood hazard, while typhoon risk in the southern provinces are relatively low.

  2. Development of Secure and Sustainable Nuclear Infrastructure in Emerging Nuclear Nations Such as Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipwash, Jacqueline L; Kovacic, Donald N

    2008-01-01

    The global expansion of nuclear energy will require international cooperation to ensure that nuclear materials, facilities, and sensitive technologies are not diverted to non-peaceful uses. Developing countries will require assistance to ensure the effective regulation, management, and operation of their nuclear programs to achieve best practices in nuclear nonproliferation. A developing nation has many hurdles to pass before it can give assurances to the international community that it is capable of implementing a sustainable nuclear energy program. In August of this year, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam signed an arrangement for Information Exchange and Cooperation on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. This event signals an era of cooperation between the U.S. and Vietnam in the area of nuclear nonproliferation. This paper will address how DOE is supporting the development of secure and sustainable infrastructures in emerging nuclear nations such as Vietnam

  3. Experimental studies of solar heat pipe used to operate absorption chiller in conditions of Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiep, Le Chi [Ho Chi Minh City Univ. of Tech., Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Quoc, Hoang An [Ho Chi Minh City Univ. of Tech. Education, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Hung, Hoang Duong [Danang Univ. of Tech., Danang City (Viet Nam)

    2008-07-01

    Several models of solar heat pipe have been fabricated and tested. The experiments show that the flat plate model could be used to operate absorption chiller in the climate of southern part of Vietnam. Two main advantages of the selected solar heat pipe are low cost and easy fabrication at local conditions. It is expected that the selected solar heat pipe could attract attention of the community to develop the application of solar energy in Vietnam. Based on the current demand, the paper presents the experimental studies of the first generation of low cost solar heat pipe. The paper also discusses the ability of application of solar air conditioning in Vietnam and recommends the suitable diagram mixing solar energy with other heat source to operate stably the system. (orig.)

  4. Master plan envisions multi-billion-dollar expansion of Vietnam's electricity monopoly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    Massive investment in Vietnam's electricity monopoly by Western aid and export credit agencies form part of the ten-year master plan developed for Vietnam. Central planning and political patronage, instead of market assessments and customer choice form the basis for monopoly investments in a centralized grid linking big hydro, gas, coal, and nuclear power projects. Western aid agencies might effectively crowd out viable private-sector energy investments by financing power projects considered too large and risky by the private sector. These investments by Western aid agencies would assist in winning contracts for favoured exporters of engineering services and equipment. It would be a breeding ground for corruption in Vietnam if market discipline, public oversight, and enforceable property rights are not present in the face of power sector aid. There is a real possibility that damages to the environment could result from electricity investments, and some communities might be victimized, electricity costs might increase, the indebtedness level of the population might increase

  5. Neurology in the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Carl H; Daroff, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Between December 1965 and December 1971, the United States maintained armed forces in Vietnam never less than 180,000 men and women in support of the war. At one time, this commitment exceeded half a million soldiers, sailors, and airmen from both the United States and its allies. Such forces required an extensive medical presence, including 19 neurologists. All but two of the neurologists had been drafted for a 2-year tour of duty after deferment for residency training. They were assigned to Vietnam for one of those 2 years in two Army Medical Units and one Air Force facility providing neurological care for American and allied forces, as well as many civilians. Their practice included exposure to unfamiliar disorders including cerebral malaria, Japanese B encephalitis, sleep deprivation seizures, and toxic encephalitis caused by injection or inhalation of C-4 explosive. They and neurologists at facilities in the United States published studies on all of these entities both during and after the war. These publications spawned the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Study, which was conceived during the Korean War and continues today as the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Center. It initially focused on post-traumatic epilepsy and later on all effects of brain injury. The Agent Orange controversy arose after the war; during the war, it was not perceived as a threat by medical personnel. Although soldiers in previous wars had developed serious psychological impairments, post-traumatic stress disorder was formally recognized in the servicemen returning from Vietnam. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Vulnerability in north- central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Nguyen, Thao Phuong

    2015-01-01

    This article examines changes in livelihood strategies in response to flooding. It does so on the basis of a household survey which was undertaken in three provinces in north central Vietnam. All households in the survey were regularly affected by flooding, but only poor households experience a l...... the impact of flooding in the provinces. The article ends by looking at the vulnerability-resilience debate concluding that the poorer households could enter a vulnerability loop, unless new strategies to cope with natural hazards are suggested....

  7. Records of Wenchengia (Lamiaceae) from Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Peter B; Suddee, Somran

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The monotypic genus Wenchengia (Lamiaceae) has been thought to be endemic to Hainan, China. This paper reports on historic records of Wenchengia alternifolia collected from Vietnam. The recent recuration and modernisation of the Paris herbarium greatly facilitated this discovery. New information During preparatory work supporting the account for the Lamiaceae of the Flora of Thailand, three specimens of Wenchengia from central Vietnam were found in the Herbarium of the Musuem National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris (P), and subsequently two duplicates were found in the Herbarium at Kew (K, abbreviations following Thiers 2016). The specimens were collected in and before 1927 and it is not known if the species is still extant in Vietnam. Searches for extant populations should focus in the Ba Na Hills or Bach Ma National Park, central Vietnam. PMID:27660535

  8. Intervention in Vietnam: President Eisenhower's Foreign Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slaton, James

    1995-01-01

    For a period of thirty years, from 1945 to 1975, the United States employed countless numbers of financial, material, and human resources toward Vietnam in an effort to shape and control that country's political destiny...

  9. Vietnam | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... of its success, local fishery associations secured fishing management rights in 2009, a first in Vietnam. ... We continue to support online education through regional research to improve the quality of distance education. Total IDRC Support ...

  10. Leprosy: ongoing medical and social struggle in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhiem; Tat Nguyen, Thang; Hong Phan, Hai; Tam Tran, Tinh

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, leprosy had been prominent in 33 countries worldwide, and Vietnam was ranked among the top 14 endemic countries. The leprosy situation in Vietnam was reviewed as a sample of the worldwide ongoing medical and social struggle to assess the need for continued support for leprosy control activities and for social programs of integration of leprosy victims into the community. A search was conducted of official Vietnamese publications, World Health Organization documents, major electronic databases, and popular leprosy Web sites; as well, notes from visits to local leprosy clinics and interviews with health workers were checked. Important achievements were realized through national determination and international collaboration. In contrast with the impressive performance statistics at the national level, and despite strong government efforts for leprosy control, the results obtained at the province-city and district-commune levels still exhibit deficiencies in case detection, treatment, and socioeconomic integration of leprosy victims. The struggle to eliminate such a complex and destructive infectious disease as leprosy does not end with the cure. Deep-seated medical and social problems remain. These problems are best solved through community-based approaches.

  11. Solar energy and rural development in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Photovoltaic systems have already been present in Vietnam for numerous years. Since 1994 the projects intensified with the launch of the Energy-Solidarity-Vietnam program which has just been concluded in 1999. This paper deals with the different stages of this project: choice of photovoltaic power, the partners engagement, obstacles overcome and the help of the electricity for the economic development. (A.L.B.)

  12. Risk Factors for Non-communicable Diseases in Vietnam: A Focus on Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang V. Dang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Agent Orange, which was used in southern Vietnam, is confirmed the main source of dioxin exposure in Vietnam. Since early 1990s, agriculture of Vietnam has attained advances under intensive cultivation. Both production and yields per crop have increased significantly at the farm level, but the quantity of pesticides used in agriculture also increased in the absence of regulations and good practices. Illegal business of pesticides with false labels, as well as marketing of expired or poor quality products in stores without license are popular in Vietnam. Misuse and improper use in agriculture in Vietnam has led to a variety of problems, such as environmental pollution (including food producing animals and adverse health impact on animals and humans. Open dumpsites worsen the general scenario. Similar to the environmental exposure, human exposure to DDT in Vietnam was ranked among the highest worldwide, with recognized effects. Exposed communities have to face birth defects, health disorders and non-communicable diseases (NCDs, from metabolic syndrome, asthma, infertility and other reproductive disorders through to diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. A common feature of many chronic disorders and NCDs is metabolic disruption: environmental chemical factors disturb cellular homeostasis, thus affecting the ability of the body to restore a functional internal environment. Among these, endocrine disrupting pesticides can interfere with the action of hormones including metabolic hormones, and are likely to represent the main concern for developmentally-induced NCDs. Since pesticides are often persistent and bio-accumulate in the food chain through the living environment of food-producing organisms, this paper discusses relevant aspects of risk assessment, risk communication and risk management.

  13. Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    stability Science & Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Recruitment Events Community Commitment Giving Campaigns, Drives Economic Development Employee Funded neighbor pledge: contribute to quality of life in Northern New Mexico through economic development

  14. Potential Economic Impacts of the Vietnam-Korea Free Trade Agreement on Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Hoan Phan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an assessment of the potential economic impacts of the Vietnam-Korea free trade agreement on Vietnam, by using general equilibrium modeling. The results show that Vietnam-Korea FTA will increase aggregate welfare for both countries in the long run. The most important gains accrue from better allocation of resources consequent to trade liberalization. All the sectoral differences and changes are consistent with the trade profiles of the two countries, and the long-run results are more pronounced than those of the short-run. In comparison with other ASEAN countries, the CGE analysis suggests that Vietnam's agriculture exports to Korea would especially rise in the long run. However, there will be strong competition in this sector among ASEAN members. Thus, an earlier conclusion of a comprehensive FTA with Korea is expected to be a good strategy for Vietnam, so as to avoid the direct competition with ASEAN members in the future.

  15. Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    As a Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Viet Nam will make its strong effort to implement the UNFCCC through effective activities in order to reduce GHG emissions as well as enhance carbon sinks in the country. The UNEP/GEF Project `Economics of GHG Limitation - Phase 1: Establishment of a Methodological Framework for Climate Change Mitigation Assessment` developed by the UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) in cooperation with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has been deployed in Viet Nam since 1996. The project deals with GHG mitigation analysis and options, focusing on the main issues: a) Associated macro-economics, b) Energy, c) Land use and forestry. For this study, a number of different data related to energy, industry, forestry and agriculture sectors as well as Viet Nam socio-economic development up to the year 2030, are collected. Besides, several models such as MEDEE-S, EFOM-ENV, COMAP are applied for development and assessment of GHG mitigation options in the next decades. The MEDEE-S and EFOM-ENV models are used as a tool for determining the cost-effective strategies to abate GHG emissions for energy sector while COMAP model is applied for forestry sector. (au) 39 refs.

  16. Women at war: The crucible of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless Kaiser, Anica; Kabat, Daniel H; Spiro, Avron; Davison, Eve H; Stellman, Jeanne Mager

    2017-12-01

    Relatively little has been written about the military women who served in Vietnam, and there is virtually no literature on deployed civilian women (non-military). We examined the experiences of 1285 American women, military and civilian, who served in Vietnam during the war and responded to a mail survey conducted approximately 25 years later in which they were asked to report and reflect upon their experiences and social and health histories. We compare civilian women, primarily American Red Cross workers, to military women stratified by length of service, describe their demographic characteristics and warzone experiences (including working conditions, exposure to casualties and sexual harassment), and their homecoming following Vietnam. We assess current health and well-being and also compare the sample to age- and temporally-comparable women in the General Social Survey (GSS), with which our survey shared some measures. Short-term (Vietnam experience as "highly stressful" than were career (>20 years; 12%) and civilian women (13%). Additional differences regarding warzone experiences, homecoming support, and health outcomes were found among groups. All military and civilian women who served in Vietnam were less likely to have married or have had children than women from the general population, χ 2 (8) = 643.72, p Vietnam reported better health than women in the other groups. Regression analyses indicated that long-term physical health was mainly influenced by demographic characteristics, and that mental health and PTSD symptoms were influenced by warzone and homecoming experiences. Overall, this paper provides insight into the experiences of the understudied women who served in Vietnam, and sheds light on subgroup differences within the sample.

  17. Entry modes of European firms in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simonet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the entry modes of EU firms setting up operations in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: we use a case study approach on Haymarket, Cadbury, Creative Education, Fairchild, Aventis and Artemisinin and Farming International using interviews from managerial professionals in Vietnam. Findings: Despite the fact that Vietnam has been opening up for more than 20 years, licensing is the preferred entry mode because of the risks involved in venturing with local firms; that preference signals a low level commitment and a high perception of risk and state interference. In line with Vietnam transition to state - rather than private market - capitalism, a foreign company opting for a joint-venture will do so with a state-owned rather than privately-owned company. The choice of a subsidiary can be explained by the lack of trust in partners and institutions, not by improvement in the socio-political environment. Limitations: In determining the entry mode strategy, the paper focuses on the Uppsala school’s “psychic distance” (e.g. cultural distance, lack of trust rather than on firm-specific advantages (Rugman, 1980; 2006. Key-words: international entry mode; emerging markets; subsidiary; joint-venture; India; Vietnam

  18. New records of marine algae in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Hau, Nhu; Ly, Bui Minh; Van Huynh, Tran; Trung, Vo Thanh

    2015-06-01

    In May, 2013, a scientific expedition was organized by the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) and the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEBRAS) through the frame of the VAST-FEBRAS International Collaboration Program. The expedition went along the coast of Vietnam from Quang Ninh to Kien Giang. The objective was to collect natural resources to investigate the biological and biochemical diversity of the territorial waters of Vietnam. Among the collected algae, six taxa are new records for the Vietnam algal flora. They are the red algae Titanophora pikeana (Dickie) Feldmann from Cu Lao Xanh Island, Laurencia natalensis Kylin from Tho Chu Island, Coelothrix irregularis (Harvey) Børgesen from Con Dao Island, the green algae Caulerpa oligophylla Montagne, Caulerpa andamanensis (W.R. Taylor) Draisma, Prudhomme et Sauvage from Phu Quy Island, and Caulerpa falcifolia Harvey & Bailey from Ly Son Island. The seaweed flora of Vietnam now counts 833 marine algal taxa, including 415 Rhodophyta, 147 Phaeophyceae, 183 Chlorophyta, and 88 Cyanobacteria.

  19. Vietnam military service history and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritschi Lin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three decades after US and Australian forces withdrew from Vietnam, there has been much public interest in the health consequences of service in Vietnam. One controversial question is whether the risk of prostate cancer amongst Vietnam veterans is increased. This paper examines relationships between military history, family history and risk of prostate cancer in a population-based case control study. Methods Cases were selected from the Cancer Registry of Western Australia as incident cases of histologically-confirmed prostate cancer, and controls were age-matched and selected from the Western Australian electoral roll. Study participants were asked to report any military service history and details about that service. Results Between January 2001 and September 2002, 606 cases and 471 controls aged between 40–75 years were recruited. An increased prostate cancer risk was observed in men reporting they were deployed in Vietnam although this was not statistically significant (OR = 2.12; 95% CI 0.88–5.06. An increased risk was also observed in men reporting prostate cancer in fathers (OR = 1.90; 95% CI 1.20–3.00 or brothers (OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.20–3.50 diagnosed with prostate cancer. Conclusion These findings support a positive association between prostate cancer and military service history in the Vietnam war and a first degree relative family history of prostate cancer.

  20. Shaping the Health Policy Agenda: The Case of Safe Motherhood Policy in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Thi Thu Ha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Maternal health remains a central policy concern in Vietnam. With a commitment to achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5 target of maternal mortality rate (MMR of 70/100 000 by 2015, the Ministry of Health (MoH issued the National Plan for Safe Motherhood (NPSM 2003-2010. In 2008, reproductive health, including safe motherhood (SM became a national health target program with annual government funding. Methods A case study of how SM emerged as a political priority in Vietnam over the period 2001-2008, drawing on Kingdon’s theory of agenda-setting was conducted. A mixed method was adopted for this study of the NPSM. Results Three related streams contributed to SM priority in Vietnam: (1 the problem of high MMR was officially recognized from high-quality research, (2 the strong roles of policy champion from MoH in advocating for the needs to reducing MMR as well as support from government and donors, and (3 the national and international events, providing favorable context for this issue to emerge on policy agenda. Conclusion This paper draws on the theory of agenda-setting to analyze the Vietnam experience and to develop guidance for SM a political priority in other high maternal mortality communities.

  1. Regional trends in early-monsoon rainfall over Vietnam and CCSM4 attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R.; Wang, S. S.-Y.; Gillies, R. R.; Buckley, B. M.; Yoon, J.-H.; Cho, C.

    2018-04-01

    The analysis of precipitation trends for Vietnam revealed that early-monsoon precipitation has increased over the past three decades but to varying degrees over the northern, central and southern portions of the country. Upon investigation, it was found that the change in early-monsoon precipitation is associated with changes in the low-level cyclonic airflow over the South China Sea and Indochina that is embedded in the large-scale atmospheric circulation associated with a "La Niña-like" anomalous sea surface temperature pattern with warming in the western Pacific and Indian Oceans and cooling in the eastern Pacific. The Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) was subsequently used for an attribution analysis. Over northern Vietnam an early-monsoon increase in precipitation is attributed to changes in both greenhouse gases and natural forcing. For central Vietnam, the observed increase in early-monsoon precipitation is reproduced by the simulation forced with greenhouse gases. However, over southern Vietnam the early-monsoon precipitation increase is less definitive where aerosols were seen to be preponderant but natural forcing through the role of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation may well be a factor that is not resolved by CCSM4. Increased early-monsoonal precipitation over the coastal lowland and deltas has the potential to amplify economic and human losses.

  2. The Lessons of the Vietnam War: Unit 13. Teacher's Manual: Strategies and Resources for Teaching the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Social Studies Education, Pittsburgh, PA.

    This teacher's manual is designed to accompany the curriculum "The Lessons of the Vietnam War." For each of 12 units of the curriculum, this manual suggests projects for student research and classroom activities. The 12 units are entitled: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and…

  3. The study on the development of nuclear cooperation policy and the follow-up of nuclear joint committee meeting between Korea and Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, M. H.; Yun, S. W.; Jeong, I.; Choi, P. H.; Seo, M. W

    2004-02-01

    National efforts have been carried out positively to export nuclear technologies to oversee nuclear power markets, which can enable to contribute to enhance the national prestige and the promotion of cooperation foundation in international community. The demand of energy and electricity in Vietnam is continuously increasing due to rapid industrial development and economical development during the last several years. In order to meet the increasing electricity demand, Vietnam has been carrying out positive nuclear R and D and plans to introduce the first nuclear power plant between the year 2015 and 2010. It is necessary to strengthen the cooperative relations with Vietnam to introduce nuclear power plants as well as export of nuclear technologies through various channel such as the exchange of governmental cooperation delegation and the joint meeting of nuclear cooperation between Korea and Vietnam in field of peaceful use and development of nuclear energy between two countries.

  4. The study on the development of nuclear cooperation policy and the follow-up of nuclear joint committee meeting between Korea and Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M. H.; Yun, S. W.; Jeong, I.; Choi, P. H.; Seo, M. W.

    2004-02-01

    National efforts have been carried out positively to export nuclear technologies to oversee nuclear power markets, which can enable to contribute to enhance the national prestige and the promotion of cooperation foundation in international community. The demand of energy and electricity in Vietnam is continuously increasing due to rapid industrial development and economical development during the last several years. In order to meet the increasing electricity demand, Vietnam has been carrying out positive nuclear R and D and plans to introduce the first nuclear power plant between the year 2015 and 2010. It is necessary to strengthen the cooperative relations with Vietnam to introduce nuclear power plants as well as export of nuclear technologies through various channel such as the exchange of governmental cooperation delegation and the joint meeting of nuclear cooperation between Korea and Vietnam in field of peaceful use and development of nuclear energy between two countries

  5. Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…

  6. The Environmental Pollution In Vietnam Source Impact And Remedies

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan Anh Hoang; Nam Xuan Chu; Trung Van Tran

    2017-01-01

    Currently the environmental problems is one of the urgent problems for all countries in the world. Vietnam is among of 10 countries with the most polluted air in the world the health of people is affected by the non-guaranteed air quality in Vietnam. According to the EPI in 2015 Vietnam ranked 79 in the total of 132 countries in the overall environmental assessment. However the air pollution index Vietnam ranked 123. On the burden of disease due to environment Vietnam ranked 77. Therefore the...

  7. The Independence of Vietnam Regulatory Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Choi, Kwang Sik

    2011-01-01

    In the field of peaceful purposes, the activity of nuclear agencies is often divided into 2 systems: the nuclear application system and the safety system. Depending on the magnitude of atomic energy application development, the responsibility of the safety system was assigned to a few agencies in each country. In Vietnam, the nuclear safety responsibility is assigned primarily to the radiation and nuclear safety agency. However, the provisions of the normative system of law prevailing in other sectors such as investment, construction, electricity or environmental protection, many agencies are responsible for ensuring safety in each sector, leading to a conflict of interest among those agencies. This is the weakness in the management system of Vietnam compared to other countries with nuclear power development. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the state of Vietnam's legal framework in nuclear safety regulation and its dependence of regulatory body aspects and promoting the way to overcome it

  8. Universal service in Vietnam: An institutional approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do Manh, Thai; Falch, Morten

    2018-01-01

    Applying institutional theory to look at the Program 74 (a universal service policy) in Vietnam, this paper concludes that the Vietnamese universal service policy was strongly affected by formal institutional factors (the international agreements and the directives of the Communist Party of Vietnam...... - CPV), in which the international agreements played a leading role and the CPV’s directives played a guarantee role. The formulation and implementation of the universal service policy in Vietnam were mainly concentrated on action at levels 2 and 3 (formal and informal institutional arrangement......, and formal institutional environment). The paper recommends that nations favouring a top-down approach not based on a market-oriented regime should deregulate and emphasize the role of provincial governments as well as encourage private sectors/social organizations and rural users to be more involved...

  9. Lightning protection for wind turbines in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuan Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy has become increasingly important in the total electrical energy supply mix in Vietnam over the last few years. Small, kW turbines were installed in isolated areas a decade ago, while wind farms of several MW to few hundred MW are now being connected directly to national grid, with many additional projects in planning or under construction to fulfill an objective of 6% of the total installed capacity by 2030 (approximately 6200 MW of wind energy component. The increase in wind farm generation results in increased damage from lightning. In this paper, the annual frequency of lightning strikes to wind turbines in Vietnam is calculated using electrogeometric model. Reported lightning incidents to three major wind farms in Vietnam are summarized. Possible causes of failure are discussed, and an EMTP simulation for each incident was performed accordingly. The simulations suggest the failure mechanisms as well the potential of improved grounding to reduce lightning induced damage in future windfarms.

  10. Women at war: The crucible of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anica Pless Kaiser

    2017-12-01

    Short-term (20 years; 12% and civilian women (13%. Additional differences regarding warzone experiences, homecoming support, and health outcomes were found among groups. All military and civilian women who served in Vietnam were less likely to have married or have had children than women from the general population, χ2 (8 = 643.72, p < .001. Career military women were happier than women in the general population (48% were “very happy”, as compared to 38%. Civilian women who served in Vietnam reported better health than women in the other groups. Regression analyses indicated that long-term physical health was mainly influenced by demographic characteristics, and that mental health and PTSD symptoms were influenced by warzone and homecoming experiences. Overall, this paper provides insight into the experiences of the understudied women who served in Vietnam, and sheds light on subgroup differences within the sample.

  11. Suicide of Australians during the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Ahmadi, Jamshid; Pridmore, William

    2018-04-01

    National suicide rates fall during times of war. This fits with the notion of the population coming together against a common foe. But, what happens in the case of a war which is not fully supported, which draws the population and families apart? We consider this question by examining the Australian suicide rates during the divisive Vietnam War. We graphed and examined the Australian suicide figures for 1921-2010. We found clear evidence of a decrease in the suicide rate for World War II (consistent with other studies), but a marked elevation of suicide during the Vietnam War. The elevation of the Australian suicide rate during the Vietnam War is consistent with Durkheim's social integration model - when social integration is lessened, either by individual characteristics or societal characteristics, the risk of suicide rises.

  12. Food Irradiation In Vietnam And Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamikazy Kume

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, Japan Atomic Energy Commission of Cabinet Office performed the study of current status of food irradiation in the world. The results showed that the total quantity of irradiated foods in 2005 was 405,000 tons. Seven main countries for food irradiation were China, USA, Ukraine, Brazil, South Africa, Vietnam and Japan. In Japan, only the potato irradiation for sprout inhibition is continued more than 35 years since 1974 but the quantity is decreasing. On the other hand, the food irradiation of Vietnam has been developed rapidly in a short time to export the frozen seafood and fruit. This paper shows the status of food irradiation in Vietnam and Japan, and the progress in both countries after 2005. (author)

  13. Rebellion and Rule under Consular Optics: Changing Ways of Seeing the China-Vietnam Borderlands, 1874–1879

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Camp Davis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the continuing discussion concerning the changing relationships between China and its neighbors in the nineteenth century. Focusing on Vietnam, a country within the metaphorical framework of the “tribute system,” it analyzes the complex range of relationships in the borderlands during the 1870s. Following the establishment of French consular offices in northern Vietnam, rebellions, counterinsurgency, communities, and commerce in the borderlands fell under a new kind of official gaze, one that ultimately provided self-serving justification to advocates of French imperialism in Southeast Asia. As emblems of foreign influence, French consulates soon became elements in factional struggles that unfolded within the Vietnamese bureaucracy over the role of China in Vietnam, the employment of surrendered bandits as officials, and borderlands administration.

  14. Health issues in nursing in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristy, S J

    1995-01-01

    Major health concerns are not currently addressed in Vietnam as the country strives to upgrade its economic status. The current standard of medical care is rudimentary at best, as is the education and practice of Vietnamese nurses. The Ministry of Health in Vietnam has directed the Medical College of Hanoi to commence a 4-year degree in nursing in 1994. Historical, practical, political, economic, social, and cultural issues affect the development of nursing as a profession. Assistance from the West is sought by the Medical College in Hanoi.

  15. The role of trade unions in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of matched employer–employee data from 2007 to 2009, this paper examines the union wage gap among small and medium non-state manufacturing enterprises in Vietnam. Controlling for both worker and firm characteristics, the results provide evidence that union members earn higher wages t...... than non-members, and are more likely to receive social benefits.Within unionised firms, a substantial wage premium is revealed for workers employed in Southern firms, a finding which among other factors may be attributed to historical differences between the North and South of Vietnam....

  16. Strategy in the Vietnam War: Western Concepts, Eastern Conflict and the Roots of Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weland, James

    1990-01-01

    Critiques U.S. military assumptions concerning the war in Vietnam. Discusses the North Vietnamese strategic approach to gaining control of South Vietnam. Traces the history of the Vietnam War, analyzing specific U.S. military operations in Vietnam and reasons for their failure. Contends that U.S. strategic ethnocentrism lead to defeat in Vietnam.…

  17. Open-source LIMS in Vietnam: The path toward sustainability and host country ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Kenneth M; Kakkar, Reshma; Meigs, Michelle; Jankauskas, Paul T; Phan, Thi Thu Huong; Nguyen, Viet Nga; Nguyen, Duy Thai; Duong, Thanh Tung; Nguyen, Thi Hoa; Bond, Kyle B

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this case report are as follows: to describe the process of establishing a national laboratory information management system (LIMS) program for clinical and public health laboratories in Vietnam; to evaluate the outcomes and lessons learned; and to present a model for sustainability based on the program outcomes that could be applied to diverse laboratory programs. This case report comprises a review of program documentation and records, including planning and budgetary records of the donor, monthly reports from the implementer, direct observation, and ad-hoc field reports from technical advisors and governmental agencies. Additional data on program efficacy and user acceptance were collected from routine monitoring of laboratory policies and operational practices. LIMS software was implemented at 38 hospital, public health and HIV testing laboratories in Vietnam. This LIMS was accepted by users and program managers as a useful tool to support laboratory processes. Implementation cost per laboratory and average duration of deployment decreased over time, and project stakeholders initiated transition of financing (from the donor to local institutions) and of system maintenance functions (from the implementer to governmental and site-level staff). Collaboration between the implementer in Vietnam and the global LIMS user community was strongly established, and knowledge was successfully transferred to staff within Vietnam. Implementing open-sourced LIMS with local development and support was a feasible approach towards establishing a sustainable laboratory informatics program that met the needs of health laboratories in Vietnam. Further effort to institutionalize IT support capacity within key government agencies is ongoing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. ÉTUDE DE CAS — Vietnam : Les communes du Vietnam ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    16 déc. 2010 ... Les communes du Vietnam progressent grâce à l'information Au Vietnam, un système de suivi communautaire de la pauvreté s'appuie sur des enquêtes officielles afin de mieux cibler les pauvres. Les données supplémentaires permettent d'améliorer la vie des collectivités, celle des femmes en particulier.

  19. Developing disaster resilient housing in Vietnam challenges and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Tran, Tuan Anh

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive understanding on disaster resilient housing within the Vietnam context particularly and the developing world generally. The book has identified the root causes of housing vulnerability, restrictions to safe housing development, concepts of disaster resilient housing, key issues/factors implementers and building designers need to consider, and ways of achieving resilient housing outcomes in actual design projects. The design and development of disaster resilient housing has been framed into three main themes:  (i) community consultation, (ii) the role of built-environment professionals and (iii) design responses for resilience.   To achieve these themes, there is a variety of contextual and intervening conditions that need to be addressed and met to provide an enabling environment for promoting disaster resilient housing. These three themes are among the most arguable issues in recent debates and discussions, academically and practically, regarding disaster risk reduction ...

  20. New Species of Orchids from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid V. Averyanov

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of herbarium specimens collected in course of field exploration works in Vietnam during 2005-2007 revealed ten species of orchids new for science. Illustrated descriptions are provided for each discovered species, which are named as Anoectochilus papillosus, Arundina caespitosa, Bulbophyllum paraemarginatum, B. sinhoënse, Cheirostylis foliosa, Goodyera rhombodoides, Liparis rivularis, Oberonia multidentata, O. trichophora and Sunipia nigricans.

  1. Social networks and wage outcomes in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between the use of informal contacts and wage outcomes using matched employer-employee data from small and medium firms in Vietnam. We find that obtaining a job through knowing another worker in the firm generally is positively associated with individual wages...

  2. The Vietnam Vet's Battle--Unemployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Wayne E.; Radcliff, Jo Ann

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to survey the employment situation of returning Vietnam veterans. The picture appears to be one of frustration. There are a number of programs available but a communications gap seems to exist between the programs and the veterans. (Author)

  3. Vietnam: A Failure of Strategy and Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    AND LEADERSHIP SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MILITARY STUDIES AUTHOR: MAJOR D. M. CROUSORE, USMC...Q__ Date: ’::?:D l:foell 0<..01~ (/ i Executive Summary Title: VIETNAM: A FAILURE OF STRATEGY AND LEADERSHIP Author: Major D. M

  4. Governing pesticide in vegetable production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoi, Van P.

    2010-01-01


    The economic liberalization in Vietnam, initiated in the middle of the 1980s, contributed to the further intensification and expansion of private actor-engagement in agriculture and food-supply. Vietnamese farmers, who already considered applying pesticides the most effective manner to protect

  5. Treatment Failure for Malaria in Vietnam

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-06-05

    WHO malaria expert, Dr. Charlotte Rasmussen, discusses anti-malarial drug resistance in Vietnam.  Created: 6/5/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/5/2017.

  6. Counting Women's Work in Vietnam | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-07-31

    Jul 31, 2017 ... These gender equality indicators are shedding light on girls' and women's ... Young people do a tremendous amount of unpaid care work at the ages when ... Read the report "Counting Women's Work in Vietnam" · View the ...

  7. The Vietnam War and the Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elterman, Howard

    1988-01-01

    Surveys the author's contribution to the Center for Social Studies Education curriculum on the Vietnam War. Focuses on "How the War Was Reported," a unit which raises four questions concerning the responsibilities of the government and the press for keeping the public informed. Encourages use of the curriculum in teaching about the…

  8. The Vietnam War: History, Learning, and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tricia

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the curriculum entitled "Echoes from the Wall: History, Learning and Leadership through the Lens of the Vietnam War Era." Discusses the purpose of the materials. States that the curriculum incorporates primary resources into the classroom while making history more immediate to students. (CMK)

  9. Teaching the Vietnam War: A Conference Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterstein, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    On May 6-7, 2000, the Foreign Policy Research Institute's (FPRI's) sixth History Institute convened with more than 40 high school and college history teachers to seek answers to the question: "How should we teach the history of the Vietnam War to our children today?" Not surprisingly, no simple answers were forthcoming. This conference…

  10. The 2003 Merged Model for Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Tarp, Finn

    This monograph documents the 2003 Merged Model for Vietnam. The initialization and calibration of the model is based on a financial 2003 SAM framework and an auxiliary 2002-3 data set. The recursive nature of the solution of the Merged Model is discussed with reference to the four main sectors...

  11. Value Chain Development of Avocado in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O.; Quaedackers, P.; Nguyen Trung Anh,; Wijk, van S.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid economic development, urbanisation and rising income levels, in Vietnam offer potential for pro-poor development, by creating new market opportunities for producers, traders and retailers. This article describes the process of value chain development, which involves all actors in the broad

  12. Environmental considerations in Vietnam's energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, X.H.

    2007-01-01

    Energy conservation is at the centre of an environmental debate in Vietnam, whose rapidly growing economy in recent years has resulted in rising energy consumption and environmental degradation. This article reviewed the actual state of Vietnam's energy system, with consideration of the country's energy policies and their impact on the environment. Vietnam's energy resources consist of a vast network of rivers that hold potential for hydroelectric power; reserves that are proven to have oil, natural gas and coal; and, other renewable energy sources such as wind and solar energy. The energy sector plays a major role in the economic and social aspects of the country. Since its economic reform, coal and crude oil exports have brought in foreign money to the national revenue. Vietnam exploits four commercial types of energy, namely coal, oil, natural gas and hydroelectricity. These traditional energy sources play a major role in providing energy for the rural and mountainous regions in the country. The increase in energy demand in Vietnam is currently greater than that of its gross national product. The energy intensity in Vietnam is 1.5 times greater than that of Thailand, and twice the average world consumption. Energy demands are increasing at a regular rate due to a low rate of energy efficiency and to growth in industrialization and modernization. In addition, the government provides subsidies to the already low price of energy. It was concluded that although Vietnam has a low rate of energy consumption compared to other regions of the world, there exists a serious imbalance between energy use and economic and social growth. This imbalance could have a negative impact on fossil resources and the environment, especially if the high demand for energy is maintained. Presently, all negative impacts on the environment are related to the energy sector. An environmental assessment and strategic proposals to manage this problem locally and globally, have constituted the

  13. Sun-Earth System Interaction studies over Vietnam: an international cooperative project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Amory-Mazaudier

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available During many past decades, scientists from various countries have studied separately the atmospheric motions in the lower atmosphere, in the Earth's magnetic field, in the magnetospheric currents, etc. All of these separate studies lead today to the global study of the Sun and Earth connections, and as a consequence, new scientific programs (IHY- International Heliophysical Year, CAWSES- Climate and Weather in the Sun-Earth System are defined, in order to assume this new challenge. In the past, many scientists did not have the possibility to collect data at the same time in the various latitude and longitude sectors. Now, with the progress of geophysical sciences in many developing countries, it is possible to have access to worldwide data sets. This paper presents the particularities of geophysical parameters measured by the Vietnamese instrument networks. It introduces a cooperative Vietnamese-IGRGEA (International Geophysical Research Group Europe Africa project, and presents, for the first time, to the international community, the geophysical context of Vietnam. Concerning the ionosphere: since 1963, during four solar cycles, the ionosonde at Phu Thuy (North Vietnam was operating. The Phu Thuy data exhibits the common features for the ionospheric parameters, previously observed in other longitude and latitude sectors. The critical frequencies of the E, F1 and F2 ionospheric layers follow the variation of the sunspot cycle. F2 and E critical frequencies also exhibit an annual variation. The first maps of TEC made with data from GPS receivers recently installed in Vietnam illustrate the regional equatorial pattern, i.e. two maxima of electronic density at 15° N and 15° S from the magnetic equator and a trough of density at the magnetic equator. These features illustrate the equatorial fountain effect. Concerning the Earth's magnetic field: a strong amplitude of the equatorial electrojet was first observed by the CHAMP satellite at the height

  14. “New Wine in an Old Bottle”? – Anniversary Journalism and the Public Commemoration of the End of the War in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Sanko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available April 30th, 2015 marked the 40th anniversary of the end of the war in Vietnam. This article discusses the role of Vietnamese journalism in the coverage of this commemorative date as well as the history and events it is linked with. It addresses the question of how coming to terms with the past plays out in the journalistic field of an increasingly globally connected and economically continuously growing Vietnam. By means of qualitative content analysis and expert interviews with Vietnamese media professionals the paper characterizes the nature of anniversary journalism on this particular event and elaborates on its meaning for the construction of cultural memory in Vietnam. In that context, it also touches upon transnational relations with and controversies of remembrance in Vietnamese diasporic communities. The study found that anniversary journalism in Vietnam goes beyond the mere coverage of a single commemorated day along state ideological lines and constitutes part of a larger context of cultural memory in Vietnam and the diaspora. It is itself subject to change over time and of tensions between state, economic, professional and personal interests in a vastly changing, but still state-controlled media environment. Such tensions can result in ambiguities, vagueness and the coexistence of a variety of narratives in the reporting. Despite slight liberation tendencies, however, anniversary journalism on the contentious meaning of April 30th does not represent a transnational forum for negotiating the past in Vietnam and its diaspora.

  15. 31 CFR 500.560 - Bank accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. 500.560... governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. Specific licenses are issued... Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam for transactions which are not inconsistent with the purposes of...

  16. Exploring the emerging profession of speech-language pathology in Vietnam through pioneering eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Marie; Davidson, Bronwyn; McAllister, Lindy

    2017-04-01

    In September 2012, 18 Vietnamese health professionals graduated as Vietnam's first university qualified speech-language pathologists (SLPs). This study details the reflections of these pioneering health professionals at 12 months following their graduation, drawing attention to their scope of practice as SLPs and to the opportunities and challenges to progressing the practice of speech-language pathology (SLP) in Vietnam. Thirteen graduates participated in small group interviews where they described their work and their perceptions of their emerging practice. Thematic analysis of the interview transcripts was employed to identify key concepts and themes within the data. Four overarching themes were identified-scope of practice, establishing identity, confidence to practise and progressing the profession. Overall analysis revealed evolving professional practice characterised by new learning, fluctuations in confidence and an active forging of professional identity. Mentoring and support by international colleagues and advancing professional recognition were identified as critical to the profession's progression and to the development of context-specific and culturally appropriate services. Participants' reflections draw focus to an important role for the international SLP community as it works in partnership with colleagues to enhance awareness of and services for people with communication disabilities in under-served communities such as Vietnam.

  17. Drivers of forest cover dynamics in smallholder farming systems: the case of northwestern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadin, Isaline; Vanacker, Veerle; Hoang, Huong Thi Thu

    2013-04-01

    The national-scale forest recovery of Vietnam started in the early 1990s and is associated with a shift from net deforestation to net reforestation. Large disparities in forest cover dynamics are, however, observed at the local scale. This study aims to unravel the mechanisms driving forest cover change for a mountainous region located in northwest Vietnam. Statistical analyses were used to explore the association between forest cover change and household characteristics. In Sa Pa district, deforestation rates are decreasing, but forest degradation continues at similar rates. Deforestation is not necessarily associated with impoverished ethnic communities or high levels of subsistence farming, and the largest forest cover dynamics are found in villages with the best socio-economic conditions. Our empirical study does not provide strong evidence of a dominant role of agriculture in forest cover dynamics. It shows that empirical studies on local-scale forest dynamics remain important to unravel the complexity of human-environment interactions.

  18. Social media for non-profit organizations in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thy

    2016-01-01

    The thesis presents about social media in general and social media for non-profit organizations in Vietnam in particular. The writer wanted to explore the disadvantages that non-profits in Vietnam face when using social media and search for recommendations which helps them to use it more efficiently. In the theoretic part, core concepts related to social media were introduced, namely, definition of social media, its types, the popular platforms, situation of social media in Vietnam, pros...

  19. Improving quality of foreign direct investment attraction in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo Phuc Hanh; Đao Van Hùng; Nguyen Thac Hoat; Dao Thi Thu Trang

    2017-01-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) enterprises are playing a key role in Vietnam's economy. By the end of 2016, there are more than 21,398 FDI projects in force, with the total registered capital of nearly 293 billion USD. One hundred six countries and territories have invested in 19 industries in 68 provinces and cities of Vietnam. These investments have added a large amount of capital to the economy, which has basically been used effectively, contributing to the economic growth of Vietnam. In ...

  20. The Economic Impact of Land Use Rights in Rural Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Rental Markets In Transition: Evidence From Rural Vietnam." Oxford Bulletin Of Economics And Statistics 70, no. 1: 67- 101. ECONIS, EBSCOhost ...Rental Markets In Transition: Evidence From Rural Vietnam." Oxford Bulletin Of Economics And Statistics 70, no. 1: 67- 101. ECONIS, EBSCOhost ...generating revenue through taxation in a previously non-existent real estate market . Before 1993, Vietnam experienced a long period of land reform

  1. Suspended futures : the Vietnamization of South Vietnamese history and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bui, Long Thanh

    2011-01-01

    In 1969, President Richard Nixon announced the "Vietnamization" of the Vietnam War, a handover of responsibility for winning the war from the U.S. to its allies, the South Vietnamese. Vietnamization articulated the challenges of achieving political freedom and historical agency for South Vietnamese people. Conceptualizing this term in the early 21st century, I seek to address the ways the war (and its subjects) is called into the present to speak about the representability and addressability ...

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Unit Cohesion in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    winning” the war in Vietnam. One only needs to turn to cinema to see the divide and portrayal of the Vietnam conflict. Movies like, Platoon...disapproved of post-war (World War II) re-colonization, especially the French efforts in Indochina that included Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. He offered...the political process, and result in a communist government; this became known as the Domino Theory. The United States replaced the French and

  3. A Curriculum For Dispensing Optician A Case Study In Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Dieu MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Until 2011 there had been no full-time training course for dispensing optician diploma in Vietnam. Most of the practicing opticians with no qualification and formal training have learnt their skills through apprentice. In response to the demand of the industry Nguyen Tat Thanh University Vietnam has teamed up with Bradford College United Kingdom to develop a curriculum for a of formal 2-year full-time training for dispensing optician. The curriculum is applied for 4 semesters and graduate gets called Intermediate Professional Diploma level included 4 semesters. In VN after high school students can obtain different many levels of study such as Intermediate Professional Diploma College Bachelor Master and PhD. The 1st semester is basis of Intermediate Professional Diploma level. The 2nd semester is the study of refractive error and primary care each for 4 weeks 100 hours in theory and primary eye care 4 weeks for theory 100 hours. Also in this semester the learners have practiced clinical rotation at the Ophthalmic Hospital Ophthalmic Service in General Hospital for 10 weeks. The 3rd semester is specialized of dispensing Optician included Lenses frame contact lenses and laboratory for optician. In the 4th semester the training concentrates in the management of the eyeglasses shop and practicing in making spectacles for customers are in the 4th semester. The 1st intake of the course was opened started in 2011 and had 30 students graduated in 2013. This paper describes the experience of developing the curriculum in the context of a developing country where the industry is still under regulated and less developed. The first program optician that privileged on primary eye care will be satisfied for community WHO 2020 1 optometrist for 50.000 people and 10 ophthalmologists for 1.000.000 people. Some characteristics of first course students have been noted. The result of this curriculum will be evaluated in the coming time.

  4. Posttraumatic stress disorder among black Vietnam veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, I M

    1986-01-01

    Because of racism in the military and racial and social upheaval in the United States during the Vietnam War years, as well as limited opportunities for blacks in the postwar period, black veterans of the Vietnam War often harbor conflicting feelings about their wartime experiences and have difficulty rationalizing brutality against the Vietnamese. As a result, black veterans suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at a higher rate than white veterans. Diagnosis and treatment of PTSD in black veterans is complicated by the tendency to misdiagnose black patients, by the varied manifestations of PTSD, and by patients' frequent alcohol and drug abuse and medical, legal, personality, and vocational problems. The author presents his and others' recommendations about ways to treat black veterans with PTSD.

  5. Clinical microbiology during the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Michael; Brown, Matthew; Palys, Thomas; Tyner, Stuart; Bowden, Robert

    2009-11-01

    During the period of 1965-1968, over two dozen Army microbiologists were deployed to various locations in Southeast Asia in support of the Vietnam War. Their role was to serve both a clinical laboratory mission/function at the mobile Army surgical hospital and mobile laboratory level as well as to perform research roles in all of the facilities. They were essential to the formulation of medical intelligence as well as to the practice of operational medicine in the deployed environment. The results of their laboratory investigations provided commanders and military physicians with critical medical information for patient care, outbreak investigation, and forensic analysis. As with many soldiers in support of the infantry and armor combat forces, most of the work occurs behind the scenes and their contributions are often left out of the historical literature. This article presents a brief overview of microbiology performed by Army microbiologists during the Vietnam War.

  6. Experimental nuclear physics in Vietnam - recent status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thanh Minh

    1995-01-01

    It is really difficult to determine the exact date for the starting of nuclear physics research in Vietnam. Serious research on experimental nuclear physics began only since 1972 with the installation of such nuclear instrument like microtron accelerator, neutron generator, etc. During the past 20 years, hundred of research works have been published in local and foreign scientific journals. In the 5th national conference in Physics held in Hanoi in October 1993, at the Nuclear Physics section, 62 reports were presented reflecting the situation of nuclear physics research in the recent years, especially in the past five years. This review introduces its main results and formulates some perspectives of development in the late nineties in Vietnam. (K.A.). 27 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Vegetation fires and air pollution in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thanh Ha; Thanh Nguyen, Thi Nhat; Lasko, Kristofer; Ilavajhala, Shriram; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Justice, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Forest fires are a significant source of air pollution in Asia. In this study, we integrate satellite remote sensing data and ground-based measurements to infer fire-air pollution relationships in selected regions of Vietnam. We first characterized the active fires and burnt areas at a regional scale from MODIS satellite data. We then used satellite-derived active fire data to correlate the resulting atmospheric pollution. Further, we analyzed the relationship between satellite atmospheric variables and ground-based air pollutant parameters. Our results show peak fire activity during March in Vietnam, with hotspots in the Northwest and Central Highlands. Active fires were significantly correlated with UV Aerosol Index (UVAI), aerosol extinction absorption optical depth (AAOD), and Carbon Monoxide. The use of satellite aerosol optical thickness improved the prediction of Particulate Matter (PM) concentration significantly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Vietnam Land Policy - Adjusting to Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    the Late- Socialist Period," Pacific Affairs: vol 84, no. 3, (2011): 439-440, accessed 30 September 2013, EBSCO Discovery Service . 37 U.S...Society,” Contemporary Southeast Asia vol 31, no. 1 (2009): 21, accessed 15 October 2013, EBSCO Discovery Service . 81 Legal Information... EBSCO Discovery Service . Fforde, Adam. "Vietnam in 2012: The End of the Party." Asian Survey 53, no. 1 (2013): 101-108. Accessed 30

  9. Income Inequality and Migration in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    NGUYEN, Tien Dung

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed the recent trends in income inequality, internal and international migrations and investigated the impact of migration on income distribution in Vietnam. Our analysis shows that the effects of migration on income inequality vary with different types of migration, depending on who migrate and where they migrate. Foreign remittances tend to flow toward more affluent households, and they increase income inequality. By contrast, domestic remittances accrue more to ...

  10. Vietnam on the path of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svolik, S.

    2013-01-01

    Exchange of information, experience sharing, an external view on the condition of equipment and activities in nuclear power plants, recommendations for improvement, transfer of best practice and benchmarking - that is the benefit of sharing at various levels by the specialists and experts from nuclear power plants around the world. One of the events was the national workshop on quality assurance and control during the construction and commissioning of a nuclear power plant in Vietnam. (author)

  11. Viral Advertising on Facebook in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Phuong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore which factors affect the effectiveness of viral advertising on Facebook in Vietnam. The quantitative research method is applied in this research and the sample is Vietnamese Facebook users. After the data analysis stage using SPSS, it became clear that weak ties, perceptual affinity and emotions have an impact on the effectiveness of viral advertising. The results provide a pratical implication of how to make an Ad which can go viral on Facebook. Moreo...

  12. Macroeconomic Forces and Stock Returns in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Phan, Van Hang

    2008-01-01

    Capital market development, especially the appearance of Vietnamese equity market recently has a strategic importance in the economic growth and structural reform process of Vietnam (Chun et al, 2003). This dissertation focuses on the impacts of macroeconomic forces on stock market returns in Vietnamese stock market which has not been investigated in detail before, and thereby to contribute further literature on this new emerging stock market. Specifically, the research will intensively inves...

  13. VIETNAM IN 1948: AN INTERNATIONAL HISTORY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Cheng Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper revisits the year 1948 in an effort to determine whether 1948 can be considered the starting point of the Cold War in Vietnam. Historical periodisation is a tricky affair, and it is often difficult to pinpoint the genesis of events. By reconstructing the political and military developments in 1948 from the indigenous perspective as well as from regional and international perspectives that directly impinged on Vietnam, I hope to ascertain whether Vietnam’s war of liberation was indeed transformed into a “Cold War” from 1948 onwards—in other words, whether it was in 1948 that the Vietnamese struggle assumed an ideological complexion that shifted from nationalist/anti-colonial sentiment to include communist/anti-capitalist sentiment as well. Before we embark on our consideration of the year 1948, it is useful to recount in broad brush-strokes some key developments in Vietnam leading up to 1948. In order to put the year 1948 in context, it is also necessary to consider in some detail two key developments in 1947.

  14. Social phobia and PTSD in Vietnam veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsillo, S M; Heimberg, R G; Juster, H R; Garrett, J

    1996-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the most prevalent psychological disorder experienced by Vietnam veterans. However, there are many other disorders and problems of adjustment, like social anxiety and social phobia, that have not been fully investigated in this population. This study examined the prevalence of social phobia and the comorbidity of social phobia and PTSD, and tested out a theory of the etiology of social anxiety in trauma victims. Forty one Vietnam combat veterans were interviewed and completed self-report measures assessing PTSD and social phobia. Adversity of homecoming was also assessed. Using a conservative multi-method assessment approach, 32% of the sample were found to be positive for both social phobia and PTSD. Veterans with PTSD were significantly more likely to carry an additional diagnosis of social phobia as compared to veterans without PTSD. Adversity of homecoming and shame about one's experience in Vietnam were significant predictors of current level of social anxiety over and above the effects of pre-military anxiety and severity of combat exposure. These observations suggest that social anxiety and social phobia may be significant problems among individuals with PTSD. Further, these findings offer preliminary support for the theory that posttrauma environment may impact upon the later development of social anxiety.

  15. Determinants of marginalization and inequitable maternal health care in North-Central Vietnam: a framework analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder-Finnema, Pauline; Lien, Pham T L; Hoa, Dinh T P; Målqvist, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Vietnam has achieved great improvements in maternal healthcare outcomes, but there is evidence of increasing inequity. Disadvantaged groups, predominantly ethnic minorities and people living in remote mountainous areas, do not gain access to maternal health improvements despite targeted efforts from policymakers. This study identifies underlying structural barriers to equitable maternal health care in Nghe An province, Vietnam. Experiences of social inequity and limited access among child-bearing ethnic and minority women are explored in relation to barriers of care provision experienced by maternal health professionals to gain deeper understanding on health outcomes. In 2012, 11 focus group discussions with women and medical care professionals at local community health centers and district hospitals were conducted using a hermeneutic-dialectic method and analyzed for interpretation using framework analysis. The social determinants 'limited negotiation power' and 'limited autonomy' orchestrate cyclical effects of shared marginalization for both women and care professionals within the provincial health system's infrastructure. Under-staffed and poorly equipped community health facilities refer women and create overload at receiving health centers. Limited resources appear diverted away from local community centers as compensation to the district for overloaded facilities. Poor reputation for low care quality exists, and professionals are held in low repute for causing overload and resulting adverse outcomes. Country-wide reforms force women to bear responsibility for limited treatment adherence and health insight, but overlook providers' limited professional development. Ethnic minority women are hindered by relatives from accessing care choices and costs, despite having advanced insight about government reforms to alleviate poverty. Communication challenges are worsened by non-existent interpretation systems. For maternal health policy outcomes to become effective

  16. Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera of the southeastern Truong Son Mountains, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Truong Son

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bat communities of mainland Southeast Asia can be highly diverse. Many are under threat. Despite this, regional faunal composition is not well documented for many areas, including regions of Vietnam.  We assessed the biodiversity of bats in a watershed protection forest in the southeastern Truong Son (Annamite Mountains, southwestern Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam in 2011–2013.  Twenty species of insectivorous bats were documented including a high diversity of Murina species Tube-nosed Bats.  Diversity and abundance indices were compared with that recorded previously in two nature reserves and one national park in Vietnam, and were higher or comparable in several measures despite the lack of a karst substrate for roosts.  Reproduction in the insectivorous bat fauna coincided with the early rainy season.  In the late dry season, pregnant females of several species were observed but volant juveniles were not present, whereas in the early wet season adult females were lactating or post-lactating and volant juveniles of nine species were detected.  We recorded echolocation calls of 14 bat species; for each species, we compared features of calls with those reported previously in other Asian localities.  For some species we found discrepancies in call metrics among studies, perhaps suggesting a greater hidden biodiversity of bats in Southeast Asia.

  17. Relative socioeconomic advantage and mood during advanced pregnancy in women in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Jane RW

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health during pregnancy has not been investigated in Vietnam. Antenatal depression is an established risk factor for postpartum mood disturbance and two representative cohort studies have found rates of depression after childbirth in Vietnam two to three times higher than those in high income countries. Aim The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the prevalence and determinants of depression in a cohort of pregnant Vietnamese women. This was the subsidiary aim of an investigation of sexual beliefs and behaviours in pregnancy in Vietnam. Methods Participants were recruited from antenatal clinics at Hanoi Obstetric Hospital. Inclusion criteria were to be in advanced pregnancy and appear well educated and confident and therefore potentially be willing to discuss sexual matters. Data were collected by individual structured interviews assessing socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive health, quality of intimate relationship and adequacy of support. Emotional wellbeing was assessed by the Vietnamese translation of the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS. Results In total 61/74 (82% of women approached to participate were recruited. The mean EDS score of 5.42 ± 3.8, was similar to that of community cohorts in high income countries and only one participant scored above 15. The cohort was relatively socioeconomically advantaged with high rates of post-secondary education, secure salaried employment, reproductive autonomy and ability to afford higher quality antenatal care. Most participants were able to confide in their husbands and their pregnancies were welcome. Worse mood was associated with insecure casual work, crowded living conditions and experiencing critical coercion in the marital relationship. Conclusion There is an apparently low prevalence of symptoms of depression in relatively socioeconomically advantaged pregnant women in Vietnam.

  18. Transgender at Work: Livelihoods for Transgender People in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.A.; Oosterhoff, P.

    2016-01-01

    The laws in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam promote equality for all citizens and refer to ‘persons’ rather than ‘men’ or ‘women’. However, because of traditional gender norms, transgender people in Vietnam are facing severe stigma and discrimination in public, in schools, at home and in the

  19. Emergence of Integrated Water Resources Management : Measuring implementation in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, M.; Khanh, N.T.; Witter, M.; Rutten, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the changes in laws and regulations, such as the revised Law on Water Resources in 2012, have sought to provide a legal framework for the internationally recognized practices of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Vietnam. With IWRM being a novel approach for Vietnam, it would

  20. Vietnam : A Handwashing Behavior Change Journey for the Caretakers’ Program

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The Vietnam Handwashing Initiative (HWI) was launched in January 2006 by the Ministry of Health (MoH) with funds from the Danish Embassy in Vietnam and technical assistance from the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). This learning note documents the development process of the caretakers' program with a focus on how it was designed, implemented, and monitored. Lessons learned and challenge...

  1. State governance of pesticide use and trade in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Van Hoi,; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is facing serious challenges with respect to the amount and toxicity of the pesticides used. With hardly any domestic pesticides production, Vietnam experienced an exponential growth of both the quantity and the value of imported pesticides in recent years. And the increasing import of newly

  2. The Making of "The Lessons of the Vietnam War."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M.

    1988-01-01

    Traces the development of "The Lessons of the Vietnam War," a set of units which cover legal, cultural, and historical questions of the war in greater depth than do survey textbooks. Examples of the 12 topics are "Introduction to Vietnam: Land, Culture, and History" and "Taking Sides: The War at Home." (GEA)

  3. Lessons for Hospital Autonomy : Implementation in Vietnam from International Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Vietnam Ministry of Health; Health Strategy and Policy Institute; World Bank; World Health Organization

    2011-01-01

    The Government of Vietnam sees hospital autonomy policy as important and consistent with current development trends in Vietnam. It is based on government policies as laid out in government Decree on financial autonomy of revenue-generating public service entities; and to 2006, it is replaced by decree on professional, organizational, human resource management and financial autonomy of reve...

  4. Primary English Language Education Policy in Vietnam: Insights from Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa Thi Mai

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of English in primary education curricula is a phenomenon occurring in many non-English-speaking countries in Asia, including Vietnam. Recently, the Ministry of Education and Training (MOET) in Vietnam issued guidelines for the piloting of an English as a foreign language (EFL) primary curriculum in which English is taught as a…

  5. Using Literature in a Course on the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jonathan

    1989-01-01

    Courses in Vietnam War history should incorporate Vietnamese, French, and English literary response to the war as complements to the history texts. Possibilities include an account of the French colonial experience, a required text in translation from the viewpoint of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, and Vietnamese expatriate texts. (MSE)

  6. Health economics of screening for hypertension in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Thi Phuong Lan

    2016-01-01

    The studies aims to identify the burden of a cardiovascular diseases and solutions to manage it in Vietnam, notably hypertension screening. The studies confirmed that hypertension creates a great burden in Vietnam in terms of cardiovascular diseases, from economic, clinical and social perspectives.

  7. Teaching the New Vietnam: It's a Country, Not a War

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCornac, Dennis C.

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam has made remarkable progress over the past two decades in its transition to a market economy resulting in numerous changes to both its social and economic institutions. It is a nation at peace focusing on economic development and integrating into the world economy. Although the tragic events in Vietnam's history cannot be forgotten, the…

  8. Fostering Response to Vietnam War Literature through the Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a unit on the literature of the Vietnam War (part of a college course called "Twentieth Century War Literature") which uses the arts to enhance student learning. Discusses activities and assignments in which students create visual representations, conduct research, and prepare oral reports on the Vietnam War literature they…

  9. 78 FR 7452 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...), that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports of steel wire garment... Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... duty orders on steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam. Background The Commission instituted these...

  10. Drawing-Voice as a Methodological Tool for Understanding Teachers' Concerns in a Pilot Hmong-Vietnamese Bilingual Education Programme in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Constance; Benson, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This paper illustrates how a methodological tool called "drawing-voice" can be used to demonstrate qualitatively what statistical and policy data are not able to reveal regarding the educational realities of Hmong minority communities in northern Vietnam, particularly with regard to the role of local language and culture in school. This…

  11. The Future of Patriotism: The War Film, The Cinema Industry, and the Vietnam Veteran Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Examines the media's effect on attitudes about Vietnam veterans. Discusses the relationship between media and culture. Analyzes the film industry's ideological battle over Vietnam. Critiques the media's treatment of the Vietnam experience, and considers the impact of media portrayals of the war on the Vietnam Veteran's movement. (RW)

  12. 31 CFR 500.565 - Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Vietnam and Cambodia. 500.565 Section 500.565 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. (a) The remittances specified in this section are authorized... relative is a national of Vietnam or Cambodia, is a resident of Vietnam, Cambodia, or a country to which...

  13. 77 FR 76170 - Presumption of Exposure to Herbicides for Blue Water Navy Vietnam Veterans Not Supported

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... during the Vietnam War. After careful review of the IOM report, the Secretary determines that the... served in deep-water naval vessels off the coast of Vietnam during the Vietnam War are referred to as... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Presumption of Exposure to Herbicides for Blue Water Navy Vietnam...

  14. Wicked problems: a value chain approach from Vietnam's dairy product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoi, Nguyen Viet

    2013-12-01

    In the past few years, dairy industry has become one of the fastest growing sectors in the packaged food industry of Vietnam. However, the value-added creation among different activities in the value chain of Vietnam dairy sector is distributed unequally. In the production activities, the dairy farmers gain low value-added rate due to high input cost. Whereas the processing activities, which managed by big companies, generates high profitability and Vietnamese consumers seem to have few choices due to the lack of dairy companies in the market. These wicked problems caused an unsustainable development to the dairy value chain of Vietnam. This paper, therefore, will map and analyze the value chain of the dairy industry in Vietnam. It will also assess the value created in each activity in order to imply solutions for a sustainable development of Vietnam's dairy industry. M10, M11.

  15. Difficulties in getting treatment for injuries in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, H M; Byass, P

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge about the health-seeking behaviour of injury patients is important for the improvement of community health services. The aims of this study were: (1) to describe the healthcare-seeking behaviour of injury patients; (2) to examine factors associated with injury patients seeking care at health facilities; and (3) to describe the costs of health care for injury patients. This study took place in Bavi District, northern Vietnam within a longitudinal community surveillance site (FilaBavi). All non-fatal unintentional injuries occurring in a sample of 24,776 people during 2000 were recorded. The injury questionnaire included information on care-seeking behaviour, severity and consequences of injury. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to find associations between sociodemographic factors and utilization of any health services, as well as for each type of health service used, compared with the group who did not use any health services. Of 24,776 persons living in the study area, 1917 reported 2079 new non-fatal debilitating injuries during the four 3-month periods of observation. Health-seeking behaviour relating to the first 1917 injuries was analysed. Self-treatment was most common (51.7%), even in cases of severe injury. There was low usage of public health services (23.2%) among injury patients. Long distances, poor economic status and residence in difficult geographic areas such as highlands and mountains were barriers for seeking health services. A large proportion of household income was spent on treating injury patients. Poor people spent a greater proportion of their income on health care than the rich, and often used less qualified or untrained private providers. These results demonstrate the logistical and financial difficulties associated with the treatment of injuries in rural Vietnam. This suggests the need to make public health subsidies available more efficiently and equitably. Whilst this study looked at the

  16. Vietnam Project For Production Of Radioactive Beam Based On ISOL Technique With The Dalat Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Hong Khiem; Phan Viet Cuong; Fadi Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    The presence in Vietnam of Dalat nuclear reactor dedicated to fundamental studies is a unique opportunity to produce Radioactive Ion (RI) Beams with the fission of a 235 U induced by the thermal neutrons produced by the reactor. We propose to produce RI beams at the Dalat nuclear reactor using ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) technique. This project should be a unique opportunity for Vietnamese nuclear physics community to use its own facilities to produce RI beams for studying nuclear physics at an international level. (author)

  17. Evolving trade policy and the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: does it threaten Vietnam's access to medicine and its progress towards scaling up HIV prevention, treatment and care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linh, Nguyen Nhat; Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Thuy, Hua Thanh

    2015-01-01

    The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) has undergone 18 rounds of secretive negotiation between the USA and 11 Asia-Pacific countries. Aiming at a free trade area, this multilateral trade proposal covers all aspects of commercial relations among the countries involved. Despite some anticipated positive impacts in trade, specific articles in this proposal's intellectual property and transparency chapters might negatively impact access to medicine, in general, and to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, in particular, in Vietnam. Drawing on a desk review and qualitative in-depth interviews with 20 key informants from government, academia, hospitals and civil society, we analyse various provisions of the proposal being negotiated leaked after the 14th round of negotiations in September 2012. Findings suggest that the TPP could lead to increased monopoly protection and could limit technological advancements within the local pharmaceutical manufacturing industry, resulting in higher medicine prices in Vietnam. This outcome would have a significant impact on Vietnam's ability to achieve goals for HIV prevention, treatment and care, and create barriers to universal health-care coverage. This research provides unique evidence for Vietnam to advocate for more equitable pharmaceutical provisions in and to raise awareness of the implications of the TPP among the pharmaceutical stakeholder community in Vietnam.

  18. Application of nuclear energy in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Thuan, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radioactive isotopes were introduced to medical treatment in Vietnam very early by M. Curie in 1923. A research reactor has been in operation since 1963 serving up to now an effective base for radioisotope production and nuclear analysis. After reunification of the country, the nuclear technique applications are developing faster and getting widespread. The twenty-year period from 1976 to 1995 was relatively limited by activity of R and D institutions. Nowadays, their interaction with companies demonstrates a dynamic commercialization of nuclear techniques in Vietnam. Investment from government as well as from the private sector has been increased significantly for the last ten years to nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. The radiographic NDT is getting a familiar technique to industry, particularly, in construction of strategy-important industrial and civil projects. NCS are upgraded in different factories, such as mining, ore processing and cement industries. Tracer techniques have shown benefit in oil offshore exploring and in sedimentation management of rivers and harbours. Isotope techniques are playing a competitive role for environmental monitoring and underground water management in the country. Radiation processing is transferred to a commercial scale emphasizing on sterilization of medical products and food preservation. There are still some problems such as public acceptance of radioactive techniques or a lack of both infrastructure and manpower to meet the national demands. However, the government of Vietnam has recently approved the national strategy for peaceful uses of atomic energy, which not only highlights the development of isotope and radiation applications in near future, but also clearly emphasizes the need of nuclear electrical generation by 2017-2020 for the national energy security

  19. Vietnam: expanding the social security system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruzin, D

    1996-01-01

    Viet Nam's shift toward a market-oriented economy has been associated with annual gross domestic product growth of more than 8% over the past 5 years. At the same time, the emergence of private-sector enterprises and subsequent closure of many state-run enterprises have had profound implications for Viet Nam's social protection systems. At present, only 5.6 million of the country's 33 million workers are covered under the state-run social insurance system. In 1995, the government moved to include private enterprises with 10 or more employees in its state benefits system. The International Labor Organization (ILO) has been working with the Vietnamese Government to design and implement a social security system that would extend coverage progressively to excluded sectors and provide support to workers who have become unemployed as a result of the economic transition process. At its Eighth National Congress, the Vietnamese Communist Party approved a 5-year social and economic plan calling for such an expansion of the social insurance system as well as for a guaranteed standard of living for pensioners. To facilitate anticipated changes, activities that were previously divided between the Ministry of Labor, Invalids, and Social Affairs and the Vietnam General Confederation of Labor have been assigned to the newly formed Vietnam Social Insurance (VSI) Organization. Under consideration is a plan to combine some VSI activities with those of the Vietnam Health Insurance Organization. The ILO will assist with training, computerization, and social security fund investing. Noncompliance is a major obstacle to planned expansion of the social security system; about 90% of private firms are still not paying into the system.

  20. Gender wage gap in Vietnam 1993 - 98

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Y.C. Liu

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses the Vietnam Living Standards Surveys 1992–93 and 1997–98 to examine changes in the gender wage gap. The intertemporal decomposition of Juhn et al. (1991) indicates that changes in observed variables, skill prices and wage inequality have tended to narrow the gap, but the gap effect has tended to widen it, with the net effect being one of little change. This finding is in contrast with that for the EEC but in line with the experience of China. Improving education about equity p...

  1. John Dumbrell, Rethinking the Vietnam War.

    OpenAIRE

    Gratale, Joseph Michael

    2015-01-01

    Since the conclusion of the Vietnam War in the early 1970s, the USA has been involved in a number of wars and military interventions throughout the world.  From the US invasion of Grenada in 1983 and the Persian Gulf War of 1991, to the US wars in Afghanistan and Iraq in the early 21st century, the USA has found a variety of justifications and rationales in pursuing its national interests through the implementation of war.  In spite of the frequency and impacts of US military interventions ov...

  2. Mobile Health Initiatives in Vietnam: Scoping Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jeffrey A; Dang, Linh Thuy; Phan, Ngoc Tran; Trinh, Hue Thi; Vu, Nguyen Cong; Nguyen, Cuong Kieu

    2018-04-24

    Mobile health (mHealth) offers a promising solution to the multitude of challenges the Vietnamese health system faces, but there is a scarcity of published information on mHealth in Vietnam. The objectives of this scoping study were (1) to summarize the extent, range, and nature of mHealth initiatives in Vietnam and (2) to examine the opportunities and threats of mHealth utilization in the Vietnamese context. This scoping study systematically identified and extracted relevant information from 20 past and current mHealth initiatives in Vietnam. The study includes multimodal information sources, including published literature, gray literature (ie, government reports and unpublished literature), conference presentations, Web-based documents, and key informant interviews. We extracted information from 27 records from the electronic search and conducted 14 key informant interviews, allowing us to identify 20 mHealth initiatives in Vietnam. Most of the initiatives were primarily funded by external donors (n=15), while other initiatives were government funded (n=1) or self-funded (n=4). A majority of the initiatives targeted vulnerable and hard-to-reach populations (n=11), aimed to prevent the occurrence of disease (n=12), and used text messaging (short message service, SMS) as part of their intervention (n=14). The study revealed that Vietnamese mHealth implementation has been challenged by factors including features unique to the Vietnamese language (n=4) and sociocultural factors (n=3). The largest threats to the popularity of mHealth initiatives are the absence of government policy, lack of government interest, heavy dependence on foreign funding, and lack of technological infrastructure. Finally, while current mHealth initiatives have already demonstrated promising opportunities for alternative models of funding, such as social entrepreneurship or private business models, sustainable mHealth initiatives outside of those funded by external donors have not yet been

  3. Gender wage gap in transistion in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Y.C. Liu

    2001-01-01

    The impact of sectoral location on the gender earnings gap is important in the context of Vietnam’s transition into a market-oriented economy. More and more women are seeking employment in the private sector either in response to retrenchment in the public sector or in response to increasing economic opportunities in the private sector. We apply the Appleton et al. (1999) decomposition technique to the Vietnam Living Standards Survey data collected in 1992- 93 and 1997-98, to decompose the ge...

  4. The development of peer educator-based harm reduction programmes in Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Nick; Gibbie, Tania M; Higgs, Peter

    2008-03-01

    Injecting drug use remains an important risk factor for transmission in Vietnam, with an estimated 50% of the 290 000 people living with HIV/AIDS reporting injecting drug use as a risk factor. Despite this, effective harm reduction interventions are generally lacking. This paper describes the implementation of peer-based harm reduction programmes in two rural provinces of Vietnam. Peer educators were trained in basic HIV prevention, including harm reduction. After significant preparation work with the Provincial AIDS Committees of Bac Giang and Thanh Hoa and other relevant national, provincial and local authorities, the interventions were commenced. Harm reduction interventions were delivered through outreach as well as on-site. This included needle and syringe distribution and collection. Community advocacy occurred throughout the life of the project. Local authorities and peers believed that while there was a general reduction in stigma and discrimination, legal barriers associated particularly with the carrying of injecting equipment remained. This impacted upon the ability of peer educators to work with their clients. Peer-based delivery of harm reduction intervention is acceptable. Harm reduction interventions, including needle and syringe programmes, are feasible and acceptable in these two rural Vietnamese provinces. Community acceptance and uptake of these interventions is key to successful expansion across the region. Active participation by families of drug users seems crucial. This initiative demonstrates that despite a difficult policy environment, peer-delivered needle and syringe programmes are feasible within a rural Asian environment as long as there is adequate local political and community support.

  5. Autism in Vietnam: the case for the development and evaluation of an information book to be distributed at the time of diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Ko Chung; Browne, Graeme; Hutchinson, Marie; Cashin, Andrew; Binh, Bui Vu

    2012-05-01

    Autism is not generally well understood by the community in the West or in Asia. A diagnosis of autism is distressing for all families. When families receive the diagnosis they are often not able to fully appreciate what it means or process the information given to them. Booklets exist in English that contain relevant autism related information but few have been evaluated. In Vietnam, parents do not have ready access to autism related information. This paper makes the case for offering a Vietnamese language information resource/booklet for parents to be distributed at the beginning of the diagnostic process and evaluating its usefulness. In developed countries autism has been recognised since the 1940s (Kanner, 1943). More recently it is being increasingly recognised in children with average and above intelligence. In Vietnam, a Western view of autism is just developing. Consequently community resources are undeveloped. The community, in general, and health services for children, in particular, have a rudimentary understanding of autism. This paper discusses a Western understanding of autism, autism in Vietnam, and suggests one possible strategy for addressing the educational needs around autism in Vietnam.

  6. Exposure to Tobacco Advertising, Promotion Among the Adult Population in Vietnam and Its Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Thi Thanh; Long, Tran Khanh; Van Anh, Tran Thi; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Quynh; Quan, Nguyen The; Linh, Tran Nu Quy; Ha, Nguyen Thanh; Van Minh, Hoang

    2017-10-01

    The Law on Tobacco Control and the Law on Advertisement prohibit the advertising of any tobacco product in Vietnam. Tobacco promotion and marketing are alsostrictly prohibited. However, the violation of tobacco adverting and promotion is still common in Vietnam. This article aims at describing the exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion among the population aged 15+ years in Vietnam based on the data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2015 from the view of the community, identifying any possible associations between the exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion and other individual factors, and discussing its possible public health implications. A cross-sectional study with the nationwide scale. Secondary data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2015 was explored and analyzed. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regressions were applied in the data analysis. The most common type of adults' exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion was points of sale (8.6%); 9.8% adults exposure to one source of tobacco advertising and 4.0% of them exposed to one source of tobacco promotion. Around 13.3% of Vietnamese adults were exposed to tobacco advertisement, while 2.0% were exposed to tobacco promotion, 5.3% were exposed to both tobacco advertising and promotion, and 16.6% were exposed to tobacco advertising or promotion. Gender, educational level, age, occupation, marital status, socioeconomic status, location (urban, rural), and current smoking status were associated with the exposure to tobacco advertising, tobacco promotion, tobacco advertising and promotion, and tobacco advertising or promotion. Although there are comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion in Vietnam, adults aged 15+ years still reported their exposure to tobacco advertising and promotion. There should be a strict enforcement of the ban on tobacco advertising and promotion in Vietnam.

  7. Grassroots Environmentalism in Vietnam: How Communities Can Initiate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    however, a coalition of international and American NGOs mobilized to expose Nike’s connection to the factory. The campaign involved protests at Nike ...should encourage the NGOs to transfer information strategies used in successful international campaigns, as in the Nike example, to local groups in...expansion into an export driven market economy threaten the continued economic growth and social stability of the nation and must be reversed. The

  8. Proposed Training Plan to Improve Building Energy Efficiency in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced fast growth in energy consumption in the past decade, with annual growth rate of over 12 percent. This is accompanied by the fast increase in commercial energy use, driven by rapid industrialization, expansion of motorized transport, and increasing energy use in residential and commercial buildings. Meanwhile, Vietnam is experiencing rapid urbanization at a rate of 3.4 percent per year; and the majority of the growth centered in and near major cities such as Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. This has resulted in a construction boom in Vietnam.

  9. Formation of Skål International Club in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Quang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a project plan of Skål International Vietnam as a new joining club, with the purpose of forming a new Skål International club in Vietnam. The idea was born in September, 2011 during the 72nd Skål International World Congress in Turku, Finland, where the author – a Young Skål had invited to attend . Vietnam situated in the peninsula of South-East Asia, the country holds great potentials of nature, culture and human power for tourism growth. In spite of joining an Inter...

  10. Environmental Radionuclides in Surface Soils of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hien, P.D.; Hiep, H.T.; Quang, N.H.; Luyen, T.V.; Binh, T.V.; Ngo, N.T.; Long, N.Q.; Bac, V.T.

    2012-01-01

    A database on 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs in surface soils was established to provide inputs for the assessment of the collective dose to the population of Vietnam and to support soil erosion studies using 137 Cs as a tracer. A total of 292 soil samples were taken from undisturbed sites across the territory and the concentrations of radionuclides were determined by gamma spectrometry method. The multiple regression of 137 Cs inventories against characteristics of sampling locations allowed us to establish the distribution of 137 Cs deposition density and its relationship with latitude and annual rainfall. The 137 Cs deposition density increases northward and varies from 178 Bq m -2 to 1,920 Bq m -2 . High rainfall areas in the northern and central parts of the country have received considerable 137 Cs inputs exceeding 600 Bq m -2 , which is the maximum value that can be expected for Vietnam from the UNSCEAR global pattern. The mean activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K are 45, 59 and 401 Bq kg- 1 , respectively, which entail an average absorbed dose rate in air of 62 nGy h -1 , which is about 7% higher than the world average. (author)

  11. Thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa Van; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Nguyen, Dung; Phan, Hoa Thi Thuy; Siridamrongvattana, Sirivara; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Fucharoen, Supan; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Schelp, Frank P

    2013-01-01

    A community-based assessment of thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies was conducted at the Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. By cluster sampling, a total of 410 pregnant women attending the antenatal care service at 30 commune health centers were recruited consecutively from September 2011 to June 2012. Hemoglobin (Hb) analysis was performed using an automated Hb analyzer. α-Thalassemia (α-thal) genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. Out of the 410 pregnant women, 2.7% carried α(0)-thal and 1.2% were β-thal carriers. One woman with the - -(THAI) deletion was also found. Among the females under survey, structural Hb variants with 3.2% Hb E [β26(B8)Glu→Lys, GAG>AAG; HBB: c.78G>C] and 3.7% Hb Constant Spring [Hb CS; α142, Term→Gln, TAA>CAA (α2); HBA2: c.427T>C] were found. Assessing the frequency of thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies by ethnicity, Kinh (Vietnamese) and ethnic minority groups, Hb CS with a high frequency of 24.0% was observed in the ethnic minority groups. These results provide basic population-based information, are useful not only for implementing measures for prevention and control of thalassemias in the region but also for studying the importance of thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies in ethnic minorities within Southeast Asia.

  12. Childhood Lead Exposure from Battery Recycling in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Daniell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Battery recycling facilities in developing countries can cause community lead exposure. Objective. To evaluate child lead exposure in a Vietnam battery recycling craft village after efforts to shift home-based recycling outside the village. Methods. This cross-sectional study evaluated 109 children in Dong Mai village, using blood lead level (BLL measurement, parent interview, and household observation. Blood samples were analyzed with a LeadCare II field instrument; highest BLLs (≥45 μg/dL were retested by laboratory analysis. Surface and soil lead were measured at 11 households and a school with X-ray fluorescence analyzer. Results. All children had high BLLs; 28% had BLL ≥45 μg/dL. Younger age, family recycling, and outside brick surfaces were associated with higher BLL. Surface and soil lead levels were high at all tested homes, even with no recycling history. Laboratory BLLs were lower than LeadCare BLLs, in 24 retested children. Discussion. In spite of improvements, lead exposure was still substantial and probably associated with continued home-based recycling, legacy contamination, and workplace take-home exposure pathways. There is a need for effective strategies to manage lead exposure from battery recycling in craft villages. These reported BLL values should be interpreted cautiously, although the observed field-laboratory discordance may reflect bias in laboratory results.

  13. Childhood Lead Exposure from Battery Recycling in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, William E; Van Tung, Lo; Wallace, Ryan M; Havens, Deborah J; Karr, Catherine J; Bich Diep, Nguyen; Croteau, Gerry A; Beaudet, Nancy J; Duy Bao, Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Battery recycling facilities in developing countries can cause community lead exposure. To evaluate child lead exposure in a Vietnam battery recycling craft village after efforts to shift home-based recycling outside the village. This cross-sectional study evaluated 109 children in Dong Mai village, using blood lead level (BLL) measurement, parent interview, and household observation. Blood samples were analyzed with a LeadCare II field instrument; highest BLLs (≥45 μg/dL) were retested by laboratory analysis. Surface and soil lead were measured at 11 households and a school with X-ray fluorescence analyzer. All children had high BLLs; 28% had BLL ≥45 μg/dL. Younger age, family recycling, and outside brick surfaces were associated with higher BLL. Surface and soil lead levels were high at all tested homes, even with no recycling history. Laboratory BLLs were lower than LeadCare BLLs, in 24 retested children. In spite of improvements, lead exposure was still substantial and probably associated with continued home-based recycling, legacy contamination, and workplace take-home exposure pathways. There is a need for effective strategies to manage lead exposure from battery recycling in craft villages. These reported BLL values should be interpreted cautiously, although the observed field-laboratory discordance may reflect bias in laboratory results.

  14. Alcohol consumption and household expenditure on alcohol in a rural district in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Allebeck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems are on the rise in low- and middle-income countries. Expenditure on alcohol is an important problem for families and communities and needs to be assessed. Aim: This study examines level of alcohol consumption and expenditure on alcohol in a district in Vietnam. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a rural district in northern Vietnam. Multi-stage sampling was employed to randomly select participants from 20 communities and a town in the same district. One thousand five hundred and sixty-four adults (765 males and 799 females aged 18–60 years were interviewed. Information about alcohol use as well as expenditure on alcohol consumption four weeks prior to the interview was gathered. Non-parametric tests and log-linear regression were employed to compare expenditure on alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups. Results: The prevalence of alcohol use one month prior to interview was 35% (66% among men and 5% among women. The median alcohol consumption among those who reported use of alcohol in the week prior to the interview was 7.9 standard drinks. Excessive drinking (more than 14 standard drinks per week for men and more than seven standard drinks per week for women occurred among 35% of those who used alcohol. Median expenditure for alcohol consumption during one month by those who drank alcohol was USD 3.5, accounting for 4.6% of household food expenditure, 2.7% of total household expenditure, and 1.8% of household income. The differences in alcohol consumption and expenditure between sexes and between socioeconomic groups are also presented. Conclusion: Our study confirms that alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems are common among men in Vietnam. The share of alcohol expenditure in total household expenditure is substantial, especially among poor households. This should be considered an important public health issue, which needs to be taken into account in

  15. Alcohol consumption and household expenditure on alcohol in a rural district in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Kim Bao; Van Minh, Hoang; Allebeck, Peter

    2013-01-28

    Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems are on the rise in low- and middle-income countries. Expenditure on alcohol is an important problem for families and communities and needs to be assessed. This study examines level of alcohol consumption and expenditure on alcohol in a district in Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a rural district in northern Vietnam. Multi-stage sampling was employed to randomly select participants from 20 communities and a town in the same district. One thousand five hundred and sixty-four adults (765 males and 799 females) aged 18-60 years were interviewed. Information about alcohol use as well as expenditure on alcohol consumption four weeks prior to the interview was gathered. Non-parametric tests and log-linear regression were employed to compare expenditure on alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups. The prevalence of alcohol use one month prior to interview was 35% (66% among men and 5% among women). The median alcohol consumption among those who reported use of alcohol in the week prior to the interview was 7.9 standard drinks. Excessive drinking (more than 14 standard drinks per week for men and more than seven standard drinks per week for women) occurred among 35% of those who used alcohol. Median expenditure for alcohol consumption during one month by those who drank alcohol was USD 3.5, accounting for 4.6% of household food expenditure, 2.7% of total household expenditure, and 1.8% of household income. The differences in alcohol consumption and expenditure between sexes and between socioeconomic groups are also presented. Our study confirms that alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems are common among men in Vietnam. The share of alcohol expenditure in total household expenditure is substantial, especially among poor households. This should be considered an important public health issue, which needs to be taken into account in the alcohol policy debate.

  16. 77 FR 73967 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... owner displayed on the Wise Avenue Bridge signage that stated a 48-hour advance notice was required to open the draw bridge. This signage portrayed improper operational information since the current operation regulation had not changed. The Coast Guard determined the signage that stated a 48-hour advance...

  17. St. Francis' Nursing Home, Mount Oliver, Dundalk, Louth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Treacy, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Placental villous maturation is maximal in the 3rd trimester, with an abundance of terminal villi. Delayed villous maturation (DVM) of the placenta is associated with chromosomal abnormalities, gestational diabetes, and an adverse outcome. This study compares quantitative assessment of vasculo-syncytial membranes (VSM) in cases of liveborn infants, perinatal deaths, and controls. Cases were selected as follows: (1) liveborn infants with a qualitative diagnosis of DVM (n  =  15); (2) controls matched for gestational age whose placentas did not have DVM (n  =  15); (3) stillbirths (SB)\\/neonatal deaths (NND) showing DVM (n  =  13); and (4) SB from autopsies in which DVM was felt to be the cause of death (COD) (n  =  12). Vasculo-syncytial membranes were counted in 10 terminal villi in each of 10 consecutive high-power fields on 3 slides. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS. Liveborn cases with DVM showed statistically significantly less VSM than controls (mean 1.01 vs 2.42, P < 0.0001). The SB\\/NND group also showed significantly less VSM than the control group (mean 0.46 vs 2.42, P < 0.0001) and less than the liveborn DVM group (mean 0.46 vs 1.01, P  =  0.001). The COD group was significantly different from the control group (mean 0.42 vs 2.42, P < 0.0001) and the liveborn DVM group (mean 0.42 vs 1.01, P < 0.0001) but not significantly different from the SB\\/NND group. There is a quantitative reduction in VSM in cases of DVM compared to controls.

  18. The coal mining industry in Vietnam and its challenges; Steinkohlenbergbau in Vietnam und seine Herausforderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, Per Nicolai; Pateiro Fernandez, Jose B.; Ahmad, Shakeel [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbaukunde I; Cramer, Thomas; Deissmann, Guido [Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Fuchsschwanz, Marcus [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geotechnik

    2010-04-15

    The province of Quang Ninh in the north of Vietnam is the most important coal mining region in the country. The NBCC (Nui Beo Coal Company) operates several open-cast mines. Large quantities of overburden have to be removed and dumped in the immediate environment. The creation of these heaps up to 300 m high is accompanied by many environmental problems. In particular ground and surface waters are contaminated by ''acid mine drainage''. Furthermore, large emissions chiefly in the form of dust occur as a result of the working and dumping depending on the season. In addition the stability of the heaps is sometimes greatly endangered. In the German-Vietnamese Research Association Mining and Environment in Vietnam (RAME) the aspects of coal mining with an effect on the environment are dealt with in various sub-associations and protective measures worked out jointly. (orig.)

  19. The International Alcohol Control Study in Vietnam | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and, -policies that restrict the physical availability of alcoholic beverages or ... This study will provide internationally comparative data on Vietnam's alcohol policy ... among policymakers, there is substantial potential for the research results to ...

  20. Essays on Impact evaluation: new empirical evidence from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Viet Cuong, N.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Credit, cash transfers, remittances, migration, poverty, inequality, impact evaluation, Vietnam, Asia

    This study estimates the impact of various economic flows including government-subsidized micro-credit, informal credit, public and private transfers, international

  1. Making Polluter Pay Legislation Work - A Study of Vietnam's Decree ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Impacts Of Environmental Regulations On The Food Processing Industry In. Vietnam' by Le ... Natural. Resources and Urban Economics & Management, Hanoi National Economics. University ... fast and is recognised as one of the country's ...

  2. Dendrobium roseiodorum (Orchidaceae): a new species from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sathapattayanon, A.; Yukawa, T.; Seelanan, T.

    2010-01-01

    In the course of revisionary work of Dendrobium section Formosae, we found some misinterpretations of Dendrobium kontumense. Dendrobium schildhaueri is placed as a synonym of D. kontumense and D. roseiodorum, a new species from Vietnam, is described.

  3. Perinatal services and outcomes in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nga, Nguyen T; Målqvist, Mats; Eriksson, Leif; Hoa, Dinh P; Johansson, Annika; Wallin, Lars; Persson, Lars-Åke; Ewald, Uwe

    2010-10-01

    We report baseline results of a community-based randomized trial for improved neonatal survival in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam (NeoKIP; ISRCTN44599712). The NeoKIP trial seeks to evaluate a method of knowledge implementation called facilitation through group meetings at local health centres with health staff and community key persons. Facilitation is a participatory enabling approach that, if successful, is well suited for scaling up within health systems. The aim of this baseline report is to describe perinatal services provided and neonatal outcomes. Survey of all health facility registers of service utilization, maternal deaths, stillbirths and neonatal deaths during 2005 in the province. Systematic group interviews of village health workers from all communes. A Geographic Information System database was also established. Three quarters of pregnant women had ≥3 visits to antenatal care. Two hundred and five health facilities, including 18 hospitals, provided delivery care, ranging from 1 to 3258 deliveries/year. Totally there were 17 519 births and 284 neonatal deaths in the province. Neonatal mortality rate was 16/1000 live births, ranging from 10 to 44/1000 in the different districts, with highest rates in the mountainous parts of the province. Only 8% had home deliveries without skilled attendance, but those deliveries resulted in one-fifth of the neonatal deaths. A relatively good coverage of perinatal care was found in a Vietnamese province, but neonatal mortality varied markedly with geography and level of care. A remaining small proportion of home deliveries generated a substantial part of mortality. © 2010 The Author(s)/Journal Compilation © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  4. Why do adult women in Vietnam take iron tablets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yun

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conducting iron supplementation programs has been a major strategy to reduce iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy. However, only a few countries have reported improvements in the anemia rate at a national level. The strategies used for control of nutrition problems need regular review to maintain and improve their effectiveness. The objective of this study was to analyze the factors in compliance with taking iron tablets, where daily doses of iron (60 mg and folic acid (400 μg were distributed in rural Vietnamese communes. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted in Nghe An province, Vietnam in January, 2003. The study population was adult women aged less than 35 years who delivered babies between August 1st 2001 and December 1st 2002 (n = 205, of which 159 took part in the study. Data for the study were collected from a series of workshops with community leaders, focus group discussions with community members and a questionnaire survey. Results Improvements in the rate of anemia was not given a high priority as one of the commune's needs, but the participants still made efforts to continue taking iron tablets. Two major factors motivated the participants to continue taking iron tablets; their experience of fewer spells of dizziness (50%, and their concern for the health of their newborn baby (54%. When examining the reasons for taking iron tablets for at least 5–9 months, the most important factor was identified as 'a frequent supply of iron tablets' (OR = 11.93, 95% CI: 4.33–32.85. Conclusion The study found that multiple poor environmental risk factors discouraged women from taking iron tablets continuously. The availability (frequent supply of iron tablets was the most effective way to help adult women to continue taking iron tablets.

  5. The China Factor in U.S.-Vietnam Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Sailors Who Sacrificed Their Lives in the Truong Sa Islands,” Voice of Vietnam News, 10 May 2010; “Old Problem , New Threats,” Bangkok Post, 30 May 2011...Pacific Trade Policies for the Vietnam Ministry of Industry and Trade, 70 percent of Vietnam’s imports from China consist of essential materials used in...the production of exported goods, including materials and equipment, steel, chemicals, and petroleum, as well as fabric, garment, and footwear

  6. Legal Framework of the Water Sector in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Phuong Loan

    2010-01-01

    Since 1986 and especially during the early 90s, environmental protection has become a constitutional principle in Vietnam as regulated by Articles 17 and 29 of the 1992 Constitution. The first Law on Environmental Protection, passed by the National Assembly on December 27, 1993 created a foundation for environmental legislation becoming an important field in Vietnam’s legal system. In the following, in January 1999, Vietnam enacted its very first Law on Water Resources (No. 08/1998/QH10) aimi...

  7. Child and Family Factors Associated With Child Maltreatment in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, N.K. (Nhu K.); van Berkel, S.R. (Sheila R.); IJzendoorn, Rien; Alink, Lenneke R.A.

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis study aims to explore possible risk factors for child maltreatment in Vietnam by investigating the association of child and family factors with different types of child maltreatment (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, witnessing parental conflict, and neglect) and the occurrence of multiple types of child maltreatment. Cross-sectional data of 1,851 secondary and high school students aged 12 to 17 years (47.3% boys) in four provinces of Northern Vietnam were ...

  8. Air Freight Service Development Plan : Case: CMA CGM Logistics Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Giang

    2014-01-01

    Being one of the fastest-growing nations in the world, Vietnam is trading across the border actively and at the same time attracting multiple foreign investments. Import and export activities are occurring vigorously which leads to a huge potential for international transportation sectors, particularly for aviation industry. Hence, the ultimate goal of this thesis is to establish a development plan of air freight service for the case company – CMA CGM Logistics Vietnam (CCLOG VN). The stu...

  9. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS ANALYSIS AND FIRMS’ VALUATION IN VIETNAM

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Trang Thu

    2009-01-01

    Valuation is the central focus in fundamental analysis. This dissertation considers the usefulness of financial statements in predicting market values of companies in Vietnam stock market by adopting the valuation model constructed by Chung et al., (2001). The overview of Vietnam stock market; some definitions about financial statements, valuation; description of several basis valuation models and empirical evidence including the description of valuation model developed by Chung et al., (2001...

  10. Invasive Plant Species in the National Parks of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Dell; Pham Quang Thu; Dang Thanh Tan

    2012-01-01

    The impact of invasive plant species in national parks and forests in Vietnam is undocumented and management plans have yet to be developed. Ten national parks, ranging from uncut to degraded forests located throughout Vietnam, were surveyed for invasive plant species. Transects were set up along roads, trails where local people access park areas, and also tracks through natural forest. Of 134 exotic weeds, 25 were classified as invasive species and the number of invasive species ranged from ...

  11. Tax corruption and private sector development in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Ngoc Anh; Doan, Quang Hung; Tran-Nam, Binh

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to examine the impact of tax corruption on private sector development in Vietnam. It is motivated by two separate but related considerations. First, despite the seriousness of the phenomenon of corruption, there is a paucity of rigorous empirical research of corruption, particularly tax corruption, in Vietnam. Secondly, ineffective control of corruption is viewed as a cause of Vietnam’s recent total factor productivity (TFP) slowdown or its poor industrial policy, both of wh...

  12. Factors influencing business of mobile telecommunication service providers in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Thanh Hai

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the Ministry of Information and Communications in Vietnam, as of November 2015, the number of mobile subscribers is over 120 million ones, accounting for over 86% of the total number of telephone subscribers. With a total population of over 92 million Vietnam citizens, a stable national economy and a large populations of young consumers in the country, mobile communication industries still have a huge potentials for future development. Telecommunication service providers in Vietnam are facing fierce competition. Subscribers are expecting OTT (Over the Top applications, good quality service and handset subsidy. This study investigated whether legal frameworks, OTT applications, quality of service and handset subsidy are important components of mobile telecommunication service in Vietnam. This study used quantitative method to distribute surveys to mobile subscribers. Findings found that all four factors significantly influence mobile business in Vietnam. Thus, telecommunication service providers in Vietnam must continuously innovate to enhance operational competitiveness, improve business efficiency, expand business scale, and improve its position in the market in order to ensure sustainable development. Moreover, Vietnamese government needs to develop a legal framework to help mobile telecommunication service providers enhance the common interests and benefits of the entire society.

  13. Geographic analysis of shigellosis in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Deok Ryun; Ali, Mohammad; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Park, Jin-Kyung; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Clemens, John

    2008-12-01

    Geographic and ecological analysis may provide investigators useful ecological information for the control of shigellosis. This paper provides distribution of individual Shigella species in space, and ecological covariates for shigellosis in Nha Trang, Vietnam. Data on shigellosis in neighborhoods were used to identify ecological covariates. A Bayesian hierarchical model was used to obtain joint posterior distribution of model parameters and to construct smoothed risk maps for shigellosis. Neighborhoods with a high proportion of worshippers of traditional religion, close proximity to hospital, or close proximity to the river had increased risk for shigellosis. The ecological covariates associated with Shigella flexneri differed from the covariates for Shigella sonnei. In contrast the spatial distribution of the two species was similar. The disease maps can help identify high-risk areas of shigellosis that can be targeted for interventions. This approach may be useful for the selection of populations and the analysis of vaccine trials.

  14. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    In most of the empirical literature on land titling, the household is regarded as unitary, and land rights are found to have ambiguous effects on land allocation, investment and productivity. Using data from 12 provinces in Vietnam, we diversify land titles, and show in a household fixed effects...... analysis of plot level rice yields that land titles are indeed important. Only exclusively held titles have the expected positive effects, and the positive effect on yields is found in male headed households. Furthermore, a household level rice yield function reveals that exclusive user rights...... are inefficiency decreasing, while jointly held user rights have no efficiency effects. Finally, once the gender of the head of household is controlled for, exclusively held female titles have a greater positive effect on the efficiency of the household than that of male held titles...

  15. Political Connections and Investment in Rural Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses household panel data from rural Vietnam to explore the effects of having a relative in a position of political or bureaucratic power on farmers’ agricultural investment decisions. Our main result is that households significantly increase their investment in land improvement...... as a result of relatives moving into public office. Connections to office holders appear to be important for investment because they strengthen de facto land property rights and improve access to off-farm employment and to informal loans. The findings underline the importance of informal networks for economic...... behaviour in environments with developing institutions and markets. They also suggest the presence of an untapped potential for economic development: if households without connections could obtain equally strong property rights and access to credit and insurance as the well-connected households, investment...

  16. Recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Le Van [Radioisotope Dept., Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1998-10-01

    This is a report on the recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam. Using a nuclear research reactor of 500 KW with continuous operation cycles of 100 hours a month, the production of some important radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine and research was routinely carried out. More than 80 per cent of irradiation capacity of reactor for radioisotope production were exploited. The radioactivity of more than 150 Ci of {sup 131}I, {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc, {sup 32}P, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 192}Ir was produced annually. Radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 131}I-Hippuran and in-vivo Kits for {sup 99m}Tc labelling were also prepared routinely and regularly. More than 10 in-vivo Kits including modern radiopharmaceuticals such as HmPAO kit were supplied to hospitals in Vietnam. The research on the improvement of dry distillation technology for production of {sup 131}I was carried out. As a result obtained a new distillation apparatus made from glass was successfully put to routine use in place of expensive quartz distillation furnace. We have also continued the research programme on the development of {sup 99m}Tc generators using low power research reactors. Gel technology using Zr- and Ti- molybdate gel columns for {sup 99m}Tc generator production was developed and improved continually. Portable {sup 99m}Tc generator using Zr-({sup 99}Mo) molybdate gel column and ZISORB adsorbent column for {sup 99m}Tc concentration were developed. The ZISORB adsorbent of high adsorption capacity for {sup 99}Mo and other parent radionuclides was also studied for the development purpose of alternative technology of {sup 99m}Tc and other different radionuclide generator systems. The studies on the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals labelling with {sup 153}Sm and {sup 131}I such as {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, {sup 131}I-MIBG were carried out. (author)

  17. Divorce in the context of domestic violence against women in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Ha Song; Schuler, Sidney; Hoang, Tu Anh; Quach, Trang

    2014-06-01

    This paper examines obstacles for women who face domestic violence in making decisions about divorce and in seeking and securing support for a divorce. The research was undertaken in the context of a project in one district of a coastal province in Vietnam that sought to reduce gender based-violence and mitigate its effects. Data from in-depth interviews and focus-group discussions are used to examine abused women's attitudes, strategies and behaviours and the responses of people in their communities and in the support system established by the project. The findings show that social norms supporting marriage discourage abused women from seeking divorce and, in some cases, any kind of support, and discourage community-based support networks, police and local court systems from providing effective assistance to these women.

  18. Microbial quality of improved drinking water sources: evidence from western Kenya and southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Caitlin A; Kipkorir, Emmanuel C; Nguyen, Kien; Blatchley, E R

    2015-06-01

    In recent decades, more than 2 billion people have gained access to improved drinking water sources thanks to extensive effort from governments, and public and private sector entities. Despite this progress, many water sector development interventions do not provide access to safe water or fail to be sustained for long-term use. The authors examined drinking water quality of previously implemented water improvement projects in three communities in western Kenya and three communities in southern Vietnam. The cross-sectional study of 219 households included measurements of viable Escherichia coli. High rates of E. coli prevalence in these improved water sources were found in many of the samples. These findings suggest that measures above and beyond the traditional 'improved source' definition may be necessary to ensure truly safe water throughout these regions.

  19. 78 FR 31574 - Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1210-1212 (Preliminary)] Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping Duty..., by reason of imports from Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of welded stainless steel pressure pipe...

  20. 78 FR 764 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of... States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia... the Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. Unless the...

  1. Identifying and Improving the image of Vietnam Tourism as a Tourism destination among Finnish tourist

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Anh

    2012-01-01

    This writing attempts to identify the images of Vietnam as a tourism destination for Finnish tourists and suggests marketing solution for Vietnamese traveling company to improve the images of Vietnam by enhancing marketing activities in the Finnish market. Saigontourist Transportation Corporation (STC), Vietnam which is a commissioner of this thesis project, has provided updated information about the current situation of tourism in Vietnam as well as marketing activities of company durin...

  2. Homosexuality-related stigma and sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Huy; Risser, Jan M H; Ross, Michael W; Huynh, Nhung T; Nguyen, Huong T M

    2015-02-01

    This article examined the associations between three forms of homosexuality-related stigma (enacted, perceived, and internalized homosexual stigmas) with risky sexual behaviors, and to describe the mechanisms of these associations, among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Hanoi, Vietnam. We used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit 451 MSM into a cross-sectional study conducted from August 2010 to January 2011. Data were adjusted for recruitment patterns due to the RDS approach; logistic regression and path analyses were performed. Participants were young and single; most had attended at least some college. Nine out of ten participants engaged in sexual behaviors at moderate to high risk levels. Compared to those who had no enacted homosexual stigma, men having low and high levels of enacted homosexual stigma, respectively, were 2.23 times (95 % CI 1.35-3.69) and 2.20 times (95 % CI 1.04-4.76) more likely to engage in high levels of sexual risk behaviors. In addition, there was an indirect effect of perceived homosexual stigma and internalized homosexual stigma on sexual risk behaviors through depression and drug and alcohol use. Our study provides valuable information to our understanding of homosexual stigma in Vietnam, highlighting the need for provision of coping skills against stigma to the gay community and addressing drinking and drug use among MSM, to improve the current HIV prevention interventions in Vietnam.

  3. 77 FR 32873 - Commemoration of the 50th Anniversary of the Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... the 50th Anniversary of the Vietnam War Proclamation 8830--National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2012... Anniversary of the Vietnam War By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As we observe the 50th anniversary of the Vietnam War, we reflect with solemn reverence upon the valor of a...

  4. "Never Forget the Sacrifice:" A Visit to Chu Van An High School in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, David M.

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a 1993 study tour of Vietnam by educators. Discusses the role of a secondary school during the struggle against French colonialism and the U.S.-Vietnam War. Argues that educators must acknowledge the humanity of the Vietnamese as the first step in designing Vietnam-related social studies curriculum. (CFR)

  5. Stratification and the Emergence of the Postsecondary Private Education Sector in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyette, Kimberly Ann

    2012-01-01

    Vietnam has a strong public postsecondary education sector that has only recently begun to experience growth in nonpublic institutions. I investigate how the growth of nonpublic institutions may be related to stratification in Vietnam. I find that these institutions are more likely to serve more advantaged students from South Vietnam. Students pay…

  6. 75 FR 48724 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  7. 75 FR 57501 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  8. 75 FR 22424 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY... duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely...

  9. 77 FR 60675 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... fillets (``fish'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The Department has determined... Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 68...

  10. 78 FR 59915 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... fillets (``fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') that meets the statutory... INFORMATION: Background The AD order on fish fillets from Vietnam was published on August 12, 2003.\\1\\ On...

  11. 77 FR 20356 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). These... on fish fillets from Vietnam.\\1\\ On October 3, 2011 the Department published a notice of initiation...

  12. 78 FR 40100 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') covering the period August 1... Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New...

  13. Making History Come Alive with the Nonfiction Literature of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    2003-01-01

    Considers student response to nonfiction Vietnam War literature and discusses why students should study Vietnam War nonfiction. Presents strategies for teaching nonfiction Vietnam War literature. Presents follow-up research and writing activities that are designed to enable students to connect reading, writing, and thinking. Concludes that the…

  14. 78 FR 11221 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam Determination On the basis... injured by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of... China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec...

  15. 78 FR 64009 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record... from China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in... China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec. 207.2(f) of the...

  16. Assessing willingness to pay for improved sanitation in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Minh, Hoang; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Thanh, Nguyen Hoang; Yang, Jui-Chen

    2013-07-01

    The willingness to pay (WTP) for the construction of bathrooms with a flush toilet was assessed in households in a rural community in northern Vietnam. We also examined the effects of socio-economic factors on the WTP. The contingent valuation method, an economic survey technique, was used. We used the iterative bidding game technique to elicit household WTP that involved a sequence of dichotomous choice questions followed by a final open-ended question. A total of 370 households that did not have toilets were selected for this study. Respondents to the questionnaire were the primary income earners and decision-makers of their respective household. Of those responding to the questionnaire, 62.1 % reported being willing to pay for the construction of bathrooms with a flush toilet. The mean and median of maximum WTP amounts were Viet Nam Dong (VND) 15.6 million and VND 13.0 million, respectively (minimum VND 2.0 million; maximum VND 45.0 million). Significant correlates of the WTP rate were: (1) gender of the head of household, (2) age of the head of household, (3) economic status of household, (4) type of current toilet, (5) satisfaction with existing toilet, and (6) knowledge of health effects of poor sanitation. The significant determinants of WTP amount were (1) geographic location and (2) economic status of household. About two-third of the households in the study area were willing to pay for an improvement in their current sanitation arrangements. Both WTP rate and WP amount were strongly influenced by the economic status of the households and health knowledge of the study respondents.

  17. Alcohol Use, Risk Taking, Leisure Activities and Health Care Use Among Young People in Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Kim Thoa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is associated with a wide range of health and social consequences. It is also associated with a number of risk taking behaviours. These include illicit drug use and unsafe sex.  Alcohol consumption appears to be increasing in Vietnam. The purpose of this paper is to examine the patterns of alcohol consumption and its relationship with a number of other risk taking behaviours amongst young people.  Information was also obtained concerning leisure activities and use of health care. The paper also sets out to examine possible gender differences in relation to alcohol consumption and risk behaviour and to propose the development and implementation of alcohol monitoring and prevention programs in Vietnam.  The study involved a cross-sectional, community survey using a standardised interview.  This was conducted during face-to-face interviews with 1,408 young people aged 10-19 years.  Respondents were recruited randomly through the lists of the households from 12 selected communes in three areas in Northern Vietnam. The findings presented here were part of a larger health risk behaviour survey.  Levels of alcohol use were low. Overall, 16.5% of participants were experienced drinkers, and only 4% of them were current drinkers. Males were significantly more likely than females to report drinking. This study also showed that rates of alcohol consumption were associated with age, education, geographical area, gender, tobacco smoking, involvement in violence, watching television, computer use and playing computer games, wearing safety helmets and use of health services. Alcohol consumption tended to increase with age for both males and females.  Alcohol and its effects on young people are clearly a growing public health issue in Vietnam.  Because of this, more detailed behavioral research should be conducted into the relationship between alcohol consumption and other risky behaviours amongst young people.  It is also

  18. Sister Lab Program Prospective Partner Nuclear Profile: Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissani, M; Tyson, S

    2006-01-01

    Vietnam's nuclear program began in the 1960s with the installation at Dalat of a 250 kW TRIGA Mk-II research reactor under the U.S. Atoms for Peace Program. The reactor was shut down and its core removed only a few years later, and the nuclear research program was suspended until after the end of the civil war in the late 1970s. The Soviet Union assisted Vietnam in restoring the Dalat reactor to an operational status in 1984, trained a cadre of scientific and technical staff in its operation, and contributed to the development of nuclear science for the medical and agricultural sectors. In the agricultural area in particular, Vietnamese experts have been very successful in developing mutant strains of rice, and continue to work with the IAEA to yield strains that have a shorter growing period, increased resistance to disease, and other desirable characteristics. Rice has always been the main crop in Vietnam, but technical cooperation with the IAEA and other states has enabled the country to become one of the top rice producers in the world, exporting much of its annual crop to over two dozen countries annually. More recently, Vietnam's government has shown increasing interest in developing a civil nuclear program to supplement its fossil fuel and other energy resources. Projections from a variety of open sources, ranging from the IAEA, the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA), the Vietnamese government, energy corporations, and think tanks all predict a massive increase in energy consumption--especially electricity--within Vietnam and the region as a whole. This growth in consumption will require a corresponding increase in energy production, which in Vietnam is currently satisfied mainly by fossil fuels (coal) and renewable energy (hydropower and biomass); Vietnam has a refining capacity of about 800 barrels/day. Most of its crude oil is exported to generate export income, and is not used to generate electricity. Although Vietnam is

  19. Methadone Maintenance Therapy in Vietnam: An Overview and Scaling-Up Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tam T. M. Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam is among the countries with the highest rate of HIV transmission through injecting drug users. HIV prevalence among injecting drug users is 20% and up to 50% in many provinces. An estimated number of drug users in the country by the end of 2011 were 171,000 in which the most common is heroin (85%. Detoxification at home, community, and in rehabilitation centers have been the main modalities for managing heroin addiction until Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT was piloted in 2008. Recent reports have demonstrated positive treatment outcomes. Incidence of HIV was found remarkably low among patients on MMT. Treatment has significantly improved the quality of life as well as stability for society. The government has granted the Ministry of Health (MoH to expand Methadone treatment to at least 30 provinces to provide treatment for more than 80,000 drug users by 2015. The Vietnam Administration for HIV/AIDS Control (VAAC and MOH have outlined the role and responsibility of key departments at the central and local levels in implementing and maintaining MMT treatment. This paper will describe the achievements of the MMT pilot program and the scaling-up plan as well as strategies to ensure quality and sustainability and to overcome the challenges in the coming years.

  20. Utilization of skilled birth attendants in public and private sectors in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Mai

    2009-05-01

    The private sector in health care in Vietnam has been increasingly competing with the government in primary health care services. However, little is known about the use of skilled birth attendance or about choice of public and private sectors among those who opt for skilled attendants. Using data from the Vietnam 2002 Demographic and Health Survey, this study examines factors related to women's decision-making of whether to have a skilled birth attendant at a recent childbirth, and if they did, whether it was a public or private sector provider. The study indicates that the use of the private sector for delivery services was significant. Women's household wealth, education, antenatal care and community's wealth were positively related to skilled birth attendance, while ethnicity and order of childbirth were negatively related. Order of childbirth was positively associated with skilled birth attendance in the private sector. Among service environment factors, increased access to public sector health centres was associated with an increased likelihood of skilled birth attendance in general, but a lowered chance of that in the private sector. Further studies are needed to assess the current situation in the private sector, the demand for delivery services in the private sector, and its readiness to provide quality services.

  1. The drink driving situation in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Luu Bich; Thieng, Nguyen Thi; Huong, Nguyen Lan

    2012-01-01

    To identify the extent and nature of the problem and the main contributing factors to drink driving crashes; determine the current mechanisms in place, particularly in terms of legislation and its enforcement; and identify baseline data and relevant stakeholders. The situational assessment was based on the collection of secondary data from available reports and documents, in-depth interviews with key representatives at a central level, and field surveys in provinces. Vietnam has experienced phenomenal growth in motor vehicles, especially motorcycles, in the last decade (400%). This initially led to an increase in deaths from road crashes, but since 2006 the number has stayed fairly level according to police statistics. However, comparisons with health data suggest that the number of deaths is much higher and there are clearly a number of problems with the relevant data systems. Data on the percentage of drivers exceeding legal limits are not available, but police statistics indicated that drinking alcohol was a contributory factor in 7 percent of motor vehicle crashes. This is likely to be an underestimate, because the police and health services do not have the equipment to measure the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels of all drivers in crashes. Motorcycle riders and young people are in the high-risk groups. There are strict BAC limits starting at over zero and severe punishments for drunk drivers involved in serious crashes. However, the police do not have adequate manpower or equipment to conduct regular and frequent roadside checking for drivers who have been drinking. There have also been a number of education programs on road safety including drinking and driving, but these have not included sustained and intensive campaigns targeting the high-risk groups. The National Traffic Safety Committee (NTSC) is responsible for coordinating the relevant agencies but there is still a problem with lack of information sharing between agencies. This study completed

  2. Breastfeeding practices in urban and rural Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Huong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe and compare breastfeeding practices in rural and urban areas of Vietnam and to study associations with possibly influencing person and household factors. This type of study has not been conducted in Vietnam before. Methods Totally 2,690 children, born from 1st March 2008 to 30th June 2010 in one rural and one urban Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, were followed from birth to the age of 12 months. Information about demography, economy and education for persons and households was obtained from household surveys. Standard statistical methods including survival and regression analyses were used. Results Initiation of breastfeeding during the first hour of life was more frequent in the urban area compared to the rural (boys 40% vs. 35%, girls 49% vs. 40%. High birth weight and living in households with large number of assets significantly increased the probability for early initiation of breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding at three months of age was more commonly reported in the rural than in the urban area (boys 58% vs. 46%, girls 65% vs. 53%. The duration of exclusive breastfeeding as well as of any breastfeeding was longer in the rural area than in the urban area (medians for boys 97 days vs. 81 days, for girls 102 days vs. 91 days. The percentages of children with exclusive breastfeeding lasting at least 6 months, as recommended by WHO, were low in both areas. The duration of exclusive breastfeeding was significantly shorter for mothers with three or more antenatal care visits or Caesarean section in both areas. High education level of mothers was associated with longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding in the rural area. No significant associations were found between duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother’s age, household economy indicators or household size. Conclusion Intervention programs with the aim to promote breastfeeding are needed. Mothers should

  3. Maternal mortality in Vietnam in 1994-95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu, D T; Hanenberg, R; Vach, T H; Vinh, D Q; Sokal, D

    1999-12-01

    This report presents the first population-based estimates of maternal mortality in Vietnam. All the deaths of women aged 15-49 in 1994-95 in three provinces of Vietnam were identified and classified by cause. Maternal mortality was the fifth most frequent cause of death. The maternal mortality ratio was 155 deaths per 100,000 live births. This ratio compares with the World Health Organization's estimates of 430 such deaths globally and 390 for Asia. The maternal mortality ratio in the delta regions of these provinces was half that of the mountainous and semimountainous regions. Because a larger proportion of the Vietnamese population live in delta regions than elsewhere, the maternal mortality ratio for Vietnam as a whole may be lower than that of the three provinces studied. Maternal mortality is low in Vietnam primarily because a relatively high proportion of deliveries take place in clinics and hospitals, where few women die in childbirth. Also, few women die of the consequences of induced abortion in Vietnam because the procedure is legal and easily available.

  4. Investigating the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mulali, Usama; Saboori, Behnaz; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the existence of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in Vietnam during the period 1981–2011. To realize the goals of this study, a pollution model was established applying the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) methodology. The results revealed that the pollution haven hypothesis does exist in Vietnam because capital increases pollution. In addition, imports also increase pollution which indicates that most of Vietnam's imported products are energy intensive and highly polluted. However, exports have no effect on pollution which indicates that the level of exports is not significant enough to affect pollution. Moreover, fossil fuel energy consumption increases pollution while renewable energy consumption has no significant effect in reducing pollution. Furthermore, labor force reduces pollution since most of Vietnam's labor force is in the agricultural and services sectors which are less energy intensive than the industrial sector. Based on the obtained results, the EKC hypothesis does not exist because the relationship between GDP and pollution is positive in both the short and long run. - Highlights: • The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in Vietnam is investigated. • The Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) methodology was utilized. • The EKC hypothesis does not exist

  5. Estimating the extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Palmer, Michael; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Duong, Le Bach

    2015-01-01

    Disability is shown to be both a cause and a consequence of poverty. However, relatively little research has investigated the economic cost of living with a disability. This study reports the results of a study on the extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam in 2011. The study was carried out in eight cities/provinces in Vietnam, including Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh cities (two major metropolitan in Vietnam) and six provinces from each of the six socio-economic regions in Vietnam. Costs are estimated using the standard of living approach whereby the difference in incomes between people with disability and those without disability for a given standard of living serves as a proxy for the cost of living with disability. The extra cost of living with disability in Vietnam accounted for about 8.8-9.5% of annual household income, or valued about US$200-218. Communication difficulty was shown to result in highest additional cost of living with disability and self-care difficulty was shown to lead to the lowest levels of extra of living cost. The extra cost of living with disability increased as people had more severe impairment. Interventions to promote the economic security of livelihood for people with disabilities are needed.

  6. The Vietnam Drug User Returns. Final Report. Special Action Office Monograph, Series A, Number 2, May 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Lee N.

    This report, based upon case records and follow-up interviews with 965 U.S. Servicemen returning from Vietnam investigates: (1) the availability and utilization of narcotics, marihuana and alcohol in Vietnam; (2) the psychosocial and demographic predictors of pre- and post-Vietnam narcotic use; and (3) the post-Vietnam adjustment difficulties of…

  7. Social capital and mental health among mothers in Vietnam who have children with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Minh Thuy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Having a child with a disability is a heavy burden for mothers, especially in developing countries, where there is little available financial or other government support. Having a child with a disability is also linked to mental health problems and poor quality of life. Communities rich in social capital and individuals who have high levels of personal social capital generally enjoy day-to-day and long-term health and social benefits but this has not been investigated in Vietnam among mothers of children with disabilities. This study aims to investigate these mothers’ distress in terms of their social capital. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on an interviewer-assisted survey included 172 mothers of children with moderate/severe disabilities in two provinces of Vietnam (one in the North and one in central Vietnam, using a newly translated and modified version of the Australian community participation questionnaire, several measures of personal social cohesion, and Kessler's 10-item measure of general psychological distress. Hierarchical linear regression modelling was used to explore the relationships among socio-demographic factors, multiple components of structural and cognitive social capita, and mothers’ distress controlling for a wide range of socio-demographic characteristics, the nature of the child's disability, and mothers’ personality (extroversion. Results: Mothers in this study were highly and multiply disadvantaged, and they had very high levels of distress and low levels of community participation. Furthermore, most forms of participation were associated with greater, not less, distress. Socio-demographic characteristics, child's disability, and mothers’ personality did little to explain variance in mothers’ distress, but types and amounts of participation were important predictors. The final regression model explained 29% of variance in distress, with major contributions made by living in a mountainous

  8. Husbands' involvement in abortion in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, A; Nga, N T; Huy, T Q; Dat, D D; Holmgren, K

    1998-12-01

    This study analyzes the involvement of men in abortion in Vietnam, where induced abortion is legal and abortion rates are among the highest in the world. Twenty men were interviewed in 1996 about the role they played in their wives' abortions and about their feelings and ethical views concerning the procedure. The results showed that both husbands and wives considered the husband to be the main decisionmaker regarding family size, which included the decision to have an abortion, but that, in fact, some women had undergone an abortion without consulting their husbands in advance. Parents and in-laws were usually not consulted; the couples thought they might object to the decision on moral grounds. Respondents' ethical perspectives on abortion are discussed. When faced with an unwanted pregnancy, the husbands adopted an ethics of care and responsibility toward family and children, although some felt that abortion was immoral. The study highlights the importance of understanding husbands' perspectives on their responsibilities and rights in reproductive decisionmaking and their ethical and other concerns related to abortion.

  9. Efficiency and productivity of hospitals in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thuy Linh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the relative efficiency and productivity of hospitals during the health reform process. Data envelopment analyses method (DEA) with the input-oriented variable-returns-to-scale model was used to calculate efficiency scores. Malmquist total factor productivity index approach was then employed to calculate productivity of hospitals. Data of 101 hospitals was extracted from databases of the Ministry of Health, Vietnam from the years 1998 to 2006. There was evidence of improvement in overall technical efficiency from 65 per cent in 1998 to 76 per cent in 2006. Hospitals' productivity progressed around 1.4 per cent per year, which was mainly due to the technical efficiency improvement. Furthermore, provincial hospitals were more technically efficient than their central counterparts and hospitals located in different regions performed differently. The paper provides an insight in the performance of Vietnamese public hospitals that has been rarely examined before and contributes to the existing literature of hospital performance in developing countries

  10. Adverse health consequences of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2015-01-01

    The 40th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War is a useful time to review the adverse health consequences of that war and to identify and address serious problems related to armed conflict, such as the protection of noncombatant civilians. More than 58,000 U.S. servicemembers died during the war and more than 150,000 were wounded. Many suffered from posttraumatic stress disorders and other mental disorders and from the long-term consequences of physical injuries. However, morbidity and mortality, although difficult to determine precisely, was substantially higher among the Vietnamese people, with at least two million of them dying during the course of the war. In addition, more than one million Vietnamese were forced to migrate during the war and its aftermath, including many "boat people" who died at sea during attempts to flee. Wars continue to kill and injure large numbers of noncombatant civilians and continue to damage the health-supporting infrastructure of society, expose civilians to toxic chemicals, forcibly displace many people, and divert resources away from services to benefit noncombatant civilians. Health professionals can play important roles in promoting the protection of noncombatant civilians during war and helping to prevent war and create a culture of peace.

  11. The baseline characteristics and interim analyses of the high-risk sentinel cohort of the Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic InfectiONS (VIZIONS)

    OpenAIRE

    Carrique-Mas, Juan J.; Tue, Ngo T.; Bryant, Juliet E.; Saylors, Karen; Cuong, Nguyen V.; Hoa, Ngo T.; An, Nguyen N.; Hien, Vo B.; Lao, Pham V.; Tu, Nguyen C.; Chuyen, Nguyen K.; Chuc, Nguyen T.K.; Tan, Dinh V.; Duong, Hoang Van V.; Toan, Tran K.

    2015-01-01

    The Vietnam Initiative for Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS) includes community-based 'high-risk sentinel cohort' (HRSC) studies investigating individuals at risk of zoonotic infection due to occupational or residential exposure to animals. A total of 852 HRSC members were recruited between March 2013 and August 2014 from three provinces (Ha Noi, Dak Lak, and Dong Thap). The most numerous group (72.8%) corresponded to individuals living on farms, followed by slaughterers (16.3%) and animal health...

  12. Impact of typhoon disturbance on the diversity of key ecosystem engineers in a monoculture mangrove forest plantation, Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, Vietnam.

    OpenAIRE

    Diele, Karen.; Tran Ngoc, D M.; Geist, S J.; Meyer, F.; Pham, Q H.; Saint-Paul, Ulrich.; Triet, Tran.; Berger, Uta.

    2013-01-01

    Mangrove crabs as key ecosystem engineers may play an important role in the recovery process of storm-damaged forests. Yet, their response to storm disturbance is largely unknown. Here we compare the ground-dwelling brachyuran crab community of intact mangrove stands with that of typhoon gaps having experienced 100% tree mortality. Field work was conducted in two adjacent areas in Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, southern Vietnam. In each area, an 18–20 yr old monoculture Rhizophora apiculata stand...

  13. Taxonomic Notes on the Genus Delta de Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen, Lien Thi Phuong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic study of the genus Delta de Saussure, 1855 from Vietnam is presented. A total of four species are recorded: D. campaniforme campaniforme (Fabricius, 1775, D. conoideum (Gmelin, 1790, D. esuriens esuriens (Fabricius, 1787, and D. pyriforme pyriforme (Fabricius, 1775. Of these, D. campaniforme campaniforme was first recorded from Vietnam by de Saussure et al., 1904, under the name Eumenes esuriens and is now reconfirmed to occur in Vietnam after more than 100 years, and D. conoideum is newly recorded from Vietnam. A key to species based on morphological characters is given with illustrations, and distributional records in Vietnam are also provided.

  14. Vietnam: opportunities in a developing oil and gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, T.

    1993-11-01

    The aim of this report is to act as an introduction to Vietnam and its oil industry opportunities for manufacturing, contracting, service and supplies companies which are seeking entry into other markets. The chapters of the report present an overview of the country, its recent history and formative events; in addition, the country's economy, industries and rebuilding process are reviewed. Detailed attention is given to trade, investment and finance, as these factors directly influence all business ventures in Vietnam, and are essential considerations in the assessment of the overall business environment. The appendices contain an extensive list of organisational contacts in Vietnam, the U.K. and elsewhere, and other useful information to support these activities. (author)

  15. Recent applications of nuclear medicine techniques and results in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Sy An

    2008-01-01

    The author presented recent applications of nuclear medicine techniques and results in Vietnam. The author concentrated some valuable and helpful studies such as functional tests, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, bone, thyroid, lung, kidney and gastrointestinal tract scintigraphy for diagnosis. The results of RIA and IRMA concerning with thyroid diseases, cancer, microalbuminuria and TSH in blood spot on paper for screening of congenital hypothyroidism in new born babies were also given. The report also mentioned results of liver cancer and palliative bone metastasis treatments in Vietnam. A new technique using gamma probe in surgery for breast cancer was presented. The author introduced some modern teleradiotherapeutic modalities such as cyberknif, gamma knife, gamma rotating systeme and linac recently installed in Vietnam. (author)

  16. The Influence of Chinese Master Taixu on Buddhism in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise A. DeVido

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available From the 1920s, Vietnamese Buddhist reformers revitalized their religion, inspired in great part by the Chinese monk Taixu’s blueprint to modernize and systematize sangha education and temple administration, and by his idea ofrenjian fojiao, “Buddhism for this world,” emphasizing the centrality of education, modern publishing, social work, and Buddhist lay groups to Buddhism’s future in the modern world. This article first discusses the Chinese Buddhist revival, then the activities of Buddhist reformers in Vietnam 1920s–60s, and the flows of Buddhist personnel and materials between Vietnam and China. This article explores how renjian fojiao was interpreted and realized in Vietnam, especially its influence upon Thich Nhat Hanh as he developed his ideas on “Engaged Buddhism.”

  17. The insoluble question of electric power in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottet, Eric; Lasserre, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    An economic dragon for the last twenty years or so, Vietnam is faced with a strongly growing demand for electric energy. Though the country is rich of many different resources necessary to producing electricity, most of them are available in limited quantities. According to forecasts for the 2030-2050 period, Vietnam's coal and natural gas resources will not be able to meet the national demand. Consequently, Hanoi's main goals are to develop and invest in hydroelectricity, renewable energies and a civil nuclear programme. For lack of rigorous planning, adequate financing and given the tensions in the South China Sea, Vietnam's electric energy production growth plan seems technically, financially and geo-politically unfeasible without the help of foreign actors, ultimately weakening the Party-State

  18. Son preference in a rural village in North Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Danièle

    2002-12-01

    This article explores the continuing preference for sons in the context of low fertility in Vietnam. Although the total fertility rate for Vietnam declined from 6.0 children per woman of reproductive age in 1979 to 2.2 children in 1998, demographic evidence shows that son preference remains strong and influences contraceptive and fertility behavior. This study examines the underlying factors for son preference in a rural village in North Vietnam. The methodology includes focus-group discussions, an in-depth study of 25 families, and ethnographic observation. Results indicate that sons are highly desired for their social, symbolic, and economic value. In spite of four decades of socialist policies aimed at reducing gender-based inequalities and at weakening the patriarchal kinship system, the desire for sons continues to drive the family-building process. The article also indicates a gap between discourse and social practice with respect to roles assigned to children on the basis of their sex.

  19. Formal and informal credit in four provinces of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel; Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders. Formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation, while informal loans are used for consumption smoothen......This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders. Formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation, while informal loans are used for consumption...

  20. Mental health, life functioning and risk factors among people exposed to frequent natural disasters and chronic poverty in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Amie Alley; Weiss, Bahr; Trung, Lam Tu

    2016-06-01

    living in central coastal Vietnam have elevated rates of PTSD, somatic syndrome, and functional impairment but not depression or anxiety. Financial stress was the strongest predictor of mental health problems. Results suggest the importance of conducting broad assessments when providing mental health support for disaster-impacted communities. Study results suggest that one indirect consequence of predicted global climate change may be increased prevalence of mental health problems in communities such as that assessed in the present study, due to increased risk for traumatic storm-related exposure and through indirect effects on financial stress, but not through a general increased risk for major storms. Such results also indicate that when supporting LMIC communities that have experienced natural disasters, it will be important to consider the broader community context including poverty, in addition to the direct effects of the disaster.

  1. EVALUATION OF THE TRADE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VIETNAM AND CHINA; VIETNAM AND UNITED STATES: A COMPARISON USING GRAVITY MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Thi Dinh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the determinants of trade relationship between two largest trading partners of Vietnam, United States and China. Using gravity model for time series data from 1986 to 2015, the study found that economic growth rate plays a crucial role in stimulating the trade flow. Both trade relationships fit with the practical approach of Heckscher-Ohlin theory, stating that trade flow increases between countries with different income levels. The most important finding of this study lines on the results regarding the impact of trade agreements. While United States-Vietnam bilateral agreement creates trade, the trade agreement between ASEAN and China produced trade diversion. As China expands its markets among ASEAN countries, Vietnam should diversify its export markets to improve its export flow.

  2. Working in partnership with interpreters: studies on individuals affected by HIV/AIDS in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradik Harris, Lesley; Boggiano, Victoria; Nguyen, Duy Thang; Pham, Le Hoang Linh

    2013-10-01

    This article brings together two American qualitative researchers and two Vietnamese interpreters who investigated the social impacts of HIV/AIDS in Vietnam from the standpoint of the local community. As cultural outsiders with limited Vietnamese language skills, the researchers relied on the insights and expertise of the interpreters to the extent that interpreter roles expanded to become co-researchers. We explain the guidelines we used to work in partnership in the field. We then describe how the relationship between researcher and interpreter developed into co-researching, and how we utilized this relationship to respond to challenges in the work. Despite an increasing number of international qualitative studies, little research has focused on the nuances of a working partnership between researcher and interpreter, and few studies include interpreters as co-researchers. This article contributes to an understanding of how the researcher-interpreter relationship impacts the voice of the participant and, ultimately, the final outcomes of the project.

  3. A Multi-Criteria Approach to Dry Port Location in Developing Economies with Application to Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Canh Nguyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conceptual framework for the inclusion of multiple criteria in the evaluation of dry port location in developing countries from a multiple stakeholder perspective. We present the framework in four steps. The first step encompasses preliminary research to filter the alternative locations for dry port development. In the second step, the stakeholders are clustered in three groups: dry port users, dry port service providers and the wider community. Then, we present the sub-criteria related to dry port location including the associated measuring methods. The third step includes an explanation on the methods used for weighing these criteria and sub-criteria. A multi-criteria analysis is carried out in the final step. We apply the methodological framework to Vietnam. The location of a new dry port project in Vinh Phuc province will be evaluated against two existing inland clearance depots (ICD in Lao Cai and Phu Tho province.

  4. Four malaria success stories: how malaria burden was successfully reduced in Brazil, Eritrea, India, and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, Lawrence M

    2006-01-01

    While many countries struggle to control malaria, four countries, Brazil, Eritrea, India, and Vietnam, have successfully reduced malaria burden. To determine what led these countries to achieve impact, published and unpublished reports were reviewed and selected program and partner staff were interviewed to identify common factors that contributed to these successes. Common success factors included conducive country conditions, a targeted technical approach using a package of effective tools, data-driven decision-making, active leadership at all levels of government, involvement of communities, decentralized implementation and control of finances, skilled technical and managerial capacity at national and sub-national levels, hands-on technical and programmatic support from partner agencies, and sufficient and flexible financing. All these factors were essential in achieving success. If the goals of Roll Back Malaria are to be achieved, governments and their partners must take the lessons learned from these program successes and apply them in other affected countries.

  5. Hospital clinical pharmacy services in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Hieu T; Nguyen, Huong T L; Pham, Van T T; Ba, Hai L; Dong, Phuong T X; Cao, Thao T B; Nguyen, Hanh T H; Brien, Jo-Anne

    2018-04-07

    Background Clinical pharmacy is key to the quality use of medicines. While there are different approaches in different countries, international perspectives may inform health service development. The Vietnamese Ministry of Health introduced a legal regulation of clinical pharmacy services in December 2012. Objective To describe the services, and to explore reported barriers and facilitators in implementing clinical pharmacy activities in Vietnamese hospitals after the introduction of Vietnamese Ministry of Health legal regulation. Setting Thirty-nine hospitals in Hanoi, Vietnam, including 22 provincial and 17 district hospitals. Method A mixed methods study was utilized. An online questionnaire was sent to the hospitals. In-depth interviews were conducted with pairs of nominated pharmacists at ten of these hospitals. The questionnaire focused on four areas: facilities, workforce, policies and clinical pharmacy activities. Main outcome measure Proportion of clinical pharmacy activities in hospitals. Themes in clinical pharmacy practice. Results 34/39 (87%) hospitals had established clinical pharmacy teams. Most activities were non-patient-specific (87%) while the preliminary patient-specific clinical pharmacy services were available in only 8/39 hospitals (21%). The most common non-patient-specific activities were providing medicines information (97%), reporting adverse drug reactions (97%), monitoring medication usage (97%). The patient specific activities varied widely between hospitals and were ad hoc. The main challenges reported were: lack of workforce and qualified clinical pharmacists. Conclusion While most hospitals had hospital-based pharmacy activities, the direct patient care was limited. Training, education and an expanded work forces are needed to improve clinical pharmacy services.

  6. Analysis of selected social determinants of health and their relationships with maternal health service coverage and child mortality in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Van Minh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Achieving a fair and equitable distribution of health in the population while progressing toward universal health coverage (UHC is a key focus of health policy in Vietnam. This paper describes health barriers experienced by women (and children by inference in Vietnam, and measures how UHC, with reference to maternal health services and child mortality rates, is affected by selected social determinants of health (SDH, termed ‘barriers’. Methods: Our study uses a cross-sectional design with data from the 2011 Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. The study sample includes 11,663 women, aged 15–49 years. Weighted frequency statistics are cross-tabulated with socioeconomic characteristics of the population to describe the extent and distribution of health barriers experienced by disadvantaged women and children in Vietnam. A subset of women who had a live birth in the preceding two years (n=1,383 was studied to assess the impact of barriers to UHC and health. Six multiple logistic regressions were run using three dependent variables in the previous two years: 1 antenatal care, 2 skilled birth attendants, and 3 child death in the previous 15 years. Independent predictor variables were: 1 low education (incomplete secondary education, 2 lack of access to one of four basic amenities. In a second set of regressions, a constructed composite barrier index replaced these variables. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were used to report regression results. Results: In Vietnam, about 54% of women aged 15–49 years in 2011, had low education or lacked access to one of four basic amenities. About 38% of poor rural women from ethnic minorities experienced both barriers, compared with less than 1% of rich urban women from the ethnic majority. Incomplete secondary education or lack of one of four basic amenities was a factor significantly associated with lower access to skilled birth attendants (OR=0.28, 95% CI: 0.14

  7. Cost of Illness of Chronic Hepatitis B Infection in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, Hong Anh T.; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Kane, Sumit; Le, Diep M.; Postma, Maarten J.; Li, Shu Chuen

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the total financial burden of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection for Vietnam by quantifying the direct medical, the direct nonmedical, and indirect costs among patients with various stages of chronic HBV infection. Direct medical cost data were retrieved retrospectively from

  8. Mangrove restoration in Vietnam : Key considerations and a practical guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchand, M.

    2008-01-01

    In Vietnam mangrove rehabilitation has a long history and gained momentum after the war that destroyed huge forested areas, especially in the Mekong Delta. In addition, in various places mangrove have been and still are being planted specifically as a way to protect shorelines and sea-dykes from

  9. Child and Family Factors Associated With Child Maltreatment in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, N.K. (Nhu K.); van Berkel, S.R. (Sheila R.); M.H. van IJzendoorn (Rien); L.R.A. Alink (Lenneke R.A.)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis study aims to explore possible risk factors for child maltreatment in Vietnam by investigating the association of child and family factors with different types of child maltreatment (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, witnessing parental conflict, and neglect) and

  10. Developing the Profession of School Psychology in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terjesen, Mark D.; Kassay, Kimberly S.; Bolger, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Building upon a successful prior initial trip to Vietnam in January 2008, students and faculty from St. John's University (STJ) School Psychology program returned to work with the faculty from Hanoi National University of Education (HNUE) in developing the profession of school psychology in that country. The purpose of this trip was twofold: (1)…

  11. Youth Transition to Employment in Vietnam: A Vulnerable Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi Tuyet

    2018-01-01

    Literature suggests that educational attainment is one of the significant factors affecting youth transition to work. The process of capital accumulation through education is suggested as the key marker of social inclusion and exclusion. This paper compares the educational attainment among youth in Vietnam with their status in employment. It uses…

  12. Neonatal bloodstream infections in a pediatric hospital in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Yasmin; Thieu Chuong, Do Huu; Phuong, Cam Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    Septicemia and bloodstream infections (BSIs) are major causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We prospectively recorded all positive blood cultures (BSI) among neonates admitted consecutively to a tertiary pediatric hospital in Vietnam during a 12-month period. Among...

  13. Social Change and Fathering: Change or Continuity in Vietnam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakody, Rukmalie; Phuong, Pham Thi Thu

    2013-01-01

    Dramatic social changes have restructured virtually all aspects of Vietnam society. Although the economic consequences of these changes are well documented, little is known about how family roles and relationships have been affected. Because social and cultural contexts powerfully shape conceptions of parenting, the accelerated rate of social…

  14. Two new species of Nemouridae (Plecoptera) from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fochetti, Romolo; Ceci, Massimo

    2017-05-23

    Two new species belonging to the family Nemouridae, Nemoura kontumensis sp. nov. and Amphinemura konplongensis sp. nov. are described from the Central Highlands of Vietnam. Remarks on the affinities with related species are given.

  15. Consumer’s Evaluation and Choice of Beer in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe; Yang, Yingkui

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the consumer’s evaluation and choice for beer characteristics is critical for marketers, nutritionist and health educators. We used multi-profile best-worst scaling to understand how consumers evaluate beer attributes in Vietnam context. We found that beer brand, price and packaging...

  16. Perceptions of Higher Education Quality at Three Universities in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Huong Thi; Starkey, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Vietnam is experiencing rapid expansion in the provision of higher education that requires quality assurance appropriate for the Vietnamese-centralised Confucian cultural context. This paper aims to examine the concept of quality from the perspectives of academic leaders, quality assurance members and academics at three higher education…

  17. Regional Labor Market Integration, Shadow Wages and Poverty in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, Le Dang; Oostendorp, Remco H.

    2017-01-01

    Poor workers suffer from low returns to their most abundant resource, labor. In this paper we show that labor market integration strongly affects these returns for poor workers in Vietnam. Using seven representative household surveys, it is shown that while regional labor markets have become

  18. Vietnam's evolving poverty map : patterns and implications for policy

    OpenAIRE

    Lanjouw, Peter; Marra, Marleen; Nguyen, Cuong

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses small area estimation techniques to update Vietnam's province and district-level poverty map to 2009. It finds that poverty rates continue to be highest in the northern and central mountainous regions, where ethnic minorities make up a large fraction of the population. Poverty has fallen in most provinces and districts over this decade, but the pace of poverty reduction has...

  19. Agent-based modelling of shifting cultivation field patterns, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck; Leisz, S.; Rasmussen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Shifting cultivation in the Nghe An Province of Vietnam's Northern Mountain Region produces a characteristic land-cover pattern of small and larger fields. The pattern is the result of farmers cultivating either individually or in spatially clustered groups. Using spatially explicit agent...

  20. Utilities of Patients with Hypertension in Northern Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Thi-Phuong-Lan; Krabbe, Paul F. M.; Nguyen, Thi-Bach-Yen; Schuiling-Veninga, Catharina C. M.; Wright, E. Pamela; Postma, Maarten J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The study aims to inform potential cost-effectiveness analysis of hypertension management in Vietnam by providing utilities and predictors of utilities in patients with hypertension. Methods Hypertensive patients up to 80 years old visiting the hospital were invited to participate in a

  1. Authoring Teacher Development in a Graduate Seminar in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurain, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this narrative inquiry is to explore stories of teacher development experienced by English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers in a graduate seminar in Vietnam. The author was the instructor for the course, entitled "Literature and Language Teaching." Three types of data were collected: course documents, a professional…

  2. Framework for Naval Cooperation between Vietnam and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    the Vietnam-United States relationship has taken giant steps forward in virtually every aspect, especially solidified by a Comprehensive Partnership...United States relationship has taken giant steps forward in virtually every aspect, especially solidified by a Comprehensive Partnership Agreement signed...Economic Zone FTA Free Trade Agreement GDP Gross Domestic Product IMET International Military Education and Training MIA Missing in Action

  3. Dilemmas in Examining Understanding of Nature of Science in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatherley-Greene, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The two authors, Thi Phuong Thao-Do and Chokchai Yuenyong, explored the Nature of Science as it is understood in Vietnam, a fast-developing "ancient" and modern country which continues to be shaped by uniquely Asian social norms and values. Upon reviewing their paper, I observed strong parallels to the country, the United Arab Emirates,…

  4. Agent Orange exposure and attributed health effects in Vietnam veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alvin L; Cecil, Paul F

    2011-07-01

    Serum dioxin studies of Vietnam (VN) veterans, military historical records of tactical herbicide use in Vietnam, and the compelling evidence of the photodegradation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other aspects of environmental fate and low bioavailability of TCDD are consistent with few, if any, ground troop veterans being exposed to Agent Orange. That conclusion, however, is contrary to the presumption by the Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA) that military service in Vietnam anytime from January 9, 1962 to May 7, 1975 is a proxy for exposure to Agent Orange. The DVA assumption is inconsistent with the scientific principles governing determinations of disease causation. The DVA has nonetheless awarded Agent Orange-related benefits and compensation to an increasing number of VN veterans based on the presumption of exposure and the published findings of the Institute of Medicine that there is sufficient evidence of a "statistical association" (a less stringent standard than "causal relationship") between exposure to tactical herbicides or TCDD and 15 different human diseases. A fairer and more valid approach for VN veterans would have been to enact a program of "Vietnam experience" benefits for those seriously ill, rather than benefits based on the dubious premise of injuries caused by Agent Orange.

  5. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    The Chaine Annamatique represents the last of the three orogenic episodes that shook Indochina and forms most of Vietnam's boundary with Laos, In south Vietnam the mountains which have a north-south trend are formed of granites, gneisses and mica schists and are inseparable from the anti-hercynian formations. Iron ore, gold, lead, copper, tin, wolfraun, bismuth and molybdenium minerals are found. Plans had been made in 1960 to prospect for uranium but no information is available on whether that work was ever done. The only evidence of occurrences of nuclear raw materials is that titaniferous sands occur in several coastal regions and that uranium was once listed as having been produced in Forth Vietnam. Although the geology of Vietnam is not very conducive to the formation and preservation of uranium deposits it is possible that because of the granite terrain and presence of other metalliferous minerals, the Speculative Potential should be stated as in category 2 i.e. from 1,000 to 10,000 tonnes uranium. (author)

  6. Modeling the impact of rubella vaccination in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vynnycky, Emilia; Yoshida, Lay Myint; Huyen, Dang Thi Thanh; Trung, Nguyen Dac; Toda, Kohei; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Thi Hong, Duong; Ariyoshi, Koya; Miyakawa, Masami; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Tho, Le Huu; Nguyen, Hien Anh; Duc Anh, Dang; Jit, Mark; Hien, Nguyen Tran

    2016-01-01

    Supported by GAVI Alliance, measles-rubella vaccination was introduced in Vietnam in 2014, involving a mass campaign among 1-14 year olds and routine immunization of children aged 9 months. We explore the impact on the incidence of Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) during 2013-2050 of this strategy and variants involving women aged 15-35 years. We use an age and sex-structured dynamic transmission model, set up using recently-collected seroprevalence data from Central Vietnam, and also consider different levels of transmission and contact patterns. If the serological profile resembles that in Central Vietnam, the planned vaccination strategy could potentially prevent 125,000 CRS cases by 2050 in Vietnam, despite outbreaks predicted in the meantime. Targeting the initial campaign at 15-35 year old women with or without children aged 9 months-14 years led to sustained reductions in incidence, unless levels of ongoing transmission were medium-high before vaccination started. Assumptions about contact greatly influenced predictions if the initial campaign just targeted 15-35 year old women and/or levels of ongoing transmission were medium-high. Given increased interest in rubella vaccination, resulting from GAVI Alliance funding, the findings are relevant for many countries.

  7. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinh, Le Xuan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the job satisfaction of small-scale shrimp trawl fishers in the vicinity of Camau National Park in southern Vietnam. The research sample consisted of 77 fishers who belong to a growing population of shrimp fishers in the region. The results suggest that 60% would change their fishing metier, 78% would leave fishing for…

  8. Traditional medicinal plants in Ben En National Park, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Sam, Hoang; Baas, P.; Keßler, P.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper surveys the medicinal plants and their traditional use by local people in Ben En National Park, Vietnam. A total of 230 medicinal plant species (belonging to 200 genera and 84 families) is used by local people for treatment of 68 different diseases. These include species that are

  9. Primary Education in Vietnam and Pupil Online Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh Thi; Naguib, Raouf N. G.; Das, Ashish K.; Papathomas, Michail; Vallar, Edgar A.; Wickramasinghe, Nilmini; Santos, Gil Nonato; Galvez, Maria Cecilia; Nguyen, Viet Anh

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the disparities in social awareness and use of the internet between urban and rural school children in the North of Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 525 pupils, aged 9-11 years old, randomly selected from seven urban and rural schools, who are internet users, participated in the…

  10. Land surface and climate parameters and malaria features in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Y. A.; Anh, N. K.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface parameters may affect local microclimate, which in turn alters the development of mosquito habitats and transmission risks (soil-vegetation-atmosphere-vector borne diseases). Forest malaria is a chromic issue in Southeast Asian countries, in particular, such as Vietnam (in 1991, approximate 2 million cases and 4,646 deaths were reported (https://sites.path.org)). Vietnam has lowlands, sub-tropical high humidity, and dense forests, resulting in wide-scale distribution and high biting rate of mosquitos in Vietnam, becoming a challenging and out of control scenario, especially in Vietnamese Central Highland region. It is known that Vietnam's economy mainly relies on agriculture and malaria is commonly associated with poverty. There is a strong demand to investigate the relationship between land surface parameters (land cover, soil moisture, land surface temperature, etc.) and climatic variables (precipitation, humidity, evapotranspiration, etc.) in association with malaria distribution. GIS and remote sensing have been proven their powerful potentials in supporting environmental and health studies. The objective of this study aims to analyze physical attributes of land surface and climate parameters and their links with malaria features. The outcomes are expected to illustrate how remotely sensed data has been utilized in geohealth applications, surveillance, and health risk mapping. In addition, a platform with promising possibilities of allowing disease early-warning systems with citizen participation will be proposed.

  11. Conceptualizing responsible innovation in craft villages in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voeten, J.; de Haan, J.A.C.; Roome, N.; de Groot, G.A.; Nguyen Thi, Huong; van den Hoven, J.; Doorn, N.; Swierstra, T.; Koops, B.-J.; Romijn, H.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research by the authors has explored small-scale innovations in poor craft producers’ clusters in villages in the Red River Delta in northern Vietnam. Although these innovations resulted in value creation and increased incomes, they also often gave rise to negative environmental or social

  12. Facilitating Alcohol Control Law Development in Vietnam | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... years, both for commercial products and for unrecorded alcohol products, such as homemade spirits. ... related to alcohol taxation and pricing; -alcohol affordability in Vietnam and the likely ... New partnership to support Ebola research teams ... Nutrition, health policy, and ethics in the age of public-private partnerships.

  13. Digitaria Effusa (Gramineae), a new species from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    During an agrostological survey in the Lam Dong Province, Vietnam, Mr. J.B. Hacker (St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia) collected a remarkable undescribed species of Digitaria. Among the Asian taxa it is peculiar because of its montane provenance coupled with a combination of an inflorescence with

  14. Hydrodynamic modelling of tidal inlets in Hue, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, N.T.; Verhagen, H.J.; Van der Wegen, M.

    2003-01-01

    Application of an one-dimensional numerical model for hydrodynamic simulation of a complex lagooninlet system in Vietnam is presented. Model results help to get a better understanding on the behaviour of the system. Based on the numerical model results and analytic solutions, stability of tidal

  15. Composition of the oil of Eupatorium stoechadosmum Hance from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Tam, Nguyen T.; Kruk, C.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    The essential oil of Eupatorium stoechadosmum Hance from Vietnam was analyzed by GC/MS. The main constituents were found to be thymohydroquinone dimethyl ether (confirmed by 1H-NMR, 73.6%), and B-caryophyllene (8.9%), accounting e for more than 82% of the oil. Selina-4,11-diene (11.0%) was also

  16. Structural Transformation, Biased Technological Change, and Employment in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Tarp, Finn; Wu, Ce

    2015-01-01

    Employment in Vietnam and elsewhere in Asia has grown more slowly than GDP over the last several decades. This means GDP per capita is rising. Vietnamese policymakers, however, are concerned that ongoing structural transformation is creating too few jobs. We use data for seven aggregated sectors ...

  17. Structural transformation, biased technological change, and employment in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Tarp, Finn; Wu, Ce

    Employment in Vietnam and elsewhere in Asia has grown more slowly than GDP over the last several decades. This means GDP per capita is rising. Vietnamese policymakers, however, are concerned that ongoing structural transformation is creating too few jobs. We use data for seven aggregated sectors ...

  18. IMPROVING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EXCHANGE RATE POLICY IN CONTEMPORARY VIETNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Dong Phung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issue of effectiveness of exchange rate policy in contemporary Vietnam, along with the assessment of the mechanism of this policy from 1989 to the present day. The author analyzes constraints of implementing the exchange rate policy in the past and gives recommendations aimed at improving its efficiency nowadays.

  19. Using a Simulation and Literature To Teach the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses teaching about the Vietnam War. Focuses on selecting literature and how to implement the "mines and booby traps simulation," which demonstrates the experience of an infantry soldier. Describes follow-up activities to the simulation, the connections students made between the simulation and literature, and the importance of simulation…

  20. Challenges to institutionalizing strategic environmental assessment: The case of Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slunge, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.slunge@economics.gu.se [Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Box 640, S-405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Tran, Trang Thi Huyen, E-mail: trang2k@yahoo.com [University of Gothenburg, Box 640, S-405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-09-15

    Building on new institutional theory, this paper develops an analytical framework for analyzing constraints to the institutionalization of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) at four different institutional levels. The framework is tested in an empirical analysis of the environmental assessment system in Vietnam, which is a frontrunner among developing countries regarding the introduction and use of SEA. Building on interviews with Vietnamese and international experts, as well as an extensive literature review, we identify institutional constraints which challenge the effective use of SEA in Vietnam. We conclude that commonly identified constraints, such as inadequate training, technical guidelines, baseline data and financial resources, are strongly linked to constraints at higher institutional levels, such as incentives to not share information between ministries and severe restrictions on access to information and public participation. Without a thorough understanding of these institutional constraints, there is a risk that attempts to improve the use of SEA are misdirected. Thus, a careful institutional analysis should guide efforts to introduce and improve the use of SEA in Vietnam and other developing countries. The analytical framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalization of SEA presented in this paper represents a systematic effort in this direction. - Highlights: • A framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalizing SEA is developed • Empirical analysis of the strategic environmental assessment system in Vietnam • Constraints in the action arena linked to deeper institutional constraints • Institutional analysis needed prior to introducing SEA in developing countries.

  1. Towards a sustainable plan for new tube houses in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, P.A.; Bokel, R.M.J.; van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.; Hein, Carola

    2016-01-01

    In Vietnam, the history of cities can easily be seen through their urban patterns, landscapes and housing typologies. Most recently, the economic reform in 1986 has resulted in huge impact on the Vietnamese society. The rapid economic growth and privatisation of the market has resulted in the

  2. Student Plagiarism in Higher Education in Vietnam: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Ba, Khang; Do Ba, Khai; Lam, Quoc Dung; Le, Dao Thanh Binh An; Nguyen, Phuong Lien; Nguyen, Phuong Quynh; Pham, Quoc Loc

    2017-01-01

    This paper assesses and compares the prevalence of plagiarism across different student and assignment characteristics at a university in Vietnam, using the similarity index reported by the text-matching software Turnitin as a proxy measure of plagiarism on a sample of 681 student papers. The findings present a level of match higher than reported…

  3. Administrative co-management in special use forests of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, Nguyen Kim

    2017-01-01

    To protect its natural heritage and biodiversity, Vietnam has established a system of ‘special use forest’ (SUFs) which is “the backbone of the national protected areas”. The ineffective management of SUFs based solely on the state leads to a decline in biodiversity and density of the forests.

  4. Dengue as a cause of acute undifferentiated fever in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuong, H.L.; de Vries, P.J.; Nga, T.T.T.; Giao, P.T.; Hung, L.Q.; Binh, T.Q.; Nam, N.V.; Nagelkerke, N.; Kager, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Dengue is a common cause of fever in the tropics but its contribution to the total burden of febrile illnesses that is presented to primary health facilities in endemic regions such as Vietnam, is largely unknown. We aimed to report the frequency of dengue as a cause of fever in Binh

  5. Dengue as a cause of acute undifferentiated fever in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuong, Hoang Lan; de Vries, Peter J.; Nga, Tran T. T.; Giao, Phan T.; Hung, Le Q.; Binh, Tran Q.; Nam, Nguyen V.; Nagelkerke, Nico; Kager, Piet A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dengue is a common cause of fever in the tropics but its contribution to the total burden of febrile illnesses that is presented to primary health facilities in endemic regions such as Vietnam, is largely unknown. We aimed to report the frequency of dengue as a cause of fever in Binh

  6. Gouvernance et gestion des ressources communes au Vietnam ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gouvernance et gestion des ressources communes au Vietnam. La subvention permettra au Collège d'agriculture et de foresterie de l'Université de Huê de se pencher sur des questions reliées à la gestion des ressources communes et à la pauvreté dans ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change.

  7. Challenges to institutionalizing strategic environmental assessment: The case of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slunge, Daniel; Tran, Trang Thi Huyen

    2014-01-01

    Building on new institutional theory, this paper develops an analytical framework for analyzing constraints to the institutionalization of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) at four different institutional levels. The framework is tested in an empirical analysis of the environmental assessment system in Vietnam, which is a frontrunner among developing countries regarding the introduction and use of SEA. Building on interviews with Vietnamese and international experts, as well as an extensive literature review, we identify institutional constraints which challenge the effective use of SEA in Vietnam. We conclude that commonly identified constraints, such as inadequate training, technical guidelines, baseline data and financial resources, are strongly linked to constraints at higher institutional levels, such as incentives to not share information between ministries and severe restrictions on access to information and public participation. Without a thorough understanding of these institutional constraints, there is a risk that attempts to improve the use of SEA are misdirected. Thus, a careful institutional analysis should guide efforts to introduce and improve the use of SEA in Vietnam and other developing countries. The analytical framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalization of SEA presented in this paper represents a systematic effort in this direction. - Highlights: • A framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalizing SEA is developed • Empirical analysis of the strategic environmental assessment system in Vietnam • Constraints in the action arena linked to deeper institutional constraints • Institutional analysis needed prior to introducing SEA in developing countries

  8. Current status of taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De, Nguyen; Le, Thanh Hoa; Lien, Phan Thi Huong; Eom, Keeseon S

    2014-04-01

    Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated.

  9. Culturally adaptive storytelling intervention versus didactic intervention to improve hypertension control in Vietnam: a cluster-randomized controlled feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa L; Allison, Jeroan J; Ha, Duc A; Chiriboga, Germán; Ly, Ha N; Tran, Hanh T; Nguyen, Cuong K; Dang, Diem M; Phan, Ngoc T; Vu, Nguyen C; Nguyen, Quang P; Goldberg, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    Vietnam is experiencing an epidemiologic transition with an increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases. Novel, large-scale, effective, and sustainable interventions to control hypertension in Vietnam are needed. We report the results of a cluster-randomized feasibility trial at 3 months follow-up conducted in Hung Yen province, Vietnam, designed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of two community-based interventions to improve hypertension control: a "storytelling" intervention, "We Talk about Our Hypertension," and a didactic intervention. The storytelling intervention included stories about strategies for coping with hypertension, with patients speaking in their own words, and didactic content about the importance of healthy lifestyle behaviors including salt reduction and exercise. The didactic intervention included only didactic content. The storytelling intervention was delivered by two DVDs at 3-month intervals; the didactic intervention included only one installment. The trial was conducted in four communes, equally randomized to the two interventions. The mean age of the 160 study patients was 66 years, and 54% were men. Most participants described both interventions as understandable, informative, and motivational. Between baseline and 3 months, mean systolic blood pressure declined by 8.2 mmHg (95% CI 4.1-12.2) in the storytelling group and by 5.5 mmHg (95% CI 1.4-9.5) in the didactic group. The storytelling group also reported a significant increase in hypertension medication adherence. Both interventions were well accepted in several rural communities and were shown to be potentially effective in lowering blood pressure. A large-scale randomized trial is needed to compare the effectiveness of the two interventions in controlling hypertension. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02483780.

  10. A Study of Strategic Lessons Learned in Vietnam. Volume 4. US Domestic Factors Influencing Vietnam War Policy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    Andrews, Bruce, Public Constraint and American Policy in Vietnam, London. Sage Publicationsb, 1976. Arendt , Hannah , Crises of the Republic, New York... Hannah , N. B., "Nixon and Watergate-Communist Indochina," National Review, 4 Vol. 28, July 23, 1978, pp. 772-775. Head, R. A. and RohKe, American

  11. Women’s education in Vietnam and the changes of socio-economic environment. Comparative thoughts based on cases from Vietnam and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørlund, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Tendensen til at kvinder i stigende grad vinder ind på mænd i uddannelsessystemet og har overhalet dem på selv de høejeste niveauer i forhold til antal i Danmark er ikke uden parelleller i Vietnam. Kvinderne i Vietnam er ikke så ligestillede i Danmark, men der er sket store forbedringer inden for...

  12. Comparison of bacterial communities of tilapia fish from Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of bacterial communities of tilapia fish from Cameroon and Vietnam using PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) ... The different PCR-DGGE 16S rDNA banding profiles obtained were analysed and results showed that there were specific bands for each geographical ...

  13. Multicultural Education as Community Engagement: Policies and Planning in a Transnational Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kathryn A.; Phyak, Prem; Bui, Thuy Thi Ngoc

    2012-01-01

    Through viewing multicultural education as policy and planning that is enacted at national, regional, and local levels in Nepal and Vietnam, we explore the challenges and possibilities of engaging communities. We examine transnationalism, neoliberalism, and globalization as these impact national policies, community ideologies, regional/local…

  14. A project for the strengthening of cooperative relations between Korea and Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Chung, W. S.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, S. W.; Ko, H. S.; Nho, I. Y.

    2002-03-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with Vietnam and strengthening of cooperative relations with Vietnam. During the study, the current status and prospect of electricity, use and development of nuclear energy in vietnam, were investigated including nuclear power plant and cooperative relations between two nations were also established. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) holding of policy seminar for high level decision makers of Vietnam 3) cooperaton between MOST/MOSTE, 4) joint feasibility study for the construction of KSNP into Vietnam and technical presentation of KSNP. It is recommended that cooperaion with Vietnam be implemented systematically through the long term based basic directions and integrated national strategies

  15. Trade potential of climate smart goods of Vietnam: An application of gravity model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Van Vu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the trade potential of climate smart goods (CSG of Vietnam. In particular, the study employs gravity model with panel data for bilateral trade between Vietnam and its 45 partners from 2002 to 2013 with an objective of identifying the determinants explaining Vietnam's trade of climate smart products. The estimation results reveal that economic size, market size, distance, real exchange rate, border, and the quality of infrastructure of both Vietnam and its trading partners play a major role in bilateral trade of CSG. Additionally, the paper applies the method using speed of convergence and the estimated gravity equation to answer whether Vietnam has fully realized the potential trade of CSG. Accordingly, Vietnam has strong opportunity for trade expansion with 19 out of 45 countries in the scope of this paper.

  16. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, M H; Kim, H S; Chung, W S; Yun, S W; Ko, H S; Lee, J K

    2000-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with vietnam and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Vietnam. During the study, current status of use and development of nuclear energy in vietnam, were investigated including nuclear power plant and cooperative relations between two nations were also established. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) holding of policy seminar for high level decision makers of Vietnam 3) cooperaton between KAERI/VAEC, 4) joint feasibility study for the construction of KSNP into Vietnam and technical presentation of KSNP. It is recommended that cooperaion with vietnam be implemented systematically through the long term based basic directions and integrated national strategies.

  17. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Chung, W. S.; Yun, S. W.; Ko, H. S.; Lee, J. K.

    2000-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with vietnam and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Vietnam. During the study, current status of use and development of nuclear energy in vietnam, were investigated including nuclear power plant and cooperative relations between two nations were also established. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) holding of policy seminar for high level decision makers of Vietnam 3) cooperaton between KAERI/VAEC, 4) joint feasibility study for the construction of KSNP into Vietnam and technical presentation of KSNP. It is recommended that cooperaion with vietnam be implemented systematically through the long term based basic directions and integrated national strategies

  18. Elevated sister chromatid exchange frequencies in New Zealand Vietnam War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, R E; Edwards, L A; Podd, J V

    2007-01-01

    From July 1965 until November 1971, New Zealand Defence Force Personnel fought in the Vietnam War. During this time more than 76,500,000 litres of phenoxylic herbicides were sprayed over parts of Southern Vietnam and Laos, the most common being known as 'Agent Orange'. The current study aimed to ascertain whether or not New Zealand Vietnam War veterans show evidence of genetic disturbance arising as a consequence of their now confirmed exposure to these defoliants. A sample group of 24 New Zealand Vietnam War veterans and 23 control volunteers were compared using an SCE (sister chromatid exchange) analysis. The results from the SCE study show a highly significant difference (P Vietnam War veterans studied here were exposed to a clastogenic substance(s) which continues to exert an observable genetic effect today, and suggest that this is attributable to their service in Vietnam. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Decarbonization scenarios in the electricity sector in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Van Thanh

    2016-01-01

    Reduction of CO_2 emissions issue is clearly a world challenge today and COP21 highlighted the international requirements for countries to address related issues in the short and long term. The fundamental objective of the thesis is to contribute to the identification of possible climate policy solutions related to growing electricity production in a developing country, namely Vietnam, taking into account the need to reduce carbon energy sources. For this purpose several scenarios for electricity sector development are constructed in order to measure effects of choices related to the electricity production on CO_2 emissions. The thesis presents an overview of the energy situation in Vietnam and highlights the rapid increase in electricity consumption due to population pressure and new needs. It also considers major issues of coal and gas imports, new energy sources, in light of economic constraints but also environmental challenges. The theoretical and analytical chapter reviews the analyses of electricity master plans construction, major available economic tools for energy demand forecast models. This forms the framework to understanding the complexity of the 'electric bet' which Vietnam faces. After a presentation of potential quantitative simulation instruments, ELECsim was chosen for modeling the electricity sector in Vietnam. This leads to a comprehensive scenario approach; Scenarios are based on several assumptions about the evolution of economic growth and demographics, energy prices, the power generation technology development, the declared carbon value, discount rates and change rate. As a first step in energy and climate policy Vietnam can control the demand growth by strong action on energy efficiency, while reducing parallel to both the electricity production costs and CO_2 emissions. Several scenarios are then proposed, highlighting both the need to search for higher energy efficiency and the promotion of low-carbon energies. Research envisages a rapid

  20. The Empirical Analysis of Cigarette Tax Avoidance and Illicit Trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Minh Thac; Denniston, Ryan; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Hoang, Tuan Anh; Ross, Hana; So, Anthony D.

    2014-01-01

    Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 199...

  1. Evaluation of the Epidemiological Impact of Harm Reduction Programs on HIV in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    UNAIDS; World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Vietnam s HIV epidemic is concentrated, both in specific behavioral sub-populations and geographic regions. The key populations at higher risk for HIV infection in Vietnam are female sex workers (FSW) and their clients; injecting drug users (IDU); and men who have sex with men (MSM). Vietnam identified harm reduction interventions for IDU and FSW as a key component of its last 5-year Natio...

  2. High School Education in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Hasebe, Io

    2018-01-01

    In this report, I will introduce high school school education in Vietnam in two aspects: time schedule and language instruction. When I had an international exchange with local high school students, I was surprised at how fluently students spoke English and Japanese and thus became interested in language instruction in Vietnam. As I continued my research, I discovered many unique differences between Vietnam and Japan in terms of education. This is why I chose high school education as my repor...

  3. Intelligence Operations In Small Wars: A Comparison Of The Malayan Emergency And Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Effect, 18. 41 Spencer C. Tucker, David Coffey, Nguyen Cong Luan, Nike Nichols, and Sandra Wittman, eds, Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War Volume One: A...War: The Unexamined Victories and Final Tragedy of America’s Last Years in Vietnam, (Orlando, FL :Harcourt, Inc ., 1999), 72-73. 91 Sorley, A Better...Victories and Final Tragedy of America’s Last Years in Vietnam. Orlando, FL: Harcourt, Inc ., 1999. Stubbs, Richard. Hearts and Minds in

  4. Public Relations in enhancing brand values: case study Virgin Atlantic and Vietnam Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Viet, Thang

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate purpose of this dissertation is to evaluate the Public Relations (PR) activities of Vietnam Airlines and give the airline some recommendations to improve its PR performance. In order to achieve this purpose, there are three issues needed to be solved: 1) how PR helps to enhance brand personality and brand values 2) the differences in PR activities between Vietnam Airlines and Virgin Atlantic and 3) what approaches Vietnam Airlines should implement to improve its PR performance. ...

  5. Marketing aspects in tourism development : The marketing analysis of Vietnam tourism industry for long term development

    OpenAIRE

    Thai, Thuy Nga

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to identify the shortcomings that have been hindering the development of Vietnam tourism and seeking for the solution for these shortcomings in the aspects of marketing. Vietnam is a country lying in the peninsula of South Asia and holds great potentials of nature, culture and human power for tourism growth. Despite much effort on marketing campaigns, Vietnam tourism is still lagging behind other giant tourism industries in Asia region. The thesis applied ...

  6. Greening Food Processing Industry in Vietnam: Putting Industrial Ecology to Work

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thi My Dieu

    2003-01-01

    The significant contribution to Vietnam's gross domestic product over the years give evidence of the important role of food processing industry in the economic and industrial development of the country. This is even more relevant from now onwards, as it is Vietnam's development strategy to become one of the top agricultural countries in the world by the year 2010. However, it is not difficult to recognize that the rapid growth of food processing industry in Vietnam goes together with environm...

  7. Influences on parental acceptance of HPV vaccination in demonstration projects in Uganda and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galagan, Sean R; Paul, Proma; Menezes, Lysander; LaMontagne, D Scott

    2013-06-26

    This study investigates the effect of communication strategies on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake in HPV vaccine demonstration projects in Uganda and Vietnam. Secondary analysis was conducted on data from surveys of a representative sample of parents and guardians of girls eligible for HPV vaccine, measuring three-dose coverage achieved in demonstration projects in 2008-2010. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis calculated the unadjusted and adjusted odds of receiving at least one dose of HPV vaccine depending on exposure to community influencers; information, education, and communication (IEC) channels; and demographic factors. This study found that exposure to community influencers was associated with HPV vaccine uptake in a multivariate model controlling for other factors. Exposure to non-interactive IEC channels was only marginally associated with HPV vaccine uptake. These results underscore the need of HPV vaccine programs in low- and middle-income countries to involve and utilize key community influencers and stakeholders to maximize HPV vaccine uptake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Determinants of marginalization and inequitable maternal health care in North–Central Vietnam: a framework analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Binder-Finnema

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vietnam has achieved great improvements in maternal healthcare outcomes, but there is evidence of increasing inequity. Disadvantaged groups, predominantly ethnic minorities and people living in remote mountainous areas, do not gain access to maternal health improvements despite targeted efforts from policymakers. Objective: This study identifies underlying structural barriers to equitable maternal health care in Nghe An province, Vietnam. Experiences of social inequity and limited access among child-bearing ethnic and minority women are explored in relation to barriers of care provision experienced by maternal health professionals to gain deeper understanding on health outcomes. Design: In 2012, 11 focus group discussions with women and medical care professionals at local community health centers and district hospitals were conducted using a hermeneutic–dialectic method and analyzed for interpretation using framework analysis. Results: The social determinants ‘limited negotiation power’ and ‘limited autonomy’ orchestrate cyclical effects of shared marginalization for both women and care professionals within the provincial health system’s infrastructure. Under-staffed and poorly equipped community health facilities refer women and create overload at receiving health centers. Limited resources appear diverted away from local community centers as compensation to the district for overloaded facilities. Poor reputation for low care quality exists, and professionals are held in low repute for causing overload and resulting adverse outcomes. Country-wide reforms force women to bear responsibility for limited treatment adherence and health insight, but overlook providers’ limited professional development. Ethnic minority women are hindered by relatives from accessing care choices and costs, despite having advanced insight about government reforms to alleviate poverty. Communication challenges are worsened by non

  9. Determinants of marginalization and inequitable maternal health care in North–Central Vietnam: a framework analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder-Finnema, Pauline; Lien, Pham T. L.; Hoa, Dinh T. P.; Målqvist, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Background Vietnam has achieved great improvements in maternal healthcare outcomes, but there is evidence of increasing inequity. Disadvantaged groups, predominantly ethnic minorities and people living in remote mountainous areas, do not gain access to maternal health improvements despite targeted efforts from policymakers. Objective This study identifies underlying structural barriers to equitable maternal health care in Nghe An province, Vietnam. Experiences of social inequity and limited access among child-bearing ethnic and minority women are explored in relation to barriers of care provision experienced by maternal health professionals to gain deeper understanding on health outcomes. Design In 2012, 11 focus group discussions with women and medical care professionals at local community health centers and district hospitals were conducted using a hermeneutic–dialectic method and analyzed for interpretation using framework analysis. Results The social determinants ‘limited negotiation power’ and ‘limited autonomy’ orchestrate cyclical effects of shared marginalization for both women and care professionals within the provincial health system’s infrastructure. Under-staffed and poorly equipped community health facilities refer women and create overload at receiving health centers. Limited resources appear diverted away from local community centers as compensation to the district for overloaded facilities. Poor reputation for low care quality exists, and professionals are held in low repute for causing overload and resulting adverse outcomes. Country-wide reforms force women to bear responsibility for limited treatment adherence and health insight, but overlook providers’ limited professional development. Ethnic minority women are hindered by relatives from accessing care choices and costs, despite having advanced insight about government reforms to alleviate poverty. Communication challenges are worsened by non-existent interpretation systems

  10. Drug addiction stigma in relation to methadone maintenance treatment by different service delivery models in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Vu, Phuong Bich; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Latkin, Sophia Knowlton; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Phan, Huong Thu Thi; Latkin, Carl A

    2016-03-08

    The rapid expansion of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) services has significantly improved health status and quality of life of patients. However, little is known about its impacts on addiction-related stigma and associated factors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 in Vietnam's capital, Hanoi, and Nam Dinh province among 1016 methadone maintenance patients; 26.6 % at provincial AIDS centers (PAC) and 73.4 % at district health centers (DHC), respectively. Drug addiction history and related stigma, health status, MMT-related covariates, and sociodemographic characteristics were interviewed. More than one-sixth of the sample reported experiencing felt or enacted stigma, including Blame or Judgement (17.2 %), Shame (19.9 %), or Others' fear of HIV transmission (17.1 %). These proportions were higher in PACs than in DHCs, which are integrated with other HIV or general health care services. Very few patients reported being discriminated at the workplace (2.5 %) or at health care services (1.7 %); however, 15.6 % of patients at PACs and 10.6 % of patients at DHCs reported discrimination in their communities. Drug users taking MMT for longer periods were less likely to report felt stigma. Other factors associated with stigma against MMT patients included the lack of comprehensive services, higher education, presence of pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression, self-reported HIV positive, and number of previous drug rehabilitation episodes. The study shows a high level of stigma against MMT patients and emphasizes the necessity to integrate MMT with comprehensive health and support services. Mass communication campaigns to reduce stigma against people with drug addiction and HIV/AIDS, as well as vocational trainings and jobs referrals for MMT patients, are needed to maximize the benefits of MMT programs in Vietnam.

  11. 'Hu Hong' (bad thing): parental perceptions of teenagers' sexuality in urban Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Lan Anh Thi; Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Paek, Seung Chun; Guadamuz, Thomas E

    2017-02-28

    Teenagers under 18 years old in Vietnam are considered as minors who usually lack the autonomy to make decisions. They are also sometimes viewed as contributors to social evils including crime, violence and substance use. Moreover, most Vietnamese teenagers have unsafe sex before marriage. The objective of this study is to explore the parental perceptions relating to their teenagers' sexuality, particularly the social and cultural forces, that may hinder access to sexuality information. Guided by a Community Advisory Board (CAB), this qualitative study uses four focus group discussions (FGDs) consisting of 12 mothers and 12 fathers, as well as twelve individual in-depth interviews (IDIs) with a diverse sample of parents of teens in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Content and discourse analysis were conducted, based on Foucauldian concepts. Four themes emerged: 1) Meanings of sexuality and sexuality education, 2) Early sexual intercourse destroys teenagers' future, 3) Teenagers are not hu hong (spoil/bad thing), are innocent and virgin, and 4) Policing and controlling of sexual intercourse among teens. Parents did not view their teenage children as sexual beings; those who are sexual are considered hu hong. Parents believed that teens need to be policed and controlled to prevent them from becoming hu hong, particularly girls. Controlling of sexuality information by parents was therefore common in HCMC, but differed by gender and educational levels of parents. For example, fathers more than mothers were not comfortable teaching their teenage children about sex and sexuality. Parents with higher education police their teenage children's usage of the Internet and social media, while parents with lower education control who can be friends with their teenage children. Vietnamese parents in general have negative views of sex and sexuality education for their teenage children. Recognizing that many Vietnamese teenagers have unsafe sex before marriage, parents need to

  12. Teaching minority children hygiene: investigating hygiene education in kindergartens and homes of ethnic minority children in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority children in Vietnam experience high levels of hygiene- and sanitation-related diseases. Improving hygiene for minority children is therefore vital for improving child health. The study objective was to investigate how kindergarten and home environments influence the learning of hygiene of pre-school ethnic minority children in rural Vietnam. Eight months of ethnographic field studies were conducted among four ethnic minority groups living in highland and lowland communities in northern Vietnam. Data included participant observation in four kindergartens and 20 homes of pre-school children, together with 67 semi-structured interviews with caregivers and five kindergarten staff. Thematic analysis was applied and concepts of social learning provided inputs to the analysis. This study showed that poor living conditions with lack of basic sanitation infrastructures were important barriers for the implementation of safe home child hygiene. Furthermore, the everyday life of highland villages, with parents working away from the households resulted in little daily adult supervision of safe child hygiene practices. While kindergartens were identified as potentially important institutions for improving child hygiene education, essential and well-functioning hygiene infrastructures were lacking. Also, hygiene teaching relied on theoretical and non-practice-based learning styles, which did not facilitate hygiene behaviour change in small children. Minority children were further disadvantaged as teaching was only provided in non-minority language. Kindergartens can be important institutions for the promotion of safe hygiene practices among children, but they must invest in the maintenance of hygiene and sanitation infrastructures and adopt a strong practice-based teaching approach in daily work and in teacher's education. To support highland minority children in particular, teaching styles must take local living conditions and caregiver structures into account

  13. Contested Sovereignty: Local Politics and State Power in Territorial Conflicts on the Vietnam-China Border, 1650s-1880s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vũ Đường Luân

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes territorial disputes and political relationships at the border between China and Vietnam from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries. Predominant Western scholarship argues that, owing to the tributary relationship among states and polities, there was no territorial boundary in premodern Asia; furthermore, it suggests, the concept of the “geo-body” of a nation or sovereign state only arose with the transfer of new mapping technology from Europe. This article argues instead that the absence of lines of demarcation on Vietnamese and Chinese maps before the late nineteenth century does not connote a lack of consciousness of the existence of borders. The quest for autonomy throughout history by local communities living between China and Vietnam gave rise to border conflicts, which led to the intervention by and expansion of these two states, as well as negotiations and territorial division between them. The transformation of the China-Vietnam border from a premodern to a modern form thus did not depend solely on its cartographic representation; it also involved the power of the state to control space. Additionally, this article demonstrates that tensions over the border did not simply involve central governments but often resulted from a combination of local conflicts and the complicated relations between local actors and the state. The article suggests a new approach to exploring the history of state borders from the perspective of local people, in which the “in-between communities” are not seen as passive objects of border demarcation but are also a driving force in the establishment of a frontier. While the “in-between communities” discussed in this article were behind conflicts over land and its division into national territories, their manipulations of ethnic identity and transgressive mobility also helped blur the border between the two countries.

  14. Assessing Clinical Research Capacity in Vietnam: A Framework for Strengthening Capability for Clinical Trials in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Jonathan; Giang, Dao Duc; Iademarco, Michael F; Phung, Van Tt; Lau, Chuen-Yen; Quang, Nguyen Ngo

    2016-01-01

    Although improving health systems promises important benefits, most developing nations lack the resources to support nationally driven clinical research. Strengthened clinical research capacity can advance national health goals by supporting greater autonomy in aligning research with national priorities. From March through June 2010, we assessed six elements of clinical research capacity in Vietnam: research agenda; clinical investigators and biostatisticians; donors and sponsors; community involvement; scientific, ethical, safety, and quality oversight; and clinical research institutions. Assessments were drawn from interviews with investigators, Ministry of Health staff members, nongovernment organizations, and U.S. Mission staff members, and document review. Observations and recommendations were shared with collaborators. Reassessment in 2015 found growth in the number of clinical trials, improved regulation in human subjects protection and community engagement, and modest advances in research agenda setting. Training and investment in institutions remain challenging. A framework for assessing clinical research capacity can affirm strengths and weaknesses and guide the coordination of capacity-building efforts.

  15. "Reconstructing a Sense of Self": Trauma and Coping Among Returned Women Survivors of Human Trafficking in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, PhuongThao D

    2017-03-01

    Survivors of human trafficking who return to their community of origin must cope with the trauma they experienced as victims as well as the conditions that contributed to their trafficking vulnerabilities. In this article, I examine the psychosocial adjustment process among women survivors of trafficking who returned to Vietnam. Supplemented by participation observation, thematic analysis of in-depth interviews with survivors revealed that throughout the trafficking process, the women experienced multiple abuses and changes in relationships and environments. The women coped by navigating a process of "reconstructing a sense of self," seeking congruence between their self-understandings and the changing contextual factors while exhibiting three main coping strategies: regulating emotional expression and thought, creating opportunities within constraints, and relating to cultural schemas. The findings underscore the importance of considering contextual factors such as cultural norms and societal values in efforts to assist trafficked survivors reintegrate into their communities.

  16. Analysis of Child-related Road Traffic Accidents in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Anh Tuan; Nguyen, Dinh Vinh Man

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, the number of road traffic accidents, fatalities and injuries have been decreasing, but the figures of children road traffic accidents have been increasing in Ho Chi Minh City of Vietnam. This fact strongly calls for implementing effective solutions to improve traffic safety for children by the local government. This paper presents the trends, patterns and causes of road traffic accidents involving children based on the analysis of road traffic accident data over the period 2010-2015 and the video-based observations of road traffic law violations at 15 typical school gates and 10 typical roads. The results could be useful for the city government to formulate solutions to effectively improve traffic safety for children in Ho Chi Minh City and other cities in Vietnam.

  17. Globalization Crises, Trade,and Development in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Tarp, Finn

    Vietnam has been among the most successful East Asian economies, especially in weathering the external shocks of recent globalization crises—the 1997-98 Asian financial crisis and the 2008-09 great recession, financial crisis and collapse of global trade. Its success contradicts its characterizat......Vietnam has been among the most successful East Asian economies, especially in weathering the external shocks of recent globalization crises—the 1997-98 Asian financial crisis and the 2008-09 great recession, financial crisis and collapse of global trade. Its success contradicts its...... that dependence and bolster the domestic economy while continuing to restructure the economy toward greater emphasis on the private sector. Growth, employment and poverty alleviation have been maintained at the expense of renewed inflation, larger budget deficits, and currency depreciation. The ‘stop-go’ nature...

  18. The role of Stakeholders on implementing Universal Services in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do Manh, Thai; Falch, Morten; Williams, Idongesit

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at the universal services policy in Vietnam (interval 2005-2010) via analysing stakeholders in order to clarify how they exerted influence and how they implemented the policy. The stakeholder theory is employed to identify and categorize the stakeholders who participated in perfo......This paper looks at the universal services policy in Vietnam (interval 2005-2010) via analysing stakeholders in order to clarify how they exerted influence and how they implemented the policy. The stakeholder theory is employed to identify and categorize the stakeholders who participated...... in performing the policy. The authors are to examine the stakeholders such as the national government, international organizations, policy intermediaries, companies, and customers/citizens via applying the qualitative method to gather data and analyse the secondary document. The qualitative approach...... of interviews on some officials was also conducted. The results demonstrate that stakeholders had a huge impact on the success of the universal service policy....

  19. Climate change and its gendered impacts on agriculture in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung, P.T

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that Vietnam is one of the countries that most affected by climate change because of its geographical and natural conditions together with its fast but massive and unplanned urbanization. There are many research and studies that have been conducted to assess the impacts of climate change on different sectors in Vietnam. Agriculture plays an important role in the country’s economy in terms of poverty reduction, food security, employment and export but projected to be heavily affected because of sea level rise, floods or droughts etc. A large proportion of Vietnam’s population, especially women, involves with agricultural works and production. So, this paper using a gender perspective will examine possible impacts that climate change has been causing to women and men differently in order to propose some solutions for the facing problems. Since the paper only utilizes available resources, it can serve as a concept note for further works in the future.

  20. Determination of toxic elements in foodstuffs in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Minh; Le Thi Ngoc Trinh; Nguyen Giang; Le Tat Mua; Nguyen Mong Sinh

    2006-01-01

    The studying samples of this work have been collected from different areas of Vietnam including industrial areas in HCM city, Dongnai, Vungtau and non-industrial area, Dalat city. The concentrations of the toxic elements as: As, Hg, Cr, Co, Fe, Cu, Cd, Se, As, Zn, Pb in many foodstuff samples together with intercomparison sample which have been distributed by National Food Administration (Sweden) were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis (RNAA); Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and Anodic Stripping Voltammeter (ASV). The obtained results shown that the concentration of toxic elements in the collected samples from selected industrial areas of Vietnam are lower than the maximum permissible concentrations. (author)

  1. Coping with drought in the central highlands - Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tinh Dang

    foranstaltninger kan nedbringe skaderne væsentligt. Nedbør i Vietnams centrale højland er i det væsentlige betinget af den sydøstasiatiske monsun. Der optræder imidlertid også forstyrrelser betinget af stor-skala atmosfæriske fænomener. Havoverfladetemperaturen i Stillehavet er repræsentativ for det såkaldte El...... Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) fænomen (atypiske langvarige ændringer i atmosfærens trykforhold over den sydlige del af Stillehavet). Dette fænomen er årsag til globale klimavariationer og påvirker også nedbørsforholdene i Vietnams centrale højland. I nærværende arbejde er nedbørsvariabilitetens...

  2. New Species of Orchids (Orchidaceae in the Flora of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid V. AVERYANOV

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes results of joint efforts of professional botanists and orchid enthusiasts on studies of Vietnamese native orchids during years 2013–2016. It provides new original data about the discovery of 1 genus (Grammatophyllum Blume and 29 orchid species new for the flora of Vietnam. Valid name, main synonyms, data on type, ecology, phenology, estimated IUCN Red List status, distribution, studied specimens, as well as brief taxonomic and biological notes are provided for each species and varieties. Eight species (Bidupia khangii, Bulbophyllum striatulum, B. tipula, Cleisostoma dorsisacculatum, Cymbidium repens, Dendrobium congianum, Flickingeria xanthocheila, Podochilus rotundipetala and two varieties (Phreatia densiflora var. vietnamensis, P. formosana var. continentalis are described as new for science. One combination (Bulbophyllum bicolor var. funingense is proposed. An illustrated annotated list of all studied species and varieties is arranged in alphabetical order. Including present data, the known orchid flora of Vietnam comprises currently at least 1210 documented species from 172 genera.

  3. Cancer in US Air Force veterans of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Fatema Z; Garabrant, David H; Ketchum, Norma S; Michalek, Joel E

    2004-02-01

    Cancer incidence and mortality were summarized in Air Force veterans of the Vietnam War. The index subjects were Operation Ranch Hand veterans who sprayed 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin)-contaminated herbicides in Vietnam. Comparisons served in Southeast Asia during the same period but did not spray herbicides. We assessed cancer incidence and mortality using national rates and contrasted cancer risk in each of three Ranch Hand dioxin exposure categories relative to comparisons. The incidence of melanoma and prostate cancer was increased among white Ranch Hand veterans relative to national rates. Among veterans who spent at most 2 years in Southeast Asia, the risk of cancer at any site, of prostate cancer and of melanoma was increased in the highest dioxin exposure category. These results appear consistent with an association between cancer and dioxin exposure.

  4. History of the Joint Chiefs of Staff: The Joint Chiefs of Staff and the War in Vietnam, 1971-1973

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Webb, Willard J; Poole, Walter S

    2007-01-01

    The series of five volumes titled "The Joint Chiefs of Staff and the War in Vietnam" covers the activities of the Joint Chiefs of Staff with regard to Vietnam from 1945 to the final withdrawal of U.S...

  5. Culturally adaptive storytelling method to improve hypertension control in Vietnam - "We talk about our hypertension": study protocol for a feasibility cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Jeroan J; Nguyen, Hoa L; Ha, Duc A; Chiriboga, Germán; Ly, Ha N; Tran, Hanh T; Phan, Ngoc T; Vu, Nguyen C; Kim, Minjin; Goldberg, Robert J

    2016-01-14

    Vietnam is experiencing an epidemiologic transition with an increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases. At present, the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are either on the rise or at alarming levels in Vietnam; inasmuch, the burden of CVD will continue to increase in this country unless effective prevention and control measures are put in place. A national survey in 2008 found that the prevalence of hypertension (HTN) was approximately 25 % among Vietnamese adults and it increased with advancing age. Therefore, novel, large-scale, and sustainable interventions for public health education to promote engagement in the process of detecting and treating HTN in Vietnam are urgently needed. A feasibility randomized trial will be conducted in Hung Yen province, Vietnam to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a novel community-based intervention using the "storytelling" method to enhance the control of HTN in adults residing in four rural communities. The intervention will center on stories about living with HTN, with patients speaking in their own words. The stories will be obtained from particularly eloquent patients, or "video stars," identified during Story Development Groups. The study will involve two phases: (i) developing a HTN intervention using the storytelling method, which is designed to empower patients to facilitate changes in their lifestyle practices, and (ii) conducting a feasibility cluster-randomized trial to investigate the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of the intervention compared with usual care in HTN control among rural residents. The trial will be conducted at four communes, and within each commune, 25 individuals 50 years or older with HTN will be enrolled in the trial resulting in a total sample size of 100 patients. This feasibility trial will provide the necessary groundwork for a subsequent large-scale, fully powered, cluster-randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of our novel

  6. A new caddisfly genus (Trichoptera, Odontoceridae) from Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefina-Armitage, Tatiana I.; Armitage, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Cephalopsyche, a new genus of caddisfly (Trichoptera, Odontoceridae), is described from Vietnam. Two new species are placed in the genus: Cephalopsyche gorgona sp. n. and Cephalopsyche neboissi sp. n. The adult male and female of each species exhibit distinct sexual dimorphism, especially in head morphology. In males, there are hinged, chamber-like structures on the vertex of the head, containing filamentous, columnar tissue when exposed. Descriptions and illustrations of both species are provided. PMID:21594025

  7. A new caddisfly genus (Trichoptera, Odontoceridae from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Arefina-Armitage

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cephalopsyche, a new genus of caddisfly (Trichoptera, Odontoceridae, is described from Vietnam. Two new species are placed in the genus: Cephalopsyche gorgona sp. n. and Cephalopsyche neboissi sp. n. The adult male and female of each species exhibit distinct sexual dimorphism, especially in head morphology. In males, there are hinged, chamber-like structures on the vertex of the head, containing filamentous, columnar tissue when exposed. Descriptions and illustrations of both species are provided.

  8. Electricity of Vietnam and problem of flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Khac An

    2005-01-01

    After reporting the present status and development of electricity in Vietnam, the author points out the most pollutant source is coal-fired power plants followed by listing pollutant substances by coal, oil and gas fired plants and Vietnamese standards of industrial emission and ambient air quality. To conclude, it is time to prepare staff and technology for the utilization of electron accelerators to flue gas treatment. (S. Ohno)

  9. Foreign ownership in Vietnam stock markets - an empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vo, Xuan Vinh

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates foreign ownership in the Vietnam stock market from 2007 to 2009 employing a rich and detailed dataset. From the perspective of informational asymmetry, the paper examines the relationship between the foreign ownership level and attributes of Vietnamese listed firm in Ho Chi Minh City Stock Exchange. The findings of the paper indicate that foreign investors have preference for large firms, firms with high book-to-market ratio and firms with low leverage. Foreign investo...

  10. The Need to Communicate: Fighting Human Trafficking in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    traffic in women and girls for purposes of prostitution , between what countries the traffic is being carried on, the methods used in procuring and...The details behind these cases are horrific, such as an increasing trend of foreigners visiting Vietnam for what UNIAP refers to as “ child sex...10 Ibid, 30-32. 11 Ibid., 30, 32. 12 Ibid, 31. 13 Children’s Care International. " Child Labour." Accessed 31 October 2013. http://aipe

  11. Cost of treatment for breast cancer in central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Hoang Lan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, cases of breast cancer have been on the rise in Vietnam. To date, there has been no study on the financial burden of the disease. This study estimates the direct medical cost of a 5-year treatment course for women with primary breast cancer in central Vietnam. Methods: Retrospective patient-level data from medical records at the Hue Central Hospital between 2001 and 2006 were analyzed. Cost analysis was conducted from the health care payers’ perspective. Various direct medical cost categories were computed for a 5-year treatment course for patients with breast cancer. Costs, in US dollars, discounted at a 3% rate, were converted to 2010 after adjusting for inflation. For each cost category, the mean, standard deviation, median, and cost range were estimated. Median regression was used to investigate the relationship between costs and the stage, age at diagnosis, and the health insurance coverage of the patients. Results: The total direct medical cost for a 5-year treatment course for breast cancer in central Vietnam was estimated at $975 per patient (range: $11.7–$3,955. The initial treatment cost, particularly the cost of chemotherapy, was found to account for the greatest proportion of total costs (64.9%. Among the patient characteristics studied, stage at diagnosis was significantly associated with total treatment costs. Patients at later stages of breast cancer did not differ significantly in their total costs from those at earlier stages however, but their survival time was much shorter. The absence of health insurance was the main factor limiting service uptake. Conclusion: From the health care payers’ perspective, the Government subsidization of public hospital charges lowered the direct medical costs of a 5-year treatment course for primary breast cancer in central Vietnam. However, the long treatment course was significantly influenced by out-of-pocket payments for patients without health insurance.

  12. The Renewable Energy In Vietnam Potential Development Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Van Vang Le; Danh Chan Nguyen; Van Huong Dong

    2017-01-01

    Up to 2014 the development of renewable energy in Vietnam has undergone a process of nearly three decades with many ups and downs. This change depends on the concern of the state Ministries in research development project implementation and financial support for renewable energy development. It is easy to see that only when the development of renewable energy has the attention and direction of the state through a policy system a unified program the proper funding of the budget and Internation...

  13. Economic Development, Inequality and Climate Change in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Vinh; Do, Trang; Nguyen, Cuong; Phung, Thu; Phung, Tung

    2013-01-01

    From 2011 till 2013, Vietnam has been experiencing an economic slowdown and macroeconomic problems such as high inflation, bad debt from commercial banks and the inefficient operation of state-owned companies. The poverty reduction rate has slowed down and poverty incidence in remote and mountainous areas remains high. Inequality in income and socio-economic development between different geographic and ethnic groups is still significant. Climate changes such as escalating frequency of extreme...

  14. Engaged Learning and Filmmaking by Way of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Emmanuel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Virginia Wesleyan professor Steven Emmanuel and five students spent four weeks in Vietnam in the summer of 2007. Their work, supported by an ASIANetwork Student-Faculty Fellows Grant, resulted in a documentary film that won several awards in national and international film festivals. In the following piece, he describes the project and talks about how the grant experience gave him a new perspective on study abroad.

  15. 5th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering in Vietnam

    CERN Document Server

    Phuong, Tran

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the Development of Biomedical Engineering in Vietnam which was held from June 16-18, 2014 in Ho Chi Minh City. The volume reflects the progress of Biomedical Engineering and discusses problems and solutions. I aims identifying new challenges, and shaping future directions for research in biomedical engineering fields including medical instrumentation, bioinformatics, biomechanics, medical imaging, drug delivery therapy, regenerative medicine and entrepreneurship in medical devices.

  16. Applications of radioisotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dien, N.N.; Quang, N.H. [Nucealr Research Institute, Dalat, (Viet Nam)

    1997-10-01

    Nowadays, in Vietnam radioisotopes have been used very widely in various socio-economic branches, especially in industry and healthcare. Applications of radioisotopes have significant meaning in economic development, people health protection, as well as in scientific research. In this paper, the present status and main applications of radiation and radioactive isotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam are reported. In order to control and monitor industrial processes, nucleonic control systems and radioactive tracer techniques have been utilized. Actually, sealed source applications are popular in Vietnam industry. A number of nuclear control devices and gauges have been used in the various industrial factories, such as liquid level gauges in steel industry, cement and beverage factories; density and moisture gauges in paper industry, etc. Tracer technique and sealed source applications have also been utilized in industrial production plants and in trouble-shooting in the petroleum industry. For medicine purposes, two departments of nuclear medicine were primarily established at the beginning of the 1970s. At the present time, a number of nuclear medicine departments have been set up and they have been equipped with advanced equipment. Main activities are focused on thyroid function studies, nuclear cardiology, brain scans, gastrointestinal studies, bone scans, etc. Since march 1984 Dalat nuclear research reactor of nominal power of 500 kW has been reconstructed and put into operation. This reactor is unique in Vietnam and has become an important scientific tool for development of nuclear techniques and radioisotope applications for socio-economic progress. Thanks to this important scientific tool, a variety of radioisotopes for medicine and industry applications as well as for scientific research has been produced. Utilization of the Dalat research reactor for radioisotope production is also summarized in this paper

  17. Preparation of high quality zirconium oxychloride from zircon of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo Van Tuyen; Vu Thanh Quang; Trinh Giang Huong; Vuong Huu Anh

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a sodium hydroxide decomposition method for zirconium oxychloride production from zircon sand of Vietnam such as Ha Tinh, Hue, Binh Thuan seaside. Techniques for separation of impurities in ZOC final product such as SiO 2 , Fe 2 O 3 , TiO 2 , rare earths, uranium, and thorium have also been introduced. Content of uranium and thorium in the final product of ZOC is less than 1 ppm. (author)

  18. Dryopsis (Dryopteridaceae, A Fern Genus New to Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Hui Ding

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dryopsis clarkei (Baker Holttum & P.J. Edwards, representing the whole genus, is reported new to Vietnam. A detailed description, including the variation of gross morphology, spore morphology, and chromosome counts, is provided by means of words as well as photographs or drawings. Dryopsis clarkei is for the first time demonstrated to be a sexual diploid (2n = 82, with rather stable morphology except for the length of stipe.

  19. Childhood disability and parental moral responsibility in northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine

    2008-01-01

    a phenomenologically inspired 'intercorporeal' perspective as a conceptual alternative to 'medical' and 'social' models of disability. Through this approach I show how, in northern Vietnam, disability in children brings into question the moral integrity of their parents and how this compels parents to define...... their children's subjectivities in ways that diminish their personhood. The analysis identifies Buddhist notions of karma, everyday ethics of reciprocity, and party-state discourses of productivity as particularly important forces structuring such social responses to human impairment....

  20. Smoking behavior in Vietnam: demographic and socioeconomic determinants

    OpenAIRE

    cuong, nguyen

    2010-01-01

    Smoking is a leading cause for diseases and death. Information on factors affecting the smoking status is useful for policies on smoking reduction, especially in developing countries. This paper examines to what extent individuals’ characteristics can affect the smoking status using a household survey in Vietnam. It is found that gender and age are the most crucial determinants of smoking. Middle-aged men is the main users of tobacco. Other important factors associated with the decision on s...

  1. Urban and Rural Dimensions of Income Inequality in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Cam Van Cao; Takahiro Akita

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes urban and rural inequalities in Vietnam by applying two techniques of inequality decomposition by population groups and income sources based on two data sets from the nationwide household surveys in 2002 and 2004. It is found that within-sector inequalities in income distribution are substantially higher than that in expenditure distribution because expenditure level is more dependent on location characteristics of a household, while the determinants of income level seems ...

  2. Child and Family Factors Associated With Child Maltreatment in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nhu K; van Berkel, Sheila R; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Alink, Lenneke R A

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to explore possible risk factors for child maltreatment in Vietnam by investigating the association of child and family factors with different types of child maltreatment (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, witnessing parental conflict, and neglect) and the occurrence of multiple types of child maltreatment. Cross-sectional data of 1,851 secondary and high school students aged 12 to 17 years (47.3% boys) in four provinces of Northern Vietnam were obtained using self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that the likelihood of emotional abuse, witnessing parental conflict, and experiencing multiple types of child maltreatment during lifetime increased with age. Boys had a higher risk than girls on lifetime sexual abuse, and past year and lifetime physical abuse. Living in a single parent family was the risk factor related to most types of child maltreatment including lifetime sexual abuse, neglect, and multiple types of child maltreatment, and both past year and lifetime witnessing parental conflict. Interestingly, low socioeconomic status (SES) and parental unemployment were associated with a decreased risk on experiencing emotional abuse in the past year and during lifetime, respectively. "Tiger parenting," a parenting style observed frequently in East Asian parents, may be more common in families with high SES and might explain this finding. This study highlights the importance of prioritizing single parent families in parenting programs and implementing child maltreatment interventions early because of the risk on child maltreatment increased with age. More research on emotional abuse and "Tiger parenting" in Vietnam could clarify the association of emotional abuse with high SES and parental employment. Finally, the underlying mechanisms of the risk factors in Vietnam should be studied more to inform interventions.

  3. Applications of radioisotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dien, N.N.; Quang, N.H.

    1997-01-01

    Nowadays, in Vietnam radioisotopes have been used very widely in various socio-economic branches, especially in industry and healthcare. Applications of radioisotopes have significant meaning in economic development, people health protection, as well as in scientific research. In this paper, the present status and main applications of radiation and radioactive isotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam are reported. In order to control and monitor industrial processes, nucleonic control systems and radioactive tracer techniques have been utilized. Actually, sealed source applications are popular in Vietnam industry. A number of nuclear control devices and gauges have been used in the various industrial factories, such as liquid level gauges in steel industry, cement and beverage factories; density and moisture gauges in paper industry, etc. Tracer technique and sealed source applications have also been utilized in industrial production plants and in trouble-shooting in the petroleum industry. For medicine purposes, two departments of nuclear medicine were primarily established at the beginning of the 1970s. At the present time, a number of nuclear medicine departments have been set up and they have been equipped with advanced equipment. Main activities are focused on thyroid function studies, nuclear cardiology, brain scans, gastrointestinal studies, bone scans, etc. Since march 1984 Dalat nuclear research reactor of nominal power of 500 kW has been reconstructed and put into operation. This reactor is unique in Vietnam and has become an important scientific tool for development of nuclear techniques and radioisotope applications for socio-economic progress. Thanks to this important scientific tool, a variety of radioisotopes for medicine and industry applications as well as for scientific research has been produced. Utilization of the Dalat research reactor for radioisotope production is also summarized in this paper

  4. State-Owned Enterprises and Economic Reform in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; Distribution is unlimited. Reference: DOD...Southeast_Asia/KL09Ae01.html. Nike is a one of the largest foreign investors in Vietnam. 31 Hakkala and Kokko, “The State and the Private Sector...Asia Times Online, December 9, 2009, http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Southeast_Asia/KL09Ae01.html. Nike is a one of the largest foreign investors in

  5. Digitaria Effusa (Gramineae), a new species from Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    During an agrostological survey in the Lam Dong Province, Vietnam, Mr. J.B. Hacker (St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia) collected a remarkable undescribed species of Digitaria. Among the Asian taxa it is peculiar because of its montane provenance coupled with a combination of an inflorescence with well-developed common axis with alternate racemes, the presence of a small lower glume, and the absence of any indument on the spikelet. Somewhat similar is D. wallichiana (Steud.) Stapf, also a monta...

  6. Sustainable Development of Rural Tourism in An Giang Province, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Thanh Long; Thanh-Lam Nguyen

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at sustainably developing rural tourism in An Giang Province, an agricultural province located in the South of Vietnam, by identifying the determinants of the satisfaction and revisit intention of tourists based on both qualitative and quantitative approaches. From exploratory interviews with experts and comprehensive group discussions, we developed a questionnaire for an official survey of 507 tourists at different tour-sites in An Giang Province. It is found that: (1) there ...

  7. A study of ribonuclease activity in venom of vietnam cobra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiet Van Nguyen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ribonuclease (RNase is one of the few toxic proteins that are present constantly in snake venoms of all types. However, to date this RNase is still poorly studied in comparison not only with other toxic proteins of snake venom, but also with the enzymes of RNase group. The objective of this paper was to investigate some properties of RNase from venom of Vietnam cobra Naja atra. Methods Kinetic methods and gel filtration chromatography were used to investigate RNase from venom of Vietnam cobra. Results RNase from venom of Vietnam cobra Naja atra has some characteristic properties. This RNase is a thermostable enzyme and has high conformational stability. This is the only acidic enzyme of the RNase A superfamily exhibiting a high catalytic activity in the pH range of 1–4, with pHopt = 2.58 ± 0.35. Its activity is considerably reduced with increasing ionic strength of reaction mixture. Venom proteins are separated by gel filtration into four peaks with ribonucleolytic activity, which is abnormally distributed among the isoforms: only a small part of the RNase activity is present in fractions of proteins with molecular weights of 12–15 kDa and more than 30 kDa, but most of the enzyme activity is detected in fractions of polypeptides, having molecular weights of less than 9 kDa, that is unexpected. Conclusions RNase from the venom of Vietnam cobra is a unique member of RNase A superfamily according to its acidic optimum pH (pHopt = 2.58 ± 0.35 and extremely low molecular weights of its major isoforms (approximately 8.95 kDa for RNase III and 5.93 kDa for RNase IV.

  8. Prospects for coal and clean coal technologies in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baruya, P. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    Vietnam's energy economy is largely served by traditional biofuels and oil products. Within the power generating sector, hydropower and gas-fired power dominate. However, Vietnam still maintains a 40 Mt/y coal industry, parts of which have recently undergone a long overdue programme of renovation and expansion. Vietnam has been a successful exporter of anthracite, with more than half of the country's production being shipped or barged to steel mills in Japan or power stations in southern China, as well as most other Far Eastern coal importers. The industry is due to take a different form. Opencast mining has recently accounted for around 60% of production but this mining method could be phased out as reserves become more difficult and costly to extract. A shift to underground mining is expected, with a greater emphasis on more modern and mechanised production techniques. Coal is located mainly in the coalfields in Quang Ninh in the north easternmost province of Vietnam. The lower rank reserves located within the Red River coalfields, close to the existing anthracite operations, may yield many more millions of tonnes of coal for exploitation. Underground coal gasification could possibly be exploited in the deeper reserves of the Red River Basin. While coal production could rapidly change in future years, the power generation sector is also transforming with the country's 12,000 MWe development programme for new coal-fired power capacity. The economy suffers from a threat of power shortages due to a lack of generating and transmission capacity, while inefficiencies blight both energy production and end-users. Delivering power to the regions of growth remains difficult as the economy and the demand for power outpaces power generation. While hydroelectric power is being pursued, coal is therefore becoming a growing factor in the future prosperity of the Vietnamese economy. 111 refs., 33 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Orchidaceous Additions to the Flora of China and Vietnam (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ormerod

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuing literature and herbarium studies of Chinese and Vietnamese orchids have revealed a variety of new and noteworthy floristic information. One species is newly recorded for the flora of China, one for Yunnan Province, China and one is newly recorded for the flora of Vietnam. One new synonym is proposed in the genus Oberonia. Five new species are proposed, viz. Epigeneium forrestii, Liparis brunnea, L. rockii, L. superposita and L. yuana.

  10. Strengthening global health security capacity--Vietnam demonstration project, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phu Dac; Vu, Long Ngoc; Nguyen, Hien Tran; Phan, Lan Trong; Lowe, Wayne; McConnell, Michelle S; Iademarco, Michael F; Partridge, Jeffrey M; Kile, James C; Do, Trang; Nadol, Patrick J; Bui, Hien; Vu, Diep; Bond, Kyle; Nelson, David B; Anderson, Lauren; Hunt, Kenneth V; Smith, Nicole; Giannone, Paul; Klena, John; Beauvais, Denise; Becknell, Kristi; Tappero, Jordan W; Dowell, Scott F; Rzeszotarski, Peter; Chu, May; Kinkade, Carl

    2014-01-31

    Over the past decade, Vietnam has successfully responded to global health security (GHS) challenges, including domestic elimination of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and rapid public health responses to human infections with influenza A(H5N1) virus. However, new threats such as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and influenza A(H7N9) present continued challenges, reinforcing the need to improve the global capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to public health threats. In June 2012, Vietnam, along with many other nations, obtained a 2-year extension for meeting core surveillance and response requirements of the 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR). During March-September 2013, CDC and the Vietnamese Ministry of Health (MoH) collaborated on a GHS demonstration project to improve public health emergency detection and response capacity. The project aimed to demonstrate, in a short period, that enhancements to Vietnam's health system in surveillance and early detection of and response to diseases and outbreaks could contribute to meeting the IHR core capacities, consistent with the Asia Pacific Strategy for Emerging Diseases. Work focused on enhancements to three interrelated priority areas and included achievements in 1) establishing an emergency operations center (EOC) at the General Department of Preventive Medicine with training of personnel for public health emergency management; 2) improving the nationwide laboratory system, including enhanced testing capability for several priority pathogens (i.e., those in Vietnam most likely to contribute to public health emergencies of international concern); and 3) creating an emergency response information systems platform, including a demonstration of real-time reporting capability. Lessons learned included awareness that integrated functions within the health system for GHS require careful planning, stakeholder buy-in, and intradepartmental and interdepartmental coordination and

  11. An analysis of thermal comfort in primary schools in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Thi Ho Vi; Gillott, Mark C.; Rodrigues, Lucélia Taranto

    2017-01-01

    There is a trend of installing air conditioning systems in public primary schools that are currently naturally ventilated in Vietnam. A previous study conducted by the authors provided evidence that there is limited need for air conditioning in Vietnamese mid-season and the hottest season.\\ud \\ud In this study, the authors investigated thermal comfort and users’ perceptions in three primary schools in Ho Chi Minh City during the hottest season (April 2016) and the coldest season (December 201...

  12. Website design company in Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh city)

    OpenAIRE

    Liem Hoang

    2017-01-01

    For the last 20 years, many Western companies have invested in China, but things have changed and many of them are moving to or at least opening new branches in other countries. Businesses looking for new markets, unexploited opportunities in other growing Asian markets both to hold down costs and to reduce over dependence on China are entering new emerging markets such as Indonesia, Vietnam, Myanmar, ... Due to the language barrier and cultural differences, most companies that do business in...

  13. Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of Cat Tien National Park, South Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Y. Sinev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cladocera of Cat Tien National Park, South Vietnam, and the surrounding agricultural area, were surveyed during the spring of 2009 (onset of the wet season and autumn 2010 (end of the wet season. The studied water bodies included two large lakes (Bau Sau and Bau Chim, small lakes and ponds, temporary pools, rivers and streams, as well as rice fields and ponds in an agricultural area beyond the boundaries of the National Park. Fifty three species of Cladocera were found, 18 of them new for Vietnam. Distribution and taxonomical status of the species are discussed. Of the recorded species, 58.5% (31 were found only in the National Park, 34% (18 both in the National Park and the agricultural area, and only 7.5% (4 exclusively in the agricultural area. Of the 20 species new for Vietnam, only one was found both in the National Park and the agricultural area, all others were found in the National Park only. Such a difference can be directly attributed to the loss of natural habitats (forest ponds and streams in agricultural areas and to the pollution by pesticides. Our study shows the importance of surveys in pristine and protected areas, for the full evaluation of regional microcrustacean richness.

  14. Breast cancer services in Vietnam: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Chris; Minh, Luu Ngoc; Anh, Tran Tuan; Ngan, Tran Thu; Tuan, Ngo Tri; Giang, Kim Bao; Hoat, Luu Ngoc; Lohfeld, Lynne; Donnelly, Michael; Van Minh, Hoang; Murray, Liam

    2018-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence has been increasing consistently in Vietnam. Thus far, there have been no analytical reviews of research produced within this area. We sought to analyse the nature andextent of empirical studies about breast cancer in Vietnam, identifying areas for future research and systemsstrengthening. We undertook a scoping study using a five-stage framework to review published and grey literature in English and Vietnamese on breast cancer detection, diagnosis and treatment. We focused specifically on research discussing the health system and service provision. Our results show that breast cancer screening is limited, with no permanent or integrated national screening activities. There is a lack of information on screening processes and on the integration of screening services with other areas of the health system. Treatment is largely centralised, and across all services there is a lack of evaluation and data collection that would be informative for recommendations seeking to improve accessibility and quality of breast cancer services. This paper is the first scoping review of breast cancer services in Vietnam. It outlines areas for future focus for policy makers and researchers with the objective of strengthening service provision to women with breast cancer across the country while also providing a methodological example for how to conduct a collaborative scoping review.

  15. 41st Vietnam National Conference on Theoretical Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Preface The 41 st Vietnam National Conference on Theoretical Physics (NCTP-41) was held during 1-4 August 2016 in Nha Trang, Vietnam. The NCTP-41 was organized by the Institute of Physics, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (IOP-VAST) under the support of the Vietnamese Theoretical Physics Society (VTPS). This meeting belongs to a series of annual theoretical physics conferences that started in 1976. The conference has covered a wide range of theoretical physics topics from 4 major fields: • Particle, nuclear and astro- physics, • Molecular physics, quantum optics and quantum computation, • Condensed matter physics, • Soft matter, biological and interdisciplinary physics. 115 participants have participated in the conference. 2 invited talks, 22 oral and 75 poster contributions were presented. This volume contains selected papers contributed by the participants. Editors of the NCTP-41 Proceedings Trinh Xuan Hoang, Hoang Anh Tuan and Vu Ngoc Tuoc Information about Organizer, Sponsor, Honorary Chair and Chair and also lists of committees and participants are available in the PDF (paper)

  16. Clinical and microbiological features of melioidosis in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Doan Mai; Trung, Trinh Thanh; Breitbach, Katrin; Tuan, Nguyen Quang; Nübel, Ulrich; Flunker, Gisela; Khang, Dinh Duy; Quang, Nguyen Xuan; Steinmetz, Ivo

    2008-12-01

    Sporadic cases of melioidosis have been reported from Vietnam for decades, but clinical and epidemiological data for the indigenous population are still scarce. In this study, we reviewed clinical and demographic data of patients with culture-proven melioidosis diagnosed at a single large referral hospital in Hanoi between November 1997 and December 2005. We found that the clinical manifestations of melioidosis (with fatal septicaemia as the most common presentation), a high rate of underlying diseases, and a peak of cases admitted during the wet season, were similar to studies from other endemic areas. The geographical origin of patients with melioidosis showed that melioidosis existed in at least 18 northern provinces. The characterization of clinical Burkholderia pseudomallei strains by multilocus sequence typing identified 17 different sequence types (STs), 11 of which have (as yet) not been found outside Vietnam. Several of these STs presumably were generated through recent evolutionary events in this rapidly diversifying bacterial species, and thus, restricted geographic distribution may be a consequence of limited time passed since emergence. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a series of cases describing clinical and epidemiological features of melioidosis and corresponding B. pseudomallei strains from northern Vietnam.

  17. Molecular diversity of Rice grassy stunt virus in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Hoang-Anh; Nguyen, Doan-Phuong; Causse, Sandrine; Nguyen, Thanh-Duc; Ngo, Vinh-Vien; Hébrard, Eugénie

    2013-04-01

    Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV, Tenuivirus) recently emerged on rice in Vietnam, causing high yield losses during 2006-2009. The genetic diversity of RGSV is poorly documented. In this study, the two genes encoded by each ambisense segment RNA3 and RNA5 of RGSV isolates from six provinces of South Vietnam were sequenced. P3 and Pc3 (RNA3) have unknown function, P5 (RNA5) encodes the putative silencing suppressor, and Pc5 (RNA5) encodes the nucleocapsid protein (N). The sequences of 17 Vietnamese isolates were compared with reference isolates from North and South Philippines. The average nucleotide diversity among the isolates was low. We confirmed a higher variability of RNA3 than RNA5 and Pc3 than P3. No relationships between the genetic diversity and the geographic distribution of RGSV isolates could be ascertained, likely because of the long-distance migration of the insect vector. This data will contribute to a better understanding on the RGSV epidemiology in South Vietnam, a prerequisite for further management of the disease and rice breeding for resistance.

  18. Serpents in jars: the snake wine industry in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Somaweera

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of snakes in Vietnam takes place for different purposes, and among them the snake wine industry is prominent but has received far less attention than other dealings, such as the pet trade. Despite widespread commercialisation there is a general lack of information about this snake trade, which makes it difficult to evaluate its magnitude and impact on snake populations. This study documents the use of snakes in snake wine in four cities in Vietnam through surveys conducted in 127 locations selling snake wine in September 2009. This study provides a list of species used along with the number of individuals observed. While none of the species involved are listed in the IUCN Red List, seven species are listed in the Vietnam Red Data Book, of which five are regulated by CITES. On the other hand, the most abundant species used in the trade, Xenochrophis flavipunctatus, is not listed in any conservation document. The popularity and economic importance of snakes in the form of snake wine demonstrates the need for the development of sustainable use programs for these species.

  19. Status and threats on seagrass beds using GIS in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Cao Van; Thao, Nguyen Van; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Ve, Nguyen Dac; Tien, Dam Duc

    2012-10-01

    Seagrasses, marine flowering plants, are widely distributed along temperate and tropical coastlines of the world. Seagrasses have key ecological roles in coastal ecosystems and can form extensive meadows supporting high biodiversity. Till now, fourteen seagrass species belonging to four families were found in Vietnam: Halophila beccarii, H. decipiens, H. ovalis, H. minor, Thalassia hemprichii, Enhalus acoroides, Ruppia maritima, Halodule pinifolia, H. uninervis, Syringodium isoetifolium, Cymadocea rotundata, C. serrulata and Thalassodendron ciliatum. A total area of seagrass beds in Vietnam is estimated to be approximately 17000 ha by satellite images and GIS technology. In recent years, the distribution areas and densities of seagrass beds in Vietnam have been serious decreased compared with those 10-15 years ago. The decline level depended on the impacts by the natural process, the economical activities and the conservation awareness of local people. Thus, it is different at each coastal area. Generally speaking, the distribution areas and densities of seagrass beds were decreased by more than 50%. Seagrasses on tidal flats in some areas such as Quang Ninh, Hai Phong, Phu Quoc seem to be nearly lost. The distribution areas of seagrass beds in 2009 at Tam Giang-Cau Hai lagoon and Cua Dai estuary was decreased by 50-70% of those in early 1990s.

  20. Molecular diagnosis of an ocular toxocariasis patient in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De, Nguyen; Trung, Nguyen Vu; Duyet, Le Van; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2013-10-01

    An ocular Toxocara canis infection is reported for the first time in Vietnam. A 34-year-old man residing in a village of Son La Province, North Vietnam, visited the National Eye Hospital (NEH) in August 2011. He felt a bulge-sticking pain in his left eye and loss of vision occurred over 3 months before visiting the hospital. The eye examination in the hospital showed damage of the left eye, red eye, retinal fibrosis, retinal detachment, inflammation of the eye tissues, retinal granulomas, and a parasitic cyst inside. A larva of Toxocara was collected with the cyst by a medical doctor by surgery. Comparison of 264 nucleotides of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA was done between our Vietnamese Toxocara canis and other Toxocara geographical isolates, including Chinese T. canis, Japanese T. canis, Sri Lankan T. canis, and Iranian T. canis. The nucleotide homology was 97-99%, when our T. canis was compared with geographical isolates. Identification of a T. canis infection in the eye by a molecular method was performed for the first time in Vietnam.

  1. Medical Evacuation from Vietnam of an Elderly with Tuberculosis Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hua Shieh

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growth in economy in Vietnam, the infrastructure of dependable medical care is still lacking. Therefore, aeromedical evacuation of patients to other countries for further medical interventions has become an important medical service in the region. We report a case where an elderly man who was aeromedically evacuated from Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam to Taipei Medical University–Municipal Wan Fang Hospital in Taipei, Taiwan. The patient developed a sudden onset of quadriplegia because of an epidural abscess at the cervical spine C6–C7. Antituberculous medication was prescribed for suspected tuberculous spondylitis, because his cerebral spinal fluid showed elevated white blood cells with a predominance of lymphocytes, and mildly elevated total protein. However, whole body tumor scan (67Ga mCi and whole body bone scan (99mTc methylene diphosphonate, 25 mCi did not reveal any specific results. Surgical intervention was arranged because of cervical spine instability and the need for a diagnostic biopsy. Adenocarcinoma of the prostate was found incidentally and was treated with bilateral orchiectomy and radiation therapy. This was the first medical evacuation by the Family Medical Practice group in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam to Taiwan.

  2. [Malaria in a changed health care system in Vietnam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bont, L; Schepel, N; de Vries, P; Kager, P A

    1995-09-23

    To determine how and where malaria was diagnosed in a forestry area in South-Vietnam and how it was treated. Descriptive. Hieu Liem, Dong Nai province, Vietnam. In the government hospital and health posts malaria diagnosis and treatment were free of charge while treatment had to be paid for in four private clinics. A population survey was carried out in the forestry area and outside this area: the people were examined for splenic enlargement and a blood sample was analysed. Most patients went to private clinics and it was here that malaria was most frequently diagnosed. In 7.5% of the population in the forest area parasites were found while 1.8% of those living outside the forest appeared to have parasites in the blood. None of the persons with parasitaemia had splenomegaly. Splenomegaly was found in 2.9% of the population, 6.7% in and 0.9% outside the forest area. Recent changes in the health sector in Vietnam have liberalized malaria treatment, possibly control. The wide distribution and extensive use of effective drugs like artesunate and mefloquine have probably contributed to reduction of (severe) malaria, but development of resistance to these drugs is to be feared. Control of drug distribution and of prescription practices is urgently needed.

  3. Report on recent status of TENORM in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Ba Tien

    2005-01-01

    As an implementation of work planned by the FNCA task group on TENORM, a discussion/survey meeting on TENORM was held in Vietnam during August 25-29, 2003. The meeting consisted of the technical discussion on several TENORM topics including technical visit on TENORM sites. This report summarized those activities. The remarkable source of TENORM in Vietnam is scales and sludge from petroleum industry and waste from sand beach processing. Estimated TENORM waste volume generated and stored at Institute for Technology of Radioactive Rare Elements (ITRRE) is about 19-29 t·y -1 , which contained 0.02-1% U, not include TENORM waste produced from other mineral industries that did not keep their records. Currently, there is about 130 t of untreated TENORM waste stored at Phung Interim Storage. Typical dose rate in work place ranges from 0.15-90 μSv·hr -1 . Annual dose of worker was estimated 6 mSv·y -1 based on the assumption of 2,000 work-hr in a year. There are three regulations concerned to TENORM in Vietnam: Ordinance on Radiation Safety and Control (ORSC) (June 25, 1996), Decree on the Detail Directions for implementing of ORSC (July 16, 1998), and National Standard on Radioactive Waste Management - Classification of RW (TCVN - 6868.2001). (author)

  4. Networking Alone? Digital Communications and Collective Action in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kurfürst

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the potential for the formation of collective action in Vietnam. Referring to land and labour protests, bauxite mining, anti-China demonstrations, as well as the revision of the 1992 Constitution, the article examines the social movement repertoires diverse groups have adopted to reach their objectives. Drawing on social movement theory and communication power, this contribution shows that apart from access to the technology, citizens’ opportunities to participate in digital networks as well as access to the default communication network of the state are necessary prerequisites in order to attain public attention and possibly to achieve social change. Moreover, this article shows that existing power differentials in Vietnam are reproduced in digital space. It concludes that for different collective behaviours to result in a social movement, it is essential to “switch” and to connect the different networks. For the moment, the call to protect Vietnam’s sovereignty offers common ground for collective action.

  5. Investing in efficient industrial boiler systems in China and Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming; Dixon, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency in industrial boiler steam systems can be very low due to old technologies, improper design and non-optimal operation of the steam systems. Solutions include efficiency assessments and investments in steam system optimizations, education and training for operators of the systems. This paper presents case studies on assessing and investing in boiler steam systems in China and Vietnam. Methodologies and approaches for data collection and analyses were designed specifically for each of the two countries. This paper concludes: (1) investing in energy efficiency in industrial boiler steam system in China and Vietnam are cost effective; (2) government should not sent national energy efficiency standards lower than that of energy companies or energy equipment manufactures. - Highlights: ► GEF successfully catalyzed investment in industrial energy efficiency boilers in China in 1990s. ► With about $100 million of investment by the GEF/World Bank/Chinese government, the project will mitigate 40 million tons of CO 2 by 2019. ► This generated lowest unit cost of carbon reduction in the world: about $2.5 per ton of CO 2 mitigation. ► Investing in energy efficiency in industrial boiler steam system today in Vietnam will be the same cost effective as in China: $2.1 per ton of CO 2 mitigation.

  6. 77 FR 73674 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, The United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ...)] Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, The United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam... welded carbon-quality steel pipe from India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam, provided for in... from India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam were subsidized and/or dumped within the...

  7. 76 FR 68208 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... (Preliminary)] Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam... carbon-quality steel pipe from India, Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam, provided for in... Governments of India, Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam. Unless the Department of Commerce extends the...

  8. Essays on the Export Performance of Vietnam/Essais sur la Performance à l'Exportation du Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Vu Thi, Hanh

    2015-01-01

    Trade liberalization and international economic integration are major and important issues especially to developing countries including Vietnam. They have provided the country with many opportunities such as foreign investment projects from developed countries, an increase in the State budget through taxation on exports and imports, the higher level of employment, which have all contributed to improving the standard living of the people. Since the country's Reform (Doi Moi) in 1986, trade lib...

  9. Efficiency of Different Integrated Agriculture Aquaculture Systems in the Red River Delta of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Van Huong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Agriculture Aquaculture (IAA is characteristic with diversity of small-scale production systems in the Red River Delta, Vietnam where most integrated aquaculture systems are closely associated to the VAC model, an ecosystem production that three components: garden (V, pond (A and livestock pen (C are integrated. These VAC systems effectively use all the available land, air, water and solar energy resources, and also effectively recycle by-products and waste for providing diversified agricultural products to meet the complex nutritional demands of rural communities. The IAA systems are dynamic, diverse and subject to economic and environmental changes. By investigating 167 aquaculture households, the traditional VAC, New VAC, Animal Fish (AF and Commercial Fish (FS systems are identified as four existing IAA systems. This paper presents the main characteristics and economic efficiency of these IAA systems. The study’s results indicate clear evidence that the traditional VAC system and New VAC system are the most efficient and effective models. The findings of this study have shed light on the important role of integrated aquaculture systems to food security and economic development of households and local communities. The VAC systems are likely to propose for improving household food security and developing the local economy.

  10. Motivation of university and non-university stakeholders to change medical education in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruitenberg EJ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both university and non-university stakeholders should be involved in the process of curriculum development in medical schools, because all are concerned with the competencies of the graduates. That may be difficult unless appropriate strategies are used to motivate each stakeholder. From 1999 to 2006, eight medical schools in Vietnam worked together to change the curriculum and teaching for general medical students to make it more community oriented. This paper describes the factors that motivated the different stakeholders to participate in curriculum change and teaching in Vietnamese medical schools and the activities to address those factors and have sustainable contributions from all relevant stakeholders. Methods Case study analysis of contributions to the change process, using reports, interviews, focus group discussions and surveys and based on Herzberg's Motivation Theory to analyze involvement of different stakeholders. Results Different stakeholders were motivated by selected activities, such as providing opportunities for non-university stakeholders to share their opinions, organizing interactions among university stakeholders, stimulating both bottom-up and top-down inputs, focusing on learning from each other, and emphasizing self-motivation factors. Conclusion The Herzberg Motivation theory helped to identify suitable approaches to ensure that teaching topics, materials and assessment methods more closely reflected the health care needs of the community. Other medical schools undertaking a reform process may learn from this experience.

  11. Motivation of university and non-university stakeholders to change medical education in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Ngoc Hoat; Nguyen, Lan Viet; van der Wilt, G J; Broerse, J; Ruitenberg, E J; Wright, E P

    2009-07-24

    Both university and non-university stakeholders should be involved in the process of curriculum development in medical schools, because all are concerned with the competencies of the graduates. That may be difficult unless appropriate strategies are used to motivate each stakeholder. From 1999 to 2006, eight medical schools in Vietnam worked together to change the curriculum and teaching for general medical students to make it more community oriented. This paper describes the factors that motivated the different stakeholders to participate in curriculum change and teaching in Vietnamese medical schools and the activities to address those factors and have sustainable contributions from all relevant stakeholders. Case study analysis of contributions to the change process, using reports, interviews, focus group discussions and surveys and based on Herzberg's Motivation Theory to analyze involvement of different stakeholders. Different stakeholders were motivated by selected activities, such as providing opportunities for non-university stakeholders to share their opinions, organizing interactions among university stakeholders, stimulating both bottom-up and top-down inputs, focusing on learning from each other, and emphasizing self-motivation factors. The Herzberg Motivation theory helped to identify suitable approaches to ensure that teaching topics, materials and assessment methods more closely reflected the health care needs of the community. Other medical schools undertaking a reform process may learn from this experience.

  12. Evaluation of three adolescent sexual health programs in ha noi and khanh hoa province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Van; Nguyen, Hoang; Tho, Le Huu; Minh, Truong Tan; Lerdboon, Porntip; Riel, Rosemary; Green, Mackenzie S; Kaljee, Linda M

    2012-01-01

    With an increase in sexual activity among young adults in Vietnam and associated risks, there is a need for evidence-based sexual health interventions. This evaluation of three sexual health programs based on the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) was conducted in 12 communes in Ha Noi, Nha Trang City, and Ninh Hoa District. Inclusion criteria included unmarried youth 15-20 years residing in selected communes. Communes were randomly allocated to an intervention, and participants were randomly selected within each commune. The intervention programs included Vietnamese Focus on Kids (VFOK), the gender-based program Exploring the World of Adolescents (EWA), and EWA plus parental and health provider education (EWA+). Programs were delivered over a ten-week period in the communities by locally trained facilitators. The gender-based EWA program with parental involvement (EWA+) compared to VFOK showed significantly greater increase in knowledge. EWA+ in comparison to VFOK also showed significant decrease at immediate postintervention for intention to have sex. Sustained changes are observed in all three interventions for self-efficacy condom use, self-efficacy abstinence, response efficacy for condoms, extrinsic rewards, and perceived vulnerability for HIV. These findings suggest that theory-based community programs contribute to sustained changes in knowledge and attitudes regarding sexual risk among Vietnamese adolescents.

  13. Evaluation of Three Adolescent Sexual Health Programs in Ha Noi and Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Pham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With an increase in sexual activity among young adults in Vietnam and associated risks, there is a need for evidence-based sexual health interventions. This evaluation of three sexual health programs based on the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT was conducted in 12 communes in Ha Noi, Nha Trang City, and Ninh Hoa District. Inclusion criteria included unmarried youth 15–20 years residing in selected communes. Communes were randomly allocated to an intervention, and participants were randomly selected within each commune. The intervention programs included Vietnamese Focus on Kids (VFOK, the gender-based program Exploring the World of Adolescents (EWA, and EWA plus parental and health provider education (EWA+. Programs were delivered over a ten-week period in the communities by locally trained facilitators. The gender-based EWA program with parental involvement (EWA+ compared to VFOK showed significantly greater increase in knowledge. EWA+ in comparison to VFOK also showed significant decrease at immediate postintervention for intention to have sex. Sustained changes are observed in all three interventions for self-efficacy condom use, self-efficacy abstinence, response efficacy for condoms, extrinsic rewards, and perceived vulnerability for HIV. These findings suggest that theory-based community programs contribute to sustained changes in knowledge and attitudes regarding sexual risk among Vietnamese adolescents.

  14. Unpacking Changes in Mangrove Social-Ecological Systems: Lessons from Brazil, Zanzibar, and Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire H. Quinn

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves provide multiple benefits, from carbon storage and shoreline protection to food and energy for natural resource-dependent coastal communities. However, they are coming under increasing pressure from climate change, coastal development, and aquaculture. There is increasing need to better understand the changes mangroves face and whether these changes differ or are similar in different parts of the world. Using a multiple case study approach, focused on Vietnam, Zanzibar, and Brazil, this research analyzed the drivers, pressures, states, impacts, and responses (DPSIR of mangrove systems. A qualitative content analysis was used on a purposively sampled document set for each country to identify and collate evidence under each of the DPSIR categories. Population growth and changing political and economic processes were key drivers across the three countries, leading to land use change and declining states of mangroves. This had an impact on the delivery of regulatory and provisioning ecosystem services from mangroves and on the welfare of coastal communities. Responses have been predominantly regulatory and aim to improve mangrove states, but without always considering ecosystem services or the consequences for welfare. The issue of scale emerged as a critical factor with drivers, pressures, impacts, and responses operating at different levels (from international to local, with consequences for response effectiveness.

  15. Roles and Functions of Social Networks Among Men Who Use Drugs in ART Initiation in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latkin, Carl A; Smith, M Kumi; Ha, Tran Viet; Mo, Tran Thi; Zelaya, Carla; Sripaipan, Teerada; Le Minh, Nguyen; Quan, Vu Minh; Go, Vivian F

    2016-11-01

    Support from social network members may help to facilitate access to HIV medical care, especially in low resourced communities. As part of a randomized clinical trial of a community-level stigma and risk reduction intervention in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam for people living with HIV who inject drugs (PWID), 341 participants were administered a baseline social network inventory. Network predictors of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation at the 6-month follow-up were assessed. The social networks of PWID were sparse. Few participants who reported injectors in their networks also reported family members, whereas those who did not have injectors were more likely to report family members and network members providing emotional support and medical advice. In multivariate models, having at least one network member who provided medical advice predicted ART initiation at 6 months (OR 2.74, CI 1.20-6.28). These results suggest the importance of functional social support and network support mobilization for ART initiation among PWID.

  16. Radioiodine therapy of hyperthyroidism at 25 years experience in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai Trong Khoa; Phan Sy An; Phan Van Duyet; Tran Dinh Ha

    2004-01-01

    In Vietnam, hyperthyroidism is a common problem with a local prevalence of 1.48%, higher in females (1.78%) and 1.19% in males. Radioiodine (I-131) is used successfully since more than 60 years in the world and more than 20 years in Vietnam for treatment of hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism can be due to Graves' disease (diffuse toxic goiter); toxic multinodular goiter and solitary toxic nodule; thyroiditis; iodine - induced hyperthyroidism (Job-Basedow's disease)... In Vietnam, the most common cause of hyperthyroidism is toxic diffuse goiter. There are 3 main Methods for treatment of hyperthyroidism: antithyroid drug; surgery; radioiodine. In our country, less than half of the patients with hyperthyroidism are treated primarily with radioiodine in recent years. Since 1978, 13226 patients with hyperthyroidism (1784 males and 11442 females) have been treated and have been followed-up at the Nuclear Medicine Departments in other parts of Vietnam (North, Middle, South Vietnam). After treatment with I-131, these patients were followed up at 3 to 4 months interval for the first year and 6 to 12 monthly henceforth. The average dose of I-131 was 6.8 ± 1.9 mCi. Out of the 13226 patients, 5216 (39.4%) became clinically hypothyroid, 7841 (59.3 %) were euthyroid and 169 (1.3%) remained hyperthyroidism.Administration of a single dose resulted in control of thyrotoxicosis in 9911 (74.9%) patients. 2581 (19.5%) patients required 2 doses and a further 734 (5.5%) needed 3 doses of 1-131.At the end of the first year, 511 (3.9%) of patients were clinically hypothyroid. From the second to tenth year, there was a 2.2% annual increase in incidence of hypothyroidism. From the eleventh year on wards, the incidence of hypothyroidism was 1% per year. There was no significant difference in prevalence of hypothyroidism at the time of review in patients treated with a single dose and those requiring repeated treatment (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the

  17. Misuse of antenatal care and its association with adverse outcomes of pregnancy in a Southern rural area of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Thi-Thuy-Dung; Nguyen, The-Dung; Goyens, Philippe; Robert, Annie

    2018-04-01

    Researchers in Vietnam reported a high percentage of pregnant women attending ANC at least once, but an insufficient utilization of ANC services remains. The evidence demonstrating how the utilization of these services affect pregnancy outcome is not documented in Vietnam. We investigated the association between the misuse of ANC services and pregnancy outcome, and assessed other determinants associated with ANC services utilization. We conducted a prospective community-based study in Trang Bom district, Dong Nai, during 12 consecutive months. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and medical records. Women were followed up to delivery. Misuse of ANC services, related factors and its association with adverse events were assessed using logistic regression. Out of 3301 pregnant women, 91% initiated an ANC visit within first trimester, 95% attended at least three ANC visits, but a low percentage of pregnant women underwent blood and urine tests at least once (20% and 39%, respectively). Factors significantly associated with a higher risk of adverse outcomes were lack of blood test and urine test, parity ≥ 3, ANC visits ANC attendance, and women with a low number of ANC visits. Despite a high percentage of early entry into ANC and of at least three ANC visits, misuse of ANC services still exists and contributes to adverse outcomes. There is a need to increase the awareness of women on the benefits of ANC services by educating young women as well as women with several children. Health workers should be encouraged to propose suitable ANC services to pregnant women.

  18. Risk factors for Clonorchis sinensis infection transmission in humans in northern Vietnam: A descriptive and social network analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, Hoang Quang; Phimpraphai, Waraphon; Tangkawattana, Sirikachorn; Smith, John F; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Dung, Do Trung; Duong, Tran Thanh; Sripa, Banchob

    2017-04-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is major fish-borne trematode, endemic in North Vietnam. Risk factors described so far include individual eating behaviors and environmental factors. Here, additional to conventional risk factors, we report on socially influenced liver fluke transmission in endemic communities. A cross-sectional study on risk factors and fish sharing networks was conducted in 4 villages of Gia Thinh Commune, Ninh Binh Province. A total of 510 residents in 272 households were recruited for risk factor analysis while 220 households, 28 fishermen and 10 fish-sellers were enrolled for social network study. Fecal examination for C. sinensis eggs was performed. Average C. sinensis infection rate at Gia Thinh commune was 16.5% (range 2% to 34.4%). Higher infection rates were significantly associated with males, lower educational levels, eating raw fish, and location of the villages. Social network analysis (SNA) showed a strong positive correlation between ego network size (number of households in fish sharing network) and quantity of raw fish consumed (r=0.603, Psinensis infection transmission in northern Vietnam. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The association of state per capita income and military service deaths in the Vietnam and Iraq wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maynard Charles

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, social burdens including war casualties are often distributed unequally across groups of individuals, communities, and states. The purpose of this report was to examine the association between war deaths and per capita income in the 50 states and District of Columbia during the Vietnam and Iraq wars. Methods The numbers of deaths by the home state of record for each conflict were obtained from Department of Defense records on the Internet as were key variables including age at death, gender, race, branch of service, rank, circumstances of death, home state of record and the ratio of wounded to dead. In addition, we obtained state per capita income and state population for the relevant times. Results Characteristics of decedents in the 2 conflicts were very similar with young, white enlisted men accounting for the majority of deaths. However, in the Iraq war, women accounted for a 2.4% of casualties. Also of note was the higher ratio of wounded to dead in Iraq. At the level of the state, the correlation between the ratio of deaths per 100,000 and per capita income was -0.51 (p Conclusion For military service members serving in the Vietnam and Iraq conflicts, there were many more women who died in the latter war. Whether war deaths resulted in lower per capita income cannot be determined from these cross sectional data; we simply note a strong association between per capita income and war casualty rates for both wars.

  20. Two new species of the genus Pararrhynchium de Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lien Thi Phuong

    2015-06-22

    Two new species of the genus Pararrhynchium are described and figured: P. striatum sp. nov. (northern Vietnam: Hoa Binh, Ha Tinh and Thai Nguyen) and P. concavum sp. nov. (northern Vietnam: Cao Bang). A key to all known species of the genus is provided.

  1. New species of the genus Sinularia (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) from Nha Trang Bay, South China Sea, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dautova, T.N.; Ofwegen, van L.P.; Savinkin, O.V.

    2010-01-01

    A total of eight Sinularia species is described and depicted, all from Nha Trang Bay, Vietnam (South China Sea). Six are new to science: S. capricornis, S. multiflora, S. pumila, S. sarmentosa, S. torta, and S. uva. Two other ones represent just new records for Vietnam: S. rigida (Dana, 1846) and S.

  2. Implementation of Treasury Single Account and Strengthening of Cash Management in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Vietnam has made progress to improve oversight and control over cash balances for the state budget. The current arrangement however falls short of a treasury single account (TSA), which has led to inefficiencies in the management of cash balances and higher than necessary borrowing costs. In response to this, the Government of Vietnam has embarked on reforms to adopt a TSA and strengthen o...

  3. Anemia and intestinal parasite infection in school children in rural Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thi, Le H.; Brouwer, I.D.; Verhoef, H.; Khan, N.C.; Kok, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: This study hypothesized that besides iron deficiency, intestinal parasites infection is also a determinant of anemia in schoolchildren in rural Vietnam. Methods: 400 primary schoolchildren from 20 primary schools in Tam Nong district, a poor rural area in Vietnam, were randomly selected

  4. 78 FR 56211 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... rate, the cash deposit rate will be that for the Vietnam-wide entity; and (4) for all non-Vietnam... the surrogate values for certain export-related expenses incurred by Minh Phu Group and Nha Trang. The...\\ See Issues and Decision Memorandum at Appendix. Rate for Non-Selected Companies For the final results...

  5. Achievements and Lessons Learned from Vietnam's Higher Education Quality Assurance System after a Decade of Establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huu Cuong; Ta, Thi Thu Hien; Nguyen, Thi Thu Huong

    2017-01-01

    Higher education quality assurance and accreditation were officially implemented in Vietnam over twelve years ago. From a totally centralized model, Vietnam's accreditation system has been becoming more independent, especially with the establishment of accrediting agencies. The first accreditation certificates were also awarded to universities…

  6. Antidumping, countervailing duties and non-market economy status of Vietnam in the WTO

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Dordi

    2008-01-01

    The non-market economy status has a negative influence on the international trade relations of Vietnam. The article analyses the legal consequences for Vietnam of the NME status and identify the roadmap to obtain the "market economy status" from other WTO members

  7. Greening Food Processing Industry in Vietnam: Putting Industrial Ecology to Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi My Dieu,

    2003-01-01

    The significant contribution to Vietnam's gross domestic product over the years give evidence of the important role of food processing industry in the economic and industrial development of the country. This is even more relevant from now onwards, as it is Vietnam's development strategy to become

  8. The Spatial Distribution of Poverty in Vietnam and the Potential for Targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Minot, Nicholas; Baulch, Bob

    2002-01-01

    The authors combine household survey and census data to construct a provincial poverty map of Vietnam and evaluate the accuracy of geographically targeted antipoverty programs. First, they estimate per capita expenditure as a function of selected household and geographic characteristics using the 1998 Vietnam Living Standards Survey. Next, they combine the results with data on the same hou...

  9. French Bilingual Classes in Vietnam: Issues and Debates about an Innovative Language Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand-Marconnet, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Despite a long historical French presence in Vietnam, only 0.5% of Vietnamese people speak French today. As in other countries of South East Asia, language instruction in Vietnam has mainly focused on English for several decades. This paper provides an overview of a project called "French bilingual classes". The main aim of the study is…

  10. Meeting Yesterday Head-On: The Vietnam War in Vietnamese, American, and World History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, Craig A.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that the American-Vietnamese War can be analyzed best in the context of three distinct entities: (1) Vietnam; (2) the United States; and (3) the larger world. Discusses Vietnam's revolutionary tradition, U.S. Cold War foreign policy, and the global context of anticolonialism and antiimperialism. (CFR)

  11. 78 FR 8105 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... following companies: Acton Co., Ltd.; Angang Clothes Rack Manufacture Co.; Asmara Home Vietnam; B2B Co., Ltd...) CTN Limited Company CTN Limited Company 157.00 Ju Fu Co., Ltd Ju Fu Co., Ltd..... 157.00 Triloan.... \\6\\ The Vietnam-wide entity includes South East Asia Hamico Export Joint Stock Company, the TJ Group...

  12. Morphodynamics of seasonally closed coastal inlets at the central coast of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, T.T.

    2011-01-01

    Situated in a monsoon-prone humid tropical region, Vietnam is affected by both oceanic and continental climates causing disasters to the country like riverine flooding and storm induced damage. The coastal districts of Vietnam have a population of about 18 million habitants, account for nearly one

  13. The Effect of Culture on Enterprise's Perception of Corporate Social Responsibility: The Case of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truong, Minh Quang; Nguyen, My

    2016-01-01

    including Vietnam, perception of CSR remains vague and the adoption of CSR is limited. This study reviews different approaches to CSR and gives a conceptual framework of how cultural values influence CSR perception of enterprise. Some analysis on culture and data collection in Vietnam's case are carried out...... as example for the proposed framework. The study suggests several directions for future research on CSR....

  14. A dynamic approach to assess international competitiveness of Vietnam's garment and textile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Huong Thanh; Pham, Lam Cat

    2016-01-01

    Garment and textile (G&T) industry has been playing as a driving force for the socio-economic development of Vietnam. With the international integration process and rising challenges from the global market, there is a need to examine international competitiveness of Vietnam's G&T industry to find out what Vietnam should focus on to enhance its position in the global market place. This paper, by using the Generalized Double Diamond Model (GDDM), analyzed international competitiveness of Vietnam's G&T industry and compared it with China. The results showed that Vietnam was less competitive than China in all four attributes of the GDDM. The lowest competitiveness of Vietnam in comparison with China was Related and Supporting industries, followed by Factor Conditions. Therefore, the paper argued that although Vietnam should improve all of the four attributes in the long term, Vietnam must put a high priority on developing Related and Supporting Industries and then enhance Factor Conditions while maintaining its strengths over China in terms of G&T export growths and favorable business context.

  15. "Causal" Communication: Media Portrayals and Public Attributions for Vietnam Veterans' Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Robert J.; Sen, Shaikat

    A study of "causal" communication, the communication of attribution-related information, investigated the relationship of exposure to mass media (especially film) depictions of Vietnam veterans to perceived causes for the problems facing a number of Vietnam veterans. The study further extends attribution theory to social interaction and…

  16. 78 FR 45271 - Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam Determination On the basis of the record... reason of imports from Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of welded stainless steel pressure pipe, provided... contained in USITC Publication 4413 (July 2013), entitled Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe from Malaysia...

  17. 76 FR 18782 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and..., India, Thailand, and Vietnam would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material...

  18. 78 FR 18957 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-552-801] Certain Frozen Fish Fillets... frozen fish fillets (``fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The..., DC 20230; telephone: 202-482-0238. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The AD order on fish fillets...

  19. Steep increases in tuberculosis notification among young men in the industrialised districts of Danang, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duc, L. V.; Vree, M.; Sy, D. N.; Co, N. V.; Borgdorff, M. W.; Cobelens, F. G. J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) notification is increasing among young adults in urban provinces in Vietnam, despite having achieved World Health Organization targets for treatment success and case detection. OBJECTIVES: To identify causes for non-declining TB case rates in an urban area of Vietnam,

  20. Tuberculosis epidemiology in six provinces of Vietnam after the introduction of the DOTS strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huong, N. T.; Duong, B. D.; Co, N. V.; Quy, H. T.; Tung, L. B.; Broekmans, J. F.; Bosman, M. C.; Verhage, C.; Kalisvaart, N.; Borgdorff, M. W.; Cobelens, F. G.

    2006-01-01

    SETTING: Six provinces in Vietnam where the DOTS strategy was introduced in 1989. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of improved tuberculosis (TB) control on TB epidemiology in Vietnam. METHODS: Data from the surveillance system in the period 1990-2003 were analysed to assess trends of notification

  1. 78 FR 10210 - Utility Scale Wind Towers From China and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... wind towers. Background The Commission instituted these investigations effective December 29, 2011...)] Utility Scale Wind Towers From China and Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... with material injury by reason of imports of utility scale wind towers from China and Vietnam, provided...

  2. Rebalance to Asia and the Pacific: Leveraging Vietnam to Counter-Balance China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Invite Vietnam to participate in military exercises in the Pacific region ...................... 53 Increase military aid to Vietnam by... Malaysia is lying low, Brunei has solved its problem with China, Indonesia has no well-defined foreign policy on the subject, the Philippines has few...

  3. 77 FR 9701 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ...)] Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record \\1...)) (the Act), that there is a reasonable indication that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Taiwan and Vietnam of steel wire garment hangers, provided for in...

  4. We have to eat, right? : food safety concerns and shopping for daily vegetables in modernizing Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyses how people during everyday life confront real food safety risks that are difficult to influence and come to grips with and focuses on food safety risks in modernizing Vietnam.

    Over the past 40 years Vietnam has developed from war torn country with a highly centralized

  5. Caulder's Story: "Chinese Handcuffs" and the Untold Story of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philion, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Calls attention to an important instructional resource that high school English and history teachers can use to engage their students in critical thinking about the Vietnam War. Gives some ideas for helping teenagers to make connections between the young adult novel "Chinese Handcuffs" and the Vietnam War. Suggests the integration of "Chinese…

  6. When History Talks Back: Teaching Nonfiction Literature of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    2002-01-01

    Presents student responses to nonfiction literature of the Vietnam War. Describes reasons for teaching the nonfiction literature of the Vietnam War. Concludes that this literature is accessible and engaging to students, and it deals with issues that speak to students in powerful ways. (SG)

  7. Past Perspectives on Teaching about the Vietnam War: Implications for Teaching about Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    During the Vietnam War, and the years following the conflict, history teachers were often hesitant to examine the war in the classroom for a variety of reasons. This article explores some of the factors that prohibited the effective teaching of the Vietnam War. Implications regarding how these inhibiting factors might affect teaching about the…

  8. Making History Come Alive with the Nonfiction Literature of the Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    2003-01-01

    The nonfiction literature of the Vietnam War is accessible and engaging to students, and it deals with issues that speaks to students in powerful ways. In addition, the literature can help students better understand their parents and grandparents and the effect on them of the Vietnam War. A number of teachers who have taught the nonfiction…

  9. Volatile constituents of the essential oils of two Polygonum species from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Van, le H.; Moi, La Dinh; Cu, Lu'u Dam; Leclercq, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Polygonum species grown in many places in Vietnam, esp. on the rice-field. It is used in the traditional medicine. After Pham Hoang Ho until now in Vietnam, 40 Polygonum species have been found. From the polygonum genus (Family Polygonaceae) the essential oils of 2 species are reported: Polygonum

  10. How Biodiversity Conservation Policy Accelerates Agrarian Differentiation: The Account of an Upland Village in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dressler, W.H.; Xuan To, P.; Mahanty, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows how the implementation of Vietnam«SQ»s recent biodiversity conservation policy in Ba Vi National Park has increased the economic value of nature, created sustained conflict, and exacerbated agrarian differentiation in an upland village in northern Vietnam. Increased global and

  11. Migration and persistence of human influenza A viruses, Vietnam, 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Mai Quynh; Lam, Ha Minh; Cuong, Vuong Duc; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Halpin, Rebecca A; Wentworth, David E; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Thanh, Le Thi; Phuong, Hoang Vu Mai; Horby, Peter; Boni, Maciej F

    2013-11-01

    Understanding global influenza migration and persistence is crucial for vaccine strain selection. Using 240 new human influenza A virus whole genomes collected in Vietnam during 2001-2008, we looked for persistence patterns and migratory connections between Vietnam and other countries. We found that viruses in Vietnam migrate to and from China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Cambodia, Japan, South Korea, and the United States. We attempted to reduce geographic bias by generating phylogenies subsampled at the year and country levels. However, migration events in these phylogenies were still driven by the presence or absence of sequence data, indicating that an epidemiologic study design that controls for prevalence is required for robust migration analysis. With whole-genome data, most migration events are not detectable from the phylogeny of the hemagglutinin segment alone, although general migratory relationships between Vietnam and other countries are visible in the hemagglutinin phylogeny. It is possible that virus lineages in Vietnam persisted for >1 year.

  12. Migration and Persistence of Human Influenza A Viruses, Vietnam, 2001–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Mai Quynh; Lam, Ha Minh; Cuong, Vuong Duc; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Halpin, Rebecca A; Wentworth, David E; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Thanh, Le Thi; Phuong, Hoang Vu Mai; Horby, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Understanding global influenza migration and persistence is crucial for vaccine strain selection. Using 240 new human influenza A virus whole genomes collected in Vietnam during 2001–2008, we looked for persistence patterns and migratory connections between Vietnam and other countries. We found that viruses in Vietnam migrate to and from China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Cambodia, Japan, South Korea, and the United States. We attempted to reduce geographic bias by generating phylogenies subsampled at the year and country levels. However, migration events in these phylogenies were still driven by the presence or absence of sequence data, indicating that an epidemiologic study design that controls for prevalence is required for robust migration analysis. With whole-genome data, most migration events are not detectable from the phylogeny of the hemagglutinin segment alone, although general migratory relationships between Vietnam and other countries are visible in the hemagglutinin phylogeny. It is possible that virus lineages in Vietnam persisted for >1 year. PMID:24188643

  13. IS VIETNAM THE NEW ASIAN TIGER? SCOREBOARD ANDMACROECONOMIC EVALUATION OF THE ATTRACTIVENESS FORFOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Homlong

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Followingeconomies like China and India,alsoVietnamhas managed toincreaseits attractiveness for foreign direct investmentsin recent years. In contrast tomany European economies Vietnam had overcome the financial and economiccrisisin 2008 quicklyand turned back to high growth rates already in 2010/11.Nevertheless many European economies and companies still regard Vietnam as anunstable and fragile economy. Therefore the questions arisewhich generalinvestment conditions are of importance for companies that are investing abroad,and which factors make Vietnam attractive asa business locationfor foreigncompanies? After a presentation of stylized facts about Vietnam and a discussionof location theories and location factors, we develop a scoring method to evaluategeneral investment conditions. Eight of the member states of the European Unionin Central and Eastern Europeare used as reference groups to test the scoreboardrating tool, before it is applied for Vietnam.

  14. Hot spot detection and spatio-temporal dispersion of dengue fever in Hanoi, Vietnam. (Special Issue: Public health in Vietnam: here's the data, where's the action?)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Do Thi Thanh, Toan; Hu, WenBiao; Pham Quang, Thai; Luu Ngoc, Hoat; Wright, P; Martens, P

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Dengue fever (DF) in Vietnam remains a serious emerging arboviral disease, which generates significant concerns among international health authorities. Incidence rates of DF have increased significantly during the last few years in many provinces and cities, especially Hanoi. The

  15. Timely immunization completion among children in Vietnam from 2000 to 2011: a multilevel analysis of individual and contextual factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Thi Minh An

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the beginning of 2014, there have been nearly 6,000 confirmed measles cases in northern Vietnam. Of these, more than 86% had neither been immunized nor was their vaccination status confirmed. Objective: To establish the likelihood that children under five in Vietnam had ‘timely immunization completion’ (2000–2011 and identify factors that account for variations in timely immunization completion. Design: Secondary data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS, which sampled women aged 15–49 from the 1999 Vietnamese Population and Housing Census frame, were analyzed. Multilevel analysis using Poisson regression was undertaken. Results: Proportions of children under five who had timely immunization completion were low, especially for HBV dose 2 and HBV dose 3, which decreased between 2000 and 2011. Among seven vaccines used in the National Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI in 2000, 2006, and 2011, measles dose 1 had the highest timely immunization completion at 65.3%, 66.7%, and 73.6%, respectively, and hepatitis B dose 1 had the lowest at 17.5%, 19.3%, and 45.5%, respectively. Timely immunization completion was less common among children whose mothers had relatively less household wealth, were from ethnic minorities, lived in rural areas, and had less education. At the community level, the child's region of residence was the main predictor of timely immunization completion, and the availability of hospital delivery and community prenatal care in the local community were also determinants. Conclusion: The EPI should include ‘timely immunization completion’ as a quality indicator. There should also be greater focus and targeting in rural areas, and among women who have relatively low education, belong to minority groups, and have less household wealth. Further research on this topic using multilevel analysis is needed to better understand how these factors interact.

  16. Use of modern contraceptives among married women in Vietnam: a multilevel analysis using the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (2011) and the Vietnam Population and Housing Census (2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lan Thi Hoang; Oh, Juhwan; Bui, Quyen Thi-Tu; Le, Anh Thi-Kim

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of modern contraceptive use is an important indicator that reflects accessibility to reproductive health services. Satisfying unmet needs for family planning alone could reduce the number of maternal deaths by almost a third. This study uses multiple data sources to examine multilevel factors associated with the use of modern contraceptives among married women in Vietnam aged 15-49 years. Data from different national surveys (Vietnam Population and Housing Census, Vietnam Living Standard Survey, and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey) were linked to create a dataset including individual and contextual (provincial) variables (N=8,341). Multilevel modeling was undertaken to examine the impact of both individual and provincial characteristics on modern contraceptive use. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are reported. Individual factors significantly associated with the use of modern contraceptives were age 30-34 years (reference 15-19 years) (OR=1.63); high socioeconomic status (SES) (OR=0.8); having two living children (OR=2.4); and having a son (OR=1.4). The provincial poverty rate mediated the association between the individual's SES and the likelihood of using modern contraceptives. The proportion of women in Vietnam using modern contraceptive methods has remained relatively high in recent years with significant variation across Vietnam's 63 provinces. Women of lower SES are more likely to use modern contraceptive methods, especially in the poorer provinces. Achieving access to universal reproductive health is one of the Millennium Development Goals. Vietnam must continue to make progress in this area.

  17. Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Q M; Nguyen, H L; Do, T N; Nguyen, V N; Nguyen, B H; Nguyen, T V A; Sintchenko, V; Marais, B J

    2016-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are leading causes of disease and death in Vietnam, but TB/HIV disease trends and the profile of co-infected patients are poorly described. We examined national TB and HIV notification data to provide a geographic overview and describe relevant disease trends within Vietnam. We also compared the demographic and clinical profiles of TB patients with and without HIV infection. During the past 10 years (2005-2014) cumulative HIV case numbers and deaths increased to 298,151 and 71,332 respectively, but access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) improved and new infections and deaths declined. From 2011-2014 routine HIV testing of TB patients increased from 58.9% to 72.5% and of all TB patients diagnosed with HIV in 2014, 2,803 (72.4%) received ART. The number of multidrug resistant (MDR)-TB cases enrolled for treatment increased almost 3-fold (578 to 1,532) from 2011-2014. The rate of HIV co-infection in MDR and non-MDR TB cases (51/1,532; 3.3% vs 3,774/100,555; 3.8%; OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.7-1.2) was similar in 2014. The care of TB/HIV co-infected patients have shown sustained improvement in Vietnam. Rising numbers of MDR-TB cases is a concern, but this is not "driven" by HIV co-infection. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Dioxin exposure in breast milk and infant neurodevelopment in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Pham The; Nishijo, Muneko; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Honda, Ryumon; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2013-09-01

    Dioxin levels in the breast milk of mothers residing near hot spots of dioxin contamination areas in South Vietnam remain much higher than in unsprayed areas, suggesting that fetuses and breast-fed infants may be exposed to high levels of dioxins. The present study investigated the association of infant neurodevelopment in early infancy and dioxin exposure during the perinatal period. The study involved 216 mother-infant pairs living near the Da Nang airbase, a dioxin contaminated area in Vietnam. Mothers and infants were followed from birth until infants were 4 months old. Dioxin levels in breast milk were measured to estimate the perinatal dioxin exposure, including the infant daily dioxin intake (DDI) via breastfeeding. Infant neurodevelopmental parameters, including cognitive, language and motor domains were assessed at approximately 4 months using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition (Bayley-III). The level of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans-toxic equivalents in breast milk and the infant DDI showed significant inverse correlations with neurodevelopmental scores. When the subjects were divided into four groups according to dioxin levels in breast milk, the moderate and high DDI groups had significantly lower cognitive, composite motor and fine motor scores, and the high polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans-toxic equivalents group had significantly lower fine motor score than the low exposure group. For all domains, neurodevelopmental scores were decreased with increase in the level of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. The present study demonstrates a considerable impact of perinatal dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment in 4-month-old infants living in contaminated areas in Vietnam.

  19. Secondhand effects of alcohol use among students in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, Pham Bich; Knibbe, Ronald A; Giang, Kim Bao; De Vries, Nanne

    2015-01-01

    In many countries worldwide, heavy drinking can cause harm not only to drinkers but also to those around them. To examine the prevalence and predictors of secondhand effects of alcohol use among students in Vietnam. In this cross-sectional study, a multistage sampling strategy was used to select 6,011 students (from the first to final study year) of 12 universities/faculties in four provinces in Vietnam. During class, students filled in a questionnaire asking for demographic information, and about alcohol-related problems and details of secondhand effects of alcohol during the past year. Exploratory factor analysis of the secondhand effects indicated two factors: non-bodily harm and bodily harm. A logistic regression model was used to explore the association between predictors and non-bodily harm and bodily harm. The prevalence of secondhand effects of alcohol is high among students in Vietnam: 77.5% had non-bodily effects and 34.2% had bodily effects. More than 37% of the population reported three to four non-bodily effects and more than 12% reported two to three bodily harms due to the drinking of others. However, most respondents who reported secondhand effects experienced these less than once per month. Factors most strongly associated with the yearly non-bodily harm were the weekly drinking habits of the people the respondents live with, and living in a smaller city; the factor most strongly associated with the yearly bodily harm was the respondent's own alcohol-related problems. Moreover, weekly drinking habits of the people the respondents live with, and respondent's own alcohol-related problems are strongly associated with the frequent experience of non-bodily and bodily effects of alcohol. In addition to dealing with alcohol-related harm of drinkers themselves, preventing secondhand effects should also be a major focus of prevention policy.

  20. Formal and Informal Rural Credit in Four Provinces of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders. Formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation, while informal loans are used...... for consumption smoothening. Interest rates fell from 1997 to 2002, reflecting increased market integration. Moreover, the determinants of formal and informal credit demand are distinct. While credit rationing depends on education and credit history, in particular, regional differences in the demand for credit...

  1. Dilemmas in examining understanding of nature of science in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatherley-Greene, Peter

    2017-06-01

    The two authors, Thi Phuong Thao-Do and Chokchai Yuenyong, explored the Nature of Science as it is understood in Vietnam, a fast-developing `ancient' and modern country which continues to be shaped by uniquely Asian social norms and values. Upon reviewing their paper, I observed strong parallels to the country, the United Arab Emirates, where I have lived and worked for 20 years. In this forum piece, I described several areas of similarity and one striking area of difference between the two societies.

  2. A Real Options Analysis of Coffee Planting in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Luong, Quoc; Tauer, Loren W.

    2004-01-01

    Vietnam grew from an insignificant to the world’s second largest coffee producer during the 1990s. To understand this growth, this paper examines Vietnamese coffee growers’ investment decisions using real options theory. The study finds that producers, with variable costs of 19 cents/lb and total cost of 29.3 cents/lb, would enter coffee production at a coffee price of 47 cents/lb and exit at a coffee price of 14 cents/lb. Most Vietnamese growers appear to be sufficiently efficient to continu...

  3. Arsenic in groundwater of the Red River Floodplain, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Larsen, Flemming; Jessen, Søren

    2007-01-01

    The mobilization of arsenic (As) to the groundwater was studied in a shallow Holocene aquifer on the Red River flood plain near Hanoi, Vietnam. Results show an anoxic aquifer featuring organic carbon decomposition with redox zonation dominated by the reduction of Fe-oxides and methanogenesis....... The concentration of As increases over depth to a concentration of up to 550 μg/L. Most As is present as As(III) but some As(V) is always found. Arsenic correlates well with NH4, relating its release to organic matter decomposition and the source of As appears to be the Fe-oxides being reduced....

  4. Temporal and Spatial Trend of Climate Variability in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Duc Luong Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Vietnam’s long coastline, geographic location, and diverse topography and climates contribute to its being one of the most hazard-prone countries of the Asia-Pacific region. Given that a high proportion of the country’s population and economic assets are located in coastal lowlands and deltas, Vietnam has been ranked among the five countries likely to be most affected by global climate change. This paper aims at providing a short overview on the temporal and spatial trends of climate variabil...

  5. Technology transfers, foreign investment and productivity spillovers: evidence from Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Talbot, Theodore Purdendu

    FDI through vertical linkages along the supply chain. Our results suggest that domestic firms experience more productivity spillovers through forward linkages from foreign-input suppliers to domestic input users than through backward linkages from foreign customers to domestic producers of inputs......This paper provides new evidence on the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and the productivity of domestic firms. Using a specially designed survey on a sample of over 7,500 manufacturing firms in Vietnam we uncover some of the mechanisms that explain productivity spillovers from...

  6. Knowledge Transfer Channels to Vietnam for Process Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machikita, Tomohiro; Ueki, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    ) and estimated statistical models for the relationship between face-to-face interactions within a supply chain and QCD (Quality, Cost, Delivery). Findings from in-depth interviews with Japanese firms in emerging economies complement the quantitative analysis. Findings The incidence of face-to-face interactions...... between two firms within a production chain via resident engineers significantly explains the variation in performance of total quality management among firms in Vietnam under controlling vertical ownership within a chain. Since the authors could find no significant correlations between transactions...

  7. The Contributions of the American Military Working Dog in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    program. Due to limited resources, the ARVN forces could not and would not provide a nutritious diet to the dogs and many suffered and even died of...Vietnam War the U.S. would continue to support the ARVN dog program. Due to inadequate diet and medical care the dogs suffered a high mortality rate...would become instructors when the U.S. Army established its own training school in the U.S.. The British- Malaysian -American agreement was to expire in

  8. Apocalypse now, Vietnam and the rhetoric of influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Childs

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Readings of Francis Ford Coppola's Apocalypse Now (1979 often confront the difficulty of having to privilege either its aesthetic context (considering, for instance, its relation to Conrad's Heart of Darkness [1899] or to the history of cinema or its value as a representation of the Vietnam War. In this paper, I will argue that viewing the film as a meditation on the nature and rhetoric of influence allows us to bridge this gap and provides us with valuable insights into both the film's aesthetic precursors and the circumstances of its historical setting.

  9. Course of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 40 Years After the Vietnam War: Findings From the National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmar, Charles R; Schlenger, William; Henn-Haase, Clare; Qian, Meng; Purchia, Emily; Li, Meng; Corry, Nida; Williams, Christianna S; Ho, Chia-Lin; Horesh, Danny; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Shalev, Arieh; Kulka, Richard A

    2015-09-01

    The long-term course of readjustment problems in military personnel has not been evaluated in a nationally representative sample. The National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study (NVVLS) is a congressionally mandated assessment of Vietnam veterans who underwent previous assessment in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS). To determine the prevalence, course, and comorbidities of war-zone posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) across a 25-year interval. The NVVLS survey consisted of a self-report health questionnaire (n = 1409), a computer-assisted telephone survey health interview (n = 1279), and a telephone clinical interview (n = 400) in a representative national sample of veterans who served in the Vietnam theater of operations (theater veterans) from July 3, 2012, through May 17, 2013. Of 2348 NVVRS participants, 1920 were alive at the outset of the NVVLS, and 81 died during recruitment; 1450 of the remaining 1839 (78.8%) participated in at least 1 NVVLS study phase. Data analysis was performed from May 18, 2013, through January 9, 2015, with further analyses continued through April 13, 2015. Study instruments included the Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related PTSD, PTSD Checklist for DSM-IV supplemented with PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 items (PCL-5+), Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5), and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Nonpatient Version. Among male theater veterans, we estimated a prevalence (95% CI) of 4.5% (1.7%-7.3%) based on CAPS-5 criteria for a current PTSD diagnosis; 10.8% (6.5%-15.1%) based on CAPS-5 full plus subthreshold PTSD; and 11.2% (8.3%-14.2%) based on PCL-5+ criteria for current war-zone PTSD. Among female veterans, estimates were 6.1% (1.8%-10.3%), 8.7% (3.8%-13.6%), and 6.6% (3.5%-9.6%), respectively. The PCL-5+ prevalence (95% CI) of current non-war-zone PTSD was 4.6% (2.6%-6.6%) in male and 5.1% (2.3%-8.0%) in female theater veterans. Comorbid major depression occurred in 36.7% (95% CI, 6

  10. Traditional alcohol production and use in three provinces in Vietnam: an ethnographic exploration of health benefits and risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Gaps exist in knowledge about the production and use of traditional alcohols, particularly in Asia. This study adds new information about the nature, production and sale of traditional distilled spirit alcohol in Vietnam. Method This was an ethnographic study of traditional distilled spirit alcohol production in rural areas of three provinces in Vietnam. Researchers interviewed more than 300 individuals and recorded responses to general open-ended questions about local alcohol production. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and studied to discern what information about traditional alcohol was important to the speakers. Results Methods of production followed long-held traditions. Participants listed both personal and community benefits (economic, health, and social) from traditional alcohol making. Older people favoured traditional alcohol, while younger people favoured brand-name beer. Typically people consumed 2-4 drinks daily, mainly at meal times. People consumed more alcohol at special events and festivals. Distribution patterns ranged from low-risk distribution to family and neighbours to high-risk distribution by an agent who might combine alcohol from several producers, which increases the opportunity for dilution and adulteration. The most commonly listed health risks associated with locally-made alcohol were local air pollution and water pollution; participants also mentioned traffic crashes and bad public behaviour. Depending on the location, community leaders reported that production may be relatively stable or it may be declining. Conclusions Traditional alcohol manufacture, sale, and use in Vietnam is a long-standing practice and low- to moderate-risk to health. There do not appear to be instances of accidental or intentional contamination. Urbanization seems to be affecting the market share of traditional alcohol as urbanized youth turn to branded products, mainly beer, making traditional alcohol making and consumption an activity mainly

  11. Traditional alcohol production and use in three provinces in Vietnam: an ethnographic exploration of health benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Bich Ngoc; Nguyen, Thi Thieng; Newman, Ian M

    2014-07-18

    Gaps exist in knowledge about the production and use of traditional alcohols, particularly in Asia. This study adds new information about the nature, production and sale of traditional distilled spirit alcohol in Vietnam. This was an ethnographic study of traditional distilled spirit alcohol production in rural areas of three provinces in Vietnam. Researchers interviewed more than 300 individuals and recorded responses to general open-ended questions about local alcohol production. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and studied to discern what information about traditional alcohol was important to the speakers. Methods of production followed long-held traditions. Participants listed both personal and community benefits (economic, health, and social) from traditional alcohol making. Older people favoured traditional alcohol, while younger people favoured brand-name beer. Typically people consumed 2-4 drinks daily, mainly at meal times. People consumed more alcohol at special events and festivals. Distribution patterns ranged from low-risk distribution to family and neighbours to high-risk distribution by an agent who might combine alcohol from several producers, which increases the opportunity for dilution and adulteration. The most commonly listed health risks associated with locally-made alcohol were local air pollution and water pollution; participants also mentioned traffic crashes and bad public behaviour. Depending on the location, community leaders reported that production may be relatively stable or it may be declining. Traditional alcohol manufacture, sale, and use in Vietnam is a long-standing practice and low- to moderate-risk to health. There do not appear to be instances of accidental or intentional contamination. Urbanization seems to be affecting the market share of traditional alcohol as urbanized youth turn to branded products, mainly beer, making traditional alcohol making and consumption an activity mainly linked to older people in rural areas

  12. Fool’s Gold: Understanding Social, Economic and Environmental Impacts from Gold Mining in Quang Nam Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhi Nguyen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Extractive industries are often claimed to contribute to both poverty reduction and economic growth. Yet, there is also a body of research that suggests natural resource dependence can result in limited development, environmental degradation and social upheaval. This paper examines differences in the socioeconomic and environmental state of mining and non-mining communities in rural Vietnam in order to understand the extent to which mining contributes to livelihood development and socioeconomic well-being. In particular, we examine the role that “corporate social responsibility” (CSR plays in supporting community development in Phuoc Son and Phu Ninh districts, Quang Nam province. Content analysis of newspapers, government documents and mining company reports provided a contextual overview of mining operations and community relations in each study area. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect information from local and regional stakeholders to further understand perceived impacts of mining operations on local communities. Our study finds that in comparison to non-mining communities, communities with active mines demonstrated increased job development, decreased poverty rates, enhanced infrastructure and social development along with increased incidences of CSR initiatives. However, a number of adverse effects from mining activities were reported including environmental degradation (e.g., deforestation, water pollution, etc. increased criminal activity and drug addiction. Dependence on mine-related employment in local communities becomes acutely apparent when temporary mine closures result in widespread unemployment. Local governments may be the greatest beneficiaries of mining with increased tax revenues and enhanced management potential of leased land. Non-mining communities without direct benefits from mining activities maintained economic diversity and were therefore more resilient to economic shocks such as nearby mine closures.

  13. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of High Blood Pressure: A Population-Based Survey in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Anh Ha

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Vietnam and hypertension (HTN is an important and prevalent risk factor for CVD in the adult Vietnamese population. Despite an increasing prevalence of HTN in this country, information about the awareness, treatment, and control of HTN is limited. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of HTN, and factors associated with these endpoints, in residents of a mountainous province in Vietnam.Data from 2,368 adults (age≥25 years participating in a population-based survey conducted in 2011 in Thai Nguyen province were analyzed. All eligible participants completed a structured questionnaire and were examined by community health workers using a standardized protocol.The overall prevalence of HTN in this population was 23%. Older age, male sex, and being overweight were associated with a higher odds of having HTN, while higher educational level was associated with a lower odds of having HTN. Among those with HTN, only 34% were aware of their condition, 43% of those who were aware they had HTN received treatment and, of these, 39% had their HTN controlled.Nearly one in four adults in Thai Nguyen is hypertensive, but far fewer are aware of this condition and even fewer have their blood pressure adequately controlled. Public health strategies increasing awareness of HTN in the community, as well as improvements in the treatment and control of HTN, remain needed to reduce the prevalence of HTN and related morbidity and mortality.

  14. Towards data-driven decision-making for sustainable diets in Vietnam: Identifying priority indicators through stakeholder engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayton, H.; Beal, T.; Rubin, J.; Sanchez, A.; Heller, M.; Hoey, L.; Khoury, C. K.; Jones, A.

    2017-12-01

    Globally, food systems impact and are impacted by the sustainability of environmental, societal, political, and public health factors. At the center of these systems are human diets, which vary substantially by culture and region, and have significant influence on human health, community livelihoods, climate change, and natural resources. However, rapidly growing and highly diverse lower middle-income countries like Vietnam face challenges in gathering data and defining clear policy intervention points and approaches that will provide a net-positive systemic influence across sectors. A new collaboration, Entry points to Advance Transitions towards Sustainable diets (EATS), between the University of Michigan and the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) aims to identify ways that existing data and insights into the policy process can be leveraged to inform decision-making on where and how to intervene to effectively shift multiple axes of food systems to enhance the sustainability of diets. As a first step towards developing a model that other policy communities could follow, researchers aggregated and characterized approximately 50 major existing datasets on food, agriculture, and nutrition in Vietnam. They also created a conceptual framework for evaluating the sustainability of diets and for characterizing existing datasets, including eight domains and over 200 unique, measurable indicators. Figure 1 summarizes these domains and their key relationships, which forms a foundation for identifying leverage points that can positively impact multiple aspects of sustainable diets. Researchers then engaged food system stakeholders through informal interviews, surveys, and collaborative workshops to prioritize indicators and identify additional relevant data sources. Stakeholders included national government, research, NGO, and private sector representatives from across the range of identified domains. The key indicators identified by stakeholders will

  15. The Vietnam Petroleum Industry: Positioned for Growth but Ripe for Regional Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    monopolistic character of PVN means the Vietnamese government is a major part of all aspects of the industry. Secondly, faced with increasing demand for...2013, JSTOR. 17 “U.S. EIA, “Vietnam” 20 18 Trong Vu and Simon Hall, “Oil Market Changes as Vietnam Build Another Refinery,” The Wall...Vietnam to Push Ahead with Offshore Exploration.” 23 Ibid. 24 Ibid. 25 Vu and Hall, “Oil Market Changes as Vietnam Build Another Refinery

  16. How might the Trans-Pacific Partnership impact on the pharmaceutical sector in Vietnam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binh, Nguyen Hoa; Anh, Pham Ngoc Kieu; Phuong, Nguyen Minh

    2016-07-01

    Ratification of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) will attract a large number of foreign drug companies in the coming years to Vietnam. It is anticipated to bring investment to Vietnam's pharmaceutical industries, lead to increased infrastructure and enable the use of more sophisticated technologies for the discovery, development and manufacture of drugs. However, with respect to pharmaceutical companies, which are producing generic drugs primarily, the availability of biologic will be reduced. Thus, the consequence is, an increase in drug cost resulting in difficulties for patients wishing to procure these drugs. This will be particularly detrimental for developing countries, such as Vietnam and Malaysia.

  17. Total Factor Productivity Growth, Technical Progress & Efficiency Change in Vietnam Coal Industry - Nonparametric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Vu Hung

    2018-03-01

    This research applies Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach to analyze Total Factor Productivity (TFP) and efficiency changes in Vietnam coal mining industry from 2007 to 2013. The TFP of Vietnam coal mining companies decreased due to slow technological progress and unimproved efficiency. The decadence of technical efficiency in many enterprises proved that the coal mining industry has a large potential to increase productivity through technical efficiency improvement. Enhancing human resource training, technology and research & development investment could help the industry to improve efficiency and productivity in Vietnam coal mining industry.

  18. "Konsesjon til radikalere" : Norges anerkjennelse av Nord-Vietnam i 1971

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Cristian H.

    2012-01-01

    Emnet for oppgaven er Norges anerkjennelse av Nord-Vietnam som en selvstendig stat. Dette skjedde i 1971 mens Nord-Vietnam var i krig med Sør-Vietnam og USA. Norge var det første NATO-landet som fattet prinsippvedtak om dette, og Danmark fulgte etter. Det hele provoserte USA i så stor grad at Nixon-administrasjonen var nær ved å kalle ambassadørene sine i Oslo og København hjem. Det var regjeringen Bratteli som stod for utførelsen av anerkjennelsen etter at Arbeiderpartiet kom tilbake til reg...

  19. Southeast Asia’s Relations with Taiwan, 2000-2016: An Assessment of Vietnam and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    70 Dung commented on the scale of the steel -port development: “This is the biggest foreign-invested project in Vietnam in terms of both scale and...Foreign Direct Investment in Vietnam Triples,” China Post. 70 “PM Launches Taiwan-Invested Steel -Port Complex,” Vietnam Ministry of Foreign Affairs...1990. Bilateral relations in the 1970s and 1980s were cemented by a number of common goals, including anti-communism, as well as a close personal

  20. Contribution to Taxonomy and Distribution of the Genus Elaphropoda (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Apinae in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen, Minh Phuong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic notes on the genus Elaphropoda Lieftinck, 1966 (Hymenoptera: Apidae from Vietnam are presented. Two species of the genus are reported: Elaphropoda percarinata (Cockerell, 1930 was first recorded from Vietnam based on specimens collected from Ha Tinh province in 1998, and is reconfirmed with a specimens collected from Bac Kan province in the Northeastern part of the country in this study, and Elaphropoda khasiana (Schulz, 1906 is recorded from Vietnam for the first time. Redescriptions of the male of E. percarinata and the female of E. khasiana are given with illustrations.