Hoa, N B; Sokun, C; Wei, C
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and characteristics of patients with unsuccessful tuberculosis (TB) treatment. METHODS: Random selection of TB case registers among all treatment units in Cambodia, two provinces in China, and Viet Nam. The data of two calendar years were analyzed to assess u...
Lauritsen Jens M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis register is a critical data source for the information system of national tuberculosis control programs. From the information in the tuberculosis case register, it is possible to extend the standard analysis of age and sex characteristics among sputum smear-positive cases to all tuberculosis case categories. National tuberculosis programs might utilize such information to identify problems related to referral and access to diagnosis and treatment. Objectives Based on the electronic database we created, our objectives were to provide a detailed description of age and sex characteristics of tuberculosis patients at registration and to provide a comparison of age-specific sex characteristics among incident and prevalent sputum smear-positive cases. Methods A representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2005 was selected in Cambodia, two provinces in China and Viet Nam. Age and sex characteristics of cases in the three separate prevalence surveys in the three jurisdictions (Cambodia: year 2002; China: year 2000; and Viet Nam: year 2006-2007 were obtained for comparison. Results A total 37,635 patients had been registered during the period in the selected units in the three countries. Cases were more frequently male in all three countries with 53%, 71%, and 69% in Cambodia, China, and Viet Nam, respectively. The ratios of the female-to-male odds in the notification system to that in the prevalence survey in smear-positive cases in Cambodia, China and Viet Nam were 2.1, 0.9, and 1.8, respectively. Because of the small proportion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis registered in China, we limited the analysis on age and sex distribution for extrapulmonary cases to Cambodia and Viet Nam. The proportion with extrapulmonary tuberculosis among all cases was 18.5% in Cambodia and 15.7% in Viet Nam, decreasing in frequency with increasing age. Conclusions Characteristics of patients
... representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. 500.560... governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North...
Low-income economies depend greatly on agriculture, and growth in this sector delivers more poverty reduction than any other sectors. Region: Cambodia, Laos ... Region: Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, South East Asia, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Viet Nam. Program: Employment and ...
Moreover, about 3 to 4 million people have moved from the deltas to the mountain provinces to set up new economic zones. ... In 1993, Viet Nam had 7.3 million hectares of agricultural land, of which the northern mountains and midland area accounted for 1 293 000 hectares, the Red ...... The Journal of Developing Areas.
Deforestation in Viet Nam reports on a innovative and timely study by a team of Vietnamese and Canadian researchers. It presents a labourious historical analysis of the smallest changes affecting soil use, forest cover, population, and political and socioeconomic characteristics. The book concludes with suggestions for ...
En Asie, les ateliers de confection constituent un secteur d'emplois dominant, néanmoins les conditions dans ces lieux de travail sont parmi les plus rudes dans la région. Région: Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar, Viet Nam. Programme: Employment and Growth. Financement total : CA$ 866,100.00. Meilleures perspectives ...
The country now welcomes foreign trade, investment, tourists, business people, students, and scholars. ... Socioeconomic Renovation in Viet Nam illuminates the key questions and issues that policy advisers and decision-makers must wrestle with to ensure Viet Nam's successful emergence into the global family of nations.
Many developing countries—Viet Nam included—continue to struggle to raise incomes per capita. A common feature of the growth and development process is a fundamental change in the pattern of economic activity, as households reallocate labour from traditional agriculture to more productive forms...... regions of Viet Nam. The VARHS covering these very same households had, by 2014, been carried out five times, that is, every two years. It is on this high-quality panel data foundation and almost fifteen years of study and policy work using the VARHS data that the present volume builds, in its effort...... of agriculture and modern industrial and service sectors. Broad structural transformation and widespread poverty reduction is the combined result of these large-scale shifts in work and labour allocation when they realize desired development goals. The roots of this book grow from when the first pilot Viet Nam...
Hoa, Nguyen Binh; Sy, Dinh Ngoc; Nhung, Nguyen Viet; Tiemersma, Edine W.; Borgdorff, Martien W.; Cobelens, Frank G. J.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of tuberculosis in Viet Nam with data from a population-based survey, compare it with the prevalence estimated by the World Health Organization, and identify major demographic determinants of tuberculosis prevalence. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey with
VERN I (101273) constituted the first network for young economic researchers in Viet Nam, where previously there had been no modality for cooperation or peer review. Guided by the philosophy of "understanding and managing globalization" that underpinned the earlier project, VERN II proposes to expand the network, ...
VERN I (101273) constituted the first network for young economic researchers in Viet Nam, where previously there had been no modality for cooperation or peer review. Guided by the philosophy of "understanding and managing globalization" that underpinned the earlier project, VERN II proposes to expand the network, ...
Socioeconomic Renovation in Viet Nam : The Origin, Evolution, and Impact of Doi Moi ... Il intéressera aussi les professionnels du développement, les étudiants et les chercheurs en études asiatiques, en sciences économiques et en développement rural, ainsi que les entreprises qui envisagent d'investir au Vietnam.
Deforestation in Viet Nam reports on a innovative and timely study by a team of Vietnamese and Canadian researchers. It presents a labourious historical analysis of the smallest changes affecting soil use, forest cover, population, and political and socioeconomic characteristics. The book concludes with suggestions for ...
Christophe Z Guilmoto
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Since the 1980s, sex ratio at birth (male births per 100 female births has increased in many Asian countries as a result of selective abortions, but to date there has been no such evidence for Viet Nam. Our aim in this paper is to ascertain the situation with respect to sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam over the past five years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Original data were obtained from sample population surveys in Viet Nam recording annual birth rates since 2000 of about 450,000 women, as well as from two successive birth surveys conducted for the first time in 2007 (1.1 million births. The annual population surveys include specific information on birth history and mothers' characteristics to be used for the analysis of trends and differentials in sex ratio at birth. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Birth history statistics indicate that the SRB in Viet Nam has recorded a steady growth since 2001. Starting from a level probably close to the biological standard of 105, the SRB reached 108 in 2005 and 112 in 2006, a value significantly above the normal level. An independent confirmation of these results comes from the surveys of births in health facilities which yielded a SRB of 110 in 2006-07. High SRB is linked to various factors such as access to modern health care, number of prenatal visits, level of higher education and employment status, young age, province of residence and prenatal sex determination. These results suggest that prenatal sex determination followed by selective abortion has recently become more common in Viet Nam. This recent trend is a consequence of various factors such as preference for sons, declining fertility, easy access to abortion, economic development as well as the increased availability of ultrasonography facilities.
Maia A Rabaa
Full Text Available Revealing the dispersal of dengue viruses (DENV in time and space is central to understanding their epidemiology. However, the processes that shape DENV transmission patterns at the scale of local populations are not well understood, particularly the impact of such factors as human population movement and urbanization. Herein, we investigated trends in the spatial dynamics of DENV-2 transmission in the highly endemic setting of southern Viet Nam. Through a phylogeographic analysis of 168 full-length DENV-2 genome sequences obtained from hospitalized dengue cases from 10 provinces in southern Viet Nam, we reveal substantial genetic diversity in both urban and rural areas, with multiple lineages identified in individual provinces within a single season, and indicative of frequent viral migration among communities. Focusing on the recently introduced Asian I genotype, we observed particularly high rates of viral exchange between adjacent geographic areas, and between Ho Chi Minh City, the primary urban center of this region, and populations across southern Viet Nam. Within Ho Chi Minh City, patterns of DENV movement appear consistent with a gravity model of virus dispersal, with viruses traveling across a gradient of population density. Overall, our analysis suggests that Ho Chi Minh City may act as a source population for the dispersal of DENV across southern Viet Nam, and provides further evidence that urban areas of Southeast Asia play a primary role in DENV transmission. However, these data also indicate that more rural areas are also capable of maintaining virus populations and hence fueling DENV evolution over multiple seasons.
Nguyen, Ha Trong; Passmore, Jonathon; Cuong, Pham Viet; Nguyen, Nam Phuong
The objective of this roadside observational study was to monitor helmet wearing among motorcycle riders and passengers in three provinces (Yen Bai, Da Nang and Binh Duong) in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, before and after a mandatory helmet law took effect on 15 December 2007. A total of 665,428 motorcycle riders and passengers were observed between November 2007 and February 2011 at 45 randomly selected sites covering the entire road network. Across all locations and time periods, correct helmet wearing averaged 40.1% before the law and 92.5% after; however, there were significant differences between time points and locations. The Viet Nam Government's decision to require all motorcycle riders and passengers to wear helmets has been thoroughly implemented nation wide and the results show that high wearing has been sustained. Further study is required on how high helmet wearing has and will translate into a reduction in motorcycle head injuries; however, Viet Nam's motorcycle helmet legislation should be seen as an important policy example for other low- and middle-income countries with a high utilization of motorcycles for personal transport.
Lee, E. J.; Han, K. W.; Park, J. K.; Kim, Y. T.; Nam, Y. M.; Jang, Y. H.; Yang, M. H
Through this project, KAERI provided OJT Programme to 3 nuclear experts of Viet Nam at the KAERI for 3 months as a cooperation of human resource development in the field of nuclear policy, nuclear safety analysis and thermo hydraulic. We could have publicity activities of S/W and H/W then achieve an advantage position of economical and technical in exporting nuclear technology to Viet Nam. Also we have provided a training course and seminar for a high-level delegation of nuclear policy decision makers, which is consisted of 5 deputy ministers and general directors of Viet Nam in Korea. Thus we could have Vietnamese who are favoring Korea. The KAERI will also prepare a data base of trained Vietnamese in Korea for the maximum utilization of them in cooperating with Viet Nam. We accomplished the cooperation of human resource development and providing program and curriculum of the nuclear education and training in Viet Nam. Furthermore, it is expected that the enhancement of nuclear technical cooperation between Viet Nam and Korea and the nuclear human resource development.
Nguyen, Nam Phuong; Passmore, Jonathon; Tran, Lan Thi Ngoc; Luong, Anh Mai
To assess the blood alcohol concentration (BAC; dependent variable) of patients with road traffic injuries (RTIs) presenting at 3 provincial and central hospitals in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam by age, sex, and road user type (independent variables). This survey formed part of the Viet Nam Road Traffic Injury Prevention Project, funded by Bloomberg Philanthropies. RTIs are a leading cause of death and disability in Viet Nam, with 14,690 deaths and 143,940 injuries reported by the Ministry of Health (MOH) in 2010. Research estimates suggest that motorcycle riders and passengers account for 60 percent of fatalities. Alcohol has long been suspected of being a leading cause of road traffic collisions and injuries. However, until now data on this relationship have been limited. A descriptive cross-sectional study measuring BAC in all consenting patients with RTIs presenting at 3 provincial or central hospitals between July 2009 and September 2010. All results were anonymous and summary information on key variables was sent to MOH and the World Health Organization (WHO) on a monthly basis. Of the 36,418 patients with RTIs presenting to these 3 hospitals between July 2009 and September 2010, BAC analysis was completed on 14,990 patients (41.2%), representing all patients with RTIs 15 years of age and above who consented to anonymous testing. BAC results ranged from 0 to 0.589 g/dL blood, with a mean of 0.0441 g/dL being the average concentration among all tested patients. Of all patients tested, 56.8 percent had no detectable alcohol in their system. Motorcycle riders were most commonly represented in the tested sample (70.7%), with 27.8 percent having a BAC above the legal limit (0.05 g/dL). Car or other vehicle drivers represented 2.7 percent of the sample, with 63.4 percent tested having a BAC above 0 g/dL, the legal limit for these road users. The results of this preliminary study indicate that 29.1 percent of all car drivers and motorcycle riders presenting at
... Nam at the Crossroads: The Role of Science and Technology. Book cover Viet Nam at the Crossroads: The Role of Science and Technology. Author(s):. K. Bezanson, J. Annerstedt, K. Chung, D. Hopper, G. Oldham, and F. Sagasti. Publisher(s):. IDRC. January 1, 1999. ISBN: Out of print. 160 pages. e-ISBN: 1552502848.
Huyen, M N T; Tiemersma, E W; Kremer, K; de Haas, P; Lan, N T N; Buu, T N; Sola, C; Cobelens, F G J; van Soolingen, D
The molecular diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in Viet Nam is often based on the detection of insertion sequence (IS) 6110 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, 8-11% of M. tuberculosis strains in South-East Asia do not contain this target and this undermines the validity of these molecular tests. We quantified the frequency of M. tuberculosis strains lacking IS6110 in rural Viet Nam and studied their epidemiological and clinical characteristics. Consecutively diagnosed adult TB patients in rural Southern Viet Nam submitted two sputum samples for culture, IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) spoligotyping and 15-loci variable number tandem repeat typing. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to confirm the absence of IS6110 elements in strains lacking IS6110 hybridisation in RFLP. Among 2664 TB patient isolates examined, 109 (4.1%) had no IS6110 element. Compared to other strains, these no-copy strains were less often resistant to anti-tuberculosis drugs, particularly to streptomycin (adjusted OR 0.2, 95%CI 0.1-0.5), and showed significant geographic variation. No associations with TB history or demographic factors were found. Strains without the IS6110 target pose a problem in Viet Nam as regards false-negative molecular TB diagnosis in PCR. Compared to other strains circulating in Viet Nam, no-copy strains are more susceptible to anti-tuberculosis drugs.
Minh, H V; Mai, V Q; Nhung, N V; Hoi, L V; Giang, K B; Chung, L H; Kien, V D; Duyen, N T; Ngoc, N B; Anh, T T; Phuong, T B; Ngan, T T; Khanh, P H
To estimate the cost of providing tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment packages at different levels of health facilities in Viet Nam. This was a retrospective costing study from the providers' perspective using a standard costing approach. We included typical services for TB diagnosis and treatment based on standard protocols. The least expensive TB service was the 6-month isoniazid preventive therapy regimen for latent tuberculous infection provided by district health centres (US$7.20-14.30, accounting for 0.3-0.7% of Viet Nam's per capita gross domestic product [GDP] of US$2052.30 in 2014). The cost of diagnosing and treating a patient with drug-susceptible TB (the most common type of TB) ranged between US$51.20 and US$180.70, and represented 2.5-8.8% of Viet Nam's per capita GDP in 2014. The most expensive TB service was the diagnosis and treatment of a multidrug-resistant TB case (US$1568.20-2391.20), accounting for 76.4-116.5% of Viet Nam's per capita GDP in 2014). The cost of TB diagnosis and treatment services in Viet Nam varied according to level of health facility, type of TB, different costing options, and different staff cost scenarios.
Nguyen, T K P; Nguyen, D V; Truong, T N H; Tran, M D; Graham, S M; Marais, B J
To assess the acute respiratory infection (ARI) disease spectrum, duration of hospitalisation and outcome in children hospitalised with an ARI in Viet Nam. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of ARI admissions to primary (Hoa Vang District Hospital), secondary (Da Nang Hospital for Women and Children) and tertiary (National Hospital of Paediatrics in Ha Noi) level hospitals in Viet Nam over 12 months (01/09/2015 to 31/08/2016). Acute respiratory infections accounted for 27.9% (37 436/134 061) of all paediatric admissions; nearly half (47.6%) of all children admitted to Hoa Vang District Hospital. Most (64.6%) of children hospitalised with an ARI were Acute respiratory infection is a major cause of paediatric hospitalisation in Viet Nam, characterised by prolonged hospitalisation for relatively mild disease. There is huge potential to reduce unnecessary hospital admission and cost. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Health Costs Attributable to Smoking in Viet Nam. The burden of disease caused by smoking, and the medical and social costs associated with it, are not well quantified in low- and middle income countries. This is largely due to ... Tabagisme, tabagisme passif, maladies chroniques et pauvreté en Chine. La mondialisation ...
Huyen, M. N. T.; Tiemersma, E. W.; Kremer, K.; de Haas, P.; Lan, N. T. N.; Buu, T. N.; Sola, C.; Cobelens, F. G. J.; van Soolingen, D.
The molecular diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in Viet Nam is often based on the detection of insertion sequence (IS) 6110 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, 8-11% of M. tuberculosis strains in South-East Asia do not contain this target and this undermines the validity of these molecular tests.
Huyen, M.N.; Tiemersma, E.W.; Kremer, K.; Haas, P. de; Lan, N.T.; Buu, T.N.; Sola, C.; Cobelens, F.G.; Soolingen, D. van
SETTING: The molecular diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in Viet Nam is often based on the detection of insertion sequence (IS) 6110 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, 8-11% of M. tuberculosis strains in South-East Asia do not contain this target and this undermines the validity of these molecular
The emerging stock market in Viet Nam has been developed since 2006 and was affected by the financial crisis 2007-2009. This study analyzes the impacts of tax policy on market risk for the listed firms in the wholesale and retail industry as it becomes necessary. First, by using quantitative and analytical methods to ...
Nguyen, Phuong-Mai; Terlouw, C.; Pilot, A.
Confucian Heritage Cultures (CHC) such as Viet Nam, China, Korea, Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore are proven to share characteristics of Collectivist society. Researchers agree that this collectivist mentality supports cooperation, that CHC’s learners/workers best perform in groups. Not satisfied
The editor. René Parenteau is a professor of urban planning at the Université de Montréal specializing in urban settlements (housing and environment). René has focused on the conditions prevailing in West Africa and South-East Asia's urban squatter areas since 1980. He has been working in Viet Nam since 1989.
Abstract. The emerging stock market in Viet Nam has been developed since 2006 and was affected by the financial crisis 2007-2009. This study analyzes the impacts of tax policy on market risk for the listed firms in the wholesale and retail industry as it becomes necessary. First, by using quantitative and analytical methods ...
Elisa Puentes Rizo; Bárbara Enríquez Domínguez; Yisel Rodríguez de Celis; Manuel Correa Jáuregui
Introducción: en la actualidad existe en los adolescentes una temprana iniciación de las relaciones sexuales y cambios en la actitud social hacia la sexualidad. Objetivo: identificar las particularidades y conocimientos sobre sexualidad en adolescentes. Métodos: se realizó una investigación descriptiva y transversal en adolescentes entre los 12 y 15 años, de la secundaria básica "Viet Nam" del municipio Arroyo Naranjo, durante los años 2009-2010. El universo estuvo constituido por 296 estudia...
Nguyen, Phuong-Mai; Terlouw, C.; Pilot, A.
Confucian Heritage Cultures (CHC) such as Viet Nam, China, Korea, Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore are proven to share characteristics of Collectivist society. Researchers agree that this collectivist mentality supports cooperation, that CHC’s learners/workers best perform in groups. Not satisfied with the assumed credo, which most easily concur, Phuong-Mai, Terlouw & Pilot (2005) made an effort to explore the other side of the medal, questioned the fixed assumption that cooperative learning is...
Trinh, Long Q.
This paper examines the bidirectional causality between innovation and internationalization in the context of developing countries. Using a dynamic bivariate probit model and adopting a broad definition of internationalization, this paper analyzes these issues using a panel dataset of small and medium-sized enterprises in Viet Nam. The results show a high persistence in process and product innovations and internationalization decisions. Furthermore, we find that, for non-micro firms, past int...
Couverture du livre Viet Nam at the Crossroads : The Role of Science and Technology. Auteur(s) : K. Bezanson, J. Annerstedt, ... évaluer l'impact que les politiques sur les sciences et la technologie en vigueur au Vietnam ont sur le développement économique et social du pays;. comparer l'expérience du Vietnam dans le ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Viet Nam, most of the public health staff (84% currently works in rural areas, where 80% of the people live. To provide good quality health care services, it is important to develop strategies influencing staff motivation for better performance. Method An exploratory qualitative research was carried out among health workers in two provinces in North Viet Nam so as to identify entry points for developing strategies that improve staff performance in rural areas. The study aimed to determine the major motivating factors and it is the first in Viet Nam that looks at health workers' job perception and motivation. Apart from health workers, managers at national and at provincial level were interviewed as well as some community representatives. Results The study showed that motivation is influenced by both financial and non-financial incentives. The main motivating factors for health workers were appreciation by managers, colleagues and the community, a stable job and income and training. The main discouraging factors were related to low salaries and difficult working conditions. Conclusion Activities associated with appreciation such as performance management are currently not optimally implemented, as health workers perceive supervision as control, selection for training as unclear and unequal, and performance appraisal as not useful. The kind of non-financial incentives identified should be taken into consideration when developing HRM strategies. Areas for further studies are identified.
Nguyen, Kinh Van; Thi Do, Nga Thuy; Chandna, Arjun; Nguyen, Trung Vu; Pham, Ca Van; Doan, Phuong Mai; Nguyen, An Quoc; Thi Nguyen, Chuc Kim; Larsson, Mattias; Escalante, Socorro; Olowokure, Babatunde; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Gelband, Hellen; Horby, Peter; Thi Ngo, Ha Bich; Hoang, Mai Thanh; Farrar, Jeremy; Hien, Tran Tinh; Wertheim, Heiman F L
Antimicrobial resistance is a major contemporary public health threat. Strategies to contain antimicrobial resistance have been comprehensively set forth, however in developing countries where the need for effective antimicrobials is greatest implementation has proved problematic. A better understanding of patterns and determinants of antibiotic use and resistance in emerging economies may permit more appropriately targeted interventions.Viet Nam, with a large population, high burden of infectious disease and relatively unrestricted access to medication, is an excellent case study of the difficulties faced by emerging economies in controlling antimicrobial resistance. Our working group conducted a situation analysis of the current patterns and determinants of antibiotic use and resistance in Viet Nam. International publications and local reports published between 1-1-1990 and 31-8-2012 were reviewed. All stakeholders analyzed the findings at a policy workshop and feasible recommendations were suggested to improve antibiotic use in Viet Nam.Here we report the results of our situation analysis focusing on: the healthcare system, drug regulation and supply; antibiotic resistance and infection control; and agricultural antibiotic use. Market reforms have improved healthcare access in Viet Nam and contributed to better health outcomes. However, increased accessibility has been accompanied by injudicious antibiotic use in hospitals and the community, with predictable escalation in bacterial resistance. Prescribing practices are poor and self-medication is common - often being the most affordable way to access healthcare. Many policies exist to regulate antibiotic use but enforcement is insufficient or lacking.Pneumococcal penicillin-resistance rates are the highest in Asia and carbapenem-resistant bacteria (notably NDM-1) have recently emerged. Hospital acquired infections, predominantly with multi-drug resistant Gram-negative organisms, place additional strain on
Geoghegan, Jemma L; Tan, Le Van; Kühnert, Denise; Halpin, Rebecca A; Lin, Xudong; Simenauer, Ari; Akopov, Asmik; Das, Suman R; Stockwell, Timothy B; Shrivastava, Susmita; Ngoc, Nghiem My; Uyen, Le Thi Tam; Tuyen, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thanh, Tran Tan; Hang, Vu Thi Ty; Qui, Phan Tu; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Khanh, Truong Huu; Thinh, Le Quoc; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Van, Hoang Minh Tu; Viet, Do Chau; Tuan, Ha Manh; Viet, Ho Lu; Hien, Tran Tinh; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; Grenfell, Bryan T; Stadler, Tanja; Wentworth, David E; Holmes, Edward C; Van Doorn, H Rogier
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is a major cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and is particularly prevalent in parts of Southeast Asia, affecting thousands of children and infants each year. Revealing the evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics of EV-A71 through time and space is central to understanding its outbreak potential. We generated the full genome sequences of 200 EV-A71 strains sampled from various locations in Viet Nam between 2011 and 2013 and used these sequence data to determine the evolutionary history and phylodynamics of EV-A71 in Viet Nam, providing estimates of the effective reproduction number (Re) of the infection through time. In addition, we described the phylogeography of EV-A71 throughout Southeast Asia, documenting patterns of viral gene flow. Accordingly, our analysis reveals that a rapid genogroup switch from C4 to B5 likely took place during 2012 in Viet Nam. We show that the Re of subgenogroup C4 decreased during the time frame of sampling, whereas that of B5 increased and remained >1 at the end of 2013, corresponding to a rise in B5 prevalence. Our study reveals that the subgenogroup B5 virus that emerged into Viet Nam is closely related to variants that were responsible for large epidemics in Malaysia and Taiwan and therefore extends our knowledge regarding its associated area of endemicity. Subgenogroup B5 evidently has the potential to cause more widespread outbreaks across Southeast Asia. EV-A71 is one of many viruses that cause HFMD, a common syndrome that largely affects infants and children. HFMD usually causes only mild illness with no long-term consequences. Occasionally, however, severe infection may arise, especially in very young children, causing neurological complications and even death. EV-A71 is highly contagious and is associated with the most severe HFMD cases, with large and frequent epidemics of the virus recorded worldwide. Although major advances have been made in the development of a potential EV-A71
Hong Le, Minh Thi; Tran, Thach Duc; Nguyen, Huong Thanh; Fisher, Jane
Research about the association between early marriage and intimate partner violence (IPV) in low-income countries has yielded conflicting evidence. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of and associations between early marriage, and IPV among adolescents and young adults in Viet Nam. Secondary analysis of data from the national Survey Assessment of Viet Namese Youth-Round II (SAVY-II) conducted in 2009-2010, which assessed a representative cohort of people aged 14 to 25 years recruited via a systematic household survey was undertaken. Prevalence was established using descriptive statistics. The association between early marriage and IPV was examined using multiple logistic regressions, adjusting for potential risk factors. Of 10,044 participants, 1,701 had ever married and were included in analyses. Early marriage (before age 18), and experiences of verbal, physical, or sexual IPV were more common among females than males. More young married men than women reported experiences of controlling behaviors by their partners. Early marriage, being illiterate, and exposure to sexual abuse were associated with experience of IPV among young females, but not among young males. Poverty and exposure to family violence was associated with IPV in both sexes. Addressing early marriage, low educational opportunities for girls, childhood sexual abuse, family violence, and poverty should be considered in strategies to reduce IPV in Viet Nam.
Rao, Chalapati; Osterberger, Brigitta; Anh, Tran Dam; MacDonald, Malcolm; Chúc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Hill, Peter S
Accurate mortality statistics, needed for population health assessment, health policy and research, are best derived from data in vital registration systems. However, mortality statistics from vital registration systems are not available for several countries including Viet Nam. We used a mixed methods case study approach to assess vital registration operations in 2006 in three provinces in Viet Nam (Hòa Bình, Thùa Thiên-Hué and Bình Duong), and provide recommendations to strengthen vital registration systems in the country. For each province we developed life tables from population and mortality data compiled by sex and age group. Demographic methods were used to estimate completeness of death registration as an indicator of vital registration performance. Qualitative methods (document review, key informant interviews and focus group discussions) were used to assess administrative, technical and societal aspects of vital registration systems. Completeness of death registration was low in all three provinces. Problems were identified with the legal framework for registration of early neonatal deaths and deaths of temporary residents or migrants. The system does not conform to international standards for reporting cause of death or for recording detailed statistics by age, sex and cause of death. Capacity-building along with an intersectoral coordination committee involving the Ministries of Justice and Health and the General Statistics Office would improve the vital registration system, especially with regard to procedures for death registration. There appears to be strong political support for sentinel surveillance systems to generate reliable mortality statistics in Viet Nam.
Hung, H M; Tien, N D; Truong, N X
Since 1995 heroin sample comparisons have been carried out in Viet Nam to establish links between wholesalers and retailers. To that end, the physical and chemical characteristics of samples are analysed: their colour, the packaging material, including fingerprints, diacetylmorphine (heroin) content and the composition of some main alkaloids. At the beginning of 2002, having acquired expertise on impurity profiling and with the support of new instruments, the Institute of Forensic Sciences of Viet Nam introduced the routine impurity profiling of seized heroin and methamphetamine and later undertook to explain that process to national law enforcement bodies. Since then, 375 heroin and 29 methamphetamine samples have been analysed for major and minor impurities. Substances detected in the analysis of illicit heroin include diacetylmorphine, morphine, codeine, 06-monoacetylmorphine and acetylcodeine as well as adulterants such as paracetamol and caffeine. Since methamphetamine impurity profiling began, 29 samples have so far been analysed, and some samples have been grouped through the application of cluster analysis. In the case of heroin, impurity profiling has established a link between two major trafficking groups suspected of obtaining heroin from the same source of production. Analysis has also revealed a link between one wholesaler and several retailers in one region. In addition, impurity profiling provides new information on the preparation and production of some methamphetamine and fake Ecstasy tablets.
Nhung, N. V.; Hoa, N. B.; Thuy, H. T.; Takarinda, K. C.; Tayler-Smith, K.; Harries, A. D.
Setting: The programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Viet Nam has been rapidly scaled up since 2009. Objectives: To document the annual numbers of patients enrolled for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment during 2010–2014 and to determine characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients initiating treatment during 2010–2012. Design: A retrospective cohort study using national reports and data from the national electronic data system for drug-resistant TB. Results: The number of patients enrolled annually for MDR-TB treatment increased from 97 in 2010 to 1522 in 2014. The majority of patients were middle-aged men who had pulmonary disease and had failed a retreatment regimen; 77% had received ⩾2 courses of TB treatment. Favourable outcomes (cured and treatment completed) were attained in 73% of patients. Unfavourable outcomes included loss to follow-up (12.5%), death (8%) and failure (6.3%). Having had ⩾2 previous treatment courses and being human immunodeficiency virus-positive were associated with unfavourable outcomes. Conclusion: Increasing numbers of patients are being treated for MDR-TB each year with good treatment outcomes under national programme management in Viet Nam. However, there is a need to increase case detection—currently at 30% of the estimated 5100 MDR-TB cases per year, reduce adverse outcomes and improve monitoring and evaluation. PMID:27051608
Phuong, N T M; Nhung, N V; Hoa, N B; Thuy, H T; Takarinda, K C; Tayler-Smith, K; Harries, A D
The programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Viet Nam has been rapidly scaled up since 2009. To document the annual numbers of patients enrolled for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment during 2010-2014 and to determine characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients initiating treatment during 2010-2012. A retrospective cohort study using national reports and data from the national electronic data system for drug-resistant TB. The number of patients enrolled annually for MDR-TB treatment increased from 97 in 2010 to 1522 in 2014. The majority of patients were middle-aged men who had pulmonary disease and had failed a retreatment regimen; 77% had received ⩾2 courses of TB treatment. Favourable outcomes (cured and treatment completed) were attained in 73% of patients. Unfavourable outcomes included loss to follow-up (12.5%), death (8%) and failure (6.3%). Having had ⩾2 previous treatment courses and being human immunodeficiency virus-positive were associated with unfavourable outcomes. Increasing numbers of patients are being treated for MDR-TB each year with good treatment outcomes under national programme management in Viet Nam. However, there is a need to increase case detection-currently at 30% of the estimated 5100 MDR-TB cases per year, reduce adverse outcomes and improve monitoring and evaluation.
Cappa, Claudia; Dam, Hang
Data on parenting practices and the use of violence in child rearing remain scarce worldwide, hindering prevention efforts. This study examines disciplinary methods used on children at home in Viet Nam. It is based on data collected from 2010 to 2011 through the fourth round of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS4)-a household survey program supported by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) that focuses on women and children in low- and middle-income countries. Respondents in the survey were asked 11 questions relating to disciplinary measures used in the preceding month on one randomly selected child (2-14 years old) in each household. A final question about attitudes probed adults' views on the need for physical punishment in child rearing. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of violent and nonviolent forms of discipline, and to identify risk factors associated with violent punishment. Results showed that three in four children in Viet Nam are disciplined through violent means. The exposure of Vietnamese children to violent forms of discipline was significantly associated with varied characteristics of both children and their caregivers. Moreover, the use of violent disciplinary practices on children was strongly associated with positive attitudes toward corporal punishment. Risk factors for violent child discipline identified in this study can inform future interventions to promote positive practices and to protect Vietnamese children against violence in the home.
This colloquium took place in Vientiane in 1992. The themes taken up in this text are: resources assessment, hydraulic equipment, software, environment problems, technological transfer as well as economic and financial aspects, in case of each developing country concerned. (TEC). figs., tabs., refs.
Nguyen, My H Ng; Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke
Six months after a Comprehensive Abortion Care project was implemented in Phu-San Hospital, the main maternity hospital in Hai Phòng, northern Viet Nam, a study of quality of abortion services was carried out. The study explored the interaction between providers and women seeking abortion and how...
The government of Viet Nam has made a commitment to build a Lifelong Learning Society by 2020. A range of related initiatives have been launched, including the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization Centre for Lifelong Learning (SEAMEO CELLL) and "Book Day"--a day aimed at encouraging reading and raising awareness of its…
Thi, Le K.O.
The aim of this thesis is to enable taking more sustainable and cost-effective decisions on MSW management in developing cities. For this purpose, a tool named SURMAT was developed and applied using data of Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam (chapter 6). In order to prepare the tool for modeling of the MSW
Full Text Available Hepatitis B (HBV infection is endemic in Viet Nam, with up to 8.4 million individuals estimated to be chronically infected. We describe results of a large, multicentre seroepidemiological and molecular study of the prevalence of HBV infection and blood-borne viral coinfections in Viet Nam. Individuals with varying risk factors for infection (n = 8654 were recruited from five centres; Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Khanh Hoa and Can Tho. A mean prevalence rate of 10.7% was observed and levels of HBsAg were significantly higher in injecting drug users (IDUs (17.4%, n = 174/1000 and dialysis patients (14.3%, n = 82/575 than in lower-risk groups (9.4%; p<0.001. Coinfection with HIV was seen in 28% of HBV-infected IDUs (n = 49/174 and 15.2% of commercial sex workers (CSWs; n = 15/99. HCV infection was present in 89.8% of the HBV-HIV coinfected IDUs (n = 44/49 and 40% of HBV-HIV coinfected CSWs (n = 16/40. Anti-HDV was detected in 10.7% (n = 34/318 of HBsAg positive individuals. Phylogenetic analysis of HBV S gene (n = 187 showed a predominance of genotype B4 (82.6%; genotypes C1 (14.6%, B2 (2.7% and C5 (0.5% were also identified. The precore mutation G1896A was identified in 35% of all specimens, and was more frequently observed in genotype B (41% than genotype C (3%; p<0.0001. In the immunodominant 'a' region of the surface gene, point mutations were identified in 31% (n = 58/187 of sequences, and 2.2% (n = 4/187 and 5.3% (n = 10/187 specimens contained the major vaccine escape mutations G145A/R and P120L/Q/S/T, respectively. 368 HBsAg positive individuals were genotyped for the IL28B SNP rs12979860 and no significant association between the IL28B SNP and clearance of HBsAg, HBV viral load or HBeAg was observed. This study confirms the high prevalence of HBV infection in Viet Nam and also highlights the significant levels of blood-borne virus coinfections, which have important implications for hepatitis-related morbidity and development of effective
Kokko, Ari; Thang, Tran Toan
of FDI on the survival of domestic private firms in Viet Nam. We estimate the impact of both horizontal and vertical FDI and explore how the presence of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) influences the exit hazard for private firms. The results suggest that horizontal and upstream FDI raise the exit hazard...... significantly, while downstream FDI may reduce the hazard. The presence of SOEs has a direct negative effect on the survival odds of local private firms in the same industry, but there is also an indirect impact on the exit hazard from FDI. Local firms are more vulnerable to foreign entry in sectors with high...... SOE shares. Looking at the net effects of FDI during the period 2001–2008, we find that results vary between sectors and over time but that the overall impact has been surprising small. The paper also discusses policy conclusions and implications for empirical analyses of spillovers from FDI....
The government of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam has recognized the importance of and the need for population education. This is a totally new area in Viet Nam, although in some isolated instances it has been included in subjects in the school curriculum. There are adequate infrastructural facilities from the national to the village level for all categories of general education, vocational education, and complementary education as well as for preservice and inservice training for educational personnel. In June 1981 the UN Fund for Population Activities Needs Assessment Mission made the following recommendations for the effective implementation of a population education program: a National Committee on Population Education should be established with the Minister or Vice Minister of Education as the chairperson; a separate Department or Unit of Population Education, with full time personnel, should be created in the Ministry of Education and should be responsible for project implementation; population education should be integrated with relevant subjects in general education, complementary education, and vocational education; external assistance should be provided for the development and production of different instructional materials in population education; population education should be integrated in the preserve training of primary, junior, and senior secondary teachers; population education should be developed as an area of specialization at the post university level in Teacher Training University No. 1 at Hanoi; the launching of the population education project should be preceded by training of high level officials from the Ministry of Education and the training of key personnel at the national and provincial levels through a national training course of about 10 days; selected project personnel and teacher educators should be given specialized training in population education; all the inspectors, administrators, and heads of primary, junior, senior, and
Full Text Available Abstract The findings of our research show that while police play multiple roles in the fight against drug-related crime, they often perceived their tasks – especially preventing and controlling drug use on the one hand, and supporting harm reduction on the other – as contradictory, and this creates tensions in their work and relations with their communities. Although they are leaders and implementers of harm reduction, not all police know about it, and some remain skeptical or perceive it as contradictory to their main task of fighting drugs. Methadone treatment is seen by some as in competition with their main task of coordinating conventional drug treatment in the rehabilitation center. The history of drug use and the evolution of discourses on drug use in Viet Nam have created these conflicting pressures on police, and thus created contradictory expectations and led to different views and attitudes of police regarding various harm reduction measures. This might aid understanding why, despite the comprehensive and progressive policies on HIV/AIDS and harm reduction in Viet Nam, it is not easy for police to actively and effectively support and be involved in harm reduction at the ground level. To promote the wider acceptance of harm reduction the concept of community safety must be expanded to include community health; harm reduction must be integrated into the “new society” movement; and laws and policies need further revision to reduce contradiction between current drug laws and HIV laws. Harm reduction guidelines for police and other actors need to be disseminated and supported, embodying better ways of working between sectors, and all sectors in the partnership require support for building capacity to contribute to the overall goal.
Nguyen Thi Han Ny
Full Text Available Background: Since 1962, enterovirus D68 (EV-D68 has been implicated in multiple outbreaks and sporadic cases of respiratory infection worldwide, but especially in the USA and Europe with an increasing frequency between 2010 and 2014. We describe the detection, associated clinical features and molecular characterization of EV-D68 in central and southern Viet Nam between 2009 and 2015. Methods: Enterovirus/rhinovirus PCR positive respiratory or CSF samples taken from children and adults with respiratory/central nervous system infections in Viet Nam were tested by an EV-D68 specific PCR. The included samples were derived from 3 different observational studies conducted at referral hospitals across central and southern Viet Nam between 2009 and 2015. Whole-genome sequencing was carried out using a MiSeq based approach. Phylogenetic reconstruction and estimation of evolutionary rate and recombination were carried out in BEAST and Recombination Detection Program, respectively. Results: EV-D68 was detected in 21/625 (3.4% enterovirus/rhinovirus PCR positive respiratory samples but in none of the 15 CSF. All the EV-D68 patients were young children (age range: 11.8 – 24.5 months and had moderate respiratory infections. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the Vietnamese sequences clustered with those from Asian countries, of which 9 fell in the B1 clade, and the remaining sequence was identified within the A2 clade. One intra sub-clade recombination event was detected, representing the second reported recombination within EV-D68. The evolutionary rate of EV-D68 was estimated to be 5.12E-3 substitutions/site/year. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the virus was imported into Viet Nam in 2008. Conclusions: We have demonstrated for the first time EV-D68 has been circulating at low levels in Viet Nam since 2008, associated with moderate acute respiratory infection in children. EV-D68 in Viet Nam is most closely related to Asian viruses, and clusters
Elisa Puentes Rizo
Full Text Available Introducción: en la actualidad existe en los adolescentes una temprana iniciación de las relaciones sexuales y cambios en la actitud social hacia la sexualidad. Objetivo: identificar las particularidades y conocimientos sobre sexualidad en adolescentes. Métodos: se realizó una investigación descriptiva y transversal en adolescentes entre los 12 y 15 años, de la secundaria básica "Viet Nam" del municipio Arroyo Naranjo, durante los años 2009-2010. El universo estuvo constituido por 296 estudiantes y la muestra por 150, seleccionados mediante sorteo hasta completar 50 estudiantes de cada año. La información se obtuvo de una encuesta validada por el Ministerio de Educación. Todos los seleccionados expresaron su consentimiento para participar en la investigación. Resultados: predominó el sexo masculino y los adolescentes de 15 años. El inicio de las relaciones sexuales fue a los 14 años en los muchachos y a los 15 en las muchachas; 72 (56,69 % adolescentes utilizaron el condón en su "primera vez". Las principales vías de obtención de información fueron los padres, profesores y la información televisiva. Hubo mayor conocimiento sobre VIH-sida, gonorrea y sífilis y menor sobre, herpes simple y clamidia. El condón resultó ser el método anticonceptivo más conocido. Conclusiones: hay un inicio precoz en las relaciones sexuales y poco conocimiento acerca de los métodos anticonceptivos biológicos o naturales, lo que pudiera estar indicando la importancia que tiene la familia, sobre todo los padres, los profesores y médicos de familia, en incrementar y mantener la labor educativa con los jóvenes en relación con la sexualidad.Introduction: there exists an early onset of sexual relations in adolescents at present, together with changes in the social attitude towards sexuality. Objective: to identify the particularities of and the knowledge on sexuality in adolescents. Methods: a cross-sectional and descriptive research study was
Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Jessani, Nasreen S; Pham, V Cuong; Quang, La Ngoc; Nguyen, Phuong N; Passmore, Jonathon; Hyder, Adnan A
Viet Nam is experiencing a shift in its burden of disease profile with injuries becoming more prominent. A history of high alcohol involvement in road traffic crashes despite stringent laws led to increased enforcement by police, enhanced public education messaging and targeted social marketing campaigns in Ha Nam and Ninh Binh provinces in Viet Nam. This study aims to illustrate the changes in prevalence (November 2010 to December 2011) and knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) around alcohol use and drink-driving for the year 2011. Breath Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) was collected through police enforcement checkpoints in the two provinces. The proportion of drivers with BrAC above the legal limit was plotted over time for both provinces. The trend in prevalence of drink-driving over time was further assessed using Poisson regression models. Prevailing KAPs were determined through surveying randomly selected road users over the age of 17 years at gas stations at quarterly intervals. Cross tabulations of key variables as well Chi-Square statistic were used to assess associations. A total of 8,404 drivers were tested for BrAC levels of which less than 0.25% were female. Of 1,639 drivers displaying BrAC levels in excess of the legal limit, 87.3% were car drivers, 7.9% motorcyclists and 86% were between the ages of 25 and 44 years. KAP surveys captured 1,661 drivers over the study period. The prevalence of self-reported drink-driving increased 6 percentage points among respondents aged 27-36. Between 44% (January 2011) and 49% (December 2011) of respondents indicated awareness of a drinking and driving Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) or BrAC limit and only 25% of all study participants recalled being penalized for a traffic violation - none of which were for drink-driving. While there has been some reduction in drink-driving prevalence, inadequate or incorrect knowledge on drink-driving legislation appears to be an impediment to greater gains. Increased
Duong Cong Thanh
Full Text Available In this report we describe a new approach in HIV sentinel surveillance that was piloted in Viet Nam in 2009 and is currently being rolled out in all provinces. It comprises a brief behavioural questionnaire added to the HIV sentinel surveillance surveys conducted routinely among people who inject drugs, female sex workers and men who have sex with men. Timely reporting of data from this system has resulted in improvements to HIV prevention efforts for most at-risk populations.
Forest cover in Viet Nam decreased by more than 35% since the 1950s. As much as 75% of the forest cover has been removed in some northern areas. Despite government sponsored reforestation programs, deforestation continues, especially when property rights to the forest are not secure and where the inhabitants are poor. The prime cause of deforestation is fuelwood collection, accounting for 60% of the loss in forest cover. Historically, the government owned the forests, but due to the difficult...
Hoa, N B; Cobelens, F G J; Sy, D N; Nhung, N V; Borgdorff, M W; Tiemersma, E W
To estimate the prevalence of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the annual risk of tuberculous infection (ARTI) and to compare this with the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) over study clusters and households. A nationwide, stratified cluster sample survey was carried out in 2006-2007 in Viet Nam to assess the prevalence of infection with M. tuberculosis. A representative sample of children aged 6-14 years underwent a tuberculin skin test (TST) using the Mantoux method. Of 23,160 children registered, 21,487 (92.8%) were tested and read and available for analysis. Using a cut-off point of 10 mm, the estimated prevalence of TST positivity was 16.7%, and the ARTI was 1.7% (95%CI 1.5-1.8). Higher infection rates were found in urban than in rural and remote areas, and infection rates increased with age. There was significant association between the prevalence of TB disease and infection at the cluster level (regression coefficient 0.54, 95%CI 0.06-1.01, P = 0.027, correlation coefficient R(2) 0.120). Children with a (recent) case of TB in the household were 1.6 times more likely to be TST-positive than children in households with no recent cases (P < 0.05). The estimated nationwide ARTI was 1.7%. TST positivity was associated with the presence of a TB case in the household.
Thuy, Bui Thi Thanh; Kretchmar, Joshua
This study examines the influence of social networks on the sexual relations of migrant construction workers in Ha Noi, Viet Nam. Research included observation and interviews with members of two different groups of workers. The first group, together with their employer (cai), came from the same village; the second group came from different villages. Of interest in the present study was how social relationships among workers and their employers influence extra-marital sexual activity. In the group where workers and their cai came from the same village of origin, fear of acquiring a bad reputation made these workers reluctant to seek sex services, since accounts of their behaviour were transmitted quickly home. In contrast, workers from the group who came from different villages often went out together to purchase sex. The absence of direct links to their villages of origin made it easier for these latter workers to conceal their activity. The implication of these findings for sexual safety and risk are discussed.
Hoa, N B; Lauritsen, J M; Rieder, H L
National Tuberculosis Programme, Viet Nam, 2008. To assess the relationship between changes in body weight and tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcome. All treatment cards of patients from a sample of 30 randomly selected treatment units in the country were analysed. Of 2609 patients, 2506 (96.1%) had a successful treatment outcome. The median body weight of all patients at diagnosis was 46.0 kg (25th and 75th percentiles 41-51). New sputum smear-positive TB patients with a successful treatment outcome gained an average of 2.6 kg during treatment. Patients with weight loss during the first 2 months of treatment were more likely to have an unsuccessful outcome than patients without (OR 4.9, 95%CI 3.0-7.9). Patients weighing weight after 2 months of treatment had a significantly smaller risk of an unsuccessful treatment outcome than patients who did not (OR 0.2, 95%CI 0.05-0.96). Patients failing to gain weight or losing weight, particularly during the first 2 months of treatment, require particular attention, as they appear to be at an increased risk of unsuccessful treatment outcome.
Giang, Kim Bao; Chung, Le Hong; Minh, Hoang Van; Kien, Vu Duy; Giap, Vu Van; Hinh, Nguyen Duc; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Manh, Pham Duc; Duc, Ha Anh; Yang, Jui-Chen
Graphic health warnings (GHW) on tobacco packages have proven to be effective in increasing quit attempts among smokers and reducing initial smoking among adolescents. This research aimed to examine the relative importance of different attributes of graphic health warnings on tobacco packages in Viet Nam. A discrete choice experimental (DCE) design was applied with a conditional logit model. In addition, a ranking method was used to list from the least to the most dreadful GHW labels. With the results from DCE model, graphic type was shown to be the most important attribute, followed by cost and coverage area of GHW. The least important attribute was position of the GHW. Among 5 graphic types (internal lung cancer image, external damaged teeth, abstract image, human suffering image and text), the image of lung cancer was found to have the strongest influence on both smokers and non-smokers. With ranking method, the image of throat cancer and heart diseases were considered the most dreadful images. GHWs should be designed with these attributes in mind, to maximise influence on purchase among both smokers and non-smokers.
Van Minh, Hoang; Kim Phuong, Nguyen Thi; Saksena, Priyanka; James, Chris D; Xu, Ke
In Viet Nam, household direct out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditure as a share of the total health expenditure has been always high, ranging from 50% to 70%. The high share of OOP expenditure has been linked to different inequity problems such as catastrophic health expenditure (households must reduce their expenditure on other necessities) and impoverishment. This paper aims to examine catastrophic and poverty impacts of household out-of-pocket health expenditure in Viet Nam over time and identify socio-economic indicators associated with them. Data used in this research were obtained from a nationally representative household survey, Viet Nam Living Standard Survey 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010. The findings revealed that there were problems in health care financing in Viet Nam - many households encountered catastrophic health expenditure and/or were pushed into poverty due to health care payments. The issues were pervasive over time. Catastrophic expenditure and impoverishment problems were more common among the households who had more elderly people and those located in rural areas. Importantly, the financial protection aspect of the national health insurance schemes was still modest. Given these findings, more attention is needed on developing methods of financial protection in Viet Nam. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Huong, Le Thi Thanh; Long, Tran Khanh; Son, Phung Xuan; Huyen, Do Phuc; Linh, Phan Thuy; Bich, Nguyen Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Xuan; Anh, Le Vu; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi
Comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion were introduced through tobacco control legislation in Viet Nam, but it has been established that violations of the bans are very common. This study was conducted to explore the trend in violations of bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale in Viet Nam in the past six years and to explore any differences in the violation situations before and after the Law on Tobacco Control came into effect on 1st May 2013. Quantitative data were collected through observation of violations of the bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale in 10 provinces throughout Viet Nam in four survey rounds (2009, 2010, 2011, and 2015). Variation in violation prevalence over time was examined by chi-square test using a Bonferini method. Binary logistic regression was employed to identify the factors that may have influences on different types of violation. A level of significance of pviolation was the display of more than one pack/one carton of a cigarette brand. Violation of bans on tobacco advertising increased while violations on promotion ban and on displaying tobacco decreased through time. Some factors associated with the tobacco advertising and promotion bans included surveyed years, types of points of sale, regions and areas where the points of sale were located. The enforcement of the bans did not improve even after the issuance and the enactment of the Law on Tobacco Control. This suggests that the monitoring and enforcement of bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale should be strengthened. Penalties should be strictly applied for violators as indicated in the current tobacco control legislation.
Trinh Xuan Mai
Full Text Available Introduction: Laboratory capacity is needed in central Viet Nam to provide early warning to public health authorities of respiratory outbreaks of importance to human health, for example the outbreak of influenza A(H1N1 pandemic in 2009. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR procedures established as part of a capacity-building process were used to conduct prospective respiratory surveillance in a region where few previous studies have been undertaken.Methods: Between October 2008 and September 2010, nose and throat swabs from adults and children (approximately 20 per week presenting with an acute respiratory illness to the Ninh Hoa General Hospital were collected. Same-day PCR testing and result reporting for 13 respiratory viruses were carried out by locally trained scientists.Results: Of 2144 surveillance samples tested, 1235 (57.6% were positive for at least one virus. The most common were influenza A strains (17.9%, with pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 and seasonal H3N2 strain accounting for 52% and 43% of these, respectively. Other virus detections included: rhinovirus (12.4%, enterovirus (8.9%, influenza B (8.3%, adenovirus (5.3%, parainfluenza (4.7%, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV (3.9%, human coronavirus (3.0% and human metapneumovirus (0.3%. The detection rate was greatest in the 0–5 year age group. Viral co-infections were identified in 148 (6.9% cases.Discussion: The outbreak in 2009 of the influenza A(H1N1 pandemic strain provided a practical test of the laboratory’s pandemic plan. This study shows that the availability of appropriate equipment and molecular-based testing can contribute to important individual and public health outcomes in geographical locations susceptible to emerging infections.
Nguyen Thi Ngoc Quyen
Full Text Available Srepok watershed plays an important role in Central Highland in Viet Nam. It impacts to developing social-economic conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to research elements which impact to natural resources in this watershed. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model and Geography Information System (GIS were used to simulate water discharge in the Srepok watershed. The objectives of the research were to apply GIS and SWAT model for simulation water discharge and then, we assessed land use change which impacted on water discharge in the watershed. The observed stream flow data from Ban Don Stream gauge station was used to calibrate for the period from 1981 to 2000 and then validate for the period from 2001 to 2009. After using SWAT-CUP software to calibration, NSI reached 0.63 and R square value achieved 0.64 from 2004 to 2008 in calibration and NSI gained good level at 0.74 and R square got 0.75 from 2009 to 2012 in validation step at Ban Don Station. After that, land cover in 2010 was processed like land cover in 2000 and set up SWAT model again. The simulated water discharge in scenario 1 (land use 2000 was compared with scenario 2 (land use 2010, the simulation result was not significant difference between two scenarios because the change of area of land use was not much enough to affect the fluctuation of water discharge. However, the effect of land cover on water resource could be seen clearly via total water yield. The percentage of surface flow in 2000 was twice times more than in 2010; retard and base flow in 2000 was slightly more than in 2010. Therefore, decreased surface flow, increased infiltration capacity of water and enriched base flow resulted in the growth of land cover.
Flooding is one of the most dangerous natural disasters in Vietnam. Floods have caused serious damages to people and made adverse impact on social economic development across the country, especially in lower river basin where there is high risk of flooding as consequences of the climate change and social activities. This paper presents a collaborative platform of a combination of an interactive web-GIS framework and a multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) tool. MCE is carried out in server side through web interface, in which parameters used for evaluation are groups into three major categories, including (1) climatic factor: precipitation, typhoon frequency, temperature, humidity (2) physiographic data: DEM, topographic wetness index, NDVI, stream power index, soil texture, distance to river (3) social factor: NDBI, land use pattern. Web-based GIS is based on open-source technology that includes an information page, a page for MCE tool that users can interactively alter parameters in flood susceptible mapping, and a discussion page. The system is designed for local participation in prediction of the flood risk magnitude under impacts of natural processes and human intervention. The proposed flood susceptibility assessment prototype was implemented in the Mekong river basin, Viet Nam. Index images were calculated using Landsat data, and other were collected from authorized agencies. This study shows the potential to combine web-GIS and spatial analysis tool to flood hazard risk assessment. The combination can be a supportive solution that potentially assists the interaction between stakeholders in information exchange and in disaster management, thus provides for better analysis, control and decision-making.
Thanh Duong Cong
Full Text Available Abstract Background Seeking and utilisation of HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support services for people living with HIV is often hampered by HIV-related stigma. The study aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences regarding treatment, care, and support amongst people living with HIV in Viet Nam, where the HIV epidemic is concentrated among injecting drug users, sex workers, and men who have sex with men. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted during September 2007 in 6 districts in Hai Phong with a very high HIV prevalence among injecting drug users. The information obtained was analysed and merged within topic areas. Illustrative quotes were selected. Results Stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV in the community and healthcare settings was commonly reported, and substantially hampered the seeking and the utilisation of HIV-related services. The informants related the high level of stigma to the way the national HIV preventive campaigns played on fear, by employing a “scare tactic” mainly focusing on drug users and sex workers, who were defined as “social evils” in the anti-drug and anti-prostitution policy. There was a strong exclusion effect caused by the stigma, with serious implications, such as loss of job opportunities and isolation. The support and care provided by family members was experienced as vital for the spirit and hope for the future among people living with HIV. Conclusions A comprehensive care and support programme is needed. The very high levels of stigma experienced seem largely to have been created by an HIV preventive scare tactic closely linked to the “social evil“ approach in the national policy on drug and prostitution. In order to reduce the stigma and create more effective interventions, this tactic will have to be replaced with approaches that create better legal and policy environments for drug users and sex workers.
Nghia Ho Dang Trung
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS remain common and life-threatening, especially in developing countries. Knowledge of the aetiological agents responsible for these infections is essential to guide empiric therapy and develop a rational public health policy. To date most data has come from patients admitted to tertiary referral hospitals in Asia and there is limited aetiological data at the provincial hospital level where most patients are seen. METHODS: We conducted a prospective Provincial Hospital-based descriptive surveillance study in adults and children at thirteen hospitals in central and southern Viet Nam between August 2007-April 2010. The pathogens of CNS infection were confirmed in CSF and blood samples by using classical microbiology, molecular diagnostics and serology. RESULTS: We recruited 1241 patients with clinically suspected infection of the CNS. An aetiological agent was identified in 640/1241 (52% of the patients. The most common pathogens were Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in patients older than 14 years of age (147/617, 24% and Japanese encephalitis virus in patients less than 14 years old (142/624, 23%. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed in 34/617 (6% adult patients and 11/624 (2% paediatric patients. The acute case fatality rate (CFR during hospital admission was 73/617 (12% in adults and to 42/624 (7% in children. CONCLUSIONS: Zoonotic bacterial and viral pathogens are the most common causes of CNS infection in adults and children in Viet Nam.
Le Thi Thanh Huong
Full Text Available It is indicated that children are involuntarily exposed to secondhand smoke from adults, mainly at their home environment. This study aimed at describing the effectiveness of the school-based intervention to decrease the in-home smoking situation of adults so as to decrease children’s exposure to secondhand smoke at home during the year 2011–2012 in a rural district in Hanoi, Viet Nam. This school-based intervention program (intervention and control group involved 804 children aged 8 to 11 years from August 2011 to May 2012 in a rural district of Hanoi, Viet Nam. Children were taught in class about the harmful effects of secondhand smoke and about how to negotiate with fathers not to smoke in-home. Then children applied what they learnt, including staying away from secondhand smoke and persuading fathers not to smoke in-home in order to decrease children’s exposure to secondhand smoke. Chi square test, t-test and multinominal logistic regression were applied in data analysis. The results showed that children’s reported their father’s in-home smoking decreased from 83.0% pre-intervention to 59.8% post-intervention (p < 0.001 in the intervention school while no change happened in the control school. The study found that the better changed smoking location of adult smokers as reported by children associated with the school who received intervention activities (adjusted OR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.28–3.24. Poorer changed attitudes towards secondhand smoke of children associated with a lower percentage of better change in smoking location of their fathers/other adult smokers (aOR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.28–0.96. Children’s poorer changed knowledge towards secondhand smoke also associated with poorer changed smoking location of adult smokers (aOR = 2.88, 95% CI: 1.07–7.76. It is recommended by this study that similar school based intervention approaches should be applied in primary schools in Viet Nam to increase children’s awareness on the
Hayashi, T.; Kuroda, K.; Do Thuan, A.; Tran Thi Viet, N.; Takizawa, S.
Hanoi is the capital of Viet Nam and the second largest city in this country (population: 6.45 million in 2009). Hanoi city has developed along the Red River and has many lakes, ponds and canals. However, recent rapid urbanization of this city has reduced number of natural water areas such as ponds and lakes by reclamation not only in the central area but the suburban area. Canals also have been reclaimed or cut into pieces. Contrary, number of artificial water areas such as fish cultivation pond has rapidly increased. On the other hand, various kind of waste water flows into these natural and artificial water areas and induces pollution and eutrophication. These waste waters also have possibility of pollution of groundwater that is one of major water resources in this city. In addition, groundwater in this area has high concentrations of Arsenic, Fe and NH4. Thus, groundwater use may causes re-circulation of Arsenic. However, studies on the interaction between surface water areas and groundwater and on the role of surface water areas for solute transport with water cycle are a few. Therefore, we focused on these points and took water samples of river, pond and groundwater from four communities in suburban areas: two communities are located near the Red River and other two are far from the River. Also, columnar sediment samples of these ponds were taken and pore water was abstracted. Major dissolved ions, metals and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen of water samples were analyzed. As for water cycle, from the correlation between δ18O and δD, the Red River water (after GNIR) were distributed along the LMWL (δD=8.2δ18O+14.1, calculated from precipitation (after GNIP)). On the other hand, although the pond waters in rainy season were distributed along the LMWL, that in dry season were distributed along the local evaporation line (LEL, slope=5.6). The LEL crossed with the LMWL at around the point of weighted mean values of precipitation in rainy season and of
Hayashi, Takeshi; Kuroda, Keisuke; Do Thuan, An; Tran Thi Viet, Nga; Takizawa, Satoshi
Hanoi city, the capital of Viet Nam, has developed beside the Red river. Recent rapid urbanization of this city has reduced a large number of natural water areas such as lakes, ponds and canals not only in the central area but the suburban area. Contrary, the urbanization has increased artificial water areas such as pond for fish cultivation and landscaping. On the other hand, the urbanization has induced the inflow of waste water from households and various kinds of factories to these water areas because of delay of sewerage system development. Inflow of the waste water has induced eutrophication and pollution of these water areas. Also, there is a possibility of groundwater pollution by infiltration of polluted surface water. However, the role of these water areas for water cycle and solute transport is not clarified. Therefore, this study focuses on the interaction between surface water areas and groundwater in Hanoi city to evaluate appropriate land development and groundwater resource management. We are carrying out three approaches: a) understanding of geochemical characteristics of surface water and groundwater, b) monitoring of water levels of pond and groundwater, c) sampling of soil and pond sediment. Correlation between d18O and dD of precipitation (after GNIP), the Red River (after GNIR) and the water samples of this study showed that the groundwater is composed of precipitation, the Red River and surface water that has evaporation process. Contribution of the surface water with evaporation process was widely found in the study area. As for groundwater monitoring, the Holocene aquifers at two sites were in unconfined condition in dry season and the groundwater levels in the aquifer continued to increase through rainy season. The results of isotopic analysis and groundwater level monitoring showed that the surface water areas are one of the major groundwater sources. On the other hand, concentrations of dissolved Arsenic (filtered by 0.45um) in the pore
Nguyen, Phuong H.; Kim, Sunny S.; Nguyen, Tuan T.; Tran, Lan M.; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Frongillo, Edward A.; Ruel, Marie T.; Rawat, Rahul; Menon, Purnima
Adequate utilization of services is critical to maximize the impact of counselling on infant and young child feeding (IYCF), but little is known about factors affecting utilization. Our study examined supply- and demand-side factors associated with the utilization of IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam. We used survey data from mothers with children demand-generation strategies, especially invitation cards, were the key factors determining one-time use (Prevalence ratio, PR 3.0, 95% CI: 2.2–4.2), repeated use (PR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.4–4.2), and achievement of minimum visits (PR 5.5, 95% CI: 3.6–8.4). Higher maternal education was associated with higher utilization both for one-time and repeated use. Being a farmer, belonging to an ethnic minority, and having a wasted child were associated with greater likelihood of achieving the minimum recommended number of visits, whereas child stunting or illness were not. Distance to health center was a barrier to repeated visits. Among supply-side factors, good counselling skills (PR: 1.3–1.8) was the most important factor associated with any service use, whereas longer employment duration and greater work pressure of health center staff were associated with lower utilization. Population attributable risk estimations showed that an additional 25% of the population would have achieved the minimum number of visits if exposed to three demand-generation strategies, and further increased to 49% if the health staff had good counseling skills and low work pressure. Our study provides evidence that demand-generation strategies are essential to increase utilization of facility-based IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam, and may be relevant for increasing and sustaining use of nutrition services in similar contexts. PMID:26962856
Nguyen, Dong Tu
Summary Risk factors associated with diarrhoeal disease and diarrheagenic E. coli disease in Duc Giang Hospital, north-eastern corner of Ha Noi, Viet Nam Background: Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) disease is more prevalent in infants and children is a very important cause of sporadic diarrhoea cases and diarrhoea outbreaks in many countries. Currently, DEC also stands as a chief causal factor for diarrhoea among travellers. DEC disease is usually transmitted through food or wa...
Dung Nguyen, The; Kappas, Martin
In the last several years, the interest in forest biomass and carbon stock estimation has increased due to its importance for forest management, modelling carbon cycle, and other ecosystem services. However, no estimates of biomass and carbon stocks of deferent forest cover types exist throughout in the Xuan Lien Nature Reserve, Thanh Hoa, Viet Nam. This study investigates the relationship between above ground carbon stock and different vegetation indices and to identify the most likely vegetation index that best correlate with forest carbon stock. The terrestrial inventory data come from 380 sample plots that were randomly sampled. Individual tree parameters such as DBH and tree height were collected to calculate the above ground volume, biomass and carbon for different forest types. The SPOT6 2013 satellite data was used in the study to obtain five vegetation indices NDVI, RDVI, MSR, RVI, and EVI. The relationships between the forest carbon stock and vegetation indices were investigated using a multiple linear regression analysis. R-square, RMSE values and cross-validation were used to measure the strength and validate the performance of the models. The methodology presented here demonstrates the possibility of estimating forest volume, biomass and carbon stock. It can also be further improved by addressing more spectral bands data and/or elevation.
En Asie, les ateliers de confection constituent un secteur d'emplois dominant, néanmoins les conditions dans ces lieux de travail sont parmi les plus rudes dans la région. Région: Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar, Viet Nam. Programme: Employment and Growth. Financement total : CA$ 866,100.00. Emplois aux frontières ...
Topic: SOUTHEAST ASIA, YOUNG WORKERS, ECONOMIC GROWTH, WOMEN WORKERS, TRAINING, WORKING CONDITIONS, POLICY MAKING. Region: Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 1,029,600.00. New farm ventures improve food ...
Sujet: TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE, INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT, REGIONAL INTEGRATION, TRADE FACILITATION. Région: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, China, Laos, Viet Nam, Thailand. Programme: Emploi et croissance. Financement total : CA$ 300,000.00. Programme de recherche sur ...
Empowering women through humane workplaces: Garment factories in Southeast Asia. Project. In Asia, garment factories play a dominant role in the employment opportunities for women, yet these factories have some of the harshest working conditions in the region. Region: Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar, Viet Nam.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection drug users represent the largest proportion of all HIV reported cases in Viet Nam. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of risk and risk behaviours among HIV-positive injection drug users, and their experiences related to safe injection and safe sex practices. Methods This study used multiple qualitative methods in data collection including in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation with HIV-positive injection drug users. Results The informants described a change in the sharing practices among injection drug users towards more precautions and what was considered 'low risk sharing', like sharing among seroconcordant partners and borrowing rather than lending. However risky practices like re-use of injection equipment and 'syringe pulling' i.e. the use of left-over drugs in particular, were frequently described and observed. Needle and syringe distribution programmes were in place but carrying needles and syringes and particularly drugs could result in being arrested and fined. Fear of rejection and of loss of intimacy made disclosure difficult and was perceived as a major obstacle for condom use among recently diagnosed HIV infected individuals. Conclusion HIV-positive injection drug users continue to practice HIV risk behaviours. The anti-drug law and the police crack-down policy appeared as critical factors hampering ongoing prevention efforts with needle and syringe distribution programmes in Viet Nam. Drastic policy measures are needed to reduce the very high HIV prevalence among injection drug users.
Thanh, Duong Cong; Moland, Karen Marie; Fylkesnes, Knut
Injection drug users represent the largest proportion of all HIV reported cases in Viet Nam. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of risk and risk behaviours among HIV-positive injection drug users, and their experiences related to safe injection and safe sex practices. This study used multiple qualitative methods in data collection including in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation with HIV-positive injection drug users. The informants described a change in the sharing practices among injection drug users towards more precautions and what was considered 'low risk sharing', like sharing among seroconcordant partners and borrowing rather than lending. However risky practices like re-use of injection equipment and 'syringe pulling' i.e. the use of left-over drugs in particular, were frequently described and observed. Needle and syringe distribution programmes were in place but carrying needles and syringes and particularly drugs could result in being arrested and fined. Fear of rejection and of loss of intimacy made disclosure difficult and was perceived as a major obstacle for condom use among recently diagnosed HIV infected individuals. HIV-positive injection drug users continue to practice HIV risk behaviours. The anti-drug law and the police crack-down policy appeared as critical factors hampering ongoing prevention efforts with needle and syringe distribution programmes in Viet Nam. Drastic policy measures are needed to reduce the very high HIV prevalence among injection drug users.
Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Dung, Do Trung; Thach, Dang Thi Cam; Horii, Yoichiro; Shinohara, Akio; Nawa, Yukifumi
Parasitological and sero-epidemiological surveys for human paragonimiasis were conducted in three provinces of Viet Nam. A total of 590 participants from two known endemic areas of human paragonimiasis (Sinho district of Laichau province and Lucyen district of Yenbai province) and from Dakrong district of Quangtri province where we recently found crab hosts heavily infected with Paragonimus westermani metacercariae. By multiple dot-ELISA screening, 28 (12.7%) out of 220 participants in Sinho district of Laichau province and 4 (3.3%) out of 120 participants in Lucyen district of Yenbai province were proven to be antibody-positive against the Paragonimus antigen. None of the 250 sera of the residents in Dakrong, Quangtri province, gave sero-positivity. Among a total of 32 sero-positive patients Paragonimus eggs were found in 6 cases. ITS2 sequences were successfully determined from a single Paragonimus egg from each patient. The results of homology search by BLAST and alignment clearly confirmed that Paragonimus eggs collected from 6 patients were all of Paragonimus heterotremus. The pathogenicity of P. westermani for human paragonimiasis in Viet Nam is still questionable and needs to be explored in the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Van, Duong Khanh; Khue, Luong Ngoc
Second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure at home, especially among children, is a serious issue in Viet Nam. During the past decade, much effort has been taken for tobacco control in the country, including various prgorammes aiming to reduce SHS exposure among adults and children. This article analysed trends and factors associated with SHS exposure at home among school children aged 13-15 in Viet Nam, using the Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted in 2007 and 2014. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods with logistic regression were applied. Overall, there was a significant reduction in the level of exposure, from 58.5% (95%CI: 57.6-59.3) in 2007 to 47.1% (95%CI: 45.4-48.8) in 2014. Of the associated factors, having one or both parents smoking was significantly associated with the highest odds of SHS exposure at home (OR=5.0; 95%CI: 4.2-6.1). Conversely, having a mother with a college or higher education level was found to be a protective factor (OR=0.5; 95%CI: 0.3-0.8).
Trinh, Kiem Xuan; Khac, Quyen Le; Trinh, Long Xuan; Warrell, David A
Between 1998 and 2007, 42 patients admitted to Choray hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, and to two hospitals in adjacent regions in southern Viet Nam brought the Malayan kraits (Bungarus candidus) that had been responsible for biting them. Half of the patients had been bitten while they were asleep. Fang marks and numbness were the only local features of the bites. Common signs of neurotoxic envenoming included bilateral ptosis, persistently dilated pupils, limb weakness, breathlessness, hypersalivation, dysphonia and dysphagia. Thirty patients (71.4%) required endotracheal intubation of whom all but one were mechanically ventilated. Fourteen patients (33.3%) developed hypertension, 13 (31.0%) shock, 31 (73.8%) hyponatraemia (plasma sodium concentration rhabdomyolysis (peak plasma creatine kinase concentration 1375 +/- 140 micro/l). None developed acute kidney injury. All the patients were treated with a new monospecific B. candidus antivenom. There were no fatalities. Hyponatraemia has been reported previously in victims of Chinese kraits (Bungarus multicinctus) in northern Viet Nam and rhabdomyolysis in patients envenomed by B. niger in Bangladesh. These features of envenoming pose new problems for the management of krait bite cases in South east Asia and should stimulate a search for the causative venom toxins. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hoa, Nguyen B; Wei, Chen; Sokun, Chay
The tuberculosis register is a critical data source for the information system of national tuberculosis control programs. From the information in the tuberculosis case register, it is possible to extend the standard analysis of age and sex characteristics among sputum smear-positive cases to all ...
Woodward, James; Hoa, Nguyen Thi
This paper discusses how the Nippon Foundation-funded project "Opening University Education to Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation," also known as the Dong Nai Deaf Education Project, has been implemented through sign language studies from 2000 through 2012. This project has provided deaf…
Thach Duc Tran
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between psychological and social factors and late pregnancy IDA among pregnant women in rural Viet Nam. METHODS: Pregnant women from 50 randomly-selected communes within Ha Nam province were recruited and assessed at 12 - 20 weeks gestation (Wave 1, W1. They were followed up in the last trimester (Wave 2, W2. IDA was defined as Haemoglobin < 11 g/dL and serum ferritin < 15 ng/mL. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders (CMD were assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale-Vietnam (EPDS-V. Persistent antenatal CMD was defined as having an EPDS-V score ≥ 4 in both W1 and W2. Hypothesis models were tested by Structural Equation Modeling analyses. RESULTS: A total of 378 women provided complete data at both W1 and W2. The incidence risk of IDA in the third trimester was 13.2% (95% confidence interval (CI: 9.8-16.7. Persistent CMD was found in 16.9% (95% CI: 13.1-20.7 pregnant women and predicted by intimate partner violence, fear of other family members, experience of childhood abuse, coincidental life adversity, and having a preference for the sex of the baby. There was a significant pathway from persistent CMD to IDA in late pregnancy via the length of time that iron supplements had been taken. Receiving advice to take iron supplements and higher household wealth index were indirectly related to lower risk of late pregnancy IDA. Early pregnancy IDA and being multi-parous also contributed to late pregnancy IDA. CONCLUSIONS: Antenatal IDA and CMD are prevalent public health problems among women in Viet Nam. The link between them suggests that while direct recommendations to use iron supplements are important, the social factors associated with common mental disorders should be addressed in antenatal care in order to improve the health of pregnant women and their infants.
Only fairly recently, during the 1920s, under the French colonial administration, did planned-colonization programs contribute, with very limited success however, to the expansion of Kinh settlement toward the Central Highlands (also known as the Central Plateaus). These programs were associated with attempts to ...
Tran, Phong; Marincioni, Fausto; Shaw, Rajib
Recent catastrophic floods in Viet Nam have been increasingly linked to land use and forest cover change in the uplands. Despite the doubts that many scientists have expressed on such nexus, this common view prompted both positive forest protection/reforestation programs and often-unwarranted blame on upland communities for their forest management practices. This study discusses the disparity between public perceptions and scientific evidences relating the causes of catastrophic floods. The former was drawn on the results of a questionnaire and focus groups discussions with key informants of different mountainous communities, whereas the latter was based on GIS and remote sensing analysis of land cover change, including a statistical analysis of hydro-meteorological data of the Huong river basin in Viet Nam. Results indicate that there is a gap between the common beliefs and the actual relationship between the forest cover change and catastrophic floods. Undeniably, the studied areas showed significant changes in land cover over the period 1989-2008, yet, 71% of the variance of catastrophic flood level in the downstream areas appeared related to variance in rainfall. Evidences from this study showed that the overall increasing trends of catastrophic flooding in the Huong river basin was mainly due to climate variability and to the development of main roads and dyke infrastructures in the lowlands. Forest management policies and programs, shaped on the common assumption that forest degradation in the upland is the main cause of catastrophic flood in the downstream areas, should be reassessed to avoid unnecessary strain on upland people. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Huong, Le Thi; Vu, Nga Thi Thu; Dung, Nguyen Ngoc; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Minh, Hoang Van; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh
The aim of this paper is to report the rate of current and ever cigarette smoking and explore correlates of current cigarette smoking among adolescents aged 13-15 in Viet Nam. This analysis was derived from GYTS survey, which comprised of 3,430 adolescents aged 13-15, conducted in 2014 in 13 cities and provinces of Viet Nam. We calculated the weighted rates of current and ever cigarette smoking and reported patterns of smoking behavior. We also performed logistic regression to explore correlates of current cigarette smoking behavior. The weighted rate of ever cigarette smoking was 9.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.5 %-10.5%), in which the weighted rate among males (15.4%; 95% CI: 13.6%-17.0%) was higher than that among females (4.2%; 95% CI: 3.3%-5.1%). The weighted rate of current cigarette smoking was relatively low at 2.5% (95%CI: 2.0%- 3.0%) with higher weighted rate among males (4.9%; 95% CI: 3.8%-5.9%) compared to the corresponding figure among females (0.2%; 95% CI: 0.0 %-0.5%). Current cigarette smoking was significantly higher among males than females, in students aged 15 versus 13 years old, and in students who had several or all close friends smoking and students with daily observation of smoking at school. For greater smoking reduction outcomes, we recommend that tobacco interventions for adolescents should consider targeting more male students at older ages, establish stricter adherence to school-based banning of cigarette smoking, engage both smoking and nonsmoking adolescents and empower adolescents to resist peer smoking influence as well as changing their norms or beliefs towards smoking benefits.
Impacts on Breastfeeding Practices of At-Scale Strategies That Combine Intensive Interpersonal Counseling, Mass Media, and Community Mobilization: Results of Cluster-Randomized Program Evaluations in Bangladesh and Viet Nam.
Menon, Purnima; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Saha, Kuntal Kumar; Khaled, Adiba; Kennedy, Andrew; Tran, Lan Mai; Sanghvi, Tina; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Baker, Jean; Alayon, Silvia; Afsana, Kaosar; Haque, Raisul; Frongillo, Edward A; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul
Despite recommendations supporting optimal breastfeeding, the number of women practicing exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) remains low, and few interventions have demonstrated implementation and impact at scale. Alive & Thrive was implemented over a period of 6 y (2009-2014) and aimed to improve breastfeeding practices through intensified interpersonal counseling (IPC), mass media (MM), and community mobilization (CM) intervention components delivered at scale in the context of policy advocacy (PA) in Bangladesh and Viet Nam. In Bangladesh, IPC was delivered through a large non-governmental health program; in Viet Nam, it was integrated into government health facilities. This study evaluated the population-level impact of intensified IPC, MM, CM, and PA (intensive) compared to standard nutrition counseling and less intensive MM, CM, and PA (non-intensive) on breastfeeding practices in these two countries. A cluster-randomized evaluation design was employed in each country. For the evaluation sample, 20 sub-districts in Bangladesh and 40 communes in Viet Nam were randomized to either the intensive or the non-intensive group. Cross-sectional surveys (n ~ 500 children 0-5.9 mo old per group per country) were implemented at baseline (June 7-August 29, 2010, in Viet Nam; April 28-June 26, 2010, in Bangladesh) and endline (June 16-August 30, 2014, in Viet Nam; April 20-June 23, 2014, in Bangladesh). Difference-in-differences estimates (DDEs) of impact were calculated, adjusting for clustering. In Bangladesh, improvements were significantly greater in the intensive compared to the non-intensive group for the proportion of women who reported practicing EBF in the previous 24 h (DDE 36.2 percentage points [pp], 95% CI 21.0-51.5, p < 0.001; prevalence in intensive group rose from 48.5% to 87.6%) and engaging in early initiation of breastfeeding (EIBF) (16.7 pp, 95% CI 2.8-30.6, p = 0.021; 63.7% to 94.2%). In Viet Nam, EBF increases were greater in the intensive group (27.9 pp
Application of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to assess factors that may influence implementation of tobacco use treatment guidelines in the Viet Nam public health care delivery system
VanDevanter, Nancy; Kumar, Pritika; Nguyen, Nam; Nguyen, Linh; Nguyen, Trang; Stillman, Frances; Weiner, Bryan; Shelley, Donna
Background Services to treat tobacco dependence are not readily available to smokers in low-middle income countries (LMICs) where smoking prevalence remains high. We are conducting a cluster randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of two strategies for implementing tobacco use treatment guidelines in 26 community health centers (CHCs) in Viet Nam. Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), prior to implementing the trial, we conducted formative re...
Evaluations were given on the possibility of saving energies and reducing CO2 emission by renewing the shaft kilns operated in four factories in Viet Nam into fluidized bed kilns. The feasibility study is intended to be linked to the clean development mechanism (CDM) in the future. The fluidized bed kiln is a most advanced technology developed to deal with social, economic and technological demands such as global environment preservation, energy conservation, effective utilization of resources, enhancement of economic performance, and diversification of cement needs. The technology is capable of largely reducing greenhouse effect gases, eliminating the problem of dust scattering from sintering facilities, producing stabilized and high-quality clinker, making possible of using inexpensive fuels including low-order coal, using less installation space, and reducing the production cost. The amount of energy reduction in all of the four factories is calculated 8,101 to 9,551 toe/year at an energy saving effect rate of 37 to 44%. CO2 emission is reduced as a result of reduction in fuel for sintering furnaces and in electric power consumption. The reduction amount would be 24,393 to 38,794 tons/year (converted into CO2), and the reduction effect rate would be 36 to 44%. The investment effect looks sufficient as payout of 10 to 12 years if the environment special Yen loan is used. Trial calculation was also performed for the nation-wide proliferation effect. (NEDO)
Hoa, Nguyen B; Khanh, Pham H; Chinh, Nguyen V; Hennig, Cornelia M
To describe and analyse the prescription patterns and treatment outcomes of MDR-TB patients managed within Green Light Committee (GLC) and outside (non-GLC) the National TB programme in Viet Nam. Retrospective cohort study with two elements: (i) in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with clinical doctors, hospital pharmacists, and the non-GLC patients with MDR-TB; (ii) review of treatment cards and patients' charts of all GLC and non-GLC patients with MDR-TB put on treatment during 2010. Of 282 patients with MDR-TB, comprising 79 (28%) GLC patients MDR-TB and 203 (72%) non-GLC patients with MDR-TB, were enrolled in the study. Treatment delay was significantly higher in the GLC group (12.8 days) than the non-GLC group (2.3 days), (P = 0.004). The success rate was significantly better in GLC patients (84.8%) than in non-GLC patients (53.7%) (P MDR-TB in the GLC group were significantly better than in the non-GLC group. Reasons for the high default rate in non-GLC patients with MDR-TB must be further investigated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Les économies à faible revenu dépendent énormément de l'agriculture, et la croissance dans ce secteur est responsable d'une plus grande réduction de la pauvreté que dans tout autre secteur. Région: Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Viet Nam, Thailand, Canada. Programme: Employment and Growth. Financement total : CA$ ...
Tran Ngoc Dang
Full Text Available Background: The relationship between temperature and mortality has been found to be U-, V-, or J-shaped in developed temperate countries; however, in developing tropical/subtropical cities, it remains unclear. Objectives: Our goal was to investigate the relationship between temperature and mortality in Hue, a subtropical city in Viet Nam. Design: We collected daily mortality data from the Vietnamese A6 mortality reporting system for 6,214 deceased persons between 2009 and 2013. A distributed lag non-linear model was used to examine the temperature effects on all-cause and cause-specific mortality by assuming negative binomial distribution for count data. We developed an objective-oriented model selection with four steps following the Akaike information criterion (AIC rule (i.e. a smaller AIC value indicates a better model. Results: High temperature-related mortality was more strongly associated with short lags, whereas low temperature-related mortality was more strongly associated with long lags. The low temperatures increased risk in all-category mortality compared to high temperatures. We observed elevated temperature-mortality risk in vulnerable groups: elderly people (high temperature effect, relative risk [RR]=1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.11–1.83; low temperature effect, RR=2.0, 95% CI=1.13–3.52, females (low temperature effect, RR=2.19, 95% CI=1.14–4.21, people with respiratory disease (high temperature effect, RR=2.45, 95% CI=0.91–6.63, and those with cardiovascular disease (high temperature effect, RR=1.6, 95% CI=1.15–2.22; low temperature effect, RR=1.99, 95% CI=0.92–4.28. Conclusions: In Hue, the temperature significantly increased the risk of mortality, especially in vulnerable groups (i.e. elderly, female, people with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. These findings may provide a foundation for developing adequate policies to address the effects of temperature on health in Hue City.
Thach Tran D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron deficiency, anemia and hookworm disease are important public health problems for women of reproductive age living in developing countries and affect the health of newborns and infants. Iron supplementation and deworming treatment are effective in addressing these problems in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. Daily iron supplementation and deworming after the first trimester is recommended for pregnant women although these programs usually do not operate efficiently or effectively. Weekly iron-folic acid supplementation and regular deworming for non-pregnant women may be a viable approach for improving iron status and preventing anemia during the reproductive years. Addressing these diseases at a population level before women become pregnant could significantly improve women's health before and during pregnancy, as well as their infants' growth and development. Methods and Results This paper describes the major processes undertaken in a demonstration intervention of preventive weekly iron-folic acid supplementation with regular deworming for all 52,000 women aged 15–45 years in two districts of Yen Bai province, in northern Viet Nam. The intervention strategy included extensive consultation with community leaders and village, commune, district and provincial health staff, and training for village health workers. Distribution of the drugs was integrated with the existing health service infrastructure and the village health workers were the direct point of contact with women. Iron-folic acid tablets and deworming treatment were provided free of charge from May 2006. An independent Vietnamese NGO was commissioned to evaluate compliance and identify potential problems. The program resulted in effective distribution of iron-folic acid tablets and deworming treatment to all villages in the target districts, with full or partial compliance of 85%. Conclusion Training for health staff, the strong commitment of all partners
Governance and Management of Common Pool Resources in Viet Nam. This grant will allow Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry to examine issues related to common pool resource management and poverty in the context of decentralization in central Viet Nam. The project will take place on two sites. Tam Giang ...
Governance and Management of Common Pool Resources in Viet Nam. This grant will allow Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry to examine issues related to common pool resource management and poverty in the context of decentralization in central Viet Nam. ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques.
Zwebe, D. [SNV Netherlands Development Organisation, Ha Noi (Viet Nam)
The goal of this survey is to provide a more specific and integral perspective in which niches, relevant policy development by the Vietnamese government, legislation and sustainability criteria are clearly addressed to benefit both the Dutch Private sector as well as to stimulate Dutch-Vietnamese cooperation and support the Vietnamese government in its search for tangible options to develop the desired enabling environment for a sustainable biomass/biofuel market. The following activities are defined to be executed to reach the goal of the project: Biomass availability in Vietnam (Chapter 2); Government of Vietnam and Energy (Chapter 3); The opportunities and barriers to enter the market in Vietnam (Chapter 4 and 5); Stakeholder analysis of the bio-energy sector (Chapter 6); and Recommendations (Chapter 7)
Roodman, D M
This article investigates the fighting solution strategies in Vietnam where complaints against factories violating national pollution standards are common. Based on history, the people in Vietnam have been suffering from pollution of all sorts including air, land, water and noise. Precisely, their interaction with one another has been affected by how they interact with the natural environment and community. This worsening situation in the country gave rise to public criticisms, a foot in a door that opens different forms of people participation in the decision-making of the government. Although factories were not so much affected with public criticisms, yet public pressure played a significant role in increasing the compliance of many companies. The strategy adopted in Vietnam may be a powerful force for protecting the Vietnamese against pollution.
Despite its rapid growth, tourism has shown only modest success in addressing the issues of poverty and hunger in Asia and the Pacific. Community-based tourism (CBT) is a type of social entreprise that fosters cross-sectoral partnerships between government, business and the community. This chapte...... discusses development of 15 sustainable CBT projects in Vietnam, thus contributing to improvement in the lives of many communities living in poverty-stricken areas...
Firms entered from the electrical goods sector, clothing and other industries. Other companies started from scratch. Some individuals left their jobs in TNC subsidiaries and began their own companies, often supplying their former employers. Gradually the latecomers learned by upgrading their production processes and by ...
By 1992, during the UN-mandated interim administra- tion, small IDRC financings were supporting consultancies for policy support and advice. IDRC co-sponsored a 1993 international conference in Cambodia ... providing strategic intelligence for IDRC decision- making and on-the-ground leadership for young projects.
Minh, Hoang Van; Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Hoang, Trinh Dinh; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh
Scientific evidence on all aspects of smoking amongst youth is very important for designing appropriate interventions to reduce smoking among this vulnerable population. This paper describes current access to antismoking information among school children aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam in 2014 and examines its potential impact on preventing smoking initiation. The data used in this paper were obtained from the 2014 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Vietnam. Students were asked questions about their level of awareness of anti-smoking information from various sources in the past 30 days and about lessons in school regarding the dangers of tobacco use during the last 12 months. Those who have never smoked were asked "whether or not they thought about avoiding cigarettes because of health warnings on cigarette packages" and answers were analyzed in combination with data on access to anti-smoking information from other sources. The prevalence of exposure to antismoking campaigns was high among school children in Viet Nam: 55.3% of current smokers reported thoughts of smoking cessation because of health warnings on cigarette packages; 60.5% of never smokers avoided initiating smoking because of the same health warnings. The potential impact of graphic health warnings to prevent school-aged children from smoking initiation would be stronger if there was concurrent access to anti-smoking programs on the dangers of tobacco use in schools. However, school education for tobacco prevention and control has not been as strong as expected. A more comprehensive school curriculum on tobacco prevention and control is recommended to reinforce antismoking messages among school children.
Thi Ty Hang Vu
Full Text Available A better description of the extent and structure of genetic diversity in dengue virus (DENV in endemic settings is central to its eventual control. To this end we determined the complete coding region sequence of 187 DENV-2 genomes and 68 E genes from viruses sampled from Vietnamese patients between 1995 and 2009. Strikingly, an episode of genotype replacement was observed, with Asian 1 lineage viruses entirely displacing the previously dominant Asian/American lineage viruses. This genotype replacement event also seems to have occurred within DENV-2 in Thailand and Cambodia, suggestive of a major difference in viral fitness. To determine the cause of this major evolutionary event we compared both the infectivity of the Asian 1 and Asian/American genotypes in mosquitoes and their viraemia levels in humans. Although there was little difference in infectivity in mosquitoes, we observed significantly higher plasma viraemia levels in paediatric patients infected with Asian 1 lineage viruses relative to Asian/American viruses, a phenotype that is predicted to result in a higher probability of human-to-mosquito transmission. These results provide a mechanistic basis to a marked change in the genetic structure of DENV-2 and more broadly underscore that an understanding of DENV evolutionary dynamics can inform the development of vaccines and anti-viral drugs.
Application of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to assess factors that may influence implementation of tobacco use treatment guidelines in the Viet Nam public health care delivery system.
VanDevanter, Nancy; Kumar, Pritika; Nguyen, Nam; Nguyen, Linh; Nguyen, Trang; Stillman, Frances; Weiner, Bryan; Shelley, Donna
Services to treat tobacco dependence are not readily available to smokers in low-middle income countries (LMICs) where smoking prevalence remains high. We are conducting a cluster randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of two strategies for implementing tobacco use treatment guidelines in 26 community health centers (CHCs) in Viet Nam. Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), prior to implementing the trial, we conducted formative research to (1) identify factors that may influence guideline implementation and (2) inform further modifications to the intervention that may be necessary to translate a model of care delivery from a high-income country (HIC) to the local context of a LMIC. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with CHC medical directors, health care providers, and village health workers (VHWs) in eight CHCs (n = 40). Interviews were transcribed verbatim and translated into English. Two qualitative researchers used both deductive (CFIR theory driven) and inductive (open coding) approaches to analysis developed codes and themes relevant to the aims of this study. The interviews explored four out of five CFIR domains (i.e., intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, and individual characteristics) that were relevant to the analysis. Potential facilitators of the intervention included the relative advantage of the intervention compared with current practice (intervention characteristics), awareness of the burden of tobacco use in the population (outer setting), tension for change due to a lack of training and need for skill building and leadership engagement (inner setting), and a strong sense of collective efficacy to provide tobacco cessation services (individual characteristics). Potential barriers included the perception that the intervention was more complex (intervention characteristic) and not necessarily compatible (inner setting) with current workflows and staffing
... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS Licenses... goods the origin of which is North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam are generally not... North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam prior to the applicable effective date and of...
... are issued unblocking partnerships established under the laws of North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia..., have emigrated from North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam and have established residence in the United States or in a country in the authorized trade territory, specific licenses are...
... Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL... postage and other stamps issued by North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam are...
, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Viet Nam, South Asia, Far East Asia, United States, Canada ... Education is a pillar of development. ... Region: Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Brunei, Singapore.
Total Funding: CA$ 351,500.00. Foreign Direct Investment Behaviour in Low and Middle Income Countries. Project. This project will examine the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on economic efficiency, poverty and inequality in low- and middle-income countries. Start Date: March 10, 2006. End Date: January 10, ...
Canada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus Research Program. A new funding opportunity on Zika virus is responding to the virus outbreak and the health threat it represents for the affected populations in the hardest hit countries in Latin America and the... View moreCanada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus ...
Hoa, N B; Lauritsen, J M; Rieder, H L
information on treatment regimen and the patient's weight. Treatment was successful in 89.4%. Prescriptions of tablets/vials conforming to recommendations were found for respectively 91.2%, 89.9%, 92.3% and 94.6% of the patients for RMP/isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol and streptomycin. Patients in the 25...
En 1986, le Vietnam a commencé à libéraliser de façon générale tous les secteurs de son économie auparavant rigide, centralisée et fermée. Appelée ... les étudiants et les chercheurs en études asiatiques, en sciences économiques et en développement rural, ainsi que les entreprises qui envisagent d'investir au Vietnam.
Jul 15, 2011 ... Moreover, the deforestation has led to devastating floods, both in the Aluoi District and in downstream areas. To address these problems, researchers at the Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry are using participatory research methods to help local residents identify priorities and develop innovative ...
"This presentation is adapted from a Harvard KSG workshop held earlier this year on the Political Economy of "Binding Constraints to Growth" Cambodia Pilot for which I served as an External Panelist/Resource Person."
Topic: BIRDS, ZOONOSES. Region: China, Far East Asia, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, Central Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, Canada. Program: Food, Environment, and Health. Total Funding: CA$ 769,150.00. Globalization, Adjustment and the Challenge of Inclusive Growth (Indonesia, Philippines and Viet Nam). Project.
Topic: FOREIGN INVESTMENT, ASIA, INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. Region: Cambodia, China, Laos, Viet Nam, Thailand. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 584,700.00. The Care Economy, Women's Economic Empowerment, and China's Inclusive Growth Agenda.
Job Prospects in the Mekong. This project will address the effects of fast-paced economic growth in the Greater Mekong region on jobs for youth. Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Brunei, Singapore. PROJECT ...
Urban Climate Resilience in Southeast Asia Partnership. Planning for climate change is a daunting challenge for governments in the Mekong Region of Southeast Asia. Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam ...
Sujet: AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING, AGRICULTURAL INNOVATIONS, BIOTECHNOLOGY, ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS, SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS. Région: Cambodia, Far East Asia, Laos, Philippines, Central Asia, South Asia, Viet Nam. Programme: Économies en réseaux. Financement ...
A rising number of firms from developing countries have adopted voluntary private standards in the last decade. This has become an area of active research, especially in terms of the impact of private standards on trade, organizational performance, and employee outcomes. This paper analyses how...... with low labour intensity are not likely to experience gains in labour productivity from standards. This implies that employee compensation increase due to standards is a likely mechanism for labour productivity gains. The results are robust to several specification changes and instrumental variable...
Dec 15, 2010 ... However, the officials were still reluctant to consider a different approach in the poorer, more remote community of Quang Thai. Here the researchers introduced intensive ... The major task of the user group, however, was to formulate a plan for allocating the lagoon's surface area. The planning process was ...
Asie et du Sud-Est,auraient pu, en principe, partir de la Chine pour se rendre à Singapouren se balançant d'arbre en arbre. Au cours des cinquante dernièresannées, les forêts de cette partie du monde sont en grandepartie disparues ; ce ...
The study is concerned with the influence of western educational approaches upon non-western societies and cultural groups. In applying western educational approaches, often a detailed consideration of its consequences to the culture and heritage of a non-western civilization is neglected. This is
Hoa, N. B.; Cobelens, F. G. J.; Sy, D. N.; Nhung, N. V.; Borgdorff, M. W.; Tiemersma, E. W.
To estimate the prevalence of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the annual risk of tuberculous infection (ARTI) and to compare this with the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) over study clusters and households. A nationwide, stratified cluster sample survey was carried out in 2006-2007 in
This study analyzes the impacts of tax policy on market risk for the listed firms in the wholesale and retail ... some European countries during the crisis raising tax rates and tax burdens, the trend in which overall revenue ..... Financial Performance: Empirical Evidence of Listed Sugar Companies of Pakistan, Global Journal of ...
Thanh, Thuy Nguyen Thi; Song, JinHo [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Kwang Soon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
There are many factors affecting the capital costs like: increased plant size, multiple unit construction, improved construct methods, increase the lifetime of plant and so on, and beside is technical to enhancing the safety for NPPs. For the question that whether building a NPP is really economic than other energy resources or not, we will find the answer by comparing the USD per kWh of different energy sources as: nuclear power, coal, oil, hydro natural energy sources. The situation of energy in Vietnam was also mentioned in this paper. Vietnam has an abundant natural resources likes: coal, gas, hydro power etc, but from year 2013 to now Vietnam facing of electricity shortage and to solve the problem, Vietnam Government has chosen nuclear power energy to achieve energy balance between the rate of energy consumption and the ability to energy supply. Eight units will be built in Vietnam and in October 2014 Vietnamese officials have chosen Rosatom's AES-2006 design with VVER-1200/v-491 reactors for country's first nuclear power plant at Ninh Thuan and a second plant should follow based on a partnership with Japan. In this paper, the breakdown of NPP costs is considered. All the costs for building a NPP includes: the investment costs are the largest components (about 60%), fuel costs (15%), O and M costs (25%) and external costs are lower than 1% of the kWh costs. The situation for energy in Vietnam was mentioned with increase annually by 5.5 %, and now the shortage electricity is the big problem in power section. The purpose of this report is to give a general picture to consider the cost of nuclear power. It includes all the costs for building a nuclear power plant like total capital investment costs, production costs, external costs in which the capital investment costs is the largest component of the kWh cost. Nuclear energy Power was chosen to deal with situation of diminishing resources shortages.
Kaljee, L. M.; Genberg, B. L.; Minh, T. T.; Tho, L. H.; Thoa, L. T. K.; Stanton, B.
Research suggests that youth are consuming more alcohol and at younger ages than in the past. Data also indicate that alcohol consumption is associated with participation in other risk behaviors including aggression and sexual behaviors. As part of a randomized control effectiveness trial for an HIV prevention program, 480 Vietnamese youth (15-20…
Jan Annerstedt (Sweden) is Director of the Nordic Centre for Innovation in Lund, Sweden. Kun Mo Chung (South Korea) is a professor at the Energy Systems Research Centre of the University of Ajou, South Korea. David Hopper (USA) is former Senior Vice President at the World Bank and currently an independent adviser ...
humiditédes sols et de la capacité d'emmagasinement saisonnier de la nappephréatique, les changements microclimatiques et la perte de nutrimentssont autant de facteurs qui entraînent une diminution de la productivitésur les terres marginales et ...
Thu Hoai, Dang Thi; Tarp, Finn; van Seventer, Dirk
We study structural transformation and change in the Vietnamese economy using two Social Accounting Matrices (SAMs), one for the year 2000 and a recently compiled SAM for the year 2012. This period is of particular interest as it features an important shift in terms of more economic integration...... with the global economy. Several analytical approaches are taken, including comparisons and decomposition of multipliers and a decomposition of structural change. We observe significant changes in economic structure, and the results suggest that the Vietnamese economy has become internally more integrated over...... the period 2000–12, while moving from primary production (agriculture) towards more value adding manufacturing activities. This transformation has been broad-based and in large measure driven by external demand. We conclude that it will be challenging to sustain growth without bold moves in technological...
Can, Nguyen Ba; Long, Vu Van; Tam, Phan Thanh; Sinh, Nguyen Thi
Vietnam started market reforms earlier than other countries in Southeast Asia and is used as a role model by the Asian Development Bank. Nevertheless, complicated bureaucracy and regional differences hinder improvements in financial management in education. The budgeting process, in particular, is cumbersome. This book presents a report of a…
Sparre, Per Johan
(artisanal) vessels and a few large (industrial) vessels. The methodology is the "sample-based approach" - the manual does not deal with a methodology that assumes complete enumeration. The data collection methodology presented attempts to utilize whatever information can be obtained in practice...
Post-war Cambodia faced many chal- lenges — among them, isolation. In 1998 an IDRC grant led to the establishment of Cambodia's first Internet service provider. IDRC has since funded. Cambodian research to develop pro- grams and Web content in Khmer, thus enabling Cambodians to use computers, access the ...
This report synthesizes the technical assistance (TA) “Cambodia Sanitation Marketing” carried out by the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) from July 2011 to February 2015 in support of developing the rural sanitation market in Cambodia. It documents the results and lessons learned and makes recommendations to government on how - with support of development partners – the effe...
Paik, Nam June
Korea-ameerika kunstnikust Nam June Paikist (sünd. 1932), telefoniintervjuu kunstnikuga tema talvekodus Floridas 20.01.2001. Nam June Paiki töödest "Participation TV" (1963), "Video Synthesizer" (1969/70),sateliidiperformance'itest "Good Morning, Mr. Orwell!" (1980), "Bye Bye, Kipling" (1987) ja "Wrap around the World" (1988), näitusest "Electronic Superhighway" (1994) jm. Nam June Paik ka Internetist, Interneti-kunstist, töötamisest laseriga
Asian Development Bank (ADB)
This publication presents a profile of gender equity in Cambodia. Recognizing significant achievements in reducing gender gaps, it also notes significant challenges in a country where traditional norms and low levels of education and literacy still limit girls’ and women’s options. Cambodia ranks 91st out of 109 countries, according to the Gender Empowerment Measure. The publication offers an institutional assessment of the laws, policies, and the national machinery for gender equity and wome...
In August 2004, three undergraduate nursing students from the University of Toronto's faculty of nursing travelled to Cambodia to volunteer as student nurses. Being immersed in another culture helped to develop the students' cultural competence, enhance their understanding of primary health care and strengthen clinical skills. Given the growing cultural diversity in Canada, developing s kills in these areas is particularly important. In this article, the author reflects on her experiences in Cambodia and explores the unique value that international placements offer.
Between 1991 and 1993 in Cambodia, the number of blood donors who tested seropositive for HIV multiplied by 10. During March-December 1993, 30 of 4000 (0.75%) blood donors were HIV positive. These same 30 were among 91 HIV-positive cases reported to the World Health Organization [WHO] office in Phnom Penh in the last 9 months of 1992. As Cambodia attempts to recover from many years of political and social upheaval, the recent repatriation of 370,000 Khmer refugees from Thailand intensifies the increasing AIDS threat. Thailand already has a relatively high HIV prevalence. The number of tourists and visiting business professionals is increasing, and 22,000 people from the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia have been assigned to positions countrywide. In 1991, WHO officials designed a 1-year short-term AIDS prevention program aimed at people practicing high-risk behavior and the health, education, and media sectors. It targeted mainly Phnom Penh residents, WHO and the UN Development Programme (UNDP) are helping the National AIDS Committee in designing a more comprehensive national plan. UNDP plans to give US$ 1 million to AIDS prevention efforts in Cambodia. 20-30% of people in Cambodia are not familiar with condoms. Government AIDS prevention efforts are intended for the general public, but they also are going to target high-risk areas, especially the provinces bordering Thailand and the pot of Kompong Som. The government is working on ways to work with the many health-centered nongovernmental organizations in Cambodia. Even though it is inundated with many other problems, the government recognizes the need to combat AIDS.
Feiring, Nancy Click
The author of this article chose Cambodia's Angkor temples as a jumping-off point for her students' exploration of printmaking. This article describes a lesson in which students used subjects, themes, and symbols that demonstrate knowledge of contexts, values, and aesthetics that communicate intended meaning in artworks.
Full Text Available Pig production in State farms at Ho-Chi-Minh Ville. Vietnam. An inquiry carried out in Guinea has revealed that the disappearance of trypanotolerance within some local N'Dama cattle can not be attributed to the vaccination campaign initiated against infectious bovine pleuropneumonia but to diverse environmental and animal management factors prevalant in these areas.
Renaud, F.; Sebesvari, Z.; Nguyen, M. T.; Hagenlocher, M.
The Vietnamese portion of the Mekong Delta increasingly suffers from salinity intrusion in its freshwater system, as exemplified by the historically high salinity levels recorded during the 2016 dry season. Although this exceptional situation was linked to the El Niño phenomena, many factors contribute to an increasing salinization of coastal areas. Salinity intrusion is a natural process in this tidal area but its extent is increasing and projected to worsen due to increased demand for water, diversion/storage of water flows in the Mekong river and its tributaries, land subsidence linked to groundwater over-abstraction, changes in land use and water management in coastal areas, and sea level rise. The Mekong Delta remains predominantly an agricultural landscape which contributes the majority of the rice, aquaculture, and fruit production of the country. These systems will need to be adapted to increased salinity levels. We will present results from two research projects, DeltAdapt and DELTAS, which were designed to allow understanding of, respectively (1) the main drivers of change of agro-ecosystems in coastal areas of the delta and (2) the relative vulnerabilities and risks deltaic social-ecological systems face with respect to various environmental hazards. We used the Global Delta Vulnerability Index developed within the DELTAS project to characterize the vulnerabilities and risks faced by coastal provinces of the delta with respect to salinity intrusion. The analysis allows us to understand which social, economic, and ecological variables index explain the relative vulnerability of the provinces. In addition, drivers of change (e.g. policy, economic, social, environmental) of coastal agro-ecosystems were systematically analyzed through 80 interviews and 7 focus group discussions in the provinces of Kien Giang and Soc Trang within the DeltAdapt project. This was combined with the analysis of Vietnamese policies to determine which are the important drivers of change in the region and how these contribute (or not) to the adaptation of agro-ecosystems facing increased salinity intrusion. By combining these results, we will point to potential policies that could be considered by various authorities to allow for a greater adaptability of agro-ecosystems in the coastal provinces of the region.
Dang, Thi Minh Ha; Nguyen, Thi Ngoc Lan; Wolbers, Marcel; Vo, Sy Kiet; Hoang, Thi Thanh Hang; Nguyen, Hong Duc; To, My Huong; Vuong, Minh Bach; Nguyen, Thi Phuong Thao; Tran, Van Quyet; Nguyen, Thi Bich Tuyen; Vo, Thi Ha; Nguyen, Thi Nho; Dai, Viet Hoa; Phan, Thi Hoang Anh; Nguyen, Huy Dung; Farrar, Jeremy; Caws, Maxine
Early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) is important for the elimination of TB. We evaluated the microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS) assay as a direct rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST) method for MDR-TB screening in sputum samples All adult TB suspects, who were newly presenting to Pham Ngoc Thach Hospital from August to November 2008 were enrolled into the study. Processed sputum samples were used for DST by MODS (DST-MODS) (Rifampicin (RIF) 1 μg/ml and Isoniazid (INH) 0.4 μg/ml), MGIT culture (Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube) and Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) culture. Cultures positive by either MGIT or LJ were used for proportional DST (DST-LJ) (RIF 40 μg/ml and INH 0.2 μg/ml). DST profiles on MODS and LJ were compared. Discrepant results were resolved by multiplex allele specific PCR (MAS-PCR). Seven hundred and nine TB suspects/samples were enrolled into the study, of which 300 samples with DST profiles available from both MODS and DST-LJ were analyzed. Cording in MODS was unable to correctly identify 3 Mycobacteria Other Than Tuberculosis (MOTT) isolates, resulting in 3 false positive TB diagnoses. None of these isolates were identified as MDR-TB by MODS. The sensitivity and specificity of MODS were 72.6% (95%CI: 59.8, 83.1) and 97.9% (95%CI: 95.2, 99.3), respectively for detection of INH resistant isolates, 72.7% (95%CI: 30.9, 93.7) and 99.7% (95%CI: 98.1, 99.9), respectively for detecting RIF resistant isolates and 77.8% (95%CI: 39.9, 97.1) and 99.7% (95%CI: 98.1, 99.9), respectively for detecting MDR isolates. The positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) of DST-MODS were 87.5% (95%CI: 47.3, 99.6) and 99.3% (95%CI: 97.5, 99.9) for detection of MDR isolates; and the agreement between MODS and DST-LJ was 99.0% (kappa: 0.8, P drug resistance detection was probably due to low bacterial load samples and the high INH concentration (0.4 μg/ml). The low PPV of DST-MODS may be due to the low MDR-TB rate in the study population (3.8%). The turnaround time of DST-MODS was 9 days and 53 days for DST-LJ. The DST-MODS technique is rapid with low contamination rates. However, the sensitivity of DST-MODS for detection of INH and RIF resistance in this study was lower than reported from other settings.
Schultz, M.; Verbesselt, J.; Herold, M.; Avitabile, V.
Researchers who use remotely sensed data can spend half of their total effort analysing prior data. If this data preprocessing does not match the application, this time spent on data analysis can increase considerably and can lead to inaccuracies. Despite the existence of a number of methods for
Kaljee, Linda M.; Green, Mackenzie S.; Zhan, Min; Riel, Rosemary; Lerdboon, Porntip; Lostutter, Ty W.; Tho, Le Huu; Luong, Vo Van; Minh, Truong Tan
A randomly selected cross-sectional survey was conducted with 880 youth (16 to 24 years) in Nha Trang City to assess relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual behaviors. A timeline followback method was employed. Chi-square, generalized logit modeling and logistic regression analyses were performed. Of the sample, 78.2% male and 56.1%…
women; one husband was studying dental surgery in Paris and has been living there for over a year. This brief description of sonte back- ground...years explained that she started her business of buying and selling houses for friends to support the family while her husband went through dental ...relative a man or a woman? Man. .......... 1 Woman ........ 2 25e. Did you ever ask for advice on family matters from a friend? Yeso .......... 1 No
Hong, S.T.; Vrijling, J.K.; Stive, M.J.F.
In the Mekong Delta Vietnam, the construction of sluices with the purpose of retaining fresh water and preventing salt water intrusion potentially plays a very important role. However, the structures constructed in small rivers according to local or traditional technology revealed many disadvantages
Huong, T.T.L.; Vermaat, J.E.; Terrados, J.T.; Tien, N.V.; Duarte, C.M.; Borum, J.; Tri, N.H.
Seasonality and depth zonation of two common intertidal northern Vietnamese seagrass species, Halophila ovalis and Zostera japonica, were investigated in a 50 m long intertidal transect from 1999 till 2001. Z. japonica occurred in the middle intertidal (1.2 m above mean chart datum to mean sea level
Jones, Barrie; Norton, Andrew
This year's RAS National Astronomy Meeting was held at the Open University's Milton Keynes campus from 29 March to 2 April. The event was organized by members of the OU Physics & Astronomy Department and Planetary & Space Science Research Institute. Around 450 people attended the meeting, at which more than 220 talks were presented, along with around 90 posters. Co-chairs of RAS NAM04, Barrie Jones and Andrew Norton, summarize.
Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on Cambodia.
In this series of articles, the board members of ChemSusChem discuss recent research articles that they consider of exceptional quality and importance for sustainability. This entry features Prof. Nam-Gyu Park, who highlights the recent work on mixed-cation mixed-anion perovskite materials toward high efficiency perovskite solar cells. He summarizes the work that has brought us to the current stage of research and suggests possible future paths for further advancement. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Based on the results of a study on sexuality among young people in Cambodia, a series of interactive teaching video packages that model real-life situations are being developed by the UN International Children's Emergency Fund. It is noted that the videos can be used to facilitate group discussions on issues such as problem identification, problem solving, assessment of personal risk for HIV infection, and how to reduce HIV infection risks in situations similar to those in the videos. Each video package tells the story of problem situations and model behavior options, and provides a facilitator guide that includes suggested discussion questions. These videos include ¿Snooker Game¿, ¿At the Brothel¿, ¿The Quiet Place¿, ¿The Vulnerable Housewife¿, and ¿The Drinking Scene¿. Meanwhile, the field-tested interactive teaching videos have been indicated as extremely popular among Cambodian young people, teachers, teacher trainers, school administrators, community leaders, and nongovernmental organization community workers. However, important concerns have also been raised about the risks of focusing on real-life social norms and attitudes in Cambodia.
Ce projet traitera des effets de la croissance économique rapide dans la région du bassin du Mékong sur les emplois pour les jeunes. Région: Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam, Malaysia, Philippines, Brunei, Singapore. Programme: Employment and Growth. Financement total : CA$ 1,029,600.00.
Global value chains, which now form the largest share of the world's trade, involve producers and enterprises that produce goods as inputs for other producers. Region: Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Viet Nam, South Asia, Far East Asia, United States, ...
En Asie, les ateliers de confection constituent un secteur d'emplois dominant, néanmoins les conditions dans ces lieux de travail sont parmi les plus rudes dans la région. Région: Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar, Viet Nam. Programme: Employment and Growth. Financement total : CA$ 866,100.00. Réglementation de la ...
En Asie, les ateliers de confection constituent un secteur d'emplois dominant, néanmoins les conditions dans ces lieux de travail sont parmi les plus rudes dans la région. Région: Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar, Viet Nam. Programme: Employment and Growth. Financement total : CA$ 866,100.00. Emplois aux frontières ...
En Asie, les ateliers de confection constituent un secteur d'emplois dominant, néanmoins les conditions dans ces lieux de travail sont parmi les plus rudes dans la région. Région: Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar, Viet Nam. Programme: Employment and Growth. Financement total : CA$ 866,100.00. Réglementation de la ...
Distance Education, 2007
From 2005 to 2008, the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is funding a series of distance education (DE) studies in its Pan Asia Networking (PAN) region. Eight collaborative projects are under way in Bhutan, Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Laos, Mongolia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Viet Nam. The…
Region: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, China, Viet Nam, Thailand. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 300,000.00. Application of Total Innovation Management to Chinese Small and Medium Enterprises. Project. Innovation is widely considered a major source of modern productivity.
Asian Partnership for Avian Influenza Research : Effectiveness of Control Measures. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) caused by viruses of the H5N1 subtype is a major disease of poultry that affects humans at a low rate. China, Far East Asia, Thailand, Viet Nam, Central Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, Indonesia.
Avian Influenza Policy Analysis. The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 produces severe disease and high mortality in domestic poultry, waterfowl and other bird species. Far East Asia, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, Central Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, China, Canada. PROJECT ...
Making trade work for small producers in Southeast Asia's least developed countries. Project. Low-income economies depend greatly on agriculture, and growth in this sector delivers more poverty reduction than any other sectors. Region: Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Viet Nam. Program: Employment and Growth.
In the developing world, millions of children do not have access to basic quality education. Region: Kenya, Canada. Program: ... Region: Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Viet Nam, South Asia, Far East Asia, United States, Canada. Program: Employment and ...
... qui constituent aujourd'hui la plus importante part du commerce mondial, se composent de producteurs et d'entreprises qui créent des biens comme entrants destinés à d'autres producteurs. Région: Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Viet Nam, South Asia, ...
Global value chains, which now form the largest share of the world's trade, involve producers and enterprises that produce goods as inputs for other producers. Region: Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Viet Nam, South Asia, Far East Asia, United States, ...
Control and Elimination of Helminth Zoonoses in the Greater Mekong Subregion. This project will contribute evidence to help control and eliminate schistosomiasis and liver fluke infections in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, China, Laos, Viet Nam, Thailand. PROJECT ...
But many Southeast Asian countries, such as Cambodia, Viet Nam and Lao PDR, have yet to develop the regulations, institutional mechanisms and organizational structures necessary for ... Les entreprises peuvent comprendre les tendances commerciales et les défis futurs dans la communauté économique de l'ASEAN.
Sujet: BIRDS, ZOONOSES, PROPHYLAXIS. Région: China, Far East Asia, Thailand, Viet Nam, Central Asia, South Asia, Cambodia. Programme: Alimentation, environnement et santé. Financement total : CA$ 874,349.00. Risque de grippe aviaire : caractérisation et dynamique de l'élevage de volaille dans les arrière-cours ...
Avian Influenza in Migratory Birds : Regional Surveillance and Monitoring Network. The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 produces severe disease and high mortality in domestic poultry, waterfowl and other bird species. Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Viet Nam, ...
Avian Influenza in Migratory Birds : Regional Surveillance and Monitoring Network. The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 produces severe disease and high mortality in domestic poultry, waterfowl and other bird species. Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Viet Nam, ...
End Date: 13 août 2010. Sujet: TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE, INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT, REGIONAL INTEGRATION, TRADE FACILITATION. Région: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, China, Laos, Viet Nam, Thailand. Programme: Emploi et croissance. Financement total : CA$ 300,000.00.
Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Viet Nam, Thailand. Program: Food, Environment, and ... Since its inception, the Internet has been dominated by the English language and North American culture. Start Date: April 30, 2007. End Date: ...
Sujet: BIRDS, ZOONOSES, INFECTIOUS DISEASES. Région: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, China, Viet Nam, Thailand. Programme: Alimentation, environnement et santé. Financement total : CA$ 750,000.00. Grippe aviaire chez les oiseaux migrateurs : réseau régional de surveillance et de suivi.
Sujet: ZOONOSES, INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Immunization, VACCINATION, BIRDS, HEALTH POLICY, Disease control. Région: Far East Asia, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, Central Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, China, Canada. Programme: Alimentation, environnement et santé. Financement total : CA$ 496,200.00.
Topic: Civil society, GOVERNMENT, POLICY MAKING, URBANIZATION, Climate change. Region: Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam, Canada. Program: Foundations for Innovation. Total Funding: CA$ 1,259,100.00. Hungry Cities Initiative: Informality, Inclusive Growth, and Food Security in Cities of the Global South.
The Greater Mekong countries of Cambodia, Laos and Viet Nam are among the lowest income countries in Asia. Although recent market-oriented reforms have greatly accelerated economic development in all three countries, they face numerous challenges to achieving inclusive growth. Such challenges include the need ...
A recent study on climate change vulnerability carried out by the Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia (EEPSEA) showed that all regions in the Philippines and Cambodia, and many parts of Viet Nam, are vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Although these countries have made considerable ...
Empowering women through humane workplaces: Garment factories in Southeast Asia. Project. In Asia, garment factories play a dominant role in the employment opportunities for women, yet these factories have some of the harshest working conditions in the region. Region: Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar, Viet Nam, ...
Empowering women through humane workplaces: Garment factories in Southeast Asia. In Asia, garment factories play a dominant role in the employment opportunities for women, yet these factories have some of the harshest working conditions in the region. Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar, Viet Nam, United States.
Results 131 - 140 of 1740 ... Empowering women through humane workplaces: Garment factories in Southeast Asia. Region(s): Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar, Viet Nam. In Asia, garment factories play a dominant role in the employment opportunities for women, yet these factories have some of the harshest working ...
Topic: ZOONOSES, INFECTIOUS DISEASES. Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Viet Nam, Thailand. Program: Food, Environment, and Health. Total Funding: CA$ 5,093,453.00. Integrated Program on Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa (IPMA) ...
Mekong Economic Research Network (MERN). The Greater Mekong countries of Cambodia, Laos and Viet Nam are among the lowest income countries in Asia. Although recent market-oriented reforms have greatly accelerated economic development in all three countries, they face numerous challenges to achieving ...
Region: Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Brunei, Singapore. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 1,029,600.00. Urban Climate Resilience in Southeast Asia Partnership. Project. Planning for climate change is a daunting challenge for governments ...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM) is one of the major regional weather forecast models run by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction...
Hoa Nguyen B
Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources for national programs moving towards electronic recording and reporting. Methods Data from a representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from Cambodia and Viet Nam were double-entered and discordances resolved by rechecking the original case register. Computer-generated data entry time recorded the time elapsed between opening of a new record and saving it to disk. Results The dataset comprised 22,732 double-entered records of 11,366 patients (37.1% from Cambodia and 62.9% from Viet Nam. The mean data entry times per record were 97.5 (95% CI: 96.2-98.8 and 66.2 (95% CI: 59.5-73.0 seconds with medians of 90 and 31 s respectively in Cambodia and in Viet Nam. The percentage of records with an error was 6.0% and 39.0% respectively in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Data entry time was inversely associated with error frequency. We estimate that approximately 118-person-hours were required to produce 1,000 validated records. Conclusions This study quantifies differences between two countries for data entry time for the tuberculosis case register and frequencies of data entry errors and suggests that higher data entry speed is partially offset by requiring revisiting more records for corrections.
Loo, Keat Wei; Gan, Siew Hua
In Cambodia, stroke is not ranked among the top 10 leading causes of death, but infectious disease are among the top three leading causes of death. This finding could be attributed to a lack of awareness among Cambodians of the signs and symptoms of stroke or to poor reporting, incomplete data, lack of neurologists and neurosurgeons, or low accessibility to the hospitals. The only study of stroke in Cambodia is the Prevalence of Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors in Cambodia survey, which identified several stroke-related risk factors in the population. Tobacco chewing or smoking is the main risk factor for stroke in Cambodia. Traditional therapies, such as oyt pleung (moxibustion) and jup (cupping), are widely practiced for stroke rehabilitation. In Cambodia, there are few neurologists and few important equipment, such as magnetic resonance imaging machines and computed tomography scanners. The Cambodian government should cooperate with the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund to attract foreign expertise and technologies to treat stroke patients. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.
Sato, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Kazunori
Dual sensor is one of the most promising sensors for humanitarian demining operations. Conventional landmine detection depends on highly trained and focused human operators manually sweeping 1m2 plots with a metal detector and listening for characteristic audio signals indicating the presence of AP (Anti-personnel) landmines. In order to reduce the time of plodding detected objects, metal detectors need to be combined with a complimentary subsurface imaging sensor. i.e., GPR(Ground Penetrating Radar). The demining application requires real-time imaging results with centimetre resolution in a highly portable package. We are currently testing a dual sensor ALIS which is a real-time sensor tracking system based on a CCD camera and image processing. In this paper we introduce ALIS systems which we have developed for detection of buried antipersonnel mines and small size explosives. The performance of ALIS has been tested in Cambodia since 2009. More than 80 anti-personnel mines have been detected and removed from local agricultural area. ALIS has cleared more than 70,000 m2 area and returned it to local farmers.
Eav, S; Schraub, S; Dufour, P; Taisant, D; Ra, C; Bunda, P
Cambodia, a country of 14 million inhabitants, was devastated during the Khmer Rouge period and thereafter. The resources of treatment are rare: only one radiotherapy department, renovated in 2003, with an old cobalt machine; few surgeons trained to operate on cancer patients; no hematology; no facilities to use intensive chemotherapy; no nuclear medicine department and no palliative care unit. Cervical cancer incidence is one of the highest in the world, while in men liver cancer ranks first (20% of all male cancers). Cancers are seen at stage 3 or 4 for 70% of patients. There is no prevention program - only a vaccination program against hepatitis B for newborns - and no screening program for cervical cancer or breast cancer. In 2010, oncology, recognized as a full specialty, was created to train the future oncologists on site at the University of Phnom Penh. A new National Cancer Center will be built in 2013 with modern facilities for radiotherapy, medical oncology, hematology and nuclear medicine. Cooperation with foreign countries, especially France, and international organizations has been established and is ongoing. Progress is occurring slowly due to the shortage of money for Cambodian institutions and the lay public. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Khin, J.A. (AFKA Co., PTE Ltd. (SG))
This paper reports on the Ministry of Industry which has the that hydrocarbon potential exists in the 57,600-sq-mi sedimentary basin covering both onshore and offshore Cambodia. It is also reported that 13 foreign oil companies have contacted the government, regarding obtaining interests in Kampot and Koh Kong Provinces in the southwestern part of the country.
Somasundaram, D. J.; van de Put, W. A.
An effort is being made in Cambodia to involve grass-roots personnel in the integration of the care of the mentally ill into a broad framework of health services. This undertaking is examined with particular reference to the work of the Transcultural Psychosocial Organization. PMID:10212521
Somasundaram, D. J.; van de Put, W. A.
An effort is being made in Cambodia to involve grass-roots personnel in the integration of the care of the mentally ill into a broad framework of health services. This undertaking is examined with particular reference to the work of the Transcultural Psychosocial Organization.
Li, Hua; Chen, Chuanbo; Fang, Shaohong; Zhao, Shengrong
Image segmentation plays a crucial role in various biomedical applications. In general, the segmentation of brain Magnetic Resonance (MR) images is mainly used to represent the image with several homogeneous regions instead of pixels for surgical analyzing and planning. This paper proposes a new approach for segmenting MR brain images by using pseudo-color based segmentation with Non-symmetry and Anti-packing Model with Squares (NAMS). First of all, the NAMS model is presented. The model can represent the image with sub-patterns to keep the image content and largely reduce the data redundancy. Second, the key idea is proposed that convert the original gray-scale brain MR image into a pseudo-colored image and then segment the pseudo-colored image with NAMS model. The pseudo-colored image can enhance the color contrast in different tissues in brain MR images, which can improve the precision of segmentation as well as directly visual perceptional distinction. Experimental results indicate that compared with other brain MR image segmentation methods, the proposed NAMS based pseudo-color segmentation method performs more excellent in not only segmenting precisely but also saving storage.
Siv, Sovannaroth; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Vinjamuri, Seshu Babu; Bouth, Denis Mey; Lek, Dysoley; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur; By, Ngau Peng; Popovici, Jean; Huy, Rekol; Menard, Didier
The Cambodian National Strategic Plan for Elimination of Malaria aims to move step by step toward elimination of malaria across Cambodia with an initial focus on Plasmodium falciparum malaria before achieving elimination of all forms of malaria, including Plasmodium vivax in 2025. The emergence of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum in western Cambodia over the last decade has drawn global attention to support the ultimate goal of P. falciparum elimination, whereas the control of P. vivax lags much behind, making the 2025 target gradually less achievable unless greater attention is given to P. vivax elimination in the country. The following review presents in detail the past and current situation regarding P. vivax malaria, activities of the National Malaria Control Program, and interventional measures applied. Constraints and obstacles that can jeopardize our efforts to eliminate this parasite species are discussed. PMID:27708187
power to make the decision." Bernard Fall, Le Viet- Minh, Librairie Armand Colin, Paris, 1960, p. 190. However, the primacy of the political officers...Affairs, April 1966, Fall, Bernard, Le Viet-Minh, Librairie Armand Colin, Paris, 1960. , Street Without Joy, Stockpole Company, Harrisburg, 1963
Post-war Cambodia faced many challenges — among them, isolation. In 1998 an IDRC grant helped establish Cambodia's first Internet service provider. We have since funded Cambodian research to develop programs and web content in Khmer, the national language. This enables Cambodians to use computers, access ...
Cette subvention permet au Cambodia Development Resource Institute de collaborer avec sept partenaires pour poursuivre les travaux du Cambodia Development Research Forum. Les idées maîtresses du forum sont le fruit d'une rencontre, en 2007, de tous les groupes et particuliers subventionnés par le CRDI au ...
This study focuses on a quest for insights into the introduction and negotiation of critical literacy in elementary education in Cambodia, whose recent past was scarred by devastating conflicts and wars. In this study, critical education is seen as a key to avoiding the reproduction of an unwanted past and minimizing social injustice in Cambodia.…
Not only is the forest one of their main sources of food and income, it is also essential for their swidden system of agriculture. Moreover, although Highlanders form close to three-quarters of. Ratanakiri's population, they are a minority group in Cambodia as a whole. They had never spoken up for their rights in Cambodia's ...
No, Fata; Sam, Chanphirun; Hirakawa, Yukiko
Previous studies on school dropout in Cambodia often used data from subjects after they already dropped out or statistics from education-related institutions. Using data from children in two rural provinces before they dropped out, this study examines four main factors in order to identify their influence on primary school dropout in Cambodia.…
2014 marks the 20th anniversary of the end of the so-called UNTAC (United. Nations Transitory Authority in Cambodia) mission. Apart from consolidating. Cambodia's full sovereignty after more than a decade of Vietnamese occupation,. UNTAC supervised comparatively free and fair elections that subsequently triggered.
Ahmed M. Soliman
Full Text Available Systematic synthesis method to generate a family of two integrator loop filters based on nodal admittance matrix (NAM expansion is given. Eight equivalent circuits are obtained; six of them are new. Each of the generated circuits uses two grounded capacitors and employs two current conveyors (CCII or two inverting current conveyors (ICCII or a combination of both. The NAM expansion is also used to generate eight equivalent grounded passive elements two integrator loop filters using differential voltage current conveyor (DVCC; six of them are new. Changing the input port of excitation, two new families of eight unity gain lowpass filter circuits each using two CCII or ICCII or combination of both or two DVCC are obtained.
Tran Thi Tuyet-Hanh
Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to characterize household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitaton in Chi Linh Town, Hai Duong Province, Vietnam, and to identify factors affecting those trends. Method: Data were extracted from the Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB HDSS database from 2004–2014, which included household access to improved water sources, household access to improved sanitation, and household demographic data. Descriptive statistical analysis and multinominal logistic regression were used. The results showed that over a 10-year period (2004–2014, the proportion of households with access to improved water and improved sanitation increased by 3.7% and 28.3%, respectively. As such, the 2015 Millennium Development Goal targets for safe drinking water and basic sanitation were met. However, 13.5% of households still had unimproved water and sanitation. People who are retired, work in trade or services, or other occupations were 1.49, 1.97, and 1.34 times more likely to have access to improved water and sanitation facilities than farming households, respectively (p < 0.001. Households living in urban areas were 1.84 times more likely than those living in rural areas to have access to improved water sources and improved sanitation facilities (OR =1.84; 95% CI = 1.73–1.96. Non-poor households were 2.12 times more likely to have access to improved water sources and improved sanitation facilities compared to the poor group (OR = 2.12; 95% CI = 2.00–2.25. More efforts are required to increase household access to both improved water and sanitation in Chi Linh Town, focusing on the 13.5% of households currently without access. Similar to situations observed elsewhere in Vietnam and other low- and middle- income countries, there is a need to address socio-economic factors that are associated with inadequate access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities.
Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Bass, Judith K; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Nam Thi Thu; Knowlton, Amy R.
In a context with limited attention to mental health and prevalent sexual prejudice, valid measurements are a key first step to understanding the psychological suffering of sexual minority populations. We adapted the Patient Health Questionnaire as a depressive symptom severity measure for Vietnamese sexual minority women, ensuring its cultural relevance and suitability for internet-based research. Psychometric evaluation found that the scale is mostly unidimensional and has good convergent v...
The objectives of this study in the Mekong delta, Vietnam, were: (1) to obtain a better understanding of the effects of soil physical properties and flow types on solute transport in ASS emphasing aluminum; (2) to quantify environmental hazards resulting from amelioration activities in
Tran, D.N.; Tran, H.H.; Matsui, M.; Suzuki, M.; Suzuki, S.; Shibayama, K.; Pham, T.D.; Phuong, T.T. Van; Dang, D.A.; Trinh, H.S.; Loan, C.T.; Nga, L.T.; Doorn, H.R. van; Wertheim, H.F.L.
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important cause of multidrug-resistant hospital acquired infections in the world. Here, we investigate the presence of NDM-1 and other carbapenemases among carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolated between August 2010 and December 2014 from three large hospitals in
Tran, D N; Tran, H H; Matsui, M; Suzuki, M; Suzuki, S; Shibayama, K; Pham, T D; Van Phuong, T T; Dang, D A; Trinh, H S; Loan, C T; Nga, L T V; van Doorn, H R; Wertheim, H F L
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important cause of multidrug-resistant hospital acquired infections in the world. Here, we investigate the presence of NDM-1 and other carbapenemases among carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolated between August 2010 and December 2014 from three large hospitals in Hanoi, Vietnam. We identified 23/582 isolates (4 %) (11 from hospital A, five from hospital B, and seven from hospital C) that were NDM-1 positive, and among them 18 carried additional carbapenemase genes, including seven isolates carrying NDM-1, IMP-1, and OXA-58 with high MICs for carbapenems. Genotyping indicated that NDM-1 carrying A. baumannii have expanded clonally in these hospitals. Five new STs (ST1135, ST1136, ST1137, ST1138, and ST1139) were identified. One isolate carried NDM-1 on a plasmid belonging to the N-repA replicon type; no NDM-1-positive plasmids were identified in the other isolates. We have shown the extent of the carbapenem resistance and the local clonal spread of A. baumannii carrying NDM-1 in these hospitals; coexistence of NDM-1 and IMP-1 is reported for the first time from Vietnam here, and this will further seriously limit future therapeutic options.
Bui, Huong Mai; Le Danh Tuyen; Do Huu Tuan
B1 was 2.7 cases/100,000 person/year. Margin of exposure (MOE) of renal cancer linked to ochratoxin A and liver cancer associated with fumonisins were 1124 and 1954, respectively indicating risk levels of public health concern. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficiency of technical...
Duc, Trinh Anh; Vachaud, Georges; Bonnet, Marie Paule; Prieur, Nicolas; Loi, Vu Duc; Anh, Le Lan
SummaryAnalyses of water quality and flow regime in combination with laboratory studies and ecological modelling were used to assess the water quality impact of pollution from to To Lich River that drains through Hanoi City and greatly contaminates the Nhue River. With an average discharge of 26.2 m 3/s, the Nhue River receives about 5.8 m 3/s of untreated domestic water from the city's main open-air-sewer - the To Lich River. The studies during 2002-2003 showed high concentrations of BOD (70 mg O 2/l), DOC (15 mg C/l), coliform (2.4e 6 MNP/100 ml), total phosphorus (3.5 mg P/l), and total nitrogen (31.6 mg N/l) in the To Lich, while DO level was less than 1 mg O 2/l. Such high loads of untreated wastewater impacted water quality in the Nhue River where DO decreased at times to as low as 1 mg O 2/l. The accumulation of particulate organic matter and micro-organisms in the sediments of the Nhue represented substantial sources of nutrients and sinks for DO. They are also considerable production of dissolved carbon dioxide at concentrations up to two orders of magnitude higher than pressure. Such pressures ( EpCO 2) are expected in polluted environments, but the results presented here are new for Vietnam and much of developing countries. A number of factors linked to field monitoring and laboratory measurements clearly indicate the importance of autotrophic over heterotrophic biological processes and sediments. An ecological model for management purposes has been developed that reliably estimates of the pollutant loads. An opportunity was taken to examine the changing impacts and processes when the To Lich was diverted from the Nhue. The monitoring and modelling of this opportunity showed low dissolved oxygen levels even if the impact from the To Lich was lessened. Alternatives are proposed to alleviate problems of water quality in the Nhue. It is concluded that the treatment of the To Lich River's water is highly recommended; otherwise a reduction to one third of current wastewater discharge is needed to bring water quality back to the environmental standard.
Quang Tri, Le
Effective interaction of farmers' expertise and expert knowledge has been a special point of attention for this study. The objectives of the study were to describe the process of interaction between farmers and experts in improving the use of acid sulphate soils and to point out
Kim, Le Anh Thi; Pham, Lien Thi Lan; Vu, Lan Hoang; Schelling, Esther
Rural-to-urban migration involves a high proportion of females because job opportunities for female migrants have increased in urban industrial areas. Those who migrate may be healthier than those staying in the village and they may benefit from better health care services at destination, but the 'healthy' effect can be reversed at destination due to migration-related health risk factors. The study aimed to explore the need for health care services for reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among female migrants working in the Sai Dong industrial zone as well as their services utilization. The cross sectional study employed a mixed method approach. A cohort of 300 female migrants was interviewed to collect quantitative data. Two focus groups and 20 in-depth interviews were conducted to collect qualitative data. We have used frequency and cross-tabulation techniques to analyze the quantitative data and the qualitative data was used to triangulate and to provide more in-depth information. The needs for health care services for RTI were high as 25% of participants had RTI syndromes. Only 21.6% of female migrants having RTI syndromes ever seek helps for health care services. Barriers preventing migrants to access services were traditional values, long working hours, lack of information, and high cost of services. Employers had limited interests in reproductive health of female migrants, and there was ineffective collaboration between the local health system and enterprises. These barriers were partly caused by lack of health promotion programs suitable for migrants. Most respondents needed more information on RTIs and preferred to receive these from their employers since they commonly work shifts--and spend most of their day time at work. While RTIs are a common health problem among female migrant workers in industrial zones, female migrants had many obstacles in accessing RTI care services. The findings from this study will help to design intervention models for RTI among this vulnerable group such as communication for behavioural impact of RTI health care, fostered collaboration between local health care services and employer enterprises, and on-site service (e.g. local or enterprise health clinics) strengthening.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural-to-urban migration involves a high proportion of females because job opportunities for female migrants have increased in urban industrial areas. Those who migrate may be healthier than those staying in the village and they may benefit from better health care services at destination, but the 'healthy' effect can be reversed at destination due to migration-related health risk factors. The study aimed to explore the need for health care services for reproductive tract infections (RTIs among female migrants working in the Sai Dong industrial zone as well as their services utilization. Methods The cross sectional study employed a mixed method approach. A cohort of 300 female migrants was interviewed to collect quantitative data. Two focus groups and 20 in-depth interviews were conducted to collect qualitative data. We have used frequency and cross-tabulation techniques to analyze the quantitative data and the qualitative data was used to triangulate and to provide more in-depth information. Results The needs for health care services for RTI were high as 25% of participants had RTI syndromes. Only 21.6% of female migrants having RTI syndromes ever seek helps for health care services. Barriers preventing migrants to access services were traditional values, long working hours, lack of information, and high cost of services. Employers had limited interests in reproductive health of female migrants, and there was ineffective collaboration between the local health system and enterprises. These barriers were partly caused by lack of health promotion programs suitable for migrants. Most respondents needed more information on RTIs and preferred to receive these from their employers since they commonly work shifts - and spend most of their day time at work. Conclusion While RTIs are a common health problem among female migrant workers in industrial zones, female migrants had many obstacles in accessing RTI care services. The findings from this study will help to design intervention models for RTI among this vulnerable group such as communication for behavioural impact of RTI health care, fostered collaboration between local health care services and employer enterprises, and on-site service (e.g. local or enterprise health clinics strengthening.
Mensvoort, van M.E.F.
Half the Mekong delta in Vietnam, i.e. around 2 million hectares, suffers soil related problems due to acid sulphate soils. These soils generate sulphuric acid due to the oxidation of pyrite after aeration. Pyrite is most easily formed in tidal swamps. Human interference through land
Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Cambodia’s new national poverty lines show higher historical poverty rates and a dramatic decline in poverty during the 2007–2009 global financial crisis. With 18.9% of the population being poor in 2012, Cambodia now counts among the countries with the most rapid poverty reduction in the world. However, many people moved only slightly above the poverty line—remaining highly vulnerable—and poverty is increasing both in urban areas and according to the international poverty line of $2 per day. ...
Over the past decade, Cambodia has become Asiaâ€™s most dollarized economy. In contrast, dollarization in neighboring Lao P.D.R., Mongolia, and Vietnam has been either declining or broadly stable. Somewhat paradoxically, growing dollarization in Cambodia has occurred against the backdrop of greater macroeconomic and political stability. The usual motive, currency substitution, does not appear to have been a factor. As the volume of dollars increased over the years, so has the volume of riel. ...
Swierstra, J C
In 1995 the activities of Médecins sans Frontières in the Province of Kampot, Cambodia, were handed to Memisa Medicus Mundi. This happened as a part of the co-operation between the two relief agencies. Following a request from the Cambodian Ministry of Health, Memisa sent a Dutch surgeon to Kampot in order to make an inventory of the surgical care in this province and to make recommendations for improvement. Two visits of two months each were made with an intermission of one year. Special attention was given to the most adequate treatment of a few common fractures in developing countries. By asking a fixed amount of money for a treatment all in, and by providing good service the confidence of the people in the health care facilities is increased.
Region: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore. Program: Employment and Growth ... Project. Women in Cambodia are subject to widespread discrimination, including in access to education, employment and politics. Start Date: November 30, 2007.
Region: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore. Program: Employment and Growth ... Project. Women in Cambodia are subject to widespread discrimination, including in access to education, employment and politics. Start Date: November 30, 2007.
Region: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ ... Topic: WOMEN'S RIGHTS, GENDER DISCRIMINATION, GENDER EQUALITY, GENDER ANALYSIS. Region: Cambodia, Far East Asia, Central Asia, ...
Although Vi?t Nam's experiences with quality assurance (QA) policy development have been influenced by its relationships with, and funding from, the World Bank and regional organizations, the state-centric values of the Socialist Republic of Vi?t Nam still navigate the implementation process. The development of QA in Vietnamese higher education…
Shah, Naman K.; Alker, Alisa P.; Sem, Rithy; Susanti, Agustina Ika; Muth, Sinuon; Maguire, Jason D.; Duong, Socheat; Ariey, Frederic; Meshnick, Steven R.
We conducted surveillance for multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Cambodia during 2004–2006 by assessing molecular changes in pfmdr1. The high prevalence of isolates with multiple pfmdr1 copies found in western Cambodia near the Thai border, where artesunate–mefloquine therapy failures occur, contrasts with isolates from eastern Cambodia, where this combination therapy remains highly effective. PMID:18826834
The 15 years since dialogue was established between China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have witnessed steadily improving relations between the two sides. ASEAN, founded in 1967, includes Thailand, Laos, Myanmar, Viet Nam, Cambodia, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines and Brunei. Despite being close neighbours, China and ASEAN did not have official relations until 1991, due largely to the negative influence of the Cold War. China and ASEAN's member countri...
Les économies à faible revenu dépendent énormément de l'agriculture, et la croissance dans ce secteur est responsable d'une plus grande réduction de la pauvreté que dans tout autre secteur. Région: Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Viet Nam, Thailand, Canada. Programme: Employment and Growth. Financement total : CA$ ...
Région: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, China, Laos, Viet Nam, Thailand. Programme: Alimentation, environnement et santé. Financement total : CA$ 5,093,453.00. Relever le défi posé par les zoonoses infectieuses émergentes en Asie du Sud-Est. Projet. La santé des ...
Les économies à faible revenu dépendent énormément de l'agriculture, et la croissance dans ce secteur est responsable d'une plus grande réduction de la pauvreté que dans tout autre secteur. Région: Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Viet Nam, Thailand, Canada. Programme: Employment and Growth. Financement total : CA$ ...
Projet. Ce projet mettra à contribution des données probantes en vue d'aider à lutter contre la schistosomiase et la distomatose hépatique et à éliminer ces infections dans la sous-région du Grand Mékong. Sujet: PARASITES. Région: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, China, Laos, Viet Nam, Thailand.
World Bank Group
The use of quality seed is a major component of increased yields in crop production. Quality seed and seed programs in a country does not emerge by happenstance; it is created by a combination of many factors that include variety development, seed production, quality control, processing, marketing, and governmental oversight. As the seed sector in a country matures, each of these factors b...
Addendum by Penny Edwards
Full Text Available In 1981, social anthropologist William Willmott declared, “Today, no-one identifies themselves as Chinese in Kampuchea [Cambodia]” (1981:45. He certainly had the authority to publish such a statement. Having conducted sustained fieldwork on Chinese community formation in Cambodia from 1962 to 1963, Willmott offered an unprecedented examination of social structures, political organization, and patterns of identification among urban Chinese in his monographs, The Chinese in Cambodia (1967 and The Political Structure of the Chinese Community in Cambodia (1970. However, subsequent to his research, Chinese communities suffered terribly during the repression of the Lon Nol government between 1970 and 1975 and the atrocities of the Democratic Kampuchea regime. Willmott thus declared Chinese communities—and a willingness to identify as Chinese—destroyed. This understandably pessimistic vision turned out to be unfounded; the next extensive research done on Chinese in Cambodia by Penny Edwards and Chan Sambath in 1995 showed Chinese communities rebuilding. However, the descriptions of these communities showed a complexity of identity formation—from recent immigrants, “the raw Chinese,” to the five “traditional” Chinese dialect groups—that differed markedly from the indexes of identity applied by Willmott in his initial analysis. Academic ideas of how Chineseness should be configured had shifted and complicated; ascribing identity had become increasingly problematic...
Fetters, Tamara; Samandari, Ghazaleh
Although Cambodia now permits elective abortion, scarcity of research on this topic means that information on abortion incidence is limited to regional estimates. This estimation model combines national survey data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) with national prospective data of abortion procedures from government health facilities, collected in 2005 and 2010, to calculate the national incidence of safe and unsafe abortion. According to DHS, the proportion of all induced abortions that took place in a health facility in the five years preceding each survey increased from almost 52% to 60%. Projecting from facility-based abortions to national estimates, the national abortion rate increased from 21 to 28 per 1000 women aged 15-44. The abortion ratio also increased from 19 to 28 per 100 live births. This research quantifies an increase in safely induced abortions in Cambodia and provides a deeper understanding of induced abortion trends in Cambodia.
The escalating HIV/AIDS crisis in Cambodia underscores the importance of reproductive health programs aimed at adolescents. Although the Cambodian Government has not developed a strategy specifically aimed at reaching youth, it has initiated several related health promotion and HIV/AIDS prevention programs. Such programming is especially urgent in light of rapid economic changes in Cambodia and the growing influence of the mass media on urban youth. An in-country paper prepared by a staff member of the Youth Department of Cambodia's Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports stressed the importance of four factors: 1) designation of young couples as a target for birth spacing campaigns and services, 2) realistic HIV/AIDS educational messages in the mass media, 3) incorporation of traditional practices in adolescent reproductive health campaigns, and 4) greater sensitivity to youth culture and habits.
William E. Willmott
Address to the Thailand, Laos, Cambodia Studies Association at the Association for Asian Studies Annual Conference in Toronto, March 16, 2012This event has given me the opportunity to return to almost...
Wu, Y. J.; Qiao, G.; Li, H. W.
Nam-Co Lake is the largest saltwater lake in Tibet and less influenced by human activity. In order to study the change of water level of Nam-Co Lake over the past decades and the impacts of climate change on the region, this paper combined height measurements of ERS-1, ERS-2, ENVISAT, ICESat-2 and CryoSat-2. We found that the water level of Nam Co Lake experienced three periods of change, namely, slightly decreasing period (1992-1993), significantly increasing period (1995-2005), and stable period (2006-2015). The change is consistent with the change of meteorological factors in the Nam-Co Basin. The increase of glacier melt water and precipitation in the basin is considered to be the cause of the overall trend of water level.
Y. J. Wu
Full Text Available Nam-Co Lake is the largest saltwater lake in Tibet and less influenced by human activity. In order to study the change of water level of Nam-Co Lake over the past decades and the impacts of climate change on the region, this paper combined height measurements of ERS-1, ERS-2, ENVISAT, ICESat-2 and CryoSat-2. We found that the water level of Nam Co Lake experienced three periods of change, namely, slightly decreasing period (1992–1993, significantly increasing period (1995–2005, and stable period (2006–2015. The change is consistent with the change of meteorological factors in the Nam-Co Basin. The increase of glacier melt water and precipitation in the basin is considered to be the cause of the overall trend of water level.
Jiao, Xi; Pouliot, Mariéve; Walelign, Solomon Zena
and their underlying factors. The study aims to identify the classification of rural livelihood strategies, their transitions and factors influencing these processes and changes. We employ the dynamic livelihood strategy framework, and use panel data for 2008 and 2012 covering 464 households in 15 villages in Cambodia...
Moore, Stephen H.; Bounchan, Suksiri
This paper reports research undertaken at a prestigious university in Phnom Penh in late 2007. The views of lecturers who teach the BEd (TEFL) degree and their students were canvassed in relation to the status of English in Cambodia. The students completed a questionnaire probing their views on the notion of a Cambodian English, as well as their…
Jul 15, 2011 ... ... crabs, shrimp, and mollusks. They are nesting and migratory sites for hundreds of bird species. They also provide homes for monkeys, lizards, sea turtles, and many other animals as well as countless insects. Until relatively recently, the mangroves of Koh Kong, Cambodia have remained relatively intact.
Çeliker, Mahmut Yaşar; Pagnarith, Yos; Akao, Kazumi; Sophearin, Dim; Sorn, Sokchea
Cancer care with curative intent remains difficult to manage in many resource-limited settings such as Cambodia. Cambodia has a small workforce with limited financial and health-care resources resulting in delayed diagnoses and availability of limited therapeutic tools. Thus, palliative care becomes the primary form of care in most cases. Although palliative care is becoming an integral part of medical care in developed countries, this concept remains poorly understood and utilized in developing countries. Angkor Hospital for Children serves a relatively large pediatric population in northern Cambodia. According to the modern definition of palliative care, approximately two-thirds of the patients admitted to the hospital were deemed candidates to receive palliative care. In an effort to develop a pediatric palliative care team utilizing existing resources and intensive training, our focus group recruited already existing teams with different health-care expertise and other motivated members of the hospital. During this process, we have also formed a palliative care training team of local experts to maintain ongoing palliative care education. Feedback from patients and health-care providers confirmed the effectiveness of these efforts. In conclusion, palliative and sustainable care was offered effectively in a resource-limited setting with adequately trained and motivated local providers. In this article, the steps and systems used to overcome challenges in Cambodia are summarized in the hope that our experience urges governmental and non-governmental agencies to support similar initiatives.
The state of conflict that existed in Cambodia for more than 20 years perversely protected the secluded forests of Ratanakiri province in the northeast from exploitation. Only local indigenous peoples used these forests, and they did so sustainably. However, in the 1990s, this changed as the country became more secure and ...
Cambodia has undergone a radical transition from the devastations of civil war, foreign occupation, and the ferocious misrule of the Khmer Rouge. The 1991 Paris peace agreement established a ceasefire and committed Cambodians to democratic elections. An interim administration under United Nations supervision set ...
Cambodia's research community is still rebuilding from decades of turmoil that included civil war and a period of ethnic and intellectual cleansing under the Khmer Rouge. Its development research community remains dispersed and unconnected, though there are pockets of strong capacity. IDRC was one of the first ...
Mahmut Yaşar Çeliker
Full Text Available Cancer care with curative intent remains difficult to manage in many resource-limited settings such as Cambodia. Cambodia has a small workforce with limited financial and health-care resources resulting in delayed diagnoses and availability of limited therapeutic tools. Thus, palliative care becomes the primary form of care in most cases. Although palliative care is becoming an integral part of medical care in developed countries, this concept remains poorly understood and utilized in developing countries. Angkor Hospital for Children serves a relatively large pediatric population in northern Cambodia. According to the modern definition of palliative care, approximately two-thirds of the patients admitted to the hospital were deemed candidates to receive palliative care. In an effort to develop a pediatric palliative care team utilizing existing resources and intensive training, our focus group recruited already existing teams with different health-care expertise and other motivated members of the hospital. During this process, we have also formed a palliative care training team of local experts to maintain ongoing palliative care education. Feedback from patients and health-care providers confirmed the effectiveness of these efforts. In conclusion, palliative and sustainable care was offered effectively in a resource-limited setting with adequately trained and motivated local providers. In this article, the steps and systems used to overcome challenges in Cambodia are summarized in the hope that our experience urges governmental and non-governmental agencies to support similar initiatives.
Cambodia is one of the least developed countries in Southeast Asia, with a large poor rural population dependent on natural resources for food and income. Over the past several years, the country has introduced extensive legislation related to the management of natural resources. On paper, the role of local communities ...
Whitaker, Donald P.; And Others
This handbook, one of a series designed to be useful to the military and others with an interest in foreign affairs, contains basic facts about the social, economic, political, and military institutions and practices of Cambodia. There are four major sections to the handbook. Section one describes the general character of the society and examines…
Notes that both journalism and journalism training are undergoing major changes in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. Offers insights and practical guidance for trainers, elements of which could apply to most developing countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Highlights some of the problems encountered by a short-term foreign guest lecturer, albeit one who…
ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/boms/038/04/1039-1042 ... Thailand; Department of Environmental Technology, Faculty of Environmental Science, University of Science, Viet Nam National University, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam; Department of Industrial ...
Proceedings of a Series of Seminars Conducted in Cooperation with the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (International Security Affairs) on National Security Policy Issues and Contemporary Portugal January 26, February 9, February 17, March 2, and March 9, 1976,
and beginning to match it in Syr- ia. The United States was still heavily engaged in Viet- nam, Cambodia and Laos . Brezhnev had even urged Cuba’s...the two years since the Lisbon coup tle Soviet Union has watched Cambodia, Vietnam and Laos tgo down the American drain. Thailand is neutral now. In(ia...1975), p. 27, the Veja report suggested TEST the incident which led to the battle of Luanda was a FNLA attack on a funeral ’or a female member of the
Zimmer, Zachary; Korinek, Kim; Knodel, John; Chayovan, Napaporn
This paper examines interactions between older adults living in rural areas of Thailand and Cambodia and their adult children. Thai data come from the Survey of the Welfare of the Elderly (N = 3,202 older adults and 17,517 adult children). Cambodia data are from the Survey of the Elderly in Cambodia (N = 777 older adults and 3,751 adult children).…
Mareth, M. [Secretariat of State for Environment of Cambodia, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Vanderstighelen, D.; Bann, C.; Ngongi, M.I. [Cambodian Environmental Advisory Team, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Aertgeerts, R. [Office for Project Services United Nations Development Program, New York, NY (United States); Eav, B.B. [Dept. of Agriculture, Fort Collins, CO (United States)
Although no verifiable hard data regarding the rate of nation-wide deforestation in Cambodia exists, it is understood that on account of increasing logging activities, uncontrolled forest fires, increased demand for agricultural land and fuel wood for charcoal production and other domestic usage, the rates of deforestation and the degradation of existing forests will continue to be on the rise if no effective policy and management plans are established soon. There now seems to be international recognition and acceptance of the fact that unless the impact of human activities are incorporated into forestry management plans, the problems of deforestation in the world`s poorest regions will continue unabated. The depletion of this natural resource brings about complex changes in the environment which results in such phenomenon as global warming. Sound forest policies and management practices are central to the global warming solution. Without these, human survival remains, potentially, threatened. An essential key to the development of such policies and management practices lies in the identification of the problems related to the forests. In this process of identification and subsequent concrete actions in restoring Cambodia`s forest policies and management practices, the Royal government of Cambodia has been assisted and supported by the international community through organizations and agencies. The examine and appraisal of such assistance and the strategies and efforts of the Royal Government of Cambodia, is the main theme of this paper.
Full Text Available The chrysidid genus Loboscelidia is reviewed and 11 new species are described, including L. cinnamonea (Borneo, L. fulgens (Viet Nam, L. fulva (Thailand, L. incompleta (India, L. kafae (Borneo, L. laminata (Viet Nam, L. meifungae (Borneo, L. nasiformis (Thailand, L. nitidula (Thailand, L. pecki (Viet Nam, and L. sisik (Borneo. A key to males of the species of Loboscelidia is given.
Vogel, de E.F.
”A dramatic offering of three new Paphiopedilum species from the remote jungles of central Viet Nam (Annam) ... India ... Philippines. VIET NAM (ANNAM): The story of how our collectors managed to locate, collect and transport this rare species from the ravaged jungles of Viet Nam is still cloaked in
Sunil, Thankam S; Sagna, Marguerite
Childhood malnutrition is a major problem in developing countries, and in Cambodia, it is estimated that approximately 42% of the children are stunted, which is considered to be very high. In the present study, we examined the effects of proximate and socio-economic determinants on childhood malnutrition in Cambodia. In addition, we examined the effects of the changes in these proximate determinants on childhood malnutrition between 2000 and 2005. Our analytical approach included descriptive, logistic regression and decomposition analyses. Separate analyses are estimated for 2000 and 2005 survey. The primary component of the difference in stunting is attributable to the rates component, indicating that the decrease of stunting is due mainly to the decrease in stunting rates between 2000 and 2005. While majority of the differences in childhood malnutrition between 2000 and 2005 can be attributed to differences in the distribution of malnutrition determinants between 2000 and 2005, differences in their effects also showed some significance. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pesic, V.; Smit, H.
New records of water mites of the genus Monatractides K.Viets (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Torrenticolidae) from streams in Thailand are presented. One species, Monatractides gledhilli, new to science is described; a first description of the male is given for M. circuloides (Halík); first records from
... Vietnam and Cambodia. 500.565 Section 500.565 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. (a) The remittances specified in this section are authorized... relative is a national of Vietnam or Cambodia, is a resident of Vietnam, Cambodia, or a country to which...
Community Driven Universal Access Solutions in Cambodia : Pilots to Policy Research. In Cambodia new information and communication technologies (ITCs) are almost nonexistent outside the major cities. The country's national ICT policy framework is in its formative stage, receptive to policy research and strategy ...
Cambodia is one of the poorest countries in Asia. About 70% of the population depends on agriculture for a living. Food insecurity affects rural people in particular, and the number of people who are food insecure is growing. Among Southeast Asian countries, Cambodia is also one of the most vulnerable to climate change.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to Cambodia Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State... Act with respect to the Government of Cambodia, and I hereby waive such restriction. This...
Grunfeld, Helena; Ng, Maria Lee Hoon
Open distance learning (ODL) has long been an important option for formal and non-formal education (NFE) in most developed and developing countries, but less so in post-conflict countries, including Cambodia. However, in Cambodia there is now greater awareness that ODL can complement traditional face-to-face educational approaches, particularly as…
This article describes the integration of ICT in the teacher training centres of Cambodia. It focuses on the collaboration between the Teacher Training Department of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MoEYS) of Cambodia and VVOB (Flemish Association for Development Cooperation and Technical Assistance), which is aimed at improving ICT…
Région: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore. Programme: Emploi et croissance. Financement total ... Sujet: WOMEN'S RIGHTS, GENDER DISCRIMINATION, GENDER EQUALITY, GENDER ANALYSIS. Région: Cambodia, Far East Asia, Central Asia, ...
Ayres, David M.
Reviews Cambodia's educational development, characterized by a series of successive crises since the country's independence from France in 1953. Examines various approaches of development discourse to the educational crisis, and suggests that previous analyses of Cambodia's educational development have failed to recognize the tensions generated by…
... Gender Equity and Nutritional Security in a Changing World". Articles. Improving women's lives in Cambodia through fish on farms. In Cambodia, rural diets typically lack protein and micronutrients, leading to high rates of stunting in children and anemia in women. Études. Biochemical correlates of anemia in Cambodian ...
Global Financial Crisis and Vulnerability in Cambodia. The global financial crisis of 2008 has aggravated poverty and inequality through contractions in employment, consumption and investment. While there have been a number of studies of the effect of the crisis on Cambodia, there have been few on the coping strategies ...
Full Text Available purposeful learning require strong basis of principles of adult learning along with a sound knowledge and requisite skills in both psychology as well as technology of medical education. Assessing effectiveness of a CME program is as important as the organization of learning activities and delivery of academic program as these may provide further directions for enhancing the efficacy of the CME delivery system.Objective: (i The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of well planned and conducted CME program in terms of enhancing knowledge and competence of the participants. (ii To explore if the gain in knowledge and competence, if any, can be attributed to the interactive design of the educational process.Methods: The study was conducted during NAMS-AIIMS Regional Symposium on Sleep Medicine at AIIMS, Jodhpur as part of NAMSCON 2013. After explaining the objectives of the study to the participants and assurance of confidentiality, a validated and pre-tested questionnaire consisting of 30 multiple choice, single response questions, was administered to 103 participants. Following intervention consisting of didactic lectures by experts in different aspects of sleep medicine, interactive sessions and problem triggered sessions consisting of clinical data, participants were re-administered post test questions which were, however, different from pre-test but had similar difficulty level.Result: The response rate of participants was 89%. Pre-intervention scores were 11.76 ± 4.4, with only 26 % of participants achieving an arbitrary pass score of 50 %. Comparison of paired score of participants who attempted both pre and post tests (n=59 showed improvement from 12.1 ±4.6 to 18.3 ± 3.8 which was significant (p <0.05. 84.7 % of participants secured above pre decided 50% score. The mean increase in the score was 6.2 with 95% CIs 4.8; 7.5 (P <0.001. Higher gain in knowledge and competencies is attributed to intense interactive
Over geen enkele Amerikaanse oorlog en de gevolgen daarvan zijn meer boeken geschreven dan over de Vietnamoorlog. En toch zijn we er nog lang niet over uitgeschreven. Terecht, getuige het verrassende werk van Viet Thanh Nguyen.
Ith, Ponndara; Dawson, Angela; Homer, Caroline S E
Consideration of the needs of pregnant women and their ability and willingness to attend maternal services and pay for them is central to the provision of accessible and acceptable maternal care. Women's satisfaction with maternal services is poorly understood in many developing countries, including Cambodia in South East Asia. The objective of this study was to investigate women's perceptions and experiences of private and public skilled birth attendants, including midwives, during childbirth in Cambodia. A qualitative design using a naturalistic inquiry approach was undertaken to seek sensitive personal issue. Thirty individual in-depth interviews were conducted with women who had recently given birth at private and public health facilities in one province in Cambodia. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. Women's choice of health facility was influenced by their perceptions of safety and staff attitudes. Reported barriers to the effective utilisation of public maternity services were costs associated with the birth, staff attitudes and a lack of supportive care during labour and in the postpartum period. Although private health care is more expensive than public health care, some women reported a preference for private birth attendants as they perceived them to provide safer and more supportive care in labour. Women expect, but do not always receive humane, professional, supportive and respectful treatment from public skilled birth attendants. While the removal of unexpected costs and geographical barriers are important to increasing public maternity care and service utilisation, improvements in maternity services should focus on addressing provider attitudes and enhancing communication skills during labour, birth and the immediate postpartum period. Copyright © 2012 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nyda Chhinh; Andrew Millington
Rice production underpins the national economy and the most rural livelihoods in Cambodia, but it is negatively impacted by repeated droughts. The research reported on in this paper focuses on relationships between drought occurrences in Cambodia’s most drought-prone province (Kampong Speu) and (i) damage to the annual rice harvest between 1994 and 2011, and (ii) the Niño 3.4 index. Droughts were identified using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI). In seven of the years between 1994 ...
Penchaiya, P.; Tijskens, L.M.M.
Mango 'Nam Dok Mai See Thong' recently became the number-one exported mango of Thailand. It has an attractive appearance, with a golden-yellow peel colour at harvest and slight colour development during ripening. Its peel colour could possibly be used as an indicator for ripeness. Assessing the
Full Text Available , the International Cartographic Association (ICA) model was used to identify the stakeholders in and around NamSDI, which is still at the infancy stage of development. The application of a high-level ICA model proved to be relevant and useful in discriminating...
This paper reports an ethnographic study of mass fainting among garment factory workers in Cambodia. Research was undertaken in 2010-2015 in 48 factories in Phnom Penh and 8 provinces. Data were collected in Khmer using nonprobability sampling. In participant observation with monks, factory managers, health workers, and affected women, cultural understandings were explored. One or more episodes of mass fainting occurred at 34 factories, of which 9 were triggered by spirit possession. Informants viewed the causes in the domains of ill-health/toxins and supernatural activities. These included "haunting" ghosts at factory sites in the wake of Khmer Rouge atrocities or recent fatal accidents and retaliating guardian spirits at sites violated by foreign owners. Prefigurative dreams, industrial accidents, or possession of a coworker heralded the episodes. Workers witnessing a coworker fainting felt afraid and fainted. When taken to clinics, some showed signs of continued spirit influence. Afterwards, monks performed ritual ceremonies to appease spirits, extinguish bonds with ghosts, and prevent recurrence. Decoded through its cultural motifs of fear and protest, contagion, forebodings, the bloody Khmer Rouge legacy, and trespass, mass fainting in Cambodia becomes less enigmatic.
According to international news sources, Cambodia's parliament approved a law limiting the circumstances under which abortions can be performed on October 6 . Members of parliament say the new law, the first ever passed regulating abortion in Cambodia, is intended to reduce maternal morality rates from abortions performed by unlicensed health practitioners under unsanitary conditions. Local news outlets report that the Cambodian Health Ministry estimates the maternal mortality at 4.7 deaths per 1000 live births. The rate in the US is 0.12 deaths per 1000 live births. The law requires that abortions be performed by licensed health professionals in hospitals and certified clinics within the first trimester of pregnancy, and that women under the age of 18 must obtain parental consent. The new law also sets harsh penalties for those who harm women during illegal procedures--up to 5 years in prison if a woman is injured and up to 10 years if she dies. Opponents of the law say they fear that the new restrictions will push abortion even further underground, as the hospital system cannot handle the current demand for abortion. full text
Avrillon, V; Ny, C; Chan, S; Souquet, P-J; Couraud, S
About 15% of deaths in adults are related to lung infections in Cambodia. Some knowledge on microbial epidemiology is crucial for deciding first-line antibiotic treatment. However, to date, these data are not available in Cambodia. Consequently, antibiotic prescription relies on French or neighborhood's countries guidelines, which are possibly not suitable. This cases-series aimed to provide data on microbial ecology in pneumonia. Medical charts of patients newly admitted for lung infection in the pulmonology unit of Preah Kossamak Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Ninety-four patients were included and 29% had a complete microbiological diagnosis. Main germs isolated were: Gram-negative bacilli (n=20; 70.4%) and M. tuberculosis infections (n=7; 25.9%). There was one case of myeloïdosis. No S. pneumonia was isolated, possibly due to sample shipping tropical conditions. Antibiograms showed high resistance profiles. Although this study bring new data in the field, it also showed that European guidelines for antibiotic are not relevant in such countries and stress the need for further dedicated and prospective studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Lon, C T; Tsuyuoka, R; Phanouvong, S; Nivanna, N; Socheat, D; Sokhan, C; Blum, N; Christophel, E M; Smine, A
Counterfeit and substandard antimalarial drugs can cause death and contribute to the growing malaria drug resistance problem, particularly in Southeast Asia. Since 2003 in Cambodia the quality of antimalarial drugs both in the public and private health sector is regularly monitored in sentinel sites. We surveyed 34% of all 498 known facilities and drug outlets in four provinces. We collected 451 drug samples; 79% of these were not registered at the Cambodia Department of Drugs and Food (DDF). Twenty-seven percent of the samples failed the thin layer chromatography and disintegration tests; all of them were unregistered products. Immediate action against counterfeit drugs was taken by the National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) and the DDF. They communicated with the Provincial Health Department about the presence of counterfeit antimalarial drugs through alert letters, a manual, annual malaria conferencing and other training occasions. Television campaigns to alert the population about counterfeit drugs were conducted. Moreover, the NMCP has been promoting the use of good quality antimalarial drugs of a blister co-packaged combination of artesunate and mefloquine in public and private sectors. Appropriate strategies need to be developed and implemented by relevant government agencies and stakeholders to strengthen drug quality assurance and control systems in the country.
Yin, Xiufeng; Kang, Shichang; de Foy, Benjamin; Cong, Zhiyuan; Luo, Jiali; Zhang, Lang; Ma, Yaoming; Zhang, Guoshuai; Rupakheti, Dipesh; Zhang, Qianggong
Ozone is an important pollutant and greenhouse gas, and tropospheric ozone variations are generally associated with both natural and anthropogenic processes. As one of the most pristine and inaccessible regions in the world, the Tibetan Plateau has been considered as an ideal region for studying processes of the background atmosphere. Due to the vast area of the Tibetan Plateau, sites in the southern, northern and central regions exhibit different patterns of variation in surface ozone. Here, we present continuous measurements of surface ozone mixing ratios at Nam Co Station over a period of ˜ 5 years (January 2011 to October 2015), which is a background site in the inland Tibetan Plateau. An average surface ozone mixing ratio of 47.6 ± 11.6 ppb (mean ± standard deviation) was recorded, and a large annual cycle was observed with maximum ozone mixing ratios in the spring and minimum ratios during the winter. The diurnal cycle is characterized by a minimum in the early morning and a maximum in the late afternoon. Nam Co Station represents a background region where surface ozone receives negligible local anthropogenic emissions inputs, and the anthropogenic contribution from South Asia in spring and China in summer may affect Nam Co Station occasionally. Surface ozone at Nam Co Station is mainly dominated by natural processes involving photochemical reactions, vertical mixing and downward transport of stratospheric air mass. Model results indicate that the study site is affected differently by the surrounding areas in different seasons: air masses from the southern Tibetan Plateau contribute to the high ozone levels in the spring, and enhanced ozone levels in the summer are associated with air masses from the northern Tibetan Plateau. By comparing measurements at Nam Co Station with those from other sites on the Tibetan Plateau, we aim to expand the understanding of ozone cycles and transport processes over the Tibetan Plateau. This work may provide a
US Agency for International Development — This is the interim population based survey of Feed the Future in Cambodia for 2015. The data is split into survey modules. Modules A through C includes location...
Klauss, Matthias; Klauss-Vorreiter, Antje
Rural areas in Laos and Cambodia have significant structural shortcomings. The REEPRO project, an advanced training activity conducted by several European and Asian partners, brings know how into these regions to sustainably overcome the deficits. (orig.)
Start Date: September 27, 2013. End Date: December 31, 2015. Topic: HEALTH EXPENDITURE, SMOKING, TOBACCO, RESPIRATORY DISEASES, CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, TUBERCULOSIS, SOUTHEAST ASIA. Region: Cambodia, Far East Asia, Central Asia, South Asia. Program: Food, Environment, and Health.
US Agency for International Development — Helping Address Rural Vulnerabilities and Ecosystem Stability (Cambodia-HARVEST) was a five-year program (2011-2016) supported under the Global Hunger and Food...
Durnez, Lies; Mao, Sokny; Denis, Leen; Roelants, Patricia; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc
...), targeting indoor- and late-biting malaria vectors only. The present study evaluated the vector density, early biting activity and malaria transmission of outdoor-biting malaria vectors in two forested regions in Cambodia...
Wilde, de W.J.J.O.; Duyfjes, B.E.E.; Ham, van der R.W.J.M.
A new monotypic genus from Cambodia is described. The genus is defined by a unique combination of characters and has distinct pollen features. The only species is Khmeriosicyos harmandii W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes.
Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Based on an analysis of gender inequalities, strategies and promising initiatives to counter gender discrimination and promote equality between men and women in Cambodia, Kazakhstan, and the Philippines, as well as an inventory of global good legal, economic, and social practices, this report summarizes the findings and recommendations for Cambodia. It shows how to improve equitable employment opportunities, remuneration and treatment for women and men at work to support the development of de...
China has re-emerged to become a dominant foreign player in Cambodia. Politically, Cambodia is one of China’s oldest and closest allies. Economically, China is Cambodia’s top foreign investor, a major donor, and an increasingly important trading partner. Culturally, Chinese values are deeply embedded in many aspects of Cambodian society. However, China’s dominance is surrounded by renewed controversies. While the government warmly welcomes Chinese ...
In barley, the GPC (Grain Protein Content) has proved to be of great importance for both feed, food and beer production. When it comes to feed and food, a high GPC is desirable since it indicates good nutritional values, while in beer production a low and stable GPC is needed to avoid beer chill haze. In previous studies a decrease in the GPC has been seen in different accessions of barley developed at different time periods during the last 100 years. The gene family HvNAM, including the gene...
Schär, Fabian; Guo, Li; Streit, Adrian; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Marti, Hanspeter; Odermatt, Peter
Little is known about the genetic variability of the soil-transmitted nematode, Strongyloides stercoralis, in humans. We sequenced portions of the small subunit rDNA (SSU), including the hyper variable regions (HVR) I and IV from S. stercoralis larvae derived from individuals living in a rural setting in Cambodia. We identified three polymorphic positions, including a previously reported one within the HVR I. HVR IV was invariable. Six different SSU alleles existed in our sample. Although different genotypes of S. stercoralis were found in the same individuals, no heterozygous larvae were found. This indicates that there is no or very little interbreeding between the different genotypes. Further studies are needed to examine if this is because sexual reproduction, which is facultative, is rare in our study area's S. stercoralis population or because what is considered to be S. stercoralis today is actually a complex of closely related species or subspecies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mitchell, William A
...) shortages in the Khmer Republic (Cambodia) which had resulted from successful enemy attacks on commercial shipping vessels sailing the Mekong River inside Cambodia These attacks, combined with the closure of land Route 4 from the port city...
Lopez, Jaime R; Mukaire, Pamela E; Mataya, Ronald H
.... Risky behaviors are a threat to the health of many young people in Cambodia. We studied a sample of 300 youths to describe sexual and reproductive health characteristics and risky behaviors in two rural provinces of Cambodia...
Kong, R; Sar, V.; Soueng, K.; Thy, B.; Boulakia, Stephane; Leng, V.; Huot, L.; Nhem, S; Pheav, S.; Manuel R. Reyes; Tivet, F.; Séguy, L.
Hybrid of corn are widely grown since early 2000s by smallholders in the western areas of Cambodia. A large number of hybrids are available on the market. LTRA-12 (Conservation agriculture for food security in Cambodia and the Philippines)
Jung, Chang Hee; Kim, Kwang Joon; Lee, Yun-Kyu; Kwon, Jin-Hyun; Lee, Byung Wan; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Park, Joong-Yeol; Khun, Touch; Cha, Bong-Yun; Cho, Nam H
Recently the Korea Diabetes Association participated in the 'Cambodia-Korea Twinning Project' to help Cambodia establish its own modernized diabetes center and to raise awareness of the seriousness of diabetes. Here we report the status of diabetes in an urban area of Cambodia as obtained through this project. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hayes, Jennifer A.; Ivanusic, Jason J.; le Roux, Cara M.; Hatzopoulos, Kate; Gonsalvez, David; Hong, Someth; Durward, Callum
After Phnom Penh was liberated from the Khmer Rouge in 1979, health science education in Cambodia had to be completely rebuilt. In this article, the authors report the results of a teaching collaboration between the University of Melbourne (Australia), the International University (Cambodia), and the University of Health Sciences (Cambodia). The…
Pendergrass, W.; Vogel, C. A.
As an outcome of discussions between Duke Energy Generation and NOAA/ARL following the 2009 AMS Summer Community Meeting, in Norman Oklahoma, ARL and Duke Energy Generation (Duke) signed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) which allows NOAA to conduct atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) research using Duke renewable energy sites as research testbeds. One aspect of this research has been the evaluation of forecast hub-height winds from three NOAA atmospheric models. Forecasts of 10m (surface) and 80m (hub-height) wind speeds from (1) NOAA/GSD's High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model, (2) NOAA/NCEP's 12 km North America Model (NAM12) and (3) NOAA/NCEP's 4k high resolution North America Model (NAM4) were evaluated against 18 months of surface-layer wind observations collected at the joint NOAA/Duke Energy research station located at Duke Energy's West Texas Ocotillo wind farm over the period April 2011 through October 2012. HRRR, NAM12 and NAM4 10m wind speed forecasts were compared with 10m level wind speed observations measured on the NOAA/ATDD flux-tower. Hub-height (80m) HRRR , NAM12 and NAM4 forecast wind speeds were evaluated against the 80m operational PMM27-28 meteorological tower supporting the Ocotillo wind farm. For each HRRR update, eight forecast hours (hour 01, 02, 03, 05, 07, 10, 12, 15) plus the initialization hour (hour 00), evaluated. For the NAM12 and NAM4 models forecast hours 00-24 from the 06z initialization were evaluated. Performance measures or skill score based on absolute error 50% cumulative probability were calculated for each forecast hour. HRRR forecast hour 01 provided the best skill score with an absolute wind speed error within 0.8 m/s of observed 10m wind speed and 1.25 m/s for hub-height wind speed at the designated 50% cumulative probability. For both NAM4 and NAM12 models, skill scores were diurnal with comparable best scores observed during the day of 0.7 m/s of observed 10m wind speed and 1.1 m/s for hub
Wong, Paul Kin-shing
The incidence and prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has been increasing in most developed countries. In developing countries, however, there has been a lack of reliable data. To assess the frequency of unsuspected urine abnormality and hypertension in Cambodia. From April to December 2012, 1,013 new patient records of the Mercy Medical Center (MMC) in Cambodia were reviewed. 915 patients aged ≥ 18 years were included for analysis. Patients with history of hypertension (HT) were excluded for blood pressure (BP) analysis. Patients with history of diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HT), chronic kidney disease (CKD), or with symptoms of renal disease were excluded for urinalysis study. 820 patients had no history of HT. Among this group, 73 (8.9%) had abnormal BP with 60 (7.3%) having BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg and 13 (1.6%) having isolated systolic HT (BP ≥ 140/ 5/high power field (HPF)), 156 (30.6%) having either significant proteinuria or hematuria; and 199 (39.0%) had urine white blood cell count (WBC) ≥ 1+. Overall, 275 patients (53.9%) had 1 or more urinary abnormalities on urinalysis. Abnormal urinalysis (53.9%) and abnormal BP measurement (8.9%) were common findings among asymptomatic patients referred to the MMC. Unlike findings in other countries, no association of family history of DM, HT, or CKD and the risk of kidney disease or abnormal BP was found. A comprehensive community screening program for HT and kidney disease is urgently needed to prevent ESRD in Cambodia.
This article presents the speech of the President of the Viet Nam Women's Union, given on April 15, 1998, at a world women's solidarity meeting held in Cuba. The President gave the Cuban Women's Federation US$50,000 for women's and children's programs. The President indicated that the Vietnamese people wanted to help alleviate the hardships of the Cuban people and show solidarity with Cuba and Comrade Fidel Castro. The money was collected in a nationwide campaign in an effort to express Viet Nam's sympathy for Cubans who face difficult living conditions due to the US embargo. The President thanked the Cuban people for standing up to a superpower for all the world to see and for being confident and optimistic despite hardships. The Vietnamese are ready to defend revolutionary achievements, independence, and socialism. The Vietnamese will be celebrating the 35th year of the founding of the Cuban Committee for Solidarity with Viet Nam, Laos, and Cambodia. The Vietnamese delegation offered warm greetings to the Cuban Party and State and the Cuban women and children under the leadership of Comrade Fidel Castro.
Clarke, David; Duke, Jan; Wuliji, Tana; Smith, Alyson; Phuong, Keat; San, Un
This paper describes a rapid assessment of Cambodia's current system for regulating its health professions. The assessment forms part of a co-design process to set strategic priorities for strengthening health profession regulation to improve the quality and safety of health services. A health system approach for strengthening health professions' regulation is underway and aims to support the Government of Cambodia's plans for scaling up its health workforce, improving health services' safety and quality, and meeting its Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) obligations to facilitate trade in health care services. The assessment used a mixed methods approach including: A desktop review of key laws, plans, reports and other documents relating to the regulation of the health professions in Cambodia (medicine, dentistry, midwifery, nursing and pharmacy); Key informant interviews with stakeholders in Cambodia (The term "stakeholders" refers to government officials, people working on health professional regulation, people working for the various health worker training institutions and health workers at the national and provincial level); Surveys and questionnaires to assess Cambodian stakeholder knowledge of regulation; Self-assessments by members of the five Cambodian regulatory councils regarding key capacities and activities of high-performing regulatory bodies; and A rapid literature review to identify: The key functions of health professional regulation; The key issues affecting the Cambodian health sector (including relevant developments in the wider ASEAN region); and "Smart" health profession regulation practices of possible relevance to Cambodia. We found that the current regulatory system only partially meets Cambodia's needs. A number of key regulatory functions are being performed, but overall, the current system was not designed with Cambodia's specific needs in mind. The existing system is also overly complex, with considerable duplication and
Project on Training of Non-Formal Education Personnel: National Workshops in Bhutan, Nepal, and India cum Study Visits Undertaken by Teams of China, Lao PDR and Viet Nam (June 17-July 5, 1998) (APPEAL).
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.
This report is a summary of study visits plus workshops that took place in Bhutan, Nepal, and India in 1998 within the framework of UNESCO's Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL). Three educators each from China, Lao PDR, and Vietnam and educators from the host countries participated. The project aimed to promote literacy and…
William E. Willmott
Full Text Available Address to the Thailand, Laos, Cambodia Studies Association at the Association for Asian Studies Annual Conference in Toronto, March 16, 2012This event has given me the opportunity to return to almost the beginning of my academic career: my doctoral fieldwork in Cambodia fifty years ago. (It was preceded by fieldwork in an Inuit community in the Ungava, Northern Canada; not relevant here. Rereading my publications from that research has allowed me to relive the excitement of my Cambodian year, living with my wife and child in Phnom Penh apart from a month in Siem Reap, where I could hire a cyclo for ten riels and visit the various ruins of Angkor every afternoon. Research on overseas Chinese was informed by different paradigms in those days. Bill Skinner was a leading thinker in the field, and Maurice Freedman, my mentor and supervisor, was another. Our issues focused on community social structure and nationalism—many of us were supporters of the national liberation movements in Southeast Asian countries. For most of us, Chinese identity was simply a methodological issue...
Full Text Available In the millennium leading up to its days of glory and regional leadership under the iconic Angkor empire, and even in the centuries of dependence since, Cambodia has often benefited significantly from the influence of its patrons, starting with traders from India who sailed up the Mekong at the beginning of a magnificent water transport system including an inland sea. Most recently such benefits have been from global and multilateral sources. Equally, due to its pivotal strategic location at the centre of the South-East corner of Asia, Cambodia has also suffered, at times enormously, from the competing influences of a plethora of well-intentioned but radically different influences: religious, cultural, linguistic, imperial, political, ideological and educational. This article will review the educational system of Cambodia and the issues that come with achieving political and now psychological freedom from dependence on foreign dominance and tutelage.
Jesús Carlos Corral Fuentes
Full Text Available After reviewing the historical, political, and, above all, social context of Cambodia, in which this Southeast Asian country’s progress but also its great shortfalls are shown, the author enters fully into the previous history and current situation of relations between theEU and Cambodia. For this, he analyses the different existing economic, trade and cooperation agreements, to focus on the EU-Cambodia Programme (1993-2000 concerning technical and financial assistance, restoration, disaster victims, NGOs, refugees, democracy and human rights, as well as the environment, drugs and economic cooperation. The EU, along with Japan, is one of the main contributors to Cambodia’s process of restoration and reconstruction, although the overall size of the EU’s cooperation is still considerably lower than that provided by the bilateral cooperation of its member states.
Full Text Available Rice production underpins the national economy and the most rural livelihoods in Cambodia, but it is negatively impacted by repeated droughts. The research reported on in this paper focuses on relationships between drought occurrences in Cambodia’s most drought-prone province (Kampong Speu and (i damage to the annual rice harvest between 1994 and 2011, and (ii the Niño 3.4 index. Droughts were identified using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI. In seven of the years between 1994 and 2006 droughts damaged >1000 ha of rice in the Kampong Speu province. Furthermore, in 11 years >200 ha of rice were damaged. A critical success index of 0.66 obtained for an analysis of SPI-defined drought and area rice damage in the province indicates a strong statistical relationship. A statistically significant correlation (r = −0.455 was achieved between Niño 3.4 and 12-month SPI values lagged by three months, this indicates the importance of ENSO linkages in explaining drought in this region. Late season droughts lead to greater rice damage than early- and mid-season droughts.
Tomitaka, Masataka; Taguchi, Hisataka; Matsuoka, Masayoshi; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji; Akamatsu, Takashi
We screened an industrial thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, KF7, as a potent lactic-acid-assimilating yeast. Heterothallic haploid strains KF7-5C and KF7-4B were obtained from the tetrads of the homothallic yeast strain KF7. The inefficient sporulation and poor spore viability of the haploid strains were improved by two strategies. The first strategy was as follows: (i) the KF7-5C was crossed with the laboratory strain SH6710; (ii) the progenies were backcrossed with KF7-5C three times; and (iii) the progenies were inbred three times to maintain a genetic background close to that of KF7. The NAM12 diploid between the cross of the resultant two strains, NAM11-9C and NAM11-13A, showed efficient sporulation and exhibited excellent growth in YPD medium (pH 3.5) at 35°C with 1.4-h generation time, indicating thermotolerance and acid tolerance. The second strategy was successive intrastrain crosses. The resultant two strains, KFG4-6B and KFG4-4B, showed excellent mating capacity. A spontaneous mutant of KFG4-6B, KFG4-6BD, showed a high growth rate with a generation time of 1.1 h in YPD medium (pH 3.0) at 35°C. The KFG4-6BD strain produced ascospores, which were crossed with NAM11-2C and its progeny to produce tetrads. These tetrads were crossed with KFG4-4B to produce NAM26-14A and NAM26-15A. The latter strain had a generation time of 1.6 h at 35°C in pH 2.5, thus exhibiting further thermotolerance and acid tolerance. A progeny from a cross of NAM26-14A and NAM26-15A yielded the strain NAM34-4C, which showed potent lactic acid assimilation and high transformation efficiency, better than those of a standard laboratory strain. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Koya, Shafees; Shetty, Sandeep; Husain, Akhter; Khader, Mustafa
The objective of the study was to evaluate the results of nasoalveolar molding (NAM) in the treatment of patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate using a modified technique in a South Indian population. The design was a prospective study with blinded measurements. The sample constituted 10 complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients who underwent NAM therapy by the same operator. Direct extra and intra oral anthropometric measurements were done using a digital vernier caliper before and after NAM therapy. A photographic evaluation was also done to rate the nasal deformity post NAM therapy. The differences between measurements were statistically analyzed using paired t tests. The extra oral measurements revealed a statistically significant increase in bi-alar width, columellar length and width. The intraoral measurements demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in anterior alveolar cleft width. There was also a significant increase in arch width and greater and lesser segments length. All cases were rated as improved by the surgeons in photographic analysis. The study has quantitatively shown that the modified NAM therapy improved nasal asymmetry by columellar lengthening and effectively molded the maxillary alveolar arch.
Full Text Available The origin, evolution and distribution of cultivated barley provides powerful insights into the historic origin and early spread of agrarian culture. Here, population-based genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine the evolution and origin of barley and how domestication and subsequent introgression have affected the genetic diversity and changes in cultivated barley on a worldwide scale. A set of worldwide cultivated and wild barleys from Asia and Tibet of China were analyzed using the sequences for NAM-1 gene and gene-associated traits-GPC (grain protein content. Our results showed Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Near Eastern barley, and confirmed that Tibet is one of the origin and domestication centers for cultivated barley, and in turn supported a polyphyletic origin of domesticated barley. Comparison of haplotype composition among geographic regions revealed gene flow between Eastern and Western barley populations, suggesting that the Silk Road might have played a crucial role in the spread of genes. The GPC in the 118 cultivated and 93 wild barley accessions ranged from 6.73% to 12.35% with a mean of 9.43%. Overall, wild barley had higher averaged GPC (10.44% than cultivated barley. Two unique haplotypes (Hap2 and Hap7 caused by a base mutations (at position 544 in the coding region of the NAM-1 gene might have a significant impact on the GPC. SNPs and haplotypes of NAM-1 associated with GPC in barley could provide a useful method for screening GPC in barley germplasm. The Tibetan wild accessions with lower GPC could be useful for malt barley breeding
Krause, P.; Biskop, S.; Helmschrot, J.; Flügel, W.-A.; Kang, S.; Gao, T.
The Tibetan Plateau and the adjacent high mountain regions of the Himalayas play an important role in the global climate dynamic through its impact on the Asian monsoon system, which in turn is impacting the water resources of this extremely vulnerable region. To provide further knowledge about the changing impact of rainfall patterns, spatial and temporal variability of snow cover contribution, amount of snow and ice melt runoff, evapotranspiration as well as dynamics of wetlands and permafrost water balance studies are required. This is of particular importance in terms of global climate change because of a severe gap in the knowledge of the short, mid and long term implications on the hydrological system. This study concentrates on the macroscale catchment of the lake Nam Co, located at 4718 m a.s.l. at the foot of the Nyainqentanglha Mountains in central Tibet (30° N, 90° E). The water balance of the Nam Co basin is dominated by semi-arid climate, snow and ice melt runoff and high evaporation rates due to the high radiation input and the low air humidity. The observed temperature rise, glacier retreat, permafrost decay and lake level increase indicate significant system changes and the high sensitivity of the Tibetan Plateau on global warming. The development of a suitable water balance model and its preliminary application was the main objective of this study. The development was done with the Jena Adaptable Modelling System JAMS along with existing scientific process components of the J2000 module library which were partly further developed to reflect the specific conditions of the high elevation Nam Co basin. The preliminary modelling exercise based on gridded data from a downscaled ECHAM5 data set provided reasonable estimates about the important hydrological water balance components of the Nam Co basin. With the modelling results the observed lake level rise could be reproduced and it could be shown that the runoff from the glaciered areas seems to be
New hydrological insights: A water isotope framework for the Nam Co basin, including the Local Meteoric Water Line, limiting isotopic composition of evaporation and two hypothetical evaporation trajectories, is established. We further applied the isotope mass balance model to estimate the overall isotopic composition of input water to the Nam Co, the evaporation over inputs ratios (E/I for three consecutive years, and the water yields (Wy, depth equivalent runoff at a basin scale. Our results clearly suggest a positive water budget (i.e., E/I < 1, providing another line of evidence that the subsurface leakage from Nam Co is likely. The discrepancy between isotope-based water yields estimations and field-based runoff observations suggest that, compared to the well-studied Nyainqentanglha Mountains and southwestern mountains, the ridge-and-valley landscape in the western highlands and northwestern hogbacks are possibly low yields area, which should draw more research attentions in future hydrological investigations.
Women in Cambodia are subject to widespread discrimination, including in access to education, employment and politics. Although laws have been promulgated to protect the rights of women, enforcement remains a concern. This project hypothesizes that weak governance and lack of transparency in the legal system ...
Smallholder vegetable farmers in Siem Reap, Cambodia experienced declining crop productivity. It could be a result of a mixture of factors such as nutrient and pest problems and extreme weather events such as droughts and/or heavy rains. The no-till, continuous mulch and diverse species principles o...
Horwood, Paul F.; Andronico, Alessio; Tarantola, Arnaud; Salje, Henrik; Duong, Veasna; Mey, Channa; Ly, Sovann; Dussart, Philippe; Cauchemez, Simon
Enterovirus 71 is reported to have emerged in Cambodia in 2012; at least 54 children with severe encephalitis died during that outbreak. We used serum samples collected during 2000–2011 to show that the virus had been widespread in the country for at least a decade before the 2012 outbreak. PMID:26690000
Roehler, Douglas R; Ear, Chariya; Parker, Erin M; Sem, Panhavuth; Ballesteros, Michael F
This study examines the risk characteristics of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia over a 5-year period (2007-2011). Secondary data analyses were conducted using the Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System, the only comprehensive and integrated road crash surveillance system in the country. Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Handicap International found that (1) males are dying in motorcycle crashes roughly seven times more frequently than females; (2) motorcyclist fatalities increased by about 30% from 2007 to 2011; (3) the motorcyclist death rates per 100,000 population increased from 7.4 to 8.7 deaths from 2007 to 2011; and (4) speed-related crashes and not wearing motorcycle helmet were commonly reported for motorcyclist fatalities at approximately 50% and over 80% through the study years, respectively. Additionally, this study highlights that Cambodia has the highest motorcycle death rate in South-East Asia, far surpassing Thailand, Malaysia, and Myanmar. By recognising the patterns of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia, local road-safety champions and stakeholders can design targeted interventions and preventative measures to improve road safety among motorcyclists.
In Cambodia new information and communication technologies (ITCs) are almost nonexistent outside the major cities. The country's national ICT policy framework is in its formative stage, receptive to policy research and strategy development for digital inclusion of poor rural areas. This project will support collaboration ...
Sam, Chanphirun; Dahles, Heidi
This article examines how stakeholders involve themselves in the higher education (HE) sector in donor-dependent Cambodia and to what extent and with what result these stakeholders succeed to collaborate, or fail to do so. This study is based on qualitative data from semi-structured interviews with 46 key research participants from relevant…
10 juil. 2014 ... In Cambodia, rural diets typically lack protein and micronutrients, leading to high rates of stunting in children and anemia in women. Since 1998, Helen Keller International (HKI) has supported women in homestead-level production of nutrient-rich fruits, vegetables, and animal source foods. In 2012, rearing ...
Region: Cambodia, Canada, United States. Program: Agriculture and Food Security. Total Funding: CA$ 4,500,000.00. Urban Climate Resilience in Southeast Asia Partnership. Project. Planning for climate change is a daunting challenge for governments in the Mekong Region of Southeast Asia. Start Date: January 9, 2013.
In developing countries like Cambodia, it is often assumed that the cost of tobacco-related disease to national economies and households is low, despite a high number of male smokers. There are a number of reasons for this. Reporting of tobacco-related disease is low. Treatment for anything other than infectious disease ...
Oct 28, 2010 ... The hill people in Cambodia's Ratanakiri province set a powerful precedent that has served as a model for the country's land tenure laws. With IDRC support, they protected their livelihoods — under threat from logging and land-clearing — by establishing legal rights to their land and its resources.
Women in Cambodia are subject to widespread discrimination, including in access to education, employment and politics. ... nongovernmental organization staff, traditional leaders, women defendants, women victims of crime, rural women and men - on women's access to justice. ... Legal Support for Children and Women.
Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Language and Orientation Resource Center.
A handbook for those involved in Southeast Asian refugee assistance discusses some of the values and customs that refugee groups from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam may have in common and looks at the different countries and peoples of the region. A section on the shared values and customs of Indochinese refugees focuses on aspects of family life,…
Overtoom, Rob; Khieu, Virak; Hem, Sopheak; Cavailler, Philippe; Te, Vantha; Chan, Sarin; Lau, Phea; Guillard, Bertrand; Vong, Sirenda
Melioidosis has never been officially reported from Cambodia. Here we report two cases, a 58-year-old male (case 1) and a 49-year-old female (case 2) who presented with respiratory illnesses featuring multiple lung abscesses. The sputum culture of both patients, taken in the framework of a laboratory-based study on aetiologies of (sub-)acute respiratory infections among hospitalized patients in southern Cambodia, grew Burkholderia pseudomallei. The most striking aspect of these case stories was the extent of the delays in diagnosis. Presenting with a 1-month history of respiratory symptoms, case 1 was first suspected of tuberculosis (TB) infection, and then misdiagnosed as 'metastatic lung cancer' in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Case 2 suffered from pulmonary infections for >10 years, during which time she was treated for TB four times. Neither patient ever produced acid-fast-bacilli (AFB)-positive sputum. Following our laboratory confirmation, the patients were traced for re-admission. Under the 'classical' trimethoprim sulphamethoxazole, chloramphenicol and doxycycline treatment, their clinical status improved considerably within 2 weeks. The two study cases illustrate issues relating to the misdiagnosis of melioidosis in Cambodia; an unfamiliarity of clinicians with the disease, which is associated with a high prevalence of TB. Therefore, a heightened awareness of melioidosis among clinicians would have a substantial impact on public health as the non-septicaemic form of the disease is potentially treatable with antibiotics that are available in Cambodian public hospitals.
The objectives of this paper are to map strategies for resource mobilization of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in different sectors in heavily aid-dependent Cambodia and analyse the past and future trends of each of the evolving strategies. The data used is the product of a national survey
The teaching of foreign languages in Cambodia is examined in the light of its recent history. The paper describes the French colonial period, beginning in 1863, the emergence of the independent state under King Sihanouk (1953-70), the Khmer Republic (1970-75) and Democratic Kampuchea (1975-79), during which the infamous mass killings took place,…
This grant will allow the Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance (SEATCA) to coordinate a research program in support of the successful implementation (in the case of Cambodia) and ratification (in the case of Lao PDR) of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC).
The challenge. Cambodia produces enough rice to feed its population but maternal and child under-nutrition remains high because of a lack of crop diversity beyond rice, and a lack of nutrient- rich food. This over reliance on rice has resulted in a diet that is about 76% carbohydrate, only 10% protein, and only 14% fat.
Apr 29, 2016 ... In Cambodia, rural diets typically lack protein and micronutrients, leading to high rates of stunting in children and anemia in women. Since 1998, Helen Keller International (HKI) has supported women in homestead-level production of nutrient-rich fruits, vegetables, and animal source foods. In 2012, rearing ...
The global financial crisis of 2008 has aggravated poverty and inequality through contractions in employment, consumption and investment. While there have been a number of studies of the effect of the crisis on Cambodia, there have been few on the coping strategies of the poor at the household level. This project seeks to ...
Este artigo analisa como a "comédia negra" Namíbia, Não!, do jovem dramaturgo baiano Aldri Anunciação, elabora as últimas consequências da famosa democracia racial brasileira e dos direitos humanos, e como vai até os limites do discurso pós-colonialista "politicamente correto" no Brasil do século XXI. This article analyzes how the "black comedy" Namíbia, Não!, by the young playwright Aldri Annunciation, from Bahia, elaborates the last consequences of the famous Brazilian racial democracy a...
Full Text Available Adoption of the Paris Agreement suggests the urgent need for developing countries to establish a forest reference emission level (FREL if they wish to seek financial support to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. Analysis of past trends of deforestation is important for establishing a FREL, but so far only a handful of studies exist on such analysis at the commune level. We used the available data of forest cover in 2002 and 2006 and forest inventory data to analyze forest cover and carbon stock changes according to seven forest types at commune level in Cambodia. Carbon stocks were estimated in four carbon pools, namely aboveground, belowground, litter and deadwood pools. This analysis formed the basis for determining the FREL at national and provincial levels in Cambodia. We found that carbon emissions due to deforestation were 82.2 TgCO2 yr−1, but carbon sinks (removals due to increase of forest cover were 72.3 TgCO2 yr−1, representing the net emission loss of 9.9 TgCO2 yr−1 between 2002 and 2006. Taking the trend of deforestation between 2002 and 2006 as a baseline, FREL for a 30-year timeframe was estimated for six time intervals. FRELs at national level were estimated to be 26.8 to 69.2 TgCO2 yr−1 or up to 36% of the total greenhouse gas emissions in Cambodia. Our study provides a first look at how to set subnational and national FRELs for Cambodia using a retrospective approach. Such a framework could form a useful basis for Cambodia to adopt the national and subnational FRELs, for which effective policies can be developed to address the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation.
Nguyen Quang Tuan
Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.3.2.127-137The Nam Con Son Basin covering an area of circa 110,000 km2 is characterized by complex tectonic settings of the basin which has not fully been understood. Multiple faults allowed favourable migration passageways for hydrocarbons to go in and out of traps. Despite a large amount of newly acquired seismic and well data there is no significant update on the tectonic evolution and history of the basin development. In this study, the vast amount of seismic and well data were integrated and reinterpreted to define the key structural events in the Nam Con Son Basin. The results show that the basin has undergone two extentional phases. The first N - S extensional phase terminated at around 30 M.a. forming E - W trending grabens which are complicated by multiple half grabens filled by Lower Oligocene sediments. These grabens were reactivated during the second NW - SE extension (Middle Miocene, that resulted from the progressive propagation of NE-SW listric fault from the middle part of the grabens to the margins, and the large scale building up of roll-over structure. Further to the SW, the faults of the second extentional phase turn to NNE-SSW and ultimately N - S in the SW edge of the basin. Most of the fault systems were inactive by Upper Miocene except for the N - S fault system which is still active until recent time.
Yamamoto, Sota; Matsumoto, Tetsuo
This paper focuses on the processes of producing fermentation starters in Cambodia, in order to explore the dispersal routes of starters in Southeast Asia. Spices, herbs, and a sweet ingredient are widely used to make starters in Cambodia, and many people put new starters on rice husks or straw. These widely distributed techniques may have originated in one place and later dispersed throughout Southeast Asia. Two different production processes are used in Cambodia: one based on a “rice wine c...
Günther, F.; Witt, R.; Schouten, Stefan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/137124929; Mausbacher, R.; Daut, G.; Zhu, Liping; Xu, B.; Yao, T.; Gleixner, G.
The transition from the Last Glacial to the current Interglacial, the Holocene, represents an important period with climatic and environmental changes impacting ecosystems. In this study, we examined the interplay between the Indian Ocean Summer Monsoon (IOSM) and the Westerlies at lake Nam Co,
This article analyzes how the “black comedy” Namíbia, Não!, by the young playwright Aldri Annunciation, from Bahia, elaborates the last consequences of the famous Brazilian racial democracy and of the human rights, and how it goes until the limits of the “politically correct” post-colonialist discourse in Brazil of the XXI century.
M.E.C. Javier; Tangcalagan, K.C.; Manuel R. Reyes
This poster presents gendered impacts of the adoption of CAPS in the project sites in Cambodia and the Philippines. LTRA-12 (Conservation agriculture for food security in Cambodia and the Philippines)
Kosterin, Oleg E
Prodasineura hoffmanni sp. nov. is described from Annamense Mountains in eastern Cambodia (holotype: Cambodia, Mondulkiri Province, 4.2 km SE of Dak Dam village, 12°23'10-18'' N 107°19'22-30'' E, 877-878 m asl, 14. VI. 2014, RMNH). The species has a blue pattern, and the male is characterised by medium-broad blue stripes on synthorax and blue colour at the end of the abdomen confined to a tiny spot on S9, dorsum of S10 and cerci. A female of P. doisuthepensis Hoess, 2007 is described. Based on original descriptions, the following synonymy is proposed: Prodasineura fujianensis Xu, 2006 = Prodasineura huai Zhou et Zhou, 2007, syn. n.
Kosterin, Oleg E
Microgomphus alani sp. nov. is described from two males from the coastal southwestern foothills of the Cardamom Mts. in southwestern Cambodia (type locality: Cambodia, Koh Kong Province, 17 km ENE of Koh Kong, 'Macromia Rivulet', 11°40'17'' N, 103°07'28'' E, 296 m a.s.l., 3 vi 2014, RMNH). The species is characterised by its small size (hindwing 21-23 mm), cerci with outer angulations, truncated apices and crescent-shaped inner arms sprouting from their middle and not reaching their apices, synthorax with two parallel black lateral stripes and dorsal and collar yellow stripes fused in 7-like manner. Probably females of the same species were earlier reported from Phrae Province in northern Thailand.
Jiao, Xi; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Theilade, Ida
, determinants of major income sources, and the impacts of land grabbing on incomes. Results documented high reliance on environmental income (32–35% of total household income) and farm income (51–53%) across income quartiles; demonstrated the variation in product composition across quartiles......This paper empirically quantifies environmentally augmented rural household incomes in Cambodia and analyzes how economic land concessions (ELCs) affect such incomes. Data is derived from a structured survey of 600 randomly selected households in 15 villages in three study sites in Cambodia, where...... local livelihoods are highly reliant on access to land and natural resources, supported by qualitative data from focus group discussions. Gini coefficient decomposition, multiple regression models, and propensity score matching (PSM) models were employed to analyze the composition of income portfolios...
Pagnarith, Yos; Kumar, Varun; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Sin, Lina; Day, Nicholas P; Peacock, Sharon J
We describe the first cases of pediatric melioidosis in Cambodia. Thirty-nine cases were diagnosed at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, between October 2005 and December 2008 after the introduction of microbiology capabilities. Median age was 7.8 years (range = 1.6-16.2 years), 15 cases were male (38%), and 4 cases had pre-existing conditions that may have pre-disposed the patient to melioidosis. Infection was localized in 27 cases (69%) and disseminated in 12 cases (31%). Eleven cases (28%) were treated as outpatients, and 28 (72%) cases were admitted. Eight children (21%) died a median of 2 days after admission; seven deaths were attributable to melioidosis, all of which occurred in children receiving suboptimal antimicrobial therapy and before bacteriological culture results were available. Our findings indicate the need for heightened awareness of melioidosis in Cambodia, and they have led us to review microbiology procedures and antimicrobial prescribing of suspected and confirmed cases.
ALIS is a hand-held dual sensor developed by Tohoku University, Japan since 2002. Dual sensor is a general name of sensor for humanitarian demining, which are equipped with metal detector and GPR. ALIS is only one hand-held dual sensor, which can record the sensor position with sensor signals. Therefore, the data can be processed after data acquisition, and can increase the imaging capability. ALIS has been tested in some mine affected courtiers including Afghanistan (2004), Egypt(2005), Croatia(2006-) and Cambodia(2007-). Mine fields at each country has different conditions and soil types. Therefore testes at the real mine fields are very important. ALIS has detected more than 30 AP-Mines in evaluation test in Cambodia held in 2009.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little information about influenza disease among the Cambodian population. To better understand the dynamics of influenza in Cambodia, the Cambodian National Influenza Center (NIC was established in August 2006. To continuously monitor influenza activity, a hospital based sentinel surveillance system for ILI (influenza like illness with a weekly reporting and sampling scheme was established in five sites in 2006. In addition, hospital based surveillance of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI cases was established in 2 sites. Methods The sentinel sites collect weekly epidemiological data on ILI patients fulfilling the case definition, and take naso-pharyngeal specimens from a defined number of cases per week. The samples are tested in the Virology Unit at the Institut Pasteur in Phnom Penh. From each sample viral RNA was extracted and amplified by a multiplex RT-PCR detecting simultaneously influenza A and influenza B virus. Influenza A viruses were then subtyped and analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition assay. Samples collected by the ALRI system were tested with the same approach. Results From 2006 to 2008, influenza circulation was observed mainly from June to December, with a clear seasonal peak in October shown in the data from 2008. Conclusion Influenza activity in Cambodia occurred during the rainy season, from June to December, and ended before the cool season (extending usually from December to February. Although Cambodia is a tropical country geographically located in the northern hemisphere, influenza activity has a southern hemisphere transmission pattern. Together with the antigenic analysis of the circulating strains, it is now possible to give better influenza vaccination recommendation for Cambodia.
Berik, Günseli; van der Meulen Rodgers, Yana
This study examines labor standards enforcement and compliance in two Asian economies (Bangladesh and Cambodia) that have amongst the lowest labor costs in the world but are experiencing strong pressures to improve the price competitiveness of their textile and garment exports. Analysis of survey, focus group, and inspection data indicate differing trajectories in compliance with basic labor standards. While extremely low wages and poor working conditions have persisted in Bangladesh, complia...
Bonnet, Maryline; San, Kim Chamroeun; Pho, Yati; Sok, Chandara; Dousset, Jean-Philippe; Brant, William; Hurtado, Northan; Eam, Khun Kim; Ardizzoni, Elisa; Heng, Seiha; Godreuil, Sylvain; Yew, Wing-Wai; Hewison, Cathy
Prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease is poorly documented in countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB). We describe prevalence, risk factors, and TB program implications for NTM isolates and disease in Cambodia. A prospective cohort of 1,183 patients with presumptive TB underwent epidemiologic, clinical, radiologic, and microbiologic evaluation, including >= 12-months of follow-up for patients with NTM isolates. Prevalence of NTM isolates was 10.8% and of disease ...
Wijedoru, Lalith P M; Kumar, Varun; Chanpheaktra, Ngoun; Chheng, Kheng; Smits, Henk L; Pastoor, Rob; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Baker, Stephen; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Peacock, Sharon J; Putchhat, Hor; Parry, Christopher M
Typhoid fever was confirmed by positive blood culture in 5 (3.7%) of 134 febrile children hospitalized in Cambodia. Typhoid was suspected in an additional 25 (18.7 %) blood culture-negative children based on: a positive immunoglobulin M lateral flow assay (IgMFA) (16); a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Salmonella typhi (2); or clinical assessment (7). The specificity of the IgMFA and PCR assays requires further study.
Boulakia, B.; Hok, L.; Phally, K.; Manuel R. Reyes; Mercado, Agustin R., Jr.; Ella, Victor B.; Edralin, Don Immanuel
Degraded landscapes are expanding annually in Southeast Asia. Rural poverty in upland communities increases pressure on natural resources like forest, soil and water . These are the last “capital” for the poor and they are rapidly diminishing due to non-sustainable management. Such practices reduce agricultural productivity, which in turn heightens food insecurity and exacerbates poverty. LTRA-12 (Conservation agriculture for food security in Cambodia and the Philippines)
Zhang, Xin; Ming, Jing; Li, Zhongqin; Wang, Feiteng; Zhang, Guoshuai
Equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentrations were measured by an aethalometer (AE-31) in the Nam Co, central Tibet from 2010 to 2014. Different from previous filter-sampling studies (Ming et al., J Environ Sci 22(11):1748-1756, 2010; Zhao et al., Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:5827-5838, 2013), the first high-resolution online eBC measurement conducted in central Tibet is reported here, allowing to discuss the diurnal variations as well as seasonal variabilities of eBC. Average daily eBC concentration was 74 ± 50 ng/m(3), reflecting a global background level. Meteorological conditions influenced eBC concentrations largely at seasonal scale, which are higher in February-May but lower in June-January. The highest eBC concentrations (greater than 210 ng/m(3)) were more associated with the W and WSW winds smaller than 6 m/s. The diurnal variations of eBC showed plateaus from 10:00 to 15:00 with seasonal variations, associated with local anthropogenic activities, such as indigenous Tibetan burning animal waste and tourism traffic. The PBLHs showed a co-variance with eBC concentrations, implicating close sources. The aerosol optical depths derived from the MODIS data over the Nam Co Observatory Station (NCOS)-included sub-area (30° N-40° N, 90° E-100° E) showed significant relationship with eBC concentrations. This suggests that nearby or short-distance sources other than long-distance transported pollutants could be important contributors to eBC concentrations at the NCOS, different from the conclusions suggested by previous studies.
... of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public Law 106-429). 1245.21 Section 1245.21 Aliens... certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public Law 106-429). (a) Eligibility. The..., Cambodia, or Laos who: (1) Was inspected and paroled into the United States before October 1, 1997; (2) Was...
Full Text Available One of the most notable writers of Turkish literature, Namık Kemal was rather a school unto himself, owing to his pursuits in the creation of a New literature, his works and critical essays. Several prominent figures assembled around him, sharing his thoughts, and also defending him ardently. More often than not praised, he was sometimes criticized bitterly. Introducing Western literary forms to a nascent universe, he assigned importance to theater. For him, it isentertainment – but a most useful distraction. “Mukaddime-i Celal” isthe preface of the title “Celalettin Harzemşah.” This prelude wascomposed with an allusion to Victor Hugo’s Cromwell foreword. In this,his views on drama are markedly captivating. He penned his play “KaraBela” (“Misfortune” while in exile in Famagusta. Publishedposthumously, it was purported, however, to be rather a tenuous piece.“Kara Bela” was criticized in “Tenkidat-ı Edebiye – Namık Kemal - KaraBela Münasebetiyle” (“A Literary Critique – On Merits of Namık Kemal’s‘Misfortune’,” written in 1911 by Şahabettin Süleyman, among theillustrious portraits of the Fecr-i Âti (“Pending Twilight” period. Heportrays Namık Kemal as a crony of the commoners. Thereafter, headjudges that its plotline fails to align with real life. Remarkably, hechooses the less formal reference of “Kemal,” who has prevailed in theliterary realm long before his debut. Criticized in this article for hisartistic stature, Namık Kemal will be assessed with the Author-BasedCritical Approach. Evidently, this method places the artist at the core ofthe critique. Türk edebiyatının önemli sanatkârlarından biri olan Namık Kemal, yeni bir edebiyatın oluşmasında ve tanınmasında gösterdiği gayretlerle, eserleriyle, eleştirileriyle, âdeta bir ekol olmuştur. İsminin etrafında birçok isim toplanmış, düşüncelerini paylaşıp, onu savunmuşlardır. Çoğu zaman övülen Namık Kemal
Abe, Hitofumi [Ecosystems Research Group, School of Plant Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Katayama, Akio [JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Nippon Koei Co. Ltd., Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Sah, Bhuwneshwar P. [JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Pasco Corporation, Tokyo 153-0043 (Japan); Toriu, Tsuyoshi [JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Sojitz Research Institute, Ltd., Tokyo 107-0052 (Japan); Samy, Sat; Pheach, Phon [Ministry of Industry, Mines and Energy, Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Adams, Mark A. [School of Biological Earth and Environmental Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Grierson, Pauline F. [Ecosystems Research Group, School of Plant Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)
Around 76% of the 10,452 villages of Cambodia will still be without electricity in the year 2010. We examined the potential of biomass gasification fuelled by alternative resources of agricultural residues and woody biomass to increase rural power supply, using geographic and social economic databases provided by the Royal Government of Cambodia. About 77% of villages currently without electricity have sufficient land available for tree planting for electricity generation based on a requirement of 0.02 ha per household. Among 8008 villages with sufficient land, we assumed that those villages that had greater than 10% of households owning a television (powered by a battery or a generator) would have both a high electricity demand and a capacity to pay for electricity generation. Those 6418 villages were considered appropriate candidates for mini-grid installation by biomass gasification. This study demonstrated that while agricultural residues such as rice husks or cashew nut shells may have high energy potential, only tree farming or plantations would provide sufficient sustainable resources to supply a biomass gasification system. Cost per unit electricity generation by biomass gasification is less than diesel generation when the plant capacity factor exceeds 13%. In order to ensure long-term ecological sustainability as well as appropriate tree-farming technology for farmers, there is an urgent need for studies aimed at quantifying biomass production across multiple rotations and with different species across Cambodia. (author)
Wren, Hilary; Chambers, Lori
To conduct a knowledge, attitudes and practices study of breastfeeding in the province of Krong Kep, Cambodia. Mothers' breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes and practices were evaluated using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered in Khmer to women with at least one child less than 60 months of age. Women meeting the eligibility requirements (N = 141) answered questions regarding their infant feeding practices, including initiation and duration of breastfeeding. In Cambodia, the decision to breastfeed is rooted in a history of poverty. Twenty-five percent of women sampled initiated breastfeeding within the first hour post-delivery. In total, 82% of women initiated breastfeeding within the first 24 hours post-delivery, and 53% of women breastfed exclusively for exactly the recommended 6 months' duration. Nine women who reported exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months did not initiate breastfeeding within the first 24 hours post-delivery, likely because of the cultural practice of "roasting." Professional breastfeeding support programs do not exist in Krong Kep, Cambodia.
Full Text Available Open distance learning (ODL has long been an important option for formal and non-formal education (NFE in most developed and developing countries, but less so in post-conflict countries, including Cambodia. However, in Cambodia there is now greater awareness that ODL can complement traditional face-to-face educational approaches, particularly as there is a shortage of teachers in the country. Thus, understanding how ODL can achieve learning and other objectives has important implications for both formal education and NFE. If it can be found to be effective, ODL has the potential of reaching a large number of people at comparatively lower average costs. This paper reports on a project where the same content was taught to farmers in Cambodia via traditional face-to-face and via ODL and compares outcomes between the different training methods. Exploring the extent to which farmers had adopted new farm practices taught in the course, our results indicate that the outcomes did not vary considerably between those trained using the different approaches.
Ros, Bandeth; Lê, Gillian; McPake, Barbara; Fustukian, Suzanne
Globally, traditional medicine has long been used to address relatively common illness, mental ill health and during childbirth and post-natal care. However, traditional medicine is primarily provided by the private sector and it is unclear how far expenditures on traditional medicine contribute to household impoverishment. A life history method was used to understand the health seeking experience of 24 households over the last 60 years in Cambodia, a country with high out-of-pocket expenditures for health. The life histories suggest that traditional medicine in Cambodia has been undergoing a process of commercialization, with significant impacts on poor households. In the earlier lives of respondents, payments for traditional medicine were reported to have been flexible, voluntary or appropriate to patients' financial means. In contrast, contemporary practitioners appear to seek immediate cash payments that have frequently led to considerable debt and asset sales by traditional medicine users. Given traditional medicine's popularity as a source of treatment in Cambodia and its potential to contribute to household impoverishment, we suggest that it needs to be included in a national conversation about achieving Universal Health Coverage in the country. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
Full Text Available The present study aims to measure the technical efficiency and establish core factors affecting rice production in Cambodia. A four‐year dataset generated from the central government document “Profile on Economics and Social” of 25 entire provinces between 2012 and 2015 and the stochastic production frontier model (SFA was applied. The results indicated that the level of output (quantity of Cambodian rice production varied according to the different level of capital investment in agricultural machineries, total rice actual harvested area, and technical fertilizer application within provinces. Furthermore, evidence revealed that the overall mean efficiency of rice production is 78.4%, which implies that there is still room to further improve technical efficiency given the same level of inputs and technology. More importantly, the findings revealed that irrigation, production techniques and amount of agricultural supporting staff are the most important influencing factors of rice production’s technical efficiency in Cambodia. In conclusion, the present study strongly recommends the development of irrigation systems and good water management practices to be considered and bring about more effective actions by the central government as well as related agencies for improving rice production in Cambodia in addition to capital investment and improving technical skills of supporting staff and rural farmers.
This paper critically discusses the educational policy trajectories of Singapore and Cambodia in an era of globalization. Drawing upon David Johnson's five metaphors to describe the historical and political forces that shape educational policy trajectories, the paper argues that Cambodia's current educational policy trajectory is characterized by…
Rao, Nirmala; Sun, Jin; Pearson, Veronica; Pearson, Emma; Liu, Hongyun; Constas, Mark A.; Engle, Patrice L.
This study evaluated the relative effectiveness of home-based, community-based, and state-run early childhood programs across Cambodia. A total of 880 five-year-olds (55% girls) from 6 rural provinces in Cambodia attending State Preschools, Community Preschools, Home-Based Programs, or no programs were assessed twice using the Cambodian…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Royal Government of Cambodia Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of... Act with respect to the Royal Government of Cambodia and I hereby waive such restriction. This...
Since 2001 the government of Cambodia has striven to advance policy-led education reform based on a sector-wide approach. This paper critically reviews the status and progress of Cambodia's education reform from the perspective of the aid's effectiveness. The paper looks at the performance of the sector reform in the three priority areas…
Based on ethnographic research conducted in north-west Cambodia in 2000-2001, this paper examines why disabled people experience systematic marginalisation in the labour market. Although there are no official data on the relationship between disability and employment status in Cambodia, this research suggests that disabled people are more likely…
Peto, Thomas J.; Debackere, Mark; Etienne, William; Vernaeve, Lieven; Tripura, Rupam; Falq, Gregoire; Davoeung, Chan; Nguon, Chea; Rekol, Huy; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Dondorp, Arjen M.; Sanann, Nou; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; de Smet, Martin; Pell, Christopher; Kindermans, Jean-Marie
Two mass drug administrations (MDA) against falciparum malaria were conducted in 2015-16, one as operational research in northern Cambodia, and the other as a clinical trial in western Cambodia. During an April 2017 workshop in Phnom Penh the field teams from Medecins Sans Frontieres and the
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cambodia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Cambodia and I hereby waive this restriction. This...
Conclusions: The B. pertussis population in Cambodia, where a whole-cell pertussis vaccine (WCV has been continuously used, resembled those observed previously in developed countries where acellular pertussis vaccines are used. Circulating B. pertussis strains in Cambodia were distinct from those in other countries using WCVs.
This paper uses Cambodia as a case study to problematise the notion of choice in the spread of English. I explore specific historical contexts which were central to the construction of the demand for English and English language teaching (ELT) in Cambodia. The actions of a range of external agencies resulted in the close discursive articulation of…
This paper discusses the Cambodian government's attempt to promote civic and moral values in Cambodia schools through the subject "Civics and Morals". The paper argues that the tensions and challenges associated with civic and moral education are linked to a fundamental difference between the traditional view of education in Cambodia,…
Kijtorntham, Wichuda; Ruangdej, Phumjit; Saisuwan, Chatchanog
Thailand and Cambodia set up educational cooperation since 1996, before signed a Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in the Promotion of Education in 2003. This research aimed to investigate outcomes of educational cooperation projects on Cambodia human development and international understanding, process of participatory learning and…
Full Text Available Cambodia is located in Southeast Asia on the Indochina Peninsula and borders Vietnam, Laos, Thailand and the Gulf of Thailand (Figure 1. With a total area of 69,898 square miles and population of 15,458,332, Cambodia’s population density has steadily increased since 1980. The country’s annual rate of urbanization is 2.65 %. As of 2014, 20.5% of the population lives in an urban setting. The estimated population growth rate is 1.63% (1. The capital of Cambodia is Phnom Penh, which is located in the southern part of the country. Other major cities include Battambang and Siem Reap, both of which have populations over 150,000. There are officially 24 provinces and one municipality (Phnom Penh. However, many consider Phnom Penh to be its own province. As a result, some research puts the number of Cambodian provinces at 25. The climate is tropical with two seasons: monsoon season (May to November and dry season (December to April. Temperatures range from approximately 70 to 95°F. Cambodia’s economy largely depends on the garment industry, tourism, construction, real estate and agriculture. Cambodia gained independence from France in 1953 and was first ruled by a constitutional monarchy under King Norodom Sihanouk. After a five-year struggle starting in 1970, the Khmer Rouge captured Phnom Penh in 1975. Pol Pot, the leader of the Khmer Rouge, oversaw a brutal regime that, through executions and forced labor, was responsible for the deaths of at least 1.5 million Cambodians. The Vietnamese drove out the Khmer Rouge in 1979. After years of Vietnamese occupation, the 1991 Paris Peace Accords established a ceasefire and a democratic framework for the country. By 1993 elections established a new coalition government; yet, political instability and violence persisted throughout the 1990s. Cambodia most recently held elections in 2013, as a multiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy.The devastation caused by the Khmer Rouge has had long
Full Text Available Reduction of neonatal and under-five mortality rates remains a primary target in the achievement of universal health goals, as evident in renewed investments of Sustainable Development Goals. Various studies attribute declines in mortality to the combined effects of improvements in health care practices and changes in socio-economic factors. Since the early nineties, Cambodia has managed to evolve from a country devastated by war to a nation soon to enter the group of middle income countries. Cambodia's development efforts are reflected in some remarkable health outcomes such as a significant decline in child mortality rates and the early achievement of related Millennium Development Goals. An achievement acknowledged through the inclusion of Cambodia as one of the ten fast-track countries in the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health. This study aims to highlight findings from the field so to provide evidence for future programming and policy efforts. It will be argued that to foster further advances in health, Cambodia will need to keep neonatal survival and health high on the agenda and tackle exacerbating inequities that arise from a pluralistic health system with considerable regional differences and socio-economic disparities.Data was drawn from Demographic Health Surveys (2000, 2005, 2010, 2014. Information on a series of demographic and socio-economic household characteristics and on child anthropometry, feeding practices and child health were collected from nationally representative samples. To reach the required sample size, live-births that occurred over the past 10 years before the date of the interview were included. Demographic variables included: gender of the child, living area (urban or rural; four ecological regions (constructed by merging provinces and the capital, mother's age at birth (<20, 20-35, 35+, birth interval (long, short and birth order (1st, 2-3, 4-6, 7+. Socio-economic variables included: mother
Full Text Available This article analyzes how the “black comedy” Namíbia, Não!, by the young playwright Aldri Annunciation, from Bahia, elaborates the last consequences of the famous Brazilian racial democracy and of the human rights, and how it goes until the limits of the “politically correct” post-colonialist discourse in Brazil of the XXI century.
Macfarlane, Gary J; Lunt, Mark; Palmer, Benedict; Afzal, Cara; Silman, Alan J; Esmail, Aneez
Name-based classification systems are potentially useful in identifying study samples based on probable ethnic minority group. The aim of the current study was to assess the validity of the Nam Pehchan name classification programme of religion and language against subject self-report. A population-based cross-sectional survey conducted in areas of the North-West and West Midland regions of England with a relatively high density of South Asian ethnic minority groups. The sampling frame was age-sex registers of selected general practices and subjects were classified according to language and religion using the Nam Pehchan programme. These were compared with responses by subjects on a self-complete postal questionnaire. One thousand nine hundred and forty-nine subjects who participated, classified themselves as South Asian. Sensitivity in identifying religion was high amongst Muslims (92%) and Sikhs (86%), and somewhat lower in Hindus (62%). Specificity exceeded 95% for all ethnic groups. The vast majority of subjects assigned Punjabi or Gujarati as their main South Asian language indicated that they did in fact speak these languages (97% and 94%, respectively). Subjects assigned Urdu or Bengali, however, were less likely to do so (61% and 35%, respectively). The name-based classification system Nam Pehchan has demonstrated high levels of accuracy in some sub-groups of the South Asian population in determining subjects likely language spoken and religion-and is likely to be a useful additional tool when information on ethnicity is not already available.
Hong, Rathmony; Ahn, Pauline Yongeun; Wieringa, Frank; Rathavy, Tung; Gauthier, Ludovic; Hong, Rathavuth; Laillou, Arnaud; Van Geystelen, Judit; Berger, Jacques; Poirot, Etienne
Reduction of neonatal and under-five mortality rates remains a primary target in the achievement of universal health goals, as evident in renewed investments of Sustainable Development Goals. Various studies attribute declines in mortality to the combined effects of improvements in health care practices and changes in socio-economic factors. Since the early nineties, Cambodia has managed to evolve from a country devastated by war to a nation soon to enter the group of middle income countries. Cambodia's development efforts are reflected in some remarkable health outcomes such as a significant decline in child mortality rates and the early achievement of related Millennium Development Goals. An achievement acknowledged through the inclusion of Cambodia as one of the ten fast-track countries in the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health. This study aims to highlight findings from the field so to provide evidence for future programming and policy efforts. It will be argued that to foster further advances in health, Cambodia will need to keep neonatal survival and health high on the agenda and tackle exacerbating inequities that arise from a pluralistic health system with considerable regional differences and socio-economic disparities. Data was drawn from Demographic Health Surveys (2000, 2005, 2010, 2014). Information on a series of demographic and socio-economic household characteristics and on child anthropometry, feeding practices and child health were collected from nationally representative samples. To reach the required sample size, live-births that occurred over the past 10 years before the date of the interview were included. Demographic variables included: gender of the child, living area (urban or rural; four ecological regions (constructed by merging provinces and the capital), mother's age at birth (gender inequities became almost non-existent (for all measures of equality); inequity related to mother's education decreased for all time periods
Shimizu, A.; Tamai, K.; Kabeya, N.; Shimizu, T.; Iida, S. I.
The Lower Mekong River flows through Cambodia, where forests cover ~60% of the country and are believed to have a marked effect on the water cycle. These tropical seasonal forests in the Cambodian flat lands are very precious in the Indochinese Peninsula as few forests of this type remain. However, few hydrological observations have been conducted in these areas. In Cambodia, deciduous and evergreen forests make up 42% and 33% of the total forest area, respectively. We established experimental watersheds both in deciduous and evergreen forests containing meteorological observation towers in Cambodia and collected various observational data since 2003 (O'Krieng, deciduous forest watershed including a 30-m-high observation tower, 2,245 km2; Stung Chinit, evergreen forest watershed including a 60-m-high observation tower, 3,700 km2 including three small watersheds). The basic data from these sites included various kinds of information related to the composition of vegetation, soil characteristics, etc. Hydrologic data was collected and linked to the above data; the main hydrologic research results follow. The water budget for each watershed was determined using an observational rainfall and runoff dataset. The evapotranspiration rate in an evergreen forest was obtained using various observational methods including the Bowen energy-balance ratio and the bandpass eddy covariance method. The annual evapotranspiration of evergreen forests, estimated using the Bowen energy-balance ratio method and water balance, was about 1100-1200 mm, corresponding to 70-80% of annual rainfall. While considering the importance of the presence of evergreen forest, we conducted sap flow measurements to analyze the transpiration process that maintains water uptake through root systems that reach to depths exceeding 8 m. Characteristics of the evaporation from the forest floor that form an important element of the evaporation system were estimated in both evergreen and deciduous forests.
Laillou, Arnaud; Mam, Borath; Oeurn, Sam; Chea, Chantum
Though the consequences of nutritional iodine deficiency have been known for a long time, in Cambodia its elimination has only become a priority in the last 18 years. The Royal Government of Cambodia initiated the National Sub-Committee for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in 1996 to fight this problem. Using three different surveys providing information across all provinces, we examined the compliance of salt iodization in Cambodia over the last 6 years. Salt samples from the 24 provinces were collect at the household level in 2008 (n = 566) and 2011 (n = 1275) and at the market level in 2014 (n = 1862) and analysed through a wavelength spectrophotometer for iodine content. According to the samples collected, the median iodine content significantly dropped from 22 mg/kg (25th/75th percentile: 2/37 mg/kg) in 2011 to 0 mg/kg in 2014 (25th/75th percentile: 0/8.9 mg/kg) (p < 0.001). The proportion of non-iodized salt within our collected salt drastically increased from 22% in 2011 to 62% in 2014 (p < 0.001). Since the international organizations ceased to support the procurement of iodine, the prevalence of salt compliant with the Cambodian declined within our samples. To date, the current levels of iodine added to tested salt are unsatisfactory as 92% of those salts do not meet the government requirements (99.6% of the coarse salt and 82.4% of the fine salt). This inappropriate iodization could illustrate the lack of periodic monitoring and enforcement from government entities. Therefore, government quality inspection should be reinforced to reduce the quantity of salt not meeting the national requirement.
Kim, Sophanarith; Koike, Masao (Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan)); Nophea Sasaki (Graduate School of Applied Informatics, University of Hyogo, Kobe (Japan))
Due to rapid deforestation and fast growing population over the last three decades, a future shortfall of wood supply (wood and firewood) is expected in Cambodia. Therefore, alternative source of wood supply for cooking energy are needed. This alternative could potentially come from wood residues such as onsite and offsite residues. The aim of this report is to develop a modeling tool that can be used to estimate wood residues from logging (onsite) and wood processing (offsite), and to explore an appropriate system for distributing the wood residues in Cambodia. We analyze potential wood residues in evergreen, mixed and deciduous forests in Cambodia. For comparison, total wood residues are analyzed under three forest management scenarios: Business as usual (BAUSU), long-term economic gains (LEGA) and climate beneficial option (CLIBO). Under the BAUSU, LEGA and CLIBO the potential onsite biomass is totally estimated at 1.67, 1.00, and 0.35 million Mg year' (1 Mg = 106 g = 1 ton), respectively. Total offsite (SW and VW) biomass per year is estimated at 1.00, 0.60, and 0.20 million Mg under the BAUSU, LEGA and CLIBO, respectively. Total potential forest biomasses (onsite and offsite) are estimated at 2.68, 1.61 and 0.53 million Mg year' under BAUSU, LEGA and CLIBO, respectively. Our results suggested that, regardless of management scenarios forest biomasses are potentially available. Due to the fact that approximately 95% of Cambodian population depend mainly on fuel wood for daily cooking energy, effective system for distributing forest biomasses to the needed local population could greatly reduce the pressure on natural forest, which has been deforested and overexploited since the last few decades. (orig.)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. CHIKV causes fever and usually is not fatal, but can cause debilitating joint pains or, in rare instances, severe illness. The East/Central/South African strain of chikungunya has been emerging in Asia since 2006, first in the Indian subcontinent, then Thailand. This report describes the characteristics of a local outbreak linked with chikungunya reemergence in a rural Asian setting. Sporadic cases of chikungunya were identified in Cambodia in 2011. Antibodies to CHIKV have been detected in serum collected in Cambodia in 2007, but the strain could not be identified for those cases (U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit 2, unpublished data, 2012). On March 7, 2012, several cases of rash with fever were reported among village residents of Trapeang Roka in Kampong Speu Province, Cambodia. Subsequent field investigation revealed that four of six blood samples from affected persons were positive for CHIKV by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit 2 in Phnom Penh. Investigators from the Cambodian Communicable Disease Control Department, National Malaria Center, Institut Pasteur du Cambodge (IPC), local health centers, and village authorities conducted a seroprevalence study of village residents on March 26 to gather information for response planning and control efforts. The outbreak affected families throughout the village, and 44.7% of the population tested had evidence of infection by CHIKV, which affected all age groups. Public health agencies and policymakers in affected and nearby unaffected areas of Asia and elsewhere should be alert to the potential spread and reemergence of CHIKV.
Lambrick, Frances H; Brown, Nick D; Lawrence, Anna; Bebber, Daniel P
Cambodia has 57% forest cover, the second highest in the Greater Mekong region, and a high deforestation rate (1.2%/year, 2005-2010). Community forestry (CF) has been proposed as a way to reduce deforestation and support livelihoods through local management of forests. CF is expanding rapidly in Cambodia. The National Forests Program aims to designate one million hectares of forest to CF by 2030. However, the effectiveness of CF in conservation is not clear due to a global lack of controlled comparisons, multiple meanings of CF, and the context-specific nature of CF implementation. We assessed the effectiveness of CF by comparing 9 CF sites with paired controls in state production forest in the area of Prey Long forest, Cambodia. We assessed forest condition in 18-20 randomly placed variable-radius plots and fixed-area regeneration plots. We surveyed 10% of households in each of the 9 CF villages to determine the proportion that used forest products, as a measure of household dependence on the forest. CF sites had fewer signs of anthropogenic damage (cut stems, stumps, and burned trees), higher aboveground biomass, more regenerating stems, and reduced canopy openness than control areas. Abundance of economically valuable species, however, was higher in control sites. We used survey results and geographic parameters to model factors affecting CF outcomes. Interaction between management type, CF or control, and forest dependence indicated that CF was more effective in cases where the community relied on forest products for subsistence use and income. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.
Khieu, Virak; Marti, Hanspeter; Chhay, Saomony; Char, Meng Chuor; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter
Human intestinal sarcocystosis (HIS), caused by Sarcocystis species, is acquired by eating undercooked meat from sarcocyst-containing cattle (S. hominis, S. heydorni) and pigs (S. suihominis). We report on the detection of human intestinal Sarcocystis infections in a cross-sectional survey of Strongyloides stercoralis in early 2014, in Rovieng District, Preah Vihear Province, northern Cambodia. Among 1081 participants, 108 (10.0%) were diagnosed with Sarcocystis spp. oocysts in stool samples. Males had a significantly higher risk of infection than females (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.9, p=0.001). None of the reported symptoms (abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, muscle pain and itching skin) occurring in the two weeks preceding the examinations were associated with a Sarcocystis infection. Many Sarcocystis cases were found among those who had participated in a wedding celebration and Chinese New Year festivities, where they had consumed raw or insufficiently cooked beef (83.3%) and pork (38.9%) based dishes. This report documents the first HIS cases in Cambodia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nguon, Chea; Dysoley, Lek; Davoeung, Chan; Sovann, Yok; Sanann, Nou; Sareth, Ma; Kunthea, Pich; Vuth, San; Sovann, Kem; Kol, Kayna; Heng, Chhouen; Sary, Rouen; Peto, Thomas J; Tripura, Rupam; Lim, Renly; Cheah, Phaik Yeong
This article describes our experience using art and theatre to engage rural communities in western Cambodia to understand malaria and support malaria control and elimination. The project was a pilot science-arts initiative to supplement existing engagement activities conducted by local authorities. In 2016, the project was conducted in 20 villages, involved 300 community members and was attended by more than 8000 people. Key health messages were to use insecticide-treated bed-nets and repellents, febrile people should attend village malaria workers, and to raise awareness about the risk of forest-acquired malaria. Building on the experience and lessons learnt in the year prior, the 2017 project which was conducted in 15 villages involved 600 community members and attracted more than 12,000 people. In addition to the malaria theme, upon discussion with local health authorities, secondary theme (infant vaccination) was added to the 2017 project. We learnt the following lessons from our experience in Cambodia: involving local people including children from the beginning of the project and throughout the process is important; messages should be kept simple; it is necessary to take into consideration practical issues such as location and timing of the activities; and that the project should offer something unique to communities.
Pilsczek, F H
This paper describes research I conducted into health care and its difficulties while working as a visiting doctor in two developing countries. The research was conducted in the Departments of Medicine, University Hospital, Jalalabad, Afghanistan, in 1994 and 1995, and Calmette Hospital, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, in 1997 and 1998. In Afghanistan I did an observational study of medical practice and case studies at the Department of Medicine, and a survey of drugs sold in pharmacies in Jalalabad. In Cambodia I surveyed hemoglobin concentrations of medical patients, and did an observational study of medical practice and case studies at Calmette Hospital. I surveyed the body weight of medical patients in relation to drug doses, and used a questionnaire to survey prescribing practices of physicians. Each project was conducted by me alone and was completed within 1-3 months. The support by the hospital was good and there where no ethics committees that had to approve the projects. Only verbal consent from the patients had to be obtained and no national laws or regulations affected the research. Small clinical research projects in developing countries are relatively easy to perform, if conducted by one researcher working in a hospital and not relying on special equipment such as a computer.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue is endemic in Cambodia (pop. estimates 14.4 million, a country with poor health and economic indicators. Disease burden estimates help decision makers in setting priorities. Using recent estimates of dengue incidence in Cambodia, we estimated the cost of dengue and its burden using disability adjusted life years (DALYs. Methods Recent population-based cohort data were used to calculate direct and productive costs, and DALYs. Health seeking behaviors were taken into account in cost estimates. Specific age group incidence estimates were used in DALYs calculation. Results The mean cost per dengue case varied from US$36 - $75 over 2006-2008 respectively, resulting in an overall annual cost from US$3,327,284 in 2008 to US$14,429,513 during a large epidemic in 2007. Patients sustain the highest share of costs by paying an average of 78% of total costs and 63% of direct medical costs. DALY rates per 100,000 individuals ranged from 24.3 to 100.6 in 2007-2008 with 80% on average due to premature mortality. Conclusion Our analysis confirmed the high societal and individual family burden of dengue. Total costs represented between 0.03 and 0.17% of Gross Domestic Product. Health seeking behavior has a major impact on costs. The more accurate estimate used in this study will better allow decision makers to account for dengue costs particularly among the poor when balancing the benefits of introducing a potentially effective dengue vaccine.
Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S.; Jeong, Hoo-Gn; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Kang, A-Reum; Kim, Mok-Ryun; Park, Jung-Mi; Ji, Soo-Hyeon; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong
Fecal examinations using the Kato Katz technique were performed on a total of 1,287 villagers (945 students and 342 general inhabitants) of Oddar Meanchey Province, Cambodia in May 2007 and November 2009. The overall intestinal helminth egg positive rate was 23.9%, and the most prevalent helminth species was hookworms (21.6%). Other helminth eggs detected included echinostomes (1.0%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.8%), small trematode eggs (0.7%), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini and Haplorchis spp., and Hymenolepis nana (0.4%). In order to recover adult echinostomes, we treated 2 patients with 10-15 mg/kg praziquantel and purged. Total 14 adult echinostomes, 1 and 13 worms from each patient, were collected. The echinostomes characteristically had 49-51 collar spines and 2 round or slightly lobated testes. They were identified as Echinostoma ilocanum (Garrison, 1908) Odhner, 1911. So far as literature are concerned, this is the first record on the discovery of human E. ilocanum infection in Cambodia. PMID:21738278
Waldron, Nick R; Kennifer, Devan; Bourgois, Erin; Vanna, Keo; Noor, Saqib; Gollogly, James
Acid violence is the deliberate use of acid to attack another human being. Such attacks leave a terrible human, medical and surgical legacy. This study, from one of the largest cohorts of acid attack victims to date, provides insights into Cambodia's unique demographics of such attacks, as well as the human cost and necessary surgical interventions. A retrospective cohort consisting of all patients presenting to the Children's Surgical Centre, Phnom Penh with acid burns from 1 January 2000 to 1 January 2013 was identified and information retrieved from their hospital records. 254 patients were identified. Males and females were almost equally likely to be victims of an acid attack (48.4% and 51.6% respectively). There was no significant association between victim and assailant gender (p=0.475). The face (78.0%), neck (51.5%) and chest (49.0%) were the most frequently affected body areas. The median total surface body area affected by acid burns was 7.0%. The mortality rate from acid assault was 2.0%. Patients required an average of 2.0 operations, ranging from 0 to 18. Acid violence in Cambodia has a complex demographic which is different to many other developing countries and requires more investigation. Tougher legislation is required to reduce the incidence of these horrific crimes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Bonnet, Maryline; San, Kim Chamroeun; Pho, Yati; Sok, Chandara; Dousset, Jean-Philippe; Brant, William; Hurtado, Northan; Eam, Khun Kim; Ardizzoni, Elisa; Heng, Seiha; Godreuil, Sylvain; Yew, Wing-Wai; Hewison, Cathy
Prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease is poorly documented in countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB). We describe prevalence, risk factors, and TB program implications for NTM isolates and disease in Cambodia. A prospective cohort of 1,183 patients with presumptive TB underwent epidemiologic, clinical, radiologic, and microbiologic evaluation, including >12-months of follow-up for patients with NTM isolates. Prevalence of NTM isolates was 10.8% and of disease was 0.9%; 217 (18.3%) patients had TB. Of 197 smear-positive patients, 171 (86.8%) had TB confirmed (167 by culture and 4 by Xpert MTB/RIF assay only) and 11 (5.6%) had NTM isolates. HIV infection and past TB were independently associated with having NTM isolates. Improved detection of NTM isolates in Cambodia might require more systematic use of mycobacterial culture and the use of Xpert MTB/RIF to confirm smear-positive TB cases, especially in patients with HIV infection or a history of TB.
Sarriugarte Gómez, Íñigo
Full Text Available In 1958, the Korean artist Nam June Paik (*1932; †2006 meets in Germany John Cage (*1912; †1992, avant-garde musician, who was deeply interested in the Zen Buddhism. The meeting with Cage was vital, because the North American composer will convince him to orient his career towards the artistic avant-garde, giving up his facet like classic pianist. The philosophy of Cage is refl ected in compositions like “4’ 33’’, from 1952, where the spectator doesn’t listen the sound of the piano, because this isn’t played, but he listens a silence that is interrupted by the environmental sound. There are several versions of this piece, marking the silences by means of processes at random with the “I Ching”. In this sense, the silence used by John Cage is related to the vacuity of the Zen Buddhism. Also, Paik makes use of silence in numerous works, like “1963 TV Clock”, where 24 colour television sets are manipulated, feeling at the same time the silence, interrupted again by the own momentary circumstances of the spectator.
This same infl uence of the Zen Buddhism in the music of Cage is observed when argues that the music composed of melodies has the same value than the sound understood by us like noises. This aspect, among others, infl uenced to Paik, whose video images are defi ned like attributes of traditional works that don’t impress to the audience, but they suggest variable conditions. Some of his works related to Cage’s philosophy have been “Hommage à John Cage” from 1959; “Study for pianoforte” from 1960; and “Global Grove” from 1973, where Paik uses as a collage the images of his avant-garde collaborators John Cage, Allen Ginsberg and Merce Cunningham.
En 1958, el artista coreano Nam June Paik (*1932; †2006 conoce en Alemania a John Cage (*1912; †1992, músico vanguardista, quien estaba profundamente interesado en el budismo zen. Su encuentro con Cage fue vital, ya que el compositor
Benzian, H.; Holmgren, C.J.; Buijs, M.; van Loveren, C.; van der Weijden, F.; van Palenstein Helderman, W.H.
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed total and free fluoride concentrations in samples of toothpaste from Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, the Netherlands and Suriname, and investigated the labelling practices of the respective manufacturers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Convenience samples were bought in the five
HAMANO, Mitsuru; MATSUMOTO, Tetsuo; ITO, Kasumi
One of the key strategies for economic development and poverty alleviation, especially in rural areas of Cambodia, is brought about by adding value to local agricultural products by agro-processing...
McArthur, A; Soeung, S; Grundy, J; Kamara, L
Introduction: As part of its health system reconstruction following decades of civil war, Cambodia undertook a program of health sector reform in 1996 to expand coverage of essential health services...
Topic: SMOKING, TOBACCO INDUSTRY, ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS. Region: Far East Asia, Viet Nam, Central Asia, South Asia. Program: Food, Environment, and Health. Total Funding: CA$ 186,450.00. Health Costs Attributable to Smoking in Viet Nam. Project. The burden of disease caused by smoking, and the medical ...
... battle against tobacco in South Africa where smoking has been rated the second highest health concern. Improving natural resource management in Viet Nam's Hong Ha commune. An interdisciplinary research team of scientists and farmers is helping to defeat hunger and poverty in a poor mountain region of Viet Nam, ...
Health Costs Attributable to Smoking in Viet Nam. The burden of disease caused by smoking, and the medical and social costs associated with it, are not well quantified in low- and middle income countries. View moreHealth Costs Attributable to Smoking in Viet Nam ...
Full Text Available Cet article traite de la place du pluralisme médicamenteux au Viêt Nam dans le contexte de l’épidémie de VIH/sida et de la mise en place d’une nouvelle politique du médicament qui mène à la régulation du médicament traditionnel. Un des principaux problèmes dans la prise en charge du VIH/sida au Viêt Nam fut l’absence de médicaments appropriés, efficaces et accessibles. Contrairement à la Chine, la médecine traditionnelle au Viêt Nam ne s’est pas adaptée, ni n’a réussi à développer durablement de produits spécifiques. Pourtant, l’OMS favorise et incite les thérapeutes traditionnels à participer et à proposer des solutions et pas seulement dans le cadre de soins complémentaires ou palliatifs. On a pu parfois même observer des attitudes plutôt répressives de la part des autorités vietnamiennes à l’égard d’un médicament traditionnel qui n’était pas passé par l’evidence based medicine. En revanche, contrairement à la Chine, le Viêt Nam s’est orienté vers une production locale de médicaments génériques pour répondre aux besoins locaux et baisser le coût de la prise en charge du VIH.À l’aide d’une analyse de contenu de la presse vietnamienne sur le sujet nous tenterons de comprendre les enjeux politiques, économiques et culturels qui se cachent derrière le faible développement de médicaments traditionnels dans le cadre de la prise en charge du VIH/sida.Nous montrerons que l’occidentalisation pendant la période coloniale, l’ouverture du pays depuis le début des années 1990, la globalisation (vue ici comme la multiplication des échanges avec les pays occidentaux et l’intégration du Viêt Nam au reste du monde et à l’ASEAN et la chaîne de production du médicament pharmaceutique ont modifié les pratiques de pluralisme médicamenteux ainsi que la politique nationale en matière de santé, avec des implications à plus ou moins long terme sur les pratiques
Kosterin, Oleg E; Yokoi, Naoto
Asiagomphus reinhardti sp. nov. is described by two males from Annamense Mountains in eastern Cambodia (holotype: Cambodia, Mondulkiri Province, the left tributary of the main river downstream from Buu Sraa Waterfall, 12°34'01-19'' N 107°24'50''-25'03'' E, ca 450 m a.s.l., 15 vi 2014, RMNH) and southern Laos. The species is characterised by a large caudal lobe on S10 in males and a blunt medial lateroventral projection at cercus.
Berik, Günseli; van der Meulen Rodgers, Yana
This study examines the status and enforcement of labor standards in two Asian economies (Cambodia and Bangladesh) that are experiencing strong pressures to cut labor costs and improve the price competitiveness of their textile and garment exports. Analysis of survey, interview, and compliance data indicate differing trajectories in compliance with basic labor standards. While problems persist in Bangladesh, compliance has improved in Cambodia following a trade agreement with the United State...
Ryengen, Marius; Mørch, Grete Reinsberg
Objectives: The objective was to identify what special challenges the local communities in Cambodia meet concerning child sexual abuse and to find strategies to meet these challenges. Background: Since 1998 and the end of the civil war, IOM’s “Childhood Mental Health & Counter Trafficking Project” has worked to prevent child mental health problems in the Rattanak/Mondul District of Cambodia. In the year of 2004 it was stated by the Program Director Dr. Eng Samnang that one of their ...
L. V. Averyanov
Full Text Available Herbarium material collected in 2009–2013 in Cambodia and Laos provides 240 new localities for 156 orchid species (from 73 genera. Among them, 13 and 45 species respectively are new for the flora of each country. One species (Bulbophyllum konstantinovii discovered in Cambodia is described as new for science. Eight genera (Acanthephippium, Didymoplexiopsis, Eclecticus, Herpysma, Hetaeria, Lecanorchis, Neuwiedia, and Trichosma were found in Laos at first.
Kevin L Schully; Berjohn, Catherine M.; Prouty, Angela M.; Amitha Fitkariwala; Tin Som; Darith Sieng; Gregory, Michael J.; Andrew Vaughn; Sim Kheng; Vantha Te; Duplessis, Christopher A.; Lawler, James V; Danielle V Clark
Author summary In spite of the fact that Cambodia shares borders with well-known hyper-endemic areas for Burkholderia pseudomallei where thousands of melioidosis cases occur each year, only a handful of melioidosis cases have been described in Cambodia. This is due, in part, to the lack of appropriate diagnostic resources there and the fact that physicians are not familiar with the appropriate diagnostic and treatment algorithms. As a result, the true burden of melioidosis in Cambodia is dras...
Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa
The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of nonfatal injury among middle school students in Cambodia and Vietnam. Cross-sectional data from 7137 school children (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 1.4) who were randomly sampled for participation in nationally representative Global School-based Health Surveys (GSHS) in Cambodia and Vietnam were analyzed. The proportion of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 22.6% among boys and 17.5% among girls in Cambodia and 34.3% among boys and 25.1% among girls in Vietnam. The most prevalent cause of the most serious injury in Cambodia was traffic injuries (4.7% among boys and 4.3% among girls) and in Vietnam it was falls (10.0% among boys and 7.0% among girls). In multinomial logistic regression analyses, experiencing hunger (as an indicator for low socioeconomic status) and drug use were associated with having sustained one injury and two or more injuries in the past 12 months in Cambodia. In addition, poor mental health was associated with two or more injuries. In Vietnam, being male, experiencing hunger, current alcohol use, poor mental health and ever having had sex were associated with having sustained one injury and two or more injuries in the past 12 months. Several psychosocial variables were identified which could help in designing injury prevention strategies among middle school children in Cambodia and Vietnam.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of nonfatal injury among middle school students in Cambodia and Vietnam. Cross-sectional data from 7137 school children (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 1.4 who were randomly sampled for participation in nationally representative Global School-based Health Surveys (GSHS in Cambodia and Vietnam were analyzed. The proportion of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 22.6% among boys and 17.5% among girls in Cambodia and 34.3% among boys and 25.1% among girls in Vietnam. The most prevalent cause of the most serious injury in Cambodia was traffic injuries (4.7% among boys and 4.3% among girls and in Vietnam it was falls (10.0% among boys and 7.0% among girls. In multinomial logistic regression analyses, experiencing hunger (as an indicator for low socioeconomic status and drug use were associated with having sustained one injury and two or more injuries in the past 12 months in Cambodia. In addition, poor mental health was associated with two or more injuries. In Vietnam, being male, experiencing hunger, current alcohol use, poor mental health and ever having had sex were associated with having sustained one injury and two or more injuries in the past 12 months. Several psychosocial variables were identified which could help in designing injury prevention strategies among middle school children in Cambodia and Vietnam.
Vaccari, Mentore; Collivignarelli, Carlo; Tharnpoophasiam, Prapin; Vitali, Francesco
This paper reports the results of a study conducted in Ban Nam Khem village, the most hit in Thailand by 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, aimed to evaluate either the actual state and operation of numerous domestic wells present in the village or the quality of drawn groundwater. Data show that most critical chemical-physical parameters are turbidity, total organic carbon and iron, whereas conductivity has greatly decreased in comparison with the February 2005 monitoring campaign. Furthermore, a high faecal contamination related to both constructive and operational deficiencies was detected in most monitored wells; therefore, measures aimed at improving habits in well operation and favouring water domestic treatment are necessary.
Miotto, Olivo; Almagro-Garcia, Jacob; Manske, Magnus; MacInnis, Bronwyn; Campino, Susana; Rockett, Kirk A; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Lim, Pharath; Suon, Seila; Sreng, Sokunthea; Anderson, Jennifer M; Duong, Socheat; Nguon, Chea; Chuor, Char Meng; Saunders, David; Se, Youry; Lon, Chantap; Fukuda, Mark M; Amenga-Etego, Lucas; Hodgson, Abraham VO; Asoala, Victor; Imwong, Mallika; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Nosten, Francois; Su, Xin-zhuan; Ringwald, Pascal; Ariey, Frédéric; Dolecek, Christiane; Hien, Tran Tinh; Boni, Maciej F; Thai, Cao Quang; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; Conway, David J; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Zongo, Issaka; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Alcock, Daniel; Drury, Eleanor; Auburn, Sarah; Koch, Oliver; Sanders, Mandy; Hubbart, Christina; Maslen, Gareth; Ruano-Rubio, Valentin; Jyothi, Dushyanth; Miles, Alistair; O’Brien, John; Gamble, Chris; Oyola, Samuel O; Rayner, Julian C; Newbold, Chris I; Berriman, Matthew; Spencer, Chris CA; McVean, Gilean; Day, Nicholas P; White, Nicholas J; Bethell, Delia; Dondorp, Arjen M; Plowe, Christopher V; Fairhurst, Rick M; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P
We describe an analysis of genome variation in 825 Plasmodium falciparum samples from Asia and Africa that reveals an unusual pattern of parasite population structure at the epicentre of artemisinin resistance in western Cambodia. Within this relatively small geographical area we have discovered several distinct but apparently sympatric parasite subpopulations with extremely high levels of genetic differentiation. Of particular interest are three subpopulations, all associated with clinical resistance to artemisinin, which have skewed allele frequency spectra and remarkably high levels of haplotype homozygosity, indicative of founder effects and recent population expansion. We provide a catalogue of SNPs that show high levels of differentiation in the artemisinin-resistant subpopulations, including codon variants in various transporter proteins and DNA mismatch repair proteins. These data provide a population genetic framework for investigating the biological origins of artemisinin resistance and for defining molecular markers to assist its elimination. PMID:23624527
Merali, Hasan S; Bachani, Abdulgafoor M
This study examines factors associated with child passenger helmet use in five Cambodian provinces. We performed an analysis of periodic roadside observations of helmet use over a four-year period. A total of 62,039 child passengers 12 years of age and younger met inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Overall, 1369 (2.1%) of child passengers were observed to be wearing a helmet. Most significantly, children were six times more likely to wear a helmet if the driver was wearing a helmet (OR 6.2; 95% CI 5.1-7.5). In addition, the odds of helmet use were noted to be significantly different depending on province, day of the week, time of day and number of passengers on the motorcycle. This study highlights the extremely low rate of child passenger helmet use in Cambodia, and provides priorities for interventions and enforcement to ensure all children are protected from head injury.
Engle, Xavier; Aird, James; Tho, Ly; Bintcliffe, Fiona; Monsell, Fergal; Gollogly, Jim; Noor, Saqib
Telemedicine has the potential to increase access to both clinical consultation and continuing medical education in Cambodia. We present a Cambodian surgical centre's experience with a collaboration in which complicated orthopaedic cases were presented to a panel of consultants using free online videoconferencing software, providing a combined opportunity for both continuing education and the enhancement of patient care. Effects of the case conference on patient care were examined via a retrospective review and clinician perspectives were elicited via a qualitative survey. The case conference altered patient care in 69% of cases. All Cambodian staff reported learning from the conference and 78% reported changes in their care for patients not presented at the conference. Real-time videoconferencing between consultants in the developed world and physicians in a developing country may be an effective, low-cost and easily replicable means of combining direct benefits to patient care with continuing medical education.
Chhea, Chhordaphea; Warren, Narelle; Manderson, Lenore
A decade after health sector reform, public health services in rural Cambodia remain under-utilised for multiple reasons related to financial, structural and personnel factors. Ineffectiveness of rural public health services has led to a significant increase in private providers, often the same people who staff public facilities. Public health clinics are often portrayed as low quality, with long waiting times and unexpected costs; in contrast, private clinics are seen to provide more convenient health care. Several strategies, including contract management and health equity funds, have been introduced to improve public sector performance and encourage utilization; these efforts are ongoing. However, the feasibility of these strategies remains in question, particularly in terms of cost-effectiveness and sustainability. In this article the strategies of and barriers met by health workers who remain in rural areas and deliver public health services are elucidated. Ethnographic research conducted in 2008 with health providers involved in treating tuberculosis patients in Kampong Speu Province, Cambodia is drawn on. Participants were recruited from the provincial health department, provincial hospital and four health centres. Data collection involved in-depth interviews, participation in meetings and workshops aimed at health workers, and observation of daily activities at the health facilities. Data were transcribed verbatim, imported into NVivo software (www.qsrinternational.com) for management, and analysed using a grounded theory approach. Primary healthcare service delivery in rural Cambodia was reliant on the retention of mid-level of health staff, primarily midwives and nurses. Its performance was influenced by institutional characteristics relating to the structure of the health system. Personal factors were impacted on by these structural issues and affected the performance of health staff. Institutional factors worked against the provision of high
Liao, Chien-Wei; Cheng, Po-Ching; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Chiu, Kuan-Chih; Chiang, I-Chen; Kuo, Juo-Han; Tu, Yun-Hung; Fan, Yu-Min; Jiang, Hai-Tao; Fan, Chia-Kwung
Pediculus capitis is the most common human ectoparasite. When it feeds on the blood through the scalp of its host, the anticoagulant in its saliva causes scalp inflammation and itching, and consequent scratching by the host causes further inflammation from bacterial infection. P. capitis infestation is currently a common parasitic dermatosis and a critical public health concern in underdeveloped countries. Through naked eye inspection of P. capitis on or in the hair from 323 school children in Cambodia. A total of 143 children (44.3%) were found to have P. capitis infestation. Univariate analysis revealed that girls had a significantly higher infection rate than boys. Overall, young aged schoolchildren (10 yrs old ≤) showed significantly higher infection rate than old aged schoolchildren (>10 yrs old). Groups stratified by time revealed that schoolchildren studied at the afternoon classes than morning classes in Tuol Prum Muoy Primary School had a significantly higher risk in acquisition of P. capitis infestation. Multivariate analysis results indicated that relative to the boys, the girls were at a significantly higher risk of contracting P. capitis infection. When stratified by inspection time with the Tuol Prum Muoy Primary School morning classes as the reference, the Tuol Prum Muoy Primary School afternoon classes exhibited a significantly higher risk of P. capitis infection. Primary school children in Cambodia have a high P. capitis infection rate and thus require effective treatment and prevention measures to treat symptoms and lower the infection rate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Albert, Tyler J; Fassier, Thomas; Chhuoy, Meng; Bounchan, Youttiroung; Tan, Sokhak; Ku, No; Chhor, Nareth; LoGerfo, James P; West, T Eoin
The capacity to care for the critically ill has long been viewed as a fundamental element of established and comprehensive health care systems. Extending this capacity to health care systems in low- and middle-income countries is important given the burden of disease in these regions and the significance of critical care in overall health system strengthening. However, many practicalities of improving access and delivery of critical care in resource-limited settings have yet to be elucidated. We have initiated a program to build capacity for the care of critically ill patients in one low-income Southeast Asian country, Cambodia. We are leveraging existing international academic partnerships to enhance postgraduate critical care education in Cambodia. After conducting a needs assessment and literature review, we developed a three-step initiative targeting training in mechanical ventilation. First, we assessed and revised the current resident curriculum pertaining to mechanical ventilation. We addressed gaps in training, incorporated specific goals and learning objectives, and decreased the hours of lectures in favor of additional bedside training. Second, we are incorporating e-learning, e-teaching, and e-assessment into the curriculum, with both live, interactive and independent, self-paced online instruction. Third, we are developing a train-the-trainer program defined by bidirectional international faculty exchanges to provide hands-on, case-based, and bedside training to achieve competency-based outcomes. In targeting specific educational needs and a key population-the next generation of Cambodian intensivists-this carefully designed approach should address some existing gaps in the health care system and hopefully yield a lasting impact.
Mazumder, D N Guha; Majumdar, K K; Santra, S C; Kol, Hero; Vicheth, Chan
Ninety-seven subjects belonging to 40 families in a village in Cambodia were examined in a health camp where all the cases with skin disease assembled. These people had evidences of chronic arsenic exposure from reports of testing of water samples and of hair and/or nail studied. Seventy cases were diagnosed to be suffering from arsenicosis (Clinically and laboratory confirmed according to WHO criteria) as all these cases had evidences of pigmentation and/or keratosis characteristic of arsenicosis and history of exposure of arsenic contaminated water and/or elevated level of arsenic in hair and/or in nail. Highest number of cases belonged to age group of 31 to 45 yrs, both the sexes are more or less affected equally. Evidence of both pigmentation and keratosis were found in 60 cases (85.7%) while only pigmentation and only keratosis was found in 6 (8.5%) and 4 (5.7%) cases respectively. It was interesting to find 37.04% of children below the age of 16 years had skin lesions of arsenicosis. The youngest child having definite evidence of keratosis and pigmentation was aged 8 years, though two children aged 4 and 5 yrs had feature of redness and mild thickening of the palms. The minimum and maximum arsenic values detected in the nails were 1.06 and 69.48 mg/Kg respectively and the minimum and maximum arsenic values in hair were 0.92 and 25.6 mg/Kg respectively. No correlation was observed between arsenic concentration in drinking water and arsenic level in nail and hair. This is the first report of clinical and laboratory confirmed cases of arsenicosis in Cambodia.
Full Text Available People generally known as rayah in Ottoman State had some responsibilities to state. Among these responsibilities there were tax figures to be paid about agricultural and husbandry facilities. Each rayah doing husbandry facilities made payments in certain rates according to animal breed fed. Known as the tax of sheep and goat in the classical time of state, sheep tax gained a more general meaning and was subject to new regulations. It was initiated to be collected with a method called mukataa and expressing a certain amount determined in advance since the XVII. century of Ottoman State. Called as sheep tax mukataa, this income became one the most important figure of central treasury. Since the XIX. by abandoning the collection in kind method additional taxes with various names were also abolished.The price determined as the amount of tax was too much for some regions of the state because of regional differences in sheep prices. Because of this it was initiated to determine how much income was gained from the milk and wool of sheep and goat according to each region with the new regulation since the second part of the XIX. century. Determined by local administrations seperately, the tax figure of these amounts were determined in central office.As the rise in the taxes caused a negative effect on public, they were read justed towards the end of XIX. century. Reasons such as the current social situation of state, the worry of fund raising and political events caused changes in the encashment of taxes called as ağnam group. In ourwork the eight fold rise in ağnam tax which is accepted as one of the most important sources for recovering budget deficit of Ottoman State is goingto be studied. Osmanlı Devleti’nde reaya genel adıyla bilinen halkın, devletekarşı birtakım mükellefiyetleri vardı. Bu mükellefiyetler içerisinde,tarım ve hayvancılık faaliyetlerinden kaynaklı, ödenmesi gereken vergikalemleri mevcuttu. Hayvanc
Li, Gang; Lin, Hui
The Western Nyainqentanglha Mountains locates in the southeastern center of the Inner Tibetan Plateau (ITP). Glaciers in this region are influenced by both the continental climate of Central Asia and the Indian Monsoon system. Their melting on the western slopes feeds the Nam Co Lake, which is the second largest endorheic lake in the ITP. The elevation of Nam Co Lake increased at a rate of 0.25 ± 0.12 m year- 1 from 2003 to 2009. In this study, aimed at quantifying the decadal glacier mass balance in the Western Nyainqentanglha Mountains and their increasing melting contribution to Nam Co Lake; we applied the differential Bistatic SAR interferometry method to five pairs of TanDEM CoSSC datasets observed between 2013 and 2014 and SRTM acquired in 2000. The mean annual mass loss rate was - 0.235 ± 0.127 m w.e. year- 1 for the entire range. The mass loss rate for the northwestern slope (inside the Nam Co Lake drainage basin) and the southeastern slope (outside the Nam Co Lake drainage basin) were - 0.268 ± 0.129 m w.e. year- 1 and ¬ 0.219 ± 0.126 m w.e. year- 1, respectively. Our results agree well with previous fieldwork at the Zhadang and Gurenhekou glaciers located on the northwestern and southeastern slopes. Debris-cover suppressed glacier downwasting to some extent. By presuming that all of the melted ice flows into the lake, the glaciers' melting contribution to Nam Co Lake's increasing water volume was approximately 10.50 ± 9.00% during the period between 2003 and 2009.
Tuan M. Ha
Full Text Available In response to the recent concerns about human health, ecosystem sustainability and thus demands for food safety, production of clean produce, particularly daily-consumed vegetables, is essential. The study was carried out in Thai Nguyen city (northern Vietnam during August – November 2011 to evaluate impacts of a VietGAP guideline on plant growth and quality of Choy Sum, one of the major vegetables in the research area. The experiment comprised two treatments, a control (local farmers’ conventional practice and an experimental treatment (plants grown according to the VietGAP guideline. Plant samples of the latter treatment were collected for quality test at the end of the experiment. Results showed that the experimental plants had significant higher growth parameters with regards to leaf areas (7.13 dm2 and average top plant weight (3.33 kg m-2, while those of the control treatment were 5.80 dm2 and 2.77 kg m-2, respectively. Lab test results showed the experimental plant samples met the national quality standards to be certified as a clean product. The participatory on-field experiment would facilitate critical reflections, transformative learning and readiness for adoption of eco-friendly production practices by the local farmers
Le Masson, Gildas; Fergusson, Lee C.
Charts the 20-year rise and fall of higher education and teacher education in Cambodia beginning with political independence in 1953 and ending with the devastation wrought by the Khmer Rouge. Discusses the effects of political instability, civil war, and the Vietnam War on Cambodia's educational system. (MJP)
... of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public Law 106-429). 245.21 Section 245.21 Aliens and..., and Laos (section 586 of Public Law 106-429). (a) Eligibility. The Service may adjust the status to that of a lawful permanent resident, a native or citizen of Vietnam, Cambodia, or Laos who: (1) Was...
Almost one in four women in Cambodia is a victim of physical, emotional or sexual violence. This article brings together two seldom connected fields: Theory of Change (ToC) and cultural responsiveness in international development. It applies these approaches to a priority in global health, which is to prevent violence against women (VAW) and, drawing on my research on the epigenesis of VAW in Cambodia, develops an argument on the need for interventions to work with tradition and culture rather than only highlight it in problematic terms. The research draws on an ethnographic study carried out in Cambodia with 102 perpetrators and survivors of emotional, physical and sexual VAW and 228 key informants from the Buddhist and healing sectors. The eight 'cultural attractors' identified in the author's prior research highlight the cultural barriers to acceptance of the current Theory of Change. ToC for VAW prevention in Cambodia seems to assume that local culture promotes VAW and that men and women must be educated to eradicate the traditional gender norms. There is a need for interventions to work with tradition and culture rather than only highlight it in problematic terms. The cultural epigenesis of VAW in Cambodia is an insight which can be used to build culturally responsive interventions and strengthen the primary prevention of VAW.
Shrestha, B.; Babel, M.S.; Maskey, S.; Van Griensven, A.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Green, A.; Akkharath, I.
This paper evaluates the impact of climate change on sediment yield in the Nam Ou basin located in northern Laos. Future climate (temperature and precipitation) from four general circulation models (GCMs) that are found to perform well in the Mekong region and a regional circulation model (PRECIS)
Hiscox, A.F.; Kaye, A.; Vongphayloth, K.; Banks, I.; Piffer, M.; Khammanithong, P.; Sananikhom, P.; Kaul, S.; Hill, N.; Lindsay, S.W.; Brey, P.T.
We assessed risk factors for vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses near a new hydroelectric project, Nam Theun 2, in Laos. Immature stages of Aedes aegypti were found only in sites within 40 km of the urban provincial capital, but Aedes albopictus was found throughout. Aedes aegypti pupae were
The ability to access alleles from unadapted germplasm collections is a long-standing problem for geneticists and breeders. Here we developed, characterized, and demonstrated the utility of a wild barley advanced backcross-nested association mapping (AB-NAM) population. We developed this population ...
Checovich, Mariana L; Galatro, Andrea; Moriconi, Jorge I; Simontacchi, Marcela; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Santa-María, Guillermo E
TaNAM transcription factors play an important role in controlling senescence, which in turn, influences the delivery of nitrogen, iron and other elements to the grain of wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants, thus contributing to grain nutritional value. While lack or diminished expression of TaNAMs determines a stay-green phenotype, the precise effect of these factors on chloroplast structure has not been studied. In this work we focused on the events undergone by chloroplasts in two wheat lines having either control or diminished TaNAM expression due to RNA interference (RNAi). It was found that in RNAi plants maintenance of chlorophyll levels and maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II were associated with lack of chloroplast dismantling. Flow cytometer studies and electron microscope analysis showed that RNAi plants conserved organelle ultrastructure and complexity. It was also found that senescence in control plants was accompanied by a low leaf enzymatic antioxidant activity. Lack of chloroplast dismantling in RNAi plants was associated with maintenance of protein and iron concentration in the flag leaf, the opposite being observed in control plants. These data provide a structural basis for the observation that down regulation of TaNAMs confers a functional stay-green phenotype and indicate that the low export of iron and nitrogen from the flag leaf of these plants is concomitant, within the developmental window studied, with lack of chloroplast degradation and high enzymatic antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Vanachayangkul, Pattaraporn; Lon, Chanthap; Spring, Michele; Sok, Sommethy; Ta-Aksorn, Winita; Kodchakorn, Chanikarn; Pann, Sut-Thang; Chann, Soklyda; Ittiverakul, Mali; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Buathong, Nillawan; Kuntawunginn, Worachet; So, Mary; Youdaline, Theng; Milner, Erin; Wojnarski, Mariusz; Lanteri, Charlotte; Manning, Jessica; Prom, Satharath; Haigney, Mark; Cantilena, Louis; Saunders, David
Despite the rising rates of resistance to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP), DP remains a first-line therapy for uncomplicated malaria in many parts of Cambodia. While DP is generally well tolerated as a 3-day DP (3DP) regimen, compressed 2-day DP (2DP) regimens were associated with treatment-limiting cardiac repolarization effects in a recent clinical trial. To better estimate the risks of piperaquine on QT interval prolongation, we pooled data from three randomized clinical trials conducted between 2010 and 2014 in northern Cambodia. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed to compare exposure-response relationships between the 2DP and 3DP regimens while accounting for differences in regimen and sample collection times between studies. A 2-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination without covariates best fit the data. The linear slope-intercept model predicted a 0.05-ms QT prolongation per ng/ml of piperaquine (5 ms per 100 ng/ml) in this largely male population. Though the plasma half-life was similar in both regimens, peak and total piperaquine exposures were higher in those treated with the 2DP regimen. Furthermore, the correlation between the plasma piperaquine concentration and the QT interval prolongation was stronger in the population receiving the 2DP regimen. Neither the time since the previous meal nor the baseline serum magnesium or potassium levels had additive effects on QT interval prolongation. As electrocardiographic monitoring is often nonexistent in areas where malaria is endemic, 2DP regimens should be avoided and the 3DP regimen should be carefully considered in settings where viable alternative therapies exist. When DP is employed, the risk of cardiotoxicity can be mitigated by combining a 3-day regimen, enforcing a 3-h fast before and after administration, and avoiding the concomitant use of QT interval-prolonging medications. (This study used data from three clinical trials that are registered at Clinical
Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection overuse and unsafe injection practices facilitate transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Anecdotal reports of unsafe and unnecessary therapeutic injections and the high prevalence of HBV (8.0%, HCV (6.5%, and HIV (2.6% infection in Cambodia have raised concern over injection safety. To estimate the magnitude and patterns of such practices, a rapid assessment of injection practices was conducted. Methods We surveyed a random sample of the general population in Takeo Province and convenience samples of prescribers and injection providers in Takeo Province and Phnom Penh city regarding injection-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Injection providers were observed administering injections. Data were collected using standardized methods adapted from the World Health Organization safe injection assessment guidelines. Results Among the general population sample (n = 500, the overall injection rate was 5.9 injections per person-year, with 40% of participants reporting receipt of ≥ 1 injection during the previous 6 months. Therapeutic injections, intravenous infusions, and immunizations accounted for 74%, 16% and 10% of injections, respectively. The majority (>85% of injections were received in the private sector. All participants who recalled their last injection reported the injection was administered with a newly opened disposable syringe and needle. Prescribers (n = 60 reported that 47% of the total prescriptions they wrote included a therapeutic injection or infusion. Among injection providers (n = 60, 58% recapped the syringe after use and 13% did not dispose of the used needle and syringe appropriately. Over half (53% of the providers reported a needlestick injury during the previous 12 months. Ninety percent of prescribers and injection providers were aware HBV, HCV, and HIV were transmitted through unsafe
Khan, Mohiuddin Hussain; Okumura, Junko; Sovannarith, Tey; Nivanna, Nam; Akazawa, Manabu; Kimura, Kazuko
To assess the prevalence of counterfeit anthelminthic medicines in Cambodia, and to determine influential factors. Commonly used anthelminthic medicines were collected from private drug outlets. Medicines were carefully observed including their registration labelling, and their authenticity was investigated with the manufacturers and the Medicines Regulatory Authorities. Samples were analysed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography at the National Health Product Quality Control Centre, Cambodia. Two hundred and three samples of anthelminthics were collected from 137 drug stores. Domestic products constituted 36.9%. Of 196 samples which were verified for registration, 15.8% were not registered. Of 165 samples successfully investigated for their authenticity, 7 (4.2%) were identified as counterfeit. All of these medicines were purchased in open packs or containers, and most of them were foreign manufactured and/or without registration. The results of our survey urge strict implementation of drug registration and vigilance on the availability of unregistered medicines to combat counterfeit medicines in Cambodia.
Inpankaew, Tawin; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch
There is little information available on parasites of zoonotic significance in Cambodia. In 2011, in an effort to obtain data on potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites in domestic animals, 50 dogs and 30 pigs residing in 38 households located in Ang Svay Check village, Takeo province......, Cambodia were examined for parasites from faecal samples. The samples were processed using the formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique (FECT). Hookworms were the most common zoonotic parasite found in dogs (80.0%) followed by Echinostomes (18.0%). While, in pigs, Fasciolopsis buski was the most...... common zoonotic parasite (30.0%) followed by Ascaris suum (13.3%). This study provides baseline data on gastrointestinal parasites in dogs and pigs from Cambodia and underscores the importance of domestic animals as reservoir hosts for human parasites for Cambodian veterinary and public health agencies...
Vatter, Thomas; Maurer, Andreas; Perovic, Dragan; Kopahnke, Doris; Pillen, Klaus; Ordon, Frank
The biotrophic rust fungi Puccinia hordei and Puccinia striiformis are important barley pathogens with the potential to cause high yield losses through an epidemic spread. The identification of QTL conferring resistance to these pathogens is the basis for targeted breeding approaches aiming to improve stripe rust and leaf rust resistance of modern cultivars. Exploiting the allelic richness of wild barley accessions proved to be a valuable tool to broaden the genetic base of resistance of barley cultivars. In this study, SNP-based nested association mapping (NAM) was performed to map stripe rust and leaf rust resistance QTL in the barley NAM population HEB-25, comprising 1,420 lines derived from BC1S3 generation. By scoring the percentage of infected leaf area, followed by calculation of the area under the disease progress curve and the average ordinate during a two-year field trial, a large variability of resistance across and within HEB-25 families was observed. NAM based on 5,715 informative SNPs resulted in the identification of twelve and eleven robust QTL for resistance against stripe rust and leaf rust, respectively. Out of these, eight QTL for stripe rust and two QTL for leaf rust are considered novel showing no overlap with previously reported resistance QTL. Overall, resistance to both pathogens in HEB-25 is most likely due to the accumulation of numerous small effect loci. In addition, the NAM results indicate that the 25 wild donor QTL alleles present in HEB-25 strongly differ in regard to their individual effect on rust resistance. In future, the NAM concept will allow to select and combine individual wild barley alleles from different HEB parents to increase rust resistance in barley. The HEB-25 results will support to unravel the genetic basis of rust resistance in barley, and to improve resistance against stripe rust and leaf rust of modern barley cultivars.
Heng Chan Thoeun
Full Text Available Temperature and rainfall patterns in Cambodia are governed by monsoons and characterized by two major wet and dry seasons. The average annual rainfall is 1400 mm in the central low land regions and may reach 4000 mm in certain coastal zones or in highland areas. The annual average temperature is 28 °C, with an average maximum temperature of 38 °C in April and an average minimum temperature of 17 °C in January. This paper presents the climate change scenarios using MAGICC–SCENGEN program, which links emissions scenarios with global and regional climate change and has adopted the regional climate model (PRECIS in combination with a number of GCM models with resolution of 50×50 km, using observation data and two historical and future climate data sets generated by RCM model downscaling under the two emission scenarios SRES A2 and SRES B2. Projections of maximum and minimum temperatures and rainfall patterns from 2008 to 2099 are described. For future studies, daily data are required perform vulnerability and adaptation assessments.
Day, Mary Beth; Hodell, David A.; Brenner, Mark; Chapman, Hazel J.; Curtis, Jason H.; Kenney, William F.; Kolata, Alan L.; Peterson, Larry C.
Angkor (Cambodia) was the seat of the Khmer Empire from the 9th to 15th century AD. The site is noted for its monumental architecture and complex hydro-engineering systems, comprised of canals, moats, embankments, and large reservoirs, known as barays. We infer a 1,000-y, 14C-dated paleoenvironmental record from study of an approximately 2-m sediment core taken in the largest Khmer reservoir, the West Baray. The baray was utilized and managed from the time of construction in the early 11th century, through the 13th century. During that time, the West Baray received relatively high rates of detrital input. In the 14th century, linear sedimentation rates diminished by an order of magnitude, yielding a condensed section that correlates temporally with episodes of regional monsoon failure during the late 14th and early 15th century, recorded in tree ring records from Vietnam. Our results demonstrate that changes in the water management system were associated with the decline of the Angkorian kingdom during that period. By the 17th century, the West Baray again functioned as a limnetic system. Ecologic and sedimentologic changes over the last millennium, detected in the baray deposits, are attributed to shifts in regional-scale Khmer water management, evolving land use practices in the catchment, and regional climate change.
After almost 25 years of dictatorship and civil war, in the mid 1990s, Cambodia was in dire need of improvement of its medical infrastructure on all levels. Attention had already been focused on establishing primary care services such as emergency surgery, paediatrics and gynaecology/obstetrics; however dermatovenereology services had so far not been addressed. Using a comprehensive approach aiming at sustainable development, German, French and Cambodian institutions worked together to identify four core areas in need of improvement: postgraduate training, development of skin clinics, quality management, and integration of dermatology services into the health insurance scheme. Since 2005, this "Masterplan Dermatology" was financially supported by the Centre for International Migration and Development (CIM) based in Frankfurt am Main and Else Kröner Fresenius-Stiftung (EKFS) based in Bad Homburg auf der Höhe. Significant improvements have been made due to the efforts of the above institutions with the support of the donors; however challenges of this complex endeavor still remain.
Soeung, Sann Chan; Grundy, John; Maynard, Jim; Brooks, Alan; Boreland, Marian; Sarak, Duong; Jenkinson, Karl; Biggs, Beverley-Ann
The expanded programme of immunization was established in Cambodia in 1986. In 2002, 67% of eligible children were immunized, despite significant health sector and macro-economic financial constraints. A financial sustainability planning process for immunization was introduced in 2002, in order to mobilize national and international resources in support of the achievement of child health objectives. The aim of this paper is to outline this process, describe its early impact as an advocacy tool and recommend additional strategies for mobilizing additional resources for health. The methods of financial sustainability planning are described, including the advocacy strategies that were applied. Analysis of financial sustainability planning results indicates rising programme costs associated with new vaccine introduction and new technologies. Despite this, the national programme has demonstrated important early successes in using financial sustainability planning to advocate for increased mobilization of national and international sources of funding for immunization. The national immunization programme nevertheless faces formidable system and financial challenges in the coming years associated with rising costs, potentially diminishing sources of international assistance, and the developing role of sub-national authorities in programme management and financing.
Hout, Sotheara; Chea, Aun; Bun, Sok-Siya; Elias, Riad; Gasquet, Monique; Timon-David, Pierre; Balansard, Guy; Azas, Nadine
The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of 117 aqueous, methanol and dichloromethane extracts derived from different parts of 28 indigenous wild plant species was studied. These plants are commonly used in Cambodian traditional medicine. The plant extracts were tested for in vitro activity against a chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain (W2). Nine extracts were moderately active with IC(50) values ranging between 5 and 10 microg/ml, 17 extracts were active with IC(50) values ranging between 1 and 5 microg/ml. These 26 extracts derived from eight plants belong to six families. The most active extracts were dichloromethane and came from Stephania rotunda and Brucea javanica with IC(50) values of 1 microg/ml and a selectivity index > or = 25. It is interesting to note that some aqueous extracts were as active as dichloromethane extracts especially aqueous extracts of Stephania rotunda, Brucea javanica, Phyllanthus urinaria and Eurycoma longifolia with IC(50) values of Cambodia. Among them four are tested for the first time.
The Tonle Sap, the 'Great Lake' of central Cambodia, is the central component of wetland ecosystems in the lower Mekong River basin, and is of enormous conservation value. The lake's unusual hydraulic relationship with the Mekong River, and its consequent sensitivity to monsoon variability, makes the Tonle Sap sensitive to climate change. Exploring the dynamics and development of this system under different climate regimes of the past offers a perspective on possible future impacts, which is critical for sound management. Biostratigraphic and sedimentological data derived from cores of lake sediment indicate that during the period >7000 to ca. 5500 14C years Before Present the lake was less variable than present in terms of depth during the annual cycle of flood, and may have been strongly influenced by saline tidal waters associated with higher-than-present seas levels. As regional environments became drier and more seasonal in the late Holocene, more sediment was re-suspended during the increasingly marked dry season lake level minimum, lowering the effective sediment accumulation rate. Contrary to current interpretations of the history of the lake and associated wetland ecosystems, the data presented here imply that regional hydraulic connections between the lake and the Mekong River existed from at least the early Holocene.
Full Text Available Although Cambodia might have achieved self-sufficiency and an exported surplus in rice production, its rice-based farming systems are widely associated with low productivity, low farmer income and rural poverty. The study is based on a questionnaire village survey in 14 communes containing 97 villages of Kampong Chhnang Province from March to June, 2011. It analyzes the prevailing rice-based cropping systems and evaluates options for their improvement. Differences in cropping systems depend on the distance from the Tonle Sap water bodies. At distances greater than 10 km, transplanted wet-season rice cropping system with low productivity of about 1.6 t/hm2 prevails. This deficiency can be primarily attributed to soils with high coarse sand fractions and low pH ( 4.0. Farmers predominantly cultivate dry-season recession rice between January and April. Seventy-nine percent of the area is sown directly and harvested by combines. Adoption ratio of commercial rice seeds is 59% and yields average 3.2 t/hm2. Introduction of the second dry-season rice between April and July may double annual yields in this rice cropping system. Besides upgrading other cultivation technologies, using seeds from commercial sources will improve yield and rice quality. Along with rice, farmers grow non-rice crops at different intensities ranging from single annual crops to intensive sequences at low yields.
Bui, Thanh Cong; Tran, Ly T H; Ross, Michael W; Markham, Christine M
Several studies indicate that douching has few benefits but numerous adverse health outcomes, including increased risk for sexually transmitted infections and HIV. No published study explores douching practices among Cambodian female sex workers. This report provides preliminary data about the prevalence and frequency of douching among female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Survey data were obtained from 81 female sex workers who were taken into custody due to engagement in commercial sex from March to June 2011. Results showed that 91% of participants douched. The mean numbers of times douched before sex and after sex per 10 sex episodes were 4.43 (SD = 3.87) and 4.63 (SD = 3.94), respectively. Half of the participants thought that douching could help to prevent sexually transmitted infections including HIV; 24% were unsure about this. Usually, douching after sex was associated with ever obtaining an HIV test (p = .012) and was marginally associated (although not statistically significant) with a higher average number of clients per week (p =. 063) and consistent condom use with clients (p = .053). This suggests that these practices may be related to individual perceptions of sexually transmitted infections/HIV risk or susceptibility. Given the commonness of douching and related misperceptions among Cambodian female sex workers, future studies and interventions are needed to prevent adverse health problems. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Full Text Available Pourquoi Moussons consacre-t-elle un double numéro au Việt Nam ? Simplement parce que depuis les deux dernières décennies, ce champ particulier des sciences sociales que sont les études vietnamiennes a connu à travers le monde et en France en particulier un renouvellement considérable. Il était donc largement temps non pas d’en dresser un bilan, la vague n’ayant pas encore fini de déferler, mais, simplement, de tenter de présenter un bref panorama de ce renouveau en construction.Deux remarque...
Zhao, Shengnan; Park, Kyu-Tek; Bae, Yang-Seop; Li, Houhun
In a faunal study of the micromoths in Cambodia, thirteen species of the genus Dichomeris (Gelechiidae, Dichomeridinae) are recognized, including associated Chinese species. Eight species are described as new: D. arcuata sp. nov., D. splendiptera sp. nov., D. samkosensis sp. nov., D. foliforma sp. nov., D. magnimacularis sp. nov., D. hainanensis sp. nov., D. cambodiensis sp. nov., D. acutivalvata sp. nov. Five species are newly recorded for Cambodia: D. orientis Park & Hodges, D. fuscusitis Li & Zheng, D. obsepta (Meyrick), D. microsphena Meyrick, and D. matsumurai Ponomarenko & Ueda. . Images of adults and genitalia are provided.
Zafar, Ahmed A; Ehiri, John E; Anyanwu, Ebere C
This study was conducted to assess factors that influence use of antenatal care services with both quantitative and qualitative designs. Methods used were structured questionnaire interviews and focus group discussions in the Kampung District, Kampot Province in Cambodia with a volunteer sample of 260 postnatal mothers. The outcome measure was factors influencing use of antenatal care services. The results showed that first-time mothers (primigravidas) were more likely to use antenatal services than multiparous mothers (OR = 1.87; p = 0.001). Mothers with some school education used antenatal services more than those with no school education (OR = 2.0; p = 0.01). Mothers engaged in professional occupations by virtue of their higher levels of educational attainment were more likely to use antenatal services than those engaged in agriculture (OR = 2.54; p = 0.001). Use of antenatal care services was higher in the districts whose health centers were supported by a foreign nongovernmental organization as compared to other districts with no such support (OR = 2.44; p = 0.001). Although services were generally inadequate, those that existed were underutilized by the mothers. Major factors influencing use of services include distance, lack of transport, and lack of awareness of the benefits of antenatal care by the mothers, thus resulting in a general notion that antenatal care is only important when problems occur during pregnancy. It is concluded that for remote villages, mobile antenatal clinics should be provided to improve access, and greater emphasis should be placed on health educating the mothers about the potential benefits of antenatal care, with special attention to multiparous mothers and those from the lower socio-economic class, among whom use of antenatal services was lowest.
Ahmed A. Zafar
Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess factors that influence use of antenatal care services with both quantitative and qualitative designs. Methods used were structured questionnaire interviews and focus group discussions in the Kampung District, Kampot Province in Cambodia with a volunteer sample of 260 postnatal mothers. The outcome measure was factors influencing use of antenatal care services. The results showed that first-time mothers (primigravidas were more likely to use antenatal services than multiparous mothers (OR = 1.87; p = 0.001. Mothers with some school education used antenatal services more than those with no school education (OR = 2.0; p = 0.01. Mothers engaged in professional occupations by virtue of their higher levels of educational attainment were more likely to use antenatal services than those engaged in agriculture (OR = 2.54; p = 0.001. Use of antenatal care services was higher in the districts whose health centers were supported by a foreign nongovernmental organization as compared to other districts with no such support (OR = 2.44; p = 0.001. Although services were generally inadequate, those that existed were underutilized by the mothers. Major factors influencing use of services include distance, lack of transport, and lack of awareness of the benefits of antenatal care by the mothers, thus resulting in a general notion that antenatal care is only important when problems occur during pregnancy. It is concluded that for remote villages, mobile antenatal clinics should be provided to improve access, and greater emphasis should be placed on health educating the mothers about the potential benefits of antenatal care, with special attention to multiparous mothers and those from the lower socio-economic class, among whom use of antenatal services was lowest.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Two planned trials of pre-exposure prophylaxis tenofovir in Cambodia and Cameroon to prevent HIV infection in high-risk populations were closed due to activist pressure on host country governments. The international news media contributed substantially as the primary source of knowledge transfer regarding the trials. We aimed to characterize the nature of reporting, specifically focusing on the issues identified by media reports regarding each trial. Methods With the aid of an information specialist, we searched 3 electronic media databases, 5 electronic medical databases and extensively searched the Internet. In addition we contacted stakeholder groups. We included media reports addressing the trial closures, the reasons for the trial closures, and who was interviewed. We extracted data using content analysis independently, in duplicate. Results We included 24 reports on the Cambodian trial closure and 13 reports on the Cameroon trial closure. One academic news account incorrectly reported that it was an HIV vaccine trial that closed early. The primary reasons cited for the Cambodian trial closure were: a lack of medical insurance for trial related injuries (71%; human rights considerations (71%; study protocol concerns (46%; general suspicions regarding trial location (37% and inadequate prevention counseling (29%. The primary reasons cited for the Cameroon trial closure were: inadequate access to care for seroconverters (69%; participants not sufficiently informed of risks (69%; inadequate number of staff (46%; participants being exploited (46% and an unethical study design (38%. Only 3/23 (13% reports acknowledged interviewing research personnel regarding the Cambodian trial, while 4/13 (30.8% reports interviewed researchers involved in the Cameroon trial. Conclusion Our review indicates that the issues addressed and validity of the media reports of these trials is highly variable. Given the potential impact of the media
Daniels, David J.; Curtis, Paul
This paper describes the trials of the MINEHOUND TM dual sensor, land mine detector carried out in Cambodia, Bosnia and Angola. MINEHOUND TM has been developed for use in humanitarian demining as a means of improving the efficiency of clearance operations. The trials were sponsored by the UK Department for International Development (DFID). ERA Technology Ltd conducted the trials, which were monitored by staff drawn from the countries participating in the International Test and Evaluation Programme (ITEP) for humanitarian de-mining. Experienced deminers from the Mines Advisory Group (MAG) and Norwegian Peoples Aid (NPA) used the pre-production units in live minefields. The objectives of the trial were: 1. To record information on the performance of MINEHOUND TM when used in a live minefield. 2. To determine the reduction in False Alarm Rate (FAR) that could be achieved using a dual sensor mine detector. The trials were conducted in three mine-affected countries for a period of eight weeks per country; the programme of trials ran from July 2005 to December 2005, with an additional smaller trial in late February 2006. The results of the trials showed that MINEHOUND TM achieved 100% detection of the mines encountered and an improvement in FAR of better than 5:1 compared with a basic metal detector. The trials enabled optimisation of the production design and clearly demonstrated that new technology can be brought to humanitarian clearance operations in a safe and controlled manner. As a result of the highly successful trials, Vallon and ERA will produce the MINEHOUND TM (Type number VMR1) starting in Q3 of 2006.
Schantz, Clémence; Sim, Kruy Leang; Petit, Véronique; Rany, Heng; Goyet, Sophie
C-sections are an increasingly performed medical practice which can save lives but may also lead to major complications. Through a mixed methods study conducted in 2015 in Cambodia, we aimed to analyze the reasons for requesting a c-section and to explore factors that are associated with c-sections. 60% of the women in the cohort who gave birth by c-section reported having requested it. Through 31 in-depth interviews, we determined the reasons given by women for requesting a c-section before and during labour. Before labour, reasons for requesting a c-section were: choosing the delivery date; bringing luck and joy to the family; protecting the genitals, and the belief that c-section is safer for the mother and for the baby. Reasons given during labour were fear, pain, and having no more energy. We also observed two major factors driving the women's request for a c-section: family support for requesting a c-section, and the over-usage of ultrasound examinations. Our multivariate analysis of the interviews of 143 women before and after delivery showed that having a previous c-section, delivering in a private facility, being older than median at the time of sexual debut, residing outside of Phnom Penh and having the delivery costs covered by the family were all factors independently and significantly associated with a higher chance of c-section delivery. We conclude that women are not well informed to give consent for c-delivery, and that their request is often affected by false belief and poor knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yan, Lily D; Mahadevan, Swaminatha V; Yore, Mackensie; Pirrotta, Elizabeth A; Woods, Joan; Somontha, Koy; Sovannra, Yim; Raman, Maya; Cornell, Erika; Grundmann, Christophe; Strehlow, Matthew C
To describe the characteristics and chief complaints of adults seeking emergency care at two Cambodian provincial referral hospitals. Adults aged 18 years or older who presented without an appointment at two public referral hospitals were enrolled in an observational study. Clinical and demographic data were collected and factors associated with hospital admission were identified. Patients were followed up 48 hours and 14 days after presentation. In total, 1295 hospital presentations were documented. We were able to follow up 85% (1098) of patients at 48 hours and 77% (993) at 14 days. The patients' mean age was 42 years and 64% (823) were females. Most arrived by motorbike (722) or taxi or tuk-tuk (312). Most common chief complaints were abdominal pain (36%; 468), respiratory problems (15%; 196) and headache (13%; 174). Of the 1050 patients with recorded vital signs, 280 had abnormal values, excluding temperature, on arrival. Performed diagnostic tests were recorded for 539 patients: 1.2% (15) of patients had electrocardiography and 14% (175) had diagnostic imaging. Subsequently, 783 (60%) patients were admitted and 166 of these underwent surgery. Significant predictors of admission included symptom onset within 3 days before presentation, abnormal vital signs and fever. By 14-day follow-up, 3.9% (39/993) of patients had died and 19% (192/993) remained functionally impaired. In emergency admissions in two public hospitals in Cambodia, there is high admission-to-death ratio and limited application of diagnostic techniques. We identified ways to improve procedures, including better documentation of vital signs and increased use of diagnostic techniques.
Gregerson, Marilyn J.
In Ratanakiri province, northeastern Cambodia, the majority of the local people are native speakers of ethnic minority languages. Primarily subsistence farmers, they use their own language to communicate with others in their villages, and as they work in their rice fields. A baseline survey taken between 1996 and 1998 in five such villages showed…
Richardson, Jayson W.
Drawing on Everett Rogers's theory of the diffusion of innovations, this article identifies the barriers, challenges, and successes in the adoption of technology training by teacher trainers in Cambodia. The analysis was based on data collected from an open-ended survey, face-to-face interviews, and document analysis. Findings reveal that the…
Kim, Chae-Young; Rouse, Martyn
Over the last 20 years education policies in Cambodia have been driven by the global Education for All (EFA) campaign and have resulted in a rapid increase in the rates of primary education enrolment. However, the increasing number of children enrolling in schools has not always translated into high rates of primary education completion. Against…
Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Bredenberg, Kurt
To reduce the high repetition rates in early years of primary school, the government of Cambodia piloted a school readiness program (SRP) in the first two months of Grade 1 of primary school. This study examines whether such intervention has effects on students' immediate acquisition of school readiness skills as well as students' longer term…
Werlinrud, Anne M; Christiansen, Claus B; Koch, Anders
We present a recent case of Japanese encephalitis in a Danish male traveler to Cambodia, who we believe is the second Danish case within the last 15 years. Although both this and a number of other travel-related cases occurred in short-term travelers, change in vaccination recommendations...
of benefits. This paper draws on a case study in northern Cambodia to analyse how conservation practitioners and the local forest management committees engaged in implementing REDD+ actively translate and influence the policy and its implementation in accordance with their respective interests through...
Zook, Darren C.
The political framework through which the various communities of disabled persons in Cambodia advocate for and claim their rights is complex and confusing. Both governmental and non-governmental actors engage this political framework through the mobilization of persons from the various disabled communities, competing in the civic sphere through…
Marshall, Jeffery H.; Chinna, Ung; Nessay, Puth; Hok, Ung Ngo; Savoeun, Va; Tinon, Soeur; Veasna, Meung
This article analyses student achievement and school quality in large samples of schools in Cambodia. Descriptive summaries of student proficiency levels in language and mathematics reveal large gaps between average performance in grades three and six. Given the near universal completion rates for grade three--and lower access to grade six--these…
Kallio, Alexis A.; Westerlund, Heidi
Cambodia's recent history of conflict and political instability has resulted in a recognized need to recover, regenerate, preserve and protect the nation's cultural heritage. Many education programmes catering for disadvantaged youth have implemented traditional Khmer music and dance lessons, suggesting that these programmes share the…
de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim; van der Werff, Suzanne D; D'Haese, Patrick C; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Parker, Megan E; Díaz, Raquel Junco; Núñez, Fidel Angel; Rivero, Lázara Rojas; Gorbea, Mariano Bonet; Doak, Colleen M; Ponce, Maiza Campos; Wieringa, Frank T; Polman, Katja
Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029), but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051). Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms.
Intensive tillage in many less-developed countries, including Cambodia have caused significant decline in agriculture’s natural resources and sustainability. With limited available data, long-term conventional tillage system (CT) and conservation agriculture system (CA) can affect changes in soil pr...
Dyrmose, Anne-Mette Hüls; Turreira Garcia, Nerea; Theilade, Ida
to be learned about resin yield, harvest techniques, and the importance of resin to local livelihoods. This study quantifies yields from one of the most intensively tapped resin species, Dipterocarpus alatus, and estimates household incomes from resin extraction in Cambodia. A total of 43 resin tappers were...
Ngo, Xuong, Comp.; Guay, Marcel, Ed.
Firsthand accounts by refugees from Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam, telling how they escaped from Indochina and how they are adjusting to life in Canada (and particularly Nova Scotia), form the greater part of this book. Most of the accounts are by Vietnamese. Information is also provided on the history of the Canadian refugee program, and on the…
Morgan, F; Tan, B-K
Rehabilitation service providers in Cambodia are increasingly adopting family-centred practices when working with children with cerebral palsy and their families. This study examined the perceptions of parents living in rural Cambodia regarding family-centred rehabilitation practices. This qualitative study used in-depth semi-structured individual and small group interviews with a convenience sample of 24 parents of children with cerebral palsy from three rural provinces. Participants were drawn from Cambodia Trust's client database and had been involved in a rehabilitation planning process which incorporated family-centred practices. Twenty-four parents and carers of children with cerebral palsy aged 3-12 years were interviewed. Almost all parents valued family-centred practices in rehabilitation, with many of the needs and preferences of parents living in rural Cambodia similar to those of parents in Western contexts. Family-centred approaches to paediatric rehabilitation were found to be valued in and appropriate for a rural Cambodian context. Social and cultural mechanisms to be considered when adapting a Western, family-centred model of rehabilitation planning to the rural Cambodian context include the hierarchical nature of Cambodian culture, the emphasis on group relational patterns rather than individual needs and the context of chronic poverty. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
E. Van de Poel (Ellen); G. Flores (Gabriela); P. Ir (Por); O. O'Donnelld (Owen); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy)
textabstractObjective To evaluate the effect of vouchers for maternity care in public health-care facilities on the utilization of maternal health-care services in Cambodia. Methods The study involved data from the 2010 Cambodian Demographic and Health Survey, which covered births between 2005 and
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
Data relating to population and family planning in six foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Brazil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background…
Park, Kyu-Tek; Bae, Yang-Seop
Three new species of the genus Anarsia Zeller (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) are described: A. huensis Park, sp. nov. from Vietnam, and A. pursatica Park, sp. nov. and A. degeneralis Park, sp. nov. from Cambodia. Images of adults and genitalia for the new species are illustrated. A check list of the known species from both countries is provided.
Marston, John, Comp.
This 578-entry annotated bibliography is intended for use by people who work with Cambodian refugees in the United States, as well as anyone interested in Cambodian history, politics, and culture. It consists primarily of books and journal articles on Cambodia and Cambodians available in the University of Minnesota library system or that are part…
Berkvens, Jan B. Y.
Following Education for All, initiatives like child-friendly schools initiative, are rolled out in many countries, including Cambodia. The child-friendly schools initiative is addressing general and local needs of children in schools, like a safe environment, well-trained teachers and the provision of teaching and materials. But there is also a…
Three Southeast Asian polities, Cambodia, Laos and Thailand share much of their geography, history, culture, religion and language. Not all speakers of more than 100 languages spoken in the area have a sufficient knowledge of the respective national languages, Khmer, Lao and Thai. Yet, for the most part, the national languages are the only…
S.D.F. Benzaquen-Gautier (Stéphanie)
textabstractThirty years after the collapse of the Khmer Rouge regime (1975-1979) how do Cambodians cope with the traumatic legacy of Pol Pot's reign of terror? What forms does witnessing take on in post-socialist and transitional Cambodia as senior Khmer Rouge leaders await prosecution at the
Theary, Chan; Panagides, Dora; Laillou, Arnaud; Vonthanak, Saphoon; Kanarath, Chheng; Chhorvann, Chhea; Sambath, Pol; Sowath, Sol; Moench-Pfanner, Regina
The prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in Cambodia is among the highest in Southeast Asia. Fortification of staple foods and condiments is considered to be one of the most cost-effective strategies for addressing micronutrient deficiencies at the population level. The Government of Cambodia has recognized the importance of food fortification as one strategy for improving the nutrition security of its population. This paper describes efforts under way in Cambodia for the fortification of fish sauce, soy sauce, and vegetable oil. Data were compiled from a stability test of Cambodian fish sauces fortified with sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA); analysis of fortified vegetable oils in the Cambodian market; a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP) study of fortified products; and food fortification program monitoring documents. At different levels of fortification of fish sauce with NaFeEDTA, sedimentation and precipitation were observed. This was taken into consideration in the government-issued standards for the fortification of fish sauce. All major brands of vegetable oil found in markets at the village and provincial levels are imported, and most are nonfortified. Fish sauce, soy sauce, and vegetable oil are widely consumed throughout Cambodia and are readily available in provincial and village markets. Together with an effective regulatory monitoring system, the government can guarantee that these commodities, whether locally produced or imported, are adequately fortified. A communications campaign would be worthwhile, once fortified commodities are available, as the KAP study found that Cambodians had a positive perception of fortified sauces.
Importance: Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamin deficiency, remains a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where B-vitamin poor, polished white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamin intake reduces breast milk thiamin concentrations, placing breastfed infa...
Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamine deficiency, is a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where thiamine-poor white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamine intake reduces breast milk thiamine placing breastfed infants at risk of beriberi. The objective wa...
O'Neill, L.; Sluiter, G.
In early 2007, we submitted a report to the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia commenting on several aspects of its then-draft Internal Rules, including whether the ECCC’s envisaged appeal system adhered to international standards. The Internal Rules were adopted in June 2007, and then
Tripura, Rupam; Peto, Thomas J.; Veugen, Christianne C.; Nguon, Chea; Davoeung, Chan; James, Nicola; Dhorda, Mehul; Maude, Richard J.; Duanguppama, Jureeporn; Patumrat, Krittaya; Imwong, Mallika; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Grobusch, Martin P.; White, Nicholas J.; Dondorp, Arjen M.
Cambodia has seen a marked reduction in the incidence of Plasmodium falciparum over the past decade without a corresponding decline in Plasmodium vivax incidence. It is unknown to what extent local transmission is sustained by a chain of clinical and sub-clinical infections or by continued
Brechje de Gier
Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia or hair (Cuba. We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001, while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029, but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051. Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms.
Bagriansky, Jack; Champa, Ngy; Pak, Kimchoeun; Whitney, Sophie; Laillou, Arnaud
Cambodia is among the 28 worst countries globally with the highest rates of childhood malnutrition. The aim of the assessment was to apply published evidence associating malnutrition and a variety of functional consequences to project economic implications of this high rate of childhood malnutrition. Such information is vital to advocate for appropriate programs and action plan to reduce malnutrition (from severe stunting to micronutrient deficiencies). This exercise used a "consequence model" to apply these "coefficients of loss" established in the global scientific literature to Cambodia health, demographic and economic data to develop a national estimation of the economic losses link to malnutrition. The impact of the indicators of malnutrition analysed represent a burden to the national economy of Cambodia estimated at more than $400 million annually -2.5% of GDP. Micronutrient deficiencies suggest deficits in the quality of the diet - representing a national burden of more than $200 million annually while breastfeeding behaviours account for 6% of the burden. 57% of the losses emerge from indicators measured in children, while 43% of losses are from indicators independent of childhood measurements - indicators of maternal behaviour along with maternal and adult nutrition. Given the low cost of interventions and the high baseline losses, investment in nutrition programs in Cambodia is likely to offer high returns and attractive benefit cost ratios. Since nearly half the losses are determined prior to the birth of the child, this has implications for targeting and timing of programs.
Timmermans, Ans; Melendrez, Melanie C; Se, Youry; Chuang, Ilin; Samon, Nou; Uthaimongkol, Nichapat; Klungthong, Chonticha; Manasatienkij, Wudtichai; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Tyner, Stuart D; Rith, Sareth; Horm, Viseth Srey; Jarman, Richard G; Bethell, Delia; Chanarat, Nitima; Pavlin, Julie; Wongstitwilairoong, Tippa; Saingam, Piyaporn; El, But Sam; Fukuda, Mark M; Touch, Sok; Sovann, Ly; Fernandez, Stefan; Buchy, Philippe; Chanthap, Lon; Saunders, David
Little is known about circulation of influenza and other respiratory viruses in remote populations along the Thai-Cambodia border in western Cambodia. We screened 586 outpatients (median age 5, range 1-77) presenting with influenza-like-illness (ILI) at 4 sentinel sites in western Cambodia between May 2010 and December 2012. Real-time reverse transcriptase (rRT) PCR for influenza was performed on combined nasal and throat specimens followed by viral culture, antigenic analysis, antiviral susceptibility testing and full genome sequencing for phylogenetic analysis. ILI-specimens negative for influenza were cultured, followed by rRT-PCR for enterovirus and rhinovirus (EV/RV) and EV71. Influenza was found in 168 cases (29%) and occurred almost exclusively in the rainy season from June to November. Isolated influenza strains had close antigenic and phylogenetic relationships, matching vaccine and circulating strains found elsewhere in Cambodia. Influenza vaccination coverage was low (Cambodia isolates (94.4% genome conservation) than to 13 Thai isolates (75.9% genome conservation), despite sharing the majority of the amino acid changes with the Thai references. Most genes showed signatures of purifying selection. Viral culture detected only adenovirus (5.7%) and parainfluenza virus (3.8%), while non-polio enteroviruses (10.3%) were detected among 164 culture-negative samples including coxsackievirus A4, A6, A8, A9, A12, B3, B4 and echovirus E6 and E9 using nested RT-PCR methods. A single specimen of EV71 was found. Despite proximity to Thailand, influenza epidemiology of these western Cambodian isolates followed patterns observed elsewhere in Cambodia, continuing to support current vaccine and treatment recommendations from the Cambodian National Influenza Center. Amino acid mutations at non-epitope sites, particularly hemagglutinin genes, require further investigation in light of an increasingly important role of permissive mutations in influenza virus evolution
Tarantola, Arnaud; Ly, Sowath; In, Sotheary; Ong, Sivuth; Peng, Yiksing; Heng, Nayyim; Buchy, Philippe
Authorities have pledged to eliminate canine rabies by 2020 in Cambodia, a country with a very high rabies burden. Logistic and financial access to timely and adequate postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) is essential for preventing rabies in humans. We undertook a survey of the few identified sites where PEP rabies vaccination and rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) are available in Cambodia. We examined the Rabies Prevention Center at Institut Pasteur du Cambodge (rpc@ipc) database and rpc@ipc order forms for 2012 to assess vaccine and RIG use. We conducted a rapid internet survey of centers that provide rabies vaccine and RIG in Cambodia, other than rpc@ipc. The cost of a full course of intramuscular or intradermal PEP in Cambodia, with and without RIG, was also estimated. Rabies vaccination is free of charge in one foundation hospital and is accessible for a fee at Institut Pasteur du Cambodge (IPC), some institutions, and some Cambodian private clinics. In 2012, 27,500 rabies vaccine doses (0.5 mL) and 591 equine RIG doses were used to provide intradermal PEP to 20,610 persons at rpc@ipc following animal bites. Outside of rpc@ipc, an estimated total of 53,400 vaccine doses and 200 RIG doses were used in Cambodia in 2012. The wholesale cost of full rabies PEP was estimated at 50% to 100% of a Cambodian farmer's monthly wage. Local populations and travelers cannot be sure to locally access adequate and timely PEP due to high costs and low access to RIG. Travelers to high-endemic areas such as Cambodia are strongly encouraged to undergo pre-exposure vaccination or seek expert advice, as per World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. State-subsidized, pre-positioned stocks of human vaccine and RIG in bite management centers would extend the rabies prevention centers network. Support from Institut Pasteur du Cambodge for staff training, cold chain, and quality control would contribute to reducing the risk of rabies deaths in Cambodia. © 2015 International Society of
Full Text Available Little is known about circulation of influenza and other respiratory viruses in remote populations along the Thai-Cambodia border in western Cambodia. We screened 586 outpatients (median age 5, range 1-77 presenting with influenza-like-illness (ILI at 4 sentinel sites in western Cambodia between May 2010 and December 2012. Real-time reverse transcriptase (rRT PCR for influenza was performed on combined nasal and throat specimens followed by viral culture, antigenic analysis, antiviral susceptibility testing and full genome sequencing for phylogenetic analysis. ILI-specimens negative for influenza were cultured, followed by rRT-PCR for enterovirus and rhinovirus (EV/RV and EV71. Influenza was found in 168 cases (29% and occurred almost exclusively in the rainy season from June to November. Isolated influenza strains had close antigenic and phylogenetic relationships, matching vaccine and circulating strains found elsewhere in Cambodia. Influenza vaccination coverage was low (<20%. Western Cambodian H1N1(2009 isolate genomes were more closely related to 10 earlier Cambodia isolates (94.4% genome conservation than to 13 Thai isolates (75.9% genome conservation, despite sharing the majority of the amino acid changes with the Thai references. Most genes showed signatures of purifying selection. Viral culture detected only adenovirus (5.7% and parainfluenza virus (3.8%, while non-polio enteroviruses (10.3% were detected among 164 culture-negative samples including coxsackievirus A4, A6, A8, A9, A12, B3, B4 and echovirus E6 and E9 using nested RT-PCR methods. A single specimen of EV71 was found. Despite proximity to Thailand, influenza epidemiology of these western Cambodian isolates followed patterns observed elsewhere in Cambodia, continuing to support current vaccine and treatment recommendations from the Cambodian National Influenza Center. Amino acid mutations at non-epitope sites, particularly hemagglutinin genes, require further investigation in
Jan, Stephen; Kimman, Merel; Kingston, David; Woodward, Mark
The ACTION (Asean CosTs In ONcology) Study will be one of the largest observational studies of the burden of cancer ever conducted in Asia. The study will involve 10,000 newly diagnosed patients with cancer and will be carried out across eight low- and middle income countries within the ASEAN region (Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Cambodia, Myanmar, Viet Nam, Laos and the Philippines). Patients will be interviewed three times over 12 months to assess their health, use of health care services, out of pocket costs related to their illness, social and quality of life issues. The project is a collaboration between the George Institute for Global Health, the ASEAN Foundation and Roche. The aim of the study is to assess the health and socioeconomic impact of cancer on patients in ASEAN communities, and the factors that may impact on these outcomes.
Grundy, John; Khut, Qiu Yi; Oum, Sophal; Annear, Peter; Ky, Veng
Cambodia, following decades of civil conflict and social and economic transition, has in the last 10 years developed health policy innovations in the areas of health contracting, health financing and health planning. This paper aims to outline recent social, epidemiological and demographic health trends in Cambodia, and on the basis of this outline, to analyse and discuss these policy responses to social transition. Sources of information included a literature review, participant observation in health planning development in Cambodia between 1993 and 2008, and comparative analysis of demographic health surveys between 2000 and 2005. In Cambodia there have been sharp but unequal improvements in child mortality, and persisting high maternal mortality rates. Data analysis demonstrates associations between location, education level and access to facility based care, suggesting the dominant role of socio-economic factors in determining access to facility based health care. These events are taking place against a background of rapid social transition in Cambodian history, including processes of decentralization, privatization and the development of open market economic systems. Primary policy responses of the Ministry of Health to social transition and associated health inequities include the establishment of health contracting, hospital health equity funds and public-private collaborations. Despite the internationally recognized health policy flexibility and innovation demonstrated in Cambodia, policy response still lags well behind the reality of social transition. In order to minimize the delay between transition and response, new policy making tactics are required in order to provide more flexible and timely responses to the ongoing social transition and its impacts on population health needs in the lowest socio-economic quintiles.
Full Text Available The western Nyainqentanglha Range is located in the south-eastern centre of the Tibetan Plateau. Its north-western slopes drain into Lake Nam Co. The region is of special interest for glacio-climatological research as it is influenced by both the continental climate of Central Asia and the Indian Monsoon system, and situated at the transition zone between temperate and subcontinental glaciers. A glacier inventory for the whole mountain range was generated for the year around 2001 using automated remote sensing and GIS techniques based on Landsat ETM+ and SRTM3 DEM data. Glacier change analysis was based on data from Hexagon KH-9 and Landsat MSS (both 1976, Metric Camera (1984, and Landsat TM/ETM+ (1991, 2001, 2005, 2009. Manual adjustment was especially necessary for delineating the debris-covered glaciers and the glaciers on the panchromatic Hexagon data. In the years around 2001 the whole mountain range contained about 960 glaciers covering an area of 795.6 ± 22.3 km2 while the ice in the drainage basin of Nam Co covered 198.1 ± 5.6 km2. The median elevation of the glaciers was about 5800 m with the majority terminating around 5600 m. Five glaciers with debris-covered tongues terminated lower than 5200 m. The glacier area decreased by −6.1 ± 3% between 1976 and 2001. This is less than reported in previous studies based on the 1970s topographic maps and Landsat data from 2000. Glaciers continued to shrink during the period 2001–2009. No advancing glaciers were detected. Detailed length measurements for five glaciers indicated a retreat of around 10 m per year (1976–2009. Ice cover is higher south-east of the mountain ridge which reflects the windward direction to the monsoon. The temperature increase during the ablation period was probably the main driver of glacier wastage, but the complex glacier-climate interactions need further investigation.
Full Text Available Given the opportunities offered by foreign investment in energy infrastructure mostly by Chinese firms, the Government of Cambodia is giving high priority to developing hydropower resources for reducing energy poverty and powering economic growth. Using a “Political ecology of the Asian drivers” framework, this paper assesses China’s involvement in the development of large dams’ in Cambodia and its impacts on the access of natural resources such as water and energy by dam builders, local communities and the government. This analysis is based on 61 interviews and 10 focus group discussions with affected communities, institutional actors, Chinese dam builders and financiers in relation to the first large Chinese dam built in Cambodia: the Kamchay dam. Based on the results of the analysis this paper makes recommendations on how to improve the planning, implementation and governance of future large dams in Cambodia.
Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa
To investigate the prevalence and correlates of tobacco use among school-going adolescents. This cross-sectional study consisted of a secondary analysis of existing cross-sectional survey data from the Global School-based Health Survey from Cambodia and Vietnam in 2013, and comprised schoolchildren. Data was analysed using Stata 13.. The study comprised 7,137 schoolchildren. The overall mean age was 15.5±1.4 years. Besides, 3,806(53.33%) were from Cambodia and 3,331(46.67%) from Vietnam. Overall, 279(5.1%) students reported currently using tobacco (smoking and/or smokeless), including 214(6.2%) boys and 65(1.6%) girls, and 127(3.6%) in Cambodia and 152(5.2%) in Vietnam. Current cigarette smoking was 239(4.5%) and smokeless tobacco use was 143(2.4%). Tobacco use was found to be significantly high among schoolchildren in Cambodia and Vietnam.
Jeany Kim Jun; Junia S Koo; Amy Y Kang; Deborah B Chien; Albert Shim; Dale Knutson; Eda M Kim
Objective: The purpose of this project was to gather epidemiological data on common diseases and medications dispensed during medical mission trips to Cambodia to shape the mobile medical clinic formulary. Methods...
Boulakia, Stephane; Kong, R; Husson, O.; Leng, V.; Sar, V.; Soeurng, K.; Thy, B.; Huot, L.; Nhem, S; Pheav, S.; Manuel R. Reyes; Tivet, F.; Séguy, L.
This poster describes the Diagnostic, Design, Assessment, Training and Extension (DATE) approach to gaining a holistic understanding of an agricultural system. LTRA-12 (Conservation agriculture for food security in Cambodia and the Philippines)
Ram Avtar; Rikie Suzuki; Wataru Takeuchi; Haruo Sawada
Tropical countries like Cambodia require information about forest biomass for successful implementation of climate change mitigation mechanism related to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). This study investigated the potential of Phased Array-type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar Fine Beam Dual (PALSAR FBD) 50 m mosaic data to estimate Above Ground Biomass (AGB) in Cambodia. AGB was estimated using a bottom-up approach based on field measured biomass and back...
Leblanc, Luc; San Jose, Michael; Rubinoff, Daniel
Bactrocera (Bactrocera) kohkongiae Leblanc (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae), from the Koh Kong Province of Cambodia, is described as new. This species belongs to the Oriental fruit fly (B. dorsalis) complex. Genetic sequences (mitochondrial COI and nuclear EF1α and Period) are deposited in GenBank. A haplotype network, based on the COI sequences for 21 specimens, shows high genetic diversity. New country records from Cambodia are included for 22 species.
Davies, Grace I; McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Yoonhee; Hashizume, Masahiro; Iddings, Steven; Chan, Vibol
Cambodia is prone to extreme weather events, especially floods, droughts and typhoons. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and intensity of such events. The Cambodian population is highly vulnerable to the impacts of these events due to poverty; malnutrition; agricultural dependence; settlements in flood-prone areas, and public health, governance and technological limitations. Yet little is known about the health impacts of extreme weather events in Cambodia. Given the extremely low adaptive capacity of the population, this is a crucial knowledge gap. A literature review of the health impacts of floods, droughts and typhoons in Cambodia was conducted, with regional and global information reviewed where Cambodia-specific literature was lacking. Water-borne diseases are of particular concern in Cambodia, in the face of extreme weather events and climate change, due to, inter alia, a high pre-existing burden of diseases such as diarrhoeal illness and a lack of improved sanitation infrastructure in rural areas. A time-series analysis under quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the association between floods and diarrhoeal disease incidence in Cambodian children between 2001 and 2012 in 16 Cambodian provinces. Floods were significantly associated with increased diarrhoeal disease in two provinces, while the analysis conducted suggested a possible protective effect from toilets and piped water. Addressing the specific, local pre-existing vulnerabilities is vital to promoting population health resilience and strengthening adaptive capacity to extreme weather events and climate change in Cambodia.
Davies, Grace I.; McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Yoonhee; Hashizume, Masahiro; Iddings, Steven; Chan, Vibol
Cambodia is prone to extreme weather events, especially floods, droughts and typhoons. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and intensity of such events. The Cambodian population is highly vulnerable to the impacts of these events due to poverty; malnutrition; agricultural dependence; settlements in flood-prone areas, and public health, governance and technological limitations. Yet little is known about the health impacts of extreme weather events in Cambodia. Given the extremely low adaptive capacity of the population, this is a crucial knowledge gap. A literature review of the health impacts of floods, droughts and typhoons in Cambodia was conducted, with regional and global information reviewed where Cambodia-specific literature was lacking. Water-borne diseases are of particular concern in Cambodia, in the face of extreme weather events and climate change, due to, inter alia, a high pre-existing burden of diseases such as diarrhoeal illness and a lack of improved sanitation infrastructure in rural areas. A time-series analysis under quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the association between floods and diarrhoeal disease incidence in Cambodian children between 2001 and 2012 in 16 Cambodian provinces. Floods were significantly associated with increased diarrhoeal disease in two provinces, while the analysis conducted suggested a possible protective effect from toilets and piped water. Addressing the specific, local pre-existing vulnerabilities is vital to promoting population health resilience and strengthening adaptive capacity to extreme weather events and climate change in Cambodia. PMID:25546280
Grace I. Davies
Full Text Available Cambodia is prone to extreme weather events, especially floods, droughts and typhoons. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and intensity of such events. The Cambodian population is highly vulnerable to the impacts of these events due to poverty; malnutrition; agricultural dependence; settlements in flood-prone areas, and public health, governance and technological limitations. Yet little is known about the health impacts of extreme weather events in Cambodia. Given the extremely low adaptive capacity of the population, this is a crucial knowledge gap. A literature review of the health impacts of floods, droughts and typhoons in Cambodia was conducted, with regional and global information reviewed where Cambodia-specific literature was lacking. Water-borne diseases are of particular concern in Cambodia, in the face of extreme weather events and climate change, due to, inter alia, a high pre-existing burden of diseases such as diarrhoeal illness and a lack of improved sanitation infrastructure in rural areas. A time-series analysis under quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the association between floods and diarrhoeal disease incidence in Cambodian children between 2001 and 2012 in 16 Cambodian provinces. Floods were significantly associated with increased diarrhoeal disease in two provinces, while the analysis conducted suggested a possible protective effect from toilets and piped water. Addressing the specific, local pre-existing vulnerabilities is vital to promoting population health resilience and strengthening adaptive capacity to extreme weather events and climate change in Cambodia.
Full Text Available Earthworm specimens collected from the Nam Xam National Protected Area, Laos, belong to three new species of megascolecid earthworms: Amynthas xamtaiensis sp. nov., Amynthas vanhyai sp. nov., and Amynthas multipapillatus sp. nov. The authors provide a new record for Amynthas gracilis (Kinberg, 1867. All three new species key to the gracilis (hawayanus group in Sims and Easton (1972, defined by having three pairs of spermathecal pores in 5/6–7/8. A. xamtaiensis sp. nov. has male pores superficial in thickened areas, containing two genital papillae medial to the male pores. A. vanhyai sp. nov. has male pores equatorial oval pads at sixth setal lines, and shallowly pinnate intestinal ceca having 6–10 lobes on each edge. A. multipapillatus sp. nov. has male pores on small longitudinal shallow invaginations at lateral margins of the ventrum, and more than 100 small genital papillae covering the ventral surface from 16/17 to 17/18.
Maude, Richard J; Nguon, Chea; Ly, Po; Bunkea, Tol; Ngor, Pengby; Canavati de la Torre, Sara E; White, Nicholas J; Dondorp, Arjen M; Day, Nicholas P J; White, Lisa J; Chuor, Char Meng
Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria has recently been identified on the Thailand-Cambodia border and more recently in parts of Thailand, Myanmar and Vietnam. There is concern that if this resistance were to spread, it would severely hamper malaria control and elimination efforts worldwide. Efforts are currently underway to intensify malaria control activities and ultimately eliminate malaria from Cambodia. To support these efforts, it is crucial to have a detailed picture of disease burden and its major determinants over time. An analysis of spatial and temporal data on clinical malaria in Cambodia collected by the National Centre for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control (CNM) and the Department of Planning and Health Information, Ministry of Health Cambodia from 2004 to 2013 is presented. There has been a marked decrease of 81% in annual cases due to P. falciparum since 2009 coinciding with a rapid scale-up in village malaria workers (VMWs) and insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs). Concurrently, the number of cases with Plasmodium vivax has greatly increased. It is estimated that there were around 112,000 total cases in 2012, 2.8 times greater than the WHO estimate for that year, and 68,000 in 2013 (an annual parasite incidence (API) of 4.6/1000). With the scale-up of VMWs, numbers of patients presenting to government facilities did not fall and it appears likely that those who saw VMWs had previously accessed healthcare in the private sector. Malaria mortality has decreased, particularly in areas with VMWs. There has been a marked decrease in cases in parts of western Cambodia, especially in Pailin and Battambang Provinces. In the northeast, the fall in malaria burden has been more modest, this area having the highest API in 2013. The clinical burden of falciparum malaria in most areas of Cambodia has greatly decreased from 2009 to 2013, associated with roll-out of ITNs and VMWs. Numbers of cases with P. vivax have increased. Possible
Stark, Lindsay; Rubenstein, Beth L; Pak, Kimchoeun; Kosal, Sok
The primary objective of this study was to collect baseline data on the number of children living in residential care institutions in Cambodia. The secondary objective was to describe the characteristics of the children (eg, age, sex, duration of stay, education and health). The data were intended to guide recent efforts by the Government of Cambodia to reduce the number of children living in residential care institutions and increase the number of children growing up in supportive family environments. Data were collected in Cambodia across 24 sites at the commune level. Communes-administrative divisions roughly equivalent to counties-were selected by the National Institute of Statistics using a two-stage sampling method. Government lists and key informant interviews were used to construct a complete roster of institutions across the 24 communes. All identified institutions were visited to count the number of children and gather data on their basic characteristics. The rate of children in residential care in the selected communes was calculated as a percentage of total population using a Poisson model. This rate was applied to all districts in Cambodia with at least one reported residential care institution. A total of 3588 children were counted across 122 institutions. A child living in a residential care institution was defined as anyone under the age of 18 years who was sleeping in the institution for at least four nights per week during the data collection period. There are an estimated 48 775 children living in residential care institutions in Cambodia. The vast majority of children have a living parent and are school-aged. More than half are between 13 and 17 years of age. Nearly 1 of every 100 children in Cambodia is living in residential care. This raises substantial concerns for child health, protection and national development. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go
Full Text Available La crise du logement dans les grandes villes du Việt Nam est récurrente pendant toute la colonisation. Elle touche les Européens, mais surtout les populations locales qui vivent en majorité dans des habitats précaires. A partir des années 1920, face à l’ampleur de la situation, le gouvernement général décide d’adapter dans la colonie les récentes lois françaises en faveur du logement social. Si quelques prototypes d’habitations à bon marché vont être mis en place par la municipalité de Hanoi dans les années 1930, ce n’est que dans les années 1950, pour répondre à la crise sociale que les politiques de logement vont commencer à être significatives. Entre inertie et projets enthousiastes, les politiques de logement révèlent les contradictions du système colonial face à un problème aussi crucial que complexe, mettant en jeu différents acteurs à différents niveaux : le gouvernement général d’Indochine, la résidence supérieure du Tonkin, les municipalités, les associations privées et dans une moindre mesure les sociétés de construction. Du point de vue architectural, les projets mis en place sont des créations hybrides qui montrent une volonté manifeste de s’adapter au style de vie vietnamien.During the colonial period, the main cities of Việt Nam periodically experienced social housing crises. While Europeans did not remain immune from the consequences of a lack of adequate housing, local populations, who constituted the majority in these makeshift constructs, were most deeply affected. Beginning in the 1920s, faced with the urgency of this problem, the general government sought to adapt contemporaneous French laws in favor of social housing to the local colonial situation. Even though some prototypes of affordable housing were constructed by the Hanoi municipality in the 1930s, it was only in the 1950s that government efforts began to have a significant impact. The politics of housing, and
Hariharalaya, the ancient 9th Century A.D. capitol of the Khmer in Cambodia, is shown in the upper center portion of this NASA Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) image. The image was acquired during the 1996 PACRIM mission with AIRSAR operating in the TOPSAR mode. At the center of the image is the terraced sandstone temple mountain of the King Indravarman, the Bakong. The smaller enclosed rectangular feature just to the north is Preah Ko. Further to the south are more rectangular features, temples and water reservoirs attributed to other kings in the earlier part of the 9th Century A.D. and maybe even earlier. Just visible at the top on the image is a long linear feature that forms the southern border of the immense water reservoir, at the center of which is the Lolei temple. The city was the first capitol of the Khmer after the 802 A.D. ceremony consecrating the king as 'Devaraja'. This usually translated as 'god who was king' or 'king who was god'. In the next century, the center of power shifted to the northwest, to the area known today as Angkor.Thus this early capital is unique both in being the first after the historical 'founding' of the Khmer Empire, and for being inhabited for a relatively short time. Although kings returned from Angkor in the 11th and 12th Centuries A.D. to build the temple known as the Lolei and to construct the tower in the center of Bakong, the city of Hariharalaya remained on the perimeter of royal power. It was revered, however, as part of a longstanding and important custom of ancestral veneration. This manifested itself in a complex set of rituals honoring one's forebears--also ensuring legitimacy for one's claim to the throne. So behind this seemingly simple patterning of rectangles on the radar image lies many layers of history, ritual and meaning for the Khmer people, past and present.Image dimensions are approximately 6 by 4.8 kilometers (3.7 by 3 miles) with a pixel spacing of 5 meters (16.4 feet). North is at top
Park, Seung Kyu; Kim, Dong-Heui; Deung, Young-Kun; Kim, Hun-Joo; Yang, Eun-Ju; Lim, Soo-Jung; Ryang, Yong-Suk; Jin, Dan; Lee, Kyu-Jae
A survey was conducted to determine the extent of intestinal parasite infection in Bat Dambang, Cambodia in March 2004. A total of 623 fecal specimens was collected from kindergarten and schoolchildren and examined using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. The overall infection rate of intestinal parasites was 25.7% (boys, 26.2%; girls, 25.1%), and the infection rates of intestinal helminthes by species were as follows: Echinostoma sp. 4.8%, hookworm 3.4%, Hymenolepis nana 1.3%, and Rhabditis sp. 1.3%. The infection rates of intestinal protozoa were; Entamoeba coli 4.8%, Giardia lamblia 2.9%, Iodamoeba butschlii 1.4%, Entamoeba polecki 1.1%, and Entamoeba histolytica 0.8%. There were no egg positive cases of Ascaris lumbricoides or Trichuris trichiura. All children infected were treated with albendazole, praziquantel, or metronidazole according to parasite species. The results showed that intestinal parasites are highly endemic in Bat Dambang, Cambodia.
Full Text Available Dengue fever continues to be a major public health problem in Cambodia, with significant impact on children. Health education is a major means for prevention and control of the National Dengue Control Program (NDCP, and is delivered to communities and in schools. Drawing on data collected in 2003-2004 as part of an ethnographic study conducted in eastern Cambodia, we explore the approaches used in health education and their effectiveness to control dengue. Community health education is provided through health centre outreach activities and campaigns of the NDCP, but is not systematically evaluated, is under-funded and delivered irregularly; school-based education is restricted in terms of time and lacks follow-up in terms of practical activities for prevention and control. As a result, adherence is partial. We suggest the need for sustained routine education for dengue prevention and control, and the need for approaches to ensure the translation of knowledge into practice.
Halsnæs, Kirsten; Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte
Climate change imposes some special risks on Least Developed Countries, and the chapter presents a methodological framework, which can be used to assess the impacts of key assumptions related to damage costs, risks and equity implications on current and future generations. The methodological...... framework is applied to a case study of severe storms in Cambodia based on statistical information on past storm events including information about buildings damaged and victims. Despite there is limited data available on the probability of severe storm events under climate change as well on the actual...... damage costs associated with the events in the case of Cambodia, we are using the past storm events as proxy data in a sensitivity analysis. It is here demonstrated how key assumptions on future climate change, income levels of victims, and income distribution over time, reflected in discount rates...
Bazzano, Alessandra N; Var, Chivorn; Grossman, Francoise; Oberhelman, Richard A
Balms and oils containing terpenic compounds, such as camphor, menthol and eucalyptus, are potentially toxic, and numerous reports of adverse events stemming from their use in infants and young children have been published. During qualitative research on newborn practices in rural Cambodia, these products were found to be commonly applied to the skin of newborns and infants and available in most households. Parents and caregivers of infants in Cambodia and other settings where use of camphor- and menthol-containing products are common should be educated on the risks of these to prevent child morbidity and potential mortality. © The Author . Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Yang, Youngran; Lewis, Frances Marcus; Kraushaar, Daniel L
HIV transmission in Cambodia has declined considerably in recent years, yet new incidents of HIV transmission within marital relationships have increased. Evidence suggests that the cause of this is transmission from HIV-positive men to their HIV-negative spouses. The objective of this paper is to develop an evidence-based model of HIV transmission from husbands to wives in Cambodia in a context of culture and society, drawing from the published literature. A critical analysis of peer reviewed literature, professional papers, policy reports and reference books identified four plausible factors influencing inter-spousal HIV transmission: (1) a hierarchical male-dominated society, (2) husbands' involvement with sex workers, (3) cultural values concerning the ideal Khmer woman and (4) unprotected sex between an HIV-infected husband and his uninfected wife. This evidence-based explanatory model can be used to inform future culturally appropriate HIV-education and prevention programmes.
Kasper, Matthew R; Blair, Patrick J; Touch, Sok; Sokhal, Buth; Yasuda, Chadwick Y; Williams, Maya; Richards, Allen L; Burgess, Timothy H; Wierzba, Thomas F; Putnam, Shannon D
The agents of human febrile illness can vary by region and country suggesting that diagnosis, treatment, and control programs need to be based on a methodical evaluation of area-specific etiologies. From December 2006 to December 2009, 9,997 individuals presenting with acute febrile illness at nine health care clinics in south-central Cambodia were enrolled in a study to elucidate the etiologies. Upon enrollment, respiratory specimens, whole blood, and serum were collected. Testing was performed for viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens. Etiologies were identified in 38.0% of patients. Influenza was the most frequent pathogen, followed by dengue, malaria, and bacterial pathogens isolated from blood culture. In addition, 3.5% of enrolled patients were infected with more than one pathogen. Our data provide the first systematic assessment of the etiologies of acute febrile illness in south-central Cambodia. Data from syndromic-based surveillance studies can help guide public health responses in developing nations.
Lilja, Mona; Baaz, Mikael
This paper offers a new interpretation of the 'resistance' carried out by local civil society organisations in Cambodia against intimate partner violence (IPV). In this, the paper explores the nexus between 'rupture', 'resistance' and 'repetition' and concludes that different 'repetitions' can contribute to acts of violence while simultaneously creating possibilities for resisting IPV. In regard to the latter, the concept of 'rupture' is investigated as a performative politics through which organisations try to disrupt the 'repetitions' of violent masculinities. Furthermore, it is argued that the importance of 'repetitions' and the concept of time should be acknowledged. The French criminal defence lawyer Jacques Vergès' understanding of 'rupture' and the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze's notions of 'repetition' inform the analysis. To exemplify our discussion and findings, the paper embraces stories of a number of civil society workers who facilitate various men's groups in Cambodia in order to negotiate the practice of IPV.
Pasgaard, Maya; Chea, Lily
In Cambodia, numerous powerful drivers of land-use change threaten the remaining natural for-est and the livelihoods of local communities living on the forest periphery. In an attempt to protect remaining forests, Community Forestry (CF) and Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest...... Degradation (REDD+) were implemented in the north-western province of Oddar Meanchey. This case study examines the distribution of costs and benefits within local communities participating in the CF/REDD+ project. Qualitative interviews conducted in the communities indicate how the costs of deforestation...... governance, contested tenure arrangements, high agricultural dependency, and power discrepancies, this paper analyzes and critically discusses this ‘double inequity’ of deforestation and forest protection in Cambodia, and recommendations on how to ensure more equitable distribution of costs and benefits...
Camilla Marie, Mårtensson
The Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN) has since its origins in the late 1960’s been connected to the emphasis on Economic, Social and Cultural rights and the regional need for economic development. Through the intense years and debates that followed the first ASEAN Declaration the unity has made significant contributions to the Human Rights discourse due to the challenges and possibilities that surfaced. The Kingdom of Cambodia is one of the ASEAN member states poorest countries b...
Miyamoto, Kazuko; Kirinoki, Masashi; Matsuda, Hajime; Hayashi, Naoko; Chigusa, Yuichi; Sinuon, Muth; Chuor, Char Meng; Kitikoon, Viroj
Opisthorchiasis is endemic in Thailand and Lao People's Democratic Republic and constitutes a major public health problem throughout the Mekong Basin. Although Cambodia is located in the Mekong Basin, the status of O. viverrini infection in that country was not previously clarified. This research was conducted to document the extent and distribution of O. viverrini infection in Cambodia. Surveillance was conducted in 55 villages in five Cambodian provinces. Research tools included stool examination using the Kato-Katz thick-smear technique, identification of intermediate hosts, and interviews covering factors related to O. viverrini infection. Some larvae and egg-positive stool samples were examined using PCR to detect O. viverrini DNA. A total of 16,082 stool samples from the 55 villages were examined, of which 1232 were egg positive. In 15 villages with egg-positive rates of greater than 10%, eggs were found in 998 of 3585 stool samples, for an egg-positive rate of 27.8%. PCR analysis showed that 30 of 33 samples were positive for O. viverrini DNA from five villages in Kampong Cham and Kampong Thom provinces. The first intermediate host Bithynia siamensis siamensis was identified in the target areas of Takaev, Kandal, and Kampong Cham provinces. Cercariae were identified morphologically as O. viverrini and some were confirmed using PCR. Metacercariae of O. viverrini were identified by morphologic observations, animal experiments, or PCR in six species of fish in the target areas. Four Cambodian provinces were identified as endemic areas of O. viverrini infection. Careful planning is necessary for effective field surveys, because complex environmental factors might be involved in the distribution of O. viverrini infection-endemic areas in Cambodia. Many problems remain to be resolved regarding the status of O. viverrini infection in Cambodia, and a nationwide baseline survey is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gupta, Saksham; Klaric, Katherine; Sam, Nang; Din, Vuthy; Juschkewitz, Tina; Iv, Vycheth; Shrime, Mark G; Park, Kee B
Rapid urbanization and motorization without corresponding increases in helmet usage have made traumatic brain injury due to road traffic accidents a major public health crisis in Cambodia. This analysis was conducted to quantify the impact of helmets on severity of injury, neurosurgical indication, and functional outcomes at discharge for motorcycle operators who required hospitalization for a traumatic brain injury following a road traffic accident in Cambodia. The medical records of 491 motorcycle operators who presented to a major tertiary care center in Cambodia with traumatic brain injury were retrospectively analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. The most common injuries at presentation were contusions (47.0%), epidural hematomas (30.1%), subdural hematomas (27.9%), subarachnoid hemorrhages (12.4%), skull fractures (21.4%), and facial fractures (18.5%). Moderate-to-severe loss of consciousness was present in 36.3% of patients. Not wearing a helmet was associated with an odds ratio of 2.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-4.22) for presenting with moderate to severe loss of consciousness compared to helmeted patients. Craniotomy or craniectomy was indicated for evacuation of hematoma in 20.0% of cases, and nonhelmeted patients had 3.21-fold higher odds of requiring neurosurgical intervention (95% CI, 1.25-8.27). Furthermore, lack of helmet usage was associated with 2.72-fold higher odds of discharge with functional deficits (95% CI, 1.14-6.49). In total, 30.1% of patients were discharged with severe functional deficits. Helmets demonstrate a protective effect and may be an effective public health intervention to significantly reduce the burden of traumatic brain injury in Cambodia and other developing countries with increasing rates of motorization across the world.
Stratton, J; Toribio, J-A L M L; Suon, S; Young, J R; Cowled, B; Windsor, P A
A cross-sectional survey of 445 Village Animal Health Workers (VAHWs) from 19 provinces in Cambodia was undertaken. The aim was to establish their levels of training, farm visit frequency, reasons for visits and disease reporting practices, enabling the strengths and weaknesses of the VAHW system in Cambodia to be determined, in providing both a fee-based smallholder livestock clinical service and a government partnership in transboundary animal disease (TAD) surveillance and control. The study used 'guided group interviews' and identified that VAHWs had good contact with farmers with 61.5% making more than one farm visit daily. However, incomes from services remained low, with 45% VAHWs obtaining between 20 and 40% of their household income from VAHW activities. VAHWs recorded relatively high rates of disease reporting, with 72% claiming they report diseases immediately and 74% undertaking monthly reporting to veterinary authorities. Logistic regression analysis revealed VAHW contact frequency with district and/or provincial officers was associated with more VAHW farm visits, and frequency of VAHW visits to smallholder farms was positively associated with average monthly expenditure on animal medication and equipment. This suggests that increased veterinary extension to VAHWs and access to veterinary equipment, vaccines and drugs may further increase VAHW-farmer engagement. VAHWs provide an accessible, market-based, animal health 'treatment and reporting' service linked to livestock smallholders across Cambodia. However, for improved TAD prevention and more efficient control of outbreaks, research that assesses provision of an animal health 'preventive-based' business model is urgently needed to reduce both the costs to farmers and the risks to the economy due to foot-and-mouth disease and other TADs in Cambodia. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Morishita, Fukushi; Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad; Eang, Mao Tan; Saint, Saly; Nishikiori, Nobuyuki
Despite free TB services available in public health facilities, TB patients often face severe financial burden due to TB. WHO set a new global target that no TB-affected families experience catastrophic costs due to TB. To monitor the progress and strategize the optimal approach to achieve the target, there is a great need to assess baseline cost data, explore potential proxy indicators for catastrophic costs, and understand what intervention mitigates financial burden. In Cambodia, nationwide active case finding (ACF) targeting household and neighbourhood contacts was implemented alongside routine passive case finding (PCF). We analyzed household cost data from ACF and PCF to determine the financial benefit of ACF, update the baseline cost data, and explore whether any dissaving patterns can be a proxy for catastrophic costs in Cambodia. In this cross-sectional comparative study, structured interviews were carried out with 108 ACF patients and 100 PCF patients. Direct and indirect costs, costs before and during treatment, costs as percentage of annual household income and dissaving patterns were compared between the two groups. The median total costs were lower by 17% in ACF than in PCF ($240.7 [IQR 65.5-594.6] vs $290.5 [IQR 113.6-813.4], p = 0.104). The median costs before treatment were significantly lower in ACF than in PCF ($5.1 [IQR 1.5-25.8] vs $22.4 [IQR 4.4-70.8], pCambodia. ACF has the great potential to mitigate the costs incurred particularly before treatment. Social protection schemes that can replace lost income are critically needed to compensate for the most devastating costs in TB. An occurrence of selling household property can be a useful proxy for catastrophic cost in Cambodia.
Mey, Channa; Metlin, Artem; Duong, Veasna; Ong, Sivuth; In, Sotheary; Horwood, Paul F; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Bourhy, Hervé; Tarantola, Arnaud; Buchy, Philippe
This first extensive retrospective study of the molecular epidemiology of dog rabies in Cambodia included 149 rabies virus (RABV) entire nucleoprotein sequences obtained from 1998-2011. The sequences were analyzed in conjunction with RABVs from other Asian countries. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed the South-East Asian phylogenetic clade comprising viruses from Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos and Myanmar. The present study represents the first attempt to classify the phylogenetic lineages inside this clade, resulting in the confirmation that all the Cambodian viruses belonged to the South-East Asian (SEA) clade. Three distinct phylogenetic lineages in the region were established with the majority of viruses from Cambodia closely related to viruses from Thailand, Laos and Vietnam, forming the geographically widespread phylogenetic lineage SEA1. A South-East Asian lineage SEA2 comprised two viruses from Cambodia was identified, which shared a common ancestor with RABVs originating from Laos. Viruses from Myanmar formed separate phylogenetic lineages within the major SEA clade. Bayesian molecular clock analysis suggested that the time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of all Cambodian RABVs dated to around 1950. The TMRCA of the Cambodian SEA1 lineage was around 1964 and that of the SEA2 lineage was around 1953. The results identified three phylogenetically distinct and geographically separated lineages inside the earlier identified major SEA clade, covering at least five countries in the region. A greater understanding of the molecular epidemiology of rabies in South-East Asia is an important step to monitor progress on the efforts to control canine rabies in the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Brown, Joseph; Sobsey, Mark D.
This paper focuses on the consistency of use and microbiological effectiveness of boiling as it is practiced in one study site in peri-urban Cambodia. We followed 60 randomly selected households in Kandal Province over 6 months to collect longitudinal data on water boiling practices and effectiveness in reducing Escherichia coli in household drinking water. Despite > 90% of households reporting that they used boiling as a means of drinking water treatment, an average of only 31% of households...
Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Based on an analysis of gender inequalities, strategies and promising initiatives to countergender discrimination and promote equality between men and women in Cambodia, Kazakhstan, and the Philippines, as well as an inventory of global good legal, economic, and social practices, this report summarizes the findings and recommendations for these countries. It shows how to improve equitable employment opportunities, remuneration, and treatment for women and men at work to support the developmen...
Brijs, Kris; Brijs, Tom; Socheata, Sann; TRINH, Tu Anh; Wets, Geert; Ruiter, Rob
Cambodian accident statistics show that motivating motorcyclists to make proper use of a safety helmet is a top priority for road safety policy makers. Yet, currently there is no insight whatsoever in the psychological precursors of helmet use in Cambodia. As such, it remains unclear which variables to target by interventions aimed at promoting the use of safety helmets. Therefore, this study adopted a socio-cognitive perspective towards the examination of helmet use in a sample of Cambodian ...
This study examines (1) the extent to which students at one premier faculty of English in Cambodia exhibit their involvement level in academic activities under a new learning environment and (2) whether differential involvement patterns exist within certain groups of students. The data source was 215 sophomore students randomly selected from all study periods (morning, afternoon and evening) in the 2010 academic year. Student involvement was assessed by their engagement behaviors using select...
Various factors besides culture and religion assist in defining the identity of a community. In the case of Cambodia, the tragic genocide of the Khmer Rouge and its aftermath forged a Cambodian identity suffering from severe psychological trauma. The lack of essential reconciliation and rehabilitation efforts by the government has played a role in the transgenerational passage of the trauma and needs to be addressed for the stable progression of Cambodian society. Political Psycho...
Background Suicide among young people is a global public health problem, but information on determinants and understanding of suicidal expressions are lacking in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Though school-based interventions are common in many parts of the world, evidence for efficacy is less reported, particularly from post-conflict countries. Aim To explore suicidal expressions and their determinants with psychosocial and gender perspective in Cambodia and Nicaragua and to evalua...
Mao, Tan Eang; Okada, Kosuke; Yamada, Norio; Peou, Satha; Ota, Masaki; Saint, Saly; Kouet, Pichenda; Chea, Manith; Keo, Sokonth; Pheng, Sok Heng; Tieng, Sivanna; Khun, Kim Eam; Sugamoto, Tetsuhiro; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Yoshiyama, Takashi; Ito, Kunihiko; Onozaki, Ikushi
To measure trends in the pulmonary tuberculosis burden between 2002 and 2011 and to assess the impact of the DOTS (directly observed treatment, short-course) strategy in Cambodia. Cambodia's first population-based nationwide tuberculosis survey, based on multistage cluster sampling, was conducted in 2002. The second tuberculosis survey, encompassing 62 clusters, followed in 2011. Participants aged 15 years or older were screened for active pulmonary tuberculosis with chest radiography and/or for tuberculosis symptoms. For diagnostic confirmation, sputum smear and culture were conducted on those whose screening results were positive. Of the 40,423 eligible subjects, 37,417 (92.6%) participated in the survey; 103 smear-positive cases and 211 smear-negative, culture-positive cases were identified. The weighted prevalences of smear-positive tuberculosis and bacteriologically-positive tuberculosis were 271 (95% confidence interval, CI: 212-348) and 831 (95% CI: 707-977) per 100,000 population, respectively. Tuberculosis prevalence was higher in men than women and increased with age. A 38% decline in smear-positive tuberculosis (P = 0.0085) was observed with respect to the 2002 survey, after participants were matched by demographic and geographical characteristics. The prevalence of symptomatic, smear-positive tuberculosis decreased by 56% (P = 0.001), whereas the prevalence of asymptomatic, smear-positive tuberculosis decreased by only 7% (P = 0.7249). The tuberculosis burden in Cambodia has declined significantly, most probably because of the decentralization of DOTS to health centres. To further reduce the tuberculosis burden in Cambodia, tuberculosis control should be strengthened and should focus on identifying cases without symptoms and in the middle-aged and elderly population.
Koto?Shimada, Kyoko; Yanagisawa,, Satoko; Boonyanurak, Puangrat; Fujita, Noriko
To upgrade nursing instruction capacity in Cambodia, two bridging programmes were opened for the Bachelor of Science in Nursing simultaneously in?country and out?of?country (Thailand). A descriptive qualitative study was conducted to assess effectiveness of both programmes jointly and to explore needs concerning the further development of nursing education. This study included interviews with 34 current or previous programme participants (nursing instructors or hospital preceptors) and 10 man...
Tevy Chrin; Sotheary Lim; Sophall Soun; Tangkor Dong; Monorum Tep
Two species of otters are found along Tropeang Roung River, the smooth-coated otter (Lutrogale perspecillata) and the hairy-nosed otter (Lutra sumatrana). The distribution of these species was studied along a stretch of the Tropeang Roung River in Koh Kong province, Cambodia, between May and June 2009. Their main habitat appears to be both small and big estuary surrounded by Melaleuca, Mangrove and evergreen forest with shoreline vegetation followed by sand (24%), clay (13%), rocky (10%) and ...
Khun, Vuthy; Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong
The risk of nuclear or dirty bomb attack by terrorists is one of the most urgent and threatening danger. The Cambodian national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) depicts a layered system of preventive measures ranging from securing materials at foreign sources to interdicting weapons or nuclear or other radioactive materials at ports, border crossings, and within the Cambodian institutions dealing with the nuclear security to manage the preventive programs. The aim of this study is to formulate guidance, to identify scenario of threat and risk, and to pinpoint necessary legal frameworks on nuclear security in the context of counterterrorism based on the International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear security series. The analysis of this study is guided by theoretical review, the review of international laws and politics, by identifying and interpreting applicable rules and norms establishing the nuclear security regime and how well enforcement of the regime is carried out and, what is the likelihood of the future reform might be. This study will examine the existing national legal frameworks of Cambodia in the context of counterterrorism to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the threat of a terrorist nuclear attack within the Cambodia territory. It will shed light on departmental lanes of national nuclear security responsibility, and provide a holistic perspective on the needs of additional resources and emphasis regarding nuclear security policy in the context of counterterrorism in Cambodia.