Sample records for vienna university observatory

  1. Vienna University Observatory and Bruno Thüring (German Title: Die Wiener Universitätssternwarte und Bruno Thüring ) (United States)

    Kerschbaum, Franz; Posch, Thomas; Lackner, Karin

    We investigate Bruno Thüring's political attitude during the time of National Socialism, based on material from the Vienna Observatory archive, and on statements by his contemporaries. The contribution focuses on the filling of astronomy positions in Vienna, and also on the expulsion of Kasimir Graff. A central role is played by Wilhelm Führer, Obersturmführer der Waffen-SS (Senior Storm Leader of the Armed Protection Squad) and chief civil servant in the Reich science ministry. The transcription of an original letter of 1939 by Führer, addressed to Thüring, is given.

  2. A New Campus of Vienna University of Economics and Business

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    Tsyredar Dagdanova


    Full Text Available The article deals with the issues of building of modern university campuses through the example of a new campus of Vienna University of Economics and Business – a successful project that facilitates the improvement of education quality and provides conditions for harmonious development of the individual.

  3. The astronomer Friedrich Viktor Schembor and the Vienna Urania Observatory (The history of the Vienna Urania Observatory from its foundation to its re-opening (1897-1957) / Friedrich Viktor Schembor - a life for astronomy). (German Title: Der Astronom Friedrich Viktor Schembor und die Wiener Urania-Sternwarte (Die Geschichte der Wiener Urania-Sternwarte von ihrer Gründung bis zu ihrer Wiedereröffnung (1897-1957) / Friedrich Viktor Schembor - ein Leben für die Astronomie)) (United States)

    Schembor, Friedrich Wilhelm

    The Urania Observatory in Vienna and the life and workings of the Viennese astronomer Friedrich Viktor Schembor are the topics of this volume. The first part deals with the history of the Urania Observatory and its significance as the oldest popular observatory in Vienna for the education of adults. After a short digression on the development of popular educational activities in the 19th century, the efforts are traced that led to the establishment of the Urania Observatory. The second part deals with the biography of the astronomer Friedrich Viktor Schembor (1898-1942). Already at an early age he committed himself as a volunteer for popular education in astronomy. In his time as director of the Urania Observatory, he was able to guide the “Astronomische Gemeinde” (Astronomical Congregation) to scientifically useful results. Because of a vicious disease, he was given only a short time of scientific work at the Vienna University Observatory.

  4. The Perugia University Automatic Observatory (United States)

    Tosti, Gino; Pascolini, Sergio; Fiorucci, Massimo


    In this paper we describe the hardware and software architecture of the Automatic Imaging Telescope (AIT), recently developed at the Perugia University Observatory. It is based on an existing 0.4 m telescope which was transformed into an automatic device. During the night, all the observatory functions are controlled by two PCs in an unattended mode. The system is equipped with an autoguider and the software was designed to allow the automatic reduction of the data at the end of the night. Since October 1994 the AIT has been collecting a large amount of BVR_cI_c data for about 30 blazars. (SECTION: Astronomical Instrumentation)

  5. "Dropbox-like" service for the University of Vienna

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    CERN. Geneva


    The increasing popularity of dropbox and at the same time increasing awareness for data security did create the demand for an onsite "Dropbox-like" “sync and share” service at the University of Vienna. It has been decided that ownCloud would be a good start, since other academic institutions have been working on an ownCloud based solution as well. Based on ownCloud enterprise Version 6 the service is currently in test operation with campus wide availability for staff only planned for 12/2014. Major concerns were the scalability of the storage backend. So instead of using an enterprise storage solution we use Scality’s RING as backend. The RING is an object storage based solution using local storage nodes. Since the ownCloud architecture does so far not allow a RESTbased storage backend we use Scality’s FUSE connector to simulate a virtually limitless filesystem (POSIX). Based on the experiences reported by other academic facilities and our own, our main concerns have been database performance-scal...

  6. The Third Mission of Universities in the Development Strategy of Vienna City

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    Mihaela-Cornelia DAN


    Full Text Available Vienna City is one of the most attractive cities in Europe and according to different rankings [1], [2]it is placed on the top ten in the list of cities with best living conditions, excellent education, infrastructure and good urban planning. This is the result of a systematic approach of the local government, companies, universities and public in the development and modernization of the city. Since 2000 the city has known a growth in different areas (number of researchers, number of patents, joint programs for the popularization of science etc. and evolved into a network point not only for business but also for research and innovation. In this paper we investigate the strategy of Vienna City regarding research and development and the extensive and complex role of universities in the city.

  7. Additive homeopathy in cancer patients: Retrospective survival data from a homeopathic outpatient unit at the Medical University of Vienna. (United States)

    Gaertner, Katharina; Müllner, Michael; Friehs, Helmut; Schuster, Ernst; Marosi, Christine; Muchitsch, Ilse; Frass, Michael; Kaye, Alan David


    Current literature suggests a positive influence of additive classical homeopathy on global health and well-being in cancer patients. Besides encouraging case reports, there is little if any research on long-term survival of patients who obtain homeopathic care during cancer treatment. Data from cancer patients who had undergone homeopathic treatment complementary to conventional anti-cancer treatment at the Outpatient Unit for Homeopathy in Malignant Diseases, Medical University Vienna, Department of Medicine I, Vienna, Austria, were collected, described and a retrospective subgroup-analysis with regard to survival time was performed. Patient inclusion criteria were at least three homeopathic consultations, fatal prognosis of disease, quantitative and qualitative description of patient characteristics, and survival time. In four years, a total of 538 patients were recorded to have visited the Outpatient Unit Homeopathy in Malignant Diseases, Medical University Vienna, Department of Medicine I, Vienna, Austria. 62.8% of them were women, and nearly 20% had breast cancer. From the 53.7% (n=287) who had undergone at least three homeopathic consultations within four years, 18.7% (n=54) fulfilled inclusion criteria for survival analysis. The surveyed neoplasms were glioblastoma, lung, cholangiocellular and pancreatic carcinomas, metastasized sarcoma, and renal cell carcinoma. Median overall survival was compared to expert expectations of survival outcomes by specific cancer type and was prolonged across observed cancer entities (pcancer patients with fatal prognosis but additive homeopathic treatment is interesting. However, findings are based on a small sample, and with only limited data available about patient and treatment characteristics. The relationship between homeopathic treatment and survival time requires prospective investigation in larger samples possibly using matched-pair control analysis or randomized trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  8. The University of Jaén Astronomical Observatory (United States)

    Martí, Josep; Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L.; García-Hernández, María T.


    We present a description and instrumental characterization of the photometric equipment of the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Jaén. The observatory hosts a 41 cm automated telescope inside a 4 m dome located at the university main campus, in the outskirts of the city of Jaén (Spain). This facility is used for educational, outreach and occasional scientific research on bright stellar objects. Despite the observatory location in a light polluted urban area, its performance for differential photometry studies has proven to be very acceptable. The discovery of the Be star LS I +5979 as a peculiar eclipsing binary system is so far the most relevant achievement.

  9. The University of Texas Millimeter Wave Observatory (United States)

    Vanden Bout, Paul A.; Davis, John H.; Loren, Robert B.


    This is an account of the Millimeter Wave Observatory (MWO), a 4.9 m diameter antenna facility that pioneered continuum observations of planets and spectroscopy of interstellar molecules from 1971 to 1988. The circumstances of its founding, development of its instrumentation, and major research contributions are discussed. The MWO role in training of personnel in this new field is illustrated by a listing of student and postdoctoral observers, with titles of PhD theses that included MWO data.

  10. Stereotactic photon beam irradiation of uveal melanoma: indications and experience at the University of Vienna since 1997

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    Dieckmann, K.; Georg, D.; Rottenfusser, A.; Poetter, R. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Zehetmayer, M. [Dept. of Ophthalmology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)


    Most uveal melanomas are currently treated by eye-preserving radiotherapy. No advantage of enucleation of posterior uveal melanoma (< 12 mm) could be demonstrated in multiple studies (e.g.). Besides brachytherapy and highly conformal proton therapy advanced photon beam therapy techniques have been introduced during the last years. Since 1997, at the Medical University of Vienna, patients with uveal melanoma have been treated with 3D stereotactic photon beam radiotherapy. Special fixation- and eye-monitoring systems have been developed to perform a local treatment which provides high local tumor control with acceptable long term side effects. (orig.)

  11. Unambiguous identification of hospital patients: case study at the university departments of the General Hospital, Vienna. (United States)

    Sachs, P; Gall, W; Marksteiner, A; Dorda, W


    This article considers the problem of identifying patients in one or more heterogeneous personal databases. The unambiguous identification of patients is an essential prerequisite for an efficient patient care system. We discuss the problems involved in this task and suggest how they can be dealt with. The solution of automatic consolidation of patient records sequires programming, organisational and work psychology measures. Following a survey of conventional identification methods, the method developed at the Department of Medical Computer Sciences, which is based on the current clinical situation at the General Hospital in Vienna (AKH--Allgemeines KrankenHaus), is described in detail. The basic principle is to identify patients unambiguously by means of an ID (IZAHL) derived directly from the personal data. Thereby a deterministic technique without probability weighting is used-all compared information must correspond completely. The article closes with a critical survey of experience gathered to date.

  12. PREFACE: EUCAS '05: The 7th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity (Vienna University of Technology, Austria, 11 15 September 2005) (United States)

    Donaldson, Gordon; Weber, Harald W.; Sauerzopf, Franz M.


    This issue of Superconductor Science and Technology contains the plenary and invited papers presented at the 7th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity (EUCAS '05) that was held at the Vienna University of Technology from 11-15 September 2005. All those contributed papers that were submitted to the Conference Proceedings will be published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The scientific aims of EUCAS '05 followed the tradition established at the preceding conferences in Göttingen, Edinburgh, Eindhoven, Sitges (Barcelona), Lyngby (Copenhagen) and finally Sorrento (Napoli). The focus was placed on the interplay between the most recent developments in superconductor research and the positioning of applications of superconductivity in the marketplace. Although initially founded as an exchange forum mainly for European scientists, it has gradually developed into a truly international meeting with significant attendance from the Far East and the United States. The Vienna conference attracted 813 participants in the scientific programme and 90 accompanying persons. 59% of all participants came from Europe, 31% from the Far East, 6% from the United States and Canada as well as 4% from other nations worldwide. 27 companies presented their latest developments in the field. 32 plenary and invited lectures highlighted the state-of-the-art in the areas of materials, large-scale as well as small-scale applications; 625 contributed papers (among them 556 posters) demonstrated the broad range of exciting activities in all research areas of our field. EUCAS '05 spread a lot of optimism and enthusiasm for this fascinating field of research and for its well established technological potential, especially among the numerous young researchers attending this conference. We are grateful to all those who participated in the meeting and contributed to its success.

  13. Exploring the Digital Universe with Europe's Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (United States)


    Vast Databanks at the Astronomers' Fingertips Summary A new European initiative called the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (AVO) is being launched to provide astronomers with a breathtaking potential for new discoveries. It will enable them to seamlessly combine the data from both ground- and space-based telescopes which are making observations of the Universe across the whole range of wavelengths - from high-energy gamma rays through the ultraviolet and visible to the infrared and radio. The aim of the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (AVO) project, which started on 15 November 2001, is to allow astronomers instant access to the vast databanks now being built up by the world's observatories and which are forming what is, in effect, a "digital sky" . Using the AVO, astronomers will, for example, be able to retrieve the elusive traces of the passage of an asteroid as it passes near the Earth and so enable them to predict its future path and perhaps warn of a possible impact. When a giant star comes to the end of its life in a cataclysmic explosion called a supernova, they will be able to access the digital sky and pinpoint the star shortly before it exploded so adding invaluable data to the study of the evolution of stars. Background information on the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory is available in the Appendix. PR Photo 34a/01 : The Astrophysical Virtual Observatory - an artist's impression. The rapidly accumulating database ESO PR Photo 34a/01 ESO PR Photo 34a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 345 pix - 90k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 689 pix - 656k] [Hi-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 2582 pix - 4.3M] ESO PR Photo 34a/01 shows an artist's impression of the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory . Modern observatories observe the sky continuously and data accumulates remorselessly in the digital archives. The growth rate is impressive and many hundreds of terabytes of data - corresponding to many thousands of billions of pixels - are already available to scientists. The real sky is being

  14. Vienna - Chicago (United States)

    Luan, Xianghong; Diekwisch, Thomas G.H.


    The discussion over the roles of genes and environment on the phenotypical specification of organisms has held a central role in science philosophy since the late 19th century and has re-emerged in today’s debate over genetic determinism and developmental plasticity. In fin-de-siecle Vienna, this debate coincided with a philosophical debate over empiricism/materialism versus idealism/vitalism. Turn-of-the-century Vienna’s highly interdisciplinary environment was also the birthplace for the model system of the unopposed molar. The un-opposed molar system features new tissue formation at the roots of teeth and tooth drift once opposing teeth are lost. The un-opposed molar model system was revived by a group of Viennese scientists that left Vienna during the Nazi period to address Vienna’s questions about evolution and heredity and about genes and environment in Chicago’s post-WWII scientific exile community. Here we are using the colorful history of the un-opposed molar to investigate the role of culture and method in the scientific evolution of a model system. PMID:17621674

  15. Opfer des NS-Bücherraubes – 10 Fälle aus medizinischen Bibliotheken in Wien: Provenienzforschungsprojekt an der Universitätsbibliothek der Medizinischen Universität Wien / Victims of book expropriation during nazi regime – 10 examples from medical libraries in Vienna: provenance research project at the university library at the Medical University Vienna

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    Bauer, Bruno


    Full Text Available Since 2007 the university library at the Medical University Vienna runs a provenance research project. Books, stolen between 1938 and 1945, were acquired by at that time discrete libraries at institutions and clinics of the former medical faculty at Vienna University. A systematic survey of the now centralised book collection should bring to light these misgotten book acquisitions. Aim of the project is to document such cases and to restitute books to their lawful owners or their legal successors. Until Novemver 2008 about 80,000 volumes were scrutinised directly at the shelves by so-called autopsy. So far about 200 definitely stolen books and approximately 1800 suspicious books were dedected. This paper describes the initial position, method and hitherto existing results of the provenance research project. Ten cases of such book theft, recorded in the now centralised collection of the university library of the Medical University Vienna (former medical faculty, should depict victims of book expropiation during nazi regime. These cases include second-hand bookshops (Alois Fantl, Hans Peter Kraus, an university professor from the former medical faculty at Vienna University (Markus Hajek, general practitioners not associated with the former medical faculty (Adolf Kronfeld, Richard Löwi, private persons (Lily Fuchs, Raoul Fernand Jellinek-Mercedes and books from public and private libraries (Akademischer Verein jüdischer Mediziner, Bibliothek Sassenbach, Ortskrankenkasse Dresden.

  16. Instruments and demonstrations in the astrological curriculum: evidence from the University of Vienna, 1500-1530. (United States)

    Hayton, Darin


    Historians have used university statutes and acts to reconstruct the official astrology curriculum for students in both the arts and medical faculties, including the books studied, their order, and their relation to other texts. Statutes and acts, however, cannot offer insight into what actually happened during lectures and in the classroom: in other words, how and why astrology was taught and learned in the medieval university. This paper assumes that the astrology curriculum is better understood as the set of practices that constituted it and gave it meaning for both masters and students. It begins to reconstruct what occurred in the classroom by drawing on published and unpublished lecture notes. These offer insight into how masters presented the material as they did, and why. The paper argues three points: first, the teaching of astrology centered on demonstrations involving astrological instruments: specifically, various kinds of paper astrolabes. Second, the astrological instruction focused on conveying the pragmatics of astrology rather than esoteric, theoretical issues. Finally, astrology as it was taught in the arts curriculum was explicitly intended to provide a foundation for students who would advance to study medicine at the university.

  17. Automation of Eastern Kentucky University Observatory and Preliminary Data (United States)

    Ciocca, M.; Kilgore, E. E.; Williams, W. W.


    (Abstract only) Eastern Kentucky University is a regional comprehensive institution located in Richmond, Kentucky. Its service area includes much of the eastern part of Kentucky, commonly referred to as Appalachia. As such, Eastern has truly been a "school of opportunities" for the region. We offer three astronomy courses and one of them, AST 135, has an outdoor lab component, in which the students observe the moon and the brightest planets using 6-inch SCT. To expand our offerings by adding advanced classes in observational astronomy, and with support from the University and a small grant from the AAS (Small Research Grants), we constructed a small observatory for that purpose. We have a 14-inch telescope (C14 from Celestron), with a research grade mount (Paramount ME), housed permanently in a two-room facility. The telescope room has a retractable roof and the control room is insulated against the elements. The telescope is conveniently located near campus, in a location away from city lights and vehicular traffic, with access via a secure gate. The observatory is on a concrete pad poured directly onto the ground, to minimize vibrations. The instrument package consists of a SBIG STL-6303E CCD camera with filter wheel and full complement of photographic, narrow-band, and photometric filters (Ha and UBVRI). Courtesy of the AAS grant, we also have a temperature-compensated focuser (TCF-S3i), off-axis guider, and SBIG AO-L adaptive optics accessory. Our first step has been the measurement of our CCD transformation parameters, to assess the capabilities of our telescope-camera combination. We imaged a standard photometric field from Landolt (1992) (R.A. 09h 21m 32s, Dec. +02° 47' 00" (J2000, Plate 38 of Landolt). Data were obtained with a time integration of 90 seconds, binned 2 x 2 (~1 arcsec/pixel) at air mass X = 1.31. We determined the CCD transformation parameter as described by the AAVSO document "Computing and Using CCD transformation coefficients" (Cohen 2003

  18. [Examinandi, doctors and medical councils. Reform proposals concerning surgico-medical education and examinations at the University of Vienna around 1800]. (United States)

    Oppenauer, Markus


    This essay examines the workings of the so called Court Committee for the Revision of University Studies. The main duty of this institution was to evaluate the structure of the whole educational system of the Habsburg Empire. These records have not received much notice hitherto from historians of medicine. Nevertheless, they deserve attention, as they are quite full of information regarding the "how" of medical education and health care management around 1800. Johann Peter Frank, at that time professor at the Medical Faculty of Vienna was responsible for reform proposals. His deliberations shed fresh light not only on the structures of Viennese Medical Faculty itself but also on different educational policies in the medical sciences in Central Europe around 1800.

  19. Kant and Eastern Europe in Vienna 2015

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    Sandra Zákutná


    Full Text Available The text deals with the theme of Kant and Eastern Europe at the University of Vienna in 2015. Except the section of contributions to the theme “Kant and Eastern Europe” at the 12th International Kant Congress, it focuses on other activities of the organizers connected with the theme, namely the exhibition and publication “Detours. Approaches to Immanuel Kant in Vienna, in Austria, and in Eastern Europe”.

  20. Josephinische Bibliothek und medizinhistorische Bestände der Universitätsbibliothek der Medizinischen Universität Wien [The Josephinian Library and the medical-historic stock of the University Library of the Medical University of Vienna

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    Albrecht, Harald


    Full Text Available [english] The University Library of the Medical University of Vienna, founded in 2004, is the most extensive medical library in Austria. It possesses an outstanding medical-historic stock which is basically stored in its Branch Library of Medical History. This unique stock also is a historical source itself because it represents the development of the supply of the Medical Faculty of Vienna, Viennese hospitals and medical societies with scientific literature and information during the last centuries. The brunch library contains several remarkable special-collections such as the Josephinian Library, the Library of Neurology (Obersteiner-Library, the Library of the Society of Physicians in Vienna or the Library of the Austrian Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.In order to deal with its own history the University Library runs a provenance-research project to identify expropriated goods transferred to its stock during the Nazi-regime and restores them to their rightful owners. It also runs a weblog-series “Displaced 1938”, which is about displaced members of the Medical Faculty of Vienna during World . Currently it establishes a bio-bibliographical online-portal about exponents of the so called “Vienna Medical School(s” between 1750 and 1950 as well as an online bookplate database.To improve the access to large parts of the stock the ancient card indexes got digitalized (including OCR-reading and have been online since 2010. Supplementary the University Library of the Medical University of Vienna engages in the European cooperation on E-books on Demand (EOD.[german] Die Universitätsbibliothek der 2004 errichteten Medizinischen Universität Wien ist die größte medizinische Fachbibliothek in Österreich. Sie verfügt auch über bedeutende medizinhistorische Bestände, die überwiegend in der Zweigbibliothek für Geschichte der Medizin untergebracht sind und auch eine Quelle für die Entwicklung der Literatur- und

  1. A Report on Double Star Observations for the Year 2014 by the Humacao University Observatory (United States)

    Muller, R. J.; Cotto, D.; Cersosimo, J. C.; Rodriguez, R.; Diaz, M.; Rosario, M.; Nieves, Y.; Franco, E.; Lopez, A.; Torres, B. S.; Vergara, N.; Mendoza, L.; Ortiz, D.; Martinez, J.; Reyes, M.; del Valle-Rodriguez, Y.; Espinosa, G.; Diaz, V.; Rivera, C.; Morales, B.


    We report measurements of separation and position angle of 79 binary pairs. The data were obtained using the NURO Telescope at the Anderson Mesa location of Lowell Observatory, 20 miles east of Flagstaff, Arizona, at an altitude of 7000 feet, on June 12 and 13, 2014. We gathered the data using the 2K x 2K CCD camera,-NASACAM-at the prime focus of the 31 inch telescope. The data was transferred and analyzed at the Humacao University Observatory of the University of Puerto Rico by students undertaking research projects.

  2. The Astronomical Observatory of the University of Coimbra (1772--1799): its Instruments and Scientific Activity (United States)

    Figueiredo, Fernando B.


    The establishment of scientific education at the University of Coimbra was one of the most important features of the Reform of the University in 1772. One of the best examples is the creation of the Faculty Mathematics and of the Astronomical Observatory (OAUC) - it was here that Alexandre Gouveia (1731--1808), who would be bishop of Beijing (1785--1808), obtained his degree in Mathematics. The foundation of the OAUC was fundamental in the institutionalization of astronomical science in Portugal, during a period when astronomy, supported by the great theoretical advances of the celestial mechanics and applied mathematics, could finally provide some important solutions to the most prominent scientific problems since Newton (questions about celestial mechanics, navigation, geodesy, etc.). Such questions were also central in the conception and planning of OAUC - the first Portuguese university-based astronomical observatory, although with aspects of a National Observatory. Jose Monteiro da Rocha (1734--1819) was the central personality in the conception, planning and construction of OAUC, as well in its instrument's provision (purchased and assembled throughout the 1780s) and posterior scientific activity. The construction of the OAUC was originally planned for the site of the Castle of the city of Coimbra. In 1775, when only the first floor of the Observatory was built, the construction stopped. However, to fulfill the teaching needs a small provisional Observatory was built inside the courtyard of the University. This provisional Observatory would eventually run for about 15 years! The definitive OAUC was built between the years 1790--99. In this communication we pretend to study the establishment of the OAUC and its primary astronomical collection (a transit instrument, a portable quadrant, a sector, several telescopes, etc.) and how that collection was responsible for the construction plan of the OAUC and the establishment of its Astronomical Ephemeris (1803).

  3. Gender studies and Equal Opportunity: the Interdepartmental Observatory of the university of Salerno

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    Lucia Tortora


    Full Text Available This paper wants to retrace the path of the Gender Studies and Equal Opportunity Observatory, founded at University of Salerno (OGEPO in 2011, and the projects realised up to now through  scientifical and cultural initiatives with an inter-disciplinary approach.

  4. Perspectives on gender-specific medicine, course and learning style preferences in medical education: a study among students at the Medical University of Vienna. (United States)

    Harreiter, Jürgen; Wiener, Hubert; Plass, Herbert; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra


    In the study for the thesis Web Based Training with Moodle: Gender-differences in Action of Drugs, a survey among students of the Medical University of Vienna (MUV) concerning the implementation of gender-specific medicine in the curriculum and students' learning styles was performed. Data analysis (given as mean±sem) showed that students (n = 642) rated (Likert scale, 1-6) the importance of gender-specific medicine fairly high (4.02±0.06), and rated the importance of knowing about gender-specific medicine as a medical doctor even higher (4.49±0.05). Further implementation of gender-relevant topics into the curriculum appeared less important (3.64±0.06). Students rated their own knowledge on gender-specific medicine neutrally (3.40±0.05). For some items significant differences between males and females as well as the old and new curriculum were found. Students considered gender-specific medicine as important but sufficiently covered in their medical education at the MUV.

  5. Exploring the Unknown: Cabled Ocean Observatory Data and Discovery in University Education (United States)

    Pelz, M.; Scherwath, M.; Riddell, D. J.; Hoeberechts, M.; Bourdeault-Fournier, A.; Schine, J.; Sammarco, P. M. P.


    Cabled ocean observatories, which supply continuous power and Internet connectivity to subsea instruments from the coast to the deep sea, enable us to extend our reach into unexplored regions of the ocean. Sensors become our eyes and ears in this mysterious world, allowing instructors and students to have a virtual presence in an environment that is otherwise inaccessible for human study. Networks of always-on sensors in habitats as diverse as submarine canyons, hypoxic marine basins, and active hydrothermal vent systems provide unprecedented opportunities for students to ask real scientific questions and to answer those questions with real data. Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), an initiative of the University of Victoria, operates coastal and deep ocean cabled observatories, including VENUS and NEPTUNE off the west coast of British Columbia, Canada. ONC supports instructors in the creation of lab and course materials using observatory data. Data from the observatories are freely accessible through a web-based interface, which allows students to continue their investigations beyond the in-class activities. Here, we present three examples of the application of data from Ocean Networks Canada's cabled observatories in post-secondary education: an undergraduate lab in marine ecology in which students investigate the factors affecting spatial variation in benthic animal diversity using ocean sensor data and video footage from cameras on the seafloor; an undergraduate field course in acoustic ethnography in which students incorporate recordings from ONC's hydrophone arrays; and a graduate student "research derby" in which students propose hypotheses that can be investigated using ONC data in whole or in part, with rewards for those successful in publishing the results of their study in a peer-reviewed journal within two years.

  6. BVR Standardization of the CCD Photometric System of Chungbuk National University Observatory

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    Jang-Hae Jeong


    Full Text Available BVR observations for 52 standard stars were performed using the 1-m reflecter with 2K CCD System of Chungbuk National University Observatory(CBNUO in 2008. We obtained 1,322 CCD images to establish a correlation between our bvr system and the standard Johnson-Cousins BVR system. We derived the tentative equations of transformation between then as follows; V = v-0.0303(B-V+0.0466 B-V = 1.3475(b-v-0.0251 V-R = 1.0641(v-r-0.0125 Using these equations the magnitudes in V, B-V, and V-R for 197 stars were obtained.

  7. PubMed und LinkOut als Wegweiser zu Printbeständen in der Universitätsbibliothek der Medizinischen Universität Wien / PubMed and LinkOut as guidepost to print holding on the university library of the Medical University of Vienna

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    Dollfuß, Helmut


    Full Text Available In the area of electronic literature research PubMed is one of the most important literature data bases. In the course of our project selected print holdings on medical journals of the university library of the medical university Vienna were integrated in PubMed. Now scientists, lecturers, students, library staff and other interested persons have an easier access via PubMed to the comprehensive print holdings of medical journals of the university library, as well as some of their branch libraries.

  8. The High School Physics Curriculum and the University of North Dakota Observatory (United States)

    Nolby, C.; Hardersen, P.


    As astronomy is a subject largely absent in the secondary classroom for many reasons, the research presented here attempts to make astronomy education an option for high school students across the state of North Dakota. Through implementation of a two-week astronomy course at Grand Forks Central High School (GFCHS), two class periods totaling nineteen physics students (fourteen in the first class period and five in the second class period) were given the opportunity to learn material that would have otherwise been unavailable to them. Four of these students were female and fifteen of these students were male. During ten class periods from April 16, 2012 through April 27, 2012, instruction included presentation of basic astronomy concepts and observational techniques as well as student participation in demonstrations and activities regarding the course content. Students were given the option to visit the University of North Dakota (UND) Observatory the evening of April 20, 2012 for a public “star party” where they received a tour of the university's telescopes and other research equipment. During class time on April 25, 2012, students took a field trip to the John D. Odegard School of Aerospace Sciences to tour both Aviation and Space Studies facilities at UND. The lesson plan for the course also included a group project utilizing the telescopes at the UND Observatory for remote observing to complete research on the astrometry of an asteroid. Students were given a pre-test at the start of the two-week course, daily exit surveys at the end of each class period, and a post-test at the end of the two-week course. These assessments were used to evaluate student enjoyment, progress, and overall perception of the astronomy course. This research identified common misconceptions in astronomy held by the learners as well as the most effective teaching methods. It was found that this course was overall successful in promoting the students' learning of astronomy in a short

  9. The University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory 6.5m telescope: project overview and current status (United States)

    Yoshii, Y.; Doi, M.; Kohno, K.; Miyata, T.; Motohara, K.; Kawara, K.; Tanaka, M.; Minezaki, T.; Sako, S.; Morokuma, T.; Tamura, Y.; Tanabe, T.; Takahashi, H.; Konishi, M.; Kamizuka, T.; Kato, N.; Aoki, T.; Soyano, T.; Tarusawa, K.; Handa, T.; Koshida, S.; Bronfman, L.; Ruiz, M. T.; Hamuy, M.; Garay, G.


    The University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory Project is to construct a 6.5m infrared telescope at the summit of Co. Chajnantor (5640m altitude) in northern Chile, promoted by the University of Tokyo. Thanks to the dry climate (PWV 0.5mm) and the high altitude, it will achieve excellent performance in the NIR to MIR wavelengths. The telescope has two Nasmyth foci where the facility instruments are installed and two folded-Cassegrain foci for carry-in instruments. All these four foci can be switched by rotating a tertiary mirror. The final focal ratio is 12.2 and the telescope foci have large field-of-view of 25° in diameter. We adopted the 6.5m light-weighted borosilicate honeycomb primary mirror and its support system that are developed by Steward Observatory Richard F. Caris Mirror Lab. The dome enclosure has the shape of carousel, and large ventilation windows with shutters control the wind to flush heat inside the dome. The operation building with control room, aluminizing chamber and maintenance facilities is located at the side of the dome. Two cameras, SWIMS for spectroscopy and imaging in the near-infrared and MIMIZUKU in the mid-infrared, are being developed as the first-generation facility instruments. The operation of the telescope will be remotely carried out from a base facility at San Pedro de Atacama, 50km away from the summit. The construction of the telescope is now underway. Fabrication of the telescope mount has almost finished, and the pre-assembly has been carried out in Japan. The primary, secondary, and tertiary mirrors and their cells have been also fabricated, as well as their cells and support systems. Fabrication of the enclosure is now underway, and their pre-assembly in Japan will be carried out in 2016. Construction of the base facility at San Pedro de Atacama has been already completed in 2014, and operated for the activities in Atacama. The telescope is now scheduled to see the first light at the beginning of 2018.

  10. Universitätsbibliothek der Medizinischen Universität Wien – größte Medizinbibliothek Österreichs: Hybridbibliothek als Zukunftskonzept / University Library of the Medical University Vienna – largest Medical Library of Austria: Hybrid Library as a concept for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartl, Margrit


    Full Text Available The today’s Medical University Library was established as Faculty Library of the Vienna University Library in 1986 and serves till now as the largest Medical Library in Austria. The Main Library is located in the Vienna General Hospital (University hospitals. During 1994 and 2003 it became the Austrian Central Library for Medicine. Since 2004 University Library of the newly founded Medical University of Vienna supplies literature and information for 8500 Students, 1800 scientists and 1600 doctors. The article describes the Library’s participation on projects of the Austrian Library Consortium and the Austrian Cooperation for E-media. It specifies the offers and use of the digital library (professional databases, electronic journals, document delivery, e-books but also the website and the “Van Swieten”-Blog which are the information and communication platforms of the University Library. The next part shows the supply of traditional library which consists of the Clinical Library, the Textbook Collection and the Students Reading Room. We report also on the Library for the History of Medicine, their precious medical historical holdings and their current activities connected with the digitalization of the card index. The library’s activities to the “Medizin Curriculum Wien”, trainings and tours are told in the chapter about the Teaching Library but also the Information Retrieval Service and the activities due to training, placement and projects of librarians. Another part speaks about the special activities in international projects like “subito”, “E-books on demand” and a gateway for PDAs. The Medical University Library was the first Austrian library who used the LinkOut function of PubMed. The library works on a project of “Wiedergutmachung” (NS-Provenienzforschung and a very ambitious Weblog for the remembrance of the displaced professors at the medical faculty of the University of Vienna in 1938. The last chapter

  11. Introducing Research Methods to Undergraduate Majors Through an On-Campus Observatory with The University of Toledo's Ritter Observatory (United States)

    Richardson, Noel; Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin; Bjorkman, Jon Eric; Bjorkman, Karen S.; Ritter Observing Team


    With a 1-m telescope on the University of Toledo (OH) main campus, we have initiated a grad student-undergraduate partnership to help teach the undergraduates observational methods and introduce them to research through peer mentorship. For the last 3 years, we have trained up to 21 undergraduates (primarily physics/astronomy majors) in a given academic semester, ranging from freshman to seniors. Various projects are currently being conducted by undergraduate students with guidance from graduate student mentors, including constructing three-color images, observations of transiting exoplanets, and determination of binary star orbits from echelle spectra. This academic year we initiated a large group research project to help students learn about the databases, journal repositories, and online observing tools astronomers use for day-to-day research. We discuss early inclusion in observational astronomy and research of these students and the impact it has on departmental retention, undergraduate involvement, and academic success.

  12. Design and development status of the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory 6.5m telescope (United States)

    Morokuma, Tomoki; Aoki, Tsutomu; Doi, Mamoru; Handa, Toshihiro; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Kato, Natsuko; Kawara, Kimiaki; Kohno, Kotaro; Konishi, Masahiro; Koshida, Shintaro; Minezaki, Takeo; Miyata, Takashi; Motohara, Kentaro; Sako, Shigeyuki; Soyano, Takao; Takahashi, Hidenori; Tamura, Yoichi; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Masuo; Tarusawa, Ken'ichi; Yoshii, Yuzuru


    We here summarize the design and the current fabrication status for the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory (TAO) 6.5-m telescope. The TAO telescope is operated at one of the best sites for infrared observations, at the summit of Co. Chajnantor in Chile, and is optimized for infrared observations. The telescope mount, mirrors, and mirror support systems are now at the final design phase. The mechanical and optical designs are done by following and referring to those of the Magellan telescopes, MMT, and Large Binocular Telescope. The final focal ratio is 12.2. The field-of-view is as wide as 25 arcmin in diameter and the plate scale is 2.75 arcsec mm-1. The F/1.25 light-weighted borosilicate (Ohara E6) honeycomb primary mirror is adopted and being fabricated by the Steward Observatory Mirror Laboratory. The primary mirror is supported by 104 loadspreaders bonded to the back surface of the mirror and 6 adjustable hardpoints. The mirror is actively controlled by adjusting the actuator forces based on the realtime wavefront measurement. The actuators are optimized for operation at high altitude of the site, 5640-m above the sea level, by considering the low temperature and low air pressure. The mirror is held in the primary mirror cell which is used as a part of the vacuum chamber when the mirror surface is aluminized without being detached from the cell. The pupil is set at the secondary mirror to minimize infrared radiation into instruments. The telescope has two Nasmyth foci for near-infrared and mid-infrared facility instruments (SWIMS and MIMIZUKU, respectively) and one folded-Caseggrain focus for carry-in instruments. At each focus, autoguider and wavefront measurement systems are attached to achieve seeing-limited image quality. The telescope mount is designed as a tripod-disk type alt-azimuth mount. Both the azimuthal and elevation axes are supported by and run on the hydrostatic bearings. Friction drives are selected for these axis drives. The telescope

  13. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the Columbia University Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) Lamont-Doherty Core Repository (LDCR) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Lamont-Doherty Core Repository (LDCR), operated by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) of Columbia University is a partner in the Index to Marine and...

  14. E-Books an Medizinbibliotheken – „Gekommen um zu bleiben“. Ein Erfahrungsbericht der Universitätsbibliothek der Medizinischen Universität Wien / E-Books at medical libraries: They came to stay. A report from the university library at the Medical University Vienna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno


    Full Text Available Many university libraries and in particular medical libraries have built up a considerable collection of electronic books. These E-Books are already highly accepted by patrons despite unsolved questions on technical standards and license models which have to be tackled by publishers and libraries. A short introduction on advandages and disadvantages of E-Books is followed by a presentation of E-Book collections and E-Book catalogues found on the websites of medical libraries in Berlin, Mainz, Münster and Zürich. A more detailed report is given on the E-Book situation at the library of the Medical University Vienna including problems with usage data. Results of a recent library online survey are discussed in regard to E-Books. So far the experience with E-Books at the library of the Medical University Vienna and the positive feedback by patrons suggests that E-Books came to stay in medical libraries.

  15. A continued program of planetary study at the University of Texas McDonald Observatory (United States)

    Trafton, L.


    The program conducts solar system research in support of NASA missions and of general astronomical interest. Investigations of composition, physical characteristics and changes in solar system bodies are conducted primarily using the facilities of McDonald Observatory. Progress, accomplishments, and projected accomplishments are discussed.

  16. Medizin Curriculum Wien: neue Anforderungen an die Literatur- und Informationsversorgung für Studierende an der Universitätsbibliothek der Medizinischen Universität Wien / Medizin Curriculum Wien: New Demands for the Supply of Literature and Information to Students at the University Library of the Medical University of Vienna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno


    Full Text Available So far, students at medical faculties have intensively mainly used two services out of many, which specialized medical libraries have to offer: the textbook collection and the student reading room. Only towards the end of studies, in preparation of dissertations, do students take advantage of bibliographical databases and appropriate journals. During the last years, the medical curricula in many countries, including Germany and Austria, experienced considerable modifications. The reformation of the studies, which, in many cases, actually finds itself in the phase of implementation, is, in fact, a unique challenge for libraries. In support of medical studies, university lecturers and students expect information resources, library services and the relay of information competence, which should clearly surmount existing needs of the textbook collection and the student reading room, as shown in the available contribution, as example of the University Library of the Medical University of Vienna.

  17. Education and public outreach at the Carl Sagan Solar Observatory of the University of Sonora (United States)

    Saucedo-Morales Julio; Loera-González, Pablo


    We discuss the importance of small solar observatories for EPO (Education and Public Outreach), mentioning why they are relevant and what kind of equipment and software require. We stress the fact that technological advances have made them affordable and that they should be widely available. This work is a result of our experience with one: The Carl Sagan Solar Observatory (CSSO). We briefly describe its status and the solar data obtained daily with students participation. We present examples of the data obtained in the visible, Ca II and two in Hα. Data which is widely used for education. Finally we talk about the capability for remote operation as an open invitation for collaboration in educational and scientific projects.

  18. Education and public outreach at the Carl Sagan Solar Observatory of the University of Sonora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Saucedo-Morales


    Full Text Available We discuss the importance of small solar observatories for EPO (Education and Public Outreach, mentioning why they are relevant and what kind of equipment and software require. We stress the fact that technological advances have made them affordable and that they should be widely available. This work is a result of our experience with one: The Carl Sagan Solar Observatory (CSSO. We briefly describe its status and the solar data obtained daily with students participation. We present examples of the data obtained in the visible, Ca II and two in Hα. Data which is widely used for education. Finally we talk about the capability for remote operation as an open invitation for collaboration in educational and scientific projects.

  19. Athena: ESA's X-ray observatory to study the Hot and Energetic Universe in the late 2020s (United States)

    Barcons, X.


    Athena (Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics) is the X-ray observatory mission selected by ESA to address the Hot and Energetic Universe theme, due for launch in 2028. In this presentation, on behalf of the Athena Science Study Team (ASST), I will provide an overview of the Athena science objectives, developed thanks to the support of a large community and describe the Athena mission concept and its instruments. I will also report on a number of on-going study activities, including those aiming at placing Athena in the broad astrophysical context of the late 2020s.

  20. History of the astronomical almanacs, yarbooks and calendars, the particapation of the Kyiv University Observatory in their creation (United States)

    Kazantseva, L. V.


    Astronomical Ephemeris, information about the circumstances of apparition various celestial objects long been used for professionals as well as amateur astronomy. The story of annual reference books with similar information was studied not well. In publications sometimes appear inconsistent and incomplete data. In particular, little known facts about participation of Kyiv astronomers in the creation of such publications, it was since the nineteenth century. The analysis of archival sources and funds Astronomical Museum allow drawing conclusions about the significant contribution the University Observatory to ephemeris service

  1. The European Society for Medical Oncology 'Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale' field-tested in infrequent tumour entities: an extended analysis of its feasibility at the Medical University of Vienna. (United States)

    Kiesewetter, Barbara; Raderer, Markus; Prager, Gerald W; Fuereder, Thorsten; Marosi, Christine; Preusser, Matthias; Krainer, Michael; Locker, Gottfried J; Brodowicz, Thomas; Zielinski, Christoph C


    The European Society for Medical Oncology Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (ESMO-MCBS) is a new tool to quantify the clinical benefit that may be anticipated from a novel anticancer treatment. We present here an analysis on the feasibility of the ESMO-MCBS in less frequent tumour entities. This study evaluates the practicability of the ESMO-MCBS for metastatic neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), soft tissue sarcomas, glioblastoma, thyroid cancer, pancreatic cancer, head/neck cancer, urothelial cancer and ovarian cancer at the Medical University Vienna. A three-step approach including data acquisition, assessment of ESMO-MCBS scores and evaluation of results with a focus on clinical feasibility was applied. In NET and thyroid cancer, all analysed trials were very comparable in design and efficacy, and the ESMO-MCBS scores appeared to be consistent with the clinical benefit seen in practice. For pancreatic cancer, it was more difficult to compare first-line trials due to diverging populations included in the respective studies. Concerning soft tissue sarcomas, the ESMO-MCBS was applicable for gastrointestinal stromal tumours(GIST) and 'non-GIST' soft tissue sarcoma with respect to data deriving from randomised studies. However, due to the heterogeneity of the disease itself and a limited number of controlled trials, limitations are noted. In ovarian cancer, the ESMO-MCBS supported the use of bevacizumab in high-risk patients. To date, there are only limited data for glioblastoma, head/neck cancer and urothelial cancer but whenever randomised trials were available, the ESMO-MCBS rating supported clinical decisions. Interestingly, nivolumab for salvage treatment of head/neck cancer rated extremely high. The ESMO-MCBS scores supported our common treatment strategies and highlight the potential of new immunomodulatory drugs. Our results encourage further development of the ESMO-MCBS.

  2. The Conrad Observatory Research Facility (United States)

    Lenhardt, W.; Melichar, P.


    The Conrad Observatory in Austria belongs to the group of most modern geophysical observatories worldwide. The observatory is situated 55 km SW of Vienna in the Eastern Alps. Since 2002 - when the observatory was officially opened - several research tasks, projects, training courses and workshops were carried out at this venue. The site is also magnetically very quiet - one of the requirements for establishing the second part of the observatory, which will serve as the magnetic base observatory for Austria in the future. So far, a tunnel of 145 m length equipped with seismometers, 3 boreholes of 100 m depth and one borehole of 50 m depth, as well as a laboratory, where the gravity is continuously moni-tored, are in operation. In addition an outside station has been built according to Austrian standards for reasons of comparison. Refraction profiles and borehole seismic was used to describe the subsurface conditions for H/V measurements and other scientific tasks. The underground observatory provides ex-cellent conditions to test seismometers under controlled conditions, and a newly developed calibration table assists in the determination of the generator constants of seismometers. Internet connection is available together with a re-distributed GPS-timing signal in the observatory. The NERIES Transnational Access activity TA-5 has attracted already project teams from Germany, Slovenia and The Netherlands to conduct specific instrument tests and comparisons between sensors. See also

  3. Ice Observatory (United States)

    blugerman, n.


    My project is to make ice observatories to perceive astral movements as well as light phenomena in the shape of cosmic rays and heat, for example.I find the idea of creating an observation point in space, that in time will change shape and eventually disappear, in consonance with the way we humans have been approaching the exploration of the universe since we started doing it. The transformation in the elements we use to understand big and small transformations, within the universe elements.

  4. Vienna E-Lecturing (VEL): Learning How to Learn Self-Regulated in an Internet-Based Blended Learning Setting (United States)

    Schober, Barbara; Wagner, Petra; Reimann, Ralph; Spiel, Christiane


    The article describes the "Vienna E-Lecturing" (VEL), a complex internet-based blended-learning setting developed for students at the University of Vienna (Austria). As part of the introduction to research methods in psychology, VEL aids in imparting factual knowledge regarding research methods and evaluation, as well as promotes…

  5. Teaching astronomy and astrophysics at the Valencian International University (VIU): Application and use of Virtual Observatory tools (United States)

    Diago, P. D.; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Ruiz, J. E.; Solano, E.


    The Astronomy and Astrophysics Master, running at the Valencian International University (VIU, since march 2010, is a clear example of how development of infor- mation and communication technologies (ICTs) and new e-learning methods are changing the traditional distance learning. In the context of the European Space for Higher Edu- cation (ESHE) we present how the Virtual Observatory (VO) tools can be an important part in the Astronomy and Astrophysics teaching. The described tasks has been carried out during the last three courses. These tasks are representative of the state of the art in Astrophysics research. We attach a description and a learning results list of each one of the presented tasks. The tasks can be downloaded at the Spanish VO website:

  6. Seasonal and Yearly Variations of Atmospheric Extinction Coefficient at Campus Station of Chungbuk National University Observatory from 2005 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hwey Kim


    Full Text Available Systematic CCD observations of times of minimum lights for eclipsing binaries has been carried out from 2002 to 2007 at Campus Station of Chungbuk National University Observatory which is located in Cheongju city, Korea. As a by-product of our observations, photometric data for stars in CCD images taken from 2005 to 2007 were used to determine 1st order atmospheric extinction coefficient (hereafter AEC and seasonal and yearly variations of the AECs were studied. Total nights used for determination of AECs were 57 days in 2005, 51 days in 2006, and 63 days in 2007. As a result the annual mean value of the AECs per air mass is calculated as 0.34m ± 0.18m for 2005, 0.38m ± 0.19m for 2006, and 0.45m ± 0.20m for 2007. These values show that the AECs and their standard deviations are two and four times, respectively, larger than those of normal observatories which are not located near large cities. Annual comparison between concentration of atmospheric fine dust and coefficient of atmospheric extinction show strong correlation between two quantities of which time variations show similar patterns. The AECs for the east sky show larger than those for the west sky. It can be easily understood by the reasonable possibility that air pollutants remain more in the east sky than in the west because the east area of Cheongju city has been more developed than the west one. In conclusion the atmospheric extinction of the night sky of Cheongju city has an annual trend of increase of 0.06m airmass^{-1} year^{-1} implying that it may take only about 13 years for Cheongju city to have 2 times brighter night sky than the present one. Our study highlights that variations of AEC can be used as an important indicator of air pollution to monitor night skies.

  7. VFC: The Vienna Fortran Compiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Benkner


    Full Text Available High Performance Fortran (HPF offers an attractive high‐level language interface for programming scalable parallel architectures providing the user with directives for the specification of data distribution and delegating to the compiler the task of generating an explicitly parallel program. Available HPF compilers can handle regular codes quite efficiently, but dramatic performance losses may be encountered for applications which are based on highly irregular, dynamically changing data structures and access patterns. In this paper we introduce the Vienna Fortran Compiler (VFC, a new source‐to‐source parallelization system for HPF+, an optimized version of HPF, which addresses the requirements of irregular applications. In addition to extended data distribution and work distribution mechanisms, HPF+ provides the user with language features for specifying certain information that decisively influence a program’s performance. This comprises data locality assertions, non‐local access specifications and the possibility of reusing runtime‐generated communication schedules of irregular loops. Performance measurements of kernels from advanced applications demonstrate that with a high‐level data parallel language such as HPF+ a performance close to hand‐written message‐passing programs can be achieved even for highly irregular codes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Chubarova


    Full Text Available Different microphysical, optical and radiative properties of aerosol were analyzed according to the 10 years of measurements (2001–2010 at the Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University within the framework of international AERONET program. Volume aerosol size distribution was shown to have a bimodal character with dominating the fine mode aerosol particles at effective radius of reff-fine=0.15 µm. In smoke conditions reff-fine was shown to increase to 0.25 µm at extremely large aerosol optical thickness (AOT. Real and imaginary parts of refractive index are characterized by REFR=1.45, REFI=0.01 respectively, changing to REFR=1.49, REFI=0.006 for smoke aerosol. AOT seasonal changes are characterized by the increase towards warm period with a local minimum in June. The joint analysis of aerosol characteristics with the NOAA_NCEP_CPC_CAMS_OPI climatology shows the nature of these changes. For typical conditions aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA is about 0.9 at 675 nm and is characterized by a distinct decrease with wavelength while in forest fires conditions it is significantly higher (SSA=0.95. The interaction between volume aerosol concentration of different aerosol fractions was obtained with a distinct decrease of variation towards large aerosol content.

  9. Virtuelle Lehrbuchsammlung und eBooks on Demand als Facetten der Hybridbibliothek: zwei innovative Services der Universitätsbibliothek der Medizinischen Universität Wien /Virtual textbook collection and eBooks on Demand as facets of the hybrid library: two innovative services of the university library of the Medical University Vienna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miehl, Marian


    Full Text Available The university library of the Medical University of Vienna is a hybrid library and offers a huge stock of literature in print and online. Two projects were realised to improve access to this collection. The library built a catalogue for their students, which includes all relevant resources for their courses. In addition to textbooks, print and online, it includes further relevant resources. The catalogue, called Van Swieten Student 2.0, uses a lot of web 2.0 applications. Until now one had to search a card index to find rare books of historical medical interest. That changed because the card index got digitalised and machine readable. So the library could put the card index into a catalogue with web 2.0 applications to make browsing easier. Because of a ground-breaking service, called eBooks on Demand (eod, it is now possible to directly order books which are no longer under copyright out of this catalogue.

  10. Introducing astronomy into high school physics curriculum through the use of the University of North Dakota Observatory (United States)

    Nolby, Caitlin Marie

    Astronomy education is currently lacking in the secondary level classroom. Many programs have been created to remedy this, including research opportunities for students and training workshops for educators. These reach only a small fraction of the population however, while remaining students still lack the opportunity to learn astronomy at the secondary level. This research addresses the creation of a program that will make astronomy education a recurring option for students across North Dakota through implementation of a two-week astronomy course at Grand Forks Central High School (GFCHS) in a class of 19 physics students. During ten class periods from April 16, 2012 through April 27, 2012, instruction included presentation of basic astronomy concepts and observational techniques as well as student participation in demonstrations and in-class activities. Original lesson plans also included a group research project on the astrometry of an asteroid. Students were given the option to visit the University of North Dakota (UND) Observatory the evening of April 20, 2012 for a public "star party" where they received a tour of the university's telescopes and research equipment. Students also took a field trip to the John D. Odegard School of Aerospace Sciences to tour Aviation and Space Studies facilities at UND on April 25, 2012. Students were given a pre-test at the start of the course, daily exit surveys at the end of each class period, and a post-test at the end of the two weeks. These assessments were used to evaluate student enjoyment, progress, and overall perception of the course. The research also identified common misconceptions in astronomy held by the learners and the most effective teaching methods. It was found that this course was overall successful in promoting the students' learning of astronomy. This analysis has been used to make improvements in future installments of the course and it is now available online to educators for use in the classroom.

  11. The Institutionalization of NSF-ADVANCE at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University (United States)

    Dutt, K.


    National level data indicate that women and minorities remain underrepresented in academic and research institutions, especially in the physical sciences. Current research shows evidence of "leaks" in the academic pipeline with women leaving academic and research institutions before attaining senior positions, the biggest leak occurring during postdoctoral years. These trends have been consistent with the LDEO experience with approximately 18% women at the junior scientist level in 2005 - a massive drop-off after approximately 41% women at the postdoctoral level. As a response to the recommendations of ADVANCE at Columbia University (2004-2009) the Office of Academic Affairs and Diversity was created within the LDEO Directorate in 2008 with the goal of increasing diversity through institutional transformation. The goals of this office are to: a) Develop and implement new policies and procedures to increase the recruitment, retention and advancement of women and minorities among the scientific staff; b) Impact key decision-making areas such as appointments, promotions, salary structures, and governance; c) Promote the advancement of postdoctoral scholars and junior staff; d) Stimulate an institutional cultural shift based on social science research on race and gender. A series of concerted efforts and initiatives in recent years have included: a) More structured search processes; b) Improved family leave policies and paid time off; c) Emphasis on advancement of postdoctoral scholars, including the implementation of a postdoctoral mentoring plan; and d) Promoting awareness within the LDEO community on diversity in the sciences. In recent years LDEO has experienced visible progress towards its diversity goals. The proportion of women among junior Lamont research professors has doubled from 18% in 2005 to 36% in 2011. The proportion of women on the junior scientific staff (excluding postdoctoral scholars) increased from 22% in 2005 to 37% in 2011. Overall, the

  12. The ViennaRNA web services. (United States)

    Gruber, Andreas R; Bernhart, Stephan H; Lorenz, Ronny


    The ViennaRNA package is a widely used collection of programs for thermodynamic RNA secondary structure prediction. Over the years, many additional tools have been developed building on the core programs of the package to also address issues related to noncoding RNA detection, RNA folding kinetics, or efficient sequence design considering RNA-RNA hybridizations. The ViennaRNA web services provide easy and user-friendly web access to these tools. This chapter describes how to use this online platform to perform tasks such as prediction of minimum free energy structures, prediction of RNA-RNA hybrids, or noncoding RNA detection. The ViennaRNA web services can be used free of charge and can be accessed via

  13. Wohin mit den älteren medizinischen Zeitschriftenbänden? - Die Benutzungserhebung 2004 an der Universitätsbibliothek der Medizinischen Universität Wien / Where to put the back numbers? - Usage of older medical journals at the Medical University Library Vienna in 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno


    Full Text Available The increasing usage of e-journals questions the library's print archive. This is particularly valid for medical libraries where mainly up to date literature is required. From March to June 2004 the use of back numbers at the Medical University Library Vienna was recorded in order to assess utilisation of print journals published before 1986. During these four month 10.286 bound volumes were taken out from the print archive. Journal title, publication year and type of usage (local or interlibrary loan was registered. A ranking list of the most used journals was compiled including their impact factor. On average it came to about 105 uses per workday. This remarkable demand for back numbers is a clear argument for keeping the library's print archive inhouse regarding the publishers' patchy online backfile collections.

  14. [Karl Alfons Portele, Pathologist and first director of the Federal Pathologic-anatomical Museum Vienna]. (United States)

    Patzak, Beatrix; Winter, Eduard


    The importance of the work of Karl Alfons Portele (1912-1993) in his position as director of the Federal Museum of Pathology is discussed. Portele was commissioned with the museum in 1946 and separated it from university in 1974. The history of the Pathologic-anatomical Museum in Vienna is closely connected with the history of pathology.

  15. Field testing for extreme universe space observatory aboard a super pressure balloon (EUSO-SPB): Logistics and first results (United States)

    Cummings, Austin

    Extreme Universe Space Observatory aboard a Super Pressure Balloon (EUSO-SPB) is a prototype cosmic ray detector that will, for the first time, record cosmic rays from above. It is planned to fly for nearly 100 days at an altitude of 33 km, looking downward onto Earth's atmosphere, and measure the ultraviolet light emitted by ultra-high energy cosmic ray extensive air showers. It is the primary scientific payload aboard the 2017 NASA super pressure balloon flight launched from Wanaka, NZ. It was necessary to perform an end-to-end characterization of the instrument, as post test recovery is not guaranteed. A laser underflight study for EUSO-SPB is planned to occur to evaluate the assembled instrument's response to realistic optical tracks. In case of failure, it was necessary to conduct ground-to-ground testing, where laser test beams at "flight-like" distances through Earth's atmosphere would be provided. The Black Rock Mesa (BRM) Telescope Array (TA) test site in Delta, Utah was chosen as the location for the instrument field testing. The assembled and working EUSO-SPB instrument was transported using a ground loading, weather-sealed, air-suspension trailer and a custom "vibration-proof" dolly. During transportation, the maximum acceleration experienced by the instrument was 1.2 g's. Test beams were provided by a fixed energy, vertical laser at 21 km and by a steerable, variable energy, laser at 24 km. Hundreds of thousands of pulsed, UV laser shots were successfully recorded during the six nights of operation, with various energies, directions, and triggering methods. Energy sweeps were performed with a 45° tilted away laser at 24 km to determine the nominal energy threshold of EUSO-SPB in a balloon simulated geometry for two different lens configurations. First results show that the 2 lens configuration of EUSO-SPB was approximately twice as sensitive as the 3 lens configuration to laser light, with 50% energy thresholds of 1 mj and 2 mj, respectively. Cloud

  16. Determination of Monthly Aerosol Types in Manila Observatory and Notre Dame of Marbel University from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements. (United States)

    Ong, H. J. J.; Lagrosas, N.; Uy, S. N.; Gacal, G. F. B.; Dorado, S.; Tobias, V., Jr.; Holben, B. N.


    This study aims to identify aerosol types in Manila Observatory (MO) and Notre Dame of Marbel University (NDMU) using Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Level 2.0 inversion data and five dimensional specified clustering and Mahalanobis classification. The parameters used are the 440-870 nm extinction Angström exponent (EAE), 440 nm single scattering albedo (SSA), 440-870 nm absorption Angström exponent (AAE), 440 nm real and imaginary refractive indices. Specified clustering makes use of AERONET data from 7 sites to define 7 aerosol classes: mineral dust (MD), polluted dust (PD), urban industrial (UI), urban industrial developing (UID), biomass burning white smoke (BBW), biomass burning dark smoke (BBD), and marine aerosols. This is similar to the classes used by Russell et al, 2014. A data point is classified into a class based on the closest 5-dimensional Mahalanobis distance (Russell et al, 2014 & Hamill et al, 2016). This method is applied to all 173 MO data points from January 2009 to June 2015 and to all 24 NDMU data points from December 2009 to July 2015 to look at monthly and seasonal variations of aerosol types. The MO and NDMU aerosols are predominantly PD ( 77%) and PD & UID ( 75%) respectively (Figs.1a-b); PD is predominant in the months of February to May in MO and February to March in NDMU. PD results from less strict emission and environmental regulations (Catrall 2005). Average SSA values in MO is comparable to the mean SSA for PD ( 0.89). This can be attributed to presence of high absorbing aerosol types, e.g., carbon which is a product of transportation emissions. The second most dominant aerosol type in MO is UID ( 15%), in NDMU it is BBW ( 25%). In Manila, the high sources of PD and UID (fine particles) is generally from vehicular combustion (Oanh, et al 2006). The detection of BBW in MO from April to May can be attributed to the fires which are common in these dry months. In NDMU, BBW source is from biomass burning (smoldering). In this

  17. Heatwaves in Vienna: effects on mortality. (United States)

    Hutter, Hans-Peter; Moshammer, Hanns; Wallner, Peter; Leitner, Barbara; Kundi, Michael


    The hot summer of 2003 brought about increased mortality in southern and western Europe, highlighting the health impact of heatwaves. No Austrian mortality data have yet been reported for this summer period. Daily mortality data for Vienna between 1998 and 2004 were obtained from Statistics Austria and meteorological data from the Austrian Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics. Heatwaves were defined using the Kysely criterion. Daily mortality for May to September was predicted by a generalized additive model considering over-dispersion with Poisson deviates and a log link. Seasonal trend was accounted for by a natural spline, weekdays were modeled by dummy variables and heatwave days were included as dichotomous predictor. The average seasonal temperature for May to September in Vienna has increased by more than 1.7 degrees C during the last 35 years. In 2003 there was an excess of heatwave days, 44 overall, that resulted in an increased number of deaths, approximately 180, most of which were not due to 'harvesting'. Heatwave days between 1998 and 2004 were associated with a significantly increased relative mortality risk of 1.13 [95% confidence interval 1.09-1.17]. This increase was stronger in females than in males. Although excess mortality was seen in all age groups, it reached significance only in the elderly population over 65 years. An impact of heatwaves on mortality was apparent in Vienna, although not as pronounced as in France and south-western Europe. In 2003 at least 130 heatwave-related deaths in Vienna could have been avoided by prompt medical assistance and proper advice about how to cope with excessive thermal conditions. Preventive programs are warranted during heatwaves, especially to target elderly people, because the likelihood of heatwaves as a consequence of global warming is increasing.

  18. The Brazilian unified national health system as an observatory for universal rights: a reflection based on the social sciences¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto do Nascimento


    Full Text Available The bibliography on the crisis of modernity is wide-ranging. One particular school of thought takes the view that various pillars of modern social life are under threat: among them the achievements represented by universal rights. The public health literature also points out that the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS is a development going against the worldwide movement towards flexibilization of these rights. The principles of universality and comprehensiveness not only constitute an institutional, financial, political and social challenge, but also express society's decision to implement universal rights. We have used Souza Santos's theoretical instrument to characterize SUS as an observatory regarding effective application of these rights. Institutional remodeling and democratic deliberations for establishing a social contract emerge again as matters of importance.

  19. Single Particle Analysis by Combined Chemical Imaging to Study Episodic Air Pollution Events in Vienna (United States)

    Ofner, Johannes; Eitenberger, Elisabeth; Friedbacher, Gernot; Brenner, Florian; Hutter, Herbert; Schauer, Gerhard; Kistler, Magdalena; Greilinger, Marion; Lohninger, Hans; Lendl, Bernhard; Kasper-Giebl, Anne


    background site (Sonnblick Observatory, Saharan Dust Event from April 2016). Further, chemical imaging of biological aerosol constituents of an autumnal pollen breakout in Vienna, with background samples from nearby locations from November 2016 will demonstrate the advantages of the chemical imaging approach. Additionally, the chemical fingerprint of an exceptional air pollution event from a local emission source, caused by the pull down process of a building in Vienna will unravel the needs for multisensor imaging, especially the combinational access. Obtained chemical images will be correlated to bulk analytical results. Benefits of the overall methodical access by combining bulk analytics and combined chemical imaging of exceptional episodic air pollution events will be discussed.

  20. Unesco's Global Ethics Observatory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, H.A.M.J. ten; Ang, T.W.


    The Global Ethics Observatory, launched by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization in December 2005, is a system of databases in the ethics of science and technology. It presents data on experts in ethics, on institutions (university departments and centres,

  1. Torun Radio Astronomy Observatory (United States)

    Murdin, P.


    Torun Center for Astronomy is located at Piwnice, 15 km north of Torun, Poland. A part of the Faculty of Physics and Astronomy of the Nicolaus Copernicus University, it was created by the union of Torun Radio Astronomy Observatory (TRAO) and the Institute of Astronomy on 1 January 1997....

  2. Report on botanical nomenclature—Vienna 2005. XVII International Botanical Congress, Vienna: Nomenclature Section, 12–16 July 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Flann


    Full Text Available PrefaceThis is the official Report on the deliberations and decisions of the ten sessions of the Nomenclature Section of the XVII International Botanical Congress held in Vienna, Austria, from 12–16 July 2005. The meetings of the Section took place on these five consecutive days prior to the Congress proper. The Section meetings were hosted by the Institute of Botany, University of Vienna, Austria. Technical facilities included full electronic recording of all discussion spoken into the microphones. Text of all proposals to amend the Code was displayed on one screen allowing suggested amendments to be updated as appropriate. The team at the University of Vienna (Christopher Dixon, Jeong-Mi Park, Ovidiu Paun, Carolin A. Redernig and Dieter Reich ensured that the proceedings ran smoothly and enjoyably for all.A report of the decisions of the Section was published soon after the Congress (McNeill & al. in Taxon 54: 1057–1064. 2005. It includes a tabulation of the preliminary mail vote on the published proposals, specifying how the Section acted on each and detailing amendments and new proposals approved upon motions from the floor. It also includes the report of the Nominating Committee as well as the Congress resolution ratifying the Section’s decisions, neither reproduced here. The main result of the Section’s deliberations is the Vienna Code, which was published as Regnum Vegetabile 146, on 20 Sep 2006 (McNeill & al. in Regnum Veg. 146. 2006. It was also published online, on the same date (see present report of the proceedings of the Vienna Nomenclature Section conveys, we believe, a true and lively picture of the event. It is primarily based on the MP3 electronic recordings, with, where necessary, supplementation by the comment slips submitted by most speakers and by reference to parallel tape-recording, particularly where there were gaps in the MP3 record. With these sources combined, and

  3. Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (United States)

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Lowenstern, Jacob


    Eruption of Yellowstone's Old Faithful Geyser. Yellowstone hosts the world's largest and most diverse collection of natural thermal features, which are the surface expression of magmatic heat at shallow depths in the crust. The Yellowstone system is monitored by the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO), a partnership among the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Yellowstone National Park, and the University of Utah. YVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Yellowstone and YVO at

  4. ViennaRNA Package 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Ronny


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary structure forms an important intermediate level of description of nucleic acids that encapsulates the dominating part of the folding energy, is often well conserved in evolution, and is routinely used as a basis to explain experimental findings. Based on carefully measured thermodynamic parameters, exact dynamic programming algorithms can be used to compute ground states, base pairing probabilities, as well as thermodynamic properties. Results The ViennaRNA Package has been a widely used compilation of RNA secondary structure related computer programs for nearly two decades. Major changes in the structure of the standard energy model, the Turner 2004 parameters, the pervasive use of multi-core CPUs, and an increasing number of algorithmic variants prompted a major technical overhaul of both the underlying RNAlib and the interactive user programs. New features include an expanded repertoire of tools to assess RNA-RNA interactions and restricted ensembles of structures, additional output information such as centroid structures and maximum expected accuracy structures derived from base pairing probabilities, or z-scores for locally stable secondary structures, and support for input in fasta format. Updates were implemented without compromising the computational efficiency of the core algorithms and ensuring compatibility with earlier versions. Conclusions The ViennaRNA Package 2.0, supporting concurrent computations via OpenMP, can be downloaded from

  5. Vienna International Summer School on Experimental and Clinical Oncology for Medical Students : An Austrian Cancer Education Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fromm-Haidenberger, Sabine; Pohl, Gudrun; Widder, Joachim; Kren, Gerhard; Fitzal, Florian; Bartsch, Rupert; de Vries, Jakob; Zielinski, Christoph; Poetter, Richard

    The "International Summer School on Experimental and Clinical Oncology for Medical Students" is organised at the Medical University of Vienna to teach a multidisciplinary approach to oncology to medical students in the final phase of their studies. The program includes biology, diagnosis, clinical

  6. Notion and order of determining the losses under the Vienna convention of UNO 1980 (by the example of law of England

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    Aleksandr V. Padiryakov


    Full Text Available Objective to carry out a comprehensive analysis of the institution of losses under the Vienna Convention of 1980 and its implementation in comparison with the regulation of the institution of losses in the law of England. Methods universal dialectic method of cognition as well as general scientific and private research methods based on it. Results the article analyses legal regulation of the institution of losses under the Vienna Convention of 1980 and reviews the practice of its application by the courts of various states as well as presents a comparative legal analysis of the institution of losses under the Vienna Convention of 1980 and the law of England. Scientific novelty the article suggests practical recommendations on using the provisions of the Vienna Convention 1980 on losses and international practices in contracting. Practical significance the findings of this paper can be used in scientific legislative and law enforcement activities and in the educational process of higher education institutions. nbsp

  7. La Plata Astronomical Observatory (United States)

    Forte, Juan Carlos; Cora, Sofia A.

    La Plata, the current capital city of the province of Buenos Aires, was founded on 19 November 1882 by governor Dardo Rocha, and built on an innovative design giving emphasis to the quality of the public space, official and educational buildings. The Astronomical Observatory was one of the first inhabitants of the main park of the city; its construction started in 1883 including two telescopes that ranked among the largest in the southern hemisphere at that time and also several instruments devoted to positional astronomy (e.g. a meridian circle and a zenith telescope). A dedicated effort has being invested during the last 15 years in order to recover some of the original instrumentation (kept in a small museum) as well as the distinctive architectural values. In 1905, the Observatory, the School of Agriculture and the Museum of Natural Sciences (one of the most important museums in South America) became part of the backbone of La Plata National University, an institution with a strong and distinctive profile in exact and natural sciences. The First School for Astronomy and Related Sciences had been harboured by the Observatory since 1935, and became the current Faculty of Astronomical and Geophysical Sciences in 1983. This last institution carries PhD programs and also a number of teaching activities at different levels. These activities are the roots of a strong connection of the Observatory with the city.

  8. Diagenesis of Malmian Marlstones, Vienna Basin (United States)

    Schicker, A.; Gier, S.


    Burial diagenetic processes of pelitic sediments have been the subject of mineralogical investigations in Tertiary basins all over the world. Because of oil exploration, the investigations were focused on the Gulf Coast region in the United States. The diagenetic reaction from smectite to illite can be related to petroleum migration processes. The aim of this study is to characterize the diagenetic development of the Jurassic marls of the Mikulov Formation in the Vienna Basin. The Vienna Basin is located in the NE part of Austria and extends into Slovakia and the Czech Republic. It is a Tertiary pull-apart basin along the junction of the Eastern Alps and the Western Carpathians. The evolution of the basin started during the early Miocene with subsidence along NE trending sinistral faults. It is underlain by alpine thrusted nappes and autochthonous Mesozoic sediments. The clay mineralogy of 46 core samples from nine different wells was analyzed with X-ray diffraction and quantified. The wells penetrate the Mikulov Formation over a depth range of 1000 m to 8500 m which gives a unique opportunity to study the diagenetic changes of one formation from shallow to deep burial. Also, by following a single formation to depth, it is possible to minimize variations which might result from differences in provenance and depositional environment. For separation of the < 2 µm fraction the carbonate was dissolved with a 0.1 M EDTA-solution before sedimentation. The clay fraction contains a prominent illite/smectite (I/S) mixed-layer mineral, illite, chlorite and kaolinite. The amounts of I/S and kaolinite decrease with depth, illite and chlorite increase with depth. A diagenetic overprint was revealed, involving a gradual transformation of smectite to illite through mixed-layer I/S intermediates. The illite content in I/S ranges from 25% for the shallowest sample to 90% for the deepest sample. The ordering of the mixed layer I/S changes with increasing depth from R0 (25% illite

  9. An astronomical observatory for Peru (United States)

    del Mar, Juan Quintanilla; Sicardy, Bruno; Giraldo, Víctor Ayma; Callo, Víctor Raúl Aguilar


    Peru and France are to conclude an agreement to provide Peru with an astronomical observatory equipped with a 60-cm diameter telescope. The principal aims of this project are to establish and develop research and teaching in astronomy. Since 2004, a team of researchers from Paris Observatory has been working with the University of Cusco (UNSAAC) on the educational, technical and financial aspects of implementing this venture. During an international astronomy conference in Cusco in July 2009, the foundation stone of the future Peruvian Observatory was laid at the top of Pachatusan Mountain. UNSAAC, represented by its Rector, together with the town of Oropesa and the Cusco regional authority, undertook to make the sum of 300,000€ available to the project. An agreement between Paris Observatory and UNSAAC now enables Peruvian students to study astronomy through online teaching.

  10. The Carl Sagan solar and stellar observatories as remote observatories (United States)

    Saucedo-Morales, J.; Loera-Gonzalez, P.

    In this work we summarize recent efforts made by the University of Sonora, with the goal of expanding the capability for remote operation of the Carl Sagan Solar and Stellar Observatories, as well as the first steps that have been taken in order to achieve autonomous robotic operation in the near future. The solar observatory was established in 2007 on the university campus by our late colleague A. Sánchez-Ibarra. It consists of four solar telescopes mounted on a single equatorial mount. On the other hand, the stellar observatory, which saw the first light on 16 February 2010, is located 21 km away from Hermosillo, Sonora at the site of the School of Agriculture of the University of Sonora. Both observatories can now be remotely controlled, and to some extent are able to operate autonomously. In this paper we discuss how this has been accomplished in terms of the use of software as well as the instruments under control. We also briefly discuss the main scientific and educational objectives, the future plans to improve the control software and to construct an autonomous observatory on a mountain site, as well as the opportunities for collaborations.

  11. ScholarlyStats@MedUniVienna: Are usage statistics now a piece of cake? / ScholarlyStats@MedUniVienna: Nutzungsstatistik leicht gemacht?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dollfuss, Helmut


    Full Text Available COUNTER (Counting Online Usage of Networked Electronic Resources standardized usage data from publishers of electronic library resources. Notwithstanding the collection of differently formated usage data from a variety of platforms to piece together an all-encompassing usage report is still cumbersome. MPS technologies is offering exactly this kind of service. The company collects usage data from publisher platforms on behalf of the library and pulls them together into uniform spreadsheet reports. Additionally several statisistical analysis are generated based on the consolidated reports. Since 2007 the university library at the Medical University Vienna holds a contract with MPS Technologies. The following report will give insight into service coverage, functionality results and experience with ScholarlyStats. Furthermore a few points are listed which have to be considered and discussed in the library before signing this contract.

  12. Estimation of the sustainable geothermal potential of Vienna (United States)

    Tissen, Carolin; Benz, Susanne A.; Keck, Christiane A.; Bayer, Peter; Blum, Philipp


    Regarding the limited availability of fossil fuels and the absolute necessity to reduce CO2 emissions in order to mitigate the worldwide climate change, renewable resources and new energy systems are required to provide sustainable energy for the future. Shallow geothermal energy holds a huge untapped potential especially for heating and hot water, which represent up to 50% of the global energy demand. Previous studies quantified the capacity of shallow geothermal energy for closed and open systems in cities such as Vienna, London (Westminster) and Ludwigsburg in Germany. In the present study, these approaches are combined and also include the anthropogenic heat input by the urban heat island (UHI) effect. The objective of the present study is therefore to estimate the sustainable geothermal potential of Vienna. Furthermore, the amount of energy demand for heating and hot water that can be supplied by open and closed geothermal systems will be determined. The UHI effect in Vienna is reflected in higher ground water temperatures within the city centre (14 ˚ C to 18 ˚ C) in comparison to lower ones in rural areas (10 ˚ C to 13 ˚ C). A preliminary estimation of the anthropogenic heat flow into the ground water caused by elevated basement temperatures and land surface temperatures is 3,5 × 108 kWh/a. This additional heat flow leads to a total geothermal potential which is 2.5 times larger than the estimated annual energy demand for heating and hot water in Vienna.

  13. Early East Asian art history in Vienna and its trajectories: Josef Strzygowski, Karl With, Alfred Salmony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Orell


    Full Text Available In 1912 Josef Strzygowski founded the ‘Section for East Asian Art History’ at the University of Vienna, which attracted many students who would continue their careers in museums and at universities and thus established East Asian art history as an academic field. This paper examines these early art historical engagements with East Asian art: First, I discuss the role of East Asian art in Strzygowski’s agenda of broadening art history’s geographical scope beyond Europe and in his argument about the dominance of ‘Nordic’ artistic traditions in Europe and in Asia. Secondly, I introduce the work of two early students at the ‘Section for East Asian Art History’ in Vienna, Karl With and Alfred Salmony. Their respective approaches to East Asian art exemplify a range of methodological concerns of their time, from stylistic narratives, the concept of ars una, comparative frameworks, to ideas about cultural or national ‘purity’ in the arts, and an interest in cross-cultural adaption and transformation of motifs and symbolism.

  14. Solar Dynamics Observatory (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A searchable database of all Solar Dynamics Observatory data including EUV, magnetograms, visible light and X-ray. SDO: The Solar Dynamics Observatory is the first...

  15. Development of solar tower observatories (United States)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    Because the horizontal solar telescope, the Snow Telescope in Yerkes Observatory, was affected by air-currents from the warmed-up soil, George Ellery Hale had the idea of a tower telescope. In 1904, the 60-foot tower in Mt. Wilson was ready, in 1908 the 150-foot tower was built with the help of the Carnegie foundation. After World War I, Germany made heavy efforts to regain its former strong position in the field of science. Already in December 1919 - after the spectacular result of the English eclipse expedition in October 1919 - Erwin Finlay-Freundlich started a successful fund raising (“Einstein-Stiftungrdquo;) among German industrialists. The company Zeiss in Jena was responsible for the instrumentation of the 20-m solar tower, built in 1920-22. The optical design of the Einstein Tower in respect to light intensity surpassed even the Mt. Wilson solar observatory. Also abroad solar tower observatories were built in the 1920s: Utrecht,The Netherlands (1922), Canberra, Australia (1924), Arcetri, Italy (1926), Pasadena, California (1926) and Tokyo, Japan (1928). In the thirties, solar physics became important because of the solar maximum in 1938 and the new observational possibilities created by Bernard Lyot. At the end of the 1930s, Karl-Otto Kiepenheuer proposed to establish a solar tower observatory on Wendelstein in order to improve the predictions of radio interference by observing sunspots. By stressing the importance of the solar research for war efforts, Otto Heckmann of Göttingen observatory finally succeeded in winning the “Reichsluftfahrtministerium” to finance several solar observatories, like Wendelstein, Hainberg/Göttingen, Kanzelhöhe/Villach, and Schauinsland/Freiburg. Solar astronomy profited by the foundation of the new observatories - four of them existed still after the war. Abroad only the solar observatories of Oxford (1935) and the 50 foot tower of the McMath-Hulbert Observatory, University of Michigan (1936) should be mentioned. Only

  16. Analysis of large Danube flood events at Vienna since 1700 (United States)

    Kiss, Andrea; Blöschl, Günter; Hohensinner, Severin; Perdigao, Rui


    Whereas Danube water level measurements are available in Vienna from 1820 onwards, documentary evidence plays a significant role in the long-term understanding of Danube hydrological processes. Based on contemporary documentary evidence and early instrumental measurements, in the present paper we aim to provide an overview and a hydrological analysis of major Danube flood events, and the changes occurred in flood behaviour in Vienna in the last 300 years. Historical flood events are discussed and analysed according to types, seasonality, frequency and magnitude. Concerning historical flood events we apply a classification of five-scaled indices that considers height, magnitude, length and impacts. The rich data coverage in Vienna, both in terms of documentary evidence and early instrumental measurements, provide us with the possibility to create a relatively long overlap between documentary evidence and instrumental measurements. This makes possible to evaluate and, to some extent, improve the index reconstruction. While detecting causes of changes in flood regime, we aim to provide an overview on the atmospheric background through some characteristic examples, selected great flood events (e.g. 1787). Moreover, we also seek for the answer for such questions as in what way early (pre-instrumental period) human impact such as water regulations and urban development changed flood behaviour in the town, and how much it might have an impact on flood classification.

  17. Accident scenarios of the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Vienna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Mario, E-mail: [Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); Haydn, Markus [Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); Steinhauser, Georg, E-mail: [Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); Boeck, Helmuth [Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria)


    The safety report of the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Vienna includes three accident scenarios and their deterministic dose consequences to the environment. The destruction of the cladding of the most activated fuel element, the destruction of all fuel elements and a plane crash were considered scenarios in that report. The calculations were made in 1978 with the software program named STRISK. In this paper, the program package PC Cosyma was applied on the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Vienna and the deterministic consequences of the scenarios to the environment were updated. The fission product inventories of all fuel elements were calculated with ORIGEN2. To get meteorological data of the atmospheric condition around the release area, a weather station was installed. The release parameters were taken from the safety report or were replaced by worst case parameters. This paper focuses on two accident scenarios: the destruction of the cladding of the fuel element with the highest activity content and the case of a large plane crash. The current accident scenarios show good agreement with the calculations from 1978, hence no technical modifications in the safety report of the TRIGA reactor Vienna were necessary. Even in the very worst case scenario - complete destruction of all fuel elements in a large plane crash - the expected doses in the Atominstitut's neighborhood remain moderate.

  18. Lunar astronomical observatories - Design studies (United States)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Burns, Jack O.; Chua, Koon Meng; Duric, Nebojsa; Gerstle, Walter H.


    The best location in the inner solar system for the grand observatories of the 21st century may be the moon. A multidisciplinary team including university students and faculty in engineering, astronomy, physics, and geology, and engineers from industry is investigating the moon as a site for astronomical observatories and is doing conceptual and preliminary designs for these future observatories. Studies encompass lunar facilities for radio astronomy and astronomy at optical, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although there are significant engineering challenges in design and construction on the moon, the rewards for astronomy can be great, such as detection and study of earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars, and the task for engineers promises to stimulate advances in analysis and design, materials and structures, automation and robotics, foundations, and controls. Fabricating structures in the reduced-gravity environment of the moon will be easier than in the zero-gravity environment of earth orbit, as Apollo and space-shuttle missions have revealed. Construction of observatories on the moon can be adapted from techniques developed on the earth, with the advantage that the moon's weaker gravitational pull makes it possible to build larger devices than are practical on earth.

  19. "Route of astronomical observatories'' project: classical observatories from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics (United States)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun


    Observatories offer a good possibility for serial transnational applications. A well-known example for a thematic programme is the Struve arc, already recognized as World Heritage.I will discuss what has been achieved and show examples, like the route of astronomical observatories or the transition from classical astronomy to modern astrophysics (La Plata, Hamburg, Nice, etc.), visible in the architecture, the choice of instruments, and the arrangement of the observatory buildings in an astronomy park. This corresponds to the main categories according to which the ``outstanding universal value'' (UNESCO criteria ii, iv and vi) of the observatories have been evaluated: historic, scientific, and aesthetic. This proposal is based on the criteria of a comparability of the observatories in terms of the urbanistic complex and the architecture, the scientific orientation, equipment of instruments, authenticity and integrity of the preserved state, as well as in terms of historic scientific relations and scientific contributions.Apart from these serial transnational applications one can also choose other groups like baroque or neo-classical observatories, solar physics observatories or a group of observatories equipped with the same kind of instruments and made by the same famous firm. I will also discuss why the implementation of the Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative is difficult and why there are problems to nominate observatories for election in the national Tentative Lists

  20. Optimizing Urban Tree Soil Substrate for the City of Vienna (United States)

    Murer, Erwin; Strauss, Peter; Schmidt, Stefan


    Many of the city garden managements in Central Europe encounter problems with the sustainable growing of trees in the cities. Tree root space is more and more limited by pavements and roads and is polluted by salt application during winter time. Thus, the life expectancy of the city trees is decreasing because the trees become more susceptible to diseases. Diseased trees are a safety risk. These challenges are additionally enforced by lower budgets to re-establish new trees. To actively react on this challenge a new soil substrate for city trees has been developed and tested combining cost effectiveness with improved characteristics for water retention and nutrient delivery on one side and drainage capabilities on the other side. The new substrate should be inexpensive, easy and simple to produce and well miscible. Therefore, easily available materials have been tested which are river sediments that are delivered by annual floods; compost produced by a city owned composting plant and low cost dolomite chippings from quarries near Vienna. The final composition of the new Vienna tree substrate consists of 3 mineral components and one organic component. These are mixed in a relationship of 4 parts dolomite chippings, 3 parts sand and 3 parts of fluvial fine sediment and 2 parts of compost. After a laboratory phase to develop the new substrate, field testing of the newly developed substrate is presently carried out in three different types of field experiments consisting of 20 implementation sites distributed over the city of Vienna, with annual checking for the growth of trees, 2 implementation sites with sensors to measure the water and salt balance and 6 city lysimeters with implementation of enhanced facilities to monitor substrate and water behaviour. These facilities will be used to relate the growing factors in connection with the site properties, to developing of a fertilizer recommendation for urban trees and to make tests for the compatibility of the trees

  1. Boscovich and the Brera Observatory . (United States)

    Antonello, E.

    In the mid 18th century both theoretical and practical astronomy were cultivated in Milan by Barnabites and Jesuits. In 1763 Boscovich was appointed to the chair of mathematics of the University of Pavia in the Duchy of Milan, and the following year he designed an observatory for the Jesuit Collegium of Brera in Milan. The Specola was built in 1765 and it became quickly one of the main european observatories. We discuss the relation between Boscovich and Brera in the framework of a short biography. An account is given of the initial research activity in the Specola, of the departure of Boscovich from Milan in 1773 and his coming back just before his death.

  2. Magdalena Ridge Observatory: the start-up of a new observatory (United States)

    Bakker, Eric J.; Westpfahl, David; Loos, Gary


    This paper discusses the challenges faced in designing and building a new astronomical observatory. Which factors drive an organization (e.g. university) to invest considerable funding and human resources, and experience considerable risk to establish a new research facility? We identify four main drivers for establishing a new observatory: support for education, research, economic development, and technology development. For public observatories, research is generally the main driver. For nonpublic observatories, the situation is more complex and is for each situation different. A detailed description is presented on the drivers and opportunities that resulted in establishing the Magdalena Ridge Observatory. Three main opportunities are identified: a developed site, surplus equipment, and economic development of the Socorro area.

  3. The Optical Variability of the Blazar 3C 454.3 over Three Decades from the Colgate University Foggy Bottom Observatory (United States)

    Balonek, Thomas J.; Weaver, Zachary R.; Didio, Nicholas; Jenks, Leah; Morris, Carolyn; Stahlin, Ryan; Zagorac, Jovana; Chapman, Katie; D'Auteuil, Brian; Karnes, Katherine L.; Reding, Joshua S.; Sabyr, Alina; Zhang, Saiyang; Boni, Samantha; Rose, Caitlin; Rilinger, Anneliese


    Using images from the ongoing quasar monitoring program at Colgate University’s Foggy Bottom Observatory (FBO), we present a twenty-eight year light curve of the blazar 3C 454.3 in Johnson-Cousins V, R, and I filters. Using additional data from several sources, we construct an historic light curve going back to 1899. We compare the variations in several outbursts beginning with the great outburst of 2005. Following its historic minimum in 2012 (R=16.4 magnitude), 3C 454.3 has exhibited several outbursts, always remaining above a base level of 15.8 magnitude. Short timescale activity with duration of hours to days and brightness range of a magnitude or smaller are superposed on the longer-term events. We investigate the characteristic timescales and intensities of these events. We observe V-R and R-I color index variations that are correlated with brightness. The most recent flare, June 2016, has been studied by Weaver & Balonek (2017, at this conference). We gratefully acknowledge support through Colgate University’s Justus and Jayne Schlichting Student Research and NASC Division funds, a National Science Foundation REU grant (AST-1005024) to the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium, and the NASA / New York Space Grant.

  4. Geodynamics in Modular Course System at Vienna High School (United States)

    Pitzl-Reinbacher, Robert


    In Austria there are currently some major reforms concerning high school education underway. At our school, the Bundesgymnasium and Bundesrealgymnasium Draschestrasse, a school belonging to the Vienna Bilingual Schooling branch, we have developed a course system in which pupils can select courses and determine individually which areas of study they want to focus on. Specially devised courses have been developed which fit within the framework of natural and applied sciences but go beyond the basic curriculum in physics. Geodynamics is the title of one of these courses, with an emphasis on weather, climate and geodynamic processes of the earth's crust. The course „The restless earth" deals specifically with plate tectonics, vulcanism, formation of mountains and processes such as ocean currents and the physics involved. Apart from theoretical basics we use manifold media and approaches concerning visualization: graphics, map data taken from Google Maps, satellite pictures, and others. The knowledge acquired in this course is broadened and consolidated by means of excursions to the Vienna Natural History Museum where additional instructional materials and visual aids are on display. Based on this experience pupils are requested to hold presentations (individually or in groups) at the end of the course.

  5. Global Health Observatory (GHO) (United States)

    ... International Health Regulations (2005) Monitoring Framework 2.2 Child malnutrition Stunting, wasting and overweight in children 6.1 ... Reports Map gallery Country health data systems Country statistics Regional Health Observatories Africa Americas South-East Asia ...

  6. Boulder Magnetic Observatory (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are vector and scalar component values of the Earth's magnetic field for 2004 recorded at the Boulder Magnetic Observatory in Colorado. Vector values are...

  7. Long Baseline Observatory (LBO) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Long Baseline Observatory (LBO) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It's the world's largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye...

  8. TENCompetence Competence Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervenne, Luk


    Vervenne, L. (2007) TENCompetence Competence Observatory. Sources available Available under the three clause BSD license, copyright TENCompetence Foundation.

  9. The Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojvat, C.


    The Pierre Auger Observatory is an international collaboration for the detailed study of the highest energy cosmic rays. It will operate at two similar sites, one in the northern hemisphere and one in the southern hemisphere. The Observatory is designed to collect a statistically significant data set of events with energies greater than 10{sup 19} eV and with equal exposures for the northern and southern skies.

  10. Analysis o Consular Affairs under the Vienna Convention (1963

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irisi TOPALLI


    Full Text Available Consular relations are based on the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, signed on 24 April 1963 and entered into force four years later, in March of 1967. The preamble of the Convention on Consular Relations as content as well as form is very similar to Diplomatic Convention as part stems from it. This Convention is very detailed. It is divided into three chapters: the first chapter deals with consular relations in general and in two other chapters regulate the consular offices are headed respectively by career consuls (chapter two and they honor (chapter three. This topic will treat the appointment of consuls and the end of their functions, the consular functions and the consular immunity. The method used for the realization of this topic is that of the analysis and case studies.

  11. Creating Griffith Observatory (United States)

    Cook, Anthony


    Griffith Observatory has been the iconic symbol of the sky for southern California since it began its public mission on May 15, 1935. While the Observatory is widely known as being the gift of Col. Griffith J. Griffith (1850-1919), the story of how Griffith’s gift became reality involves many of the people better known for other contributions that made Los Angeles area an important center of astrophysics in the 20th century. Griffith began drawing up his plans for an observatory and science museum for the people of Los Angeles after looking at Saturn through the newly completed 60-inch reflector on Mt. Wilson. He realized the social impact that viewing the heavens could have if made freely available, and discussing the idea of a public observatory with Mt. Wilson Observatory’s founder, George Ellery Hale, and Director, Walter Adams. This resulted, in 1916, in a will specifying many of the features of Griffith Observatory, and establishing a committee managed trust fund to build it. Astronomy popularizer Mars Baumgardt convinced the committee at the Zeiss Planetarium projector would be appropriate for Griffith’s project after the planetarium was introduced in Germany in 1923. In 1930, the trust committee judged funds to be sufficient to start work on creating Griffith Observatory, and letters from the Committee requesting help in realizing the project were sent to Hale, Adams, Robert Millikan, and other area experts then engaged in creating the 200-inch telescope eventually destined for Palomar Mountain. A Scientific Advisory Committee, headed by Millikan, recommended that Caltech Physicist Edward Kurth be put in charge of building and exhibit design. Kurth, in turn, sought help from artist Russell Porter. The architecture firm of John C. Austin and Fredrick Ashley was selected to design the project, and they adopted the designs of Porter and Kurth. Philip Fox of the Adler Planetarium was enlisted to manage the completion of the Observatory and become its

  12. Donald Menzel: His Founding and Funding of Solar Observatories. (United States)

    Welther, B. L.


    In January 1961 Donald Menzel wrote to his cousin, M. H. Bruckman, "I am proudest of the observatories that I have built in the West." The first of those facilities, a solar observatory, was founded in 1940 in Colorado and later came to be known as the High Altitude Observatory. The second one, also a solar observatory, was founded a dozen years later at Sacramento Peak in New Mexico. The third facility, however, established at Fort Davis, Texas, was the Harvard Radio Astronomy Observatory. Although Menzel was primarily a theoretical astrophysicist, renowned for his studies of the solar chromosphere, he was also an entrepreneur who had a talent for developing observatories and coping with numerous setbacks in funding and staffing. Where many others would have failed, Menzel succeeded in mentoring colleagues and finding sources of financial support. This paper will draw primarily on letters and other materials in the Harvard University Archives.

  13. Wendelstein Observatory control software (United States)

    Snigula, Jan M.; Gössl, Claus; Kodric, Mihael; Riffeser, Arno; Wegner, Michael; Schlichter, Jörg


    LMU Munchen operates an astrophysical observatory on Mt. Wendelstein1. The 2m Fraunhofer telescope2, 3 is equipped with a 0.5 x 0.5 square degree field-of-view wide field camera4 and a 3 channel optical/NIR camera5, 6. Two fiber coupled spectrographs7-9 and a wavefront sensor will be added in the near future. The observatory hosts a multitude of supporting hardware, i.e. allsky cameras, webcams, meteostation, air conditioning etc. All scientific hardware can be controlled through a single, central "Master Control Program" (MCP). At the last SPIE astronomy venue we presented the overall Wendelstein Observatory software concept10. Here we explain concept and implementation of the MCP as a multi-threaded Python daemon in the area of conflict between debuggability and Don't Repeat Yourself (DRY).

  14. Arecibo Observatory for All (United States)

    Isidro, Gloria M.; Pantoja, C. A.; Bartus, P.; La Rosa, C.


    We describe new materials available at Arecibo Observatory for visitors with visual impairments. These materials include a guide in Braille that describes the telescope, some basic terms used in radio astronomy and frequently asked questions. We have also designed a tactile model of the telescope. We are interested that blind visitors can participate of the excitement of the visit to the worlds largest radio telescope. We would like to thank the "Fundacion Comunitaria de Puerto Rico" for the scholarship that allowed GMI to work on this project. We would like to express our gratitude to the Arecibo Observatory/NAIC for their support.

  15. ALOHA Cabled Observatory (ACO): Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP): Temperature (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The University of Hawaii's ALOHA ("A Long-term Oligotrophic Habitat Assessment") Cabled Observatory (ACO) is located 100 km north of the island of Oahu, Hawaii (22...

  16. ALOHA Cabled Observatory (ACO): Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP): Velocity (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The University of Hawaii's ALOHA ("A Long-term Oligotrophic Habitat Assessment") Cabled Observatory (ACO) is located 100 km north of the island of Oahu, Hawaii (22...

  17. Gender, Politics, and Radioactivity Research in Interwar Vienna: The Case of the Institute for Radium Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Rentetzi


    .... It argues that the politics of Red Vienna and the culture of radioactivity research specific to the Viennese setting encouraged exceptional gender politics within the Institute for Radium Research in the interwar years...

  18. MPC-SVM method for Vienna rectifier with PMSG used in Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, June-Seok; Bak, Yeongsu; Lee, Kyo-Beum


    ) method for the Vienna rectifier used in WTS with a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG). The proposed MPC method considers the feasible eight-voltage vectors of the Vienna rectifier. In addition, the voltage vectors, which are the center voltage vectors of two feasible adjacent voltage vectors......Using a Vienna rectifier as the machine-side rectifier of back-to-back converter is advantageous in terms of size and cost compared to three-level topologies and for this reason, the Vienna rectifier has been used in Wind Turbine Systems (WTS). This paper proposes a Model Predictive Control (MPC......, are taken into consideration to improve the performance of the MPC method. The optimized voltage vector for the ripple minimization of PMSG currents is determined by cost function. Then, the neutral-point voltage unbalancing problem is considered for selecting the final switching set, which is generated...

  19. Madras and Kodaikanal Observatories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 8. Madras and Kodaikanal Observatories: A Brief History. Rajesh Kochhar. General Article Volume 7 Issue 8 August 2002 pp 16-28. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  20. The First Astronomical Observatory in Cluj-Napoca (United States)

    Szenkovits, Ferenc


    One of the most important cities of Romania is Cluj-Napoca (Kolozsvár, Klausenburg). This is a traditional center of education, with many universities and high schools. From the second half of the 18th century the University of Cluj has its own Astronomical Observatory, serving for didactical activities and scientific researches. The famous astronomer Maximillian Hell was one of those Jesuits who put the base of this Astronomical Observatory. Our purpose is to offer a short history of the beginnings of this Astronomical Observatory.

  1. FORUM: Enforcement Lessons from the Vienna Übahn. (United States)



    / This paper combines a review of recent publications on the effectiveness of environmental enforcement in the United States with new data to address the question of what type of enforcement activity is most productive. Using data on 39 state National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) programs, the measures of effort and cost typically applied to environmental enforcement and inspection activities were tested for relationships with compliance outcomes. No statistically significant relationships were found. In the absence of any improving trend in traditional measures of compliance, this lack suggests all enforcement systems presently used by states are failing. To work, an environmental enforcement system needs to include maintenance and restoration of compliance, real deterrence, mobilization of public opinion, minimal obtrusiveness, conformity with legal search requirements, cost-effectiveness for all parties, effective primary role for skilled inspectors, self-monitoring, compatibility with environmental management systems (e.g., ISO 14000), environmental auditing, robustness in the face of changing strategies by permittees, segregation of technical assistance from enforcement, team orientation, adaptability to multimedia, and, most difficult of all, disconnection from today's timely, appropriate, proportionate standard. These goals can be achieved through a proposed new environmental enforcement approach built on infrequent, random, but thorough inspections leading to fully documented enforcement actions resulting in high penalties. The enforcement system used by the Vienna Übahn, or subway, can serve as a model for this type of environmental enforcement system. KEY WORDS: Enforcement; Deterrence; Environmental water quality; Discharge elimination systems

  2. Clinical decision support systems at the Vienna General Hospital using Arden Syntax: Design, implementation, and integration. (United States)

    Schuh, Christian; de Bruin, Jeroen S; Seeling, Walter


    The Allgemeines Krankenhaus Informations Management (AKIM) project was started at the Vienna General Hospital (VGH) several years ago. This led to the introduction of a new hospital information system (HIS), and the installation of the expert system platform (EXP) for the integration of Arden-Syntax-based clinical decision support systems (CDSSs). In this report we take a look at the milestones achieved and the challenges faced in the creation and modification of CDSSs, and their integration into the HIS over the last three years. We introduce a three-stage development method, which is followed in nearly all CDSS projects at the Medical University of Vienna and the VGH. Stage one comprises requirements engineering and system conception. Stage two focuses on the implementation and testing of the system. Finally, stage three describes the deployment and integration of the system in the VGH HIS. The HIS provides a clinical work environment for healthcare specialists using customizable graphical interfaces known as parametric medical documents. Multiple Arden Syntax servers are employed to host and execute the CDSS knowledge bases: two embedded in the EXP for production and development, and a further three in clinical routine for production, development, and quality assurance. Three systems are discussed; the systems serve different purposes in different clinical areas, but are all implemented with Arden Syntax. MONI-ICU is an automated surveillance system for monitoring healthcare-associated infections in the intensive care setting. TSM-CDS is a CDSS used for risk prediction in the formation of cutaneous melanoma metastases. Finally, TacroDS is a CDSS for the manipulation of dosages for tacrolimus, an immunosuppressive agent used after kidney transplantation. Problems in development and integration were related to data quality or availability, although organizational difficulties also caused delays in development and integration. Since the inception of the AKIM

  3. Observatory Sponsoring Astronomical Image Contest (United States)


    and to provide a showcase for a broad range of astronomical research and celestial objects," Adams added. In addition, NRAO is developing enhanced data visualization techniques and data-processing recipes to assist radio astronomers in making quality images and in combining radio data with data collected at other wavelengths, such as visible-light or infrared, to make composite images. "We encourage all our telescope users to take advantage of these techniques to showcase their research," said Juan Uson, a member of the NRAO scientific staff and the observatory's EPO scientist. "All these efforts should demonstrate the vital and exciting roles that radio telescopes, radio observers, and the NRAO play in modern astronomy," Lo said. "While we want to encourage images that capture the imagination, we also want to emphasize that extra effort invested in enhanced imagery also will certainly pay off scientifically, by revealing subtleties and details that may have great significance for our understanding of astronomical objects," he added. Details of the NRAO Image Contest, which will become an annual event, are on the observatory's Web site. The observatory will announce winners on October 15. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  4. US Naval Observatory Hourly Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly observations journal from the National Observatory in Washington DC. The observatory is the first station in the United States to produce hourly observations...

  5. Manastash Ridge Observatory Autoguider Upgrade (United States)

    Lozo, Jason; Huehnerhoff, Joseph; Armstrong, John; Davila, Adrian; Johnson, Courtney; McMaster, Alex; Olinger, Kyle


    The Astronomy Undergraduate Engineering Group (AUEG) at the University of Washington has designed and manufactured a novel autoguider system for the 0.8-meter telescope at the Manastash Ridge Observatory in Ellensburg, Washington. The system uses a pickoff mirror placed in the unused optical path, directing the outer field to the guide camera via a system of axi-symmetrically rotating relay mirrors (periscope). This allows the guider to sample nearly 7 times the area that would be possible with the same fixed detector. This system adds closed loop optical feedback to the tracking capabilities of the telescope. When tuned the telescope will be capable of acheiving 0.5 arcsecond tracking or better. Dynamic focusing of the primary optical path will also be an included feature of this system. This unique guider will be a much needed upgrade to the telescope allowing for increased scientific capability.

  6. ESO's Two Observatories Merge (United States)


    On February 1, 2005, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) has merged its two observatories, La Silla and Paranal, into one. This move will help Europe's prime organisation for astronomy to better manage its many and diverse projects by deploying available resources more efficiently where and when they are needed. The merged observatory will be known as the La Silla Paranal Observatory. Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General, comments the new development: "The merging, which was planned during the past year with the deep involvement of all the staff, has created unified maintenance and engineering (including software, mechanics, electronics and optics) departments across the two sites, further increasing the already very high efficiency of our telescopes. It is my great pleasure to commend the excellent work of Jorge Melnick, former director of the La Silla Observatory, and of Roberto Gilmozzi, the director of Paranal." ESO's headquarters are located in Garching, in the vicinity of Munich (Bavaria, Germany), and this intergovernmental organisation has established itself as a world-leader in astronomy. Created in 1962, ESO is now supported by eleven member states (Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom). It operates major telescopes on two remote sites, all located in Chile: La Silla, about 600 km north of Santiago and at an altitude of 2400m; Paranal, a 2600m high mountain in the Atacama Desert 120 km south of the coastal city of Antofagasta. Most recently, ESO has started the construction of an observatory at Chajnantor, a 5000m high site, also in the Atacama Desert. La Silla, north of the town of La Serena, has been the bastion of the organization's facilities since 1964. It is the site of two of the most productive 4-m class telescopes in the world, the New Technology Telescope (NTT) - the first major telescope equipped with active optics - and the 3.6-m, which hosts HARPS

  7. VALD-2: Progress of the Vienna Atomic Line Data Base (United States)

    Kupka, F.; Piskunov, N.; Ryabchikova, T. A.; Stempels, H. C.; Weiss, W. W.


    We describe the updated version of the Vienna Atomic Line Data Base (VALD, \\cite[Piskunov et al. 1995)]{pis95} which represents a considerable improvement over the first installation from 1994. The original line lists have been complemented with critically evaluated data obtained from experimental measurements and theoretical calculations which are necessary for computing state-of-the-art line opacities in stellar atmospheres, as well as for synthesizing spectra for high precision analyses. In this paper, we present new and improved data sets for neutral species and ions of Si, P, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Ru, Xe, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Re, Pt, Au, Hg, and Pb. For some species data are available in VALD for the first time. We explain our choice of quality rankings by reviewing the literature for the new data and by comparison with source lists included into VALD. For some cases, we produced new line data by weighted averaging of data from different sources with individual error estimates in order to increase the reliability of VALD line lists. Software modifications allow remote users of VALD to specify individual extraction parameters as an alternative to the default settings of the VALD team and to have direct control over the quality ranking of line data. A World-Wide-Web interface is described which provides easy access to all new features. To simplify proper crediting of all authors of atomic data, VALD now includes a compilation of all publications used in each type of reply. Finally, we briefly discuss the future roadmap of VALD developments, including the incorporation of molecular transitions and integration with external data bases.

  8. Extended effects of air pollution on cardiopulmonary mortality in Vienna (United States)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Rabczenko, Daniel; Moshammer, Hanns

    BackgroundCurrent standards for fine particulates and nitrogen dioxide are under revision. Patients with cardiovascular disease have been identified as the largest group which need to be protected from effects of urban air pollution. MethodsWe sought to estimate associations between indicators of urban air pollution and daily mortality using time series of daily TSP, PM 10, PM 2.5, NO 2, SO 2, O 3 and nontrauma deaths in Vienna (Austria) 2000-2004. We used polynomial distributed lag analysis adjusted for seasonality, daily temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure and incidence of influenza as registered by sentinels. ResultsAll three particulate measures and NO 2 were associated with mortality from all causes and from ischemic heart disease and COPD at all ages and in the elderly. The magnitude of the effect was largest for PM 2.5 and NO 2. Best predictor of mortality increase lagged 0-7 days was PM 2.5 (for ischemic heart disease and COPD) and NO 2 (for other heart disease and all causes). Total mortality increase, lagged 0-14 days, per 10 μg m -3 was 2.6% for PM 2.5 and 2.9% for NO 2, mainly due to cardiopulmonary and cerebrovascular causes. ConclusionAcute and subacute lethal effects of urban air pollution are predicted by PM 2.5 and NO 2 increase even at relatively low levels of these pollutants. This is consistent with results on hospital admissions and the lack of a threshold. While harvesting (reduction of mortality after short increase due to premature deaths of most sensitive persons) seems to be of minor importance, deaths accumulate during 14 days after an increase of air pollutants. The limit values for PM 2.5 and NO 2 proposed for 2010 in the European Union are unable to prevent serious health effects.

  9. Expanding the HAWC Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Johanna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory is expanding its current array of 300 water tanks to include 350 outrigger tanks to increase sensitivity to gamma rays above 10 TeV. This involves creating and testing hardware with which to build the new tanks, including photomultiplier tubes, high voltage supply units, and flash analog to digital converters. My responsibilities this summer included preparing, testing and calibrating that equipment.

  10. Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) Optics Module (United States)

    Young, Roy; Christl, Mark


    A demonstration part will be manufactured in Japan on one of the large Toshiba machines with a diameter of 2.5 meters. This will be a flat PMMA disk that is cut between 0.5 and 1.25 meters radius. The cut should demonstrate manufacturing the most difficult parts of the 2.5 meter Fresnel pattern and the blazed grating on the diffractive surface. Optical simulations, validated with the subscale prototype, will be used to determine the limits on manufacturing errors (tolerances) that will result in optics that meet EUSO s requirements. There will be limits on surface roughness (or errors at high spatial frequency); radial and azimuthal slope errors (at lower spatial frequencies) and plunge cut depth errors in the blazed grating. The demonstration part will be measured to determine whether it was made within the allowable tolerances.

  11. Megalithic observatory Kokino (United States)

    Cenev, Gj.


    In 2001, on the footpath of a mountain peak, near the village of Kokino, archeologist Jovica Stankovski discovered an archeological site from The Bronze Age. The site occupies a large area and is scaled in two levels. Several stone seats (thrones) are dominant in this site and they are pointing towards the east horizon. The high concentration of the movable archeological material found on the upper platform probably indicates its use in a function containing still unknown cult activities. Due to precise measurements and a detailed archaeoastronomical analysis of the site performed in the past three years by Gjore Cenev, physicist from the Planetarium in Skopje, it was shown that the site has characteristics of a sacred site, but also of a Megalithic Observatory. The markers found in this observatory point on the summer and winter solstices and spring and autumn equinoxes. It can be seen that on both sides of the solstice markers, that there are markers for establishing Moon's positions. The markers are crafted in such a way that for example on days when special rites were performed (harvest rites for example) the Sun filled a narrow space of the marker and special ray lighted the man sitting on only one of the thrones, which of course had a special meaning. According to the positions of the markers that are used for Sun marking, especially on the solstice days, it was calculated that this observatory dates from 1800 B.C.

  12. Factors associated with academic success at Vienna Medical School: prospective survey. (United States)

    Frischenschlager, Oskar; Haidinger, Gerald; Mitterauer, Lukas


    To identify factors relating to students' success in the study of medicine at the Medical University of Vienna. In view of Austria's tradition of open access to higher education, which results large number of students, high dropout rate, long duration of studies, factors predicting success could be helpful for student counseling. In a prospective study, 674 freshmen (50.8% of students enrolled that year) responded to a questionnaire on their sociodemographic data, family background, performance in school, economic situation, living conditions, social integration and health, learning capacity, motivations related to studies and future profession, attitudes, and the ability to cope with stress. We used the results of the compulsory test of knowledge after the first year as an outcome measure of their success. By comparing two extremes of academic success, very successful students and students who twice failed the challenging first-year exam, we were able to identify three factors relevant in predicting academic success: male sex, German as mother tongue, and good performance in secondary school. Moreover, there is evidence that maturity and intrinsic motivational structure are linked to superior academic performance. The results of this study differ from or even contradict the findings of previous retrospective studies in Austria. We suggest that a more thorough examination of the effect of gender should be undertaken in future studies. We also hope that our work will lead to the improvement in the efficiency of the German courses for foreign students. Our findings confirm the importance of success in secondary school, but also clearly indicate that it should not be the only criterion for university admission.

  13. Scientific results obtained by the Busot observatory (United States)

    García-Lozano, R.; Rodes, J. J.; Torrejón, J. M.; Bernabéu, G.; Berná, J. Á.


    We present the discovery of three new W UMa systems by our group as a part of a photometric follow-up of variable stars carried out with the Busot observatory 36 cm robotic telescope in collaboration with the X-ray astronomy group at University of Alicante (Alicante, Spain). Specifically we show the high limiting magnitude to detect moving objects (V˜ 21 mag), and the high stability and accuracy attained in photometry which allow us to measure very shallow planet transits.

  14. Education and public engagement in observatory operations (United States)

    Gabor, Pavel; Mayo, Louis; Zaritsky, Dennis


    Education and public engagement (EPE) is an essential part of astronomy's mission. New technologies, remote observing and robotic facilities are opening new possibilities for EPE. A number of projects (e.g., Telescopes In Education, MicroObservatory, Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope and UNC's Skynet) have developed new infrastructure, a number of observatories (e.g., University of Arizona's "full-engagement initiative" towards its astronomy majors, Vatican Observatory's collaboration with high-schools) have dedicated their resources to practical instruction and EPE. Some of the facilities are purpose built, others are legacy telescopes upgraded for remote or automated observing. Networking among institutions is most beneficial for EPE, and its implementation ranges from informal agreements between colleagues to advanced software packages with web interfaces. The deliverables range from reduced data to time and hands-on instruction while operating a telescope. EPE represents a set of tasks and challenges which is distinct from research applications of the new astronomical facilities and operation modes. In this paper we examine the experience with several EPE projects, and some lessons and challenges for observatory operation.

  15. The Observatory Health Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Murianni


    Full Text Available

    Background: The number of indicators aiming to provide a clear picture of healthcare needs and the quality and efficiency of healthcare systems and services has proliferated in recent years. The activity of the National Observatory on Health Status in the Italian Regions is multidisciplinary, involving around 280 public health care experts, clinicians, demographers, epidemiologists, mathematicians, statisticians and economists who with their different competencies, and scientific interests aim to improve the collective health of individuals and their conditions through the use of “core indicators”. The main outcome of the National Observatory on Health Status in the Italian Regions is the “Osservasalute Report – a report on health status and the quality of healthcare assistance in the Italian Regions”.

    Methods: The Report adopts a comparative analysis, methodology and internationally validated indicators.

    Results: The results of Observatory Report show it is necessary:

    • to improve the monitoring of primary health care services (where the chronic disease could be cared through implementation of clinical path;

     • to improve in certain areas of hospital care such as caesarean deliveries, as well as the average length of stay in the pre-intervention phase, etc.;

    • to try to be more focused on the patients/citizens in our health care services; • to practice more geographical interventions to reduce the North-South divide as well as reduce gender inequity.

    Conclusions: The health status of Italian people is good with positive results and outcomes, but in the meantime some further efforts should be done especially in the South that still has to improve the quality and the organization of health care services. There are huge differences in accuracy and therefore usefulness of the reported data, both between diseases and between

  16. university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva


    Full Text Available Universities occupy a special place in the city’s life, the place where centuries-old traditions of the past meet the future. Universities keep their ancestral roots stretching back into the Middle Ages. University rooms and laboratories are the places where the future of science and society is built and discussed.The oldest Siberian University located in Tomsk was included in the City Charter as a city-forming enterprise. Other Siberian cities have not yet come to such deep comprehension of the role of universities. But who can doubt the significance and beneficence of this role?A complex and debatable process of reformation of the Russian higher education has been going on for several decades. Many things are perceived painfully. Irkutsk has been a student city for a long time and ranked second in the percentage of students among citizens. But recently we have lost Irkutsk High Military Aviation Engineering School, nearly lost the MIA High School. Pedagogical University has lost its status of university, and then its independence. Linguistic University has turned into a branch of Moscow University…Besides, external threats still exist and even grow. The lands and the buildings of universities are of keen interest among big businessmen, speculators and developers… Isn’t it the reason why the ideas to evacuate universities to suburban campuses arise increasingly frequently?What is the impact of dislocation of universities out of the city historical center? Does it make the city poorer and older? Or safer and more manageable? As usual, we tried to show the challenge and diversity of the main topic of the issue.

  17. Viennese art, ugliness, and the Vienna school of art history: the vicissitudes of theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Simpson


    Full Text Available Around 1900 in Vienna, the concept of ugliness developed a new significance in both the theories of the Vienna school of art history and in the artistic practices of figures like Gustav Klimt, Oskar Kokoschka, and Egon Schiele. Implicitly rejecting the classical and philosophical associations between beauty and truth, the Viennese avant-garde after Klimt seemed to instead connect truth with ugliness. Others, by contrast, identified ugliness as the symptom of modern cultural degeneration. This essay analyses specific links between the theories and practices of ugliness in the Vienna school and in contemporaneous Viennese art, and examines how the concept of ugliness also functioned discursively as a trope to represent modernity, Jewishness, truth, or sickness.

  18. Observatory may help unravel the mystery of space particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Lavine, G


    "University of Utah researchers, along with colleagues at several Japanese and U.S. universities, will create an $18 million cosmic ray observatory in Millard County. The Japanese government has committed $12 million, with the remainder expected to come from U.S. government grants" (1 page).

  19. The Solar Dynamics Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Pesnell, William; Thompson, Barbara


    This volume is dedicated to the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), which was launched 11 February 2010.  The articles focus on the spacecraft and its instruments: the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE), and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Articles within also describe calibration results and data processing pipelines that are critical to understanding the data and products, concluding with a description of the successful Education and Public Outreach activities.  This book is geared towards anyone interested in using the unprecedented data from SDO, whether for fundamental heliophysics research, space weather modeling and forecasting, or educational purposes. Previously published in Solar Physics journal, Vol. 275/1-2, 2012.

  20. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellerive, A., E-mail: [Ottawa–Carleton Institute for Physics, Department of Physics, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Klein, J.R., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); McDonald, A.B., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Noble, A.J., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Poon, A.W.P., E-mail: [Institute for Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics, Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)


    This review paper provides a summary of the published results of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment that was carried out by an international scientific collaboration with data collected during the period from 1999 to 2006. By using heavy water as a detection medium, the SNO experiment demonstrated clearly that solar electron neutrinos from {sup 8}B decay in the solar core change into other active neutrino flavors in transit to Earth. The reaction on deuterium that has equal sensitivity to all active neutrino flavors also provides a very accurate measure of the initial solar flux for comparison with solar models. This review summarizes the results from three phases of solar neutrino detection as well as other physics results obtained from analyses of the SNO data.

  1. Hanohano: Hawaiian antineutrino observatory (United States)

    Maricic, Jelena; Hanohano Collaboration


    Design studies are underway for the deep ocean antineutrino observatory Hanohano. The 10 kton monolitic underwater detector will be able to make precision measurement of neutrino mixing parameters (including θ13 and neutrino mass hierarchy) if stationed around 60 km offshore, from the nuclear reactor. Hanohano will be a mobile detector and placing it in a mid-Pacific location will provide the first ever flux measurement of geoneutrinos (antineutrinos emitted in the radioactive decay series of uranium and thorium), coming from the Earth's mantle and perform a sensitivity search for a hypothetical natural fission reactor in the Earth's core. Additional deployment at a different mid-ocean location will lead to tests of lateral heterogeneity of uranium and thorium in the Earth's mantle. These measurements would provide an important insight into deep-Earth geophysics, mantle composition and understanding of the Earth's heat flow and sources of energy inside the Earth.

  2. LCOGT network observatory operations (United States)

    Pickles, Andrew; Hjelstrom, Annie; Boroson, Todd; Burleson, Ben; Conway, Patrick; De Vera, Jon; Elphick, Mark; Haworth, Brian; Rosing, Wayne; Saunders, Eric; Thomas, Doug; White, Gary; Willis, Mark; Walker, Zach


    We describe the operational capabilities of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network. We summarize our hardware and software for maintaining and monitoring network health. We focus on methodologies to utilize the automated system to monitor availability of sites, instruments and telescopes, to monitor performance, permit automatic recovery, and provide automatic error reporting. The same jTCS control system is used on telescopes of apertures 0.4m, 0.8m, 1m and 2m, and for multiple instruments on each. We describe our network operational model, including workloads, and illustrate our current tools, and operational performance indicators, including telemetry and metrics reporting from on-site reductions. The system was conceived and designed to establish effective, reliable autonomous operations, with automatic monitoring and recovery - minimizing human intervention while maintaining quality. We illustrate how far we have been able to achieve that.

  3. Alaska Volcano Observatory at 20 (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.


    research opportunities for Russian and American students. AVO was a three-way partnership of the federal and state geological surveys and the state university from the start. This was not a flowering of ecumenism but was rather at the insistence of the Alaska congressional delegation. Such shared enterprises are not managerially convenient, but they do bring a diversity of roles, thinking, and expertise that would not otherwise be possible. Through AVO, the USGS performs its federally mandated role in natural hazard mitigation and draws on expertise available from its network of volcano observatories. The Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys performs a similar role at the state level and, in the tradition of state surveys, provides important public communications, state data base, and mapping functions. The University of Alaska Fairbanks brought seismological, remote sensing, geodetic, petrological, and physical volcanological expertise, and uniquely within US academia was able to engage students directly in volcano observatory activities. Although this "model" cannot be adopted in total elsewhere, it has served to point the USGS Volcano Hazards Program in a direction of greater openness and inclusiveness.

  4. Global Ionosphere Radio Observatory (United States)

    Galkin, I. A.; Reinisch, B. W.; Huang, X. A.


    The Global Ionosphere Radio Observatory (GIRO) comprises a network of ground-based high-frequency vertical sounding sensors, ionosondes, with instrument installations in 27 countries and a central Lowell GIRO Data Center (LGDC) for data acquisition and assimilation, including 46 real-time data streams as of August 2014. The LGDC implemented a suite of technologies for post-processing, modeling, analysis, and dissemination of the acquired and derived data products, including: (1) IRI-based Real-time Assimilative Model, "IRTAM", that builds and publishes every 15-minutes an updated "global weather" map of the peak density and height in the ionosphere, as well as a map of deviations from the classic IRI climate; (2) Global Assimilative Model of Bottomside Ionosphere Timelines (GAMBIT) Database and Explorer holding 15 years worth of IRTAM computed maps at 15 minute cadence;. (3) 17+ million ionograms and matching ionogram-derived records of URSI-standard ionospheric characteristics and vertical profiles of electron density; (4) 10+ million records of the Doppler Skymaps showing spatial distributions over the GIRO locations and plasma drifts; (5) Data and software for Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance (TID) diagnostics; and (6) HR2006 ray tracing software mated to the "realistic" IRTAM ionosphere. In cooperation with the URSI Ionosonde Network Advisory Group (INAG), the LGDC promotes cooperative agreements with the ionosonde observatories of the world to accept and process real-time data of HF radio monitoring of the ionosphere, and to promote a variety of investigations that benefit from the global-scale, prompt, detailed, and accurate descriptions of the ionospheric variability.

  5. Space Research in Baldone Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglitis, I.


    Full Text Available The Baldone observatory deals with the U-, B-, V-, R-, I-photometry and low resolution spectroscopy of carbon stars, the monitoring of small bodies of Solar system, and with the digitizing and processing of 24 300 plates from the Schmidt wide field telescope archive. The astronomers from the observatory are working to popularize astronomy.

  6. Rolloff Roof Observatory Construction (Abstract) (United States)

    Ulowetz, J. H.


    (Abstract only) Lessons learned about building an observatory by someone with limited construction experience, and the advantages of having one for imaging and variable star studies. Sample results shown of composite light curves for cataclysmic variables UX UMa and V1101 Aql with data from my observatory combined with data from others around the world.

  7. Historical Examples of Lobbying: The Case of Strasbourg Astronomical Observatories (United States)

    Heck, Andre


    Several astronomical observatories have been established in Strasbourg in very differing contexts. In the late 17th century, an observing post (scientifically sterile) was put on top of a tower, the Hospital Gate, essentially for the prestige of the city and the notoriety of the university. In the 19th century, the observatory built on the Académie hosting the French university was the first attempt to set up in the city a real observatory equipped with genuine instrumentation with the purpose of carrying out serious research, but the succession of political regimes in France and the continual bidding for moving the university to other locations, together with the faltering of later scholars, torpedoed any significant scientific usage of the place. After the 1870-1871 Franco-Prussian war, the German authorities set up a prestigious university campus with a whole range of institutes together with a modern observatory consisting of several buildings and hosting a flotilla of excellent instruments, including the then largest refractor of the country. This paper illustrates various types of lobbying used in the steps above while detailing, from archive documents largely unexploited so far, original research on the two first observatories.

  8. Viktor Lowenfeld: Portrait of a Young Art Teacher in Vienna in the 1930s (United States)

    Leshnoff, Susan K.


    Viktor Lowenfeld (1903-1960), one of the most influential art educators of the 20th century and author of "Creative and Mental Growth" (1947, 1952, 1957), barely talked or wrote about his early teaching experiences at the Chajes Realgymnasium, a secondary school for Jewish youth in Vienna, where he taught art and math for 14 years before…

  9. The Vienna Frailty Questionnaire for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities--Revised (United States)

    Brehmer-Rinderer, Barbara; Zeilinger, Elisabeth Lucia; Radaljevic, Ana; Weber, Germain


    Frailty is a theoretical concept used to track individual age-related declines. Persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) often present with pre-existing deficits that would be considered frailty markers in the general population. The previously developed Vienna Frailty Questionnaire for Persons with ID (VFQ-ID) was aimed at assessing frailty in…

  10. Vienna-Chicago: the cultural transformation of the model system of the un-opposed molar. (United States)

    Luan, Xianghong; Diekwisch, Thomas G H


    The discussion over the roles of genes and environment on the phenotypical specification of organisms has held a central role in science philosophy since the late 19(th) century and has re-emerged in today's debate over genetic determinism and developmental plasticity. In fin-de-siecle Vienna, this debate coincided with a philosophical debate over empiricism/materialism versus idealism/vitalism. Turn-of-the-century Vienna's highly interdisciplinary environment was also the birthplace for the model system of the un-opposed molar. The un-opposed molar system features new tissue formation at the roots of teeth and tooth drift once opposing teeth are lost. The un-opposed molar model system was revived by a group of Viennese scientists who left Vienna during the Nazi period to address Vienna's questions about evolution and heredity and about genes and environment in Chicago's post-WWII scientific exile community. Here we are using the colorful history of the un-opposed molar to investigate the role of culture and method in the scientific evolution of a model system. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Education, Enlightenment and Positivism: The Vienna Circle's Scientific World-Conception Revisited (United States)

    Uebel, Thomas E.


    The scientific world-conception is properly understood as an enlightenment philosophy only if the current reassessment of the historical Vienna Circle(as opposed to the caricature still prevalent in the popular philosophical imagination) is once more extended to comprehend not only its thorough-going epistemological anti-foundationalism, but also…

  12. Surveying the Vienna Meridian from Brno to Varaždin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Solarić


    Full Text Available The introduction provides a brief overview of using trigonometric chains for determining meridian arc lengths in Europe, as well as their extension to trigonometric networks in order to produce contemporary accurate maps in France. After Ruđer Bošković had visited Croatian-Hungarian Queen and Roman-German Empress Maria Theresa, she ordered Jesuit Joseph Liesganig to survey the meridian from Brno (Soběšice, over Vienna and Graz to Varaždin by establishing and surveying a trigonometric chain. That distance amounts to 320 km, i.e. the difference between latitude of the starting and finishing points of the chain equaled 2° 56' 45.85''. Two baselines were measured directly between Wiener Neustadt and Neunkirchen of 6410.903 Vienna fathom (12 158.175 m and between Seyring and Glizendorf in the Moravian field (Moravské pole, Marchfeld of 6387.862 Vienna fathom (12 114.478 m. Liesganig published previous Vienna Meridian survey results in Philosophical Transactions in London in 1768 and the final results in Latin in Dimensio Graduum Meridiani Viennensis et Hungarici in 1770. His results were quickly criticized and subsequently subjected to validation. Trigonometric point Varaždin is the first and oldest trigonometric point in Croatia.

  13. Mineral Resources in Mobile Phones: A Case Study of Boston and Vienna Teachers and Students (United States)

    Bookhagen, Britta; Koeberl, Christian; Juang, Linda; DeRosa, Donald A.


    As part of an outreach initiative by the Natural History Museum in Vienna, Austria, an interdisciplinary educational module was developed to teach students about sustainability through the lens of mineral resources used to produce mobile phones. The overall goal of the module is to provide teachers of different subjects with a multifaceted tool to…

  14. The Relationships between Paranormal Belief, Creationism, Intelligent Design and Evolution at Secondary Schools in Vienna (Austria) (United States)

    Eder, Erich; Turic, Katharina; Milasowszky, Norbert; Van Adzin, Katherine; Hergovich, Andreas


    The present study is the first to investigate the relationships between a multiple set of paranormal beliefs and the acceptance of evolution, creationism, and intelligent design, respectively, in Europe. Using a questionnaire, 2,129 students at secondary schools in Vienna (Austria) answered the 26 statements of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale…

  15. Father Secchi and the first Italian magnetic observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ptitsyna


    Full Text Available The first permanent magnetic observatory in Italy was built in 1858 by Pietro Angelo Secchi, a Jesuit priest who made significant contributions in a wide variety of scientific fields, ranging from astronomy to astrophysics and meteorology. In this paper we consider his studies in geomagnetism, which have never been adequately addressed in the literature. We mainly focus on the creation of the magnetic observatory on the roof of the church of Sant'Ignazio, adjacent to the pontifical university, known as the Collegio Romano. From 1859 onwards, systematic monitoring of the geomagnetic field was conducted in the Collegio Romano Observatory, for long the only one of its kind in Italy. We also look at the magnetic instruments installed in the observatory, which were the most advanced for the time, as well as scientific studies conducted there in its early years.

  16. A robotic observatory in the city (United States)

    Ruch, Gerald T.; Johnston, Martin E.


    The University of St. Thomas (UST) Observatory is an educational facility integrated into UST's undergraduate curriculum as well as the curriculum of several local schools. Three characteristics combine to make the observatory unique. First, the telescope is tied directly to the support structure of a four-story parking ramp instead of an isolated pier. Second, the facility can be operated remotely over an Internet connection and is capable of performing observations without a human operator. Third, the facility is located on campus in the heart of a metropolitan area where light pollution is severe. Our tests indicate that, despite the lack of an isolated pier, vibrations from the ramp do not degrade the image quality at the telescope. The remote capability facilitates long and frequent observing sessions and allows others to use the facility without traveling to UST. Even with the high background due to city lights, the sensitivity and photometric accuracy of the system are sufficient to fulfill our pedagogical goals and to perform a variety of scientific investigations. In this paper, we outline our educational mission, provide a detailed description of the observatory, and discuss its performance characteristics.

  17. Snowstorm at the geomagnetic observatory (United States)

    Čop, R.


    The Sinji Vrh Geomagnetic Observatory (hereinafter the Observatory) is situated on Gora above Ajdovščina, a highland karst plateau, in the southwestern part of Slovenia. The Observatory operates in exceptional geological and meteorological conditions due to its location. The very first measurements at the time of initial tests showed that weather fronts induce changes in the local magnetic field. The first measurements intended to determine the value of this influence were carried out at the end of summer 2011. In 2013 the first such measurements were carried out in January. This article presents the results of these measurements, showing how the snowstorm induced changes in Earth's magnetic field.

  18. Conceiving and Marketing NASA's Great Observatories (United States)

    Harwit, Martin


    In late 1984, Dr. Charles P. (Charlie) Pellerin Jr., director of the Astrophysics Division of NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) faced a dilemma. Congress and the White House had given approval to work that would lead to the launch of the Gamma Ray Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope, but competing segments of the astronomical community were clamoring for two additional missions, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) and the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). Pellerin knew that Congress would not countenance a request for another costly astronomical space observatory so soon after approving GRO and HST. He also foresaw that if he arbitrarily assigned priority to either AXAF or SIRTF he would split the astronomical community. The losing faction would be up on Capitol Hill, lobbying Congress to reverse the decision; and Congress would do what it always does with split communities --- nothing. Pellerin called a meeting of leading astrophysicists to see how a persuasive argument could be made for both these new observatories and to market them as vital to a first comprehensive inventory of the universe conducted across all wavelength ranges. The group provided Pellerin a rotating membership of astrophysicists, who could debate and resolve issues so that decisions he reached would have solid community support. It also helped him to market his ideas in Congress. Ultimately, the concept of the Great Observatories came to be accepted; but its implementation faced myriad difficulties. False starts, political alliances that never worked out, and dramatic changes of direction necessitated by the Challenger disaster of early 1986 continually kept progress off balance. My paper follows these twists and turns from late 1984 to the announcement, on February 1, 1988, that President Reagan's FY89 budget proposal to Congress had designated AXAF for a new start.

  19. ESO's First Observatory Celebrates 40th Anniversary (United States)


    ESO's La Silla Observatory, which is celebrating its 40th anniversary, became the largest astronomical observatory of its time. It led Europe to the frontline of astronomical research, and is still one of the most scientifically productive in ground-based astronomy. ESO PR Photo 12a/09 La Silla Aerial View ESO PR Photo 12b/09 The ESO New Technology Telescope ESO PR Photo 12c/09 SEST on La Silla ESO PR Photo 12d/09 Looking for the best site ESO PR Video 12a/09 ESOcast 5 With about 300 refereed publications attributable to the work of the observatory per year, La Silla remains at the forefront of astronomy. It has led to an enormous number of scientific discoveries, including several "firsts". The HARPS spectrograph is the world's foremost exoplanet hunter. It detected the system around Gliese 581, which contains what may be the first known rocky planet in a habitable zone, outside the Solar System (ESO 22/07). Several telescopes at La Silla played a crucial role in discovering that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating (ESO 21/98) and in linking gamma-ray bursts -- the most energetic explosions in the Universe since the Big Bang - with the explosions of massive stars (ESO 15/98). Since 1987, the ESO La Silla Observatory has also played an important role in the study and follow-up of the nearest supernova, SN 1987A (ESO 08/07). "The La Silla Observatory continues to offer the astronomical community exceptional capabilities," says ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. "It was ESO's first presence in Chile and as such, it triggered a very long and fruitful collaboration with this country and its scientific community." The La Silla Observatory is located at the edge of the Chilean Atacama Desert, one of the driest and loneliest areas of the world. Like other observatories in this geographical area, La Silla is located far from sources of polluting light and, as the Paranal Observatory that houses the Very Large Telescope, it has one of the darkest and clearest

  20. Universe

    CERN Document Server


    The Universe, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  1. Universe

    CERN Document Server


    Updated for 2011, the Universe, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that covers today's most popular science topics, from digital TV to microchips to touchscreens and beyond. Perennial subjects in earth science, life science, and physical science are all explored in detail. Amazing graphics-more than 1,000 per title-combined with concise summaries help students understand complex subjects. Correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-9, each title also contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary.

  2. Geomagnetic Observatory Database February 2004 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (formerly National Geophysical Data Center) maintains an active database of worldwide geomagnetic observatory...

  3. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOPHIA) Mirror Coating Facility (United States)

    Austin, Ed

    The joint US and German project, Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), to develop and operate a 2.5 meter infrared airborne telescope in a Boeing 747-SP began late last year. Universities Space Research Association (USRA), teamed with Raytheon E-Systems and United Airlines, was selected by NASA to develop and operate SOPHIA. The 2.5 meter telescope will be designed and built by a consortium of German companies. The observatory is expected to operate for over 29 years with the first science flights beginning in 2001. The SOPHIA Observatory will fly at and above 12.5 km, where the telescope will collect radiation in the wavelength range from 0.3 micrometers to a 1.6 millimeters. Universities Space Research Association (USRA) with support from NASA is currently evaluating methods of recoating the primary mirror in preparation for procurement of mirror coating equipment. The decision analysis technique, decision criteria and telescope specifications will be discussed.

  4. Controllo remoto del Dho's Observatory (United States)

    Dho, Mario


    In this last part of the series dedicated to the remote controlled Dho's Observatory of Chiusa di Pesio the author recall some issues, such as control software and explain some features of the software RICERCA. Afterwards, other programs are analysed that are necessary to the interaction through Internet, between the observatory PC and the remote PC. Finally, a series of essential conclusions are drawn from the issue "remote control".

  5. SOFIA observatory performance and characterization (United States)

    Temi, Pasquale; Marcum, Pamela M.; Miller, Walter E.; Dunham, Edward W.; McLean, Ian S.; Wolf, Jurgen; Becklin, Eric E.; Bida, Thomas A.; Brewster, Rick; Casey, Sean C.; Collins, Peter L.; Horner, Scott D.; Jakob, Holger; Jensen, Stephen C.; Killebrew, Jana L.; Lampater, Ulrich; Mandushev, Georgi I.; Meyer, Allen W.; Pfueller, Enrico; Reinacher, Andreas; Rho, Jeonghee; Roellig, Thomas L.; Savage, Maureen L.; Smith, Erin C.; Teufel, Stefan; Wiedemann, Manuel


    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) has recently concluded a set of engineering flights for Observatory performance evaluation. These in-flight opportunities have been viewed as a first comprehensive assessment of the Observatory's performance and will be used to address the development activity that is planned for 2012, as well as to identify additional Observatory upgrades. A series of 8 SOFIA Characterization And Integration flights have been conducted from June to December 2011. The HIPO science instrument in conjunction with the DSI Super Fast Diagnostic Camera (SFDC) have been used to evaluate pointing stability, including the image motion due to rigid-body and flexible-body telescope modes as well as possible aero-optical image motion. We report on recent improvements in pointing stability by using an Active Mass Damper system installed on Telescope Assembly. Measurements and characterization of the shear layer and cavity seeing, as well as image quality evaluation as a function of wavelength have been performed using the HIPO+FLITECAM Science Instrument conguration (FLIPO). A number of additional tests and measurements have targeted basic Observatory capabilities and requirements including, but not limited to, pointing accuracy, chopper evaluation and imager sensitivity. This paper reports on the data collected during these flights and presents current SOFIA Observatory performance and characterization.

  6. Exploring the possible relationship between ambient heat and sudden infant death with data from Vienna, Austria. (United States)

    Waldhoer, Thomas; Heinzl, Harald


    A non-linear relationship between maximum ambient temperature and number of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cases had been reported for Montreal, Canada, for the warm season. In particular, high maximum ambient temperatures were found to be extra-hazardous for infants. The study was replicated with data from Vienna, Austria, applying the same statistical approach. Vienna is roughly comparable to Montreal with regard to temperatures in the warm season, size of population, and number of SIDS cases. Although the Viennese study was powerful enough to detect even smaller effects, the Montrealean results could not be confirmed. The Viennese results do not support the hypothesis of a strong effect of maximum ambient temperature on the risk of SIDS during the warm season.

  7. Exploring the possible relationship between ambient heat and sudden infant death with data from Vienna, Austria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Waldhoer

    Full Text Available A non-linear relationship between maximum ambient temperature and number of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS cases had been reported for Montreal, Canada, for the warm season. In particular, high maximum ambient temperatures were found to be extra-hazardous for infants. The study was replicated with data from Vienna, Austria, applying the same statistical approach. Vienna is roughly comparable to Montreal with regard to temperatures in the warm season, size of population, and number of SIDS cases. Although the Viennese study was powerful enough to detect even smaller effects, the Montrealean results could not be confirmed. The Viennese results do not support the hypothesis of a strong effect of maximum ambient temperature on the risk of SIDS during the warm season.

  8. Florentine anatomical models and the challenge of medical authority in late-eighteenth-century Vienna. (United States)

    Maerker, Anna


    This paper investigates the reception of a set of Florentine anatomical wax models on display at the medico-surgical academy Josephinum in late-eighteenth-century Vienna. Celebrated in Florence as tools of public enlightenment, in the Habsburg capital the models were criticised by physicians, who regarded the Josephinum and its surgeons as a threat to their medical authority. The controversy surrounding these models from the empire's periphery temporarily destabilised the relationship between surgeons and physicians in the Austrian capital. The debate on the utility of the Tuscan anatomical models in Vienna highlights the fact that the centre of the Habsburg empire was by no means medically homogeneous, and that the implementation of reforms could be as difficult to achieve in the capital as in the provinces. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. ViennaNGS: A toolbox for building efficient next- generation sequencing analysis pipelines. (United States)

    Wolfinger, Michael T; Fallmann, Jörg; Eggenhofer, Florian; Amman, Fabian


    Recent achievements in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies lead to a high demand for reuseable software components to easily compile customized analysis workflows for big genomics data. We present ViennaNGS, an integrated collection of Perl modules focused on building efficient pipelines for NGS data processing. It comes with functionality for extracting and converting features from common NGS file formats, computation and evaluation of read mapping statistics, as well as normalization of RNA abundance. Moreover, ViennaNGS provides software components for identification and characterization of splice junctions from RNA-seq data, parsing and condensing sequence motif data, automated construction of Assembly and Track Hubs for the UCSC genome browser, as well as wrapper routines for a set of commonly used NGS command line tools.

  10. Search for ultrarelativistic magnetic monopoles with the Pierre Auger observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrada, B.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balaceanu, A.; Barreira Luz, R. J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Biteau, J.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Botti, A. M.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Briechle, F. L.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, L.; Cancio, A.; Canfora, F.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; D'Amico, S.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Jong, S. J.; De Mauro, G.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; De Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; Debatin, J.; Deligny, O.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, R. C.; Dova, M. T.; Dundovic, A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filipcic, A.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; Fuster, A.; Gaior, R.; Garcia, B.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glas, D.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Gonzalez, N.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Qader; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hulsman, J.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kaeaepae, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kemp, J.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Mezek, G. Kukec; Kunka, N.; Awad, A. Kuotb; LaHurd, D.; Lauscher, M.; Lebrun, P.; Legumina, R.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Casado, A.; Luce, Q.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Masias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Mockler, D.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafa, M.; Mueller, G.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, S.; Naranjo, I.; Nellen, L.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nozka, H.; Nunez, L. A.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pedreira, F.; Kala, J. Pe; Pelayo, R.; Pena-Rodriguez, J.; Pereira, L. A. S.; Perrone, L.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Ramos-Pollan, R.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravignani, D.; Reinert, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Fernandez, G. Rodriguez; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rogozin, D.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Greus, F. Salesa; Salina, G.; Sanabria Gomez, J. D.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E. M.; Santos, E.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento, C. A.; Sato, R.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schovanek, P.; Schroder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Silli, G.; Sima, O.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Stanca, D.; Stanic, S.; Stasielak, J.; Stassi, P.; Strafella, F.; Suarez, F.; Suarez Duran, M.; Sudholz, T.; Suomijarvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taboada, A.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Torri, M.; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Vergara Quispe, I. D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Villasenor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weindl, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynski, H.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yang, L.; Yelos, D.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zong, Z.; Zuccarello, F.


    We present a search for ultrarelativistic magnetic monopoles with the Pierre Auger observatory. Such particles, possibly a relic of phase transitions in the early Universe, would deposit a large amount of energy along their path through the atmosphere, comparable to that of ultrahigh-energy cosmic

  11. Isochron burial dating of the Haslau terrace of the Danube (Vienna Basin) and interlaboratory comparison of sample preparation in Vienna and Budapest (United States)

    Ruszkiczay-Rüdiger, Zsófia; Neuhuber, Stephanie; Decker, Kurt; Braucher, Régis; Fiebig, Marcus; Braun, Mihály; Lachner, Johannes; Aster Team


    In the Vienna Basin, terraces to the South of the Danube form a staircase with altitudes ranging between 25 and 130 m above current water level. The terrace system has been strongly dissected by faults related to the sinistral movement of the Vienna Basin Transform Fault System [1, 2]. Although each fault block displays a slightly different succession of terraces, fault-related vertical displacements south of the Danube have not yet been quantified. To better understand the Quaternary terrace sequence and its displacement along a fault segment south of the Danube, the isochron burial dating method [3] based on the 26Al and 10Be cosmogenic nuclide pair has been used on a terrace at Haslau an der Donau (˜40 m above river level). This terrace is locally the lowest of a staircase of a total of 6 different levels. Based on geomorphological mapping, its age was considered to be Middle Pleistocene [4]. The sample set consisted of several quartzite cobbles taken from two sedimentary units (5.5 m and 11.8 m depth) separated by an erosional hiatus of unknown duration. Six cobbles were selected for inter-laboratory comparison and processed at both the Cosmogenic Nuclide Sample Preparation Laboratory at Vienna and at Budapest [5]. AMS measurements were performed at the French national facility ASTER (CEREGE, Aix-en-Provence) and at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA). Initially, the obtained results show that the 10Be and 26Al concentrations calculated from the subsamples processed independently using different extraction schemes at both laboratories overlap within error for all subsamples but one, whose 26Al concentrations were significantly different. The low 26Al concentration measured in one Budapest sample probably resulted from Al having been trapped within the insoluble residues observed after evaporation to dryness. A modification of the sample processing allows overcoming this difficulty while treating for the following sample set. The results

  12. Parascolymia (Scleractinia: Lobophylliidae) in the Central Paratethys Sea (Vienna Basin, Austria) and its possible biogeographic implications


    Markus Reuter; Thomas Wiedl; Piller, Werner E.


    Palaeobiogeographical and palaeodiversity patterns of scleractinian reef corals are generally biased due to uncertain taxonomy and a loss of taxonomic characters through dissolution and recrystallization of the skeletal aragonite in shallow marine limestones. Herein, we describe a fossil lobophylliid coral in mouldic preservation from the early middle Miocene Leitha Limestone of the Central Paratethys Sea (Vienna Basin, Austria). By using grey-scale image inversion and silicone rubber casts f...

  13. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and their relevance as disease vectors in the city of Vienna, Austria. (United States)

    Lebl, Karin; Zittra, Carina; Silbermayr, Katja; Obwaller, Adelheid; Berer, Dominik; Brugger, Katharina; Walter, Melanie; Pinior, Beate; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Rubel, Franz


    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are important vectors for a wide range of pathogenic organisms. As large parts of the human population in developed countries live in cities, the occurrence of vector-borne diseases in urban areas is of particular interest for epidemiologists and public health authorities. In this study, we investigated the mosquito occurrence in the city of Vienna, Austria, in order to estimate the risk of transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquitoes were captured using different sampling techniques at 17 sites in the city of Vienna. Species belonging to the Culex pipiens complex (78.8 %) were most abundant, followed by Coquillettidia richiardii (10.2 %), Anopheles plumbeus (5.4 %), Aedes vexans (3.8 %), and Ochlerotatus sticticus (0.7 %). Individuals of the Cx. pipiens complex were found at 80.2 % of the trap sites, while 58.8 % of the trap sites were positive for Cq. richiardii and Ae. vexans. Oc. sticticus was captured at 35.3 % of the sites, and An. plumbeus only at 23.5 % of the trap sites. Cx. pipiens complex is known to be a potent vector and pathogens like West Nile virus (WNV), Usutu virus (USUV), Tahyna virus (TAHV), Sindbis virus (SINV), Plasmodium sp., and Dirofilaria repens can be transmitted by this species. Cq. richiardii is a known vector species for Batai virus (BATV), SINV, TAHV, and WNV, while Ae. vexans can transmit TAHV, USUV, WNV, and Dirofilaria repens. An. plumbeus and Oc. sticticus seem to play only a minor role in the transmission of vector-borne diseases in Vienna. WNV, which is already wide-spread in Europe, is likely to be the highest threat in Vienna as it can be transmitted by several of the most common species, has already been shown to pose a higher risk in cities, and has the possibility to cause severe illness.

  14. Jesuit Geophysical Observatories (United States)

    Udias, Agustin; Stauder, William

    Jesuits have had ah interest in observing and explaining geophysical phenomena since this religious order, the Society of Jesus, was founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1540. Three principal factors contributed to this interest: their educational work in colleges and universities, their missionary endeavors to remote lands where they observed interesting and often as yet undocumented natural phenomena, and a network of communication that brought research of other Jesuits readily to their awareness.One of the first and most important Jesuit colleges was the Roman College (today the Gregorian University) founded in 1551 in Rome, which served as a model for many other universities throughout the world. By 1572, Christopher Clavius (1537-1612), professor of mathematics at the Roman College, had already initiated an important tradition of Jesuit research by emphasizing applied mathematics and insisting on the need of serious study of mathematics in the program of studies in the humanities. In 1547 he directed a publication of Euclid's work with commentaries, and published several treatises on mathematics, including Arithmetica Practica [1585], Gnomonicae [1581], and Geometrica Practica [1606]. Clavius was also a Copernican and supported his friend Galileo when he announced the discovery of the satellites of Jupiter.

  15. The Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum and Related Measurements with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.


    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum above 10{sup 18} eV with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) The cosmic ray flux observed at zenith angles larger than 60 degrees with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (3) Energy calibration of data recorded with the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (4) Exposure of the Hybrid Detector of The Pierre Auger Observatory; and (5) Energy scale derived from Fluorescence Telescopes using Cherenkov Light and Shower Universality.

  16. [Autopsy records in Vienna since Lorenz Biermayer--a complete documentation of 195 years]. (United States)

    Winter, Eduard; Höflmayer, Doris; Patzak, Beatrix; Feigl, Walter


    Vienna has a long tradition of clinical autopsies. In the period from 1817 to 2012 there are over 300,000 autopsies documented in the Vienna General Hospital. From five other community hospitals with departments for pathology and some closed hospitals, autopsy reports exist since 1865. Until the nineteenth century the reports are written in Kurrent, then Latin script and since the 1920s they are stored as machine written copies. This incredible high number of preserved reports was only possible because of the tradition started by Rokitansky and the possibility of storing this large amount of records in the Pathologic anatomical collection in the Narrenturm, the Vienna Municipal Archives and various hospitals. The aim of this study was to create a documentary of the repositories of the autopsy records, to make the records available and easier accessible for different kinds of research. The autopsy records should be easier to find and access, be it for the use in statistics or other scientific projects.

  17. Modelling reduction of urban heat load in Vienna by modifying surface properties of roofs (United States)

    Žuvela-Aloise, Maja; Andre, Konrad; Schwaiger, Hannes; Bird, David Neil; Gallaun, Heinz


    The study examines the potential of urban roofs to reduce the urban heat island (UHI) effect by changing their reflectivity and implementing vegetation (green roofs) using the example of the City of Vienna. The urban modelling simulations are performed based on high-resolution orography and land use data, climatological observations, surface albedo values from satellite imagery and registry of the green roof potential in Vienna. The modelling results show that a moderate increase in reflectivity of roofs (up to 0.45) reduces the mean summer temperatures in the densely built-up environment by approximately 0.25 °C. Applying high reflectivity materials (roof albedo up to 0.7) leads to average cooling in densely built-up area of approximately 0.5 °C. The green roofs yield a heat load reduction in similar order of magnitude as the high reflectivity materials. However, only 45 % of roof area in Vienna is suitable for greening and the green roof potential mostly applies to industrial areas in city outskirts and is therefore not sufficient for substantial reduction of the UHI effect, particularly in the city centre which has the highest heat load. The strongest cooling effect can be achieved by combining the green roofs with high reflectivity materials. In this case, using 50 or 100 % of the green roof potential and applying high reflectivity materials on the remaining surfaces have a similar cooling effect.

  18. Segway® related injuries in Vienna: report from the Lorenz Böhler Trauma Centre. (United States)

    Roider, D; Busch, C; Spitaler, R; Hertz, H


    The Segway® vehicle facilitates a new way of eco-friendly mobility and is currently used all over the world. In the last years, the use of the Segway® transporters for sightseeing tours in Vienna has increased distinctly, resulting in a growing number of Segway® related injuries and subsequent admissions of these patients to the Lorenz Böhler Trauma Centre in Vienna, Austria. A retrospective analysis of clinical records in the electronic data system of the LBTC in Vienna, Austria, was performed to identify Segway® transporter related injuries between January 2010 and December 2012. Eighty-six patients represented the study cohort. The median age was 38 years (range 14-80 years) with a majority of male patients. Most common injuries were contusions (24, 6 %, n = 44) and fractures (23, 5 %, n = 42). The most frequent injury was a fracture of the radial head in 15, 1 % of all patients. 13 (15, 1 %) of 86 patients required admission and seven (8, 1 %) of these 13 patients had surgical treatment. This case series presents severe injuries related to the use of a Segway® transporter. As a consequence, it has to be ensured that public tour operators need to provide sufficient safety instructions and equipment for people who are unfamiliar with riding a Segway® .

  19. GEOSCOPE Observatory Recent Developments (United States)

    Leroy, N.; Pardo, C.; Bonaime, S.; Stutzmann, E.; Maggi, A.


    The GEOSCOPE observatory consists of a global seismic network and a data center. The 31 GEOSCOPE stations are installed in 19 countries, across all continents and on islands throughout the oceans. They are equipped with three component very broadband seismometers (STS1 or STS2) and 24 or 26 bit digitizers, as required by the Federation of Seismic Digital Network (FDSN). In most stations, a pressure gauge and a thermometer are also installed. Currently, 23 stations send data in real or near real time to GEOSCOPE Data Center and tsunami warning centers. In 2009, two stations (SSB and PPTF) have been equipped with warpless base plates. Analysis of one year of data shows that the new installation decreases long period noise (20s to 1000s) by 10 db on horizontal components. SSB is now rated in the top ten long period stations for horizontal components according to the LDEO criteria. In 2010, Stations COYC, PEL and RER have been upgraded with Q330HR, Metrozet electronics and warpless base plates. They have been calibrated with the calibration table CT-EW1 and the software jSeisCal and Calex-EW. Aluminum jars are now installed instead of glass bells. A vacuum of 100 mbars is applied in the jars which improves thermal insulation of the seismometers and reduces moisture and long-term corrosion in the sensor. A new station RODM has just been installed in Rodrigues Island in Mauritius with standard Geoscope STS2 setup: STS2 seismometer on a granite base plate and covered by cooking pot and thermal insulation, it is connected to Q330HR digitizer, active lightning protection, Seiscomp PC and real-time internet connection. Continuous data of all stations are collected in real time or with a delay by the GEOSCOPE Data Center in Paris where they are validated, archived and made available to the international scientific community. Data are freely available to users by different interfaces according data types (see : - Continuous data in real time coming

  20. Griffith Observatory: Hollywood's Celestial Theater (United States)

    Margolis, Emily A.; Dr. Stuart W. Leslie


    The Griffith Observatory, perched atop the Hollywood Hills, is perhaps the most recognizable observatory in the world. Since opening in 1935, this Los Angeles icon has brought millions of visitors closer to the heavens. Through an analysis of planning documentation, internal newsletters, media coverage, programming and exhibition design, I demonstrate how the Observatory’s Southern California location shaped its form and function. The astronomical community at nearby Mt. Wilson Observatory and Caltech informed the selection of instrumentation and programming, especially for presentations with the Observatory’s Zeiss Planetarium, the second installed in the United States. Meanwhile the Observatory staff called upon some of Hollywood’s best artists, model makers, and scriptwriters to translate the latest astronomical discoveries into spectacular audiovisual experiences, which were enhanced with Space Age technological displays on loan from Southern California’s aerospace companies. The influences of these three communities- professional astronomy, entertainment, and aerospace- persist today and continue to make Griffith Observatory one of the premiere sites of public astronomy in the country.

  1. Astronomical Research Using Virtual Observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tanaka


    Full Text Available The Virtual Observatory (VO for Astronomy is a framework that empowers astronomical research by providing standard methods to find, access, and utilize astronomical data archives distributed around the world. VO projects in the world have been strenuously developing VO software tools and/or portal systems. Interoperability among VO projects has been achieved with the VO standard protocols defined by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA. As a result, VO technologies are now used in obtaining astronomical research results from a huge amount of data. We describe typical examples of astronomical research enabled by the astronomical VO, and describe how the VO technologies are used in the research.

  2. GAIA virtual observatory - development and practices (United States)

    Syrjäsuo, Mikko; Marple, Steve


    The Global Auroral Imaging Access, or GAIA, is a virtual observatory providing quick access to summary data from satellite and ground-based instruments that remote sense auroral precipitation ( This web-based service facilitates locating data relevant to particular events by simultaneously displaying summary images from various data sets around the world. At the moment, there are GAIA server nodes in Canada, Finland, Norway and the UK. The development is an international effort and the software and metadata are freely available. The GAIA system is based on a relational database which is queried by a dedicated software suite that also creates the graphical end-user interface if such is needed. Most commonly, the virtual observatory is used interactively by using a web browser: the user provides the date and the type of data of interest. As the summary data from multiple instruments are displayed simultaneously, the user can conveniently explore the recorded data. The virtual observatory provides essentially instant access to the images originating from all major auroral instrument networks including THEMIS, NORSTAR, GLORIA and MIRACLE. The scientific, educational and outreach use is limited by creativity rather than access. The first version of the GAIA was developed at the University of Calgary (Alberta, Canada) in 2004-2005. This proof-of-concept included mainly THEMIS and MIRACLE data, which comprised of millions of summary plots and thumbnail images. However, it was soon realised that a complete re-design was necessary to increase flexibility. In the presentation, we will discuss the early history and motivation of GAIA as well as how the development continued towards the current version. The emphasis will be on practical problems and their solutions. Relevant design choices will also be highlighted.

  3. Remote observing with the Nickel Telescope at Lick Observatory (United States)

    Grigsby, Bryant; Chloros, Konstantinos; Gates, John; Deich, William T. S.; Gates, Elinor; Kibrick, Robert


    We describe a project to enable remote observing on the Nickel 1-meter Telescope at Lick Observatory. The purpose was to increase the subscription rate and create more economical means for graduate- and undergraduate students to observe with this telescope. The Nickel Telescope resides in a 125 year old dome on Mount Hamilton. Remote observers may work from any of the University of California (UC) remote observing facilities that have been created to support remote work at both Keck Observatory and Lick Observatory. The project included hardware and software upgrades to enable computer control of all equipment that must be operated by the astronomer; a remote observing architecture that is closely modeled on UCO/Lick's work to implement remote observing between UC campuses and Keck Observatory; new policies to ensure safety of Observatory staff and equipment, while ensuring that the telescope subsystems would be suitably configured for remote use; and new software to enforce the safety-related policies. The results increased the subscription rate from a few nights per month to nearly full subscription, and has spurred the installation of remote observing sites at more UC campuses. Thanks to the increased automation and computer control, local observing has also benefitted and is more efficient. Remote observing is now being implemented for the Shane 3- meter telescope.

  4. Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Deep Space Climate ObserVatoRy (DSCOVR) satellite is a NOAA operated asset at the first Lagrange (L1) point. The primary space weather instrument is the PlasMag...

  5. The National Ecological Observatory Network (United States)

    Michener, W. K.


    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a research platform designed to advance understanding of how ecosystems and organisms respond to variations in climate and changes in land use. NEON is the first long-term ecological observatory conceived as a continental-scale network; equipped with standardized sensors, cyberinfrastructure, and data-collection protocols across the network; and designed to simultaneously address a common set of research questions and support investigator-driven ecological research in all regions of the United States. The Observatory focuses on variations in climate and land use because they are primary drivers of the Nation's environmental challenges, as identified by the National Research Council--i.e., biodiversity, biogeochemical cycles, climate change, hydroecology, infectious disease, invasive species, and land use. At the broadest scale, NEON links the complexity of climate variation to the behavior of ecological systems, a core aspect of ecological complexity. At the same time, because of the complexity of the interactions among humans and ecosystems, the network design includes NEON sites in wild, managed and urban systems within climate domains. Observatory data will also be part of a national education program designed to advance ecological science literacy through new programs and activities that develop and promote scientific ways of thinking.

  6. India-based Neutrino Observatory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 17, 2012 ... Abstract. The current status of the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) is summarized. The main physics goals are described followed by the motivation for building a magnetized iron calori- metric (ICAL) detector. The charge identification capability of ICAL would make it complementary to large water ...

  7. The Cape Town Carbon Observatory

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nickless, A


    Full Text Available at the scale of the whole planet, but this does not give any national or local detail – the scales at which greenhouse gas management occurs. The Carbon Observatory project is testing whether the inverse modelling method can be applied at the scale of a large...

  8. The Lick Observatory Supernova Search


    Li, W.D.; Filippenko, A. V.; Treffers, R. R.; Friedman, A.; Halderson, E.; Johnson, R A; King, J. Y.; Modjaz, M.; Papenkova, M.; Sato, Y.; Shefler, T.


    We report here the current status of the Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS) with the Katman Automatic Imaging Telescope (KAIT). The progress on both the hardware and the software of the system is described, and we present a list of recent discoveries. LOSS is the world' most successful search engine for nearby supernovae.

  9. The PLATO Antarctic site testing observatory (United States)

    Lawrence, J. S.; Allen, G. R.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Bonner, C.; Bradley, S.; Cui, X.; Everett, J. R.; Feng, L.; Gong, X.; Hengst, S.; Hu, J.; Jiang, Z.; Kulesa, C. A.; Li, Y.; Luong-Van, D.; Moore, A. M.; Pennypacker, C.; Qin, W.; Riddle, R.; Shang, Z.; Storey, J. W. V.; Sun, B.; Suntzeff, N.; Tothill, N. F. H.; Travouillon, T.; Walker, C. K.; Wang, L.; Yan, J.; Yang, J.; Yang, H.; York, D.; Yuan, X.; Zhang, X. G.; Zhang, Z.; Zhou, X.; Zhu, Z.


    Over a decade of site testing in Antarctica has shown that both South Pole and Dome C are exceptional sites for astronomy, with certain atmospheric conditions superior to those at existing mid-latitude sites. However, the highest point on the Antarctic plateau, Dome A, is expected to experience colder atmospheric temperatures, lower wind speeds, and a turbulent boundary layer that is confined closer to the ground. The Polar Research Institute of China, who were the first to visit the Dome A site in January 2005, plan to establish a permanently manned station there within the next decade. As part of this process they conducted a second expedition to Dome A, arriving via overland traverse in January 2008. This traverse involved the delivery and installation of the PLATeau Observatory (PLATO). PLATO is an automated self-powered astrophysical site testing observatory, developed by the University of New South Wales. A number of international institutions have contributed site testing instruments measuring turbulence, optical sky background, and sub-millimetre transparency. In addition, a set of science instruments are providing wide-field high time resolution optical photometry and terahertz imaging of the Galaxy. We present here an overview of the PLATO system design and instrumentation suite.

  10. The Lowell Observatory Predoctoral Scholar Program (United States)

    Prato, Lisa; Nofi, Larissa


    Lowell Observatory is pleased to solicit applications for our Predoctoral Scholar Fellowship Program. Now beginning its tenth year, this program is designed to provide unique research opportunities to graduate students in good standing, currently enrolled at Ph.D. granting institutions. Lowell staff research spans a wide range of topics, from astronomical instrumentation, to icy bodies in our solar system, exoplanet science, stellar populations, star formation, and dwarf galaxies. Strong collaborations, the new Ph.D. program at Northern Arizona University, and cooperative links across the greater Flagstaff astronomical community create a powerful multi-institutional locus in northern Arizona. Lowell Observatory's new 4.3 meter Discovery Channel Telescope is operating at full science capacity and boasts some of the most cutting-edge and exciting capabilities available in optical/infrared astronomy. Student research is expected to lead to a thesis dissertation appropriate for graduation at the doctoral level at the student's home institution. For more information, see and links therein. Applications for Fall 2018 are due by May 1, 2018; alternate application dates will be considered on an individual basis.

  11. Seafloor Observatory Science: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Beranzoli


    Full Text Available The ocean exerts a pervasive influence on Earth’s environment. It is therefore important that we learn how this system operates (NRC, 1998b; 1999. For example, the ocean is an important regulator of climate change (e.g., IPCC, 1995. Understanding the link between natural and anthropogenic climate change and ocean circulation is essential for predicting the magnitude and impact of future changes in Earth’s climate. Understanding the ocean, and the complex physical, biological, chemical, and geological systems operating within it, should be an important goal for the opening decades of the 21st century. Another fundamental reason for increasing our understanding of ocean systems is that the global economy is highly dependent on the ocean (e.g., for tourism, fisheries, hydrocarbons, and mineral resources (Summerhayes, 1996. The establishment of a global network of seafloor observatories will help to provide the means to accomplish this goal. These observatories will have power and communication capabilities and will provide support for spatially distributed sensing systems and mobile platforms. Sensors and instruments will potentially collect data from above the air-sea interface to below the seafloor. Seafloor observatories will also be a powerful complement to satellite measurement systems by providing the ability to collect vertically distributed measurements within the water column for use with the spatial measurements acquired by satellites while also providing the capability to calibrate remotely sensed satellite measurements (NRC, 2000. Ocean observatory science has already had major successes. For example the TAO array has enabled the detection, understanding and prediction of El Niño events (e.g., Fujimoto et al., 2003. This paper is a world-wide review of the new emerging “Seafloor Observatory Science”, and describes both the scientific motivations for seafloor observatories and the technical solutions applied to their architecture. A

  12. Weather as physiologically equivalent was not associated with ischemic stroke onsets in Vienna, 2004-2010. (United States)

    Ferrari, Julia; Shiue, Ivy; Seyfang, Leonhard; Matzarakis, Andreas; Lang, Wilfried


    Stroke rates were found to have seasonal variations. However, previous studies using air temperature, humidity, or air pressure separately were not adequate, and the study catchment was not clearly drawn. Therefore, here we proposed to use a thermal index called physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) that incorporates air temperature, humidity, wind speed, cloud cover, air pressure and radiation flux from a biometeorological approach to estimate the effect of weather as physiologically equivalent on ischemic stroke onsets in an Austrian population. Eight thousand four hundred eleven stroke events in Vienna registered within the Austrian Stroke Unit Register from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2010 were included and were correlated with the weather data, obtained from the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics in the same area and study time period and calculated as PET (°C). Statistical analysis involved Poisson regression modeling. The median age was 74 years, and men made up 49 % of the entire population. Eighty percent had hypertension while 25.4 % were current smokers. Of note, 26.5 % had diabetes mellitus, 28.9 % had pre-stroke, and 11.5 % had pre-myocardial infarction. We have observed that onsets were higher on the weekdays than on the weekend. However, we did not find any significant association between PETs and ischemic stroke onsets by subtypes in Vienna. We did not observe any significant associations between PETs and ischemic stroke onsets by subtypes in Vienna. Hospital admission peaks on the weekdays might be due to hospital administration reasons.

  13. Cryopreservation of Embryos of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Vienna 8 Genetic Sexing Strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios A Augustinos

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the most serious pests of fruit crops world-wide. During the last decades, area-wide pest management (AW-IPM approaches with a sterile insect technique (SIT component have been used to control populations of this pest in an effective and environment-friendly manner. The development of genetic sexing strains (GSS, such as the Vienna 8 strain, has been played a major role in increasing the efficacy and reducing the cost of SIT programs. However, mass rearing, extensive inbreeding, possible bottleneck phenomena and hitch-hiking effects might pose major risks for deterioration and loss of important genetic characteristics of domesticated insect. In the present study, we present a modified procedure to cryopreserve the embryos of the medfly Vienna 8 GSS based on vitrification and used this strain as insect model to assess the impact of the cryopreservation process on the genetic structure of the cryopreserved insects. Forty-eight hours old embryos, incubated at 24°C, were found to be the most suitable developmental stage for cryopreservation treatment for high production of acceptable hatch rate (38%. Our data suggest the absence of any negative impact of the cryopreservation process on egg hatch rate, pupation rates, adult emergence rates and stability of the temperature sensitive lethal (tsl character on two established cryopreserved lines (flies emerged from cryopreserved embryos, named V8-118 and V8-228. Taken together, our study provides an optimized procedure to cryopreserve the medfly Vienna 8 GSS and documents the absence of any negative impact on the genetic structure and quality of the strain. Benefits and sceneries for utilization of this technology to support operational SIT projects are discussed in this paper.

  14. Medicines discarded in household garbage: analysis of a pharmaceutical waste sample in Vienna. (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Leopold, Christine; Zuidberg, Christel; Habl, Claudia


    To analyze a sample of pharmaceutical waste drawn from household garbage in Vienna, with the aim to learn whether and which medicines end up unused in normal household waste. We obtained a pharmaceutical waste sample from the Vienna Municipal Waste Department. This was drawn by their staff in a representative search in October and November 2009. We did a manual investigation of the sample which contained packs and loose blisters, excluded medical devices and traced loose blisters back to medicines packs. We reported information on the prescription status, origin, therapeutic group, dose form, contents and expiry date. We performed descriptive statistics for the total data set and for sub-groups (e.g. items still containing some of original content). In total, 152 packs were identified, of which the majority was prescription-only medicines (74%). Cardiovascular medicines accounted for the highest share (24%). 87% of the packs were in oral form. 95% of the packs had not expired. 14.5% of the total data set contained contents but the range of content left in the packs varied. Results on the packs with contents differed from the total: the shares of Over-the Counter medicines (36%), of medicines of the respiratory system (18%) and of the musculo-skeletal system (18%), for dermal use (23%) and of expired medicines (19%) were higher compared to the full data set. The study showed that some medicines end up unused or partially used in normal household garbage in Vienna. Our results did not confirm speculations about a high percentage of unused medicines improperly discarded. There is room for improved patient information and counseling to enhance medication adherence and a proper discharge of medicines.

  15. Medicines discarded in household garbage: analysis of a pharmaceutical waste sample in Vienna (United States)


    Objectives To analyze a sample of pharmaceutical waste drawn from household garbage in Vienna, with the aim to learn whether and which medicines end up unused in normal household waste. Methods We obtained a pharmaceutical waste sample from the Vienna Municipal Waste Department. This was drawn by their staff in a representative search in October and November 2009. We did a manual investigation of the sample which contained packs and loose blisters, excluded medical devices and traced loose blisters back to medicines packs. We reported information on the prescription status, origin, therapeutic group, dose form, contents and expiry date. We performed descriptive statistics for the total data set and for sub-groups (e.g. items still containing some of original content). Results In total, 152 packs were identified, of which the majority was prescription-only medicines (74%). Cardiovascular medicines accounted for the highest share (24%). 87% of the packs were in oral form. 95% of the packs had not expired. 14.5% of the total data set contained contents but the range of content left in the packs varied. Results on the packs with contents differed from the total: the shares of Over-the Counter medicines (36%), of medicines of the respiratory system (18%) and of the musculo-skeletal system (18%), for dermal use (23%) and of expired medicines (19%) were higher compared to the full data set. Conclusions The study showed that some medicines end up unused or partially used in normal household garbage in Vienna. Our results did not confirm speculations about a high percentage of unused medicines improperly discarded. There is room for improved patient information and counseling to enhance medication adherence and a proper discharge of medicines. PMID:25848546

  16. Operating observatories: the need for a new paradigm (United States)

    Payne, Ifan; Veillet, Christian


    At a time of declining funding, the managers of ground based observatories may not be in the best position to ensure adequate resources either for developing new facilities or new instruments or for upgrading existing facilities. Nor can there be dependence upon the traditional support for researchers which in turn implies that there is inadequate founding to cover the cost of operations. For historical reasons, an overwhelming number of observatories in the USA are affiliated with, or hosted by, universities yet, because of the traditional lack of entrepreneurial thinking and the complexity and the extent of administrations, a university may not be the best environment to develop new approaches to the management of observatories; nor is an academic background of necessity the best preparation for best management practices. We propose that observatories should adopt a business-like approach, to be service providers, and to use the same metrics as for a business. This approach may entail forming corporations, forming consortia, spreading the risk and to find additional sources of income from sales and spin-offs.

  17. Julius von Schlosser, 'The Vienna school of the history of art (1934'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Johns


    Full Text Available Julius v. Schlosser, The Vienna School of the History of Art - Review of a Century of Austrian Scholarship in German Including a list of members edited by Hans Hahnloser. Dedicated to the spirit of Theodor von Sickel and Franz Wickhoff on the 25th anniversary of their deaths and the occasion of the 80th anniversary of the Österreichisches Institut für Geschichtsforschung. A translation of ‘Die Wiener Schule der Kunstgeschichte‘, Mitteilungen des österreichischen Institut für Geschichtsforschung Ergänzungs-Band 13, Heft 2, Innsbruck: Wagner 1934.

  18. West Nile virus lineage 2 infection in a blood donor from Vienna, Austria, August 2014. (United States)

    Jungbauer, C; Hourfar, M K; Stiasny, K; Aberle, S W; Cadar, D; Schmidt-Chanasit, J; Mayr, W R


    Eastern Austria is neighbouring regions with ongoing West Nile virus (WNV) transmissions. Three human WNV infections had been diagnosed during the past decade in Austria. The Austrian Red Cross Blood Service (ARC-BS) started a first voluntary screening for WNV in blood donors from Eastern Austria by Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) in June 2014. This is also the most extensive WNV surveillance programme in humans in Austria so far. In August 2014, one autochthonous WNV infection was detected in a blood donor from Vienna. By now, one in 67,800 whole blood donations was found to be positive for WNV RNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [From Comte to Carnap. Marcel Boll and the introduction of the Vienna Circle in France]. (United States)

    Schöttler, Peter


    The issue of the introduction of viennese "scientific philosophy" in France appears to be resolved. However, the rediscovery of the positivist physicist Marcel Boll (1886-1971), who was the first-well before Louis Rougier-to draw the French public's attention to the works of Schlick, Frank, and Carnap, obliges us to rethink the passage from traditional positivism to neo-positivism during the 1920s and 1930s. The French reception of the Vienna circle can be dated earlier than accepted and is more profound than usualy assumed.

  20. The Magnetic Observatory Buildings at the Royal Observatory, Cape (United States)

    Glass, I. S.


    During the 1830s there arose a strong international movement, promoted by Carl Friedrich Gauss and Alexander von Humboldt, to characterise the earth's magnetic field. By 1839 the Royal Society in London, driven by Edward Sabine, had organised a "Magnetic Crusade" - the establishment of a series of magnetic and meteorological observatories around the British Empire, including New Zealand, Australia, St Helena and the Cape. This article outlines the history of the latter installation, its buildings and what became of them.

  1. Space Based Gravitational Wave Observatories (SGOs) (United States)

    Livas, Jeff


    Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatories (SGOs) will enable the systematic study of the frequency band from 0.0001 - 1 Hz of gravitational waves, where a rich array of astrophysical sources is expected. ESA has selected The Gravitational Universe as the science theme for the L3 mission opportunity with a nominal launch date in 2034. This will be at a minimum 15 years after ground-based detectors and pulsar timing arrays announce their first detections and at least 18 years after the LISA Pathfinder Mission will have demonstrated key technologies in a dedicated space mission. It is therefore important to develop mission concepts that can take advantage of the momentum in the field and the investment in both technology development and a precision measurement community on a more near-term timescale than the L3 opportunity. This talk will discuss a mission concept based on the LISA baseline that resulted from a recent mission architecture study.

  2. Observatory data and the Swarm mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macmillan, S.; Olsen, Nils


    products. We describe here the preparation of the data set of ground observatory hourly mean values, including procedures to check and select observatory data spanning the modern magnetic survey satellite era. We discuss other possible combined uses of satellite and observatory data, in particular those...

  3. The MicroObservatory Net (United States)

    Brecher, K.; Sadler, P.


    A group of scientists, engineers and educators based at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) has developed a prototype of a small, inexpensive and fully integrated automated astronomical telescope and image processing system. The project team is now building five second generation instruments. The MicroObservatory has been designed to be used for classroom instruction by teachers as well as for original scientific research projects by students. Probably in no other area of frontier science is it possible for a broad spectrum of students (not just the gifted) to have access to state-of-the-art technologies that would allow for original research. The MicroObservatory combines the imaging power of a cooled CCD, with a self contained and weatherized reflecting optical telescope and mount. A microcomputer points the telescope and processes the captured images. The MicroObservatory has also been designed to be used as a valuable new capture and display device for real time astronomical imaging in planetariums and science museums. When the new instruments are completed in the next few months, they will be tried with high school students and teachers, as well as with museum groups. We are now planning to make the MicroObservatories available to students, teachers and other individual users over the Internet. We plan to allow the telescope to be controlled in real time or in batch mode, from a Macintosh or PC compatible computer. In the real-time mode, we hope to give individual access to all of the telescope control functions without the need for an "on-site" operator. Users would sign up for a specific period of time. In the batch mode, users would submit jobs for the telescope. After the MicroObservatory completed a specific job, the images would be e-mailed back to the user. At present, we are interested in gaining answers to the following questions: (1) What are the best approaches to scheduling real-time observations? (2) What criteria should be used

  4. Cyberinfrastructure for the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative (United States)

    Orcutt, J. A.; Vernon, F. L.; Arrott, M.; Chave, A.; Schofield, O.; Peach, C.; Krueger, I.; Meisinger, M.


    The Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) is an environmental observatory covering a diversity of oceanic environments, ranging from the coastal to the deep ocean. The physical infrastructure comprises a combination of seafloor cables, buoys and autonomous vehicles. It is currently in the final design phase, with construction planned to begin in mid-2010 and deployment phased over five years. The Consortium for Ocean Leadership manages this Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction program with subcontracts to Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of Washington and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. High-level requirements for the CI include the delivery of near-real-time data with minimal latencies, open data, data analysis and data assimilation into models, and subsequent interactive modification of the network (including autonomous vehicles) by the cyberinfrastructure. Network connections include a heterogeneous combination of fiber optics, acoustic modems, and Iridium satellite telemetry. The cyberinfrastructure design loosely couples services that exist throughout the network and share common software and middleware as necessary. In this sense, the system appears to be identical at all scales, so it is self-similar or fractal by design. The system provides near-real-time access to data and developed knowledge by the OOI's Education and Public Engagement program, to the physical infrastructure by the marine operators and to the larger community including scientists, the public, schools and decision makers. Social networking is employed to facilitate the virtual organization that builds, operates and maintains the OOI as well as providing a variety of interfaces to the data and knowledge generated by the program. We are working closely with NOAA to exchange near-real-time data through interfaces to their Data Interchange Facility (DIF) program within the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS). Efficiencies have been emphasized through

  5. Tracing stable isotopes (δ2H and δ1⁸O) from meteoric water to spring-groundwater in small catchments of the Vienna Woods, Vienna, Austria (United States)

    Kralik, Martin; Wyhlidal, Stefan


    The isotopic ratios of oxygen and hydrogen in water (2H/1H and 18O/16O) are important tools to characterise waters and their cycles. To trace the recharge area of spring waters the mean annual δ 18O values in precipitation changes due temperature and fractionation factors with altitude and a representative fraction infiltrates in the ground without any changes. In this study, the characteristics of δ18O and δ2H in rain water and groundwater from two springs have been used to understand the transformation mechanism of rain water to groundwater. Two small recharge areas in the Vienna Woods (outskirts of Vienna) above Flysch sandstones and marls were studied. One spring drains a small catchment totally covered with an old beech-oak forest and the other one a catchment covered by lawns and partly by weekend cottages. The springs were sampled every month and the precipitation in monthly samples in a Palmex rain-collector close by over a period of three years (2013-2016). The altitude of the recharge areas is in the range of 310 - 464 m with a yearly precipitation sum of 593-754 mm. The mean temperature of this Pannonian climate range in this period from 2.2° C in January and 24.1° C in July. Precipitation, stream water and groundwater from each site plot approximately along the δ2H/δ18O slope (δ2H=7.9xδ18O+7.4) of local precipitation inputs. The spring water of the recharge area with mainly lawns and weekend cottages shows a clear seasonal variation between -11.84 ‰ in April and -9.99 ‰ in September. The recharge area with an old beech-oak forest shows a nearly constant δ18O-value of -11.0 ‰ in the spring water comparable to the mean of the winter half-year of the precipitation station. The isotope data and the considerable smaller discharge suggest that in the forested recharge area only precipitation water of the winter half year is added to the groundwater and rain water of the summer half-year is nearly totally transpired by the forest vegetation

  6. Differences and similarities in the regulation of medical practice between early modern Vienna and Osijek. (United States)

    Atalic, Bruno


    This paper evaluates the regulation of medical practice from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries in two Habsburg cities, Vienna and Osijek, in the light of the spread of medical knowledge and practice from the centre to the periphery of the Habsburg Monarchy. Although both cities were part of the Habsburg Monarchy for much of the early modern period, there were more differences than similarities between them. This may be explained by appealing to a variety of factors, including geographical position, population structure, religion, government type, and professional organisations, all of which contributed to making medical practice very different in the two cities. The divergence occurred in spite of a central agenda for ensuring uniformity of medical practice throughout the Habsburg Monarchy. Although the legislation governing medical practice was the same in both cities, it was more strictly implemented in Vienna than in Osijek. In consequence, Osijek was the setting for some unique patterns of medical practice not to be found in the Habsburg capital. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lower Miocene plant assemblage with coastal-marsh herbaceous monocots from the Vienna Basin (Slovakia) (United States)

    Kvaček, Zlatko; Teodoridis, Vasilis; Kováčová, Marianna; Schlögl, Ján; Sitár, Viliam


    A new plant assemblage of Cerová-Lieskové from Lower Miocene (Karpatian) deposits in the Vienna Basin (western Slovakia) is preserved in a relatively deep, upper-slope marine environment. Depositional conditions with high sedimentation rates allowed exceptional preservation of plant remains. The plant assemblage consists of (1) conifers represented by foliage of Pinus hepios and Tetraclinis salicornioides, a seed cone of Pinus cf. ornata, and by pollen of the Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, Pinus sp. and Cathaya sp., and (2) angiosperms represented by Cinnamomum polymorphum, Platanus neptuni, Potamogeton sp. and lauroid foliage, by pollen of Liquidambar sp., Engelhardia sp. and Craigia sp., and in particular by infructescences (so far interpreted as belonging to cereal ears). We validate genus and species assignments of the infructescences: they belong to Palaeotriticum Sitár, including P. mockii Sitár and P. carpaticum Sitár, and probably represent herbaceous monocots that inhabited coastal marshes, similar to the living grass Spartina. Similar infructescences occur in the Lower and Middle Miocene deposits of the Carpathian Foredeep (Slup in Moravia), Tunjice Hills (Žale in Slovenia), and probably also in the Swiss Molasse (Lausanne). This plant assemblage demonstrates that the paleovegetation was represented by evergreen woodland with pines and grasses in undergrowth, similar to vegetation inhabiting coastal brackish marshes today. It also indicates subtropical climatic conditions in the Vienna Basin (central Paratethys), similar to those implied by other coeval plant assemblages from Central Europe

  8. Lower Miocene plant assemblage with coastal-marsh herbaceous monocots from the Vienna Basin (Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvaček Zlatko


    Full Text Available A new plant assemblage of Cerová-Lieskové from Lower Miocene (Karpatian deposits in the Vienna Basin (western Slovakia is preserved in a relatively deep, upper-slope marine environment. Depositional conditions with high sedimentation rates allowed exceptional preservation of plant remains. The plant assemblage consists of (1 conifers represented by foliage of Pinus hepios and Tetraclinis salicornioides, a seed cone of Pinus cf. ornata, and by pollen of the Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, Pinus sp. and Cathaya sp., and (2 angiosperms represented by Cinnamomum polymorphum, Platanus neptuni, Potamogeton sp. and lauroid foliage, by pollen of Liquidambar sp., Engelhardia sp. and Craigia sp., and in particular by infructescences (so far interpreted as belonging to cereal ears. We validate genus and species assignments of the infructescences: they belong to Palaeotriticum Sitár, including P. mockii Sitár and P. carpaticum Sitár, and probably represent herbaceous monocots that inhabited coastal marshes, similar to the living grass Spartina. Similar infructescences occur in the Lower and Middle Miocene deposits of the Carpathian Foredeep (Slup in Moravia, Tunjice Hills (Žale in Slovenia, and probably also in the Swiss Molasse (Lausanne. This plant assemblage demonstrates that the paleovegetation was represented by evergreen woodland with pines and grasses in undergrowth, similar to vegetation inhabiting coastal brackish marshes today. It also indicates subtropical climatic conditions in the Vienna Basin (central Paratethys, similar to those implied by other coeval plant assemblages from Central Europe

  9. Enabling Energy-Awareness in the Semantic 3d City Model of Vienna (United States)

    Agugiaro, G.


    This paper presents and discusses the first results regarding selection, analysis, preparation and eventual integration of a number of energy-related datasets, chosen in order to enrich a CityGML-based semantic 3D city model of Vienna. CityGML is an international standard conceived specifically as information and data model for semantic city models at urban and territorial scale. The still-in-development Energy Application Domain Extension (ADE) is a CityGML extension conceived to specifically model, manage and store energy-related features and attributes for buildings. The work presented in this paper is embedded within the European Marie-Curie ITN project "CINERGY, Smart cities with sustainable energy systems", which aims, among the rest, at developing urban decision making and operational optimisation software tools to minimise non-renewable energy use in cities. Given the scope and scale of the project, it is therefore vital to set up a common, unique and spatio-semantically coherent urban data model to be used as information hub for all applications being developed. This paper reports about the experiences done so far, it describes the test area in Vienna, Austria, and the available data sources, it shows and exemplifies the main data integration issues, the strategies developed to solve them in order to obtain the enriched 3D city model. The first results as well as some comments about their quality and limitations are presented, together with the discussion regarding the next steps and some planned improvements.

  10. Vienna-PTM web server: a toolkit for MD simulations of protein post-translational modifications. (United States)

    Margreitter, Christian; Petrov, Drazen; Zagrovic, Bojan


    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) play a key role in numerous cellular processes by directly affecting structure, dynamics and interaction networks of target proteins. Despite their importance, our understanding of protein PTMs at the atomistic level is still largely incomplete. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, which provide high-resolution insight into biomolecular function and underlying mechanisms, are in principle ideally suited to tackle this problem. However, because of the challenges associated with the development of novel MD parameters and a general lack of suitable computational tools for incorporating PTMs in target protein structures, MD simulations of post-translationally modified proteins have historically lagged significantly behind the studies of unmodified proteins. Here, we present Vienna-PTM web server (, a platform for automated introduction of PTMs of choice to protein 3D structures (PDB files) in a user-friendly visual environment. With 256 different enzymatic and non-enzymatic PTMs available, the server performs geometrically realistic introduction of modifications at sites of interests, as well as subsequent energy minimization. Finally, the server makes available force field parameters and input files needed to run MD simulations of modified proteins within the framework of the widely used GROMOS 54A7 and 45A3 force fields and GROMACS simulation package.

  11. Quality perception of organically grown tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. in Vienna, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PK Ng’ang’a


    Full Text Available Austria is one of the major organic tomato producing countries for local and export marketing. These tomatoes are produced in parts of Austria especially around Vienna where their production system has to meet stringent organic quality standards in both local and international markets. These quality standards may put considerable strain on farmers and are normally formulated without famers’ participation so may not be wholly representative of the farmers’ quality interpretation. The aim of this paper is therefore to determine the Austrian organic tomatoes growers’ perception and practice of quality and challenges. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were carried out among 28 organic tomatoes farmers in Vienna, Austria. Findings suggest that quality of organic tomatoes is mainly perceived in terms of both informal values (big fruit size, long shelf life, food security and amount of income received from tomato sales as well as formal norms (non- application of chemicals, human health, damage free, sweet taste, red colour, and juiciness. There were no gendered differences in quality perception among the growers. High costs of production inputs were identified as the main challenge to attaining quality in organic tomatoes. Following these findings, there is need for effective participation of growers in formulation of standards as well as subsidizing of production inputs by the government. The Austrian tomato growers as well as local and international retailers should work closely to increase the price received by the Austrian organic tomato growers so that it more adequately covers their production costs.

  12. Exploring the physical layer frontiers of cellular uplink: The Vienna LTE-A Uplink Simulator. (United States)

    Zöchmann, Erich; Schwarz, Stefan; Pratschner, Stefan; Nagel, Lukas; Lerch, Martin; Rupp, Markus

    Communication systems in practice are subject to many technical/technological constraints and restrictions. Multiple input, multiple output (MIMO) processing in current wireless communications, as an example, mostly employs codebook-based pre-coding to save computational complexity at the transmitters and receivers. In such cases, closed form expressions for capacity or bit-error probability are often unattainable; effects of realistic signal processing algorithms on the performance of practical communication systems rather have to be studied in simulation environments. The Vienna LTE-A Uplink Simulator is a 3GPP LTE-A standard compliant MATLAB-based link level simulator that is publicly available under an academic use license, facilitating reproducible evaluations of signal processing algorithms and transceiver designs in wireless communications. This paper reviews research results that have been obtained by means of the Vienna LTE-A Uplink Simulator, highlights the effects of single-carrier frequency-division multiplexing (as the distinguishing feature to LTE-A downlink), extends known link adaptation concepts to uplink transmission, shows the implications of the uplink pilot pattern for gathering channel state information at the receiver and completes with possible future research directions.

  13. Cultures of death and politics of corpse supply: anatomy in Vienna, 1848-1914. (United States)

    Buklijas, Tatjana


    Nineteenth-century Vienna is well known to medical historians as a leading center of medical research and education, offering easy access to patients and corpses to students from all over the world. The author seeks to explain how this enviable supply of cadavers was achieved, why it provoked so little opposition at a time when Britain and the United States saw widespread protests against dissection, and how it was threatened from mid-century onward. To understand permissive Viennese attitudes, we need to place them in a longue durée history of death and dissection and to pay close attention to the city's political geography as it was transformed into a major imperial capital. The tolerant stance of the Roman Catholic Church, strong links to Southern Europe, and the weak position of individuals in the absolutist state all contributed to an idiosyncratic anatomical culture. But as the fame of the Vienna medical school peaked in the later 1800s, the increased demand created by rising numbers of students combined with intensified interdisciplinary competition to produce a shortfall that professors found increasingly difficult to meet. Around 1900, new religious groups and mass political parties challenged long-standing anatomical practice by refusing to supply cadavers and making dissection into an instrument of political struggle. This study of the material preconditions for anatomy at one of Europe's most influential medical schools provides a contrast to the dominant Anglo-American histories of death and dissection.

  14. Observations of Near-Earth Asteroids at Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory (United States)

    Krugly, Yurij; Ayvazyan, Vova; Inasaridze, Raguli; Zhuzhunadze, Vasili; Molotov, Igor; Voropaev, Victor; Rumyantsev, Vasilij; Baransky, Alexander

    Over the past five years physical properties of near-Earth asteroids are investigated in the Kharadze Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory. The work was launched in the collaboration with Kharkiv Institute of Astronomy within the Memorandum on scientific cooperation between Ilia State University (Georgia) and V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University (Ukraine) in 2011. In the framework of this study the regular observations of several dozen asteroids per year are carried out to determine the rotation periods, size and shape parameters of these celestial bodies. A broad international cooperation is involved in order to improve the efficiency of the study. Abastumani is included in the observatory network called the Gaia -FUN-SSO, which was created for the ground support of the ESA's Gaia space mission.

  15. The Legacy of the Georgetown College Observatory (D.C.) (United States)

    Caron, Laura; Maglieri, Grace; Seitzer, Patrick


    Founded in 1841 as part of a nascent worldwide network of Jesuit-run astronomical observatories, the Georgetown College Observatory of Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. has been home to more than 125 years of astronomical research, from Father Curley’s calculations of the latitude and longitude of D.C. to Father McNally’s award-winning solar eclipse photography. But the impact of the Georgetown astronomy program was not limited to the observatory itself: it reached much further, into the local community and schools, and into the lives of everyone involved. This was never more apparent than under the directorship of Father Francis J Heyden, S.J., who arrived at Georgetown after World War II and stayed for almost three decades. He started a graduate program with over 90 graduates, hosting student researchers from local high schools and colleges, teaching graduate and undergraduate astronomy courses, and speaking at schools in the area, all while simultaneously managing Georgetown’s student radio station and hosting astronomical conferences on campus. Father Heyden’s research focused mainly on solar eclipses for geodetic purposes and planetary spectroscopy. But perhaps even more than research, Father Heyden dedicated his time and energy to the astronomy students, the notable of which include Vera Rubin, John P. Hagen of Project Vanguard, and a generation of Jesuit astronomers including Martin McCarthy, George Coyne, and Richard Boyle. Following the closure of the astronomy department in 1972, Father Heyden returned to Manila, where he had begun his astronomical career, to become Chief of the Solar Division at the Manila Observatory. His dedication to his work and to students serves as an inspiration for academic researchers across fields, and for the Georgetown University Astronomical Society, which, even in the absence of a formal astronomy program at Georgetown, continues his work in education and outreach today. In 1987, almost 150 years after its

  16. Zoellner's relation to the staff of Leipzig Observatory (United States)

    Muenzel, G.

    We present a review of Zoellner's scientific life from his arrival at Leipzig Observatory in 1862 till his death in 1882. His scientific collaboration with colleagues of Leipzig is described as well as his personal relationship before he started his series of polemic pamphlets on the state of science at German universities. The social consequences of these writings, as well as his involvement with spiritism, are described on the background of his deteriorating personal relationship with his colleagues.

  17. The observatories and instruments of Tycho Brahe (United States)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    (Wandesburgi 1598, Nuremberg 1602). One of Tycho's instruments in original size was reconstructed in Oldenburg University and in the Steno Museum in Aarhus, Denmark. In Munich, in the Deutsches Museum's permanent astronomy exhibition (opened in 1992), the Uraniborg observatory and its instruments are shown at a scale of 1:10. A similar but larger model (scale 1:5) from the workshop of the Deutsches Museum was given to the Technical Museum in Malmø, Sweden. Tycho's later observatory Stjerneborg can be seen as a reconstruction on the island Hven (Ven/Sweden) with the original foundations for the instruments.

  18. Current Status of Carl Sagan Observatory in Mexico (United States)

    Sanchez-Ibarra, A.

    The current status of Observatory "Carl Sagan" (OCS) of University of Sonora is presented. This project was born in 1996 focused to build a small solar-stellar observatory completely operated by remote control. The observatory will be at "Cerro Azul", a 2480 m peak in one of the best regions in the world for astronomical observation, at the Sonora-Arizona desert. The OCS, with three 16 cm solar telescopes and a 55 cm stellar telescope is one of the cheapest observatories, valuated in US200,000 Added to its scientific goals to study solar coronal holes and Supernovae Type 1A, the OCS has a strong educative and cultural program in Astronomy to all levels. At the end of 2001, we started the Program "Constelacion", to build small planetariums through all the countries with a cost of only US80,000. Also, the webcast system for transmission of the solar observations from the prototype OCS at the campus, was expanded to webcast educational programs in Astronomy since July of this year, including courses and diplomats for Latin American people. All of these advances are exposed here.

  19. The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ford, Linda A.; Zambrano-Marin, Luisa; Petty, Bryan M.; Sternke, Elizabeth; Ortiz, Andrew M.; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.


    The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy (AOSA) is a ten (10) week pre-college research program for students in grades 9-12. Our mission is to prepare students for academic and professional careers by allowing them to receive an independent and collaborative research experience on topics related to space and aide in their individual academic and social development. Our objectives are to (1) Supplement the student’s STEM education via inquiry-based learning and indirect teaching methods, (2) Immerse students in an ESL environment, further developing their verbal and written presentation skills, and (3) To foster in every student an interest in science by exploiting their natural curiosity and knowledge in order to further develop their critical thinking and investigation skills. AOSA provides students with the opportunity to share lectures with Arecibo Observatory staff, who have expertise in various STEM fields. Each Fall and Spring semester, selected high school students, or Cadets, from all over Puerto Rico participate in this Saturday academy where they receive experience designing, proposing, and carrying out research projects related to space exploration, focusing on four fields: Physics/Astronomy, Biology, Engineering, and Sociology. Cadets get the opportunity to explore their topic of choice while practicing many of the foundations of scientific research with the goal of designing a space settlement, which they present at the NSS-NASA Ames Space Settlement Design Contest. At the end of each semester students present their research to their peers, program mentors, and Arecibo Observatory staff. Funding for this program is provided by NASA SSERVI-LPI: Center for Lunar Science and Exploration with partial support from the Angel Ramos Visitor Center through UMET and management by USRA.

  20. Light pollution around Tonantzintla Observatory (United States)

    Vázquez-Mata, José A.; Hernández-Toledo, Héctor M.; Martínez-Vázquez, Luis A.; Pani-Cielo, Atanacio


    Being close to the cities of Puebla to east and Cholula to the north, both having potential for large growth, the National Astronomical Observatory in Tonantzintla (OAN-Tonantzintla) faces the danger of deteriorating its sky conditions even more. In order to maintain competitiveness for education and scientific programs, it is important to preserve the sky brightness conditions. through: 1) our awareness of the night sky characteristics in continuous monitoring campaigns, doing more measurements over the next years to monitor changes and 2) encouraging local authorities about the need to regulate public lighting at the same time, showing them the benefits of such initiatives when well planed and correctly implemented.

  1. Gravity research at Cottrell observatory (United States)

    Tuman, V. S.; Anderson, J. D.; Lau, E. L.


    The Cottrell gravity research observatory and work in progress are described. Equipment in place and equipment to be installed, the cryogenic gravity meter (CGM), concrete pads to support the vertical seismometer, CGM, and guest experiments, techniques of data analysis, and improvements needed in the CGM are discussed. Harmonic earth eigenvibrations with multipole moments are examined and their compatibility with a fictitious black hole binary system (of which the primary central mass is assigned a value one million solar masses) located 400 light-years away is shown by calculations.

  2. The Virtual Astronomical Observatory Users Forum (United States)

    Muench, August A.; Emery Bunn, S.; Astronomical Observatory, Virtual


    We present the online forum, which has the goal of being a gathering place for the collective community intelligence about astronomical computing. The audience for this forum is anyone engaged in the analysis of astronomical or planetary data, whether that data be observational or theoretical. It is a free, community driven site where discussions are formulated primarily around the "question and answer" format. Current topics on the forum range from “Is there a photometry package in Python?” to “Where are the support forums for astronomy software packages?” and “Why is my SDSS SkyQuery query missing galaxies?” The poster will detail the full scope of discussions in the forum, and provide some basic guidelines for ensuring high quality forum posts. We will highlight the ways astronomers can discover and participate in discussions. Further, we view this as an excellent opportunity to gather feedback and feature requests from AAS221 attendees. Acknowledgement: The Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) is managed by the VAO, LLC, a non-profit company established as a partnership of the Associated Universities, Inc. and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. The VAO is sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  3. The Remote Observatories of the Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy (SARA)


    Keel, William C.; Oswalt, Terry; Mack, Peter; Henson, Gary; Hillwig, Todd; Batcheldor, Daniel; Berrington, Robert; De Pree, Chris; Hartmann, Dieter; Leake, Martha; Licandro, Javier; Murphy, Brian; Webb, James; Wood, Matt A.


    We describe the remote facilities operated by the Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy (SARA), a consortium of colleges and universities in the US partnered with Lowell Observatory, the Chilean National Telescope Allocation Committee, and the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. SARA observatories comprise a 0.96m telescope at Kitt Peak, Arizona; a 0.6m instrument on Cerro Tololo, Chile; and the 1m Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope at the Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain. All ar...

  4. Regional subsidence history and 3D visualization with MATLAB of the Vienna Basin, central Europe (United States)

    Lee, E.; Novotny, J.; Wagreich, M.


    This study reconstructed the subsidence history by the backstripping and 3D visualization techniques, to understand tectonic evolution of the Neogene Vienna Basin. The backstripping removes the compaction effect of sediment loading and quantifies the tectonic subsidence. The amount of decompaction was calculated by porosity-depth relationships evaluated from seismic velocity data acquired from two boreholes. About 100 wells have been investigated to quantify the subsidence history of the Vienna Basin. The wells have been sorted into 10 groups; N1-4 in the northern part, C1-4 in the central part and L1-2 in the northernmost and easternmost parts, based on their position within the same block bordered by major faults. To visualize 3D subsidence maps, the wells were arranged to a set of 3D points based on their map location (x, y) and depths (z1, z2, z3 ...). The division of the stratigraphic column and age range was arranged based on the Central Paratethys regional Stages. In this study, MATLAB, a numerical computing environment, was used to calculate the TPS interpolation function. The Thin-Plate Spline (TPS) can be employed to reconstruct a smooth surface from a set of 3D points. The basic physical model of the TPS is based on the bending behavior of a thin metal sheet that is constrained only by a sparse set of fixed points. In the Lower Miocene, 3D subsidence maps show strong evidence that the pre-Neogene basement of the Vienna Basin was subsiding along borders of the Alpine-Carpathian nappes. This subsidence event is represented by a piggy-back basin developed on top of the NW-ward moving thrust sheets. In the late Lower Miocene, Group C and N display a typical subsidence pattern for the pull-apart basin with a very high subsidence event (0.2 - 1.0 km/Ma). After the event, Group N shows remarkably decreasing subsidence, following the thin-skinned extension which was regarded as the extension model of the Vienna Basin in the literature. But the subsidence in

  5. The Dual Listing of Austrian Companies in Vienna and Frankfurt: Dependence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Gurgul


    Full Text Available International capital flows can be hampered by a variety of barriers such as transaction costs, information costs, and legal restrictions. The solution in this situation can be dual listing. The framework of the research presented here assumes that domestic securities are dually listed on a foreign capital market, while none of the foreign securities is dually listed on the domestic capital market. This paper is concerned with a dependence analysis of the log-levels and returns of Austrian stocks listed in Frankfurt and Vienna. The important issue is dynamic linear and non-linear causality between log-levels (returns of prices and the indices ATX and DAX. In this context the important directions of causality are found along with the level of relations of the selected types of causality.

  6. Nowcasting of Low-Visibility Procedure States with Ordered Logistic Regression at Vienna International Airport (United States)

    Kneringer, Philipp; Dietz, Sebastian; Mayr, Georg J.; Zeileis, Achim


    Low-visibility conditions have a large impact on aviation safety and economic efficiency of airports and airlines. To support decision makers, we develop a statistical probabilistic nowcasting tool for the occurrence of capacity-reducing operations related to low visibility. The probabilities of four different low visibility classes are predicted with an ordered logistic regression model based on time series of meteorological point measurements. Potential predictor variables for the statistical models are visibility, humidity, temperature and wind measurements at several measurement sites. A stepwise variable selection method indicates that visibility and humidity measurements are the most important model inputs. The forecasts are tested with a 30 minute forecast interval up to two hours, which is a sufficient time span for tactical planning at Vienna Airport. The ordered logistic regression models outperform persistence and are competitive with human forecasters.

  7. Research Network Osteology Vienna: Hochauflösende und Mikro-Computertomographie in der Wiener Osteologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deutschmann J


    Full Text Available Das Spektrum bildgebender Verfahren zur Diagnostik osteologischer Fragestellungen wurde in den vergangenen Jahren vor allem durch verschiedene Techniken der hochauflösenden und der Mikro-Computertomographie (µCT erheblich erweitert. Das „Research Network Osteology“ (RNO Vienna hat es sich zum Ziel gesetzt, diese modernen bildgebenden Verfahren neben anderen osteologisch orientierten Forschungsrichtungen wie Molekularbiologie und Biomechanik interdisziplinär zu verbinden. Derzeit sind in das RNO 3 Mikro-CTGeräte unterschiedlicher Bauart, ein HR-pQCT-, ein 64-Zeilen-Multidetektor-CT- und ein Dual- Source-CT-Gerät, 2 Knochendichtemessgeräte (DXA unterschiedlicher Bauart, ein hochauflösender digitaler Röntgenaufnahmeplatz (in Mammographiequalität sowie 2 3-Tesla- und ein 7-Tesla- MR-Gerät integriert. Verbunden durch ein dediziertes wissenschaftliches Kommunikations- und Bildarchivierungssystem werden diese Systeme im Rahmen wissenschaftlicher Studien und neuerdings auch zur gezielten klinischen Anwendung eingesetzt.

  8. Maks Fabiani and urbanism in Vienna at the turn of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breda Mihelič


    Full Text Available This article deals with new concepts in urban planning at the turn of the 19th century. It represents three key persons, all architects and urban planners: Camillo Sitte, Otto Wagner and Maks Fabiani. All three left an indelible mark on urban planning in the Hapsburg Monarchy. In particular, it focuses on Maks Fabiani, whose work is closely related with the reconstruction of Ljubljana after the earthquake at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. Even though Fabiani was one of the most distinguished and respected urban planners in Vienna, his contribution to the history and theory of urban planning was until now relatively overlooked and not stressed enough upon in the context of the urban history within the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

  9. ALMA Observatory Equipped with its First Antenna (United States)


    High in the Atacama region of northern Chile one of the world’s most advanced telescopes has just passed a major milestone. The first of many state-of-the-art antennas has been handed over to the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) project. ALMA is being built by a global partnership whose North American partners are led by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). With ALMA, astronomers will study the cool Universe, the molecular gas and tiny dust grains from which stars, planetary systems, galaxies and even life are formed. ALMA will provide new, much-needed insights into the formation of stars and planets, and will reveal distant galaxies in the early Universe, which we see as they were over ten billion years ago. ALMA will initially comprise 66 high-precision antennas, with the option to expand in the future. There will be an array of fifty 12-meter diameter antennas, acting together as a single giant telescope, and a compact array composed of 7-meter and 12-meter antennas. The first 12-meter antenna to be handed over to the observatory was built by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation for the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, one of the ALMA partners. It will shortly be joined by North American and European antennas. “Our Japanese colleagues have produced this state-of-the-art antenna to exacting specifications. We are very excited about the handover because now we can fully equip this antenna for scientific observations,” said Thijs de Graauw, ALMA Director. Antennas arriving at the ALMA site undergo a series of tests to ensure that they meet the strict requirements of the telescope. The antennas have surfaces accurate to less than the thickness of a human hair, and can be pointed precisely enough to pick out a golf ball at a distance of 9 miles. “The handover of the first Japanese antenna is the crowning achievement of the ALMA Project to date,” said Adrian Russell, the North American ALMA Project Director at NRAO. The

  10. Ambient noise techniques for better understanding of seismic hazard in the wider Vienna Basin region (United States)

    Schippkus, Sven; Zigone, Dimitri; Bokelmann, Götz; AlpArray Working Group


    The Vienna Basin is one of the seismically most active regions in Austria. Because of population density and sensitive infrastructure, seismic hazard assessment in this area is of critical importance. Recently, it has become apparent that ambient noise techniques can be applied to provide additional information for seismic hazard studies. This contribution can be either a) indirect by providing detailed 3D tomographic images of the underground, which can be used in further studies, in areas with high seismological station density or b) more direct by predicting ground motions resulting from scenario earthquakes directly from ambient noise. While both techniques are based on the retrieval of the inter-station Green's function from ambient noise interferometry, they are utilizing different features of the Green's function. For calculating tomographic images of the underground, phase information is needed to extract surface wave dispersion curves. Ground motion prediction, however, relies heavily on the extracted amplitude information. Commonly applied ambient noise processing techniques, e.g. pre-whitening, alter amplitudes non-linearly in exchange for more stable phase measurements. Therefore, depending on the study goal, different processing strategies have to be applied. Here, we present a case study for each. To construct the tomographic image of the wider Vienna Basin region (a), we used continuous seismic records from 65 seismological stations in the region, evenly covering the region with an inter-station distance of 40 km. For this, we utilized Love and Rayleigh wave phase and group velocity dispersion curves extracted from ambient noise cross correlations. To demonstrate the applicability of ground motion prediction using ambient noise (b), we use 2 months of continuous data from a temporary station, installed near the site of the ML 4.2 Alland earthquake on April 25th 2016 to retroactively reproduce the long-period earthquake seismograms using ambient noise

  11. Impact of urban planning on household's residential decisions: An agent-based simulation model for Vienna. (United States)

    Gaube, Veronika; Remesch, Alexander


    Interest in assessing the sustainability of socio-ecological systems of urban areas has increased notably, with additional attention generated due to the fact that half the world's population now lives in cities. Urban areas face both a changing urban population size and increasing sustainability issues in terms of providing good socioeconomic and environmental living conditions. Urban planning has to deal with both challenges. Households play a major role by being affected by urban planning decisions on the one hand and by being responsible - among many other factors - for the environmental performance of a city (e.g. energy use). We here present an agent-based decision model referring to the city of Vienna, the capital of Austria, with a population of about 1.7 million (2.3 million within the metropolitan area, the latter being more than 25% of Austria's total population). Since the early 1990s, after decades of negative population growth, Vienna has been experiencing a steady increase in population, mainly driven by immigration. The aim of the agent-based decision model is to simulate new residential patterns of different household types based on demographic development and migration scenarios. Model results were used to assess spatial patterns of energy use caused by different household types in the four scenarios (1) conventional urban planning, (2) sustainable urban planning, (3) expensive centre and (4) no green area preference. Outcomes show that changes in preferences of households relating to the presence of nearby green areas have the most important impact on the distribution of households across the small-scaled city area. Additionally, the results demonstrate the importance of the distribution of different household types regarding spatial patterns of energy use.

  12. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory as Cultural Centre (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Farmanyan, S. V.


    NAS RA V. Ambartsumian Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory is presented as a cultural centre for Armenia and the Armenian nation in general. Besides being scientific and educational centre, the Observatory is famous for its unique architectural ensemble, rich botanical garden and world of birds, as well as it is one of the most frequently visited sightseeing of Armenia. In recent years, the Observatory has also taken the initiative of the coordination of the Cultural Astronomy in Armenia and in this field, unites the astronomers, historians, archaeologists, ethnographers, culturologists, literary critics, linguists, art historians and other experts. Keywords: Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory, architecture, botanic garden, tourism, Cultural Astronomy.

  13. A new Magnetic Observatory in Pantanal - Brazil (United States)

    Siqueira, F.; Pinheiro, K.; Linthe, H.


    The aim of a Magnetic Observatory is to register the variations of the Earth's magnetic field in a long temporal scale. Using this data it is possible to study field variations of both external and internal origins. The external variations concern interactions between the magnetosphere and the solar wind, in general are measured in a short time scale. The internal field generated by convection of a high electrical conductivity fluid in the external core by a mechanism known as the geodynamo. Usually the internal field time variations are longer than in the external field and are called secular variations. Measurements carried out over the last century suggest that field intensity is decreasing rapidly. The decreasing of the field's intensity is not the same around the globe, especially at the SAMA (South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly) regions, where this reduction is occurring faster. The global distribution of magnetic observatories is uneven, with few observatories in South America. In Brazil, there are three magnetic observatories, but only Vassouras Observatory (VSS- RJ) is part of the INTERMAGNET network. The National Observatory has plans to install seven new observatories in Brazil. Pantanal was the chosen location for installing the first observatory because of its privileged location, close to the SAMA region, and its data can contribute to more information about its origin. We followed the procedures suggested by the IAGA to build this observatory. The first step is to perform a magnetic survey in order to avoid strong magnetic gradients in the location where the absolute and variometers houses will be installed. The next step, the construction of the observatory, includes the selection of special non-magnetic material for the variometer and absolute houses. All materials used were previously tested using a proton magnetometer GSM-19. After construction of the whole infrastructure, the equipment was installed. This Project is a cooperation between Brazilian

  14. Three Short Videos by the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (United States)

    Wessells, Stephen; Lowenstern, Jake; Venezky, Dina


    This is a collection of videos of unscripted interviews with Jake Lowenstern, who is the Scientist in Charge of the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO). YVO was created as a partnership among the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Yellowstone National Park, and University of Utah to strengthen the long-term monitoring of volcanic and earthquake unrest in the Yellowstone National Park region. Yellowstone is the site of the largest and most diverse collection of natural thermal features in the world and the first National Park. YVO is one of the five USGS Volcano Observatories that monitor volcanoes within the United States for science and public safety. These video presentations give insights about many topics of interest about this area. Title: Yes! Yellowstone is a Volcano An unscripted interview, January 2009, 7:00 Minutes Description: USGS Scientist-in-Charge of Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, Jake Lowenstern, answers the following questions to explain volcanic features at Yellowstone: 'How do we know Yellowstone is a volcano?', 'What is a Supervolcano?', 'What is a Caldera?','Why are there geysers at Yellowstone?', and 'What are the other geologic hazards in Yellowstone?' Title: Yellowstone Volcano Observatory An unscripted interview, January 2009, 7:15 Minutes Description: USGS Scientist-in-Charge of Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, Jake Lowenstern, answers the following questions about the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory: 'What is YVO?', 'How do you monitor volcanic activity at Yellowstone?', 'How are satellites used to study deformation?', 'Do you monitor geysers or any other aspect of the Park?', 'Are earthquakes and ground deformation common at Yellowstone?', 'Why is YVO a relatively small group?', and 'Where can I get more information?' Title: Yellowstone Eruptions An unscripted interview, January 2009, 6.45 Minutes Description: USGS Scientist-in-Charge of Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, Jake Lowenstern, answers the following questions to explain volcanic

  15. OSoMe: the IUNI observatory on social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton A. Davis


    Full Text Available The study of social phenomena is becoming increasingly reliant on big data from online social networks. Broad access to social media data, however, requires software development skills that not all researchers possess. Here we present the IUNI Observatory on Social Media, an open analytics platform designed to facilitate computational social science. The system leverages a historical, ongoing collection of over 70 billion public messages from Twitter. We illustrate a number of interactive open-source tools to retrieve, visualize, and analyze derived data from this collection. The Observatory, now available at, is the result of a large, six-year collaborative effort coordinated by the Indiana University Network Science Institute.

  16. IAXO - The International Axion Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, J.K.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J.M.; Caspi, S.; Cetin, S.A.; Christensen, F.E.; Dael, A.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Derbin, A.V.; Desch, K.; Diago, A.; Dudarev, A.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galan, J.; Garcia, J.A.; Garza, J.G.; Geralis, T.; Gimeno, B.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Gomez, H.; Hailey, C.J.; Hiramatsu, T.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Iguaz, F.J.; Irastorza, I.G.; Isern, J.; Jaeckel, J.; Jakovcic, K.; Kaminski, J.; Kawasaki, M.; Krcmar, M.; Krieger, C.; Lakic, B.; Lindner, A.; Liolios, A.; Luzon, G.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M.J.; Raffelt, G.; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A.; Russenschuck, S.; Ruz, J.; Saikawa, K.; Savvidis, I.; Sekiguchi, T.; Shilon, I.; Silva, H.; ten Kate, H.H.J.; Tomas, A.; Troitsky, S.; van Bibber, K.; Vedrine, P.; Villar, J.A.; Walckiers, L.; Wester, W.; Yildiz, S.C.; Zioutas, K.


    The International Axion Observatory (IAXO) is a next generation axion helioscope aiming at a sensitivity to the axion-photon coupling of a few 10^{-12} GeV^{-1}, i.e. 1-1.5 orders of magnitude beyond sensitivities achieved by the currently most sensitive axion helioscope, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). Crucial factors in improving the sensitivity for IAXO are the increase of the magnetic field volume together with the extensive use of x-ray focusing optics and low background detectors, innovations already successfully tested at CAST. Electron-coupled axions invoked to explain the white dwarf cooling, relic axions, and a large variety of more generic axion-like particles (ALPs) along with other novel excitations at the low-energy frontier of elementary particle physics could provide additional physics motivation for IAXO.

  17. The International Axion Observatory (IAXO)

    CERN Document Server

    Irastorza, I G; Cantatore, G; Caspi, S; Carmona, J M; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Dudarev, A; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galan, J; Garcia, J A; Geralis, T; Giomataris, I; Gninenko, S; Gomez, H; Hoffmann, D H H; Iguaz, F J; Jakovcic, K; Krcmar, M; Lakic, B; Luzon, G; Lindner, A; Pivovaroff, M; Papaevangelou, T; Raffelt, G; Redondo, J; Rodrıguez, A; Russenschuck, S; Ruz, J; Shilon, I; Kate, H Ten; Tomas, A; Troitsky, S; van Bibber, K; Villar, J A; Vogel, J; Walckiers, L; Zioutas, K


    The International Axion Observatory (IAXO) is a new generation axion helioscope aiming at a sensitivity to the axion-photon coupling of a few 10$^{12}$ GeV$^{-1}$, i.e. 1 - 1.5 orders of magnitude beyond the one currently achieved by CAST. The project relies on improvements in magnetic field volume together with extensive use of x-ray focusing optics and low background detectors, innovations already successfully tested in CAST. Additional physics cases of IAXO could include the detection of electron-coupled axions invoked to solve the white dwarfs anomaly, relic axions, and a large variety of more generic axion-like particles (ALPs) and other novel excitations at the low-energy frontier of elementary particle physics. This contribution is a summary of our paper [1] to which we refer for further details.

  18. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Haubold, Hans J; UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan


    This book represents Volume II of the Proceedings of the UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo, 18 - 22 June, 2007. It covers two programme topics explored in this and past workshops of this nature: (i) non-extensive statistical mechanics as applicable to astrophysics, addressing q-distribution, fractional reaction and diffusion, and the reaction coefficient, as well as the Mittag-Leffler function and (ii) the TRIPOD concept, developed for astronomical telescope facilities. The companion publication, Volume I of the proceedings of this workshop, is a special issue in the journal Earth, Moon, and Planets, Volume 104, Numbers 1-4, April 2009.

  19. Autonomous Infrastructure for Observatory Operations (United States)

    Seaman, R.

    This is an era of rapid change from ancient human-mediated modes of astronomical practice to a vision of ever larger time domain surveys, ever bigger "big data", to increasing numbers of robotic telescopes and astronomical automation on every mountaintop. Over the past decades, facets of a new autonomous astronomical toolkit have been prototyped and deployed in support of numerous space missions. Remote and queue observing modes have gained significant market share on the ground. Archives and data-mining are becoming ubiquitous; astroinformatic techniques and virtual observatory standards and protocols are areas of active development. Astronomers and engineers, planetary and solar scientists, and researchers from communities as diverse as particle physics and exobiology are collaborating on a vast range of "multi-messenger" science. What then is missing?

  20. Madras and Kodaikanal Observatories: A Brief History

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    well as history and sociology of science. Keywords. Astronomy. history, navigation. observatories. instruments. A Brief History. Rajesh Kochhar. Introduction. Modern astronomy .... Being made of iron and timber -it could be re- moved and rebuilt. ... Observatory's lifelines, in working condition, years after they were no longer ...

  1. Global Health Observatory (GHO): Life Expectancy (United States)

    ... Media centre Publications Countries Programmes Governance About WHO Language عربي ä¸æ–‡ English Français Русский Español Global Health Observatory (GHO) data Menu Global Health Observatory ...

  2. 5th October 2011 - Vienna Science and Technology Fund Board of Directors ((WWTF) led by Its President, Lord Mayor and Governor of Vienna M. Häupl, signing the guest book with Head of International relations F. Pauss and Director for Administration and General Infrastructure S. Lettow.

    CERN Multimedia


    5th October 2011 - Vienna Science and Technology Fund Board of Directors ((WWTF) led by Its President, Lord Mayor and Governor of Vienna M. Häupl, signing the guest book with Head of International relations F. Pauss and Director for Administration and General Infrastructure S. Lettow.

  3. Eberhard Widmann (Stefan Meyer Institute, Vienna) and Silke Federmann (Ph.D. Student from Vienna in the CERN-Austrian Ph.D. program) together with a microwave cavity developed by Silke at CERN. The cavity will be used for the first time to look for spin-flip transitions of antihydrogen atoms later this year.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    Eberhard Widmann (Stefan Meyer Institute, Vienna) and Silke Federmann (Ph.D. Student from Vienna in the CERN-Austrian Ph.D. program) together with a microwave cavity developed by Silke at CERN. The cavity will be used for the first time to look for spin-flip transitions of antihydrogen atoms later this year.

  4. A conceptual hydrotectonic model of water level fluctuation in a cave at the Vienna Basin (Austria) (United States)

    Hardege, Jonas; Plan, Lukas; Winkler, Gerhard; Baron, Ivo; Grasemann, Bernhard


    Eisensteinhöhle is a hydrothermally overprinted cave at the south-western margin of the Miocene Vienna pull-apart Basin. The basin has been formed by a still active NE-SW trending sinistral strike slip fault associated with NNE-SSW striking normal faults. These faults create pathways for thermal water to rise from the central basin and emerge in several lukewarm thermal springs along the basin margin. The cave was opened during quarrying in 1855 and is developed in a Miocene marine carbonate breccia. It has a crevice-shape while the morphology in most parts is coined by hydrothermal karstification. It is about 2 km long and has a vertical extend of 87 m. At the deepest point, there is a small pond filled with 14.5 °C warm water. This is about 5 °C above the annual average and it shows that there is some connection to a nearby subthermal spring with similar temperature. The water level fluctuates within a range of 3 m and at a certain level the water drains through a hole into a nearby slightly deeper gallery. This pond has attracted considerable attention because sporadic records of water level and discharge measurements since 1992 did not show any correlation with regional precipitation. Within the framework of the SPELEOTECT project (Austrian Science Fund # P25884-N29), the current tectonic activity of two faults along the margin of the Vienna Basin as well as the fault controlling the orientation of the cave are monitored by means of high-resolution moiré extensometers. Since October 2015, data loggers measure water level and temperature in the pond as well as CO2 in the air. A pumping test during medium water level, where the whole pond was emptied showed a volume of only 2800 l and a discharge of 4.5 l/h. Water temperature and hydrochemistry hint towards a mix of old thermal components and young meteoric components. However, water level and temperature change abruptly with no obvious relation to precipitation. Within the first year of the continuous

  5. Triggers for the Pierre Auger Observatory, the current status and plans for the future

    CERN Document Server

    Szadkowski, Z


    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a multi-national organization for research on ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The Southern Auger Observatory (Auger-South) in the province of Mendoza, Argentina, has been completed in 2008. First results on the energy spectrum, mass composition and distribution of arrival directions on the southern sky are really impressive. The planned Northern Auger Observatory in Colorado, USA, (Auger-North) will open a new window into the universe and establish charged particle astronomy to determine the origin and nature of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. These cosmic particles carry information complementary to neutrinos and photons and to gravitational waves. They also provide an extremely energetic beam for the study of particle interactions at energies that thirty times higher than those reached in terrestrial accelerators. The Auger Observatory is a hybrid detector consisting of a Surface Detector (SD) and an atmospheric Fluorescence Detector (FD). The hybrid data set obtained when both...

  6. Solar Imagery - Photosphere - Sunspot Drawings - McMath-Hulbert Observatory (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The McMath-Hulbert Observatory is a decommissioned solar observatory in Lake Angelus, Michigan, USA. It was established in 1929 as a private observatory by father...

  7. Challenges of the GEOSCOPE Observatory. (United States)

    Pardo, C.; Bonaime, S.; Stutzmann, E.; Roult, G.; Maggi, A.; GEOSCOPE Group


    The GEOSCOPE observatory consists of a global seismic network and a data center. The observatory was launched in 1982 by the French National Center of Scientific Research (CNRS/INSU) and progressively 30 stations have been installed across all continents and on islands throughout the oceans. The GEOSCOPE stations are located on 18 countries and equipped with three component very broad-band seismometers (STS1 or STS2) and 24 or 26 bit digitizers, as required by the Federation of Seismic Digital Network (FDSN). In most stations a pressure gauge and a thermometer are also installed. During the last years, 13 stations have been upgraded in order to send data in real or near real time to GEOSCOPE Data Center. In 2008, two new real time stations will be installed in the Indian Ocean: in the South of Madagascar and on Rodrigues island. Four stations in the Carribean region and in South America will also be upgraded to send real time data to GEOSCOPE Data Center and to local tsunami warning centers. Continuous data of all stations are collected in real time or with a delay by the GEOSCOPE Data Center in Paris where they are validated, stored and made accessible to the international scientific community. Users have free and open access to: - real time data from 13 stations. These data are transfered from the stations to the Geoscope Data Center using the seedlink protocol developed by GEOFON. Seedlink also enables to make these data accessible to the Tsunami Warning Centers and to other data center. These data are available to users through the GEOSCOPE web interface. - validated continous waveforms and meta data of all stations by using the NetDC system (Networked Data Centers). Data can be requested from the GEOSCOPE Data Center and from other networked centers associated to the FDSN. - a selection of seismograms corresponding to large earthquakes via a web interface - the power spectrum estimates of the seismic noise averaged over sequences of 24 hours for each station

  8. The Influence of Wittgenstein’s Philosophy of Language on the Textual Production of the Vienna Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Bešlagić


    Full Text Available The entirety of Wittgenstein’s problematization of language was of particular importance for numerous Austrian postwar artists and art movements, but was possibly most evident in the poetics and heterogeneous practices of the Vienna Group. Analysis of selected texts of the latter neo-avantgarde movement – namely, Konrad Bayer’s the philosopher’s stone1 (1963 and Oswald Wiener’s the improvement of central europe, novel (1969 – unveils the direct influence of both of the early and late Wittgenstein, paradigmatically represented by his two major books: Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (1921 and Philosophical Investigations (1953. Texts of the Vienna Group to which this article refers to are not interpreted as literary works, but rather as diverse examples of textual production; instead of being analyzed as aesthetic objects, these texts are examined as platforms of potential inscription of Wittgensteinian critique of language.

  9. NuSTAR observatory operations and data analysis (United States)

    Forster, Karl; Harrison, F.; Grefenstette, B.; Madsen, K.; Miyasaka, H.; Rana, V.; Hubbard, M.; Davis, A.; Perri, M.; Puccetti, S.; Spagnuolo, N.; Giommi, P.; Bester, M.; Lewis, M.; Roberts, B.; Craig, W. W.; Marchant, W.; Markwardt, C.; Marshall, F. E.; Zonak, S.; Dodd, S. R.; Stern, D.


    We present an overview of the observatory operations and science data analysis for the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission. Launched in June 2012, NuSTAR is the first focusing high energy (3-79 keV) X-ray observatory. The NuSTAR project is led by the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) with mission operations managed by the Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL) at the University of California, Berkeley. NuSTAR science data are processed automatically at the Science Operations Center (SOC) at Caltech, making use of the NuSTAR Data Analysis Software package (NuSTARDAS), jointly developed by the ASI Science Data Center (ASDC, Italy) and Caltech. Calibrated data from completed observations are made publicly available at NASA's High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Center (HEASARC) at the Goddard Space Flight Center and at ASDC. The NuSTARDAS package is integrated into the multi-mission HEASoft X-ray data analysis software package, and NuSTAR calibration data are now part of the HEASARC Calibration Database. NuSTAR will complete its primary mission phase in 2014 and opportunities for the community to propose for observing time will become available through a guest investigator program as well as joint observing proposals with the XMM-Newton and Chandra observatories.

  10. A garage-building programme for the city of Vienna and resulting air quality. Related health aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tvrdy, C.; Walter, R. [Inst. of Environmental Medicine of the City Council of Vienna (Austria)


    Urban traffic influences air quality in cities considerably. This is particularly true for the medieval parts of the big European cities, which have not been designed for today s heavy traffic. A problem closely associated with city traffic, is the lack of parking lots, particularly for residents. In Vienna, the parking problem is tackled by the building of underground car parks. In the next years more than 50 large garages (>100 sites) are being planned. The main goal is the clearing of the beautiful old places and streets of Vienna from the bulk of parking vehicles and supplying the citizens with parking spaces in the neighbourhood. According to a recent decision of the City Council of Vienna the construction of `large garages` (>100 parking spaces) requires an official approval by various local authorities. Among them are those responsible for town design and architecture, for fire precaution and fire fighting, for city traffic, for planning and building and for environmental health. In this context the Institute of Environmental Medicine of the City Council of Vienna faced the task of establishing criteria for a health risk assessment linked with `large garages`. Health-risks may be caused by air pollution and noise. This presentation deals with the air pollution problem. Air pollution problems may occur due to traffic in and out of the garage, by insufficient ventilation systems and by construction failures. In the garage programme the health officers have to bring evidence that residents of the houses with underground car parks and residents in the close neighbourhood are not exposed to any health risk due to air pollution

  11. The Einstein Observatory: A New Public/Private Observatory Complex for Community Education and Scientific Research (United States)

    Sowell, J.


    The Development Authority of Cherokee County (Georgia) is leading a public/private partnership of business/industry professionals, educators, and university scientists that seeks to develop a national prototype educational and scientific research facility for grades K-12, as well as college-level research, that will inspire our youth to become literate in science and technology. In particular, the goal is to make this complex a science, math, and engineering magnet learning facility and to raise the average SAT scores of local area students by 100 points. A dark-site mountain, nestled on the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains at the northern-most edge of Atlanta, will become the home for the "Einstein" Observatory. The complex will have four telescopes: one 50-inch, one 24-inch, and two 16-inch telescopes. Each telescope will have digital cameras and an optic-fiber feed to a single, medium-resolution spectroscope. All four telescopes will be electronically accessible from local schools. Professional astronomers will establish suitable observational research projects and will lead K-12 and college students in the acquisition and analysis of data. Astronomers will also assist the local area schoolteachers in methods for nurturing children's scientific inquiry. The observatory mountain will have 100 platform locations for individual viewing by visiting families, school groups, and amateur astronomers. The Atlanta Astronomer Club will provide numerous evening programs and viewing opportunities for the general public. An accompanying Planetarium & Science Center will be located on the nearby campus of Reinhardt College. The Planetarium & Science Center will be integrated with Reinhardt College's theme of learning focused upon studying the past and present as a basis for projecting the future.

  12. Deformation bands evolving from dilation to cementation bands in a hydrocarbon reservoir (Vienna Basin, Austria) (United States)

    Exner, Ulrike; Kaiser, Jasmin; Gier, Susanne


    In this study we analyzed five core samples from a hydrocarbon reservoir, the Matzen Field in the Vienna Basin (Austria). Deformation bands occur as single bands or as strands of several bands. In contrast to most published examples of deformation bands in terrigeneous sandstones, the reduction of porosity is predominantly caused by the precipitation of Fe-rich dolomite cement within the bands, and only subordinately by cataclasis of detrital grains. The chemical composition of this dolomite cement (10–12 wt% FeO) differs from detrital dolomite grains in the host rock (<2 wt% FeO). This observation in combination with stable isotope data suggests that the cement is not derived from the detrital grains, but precipitated from a fluid from an external, non-meteoric source. After an initial increase of porosity by dilation, disaggregation and fragmentation of detrital grains, a Fe-rich carbonate fluid crystallized within the bands, thereby reducing the porosity relative to the host sediment. The retention of pyrite cement by these cementation bands as well as the different degree of oil staining on either side of the bands demonstrate that these cementation bands act as effective barriers to the migration of fluids and should be considered in reservoir models. PMID:26321782

  13. The DIY Careers of Techno and Drum ‘n’ Bass DJs in Vienna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Reitsamer


    Full Text Available My empirical research on electronic dance music scenes in Vienna, Austria, explores an area of cultural production that unites the ideology of creativity with the aspirations of social networks and individual entrepreneurship. The model for a DJ's career is a hybrid of inspired musician, compelling performer, marketing genius and business strategist. An economically successful career depends not only on performing in clubs; DJs are also involved in music production, making records, marketing themselves through the media, organizing club nights and running labels. Social and cultural capital is invested in creative freedom, a do-it-yourself ethos, and collective enjoyment, yet these DJs tend to promote the neoliberal economic ideal of the "autonomous cultural entrepreneur" combining self-organisation and self-marketing with unregulated labour and gendered constructions of artist identity. Taking Bourdieu's work on the field of cultural production as a theoretical framework, my analysis of the DJs' modes of self-(representation suggests that the opposition Bourdieu made between art and commerce tends to blur.

  14. Parascolymia (Scleractinia: Lobophylliidae) in the Central Paratethys Sea (Vienna Basin, Austria) and its possible biogeographic implications (United States)

    Reuter, Markus; Wiedl, Thomas; Piller, Werner E.


    Palaeobiogeographical and palaeodiversity patterns of scleractinian reef corals are generally biased due to uncertain taxonomy and a loss of taxonomic characters through dissolution and recrystallization of the skeletal aragonite in shallow marine limestones. Herein, we describe a fossil lobophylliid coral in mouldic preservation from the early middle Miocene Leitha Limestone of the Central Paratethys Sea (Vienna Basin, Austria). By using grey-scale image inversion and silicone rubber casts for the visualization of the original skeletal anatomy and the detection of distinct micromorphological characters (i.e. shape of septal teeth, granulation of septocostae) Parascolymia bracherti has been identified as a new species in spite of the dissolved skeleton. In the recent era, Parascolymia like all Lobophylliidae is restricted to the Indo-Pacific region, where it is represented by a single species. The new species proves the genus also in the Miocene Mediterranean reef coral province. A review of the spatio-temporal relationships of fossil corals related to Parascolymia indicates that the genus was probably rooted in the Eastern Atlantic‒Western Tethys region during the Paleocene to Eocene and reached the Indo-Pacific region not before the Oligocene. The revealed palaeobiogeographical pattern shows an obvious congruence with that of Acropora and tridacnine bivalves reflecting a gradual equatorwards retreat of the marine biodiversity center parallel to the Cenozoic climate deterioration. PMID:26201071

  15. Vienna's biowaste compost--quality development and effects of input materials. (United States)

    Plahl, F; Rogalski, W; Gilnreiner, G; Erhart, E


    Extensive chemical analyses were conducted during the last decade to assess the heavy metal content of the finished compost as well as of biowaste and other input materials. Twenty six percent of the compost lots were class I according to ONORM S2200, 70% class II and 4% did not reach class II. If the compost lots were classified according to the new Austrian compost ordinance, 22% would conform to class A+ and 78% to class A. These data are put into relation with heavy metal contents of soil, of yard wastes and of biowastes without contaminants. In the soil samples particularly nickel and lead exceeded the limits for class A+ (compost ordinance). In the yard wastes, more than 90% of the samples met the limits for all heavy metals. Biowaste without contaminants conformed to class A+ on average. In biowaste without contaminants no influence of the housing structure on the heavy metal content was observed. The compost produced only from biowaste from areas with high building density, after undergoing the normal process of metal removal, however, was significantly higher contaminated than that of compost of the whole city of Vienna. The impact of specific input materials, such as Christmas trees or wooden crates, was investigated by chemical analyses before and after controlled composting experiments with those materials. In both experiments the compost quality did not reach the limits for heavy metals of class I (ONORM S2200).

  16. Data reconciliation, structure analysis and simulation of waste flows: case study Vienna. (United States)

    Matyus, Thomas; Gleiss, Andreas; Gruber, Karl; Bauer, Gerd


    The management of complex waste flow systems requires a systematic approach for the handling of data, for obtaining a consistent picture of the system under consideration, and for simulating various policy scenarios and evaluating material control strategies. In this paper the implementation of a useful methodology is presented, which has been developed in previous works and is further enhanced for modelling, identifying, analysing and simulating material flow systems for which at most one measurement per flow is available for a single balancing period. The methodology enables the analyst to cope with missing data and uncertainty in the measurements. A data reconciliation procedure is used to minimise the uncertainty concerning flows by exploiting the redundancies created by restricting the available data to fulfil the available structural information. Statistical tests are introduced to enable the user to check the compatibility of the data with the a priori information. The origins analysis and destination analysis tools allow for a deeper insight into the system structure. Policy scenarios can be treated using the simulation tools. The waste flow system of the city of Vienna has been chosen to demonstrate step-by-step the procedure for building a reliable model and the effective application of the above mentioned methods and tools. Current and future research focuses on models balancing different interrelated quantities simultaneously and on incorporating stock accumulation and depletion behaviour.

  17. Controlling and culturing diversity: experimental zoology before World War II and Vienna's Biologische Versuchsanstalt. (United States)

    Logan, Cheryl A; Brauckmann, Sabine


    Founded in Vienna in 1903, the Institute for Experimental Biology pioneered the application of experimental methods to living organisms maintained for sustained periods in captivity. Its Director, the zoologist Hans Przibram, oversaw until 1938, the attempt to integrate ontogeny with studies of inheritance using precise and controlled measurements of the impact of environmental influences on the emergence of form and function. In the early years, these efforts paralleled and even fostered the emergence of experimental biology in America. But fate intervened. Though the Institute served an international community, most of its resident scientists and staff were of Jewish ancestry. Well before the Nazis entered Austria in 1938, these men and women were being fired and driven out; some, including Przibram, were eventually killed. We describe the unprecedented facilities built and the topics addressed by the several departments that made up this Institute, stressing those most relevant to the establishment and success of the Journal of Experimental Zoology, which was founded just a year later. The Institute's diaspora left an important legacy in North America, perhaps best embodied by the career of the developmental neuroscientist Paul Weiss. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Vienna LTE-advanced simulators up and downlink, link and system level simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Rupp, Markus; Taranetz, Martin


    This book introduces the Vienna Simulator Suite for 3rd-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)-compatible Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) simulators and presents applications to demonstrate their uses for describing, designing, and optimizing wireless cellular LTE-A networks. Part One addresses LTE and LTE-A link level techniques. As there has been high demand for the downlink (DL) simulator, it constitutes the central focus of the majority of the chapters. This part of the book reports on relevant highlights, including single-user (SU), multi-user (MU) and single-input-single-output (SISO) as well as multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) transmissions. Furthermore, it summarizes the optimal pilot pattern for high-speed communications as well as different synchronization issues. One chapter is devoted to experiments that show how the link level simulator can provide input to a testbed. This section also uses measurements to present and validate fundamental results on orthogonal frequency division multiple...

  19. Network environ perspective for urban metabolism and carbon emissions: a case study of Vienna, Austria. (United States)

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin


    Cities are considered major contributors to global warming, where carbon emissions are highly embedded in the overall urban metabolism. To examine urban metabolic processes and emission trajectories we developed a carbon flux model based on Network Environ Analysis (NEA). The mutual interactions and control situation within the urban ecosystem of Vienna were examined, and the system-level properties of the city's carbon metabolism were assessed. Regulatory strategies to minimize carbon emissions were identified through the tracking of the possible pathways that affect these emission trajectories. Our findings suggest that indirect flows have a strong bearing on the mutual and control relationships between urban sectors. The metabolism of a city is considered self-mutualistic and sustainable only when the local and distal environments are embraced. Energy production and construction were found to be two factors with a major impact on carbon emissions, and whose regulation is only effective via ad-hoc pathways. In comparison with the original life-cycle tracking, the application of NEA was better at revealing details from a mechanistic aspect, which is crucial for informed sustainable urban management.

  20. Education, Enlightenment and Positivism: The Vienna Circle's Scientific World-Conception Revisited (United States)

    Uebel, Thomase.

    The scientific world-conception is properly understood as an enlightenment philosophy only if the current reassessment of the historical Vienna Circle(as opposed to the caricature still prevalent in the popular philosophical imagination) is once more extended to comprehend not only its thorough-going epistemological anti-foundationalism, but also the voluntarist point of its ethical`non-cognitivism'. That is to say, the scientific world-conception is properly understood as the opposite of village positivism only if it is recognized that it has an `other' and that the scientific world-conception was meant by its proponents to perform its enlightenment work only in conjunction with that other of scientific reason - ethical will and willing. Scientific reason cannot determine all there is to determine, it cannot determine the will. In this sense, there was, pace village positivism, more than scientific reason dreamt of. Scientific reason was not made absolute: rather, its (self-) clarification was required if a satisfactory view of its place in `life' was to be attained.

  1. Parascolymia (Scleractinia: Lobophylliidae in the Central Paratethys Sea (Vienna Basin, Austria and its possible biogeographic implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Reuter

    Full Text Available Palaeobiogeographical and palaeodiversity patterns of scleractinian reef corals are generally biased due to uncertain taxonomy and a loss of taxonomic characters through dissolution and recrystallization of the skeletal aragonite in shallow marine limestones. Herein, we describe a fossil lobophylliid coral in mouldic preservation from the early middle Miocene Leitha Limestone of the Central Paratethys Sea (Vienna Basin, Austria. By using grey-scale image inversion and silicone rubber casts for the visualization of the original skeletal anatomy and the detection of distinct micromorphological characters (i.e. shape of septal teeth, granulation of septocostae Parascolymia bracherti has been identified as a new species in spite of the dissolved skeleton. In the recent era, Parascolymia like all Lobophylliidae is restricted to the Indo-Pacific region, where it is represented by a single species. The new species proves the genus also in the Miocene Mediterranean reef coral province. A review of the spatio-temporal relationships of fossil corals related to Parascolymia indicates that the genus was probably rooted in the Eastern Atlantic‒Western Tethys region during the Paleocene to Eocene and reached the Indo-Pacific region not before the Oligocene. The revealed palaeobiogeographical pattern shows an obvious congruence with that of Acropora and tridacnine bivalves reflecting a gradual equatorwards retreat of the marine biodiversity center parallel to the Cenozoic climate deterioration.

  2. Dilatant shear band formation and diagenesis in calcareous, arkosic sandstones, Vienna Basin (Austria) (United States)

    Lommatzsch, Marco; Exner, Ulrike; Gier, Susanne; Grasemann, Bernhard


    The present study examines deformation bands in calcareous arkosic sands. The investigated units can be considered as an equivalent to the Matzen field in the Vienna Basin (Austria), which is one of the most productive oil reservoirs in central Europe. The outcrop exposes carbonate-free and carbonatic sediments of Badenian age separated by a normal fault. Carbonatic sediments in the hanging wall of the normal fault develop dilation bands with minor shear displacements (< 2 mm), whereas carbonate-free sediments in the footwall develop cataclastic shear bands with up to 70 cm displacement. The cataclastic shear bands show a permeability reduction up to 3 orders of magnitude and strong baffling effects in the vadose zone. Carbonatic dilation bands show a permeability reduction of 1-2 orders of magnitude and no baffling structures. We distinguished two types of deformation bands in the carbonatic units, which differ in deformation mechanisms, distribution and composition. Full-cemented bands form as dilation bands with an intense syn-kinematic calcite cementation, whereas the younger loose-cemented bands are dilatant shear bands cemented by patchy calcite and clay minerals. All analyzed bands are characterized by a porosity and permeability reduction caused by grain fracturing and cementation. The changed petrophysical properties and especially the porosity evolution are closely related to diagenetic processes driven by varying pore fluids in different diagenetic environments. The deformation band evolution and sealing capacity is controlled by the initial host rock composition. PMID:26300577

  3. Microbacterium aerolatum sp. nov., isolated from the air in the 'Virgilkapelle' in Vienna. (United States)

    Zlamala, Christian; Schumann, Peter; Kämpfer, Peter; Valens, Maria; Rosselló-Mora, Ramon; Lubitz, Werner; Busse, Hans-Jürgen


    Three rod-shaped, Gram-positive strains were isolated from the air of the chapel 'Virgilkapelle' in Vienna. A representative of these three strains, strain V-73T, shared the highest 16S rDNA sequence similarities with members of the genus Microbacterium, in particular Microbacterium foliorum, Microbacterium testaceum, Microbacterium esteraromaticum, Microbacterium keratanolyticum and Microbacterium arabinogalactanolyticum. The strains displayed almost identical biochemical and physiological characteristics and showed no differences in their protein patterns obtained after SDS-PAGE. On the basis of Fourier-transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectra and genomic fingerprints, the three strains were grouped together and separated from the other relevant members of the genus Microbacterium. The chemotaxonomic characteristics analysed, including polar lipids, quinone systems, cell wall composition and fatty acid profiles, were in good agreement with the characteristics described for the genus Microbacterium. The G+C content of the DNAs was determined to be in the narrow range 69.3-69.7 mol %. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, biochemical/physiological characterization, ERIC-PCR-generated genomic fingerprints and FT-IR spectra demonstrated that the three isolates represent a novel species of the genus Microbacterium. The name Microbacterium aerolatum sp. nov. is proposed for the novel species, of which strain V-73T (= DSM 14217T = CCM 4955T) is the type strain.

  4. Suburban Processes of Islandisation in Austria: The Cases of Vienna and Tyrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Andexlinger


    Full Text Available Suburban areas are often described as monotonous and generic. In Europe, however, suburban areas show distinct morphological and functional configurations in different regions due to cultural, spatial, economic, and institutional conditions. This paper compares recent suburban developments in Austria in the region south of Vienna and in the region of Tyrol, highlighting significant developments after 1985 in the fields of housing, shopping, leisure, and commercial sites. Using quantitative (aerial images, statistical data, plans and qualitative (case studies methods, the paper analyses the distinct morphological similarities of selected case studies and tries to answer two questions. First, how can these developments be assessed from the viewpoint of urban and spatial planning? Second, what spatial strategies could be useful for further interventions? It is concluded that these developments can be understood as island-like developments. This means that hybrid suburban structures have appeared where sharp-edged boundaries separate single elements from adjacent ones. These island-like developments have increased dramatically over the past decades and are today to a large extent characteristic of Austrian suburbs. Capitalism, market liberalisation, and prevailing planning regulations and culture are driving these processes of islandisation. The paper furthermore shows that new spatial strategies are required for creating more coherent spaces. Interstitial landscape as a planning tool seems to be one option for creating more livable and sustainable suburban areas in the future.

  5. Virtual Observatories: the Future of Astronomical Information (United States)

    Quinn, Peter J.

    There are currently several funded international efforts on the design and initial deployment of virtual observatories. The Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (AVO) project is an EC supported, three year Phase-A study of a VO for European astronomy. The UK eScience ASTROGRID project is a member of the AVO consortium. Both European projects are affiliated with the US National Virtual Observatory and other international VO projects. I will outline the goals and objectives of these projects and their current status as well as key European and global milestones for the next three years.

  6. Two Observatories in Istanbul: from the Late Ottoman Empire to the Young Turkish Republic (United States)

    Benoist, Christophe

    From the 17th century onward, the Ottoman Empire entered a phase of weakening, as a consequence of many factors including the dissolution of political stability, the loss of territory and decreasing revenue. In the second half of the 19th century, as an attempt to reinforce power of the central authority, the Ottomans undertook major reforms, called Tanzimat. During this period, individuals started to establish professional and learned associations similar to those in the West which eventually led to the creation of a Faculty of Science and to the Ottoman University (Darulfünun, 1900). In this context of reform and opening to the West, the Imperial Observatory (Rasathane-i Amire) was founded in 1868 with the support of France. Its primary aim was to exchange data between European and Ottoman meteorological stations. The Imperial Observatory occupied several locations before reaching its final setting in Kandilli (1911), on the Asian side of the Bosphorus where other activities were developed such as seismology, astronomy, meteorology and magnetic studies. Following the spirit of the newly founded Republic in 1923, a serious reform of the academic programmes and a purging of the staff of the Ottoman University led to the establishment of the Istanbul University in the historical quarter of Beyazit (1933). The Istanbul Astronomical Observatory was founded in the same year and its construction started in 1935. The university reform was largely influenced by the presence of German and other European scholars, many of them Jewish, escaping from Nazi persecution. In particular, Erwin Finlay-Freundlich from Potsdam Observatory became the first director of Istanbul Observatory. Kandilli and Istanbul University observatories are briefly presented here, stressing the main steps of their creation and their astronomica] heritage.

  7. Auger North: The Pierre Auger Observatory in the Northern Hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantsch, Paul M.; /Fermilab


    Results from Auger South have settled some fundamental issues about ultra-high energy (UHE) cosmic rays and made clear what is needed now to identify the sources of these particles, to uncover the acceleration process, to establish the particle types, and to test hadronic interaction properties at extreme energies. The cosmic rays above 55 EeV are key. Auger North targets this high energy frontier by increasing the collecting power of the Auger Observatory by a factor of eight for those high energy air showers. Particles above about 40 EeV have been shown to be subject to propagation energy loss, as predicted by Greisen, Zatsepin and Kuzmin (GZK) in 1966. Moreover, it is now evident that there is a detectable flux of particles from extragalactic sources within the GZK sphere. The inhomogeneous distribution of matter in the local universe imprints its anisotropy on the arrival directions of cosmic rays above 55 EeV. The challenge is to collect enough of those arrival directions to identify the class of astrophysical accelerators and measure directly the brightest sources. Auger North will increase the event rate from 25 per year to 200 per year and give the Auger Observatory full sky exposure. The Auger Observatory also has the capability to detect UHE photons and neutrinos from discrete sources or from the decays of GZK pions. With the expanded aperture of Auger North, the detection of GZK photons and neutrinos will provide a complementary perspective of the highest energy phenomena in the contemporary universe. Besides being an observatory for UHE cosmic rays, photons, and neutrinos, the Auger Observatory will serve as a laboratory for the study of hadronic interactions with good statistics over a wide range of center-of-mass energies above what can be reached at the LHC. Auger North will provide statistical power at center-of-mass energies above 250 TeV where the alternative extrapolations of hadronic cross sections diverge. Auger North is ready to go. The

  8. Studies of dark energy with X-ray observatories. (United States)

    Vikhlinin, Alexey


    I review the contribution of Chandra X-ray Observatory to studies of dark energy. There are two broad classes of observable effects of dark energy: evolution of the expansion rate of the Universe, and slow down in the rate of growth of cosmic structures. Chandra has detected and measured both of these effects through observations of galaxy clusters. A combination of the Chandra results with other cosmological datasets leads to 5% constraints on the dark energy equation-of-state parameter, and limits possible deviations of gravity on large scales from general relativity.

  9. Sharing the skies: the Gemini Observatory international time allocation process (United States)

    Margheim, Steven J.


    Gemini Observatory serves a diverse community of four partner countries (United States, Canada, Brazil, and Argentina), two hosts (Chile and University of Hawaii), and limited-term partnerships (currently Australia and the Republic of Korea). Observing time is available via multiple opportunities including Large and Long Pro- grams, Fast-turnaround programs, and regular semester queue programs. The slate of programs for observation each semester must be created by merging programs from these multiple, conflicting sources. This paper de- scribes the time allocation process used to schedule the overall science program for the semester, with emphasis on the International Time Allocation Committee and the software applications used.

  10. Food and feed supply and waste disposal in the industrialising city of Vienna (1830-1913): a special focus on urban nitrogen flows. (United States)

    Gierlinger, Sylvia

    Taking an urban metabolism perspective, this article investigates food and feed consumption as well as flows of nitrogen in the city of Vienna during the industrial transformation. It addresses the question of the amount of agricultural products consumed in the city and their nitrogen content, their origin and their fate after consumption. Changes in dietary nitrogen flows in nineteenth century Vienna are embedded in the context of a socio-ecological transition from an agrarian to an industrial socio-metabolic regime. Similarities and differences in the size and dynamics of urban nitrogen flows in Vienna and Paris are discussed. Critical reading of historical sources and historical material flow accounting are the methodological backbone of this study. Between 1830 and 1913, inflows of dietary nitrogen into the city increased fivefold. Throughout the time period under observation, the urban waterscape was the most important sink for human and animal excreta. The amount of nitrogen disposed of in the urban waterscape via urban excreta increased sevenfold. The average daily consumption of nitrogen per capita was very similar to that in Paris, but the composition of foodstuff differed. In Vienna, the share of meat in food consumption was considerably higher. Both cities had to face the challenge of increasing output flows. However, urban authorities in Vienna and Paris came to different solutions of how to deal with this challenge. Besides institutional settings, the specific geomorphology of the cities as well as biogeographic factors such as the absorption capacity of the Danube in Vienna and the Seine in Paris mattered.

  11. Science Drivers for the Virtual Observatory (United States)

    Djorgovski, S. G.


    The vast amounts of information from large digital sky surveys and archives, now measured in Terabytes, and soon in Petabytes, functionally unified within the NVO, will enable and stimulate a completely new way of doing astronomy. While some of these new opportunities exist even with the individual large sky surveys (e.g., SDSS, 2MASS, DPOSS, etc.), their federation within the NVO, spanning a broad range of wavelengths, provides an added scientific value, and opens an unprecedented panchromatic view of the universe. Several types of new science can be contemplated, including the following: (1) Precision statistical astronomy, including, e.g., studies of the large-scale structure in the universe, or the structure of our Galaxy, which are no longer Poisson noise limited due to the large numbers of sources and the systematic sky coverage. (2) Searches for rare, exotic, or even previously unknown types of astronomical objects, including complete samples of quasars, brown dwarfs, stars or galaxies of a given type, etc. (3) Systematic exploration of heretofore poorly sampled portions of the observable parameter space, e.g., the low surface brightness universe, or the time/variability domain at faint flux levels, at any wavelength. (4) The panchromatic nature of the unified NVO data sets can open new, relatively unbiased views of important astrophysical processes and populations, e.g., star formation or AGN, regardless of the obscuration, etc. Such grand studies are simply not feasible with the isolated, smaller data sets available in the past. Finally, a careful, systematic selection of targets from large sky surveys for focused follow-up studies using large telescopes and space observatories would make an optimal use of the valuable observing time at such costly facilities. Perhaps most important would be the enabling role of the NVO in making these information-rich data sets and tools to explore them available to the broad community, regardless of their access to large

  12. Were megalithic tombs solar observatories? (United States)

    Hänel, Andreas

    The orientations of the entrances of several hundred neolithic tombs in Northwest Germany, the Netherlands, Bretagne (Brittany) and the eastern Pyrenees (Roussillon and Catalunya) have been measured with a compass. Comparing these measurements with other authors, we could determine systematic errors and combine the measurements. The results are presented as polar coordinate histograms. The passage graves of Northwest Germany and the Netherlands are oriented east-west. For some of the tombs, entrances are preserved always on the southern side. We assume therefore, that all tombs had entrances on the southern side and we conclude that they are mainly oriented to the south, the direction where celestial objects, and especially the sun, reach their highest position in the sky. Similar results were found by Hamel (1985) for tombs in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The tombs in Brittany show a different orientation to the southeast, the azimuth of the rising sun on winter solstice. Tombs in the eastern Pyrenees have a similar orientation, as has also been found by other authors for several regions in southern France and the Iberian peninsula (Iund 2002, Chevalier 1999, Hoskin 2002). But in the eastern Pyrenees and from there north to the Provence and on the Balearic Islands exists a group of tombs that are oriented towards the southwest, where the winter sun sets (Chevalier 1999). But most of the entrances of the tombs are oriented towards the sun. The tombs certainly were no precise astronomical observatories, but their orientations might have had a ritual reason and the course of the sun in the sky was well known at that time.

  13. The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ford, Linda A.; Fernanda Zambrano Marin, Luisa; Aponte Hernandez, Betzaida; Soto, Sujeily; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.


    The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy (AOSA) is an intense fifteen-week pre-college research program for qualified high school students residing in Puerto Rico, which includes ten days for hands-on, on site research activities. Our mission is to prepare students for their professional careers by allowing them to receive an independent and collaborative research experience on topics related to the multidisciplinary field of space science. Our objectives are to (1) supplement the student's STEM education via inquiry-based learning and indirect teaching methods, (2) immerse students in an ESL environment, further developing their verbal and written presentation skills, and (3) foster in every student an interest in the STEM fields by harnessing their natural curiosity and knowledge in order to further develop their critical thinking and investigation skills. Students interested in participating in the program go through an application, interview and trial period before being offered admission. They are welcomed as candidates the first weeks, and later become cadets while experiencing designing, proposing, and conducting research projects focusing in fields like Physics, Astronomy, Geology, Chemistry, and Engineering. Each individual is evaluated with program compatibility based on peer interaction, preparation, participation, and contribution to class, group dynamics, attitude, challenges, and inquiry. This helps to ensure that specialized attention can be given to students who demonstrate a dedication and desire to learn. Deciding how to proceed in the face of setbacks and unexpected problems is central to the learning experience. At the end of the semester, students present their research to the program mentors, peers, and scientific staff. This year, AOSA students also focused on science communication and were trained by NASA's FameLab. Students additionally presented their research at this year's International Space Development Conference (ISDC), which was held in

  14. Renewable Energy for the Paranal Observatory (United States)

    Weilenmann, U.


    The operation of observatories at remote sites presents significant demands for electrical energy. The use of renewable energy may become the solution to cope with the ever-rising prices for electrical energy produced from fossil fuels. There is not only a purely commercial aspect, but also the carbon footprint of observatory activities has to be considered. As a first step on the way to a "greener" Paranal Observatory, we propose the installation of a solar cooling system for the cooling of the telescope enclosures, using the abundant insolation that is freely available in the north of Chile. Further into the future, feasible options for photovoltaic and wind energy could supply the needs of the Paranal Observatory in a sustainable manner.

  15. Cesarsky tipped to head Euro observatory

    CERN Multimedia


    French astrophysicist Catherine Cesarsky is the most likely candidate to be the next director of the European Southern Observatory in Garching. She is director of fundamental science at France's atomic energy research organization.

  16. Astronomy projects in ruins as observatory obliterated

    CERN Multimedia

    Bradley, M


    Canberra bushfires have gutted the Mount Stromlo Observatory causing the flames destroyed five telescopes, the workshop, eight staff homes and the main dome, causing more than $20 million in damage (1 page).

  17. The Arecibo Observatory as an MST radar (United States)

    Woodman, R. F.


    The radars and other systems at the Arecibo Observatory were designed and built, originally, for incoherent-scatter and radio-astronomy research. More recently, important additions have been made for planetary radar and artificial RF heating of the ionosphere. Although designed and built for a different application, these systems have shown to be very powerful tools for tropospheric, stratospheric and mesospheric research. The Observatory at present has two main radars: one at 430 and the other at 2380 MHz. In addition, 50-MHz MST radar work has been done using portable transmitters brought to the Observatory for this purpose. This capability will become permanent with the recent acquisition of a transmitter at this frequency. Furthermore, control and data processing systems have been developed to use the powerful HF transmitter and antennas of the HF-heating facility as an HF bistatic radar. A brief description of the four radars available at the Observatory is presented.

  18. A Green Robotic Observatory for Astronomy Education (United States)

    Reddy, Vishnu; Archer, K.


    With the development of robotic telescopes and stable remote observing software, it is currently possible for a small institution to have an affordable astronomical facility for astronomy education. However, a faculty member has to deal with the light pollution (observatory location on campus), its nightly operations and regular maintenance apart from his day time teaching and research responsibilities. While building an observatory at a remote location is a solution, the cost of constructing and operating such a facility, not to mention the environmental impact, are beyond the reach of most institutions. In an effort to resolve these issues we have developed a robotic remote observatory that can be operated via the internet from anywhere in the world, has a zero operating carbon footprint and minimum impact on the local environment. The prototype observatory is a clam-shell design that houses an 8-inch telescope with a SBIG ST-10 CCD detector. The brain of the observatory is a low draw 12-volt harsh duty computer that runs the dome, telescope, CCD camera, focuser, and weather monitoring. All equipment runs of a 12-volt AGM-style battery that has low lead content and hence more environmental-friendly to dispose. The total power of 12-14 amp/hrs is generated from a set of solar panels that are large enough to maintain a full battery charge for several cloudy days. This completely eliminates the need for a local power grid for operations. Internet access is accomplished via a high-speed cell phone broadband connection or satellite link eliminating the need for a phone network. An independent observatory monitoring system interfaces with the observatory computer during operation. The observatory converts to a trailer for transportation to the site and is converted to a semi-permanent building without wheels and towing equipment. This ensures minimal disturbance to local environment.

  19. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Grygar, Jiří; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub


    Roč. 798, Oct (2015), s. 172-213 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * high energy cosmic rays * hybrid observatory * water Cherenkov detectors * air fluorescence detectors Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.200, year: 2015

  20. TMT Approach to Observatory Software Development Process


    Buur, Hanne; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Gillies, Kim; Dumas, Christophe; Bhatia, Ravinder


    The purpose of the Observatory Software System (OSW) is to integrate all software and hardware components of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) to enable observations and data capture; thus it is a complex software system that is defined by four principal software subsystems: Common Software (CSW), Executive Software (ESW), Data Management System (DMS) and Science Operations Support System (SOSS), all of which have interdependencies with the observatory control systems and data acquisition syst...

  1. Observatories of Sawai Jai Singh II (United States)

    Johnson-Roehr, Susan N.

    Sawai Jai Singh II, Maharaja of Amber and Jaipur, constructed five observatories in the second quarter of the eighteenth century in the north Indian cities of Shahjahanabad (Delhi), Jaipur, Ujjain, Mathura, and Varanasi. Believing the accuracy of his naked-eye observations would improve with larger, more stable instruments, Jai Singh reengineered common brass instruments using stone construction methods. His applied ingenuity led to the invention of several outsize masonry instruments, the majority of which were used to determine the coordinates of celestial objects with reference to the local horizon. During Jai Singh's lifetime, the observatories were used to make observations in order to update existing ephemerides such as the Zīj-i Ulugh Begī. Jai Singh established communications with European astronomers through a number of Jesuits living and working in India. In addition to dispatching ambassadorial parties to Portugal, he invited French and Bavarian Jesuits to visit and make use of the observatories in Shahjahanabad and Jaipur. The observatories were abandoned after Jai Singh's death in 1743 CE. The Mathura observatory was disassembled completely before 1857. The instruments at the remaining observatories were restored extensively during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

  2. The Russian-Ukrainian Observatories Network for the European Astronomical Observatory Route Project (United States)

    Andrievsky, S. M.; Bondar, N. I.; Karetnikov, V. G.; Kazantseva, L. V.; Nefedyev, Y. A.; Pinigin, G. I.; Pozhalova, Zh. A.; Rostopchina-Shakhovskay, A. N.; Stepanov, A. V.; Tolbin, S. V.


    In 2004,the Center of UNESCO World Heritage has announced a new initiative "Astronomy & World Heritage" directed for search and preserving of objects,referred to astronomy,its history in a global value,historical and cultural properties. There were defined a strategy of thematic programme "Initiative" and general criteria for selecting of ancient astronomical objects and observatories. In particular, properties that are situated or have significance in relation to celestial objects or astronomical events; representations of sky and/or celestial bodies and astronomical events; observatories and instruments; properties closely connected with the history of astronomy. In 2005-2006,in accordance with the program "Initiative", information about outstanding properties connected with astronomy have been collected.In Ukraine such work was organized by astronomical expert group in Nikolaev Astronomical Observatory. In 2007, Nikolaev observatory was included to the Tentative List of UNESCO under # 5116. Later, in 2008, the network of four astronomical observatories of Ukraine in Kiev,Crimea, Nikolaev and Odessa,considering their high authenticities and integrities,was included to the Tentative List of UNESCO under # 5267 "Astronomical Observatories of Ukraine". In 2008-2009, a new project "Thematic Study" was opened as a successor of "Initiative". It includes all fields of astronomical heritage from earlier prehistory to the Space astronomy (14 themes in total). We present the Ukraine-Russian Observatories network for the "European astronomical observatory Route project". From Russia two observatories are presented: Kazan Observatory and Pulkovo Observatory in the theme "Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century".The description of astronomical observatories of Ukraine is given in accordance with the project "Thematic study"; the theme "Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century" - astronomical observatories in Kiev,Nikolaev and Odessa; the

  3. Subsurface temporal variation of radon at the Conrad Geophysical Observatory, Austria (United States)

    Leonhardt, Roman; Steinitz, Gideon; Piatibratova, Oksana


    The Conrad Observatory (COBS) housed the national geophysical observatory of Austria and is located 50 km south west of Vienna within the carbonate sequence of the "Wettersteinkalk". Parameters monitored at the facility comprise environmental data, seismic signals, gravity, geomagnetic components and also natural gamma rays. A subsurface tunnel, 150 meters long and oriented E-W is driven into the calcareous sequence at a depth of 50 meters. The tunnel is lined with a concrete carapace, ~20 cm thick. The tunnel observatory is separated from the external atmosphere by 3 tight doors, resulting in a stable temperature of 6.85±0.04°C. A gamma detector (3×3", NaI, SCA) is used measure the variation of the gamma radiation from radon in the air of the tunnel, at a resolution of 1 minute, which is accumulated to form a 15-minute count rate. The sensor is placed on a concrete block at 135 meters. Several SSNTD measurements in the tunnel indicated radon level in the level of 1.5 kBq/m^3. The background gamma radiation, due probably mainly to sources in the concrete is in the order to 2×105 counts (per 15-minutes). A long term variation of radon is reflected as an annual radon signal with large amplitude (2×105 counts) and a maximum in summer. Small to large (2×105 counts) non periodic multi-day signals lasting from two to several tens of days are superimposed. Daily periodic signals of much lower amplitude are observed, with amplitudes generally up to 4×104 counts. The amplitude of the non-periodic multi-day is coupled to amplitude of the annual signal, and the amplitude of the periodic daily signal is modulated by the multi-day variation. The source of the radon in the air of the tunnel is from the concrete lining the floor and walls of the tunnel. The variation patterns and their systematic characteristics cannot be ascribed to local variations of pressure and temperature (stable). These limitations indicate that other driver(s), external to the tunnel, are forcing

  4. Digitalization of the exceptional building and decorative stones collection of the Natural History Museum Vienna (United States)

    Ferrière, Ludovic; Steinwender, Christian


    The Natural History Museum Vienna (NHMV) owns one of the largest building, decorative, and ornamental stones collections in Europe. This important collection dates back to the 19th century and was initiated by curator Felix Karrer after a donation of the "Union-Baugesellschaft" (Karrer, 1892). It contains rock samples used for the construction of most of the famous buildings and monuments in Vienna and in the entire Austria and surrounding countries, as well as from other famous constructions and antique (Egyptian, Greek, Roman, etc.) monuments in the world. Decorative stones that were used for the inside parts of buildings as well as artificial materials, such as stucco, tiles, and building-materials like gravel, are also part of this collection. Unfortunately, most specimens of this collection cannot be displayed at the NHMV (i.e., only 500 specimens are visible in the display Hall I) and are therefore preserved in storage rooms, and not accessible to the public. The main objective of our project of digitalization is to share our rock collection and all treasures it contains with the large majority of interested persons, and especially to provide knowledge on these rocks for people who need this information, such as people who work in cultural, architectural, scientific, and commercial fields. So far 4,500 samples from our collection have been processed with the support of the Open Up! project (Opening up the Natural History Heritage for Europeana). Our database contains all information available on these samples (including e.g., the name of the rock, locality, historic use, heritage utilization, etc.), high-quality digital photographs (with both top and bottom sides of the samples), and scanned labels (both "old" NHMV labels and other (original) labels attached to the samples). We plan to achieve the full digitalization of our unique collection within the next two years and to develop a website to provide access to the content of our database (if adequate

  5. CSU's MWV Observatory: A Facility for Research, Education and Outreach (United States)

    Hood, John; Carpenter, N. D.; McCarty, C. B.; Samford, J. H.; Johnson, M.; Puckett, A. W.; Williams, R. N.; Cruzen, S. T.


    The Mead Westvaco Observatory (MWVO), located in Columbus State University's Coca-Cola Space Science Center, is dedicated to education and research in astronomy through hands-on engagement and public participation. The MWVO has recently received funding to upgrade from a 16-inch Meade LX-200 telescope to a PlaneWave CDK 24-inch Corrected Dall-Kirkham Astrograph telescope. This and other technological upgrades will allow this observatory to stream live webcasts for astronomical events, allowing a worldwide public audience to become a part of the growing astronomical community. This poster will explain the upgrades that are currently in progress as well as the results from the current calibrations. The goal of these upgrades is to provide facilities capable of both research-class projects and widespread use in education and public outreach. We will present our initial calibration and tests of the observatory equipment, as well as its use in webcasts of astronomical events, in solar observing through the use of specialized piggy-backed telescopes, and in research into such topics as asteroids, planetary and nebula imaging. We will describe a pilot research project on asteroid orbit refinement and light curves, to be carried out by Columbus State University students. We will also outline many of the K-12 educational and public outreach activities we have designed for these facilities. Support and funding for the acquisition and installation of the new PlaneWave CDK 24 has been provided by the International Museum and Library Services via the Museums for America Award.

  6. Liability for nuclear damage: an international perspective. Reflections on the revision of the Vienna Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopuski, J.


    This book deals with deals of the complex issues of liability and compensation for nuclear damage which have been considered in the course of the work of the IAEA concerning the revision of the Vienna Convention on nuclear liability. It presents, in an orderly way, personal reflections of its author based on his experience gathered in years 1989-1992 when participating in this work. Necessarily it contains in some of its parts references to documents of the IAEA Standing Committee on Nuclear Liability; these documents because of their length could not be reproduced. Consequently these parts may not be fully intelligible for those who have not participated in or closely followed the Committee`s work. The IAEA work on liability for nuclear damage was initiated in the wake of the impact made on the world`s public opinion by the Chernobyl incident and its transboundary effects; issues of international state liability and full compensation have been raised. But humanitarian ideas have quickly been confronted with cold calculations of the cost of financial protection for victims and an open unwillingness of some nuclear states has been manifested. After three years of discussions no wide consensus could be reached on some basic issues, such as: relationship between international state and civil liability regimes, structure of international legislation, concept of nuclear damage, limits of compensation, role of public funds or jurisdiction. The author presents his approach to these controversial issue, trying to provide at the same time a theoretical outline for the future international legislation on nuclear liability. (author).

  7. Promoting interdisciplinary education - the Vienna Doctoral Programme on Water Resource Systems (United States)

    Blöschl, G.; Carr, G.; Bucher, C.; Farnleitner, A. H.; Rechberger, H.; Wagner, W.; Zessner, M.


    The Vienna Doctoral Programme on Water Resource Systems (DK-WRS) is a programme that aims to educate students in interdisciplinary water science through cutting edge research at an international level. It is funded by the Austrian Science Fund and designed to run over a period of 12 yr during which 80 doctoral students are anticipated to graduate. This paper reports on our experiences of setting up and implementing the Programme. We identify three challenges: integrating the disciplines, maintaining depth in an interdisciplinary programme, and teaching subjects remote to each student's core expertise. To address these challenges we adopt a number of approaches. We use three levels of instruments to foster integration across the disciplines: joint groups (e.g. a joint study programme), joint science questions (e.g. developed in annual symposia), and joint study sites. To maintain depth we apply a system of quality control including regular feedback sessions, theses by journal publications and international study exchange. For simultaneously teaching students from civil and environmental engineering, biology, geology, chemistry, mathematics we use visually explicit teaching, learning by doing, extra mentoring and by cross relating associated subjects. Our initial assessment of the Programme shows some very positive outcomes. Joint science questions formed between students from various disciplines indicate integration is being achieved. The number of successful publications in top journals suggests that depth is maintained. Positive feedback from the students on the variety and clarity of the courses indicates the teaching strategy is working well. Our experiences have shown that implementing and running an interdisciplinary doctoral programme has its challenges and is demanding in terms of time and human resources but seeing interactions progress and watching people grow and develop their way of thinking in an interdisciplinary environment is a valuable reward.

  8. Promoting interdisciplinary education − the Vienna Doctoral Programme on Water Resource Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wagner


    Full Text Available The Vienna Doctoral Programme on Water Resource Systems (DK-WRS is a programme that aims to educate students in interdisciplinary water science through cutting edge research at an international level. It is funded by the Austrian Science Fund and designed to run over a period of 12 yr during which 80 doctoral students are anticipated to graduate. This paper reports on our experiences of setting up and implementing the Programme. We identify three challenges: integrating the disciplines, maintaining depth in an interdisciplinary programme, and teaching subjects remote to each student's core expertise. To address these challenges we adopt a number of approaches. We use three levels of instruments to foster integration across the disciplines: joint groups (e.g. a joint study programme, joint science questions (e.g. developed in annual symposia, and joint study sites. To maintain depth we apply a system of quality control including regular feedback sessions, theses by journal publications and international study exchange. For simultaneously teaching students from civil and environmental engineering, biology, geology, chemistry, mathematics we use visually explicit teaching, learning by doing, extra mentoring and by cross relating associated subjects. Our initial assessment of the Programme shows some very positive outcomes. Joint science questions formed between students from various disciplines indicate integration is being achieved. The number of successful publications in top journals suggests that depth is maintained. Positive feedback from the students on the variety and clarity of the courses indicates the teaching strategy is working well. Our experiences have shown that implementing and running an interdisciplinary doctoral programme has its challenges and is demanding in terms of time and human resources but seeing interactions progress and watching people grow and develop their way of thinking in an interdisciplinary environment is a

  9. Time Series Photometry on Different Scales at the BYU West Mountain Observatory (United States)

    Joner, Michael D.


    We present multiple examples of differential time series photometry using the 0.9-meter telescope located at the Brigham Young University West Mountain Observatory. The observations include monitoring of a supernova and an AGN over a period of more than 100 days. An extragalactic Cepheid that was observed nightly for two months has also been included as an example in this summary. Finally, we report on target of opportunity observations secured on objects such as delta Scuti stars, eclipsing binaries, and candidate planetary transit stars. The West Mountain Observatory operates using student and faculty observers who participate in several monitoring projects that are scheduled during each observing season in addition to their own primary program. This model has given student observers an opportunity to gain useful experience on a wide variety of different monitoring projects involving carefully timed and executed photometric observations. These observations have proven especially valuable for both observatory support and student training during the May through August portion of the observing season when most regular classes are not a competing activity. Despite the use of a considerable number of different observers at many stages of training, most of the various programs undertaken at the observatory have been successfully completed over the past five years. We wish to thank the Brigham Young University College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences as well as the Department of Physics and Astronomy for their continued support of the research activities at the West Mountain Observatory.

  10. 195-Year History of Mykolayiv Observatory: Events and People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulga, O.V.


    Full Text Available The basic stages of the history of the Mykolaiv Astronomical Observatory are shown. The main results of the Observatory activities are presented by the catalogs of star positions, major and minor planets in the Solar system, space objects in the Earth orbit. The information on the qualitative and quantitative structure of the Observatory, cooperation with the observatories of Ukraine and foreign countries as well as major projects carried out in the Observatory is provided.

  11. 195-year history of Mykolayiv Observatory: events and people (United States)

    Shulga, O. V.; Yanishevska, L. M.


    The basic stages of the history of the Mykolaiv Astronomical Observatory are shown. The main results of the Observatory activities are presented by the catalogs of star positions, major and minor planets in the Solar system, space objects in the Earth orbit. The information on the qualitative and quantitative structure of the Observatory, cooperation with the observatories of Ukraine and foreign countries as well as major projects carried out in the Observatory is provided.

  12. 195-Year History of Mykolayiv Observatory: Events and People


    Shulga, O.V.; Yanishevska, L.M.


    The basic stages of the history of the Mykolaiv Astronomical Observatory are shown. The main results of the Observatory activities are presented by the catalogs of star positions, major and minor planets in the Solar system, space objects in the Earth orbit. The information on the qualitative and quantitative structure of the Observatory, cooperation with the observatories of Ukraine and foreign countries as well as major projects carried out in the Observatory is provided.

  13. Education partnerships at 41,000 feet: The stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) education and outreach program (United States)

    Devore, Edna

    The SOFIA Education and Public Outreach Program (E/PO) is under development as this unique astronomical observatory is being designed and constructed. SOFIA is an infrared astronomical observatory comprised of a 2.5-meter telescope mounted in a Boeing 747SP aircraft. By flying above the water vapor in Earth's atmosphere, SOFIA will observe the infrared universe, studying the birth place of stars, the formation of planets, and the ecology of galaxies. SOFIA is also the world's largest portable telescope, and will be used to observe events such as occultations that require the observatory be at a particular location on Earth. As an airborne observatory, SOFIA is accessible during research flights; SOFIA will carry on board a compliment of pilots, scientists and their graduate students, observatory staff, and visiting educators, members of the press, and other guests. Unique in the world of major observatories, SOFIA is being designed and constructed to accommodate guests during the research process. Educators (teachers, college faculty, planetarium and museum staff, and others) will have the opportunity to partner with scientists as a part of the E/PO program for SOFIA. Participants will be selected to offer broad participation. Training will be provided, and participants will be supported beyond the immediate research flight experience as a network of Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) in their schools, science centers, and communities. Other EPO activities include partnerships between scientists and educators at universities and research laboratories, internships and fellowships (1-2 years in duration) at the observatory. Research missions begin in late 2004 with AAA participation expected in 2005. SOFIA will be operated for NASA by Universities Space Research Association (USRA) with the USRA-led team: University of California, L3 Communications, United Airlines, Astronomical Society of the Pacific and the SETI Institute. SOFIA is a joint US-German project funded

  14. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, True Color Orthophotography for Cambridge, Hurlock, Secretary, and Vienna - 4" pixles, 2006., Published in 2006, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Eastern Shore Regional GIS Cooperative. (United States)

    NSGIC Regional | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2006. True Color Orthophotography for Cambridge, Hurlock, Secretary, and Vienna - 4" pixles,...

  15. Air for learning. School of healthcare and nursing of Vienna; Luft zum Lernen. Gesundheits- und Krankenpflegeschule der Stadt Wien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtblau, Andreas; Wagner, Susanna [lichtblauwagner architekten, Vienna (Austria)


    Due to the generously and light volume of space, the self-regulating shading system as well as the energy efficient ventilation, the energy optimized school of healthcare and nursing of the Kaiser-Franz-Josef-Hospital (Vienna, Austria) provides significant innovative steps in school buildings. The heterogeneous space on offer as well as the four-story, open hall with a maximum natural lighting and acoustics, which is attuned to the classrooms, enable a learning and working in a friendly atmosphere. With the open space structure and the row of trees as a technical shading system the building upgrades the traffic-exposed environment.

  16. Neutron flux measurements at the TRIGA reactor in Vienna for the prediction of the activation of the biological shield. (United States)

    Merz, Stefan; Djuricic, Mile; Villa, Mario; Böck, Helmuth; Steinhauser, Georg


    The activation of the biological shield is an important process for waste management considerations of nuclear facilities. The final activity can be estimated by modeling using the neutron flux density rather than the radiometric approach of activity measurements. Measurement series at the TRIGA reactor Vienna reveal that the flux density next to the biological shield is in the order of 10(9)cm(-2)s(-1) at maximum power; but it is strongly influenced by reactor installations. The data allow the estimation of the final waste categorization of the concrete according to the Austrian legislation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Multinational History of Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Heck, André


    Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory is quite an interesting place for historians: several changes of nationality between France and Germany, high-profile scientists having been based there, big projects born or installed in its walls, and so on. Most of the documents circulating on the history of the Observatory and on related matters have however been so far poorly referenced, if at all. This made necessary the compilation of a volume such as this one, offering fully-documented historical facts and references on the first decades of the Observatory history, authored by both French and German specialists. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy nor in the details of European history. After an introductory chapter by the Editor, contributions by Wolfschmidt and by Duerbeck respectively deal extensively with the German periods and review people and instrumentation, while another paper by Duerbeck is more...

  18. Comparison of Superconducting and Spring Gravimeters at the Mizusawa VLBI Observatory of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (United States)

    Miura, Satoshi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kim, Tae-Hee; Tamura, Yoshiaki


    Continuous microgravity monitoring is utilized to gain new insights into changes in the subsurface distribution of magma and/or fluid that commonly occur beneath active volcanoes. Rather new superconducting and spring gravimeters, iGrav#003 and gPhone#136 are collocated with a superconducting gravimeter, TT#70 at the Mizusawa VLBI Observatory of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, since the end of September, 2016 in order to evaluate those performances before field deployment planned in 2017. Calibration of iGrav#003 was carried out by collocation with an absolute gravimeter FG5 of the Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo (Okubo, 2016, personal comm.) at a Fundamental Gravity Station in Sendai in July, 2016. Based on the scale factors of iGrav#003 obtained by the calibration and of gPhone#136 provided by the manufacturer (Micro-g LaCoste, Inc.), tidal analyses are performed by means of BAYTAP-G (Tamura et al., 1991, GJI). Amplitudes and phases of each major tidal constituent mutually agree well within ±4 % and ±3 degrees, respectively. The instrumental drift rate of iGrav#003 is very low, about 5 micro-Gal/month, whereas that of gPhone#136 is very high, about 500 micro-Gal/month. The high drift rate of gPhone#136, however, is well approximated by a quadratic function at present and can be removed. The detrended time series of gPhone#136 shows good agreement with iGrav#003 time series in the overall feature: gravity fluctuations with amplitudes of about a few micro-Gal and with durations of a few days, which may be due to variations in the moisture content of the topmost unsaturated sedimentary layer and the water table height. It suggests that both instruments may capture volcanic signals associated with pressure changes in magma chambers, dike intrusion/withdrawing, and so on. iGrav#003 will be installed in the Zao volcanological observatory of Tohoku University located at about 3 km from the summit crater, and gPhone#136 will be

  19. Geoelectric monitoring at the Boulder magnetic observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Blum


    Full Text Available Despite its importance to a range of applied and fundamental studies, and obvious parallels to a robust network of magnetic-field observatories, long-term geoelectric field monitoring is rarely performed. The installation of a new geoelectric monitoring system at the Boulder magnetic observatory of the US Geological Survey is summarized. Data from the system are expected, among other things, to be used for testing and validating algorithms for mapping North American geoelectric fields. An example time series of recorded electric and magnetic fields during a modest magnetic storm is presented. Based on our experience, we additionally present operational aspects of a successful geoelectric field monitoring system.

  20. SPASE and the Heliophysics Virtual Observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J R Thieman


    Full Text Available The Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE project has developed an information model for interoperable access and retrieval of data within the Heliophysics (also known as space and solar physics science community. The diversity of science data archives within this community has led to the establishment of many virtual observatories to coordinate the data pathways within Heliophysics subdisciplines, such as magnetospheres, waves, radiation belts, etc. The SPASE information model provides a semantic layer and common language for data descriptions so that searches might be made across the whole of the heliophysics data environment, especially through the virtual observatories.

  1. Geoelectric monitoring at the Boulder magnetic observatory (United States)

    Blum, Cletus; White, Tim; Sauter, Edward A.; Stewart, Duff; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Love, Jeffrey J.


    Despite its importance to a range of applied and fundamental studies, and obvious parallels to a robust network of magnetic-field observatories, long-term geoelectric field monitoring is rarely performed. The installation of a new geoelectric monitoring system at the Boulder magnetic observatory of the US Geological Survey is summarized. Data from the system are expected, among other things, to be used for testing and validating algorithms for mapping North American geoelectric fields. An example time series of recorded electric and magnetic fields during a modest magnetic storm is presented. Based on our experience, we additionally present operational aspects of a successful geoelectric field monitoring system.

  2. Three Worlds of the Megalithic Observatory Kokino (United States)

    Cenev, G.


    Mountain in its symbolic presentation can be considered as a world axis and place for alliance of three worlds: heavenly world, ours or middle world and underworld. Image of the three worlds represents also intellectual establishment, proportion and unity among Gods, Cosmos and Man. The three observation posts of the Megalithic Observatory Kokino actually are symbols of those three worlds in the ancient people's imagination, defining ritual activities. At the same time, they were used for organizing all agricultural and stock breeding activities of the early agricultural communities in the wider region surrounding the ancient observatory.

  3. The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorak, John [University of Hawaii' s Institute for Astronomy (United States)


    I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

  4. A Prototype Environmental Observatory in Northern New Mexico (United States)

    Brooks, P. D.


    The NSF-funded Science and Technology Center SAHRA is leading a major, interdisciplinary effort to design, implement, and operate a long-term environmental observatory focused on the broad, interdisciplinary question. Currently, there are 18 investigators from 11 universities, governmental agencies, and research laboratories collaborating on the effort. Research disciplines include surface and subsurface hydrology, biogeochemistry, soil science, ecology, atmospheric science, and hydrometeorology with active efforts to engage other fields. Within this interdisciplinary context our research efforts are designed to create new or improved understanding of the complexities in the interactions between physical, biological, and human factors in semiarid environments. To foster coordination among researchers from multiple disciplines, we are organized around our broad vegetation change question with subsidiary research questions (e.g. how do ecohydrological interactions control the fluxes and storage of water, and how can these ecohydrological interactions, which are the outcome of processes that occur at the meter-to-hillslope scale, be represented at the scale of landscapes to basins) to coordinate measurement, modeling, and experimentation efforts. Our generalized approach consists of intensive, coordinated observations at key locations closely coordinated with fine- resolution process modeling. The result of this iterative process of measurement and modeling is a quantitative understanding of coupled physical and biological processes as well as information on the spatial and temporal distribution of data needed to represent these processes in distributed models. This observatory serves to 1) contribute to SAHRA's mission "to promote sustainable management of water resources by conducting water resources-related science, outreach, and education in the context of critical water management issues of semiarid and arid regions" and 2) to demonstrate the utility and value of

  5. Cherenkov Telescope Array: the next-generation gamma ray observatory (United States)

    Ebr, Jan


    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a project to build the next generation ground-based observatory for gamma-ray astronomy at very-high energies in the range from 20 GeV to 300 TeV, which will both surpass the sensitivity of existing instruments in their energy domains and extend the limits of the observed energy spectrum. It will probe some of the most energetic processes in the Universe and provide insight into topics such as the acceleration of charged cosmic rays and their role in galaxy evolution, processes in relativistic jets, wind and explosions and the nature and distribution of dark matter. The CTA Observatory will consist of more than a hundred imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACT) of three different size classes, installed at two premier astronomical locations, one in each hemisphere. It is foreseen that the telescopes will use a variety of optical designs including parabolic primary mirrors, variations of the Davies-Cotton design and two-mirror setups such as the Schwarzschild-Couder telescope, and several camera designs, using both photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) for detection of the nanosecond-scale Cherenkov flashes. Each telescope will feature a precise but lightweight and agile mount, allowing even the largest telescopes to change targets within 20 seconds, with systems of sensors and actuators actively controlling the shape of the reflecting surfaces. As an integral part, the Observatory will feature extensive calibration facilities, closely monitoring both the detectors themselves and the surrounding atmosphere. Several telescope prototypes already exist and the installation works at the northern site have started.

  6. Educational Programs at the Lake Afton Public Observatory (United States)

    Alexander, D. R.; Novacek, G. R.


    The Lake Afton Public Observatory was founded 14 years ago as a joint project of the city, county, local schools, and Wichita State University to provide educational programs for the public and school children. A staff of 4 professional astronomers presents daytime and evening programs at the Observatory and makes presentations in schools to over 20,000 people per year. Programs are scheduled 6 days a week during the academic year and 3 days a week in the summer. Our public programs deviate significantly from the traditional observatory open house by following a specific theme. Selection and discussion of each object is centered on that theme. For example, a program on The Life Story of a Star would view a diffuse nebula (to discuss star formation), a young star cluster (to discuss one outcome of star formation), a double star (to discuss how the properties of stars are determined), and a planetary nebula (to discuss the death of a star). To complement the observing experiences of our visitors, we have developed a wide range of interactive exhibits to develop the concepts touched on in the viewing programs. We have also developed exhibit lending kits for extended use in school classrooms, educational games, activity manuals for teachers, and short videos to introduce single concepts in the classroom. In the past year we have begun to offer a series of workshops for in-service teachers to expand their knowledge of astronomy and to provide them with additional resources for teaching astronomy. This work is supported in part by NSF EPSCoR grant OSR-9255223.

  7. The Ocean Observatories Initiative: Data, Data and More Data (United States)

    Crowley, M. F.; Vardaro, M.; Belabbassi, L.; Smith, M. J.; Garzio, L. M.; Knuth, F.; Glenn, S. M.; Schofield, O.; Lichtenwalner, C. S.; Kerfoot, J.


    The Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), a project funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and managed by the Consortium for Ocean Leadership, is a networked infrastructure of science-driven sensor systems that measure the physical, chemical, geological, and biological variables in the ocean and seafloor on coastal, regional, and global scales. OOI long term research arrays have been installed off the Washington coast (Cabled), Massachusetts and Oregon coasts (Coastal) and off Alaska, Greenland, Chile and Argentina (Global). Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and Oregon State University are responsible for the coastal and global moorings and their autonomous vehicles. The University of Washington is responsible for cabled seafloor systems and moorings. Rutgers University operates the Cyberinfrastructure (CI) portion of the OOI, which acquires, processes and distributes data to the scientists, researchers, educators and the public. It also provides observatory mission command and control, data assessment and distribution, and long-term data management. This talk will present an overview of the OOI infrastructure and its three primary websites which include: 1) An OOI overview website offering technical information on the infrastructure ranging from instruments to science goals, news, deployment updates, and information on the proposal process, 2) The Education and Public Engagement website where students can view and analyze exactly the same data that scientists have access to at exactly the same time, but with simple visualization tools and compartmentalized lessons that lead them through complex science questions, and 3) The primary data access website and machine to machine interface where anyone can plot or download data from the over 700 instruments within the OOI Network.

  8. Effects of rupatadine vs placebo on allergen-induced symptoms in patients exposed to aeroallergens in the Vienna Challenge Chamber. (United States)

    Stuebner, Petra; Horak, Friedrich; Zieglmayer, René; Arnáiz, Eva; Leuratti, Chiara; Pérez, Iñaki; Izquierdo, Iñaki


    Rupatadine is a novel compound with potent dual antihistamine and platelet-activating factor antagonist activities and no sedative effects. To evaluate the efficacy of rupatadine, 10 mg once daily, and placebo on allergen-induced symptoms (including nasal congestion), nasal airflow, nasal secretion, and subjective tolerability in response to grass pollen in a controlled allergen-exposure chamber. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, 45 patients with a history of seasonal allergic rhinitis received rupatadine or placebo every morning for 8 days in 2 different periods separated by a 14-day washout interval. On day 8 of each crossover period, patients underwent a 6-hour allergen exposure in the Vienna Challenge Chamber, where a constant and homogeneous concentration of aeroallergens was maintained. Subjective and objective assessments were performed online during the exposure. Subjective single and composite nasal and nonnasal symptoms were consistently less severe with rupatadine use than with placebo use starting from the first evaluation at 15 minutes to the end of the 6-hour Vienna Challenge Chamber challenge, with the most significant effects seen for nasal rhinorrhea, nasal itching, sneezing attacks, and total nasal symptoms (P rupatadine therapy than with placebo use (P rupatadine treatment was well tolerated. Rupatadine treatment is effective and well tolerated in patients with allergen-induced symptoms exposed to aeroallergens in a controlled exposure chamber.

  9. Tourist Intensity in Capital Cities in Central Europe: Comparative Analysis of Tourism in Prague, Vienna and Budapest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumbrovská Veronika


    Full Text Available Urban tourism has become a significant phenomenon of tourism over the last decade. the importance of urban tourism has grown mainly due to the development of transport and information technologies. rapid advancement of low cost airlines and reduction of administrative barriers owing to the expansion of the schengen area caused not only the development of a number of urban destinations, including Prague, but also the growth of new source markets. this paper compares the development of urban tourism in Prague with the situation in Vienna and Budapest in the last decade. the aim of the paper is to describe the main trends of tourism development and the geographic distribution of tourism in Prague in comparison with culturally and historically similar cities - Vienna and Budapest. the analysis shows high load of tourism in Prague and its strong concentration in the old city. this causes congestion in the city centre and an extrusion of residential functions by the functions of tourism. As a result, a tourism ghetto has been formed in the centre of Prague and the urban society has been increasingly dualized.

  10. The Development of the Classical Observatory: From a Functional Shelter for the Telescope to the Temple of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapio Markkanen


    Full Text Available At the end of the 18th century and at the beginning of the 19th century, observatory buildings underwent a change, because astronomical tools of observation had transformed from light portable equipment into permanently mounted accurate instruments. For positional astronomy, observations were mainly carried out in the meridian or in the prime vertical. A new type of telescope, the equatorially mounted refractor was adopted for the observation of objects such as planets, comets and double stars. The new instruments and methods of observation also required new approaches to observatory design. The new research needs began to determine the exterior, structure and functions of the observatory building. At the beginning of the 19th century, new standards of observatory planning were developed for the construction of the new observatories of Tartu, Helsinki and Pulkovo. Over many decades, the adopted design principles guided the construction and architecture of avant-garde observatories around the world. They also provided for the archetype of the observatory as a universal emblem for science well into the 20th century. The article discusses the development stages of these design principles and their global impacts.

  11. Observatory for education and public outreach controlled through the World Wide Web (United States)

    Guzik, T. Gregory; Motl, Patrick M.; Burks, Geoffrey S.; Fisher, Paul; Giammanco, James; Landolt, Arlo U.; Stacy, J. G.; Tohline, Joel E.; Wefel, Katrina


    For the last two and a half years the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Louisiana State University has been engaged in a collaborative effort with the Recreation and Park Commission for the Parish of East Baton Rouge and the Baton Rouge Astronomical Society to develop a observatory that can be used for astronomy education from primary school; through graduate studies as well as for recreation and public outreach. The observatory includes a 2,300 square feet facility, a 20-inch diameter Ritchey-Chretien telescope, a black-thinned CCD camera, a computer control system and an internet T1 link. The on site public outreach and education program has been fully active since Fall, 1997 and we are currently in the process of developing a platform- independent system for remotely controlling the observatory over the internet. The initial version of the Java/World Wide Web based software is currently functioning and provides interactive control of the observatory via any Java compatible web browser. The main principles of the remote control system are presented in this paper, along with a discussion of the education and outreach goals of the observatory, details of the facility and hardware, initial measurements of system performance, and a discussion of our future development plans.

  12. India-Based Neutrino Observatory (INO)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India-Based Neutrino Observatory (INO) · Atmospheric neutrinos – India connection · INO Collaboration · INO Project components · ICAL: The physics goals ... Synergy with other experiments: CPV · Human Resource development & Training · INO Outreach Activities · Why India should be interested in a project like INO ?

  13. The Cape Observatory: all Categories of Heritage (United States)

    Glass, Ian S.


    In this presentation I will give an outline of the various types of heritage related to the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope, established in 1820 and now the headquarters campus of the South African Astronomical Observatory, located quite close to downtown Cape Town. In terms of tangible, fixed heritage, the campus itself, the domes and the various other buildings are obviously relevant. This category includes the Classical Revival Main Building of 1828 and the McClean dome of 1895 by the leading colonial architect Herbert Baker as well as many other buildings and even the graves of two directors. Tangible movable items include, in principle, the telescopes, the accessory instruments and many pieces of apparatus that have been preserved. In addition, extensive collections of antique paintings, drawings, furniture and books add to the site's cultural significance. Many of the Observatory's archives are still kept locally. The intangible heritage of the Observatory consists for example of its history, its major discoveries, its interaction with the City, its central role in the history of science in South Africa and its appeal as a living cultural institution. Especially notable were the observations by Henderson (ca 1831) leading to the distance of a Cen and the early sky survey known as the Cape Photographic Durchmusterung.

  14. MMS Observatory TV Results Contamination Summary (United States)

    Rosecrans, Glenn; Brieda, Lubos; Errigo, Therese


    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission is a constellation of 4 observatories designed to investigate the fundamental plasma physics of reconnection in the Earth's magnetosphere. The various instrument suites measure electric and magnetic fields, energetic particles, and plasma composition. Each spacecraft has undergone extensive environmental testing to prepare it for its minimum 2 year mission. In this paper, we report on the extensive thermal vacuum testing campaign. The testing was performed at the Naval Research Laboratory utilizing the "Big Blue" vacuum chamber. A total of ten thermal vacuum tests were performed, including two chamber certifications, three dry runs, and five tests of the individual MMS observatories. During the test, the observatories were enclosed in a thermal enclosure known as the "hamster cage". The enclosure allowed for a detailed thermal control of various observatory zone, but at the same time, imposed additional contamination and system performance requirements. The environment inside the enclosure and the vacuum chamber was actively monitored by several QCMs, RGA, and up to 18 ion gauges. Each spacecraft underwent a bakeout phase, which was followed by 4 thermal cycles. Unique aspects of the TV campaign included slow pump downs with a partial represses, thruster firings, Helium identification, and monitoring pressure spikes with ion gauges. Selected data from these TV tests is presented along with lessons learned.

  15. Astronomical Virtual Observatories Through International Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Ohishi


    Full Text Available Astronomical Virtual Observatories (VOs are emerging research environment for astronomy, and 16 countries and a region have funded to develop their VOs based on international standard protocols for interoperability. The 16 funded VO projects have established the International Virtual Observatory Alliance ( to develop the standard interoperable interfaces such as registry (meta data, data access, query languages, output format (VOTable, data model, application interface, and so on. The IVOA members have constructed each VO environment through the IVOA interfaces. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ started its VO project (Japanese Virtual Observatory - JVO in 2002, and developed its VO system. We have succeeded to interoperate the latest JVO system with other VOs in the USA and Europe since December 2004. Observed data by the Subaru telescope, satellite data taken by the JAXA/ISAS, etc. are connected to the JVO system. Successful interoperation of the JVO system with other VOs means that astronomers in the world will be able to utilize top-level data obtained by these telescopes from anywhere in the world at anytime. System design of the JVO system, experiences during our development including problems of current standard protocols defined in the IVOA, and proposals to resolve these problems in the near future are described.

  16. Improvements in geomagnetic observatory data quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reda, Jan; Fouassier, Danielle; Isac, Anca


    Geomagnetic observatory practice and instrumentation has evolved significantly over the past 150 years. Evolution continues to be driven by advances in technology and by the need of the data user community for higher-resolution, lower noise data in near-real time. Additionally, collaboration betw...

  17. Robotic Autonomous Observatories: A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Javier Castro-Tirado


    Full Text Available This paper presents a historical introduction to the field of Robotic Astronomy, from the point of view of a scientist working in this field for more than a decade. The author discusses the basic definitions, the differing telescope control operating systems, observatory managers, as well as a few current scientific applications.

  18. Reengineering observatory operations for the time domain (United States)

    Seaman, Robert L.; Vestrand, W. T.; Hessman, Frederic V.


    Observatories are complex scientific and technical institutions serving diverse users and purposes. Their telescopes, instruments, software, and human resources engage in interwoven workflows over a broad range of timescales. These workflows have been tuned to be responsive to concepts of observatory operations that were applicable when various assets were commissioned, years or decades in the past. The astronomical community is entering an era of rapid change increasingly characterized by large time domain surveys, robotic telescopes and automated infrastructures, and - most significantly - of operating modes and scientific consortia that span our individual facilities, joining them into complex network entities. Observatories must adapt and numerous initiatives are in progress that focus on redesigning individual components out of the astronomical toolkit. New instrumentation is both more capable and more complex than ever, and even simple instruments may have powerful observation scripting capabilities. Remote and queue observing modes are now widespread. Data archives are becoming ubiquitous. Virtual observatory standards and protocols and astroinformatics data-mining techniques layered on these are areas of active development. Indeed, new large-aperture ground-based telescopes may be as expensive as space missions and have similarly formal project management processes and large data management requirements. This piecewise approach is not enough. Whatever challenges of funding or politics facing the national and international astronomical communities it will be more efficient - scientifically as well as in the usual figures of merit of cost, schedule, performance, and risks - to explicitly address the systems engineering of the astronomical community as a whole.

  19. e-VLBI Development at Haystack Observatory (United States)

    Whitney, Alan

    Haystack Observatory continues an aggressive program of e-VLBI development, particularly with respect to the use of public (shared) high-speed networds for data transfer. Much of 2002 was spent preparing for a Gbps e-VLBI demonstration experiment using antennas at Westford, MA and Greenbelt, MD; this experiment was succcesully conducted using both near-real-time and real-time data transfers to the Mark 4 correlator at Haystack Observatory, though correlation was not done in real time. In early 2003 a dedicated e-VLBI Gigabit-Ethernet wavelength was establisted between Haystack Observatory and MIT Lincoln Laboratory, giving Haystack easy access to the high-speed Abilene network in the U.S. Also in October 2002, preliminary e-VLBI experiments were conducted between Westford, MA and Kashima, Japan; this set of experiments is continuing with increasing data-rate transfers. These experiments use the Mark 5 system at Westford and the K5 system at Kashima; data is transferred in both directions and correlated at both sites. Preparations are now underway to begin e-VLBI transfers from Wettzell, Germany and Kokee Park, Kauaii for routine daily observation of UT1. Haystack Observatory has recently been awarded a 3-year grant the the National Science Foundation for the development of new IP protocols specifically tailored for e-VLBI and similar applications.

  20. The Kodaikanal Observatory – A Historical Account

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    formed the nucleus of instrumentation of the new observatory which soon embarked on a series of observations of the stars, the moon, and eclipses of Jupiter's satellites, .... spectroheliograms in the light of ionized calcium and of hydrogen. This uninterrupted series photographs, continue unto the present day, and form one ...

  1. Stull Observatory Lightcurve Observations: 1998-2002 (United States)

    DeGraff, David R.


    Using the Stull Observatory 0.82m telescope, from July 1998 to August 2002 we observed several asteroids to measure their rotation periods. We present lightcurves periods for 314 Rosalia, 1084 Tamarwina, 1758 Naantali, 1845 Helewalda, 2544 Gubarev, 3028 Zhangguoxi, 5215 Tsurui, (20713) 1999 XA32, and (234871) 1991 GT4.

  2. Lights go out at city observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    Armstrong, R


    Edinburgh's Royal Observatory is to close its doors to the public due to dwindling visitor numbers. The visitor centre will remain open to the general public for planned lectures and night-time observing sessions, but will cease to be open on a daily basis from next month (1/2 page).

  3. Lessons learned from the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory (United States)

    Kniffen, Donald A.


    The second of NASA's 'Great Observatories', the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) was one of NASA's most successful missions. The scientific results changed our view of the hig-energy Universe in many fundamental ways. Originally designed as a two-year mission, CGRO continued to return hgih quality scientific data until a reference-gyro failure led NASA to de-orbit the spaceraft after nine years of operations while the capability for a controlled reentry remained. Success is a result of careful planning and wise leadership. It is useful to examine how such a mission was designed, developed, and implemented, as a model for future scientific missions. Careful scientific planning, a highly skilled and motivated project staff who worked closely with the scientists, a close working relationship with TRW, the mission contractor, a dedicated operations crew and strong support from the management of the Goddard Space Flight Center were all important to the success of CGRO. It is the purpose of this paper to examine CGRO activities from the initial science planning beginning in the eraly 1970's to the end of mission funding in 2002 to see what can be learned from the successes and the failures of this grand mission.

  4. Geochemistry of hydrothermal fluids from the PACMANUS, Northeast Pual and Vienna Woods hydrothermal fields, Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea (United States)

    Reeves, Eoghan P.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Saccocia, Peter; Bach, Wolfgang; Craddock, Paul R.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Sylva, Sean P.; Walsh, Emily; Pichler, Thomas; Rosner, Martin


    Processes controlling the composition of seafloor hydrothermal fluids in silicic back-arc or near-arc crustal settings remain poorly constrained despite growing evidence for extensive magmatic-hydrothermal activity in such environments. We conducted a survey of vent fluid compositions from two contrasting sites in the Manus back-arc basin, Papua New Guinea, to examine the influence of variations in host rock composition and magmatic inputs (both a function of arc proximity) on hydrothermal fluid chemistry. Fluid samples were collected from felsic-hosted hydrothermal vent fields located on Pual Ridge (PACMANUS and Northeast (NE) Pual) near the active New Britain Arc and a basalt-hosted vent field (Vienna Woods) located farther from the arc on the Manus Spreading Center. Vienna Woods fluids were characterized by relatively uniform endmember temperatures (273-285 degrees C) and major element compositions, low dissolved CO2 concentrations (4.4 mmol/kg) and high measured pH (4.2-4.9 at 25 degrees C). Temperatures and compositions were highly variable at PACMANUS/NE Pual and a large, newly discovered vent area (Fenway) was observed to be vigorously venting boiling (358 degrees C) fluid. All PACMANUS fluids are characterized by negative delta DH2O values, in contrast to positive values at Vienna Woods, suggesting substantial magmatic water input to circulating fluids at Pual Ridge. Low measured pH (25 degrees C) values (~2.6-2.7), high endmember CO2 (up to 274 mmol/kg) and negative delta 34SH2S values (down to -2.7 permille) in some vent fluids are also consistent with degassing of acid-volatile species from evolved magma. Dissolved CO2 at PACMANUS is more enriched in 13C (-4.1 permille to -2.3 permille) than Vienna Woods (-5.2 permille to -5.7 permille), suggesting a contribution of slab-derived carbon. The mobile elements (e.g. Li, K, Rb, Cs and B) are also greatly enriched in PACMANUS fluids reflecting increased abundances in the crust there relative to the Manus

  5. Radioecological Observatories - Breeding Grounds for Innovative Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Martin; Urso, Laura; Wichterey, Karin; Willrodt, Christine [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany); Beresford, Nicholas A.; Howard, Brenda [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology - CEH, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina [Stockholms Universitet - SU, Universitetsvaegen 10, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Dowdall, Mark; Liland, Astrid [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA, P.O. Box 55, NO-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Eyrolle- Boyer, Frederique; Guillevic, Jerome; Hinton, Thomas [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Gashchak, Sergey [Chornobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology - Chornobyl Center, 77th Gvardiiska Dyviiya str.7/1, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Hutri, Kaisa-Leena; Ikaeheimonen, Tarja; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Michalik, Boguslaw [Glowny Instytut Gornictwa - GIG, Plac Gwarkow 1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena; Robles, Beatriz [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT, Avenida complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Oughton, Deborah; Salbu, Brit [Norwegian University of Life Sciences - NMBU, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Aas (Norway); Sweeck, Lieve [Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire (SCK.CEN), Avenue Herrmann- Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Yoschenko, Vasyl [National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine (NUBiP of Ukraine), Herojiv Obrony st., 15, Kyiv-03041 (Ukraine)


    Within the EC-funded (FP7) Network of Excellence STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology, the concept of Radioecological Observatories is currently being implemented on a European level for the first time. Radioecological Observatories are radioactively (and chemically) contaminated field sites that will provide a focus for joint long-term radioecological research. The benefit of this innovative approach is to create synergistic research collaborations by sharing expertise, ideas, data and resources. Research at the Radioecological Observatories will primarily focus on radioecological challenges outlined in the Strategic Research Agenda (SRA). Mechanisms to use these sites will be established under the EC-funded project COMET (Coordination and Implementation of a Pan-European Instrument for Radioecology, The European Radioecological Observatory sites were selected using a structured, progressive approach that was transparent, consistent and objective. A first screening of potential candidate sites was conducted based on the following exclusion criteria: long-term perspective for shared field work and suitability for addressing the radioecological challenges of the SRA. The proposed sites included former uranium mining and milling sites in France and Germany, the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) in Ukraine/Belarus and the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) in Poland. All candidate sites were prioritized based on evaluation criteria which comprised scientific issues, available infrastructure, administrative/legal constraints and financial considerations. Multi-criteria decision analysis, group discussions and recommendations provided by external experts were combined to obtain a preference order among the suggested sites. Using this approach, the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) in Poland and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) were selected as Radioecological Observatories. The two sites have similar multi

  6. Toward a Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (United States)

    Kratz, T.; Arzberger, P.; Benson, B.; Chiu, C.; Chiu, K.; Ding, L.; Fountain, T.; Hamilton, D.; Hanson, P.; Hu, Y.; Lin, F.; McMullen, D.; Tilak, S.; Wu, C.


    The Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON; is a grassroots network of limnologists, information technology experts, and engineers who have a common goal of building a scalable, persistent, international network of lake ecology observatories. Data from these observatories will help us to better understand key issues such as the effects of climate and landuse change on lake function, the role of episodic events such as typhoons or mixing events in resetting lake dynamics, and carbon cycling within lakes. The observatories consist of instrumented platforms capable of sensing key limnological variables and moving the data in near-real time, often through wireless networks, to web-accessible databases. A common web portal is being developed to allow easy access to data and information by researchers and the public. A series of web services supported by this portal are being developed to allow automation of processes associated with instrument management and data quality assurance/quality control, and to allow computation of metrics based on the high frequency data. Such metrics include, for example, estimates of rates of important processes such as gross primary production and respiration, or physical stability of the water column. Lakes from the following locations are currently in the network: Australia, Canada, China, Finland, Israel, New Zealand, South Korea, Taiwan, United Kingdom and the US. A global network of dozens or even hundreds of automated lake observatories, each collecting and transferring data in near real time, is within our grasp in the next decade, and will offer new opportunities in scientific collaboration and understanding of lake processes.

  7. Interaction university and school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gionara Tauchen


    Full Text Available Considering that the interaction between universities and middle schools is fundamental for organization and the qualification of the education system, we conducted a qualitative study on twenty public municipal schools of Rio Grande, RS, designed to investigate and understand the effectiveness of university activities (teaching, research and extension in regard to the promotion and strengthening of the interactions between these institutions. We highlight the activities related to Pibid, the Education Observatory, extension, supervised internships, and to undergraduate and postgraduate research. From comprehensions about these activities, we discuss the interaction between school and university.

  8. Operations of and Future Plans for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.


    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Performance and operation of the Surface Detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) Extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory using high-elevation fluorescence telescopes (HEAT); (3) AMIGA - Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (4) Radio detection of Cosmic Rays at the southern Auger Observatory; (5) Hardware Developments for the AMIGA enhancement at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (6) A simulation of the fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory using GEANT 4; (7) Education and Public Outreach at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (8) BATATA: A device to characterize the punch-through observed in underground muon detectors and to operate as a prototype for AMIGA; and (9) Progress with the Northern Part of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  9. The Paris Observatory has 350 years (United States)

    Lequeux, James


    The Paris Observatory is the oldest astronomical observatory that has worked without interruption since its foundation to the present day. The building due to Claude Perrault is still in existence with few modifications, but of course other buildings have been added all along the centuries for housing new instruments and laboratories. In particular, a large dome has been built on the terrace in 1847, with a 38-cm diameter telescope completed in 1857: both are still visible. The main initial purpose of the Observatory was to determine longitudes. This was achieved by Jean-Dominique Cassini using the eclipses of the satellites of Jupiter: a much better map of France was the produced using this method, which unfortunately does not work at sea. Incidentally, the observation of these eclipses led to the discovery in 1676 of the finite velocity of light by Cassini and Rømer. Cassini also discovered the differential rotation of Jupiter and four satellites of Saturn. Then, geodesy was to be the main activity of the Observatory for more than a century, culminating in the famous Cassini map of France completed around 1790. During the first half of the 19th century, under François Arago, the Observatory was at the centre of French physics, which then developed very rapidly. Arago initiated astrophysics in 1810 by showing that the Sun and stars are made of incandescent gas. In 1854, the new director, Urbain Le Verrier, put emphasis on astrometry and celestial mechanics, discovering in particular the anomalous advance of the perihelion of Mercury, which was later to be a proof of General Relativity. In 1858, Leon Foucault built the first modern reflecting telescopes with their silvered glass mirror. Le Verrier created on his side modern meteorology, including some primitive forecasts. The following period was not so bright, due to the enormous project of the Carte du Ciel, which took much of the forces of the Observatory for half a century with little scientific return. In

  10. Ocean bottom geoscience observatories: Reuse of transoceanic telecommunications cables (United States)

    Nagumo, Shozaburo; Walker, Daniel A.

    One of the most promising areas of international cooperative research in geophysics is broadband seismology. At a recent symposium on this topic (International Symposium on Global Seismology and the POSEIDON (Pacific Orient Seismic Digital Observation Network) Project, University of Tokyo, August 1988) papers were presented by representatives of the United States, Japan, Soviet Union, People's Republic of China, Italy, Federal Republic of Germany, Canada, Netherlands, and Australia. National and international associations of Earth scientists committed to the establishment of a global network of broadband instruments include the U.S. Geological Survey, POSEIDON of Japan; IRIS (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology) of the U.S.; GEOSCOPE of France; MEDNET (Mediterranean Network) of Rome, Italy, and Geneva, Switzerland, but comprising many Mediterranean countries; ORFEUS (Observatories and Research Facilities for European Seismology), a working group of the European Geophysical Society; and CANDIS (Canadian Digital Seismic Network). An umbrella organization for all these associations is FDSN, the international Federation of Digital Seismological Networks.

  11. GRS electronics for a space-borne gravitational wave observatory (United States)

    Mance, D.; Zweifel, P.; Ferraioli, L.; ten Pierick, J.; Meshksar, N.; Giardini, D.; LISA Pathfinder Collaboration


    The Gravitational Reference Sensor (GRS) electronics is a crucial element of the future space-borne gravitational wave observatory. Together with the optical metrology system, it provides position measurements of the sensor’s reference body, a Test Mass (TM), for all axes. This is needed for precise spacecraft control. In addition, the GRS electronics can actuate the TM using electrostatic forces, which is used to keep the TM centered in its enclosure or to follow a certain guidance. The GRS electronics has been successfully tested during the LISA Pathfinder mission, launched in December 2015. The electronics has been designed in Switzerland by RUAG and HES-SO under supervision of ETH Zurich and University of Zurich. The paper describes the working principle and the adopted technical solutions for the LISA Pathfinder GRS electronics and for the LISA GRS electronics prototype. Both confirm the readiness of the technology for LISA.

  12. Gemini Observatory Takes its Local Communities on an Expanding Journey (United States)

    Harvey, Janice; Michaud, Peter


    Currently in its 7th year (2011) Hawaii's annual Journey through the Universe (JttU) program is a flagship Gemini Observatory public education/outreach initiative involving a broad cross-section of the local Hawai'i Island astronomical community, the public, educators, businesses, local government officials, and thousands of local students. This paper describes the program, its history, planning, implementation, as well as the program's objectives and philosophy. The success of this program is documented here, as measured by continuous and expanding engagement of educators, the community, and the public, along with formal evaluation feedback and selected informal verbal testimony. The program's success also serves as justification for the planned adaptation of a version of the program in Chile in 2011 (adapted for Chilean educational and cultural differences). Finally, lessons learned are shared which have refined the program for Gemini's host communities but can also apply to any institution wishing to initiate a similar program.

  13. The McDonald Observatory lunar laser ranging project (United States)

    Silverberg, E. C.


    A summary of the activities of the McDonald lunar laser ranging station at Fort Davis for the FY 77-78 fiscal year is presented. The lunar laser experiment uses the observatory 2.7m reflecting telescope on a thrice-per-day, 21-day-per-lunation schedule. Data are recorded on magnetic tapes and sent to the University of Texas at Austin where the data is processed. After processing, the data is distributed to interested analysis centers and later to the National Space Science Data Center where it is available for routine distribution. Detailed reports are published on the McDonald operations after every fourth lunation or approximately once every 115 days. These reports contain a day-by-day documentation of the ranging activity, detailed discussions of the equipment development efforts, and an abundance of other information as is needed to document and archive this important data type.

  14. Local Observations, Global Connections: An Educational Program Using Ocean Networks Canada's Community-Based Observatories (United States)

    Pelz, M.; Hoeberechts, M.; Ewing, N.; Davidson, E.; Riddell, D. J.


    Schools on Canada's west coast and in the Canadian Arctic are participating in the pilot year of a novel educational program based on analyzing, understanding and sharing ocean data collected by cabled observatories. The core of the program is "local observations, global connections." First, students develop an understanding of ocean conditions at their doorstep through the analysis of community-based observatory data. Then, they connect that knowledge with the health of the global ocean by engaging with students at other schools participating in the educational program and through supplemental educational resources. Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), an initiative of the University of Victoria, operates cabled ocean observatories which supply continuous power and Internet connectivity to a broad suite of subsea instruments from the coast to the deep sea. This Internet connectivity permits researchers, students and members of the public to download freely available data on their computers anywhere around the globe, in near real-time. In addition to the large NEPTUNE and VENUS cabled observatories off the coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, ONC has been installing smaller, community-based cabled observatories. Currently two are installed: one in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut and one at Brentwood College School, on Mill Bay in Saanich Inlet, BC. Several more community-based observatories are scheduled for installation within the next year. The observatories support a variety of subsea instruments, such as a video camera, hydrophone and water quality monitor and shore-based equipment including a weather station and a video camera. Schools in communities hosting an observatory are invited to participate in the program, alongside schools located in other coastal and inland communities. Students and teachers access educational material and data through a web portal, and use video conferencing and social media tools to communicate their findings. A series of lesson plans

  15. A green observatory in the Chilean Atacama desert (United States)

    Ramolla, Michael; Westhues, Christian; Hackstein, Moritz; Haas, Martin; Hodapp, Klaus; Lemke, Roland; Barr Domínguez, Angie; Chini, Rolf; Murphy, Miguel


    Since 2007, the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) in Germany and Universidad Católica del Norte (UCN) in Chile jointly operate the Universitätssternwarte der Ruhr-Universität Bochum (USB), which is located in direct neighborhood of the future E-ELT of ESO. It is the only observatory powered exclusively by solar panels and wind turbines. Excess power is stored in batteries that allow uninterrupted operation even in windless nights. The scientific equipment consists of three robotic optical telescopes with apertures ranging from 15 cm (RoBoTT) over 25 cm (BESTII) to 40 cm (BMT) and one 80 cm (IRIS) infra-red telescope. The optical telescopes are equipped with Johnson and Sloan broad band filters together with a large number of narrow and intermediate bands. In the infrared, J,H and K filters are available, accompanied by several narrow bands near the K band wavelength. The second Nasmyth focus in the 80 cm telescope feeds a high resolution echelle spectrograph similar to the FEROS instrument of ESO. This variety of instruments has evolved from different collaborations, i.e. with the University of Hawaii (IfA) in the USA, which provided the near-infrared-camera of the IRIS telescope, or with the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) in Germany, which provided the BESTII telescope. The highly automatized processes on all telescopes enable a single person to run the whole facility, providing the high cost efficiency required for an university observatory. The excellent site conditions allow projects that require daily observations of astronomical objects over epochs of several months or years. Here we report on such studies of young stellar objects from the Bochum Galactic Disk Survey, the multiplicity of stars, quasar variability or the hunt for exo-planets.

  16. The Research Tools of the Virtual Astronomical Observatory (United States)

    Hanisch, Robert J.; Berriman, G. B.; Lazio, T. J.; Project, VAO


    Astronomy is being transformed by the vast quantities of data, models, and simulations that are becoming available to astronomers at an ever-accelerating rate. The U.S. Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) has been funded to provide an operational facility that is intended to be a resource for discovery and access of data, and to provide science services that use these data. Over the course of the past year, the VAO has been developing and releasing for community use five science tools: 1) "Iris", for dynamically building and analyzing spectral energy distributions, 2) a web-based data discovery tool that allows astronomers to identify and retrieve catalog, image, and spectral data on sources of interest, 3) a scalable cross-comparison service that allows astronomers to conduct pair-wise positional matches between very large catalogs stored remotely as well as between remote and local catalogs, 4) time series tools that allow astronomers to compute periodograms of the public data held at the NASA Star and Exoplanet Database (NStED) and the Harvard Time Series Center, and 5) A VO-aware release of the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF) that provides transparent access to VO-available data collections and is SAMP-enabled, so that IRAF users can easily use tools such as Aladin and Topcat in conjuction with IRAF tasks. Additional VAO services will be built to make it easy for researchers to provide access to their data in VO-compliant ways, to build VO-enabled custom applications in Python, and to respond generally to the growing size and complexity of astronomy data. Acknowledgements: The Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) is managed by the VAO, LLC, a non-profit company established as a partnership of the Associated Universities, Inc. and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. The VAO is sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  17. The Search for Hot Jupiters using Red Buttes Observatory (United States)

    Sorber, Rebecca L.; Kar, Aman; Hancock, Daniel A.; Leuquire, Jacob D.; Suhaimi, Afiq; Kasper, David; Jang-Condell, Hannah


    The goal of this research is to use the University of Wyoming’s Red Buttes Observatory (RBO) to perform manual, remote, or automated observations of transiting exoplanet candidates. The data contributes to discovery of star systems that include never before identified exoplanets. RBO houses a 0.6-meter telescope and is located approximately 10 miles south of the University of Wyoming’s campus. Our targets are catalogued by the KELT (Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope) Survey, a photometric search for transiting exoplanets around bright main sequence stars. The KELT Follow-up Network (KELT-FUN), a collaboration of small-aperture telescope users located all over the world, confirms new exoplanet candidates. As part of KELT-FUN, students use the RBO to monitor candidates identified by the KELT team. RBO typically detects transits around stars that are 8-12 in V magnitude, with transit durations of ~1-4 hours and full depth relative changes in brightness above 2 mmags. Using AstroImageJ, we process the data and we look for any indication of a transit occurrence in the processed lightcurve which might confirm the presence of the potential exoplanet. Our team has contributed over 50 light curves to KELT-FUN to date. We are able to compare our data with simultaneous observations by other members of KELT-FUN to maximize the utility of our observations. This project gives undergraduates an authentic scientific research experience, learning how to operate an observatory, process data, and participate in a scientific collaboration.

  18. NASA's Great Observatories Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for larger version In 1609, Galileo improved the newly invented telescope, turned it toward the heavens, and revolutionized our view of the universe. In celebration of the 400th anniversary of this milestone, 2009 has been designated as the International Year of Astronomy. Today, NASA's Great Observatories are continuing Galileo's legacy with stunning images and breakthrough science from the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory. While Galileo observed the sky using visible light seen by the human eye, technology now allows us to observe in many wavelengths, including Spitzer's infrared view and Chandra's view in X-rays. Each wavelength region shows different aspects of celestial objects and often reveals new objects that could not otherwise be studied. This image of the spiral galaxy Messier 101 is a composite of views from Spitzer, Hubble, and Chandra. The red color shows Spitzer's view in infrared light. It highlights the heat emitted by dust lanes in the galaxy where stars can form. The yellow color is Hubble's view in visible light. Most of this light comes from stars, and they trace the same spiral structure as the dust lanes. The blue color shows Chandra's view in X-ray light. Sources of X-rays include million-degree gas, exploded stars, and material colliding around black holes. Such composite images allow astronomers to see how features seen in one wavelength match up with those seen in another wavelength. It's like seeing with a camera, night vision goggles, and X-ray vision all at once. In the four centuries since Galileo, astronomy has changed dramatically. Yet our curiosity and quest for knowledge remain the same. So, too, does our wonder at the splendor of the universe. The International Year of Astronomy Great Observatories Image Unveiling is supported by the NASA Science Mission Directorate Astrophysics Division. The project is a

  19. Infrared astronomy seeing the heat : from William Herschel to the Herschel space observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Clements, David L


    Uncover the Secrets of the Universe Hidden at Wavelengths beyond Our Optical GazeWilliam Herschel's discovery of infrared light in 1800 led to the development of astronomy at wavelengths other than the optical. Infrared Astronomy - Seeing the Heat: from William Herschel to the Herschel Space Observatory explores the work in astronomy that relies on observations in the infrared. Author David L. Clements, a distinguished academic and science fiction writer, delves into how the universe works, from the planets in our own Solar System to the universe as a whole. The book first presents the major t

  20. Data standards for the international virtual observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R J Hanisch


    Full Text Available A primary goal of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance, which brings together Virtual Observatory Projects from 16 national and international development projects, is to develop, evaluate, test, and agree upon standards for astronomical data formatting, data discovery, and data delivery. In the three years that the IVOA has been in existence, substantial progress has been made on standards for tabular data, imaging data, spectroscopic data, and large-scale databases and on managing the metadata that describe data collections and data access services. In this paper, I describe how the IVOA operates and give my views as to why such a broadly based international collaboration has been able to make such rapid progress.

  1. Project management of DAG: Eastern Anatolia Observatory (United States)

    Keskin, Onur; Yesilyaprak, Cahit; Yerli, Sinan K.; Zago, Lorenzo; Guver, Tolga; Alis, Sinan


    The four meter DAG (Eastern Anatolia Observatory in Turkish) telescope is not only the largest telescope in Turkey but also the most promising telescope in the northern hemisphere with a large potential to offer scientific observations with its cutting edge technology. DAG is designed to be an AO telescope which will allow both infrared and visible observations with its two Nasmyth platforms dedicated to next generation focal plane instruments. In this paper, status updates from DAG telescope will be presented in terms of; (i) in house optical design of DAG, (ii) tender process of telescope, (iii) tender process of enclosure, and (iv) tender process of the observatory building. Also status updates from the focal plane instruments project and possible collaboration activities will be presented.

  2. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) (United States)

    Becklin, E. E.; Gehrz, R. D.; Roellig, T. L.


    The joint U.S. and German Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), a program to develop and operate a 2.5-meter infrared airborne telescope in a Boeing 747SP, has obtained first science with the FORCAST camera in the 5 to 40 micron spectral region and the GREAT heterodyne spectrometer in the 130 to 240 micron spectral region. We briefly review the characteristics and status of the observatory. Spectacular science results on regions of star formation will be discussed. The FORCAST images show several discoveries and the potential for determining how massive stars form in our Galaxy. The GREAT heterodyne spectrometer has made mapping observations of the [C II] line at 158 microns, high J CO lines, and other molecular lines including SH. The HIPO high speed photometer and the high speed camera FDC were used to observe the 2011 June 23 UT stellar occultation by Pluto.

  3. Beyond the Observatory: Reflections on the Centennial (United States)

    Devorkin, D. H.


    One of the many unexpected side-benefits of acting as editor of the AAS centennial volume was the chance to take a fresh look at some of the personalities who helped to shape the American Astronomical Society. A common characteristic of these people was their energy, compassion and drive to go "Beyond the Observatory," to borrow a phrase from Harlow Shapley. But what did going `beyond the observatory' mean to Shapley, or to the others who shaped and maintained the Society in its first one hundred years of life? Just as the discipline of astronomy has changed in profound ways in the past century, so has the American Astronomical Society changed, along with the people who have been its leaders and its sustainers and the culture that has fostered it. The Centennial meeting of the Society offers a chance to reflect on the people who have given American astronomy its sense of community identity.

  4. Grid Based Chinese Virtual Observatory System Design (United States)

    Cui, Chenzhou; Zhao, Yongheng

    Chinese Virtual Observatory (China-VO) project is a consortium initiated by Chinese National Astronomical Observatory and Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope project. A three-layer architecture of the China-VO is described which depends upon the Open Grid Services Architecture being developed by the Global Grid Forum. The fabric layer mainly consists of astronomical datasets with corresponding metadate and data access services. The resource layer includes a large scale of services for grid resource management data interoperation data mining security logical name space and so on. The application layer consists of user interfaces and other client services. In the China-VO system all the functional components are SOAP Grid service implementations. Chinese National Grid (CNGrid) will be the testbed for the China-VO. How to interact with other CNGrid components is also discussed.

  5. Toward a Space based Gravitational Wave Observatory (United States)

    Stebbins, Robin T.


    A space-based GW observatory will produce spectacular science. The LISA mission concept: (a) Long history, (b) Very well-studied, including de-scopes, (c) NASAs Astrophysics Strategic Plan calls for a minority role in ESAs L3 mission opportunity. To that end, NASA is Participating in LPF and ST7 Developing appropriate technology for a LISA-like mission Preparing to seek an endorsement for L3 participation from the 2020 decadal review.

  6. Lightning Detection at the Pierre Auger Observatory


    Rautenberg, Julian; Filipčič, Andrej; Kukec Mezek, Gašper; Saleh, Ahmed; Stanič, Samo; Trini, Marta; Veberič, Darko; Vorobiov, Serguei; Yang, Lili; Zavrtanik, Danilo; Zavrtanik, Marko


    The Auger Engineering Radio Array, an extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory with antennas in the MHz range, requires to monitor the atmospheric conditions, which have a large influence on the radio emission of air showers. In particular, amplified signals up to an order of magnitude have been detected as an affect of thunderstorms. For a more detailed investigation and more generally, for detecting thunderstorms, a new lightning detection system has been install...

  7. Economic models of compensation for damages caused by nuclear accidents: some lessons for the revision of the Paris and Vienna Conventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, Michael G. [Limburg Univ., Maastricht (Netherlands). Faculty of Law


    Alternative systems of compensation for damages caused by nuclear accidents have been proposed. In respect, the question merits attention to whether these alternative models of compensation discussed in the economic literature could be implemented when discussing the revision of the Paris and Vienna Conventions. 55 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Clinical trials update from the European Society of Cardiology Congress in Vienna, 2007 : PROSPECT, EVEREST, ARISE, ALOFT, FINESSE, Prague-8, CARESS in MI and ACUITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Recio-Mayoral, A.; Kaski, J. -C.; McMurray, J. J. V.; Horowitz, J.; van Veldhuisen, D. J.; Remme, W. J.


    The Clinical Trials described in this article were presented at the Hotline and Clinical Trial Update Sessions of the European Society of Cardiology Congress held in September 2007 in Vienna, Austria. The sessions chosen for this article represent the scope of interest of Cardiovascular Drugs and

  9. Recent results from the Compton Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelson, P.F.; Hansen, W.W. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    The Compton Observatory is an orbiting astronomical observatory for gamma-ray astronomy that covers the energy range from about 30 keV to 30 GeV. The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET), one of four instruments on-board, is capable of detecting and imaging gamma radiation from cosmic sources in the energy range from approximately 20 MeV to 30 GeV. After about one month of tests and calibration following the April 1991 launch, a 15-month all sky survey was begun. This survey is now complete and the Compton Observatory is well into Phase II of its observing program which includes guest investigator observations. Among the highlights from the all-sky survey discussed in this presentation are the following: detection of five pulsars with emission above 100 MeV; detection of more than 24 active galaxies, the most distant at redshift greater than two; detection of many high latitude, unidentified gamma-ray sources, some showing significant time variability; detection of at least two high energy gamma-ray bursts, with emission in one case extending to at least 1 GeV. EGRET has also detected gamma-ray emission from solar flares up to energies of at least 2 GeV and has observed gamma-rays from the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  10. Exploring remote operation for ALMA Observatory (United States)

    Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Soto, Ruben; Ovando, Nicolás.; Velez, Gaston; Fuica, Soledad; Schemrl, Anton; Robles, Andres; Ibsen, Jorge; Filippi, Giorgio; Pietriga, Emmanuel


    The Atacama Large Millimeter /submillimeter Array (ALMA) will be a unique research instrument composed of at least 66 reconfigurable high-precision antennas, located at the Chajnantor plain in the Chilean Andes at an elevation of 5000 m. The observatory has another office located in Santiago of Chile, 1600 km from the Chajnantor plain. In the Atacama desert, the wonderful observing conditions imply precarious living conditions and extremely high operation costs: i.e: flight tickets, hospitality, infrastructure, water, electricity, etc. It is clear that a purely remote operational model is impossible, but we believe that a mixture of remote and local operation scheme would be beneficial to the observatory, not only in reducing the cost but also in increasing the observatory overall efficiency. This paper describes the challenges and experience gained in such experimental proof of the concept. The experiment was performed over the existing 100 Mbps bandwidth, which connects both sites through a third party telecommunication infrastructure. During the experiment, all of the existent capacities of the observing software were validated successfully, although room for improvement was clearly detected. Network virtualization, MPLS configuration, L2TPv3 tunneling, NFS adjustment, operational workstations design are part of the experiment.

  11. [Migration in Austria: 1850-1900. Migration flows within the monarchy and the structure of migration to Vienna]. (United States)

    Fassmann, H


    The author surveys migration within the Austrian part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1850 to 1900 using census data. "As a result of the increase in regional mobility during the nineteenth century, clearly defined patterns of migration developed involving movement from the peripheral areas to the center.... In the process of this development, various sub-systems of migration appeared. Of these, migration from one region to another was more important than that within the same region...and Vienna, the Imperial capital, became the center of migration." Migrants are studied by place of origin and distance traveled and by social class and demographic characteristics. Employment, segregation, and the integration of urban migrants are also considered. (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  12. The Beginnings and Development of the Collection of Historic Musical Instruments of the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrix Darmstaedter


    Full Text Available The Collection of Historic Musical Instruments of the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna (KHM was founded during the First World War when the inventories of the collections owned by Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Este (1863-1914 went to the Imperial museum in Vienna after his assassination. From 1916/17 on, the renowned art historian Julius von Schlosser (1866-1938 and his successor, Hermann Julius Hermann (1869-1953, organized one of the most important collections and exhibitions exclusively dedicated to musical instruments. They assembled valuable items from the 16th century that had belonged to Archduke Ferdinand II’s (1529-1595 Cabinet of Curiosities, objects collected by members of the Obizzi dynasty in the castle of Catajo, and recently acquired historical instruments connected with the Viennese tradition of instrument making. In 1920, Schlosser wrote his fundamental catalogue on the newly established collection that  is considered to be the fi rst systematical and scientifi c publication on historic musical instruments in Austria. During the following years, he strove towards amplifying the inventory and expanding the exhibition. He transferred precious items originally belonging to the movables depot of the erstwhile court (Hofmobiliendepot and instruments left in former imperial residences, such as the castle of Laxenburg. The contribution reviews previously unpublished archived sources documenting the early history of the collection and broaches the issue of the extended exhibition in the 1920s, discusses the thematic orientations of the collection and the principles in museum didactic that consequently arose. Moreover, the position of the collection and its policy in the context of other museums with similar emphases at that time will be analyzed. La collezione di strumenti musicali antichi del Kunsthistorisches Museum a Vienna (KHM é stata fondata durante la prima guerra mondiale quando l’inventario delle collezioni dell

  13. Between Vienna and Moscow: the Protopope and the General Vicar Nicolae Pop Balomiri(c. 1700 to c. 1764

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Ioan Popa


    Full Text Available This article explores the life of Nicolae Pop Balomiri, a Greek-Catholic Protopope and Orthodox Archimandrite. Appointed General Vicar by the exiled Bishop Inochentie Micu-Klein in 1747, Balomiri fled Transylvania shortly afterwards when the Court in Vienna refused to acknowledge his appointment, instead supporting his predecessor, Petru Pavel Aaron. Early on in his exile, Balomiri converted to Orthodoxy, and was later made Archimandrite of the Monastery of Curtea de Argeş. From exile in Wallachia, he continued to campaign for the rights of Romanian Orthodox Christians in Transylvania, lobbying Russian Empress Elisabeta Petrovna to intervene with the Viennese to request a non-United bishop for Transylvania. Many historians have glossed over Balomiri’s importance, possibly because of his controversial role as an apostate priest.

  14. ["The aim is familiarity with the infant". Work and research in the Jackson Nursery (Vienna 1937/38)]. (United States)

    Krivanek, Roman


    The "Jackson Nursery", existing from February 1937 until March 1938, was directed by Anna Freud and financed by Edith Jackson and Dorothy Burlingham. It took care of infants from the poorest strata of Vienna and also gave material support to their families. On the other hand, it was a training institution for psychoanalysts, offering the opportunity of observing children during their first two years, e. g. their feeding habits and social sense. In addition, the Jackson Nursery was a place for research where psychoanalytic theories of infantile development were checked against the findings of direct observation. The work started here was then continued by A. Freud and D. Burlingham on a larger scale in their War Nurseries.--This paper examines the many-sided activities in the nursery mainly on the basis of unpu blished archival documents.

  15. Validation of the Austrian forecast model for solar, biologically effective UV radiation-UV index for Vienna (United States)

    Schmalwieser, Alois W.; Schauberger, Günther


    Since October 1995, a daily forecast of the UV index, as the irradiance of the biologically effective ultraviolet radiation, for the next day is published for Austria, Europe, and world wide. The Austrian forecast model as well as the input parameters are described. By connecting the UV index with the sensitivity of the photobiological skin types, a recommendation is given to select an appropriate sun protection factor of a sunscreen to avoid overexposure of the skin. The validation of the Austrian forecast model is done by measurements of the biologically effective ultraviolet radiation collected between July 1996 and July 1998 at Vienna (48°N, 16°E), Austria. The forecast quality is evaluated by comparing the Austrian model with two statistical models used in Canada and the Netherlands. By using the underestimation of the UV index as criteria in the sense of radiation protection, the Austrian model shows a 12% underestimation over the whole year.

  16. The Cincinnati Observatory as a Research Instrument for Undergraduate Research (United States)

    Abel, Nicholas; Regas, Dean; Flateau, Davin C.; Larrabee, Cliff


    The Cincinnati Observatory, founded in 1842, was the first public observatory in the Western Hemisphere. The history of Cincinnati is closely intertwined with the history of the Observatory, and with the history of science in the United States. Previous directors of the Observatory helped to create the National Weather Service, the Minor Planet Center, and the first astronomical journal in the U.S. The Cincinnati Observatory was internationally known in the late 19th century, with Jules Verne mentioning the Cincinnati Observatory in two of his books, and the Observatory now stands as a National Historic Landmark.No longer a research instrument, the Observatory is now a tool for promoting astronomy education to the general public. However, with the 11" and 16" refracting telescopes, the Observatory telescopes are very capable of collecting data to fuel undergraduate research projects. In this poster, we will discuss the history of the Observatory, types of student research projects capable with the Cincinnati Observatory, future plans, and preliminary results. The overall goal of this project is to produce a steady supply of undergraduate students collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data, and thereby introduce them to the techniques and methodology of an astronomer at an early stage of their academic career.

  17. Overview of the Proposed Mississippi Headwaters - Red River Hydrologic Observatory (United States)

    Schwartz, F. W.; Gerla, P. J.; Kucera, P. A.


    A consortium of universities, led by The Ohio State University and the University of North Dakota, in collaboration with The Nature Conservancy - Minnesota and the Dakotas Chapter, are proposing to develop the Mississippi Headwaters - Red River (MHRR) Hydrologic Observatory (HO). The region encompassed by the observatory includes the Red River watershed, the Upper Crow Wing River, the headwaters of the Mississippi River above Leech Lake, the closed Devils Lake basin and the central portion of the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR). The MHRR HO covers about 101,000 km2 and straddles the continental divide. The large size will permit the study of unique science problems and will provide a large contiguous region suitable for coupled large-scale climatic/hydrologic/ecological investigations. Although not part of this proposal, we are also organizing a consortium of primarily Canadian universities interested in carrying out complementary studies on the large Assiniboine basin in Manitoba and Saskatchewan with funding from Canadian sources. The combined study areas will facilitate climate/hydrologic/ecological studies on a broad scale, together with much more focused local scale studies. The research plan focuses on (i) climate variability and future climate change, (ii) wetland dynamics, restoration, and policy considerations associated with global climate change, (iii) carbon, nutrient, and contaminant cycling in complex systems, (iv) assessment and modeling of large, coupled climate/water systems, and (v) new and emerging technologies for near real-time monitoring and assessment. The science themes focus explicitly on exploring the interfaces among traditional science disciplines (hydrology, ecology, climatology) and implicitly on the atmosphere/land surface/subsurface interfaces that are part of the hydrologic cycle. The location of the MHRR HO was purposely selected as one of the most promising areas to pursue these science and technology themes. The region is

  18. Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia


    École de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corpusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENÈVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 13 May 2009 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Observing the extreme universe with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Prof. Olaf Reimer / Stanford University The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (FGST, formerly GLAST) is an international observatory-type satellite mission with a physics program spanning from gamma-ray astronomy to particle astrophysics and cosmology. FGST was launched on June 11, 2008 and is successfully conducting science observations of the high-energy gamma-ray sky since August 2008. A varienty of discoveries has been made already, including monitoring rapid blazar variability, the existence of GeV gamma-ray bursts, and numerous new gamma-ray sources of different types, including those belonging to previously unknown gamma-ray source classes like msPSRs, globula...

  19. TMT approach to observatory software development process (United States)

    Buur, Hanne; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Gillies, Kim; Dumas, Christophe; Bhatia, Ravinder


    The purpose of the Observatory Software System (OSW) is to integrate all software and hardware components of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) to enable observations and data capture; thus it is a complex software system that is defined by four principal software subsystems: Common Software (CSW), Executive Software (ESW), Data Management System (DMS) and Science Operations Support System (SOSS), all of which have interdependencies with the observatory control systems and data acquisition systems. Therefore, the software development process and plan must consider dependencies to other subsystems, manage architecture, interfaces and design, manage software scope and complexity, and standardize and optimize use of resources and tools. Additionally, the TMT Observatory Software will largely be developed in India through TMT's workshare relationship with the India TMT Coordination Centre (ITCC) and use of Indian software industry vendors, which adds complexity and challenges to the software development process, communication and coordination of activities and priorities as well as measuring performance and managing quality and risk. The software project management challenge for the TMT OSW is thus a multi-faceted technical, managerial, communications and interpersonal relations challenge. The approach TMT is using to manage this multifaceted challenge is a combination of establishing an effective geographically distributed software team (Integrated Product Team) with strong project management and technical leadership provided by the TMT Project Office (PO) and the ITCC partner to manage plans, process, performance, risk and quality, and to facilitate effective communications; establishing an effective cross-functional software management team composed of stakeholders, OSW leadership and ITCC leadership to manage dependencies and software release plans, technical complexities and change to approved interfaces, architecture, design and tool set, and to facilitate

  20. Building and evaluating sensor-based Citizens' Observatories for improving quality of life in cities (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Lahoz, William; Schneider, Philipp; Høiskar, Britt Ann; Grossberndt, Sonja; Naderer, Clemens; Robinson, Johanna; Kocman, David; Horvat, Milena; Bartonova, Alena


    Urban air quality, the environmental quality of public spaces and indoor areas such as schools, are areas of great concern to citizens and policymakers. However, access to information addressing these areas is not always available in a user-friendly manner. In particular, the quality and quantity of this information is not consistent across these areas, and does not reflect differences in needs among users. The EU-funded CITI-SENSE project will build on the concept of the Citizens' Observatories to empower citizens to contribute to and participate in environmental governance, and enable them to support and influence decision making by policymakers. To achieve this goal, CITI-SENSE will develop, test, demonstrate and validate a community-based environmental monitoring and information system using low-cost sensors and Earth Observation applications. Key to achieving this goal is the chain "sensors-platforms-products-users" linking providers of technology to users: (i) technologies for distributed monitoring (sensors); (ii) information and communication technologies (platform); (iii) information products and services (products); (iv) and citizen involvement in both monitoring and societal decisions (users). The CITI-SENSE observatories cover three empowerment initiatives: urban air quality; public spaces; and school indoor quality. The empowerment initiatives are being performed at nine locations across Europe. Each location has adapted the generic case study to their local circumstances and has contacted the urban stakeholders needed to run the study. The empowerment initiatives are divided into two phases: a first phase (Pilot Study), and a second phase (Full Implementation). The main goal of the Pilot Study is to test and evaluate the chain "sensors-platform-products-users". To assess the results of the empowerment initiatives, key performance indicators (KPIs) are being developed; these include questionnaires for users. The KPIs will be used to design the full

  1. Man, Controller of the Universe (United States)

    Olowin, R. P.


    The Man, Controller of the Universe painted by the renowned Mexican artist Diego Rivera in the gigantic mural of the Palace of Fine Arts in Mexico City is overlooked by a telescope. We acknowledge this instrument as the Plaskett Telescope at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory in Victoria, Canada.

  2. Press Meeting 20 January 2003: First Light for Europe's Virtual Observatory (United States)


    Imagine you are an astronomer with instant, fingertip access to all existing observations of a given object and the opportunity to sift through them at will. In just a few moments, you can have information on all kinds about objects out of catalogues all over the world, including observations taken at different times. Over the next two years this scenario will become reality as Europe's Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (AVO) develops. Established only a year ago (cf. ESO PR 26/01), the AVO already offers astronomers a unique, prototype research tool that will lead the way to many outstanding new discoveries. Journalists are invited to a live demonstration of the capabilities of this exciting new initiative in astronomy. The demonstration will take place at the Jodrell Bank Observatory in Manchester, in the United Kingdom, on 20 January 2003, starting at 11:00. Sophisticated AVO tools will help scientists find the most distant supernovae - objects that reveal the cosmological makeup of our Universe. The tools are also helping astronomers measure the rate of birth of stars in extremely red and distant galaxies. Journalists will also have the opportunity to discuss the project with leading astronomers from across Europe. The new AVO website has been launched today, explaining the progress being made in this European Commission-funded project: URL: To register your intention to attend the AVO First Light Demonstration, please provide your name and affiliation by January 13, 2003, to: Ian Morison, Jodrell Bank Observatory (full contact details below). Information on getting to the event is included on the webpage above. Programme for the AVO First Light Demonstration 11:00 Welcome, Phil Diamond (University of Manchester/Jodrell Bank Observatory) 11:05 Short introduction to Virtual Observatories, Piero Benvenuti (ESA/ST-ECF) 11:15 Q&A 11:20 Short introduction to the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory, Peter Quinn (ESO) 11:30 Q&A 11:35 Screening of

  3. The old Jesuit observatory in Graz. (German Title: Die alte Jesuiten-Sternwarte in Graz) (United States)

    Steinmayr, Johann; Müller, Isolde; Posch, Thomas


    We give a brief overview of the development of astronomical research at the University of Graz from the 16th to the 18th century. This period is intimately connected to the activities of the Jesuit Order and to the counter-reformation in Inner Austria (a territory roughly corresponding to today's Styria, Carinthia, Slovenia and the County of Görz in Italy). Since the opening of the University in 1585, several Jesuits achieved distinction as mathematicians, physicists and astronomers in Graz. Among them are Paul Guldin, who corresponded with Johannes Kepler and died in Graz in 1643, as well as Leopold Biwald and Karl Tirnberger. Between 1745 and 1774, the Jesuit University of Graz also had a chair of astronomy and an observatory. The chair and the observatory were well endowed at the beginning, but later on neglected by their former funders and closed down after less than 30 years. Efforts to re-establish an observatory at Graz at the beginning of the 19th century failed. They were successful only towards the end of the 19th century, which is however a period beyond the scope of the present paper.

  4. TERENO-MED: Terrestrial Environmental Observatories in the Mediterranean Region (United States)

    Krueger, Elisabeth; Friesen, Jan; Kallioras, Andreas; Bogena, Heye; Devaraju, Anusuriya; Vereecken, Harry; Teutsch, Georg


    Centres and jointly operated with local partners across the Mediterranean region. In a number of Mediterranean mesoscale hydrological catchments TERENO-MED will investigate the long-term effects of global change on the quality and the dynamics of water resources in human-influenced environments under water scarcity. The Helmholtz Centres UFZ (overall coordinator) and FZJ have therefore initiated the set-up of a network of global change observatories in 5-10 Mediterranean river catchments. The TERENO-MED observatories will: - investigate societally relevant water problems in the context of 'typical' Mediterranean environments, - provide long-term and quality-controlled data available to the scientific community, - be operated and maintained through local research institutes and universities, - establish common monitoring platforms and foster synergies between research organizations, - provide solutions to pressing local and regional water problems by building partnerships between scientific partners and regional authorities.

  5. Continuing and New Measurements at the Abyssal ALOHA Cabled Observatory (United States)

    Howe, B. M.; Potemra, J. T.; Butler, R.; Santiago-Mandujano, F.; Lukas, R.; Duennebier, F. K.; Karl, D. M.; Aucan, J.


    The ALOHA Cabled Observatory (ACO) is a general purpose "node" providing power, communications and timing connectivity for science use at Station ALOHA 100 km north of Oahu. Included are a suite of basic sensors making core measurements, some local and some sensing the water column. At 4728 m deep, it is the deepest scientific outpost on the planet with power and Internet. Importantly, Station ALOHA is the field site of the NSF-funded Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) program that has investigated temporal dynamics in biology, physics, and chemistry since 1988, at a site that is representative of roughly 70% of the world ocean, sampling the ocean from top to bottom to monitor and study changes on scales of months to decades. The co-located Woods Hole mooring (WHOTS) provides meteorological and upper ocean physical data. The CMORE (Center for Microbial Oceanography Research and Education) and SCOPE (Simons Collaboration on Ocean Processes and Ecology) programs address their respective science topics at ALOHA. Together these programs provide a truly unique means for observing the ocean across all disciplines and regimes (deep sea, near surface, etc.). ACO has been operating in the abyss since June 2011, collecting temperature, salinity, velocity, acoustic, and video data (see for instance the abstract by Lukas et al., Spatial Analysis of Abyssal Temperature Variations Observed from the ALOHA Cabled Observatory and WHOTS Moorings). Using the University of Hawaii remotely operated vehicle ROV Lu`ukai, a basic sensor package was recently installed equipped with a Paroscientific nano-resolution pressure sensor, a WetLabs fluorometer/turbidity sensor, and a Seabird CTDO2 instrument. These data will be presented and described.

  6. Progressive Research and Outreach at the WestRock Observatory (United States)

    Brown, Johnny Eugene; Lantz Caughey, Austin; O'Keeffe, Brendon; Johnson, Michael; Murphy Williams, Rosa Nina


    The WestRock Observatory (WRO), located in Columbus State University's Coca-Cola Space Science Center (CCSSC), is dedicated to education and research in astronomy through hands-on engagement and public participation. The WRO has recently received funding to upgrade the PlaneWave CDK 24-inch Corrected Dall-Kirkham Astrograph telescope. Recent additions to the telescope include an all-new Apogee Alta F16 CCD camera complete with a filter wheel (with narrowband and broadband filters) and a Minor Planet Center Observatory Code (W22). These new upgrades have allowed Astrophysics students to conduct unique research ranging from high precision minor planet astrometry, to broad- and narrow-band imaging of nebulae, to light curve analysis for variable star photometry. These new endeavours, in conjunction with an existing suite of Solar telescopes, gives the WRO the ability to live-stream solar and night-time observing. These streams are available both online and through interactive displays at the CCSSC making the WRO an educational outreach program for a worldwide public audience and a growing astronomical community.Current funding is allowing students to get even more research experience than previously attainable further enabling the expansion of our publicly available gallery of nebula and galaxy images. Support and funding for the acquirement,installation, and upgrading of the new PlaneWave CDK24 has been provided by the International Museum and Library Services via the Museums for America Award Additionally, individual NASA Space Grant Scholarships have helped to secure a number of student interns partially responsible for recent improvements.

  7. Status And Performance Of The Virgin Islands Robotic Telescope at Etelman Observatory (United States)

    Morris, David C.; Gendre, Bruce; Neff, James E.; Giblin, Timothy W.


    The Virgin Islands Robotic Telescope is an 0.5m robotic telescope located at the easternmost and southernmost optical observatory in the United States at a latitude of 18.5N and longitude of 65W. The observatory is located on the island of St Thomas in the USVI. Astronomers from the College of Charleston, the US Air Force Academy, and the University of the Virgin Islands collaborate to maintain and operate the facility. The primary scientific focus of the facility is the optical follow-up of high-energy transients though a variety of other science interests are also being pursued including follow-up of candidate extra-solar planets, rotation studies of cool stars, and near-Earth asteroid and space situational awareness studies. The facility also supports a wide-reaching education and outreach program dedicated to raising the level of STEAM engagement and enrichment in the USVI. We detail the characteristics, capabilities, and early results from the observatory. The observatory is growing its staff and science activities and potential topics for collaboration will be discussed.

  8. Auger ACCESS—Remote Controlling and Monitoring the Pierre Auger Observatory (United States)

    Jejkal, Thomas


    Ultra high energy cosmic rays are the most energetic particles in the universe. They are measured to have energies of up to 1020 eV and occur at a rate of about once per square kilometer per century. To increase the probability of detecting one of these events, a huge detector covering a large area is needed. The Pierre Auger Collaboration build up an observatory covering 3000 square kilometers of the Pampa Amarilla close to Malargüe for this purpose. Until now, the Auger Observatory has been controlled exclusively via the local network for security and performance reasons. As local operation is associated with high travel costs, the Auger ACCESS project, started in 2005, has constructed a secure, operable and sustainable solution for remote control and monitoring. The implemented solution includes Grid technologies for secured access and infrastructure virtualization for building up a fully featured testing environment for the Auger Observatory. Measurements showed only a negligible delay for communicating with the observatory in Argentina, which allows the establishment of remote control rooms in the near future for full remote operation and remarkable cost reduction.

  9. The Mauna Kea Observatories Outreach Committee Brings Astronomy To The Hawaiian Public (United States)

    Heyer, I.; Harvey, J.; Usuda, K. S.; Fujihara, G.; Hamilton, J.


    The Mauna Kea Observatories Outreach Committee (MKOOC) combines the outreach activities of the 13 telescopes on Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaii. For the International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009 we branded our annual local events, and in addition developed several unique activities and products to bring astronomy to the public during IYA. Our Journey Through The Universe classroom visit and teacher training program was augmented by several evening public events for the whole family. For AstroDay we developed a set of astronomy trading cards, such that people had to visit all the observatory booths to collect the whole set. In collaboration with the local newspapers, we produced an astronomy supplement, available both on paper and online, highlighting the work being done at our observatories. A year-long introductory astronomy class for K-12 teachers was held, emphasizing hands-on activities to teach important concepts. In collaboration with a local supermarket, we held a poster contest for students, making the connection between astronomy and Hawaiian culture. We also participated in the "100 Hours of Astronomy" webcast. In the fall, we celebrated the Galilean Nights with an all-observatories block party, with activities, music, and give-aways.

  10. The Keck Cosmic Web Imager (KCWI): A Powerful New Integral Field Spectrograph for the Keck Observatory (United States)

    Morrissey, Patrick; KCWI Team


    The Keck Cosmic Web Imager (KCWI) is a new facility instrument being developed for the W. M. Keck Observatory and funded for construction by the Telescope System Instrumentation Program (TSIP) of the National Science Foundation (NSF). KCWI is a bench-mounted spectrograph for the Keck II right Nasmyth focal station, providing integral field spectroscopy over a seeing-limited field up to 20"x33" in extent. Selectable Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings provide high efficiency and spectral resolution in the range of 1000 to 20000. The dual-beam design of KCWI passed a Preliminary Design Review in summer 2011. The detailed design of the KCWI blue channel (350 to 700 nm) is now nearly complete, with the red channel (530 to 1050 nm) planned for a phased implementation contingent upon additional funding. KCWI builds on the experience of the Caltech team in implementing the Cosmic Web Imager (CWI), in operation since 2009 at Palomar Observatory. KCWI adds considerable flexibility to the CWI design, and will take full advantage of the excellent seeing and dark sky above Mauna Kea with a selectable nod-and-shuffle observing mode. The KCWI team is lead by Caltech (project management, design and implementation) in partnership with the University of California at Santa Cruz (camera optical and mechanical design) and the W. M. Keck Observatory (program oversight and observatory interfaces).

  11. Clear Creek Environmental Hydrologic Observatory: From Vision Toward Reality (United States)

    Just, C.; Muste, M.; Kruger, A.


    The CyberEnviroNet research group at The University of Iowa includes around 25 scientists and engineers from Geography, Geoscience, Computer Science, and various Engineering Departments. The group leads diverse research and education projects involving "cyberinfrastructure" applied to water-resource and environmental concerns. Members of this group actively participate in the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) and the Collaborative Large-Scale Engineering Analysis Network for Environmental Research (CLEANER), ongoing NSF-supported activities and initiatives. Most activities are led by IIHR-Hydroscience & Engineering (IIHR) and the Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research (CGRER). An outcome of the CyberEnviroNet group activities is the emerging Clear Creek Environmental Hydrologic Observatory at the headwaters of Iowa's Clear Creek. It is envisioned that this process-based observatory will support the scientific investigation of relevant components of water cycle processes. Cyberinfrastructure is a complex concept that is difficult to narrowly define. However, this project will create a working example of cyberinfrastructure in the hydrologic and environmental sciences. It is a system that integrates a broad range of technologies and ideas: wired and wireless sensors, low power wireless communication, embedded microcontrollers, commodity cellular networks, the internet, unattended quality assurance, metadata, relational databases, machine-to-machine communication, interfaces to hydrologic and environmental models, feedback, and external inputs. The creation of this multi-faceted system raises important questions: 1. Will such a system benefit the testing of scientific hypotheses in the areas of "envirohydrology" and hydrology? 2. If the answer is "yes", do we know how to assemble, operate, manage, and make it cost effective? 3. If the answers are "yes", then does it make sense for the hydrologic and

  12. Decision Analysis Tools for Volcano Observatories (United States)

    Hincks, T. H.; Aspinall, W.; Woo, G.


    Staff at volcano observatories are predominantly engaged in scientific activities related to volcano monitoring and instrumentation, data acquisition and analysis. Accordingly, the academic education and professional training of observatory staff tend to focus on these scientific functions. From time to time, however, staff may be called upon to provide decision support to government officials responsible for civil protection. Recognizing that Earth scientists may have limited technical familiarity with formal decision analysis methods, specialist software tools that assist decision support in a crisis should be welcome. A review is given of two software tools that have been under development recently. The first is for probabilistic risk assessment of human and economic loss from volcanic eruptions, and is of practical use in short and medium-term risk-informed planning of exclusion zones, post-disaster response, etc. A multiple branch event-tree architecture for the software, together with a formalism for ascribing probabilities to branches, have been developed within the context of the European Community EXPLORIS project. The second software tool utilizes the principles of the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) for evidence-based assessment of volcanic state and probabilistic threat evaluation. This is of practical application in short-term volcano hazard forecasting and real-time crisis management, including the difficult challenge of deciding when an eruption is over. An open-source BBN library is the software foundation for this tool, which is capable of combining synoptically different strands of observational data from diverse monitoring sources. A conceptual vision is presented of the practical deployment of these decision analysis tools in a future volcano observatory environment. Summary retrospective analyses are given of previous volcanic crises to illustrate the hazard and risk insights gained from use of these tools.

  13. The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) (United States)

    Wolf, J.


    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, SOFIA, will carry a 3-meter-class telescope onboard a Boeing 747SP aircraft to altitudes of 41,000 to 45,000 ft, above most of the atmosphere's IR-absorbing water vapor. The telescope was developed and built in Germany and has been delivered to the U.S. in September 2002. The integration into the B747SP has been com- pleted and functional tests are under way in Waco, Texas. In early 2005 flight-testing of the observatory will initially be dedi-cated to the re-certification of the modified aircraft, then performance tests of the telescope and the electronics and data systems will commence. Later in 2005 after transferring to its home base, NASA's Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California, SOFIA will start astrophysical observations. A suite of specialized infrared cameras and spectrometers covering wave-lengths between 1 and 600 ?m is being developed by U.S. and German science institutions. In addition to the infrared instruments, a high-speed visible range CCD camera will use the airborne observatory to chase the shadows of celestial bodies during occultations. Once SOFIA will be in routine operations with a planned observing schedule of up to 960 hours at altitude per year, it might also be available as a platform to serendipitous observations not using the main telescope, such as recordings of meteor streams or the search for extra-solar planets transiting their central stars. These are areas of research in which amateur astronomers with relatively small telescopes and state-of-the-art imaging equipment can contribute.

  14. Protection of Hawaii's Observatories from Light Pollution (United States)

    Wainscoat, Richard J.


    Maunakea Observatory, located on the island of Hawaii, is among the world darkest sites for astronomy. Strong efforts to preserve the dark night sky over the last forty years have proven successful. Artificial light presently adds only approximately 2% to the natural night sky brightness. The techniques being used to protect Maunakea from light pollution will be described, along with the challenges that are now being faced.Haleakala Observatory, located on the island of Maui, is also an excellent observing site, and is among the best sites in the United States. Lighting restrictions in Maui County are much weaker, and consequently, the night sky above Haleakala is less well protected. Haleakala is closer to Honolulu and the island of Oahu (population approximately 1 million), and the glow from Oahu makes the northwestern sky brighter.Much of the lighting across most of the United States, including Hawaii, is presently being converted to LED lighting. This provides an opportunity to replace existing poorly shielded lights with properly shielded LED fixtures, but careful spectral management is essential. It is critically important to only use LED lighting that is deficient in blue and green light. LED lighting also is easy to dim. Dimming of lights later at night, when there is no need for brighter lighting, is an important tool for reducing light pollution.Techniques used to protect astronomical observatories from light pollution are similar to the techniques that must be used to protect animals that are affected by light at night, such as endangered birds and turtles. These same techniques are compatible with recent human health related lighting recommendations from the American Medical Association.

  15. The First 50 Years of Konkoly Observatory (United States)

    Balazs, Lajos G.; Vargha, Magda; Zsoldos, Endre

    The second half of the 19th century experienced a revolution in astronomy. It coincided with a new start of professional astronomy in Hungary through the work of Miklós Konkoly Thege (1842-1916) who is considered as a pioneer of current astrophysical activity in our country. He played an outstanding role in organizing scientific life and institutions, too. He started observations in his newly founded Observatory at Ógyalla in 1871. Sunspots were regularly observed in the observatory from 1872. In 1874 Konkoly began regular spectroscopic observations of comets and emphasized the importance of parallel laboratory works. An important field of Konkoly's astronomical activity was the observation of surface patterns of planets, particularly that of Jupiter and Mars. Spectroscopic observations of stars were also a significant part of the activity of Ógyalla Observatory. In the last period of the Konkoly era (starting in 1899) stellar photometry became the main field of research. At the end of WW I the institute was moved to Budapest Ógyalla and started a new life based on a completely new infrastructure: “... all era are followed by a new one, with its new tasks, in which the scope of activity changes correspondingly, in which enthusiasm is mostly manifested. It was different in the forties when our nation found itself following the word of the founder of our Academy, it was different in the fifties and sixties when we have to defend our nation against foreign aggression, and it became different since the sixties when, our existence being guarantied, we also have to make an effort, beside strengthening it, to get as distinguished a position among the civilized nations as possible.”

  16. Didactic applications of remote and robotic observatories (United States)

    Vaquerizo, J. A.; Cabezas, D. H.; Cesar Team; Partner Team


    Nowadays the use of remote and robotic observatories for astronomy education and public outreach has become a reality. Students can access these resources from their schools by using the Internet, regardless of the geographic location. Teachers have a wide range of educational and outreach projects that can be implemented in the classroom. In the present work we display, from a general point of view, the most common approaches adopted, as well as, in particular, the potential synergies between them. As an example of this, we present the new CESAR project and the synergies with PARTNeR project.

  17. The Virtual Solar Observatory: Progress and Diversions (United States)

    Gurman, Joseph B.; Bogart, R. S.; Amezcua, A.; Hill, Frank; Oien, Niles; Davey, Alisdair R.; Hourcle, Joseph; Mansky, E.; Spencer, Jennifer L.


    The Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) is a known and useful method for identifying and accessing solar physics data online. We review current "behind the scenes" work on the VSO, including the addition of new data providers and the return of access to data sets to which service was temporarily interrupted. We also report on the effect on software development efforts when government IT “security” initiatives impinge on finite resoruces. As always, we invite SPD members to identify data sets, services, and interfaces they would like to see implemented in the VSO.

  18. Citizen Observatories: A Standards Based Architecture (United States)

    Simonis, Ingo


    A number of large-scale research projects are currently under way exploring the various components of citizen observatories, e.g. CITI-SENSE (, Citclops (, COBWEB (, OMNISCIENTIS (, and WeSenseIt ( Common to all projects is the motivation to develop a platform enabling effective participation by citizens in environmental projects, while considering important aspects such as security, privacy, long-term storage and availability, accessibility of raw and processed data and its proper integration into catalogues and international exchange and collaboration systems such as GEOSS or INSPIRE. This paper describes the software architecture implemented for setting up crowdsourcing campaigns using standardized components, interfaces, security features, and distribution capabilities. It illustrates the Citizen Observatory Toolkit, a software suite that allows defining crowdsourcing campaigns, to invite registered and unregistered participants to participate in crowdsourcing campaigns, and to analyze, process, and visualize raw and quality enhanced crowd sourcing data and derived products. The Citizen Observatory Toolkit is not a single software product. Instead, it is a framework of components that are built using internationally adopted standards wherever possible (e.g. OGC standards from Sensor Web Enablement, GeoPackage, and Web Mapping and Processing Services, as well as security and metadata/cataloguing standards), defines profiles of those standards where necessary (e.g. SWE O&M profile, SensorML profile), and implements design decisions based on the motivation to maximize interoperability and reusability of all components. The toolkit contains tools to set up, manage and maintain crowdsourcing campaigns, allows building on-demand apps optimized for the specific sampling focus, supports offline and online sampling modes using modern cell phones with

  19. Low Energy Investigations at Kamioka Observatory


    Sekiya, Hiroyuki


    At Kamioka Observatory many activities for low energy rare event search are ongoing. Super-Kamiokande(SK), the largest water Cherenkov neutrino detector, currently continues data taking as the fourth phase of the experiment (SK-IV). In SK-IV, we have upgraded the water purification system and tuned water flow in the SK tank. Consequently the background level was lowered significantly. This allowed SK-IV to derive solar neutrino results down to 3.5MeV energy region. With these data, neutrino o...

  20. Astronomical analysis of the taosi observatory site (United States)

    Liu, C. Y.


    An ancient observatory was unearthed recently at Taosi site. This paper discussed the figure of the relic, analyzed the relationship between the 12 backsights and calendar date using astronomical method, and compared the simulated observation with theoretic computation. The investigation shows that backsight E2---E12 indicated the directions of sunrise in the whole year, which were roughly equally distributed and offered an unequal calendar system. The backsight E1 indicated the south-end of the moonrise, giving a time symbol of 18---19 years. This building must be a complex of solar observation, time service, solar worship, and sacrificial ritual

  1. Pulsating stars and the Virtual Observatory (United States)

    Suárez, Juan Carlos


    Virtual Observatory is one of the most used internet-based protocols in astronomy. It has become somewhat natural to find, manage, compare, visualize and download observations from very different archives of astronomical observations with no effort. The VO technology beyond that is now being a reality for asteroseismology, not only for observations but also for theoretical models. Here I give a brief description of the most important VO tools related with asteroseismology, as well as a rough outline of the current development in this field.

  2. OAdM robotic observatory: solutions for an unattended small-class observatory (United States)

    Colomé, J.; Ribas, I.; Fernández, D.; Francisco, X.; Isern, J.; Palau, X.; Torra, J.


    The Montsec Astronomical Observatory (OAdM) is a small-class observatory working on a completely unattended control, due to the isolation of the site. Robotic operation is, then, mandatory for its routine use. The level of robotization of an observatory is given by the confidence reached to respond to environment changes and by the required human interaction due to possible alarms. These two points establish a level of human attendance to ensure low risk at any time. There are key problems to solve when a robotic control is envisaged. Learned lessons and solutions to these issues at the OAdM are discussed here. We present a description of the general control software (SW) and several SW packages developed. The general control SW specially protects the system at the identified single points of failure and makes a distributed control of any subsystem, which are able to respond independently when an alarm is triggered on thanks to a top-down control flow. Specific SW packages developed are: an environment monitoring SW, a set of alarm routines, a pipeline for calibration and analysis of the images taken, and an observation scheduler. All together compose a SW suite designed to reach the complete robotization of an observatory.

  3. Mechanical Overview of the International X-Ray Observatory (United States)

    Robinson, David W.; McClelland, Ryan S.


    The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) is a new collaboration between NASA, ESA, and JAXA which is under study for launch in 2020. IXO will be a large 6600 kilogram Great Observatory-class mission which will build upon the legacies of the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observatories. It combines elements from NASA's Constellation-X program and ESA's XEUS program. The observatory will have a 20-25 meter focal length, which necessitates the use of a deployable instrument module. Currently the project is actively trading configurations and layouts of the various instruments and spacecraft components. This paper will provide a snapshot of the latest observatory configuration under consideration and summarize the observatory from the mechanical engineering perspective.

  4. Historical Heliophysical Series of the Ebro Observatory (United States)

    Curto, J. J.; Solé, J. G.; Genescà, M.; Blanca, M. J.; Vaquero, J. M.


    We present the contents of the historical heliophysical series collected at the Ebro Observatory, as well as the actions carried out to restore and save these data and to conserve the physical media containing the data and the telescopes that helped to obtain them. We also discuss the results obtained with these measurements, describe how we disseminated them, and report on the investigations that we have carried out with this information. We show the evolution of the local solar indices such as the Ebro Sunspot Number (ESN), the Ebro Group Sunspot Number (EGSN), or the Ebro Sunspot Area (ESA), which are derived directly from our data. For verification purposes, these local solar indices have been compared to the international sunspot numbers published by SILSO. Our data are reliable and correlate well with the respective international series. Finally, as an example of the possibilities that the Ebro series offer, we explain the use of these data to elucidate one of the recent problems in solar physics: the discontinuity in international data known as the Waldmeier discontinuity and, in general, the ratio between sunspots and sunspot groups. In the Ebro Observatory series, no discontinuity such as this is detected. We instead observe a rather stable ratio in the spot or group rates. This result is in agreement with the hypothesis of Svalgaard (2010, ASP CS-428, 297) that the Waldmeier discontinuity is produced only on a procedural level, perhaps by a change in the criteria used in Zürich by Waldmeier or by changing external conditions.

  5. SPASE, Metadata, and the Heliophysics Virtual Observatories (United States)

    Thieman, James; King, Todd; Roberts, Aaron


    To provide data search and access capability in the field of Heliophysics (the study of the Sun and its effects on the Solar System, especially the Earth) a number of Virtual Observatories (VO) have been established both via direct funding from the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and through other funding agencies in the U.S. and worldwide. At least 15 systems can be labeled as Virtual Observatories in the Heliophysics community, 9 of them funded by NASA. The problem is that different metadata and data search approaches are used by these VO's and a search for data relevant to a particular research question can involve consulting with multiple VO's - needing to learn a different approach for finding and acquiring data for each. The Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) project is intended to provide a common data model for Heliophysics data and therefore a common set of metadata for searches of the VO's. The SPASE Data Model has been developed through the common efforts of the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium (HDMC) representatives over a number of years. We currently have released Version 2.1 of the Data Model. The advantages and disadvantages of the Data Model will be discussed along with the plans for the future. Recent changes requested by new members of the SPASE community indicate some of the directions for further development.

  6. Enabling Virtual Access to Latin-American Southern Observatories (United States)

    Filippi, G.


    EVALSO (Enabling Virtual Access to Latin-American Southern Observatories) is an international consortium of nine astronomical organisations and research network operators, part-funded under the European Commission FP7, to create and exploit high-speed bandwidth connections to South American observatories. A brief description of the project is presented. The EVALSO Consortium inaugurated a fibre link between the Paranal Observatory and international networks on 4 November 2010 capable of 10 Gigabit per second.

  7. Sterile medfly males of the tsl Vienna 8 genetic sexing strain display improved mating performance with ginger root oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranhos, Beatriz Jordao; Alves, Renata Morelli, E-mail: bjordao@cpatsa.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Semi-Arido, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); McInnis, Donald [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/PBARC), Honolulu, HI (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center; Uramoto, Keiko [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Damasceno, Itala; Malavasi, Aldo [Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil, Juazeiro, BA (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilmara [Valexport, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Costa, Maria de Lourdes; Walder, Julio [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Nascimento, Antonio [EMBRAPA Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil)


    A key point of the sterile insect technique applied to the medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is that the sterile males produced in the laboratory should have at least a minimal sexual compatibility with wild females. Among several genetic sexing tsl (Temperature Sensitive Lethal) strains of C. capitata mass-reared around the world, the Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil has chosen the most recent mass produced tsl strain, Vienna 8 (V8), which has been evaluated in the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil, since April, 2005. The tests were accomplished in field cages, with different treatments for V8 males, sterile or fertile, exposed to the aroma of ginger root oil (GRO) or not, versus wild males and females. Males of one strain (V8 or wild) were painted white on the thorax the day before the mating tests. All the insects were virgin, and early in the morning (7-8 A.M.) males were released inside the field cages, 10 min. before females. Mating pairs were collected in glass vials, until early afternoon. From this raw data, both the type of male mating and the time in copula were recorded for each pair. Then, the total percentage of mated females, the RSI (Relative Sterility Index), and Fried's competitiveness values (C), were calculated for each field cage. The percentage of females mated was statistically higher to sterile males exposed to GRO than to non exposed to GRO. Time in copula was significantly higher for wild flies than for laboratory flies, except for the case of fertile V8 males exposed to GRO x wild females. The RSI and C values were significantly higher for V8 males (irradiated and fertile) treated with GRO than for V8 males not treated with GRO. The results indicate that there is adequate sexual compatibility between sterile males of the tsl Vienna 8 strain and wild C. capitata females from the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil. Also, the radiation dose of 95 Gy, used to sterilize the males, did not affect their sexual activity. Ginger root oil acted as a

  8. Planetary Science with the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) (United States)

    Reach, William T.; SOFIA Science Mission Operations


    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is executing observations as part of its 5th annual proposal cycle. This poster compiles some scientific highlights from observations to date, lists pending observations, and statistically summarizes guest observer participation in SOFIA. We have observed comets, asteroids, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Kuiper Belt Objects, and extrasolar planets. Infrared obsrvations from our observatory have been used to characterize surfaces, atmospheres, and dust. We describe the observatory capabilities, highlighting our scientific instrument in development. We describe future capabilities of the observatory, to encourage new proposals that can utilize this unique facility for planetary science.

  9. The Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey: Herschel Image Atlas and Aperture Photometry (United States)

    Chu, Jason K.; Sanders, D. B.; Larson, K. L.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Howell, J. H.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Xu, K. C.; Paladini, R.; Schulz, B.; Shupe, D.; Appleton, P.; Armus, L.; Billot, N.; Chan, B. H. P.; Evans, A. S.; Fadda, D.; Frayer, D. T.; Haan, S.; Ishida, C. M.; Iwasawa, K.; Kim, D.-C.; Lord, S.; Murphy, E.; Petric, A.; Privon, G. C.; Surace, J. A.; Treister, E.


    Far-infrared images and photometry are presented for 201 Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies [LIRGs: log ({L}{IR}/{L}⊙ )=11.00{--}11.99, ULIRGs: log ({L}{IR}/{L}⊙ )=12.00{--}12.99], in the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS), based on observations with the Herschel Space Observatory Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) and the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) instruments. The image atlas displays each GOALS target in the three PACS bands (70, 100, and 160 μm) and the three SPIRE bands (250, 350, and 500 μm), optimized to reveal structures at both high and low surface brightness levels, with images scaled to simplify comparison of structures in the same physical areas of ˜100 × 100 kpc2. Flux densities of companion galaxies in merging systems are provided where possible, depending on their angular separation and the spatial resolution in each passband, along with integrated system fluxes (sum of components). This data set constitutes the imaging and photometric component of the GOALS Herschel OT1 observing program, and is complementary to atlases presented for the Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Chandra X-ray Observatory. Collectively, these data will enable a wide range of detailed studies of active galactic nucleus and starburst activity within the most luminous infrared galaxies in the local universe. Based on Herschel Space Observatory observations. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by the European-led Principal Investigator consortia, and important participation from NASA.

  10. Investigating Near Space Interaction Regions: Developing a Remote Observatory (United States)

    Gallant, M.; Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Oliversen, R. J.; Jaehnig, K.; Percival, J.; Harlander, J.; Englert, C. R.; Kallio, R.; Roesler, F. L.; Nossal, S. M.; Gardner, D.; Rosborough, S.


    The Investigating Near Space Interaction Regions (INSpIRe) effort will (1) establish an adaptable research station capable of contributing to terrestrial and planetary aeronomy; (2) integrate two state-of-the-art second generation Fabry-Perot (FP) and Spatial Heteorodyne Spectrometers (SHS) into a remotely operable configuration; (3) deploy this instrumentation to a clear-air site, establishing a stable, well-calibrated observatory; (4) embark on a series of observations designed to contribute to three major areas of geocoronal research: geocoronal physics, structure/coupling, and variability. This poster describes the development of the INSpIRe remote observatory. Based at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU), initiative INSpIRe provides a platform to encourage the next generation of researchers to apply knowledge gained in the classroom to real-world science and engineering. Students at ERAU contribute to the INSpIRe effort's hardware and software needs. Mechanical/optical systems are in design to bring light to any of four instruments. Control software is in development to allow remote users to control everything from dome and optical system operations to calibration and data collection. In April 2016, we also installed and tested our first science instrument in the INSpIRe trailer, the Redline DASH Demonstration Instrument (REDDI). REDDI uses Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne (DASH) spectroscopy, and its deployment as part of INSpIRe is a collaborative research effort between the Naval Research Lab, St Cloud State University, and ERAU. Similar to a stepped Michelson device, REDDI measures oxygen (630.0 nm) winds from the thermosphere. REDDI is currently mounted in a temporary location under INSpIRe's main siderostat until its entrance optical system can be modified. First light tests produced good signal-to-noise fringes in ten minute integrations, indicating that we will soon be able to measure thermospheric winds from our Daytona Beach testing site

  11. The Role of the Virtual Astronomical Observatory in the Era of Big Data (United States)

    Berriman, G. B.; Hanisch, R. J.; Lazio, T. J.


    The Virtual Observatory (VO) is realizing global electronic integration of astronomy data. The rapid growth in the size and complexity of data sets is transforming the computing landscape in astronomy. One of the long-term goals of the U.S. VO project, the Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO), is development of an information backbone that responds to this growth. Such a backbone will, when complete, provide innovative mechanisms for fast discovery of, and access to, massive data sets, and services that enable distributed storage, publication processing of large datasets. All these services will be built so that new projects can incorporate them as part of their data management and processing plans. Services under development to date include a general purpose indexing scheme for fast access to data sets, a cross-comparison engine that operate on catalogs of 1 billion records or more, and an interface for managing distributed data sets and connecting them to data discovery and analysis tools. The VAO advises projects on technology solutions for their data access and processing needs, and recently advised the Sagan Workshop on using cloud computing to support hands-on data analysis sessions for 150+ participants. Acknowledgements: The Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) is managed by the VAO, LLC, a non-profit company established as a partnership of the Associated Universities, Inc. and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. The VAO is sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  12. The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and Post-war Japanese Optical Astronomy (United States)

    Tajima, Toshiyuki

    This paper depicts some aspects of the formative process of the Japanese optical and infrared astronomical community in the post-war period, featuring the transition of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan(NAOJ). We take up three cases of telescope construction, examining their background and their contribution to the Japanese astronomical community. Through these cases, the characteristics of traditions and cultures of optical and infrared astronomy in Japan are considered. Although the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory (TAO) of the University of Tokyo, the predecessor of NAOJ, was originally founded as an agency for practical astronomical observation such as time and almanac service, it has become an international centre for all types of astrophysical research. Research and development of telescopes and observational instruments have become an important part of the astronomers' practice. Now, however, a number of Japanese universities are planning to have their own large to middle-sized telescopes, and a new style of astronomical research is emerging involving astrophysical studies utilising data acquired from the Virtual Observatory, so there is a distinct possibility that the status of the NAOJ will change even further in the future.

  13. Towards improving sterile insect technique: Exposure to orange oil compounds increases sexual signalling and longevity in Ceratitis capitata males of the Vienna 8 GSS (United States)

    Gerofotis, Christos D.; Ioannou, Charalampos S.; Iliadis, Ioannis V.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.; Koveos, Dimitris S.


    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is a notorious insect pest causing huge economic losses worldwide. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used for its control. Using sexually mature sterilized males of the Vienna 8 (tsl) strain in the laboratory, we explored whether exposure of males to citrus compounds (separately or in a mixture) affects their sexual behaviour and if nutritional conditions and age modulate those effects. Exposed males exhibited increased sexual signalling compared to unexposed ones, particularly when fed a rich adult diet. Interestingly, and for the first time reported in medfly, exposure of Vienna 8 males to a mixture of citrus compounds increases longevity under poor adult diet conditions. We discuss the possible associated mechanisms and provide some practical implications of our results towards improving the effectiveness of SIT. PMID:29190755

  14. Towards improving sterile insect technique: Exposure to orange oil compounds increases sexual signalling and longevity in Ceratitis capitata males of the Vienna 8 GSS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos A Kouloussis

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is a notorious insect pest causing huge economic losses worldwide. The sterile insect technique (SIT is widely used for its control. Using sexually mature sterilized males of the Vienna 8 (tsl strain in the laboratory, we explored whether exposure of males to citrus compounds (separately or in a mixture affects their sexual behaviour and if nutritional conditions and age modulate those effects. Exposed males exhibited increased sexual signalling compared to unexposed ones, particularly when fed a rich adult diet. Interestingly, and for the first time reported in medfly, exposure of Vienna 8 males to a mixture of citrus compounds increases longevity under poor adult diet conditions. We discuss the possible associated mechanisms and provide some practical implications of our results towards improving the effectiveness of SIT.

  15. The pre-Anschluss Vienna School of Medicine - the physicians: Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), Julius Wagner-Jauregg (1857-1940) and Karel Wenckebach (1864-1940). (United States)

    Shaw, Lily Bzl; Shaw, Robert A


    Three physicians are discussed. Sigmund Freud, probably the best-known member of the Vienna School of Medicine, was the path-breaking pioneer in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. Julius Wagner-Jauregg was a psychiatrist who discovered the link between iodine deficiency and goitre and also developed malaria therapy to treat progressive paralysis caused by syphilis for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize. Karel Wenckebach, the pioneering Dutch cardiologist, is best known for the Wenckebach block. After the Anschluss, fate dealt very different hands to these three physicians. Freud fled to London where he soon died. Wagner-Jauregg, who had some pan-Germanic sympathies as well as views on eugenics, left a controversial legacy. The Dutch cardiologist Wenckebach died in Vienna shortly after his homeland had been invaded in 1940 by that of his hosts. © IMechE 2014.

  16. Artificial intelligence for the CTA Observatory scheduler (United States)

    Colomé, Josep; Colomer, Pau; Campreciós, Jordi; Coiffard, Thierry; de Oña, Emma; Pedaletti, Giovanna; Torres, Diego F.; Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro


    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project will be the next generation ground-based very high energy gamma-ray instrument. The success of the precursor projects (i.e., HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) motivated the construction of this large infrastructure that is included in the roadmap of the ESFRI projects since 2008. CTA is planned to start the construction phase in 2015 and will consist of two arrays of Cherenkov telescopes operated as a proposal-driven open observatory. Two sites are foreseen at the southern and northern hemispheres. The CTA observatory will handle several observation modes and will have to operate tens of telescopes with a highly efficient and reliable control. Thus, the CTA planning tool is a key element in the control layer for the optimization of the observatory time. The main purpose of the scheduler for CTA is the allocation of multiple tasks to one single array or to multiple sub-arrays of telescopes, while maximizing the scientific return of the facility and minimizing the operational costs. The scheduler considers long- and short-term varying conditions to optimize the prioritization of tasks. A short-term scheduler provides the system with the capability to adapt, in almost real-time, the selected task to the varying execution constraints (i.e., Targets of Opportunity, health or status of the system components, environment conditions). The scheduling procedure ensures that long-term planning decisions are correctly transferred to the short-term prioritization process for a suitable selection of the next task to execute on the array. In this contribution we present the constraints to CTA task scheduling that helped classifying it as a Flexible Job-Shop Problem case and finding its optimal solution based on Artificial Intelligence techniques. We describe the scheduler prototype that uses a Guarded Discrete Stochastic Neural Network (GDSN), for an easy representation of the possible long- and short-term planning solutions, and Constraint


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Skarbal


    Full Text Available This paper describes a methodology to assess the energy performance of residential buildings starting from the semantic 3D city model of Vienna. Space heating, domestic hot water and electricity demand are taken into account. The paper deals with aspects related to urban data modelling, with particular attention to the energy-related topics, and with issues related to interactive data exploration/visualisation and management from a plugin-free web-browser, e.g. based on Cesium, a WebGL virtual globe and map engine. While providing references to existing previous works, only some general and introductory information is given about the data collection, harmonisation and integration process necessary to create the CityGML-based 3D city model, which serves as the central information hub for the different applications developed and described more in detail in this paper. The work aims, among the rest, at developing urban decision making and operational optimisation software tools to minimise non-renewable energy use in cities. The results obtained so far, as well as some comments about their quality and limitations, are presented, together with the discussion regarding the next steps and some planned improvements.

  18. How to Pinpoint Energy-Inefficient Buildings? AN Approach Based on the 3d City Model of Vienna (United States)

    Skarbal, B.; Peters-Anders, J.; Faizan Malik, A.; Agugiaro, G.


    This paper describes a methodology to assess the energy performance of residential buildings starting from the semantic 3D city model of Vienna. Space heating, domestic hot water and electricity demand are taken into account. The paper deals with aspects related to urban data modelling, with particular attention to the energy-related topics, and with issues related to interactive data exploration/visualisation and management from a plugin-free web-browser, e.g. based on Cesium, a WebGL virtual globe and map engine. While providing references to existing previous works, only some general and introductory information is given about the data collection, harmonisation and integration process necessary to create the CityGML-based 3D city model, which serves as the central information hub for the different applications developed and described more in detail in this paper. The work aims, among the rest, at developing urban decision making and operational optimisation software tools to minimise non-renewable energy use in cities. The results obtained so far, as well as some comments about their quality and limitations, are presented, together with the discussion regarding the next steps and some planned improvements.

  19. Basic design and construction of the Vienna FES implants: existing solutions and prospects for new generations of implants. (United States)

    Mayr, W; Bijak, M; Rafolt, D; Sauermann, S; Unger, E; Lanmüller, H


    We can distinguish 3 generations of FES implants for activation of neural structures: 1. RF-powered implants with antenna displacement dependent stimulation amplitude; 2. RF-powered implants with stabilised stimulation amplitude; and 3. battery powered implants. In Vienna an 8-channel version of the second generation type has been applied clinically to mobilisation of paraplegics and phrenic pacing. A 20-channel implant of the second generation type for mobilisation of paraplegics and an 8-channel implant of the third generation type for cardiac assist have been tested in animal studies. A device of completely new design for direct stimulation of denervated muscles is being tested in animal studies. There is a limited choice of technologically suitable biocompatible and bioresistant materials for implants. The physical design has to be anatomically shaped without corners or edges. Electrical conductors carrying direct current (D.C.) have to be placed inside a hermetic metal case. The established sealing materials, silicone rubber and epoxy resin, do not provide hermeticity and should only embed DC-free components. For electrical connections outside the hermetic metal case welding is preferable to soldering; conductive adhesives should be avoided. It is advisable to use a hydrophobic oxide ceramic core for telemetry antenna coils embedded in sealing polymer. Cleaning of all components before sealing in resin is of the utmost importance as well as avoidance of rapid temperature changes during the curing process.

  20. Prediction of survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: results of a community-based study in Vienna. (United States)

    Gaul, G B; Gruska, M; Titscher, G; Blazek, G; Havelec, L; Marktl, W; Muellner, W; Kaff, A


    The objective of this study was the assessment of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and the definition of possible predictive factors for final hospital discharge. Out of a database of 89,557 consecutive missions of the Vienna emergency medical system (EMS) during 1990, there were 623 missions due to a collapse of non-traumatic origin: in 374 cases (60.0%) the patients were declared dead without further attempts at resuscitation. The remaining 249 patients were analysed for predictive factors at site. Survival to hospital admission: 109 patients survived to hospital admission (43.7%); bystander support had a small impact (P < 0.05) on survival to hospital arrival whereas age and gender had no predictive power. Most patients with ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation (VT/VF) survived primarily (69 of 117, i.e. 59.0%). Survival to hospital discharge: 27 patients were discharged from hospital care (10.8%). ECG findings on arrival of the EMS physician at the site proved to be the only powerful predictor for survival: 24 of 117 patients with VT/VF survived compared with only one of 81 with primary asystole, two of 39 with severe bradycardia, and no patient with electromechanical dissociation.

  1. Calculation of Precipitable Water for Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy Aircraft (SOFIA): Airplane in the Night Sky (United States)

    Wen, Pey Chun; Busby, Christopher M.


    Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, is the new generation airborne observatory station based at NASA s Dryden Aircraft Operations Facility, Palmdale, CA, to study the universe. Since the observatory detects infrared energy, water vapor is a concern in the atmosphere due to its known capacity to absorb infrared energy emitted by astronomical objects. Although SOFIA is hoping to fly above 99% of water vapor in the atmosphere it is still possible to affect astronomical observation. Water vapor is one of the toughest parameter to measure in the atmosphere, several atmosphere modeling are used to calculate water vapor loading. The water vapor loading, or Precipitable water, is being calculated by Matlab along the planned flight path. Over time, these results will help SOFIA to plan flights to regions of lower water vapor loading and hopefully improve the imagery collection of these astronomical features.

  2. DORIS research activities at Geodetic Observatory Pecny (United States)

    Štěpánek, Petr; Filler, Vratislav; Buday, Michal


    Geodesy Observatory Pecný (GOP) provides one of the International DORIS Service (IDS) analyses centers, participating on the combined IDS products including the solution for ITRF2014. As the unique approach, GOP employs a DORIS-developed version of the Bernese GPS Software. The recent research focuses on several topics. Our experiment, based on 9 year of data, shows a possibility to reach LOD estimation accuracy close to 0.1 msec per day (compared to reference IERS C04 model), when not adjusting the cross-track harmonics in the Satellite orbit model. We also compare different preprocessing strategies and data weighting and discuss the impact on the solution accuracy and on the scale bias. Moreover, we present the initial results of the station clock modelling from the DORIS/pseudorange measurements.

  3. Virtual Observatory: From Concept to Implementation (United States)

    Djorgovski, S. G.; Williams, R.


    We review the origins of the Virtual Observatory (VO) concept, and the current status of the efforts in this field. VO is the response of the astronomical community to the challenges posed by the modern massive and complex data sets. It is a framework in which information technology is harnessed to organize, maintain, and explore the rich information content of the exponentially growing data sets, and to enable a qualitatively new science to be done with them. VO will become a complete, open, distributed, web-based framework for astronomy of the early 21st century. A number of significant efforts worldwide are now striving to convert this vision into reality. The technological and methodological challenges posed by the information-rich astronomy are also common to many other fields. We see a fundamental change in the way all science is done, driven by the information technology revolution.

  4. Punctuated Evolution of Volcanology: An Observatory Perspective (United States)

    Burton, W. C.; Eichelberger, J. C.


    Volcanology from the perspective of crisis prediction and response-the primary function of volcano observatories-is influenced both by steady technological advances and singular events that lead to rapid changes in methodology and procedure. The former can be extrapolated somewhat, while the latter are surprises or shocks. Predictable advances include the conversion from analog to digital systems and the exponential growth of computing capacity and data storage. Surprises include eruptions such as 1980 Mount St Helens, 1985 Nevado del Ruiz, 1989-1990 Redoubt, 1991 Pinatubo, and 2010 Eyjafjallajokull; the opening of GPS to civilian applications, and the advent of an open Russia. Mount St Helens switched the rationale for volcanology in the USGS from geothermal energy to volcano hazards, Ruiz and Pinatubo emphasized the need for international cooperation for effective early warning, Redoubt launched the effort to monitor even remote volcanoes for purposes of aviation safety, and Eyjafjallajokull hammered home the need for improved ash-dispersion and engine-tolerance models; better GPS led to a revolution in volcano geodesy, and the new Russian Federation sparked an Alaska-Kamchatka scientific exchange. The pattern has been that major funding increases for volcano hazards occur after these unpredictable events, which suddenly expose a gap in capabilities, rather than out of a calculated need to exploit technological advances or meet a future goal of risk mitigation. It is up to the observatory and national volcano hazard program to leverage these sudden funding increases into a long-term, sustainable business model that incorporates both the steadily increasing costs of staff and new technology and prepares for the next volcano crisis. Elements of the future will also include the immediate availability on the internet of all publically-funded volcano data, and subscribable, sophisticated hazard alert systems that run computational, fluid dynamic eruption models. These

  5. MMS Observatory Thermal Vacuum Results Contamination Summary (United States)

    Rosecrans, Glenn P.; Errigo, Therese; Brieda, Lubos


    The MMS mission is a constellation of 4 observatories designed to investigate the fundamental plasma physics of reconnection in the Earths magnetosphere. Each spacecraft has undergone extensive environmental testing to prepare it for its minimum 2 year mission. The various instrument suites measure electric and magnetic fields, energetic particles, and plasma composition. Thermal vacuum testing was conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in their Big Blue vacuum chamber. The individual spacecraft were tested and enclosed in a cryopanel enclosure called a Hamster cage. Specific contamination control validations were actively monitored by several QCMs, a facility RGA, and at times, with 16 Ion Gauges. Each spacecraft underwent a bakeout phase, followed by 4 thermal cycles. Unique aspects of the TV environment included slow pump downs with represses, thruster firings, Helium identification, and monitoring pressure spikes with Ion gauges. Various data from these TV tests will be shown along with lessons learned.

  6. A possible Harappan Astronomical Observatory at Dholavira

    CERN Document Server

    Vahia, Mayank N


    Astronomy arises very early in a civilization and evolves as the civilization advances. It is therefore reasonable to assume that a vibrant knowledge of astronomy would have been a feature of a civilization the size of the Harappan Civilization. We suggest that structures dedicated to astronomy existed in every major Harappan city. One such city was Dholavira, an important trading port that was located on an island in what is now the Rann of Kutch during the peak of the Harappan Civilization. We have analyzed an unusual structure at Dholavira that includes two circular rooms. Upon assuming strategically-placed holes in their ceilings we examine the internal movement of sunlight within these rooms and suggest that the larger structure of which they formed a part could have functioned as an astronomical observatory.

  7. Vocabulary for Virtual Observatories and Data Systems (United States)

    Hourcle, J. A.; King, T. A.


    Virtual Observatories and other unifying data systems have been forming in nearly every science discipline. As is common in any field, language evolves to discuss the concepts, but it may evolve differently when commnities don't intercommunicate. In order to discuss our organizations and data systems across disciplines, we must have a clear language to be able to communicate information about our systems and the content within our systems. We present common terms and definitions used in earth and space informatics when discussing science archives, search systems, services and other data system components. One benefit of a common vocabulary is to help those who implement science data systems to easily recognize other efforts with a common purpose. A common vocabulary is also useful in identifying analogous terms in other related fields such as computer science and information science. We also solicit input on problematic terms that people have encountered, particularly where there is lack of agreement on the definition between various disciplines.

  8. News from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (United States)

    Kraus, C.


    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) [1] is a 1000 tonne heavy water Cerenkov detector, that has finished its data taking period on November 29th 2006. The heavy water was contained in a 12 m diameter acrylic sphere, surrounded by 9500 PMTs. It is located in INCOs Creighton mine in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada - 2039 m (6000 mwe) underground. The so-called third phase of the experiment had in addition to the heavy water an array of 36 3He and 4 4He proportional counters installed. In this configuration it can detect neutrons produced by the neutral current interaction of solar neutrinos by neutron capture in these counters (NCDs = neutral current detection array). This is a way to determine the neutral current flux independent of the PMT system with very different systematic uncertainties and is therefore determining the CC and NC reactions in separate streams.

  9. The Sky Polarization Observatory (SPOrt) experiment (United States)

    Carretti, E.

    We present the Sky Polarization Observatory (SPOrt), an experiment aimed at measuring the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization (CMBP) on large angular scales, scales on which the information about the formation epoch of the first structrures (e.g. galaxies) reside. SPOrt is an ASI funded programme and has been selected by ESA to be flown onboard the International Space Station (ISS). It consists of four radiometers in the 22-90 GHz range and it will be the first space experiment expressly devoted to polarization measurements of CMB. In particular it has been designed to minimize systematic effects at a level negligible for CMBP, which is about 2 orders of magnitude lower the CMB anisotropy signal, main target of experiments like WMAP and PLANCK. The experiment will be presented in both its two relevant aspects: scientific goals and design description with particular emphasis to its cleanness with respect to instrumental contaminations.

  10. Operational support and service concepts for observatories (United States)

    Emde, Peter; Chapus, Pierre


    The operational support and service for observatories aim at the provision, the preservation and the increase of the availability and performance of the entire structural, mechanical, drive and control systems of telescopes and the related infrastructure. The operational support and service levels range from the basic service with inspections, preventive maintenance, remote diagnostics and spare parts supply over the availability service with telephone hotline, online and on-site support, condition monitoring and spare parts logistics to the extended service with operations and site and facility management. For the level of improvements and lifecycle management support they consist of expert assessments and studies, refurbishments and upgrades including the related engineering and project management activities.

  11. The UK Virtual Observatory - Adding Planetary Data (United States)

    Allan, Peter

    The UK has built a virtual observatory called AstroGrid. Using this facility, scientists can already get access to a wide range of data on traditional astronomy, the Sun and solar-terrestrial physics (STP). This paper describes the AstroGrid system and what would be involved in adding access to planetary data to those already on offer. In recent years, there have been activities in several countries to create what are known as virtual observatories. The idea is that you should be able to easily get to all of the astronomical data that exist from your desktop computer. You do not need to know that specific data exist and you do not need to know where these data reside. In order to make this possible, it is essential that data archives and software that accesses those archives is built around a set of internationally agreed standards. These standards have been developed by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). A data archive that adheres to these standards can publish data on the internet to registries of resources that client software can search. The AstroGrid software developed in the UK adheres to these standards and provides a comprehensive set of services for data archives to provide dataset access, registries of data holdings, virtual file stores, communities of users, workflow for execution of complex grid applications and an environment into which pre-existing data processing applications can be plugged. There is also client software for searching registries and remote data archives, accessing the remote data, and a basic set of tools for displaying and analysing those data. AstroGrid is unique amongst virtual observatories in that it includes major data sources on the Sun and solar-terrestrial physics as well as more traditional astronomy. The need to support these very different types of data has led to the development of tools that can handle very different coordinate systems and display data in a variety of ways. For example, we have a

  12. Advantages of a Lunar Cryogenic Astronomical Observatory (United States)

    Burke, James; Kaltenegger, Lisa


    ESA and collaborating agencies are preparing to establish a Moon Village at a south polar site. Robotic precursor missions will include resource prospecting in permanently shadowed cold traps. The environment there is favorable for infrared and millimeter-wave astronomy. In this paper we examine the evolutionary development of a cryogenic observatory, beginning with small telescopes robotically installed and operated in conjunction with prospecting precursor missions, and continuing into later phases supported from the Moon Village. Relay communications into and out of the cold traps may be shared or else provided by dedicated links. Candidate locations can be selected with the help of data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. The first telescope will be primarily a proof-of-concept demonstrator but it can have scientific and applications uses too, supplementing other space-based survey instruments observing astrophysical objects and potentially hazardous asteroids and comets. A south polar site sees only half or the sky but that half includes the galactic center and many other interesting targets. The telescopes can stare at any object for as long as desired, providing monitoring capabilities for transiting or radial velocity planet searches, like NASA's TESS mission. In addition such telescopes are opening the prospect of gathering spectroscopic data on exoplanet atmospheres and cool stars - from UV information to assess the activity of a star to VIS to IR spectral data of the atmosphere and even atmospheric biosignatures. Preliminary design of the first telescope might be funded under a NASA call for lunar science payload concepts. An important additional product can be educational and outreach uses of the observatory, especially for the benefit of people in the developing world who can do southern hemisphere follow-up observations.

  13. Controllo remoto del Dho's Observatory. V - Parafulmini, fuocheggiatura programmi (United States)

    Dho, Mario


    The necessity to endow a remotely controlled observatory with an efficient protection against thunderbolts is dealt with, describing the system adopted at the Dho's Observatory. The remotely controlled focusing is discussed, together with suitable hardware and software. The setup and the possibility to automate the focusing phase are also discussed.

  14. Development of an observatory for spatial planning in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Abstract. The National Development Plan (NDP) of South Africa describes a 2030 vision for the country. The NDP proposes an observatory as one of the measures to develop capabilities for effective spatial decision-making and implementation. This article presents results of a review of observatories with the aim to unpack ...

  15. Managing Reprints and Preprints in an Observatory Library. (United States)

    Martin, Sarah S.

    An on-going project of cross-referencing reprint and preprint series distributed by observatories to the collection of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is described. Reprints available in the library's journal collection were removed after cross-indexing and referencing was accomplished. If the reprint was not available through the journal…

  16. The rapid atmospheric monitoring system of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antici'c, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Baeuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buroker, L.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Diaz, J. Chirinos; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De la Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; del Rio, M.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Meyhandan, R.; Mi'canovi'c, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruehle, C.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Greus, F. Salesa; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Silva Lopez, H. H.; Sima, O.; 'Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Susa, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; Van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano Garcia, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Martin, L.

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a facility built to detect air showers produced by cosmic rays above 10(17) eV. During clear nights with a low illuminated moon fraction, the UV fluorescence light produced by air showers is recorded by optical telescopes at the Observatory. To correct the

  17. Science requirements and the design of cabled ocean observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mikada


    Full Text Available The ocean sciences are beginning a new phase in which scientists will enter the ocean environment and adaptively observe the Earth-Ocean system through remote control of sensors and sensor platforms. This new ocean science paradigm will be implemented using innovative facilities called ocean observatories which provide unprecedented levels of power and communication to access and manipulate real-time sensor networks deployed within many different environments in the ocean basins. Most of the principal design drivers for ocean observatories differ from those for commercial submarine telecommunications systems. First, ocean observatories require data to be input and output at one or more seafloor nodes rather than at a few land terminuses. Second, ocean observatories must distribute a lot of power to the seafloor at variable and fluctuating rates. Third, the seafloor infrastructure for an ocean observatory inherently requires that the wet plant be expandable and reconfigurable. Finally, because the wet communications and power infrastructure is comparatively complex, ocean observatory infrastructure must be designed for low life cycle cost rather than zero maintenance. The origin of these differences may be understood by taking a systems engineering approach to ocean observatory design through examining the requirements derived from science and then going through the process of iterative refinement to yield conceptual and physical designs. This is illustrated using the NEPTUNE regional cabled observatory power and data communications sub-systems.

  18. NEPTUNE: an under-sea plate scale observatory (United States)

    Beauchamp, P. M.; Heath, G. R.; Maffei, A.; Chave, A.; Howe, B.; Wilcock, W.; Delaney, J.; Kirkham, H.


    The NEPTUNE project will establish a linked array of undersea observatories on the Juan de Fuca tectonic plate. This observatory will provide a new kind of research platform for real-time, long-term, plate-scale studies in the ocean and Earth sciences.

  19. The Surface Detector System of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allekotte, I.; Barbosa, A.F.; Bauleo, P.; Bonifazi, C.; Civit, B.; Escobar, C.O.; Garcia, B.; Guedes, G.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Harton, J.L.; Healy, M.; /Cuyo U. /Buenos Aires, CONICET /Natl. Tech. U., San Rafael /Campinas State U. /UEFS, Feira de Santana /Bahia U. /BUAP, Puebla /Santiago de Compostela U. /Fermilab /UCLA /Colorado State U.


    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to study cosmic rays with energies greater than 10{sup 19} eV. Two sites are envisaged for the observatory, one in each hemisphere, for complete sky coverage. The southern site of the Auger Observatory, now approaching completion in Mendoza, Argentina, features an array of 1600 water-Cherenkov surface detector stations covering 3000 km{sup 2}, together with 24 fluorescence telescopes to record the air shower cascades produced by these particles. The two complementary detector techniques together with the large collecting area form a powerful instrument for these studies. Although construction is not yet complete, the Auger Observatory has been taking data stably since January 2004 and the first physics results are being published. In this paper we describe the design features and technical characteristics of the surface detector stations of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  20. The surface detector system of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allekotte, I. [Instituto Balseiro and Centro Atomico Bariloche (U.N. Cuyo and CNEA, CONICET), 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)], E-mail:; Barbosa, A.F. [CBPF, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Bauleo, P. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Bonifazi, C. [CBPF, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Civit, B. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Regional Mendoza, Mendoza (Argentina); Escobar, C.O. [Departamento de Raios Cosmicos, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6165, 13084-971, Campinas SP (Brazil); Garcia, B. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Regional Mendoza, Mendoza (Argentina); Guedes, G. [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS), Av. Universitaria Km 03 da BR 116, Campus Universitario, 44031-460 Feira de Santana BA (Brazil); Gomez Berisso, M. [Instituto Balseiro and Centro Atomico Bariloche (U.N. Cuyo and CNEA, CONICET), 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Harton, J.L. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Healy, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Kaducak, M.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Newman-Holmes, C. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Batavia, IL (United States); Pepe, I. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus de Odina, 40210-340 Salvador BA (Brazil); Rodriguez-Cabo, I. [Dpto. Fisica de Particulas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Salazar, H. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (BUAP), Ap. Postal J-48, 72500 Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Smetniansky-De Grande, N. [Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica and CONICET, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Warner, D. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States)


    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to study cosmic rays with energies greater than 10{sup 19}eV. Two sites are envisaged for the observatory, one in each hemisphere, for complete sky coverage. The southern site of the Auger Observatory, now approaching completion in Mendoza, Argentina, features an array of 1600 water-Cherenkov surface detector stations covering 3000km{sup 2}, together with 24 fluorescence telescopes to record the air shower cascades produced by these particles. The two complementary detector techniques together with the large collecting area form a powerful instrument for these studies. Although construction is not yet complete, the Auger Observatory has been taking data stably since January 2004 and the first physics results are being published. In this paper we describe the design features and technical characteristics of the surface detector stations of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  1. The SAFARI imaging spectrometer for the SPICA space observatory (United States)

    Roelfsema, Peter; Giard, Martin; Najarro, Francisco; Wafelbakker, Kees; Jellema, Willem; Jackson, Brian; Swinyard, Bruce; Audard, Marc; Doi, Yasuo; Griffin, Matt; Helmich, Frank; Kerschbaum, Franz; Meyer, Michael; Naylor, David; Nielsen, Hans; Olofsson, Göran; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Spinoglio, Luigi; Vandenbussche, Bart; Isaak, Kate; Goicoechea, Javier R.


    The Japanese SPace Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics, SPICA, will provide astronomers with a long awaited new window on the universe. Having a large cold telescope cooled to only 6K above absolute zero, SPICA will provide a unique environment where instruments are limited only by the cosmic background itself. A consortium of European and Canadian institutes has been established to design and implement the SpicA FAR infrared Instrument SAFARI, an imaging spectrometer designed to fully exploit this extremely low far infrared background environment provided by the SPICA observatory. SAFARI’s large instantaneous field of view combined with the extremely sensitive Transition Edge Sensing detectors will allow astronomers to very efficiently map large areas of the sky in the far infrared - in a square degree survey of a 1000 hours many thousands of faint sources will be detected, and a very large fraction of these sources will be fully spectroscopically characterised by the instrument. Efficiently obtaining such a large number of complete spectra is essential to address several fundamental questions in current astrophysics: how do galaxies form and evolve over cosmic time?, what is the true nature of our own Milky Way?, and why and where do planets like those in our own solar system come into being?

  2. Possible Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Mission Concept (United States)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.


    The existence of gravitational waves was established by the discovery of the Binary Pulsar PSR 1913+16 by Hulse and Taylor in 1974, for which they were awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize. However, it is the exploitation of these gravitational waves for the extraction of the astrophysical parameters of the sources that will open the first new astronomical window since the development of gamma ray telescopes in the 1970's and enable a new era of discovery and understanding of the Universe. Direct detection is expected in at least two frequency bands from the ground before the end of the decade with Advanced LIGO and Pulsar Timing Arrays. However, many of the most exciting sources will be continuously observable in the band from 0.1-100 mHz, accessible only from space due to seismic noise and gravity gradients in that band that disturb groundbased observatories. This talk will discuss a possible mission concept developed from the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) reference mission but updated to reduce risk and cost.

  3. Calibrating the IXPE observatory from ground to space (United States)

    Muleri, Fabio; Baldini, Luca; Baumgartner, Wayne; Evangelista, Yuri; Fabiani, Sergio; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery; Latronico, Luca; Lefevre, Carlo; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian; Sgrò, Carmelo; Soffitta, Paolo; Tennant, Allyn; Weisskopf, Martin C.


    The Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) will be the next SMEX mission launched by NASA in 2021 in collaboration with the Italian Space Agency (ASI). IXPE will perform groundbreaking measurements of imaging polarization in X-rays for a number of different classes of sources with three identical telescopes, finally (re)opening a window in the high energy Universe after more than 40 years since the first pioneering results. The unprecedented sensitivity of IXPE to polarization poses peculiar requirements on the payload calibration, e.g. the use of polarized and completely unpolarized radiation, both on ground and in orbit, and can not rely on a systematic comparison with results obtained by previous observatories. In this paper, we will present the IXPE calibration plan, describing both calibrations which will be performed on the detectors at INAF-IAPS in Rome (Italy) and the calibration on the mirror and detector assemblies which will be carried out at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. On orbit calibrations, performed with calibrations sources mounted on a filter wheel and placed in front of each detector when necessary, will be presented as well.

  4. Science and Antenna Array Trade Studies for Low Frequency Radio Observatories on the Lunar Surface (United States)

    MacDowall, R. J.; Burns, J. O.


    A "low-frequency" radio astronomy observatory on the lunar surface would serve to address science goals that cannot be achieved by ground-based observatories. We describe status and plans for such an observatory.

  5. The Virtual Observatory for the Python Programmer (United States)

    Plante, Raymond L.; Fitzpatrick, M. J.; Graham, M.; Tody, D.; Virtual Astronomical Observatory, US


    The web of astronomical data centers that we refer to as the virtual observatory (VO) has led to the development of a variety of web and desktop applications that can discover and download data from most archives around the world. These are made possible by standard interfaces which archives provide and the applications understand that provide a common way to search for information and retrieve discovered datasets. For some applications, retrieving data through the VO is simply an extra feature that enhances the main purpose of the tool. Despite the accessibility to VO data provided by such tools, the VO offers greater flexibility to developers that access the standard services directly within their own software. This applies not only to those who build tools but also to research astronomers that create highly-customized scripts for data analysis. One of the goals of the US Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) project is to make the VO more accessible to both tool developers and astronomer-programmers. To this end, we announce the release of two products with a special focus on supporting access to the VO via Python. PyVO ( is a pure Python library built on Astropy ( that can be used to discover data in the VO. In particular, one can search the registry for archives with data, search archives for images and spectra, and query remote catalogs and spectral line databases. While it provides full support for the VO standards, its API is designed to make processing the most common types of queries simple without requiring knowledge about the underlying standards. It also makes available the full power of Astropy for processing tabular information. VOClient (, which provides scripting and programming libraries for a variety of languages, also supports Python programming. While the two products share a common API, VOClient provides higher level interfaces that assist with managing data from many

  6. Speech perception with the Vienna extra-cochlear single-channel implant: a comparison of two approaches to speech coding. (United States)

    Rosen, S; Ball, V


    Although it is generally accepted that single-channel electrical stimulation can significantly improve a deafened patient's speech perceptual ability, there is still much controversy surrounding the choice of speech processing schemes. We have compared, in the same patients, two different approaches: (1) The speech pattern extraction technique of the EPI group, London (Fourcin et al., British Journal of Audiology, 1979,13,85-107) in which voice fundamental frequency is extracted and presented in an appropriate way, and (2) The analogue 'whole speech' approach of Hochmair and Hochmair-Desoyer (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1983, 405, 268-279) of Vienna, in which the microphone-sensed acoustic signal is frequency-equalized and amplitude-compressed before being presented to the electrode. With the 'whole-speech' coding scheme (which they used daily), all three patients showed an improvement in lipreading when they used the device. No patient was able to understand speech without lipreading. Reasonable ability to distinguish voicing contrasts and voice pitch contours was displayed. One patient was able to detect and make appropriate use of the presence of voiceless frication in certain situations. Little sensitivity to spectral features in natural speech was noted, although two patients could detect changes in the frequency of the first formant of synthesised vowels. Presentation of the fundamental frequency only generally led to improved perception of features associated with it (voicing and intonation). Only one patient consistently showed any advantage (and that not in all tests) of coding more than the fundamental alone.

  7. Urban climate model MUKLIMO_3 in prediction mode - evaluation of model performance based on the case study of Vienna (United States)

    Hollosi, Brigitta; Zuvela-Aloise, Maja


    To reduce negative health impacts of extreme heat load in urban areas is the application of early warning systems that use weather forecast models to predict forthcoming heat events of utmost importance. In the state-of-the-art operational heat warning systems the meteorological information relies on the weather forecast from the regional numerical models and monitoring stations that do not include details of urban structure. In this study, the dynamical urban climate model MUKLIMO3 (horizontal resolution of 100 - 200 m) is initialized with the vertical profiles from the archived daily forecast data of the ZAMG from the hydrostatic ALARO numerical weather prediction model run at 0600 UTC to simulate the development of the urban heat island in Vienna on a daily basis. The aim is to evaluate the performance of the urban climate model, so far applied only for climatological studies, in a weather prediction mode using the summer period 2011-2015 as a test period. The focus of the investigation is on assessment of the urban heat load during the day-time. The model output has been evaluated against the monitoring data at the weather stations in the area of the city. The model results for daily maximum temperature show good agreement with the observations, especially at the urban and suburban stations where the mean bias is low. The results are highly dependent on the input data from the meso-scale model that leads to larger deviation from observations if the prediction is not representative for the given day. This study can be used to support urban planning strategies and to improve existing practices to alert decision-makers and the public to impending dangers of excessive heat.

  8. Saint Petersburg magnetic observatory: from Voeikovo subdivision to INTERMAGNET certification (United States)

    Sidorov, Roman; Soloviev, Anatoly; Krasnoperov, Roman; Kudin, Dmitry; Grudnev, Andrei; Kopytenko, Yury; Kotikov, Andrei; Sergushin, Pavel


    Since June 2012 the Saint Petersburg magnetic observatory is being developed and maintained by two institutions of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) - the Geophysical Center of RAS (GC RAS) and the Saint Petersburg branch of the Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of RAS (IZMIRAN SPb). On 29 April 2016 the application of the Saint Petersburg observatory (IAGA code SPG) for introduction into the INTERMAGNET network was accepted after approval by the experts of the first definitive dataset over 2015, produced by the GC RAS, and on 9 June 2016 the SPG observatory was officially certified. One of the oldest series of magnetic observations, originating in 1834, was resumed in the 21st century, meeting the highest quality standards and all modern technical requirements. In this paper a brief historical and scientific background of the SPG observatory foundation and development is given, the stages of its renovation and upgrade in the 21st century are described, and information on its current state is provided. The first results of the observatory functioning are discussed and geomagnetic variations registered at the SPG observatory are assessed and compared with geomagnetic data from the INTERMAGNET observatories located in the same region.

  9. Saint Petersburg magnetic observatory: from Voeikovo subdivision to INTERMAGNET certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sidorov


    Full Text Available Since June 2012 the Saint Petersburg magnetic observatory is being developed and maintained by two institutions of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS – the Geophysical Center of RAS (GC RAS and the Saint Petersburg branch of the Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of RAS (IZMIRAN SPb. On 29 April 2016 the application of the Saint Petersburg observatory (IAGA code SPG for introduction into the INTERMAGNET network was accepted after approval by the experts of the first definitive dataset over 2015, produced by the GC RAS, and on 9 June 2016 the SPG observatory was officially certified. One of the oldest series of magnetic observations, originating in 1834, was resumed in the 21st century, meeting the highest quality standards and all modern technical requirements. In this paper a brief historical and scientific background of the SPG observatory foundation and development is given, the stages of its renovation and upgrade in the 21st century are described, and information on its current state is provided. The first results of the observatory functioning are discussed and geomagnetic variations registered at the SPG observatory are assessed and compared with geomagnetic data from the INTERMAGNET observatories located in the same region.

  10. The upgrade of the HAWC observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoorlemmer, Harm [Max-Plank-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: HAWC-Collaboration


    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) high-energy gamma-ray observatory has recently been completed near the Sierra Negra volcano in central Mexico. HAWC consists of 300 Water Cherenkov Detectors, each containing 200 tons of purified water, that cover a total surface area of 20,000 m{sup 2}. HAWC observes gamma rays in the 0.1-100 TeV range and has a sensitivity to TeV-scale gamma-ray sources an order of magnitude better than previous air-shower arrays. The HAWC trigger for the highest energy gamma rays reaches an effective area of 10{sup 5} m{sup 2} but many of them are poorly reconstructed because the shower core falls outside the array. An upgrade that increases the present fraction of well reconstructed showers above 10 TeV by a factor of 3-4 can be done with a sparse outrigger array of small water Cherenkov detectors that pinpoint the core position and by that improve the angular resolution of the reconstructed showers. Such an outrigger array would be of the order of 300 small water Cherenkov detectors of 2.5 m{sup 3} placed over an area four times larger than HAWC. The Max Planck Institute fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg just joined the collaboration and will provide the FADC electronics for the readout of the outrigger tanks. Detailed simulations are being performed to optimize the performance of the upgrade.

  11. Distributed Computing for the Pierre Auger Observatory (United States)

    Chudoba, J.


    Pierre Auger Observatory operates the largest system of detectors for ultra-high energy cosmic ray measurements. Comparison of theoretical models of interactions with recorded data requires thousands of computing cores for Monte Carlo simulations. Since 2007 distributed resources connected via EGI grid are successfully used. The first and the second versions of production system based on bash scripts and MySQL database were able to submit jobs to all reliable sites supporting Virtual Organization auger. For many years VO auger belongs to top ten of EGI users based on the total used computing time. Migration of the production system to DIRAC interware started in 2014. Pilot jobs improve efficiency of computing jobs and eliminate problems with small and less reliable sites used for the bulk production. The new system has also possibility to use available resources in clouds. Dirac File Catalog replaced LFC for new files, which are organized in datasets defined via metadata. CVMFS is used for software distribution since 2014. In the presentation we give a comparison of the old and the new production system and report the experience on migrating to the new system.

  12. Neutrino Observations from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (United States)

    Q. R. Ahmad, R. C. Allen, T. C. Andersen, J. D. Anglin, G. Bühler, J. C. Barton, E. W. Beier, M. Bercovitch, J. Bigu, S. Biller, R. A. Black, I. Blevis, R. J. Boardman, J. Boger, E. Bonvin, M. G. Boulay, M. G. Bowler, T. J. Bowles, S. J. Brice, M. C. Browne, T. V. Bullard, T. H. Burritt, K. Cameron, J. Cameron, Y. D. Chan, M. Chen, H. H. Chen, X. Chen, M. C. Chon, B. T. Cleveland, E. T. H. Clifford, J. H. M. Cowan, D. F. Cowen, G. A. Cox, Y. Dai, X. Dai, F. Dalnoki-Veress, W. F. Davidson, P. J. Doe, G. Doucas, M. R. Dragowsky, C. A. Duba, F. A. Duncan, J. Dunmore, E. D. Earle, S. R. Elliott, H. C. Evans, G. T. Ewan, J. Farine, H. Fergani, A. P. Ferraris, R. J. Ford, M. M. Fowler, K. Frame, E. D. Frank, W. Frati, J. V. Germani, S. Gil, A. Goldschmidt, D. R. Grant, R. L. Hahn, A. L. Hallin, E. D. Hallman, A. Hamer, A. A. Hamian, R. U. Haq, C. K. Hargrove, P. J. Harvey, R. Hazama, R. Heaton, K. M. Heeger, W. J. Heintzelman, J. Heise, R. L. Helmer, J. D. Hepburn, H. Heron, J. Hewett, A. Hime, M. Howe, J. G. Hykawy, M. C. P. Isaac, P. Jagam, N. A. Jelley, C. Jillings, G. Jonkmans, J. Karn, P. T. Keener, K. Kirch, J. R. Klein, A. B. Knox, R. J. Komar, R. Kouzes, T. Kutter, C. C. M. Kyba, J. Law, I. T. Lawson, M. Lay, H. W. Lee, K. T. Lesko, J. R. Leslie, I. Levine, W. Locke, M. M. Lowry, S. Luoma, J. Lyon, S. Majerus, H. B. Mak, A. D. Marino, N. McCauley, A. B. McDonald, D. S. McDonald, K. McFarlane, G. McGregor, W. McLatchie, R. Meijer Drees, H. Mes, C. Mifflin, G. G. Miller, G. Milton, B. A. Moffat, M. Moorhead, C. W. Nally, M. S. Neubauer, F. M. Newcomer, H. S. Ng, A. J. Noble, E. B. Norman, V. M. Novikov, M. O'Neill, C. E. Okada, R. W. Ollerhead, M. Omori, J. L. Orrell, S. M. Oser, A. W. P. Poon, T. J. Radcliffe, A. Roberge, B. C. Robertson, R. G. H. Robertson, J. K. Rowley, V. L. Rusu, E. Saettler, K. K. Schaffer, A. Schuelke, M. H. Schwendener, H. Seifert, M. Shatkay, J. J. Simpson, D. Sinclair, P. Skensved, A. R. Smith, M. W. E. Smith, N. Starinsky, T. D. Steiger, R. G. Stokstad, R. S. Storey, B. Sur, R. Tafirout, N. Tagg, N. W. Tanner, R. K. Taplin, M. Thorman, P. Thornewell, P. T. Trent, Y. I. Tserkovnyak, R. Van Berg, R. G. Van de Water, C. J. Virtue, C. E. Waltham, J.-X. Wang, D. L. Wark, N. West, J. B. Wilhelmy, J. F. Wilkerson, J. Wilson, P. Wittich, J. M. Wouters, and M. Yeh


    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a water imaging Cherenkov detector. Its usage of 1000 metric tons of D{sub 2}O as target allows the SNO detector to make a solar-model independent test of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by simultaneously measuring the solar {nu}{sub e} flux and the total flux of all active neutrino species. Solar neutrinos from the decay of {sup 8}B have been detected at SNO by the charged-current (CC) interaction on the deuteron and by the elastic scattering (ES) of electrons. While the CC reaction is sensitive exclusively to {nu}{sub e}, the ES reaction also has a small sensitivity to {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}}. In this paper, recent solar neutrino results from the SNO experiment are presented. It is demonstrated that the solar flux from {sup 8}B decay as measured from the ES reaction rate under the no-oscillation assumption is consistent with the high precision ES measurement by the Super-Kamiokande experiment. The {nu}{sub e} flux deduced from the CC reaction rate in SNO differs from the Super-Kamiokande ES results by 3.3{sigma}. This is evidence for an active neutrino component, in additional to {nu}{sub e}, in the solar neutrino flux. These results also allow the first experimental determination of the total active {sup 8}B neutrino flux from the Sun, and is found to be in good agreement with solar model predictions.

  13. Integrating IRAF with the Virtual Observatory (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M.; Malik, O.; Holdaway, K. Tody, D.


    We present a high-level overview of two projects undertaken that integrate a large body of legacy software (specifically, IRAF) with Virtual Observatory (VO) technologies in a highly resource-constrained environment. On the server side, a framework has been developed to allow virtually any IRAF task to be exposed as a conventional VO web-service. Service-definition files (written as XML) are converted to a Java code implementation (via XSLT) and used as the web-service endpoint. An intermediate server process communicates with the entire IRAF system, and new web applications require at most a small wrapper script around an existing task. This permits many services to be created or updated easily using an unmodified version of the underlying IRAF system. On the client side, a C-based API has been developed to interface to the generic VO Registry (service/data-discovery), data (access), and web-services (analysis) side of the VO. VO services are now commonly implemented in Java, but these interfaces are normally beyond the reach of legacy systems because of the legacy implementation language. Using this new VOClient interface, bindings for many non-traditional development environments, including the IRAF CL (scripting) and SPP (compiled) languages, now provide a uniform, high-level interface to the VO that bridges this language barrier. The application of either project to other legacy software systems, and future work, will also be discussed.

  14. The Pine Mountain Observatory Outreach Program (United States)

    Bothun, G. D.; Kang, R.


    The Pine Mountain Observatory is located in Central Oregon at an elevation of 6700 feet. Three scopes of size 16, 24 and 32 inches are located there. Throughout the last decade we have run a robust summer visitors program which educates about 3000 people per year. Recently we have finished a Prime Focus CCD system for the 32-inch telescope. This system reads out in 5 seconds and has a shutter that can time as short as 10 milliseconds. The field of view is 36 x 36 arcminutes. We are currently engaged in a number of K12 teacher education projects. The biggest obstacle facing these teachers was their ability to handle FITS data. To solve this problem we have developed a robust JAVA applet for doing image analysis and automatic photometry on FITS data. In this talk we will demonstrate how a teacher can construct an HR diagram for the open cluster M39 where the root data are Blue and Red filter exposures each of duration 10 milliseconds. In such exposures, only the stars that are actually in M39 register on the detector. This flexibility allows Pine Mountain to be a unique resource for teachers as we can take custom data through a variety of filters which can then all be reduced inside a Web browser.

  15. The Importance of Marine Observatories and of RAIA in Particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Bastos


    Full Text Available Coastal and Oceanic Observatories are important tools to provide information on ocean state, phenomena and processes. They meet the need for a better understanding of coastal and ocean dynamics, revealing regional characteristics and vulnerabilities. These observatories are extremely useful to guide human actions in response to natural events and potential climate change impacts, anticipating the occurrence of extreme weather and oceanic events and helping to minimize consequent personal and material damages and costs.International organizations and local governments have shown an increasing interest in operational oceanography and coastal, marine and oceanic observations, which resulted in substantial investments in these areas. A variety of physical, chemical and biological data have been collected to better understand the specific characteristics of each ocean area and its importance in the global context. Also the general public’s interest in marine issues and observatories has been raised, mainly in relation to vulnerability, sustainability and climate change issues. Data and products obtained by an observatory are hence useful to a broad range of stakeholders, from national and local authorities to the population in general.An introduction to Ocean Observatories, including their national and regional importance, and a brief analysis of the societal interest in these observatories and related issues are presented. The potential of a Coastal and Ocean Observatory is then demonstrated using the RAIA observatory as example. This modern and comprehensive observatory is dedicated to improve operational oceanography, technology and marine science for the North Western Iberian coast, and to provide services to a large range of stakeholders.

  16. The International Virtual Observatory: Summary of the first decade (United States)

    Malkov, O. Yu.


    International Virtual Observatory is a collection of integrated astronomical data archives and software tools that utilize computer networks to create an environment in which research can be conducted. Several countries have initiated national virtual observatory programs that will combine existing databases from ground-based and space-born observatories and make them easily accessible to researchers. As a result, data from all the world's major observatories will be available to all users and to the public. This is significant not only because of the immense volume of astronomical data but also because the data on stars and galaxies have been compiled from observations in a variety of wavelengths: optical, radio, infrared, gamma ray, X-ray and more. Each wavelength can provide different information about a celestial event or object, but also requires a special expertise to interpret. In a virtual observatory environment, all of this data is integrated so that it can be synthesized and used in a given study. The International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) represents 20 national and international projects working in coordination to realize the essential technologies and interoperability standards necessary to create a new research infrastructure. Russian Virtual Observatory is one of the founders and important members of the IVOA. The International Virtual Observatory project was launched about ten years ago, and its major achievements in science and technology in recent years are discussed in this paper. Standards for accessing large astronomical data sets were developed. Such data sets can accommodate the full range of wavelengths and observational techniques for all types of astronomical data: catalogues, images, spectra and time series. The described standards include standards for metadata, data formats, query language, etc. Services for the federation of massive, distributed data sets, regardless of the wavelength, resolution and type of data were

  17. The Yerkes Observatory 60-channel far infrared camera for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (United States)

    Harper, D. AL, Jr.; Cole, David M.; Loewenstein, Robert F.; Mcmahon, T.; Pernic, R. J.; Wirth, C.


    The Yerkes Observatory Far Infrared Camera employs a two-dimensional, 60-detector array of (3)He-cooled silicon bolometers for broadband imaging in the spectral range of 40 to 240 microns. Four interchangeable filters have effective wavelengths of 60, 100, 160, and 200 microns. Three interchangeable lens sets give pixel sizes of 17, 27, and 45 in. Signals are processed through nitrogen-temperature JFET source-follower amplifiers, warm preamplifiers, and digital signal processors, and the system is controlled through a graphical user interface on a Macintosh computer. The camera has been used to image a wide variety of galactic and extragalactic far infrared sources.

  18. Recent Ultra High Energy neutrino bounds and multimessenger observations with the Pierre Auger Observatory (United States)

    Zas, Enrique


    The overall picture of the highest energy particles produced in the Universe is changing because of measurements made with the Pierre Auger Observatory. Composition studies of cosmic rays point towards an unexpected mixed composition of intermediate mass nuclei, more isotropic than anticipated, which is reshaping the future of the field and underlining the priority to understand composition at the highest energies. The Observatory is competitive in the search for neutrinos of all flavors above about 100 PeV by looking for very inclined showers produced deep in the atmosphere by neutrinos interacting either in the atmosphere or in the Earth's crust. It covers a large field of view between -85° and 60° declination in equatorial coordinates. Neutrinos are expected because of the existence of ultra high energy cosmic rays. They provide valuable complementary information, their fluxes being sensitive to the primary cosmic ray masses and their directions reflecting the source positions. We report the results of the neutrino search providing competitive bounds to neutrino production and strong constraints to a number of production models including cosmogenic neutrinos due to ultra high energy protons. We also report on two recent contributions of the Observatory to multimessenger studies by searching for correlations of neutrinos both with cosmic rays and with gravitational waves. The correlations of the directions of the highest energy astrophysical neutrinos discovered with IceCube with the highest energy cosmic rays detected with the Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array revealed an excess that is not statistically significant and is being monitored. The targeted search for neutrinos correlated with the discovery of the gravitational wave events GW150914 and GW151226 with advanced LIGO has led to the first bounds on the energy emitted by black hole mergers in Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos.

  19. Recent Ultra High Energy neutrino bounds and multimessenger observations with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zas Enrique


    Full Text Available The overall picture of the highest energy particles produced in the Universe is changing because of measurements made with the Pierre Auger Observatory. Composition studies of cosmic rays point towards an unexpected mixed composition of intermediate mass nuclei, more isotropic than anticipated, which is reshaping the future of the field and underlining the priority to understand composition at the highest energies. The Observatory is competitive in the search for neutrinos of all flavors above about 100 PeV by looking for very inclined showers produced deep in the atmosphere by neutrinos interacting either in the atmosphere or in the Earth’s crust. It covers a large field of view between −85◦ and 60◦ declination in equatorial coordinates. Neutrinos are expected because of the existence of ultra high energy cosmic rays. They provide valuable complementary information, their fluxes being sensitive to the primary cosmic ray masses and their directions reflecting the source positions. We report the results of the neutrino search providing competitive bounds to neutrino production and strong constraints to a number of production models including cosmogenic neutrinos due to ultra high energy protons. We also report on two recent contributions of the Observatory to multimessenger studies by searching for correlations of neutrinos both with cosmic rays and with gravitational waves. The correlations of the directions of the highest energy astrophysical neutrinos discovered with IceCube with the highest energy cosmic rays detected with the Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array revealed an excess that is not statistically significant and is being monitored. The targeted search for neutrinos correlated with the discovery of the gravitational wave events GW150914 and GW151226 with advanced LIGO has led to the first bounds on the energy emitted by black hole mergers in Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos.

  20. Preventing Rape of the Observatory: Thoughts on the Urgency of Preserving Historic Astronomical Artifacts (United States)

    Bell, T. E.


    "What good is this century-old monster refractor? Sell it and use the money to buy a brand new go-to reflector useful for teaching students and advancing astronomy." So argues logic that is endangering an increasing number of university observatories around the U.S. (if not the rest of the world), even up to the Yerkes Observatory and its 40-inch Clark, world's largest refractor by the acknowledged world's best lens-makers. While most non-historians readily accept the value of preserving our cultural heritage in rare and precious documents (such as the Declaration of Independence), artifacts (such as Stradivarius violins), and institutions (such as the birthplaces of U.S. Presidents), they tend not to think of astronomical observatories as part of cultural heritage-with a result that history is crumbling apace to the wrecking ball. In early October, the Antique Telescope Society convened a special 60-minute session discussing philosophical why's and practical how's of preserving astronomical assets (including historically significant telescopes, observatory buildings, auxiliary equipment used to make observations or calculate results, and libraries of books and papers). This paper will summarize the discussion's key insights - including the assessing and assigning of value to old vs. new telescopes, and the roles of politics, funding and fund-raising, publicity (positive and negative), education, use as a form of preservation, innovative solutions by private collectors (including "half-way houses" for homeless instruments), restoration vs. renovation, special problems facing very large telescopes, and lessons learned from both failures and success.

  1. Integration of the Watcher Telescope into the Sierra Stars Observatory Network – Lessons Learned for GLORIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Topinka


    Full Text Available The UCD Watcher robotic telescope is planning to participate in the Sierra Stars Observatory Network (SSON, a US-based organisation that provides astronomical images upon request to subscribing users, who are typically either amateurs or university/college students. Implementing the tasks required for the integration of Watcher to SSON, such as remote scheduling, file transfer, image quality validation and the provision of meteorological information, have provided useful experience for the GLORIA project. It has also become apparent that managing user expectations will be important for GLORIA.

  2. Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory for observation of early photons from gamma ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, I. H.; Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.


    We describe the space project of Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) which will observe early optical photons from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a sub-second optical response, for the first time. The UFFO will probe the early optical rise of GRBs, opening a completely new frontier in GRB and trans...... of GRB mechanisms, and potentially open up the z<10 universe to study via GRB as point source emission probes.© (2012) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only....

  3. LandSense: A Citizen Observatory and Innovation Marketplace for Land Use and Land Cover Monitoring (United States)

    Moorthy, Inian; Fritz, Steffen; See, Linda; McCallum, Ian


    Currently within the EU's Earth Observation (EO) monitoring framework, there is a need for low-cost methods for acquiring high quality in-situ data to create accurate and well-validated environmental monitoring products. To help address this need, a new four year Horizon 2020 project entitled LandSense will link remote sensing data with modern participatory data collection methods that involve citizen scientists. This paper will describe the citizen science activities within the LandSense Observatory that aim to deliver concrete, measurable and quality-assured ground-based data that will complement existing satellite monitoring systems. LandSense will deploy advanced tools, services and resources to mobilize and engage citizens to collect in-situ observations (i.e. ground-based data and visual interpretations of EO imagery). Integrating these citizen-driven in-situ data collections with established authoritative and open access data sources will help reduce costs, extend GEOSS and Copernicus capacities, and support comprehensive environmental monitoring systems. Policy-relevant campaigns will be implemented in close collaboration with multiple stakeholders to ensure that citizen observations address user requirements and contribute to EU-wide environmental governance and decision-making. Campaigns for addressing local and regional Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) issues are planned for select areas in Austria, France, Germany, Spain, Slovenia and Serbia. Novel LandSense services (LandSense Campaigner, FarmLand Support, Change Detector and Quality Assurance & Control) will be deployed and tested in these areas to address critical LULC issues (i.e. urbanization, agricultural land use and forest/habitat monitoring). For example, local residents in the cities of Vienna, Tulln, and Heidelberg will help cooperatively detect and map changes in land cover and green space to address key issues of urban sprawl, land take and flooding. Such campaigns are facilitated through

  4. Open Space between Residential Buildings as a Factor of Sustainable Development – Case Studies in Brno (Czech Republic) and Vienna (Austria) (United States)

    Kilnarová, Pavla; Wittmann, Maxmilian


    The characteristics of open spaces between residential buildings have, as authors suppose, an impact on the sustainable development of urban areas. Spatial arrangement and accessibility of these spaces, the type and height of surrounding buildings, the quantity and character of greenery, and many more characteristics influence the quality of environment, and the quality of life of local residents. These and further characteristics of the open spaces between residential buildings influence the ecological stability of the area, its hygienic qualities, the intensity and way of using by various social groups, and also the prices of real estates. These qualities indicate the environmental, social and economic sustainability of the urban area. The proposed research methodology assessed specific indicators of sustainability within a range from 0 to 10 points. 5 points correspond to the general standard in the area, 0 points indicate degradation, and 10 points indicate the highest contribution to sustainable development. Observation methods, questionnaire survey, statistical analyses, and methods of measurement were used to determine the values of the given indicators. The paper analyses the impact of the open spaces between residential buildings on sustainability via the case studies performed in the Central European cities of Brno, Czech Republic and Vienna, Austria. Two forms of residential urban structures in the City of Brno in the Czech Republic were selected for the analysis: the closed courtyards in the urban block from the 19th century and the open spaces in the housing estates constructed under socialism in the 20th century. The question is, if the different forms of spaces between residential buildings influence the sustainability of urban area and satisfaction of inhabitants in different ways. A complementary case study in Vienna indicates that inhabitants of a housing estate in Vienna, as well as inhabitants of housing estates in Brno, highly appreciate the

  5. ALOHA Cabled Observatory: Continuing lessons and results (United States)

    Howe, B. M.; Lukas, R.


    Since June 2011, the ALOHA Cabled Observatory (ACO) is providing 1 kW power, 100 Mbs network communications and PPS timing to a seafloor node and instruments at 4728 m water depth 100 km north of Oahu. Station ALOHA is the field site of the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) program that has investigated physical and biogeochemical variability of the water column near-monthly since 1988. The abyssal near bottom acoustic Doppler profiler data are showing stronger than expected internal tide flows and turbulence 20-80 m above bottom. In this oligotrophic environment, the video camera has detected significant biological activity. Acoustic data collected on two hydrophones clearly show very high call density of baleen whales during September-May and sperm whale choruses spread throughout the year. Recent Navy exercises provided examples of anthropogenic sounds. We are also monitoring in real time an acoustic "heartbeat" signal from the nearby HOT Profiler mooring (M. Alford et al.). ACO operation over the last year continues to provide valuable lessons. Several failures occurred at or during deployment, including two ground faults that have isolated two CTDs, a fluorometer, and an acoustic modem from the system. Two independent LED light systems failed after 4 and 6 weeks. Most recently, the pressure sensor has failed perhaps due to loss of vacuum in the quartz crystal chamber. The one remaining conductivity/temperature sensor is episodically, but strongly, affected by thermal plume signatures from the nearby power supply. Understanding the reasons for these failures and limitations will be necessary to improve the methodologies for sustained long-term abyssal measurements. This will be well worth the effort, as suggested by the surprisingly rich video, ADCP, and acoustic data sets.

  6. Low Energy Investigations at Kamioka Observatory (United States)

    Sekiya, Hiroyuki


    At Kamioka Observatory many activities for low energy rare event search are ongoing. Super-Kamiokande(SK), the largest water Cherenkov neutrino detector, currently continues data taking as the fourth phase of the experiment (SK-IV). In SK-IV, we have upgraded the water purification system and tuned water flow in the SK tank. Consequently the background level was lowered significantly. This allowed SK-IV to derive solar neutrino results down to 3.5 MeV energy region. With these data, neutrino oscillation parameters are updated from global fit; Δm212 = 7.44+0.2-0.19 × 10-5eV2, sin2 θ12 = 0.304 ± 0.013, sin2 θ13 = 0.0301+0.017-0.015. NEWAGE, the directional sensitive dark matter search experiment, is currently operated as "NEWAGE-0.3a" which is a 0.20 × 0.25 × 0.31 m3 micro-TPC filled with CF4 gas at 152 Torr. Recently we have developed "NEWAGE-0.3b". It was succeeded to lower the operation pressure down to 76 Torr and the threshold down to 50 keV (F recoils). XMASS experiment is looking for scintillation signals from dark matter interaction in 1 ton of liquid xenon. It was designed utilizing its self-shielding capability with fiducial volume confinement. However, we could lower the analysis threshold down to 0.3 keVee using whole volume of the detector. In February 2012, low threshold and very large exposure data (5591 kg·days) were collected. With these data, we have excluded some part of the parameter spaces claimed by DAMA/LIBRA and CoGeNT experiments.

  7. Exoplanetary Characterisation Observatory (EChO) (United States)

    Waldmann, Ingo; Tinetti, Giovanna


    The science of extrasolar planets is one of the most rapidly changing areas of astrophysics and since 1995 the number of planets known has increased by almost two orders of magnitude. A combination of ground-based surveys and dedicated space missions has resulted in 800-plus planets being detected, and over 2000 that await confirmation. NASA's Kepler mission has opened up the possibility of discovering Earth-like planets in the habitable zone around some of the 100,000 stars it is surveying during its 3 to 4-year lifetime. The new ESA's Gaia mission is expected to discover thousands of new planets around stars within 200 parsecs of the Sun. The key challenge now is moving on from discovery, important though that remains, to characterisation: what are these planets actually like, and why are they as they are? The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory (EChO) is a space mission dedicated to undertaking spectroscopy of transiting exoplanets over the widest range possible and is currently being studied by ESA in the context of a medium class mission within the Cosmic Vision programme for launch post 2020. The mission is based around a highly stable space platform with a 1.2 m class telescope at L2, hosting a suit of spectrographs providing continuous spectral coverage from 0.5 to 16 microns. Such a broad and simultaneous wavelength coverage allows the unique insight into the atmospheric make up of these foreign worlds and allows us to study their planetary and atmospheric compositions and evolutions.

  8. Integration of space geodesy: a US National Geodetic Observatory (United States)

    Yunck, Thomas P.; Neilan, Ruth


    In the interest of improving the performance and efficiency of space geodesy a diverse group in the U.S., in collaboration with IGGOS, has begun to establish a unified National Geodetic Observatory (NGO).

  9. Cosmic Explorers and Star Docent Youth Programs at Henize Observatory (United States)

    Kabbes, J.


    The Karl G. Henize Observatory at Harper Community College has long served Harper students and the community. College students fulfill observing requirements for astronomy and physical science classes while the general public views objects through a variety of telescopes. In the spring of 2011, the observatory was in trouble. The long time observatory manager had left, the volunteer staff consisted of two individuals, and the Astronomy Club, which traditionally provided staff to operate the observatory, was moribund. We only drew 20-30 visitors for our bi-weekly public sessions. To face such a challenge, two recent complimentary programs, The Cosmic Explorers for grades 3-6 and the Star Docents for students in grades 7-12 were implemented.

  10. Telemetry correlation and visualization at the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (United States)

    Summers, Kellee R.; Summers, Douglas M.; Biddick, Christopher; Hooper, Stephen


    To achieve highly efficient observatory operations requires continuous evaluation and improvement of facility and instrumentation metrics. High quality metrics requires a foundation of robust and complete observatory telemetry. At the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBTO), a variety of telemetry-capturing mechanisms exist, but few tools have thus far been created to facilitate studies of the data. In an effort to make all observatory telemetry data easy to use and broadly available, we have developed a suite of tools using in-house development and open source applications. This paper will explore our strategies for consolidating, parameterizing, and correlating any LBTO telemetry data to achieve easily available, web-based two- and three-dimensional time series data visualization.

  11. Williamstown Observatory and the Development of Professional Astronomy in Australia (United States)

    Andropoulos, Jenny; Orchiston, W.; Clark, B.


    During the early 1850s the colony of Victoria was enjoying a succession of gold rushes, and as the population of the fledgling settlement of Melbourne rapidly grew, an urgent need arose for an accurate local time service. Thus, Williamstown Observatory was founded at the port of Williamstown in 1853. Under the dynamic direction of Robert Ellery, the Williamstown Observatory quickly added meteorological and tidal observations, geodetic surveying and non-meridian astronomical observations to its portfolio, and by the time it closed in 1863 it had already played a key role in the early development of professional astronomy in Australia. Ellery went on to direct Melbourne Observatory_Williamstown's successor_and in the process build an international reputation in astronomy, meteorology and scientific entrepeneurship. In this paper we will discuss the founding and chequered history of the Williamstown Observatory, its scientific instruments and the ways in which they were used to contribute to Australian and international astronomy.

  12. Physics possibilities at India-based Neutrino Observatory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this talk I review the physics possible at India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). I discuss the improvement in the precision of currently known quantities and the possibility measuring the presently unknown quantities.

  13. The Bateson Legacy: Variable Stars Research at the Auckland Observatory (United States)

    Christie, Grant


    Frank Bateson's advice to the Auckland Astronomical Society's members looking for projects for their new Auckland Observatory has stood the test of time. Decades later the observation of variable stars is still the mainstay of Auckland's research programmes.

  14. The Bateson legacy: variable star research at the Auckland Observatory (United States)

    Christie, Grant


    Frank Bateson's advice to the Auckland Astronomical Society's members looking for projects for their new Auckland Observatory has stood the test of time. Decades later the observation of variable stars is still the mainstay of Auckland's research programmes.

  15. The Changing Carbon Cycle at Mauna Loa Observatory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolfgang Buermann; Benjamin R. Lintner; Charles D. Koven; Alon Angert; Jorge E. Pinzon; Compton J. Tucker; Inez Y. Fung


    The amplitude of the CO₂ seasonal cycle at the Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) increased from the early 1970s to the early 1990s but decreased thereafter despite continued warming over northern continents...

  16. Ten Years of Observatory Science from Saanich Inlet on the VENUS Cabled Ocean Observatory (United States)

    Dewey, R. K.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Macoun, P.; Round, A.


    The Saanich Inlet array of the VENUS cabled ocean observatory, maintained and operated by Ocean Networks Canada, was installed in February 2006, and in 2016 will have supported ten years of comprehensive interactive science. Representing the first in the present generation of cabled observing technologies, this coastal array has provided continuous high power and broadband communications to a variety of instrument platforms, hundreds of sensors, and enabled dozens of short, medium, and long-term studies. Saanich Inlet is a protected fjord with limited tidal action, resulting in an extremely productive environment, with strong seasonal chemical variations driven by episodic deep water renewal events and oxygen reduction processes. The breadth of the research has included microbial and benthic community dynamics, biogeochemical cycles, forensics, quantifying inter-annual variations, benthic-pelagic coupling, sensor testing, plankton dynamics, and bio-turbulence. Observatory measurements include core water properties (CTD & O2) and water-column echo-sounder records, as well as experiment-oriented deployments utilizing cameras, Gliders, Dopplers, hydrophones, and a variety of biogeochemical sensors. With a recently installed Buoy Profiler System for monitoring the entire water column, community plans continue with a dedicated Redox experiment through the 2016-17 seasons. Highlights from the dozens of research papers and theses will be presented to demonstrate the achievements enabled by a comprehensive coastal cabled observing system.

  17. Shaped by the environment--adaptation in plants: meeting report based on the presentations at the FEBS Workshop 'Adaptation Potential in Plants' 2009 (Vienna, Austria). (United States)

    Siomos, Maria F


    As sessile organisms that are unable to escape from inhospitable environments, plants are at the mercy of the elements. Nonetheless, plants have managed to adapt, evolve and survive in some of the harshest conditions on earth. The FEBS Workshop 'Adaptation Potential in Plants', held at the Gregor Mendel Institute of Molecular Plant Biology, Vienna, Austria from 19 to 21 March 2009, provided a forum (including 18 invited talks, 8 selected short talks and 69 posters) for about 100 plant biologists from 32 countries, working in the diverse fields of genetics, epigenetics, stress signalling, and growth and development, to come together and discuss adaptation potential in plants at all its levels.



    Rincón Eizaga, Lorena; Ministerio de Ciencia y tecnología de Venezuela


    This paper seeks to analyze whether Article 36 (1) (b) of the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (1963) confers an individual right to consular notification upon detained foreign nationals under international and U.S. courts decisions, and if such right is to be considered a human right in the current state of international law. This paper will further analyze whether  characterizing consular notification as a fundamental human right would make a difference regarding the remedies that sh...

  19. The rings of Uranus - Occultation profiles from three observatories (United States)

    Elias, J. H.; Frogel, J. A.; French, R. G.; Matthews, K.; Meech, K. J.; Mink, D. J.; Nicholson, P. D.; Sicardy, B.; Liller, W.; Elliot, J. L.


    Occultation profiles for the nine confirmed Uranian rings obtained from Las Campanas, the European Southern Observatory, and Cerro Tololo on 15-16 August 1980 are compared. The alpha ring shows a 'double-dip' structure; the eta ring shows a broad and narrow component (similar to Saturn's F ring); and the epsilon ring shows six features that appear in the data from all three observatories. Diffraction fringes appear at the edges of several of the occultation profiles.

  20. Survey on the Listeria contamination of ready-to-eat food products and household environments in Vienna, Austria. (United States)

    Wagner, M; Auer, B; Trittremmel, C; Hein, I; Schoder, D


    Qualitative and quantitative contamination of ready-to-eat food-stuffs with the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes was studied in 1586 samples collected from 103 supermarkets (n = 946) and 61 households (n = 640) in Vienna, Austria. Seventeen groups of ready-to-eat foods were classified into three risk categories for contamination (CP1-CP3). Three to four samples were randomly collected at the retail level from each CP. Regarding the households, the sampling procedure was started with food items of CP1, and if not available, was continued with sampling of food items of CP2 and finally of CP3. Additionally, 184 environmental samples (swabs from the kitchen area, dust samples from the vacuum cleaner) and faecal samples (household members and pet animals) were included. One-hundred and twenty-four (13.1%) and 45 (4.8%) samples out of 946 food samples collected from food retailers tested positive for Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes, respectively, with five smoked fish samples exceeding the tolerated limit of 100 CFU/g food. Food-stuffs associated with the highest risk of contamination were twice as frequently contaminated with L. monocytogenes as food-stuffs associated with a medium risk of contamination. Products showing the highest contamination rate were fish and seafood (19.4%), followed by raw meat sausages (6.3%), soft cheese (5.5%) and cooked meat products/patés (4.5%). The overall contamination rate of foods collected at the household level was more than two times lower. Only 5.6% and 1.7% of 640 food-stuffs analysed tested positive for Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes, respectively. However, CP1 foods were rarely collected. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing of the collected L. monocytogenes isolates revealed a high degree of diversity between the isolates, with some exceptions. PFGE typing of isolates harvested from green-veined cheese revealed a match among strains, although the manufacturer seemed to be distinguishable. Typing of household

  1. Setting-up a small observatory from concept to construction

    CERN Document Server

    Arditti, David


    Every amateur astronomer who is considering a purpose-built observatory will find this book absolutely invaluable during both the planning and the construction stages. Drawing on David Arditti’s practical experience and that of many other amateur astronomers, it gives invaluable help in making all the important decisions. To begin with, Setting up a Small Observatory addresses what you really need from an observatory, whether to build or buy, what designs you should consider, and where you should site it. Uniquely, it also considers the aesthetics of an amateur observatory: how to make it fit in with your home, garden, and yard, even disguising it as a more common garden building if necessary. There’s also a wealth of practical details for constructing and equipping your small observatory – everything from satisfying local planning laws and building codes through to making sure that your completed observatory is well-equipped, convenient, and comfortable to use. Whether you are considering a simple low-...

  2. Harvard College Observatory: Shapley's Factory for PhD Degrees? (United States)

    Welther, B. L.


    When Harlow Shapley assumed the Directorship of Harvard College Observatory in 1921, there was no program in place there to train the next generation of astronomers. In 1923, using the Pickering Fund for women assistants, Shapley hired a young English woman, Cecilia Payne, to work on stellar spectra. Just two short years later, Payne completed her research and wrote a celebrated thesis on stellar atmospheres. Because Harvard University was not prepared to confer a PhD degree on a woman at that time, Payne presented her thesis to Radcliffe College. Thus, in 1925 she became the first person to receive a PhD in astronomy for a research project at HCO. By 1933, a PhD in Astronomy had been conferred on eight graduate students who had undertaken research projects at HCO: four men who received their degree from Harvard, and four women, from Radcliffe. In subsequent years, however, the equal distribution of degrees for men and women quickly changed. When the 30th degree was bestowed in 1943, only 10 of the candidates were women. By 1955, when the 60th degree was conferred, only 14 women had received a PhD. In just two decades, then, the ratio of women astronomers had steadily dropped from a solid 50% at the height of the Shapley era to slightly less than 25% at his retirement. Also, until the mid-1960s, the women astronomers still had to apply to Radcliffe for their PhD degrees. This paper will briefly examine the funding and research topics of some of the HCO PhD candidates in the Shapley Era (1921-1955). It will also highlight some of their subsequent contributions to 20th-century American Astronomy.

  3. Current state of development of the European Drought Observatory (United States)

    Niemeyer, S.; de Jager, A.; Kurnik, B.; Laguardia, G.; Magni, D.; Nitcheva, O.; Rossi, S.; Weissteiner, C.


    The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (JRC) is developing the prototype of the European Drought Observatory (EDO) for drought forecasting, detection, and monitoring in Europe. EDO is conceived as a web-based information system (, integrating information from various sources and disciplines relevant to monitor and detect droughts throughout Europe. The prototype is currently performing the pre-operational production of drought indices using meteorological information, modelled hydrological parameters, and remote sensing data. In particular, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) shows the general precipitation status according to the historical average in the predefined period. SPI in monthly step is calculated for the 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months averaging periods. Soil moisture estimations are produced daily by the LISFLOOD hydrological model, along with their anomalies and seven days forecasts. Two satellite remote sensing drought indicators are produced: Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetic Active Radiation (fAPAR) anomalies. NDWI 10-day composites are obtained daily from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, while fAPAR anomalies are calculated from 10-day composites delivered by the European Space Agency (ESA) and estimated from Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Instrument (MERIS) data. All these drought indicators are made available online for visualization and querying by means of a map viewer based on University of Minnesota MapServer and Oracle. The tool generates maps of the different indicators and provides functionalities to browse the maps, query the data, produce graphs, and output the maps in various formats.

  4. The Greek National Observatory of Forest Fires (NOFFi) (United States)

    Tompoulidou, Maria; Stefanidou, Alexandra; Grigoriadis, Dionysios; Dragozi, Eleni; Stavrakoudis, Dimitris; Gitas, Ioannis Z.


    Efficient forest fire management is a key element for alleviating the catastrophic impacts of wildfires. Overall, the effective response to fire events necessitates adequate planning and preparedness before the start of the fire season, as well as quantifying the environmental impacts in case of wildfires. Moreover, the estimation of fire danger provides crucial information required for the optimal allocation and distribution of the available resources. The Greek National Observatory of Forest Fires (NOFFi)—established by the Greek Forestry Service in collaboration with the Laboratory of Forest Management and Remote Sensing of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and the International Balkan Center—aims to develop a series of modern products and services for supporting the efficient forest fire prevention management in Greece and the Balkan region, as well as to stimulate the development of transnational fire prevention and impacts mitigation policies. More specifically, NOFFi provides three main fire-related products and services: a) a remote sensing-based fuel type mapping methodology, b) a semi-automatic burned area mapping service, and c) a dynamically updatable fire danger index providing mid- to long-term predictions. The fuel type mapping methodology was developed and applied across the country, following an object-oriented approach and using Landsat 8 OLI satellite imagery. The results showcase the effectiveness of the generated methodology in obtaining highly accurate fuel type maps on a national level. The burned area mapping methodology was developed as a semi-automatic object-based classification process, carefully crafted to minimize user interaction and, hence, be easily applicable on a near real-time operational level as well as for mapping historical events. NOFFi's products can be visualized through the interactive Fire Forest portal, which allows the involvement and awareness of the relevant stakeholders via the Public Participation GIS

  5. Lowell Observatory's 24-inch Clark Refractor: Its History and Renovation (United States)

    Schindler, Kevin; Nye, Ralph; Rosenthal, Peter


    In 1895, Percival Lowell hired eminent telescope maker Alvan G. Clark to build a 24-inch refractor. Lowell intended the telescope intitally for observing Mars in support of his controversial theories about life on that planet. Clark finished the telescope within a year and at a cost of $20,000. Lowell and his staff of assistants and astronomers began observing through it on July 23, 1896, setting off a long and productive career for the telescope.While Lowell's Mars studies dominated early work with the Clark, V.M. Slipher by the 1910s was using it to observe planetary rotations and atmospheric compositions. He soon revolutionized spectroscopic studies, gathering excruciatingly long spectra - some in excess of 40 hours - of the so-called white nebula and determining startling radial velocities, evidence of an expanding universe. In the 1960s, scientists and artists teamed up on the Clark and created detailed lunar maps in support of the Apollo program.In recent decades, the Clark has played a central role in the education programs at Lowell, with general public audiences, students, and private groups all taking advantage of this unique resource.With this nearly 120 years of contant use, the Clark had been wearing down in recent years. The telescope was becoming more difficult to move, old electrical wiring in the dome was a fire hazard, and many of the telescope's parts needed to be repaired or replaced.In 2013, Lowell Observatory began a fundraising campaign, collecting $291,000 to cover the cost of dome and telescope renovation. Workers removed the entire telescope mount and tube assembly from the dome, examining every part from tube sections to individuals screws. They also stabilized the dome, adding a water vapor barrier and new outer wall while reinforcing the upper dome. The project lasted from January, 2014 through August, 2015. The facility reopened for daytime tours in September, 2015 and evening viewing the following month.

  6. India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The INO Collaboration includes several institutes and universities in India and has been funded by the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), India for the feasi- bility study. This study includes possible location(s) for INO, physics issues and associated choice of detector; subsequent detector R&D, and detailed physics sim-.

  7. Astronomical Data Integration Beyond the Virtual Observatory (United States)

    Lemson, G.; Laurino, O.


    "Data integration" generally refers to the process of combining data from different source data bases into a unified view. Much work has been devoted in this area by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA), allowing users to discover and access databases through standard protocols. However, different archives present their data through their own schemas and users must still select, filter, and combine data for each archive individually. An important reason for this is that the creation of common data models that satisfy all sub-disciplines is fraught with difficulties. Furthermore it requires a substantial amount of work for data providers to present their data according to some standard representation. We will argue that existing standards allow us to build a data integration framework that works around these problems. The particular framework requires the implementation of the IVOA Table Access Protocol (TAP) only. It uses the newly developed VO data modelling language (VO-DML) specification, which allows one to define extensible object-oriented data models using a subset of UML concepts through a simple XML serialization language. A rich mapping language allows one to describe how instances of VO-DML data models are represented by the TAP service, bridging the possible mismatch between a local archive's schema and some agreed-upon representation of the astronomical domain. In this so called local-as-view approach to data integration, “mediators" use the mapping prescriptions to translate queries phrased in terms of the common schema to the underlying TAP service. This mapping language has a graphical representation, which we expose through a web based graphical “drag-and-drop-and-connect" interface. This service allows any user to map the holdings of any TAP service to the data model(s) of choice. The mappings are defined and stored outside of the data sources themselves, which allows the interface to be used in a kind of crowd-sourcing effort

  8. Developing the Planetary Science Virtual Observatory (United States)

    Erard, Stéphane; Cecconi, Baptiste; Le Sidaner, Pierre; Henry, Florence; Chauvin, Cyril; Berthier, Jérôme; André, Nicolas; Génot, Vincent; Schmitt, Bernard; Capria, Teresa; Chanteur, Gérard


    In the frame of the Europlanet-RI program, a prototype Virtual Observatory dedicated to Planetary Science has been set up. Most of the activity was dedicated to the definition of standards to handle data in this field. The aim was to facilitate searches in big archives as well as sparse databases, to make on-line data access and visualization possible, and to allow small data providers to make their data available in an interoperable environment with minimum effort. This system makes intensive use of studies and developments led in Astronomy (IVOA), Solar Science (HELIO), and space archive services (IPDA).The current architecture connects existing data services with IVOA or IPDA protocols whenever relevant. However, a more general standard has been devised to handle the specific complexity of Planetary Science, e.g. in terms of measurement types and coordinate frames. This protocol, named EPN-TAP, is based on TAP and includes precise requirements to describe the contents of a data service (Erard et al Astron & Comp 2014). A light framework (DaCHS/GAVO) and a procedure have been identified to install small data services, and several hands-on sessions have been organized already. The data services are declared in standard IVOA registries. Support to new data services in Europe will be provided during the proposed Europlanet H2020 program, with a focus on planetary mission support (Rosetta, Cassini…).A specific client (VESPA) has been developed at VO-Paris ( It is able to use all the mandatory parameters in EPN-TAP, plus extra parameters from individual services. A resolver for target names is also available. Selected data can be sent to VO visualization tools such as TOPCAT or Aladin though the SAMP protocol.Future steps will include the development of a connection between the VO world and GIS tools, and integration of heliophysics, planetary plasma and reference spectroscopic data.The EuroPlaNet-RI project was funded by the European

  9. A Global Observatory of Lake Water Quality (United States)

    Tyler, Andrew N.; Hunter, Peter D.; Spyrakos, Evangelos; Neil, Claire; Simis, Stephen; Groom, Steve; Merchant, Chris J.; Miller, Claire A.; O'Donnell, Ruth; Scott, E. Marian


    Our planet's surface waters are a fundamental resource encompassing a broad range of ecosystems that are core to global biogeochemical cycling, biodiversity and food and energy security. Despite this, these same waters are impacted by multiple natural and anthropogenic pressures and drivers of environmental change. The complex interaction between physical, chemical and biological processes in surface waters poses significant challenges for in situ monitoring and assessment and this often limits our ability to adequately capture the dynamics of aquatic systems and our understanding of their status, functioning and response to pressures. Recent developments in the availability of satellite platforms for Earth observation (including ESA's Copernicus Programme) offers an unprecedented opportunity to deliver measures of water quality at a global scale. The UK NERC-funded GloboLakes project is a five-year research programme investigating the state of lakes and their response to climatic and other environmental drivers of change through the realization of a near-real time satellite based observatory (Sentinel-3) and archive data processing (MERIS, SeaWiFS) to produce a 20-year time-series of observed ecological parameters and lake temperature for more than 1000 lakes globally. However, the diverse and complex optical properties of lakes mean that algorithm performance often varies markedly between different water types. The GloboLakes project is overcoming this challenge by developing a processing chain whereby algorithms are dynamically selected according to the optical properties of the lake under observation. The development and validation of the GloboLakes processing chain has been supported by access to extensive in situ data from more than thirty partners around the world that are now held in the LIMNADES community-owned data repository developed under the auspices of GloboLakes. This approach has resulted in a step-change in our ability to produce regional and

  10. The Platte River Hydrologic Observatory (PRIVHO) (United States)

    Harvey, F.; Ramirez, J. A.; Thurow, T. L.


    The Platte River Hydrologic Observatory (PRIVHO), located within the Platte River Basin, of the U.S. central Great Plains, affords excellent interdisciplinary and multi-disciplinary research opportunities for scientists to examine the impacts of scaling, to investigate forcing feedbacks and coupling of various interconnected hydrological, geological, climatological and biological systems, and to test the applicability and limits of prediction in keeping with all five of CUAHSI's priority science criteria; linking hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, sustainability of water resources, hydrologic and ecosystem interactions, hydrologic extremes, and fate and transport of contaminants. In addition, PRIVHO is uniquely positioned to investigate many human dimension questions such as those related to interstate and intrastate conflicts over water use, evolution of water policy and law in the wake of advancing science, societal and economic changes that are driven by water use, availability and management, and human impacts on climate and land use changes. The Platte River traverses several important environmental gradients, including temperature and precipitation-to-evaporation ratio, is underlain by the High Plains Aquifer under much of its reach, crosses a number of terrestrial ecoregions, and in central Nebraska, serves as a vital link in the Central Flyway, providing habitat for 300 species of migratory birds and many threatened or endangered species. The Platte River flows through metropolitan, urban and agricultural settings and is impacted by both point and non-point pollution. The Platte River is one of the most over-appropriated rivers in the country with 15 major dams, hundreds of small reservoirs, and thousands of irrigation wells. The river provides municipal and industrial water supplies for about 3.5 million people, irrigation water for millions of acres of farmland, and generates millions of dollars of hydroelectric power. PRIVHO will allow researchers to

  11. Blue Hill Observatory Sunshine - Assessment of Climate Signals in the Longest Continuous Meteorological Record in North America (United States)

    Magee, N. B.; Finocchio, P.; Melaas, E. K.; Iacono, M. J.


    The Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory occupies a unique place in the history of the American Meteorological Society and the development of atmospheric science. Through its 129-year history, the Observatory has been operated by founder Abbott Lawrence Rotch (1861-1912), Harvard University, and the National Weather Service, and it is presently run by the non-profit Blue Hill Observatory Science Center. While daily temperature and precipitation records are available through the National Climatic Data Center, they do not include the full record of sunshine duration data that were measured using a Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorder. We have recently digitized the Observatory's original daily sunshine archives, and now present the first full collection and analysis of sunshine records extending from 1889 to the present. This data set is unique and salient to modern climate research because the collection represents the earliest and longest continuous measurements of insolation outside of Western Europe. Together the record provides an unprecedented glimpse into regional climate features, as well as important links between global phenomena and regional climate. Analysis reveals long-term fluctuations of cloud-cover and solar radiation, including signals of regional industrialization, global-dimming, volcanic eruptions, the 11-Year Solar Cycle, and the El Niño Southern Oscillation. Shorter period fluctuations include evidence of an intricate annual pattern of sunshine duration and correlations with the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and galactic cosmic rays.

  12. The Keck Cosmic Web Imager: a capable new integral field spectrograph for the W. M. Keck Observatory (United States)

    Morrissey, Patrick; Matuszewski, Mateusz; Martin, Chris; Moore, Anna; Adkins, Sean; Epps, Harland; Bartos, Randy; Cabak, Jerry; Cowley, Dave; Davis, Jack; Delacroix, Alex; Fucik, Jason; Hilliard, David; James, Ean; Kaye, Steve; Lingner, Nicole; Neill, James D.; Pistor, Christoph; Phillips, Drew; Rockosi, Connie; Weber, Bob


    The Keck Cosmic Web Imager (KCWI) is a new facility instrument being developed for the W. M. Keck Observatory and funded for construction by the Telescope System Instrumentation Program (TSIP) of the National Science Foundation (NSF). KCWI is a bench-mounted spectrograph for the Keck II right Nasmyth focal station, providing integral field spectroscopy over a seeing-limited field up to 20"x33" in extent. Selectable Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings provide high efficiency and spectral resolution in the range of 1000 to 20000. The dual-beam design of KCWI passed a Preliminary Design Review in summer 2011. The detailed design of the KCWI blue channel (350 to 700 nm) is now nearly complete, with the red channel (530 to 1050 nm) planned for a phased implementation contingent upon additional funding. KCWI builds on the experience of the Caltech team in implementing the Cosmic Web Imager (CWI), in operation since 2009 at Palomar Observatory. KCWI adds considerable flexibility to the CWI design, and will take full advantage of the excellent seeing and dark sky above Mauna Kea with a selectable nod-and-shuffle observing mode. In this paper, models of the expected KCWI sensitivity and background subtraction capability are presented, along with a detailed description of the instrument design. The KCWI team is lead by Caltech (project management, design and implementation) in partnership with the University of California at Santa Cruz (camera optical and mechanical design) and the W. M. Keck Observatory (program oversight and observatory interfaces).

  13. CALISTO: the Cryogenic Aperture Large Infrared Space Telescope Observatory (United States)

    Goldsmith, Paul F.; Bradford, Matt; Dragovan, Mark; Paine, Chris; Satter, Celeste; Langer, Bill; Yorke, Harold; Huffenberger, Kevin; Benford, Dominic; Lester, Dan


    CALISTO, the Cryogenic Aperture Large Infrared Space Telescope Observatory, will enable extraordinarily high sensitivity far-infrared continuum and moderate (R ~ 1000) resolution spectroscopic observations at wavelengths from ~30µm to ~300 μm - the wavelengths between those accessible by JWST and future ground based facilities. CALISTO's observations will provide vital information about a wide range of important astronomical questions including (1) the first stars and initial heavy element production in the universe; (2) structures in the universe traced by H2 emission; (3) the evolution of galaxies and the star formation within them (4) the formation of planetary systems through observations of protostellar and debris disks; (5) the outermost portions of our solar system through observations of Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) and the Oort cloud. With optics cooled to below 5 K, the photon fluctuations from the astronomical background (Zodiacal, Galactic, and extragalactic) exceed those from the telescope. Detectors with a noise equivalent power below that set by the background will make possible astronomical-background-limited sensitivity through the submillimeter/far-infrared region. CALISTO builds on studies for the SAFIR (Single Aperture Far Infrared) telescope mission, employing a 4m x 6m off-axis Gregorian telescope which has a simple deployment using an Atlas V launch vehicle. The unblocked telescope with a cold stop has minimal sidelobes and scattering. The clean beam will allow astronomical background limited observations over a large fraction of the sky, which is what is required to achieve CALISTO's exciting science goals. The maximum angular resolution varies from 1.2" at 30 µm to 12" at 300 μm. The 5σ 1 hr detectable fluxes are ▵S(dν/ν = 1.0) = 2.2x10-20 Wm-2, and ▵S(dν/ν = 0.001) = 6.2x10-22 Wm-2. The 8 beams per source confusion limit at 70 μm is estimated to be 5 μJy. We discuss CALISTO optics, performance, instrument complement

  14. The Atsa Suborbital Observatory: An Observatory for a Commercial Suborbital Spacecraft (United States)

    Vilas, F.; Sollitt, L. S.


    The advantages of astronomical observations made above Earth's atmosphere have long been understood: free access to spectral regions inaccessible from Earth (e.g., UV) or affected by the atmosphere's content (e.g., IR). Most robotic, space-based telescopes maintain large angular separation between the Sun and an observational target in order to avoid accidental damage to instruments from the Sun. For most astronomical targets, this possibility is easily avoided by waiting until objects are visible away from the Sun. For the Solar System objects inside Earth's orbit, this is never the case. Suborbital astronomical observations have over 50 years' history using NASA's sounding rockets and experimental space planes. Commercial suborbital spacecraft are largely expected to go to ~100 km altitude above Earth, providing a limited amount of time for astronomical observations. The unique scientific advantage to these observations is the ability to point close to the Sun: if a suborbital spacecraft accidentally turns too close to the Sun and fries an instrument, it is easy to land the spacecraft and repair the hardware for the next flight. Objects uniquely observed during the short observing window include inner-Earth asteroids, Mercury, Venus, and Sun-grazing comets. Both open-FOV and target-specific observations are possible. Despite many space probes to the inner Solar System, scientific questions remain. These include inner-Earth asteroid size and bulk density informing Solar System evolution studies and efforts to develop methods of mitigation against imminent impactors to Earth; chemistry and dynamics of Venus' atmosphere addressing physical phenomena such as greenhouse effect, atmospheric super-rotation and global resurfacing on Venus. With the Atsa Suborbital Observatory, we combine the strengths of both ground-based observatories and space-based observing to create a facility where a telescope is maintained and used interchangeably with both in-house facility

  15. History of the Munich-Maisach-Fürstenfeldbruck Geomagnetic Observatory (United States)

    Soffel, H. C.


    The Munich-Maisach-Fürstenfeldbruck Geomagnetic Observatory is one of the observatories with the longest recordings of the geomagnetic field. It started with hourly measurements on 1 August 1840. The founder of the observatory in Munich was Johann von Lamont (1805-1879), the Director of the Royal Bavarian Astronomical Observatory. He had been stimulated to build his own observatory by the initiative of the Göttingen Magnetic Union founded in 1834 by Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) and Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855). Before 1840 fewer than five observatories existed; the most prominent ones were those in London and Paris. At the beginning Lamont used equipment delivered by Gauss in Göttingen, but soon started to build instruments of his own design. Among them was a nonmagnetic theodolite which allowed precise geomagnetic measurements to be made also in the field. During the 1850s Lamont carried out geomagnetic surveys and produced geomagnetic maps for Germany and many other European countries. At the end of the nineteenth century accurate geomagnetic measurements in Munich became more and more disturbed by the magnetic stray fields from electric tramways and industry. During this period the quality of the data suffered and the measurements had to be interrupted several times. After a provisional solution in Maisach, a village 25 km west of Munich, a final solution could be found in the vicinity of the nearby city of Fürstenfeldbruck. Here the measurements started again on 1 January 1939. Since the 1980s the observatory has been part of INTERMAGNET, an organization providing almost real-time geomagnetic data of the highest quality.

  16. Flow, simulation and dynamics. Including a contribution of Vienna University (TU Wien); Stroemung, Simulation und Dynamik. Mit einem Beitrag der TU Wien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauder, K. [ed.


    This report covers the following topics: Gas-flow through clearances in screw vacuum pumps - part 1, gas flow research at a plane screw type machine model - part 2, two-phase screw-type engine - problems of the filling process, oil as a design parameter in screw-type engines - use of non-newtonian oils, experimental determination of the dynamic properties of screw compressors, hot gas screw-type engine - simulations as a basis for construction - part 3. [Deutsch] Dieser Bericht hat folgende Inhalte: Gasspaltstroemungen in Schraubenspindel-Vakuumpumpen - Teil 1, Gasspaltstroemungen in einem ebenen Schraubenmaschinenmodell - Teil 2, Zweiphasen-Schraubenmotor-Probleme des Fuellungsvorganges, Oel als Konstruktionselement - Einsatz nicht-newtonscher Oele, die experimentelle Bestimmung der dynamischen Eigenschaften von Schraubenkompressoren, die Heissgasschraubenmaschine - simulationsgestuetzte Auslegung - Teil 3

  17. Black Carbon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, Dan A. [Univ. of Washington, Bothell, WA (United States); Sedlacek, Arthur [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Laing, James R. [Univ. of Washington, Bothell, WA (United States)


    This campaign was initiated to measure refractory black carbon (rBC, as defined in Schwarz et al. (2010)) at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO) using the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility single-particle soot photometer (SP2; unit 54). MBO is a high-elevation site located on the summit of Mt. Bachelor in central Oregon, USA (43.979°N, 121.687°W, 2,763 meters ASL). This site is operated by Professor Dan Jaffe’s group at the University of Washington Bothell and has been used continuously as an atmospheric observatory for the past 12 years (Jaffe et al., 2005; Gratz et al., 2014). The location of MBO allows frequent sampling of the free troposphere along with a wide array of plumes from regional and distant sources. MBO is currently supported with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to the Principal Investigator (PI; D. Jaffe) via the project “Influence of Free Tropospheric Ozone and PM on Surface Air Quality in the Western U.S.” (#1447832) covering the period 03/15/2015 to 02/28/2018. The SP2 instrument from Droplet Measurement Technologies provides particle-resolved measurements of rBC mass loading, size and mass distributions, and mixing state. The SP2 was installed at MBO on 6/27/2016 and ran through 9/23/2016. Additional measurements at MBO during this campaign included carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM1), aerosol light scattering coefficients (σscat) at three wavelengths using a TSI nephelometer, aerosol absorption coefficients (σabs) with the Brechtel tricolor absorption photometer (TAP), aerosol number size distributions with a scanning mobility particle sizer spectrometer (SMPS), and black carbon (eBC) with an aethalometer. BC data from this campaign have been submitted to the ARM Data Archive. Black carbon (BC) is the predominant light-absorbing aerosol constituent in the atmosphere, and is estimated to exert a positive radiative forcing second only to CO

  18. OpenROCS: a software tool to control robotic observatories (United States)

    Colomé, Josep; Sanz, Josep; Vilardell, Francesc; Ribas, Ignasi; Gil, Pere


    We present the Open Robotic Observatory Control System (OpenROCS), an open source software platform developed for the robotic control of telescopes. It acts as a software infrastructure that executes all the necessary processes to implement responses to the system events that appear in the routine and non-routine operations associated to data-flow and housekeeping control. The OpenROCS software design and implementation provides a high flexibility to be adapted to different observatory configurations and event-action specifications. It is based on an abstract model that is independent of the specific hardware or software and is highly configurable. Interfaces to the system components are defined in a simple manner to achieve this goal. We give a detailed description of the version 2.0 of this software, based on a modular architecture developed in PHP and XML configuration files, and using standard communication protocols to interface with applications for hardware monitoring and control, environment monitoring, scheduling of tasks, image processing and data quality control. We provide two examples of how it is used as the core element of the control system in two robotic observatories: the Joan Oró Telescope at the Montsec Astronomical Observatory (Catalonia, Spain) and the SuperWASP Qatar Telescope at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (Canary Islands, Spain).

  19. Electricity and gas market observatory. 4. quarter 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Since July 1, 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web-site ( It presents: The electricity market; The retail electricity market: Eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at January 1, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 4. Quarter 2007; The wholesale electricity market: Traded volumes on the French wholesale electricity market and comparison with European markets, Prices on the French wholesale electricity market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market, Striking facts of the 4. 2006 quarter; The gas market; The retail gas market: The eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at January 1. 2007; The wholesale gas market: Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe,The wholesale market in France. Some glossaries are attached to the document: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary; Specific electricity market observatory glossary; Specific gas market observatory glossary.

  20. Electricity and gas market observatory. 1. quarter 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Since July 1, 2004, all electricity and gas consumers can be eligible according to their consumption site, as long as all or part of the electricity or gas consumed is designed for non-residential use. The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web-site ( It presents: The electricity market; The retail electricity market: Eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at April 1, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 1. Quarter 2007; The wholesale electricity market: Traded volumes on the French wholesale electricity market and comparison with European markets, Prices on the French wholesale electricity market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market, Striking facts of the 1. 2007 quarter; The gas market; The retail gas market: The eligible customer segments and their respective weights, Status at April 1. 2007; The wholesale gas market: Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe,The wholesale market in France. Some glossaries are attached to the document: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary; Specific electricity market observatory glossary; Specific gas market observatory glossary.

  1. Exploring the cosmic rays energy frontier with the Auger Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The existence of cosmic rays with energies in excess of 1020 eV represents a longstanding scientific mystery. Unveileing the mechanism and source of production/acceleration of particles of such enormous energies is a challenging experimental task due to their minute flux, roughly one km2 century. The Pierre Auger Observatory, now nearing completion in Malargue, Mendoza Province, Argentina, is spread over an area of 3000 km2. Two techniques are employed to observe the cosmic ray showers: detection of the shower particles on the ground and detection of fluorescence light produced as the shower particles pass through the atmosphere. I will describe the status of the Observatory and its detectors, and early results from the data recorded while the observatory is reaching its completion.Organiser(s): L. Alvarez-Gaume / PH-THNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00.

  2. The Pierre Auger Observatory Upgrade - Preliminary Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aab, Alexander [Univ. Siegen (Germany); et al.


    The Pierre Auger Observatory has begun a major Upgrade of its already impressive capabilities, with an emphasis on improved mass composition determination using the surface detectors of the Observatory. Known as AugerPrime, the upgrade will include new 4 m2 plastic scintillator detectors on top of all 1660 water-Cherenkov detectors, updated and more flexible surface detector electronics, a large array of buried muon detectors, and an extended duty cycle for operations of the fluorescence detectors. This Preliminary Design Report was produced by the Collaboration in April 2015 as an internal document and information for funding agencies. It outlines the scientific and technical case for AugerPrime. We now release it to the public via the arXiv server. We invite you to review the large number of fundamental results already achieved by the Observatory and our plans for the future.

  3. Atmospheric aerosol monitoring at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cester, R.; Chiosso, M.; Chirin, J.; Clay, R.; Dawson, B.; Fick, B.; Filipcic, A.; Garcia, B.; Grillo, A.; Horvat, M.; Iarlori, M.; Malek, M.; Matthews, J.; Matthews,; Melo, D.; Meyhandan, R.; Mostafa, M.; Mussa, R.; Prouza, M.; Raefert, B.; Rizi, V.


    For a ground based cosmic-ray observatory the atmosphere is an integral part of the detector. Air fluorescence detectors (FDs) are particularly sensitive to the presence of aerosols in the atmosphere. These aerosols, consisting mainly of clouds and dust, can strongly affect the propagation of fluorescence and Cherenkov light from cosmic-ray induced extensive air showers. The Pierre Auger Observatory has a comprehensive program to monitor the aerosols within the atmospheric volume of the detector. In this paper the aerosol parameters that affect FD reconstruction will be discussed. The aerosol monitoring systems that have been deployed at the Pierre Auger Observatory will be briefly described along with some measurements from these systems.

  4. Observatory facility staff requirements and local labor markets (United States)

    Rabanus, David


    Current large observatories, both in operation and projects in development or construction, face the challenge to find skilled personnel for integration and operation. Typical locations of these observatories are found to be remote, mainly due to electromagnetic pollution prevention, which in many if not all cases reduces the attractiveness of the work posts. Additional budgetary limitations restrict the recruitment radius for certain positions to the local labor market. This paper outlines these staffing constraints in more detail and elaborates on the need for training programs on various levels, which can be costly. This, in turn, drives the need for creative retention efforts. Therefore, financial modeling, contingency, risk and quality management, and the reliability, availability, and maintainability of an observatory are directly coupled to the local embedding in the labor market of the host country.

  5. Look to the Stars - The APUS Observatory: An Innovative Robotic Telescope for Online Astronomical Education and Research (United States)

    Albin, Edward


    We report on the American Public University System’s new robotic telescope, located in Charles Town, WV -- an innovative observatory deployed in an online institution of higher education. The instrument is operated by the Department of Space Studies and is situated atop the university’s new Information Technology building. At the heart of the observatory is a Planewave CDK24 telescope, equipped with a SBIG STX-16803 CCD camera. The telescope is a key technological component in the Department's new undergraduate / graduate astronomy concentration. Since the university is a dedicated online educational institution, the acquisition of a fully remote controlled telescope ties closely into the program's philosophy of quality online instruction. Our robotic observatory is intimately integrated into our astronomy curriculum, with the telescope being utilized for original astronomical education and research purposes. For instance, not only is imagery used in the classroom and for laboratory instruction, graduate students in our MS degree program have an opportunity to collect original telescopic data for research / thesis projects. Examples of ongoing investigations with the telescope include observations of exoplanet transits and variable star photometry. When not in use for specific observing projects, the telescope is scripted to conduct autonomous supernova searches by patrolling dozens of galaxies throughout the night. Our goal is to have the instrument scheduled for continuous observing of the heavens throughout the year on all clear evenings.

  6. International observatory on mental health systems: structure and operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Harry


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sustained cooperative action is required to improve the mental health of populations, particularly in low and middle-income countries where meagre mental health investment and insufficient human and other resources result in poorly performing mental health systems. The Observatory The International Observatory on Mental Health Systems is a mental health systems research, education and development network that will contribute to the development of high quality mental health systems in low and middle-income countries. The work of the Observatory will be done by mental health systems research, education and development groups that are located in and managed by collaborating organisations. These groups will be supported by the IOMHS Secretariat, the International IOMHS Steering Group and a Technical Reference Group. Summary The International Observatory on Mental Health Systems is: 1 the mental health systems research, education and development groups; 2 the IOMHS Steering Group; 3 the IOMHS Technical Reference Group; and 4 the IOMHS Secretariat. The work of the Observatory will depend on free and open collaboration, sharing of knowledge and skills, and governance arrangements that are inclusive and that put the needs and interests of people with mental illness and their families at the centre of decision-making. We welcome contact from individuals and institutions that wish to contribute to achieving the goals of the Observatory. Now is the time to make it happen where it matters, by turning scientific knowledge into effective action for people's health. (J.W. Lee, in his acceptance speech on his appointment as the Director-General of the World Health Organization 1.

  7. Urania in the Marketplace: Observatories as Holiday Destinations (United States)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.


    During the twentieth century astronomical imagery was frequently incorporated, by manufacturers of industrial and consumer goods, into advertisements which appeared in popular magazines in America. The domes and telescopes of major observatories were often featured. In some cases, particularly within the Golden State of California, major astronomical facilities (notably the Lick and Mt. Wilson Observatories) were touted as tourist attractions and were publicized as such by tourist bureaus, railroads, and hotels.A particularly interesting example is provided by the Hotel Vendome in San Jose. With completion of the Lick Observatory (and the 36-inch Great Refractor) in 1887, the local business community felt that the city needed a first-class resort hotel. The architectural firm of Jacob Lenzen & Son was hired to design a grand hotel, comparable to those found in locales such as Monterey and Pasadena. The resulting four-story, 150-room structure cost 250,000, a phenomenal sum in those days. Yet, within just fourteen years, tourist demand led to the construction of a 36-room annex. Of course, a great resort hotel would not be complete without the opportunity for excursion, and the Mt. Hamilton Stage Company offered daily trips to the famous Lick Observatory.Farther south, the Mt. Wilson Observatory began construction of its own hotel in 1905.The original structure was destroyed by fire in 1913, and replaced by a second which was used by visitors until 1966.Early examples of advertisements for these observatories, recalling the heyday of astronomical tourism, are presented. A few more recent ones for Arecibo and Palomar are included for comparison.

  8. A Remotely Operated Observatory for Minor Planet Photometry (United States)

    Ditteon, Richard


    In October of 2007 Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology in Terre Haute, Indiana began operating the Oakley Southern Sky Observatory (E09) located near Siding Spring Observatory in New South Wales, Australia. The observatory houses a 0.5-m, f/8.4 Ritchey-Chretien telescope mounted on a Paramount ME, German equatorial mount. Attached to the telescope is an STL-1001E CCD camera which has 1024 by 1024, 24 µm pixels, a two-stage thermoelectric cooler, and built in color filter wheel with BVRI and clear filters. Image scale is 1.2 arcseconds per pixel. A cloud sensor is used to monitor sky conditions. The observatory has a roll-off roof with limit switches to detect when the roof is fully open and fully closed. In addition, a switch has been added to the mount to detect when the telescope is parked and that it is safe to open or close the roof. All of the hardware is controlled by a custom program which reads a simple text file containing the sequence of images and targets to be collected each night. The text file is loaded onto the control computer once each day, then the software waits until sunset to determine if the sky is clear. When conditions are favorable, power is turned on, the roof opens, twilight flats, dark and bias frames are recorded, and when it is fully dark data frames are recorded. Images are transferred via the Internet back to Rose-Hulman by another program running in the background. The observatory closes itself before dawn or if it gets cloudy. Currently we are using the observatory for photometry of minor planets. Students are responsible for selecting targets, processing the returned images, determining the period and light curve of each minor planet and writing a paper for publication. Recent results will be presented.

  9. ALOHA Cabled Observatory: On-going results and new instruments (United States)

    Howe, B. M.; Lukas, R.


    Since June 2011, the ALOHA Cabled Observatory (ACO) has been collecting abyssal oceanographic data. The ACO is at Station ALOHA 100 km north of Oahu, the field site of the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) program that has collected biological, physical, and chemical oceanographic data since 1988. At 4728 m water depth, it is the world's deepest operating cabled observatory. On-going results will be presented along with results from two new instrument packages to be deployed: a basic sensor package (CTDO2, fluorometer, acoustic modem, ADCP), and a video/light/hydrophone combination. Plans for future research will be discussed. [Work supported by the National Science Foundation.

  10. Mass sensitive observables of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger M.


    Full Text Available In this article we will discuss measurements of the longitudinal development of air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The longitudinal development of the electromagnetic component can be directly observed by the fluorescence telescopes of the Auger Observatory and we will present the results on the evolution of the average shower maximum and its fluctuations as a function of energy. Moreover, two observables from the surface detector, the asymmetry of the rise time of the station signals and the muon production depth, will be discussed and the measurements will be compared to predictions from air shower simulations for different primary particle types.

  11. Nitrogen-isotopes and multi-parameter sewage water test for identification of nitrate sources: Groundwater body Marchfeld East of Vienna (United States)

    Kralik, Martin


    The application of nitrogen and oxygen isotopes in nitrate allows, under favourable circumstances, to identify potential sources such as precipitation, chemical fertilisers and manure or sewage water. Without any additional tracer, the source distinction of nitrate from manure or sewage water is still difficult. Even the application of boron isotopes can in some cases not avoid ambiguous interpretation. Therefore, the Environment Agency Austria developed a new multi parametrical indicator test to allow the identification and quantification of pollution by domestic sewage water. The test analyses 8 substances well known to occur in sewage water: Acesulfame and sucralose (two artificial, calorie-free sweeteners), benzotriazole and tolyltriazole (two industrial chemicals/corrosion inhibitors), metoprolol, sotalol, carbamazepine and the metabolite 10,11-Dihydro-10,11-dihydroxycarbamazepine (pharmaceuticals) [1]. These substances are polar and degradation in the aquatic system by microbiological processes is not documented. These 8 Substances do not occur naturally which make them ideal tracers. The test can detect wastewater in the analysed water sample down to 0.1 %. This ideal coupling of these analytic tests helps to identify the nitrogen sources in the groundwater body Marchfeld East of Vienna to a high confidence level. In addition, the results allow a reasonable quantification of nitrogen sources from different types of fertilizers as well as sewage water contributions close to villages and in wells recharged by bank filtration. Recent investigations of groundwater in selected wells in Marchfeld [2] indicated a clear nitrogen contribution by wastewater leakages (sewers or septic tanks) to the total nitrogen budget. However, this contribution is shrinking and the main source comes still from agricultural activities. [1] Humer, F.; Weiss, S.; Reinnicke, S.; Clara, M.; Grath, J.; Windhofer, G. (2013): Multi parametrical indicator test for urban wastewater influence

  12. First Light Achieved at the new Mt.Evans High Altitude Observatory (United States)

    Stencel, R. E.


    During August 1997, first light images were obtained with the new Meyer Binocular Telescope, a twin 0.72 meter RC system, located at the Meyer- Womble Observatory atop 14,268 ft Mt.Evans, Colorado. The site is along a treeless high ridge which frequently enjoys laminar airflow and good seeing. The telescope and building also include thermal and airflow management systems for seeing optimization. Finally, a 5 element adaptive optics system that is being tested at Yerkes Observatory, should be able to correct the native seeing to nearly the limit of optical performance. For details on all of the above, please refer to my website: rstencel. The high altitude of Mt.Evans makes it ideal for mid-infrared studies, and we anticipate pursuing mid-IR imaging and spectroscopy from this site. Mark 2 of our TNTCAM (Klebe et al.-this meeting) is now in design stage, thanks to an NSF MRI grant. The spectrometer, TGIRS (Creech-Eakman et al. 1996 BAAS 28: 1372) has also achieved first light in the lab. We plan to use both at the new mountaintop facility. Another interesting feature of the new observatory is its photovoltaic energy supply for continuous power, sponsored in part by the Renewable Energy Trust, National Renewable Energy Lab and the Colorado Office of Energy Conservation. Denver University is interested in forming partnerships with other programs in order to make best use of this new resource for educational research in astronomy and astrophysics. This can include REU-style student summer visits, instrument testing and/or observational studies. I am pleased to acknowledge sponsorship by the Estate of William Herschel Womble, and the Meyer Foundation.

  13. The SMARTS Observatory: CHIRON Spectrometer & Data Products, Accessible to All (United States)

    MacPherson, Emily; Misenti, Victoria; Henry, Todd J.


    The SMARTS observatory announces opportunities for new and returning members and proposers to use the SMARTS 1.5m telescope and CHIRON fiber echelle spectrometer at CTIO in Chile to carry out their science programs in 2017A. SMARTS Queues for You! Our Yale University-based team schedules all CHIRON requests, allowing unprecedented flexibility in observing strategy. Users submit requests easily and at their convenience on our CHIRON Scheduling Site; raw and processed data as well as calibrations are retrieved in the very same place. CHIRON is ideal for target monitoring, space mission follow-up, and simultaneous observing campaigns with space-based as well as other southern, ground-based instruments. With dedicated assistance from both the SMARTS and CTIO teams, we are able to accept Target of Opportunity requests for same-night observation as well as provide processed data quickly and efficiently.Mounted on the 1.5m telescope since 2011B, CHIRON is a highly stable, cross-dispersed echelle spectrometer fed by fiber. Its spectral resolution ranges from 25K in fiber mode to 120K with narrow slit mask. Spectral range is fixed, 410 - 870nm.SMARTS has been producing excellent science for 13 years, and we aim to maintain and operate CHIRON into the future. We invite everyone: institutions, faculty, research scientists, students and staff, to take a look at what we have to offer; take a look at what has already been accomplished with this specialized instrument, and consider what can be accomplished now and moving forward once you've joined the SMARTieS!In this poster, we show exciting science results from CHIRON users as well as statistics on productivity. We describe the capabilities of SMARTS+CHIRON, as well as our expected availability within the 2017A semester. We highlight a recent user-driven effort to enhance data reduction products for those using the instrument for purposes beyond the intentions of the original reduction code. Historically intended for precise

  14. Gamma-ray astronomy: From Fermi up to the HAWC high-energy {gamma}-ray observatory in Sierra Negra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carraminana, Alberto [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica Luis Enrique Erro 1, Tonantzintla, Puebla 72840 (Mexico); Collaboration: HAWC Collaboration


    Gamma-rays represent the most energetic electromagnetic window for the study of the Universe. They are studied both from space at MeV and GeV energies, with instruments like the Fermi{gamma}-ray Space Telescope, and at TeV energies with ground based instruments profiting of particle cascades in the atmosphere and of the Cerenkov radiation of charged particles in the air or in water. The Milagro gamma-ray observatory represented the first instrument to successfully implement the water Cerenkov technique for {gamma}-ray astronomy, opening the ground for the more sensitive HAWC {gamma}-ray observatory, currently under development in the Sierra Negra site and already providing early science results.

  15. Recollections of Tucson Operations The Millimeter-Wave Observatory of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, M A


    This book is a personal account of the evolution of millimeter-wave astronomy at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. It begins with the construction of the hugely successful, but flawed, 36 ft radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona, and continues through the funding of its ultimate successor, the Atacama Large Millimeter-wave Array (ALMA), being constructed on a 5.000 m (16.500 ft) site in northern Chile. The book describes the behind-the-scene activities of the NRAO Tucson staff. These include the identification and solution of technical problems, the scheduling and support of visiting astronomers, and the preparations and the politics of the proposal to replace the 36 ft telescope with a 25 m telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The book also describes the installation of a new 12 m surface and the involvement of the Tucson staff in the ALMA project. Finally, it describes events leading to the closing of the 36 ft telescope and, eventually, of the NRAO offices in Tucson.

  16. The effects of bilastine compared with cetirizine, fexofenadine, and placebo on allergen-induced nasal and ocular symptoms in patients exposed to aeroallergen in the Vienna Challenge Chamber. (United States)

    Horak, Friedrich; Zieglmayer, Petra; Zieglmayer, René; Lemell, Patrick


    This double-blind cross-over study compared the potential of bilastine, cetirizine, and fexofenadine to relieve the symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Seventy-five allergic volunteers were challenged with grass pollen in the Vienna Challenge Chamber (VCC) on two consecutive days of allergen provocation; 6 h on day 1 and 4 h day 2. Bilastine 20 mg, cetirizine 10 mg, fexofenadine 120 mg, or placebo were taken orally 2 h after the start of provocation on day 1 only. Total nasal symptom scores, the global symptom scores, nasal secretions, and eye symptoms were assessed on both day 1 and day 2. Bilastine had a rapid onset of action, within 1 h, and a long duration of action, greater than 26 h. Cetirizine was similar. Fexofenadine was similar on day 1 but less effective on day 2, indicating a shorter duration of action. Bilastine, like cetirizine and fexofenadine, was safe and well tolerated in this study.

  17. The function of thermal treatment of waste in the Vienna waste management concept; Die Funktion der thermischen Abfallbehandlung im Abfallwirtschaftskonzept von Wien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeschau, M. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Abfallwirtschaft


    Thermal waste treatment has a key role in the waste management system of Vienna. As landfills will be prohibited and waste volumes will increase, further capacities will have to be provided. Another incinerator will be constructed in order to reduce the waste volume, to relieve landfills, to reduce the cost of land regeneration after pollution, and to provide additional energy for district heating. (orig.) [German] Die thermischen Abfallbehandlungsanlagen nehmen im Wiener Abfallwirtschaftssystem eine Schluesselrolle ein. Sie sind nach derzeitigem Stand der Technik das nachhaltigste Entsorgungsverfahren fuer nicht schadlos verwertbare Abfaelle. Aufgrund des Deponierungsverbots der Deponieverordnung fuer unzureichend behandelte Abfaelle sowie der prognostizierten Zunahme von Restmuellaufkommens muessen in Wien kuenftig weitere Behandlungskapazitaeten geschaffen werden. Mit dem Bau einer weiteren Muellverbrennungsanlage werden die abzulagernden Abfallmengen und die entstehenden Umweltbelastungen durch ihre Deponierung reduziert, Altlastenbeitraege gespart sowie zusaetzliche Energie fuer die Fernwaermeversorgung bereitgestellt. (orig.)

  18. [The day-to-day routine in hospitals--standards and conflicts, based on the example of the Rothschild spital in Vienna around the year 1900]. (United States)

    Malleier, Elisabeth


    The juxtaposition of official regulations and letters of complaint from Vienna's Rothschild Hospital shows, beyond the rhetoric and euphemisms of hospital reports, how lively and diverse day-to-day life was in a Jewish hospital around the year 1900. The letters of complaint query the official hospital rules and show that ideal and reality did not always coincide. Often, religious questions were at the root of the critique--such as doubts as to whether kosher dietary laws were adhered to--or conflicts between the agents involved, be they individuals or groups, patients, nurses, physicians or administrative staff. As part of this process, power structures, social hierarchies, patient rights and gender issues were called into question and renegotiated.

  19. “Learning from Vienna Means Learning to Win”: the Cracovian Christian Socials and the ‘Antisemitic Turn’ of 1896

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Buchen


    Full Text Available This article describes how it came to pass that the clerical milieu in Cracow deployed the concepts “antisemitism” and “Aryan people”, why Karl Lueger, accused of German nationalism, served as a bearer of hope, and how all of this came to a head in the call for an antisemitic movement in 1897. The reference to Vienna was not a mere copy of Viennese antisemitic ideas. Rather it made up one element in a larger strategy of the Cracovian Clericals to gain votes in the ballot box. Analyzing these strategies and rhetorics allows a better understanding of antisemitism in the Catholic milieu in particular and in antisemitic agitation in Galicia in general.

  20. Home-based Functional Electrical Stimulation for long-term denervated human muscle: History, basics, results and perspectives of the Vienna Rehabilitation Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Kern


    Full Text Available We will here discuss the following points related to Home-based Functional Electrical Stimulation (h-b FES as treatment for patients with permanently denervated muscles in their legs: 1. Upper (UMN and lower motor neuron (LMN damage to the lower spinal cord; 2. Muscle atrophy/hypertrophy versus processes of degeneration, regeneration, and recovery; 3. Recovery of twitch- and tetanic-contractility by h-b FES; 4. Clinical effects of h-b FES using the protocol of the “Vienna School”; 5. Limitations and perspectives. Arguments in favor of using the Vienna protocol include: 1. Increased muscle size in both legs; 2. Improved tetanic force production after 3-5 months of percutaneous stimulation using long stimulus pulses (> 100 msec of high amplitude (> 80 mAmp, tolerated only in patients with no pain sensibility; 3. Histological and electron microscopic evidence that two years of h-b FES return muscle fibers to a state typical of two weeks denervated muscles with respect to atrophy, disrupted myofibrillar structure, and disorganized Excitation-Contraction Coupling (E-CC structures; 4. The excitability never recovers to that typical of normal or reinnervated muscles where pulses less than 1 msec in duration and 25 mAmp in intensity excite axons and thereby muscle fibres. It is important to motivate these patients for chronic stimulation throughout life, preferably standing up against the load of the body weight rather than sitting. Only younger and low weight patients can expect to be able to stand-up and do some steps more or less independently. Some patients like to maintain the h-b FES training for decades. Limitations of the procedure are obvious, in part related to the use of multiple, large surface electrodes and the amount of time patients are willing to use for such muscle training.

  1. The Large Observatory For x-ray Timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feroci, M.; Herder, J. W. den; Bozzo, E.


    The Large Observatory For x-ray Timing (LOFT) was studied within ESA M3 Cosmic Vision framework and participated in the final down-selection for a launch slot in 2022-2024. Thanks to the unprecedented combination of effective area and spectral resolution of its main instrument, LOFT will study...

  2. Advanced Telescopes and Observatories Capability Roadmap Presentation to the NRC (United States)


    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of the NASA Advanced Planning and Integration Office (APIO) roadmap for developing technological capabilities for telescopes and observatories in the following areas: Optics; Wavefront Sensing and Control and Interferometry; Distributed and Advanced Spacecraft; Large Precision Structures; Cryogenic and Thermal Control Systems; Infrastructure.

  3. Unruly Sun Emerges from Solar Space Observatory SOHO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 9. Unruly Sun Emerges from Solar Space Observatory SOHO. B N Dwivedi. Research News Volume 2 Issue 9 September 1997 pp 75-76. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. Future axion searches with the International Axion Observatory (IAXO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irastorza, I G; Avignone, F T; Cantatore, G


    The International Axion Observatory (IAXO) is a new generation axion helioscope aiming at a sensitivity to the axion-photon coupling of gaγ (≳) few × 10−12 GeV−1, i.e. 1–1.5 orders of magnitude beyond the one achieved by CAST, currently the most sensitive axion helioscope. The main elements of IA...

  5. Conceptual design of the International Axion Observatory (IAXO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armengaud, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Betz, M.


    The International Axion Observatory (IAXO) will be a forth generation axion helioscope. As its primary physics goal, IAXO will look for axions or axion-like particles (ALPs) originating in the Sun via the Primakoff conversion of the solar plasma photons. In terms of signal-to-noise ratio, IAXO wi...

  6. The Pierre Auger Observatory status and latest results (United States)

    Berat, Corinne


    The Pierre Auger Observatory, in Argentina, is the present flagship experiment studying ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). Facing the challenge due to low cosmic-ray flux at the highest energies, the Observatory has been taking data for more than a decade, reaching an exposure of over 50 000 km2 sr yr. The combination of a large surface detector array and fluorescence telescopes provides a substantial improvement in energy calibration and extensive air shower measurements, resulting in data of unprecedented quality. Moreover, the installation of a denser subarray has allowed extending the sensitivity to lower energies. Altogether, this contributes to provide important information on key questions in the UHECR field in the energy range from 0.1 EeV up to 100 EeV. A review of main results from the Pierre Auger Observatory is presented with a particular focus on the energy spectrum measurements, the mass composition studies, the arrival directions analyses, the search for neutral cosmic messengers, and the investigation of high-energy hadronic interactions. Despite this large amount of valuable results, the understanding of the nature of UHECRs and of their origin remains an open science case that the Auger collaboration is planning to address with the AugerPrime project to upgrade the Observatory.

  7. Lowell Observatory enters the twentieth century - in the 1950s (United States)

    Tenn, Joseph


    By the 1950s the Lowell Observatory was stagnant. The three senior astronomers had been there for decades, and they were no longer doing much research or publishing. Yet they jealously guarded the telescopes and prevented younger colleagues from using them effectively. V.M. Slipher, Director since 1916, had been a very productive astronomer in his youth, when he was guided by founder Percival Lowell, but now he devoted his remaining energies to his many business interests. The Observatory's sole Trustee, a nephew of the founder, was busy with his business and politics in Massachusetts and slow to exert authority in Flagstaff, Arizona. Finally, after C.O. Lampland died and V.M. and E.C. Slipher were in their seventies, the Trustee decided that he had to make a change. He brought in mathematician Albert Wilson, who had been leading the Palomar Sky Survey for Caltech. One of Wilson's qualifications seems to be that he was acceptable to the Slipher brothers. Wilson started the Observatory on the road to modernity but ran into personal problems as well as difficulty managing Observatory personnel, and he resigned after a little more than two years. John Hall became Director in 1958, just as the American reaction to Sputnik made abundant Federal resources available to science. In his nineteen years as Director Hall completely revived the historic institution and brought it into the late twentieth century.

  8. OAdM Observatory: Towards Fully Unattended Control (United States)

    Colomé, J.; Ribas, I.; Fernández, D.; Francisco, X.; Isern, J.; Palau, X.; Torra, J.; Colomé, J.; Ribas, I.; Fernández, D.; Isern, J.

    The Montsec Astronomical Observatory (OAdM) is a small-class observatory working on a completely unattended control, due to the isolation of the site. Robotic operation is, then, mandatory for its routine use. The level of robotization of an observatory is given by the confidence reached to respond to environment changes and by the required human interaction due to possible alarms. These two points establish a level of human attendance to ensure low risk at any time. There are key problems to solve when a robotic control is envisaged. Learned lessons and solutions to these issues at the OAdM are discussed here. We present a description of the general control software (SW) and several SW packages developed. They specially protect the system at the identified single points of failure and constitute a distributed control of any subsystem, which is able to respond independently when an alarm is triggered thanks to a top-down control flow. All together this composes a SW suite designed to reach the complete robotization of an observatory.

  9. Physics possibilities at India-based Neutrino Observatory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) is a proposed underground facility at. PUSHEP in the Nilagiri Mountains in the Southern part of India. The site is about 240 km south of Bangalore. A cavern of dimensions 120 m × 22 m × 30 m will be constructed at the end of a 1.5-km long tunnel. The location of the cavern.

  10. The Sensitization of French Observatory Directors to Astronomical Heritage (United States)

    Le Guet Tully, Françoise; Davoigneau, Jean


    An inventory of the heritage of historical astronomical observatories was launched in the mid 1990s as part of a collaboration between the Ministry of Research and the Ministry of Culture. This has produced a significant body of knowledge not only on astronomical instruments, but also on the specificities of astronomical sites and on the architecture of observatories. Other major results of this operation are (i) the development of numerous works on the institutional history of observatories and (ii), at the request of a few directors, the protection as "historical monuments" of some buildings and of collections of instruments. Given that knowledge about astronomical heritage is a prerequisite for proper conservation and intelligent outreach, and given also that the protection of such heritage (as historical monuments) is a major asset that bolsters its cultural value, the long term sustainability of such heritage depends on political decisions and the search for financial support. We shall describe the complex administrative situation of French observatories and outline the various actions undertaken recently to sensitize their directors to astronomical heritage issues.

  11. Update on The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) Pathfinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossan, B.; Brandt, Søren; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl


    The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) uses an X/gamma and an optical/UV instrument to observe gamma-ray bursts (GRB) starting milliseconds after burst trigger and location. The X/gamma instrument, a standard coded-mask camera, locates the GRB and triggers the system. The optical/UV instrument...

  12. Double Star Observations Conducted at the Fernbank Observatory (United States)

    Seim, Caitlyn


    Thirty-two binary star pairs were observed and photographed at the Fernbank Science Center Observatory from June 19, 2009 to July 1, 2009. The telescope used was an 11" Cassegrain Reflector with a Cannon EOS 350-DSLR camera. The position angle and separation of each pair were measured and notes were made.

  13. Solar Neutrino Results from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    ,; Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. Philadelphia


    We describe here the measurement of the flux of neutrinos created by the decay of solar ^8B by the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). The neutrinos were detected via the charged current (CC) reaction on deuterium and by the elastic scattering (ES) of electrons. The CC reaction is sensitive exclusively to $\

  14. Early Science Results from SOFIA, the Worlds Largest Airborne Observatory (United States)

    De Buizer, J.


    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, is the largest flying observatory ever built, consisting of a 2.7-meter diameter telescope embedded in a modified Boeing 747-SP aircraft. SOFIA is a joint project between NASA and the German Aerospace Center Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft und-Raumfahrt. By flying at altitudes up to 45000 feet, the observatory gets above 99.9% of the infrared-absorbing water vapor in the Earth's atmosphere. This opens up an almost uninterrupted wavelength range from 0.3-1600 microns that is in large part obscured from ground based observatories. Since its 'Initial Science Flight' in December 2010, SOFIA has flown several dozen science flights, and has observed a wide array of objects from Solar System bodies, to stellar nurseries, to distant galaxies. This talk will review some of the exciting new science results from these first flights which were made by three instruments: the mid-infrared camera FORCAST, the far-infrared heterodyne spectrometer GREAT, and the optical occultation photometer HIPO.

  15. Chandra: Ten Years of Amazing Science with a Great Observatory (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.


    We review briefly review the history of the development of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, highlighting certain details that many attendees of this Conference might not be aware of. We then present a selection of scientific highlights of the first 10 years of this remarkable and unique mission.

  16. Long-Term Seeing Characteristics at Big Bear Solar Observatory (United States)

    Denker, C.; Espinosa, O. D.; Nenow, J.; Marquette, W. H.


    We present observations of long-term seeing characteristics from June 1997 to September 2002 obtained with Seykora-type scintillometers at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). BBSO is an ideal site for ground-based campaign-style observations. Since BBSO is situated on a small island in a 2,000 m high mountain lake in the cloudless mountains of Souther California, it benefits from excellent seeing conditions all day long. The atmospheric turbulence that degrades images originates primarily from two layers near the ground and at the level of the jet stream. BBSO's dome is located at the end of a 300 m long causeway jutting into the lake. Since the lake, with its cool waters, provides a natural inversion, and the dome has three kilometers of open water to its west, the boundary layer seeing is effectively suppressed. In addition, the east-west orientation of the Big Bear Valley provides a natural channel for the prevailing winds from the west resulting in a nearly laminar flow at the observatory site. We present a comparison of scintillometer data with climate data and analyze a one year long sub-set for local seeing variations near the lake shore and at the observatory island. We would like to thank Jacques Beckers and the National Solar Observatory for providing the scintillometer data. This work was supported by NSF under grant ATM 00-86999, ATM 00-76602, and ATM 02-36945 and by NASA under grant NAG 5-9682.

  17. The TJO-OAdM Robotic Observatory: the scheduler (United States)

    Colomé, Josep; Casteels, Kevin; Ribas, Ignasi; Francisco, Xavier


    The Joan Oró Telescope at the Montsec Astronomical Observatory (TJO - OAdM) is a small-class observatory working under completely unattended control, due to the isolation of the site. Robotic operation is mandatory for its routine use. The level of robotization of an observatory is given by its reliability in responding to environment changes and by the required human interaction due to possible alarms. These two points establish a level of human attendance to ensure low risk at any time. But there is another key point when deciding how the system performs as a robot: the capability to adapt the scheduled observation to actual conditions. The scheduler represents a fundamental element to fully achieve an intelligent response at any time. Its main task is the mid- and short-term time optimization and it has a direct effect on the scientific return achieved by the observatory. We present a description of the scheduler developed for the TJO - OAdM, which is separated in two parts. Firstly, a pre-scheduler that makes a temporary selection of objects from the available projects according to their possibility of observation. This process is carried out before the beginning of the night following different selection criteria. Secondly, a dynamic scheduler that is executed any time a target observation is complete and a new one must be scheduled. The latter enables the selection of the best target in real time according to actual environment conditions and the set of priorities.

  18. The Solar Physics Observatory at Kodaikanal and John Evershed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 11. The Solar Physics Observatory at Kodaikanal and John Evershed. D C V Mallik. General Article Volume 14 Issue 11 November 2009 pp 1032-1039. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Research Note - Absolute UBV Photometry at the Zacatecas Observatory (United States)

    Schuster, W. J.; Parrao, L.; Gonazlez-Bedolla, S. F.; Rios-Herrera, M.; Berumen, M. R.


    Atmospheric extinction data, color coefficients, errors of observation and a list of standard and comparison stars are given for UB V photometry at the Astronomical Observatory in Zacatecas. Our observing and reduction procedures are discussed briefly, and our extinction coefficients and observing errors compared with previous values. The uses of these results are mentioned.

  20. Violence and injury observatories: Reducing the burden of injury in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Violence has been recognised officially as a global health issue, with the World Health Organization (WHO) reporting that 1.6 million people die annually from violence. South Africa's injury burden is very high, particularly for homicide, which is six times the global average. The idea of an 'observatory' has expanded recently ...