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Sample records for vie primitive dans

  1. Rôle des femmes dans la vie politique, la contestation politique et la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Rôle des femmes dans la vie politique, la contestation politique et la transformation des rôles sexospécifiques dans les Caraïbes ... Dans un premier temps, les chercheurs se pencheront sur le leadership politique des femmes afin de déterminer dans quelle mesure il stimule la volonté de transformer les rapports entre les ...

  2. Un jour dans la vie : preparation du roman chez Laurent Mauvignier et Tanguy Viel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Jérusalem

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Un jour dans la vie de Laurent Mauvignier et Tanguy Viel sont deux textes brefs publiés en 2010 par la librairie Passages de Lyon : il s’agissait de fêter les dix ans de la librairie dirigée par Françoise Charriau et Erik Fitoussi. Comme l’indique Erik Fitoussi dans la préface accompagnant cette publication, c’était un « cadeau précieux » offert aux lecteurs de la librairie portant le beau nom de Passages. Françoise Charriau évoque elle aussi, dans sa préface, des histoires « d’amitié », de « rencontres », de « complicités »… Cette étude se veut modestement une « postface » des micro-récits de Viel et Mauvignier : qu’est-ce qu’un jour dans la vie d’un écrivain ? Du quotidien, bien sûr. Mais aussi une manière singulière d’interroger la vie, la mémoire familiale, historique, sociale, qui constitue cette vie et qui engage un certain « passage » entre les mots et les choses.

  3. La pensee esoterique dans "L'autre cote de la vie" de Philippe Ragueneau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Esmat Elkady

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans "L'Autre côté de la vue", Philippe Ragueneau relate une expérience peu commune: par delà sa mort, son épouse défunte continue de communiquer avec lui ainsi qu’elle s’y était engagée de son vivant. Il s'est longuement débattu, à travers son roman, comment l'homme raisonnable pourrait accepter le surgissement de l'invisible dans sa vie. Dans le roman, l'invisible a permis à la douleur de s'amenuiser et de céder la place à l'espoir; en outre, il nous emporte au delà des frontières de la mort.

  4. Protection de la vie privée dans l'univers numérique des pays en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'augmentation fulgurante du nombre d'internautes et l'amélioration de la capacité informatique permettent aux gouvernements et au secteur privé de recueillir et de partager des renseignements sur toutes les facettes de la vie des particuliers. Dans les pays en développement, où habitent la majeure partie des utilisateurs ...

  5. Protection de la vie privée dans un monde numérique en Asie ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    9 juin 2016 ... Des travaux de recherche financés par le CRDI montrent que, tandis que le nombre d'internautes augmente en Asie, la protection de la vie privée à l'heure du numérique est de plus en plus considérée comme un droit politique et un droit fondamental du consommateur. Une étude menée dans les pays ...

  6. La vie privée dans les environnements fédérés

    OpenAIRE

    Bekara, Kheira; Laurent, Maryline

    2010-01-01

    National audience; Cet article présente la problématique de la vie privée telle qu'appliquée aujourd'hui dans les systèmes de fédération d'identité Liberty Alliance et CardSpace. Il présente ensuite de façon succincte le projet FC2 de fédération de cercle de confiance et les principaux éléments fonctionnels du module Privacy permettant de contrôler la bonne application de la législation en matière de vie privée

  7. La vie et la mort dans la ville: Leçons du Venezuela | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    16 nov. 2016 ... Les villes latino-américaines captent le meilleur et le pire du potentiel humain: elles sont des sites d'une violence et d'une insécurité énormes, mais exsudent la modernité et l'espoir d'une vie meilleure. Le livre 2016 Ciudades de Vida y Muerte: La ville et le pacte social pour la contention de la violence ...

  8. L'information améliore les conditions de vie dans les Philippines ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    C'est un système de suivi communautaire de la pauvreté (CBMS), mis en oeuvre dans l'ensemble des Philippines, soit dans plus de 17 000 barangays répartis dans ... parce qu'il nous offre de vastes possibilités de faire mieux, d'accomplir davantage, de servir notre cause commune, tout en veillant à ce que nos précieuses ...

  9. Prévenir la violence en psychiatrie tout en considérant son "élan de vie" dans la relation

    OpenAIRE

    Falcy, Enora; Gsteiger, Maude; Schmittler, Mélanie

    2013-01-01

    La problématique concerne la violence en milieu psychiatrique. Nous la considérons comme un processus qui augmente ou diminue selon le vécu du patient. Dans les soins en psychiatrie adulte, elle prend place dans l’interaction sociale entre le soignant et le patient. Elle peut être la manifestation d’un processus positif (élan de vie). Deux concepts sont développés, il s’agit de la violence en tant que processus et de la prévention (primaire et secondaire).

  10. Un regard oblique : « L’œil du sorcier » dans Une vie de boy de Ferdinand Oyono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Vaucher

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ce texte remet en question la lecture réaliste qui a généralement été faite d’Une vie de boy (1957, premier roman de la trilogie de Ferdinand Oyono. Partant d’une étude du regard, il vise à montrer que celui-ci détermine autant un contenu qu’il met l’accent sur une forme, une esthétique littéraire. En effet, dans le récit, si le regard renvoie à un instrument de pouvoir (celui qui oppose les colons et les colonisés et constitue un enjeu de subversion, il se traduit aussi par une écriture allusive, alliant la distance, l’ironie et l’insolite. Par son caractère indiciel, voire figural, cette « écriture du regard » dont témoigne le journal intime de Toundi en fait une sorte de « récit-forme », où l’espace du texte et le hors-texte (le social se convoquent mutuellement.

  11. Initiative Villes ciblées - amélioration du milieu de vie dans les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... et développement : démocratisation, réduction de la pauvreté et atténuation des risques dans les États fragiles et se relevant d'un conflit. Tant les écrits en sciences sociales que les responsables des politiques ont tendance à tenir pour acquis que la réduction de la pauvreté, l'atténuation des risques et la démocratisation ...

  12. Miser, dépenser ou gaspiller ? Étude sur la relation entre l’argent, le jeu et l’addiction dans la vie moderne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Järvinen-Tassopoulos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Le but de cette étude est de comprendre la relation complexe qui peut se nouer entre l’argent, le jeu et l’addiction dans la vie moderne. La conception de l’argent varie selon les significations données, les époques et les lieux. L’argent altère l’essence du jeu en y faisant entrer le défi du risque. Le fait de gagner de l’argent en jouant a souvent partagé les opinions : la séparation du jeu et du travail se base sur des croyances chrétiennes, mais aussi sur l’ambivalence dont le jeu a été doté dans la Modernité. La dépendance à l’habitude de jouer transforme l’usage et la valeur de l’argent chez les joueurs pathologiques. La dépense devient un jeu de gaspillage et la dépendance un outrage à la raison des joueurs. L’addiction est un mot-clé qui représenterait un dérangement dans la vie moderne : de nos jours, la dépendance est devenu un problème multiforme, car son développement n’est plus tributaire de l’usage des substances, mais souvent latent dans les habitudes quotidiennes (cf. les jeux, l’Internet, les achats.

  13. Enjeux de fin de vie dans les cas de démence avancée

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Répondre aux questions souvent posées sur la prise en charge de la pneumonie en phase terminale, de l’apport nutritionnel insuffisant et de la déshydratation dans les cas de démence avancée. Sources des données Une recherche a été effectuée dans MEDLINE sur Ovid pour des articles pertinents publiés jusqu’en février 2015. Aucune étude de niveau I n’a été relevée; la plupart des articles fournissaient des preuves de niveaux III. Les suggestions en matière de prise en charge des symptômes s’appuient en partie sur une récente participation à une approche Delphi visant à concevoir une directive pour le soulagement optimal des symptômes chez les patients atteints de pneumonie et de démence. Message principal Les sondes d’alimentation ne sont pas recommandés chez les patients atteints de démence terminale. L’alimentation de confort manuelle est préférable. L’hydratation parentérale pourrait être utile, mais elle peut aussi contribuer à l’inconfort à la fin de la vie. Si les soins buccaux sont adéquats, l’abstention ou la cessation de l’alimentation et de l’hydratation artificielles ne sont généralement pas associées à des manifestations d’inconfort. Puisque la pneumonie est habituellement très inconfortable, les cliniciens doivent être attentifs à la maîtrise des symptômes. La sédation pour maîtriser l’agitation est souvent utile chez les patients atteints de démence terminale. Conclusion Les soins à visée symptomatique sont une option appropriée pour les manifestations terminales de la démence avancée. Les lignes directrices de prise en charge des symptômes proposées s’appuient sur une revue de la littérature et sur un consensus d’experts.

  14. Protection de la vie privée dans un monde numérique en Asie ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    9 juin 2016 ... A New Dawn: Privacy in Asia. Ahmed T Rashid. Des travaux de recherche financés par le CRDI montrent que, tandis que le nombre d'internautes augmente en Asie, la protection de la vie privée à l'heure du numérique est de plus en plus considérée comme un droit politique et un droit fondamental du ...

  15. Haute prévalence du Burnout dans les unités Tunisiennes prenant en charge des patients en fin de vie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amamou, Badii; Bannour, Ahmed Souhaiel; Ben Hadj Yahia, Meriem; Ben Nasr, Selma; Ben Hadj Ali, Bechir

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Chez le personnel soignant, le burnout touche un infirmier sur trois. Ce taux est plus élevé dans les unités prenant en charge des patients en fin de vie. L'objectif de notre travail était d'évaluer la fréquence du burnout chez les infirmiers qui travaillent en soins de fin de vie. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude descriptive transversale réalisée entre le 1er Avril et le 31 Mai 2010. 60 infirmiers de six services de Sousse et de Monastir (Tunisie) ont été recrutés. L'évaluation du burnout a été réalisée par deux échelles: MBI (Maslach Burnout Inventory) et BMS (Burnout Measure Short version). Résultats La prévalence du burnout était de 70%; il était élevé chez 81.7%. 80% avaient un niveau élevé d'épuisement émotionnel, 70% avaient un niveau élevé de dépersonnalisation et 17% avaient un niveau bas de sentiment d'accomplissement personnel. Le burnout était plus élevé chez les hommes (70,8% vs 69,4%; p=0,013); ceux qui voulaient améliorer les conditions du travail (70.2% vs. 66.7%; p= 0.017); du salaire (70.2% vs. 66.7%; p= 0.017) et chez les infirmiers suivi en psychiatrie (71.4% vs. 69.8%; p= 0.008). Conclusion Dans notre étude le niveau de burnout était élevé chez les infirmiers prenant en charge des patients en fin de vie. Il était associé au sexe masculin et à l'insatisfaction des conditions de travail et du salaire. D'autres études longitudinales sont nécessaires pour suivre l'évolution de ce syndrome et mettre des stratégies de prévention adéquates. PMID:25584122

  16. LA SUBJECTIVITÉ ÉNONCIATIVE ET LA CONSTITUTION D'IDENTITÉS DANS LE DISCOURS DE LA REVUE FÉMINISTE LA VIE EN ROSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty LAFOREST

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La question de l'avortement au Québec suscite encore aujourd'hui des discussions sur sa légalité ainsi que sur le droit des femmes de décider d'avorter. En ce sens, cet article a comme objectif de faire l'analyse d'un éditorial de la revue féministe La vie en rose publié en 1982, en réponse à la lettre antiavortement des évêques, écrite en 1981. À partir des considérations de Kerbrat-Orecchioni concernant l'énonciation et la subjectivité, nous faisons une analyse discursive afin de comprendre comment l'énonciation contribue à la constitution des identités et de saisir comment la subjectivité produit une argumentation dans ces discours. En outre, nous adoptons les notions d'identité de Stuart Hall et de pouvoir de Michel Foucault pour comprendre comment la constitution des sujets dans le langage et dans le contexte socio-historique de production des énoncés rend possible la description des relations de pouvoir exercées entre les féministes, l'Église, l'État et les médecins. Cette analyse nous permet de conclure à la production d'identités multiples pour les femmes, dont l'objectif est de faire résistance face au pouvoir d'institutions hégémoniques.

  17. LA SUBJECTIVITÉ ÉNONCIATIVE ET LA CONSTITUTION D’IDENTITÉS DANS LE DISCOURS DE LA REVUE FÉMINISTE LA VIE EN ROSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty LAFOREST

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available • RÉSUMÉ: La question de l’avortement au Québec suscite encore aujourd’hui des discussions sur sa légalité ainsi que sur le droit des femmes de décider d’avorter. En ce sens, cet article a comme objectif de faire l’analyse d’un éditorial de la revue féministe La vie en rose publié en 1982, en réponse à la lettre antiavortement des évêques, écrite en 1981. À partir des considérations de Kerbrat-Orecchioni concernant l’énonciation et la subjectivité, nous faisons une analyse discursive afin de comprendre comment l’énonciation contribue à la constitution des identités et de saisir comment la subjectivité produit une argumentation dans ces discours. En outre, nous adoptons les notions d’identité de Stuart Hall et de pouvoir de Michel Foucault pour comprendre comment la constitution des sujets dans le langage et dans le contexte socio-historique de production des énoncés rend possible la description des relations de pouvoir exercées entre les féministes, l’Église, l’État et les médecins. Cette analyse nous permet de conclure à la production d’identités multiples pour les femmes, dont l’objectif est de faire résistance face au pouvoir d’institutions hégémoniques. • MOTS-CLÉS: Avortement. Énonciation. Subjectivité. Identité. Pouvoir.

  18. Le rôle du récit de vie dans le discours politique de Lula The role of Lula’s Life Story in his Political Speeches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Lucia Machado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose une réflexion sur le rôle du récit de vie dans les discours politiques, et plus précisément dans les discours d’investiture à la présidence du Brésil de Luis Ignacio Lula da Silva. Il analyse quelques fragments qui mêlent expressément des souvenirs de sa vie passée aux discours politiques d’actualité, mais aussi qui font allusion à sa vie de façon indirecte. Dans le premier discours, Lula se présente comme un personnage de l’histoire, un « il » qui veut travailler pour la collectivité ; néanmoins, les allusions à sa trajectoire de vie le légitiment comme celui qui peut promouvoir le changement requis par le peuple. Dans le second discours, Lula utilise depuis le début un « je » ancré dans sa propre histoire : sa « petite » histoire personnelle semble ainsi s’incorporer à la « grande » histoire d’une nation. En ce sens, le récit de vie comprend une dimension argumentative qui permet de construire un ethos présidentiel par le jeu qu’il instaure entre l’individuel et le collectif, créant ainsi un effet de pathos qui appelle à l’identification. On s’interroge dans ce cadre sur la question du populisme dans son rapport aux stratégies de captation propres au discours politique.This paper analyzes fragments of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva’s inaugural speeches. Lula da Silva served as the President of Brazil for two consecutive terms in office. In his first inaugural speech, Lula da Silva refers to himself as a historical character, and uses the pronoun “he” (or “not-I”, a “he” at the service of the community. However, his path in life, mentioned in a single paragraph, legitimizes him as someone who is able to bring forward the changes demanded by the people. From the beginning of his second inaugural speech, Lula da Silva uses the pronoun “I”, which points to his own story: therefore, his “small, personal story” seems to be embedded into the

  19. Comment accompagner les parents ayant un enfant en fin de vie en milieu hospitalier ?: une esquisse de bonnes pratiques dans le cadre d’un accompagnement optimal

    OpenAIRE

    Alves Furtado, Liliana; Benz, Hélène; Sunier, Caryn; Ghaber, Corinne

    2013-01-01

    Avoir un enfant atteint d’une maladie grave, qui se trouve potentiellement face à la mort, est une expérience particulièrement difficile à vivre pour les parents. Il s’agit d’un sujet bouleversant, sensible, singulier et complexe à la fois. En effet, l’expérience que vivent les parents ayant un enfant en fin de vie est une grande source d’anxiété et de stress. Le sujet est d’un intérêt majeur à nos yeux, car en tant que soignants, comment arriverons-nous à surmonter nos émotions afin d’établi...

  20. Langues étrangères dans les études et la vie professionnelle des femmes russes au XIXe siècle

    OpenAIRE

    Kriajeva, Nadejda

    2011-01-01

    Programme et Abstracts en ligne: http://www.studiumanistici.unimi.it/files/_ITA_/News_archivio/06-06.08-11__Voci_al_femminile_Iamartino.pdf; Vers la fin du XIXe s. des milliers de femmes russes ont accédé aux études supérieures, ainsi qu'à la recherche dans plusieurs domaines du savoir. Le rôle des langues étrangères dans ce combat difficile fut essentiel: première génération féminine dans la science russe étant polyglotte et européenne.L'apport de certaines d'entre elles dans la création et ...

  1. 25. L’exobiologie ou la recherche de vie extraterrestre

    OpenAIRE

    Brack, André

    2017-01-01

    Sommes-nous seuls ? Y a-t-il une vie ailleurs dans l’Univers ? Ces questions sont au cœur de l’exobiologie, plus connue à l’étranger sous le nom d’astrobiologie, science qui étudie l’origine, la distribution et l’évolution de la vie dans l’Univers. Ce vaste domaine pluridisciplinaire de recherche fait appel aux sciences de l’Univers, aux sciences de la Terre, la physique, la chimie, la biologie ainsi qu’à des sciences sociales comme la sociologie et l’épistémologie. Cette recherche se double ...

  2. L’intrusion de Google dans la vie privée, au cœur des mutations du capitalisme

    OpenAIRE

    George, Éric

    2016-01-01

    Google est devenue en quelques années une entreprise majeure des industries de la culture, de l’information et de la communication à une échelle internationale. Dans ce texte, nous proposons de mettre l’accent sur la dimension intrusive des stratégies de développement de l’entreprise. Pour ce faire, nous étudierons ces stratégies dans un premier temps et nous verrons quelles oppositions celles-ci ont suscité de la part de composantes de la « société civile ». Ce sera alors l’occasion de const...

  3. Primitive Associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2007-01-01

    This position paper presents a very simple mechanism, primitive associations, and argues that this mechanism is worth careful consideration in connection with the kind of support for program correctness that grows out of mechanisms for ownership, controlled aliasing, sharing, escape analysis...

  4. Une vie active saine pour les enfants et les adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    De mauvais modes de vie, comme une alimentation malsaine et l’inactivité physique, sont d'importants facteurs contributifs à une augmentation de la morbidité et de la mortalité secondaires à des maladies chroniques à l’âge adulte. Depuis dix ans, on remarque une augmentation du mode de vie sédentaire et de l’obésité chez les enfants et les adolescents, tant en Amérique du Nord qu’ailleurs dans le monde. Les médecins doivent être conscients de l’importance du problème, fournir des conseils de prévention aux familles et promouvoir une vie active saine dans leur pratique.

  5. Le pouvoir en action dans les mondes franc et germanique du haut Moyen Âge (VIe-XIe siècles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Bührer-Thierry

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Le titre que j’ai choisi pour rassembler ma production, “le pouvoir en action dans les mondes franc et germanique du haut Moyen Âge”, indique la démarche qui a conduit l’ensemble de mes travaux : analyser et comprendre les formes et les modalités du pouvoir et de son exercice dans un système politique et social profondément différent du nôtre. Tout au long de ce parcours, j’ai souvent privilégié les terres du monde germanique et plus généralement les régions “périphériques” du monde franc, to...

  6. Sociabilité, solidarité : culture, identité et vie urbaine dans les quartiers noirs du cap (Afrique du Sud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Houssay-Holzschuch

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available La présence des Noirs dans les villes sud-africaines a longtemps été sévèrement limitée et contrôlée par les régimes de ségrégation et d´apartheid. Les espaces qui leur étaient assignés avaient été conçus dans ce but. Pourtant, ils abritent aujourd´hui des formes sociales nouvelles comme une culture urbaine originale et dynamique. Cet article montre comment les structures familiales, l´agencement intérieur des habitations ou le réseau associatif ont transformé ces espaces. Enfin, l´analyse de cartes mentales dessinées par les résidents confirme que l´espace des quartiers noirs existe avant tout comme projection des relations et des réseaux sociaux.

  7. Regards critiques des jeunes Marocains sur leur place dans la vie politique nationale et les mobilités vers l’Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoubir Chattou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available L’objet de cet article est d’expliciter les aspirations politiques des jeunes au Maroc et leurs perceptions des mobilités transnationales. Rappelons que la thématique de la jeunesse a suscité un intérêt particulier ces dernières années au sein de ce Maroc en mouvement. En effet, le Pays connaît des changements profonds au niveau politique, économique, démographique et socioculturel qui ont incontestablement affecté les perceptions des jeunes selon la diversité de leurs profils. Ces changements touchent également les structures de pouvoir, les organisations de la société civile, les droits humains et l’évolution des rapports Nord/Sud. Il s’agit donc dans ce travail de saisir le regard critique des jeunes interviewés de l’ordre national et de ses articulations avec le niveau mondial. Ceci rend plus visible leur revendication d’une citoyenneté effective à la fois à l’échelle nationale et mondiale. Plusieurs focus groupes de jeunes (65 jeunes lycéens et du supérieur d’origines rurale et citadine ont été organisés dans le cadre de cette étude.

  8. Vivre sa vie

    OpenAIRE

    Felip, Olga

    2014-01-01

    During the summer of my first year of college I did an internship at an architecture firm in Paris, where I happened to discover Vivre sa vie, a 1962 film in which the director, Jean-Luc Godard, develops essentially two themes: the relationship established with the viewer, and the editing technique. In a similar way, at our office we have approached architecture in the fashion of craftsmen, focusing in two subjects: the technique or design process, and the users. Within this design proces...

  9. , TOUCHE PAS À MA TERRE, I ! ' C'EST MA VIE !

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ce phénomène sur les sociétés locales, à savoir, les risques de multiplication des conflits dans les zones touchées, la perte des moyens de subsistance des populations riveraines et la perturbation de la vie socio-économique et culturelle. C'est suite à ces constats qu'est né le slogan : «Touche pas à ma terre, c'est ma vie !

  10. Poisson pour la vie | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    7 sept. 2016 ... Les participants au projet Peces Vida [Poisson pour la vie] favorisent une utilisation durable des ressources halieutiques du pays par l'entremise de la pêche et de l'aquaculture. Cet article fait partie d'une série de reportages sur des projets innovants mis en œuvre dans les pays en développement, ...

  11. La vie dans l'Univers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    The Universe is indescribably huge. Can it be possible that humanity is the only form of intelligent life that exists in all this immensity? Are we really alone ? Throughout history there have been reported sightings of creatures from elsewhere. Science fiction novels and films with flying saucers and bizarre looking aliens are part of our general culture. Perhaps the Earth is really only an experiment designed by mice and soon we will all be destroyed to make way for a new interstellar highway!

  12. Vie et langage dans la jungle

    OpenAIRE

    Chevalier, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    N° 1011, 16-30 mars 2010 Daniel L. everettLe monde ignoré des indiens pirahâsFlammarion, 358 pages. Traduction d’un original anglais, publié par Pantheon Books en 2008, sous un titre plus significatif, à la limite du fantastique et de la magie : Don’t sleep. There are Snakes. Life and Language in the Amazonian Jungle. Le titre français est plus terne, mais s’inscrit sur une couverture étrange, vivement colorée et significative : à l’avers, une végétation foisonnante, de l’eau, envahissante et...

  13. Obésité abdominale et autres biomarqueurs de risque cardiométabolique: influence du niveau socioéconomique et du mode de vie dans deux populations noires apparentées, Cotonou (Bénin) et Port-au-Prince (Haïti)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabchour, Asma EL; Delisle, Hélène; Vilgrain, Colette; Larco, Phillipe; Sodjinou, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Introduction L’augmentation du risque cardio-métabolique (RCM) dans les pays à faible et à moyen revenu résulte pour large part d’une transition nutritionnelle rapide. Cette étude est réalisée dans deux groupes de population apparentés mais vivant dans des environnements différents. Elle vise à cerner la relation entre le mode de vie et les biomarqueurs de RCM, ainsi qu’entre l’obésité abdominale (OA) et les autres biomarqueurs. Méthodes L’étude porte sur 200 Béninois de Cotonou et 252 Haïtiens de Port-au-Prince (PAP) âgés de 25 à 60 ans et apparemment en bonne santé. L’OA est définie spécifiquement par un tour de taille (TT) ≥ 88cm (hommes) et ≥ 95cm (femmes). Les autres biomarqueurs les plus fréquents sont considérés: un ratio cholestérol total/HDL-cholestérol élevé, une tension artérielle élevée et la résistance à l’insuline d’après HOMA (Homeostasis Model Assessement). Le niveau socio-économique (NSE), l’alimentation, la consommation d’alcool et de tabac sont documentés par questionnaire. Deux schémas alimentaires ressortent de l’analyse typologique, l’un traditionnel et l’autre « transitionnel », avec une fréquence accrue d’aliments occidentaux. Résultats Le NSE, la consommation d’alcool et le tabagisme sont associés au RCM, mais non le schéma alimentaire. L’OA est associée aux autres biomarqueurs de RCM, sans effet marqué du NSE et des variables du mode de vie. Conclusion Les valeurs-seuilsspécifiques de TT se confirment. Aussi, le NSE et le mode de vie influencent le RCM mais non la relation entre l’OA et les autres biomarqueurs de RCM. PMID:28154661

  14. La tradition cosmique extraits du livre de la vie de Kelaouchi

    CERN Document Server

    Théon, Max; Ligaran

    2015-01-01

    Extrait : ""Dans une vision de la nuit, une voix me parla, disant : ""La matière n'est-elle pas suprême ?"" Ne sachant d'où venait cette vois, je ne répondis point. Comme je gardais le silence, une voix dit : La vie n'est-elle point suprême ?"" Une troisième voix, que je connaissais, dit alors : ""La matière et la vie sont inséparables dans tout le Cosmos de l'être, puisque tout ce qui est vit.""

  15. L’éducateur physique : pivot de la promotion d’un style de vie actif

    OpenAIRE

    Cloes, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Dans les pays bénéficiant d'un statut socio-économique privilégié, les activités physiques et sportives prennent une place de plus en plus importante dans la vie des citoyens. La société tend actuellement à attribuer aux intervenants des missions plus larges que l'enseignement d'habiletés motrices ou sportives. Dans cet exposé, il s'agit de jeter un regard critique sur la situation exitant dans trois contextes de pratique: l'école, le club sportif et le milieu des loisirs. L'objectif consiste...

  16. De la vie pelagique temporaire a la vie pelagique permanente

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Face, Louis

    1949-01-01

    Depuis longtemps certain aspect larvaire de nombreuses formes pélagiques faisant partie du plancton permanent a retenu l’attention des naturalistes et a conduit quelques-uns d’entre eux à considérer cette faune comme primitive. Si cette conclusion s’est par la suite avérée inexacte et si l’origine

  17. Montigny Gilles, Maurice Halbwachs. Vie, œuvres, concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Ferréol

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Maurice Halbwachs, rappelle d’emblée Gilles Montigny, a été l’une des figures les plus marquantes de la sociologie française de la première moitié du XXe siècle. Durkhei­mien hétérodoxe, il a laissé une œuvre imposante, abordant dans ses nombreux écrits une grande variété de thèmes, qu’il s’agisse des comportements suicidogènes, des con­sommations ouvrières, de la vie urbaine ou de la stratification sociale, et faisant connaî­tre dans l’Hexagone les travaux de Sombart, Veblen, Park, Burgess o...

  18. From First Life to Second Life: Evaluating task-based language learning in a new environment / De la vie réelle à la vie virtuelle: évaluation de l'apprentissage des langues basé sur les tâches dans un nouvel environnement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jung Jee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Second Life is an avatar-based 3D virtual world that has recently received attention from educators and researchers in various fields to explore its pedagogical benefits. Considering the increasing implementation of technologies broadly in much instruction, this study investigated how different task types affect ESL students’ use of Second Life environment, and factors that determine success or failure of a task completion. Enrolled in a university ESL program, 34 high- and low-intermediate students participated, and they were asked to use the voice-chat function and communication features of avatars as they participated in three task types: Jigsaw, Decision-making, and Discussion tasks, representing the continuum of communicative tasks by Pica, Kanagy, and Falodun (1993. Emerging phenomena from the data described how the different levels’ of ESL students used Second Life environment in different task types, focusing on avatar use, telepresence, and affordances, and critical factors that led success or failure of task completion. « Second Life » est un univers virtuel en 3D basé sur des avatars qui a récemment retenu l'attention des éducateurs et des chercheurs de divers domaines, désireux d’explorer les avantages pédagogiques de ce jeu. Étant donné l’application croissante des technologies en éducation, cette étude a examiné la manière dont différents types de tâches affectent l’utilisation de l’environnement « Second Life » chez les étudiants d’anglais langue seconde (ALS, et les facteurs déterminant le succès ou l'échec dans l’exécution d’une tâche. 34 étudiants universitaires inscrits dans des programmes intermédiaires d’ALS de niveaux différents ont été invités à utiliser les fonctions de conversation orale (chat vocal et de communication des avatars alors qu’ils participaient à trois types de tâches: casse-tête, prise de décision, et tâches de discussion, correspondant à l

  19. Action Recognition using Motion Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeslund, Thomas B.; Fihl, Preben; Holte, Michael Boelstoft

    the actions as a sequence of temporal isolated instances, denoted primitives. These primitives are each defined by four features extracted from motion images. The primitives are recognized in each frame based on a trained classifier resulting in a sequence of primitives. From this sequence we recognize...

  20. Motion Primitives for Action Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2007-01-01

    the actions as a sequence of temporal isolated instances, denoted primitives. These primitives are each defined by four features extracted from motion images. The primitives are recognized in each frame based on a trained classifier resulting in a sequence of primitives. From this sequence we recognize...

  1. Experimental Assessment of Battery Cycle Life Within the SIMSTOCK Research Program Évaluation expérimentale de la durée de vie de la batterie dans le programme de recherche SIMSTOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyan P.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The steadiness over time, of on-board Energy Storage Systems (ESS performances is a major issue fora successful and massive diffusion of electrified, hybrid and electric vehicles. Capacity fade and internal resistance increase due to ageing will directly affect vehicle range and performances. Therefore, ESS ageing forecasting remains an important area of investigations. Reaching this goal involves fundamental research on materials, experimentation, simulation and design by the end users. This paper describes the main results of a 3.5-year, 4.2 M€ collaborative research program on battery ageing, SIMSTOCK, which was finished in fall 2011. This program has involved 15 partners among which, research labs, ESS manufacturers, automotive components suppliers and vehicle manufacturers, with the support of the French agency ADEME. This paper will then focus mainly on modeling and simulation of a lithium-ion high power cell tested within the program. First, it describes the development of a numerical equivalent electrical circuit model of battery, associated with a calibration tool and its experimental validation. Secondly, it describes the construction of a Design of Experiments (DOE, its use and validation, for defining mathematical expressions, representing the battery model parameters evolutions, as a function of battery ageing. Thirdly, the paper details a mathematical method created with the aim to take into account the cycling and the calendar effects on battery characteristics during the experiment on tests benches. Finally, the battery model is integrated in a full hybrid vehicle model, on Imagine Lab AMESim simulation platform, to determine, with realistic driving conditions, the impact of battery ageing on the vehicle performance and fuel consumption. La stabilité dans le temps des performances des systèmes embarqués de stockage d’énergie (Energy Storage Systems, ESS est un enjeu majeur pour une diffusion massive et le succès des v

  2. La médecine prédictive en oncologie, une discipline en construction : quels changements dans les questions éthiques, quel regard sur la vie des individus concernés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Montgolfier Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La médecine prédictive a pour but d’identifier des êtres humains à risque de développer une maladie liée à une anomalie génétique mais également de connaître les risques chez de futurs parents de transmission d’un caractère à leur descendance. Dans le contexte de la cancérologie, nous nous intéresserons particulièrement à la question de la validité clinique de ces données, de l’interface entre clinique et recherche que les nouvelles technologies de séquençage amènent. Nous développerons les questionnements éthiques posés par ces nouvelles technologies et leurs changements au cours du temps. Chaque résultat de tests mobilise chez les personnes à risque une réflexion profonde sur son statut, sa liberté de savoir ou de ne pas savoir, sur la tension qu’elle développe entre conscience, liberté et destin. Se pose également la question de la responsabilité vis-à-vis des membres de la famille et également sur les conséquences d’un éventuel nouvel eugénisme libéral qui se développe au côté du développement de la génétique ? Ces nouvelles pratiques s’accompagnent d’une injonction à l’autonomie et un appel au choix des personnes tout en créant une forme de contrainte sur la personne et sa famille individuelle dans une société où la bonne santé est mise en exergue comme valeur primordiale. Nous pourrons ainsi amener un début de réflexion sur la manière de former les populations à la question du risque génétique de l’école à l’âge adulte.

  3. Le désert des héros : récits de vies solitaires dans les séries américaines de fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Belletante

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Les séries télévisées américaines ont placé ces dernières années l’aventure (au sens d’évasion entre parenthèses pour  produire à grande échelle une nouvelle catégorie de héros, des personnages qui pensent et agissent en doubles de l’individu moderne, dans un « temps présent », sans fin, empoisonnés par un « mal » qui les empêche de se projeter en avant. Nous nous proposons de dresser ici, dans une perspective post-critique, rendant aux spectateurs une autonomie symbolique véritable, un portrait des « états d’âme » humains, des solitudes singulières ou de groupe mis en scène par quatre séries terminées sur le plan de la production afin d’en posséder une lecture globale (Friends, The Sopranos, The West Wing et Ally McBeal, et répondant aux principaux genres de fiction diffusés par les chaînes américaines (comédie, drame et dramédie.For the last twenty years, American television series have left aside the topic of adventure in the sense of evasion in order to produce a new kind of hero. The modern day hero is the mirror image of the modern individual who acts and thinks in an endless present tense, poisoned by an “evil” that keeps him from moving forward. In a post-critic perspective, this article offers a portrait of human “states of mind” that will restitute the spectator his symbolic autonomy, through singular solitudes or the loneliness of a group as is shown by four television series that are no longer in production (Friends, The Sopranos, The West Wing and Ally McBeal in order to allow a global interpretation and that correspond to the main genres of fiction broadcasted by the American network (comedy, drama, and dramedy.

  4. Péritonite primitive: entité réelle mais de diagnostic difficile | Yamoul ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les péritonites primitives sont rares chez des patients sans facteurs de risques. Elles simulent les péritonites secondaires. C'est pourquoi leur diagnostic ne peut être que peropératoire. Nous rapportons deux cas de péritonites primitives dans le but de discuter leurs aspects diagnostique et thérapeutiques. Key words: ...

  5. PARANOÏA: la vie secrète de Salvador Dali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten van Buuren

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1942, Salvador Dali, âgé de trente-huit ans, termine son autobiographie La vie secrète de Salvador Dali. Il prétend s’y livrer au lecteur en toute candeur. Mais c’est un leurre. Dali construit l’histoire de sa vie sur ce qu’il considère comme sa trouvaille capitale : la méthode paranoïaque-critique. Qu’est-ce que la paranoïa? Comment Dali a-t-il transformé ce complexe psychanalytique en un instrument de production artistique? Comment s’en sert-il comme canevas pour son autobiographie ? Voilà une série de questions auxquelles nous allons répondre dans la présente analyse.

  6. « Vie » et « vivant » : perspectives épistémologiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dell’Angelo-Sauvage Michèle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Des idées des philosophes de la Grèce ancienne, à celles que suggèrent les avancées contemporaines de la biologie, différentes conceptions de la vie et du vivant sont proposées sans qu’un consensus ne soit obtenu. Différents auteurs ont présenté la vie comme l’affaire des philosophes, sous ses aspects politiques et sociaux, tandis que le vivant était l’affaire des biologistes préoccupés du fonctionnement des organismes (Canguilhem, 1990; Fassin, 2000; Jacob, 1970; Pichot, 2011. Mais cette distinction est actuellement rediscutée (Cherlonneix, 2013; Morange, 2013. D’autres auteurs mettent en contraste les approches réductionnistes et holistes et présentent les conséquences de ces points de vue. Dès 2006, Guespin-Michel et Stewart envisageaient un changement de paradigme inévitable face aux modifications de méthodes dans différents groupes de recherche. Nous proposons de porter un regard croisé sur les concepts de vie et de vivant dans le but d’éclaircir les fondements épistémologiques sous-jacents à un enseignement relatif au vivant : observe-t-on une influence réciproque des conceptions de « vie » et de « vivant » dans les différents courants de pensée ? Les changements épistémologiques liés aux observations faites à différentes échelles biologiques modifient-ils les réflexions philosophiques, scientifiques et sociétales ? Qu’en est-il actuellement de la distinction vie/vivant ?

  7. Unsupervised Learning of Action Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baby, Sanmohan; Krüger, Volker; Kragic, Danica

    2010-01-01

    Action representation is a key issue in imitation learning for humanoids. With the recent finding of mirror neurons there has been a growing interest in expressing actions as a combination meaningful subparts called primitives. Primitives could be thought of as an alphabet for the human actions...

  8. Technologies agricoles modernes et changements dans la vie socio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These technological innovations have been determinant in the process of transformation of the productive organ. These have pushed members of the society to reconsider their old conception of the world and to adopt new behaviours built around flawless individualism which is a characteristic of linked effects stamped with ...

  9. L'Avenir de la Vie sur la Terre

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Notre planète va mal : réchauffement climatique, épuisement des ressources naturelles, pollutions des sols et de l'eau provoquées par les industries civiles et guerrières, disparité des richesses, malnutrition des hommes, taux d'extinction effarant des espèces vivantes, etc. La situation est-elle vraiment dramatique ? Que penser des thèses qui contestent ce pessimisme ? À partir des données scientifiques les plus crédibles - et de leurs incertitudes -, Hubert Reeves dresse un bilan précis des menaces qui pèsent sur la planète. Son diagnostic est alarmant : si la vie sur Terre est robuste, c'est l'avenir de l'espèce humaine qui est en cause. Le sort de l'aventure humaine, entamée il y a des millions d'années, va-t-il se jouer en l'espace de quelques décennies ? Notre avenir est entre nos mains. Il faut réagir, et vite, avant qu'il ne soit trop tard. Auteur de nombreux ouvrages sur l'odyssée cosmique tel Patience dans l'azur ou Poussières d'étoiles, Hubert Reeves est astrophysicien et dire...

  10. Stahl et les âges de la vie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Carvallo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La vieillesse constitue une pierre de touche pour toute théorie médicale : elle oblige à rendre raison de la temporalité à l’œuvre dans la vie. Aux yeux de Stahl, les iatromécaniciens méconnaissent la dimension temporelle de l’organisme ; en particulier, ils en ignorent la périodicité. Comprendre la vieillesse suppose donc la critique de la représentation linéaire du temps organique, que développe la mécanique et qui réduit le vivant au seul composé physique et chimique. Il reste alors à trouver la cause de la périodicité organique : sur ce point, Georg Ernst Stahl critique Thomas Sydenham, qui reconnaît certes la périodicité du vivant mais nie la possibilité d’une médecine étiologique. Pour sa part, le médecin de Halle cherche à rendre compte du vieillissement en lien avec les actions organiques fondamentales : le tonus, la circulation, l’excrétion, la sécrétion.

  11. SIG et distribution spatiale des infrastructures hydrauliques dans la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'eau occupe une place essentielle dans un monde de plus en plus urbanisé, exposé à des risques croissants où la population augmente chaque jour. Les besoins en eau dans la vie deviennent de plus en plus importants. Ce constat prend toute son importance dans les pays du sud en général et dans la commune de Zè ...

  12. Les trois vies de Lucie de Iegor Gran, ou comment sortir du quotidien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pascale Huglo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Les trois vies de Lucie de Iegor Gran est un roman à contrainte qui raconte trois Vies d’un couple moyen (la troisième version étant la somme des deux premières. Caractéristiques du retour au récit dans la littérature contemporaine, les Vies de Gran associent le motif du quotidien à la catégorie du romanesque, montrant en quoi le quotidien et le romanesque constituent un couple antithétique mais indissociable. Le quotidien est ici un lieu commun qui a plus à voir avec le langage courant et les catégories littéraires qu’avec une réalité insaisissable. Par là, Gran s’écarte des revendications réalistes propres à de nombreuses explorations du quotidien dans la littérature contemporaine. Dans ce contexte, la contrainte qui gouverne le roman n’est pas une simple prouesse ludique sans intérêt : elle contribue à renforcer l’intrication entre quotidien, langage, récit et procédés littéraires. Based on a formal constraint, Iegor Gran’s Les trois vies de Lucie is a novel which recounts the three Lives of an average married couple (the third version being the sum of the first two. Gran’s Lives are quite typical of the renewed interest in narrative in contemporary literature and they demonstrate how everyday life and novelistic adventures form an antithetical but inseparable pair. According to Gran, everyday life is a commonplace which has more to do with ordinary language and literary categories than with an elusive reality. Gran thus stays away from the realistic claims typical of numerous explorations of everyday life in contemporary literature. The formal constraint which governs the novel is more than just a technical exploit, ludic but deprived of any interest : it reinforces the intricate relationship between everyday life, everyday language, narrative, and literary devices.

  13. Les trois vies de Lucie de Iegor Gran, ou comment sortir du quotidien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pascale Huglo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Dossier/Issue: 1 - Raconter le quotidien aujourd'hui - Les trois vies de Lucie de Iegor Gran est un roman à contrainte qui raconte trois Vies d’un couple moyen (la troisième version étant la somme des deux premières. Caractéristiques du retour au récit dans la littérature contemporaine, les Vies de Gran associent le motif du quotidien à la catégorie du romanesque, montrant en quoi le quotidien et le romanesque constituent un couple antithétique mais indissociable. Le quotidien est ici un lieu commun qui a plus à voir avec le langage courant et les catégories littéraires qu’avec une réalité insaisissable. Par là, Gran s’écarte des revendications réalistes propres à de nombreuses explorations du quotidien dans la littérature contemporaine. Dans ce contexte, la contrainte qui gouverne le roman n’est pas une simple prouesse ludique sans intérêt : elle contribue à renforcer l’intrication entre quotidien, langage, récit et procédés littéraires.Based on a formal constraint, Iegor Gran’s Les trois vies de Lucie is a novel which recounts the three Lives of an average married couple (the third version being the sum of the first two. Gran’s Lives are quite typical of the renewed interest in narrative in contemporary literature and they demonstrate how everyday life and novelistic adventures form an antithetical but inseparable pair. According to Gran, everyday life is a commonplace which has more to do with ordinary language and literary categories than with an elusive reality. Gran thus stays away from the realistic claims typical of numerous explorations of everyday life in contemporary literature. The formal constraint which governs the novel is more than just a technical exploit, ludic but deprived of any interest : it reinforces the intricate relationship between everyday life, everyday language, narrative, and literary devices.

  14. A Classroom Motivation Scale Illustrating the VIE Theory of Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Robert W.; Neider, Linda L.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a "valence instrumentality expectancy" (VIE) questionnaire designed to measure university students' motivation to perform in an organizational psychology class. By focusing on classroom motivation, the questionnaire gives students a relevant and concrete experience with the various concepts of VIE theory. (Author/KC)

  15. Kohvik-restoran C'est La Vie = Cafe-restaurant C'est La Vie

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Kohvik-restorani C'est La Vie (Suur-Karja 5, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Sisearhitekt: Maile Grünberg, kes kavandas ka valdavalt mööbli. Laevalgusti disainis Tõnis Vellama. Skulptuuride (koopiad) autor on keraamik Ülle Rajasalu. Maile Grünbergist, tema viimased tööd. Keldrikorruse ja I korruse plaan, 8 värv. vaadet, foto M. Grünbergist

  16. Atelier Eginhard : Vie de Charlemagne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Sot et Christiane Veyrard-Cosme

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La Vie de Charlemagne par Eginhard est assurément l’un des textes les plus célèbres en histoire médiévale. Nous en connaissons aujourd’hui 134 manuscrits complets et une cinquantaine d’autres partiels, dont Matthias Tishler a donné le catalogue en 2001. Sur le modèle de « l’Atelier gesta », associant historiens et philologues, qui a conduit à l’édition et la traduction des Gestes des évêques d’Auxerre, Michel Sot a réuni une équipe renouvelée, avec la participation notamment de Christiane Vey...

  17. La mise en scène de la vie privée en ligne par les adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Balleys, Claire; Coll, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Lorsqu’ils font référence aux usages adolescents des médias sociaux, les adultes considèrent encore très souvent qu’ils n’ont pas de considération pour leur vie privée. Pourtant, une littérature récente montre plutôt que les adolescents maîtrisent mieux que les adultes les outils censés protéger leur vie privée. Rebondissant sur ce constat et sur la base de deux enquêtes empiriques à entrées multiples, cet article suggère qu’ils ne s’inscrivent pas dans une logique irréversible de dévoilement...

  18. AGUA TIBIA PRIMITIVE AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, William P.; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    The Agua Tibia Primitive Area in southwestern California is underlain by igneous and metamorphic rocks that are siilar to those widely exposed throughout much of the Peninsular Ranges. To detect the presence of any concealed mineral deposits, samples of stream sediments were collected along the various creeks that head in the mountain. As an additional aid in evaluating the mineral potential, an aeromagnetic survey was made and interpreted. A search for records of past or existing mining claims within the primitive area was made but none was found. Evidence of deposits of metallic or nonmetallic minerals was not seen during the study.

  19. Les «Amériques Noires» de Roger Bastide: un modèle pour une analyse anthropologique des styles de vie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Daccache

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Le nom de Roger Bastide est généralement associé à la sociologie des religions du Brésil. On peut cependant trouver dans son œuvre un paradigme pertinent pour une analyse anthropologique des styles de vie. Dans Les Amériques Noires, il propose une analyse des luttes ayant pour enjeu la définition et l'appropriation des biens et des pratiques culturels légitimes, ce qu'il nomme la «bataille des races pour l'égalisation», faisant suite à l'abolition de l'esclavage. Il s'intéresse notamment à trois faits sociaux constitutifs de styles de vie différents: la pratique de l'équitation, les pastorales et le carnaval. L'étude de cas proposée par R. Bastide a pour vertu de rendre particulièrement visible la logique de la distinction au principe de l'établissement de différents styles de vie. Elle fonctionne ainsi comme un miroir grossissant permettant d'objectiver de façon brutale les mécanismes à l'œuvre dans toute société, y compris celles dans lesquelles l'égalité formelle entre individus porte à croire que les écarts entre groupes sociaux doivent tout au hasard.

  20. Commercialisation des pintades dans la region des savanes au ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Au Togo et plus précisément dans la Région des Savanes, l'élevage des pintades occupe une place capitale dans la vie économique des paysans à travers sa commercialisation. Ce travail vise à étudier le système de commercialisation de ces volailles dans cet espace géographique du Togo. Pour atteindre cet objectif, ...

  1. Primitive Based Action Representation and Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baby, Sanmohan; Krüger, Volker

    2009-01-01

    There has been a recent interest in segmenting action sequences into   meaningful parts (action primitives) and to model actions on a   higher level based on these action primitives. Unlike previous works where action primitives are defined    a-priori and search is made for them later, we presen...

  2. Quel Milieu pour l’apprentissage par problématisation en sciences de la vie et de la terre ?

    OpenAIRE

    Orange, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Nous analysons dans quelle mesure la théorie des situations didactiques de Brousseau peut convenir aux situations d’enseignement-apprentissage en sciences de la vie et de la Terre construites dans le cadre de l’apprentissage par problématisation. C’est en particulier les notions de milieu, d’adidacticité et d’apprentissage par adaptation qui sont interrogées. A partir des deux cadres théoriques en présence, nous étudions une séquence d’apprentissage sur le mouvement du membre supérieur au cyc...

  3. Biométrie et vie privée

    OpenAIRE

    Lacharme, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    National audience; Le déploiement important des systèmes d'identification et d'authentification biométriques pose des problèmes importants pour la vie privée des individus. Ce papier donne un aperçu des systèmes biométriques, de leurs utilisations, des méthodes de protection des données, ainsi que des conséquences engendrées sur la vie privée.

  4. Mobilités contraintes, parcours professionnels, vie privée: Quels enjeux pour les cadres bancaires?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Bertaux-Wiame

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur les cadres du secteur bancaire, groupe socio-professionnel plutôt privilégié. Pourtant, une analyse des parcours de ces cadres, hommes et femmes, que restituent des entretiens approfondis, met en évidence des tensions entre vie professionnelle et vie conjugale: ils sont contraints d’accepter des mobilités géographiques pour eux-mêmes et leur famille contre l’assurance d’une carrière. Le modèle classique de la division sexuée du travail au sein des couples place le salarié dans une double obligation de réussite face à son employeur, face à sa famille qui consent à le ‘suivre’ dans son nomadisme professionnel. Les contradictions observées, facteurs de déstabilisation, peuvent devenir des facteurs de résistance lorsque ces cadres refusent le coût conjugal d’une mobilité géographique et que les conjointes s’opposent aux impératifs managériaux.

  5. Primitives for Contract-based Synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Bartoletti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate how contracts can be used to regulate the interaction between processes. To do that, we study a variant of the concurrent constraints calculus presented in [1], featuring primitives for multi-party synchronization via contracts. We proceed in two directions. First, we exploit our primitives to model some contract-based interactions. Then, we discuss how several models for concurrency can be expressed through our primitives. In particular, we encode the pi-calculus and graph rewriting.

  6. Physique du deuil. Note sur la dernière vie de Roland Barthes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maïté Snauwaert

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Les remarques sur la tenue de la maison et du corps dans le quotidien domestique, conçue comme une éthique de la fidélité à la mère récemment disparue, apparaissent dans l’écrit privé du Journal de deuil de Roland Barthes comme un écho des observations faites dans le cours sur La préparation du roman. Participant d’une physique du vivre et de l’habiter qui met l’accent sur l’entretien quotidien du lieu, le silence et la difficulté de tout voyage, les « notations » du journal rendent compte de la condensation dans le corps de l’épreuve du deuil, et de la prise de conscience d’un dernier âge de la vie.In the personal writings of Journal de deuil, Roland Barthes’ remarks regarding the maintenance of the home and body are conceived of as an ethic of faithfulness to his recently deceased mother. They are considered in this article as an echo to the observations he makes during his lectures in the course La préparation du roman. Both emphasize the physicality of everyday life and the role played by one’s relationship to the home. By stressing the necessity of silence and the difficulties of leaving “the apartment”, the brief “notations” in the diary translate the physical concentration of the mourning experience, as well as the emergent understanding of a final stage of life.

  7. Reflectance spectra of primitive chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Moyano-Cambero, C. E.; Llorca, J.

    2013-05-01

    We are studying a wide sample of pristine carbonaceous chondrites from the NASA Antarctic collection in order to get clues on the physico-chemical processes occurred in the parent bodies of these meteorites. We are obtaining laboratory reflectance spectra of different groups of carbonaceous chondrites, but here we focus in CM and CI chondrites. We discuss the main spectral features that can be used to identify primitive carbonaceous asteroids by remote sensing techniques. Two different spectrometers were used covering the entire 0.3 to 30 μm electromagnetic window. Only a handful of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) exhibit bands or features clearly associated with aqueous alteration. Among them are the target asteroids of Osiris Rex and Marco Polo-R missions.

  8. Filamentation as primitive growth mode?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigan, Erwan; Steyaert, Jean-Marc; Douady, Stéphane

    2015-12-01

    Osmotic pressure influences cellular shape. In a growing cell, chemical reactions and dilution induce changes in osmolarity, which in turn influence the cellular shape. Using a protocell model relying upon random conservative chemical reaction networks with arbitrary stoichiometry, we find that when the membrane is so flexible that its shape adjusts itself quasi-instantaneously to balance the osmotic pressure, the protocell either grows filamentous or fails to grow. This behavior is consistent with a mathematical proof. This suggests that filamentation may be a primitive growth mode resulting from the simple physical property of balanced osmotic pressure. We also find that growth is favored if some chemical species are only present inside the protocell, but not in the outside growth medium. Such an insulation requires specific chemical schemes. Modern evolved cells such as E. coli meet these requirements through active transport mechanisms such as the phosphotransferase system.

  9. A Proof-Theoretic Account of Primitive Recursion and Primitive Iteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Chiarabini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We revisit both the usual ``going-up'' induction principle and Manna and Waldinger's ``going-down'' induction principle for primitive recursion,`a la Goedel, and primitive iteration, `a la Church. We use 'Kleene's trick' to show that primitive recursion and primitive iteration are as expressive as the other, even in the presence of accumulators. As a result, we can directly extract a variety of recursive and iterative functional programs of the kind usually written or optimized by hand.

  10. Participation des jeunes femmes à la vie politique en Tunisie ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Participation des jeunes femmes à la vie politique en Tunisie : mobilisation institutionnelle et non structurée. Le programme Droits des femmes et participation citoyenne (DFPC) du CRDI appuie un ensemble de recherches comparatives visant à déterminer si les institutions de démocratie et de gouvernance tiennent ...

  11. Labourer: Globalement plus néfaste sur la vie du sol que les pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hupin, Frédérique; Petersen, Søren O.; Krogh, Paul Henning

    2017-01-01

    Quels sont les impacts de l’application de produits phytosanitaires sur les populations de vers de terre et des autres organismes du sol ? Ces impacts sont-ils simples et directs ? Ou sont-ils influencés par le travail du sol et la fertilisation ? Des recherches menées à l’université d’Aarhus au...... Danemark ont étudié ces interactions pendant deux ans. Le rapport vient d’être publié au Danemark. Les résultats confirment que les effets des pesticides sur la vie du sol sont assez fortement influen-cés par le type de travail du sol et le type de fertilisation. Dans quelle mesure, dans quel sens, quels...... sont les organismes affectés ? TCS a contacté pour vous les deux principaux protagonistes de l’étude : les chercheurs Danois Søren Petersen et Paul Henning Krogh. What are the impacts of the application of plant protection products on earthworms and other soil organisms? Are these impacts simple...

  12. Le boulangisme dans tous ses mouvements (1886-1891

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvan COMBEAU

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available La crise boulangiste est étudiée en suivant l’itinéraire du général Boulanger dans l’histoire de la vie politique française. L’accent est mis sur les temps et lieux de ses mouvements durant les années 1886-1891.

  13. Christians on the Left: The Importance of the Social Gospel in the Canadian Social Democratic Tradition Où est passée la gauche chrétienne ? L’héritage du Social Gospel dans la vie politique canadienne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ives

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article s’intéresse à l’histoire du mouvement social-démocrate canadien et met en évidence le rôle prépondérant qu’y ont joué les chrétiens de gauche. Trouvant leur inspiration dans une interprétation sociale du message du Christ, ces chrétiens se sont fortement impliqués dans le processus de création d’un nouveau parti politique, situé clairement à gauche de l’échiquier politique, et ont contribué à modeler son discours.

  14. Des dimensions affectives dans l’apprentissage : Les émotions dans la classe de langue étrangère

    OpenAIRE

    Agaësse, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Les émotions nous accompagnent et nous guident dans la vie. Elles nous poussent à faire des choix et à prendre des décisions. Sans la joie, la peur et bien d’autres encore, la vie voir même la survie ne sont pas possibles. D’après certains chercheurs tels que Stephen Krashen et Jane Arnold, les émotions ont une grande importance dans l’apprentissage d’une langue étrangère. Mais quels liens les émotions entretiennent-elles avec l’enseignement/apprentissage des langues étrangères? Apprendre, ac...

  15. Dynamic Primitives in the Control of Locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neville eHogan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans achieve locomotor dexterity that far exceeds the capability of modern robots, yet this is achieved despite slower actuators, imprecise sensors and vastly slower communication. We propose that this spectacular performance arises from encoding motor commands in terms of dynamic primitives. We propose three primitives as a foundation for a comprehensive theoretical framework that can embrace a wide range of upper- and lower-limb behaviors. Building on previous work that suggested discrete and rhythmic movements as elementary dynamic behaviors, we define submovements and oscillations: As discrete movements cannot be combined with sufficient flexibility, we argue that suitably-defined submovements are primitives. As the term rhythmic may be ambiguous, we define oscillations as the corresponding class of primitives. We further propose mechanical impedances as a third class of dynamic primitives, necessary for interaction with the physical environment. Combination of these three classes of primitive requires care. One approach is through a generalized equivalent network: a virtual trajectory composed of simultaneous and/or sequential submovements and/or oscillations that interacts with mechanical impedances to produce observable forces and motions. Reliable experimental identification of these dynamic primitives presents challenges: Identification of mechanical impedances is exquisitely sensitive to assumptions about their dynamic structure; identification of submovements and oscillations is sensitive to their assumed form and to details of the algorithm used to extract them. Some methods to address these challenges are presented. Some implications of this theoretical framework for locomotor rehabilitation are considered.

  16. Contribution à l'étude de l'amélioration des conditions de vie des panthères en captivité

    OpenAIRE

    Crepel, Sylvie

    2001-01-01

    Les grands félins qui comportent notamment les panthères (Panthera pardus) sont des animaux très prisés par le public dans les parcs zoologiques. Pendant des années on a pu les observer majoritairement dans des cages exiguës, pauvres en tout. Mais de nos jours, les parcs zoologiques désirent de plus en plus mettre en valeur ces animaux en leur offrant un milieu de vie plus adapté, moins pauvre. Après avoir situé la panthère dans la classification, décrit quelques unes de ses particularités an...

  17. En captivité. Politiques humaines et vies animales dans les jardins zoologiques du XIXe siècle à nos jours. (Ménagerie du Jardin des Plantes, zoos de Londres et Anvers)/In captivity. Human policies and animal lives in zoological gardens from the nineteenth century to the present time (Jardin des Plantes Menagerie, London Zoo, Antwerp Zoo)

    OpenAIRE

    Pouillard, Violette

    2015-01-01

    Suivant les récents développements historiographiques dans le champ de l’histoire des animaux, cette thèse aborde l’histoire des jardins zoologiques du côté des bêtes elles-mêmes. Elle examine donc non seulement les politiques humaines de gestion des animaux de zoo, mais aussi leurs influences sur les corps et les comportements des animaux, et leurs évolutions mutuelles. L’examen débute à la fondation du jardin zoologique, c’est-à-dire au moment de la création de la ménagerie parisienne du Ja...

  18. Participation des jeunes femmes à la vie politique au Soudan ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 mars 2011 ... Participation des jeunes femmes à la vie politique au Soudan : répercussions de l'introduction d'un système de quotas ... Lors de la dernière élection, on a convenu d'un quota de représentation des femmes de 25 %. ... Quota in Sudanese electoral law : achievements or challenges and lessons learned.

  19. La prolongation de la vie humaine selon Francis Bacon. Ou : quel Tithon voulons-nous être ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Weber

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Afin de comprendre avec exactitude la manière dont Francis Bacon envisage la question de la prolongation de la vie humaine, il faut impérativement examiner l’assise théologique de la réflexion du philosophe à ce sujet. Il convient aussi de restituer l’intégration de cette réflexion dans les objectifs plus amples de la philosophie naturelle nouvelle. Enfin, il est nécessaire de comprendre les dimensions proprement morales de la question. Car la prolongation de la vie humaine n’est pas seulement, au sein de la philosophie naturelle nouvelle, un cas parmi d’autres des recherches qu’il faut désormais effectuer : en réalité, c’est elle qui lui donne et qui lui fixe son sens ; avec elle se joue l’effectivité de l’identité espérée entre science et puissance. Mais il faut encore préciser qu’il ne s’agit aucunement pour l’homme de vieillir pour vieillir : il s’agit pour lui de pouvoir vieillir bien. Les leçons que Bacon tire de la fable de Tithon sont ici véritablement décisives.

  20. Discovery of Intrinsic Primitives on Triangle Meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Solomon, Justin

    2011-04-01

    The discovery of meaningful parts of a shape is required for many geometry processing applications, such as parameterization, shape correspondence, and animation. It is natural to consider primitives such as spheres, cylinders and cones as the building blocks of shapes, and thus to discover parts by fitting such primitives to a given surface. This approach, however, will break down if primitive parts have undergone almost-isometric deformations, as is the case, for example, for articulated human models. We suggest that parts can be discovered instead by finding intrinsic primitives, which we define as parts that posses an approximate intrinsic symmetry. We employ the recently-developed method of computing discrete approximate Killing vector fields (AKVFs) to discover intrinsic primitives by investigating the relationship between the AKVFs of a composite object and the AKVFs of its parts. We show how to leverage this relationship with a standard clustering method to extract k intrinsic primitives and remaining asymmetric parts of a shape for a given k. We demonstrate the value of this approach for identifying the prominent symmetry generators of the parts of a given shape. Additionally, we show how our method can be modified slightly to segment an entire surface without marking asymmetric connecting regions and compare this approach to state-of-the-art methods using the Princeton Segmentation Benchmark. © 2011 The Author(s).

  1. Effets de la marchandisation de l’arganier sur la vie socioéconomique des populations de l’arganeraie marocaine

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Larbi; Mormont, Marc; Allali, Khallil

    2013-01-01

    Arbre permettant plusieurs usages aux populations locales, l’arganier assure aussi de multiples fonctions : économique, sociale et environnementale. Il était, et il est encore, un élément important du système agraire local et participe au maintien d’une biodiversité particulière. Comme il a toujours configuré et rythmé la vie des populations de l’arganeraie puisqu’il était (ou l’un de ses produits) toujours présent dans leurs activités culinaires, festives ou socioculturelles. Cependant, la f...

  2. PRIMitive Asteroids Spectroscopic Survey - PRIMASS: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinilla-Alonso, Noemí; de León, Julia; Morate, David; de Prá, Mario; Lorenzi, Vania; Licandro, Javier; Campins, Humberto; Ali-Lagoa, Victor

    2017-10-01

    Primitive asteroids contain the most pristine material that gave birth to the rocky planets. Interest in spectral data from primitive asteroids that could be the source of the primitive near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) has increased in anticipation of the two sample-return missions that will reach their targets in the next four years and bring samples to the Earth within five years. Concurrently, the discovery of water ice on the surfaces of two primitive asteroids (24 Themis and 65 Cybele) placed the focus on the outer-belt (orbits with semi-major axis larger than 2.82 AU), where more asteroids could harbor water ice on, or below the surface.In 2010 we started a survey, called the PRIMitive Asteroids Spectroscopic Survey (PRIMASS), to collect spectra of primitive asteroids all through the Solar System. Up to now, PRIMASS library (PRIMASS-L) contains more than 530 spectra (0.4 - 2.5 μm) of primitive asteroids (> 90% of the asteroids had no spectroscopic data before) in the inner and outer belt. The aim of this survey is to provide the community with a comprehensive collection of data that enable us to study the surface composition of primitive asteroids by means of visible and near-infrared spectroscopy.Our plans for the close future include making PRIMASS-L publicly available in proper timing to be used by the teams of the OSIRIS-REx (NASA) and Hayabusa 2 (JAXA) missions. These missions will characterize two primitive near-Earth asteroids in detail, and the Earth-based libraries, as PRIMASS-L, will establish the broader framework and maximize the value of the spacecraft results. PRIMASS-L will also serve as a quality-check database for the Gaia spectroscopic products that will be published in its final release, by the end of the nominal mission in 2019.In parallel, we plan to continue observing at least for four more semesters (up to semester 2019A). After almost 10 years of data acquisition, the PRIMASS database will contain about 700 spectra of primitive asteroids

  3. EVOLUTION DU CONCEPT DE LA QUALITE DE VIE AU MAROC : CAS DE LA POLYARTHRITE RHUMATOÏDE ET DE LA SPONDYLOARTHRITE ANKYLOSANTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan RKAIN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available La polyarthrite rhumatoïde et la spondylarthrite ankylosante sont à la tête des rhumatismes inflammatoires chroniques (RIC. La souffrance engendrée par la douleur chronique rhumatismale, le retentissement sur le vécu journalier des patients et leur entourage, altèrent incontestablement la qualité de vie des patients. Ce travail reprend de manière succincte les études ayant abordé cet aspect chez les patients marocains souffrant de PR et de SPA. Ces travaux font l’unanimité sur la perturbation de la qualité de vie des patients marocains souffrant de ces RIC en affectant considérablement les domaines physique, psychique et social. Les études longitudinales, réalisées en particulier dans la PR, attestent de l’intérêt de la prise en charge adéquate de ces RIC pour améliorer la qualité de vie du patient marocain.

  4. L’apprentissage interdisciplinaire en Sciences de la Vie Faciliter l’intégration des contenus

    OpenAIRE

    Smidts, Denis; Vander Borght, Cécile; De Kesel, Myriam; Lebrun, Marcel; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; 22e Congrès de l'AIPU

    2004-01-01

    D’abord destinées à la création d’un site Web pour améliorer l’appropriation progressive de notions interdisciplinaires par les étudiants, le projet a été élargi à l’harmonisation du contenu de plusieurs enseignements des Sciences de la Vie (biochimie, biologie cellulaire, génétique moléculaire et physiologie). Dans le contexte de ‘Bologne’, en collaboration avec l’IPM et le laboratoire de pédagogie des sciences, une équipe d’enseignants sensibilisés à la didactique des sciences ont donc t...

  5. William Grossin, J’ai connu le Moyen-Âge. Récit de vie : enfance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Gadea

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available À côté de son œuvre scientifique, William Grossin a publié une série de livres relevant de divers genres : plusieurs romans, des poèmes satiriques et un récit de vie évoquant son enfance. Avec un peu d’attention, on pourra reconnaître dans chacun d’eux la « touche » d’un auteur tardif mais productif. Il y a d’abord  son style : travaillé, nerveux, vivant, sobre et même un peu austère mais sans excès, comme certains Vouvray secs. Les mots sont choisis avec soin, à tel point que les phrases com...

  6. Penser l'éducation scientifique en termes de contribution à l'éducation au développement durable : l'exemple des sciences de la vie et de la Terre

    OpenAIRE

    LANGE, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    International audience; L'éducation scientifique au second degré de l'enseignement général et obligatoire prend notamment la forme d'une discipline, les Sciences de la vie et de la Terre dans le secondaire français. La place que peut tenir cette discipline dans un dispositif d'éducation au développement durable (EDD) présuppose une clarification de la stratégie éducative et des choix programmatique retenue pour cette éducation. Nous proposons de poser la question des relations SVT et EDD en t...

  7. Les activités sportives « hybrides » comme réponse à l’accélération des rythmes de vie

    OpenAIRE

    Quidu, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    Dans le monde contemporain, la majorité des acteurs sociaux fait quotidiennement l’expérience d’une accélération effrénée des rythmes de vie. Cette course contre la montre, qui tend à devenir chronique, semble affecter non seulement la sphère des obligations professionnelles et familiales mais aussi le champ des pratiques de loisirs. Dans un contexte de pénurie temporelle, où le temps est devenu une denrée aussi rare que précieuse, consentir d’y consacrer une partie à des activités non produc...

  8. MACOP Modular Architecture with Control Primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eWaegeman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Walking, catching a ball and reaching are all tasks in which humans and animals exhibit advanced motor skills. Findings in biological research concerning motor control suggest a modular control hierarchy which combines movement/motor primitives into complex and natural movements. Engineers inspire their research on these findings in the quest for adaptive and skillful control for robots. In this work we propose a modular architecture with control primitives (MACOP which uses a set of controllers, where each controller becomes specialized in a subregion of its joint and task-space. Instead of having a single controller being used in this subregion (such as MOSAIC on which MACOP is inspired, MACOP relates more to the idea of continuously mixing a limited set of primitive controllers. By enforcing a set of desired properties on the mixing mechanism, a mixture of primitives emerges unsupervised which successfully solves the control task. We evaluate MACOP on a numerical model of a robot arm by training it to generate desired trajectories. We investigate how the tracking performance is affected by the number of controllers in MACOP and examine how the individual controllers and their generated control primitives contribute to solving the task. Furthermore, we show how MACOP compensates for the dynamic effects caused by a fixed control rate and the inertia of the robot.

  9. Motor primitives in vertebrates and invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2005-12-01

    In recent years different lines of evidence have led to the idea that motor actions and movements in both vertebrates and invertebrates are composed of elementary building blocks. The entire motor repertoire can be spanned by applying a well-defined set of operations and transformations to these primitives and by combining them in many different ways according to well-defined syntactic rules. Motor and movement primitives and modules might exist at the neural, dynamic and kinematic levels with complicated mapping among the elementary building blocks subserving these different levels of representation. Hence, while considerable progress has been made in recent years in unravelling the nature of these primitives, new experimental, computational and conceptual approaches are needed to further advance our understanding of motor compositionality.

  10. Primitive African Medical Lore and Witchcraft *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ethel E.

    1965-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive study of the methods, practices, equipment, and paraphernalia of African witch doctors in carrying out primitive medical practices. The chief tribes studied are the Azandes of the Sudan, the Manos of Liberia, the Congo tribes, the Bundas of Angola, and the Zulus and other Bantu tribes of South Africa. Primitive beliefs and customs are discussed only insofar as they have a direct bearing on medical practices. The medical practices considered deal mainly with the application of general remedies for ailments and diseases, but certain specialized fields such as obstetrics, surgery, treatment for fractures, and dentistry are also included. Primitive medicaments are presented with reference to their application for various illnesses. An alphabetical list of these medicaments is given at the end of the article. PMID:14223742

  11. La difficile articulation des temps sociaux : concilier la vie familiale et la vie professionnelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Le texte présente d’abord des données sur la diversification des formes d’emploi et les difficultés que cela implique pour la conciliation emploi-famille. Il expose ensuite les résultats d’une étude de cas dans le secteur policier, un secteur qui illustre bien la diversité des horaires de travail et les défis que cela pose pour les parents. Les extraits d’entrevue issus de l’étude de cas permettent de mieux comprendre le comportement des pères travailleurs en comparaison de celui des mères travailleuses du point de vue de la conciliation, les représentations et valeurs associées au rôle paternel et au rôle maternel, chez les individus, ainsi que les obstacles qui limitent, le cas échéant, la participation des pères aux mesures existantes et qui, de ce fait, ont une incidence sur l’insertion différenciée et l’incertitude subie par les hommes et les femmes sur le marché du travail

  12. Participation des jeunes femmes à la vie politique au Kenya | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    expérience et les difficultés vécues par les jeunes femmes quant à leur participation à la vie politique au Kenya. Ils analyseront la participation, passée et présente, des jeunes femmes à la vie politique locale et nationale; les stratégies que les femmes ...

  13. Concevoir des protocoles expérimentaux en sciences de la vie et de la Terre. Deux expérimentations en classe de terminale.

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Eric; Monod-Ansaldi, Réjane; Devallois, Daniel; Marzin, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Cet article est destiné à montrer comment on peut amener des élèves à construire des protocoles en sciences de la vie et de la Terre, de manière autonome, dans des conditions qui soient réalistes. Il s’agit de proposer des outils à l’enseignant qui souhaite organiser de telles activités dans ses classes. Pour ce faire, nous préciserons ce que nous entendons par conception de protocole, nous présenterons les séances que nous avons expérimentées et les enseignements que ces expérimentations app...

  14. Evolution of Computational Toxicology-from Primitive ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation at the Health Canada seminar in Ottawa, ON, Canada on Nov. 15. 2016 Presentation at the Health Canada seminar in Ottawa, ON, Canada on Nov. 15. 2016 on the Evolution of Computational Toxicology-from Primitive Beginnings to Sophisticated Application

  15. Convolutions with the Continuous Primitive Integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Talvila

    2009-01-01

    I⊂ℝ. When g∈L1, the estimate is ‖f∗g‖≤‖f‖‖g‖1. There are results on differentiation and integration of convolutions. A type of Fubini theorem is proved for the continuous primitive integral.

  16. Characterizing Digital Light Processing (DLP) 3D Printed Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyge, Emil; Pallisgaard, Jens J.; Lillethorup, Morten

    2015-01-01

    process. An upper limit, lower limit, and best estimate for each dimension is reported for each primitive. Additionally, the roughness, rectangularity, and tilt of the top of each primitive is estimated. The uncertainty of the best estimate is indicated using standard deviations for a series of primitives...

  17. There Are No Primitive We-Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salice, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    together, we intend to cooperate in order to reach a collective goal. Intentions in the first-person plural form therefore have a particular psychological form or mode, for the we-intender conceives of his or her intended actions as singular contributions by means of which – or: by way of which...... a collective goal by way of singular contribution intention in action” are susceptible to conceptual analysis. The upshot of this analysis is that we-intentions can be reduced to complex bundles of mental states, all of which come in the first-person singular form. If this argument is sound, Searlean we...... – a collective goal is pursued. Accordingly, we-intentions are held to have a psychological mode with a “collective goal by means of (viz. by way of) singular contribution” structure, which makes them primitive and irreducible to intentions in the I-form. It is further contended that, albeit primitive...

  18. Design and Analysis of Symmetric Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Martin Mehl

    The subject of this thesis is the study of symmetric cryptographic primitives. We investigate these objects from three different perspectives: cryptanalysis, design and implementation aspects. The first part deals with cryptanalysis of symmetric primitives, where one tries to leverage a property...... of the design to achieve some adversarial goal. Two of the most successful types of cryptanalysis are differential- and linear attacks. We apply variants of differential cryptanalysis to the lightweight block cipher SIMON which was proposed by researchers from the National Security Agency (NSA) in 2013...... linear cryptanalysis. We apply this model to the standardized block cipher PRESENT. Finally, we present very generic attacks on two authenticated encryption schemes, AVALANCHE and RBS, by pointing out severe design flaws that can be leveraged to fully recover the secret key with very low complexity...

  19. Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Dipankar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET is a small round cell malignant tumor of neuroectodermal origin. Most of the PNETs occur in the central nervous system (CNS. PNETs recognized outside of CNS are diagnosed as peripheral PNET (pPNET. This tumor which expresses MIC-2 gene (CD99 seems to be least aggressive after complete tumor resection. We describe a rare case of PNET in a young girl.

  20. Comprehensive BRL-CAD Primitive Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 iii Contents List of Figures iv Acknowledgments v Student Bio vi 1...their continued assistance and guidance throughout the development of this project. vi Student Bio Mitchell Roberts is a senior at the Science and...information. For example, the ellipsoid ( ell ) primitive only requires the data of 1 center and 3 radii to calculate the bounds of its shape based on the

  1. Cometary Dust: The Diversity of Primitive Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, D. H.; Ishiiii, H. A.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2017-01-01

    The connections between comet dust and primitive chondrites from asteroids has strengthened considerably over the past decade. Understanding the importance of the connections between Stardust samples and chondrites requires geochemistry lingo as well as a perspective of other cometary dust samples besides Stardust. We present the principal findings of an extensive review prepared for by us for the June 2016 "Cometary Science After Rosetta" meeting at The Royal Society, London.

  2. Apprendre, un moment de vie ? Savoir, expérience et rapport au vivant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noack Julie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de cette communication est de comparer sur le plan pédagogique deux conceptions du rapport entre science et vivant, diamétralement opposées sur le plan épistémologique. En se basant sur un livre [1], une conférence [2] et un entretien [3], on analysera l’expérience de pensée par laquelle le biologiste et épistémologue Jean-Jacques Kupiec fait se sentir vivants les apprenants afin de mieux les conscientiser aux réquisits de la démarche scientifique. On comparera ensuite les motivations de Kupiec avec les idées pédagogiques du philosophe-médecin Georges Canguilhem (1904–1995 afin d’essayer de comprendre pourquoi l’un et l’autre jugent pertinent de faire remarquer à l’apprenant qu’il est actuellement en vie. Car, malgré des conceptions du vivant diamétralement opposées, Canguilhem et Kupiec se rejoignent sur l’idée que l’expérience vitale joue un rôle crucial – que ce soit en positif ou en négatif, comme un obstacle épistémologique ou comme un levier heuristique – dans l’apprentissage et la pratique de la biologie ou de la médecine. Prendre en charge cette expérience constitue peut-être une ressource face au double défi (scientifique et éthico-politique qui échoit à l’éducation aux sciences du vivant.

  3. Accounting for primitive terms in mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F.M. Strauss

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The philosophical problem of unity and diversity entails a challenge to the rationalist aim to define everything. Definitions of this kind surface in various academic disciplines in formulations like uniqueness, irreducibility, and what has acquired the designation “primitive terms”. Not even the most “exact” disciplines, such as mathematics, can avoid the implications entailed in giving an account of such primitive terms. A mere look at the historical development of mathematics highlights the fact that alternative perspectives prevailed – from the arithmeticism of Pythagoreanism, the eventual geometrisation of mathematics after the discovery of incommensurability up to the revival of arithmeticism in the mathematics of Cauchy, Weierstrass, Dedekind and Cantor (with the later orientation of Frege, who completed the circle by returning to the view that mathematics essentially is geometry. An assessment of logicism and axiomatic formalism is followed by looking at the primitive meaning of wholeness (and the whole-parts relation. With reference to the views of Hilbert, Weyl and Bernays the article concludes by suggesting that in opposition to arithmeticism and geometricism an alternative option ought to be pursued – one in which both the uniqueness and mutual coherence between the aspects of number and space are acknowledged.

  4. Veiklos vertinimo sistema Lietuvos viešojo administravimo institucijose ir įstaigose

    OpenAIRE

    Adomaitytė, Alma

    2011-01-01

    Darbuotojų veiklos vertinimas yra svarbi tiek viešojo administravimo, tiek privačios organizacijos vadybos sritis, skatinanti organizaciją ir jos žmogiškuosius išteklius tobulinti veiklą, didinti produktyvumą, bei suteikti darbuotojams grįžtamąjį ryšį. Darbe keliami šie probleminiai klausimai: kokie pagrindiniai Lietuvos viešojo administravimo darbuotojų vertinimo sistemos teoriniai ir praktinio įgyvendinimo privalumai ir trūkumai? kokia žmogiškojo faktoriaus įtaka tobulinant viešojo admi...

  5. S'aimer, c'est regarder ensemble dans la même direction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Guillaume

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ces photos ont été prises en Afrique du Sud, au même moment, dans la même ville, Johannesburg. Elles montrent toutes deux une vision du futur. À Kliptown, quartier informel de Soweto, lieu de vie assigné aux Noirs durant l'apartheid, on croit en des lendemains sans violence, sans meurtres et sans sida , où les enfants seraient respectés, une vie où des principes moraux, qu'ils viennent de Jah 1 où d'ailleurs, feraient partie du bien commun. Exactement 30 kilomètres au ...

  6. L'astronomie dans le monde

    OpenAIRE

    Manfroid, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Cassini; Distance des Pléiades; Gaz très chaud au centre de notre Galaxie; FUSE; Peser une étoile froide; Masse d'une étoile; Naines brunes; Sursaut gamma dans la Galaxie; Trou noir record; Masse des neutrinos; Un satellite de notre Galaxie; Une jumelle de notre Galaxie; Vie sur Mars?; Rencontre intergalactique; Hawking change d'avis; Pollution lumineuse; Sursauts gamma; Le système solaire, une exception?; Babar et l'antimatière; Spicules; Tau Ceti; Anneau de poussières; Naissance d'une étoil...

  7. PARANOÏA: la vie secrète de Salvador Dali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Buuren, Maarten

    2009-01-01

    En 1942, Salvador Dali, âgé de trente-huit ans, termine son autobiographie La vie secrète de Salvador Dali. Il prétend s’y livrer au lecteur en toute candeur. Mais c’est un leurre. Dali construit l’histoire de sa vie sur ce qu’il considère comme sa trouvaille capitale : la méthode

  8. Le Breton David, En souffrance. Adolescence et entrée dans la vie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Rivière

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Les souffrances du jeune Werther, Rimbaud, Le Grand Meaulnes : littérature ancienne ! Quant à la « flamboyante jeunesse » ou à la « génération perdue » des Fitzgerald et des Hemingway, elles sont quasiment ignorées en France. Freud a dit l’Œdipe, Debesse, La crise d’originalité juvénile. David Le Breton, lui, articule d’abord sa recherche avec ses ouvrages antérieurs sur le risque et se focalise sur l’expérience psychologique de l’adolescent souhaitant échapper à la souffrance qu’il éprouve, ...

  9. Le Breton David, En souffrance. Adolescence et entrée dans la vie

    OpenAIRE

    Claude Rivière

    2011-01-01

    Les souffrances du jeune Werther, Rimbaud, Le Grand Meaulnes : littérature ancienne ! Quant à la « flamboyante jeunesse » ou à la « génération perdue » des Fitzgerald et des Hemingway, elles sont quasiment ignorées en France. Freud a dit l’Œdipe, Debesse, La crise d’originalité juvénile. David Le Breton, lui, articule d’abord sa recherche avec ses ouvrages antérieurs sur le risque et se focalise sur l’expérience psychologique de l’adolescent souhaitant échapper à la souffrance qu’il éprouve, ...

  10. Vie dans l'Univers: l'histoire d'une longue quete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briot, Danielle

    2017-07-01

    The search for life in the Universe is a very old quest of humanity. This search initiated the science nammed astrobiology, or bioastronomy, or exobiology. We give some elements for the history of this science, since the Greek antiquity up to now, in the occidental civilisation. After reminding the main steps of this history during Antiquity, the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, we point out some little known or unknown studies published during the Modern and Contemporary epochs. We specially develop the studies of two pioneers during the twentieth century: Ary Sternfeld, a Polish scientist who was also a pioneer of astronautics, and Gavril Tikhov, a Russian astronomer who created the astrobotany.

  11. Protection des vies humaines et des moyens de subsistance dans la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    6 juin 2014 ... Le cyclone Phailin, qui a frappé l'Inde en 2013, a occasionné d'immenses pertes : en deux jours seulement, 12 millions d'habitants des États côtiers de l'Odisha et de l'Andhra Pradesh ont perdu leur maison et leurs moyens de subsistance. Des chercheurs subventionnés par le CRDI oeuvrent à la ...

  12. Protection des vies humaines et des moyens de subsistance dans la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le cyclone Phailin, qui a frappé l'Inde en 2013, a occasionné d'immenses pertes : en deux jours seulement, 12 millions d'habitants des États côtiers de l'Odisha et de l'Andhra Pradesh ont perdu leur maison et leurs moyens de subsistance. Des chercheurs subventionnés par le CRDI oeuvrent à la protection de la région et ...

  13. Initiative Villes ciblées - amélioration du milieu de vie dans les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Outcome based approach to assess the effectiveness of sanitation systems used in the fringe areas of Colombo city, Sri Lanka. Papers. Impacts of the tsunami on poverty in Sri Lanka. Papers. Urban Poverty and Environment Programme : Colombo; monitoring and evaluation component; monitoring findings as of December ...

  14. La nuisance sonore et la qualite de vie dans les metropoles d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of noise nuisance in African cities is a major problem that worries a few people today. Noise constitute a pollution creating problems in urn areas through its harmful consequences on the population. It is the several harms to human health. Lome, the geographical framework of this study, is a city with some districts ...

  15. Le role de la langue Francaise et de La Mondialisation dans la vie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nous avons démontré que jusqu' ici ľ économie nigériane connaît des problèmes comme le manque de capitaux, des marchés instables, le manque de personnels techniques, et les bas prix des matières premières. Ľ économie est aussi touchée par le chômage et la pauvreté généralisée. Cette situation résulte de la ...

  16. Dimensional analysis using toric ideals: primitive invariants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Atherton

    Full Text Available Classical dimensional analysis in its original form starts by expressing the units for derived quantities, such as force, in terms of power products of basic units [Formula: see text] etc. This suggests the use of toric ideal theory from algebraic geometry. Within this the Graver basis provides a unique primitive basis in a well-defined sense, which typically has more terms than the standard Buckingham approach. Some textbook examples are revisited and the full set of primitive invariants found. First, a worked example based on convection is introduced to recall the Buckingham method, but using computer algebra to obtain an integer [Formula: see text] matrix from the initial integer [Formula: see text] matrix holding the exponents for the derived quantities. The [Formula: see text] matrix defines the dimensionless variables. But, rather than this integer linear algebra approach it is shown how, by staying with the power product representation, the full set of invariants (dimensionless groups is obtained directly from the toric ideal defined by [Formula: see text]. One candidate for the set of invariants is a simple basis of the toric ideal. This, although larger than the rank of [Formula: see text], is typically not unique. However, the alternative Graver basis is unique and defines a maximal set of invariants, which are primitive in a simple sense. In addition to the running example four examples are taken from: a windmill, convection, electrodynamics and the hydrogen atom. The method reveals some named invariants. A selection of computer algebra packages is used to show the considerable ease with which both a simple basis and a Graver basis can be found.

  17. Cryptographic primitives based on cellular transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Izotov

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Design of cryptographic primitives based on the concept of cellular automata (CA is likely to be a promising trend in cryptography. In this paper, the improved method performing data transformations by using invertible cyclic CAs (CCA is considered. Besides, the cellular operations (CO as a novel CAs application in the block ciphers are introduced. Proposed CCAs and COs, integrated under the name of cellular transformations (CT, suit well to be used in cryptographic algorithms oriented to fast software and cheap hardware implementation.

  18. Stratégie de survie et culture de jeunes dans les marchés urbains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cet article porte sur la vie quotidienne des adolescentes travailleuses dans les marchés urbains et péri-urbains de Dakar, capitale du Sénégal. Elle vise à approfondir la compréhension et la connaissance sur les stratégies de survie et la socialisation des jeunes dans les rues des villes sénégalaises et sur les logiques de ...

  19. Particules de vie conversation avec François Englert

    CERN Document Server

    Baré, François

    2014-01-01

    Ce fut l'événement de l'année 2013 : François Englert obtenait le prix Nobel de physique pour la découverte du boson. Le premier Belge à être honoré par ce prix depuis Ilya Prigogine en 1977. Françoise Baré, journaliste à la RTBF, et Guy Duplat, ingénieur civil physicien, ex-rédacteur en chef du Soir, auteur de Une vague belge (Racine) et journaliste à La Libre Belgique, ont rencontré plusieurs fois, longuement, François Englert, avant son prix et après celui-ci. Ils étaient là lors de l'annonce de la découverte du boson de BEH, lors de l'annonce du prix Nobel et, à Stockholm, lors de la remise du prix par le roi de Suède. À eux, François Englert a accepté de raconter sa chasse au boson, sa vie, ses idées. Au fil de la conversation se dessine alors le portrait attachant d'un homme brillant et libre, habité par un rêve, celui de comprendre, de décortiquer ce monde et de chercher la beauté de ses lois. Avec, en annexe, les grands points scientifiques qui éclairent le travail de F...

  20. Niveau de vie, croissance et énergie Standard of Living - Growth and Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Offant P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article rassemble les principaux résultats d'une Action Thématique Programmée consacrée aux « problèmes socio-économiques de l'énergie » et confiée par le Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS au Département Économie de l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP. Les problèmes posés par la mesure du niveau de vie et par ses liaisons avec la consommation d'énergie sont l'objet d'une première analyse. Elle permet de dégager les grandes orientations des possibilités de réduction de la consommation d'énergie sans régression du niveau de vie, au sens des économies des pays d'Europe occidentale. Sur ces bases, deux scénarios contrastés de demande d'énergie finale à long terme sont quantifiés dans le cas de la France Le scénario de moindre consommation d'énergie intègre une restructuration industrielle déterminée par optimisation d'un modèle linéaire issu du tableau entrée-sorties de la Comptabilité nationale. Les deux projections de demande d'énergie sont appliquées à un modèle linéaire dynamique de production. Ce modèle fournit les résultats nécessaires à une analyse détaillée de l'évolution structurelle du secteur énergétique et au calcul de bilans d'énergie primaire prévisionnels cohérents. This article gathers the main results of an « Action Thématique programmée » (research project on a Socio-Economic Energy Problems » which Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS assigned to the Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP Economics Department. The problems raised by measuring the standard of living and by its links with energy consumption are the subject of a preliminary analysis which brings out the major guidelines concerning possibilities of reducing energy consumption without cousing any regression in the standard of living in the economies of Western European countries. On th~ese bases, two contrasting scénarios for the final ta long-term energy demand were worked out

  1. Primitive agriculture in a social amoeba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Debra A; Douglas, Tracy E; Queller, David C; Strassmann, Joan E

    2011-01-20

    Agriculture has been a large part of the ecological success of humans. A handful of animals, notably the fungus-growing ants, termites and ambrosia beetles, have advanced agriculture that involves dispersal and seeding of food propagules, cultivation of the crop and sustainable harvesting. More primitive examples, which could be called husbandry because they involve fewer adaptations, include marine snails farming intertidal fungi and damselfish farming algae. Recent work has shown that microorganisms are surprisingly like animals in having sophisticated behaviours such as cooperation, communication and recognition, as well as many kinds of symbiosis. Here we show that the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has a primitive farming symbiosis that includes dispersal and prudent harvesting of the crop. About one-third of wild-collected clones engage in husbandry of bacteria. Instead of consuming all bacteria in their patch, they stop feeding early and incorporate bacteria into their fruiting bodies. They then carry bacteria during spore dispersal and can seed a new food crop, which is a major advantage if edible bacteria are lacking at the new site. However, if they arrive at sites already containing appropriate bacteria, the costs of early feeding cessation are not compensated for, which may account for the dichotomous nature of this farming symbiosis. The striking convergent evolution between bacterial husbandry in social amoebas and fungus farming in social insects makes sense because multigenerational benefits of farming go to already established kin groups.

  2. Primitive Accumulation and Temporalities of Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Bednarek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main thesis of the article is the statement that capitalism is composed of many different, incoherent temporalities, as well as that apprehension of capitalism from the angle of primitive accumulation enables the more accurate grasp of the modes of its functioning, including the complexity created by the interactions of the temporalities mentionned. The problem of primitive accumulation is, as Sandro Mezzadra proves, a good starting point for analysing this issue. It allows us to pose two questions: first, the question of the relation between the historical dimension and the structural logic of capitalism; second, the question of hierarchical relation between the center and the periphery of the capitalist system.Dipesh Chakrabarty’s project of ‘provincializing Europe’ proves helpful here, as it’s goal is deconstruction of the categories of progress, modernization and the capital with its abstract structure. The aim is not to negate the fact that capitalist abstraction is a real force, but to show that this force develops by means of constant assimiliation of the other – redefined as ‘backward’ or archaic. The linear scheme is in force, because it is the main mechanism of imposing the power of capital; as such, it is not politically neutral.

  3. Primitive elements in finite fields with arbitrary trace

    OpenAIRE

    Çoban, Mustafa; Coban, Mustafa

    2003-01-01

    Arithmetic of finite fields is not only important for other branches of mathematics but also widely used in applications such as coding and cryptography. A primitive element of a finite field is of particular interest since it enables one to represent all other elements of the field. Therefore an extensive research has been done on primitive elements, especially those satisfying extra conditions. We are interested in the existence of primitive elements in extensions of finite fields with pres...

  4. Denise Orange-Ravachol (2012).Didactique des sciences de la vie et de la Terre. Rennes : Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 167 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Santini, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    Le livre de Denise Orange-Ravachol, récemment paru (2012) aux Presses Universitaires de Rennes, intéressera plus d'un lecteur, ceux préoccupés de didactique des sciences de la vie et de la Terre (le titre de l'ouvrage), mais pas seulement. En effet, son auteur y travaille des problèmes épistémologiques et didactiques de première importance, dans une approche que l'on pourrait qualifier de « rationalisme pragmatiste », chaque problème étant abordé systématiquement en croisant les analyses de l...

  5. Action Recognition in Semi-synthetic Images using Motion Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    This technical report describes an action recognition approach based on motion primitives. A few characteristic time instances are found in a sequence containing an action and the action is classified from these instances. The characteristic instances are defined solely on the human motion, hence...... motion primitives. The motion primitives are extracted by double difference images and represented by four features. In each frame the primitive, if any, that best explains the observed data is identified. This leads to a discrete recognition problem since a video sequence will be converted into a string...

  6. DES EFFETS DURABLES DES VIES TRANSFORMÉES

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    En effet, depuis 2003, ce réseau d'experts en informatique financé par le CRDI travaille à l'élaboration de nouvelles techno- logies permettant aux ordinateurs de fonctionner dans des langues locales. Étant donné que l'on parle 3 500 langues différentes en Asie-. Pacifique et que moins de 10 % de la population peut ...

  7. Eau, terre et vie : Communication participative pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dans domaine de la recherche sur la gestion des ressources naturelles, les meilleurs modèles sont ceux qui, lors de la prise de décision et de l'identification du projet de recherche et des paramètres de développement, intègrent la participation des membres de la collectivité, des équipes de recherche ou de ...

  8. Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Pelvis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Yousefi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET belongs to a group of highly malignant tumors and is composed of small round cells of a neuroectodermal origin. Categorized in the same tumor family as Ewing sarcoma, the PNET is most likely to occur in bones and soft tissues. However, a small number of PNET cases arising in the pelvis have been reported as well. We present three cases of pelvic PNET: two cases in the ovary and one case in the broad ligament. The PNET often exhibits aggressive clinical behavior with worse outcomes than other small round cell tumors. The significant prognostic factors of the PNET include site of tumor, volume of neoplasm, and presence of metastasis. The treatment protocol is multimodal and includes local surgical treatment followed by chemotherapy. We herein describe three PNET cases as a rare entity in the pelvis. Pelvic PNETs should be included in the differential diagnosis of pelvic masses.

  9. L’acceptabilité de la déclaration et de la Vie de Jean de Labadie. Entre vérifications et approbations permanentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Houdard

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Jean de Labadie (1610-1674 est inclassable pour l’historiographie qui ne sait pas si elle doit prendre au sérieux sa vie, sa doctrine, ses pérégrinations dans l’Europe confessionnelle du xviie siècle. Ancien jésuite, devenu pasteur calviniste, il suscite la réprobation violente ou l’enthousiasme de ses disciples. D’Amiens, à Montauban où il devient pasteur, de Genève aux Pays-Bas, où il fonde la « Communauté des Saints », il trace le parcours chaotique d’un homme atypique qui déjoue les limites de ce qui est acceptable dans le cadre d’une confession religieuse, non sans critiquer lui-même les manières de vivre et de précher de ceux dont il partage un moment la vie religieuse et sociale. Sans jamais stabiliser une doctrine, Labadie élabore un régime variable de ce qui est probable (qu’on peut approuver et acceptable : ses « déclarations » et sa vie écrite se substituent, comme on voudrait le montrer, au régime stable de la confession de foi pour élaborer une vérité religieuse à la fois vraie et dépendante du contexte de son écriture et de sa réception.Jean de Labadie (1610-1674 is unclassifiable for historiographers, who do not know whether to take seriously his life, his doctrine, and his pilgrimages in seventeenth century confessional Europe. A Jesuit who became a Calvinist pastor, he provokes either the fierce disapproval or the enthusiasm of his disciples. From Amiens, Montauban where he became a pastor to Geneva, and Netherlands where he founded the “Community of Saints”, one can trace the chaotic course of an unusual man who pushed the limits of what was acceptable within the framework of a religious confession, not without criticizing the ways of living and of preaching about those with whom he shared temporarily a religious and sociable existence. Never establishing a rigid doctrine, Labadie created a flexible system of what was probable and acceptable: his “declarations” and his

  10. Le participant observateur dans l'intervention humaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Drouard

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Tout homme est donc participant et observateur de sa vie et du monde pour exister, survivre, grandir. Dans le même mouvement, il observe les faits et les apprécie (là encore le mot a gardé sa double signification avec ses connotations morales et plutôt négatives: on n'aime guère recevoir des "observations". Mais il y a des degrés, des modalités, des orientations, des inclinations, des choix. La société valorise aujourd'hui, soi-disant pour l'efficacité! la curiosité productive, super-orientée, le savant ignare et sans conscience morale. Je prétends qu'il est temps de rétablir chaque homme dans sa dignité de praticien-chercheur-enseignant dans tous les domaines de sa vie et particulièrement dans cette partie essentielle qu'est le métier, la profession.

  11. Interest of the PET-CT with {sup 18}F.D.G. in the leg type B primitive cutaneous lymphomas. About one case; Interet de la TEP-TDM au 18 FDG dans les lymphomes cutanes primitifs B de type jambe. A propos de deux cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelu-Vanysacker, M.; Razzouk, M.; Darcourt, J. [CHU de Nice, Service de medecine nucleaire, hopital l' Archet, 06 (France); Gutnecht, J. [Hopital Frejus-Saint-Raphael, service d' hematologie, 83 (France); Hubiche, T. [Hopital Frejus-Saint-Raphael, service de dermatologie, 83 (France)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: to show the interest of PET-CT with {sup 18}F.D.G. in the extension evaluation of 'leg type' B primitive skin lymphomas. They represent 20 to 25 % of skin lymphomas. Three are distinct: lymphomas of marginal area, follicular lymphomas and leg type big cells lymphomas. The two first ones are benign lymphomas and can be treated by excision or radiotherapy for localised forms. Leg type lymphomas are rare, localised on legs and with an unfavourable prognosis potential with frequent recurrences; a clinico histological confrontation and an extension evaluation must allow to propose the best adapted therapy options on avoiding the needlessly aggressive treatments in the forms of good prognosis. Conclusions: These kind of lymphomas must be distinguished from secondary skin localisation of systemic B lymphomas and then the interest of the extension assessment with PET-CT with {sup 18}F.D.G.. The leg type lymphoma has a unfavourable prognosis justifying a treatment by polychemotherapy, of R-C.H.O.P. type (C cyclophosphamide, H hydroxy daunorubicin or doxorubicin, O oncovin or vincristine, P prednisolone, R rituximab). (N.C.)

  12. Primitive terms and the limits of conceptual understanding | Strauss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The former happens when other unique (primitive) terms are used to define a specific one and the latter when the attempted 'definitions' revert to terms with which the original terms could be meaningfully replaced. It is been pointed out that the coherence between primitives invites every academic discipline to account for ...

  13. Action Recognition Using Motion Primitives and Probabilistic Edit Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe a recognition approach based on the notion of primitives. As opposed to recognizing actions based on temporal trajectories or temporal volumes, primitive-based recognition is based on representing a temporal sequence containing an action by only a few characteristic time...

  14. Transferrring primitive elements of skill within and between tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittelson, Logan; Taatgen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The primitive elements of skill theory proposes a set of approximately 2000 primitive information processing elements (PRIMs) (Taatgen, 2013) that compose all cognitive acts by combining and recombining to produce learning and transfer. By this theory, learning is transfer and transfer results from

  15. La vie privée à l’ère du numérique

    OpenAIRE

    Liscouët, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    L’ouvrage commence par une analyse historique de l’émergence des sphères privées et publiques et de la notion de vie privée. Le point de départ pourrait bien être l’apparition en Angleterre du concept d’habeas corpus. Bénédicte Rey retient le terme anglais de privacy pour désigner tout à la fois les notions de vie privée, de données personnelles et de « question du privé ». Elle souligne que la notion de vie privée est une nouvelle valeur humaine fondamentale bien qu’elle ne soit toujours pas...

  16. Règles, formes de vie et relativisme chez Wittgenstein

    OpenAIRE

    Laugier, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Le naturalisme est-il réductible à un recours à la pratique ? Telle est la question qui demeure à propos de Wittgenstein, et surtout de l’usage actuel qui en est fait. Cora Diamond notait que Kripke sur Wittgenstein (ou Kripgenstein, comme l’appelle Putnam) était bien plus influent, aujourd’hui, que Wittgenstein lui-même, le plus amusant étant que cette influence s’exerce dans deux champs assez peu compatibles philosophiquement : celui de la théorie pure et dure de la signification et celui d...

  17. Training Valence, Instrumentality, and Expectancy Scale (T-VIES-it): Factor Structure and Nomological Network in an Italian Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaniboni, Sara; Fraccaroli, Franco; Truxillo, Donald M.; Bertolino, Marilena; Bauer, Talya N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to validate, in an Italian sample, a multidimensional training motivation measure (T-VIES-it) based on expectancy (VIE) theory, and to examine the nomological network surrounding the construct. Design/methodology/approach: Using a cross-sectional design study, 258 public sector employees in Northeast Italy…

  18. Evaluation de la qualité de vie des personnes vivant avec le VIH à ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contexte: Lorsqu'en 2000 le Cameroun fait le choix du traitement par antirétroviraux pour les PVVIH, la qualité de vie (QdV) n'est pas un enjeu de la prise en charge. La chronicisation du sida place aujourd'hui l'évaluation de qualité de vie des PVVIH au sein des défis de santé publique. L'objectif de cette étude était ...

  19. The use of Visual Implant Fluorescent Elastomer (VIE for marking Phyllopezus pollicaris lizards (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ragner Silva de Freitas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the use of Visible Implant Fluorescent Elastomer (VIE and its efficiency in marking Phyllopezus pollicaris lizards from an area of caatinga in northeastern Brazil. The marking procedure of individuals was conducted from April to September 2012. Forty individuals were marked in the dorsal region with fluorescent colors (red, yellow, green and orange. Twenty lizards were recaptured and showed good retention of the elastomer. Only two specimens presented fragmented marks. The results showed that the use of VIE for tagging and recapture was efficient because of the high retention rate in the individuals recaptured and low fragmentation rate of the marks.

  20. Sperm Cells of a Primitive Strepsipteran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, James B; Delgado, Juan A; Collantes, Francisco; Miller, Lou Ann; Bee, Charles M; Kathirithamby, Jeyaraney

    2013-09-04

    The unusual life style of Strepsiptera has presented a long-standing puzzle in establishing its affinity to other insects. Although Strepsiptera share few structural similarities with other insect orders, all members of this order share a parasitic life style with members of two distinctive families in the Coleoptera-the order now considered the most closely related to Strepsiptera based on recent genomic evidence. Among the structural features of several strepsipteran families and other insect families that have been surveyed are the organization of testes and ultrastructure of sperm cells. For comparison with existing information on insect sperm structure, this manuscript presents a description of testes and sperm of a representative of the most primitive extant strepsipteran family Mengenillidae, Eoxenos laboulbenei. We compare sperm structure of E. laboulbenei from this family with that of the three other families of Strepsiptera in the other strepsipteran suborder Stylopidia that have been studied as well as with members of the beetle families Meloidae and Rhipiphoridae that share similar life histories with Strepsiptera. Meloids, Rhipiphorids and Strepsipterans all begin larval life as active and viviparous first instar larvae. This study examines global features of these insects' sperm cells along with specific ultrastructural features of their organelles.

  1. Sperm Cells of a Primitive Strepsipteran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M. Bee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The unusual life style of Strepsiptera has presented a long-standing puzzle in establishing its affinity to other insects. Although Strepsiptera share few structural similarities with other insect orders, all members of this order share a parasitic life style with members of two distinctive families in the Coleoptera—the order now considered the most closely related to Strepsiptera based on recent genomic evidence. Among the structural features of several strepsipteran families and other insect families that have been surveyed are the organization of testes and ultrastructure of sperm cells. For comparison with existing information on insect sperm structure, this manuscript presents a description of testes and sperm of a representative of the most primitive extant strepsipteran family Mengenillidae, Eoxenos laboulbenei. We compare sperm structure of E. laboulbenei from this family with that of the three other families of Strepsiptera in the other strepsipteran suborder Stylopidia that have been studied as well as with members of the beetle families Meloidae and Rhipiphoridae that share similar life histories with Strepsiptera. Meloids, Rhipiphorids and Strepsipterans all begin larval life as active and viviparous first instar larvae. This study examines global features of these insects’ sperm cells along with specific ultrastructural features of their organelles.

  2. La place des enfants dans l'économie nationale | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2 févr. 2011 ... Mme Jones travaille au siège de Save the Children UK, l'organisation internationale non gouvernementale qui coordonne l'analyse et l'application des politiques ... Inévitablement, dans ces cas, les aptitudes des jeunes à tirer profit des avantages liés à une économie plus robuste et à se fabriquer une vie ...

  3. Utilisation des cahiers d'activites dans l'enseignement des sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'utilisation sans discernement des dits cahiers dans l'enseignement des sciences de la vie et de la terre (SVT) pose un véritable problème d'éthique et de pratique enseignante de la part, aussi bien des enseignants auteurs que des enseignants utilisateurs. L'objectif de cette étude est d'explorer les perceptions des ...

  4. Renforcer les capacités de recherche et d'enseignement dans les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce projet contribuera à renforcer les capacités de recherche et d'enseignement dans les sciences de la Terre à l'University of Limpopo, en Afrique du Sud, pour préparer les étudiants et le corps professoral ... Favoriser les innovations en matière de vaccins afin d'améliorer les conditions de vie et les moyens de subsistance.

  5. Prévalence de la migraine dans une population de travailleurs à ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction La migraine est une affection fréquente ayant un important retentissement sur la vie socioprofessionnelle des migraineux. L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer la prévalence de la migraine dans une population de travailleurs de la ville de Cotonou. Cadre et méthode Il s'agit d'une étude transversale ...

  6. Incidence du contexte sur l'efficacité des think tanks dans les pays ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les think tanks des pays en développement cherchent à influer sur les politiques pour contribuer à améliorer les conditions de vie des populations. Les opinions divergent quant à leur capacité de provoquer des changements positifs dans la société. En fait, les participants à l'Initiative Think tank estiment que le contexte ...

  7. Réduire la pollution dans les bidonvilles de Jakarta: Haryanti ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Chaque année, des dizaines de milliers de migrants, provenant surtout des zones rurales, affluent vers Jakarta en quête de travail et d'une vie meilleure. La plupart se retrouvent dans des bidonvilles tels que Penjaringan, l'un des plus grands de Jakarta, où la collecte des déchets lacunaire, le manque d'eau potable à prix ...

  8. La vie de Jésus-Christ, du Docteur Strauss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Quinet

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Edgar Quinet est un de ces fils de la Révolution qui ont peur du vide.Lui qui sera dans le regret que la Révolution française n’ait pas su produire une religion nouvelle, découvre, effaré, les ruines de l’ancienne. Ce n’est pas qu’il crût, mais enfin, comme à ce vicaire savoyard dont il se méfiait, l’Évangile parlait à son cœur de fils de mère calviniste. Il y tenait comme à sa conscience morale. Et voici qu’un répétiteur de philosophie au séminaire protestant de Tübingen (Tubingue, ainsi qu’...

  9. Quelle posture les sciences sociales doivent-elles adopter vis-à-vis des sciences de la vie ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Guillo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pour Albert Ogien et Louis Quéré, les sciences sociales sont séparées des sciences de la vie par une frontière quasi-infranchissable. Par conséquent, selon eux, l’évocation de vues empruntées à la biologie en sociologie et en anthropologie serait, au mieux, dépourvue d’intérêt, au pire fallacieuse. Ils développent cette thèse en invoquant, notamment, la non-falsifiabilité des sciences sociales par les sciences de la vie, le poids du social et de l’environnement dans la cognition et l’action humaines, ou encore l’irréductibilité des objets respectifs de ces disciplines. Nier l’existence d’une telle frontière impliquerait, à leurs yeux, la dissolution des sciences sociales dans les sciences de la nature. Certains arguments invoqués à l’appui de ces thèses valent pour réfuter certaines formes sommaires de naturalisme. Toutefois, ils n’invalident pas les variantes comme celles que proposent Laurence Kaufmann et Laurent Cordonier. Contrairement à ce que suggèrent ces arguments, on peut fort bien défendre le principe d’une autonomie épistémologique des sciences sociales, tout en contestant l’existence d’une frontière nette entre disciplines. Par ailleurs, l’hypothèse de la frontière fragilise les sciences sociales, en les conduisant à ignorer un champ de recherche dans lequel elles ont pourtant vocation à intervenir : celui de l’articulation des connaissances qu’elles accumulent, de manière indépendante et au moyen de leurs propres méthodes, avec celles que recueillent, de leur côté, les sciences de la vie. Ce faisant, elles laissent prospérer dans ce champ le naturalisme le plus sommaire.Which Position Should Social Sciences Adopt Towards Life Sciences? A Border or a ForeshoreFor Albert Ogien and Louis Quéré, social sciences are separated from life sciences by an almost uncrossable border. Therefore, they argue that the evocation of views borrowed from biology in sociology and

  10. Determination of Tsukuba VLBI Station post-Tohoku Earthquake Coordinates using VieVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareinen, N.; Uunila, M.

    2012-12-01

    We determine the new coordinates for the Tsukuba VLBI station, which was affected by the Tohoku earthquake on March 11, 2011. A total of 31 IVS-R1 sessions dating from 2011-01-03 to 2011-09-12 were pre-processed with Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS v. 1d), removing low quality data, clock breaks, and outliers. A priori coordinates from NGS file headers were used for TSUKUB32 in order to exclude the station from NNT/NNR conditions. After the initial VieVS analysis, a visualization tool was written in Matlab to analyze the possible change in the coordinates and to detect possible low quality measurements missed by initial processing. The visualization tool has a functionality to transform the ECEF coordinates and errors acquired with VieVS to the local tangent plane of Tsukuba for better comparison possibilities. The visualization tool was written in a way that it could be added in the next version of VieVS as a general time series tool. The time series demonstrated a clear shift in the coordinates before and after the quake. A co-seismic shift of (X,Y,Z) = (-36.9, -54.7, -2.4) was detected in ECEF and (E, N, U) = (65.6, 2.0, -6.9) cm in ENU. Also post-seismic movement was clearly seen in the time series.

  11. The Vie Cave Geomorphological Site in Southern Tuscany (Italy: Problems of Decay and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pecchioni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Vie Cave are a suggestive network of roads deeply entrenched in the rock, dating back to the Etruscan civilization; these ancient roads connect various settlements and necropolises existing mainly in the area of Sovana, Sorano and Pitigliano towns (Southern Tuscany, Italy. The Vie Cave are located in a peculiar geomorphological site, characterized by the presence of extensive pyroclastic deposits, which have been incised by a parallel network of deep gorges. In this paper, the geomorphological, geological and lithological setting of the Vie Cave area, where several Etruscan archaeological sites are found, are described. The precarious stability of the Vie Cave walls and the several archaeological structures carved into them, the high grade of decay shown by the constituent materials, together with the dense vegetation that has developed over the rocky scarps, are taken into account with the aim to provide a complete assessment of the conditions in which the site lies. Finally, we propose some targeted actions related to the preservation of this territory, showing so distinctive morphology, in order to protect the area from further decay to which it would be subjected if it remained abandoned.

  12. Cometary dust: the diversity of primitive refractory grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, D. H.; Ishii, H. A.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2017-05-01

    Comet dust is primitive and shows significant diversity. Our knowledge of the properties of primitive cometary particles has expanded significantly through microscale investigations of cosmic dust samples (anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), chondritic porous (CP) IDPs and UltraCarbonaceous Antarctic micrometeorites, Stardust and Rosetta), as well as through remote sensing (Spitzer IR spectroscopy). Comet dust are aggregate particles of materials unequilibrated at submicrometre scales. We discuss the properties and processes experienced by primitive matter in comets. Primitive particles exhibit a diverse range of: structure and typology; distribution of constituents; concentration and form of carbonaceous and refractory organic matter; Mg- and Fe-contents of the silicate minerals; sulfides; existence/abundance of type II chondrule fragments; high-temperature calcium-aluminium inclusions and ameboid-olivine aggregates; and rarely occurring Mg-carbonates and magnetite, whose explanation requires aqueous alteration on parent bodies. The properties of refractory materials imply there were disc processes that resulted in different comets having particular selections of primitive materials. The diversity of primitive particles has implications for the diversity of materials in the protoplanetary disc present at the time and in the region where the comets formed. This article is part of the themed issue 'Cometary science after Rosetta'.

  13. Le télétravail à domicile : Meilleure conciliation emploi-famille ou source d’envahissement de la vie privée ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Chevrier

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Le travail à domicile s’est développé de manière assez importante au cours des dernières années. Certains le présentent comme une manière de mieux concilier les responsabilités parentales et professionnelles, alors que d’autres y voient une source d’empiètements sur la vie personnelle et familiale. Si un certain nombre d’études s’intéressent aux avantages et inconvénients du télétravail ou du travail à domicile de manière générale, peu se sont penchées sur la dimension temporelle et les perceptions des télétravailleurs à cet égard. Pour notre part, nous avons voulu approfondir cette question. Après avoir constaté que le télétravail à domicile progressait de manière importante dans la population canadienne, nous mettons en évidence un paradoxe, à savoir que si le télétravail peut favoriser la conciliation emploi-famille, il est aussi source d’empiètements dans la vie privée et de brouillage des frontières entre vie privée et vie professionnelle.Telework or home work has developed in an important way over the recent decades. Some consider it as a way to better balance professional and personal or family responsibilities, while others see in it a source of disruption in personal and family life. While some research has looked at advantages and disadvantages of telework from a general point of view, few have analysed in detail the temporal dimension, and the perception of teleworkers concerning these potential temporal conflicts. We wanted to look into this issue on the basis of a few detailed case studies, after having observed that Canadian workers are doing a non negligible number of hours of work at home, and highlight the paradox that while telework has often been put forward for work-life or work-family reasons, it may also invade the private sphere and lead to less clearly defined limits between private and professional life.

  14. ÉTUDE DE CAS : Nouvelles armes dans la guerre contre le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    12 janv. 2011 ... UN MUR CONTRE LA MALARIA Du nouveau dans la prévention des décès dus au paludisme ... Les études révèlent que le paludisme était responsable de 30 % des années de vie perdues à cause des décès et de la maladie dans les deux régions. Malgré cela, seulement 5 % des budgets alloués à la ...

  15. Quelques aspects de la vie économique de l'Equateur de 1830 à 1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Au cours du XIXème siècle et dès le début du XXème siècle, l'économie équatorienne s'inséra progressivement dans le marché mondial, au prix d'une grande dépendance à l'égard du capitalisme international. Cette insertion fut rendue possible par le 'boom' cacaoyer de la 'Costa'. A Guayaquil, en effet, apparurent des banques, des sociétés de commerce et de transport et, par conséquent, des groupes dirigeants de planteurs, d'exportateurs et de banquiers qui revendiquèrent bientôt un pouvoir politique jusque là plutôt détenu par les 'hacendados' de la sierra'. Cette prospérité côtière ne doit pas d'ailleurs faire croire que la 'sierra' restait immobile. Elle connut, elle aussi, un certain dynamisme, souvent ignoré. Peu peuplé, ainsi partagé entre cette côte active et une 'sierra' où l'activité économique et les rapports de production évoluaient lentement, l'Equateur eut une vie agitée, marquée par la difficile mais réelle intégration d'un espace national très hétérogène. Durante el siglo XIX y a comienzos de este siglo, la economía ecuatoriana se insertó progresivamente en el mercado mundial, pero al precio de una gran dependencia del capitalismo internacional. Esta inserción fue posible gracias al 'boom' del cacao de la Costa. En Guayaquil, efectivamente, aparecieron bancos, sociedades de comercio y de transporte y, por consiguiente, los grupos dirigentes de productores, exportadores y banqueros, quienes pronto reclamaron el poder político, hasta entonces detenido por los hacendados de la sierra. Sin embargo, esta prosperidad costanera no debe hacer suponer que la sierra quedaba inmóvil, pues ella supo también mantener cierto dinamismo frecuentemente ignorado. Poco poblado y dividido por lo tanto entre una costa activa y una sierra en donde la actividad económica y las relaciones de producción tenían una evolución lenta, el Ecuador tuvo una vida agitada, marcada por la difícil pero real integraci

  16. Eutectic propeties of primitive Earth's magma ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Nigro, G.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Perillat, J.-P.

    2009-04-01

    It is widely accepted that the early Earth was partially molten (if not completely) due to the high energy dissipated by terrestrial accretion [1]. After core formation, subsequent cooling of the magma ocean has led to fractional crystallization of the primitive mantle. The residual liquid corresponds to what is now called the fertile mantle or pyrolite. Melting relations of silicates have been extensively investigated using the multi-anvil press, for pressures between 3 and 25 GPa [2,3]. Using the quench technique, it has been shown that the pressure affects significantly the solidus and liquidus curves, and most probably the composition of the eutectic liquid. At higher pressures, up to 65 GPa, melting studies were performed on pyrolite starting material using the laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LH-DAC) technique [4]. However, the quench technique is not ideal to define melting criteria, and furthermore these studies were limited in pressure range of investigation. Finally, the use of pyrolite may not be relevant to study the melting eutectic temperature. At the core-mantle boundary conditions, melting temperature is documented by a single data point on (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 olivine, provided by shock wave experiments at around 130-140 GPa [5]. These previous results present large uncertainties of ~1000 K. The aim of this study is to determine the eutectic melting temperature in the chemically simplified system composed of the two major lower mantle phases, the MgSiO3 perovskite and MgO periclase. We investigated melting in-situ using the laser-heated diamond anvil cell coupled with angle dispersive X-ray diffraction at the ID27 beamline of the ESRF [6]. Melting relations were investigated in an extended P-T range comparable to those found in the Earth's lower mantle, i.e. from 25 to 120 GPa and up to more than 5000 K. Melting was evidenced from (a) disappearance of one of the two phases in the diffraction pattern, (b) drastic changes of the diffraction image itself, and

  17. Functional Analysis in Public Sector Funkcinė analizė viešajame sektoriuje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živilė Tunčikienė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The main aim of the paper is to explore the theoretical aspects of functional analysis on purpose to identify the essence of functional analysis in public sector. This objective was chosen in reference to relevant problem of modern-day, i.e. inefficiency and ineffectiveness of public sector activities. The article contains functional analysis goals, tasks formed by different sources of literature; also, interpretations of the process of functional analysis are introduced. The conclusions were made that the main goal of functional analysis is to suggest an optimal set of functions that have to be performed in order to assure high quality of public services and minimal possible costs throughout all the hierarchical levels of government.

    Keywords: public sector, public administration reform, public institutions, functional analysis, effectiveness.

    Visuomenei itin aktuali per didelių viešojo sektoriaus išlaidų bei nepakankamai kokybiškų viešųjų paslaugų problema. Siekiant mažinti viešojo sektoriaus išlaidas ir kartu gerinti viešųjų paslaugų kokybę, būtina grįsti institucijų veiklos būtinumą ir kartu adekvatumą besikeičiantiems aplinkos reikalavimams. Siekiant išspręsti tokio pobūdžio uždavinius, viešajame sektoriuje vis tvirčiau įsigali tendencija taikyti verslo praktikoje patikrintas ir teigiamai pasitvirtinusias valdymo priemones. Viena svarbiausių i

  18. Globfit: Consistently fitting primitives by discovering global relations

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yangyan

    2011-07-01

    Given a noisy and incomplete point set, we introduce a method that simultaneously recovers a set of locally fitted primitives along with their global mutual relations. We operate under the assumption that the data corresponds to a man-made engineering object consisting of basic primitives, possibly repeated and globally aligned under common relations. We introduce an algorithm to directly couple the local and global aspects of the problem. The local fit of the model is determined by how well the inferred model agrees to the observed data, while the global relations are iteratively learned and enforced through a constrained optimization. Starting with a set of initial RANSAC based locally fitted primitives, relations across the primitives such as orientation, placement, and equality are progressively learned and conformed to. In each stage, a set of feasible relations are extracted among the candidate relations, and then aligned to, while best fitting to the input data. The global coupling corrects the primitives obtained in the local RANSAC stage, and brings them to precise global alignment. We test the robustness of our algorithm on a range of synthesized and scanned data, with varying amounts of noise, outliers, and non-uniform sampling, and validate the results against ground truth, where available. © 2011 ACM.

  19. Cour du prince et vie religieuse à la fin du Moyen Âge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Tabbagh

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Il y a quelque paradoxe à vouloir unir ce que tout paraît opposer : la cour n’est-elle pas le lieu même d’une mondanité dont tout le cheminement de la vie religieuse consiste à s’éloigner ? Au XIIe siècle, Jean de Salisbury assimilait celle d’Henri II Plantagenêt à l’Enfer. Comment ce qui est d’abord une manifestation de la puissance seigneuriale et le foyer d’une culture courtoise pourrait-il porter une vie spirituelle spécifique et approfondie ? Cette interrogation animait la demie journée ...

  20. Le vie del mare: i servizi di trasporto marittimo per la fruizione della costa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Papa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo affronta il tema dei servizi di trasporto marittimo come esempio di governo integrato e sostenibile trasporti-territorio. Le vie del mare possono costituire occasione di riqualificazione di intere fasce costiere, promuovere forme di mobilità alternative all’auto privata e favorire la valorizzazione e lo sviluppo dell’attività turistica di un’area. I servizi di trasporto marittimo possono consentire infatti un più agevole accesso alle mete turistiche sul mare o nelle zone più interne, attraverso forme di integrazione con altri sistemi di trasporto pubblico, con conseguente incremento del flusso turistico e, contestualmente, una riduzione del traffico veicolare su gomma sulle arterie principali. Partendo da queste considerazioni, l’articolo definisce teorie e metodi per la messa in servizio delle vie del mare lungo la costa e analizza cinque casi di studio nazionali evidenziando punti di forza e di debolezza delle diverse esperienze.

  1. Edward O.Wilson, L’Avenir de la vie, Seuil, Paris, 2003.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Callens

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available La notion de biodiversité a été introduite par un biologiste d’Oxford, Norman Myers. Edward O.Wilson avait écrit en 1992 l’ouvrage devenu un classique de la question, The Diversity of Life (ouvrage publié en traduction française : Edward O. Wilson, La diversité de la vie, Paris : Odile Jacob, 1993. Ce nouvel ouvrage, The Future of Life en v.o., ou L’Avenir de la vie en édition française, fait donc le point dix ans après le sommet de Rio qui a introduit la notion de biodiversité à l’échelle p...

  2. Participation des femmes dalits à la vie politique en Inde - utilisent ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Participation des femmes dalits à la vie politique en Inde - utilisent-elles la voie parlementaire pour se faire entendre ? L'initiative Gouvernance démocratique, droits des femmes et égalité entre les sexes du CRDI appuie un ensemble de recherches comparatives visant à déterminer si les institutions de démocratie et de ...

  3. Qualite de vie apres un accident vasculaire cerebral au Senegal: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Introduction: L'accident vasculaire cérébral (AVC) constitue une cause majeure de mortalité et de handicap chez les survivants. La qualité de vie dépend de la nature du handicap et de sa perception par le patient, son entourage et la communauté. Objectif: Notre objectif était d'évaluer le handicap après un AVC et ...

  4. Des messages textes peuvent sauver des vies en Asie du Sud ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Regarder le diaporama avec son. Imaginons un monde où la technologie mobile aide à sauver des vies en permettant de prévenir rapidement les autorités sanitaires de nouvelles éclosions de H1N1, de varicelle et de paludisme. Récemment, un groupe de réflexion sur les TIC, LIRNEasia, l'organisation non ...

  5. Life Cycle Assessment Applied to Naphtha Catalytic Reforming Analyse de cycle de vie appliquée au reformage catalytique du naphta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portha J.-F.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Facing the increase of environmental concerns in the oil and gas industry, engineers and scientists need information to assess sustainability of chemical processes. Among the different methods available, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA is widely used. In this study, LCA is applied to a catalytic reforming process using the Eco- Indicator 99 as life cycle impact assessment method. The main identified environmental impacts are fossil fuels consumption, climate change and respiratory effects due to inorganics compounds. The influence of different process parameters (feed composition, reaction temperature is determined with respect to environmental impacts. Two allocation methods are analysed (mass and exergetic allocation and two different process versions are compared in order to determine the effect of some improvements on environmental impact. Les considérations liées à l’environnement doivent de plus en plus être prises en compte par les ingénieurs et les scientifiques afin de juger de la durabilité des procédés chimiques dans l’industrie pétrolière et gazière. Parmi les différentes méthodes d’analyse environnementale, l’Analyse de Cycle de Vie (ACV est très utilisée. Dans cette étude, l’ACV est appliquée au procédé de reformage catalytique du naphta en utilisant la méthode Eco-Indicateur 99 comme méthode d’analyse des impacts du cycle de vie. Les principaux impacts environnementaux du procédé sont la consommation de combustibles fossiles, le changement climatique et les effets sur la respiration liés aux composés organiques. L’influence de différents paramètres (composition de l’alimentation, température de réaction sur les impacts environnementaux est testée. Deux méthodes d’allocation sont analysées (allocation massique et énergétique et deux versions du procédé de reformage catalytique sont comparées afin de déterminer les améliorations possibles permettant de minimiser les impacts.

  6. Le Cosmos d'Alexandre von Humboldt et La Tentation de saint Antoine de Gustave Flaubert : deux œuvres de toute une vie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Orr

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans le septième et dernier tableau de La Tentation de saint Antoine de 1874, la fin célèbre est mise en contexte par une description longue et détaillée qui n’a jamais attiré l’attention critique qu’elle mérite. Cet article analyse l’importance de ce panorama du monde naturel sous la forme d’une exploration intertextuelle des passages du Cosmos d’Alexandre de Humboldt. Que Flaubert signale ses lectures de l’œuvre de Humboldt dans sa Correspondance de 1860 suggère des liens très riches entre Le Cosmos – que Humboldt désigne comme « l’œuvre de ma vie » – et la Tentation de saint Antoine définitive que Flaubert retravaillait au même moment. Cette relecture de La Tentation à travers la perspective de Humboldt souligne la place importante du Cosmos parmi les découvertes et les textes scientifiques contemporains de Flaubert, et la manière dont ceux-ci informent la vision de la vie scientifique et religieuse de son protagoniste, Antoine.In the seventh and final tableau of the Tentation de Saint Antoine of 1874, the famous finale is set in the context of a long, detailed description which has not attracted the critical attention it deserves. This article focuses on the importance of this panorama of the natural world as an intertextual exploration of passages from Kosmos by Alexander von Humboldt. The fact that Flaubert’s Correspondance of 1860 mentions his reading of Humboldt’s works suggests rich lines of investigation between Kosmos – which Humboldt calls the « work of all of life » and the final Tentation de Saint Antoine,which Flaubert was reworking at the same moment. This re-reading of the Tentation through the optic of Humboldt underscores the pivotal position of Kosmos amid the scientific discoveries and texts contemporary to Flaubert, and how these inform the vision of life of his protagonist, Antoine, as scientific and religious.

  7. Brachinites: A New Primitive Achondrite Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehru, C. E.; Prinz, M.; Weisberg, M. K.; Ebihara, M.; Clayton, R. N.; Mayeda, T. K.

    1992-07-01

    distinct primitive achondrite (near-chondritic compositions, achondritic textures) group that is highly oxidized (equivalent to L group). (3) Brachinites (BRA) evolved from chondritic material as did the reduced (intermediate between H and E groups) IAB-winonaites (IAB-WIN) and acapulcoites (ACA). (4) They all experienced some melting (plag depletion) and recrystallization to type 6 or 7 grade. Brachinite equilibration temperatures (using three thermometers) are in the 1000-1050 degree C range. (5) The compositions and abundances of ol, opx, and metal in the IAB-WIN, ACA, and BRA groups indicates that they experienced different amounts of oxidation of metallic Fe during heating, probably promoted by an aqueous vapor derived from accreted ices. This sequence is analogous to that proposed for oxidation of ordinary chondrites [8]. (6) The high ol/opx ratio and Fe-rich mineralogy of brachinites is a result of the reaction MgSiO3 + Fe^o + 1/2 O2 --> (Mg,Fe)2 SiO4, which converted chondritic silicates to highly oxidized ol-rich rocks. References: [1] Nehru, C.E. et al. (1983) Proc. 14th LPSC, Pt. 1, JGR 88, B237-B244. [2] Prinz, M. et al. (1986) LPSC XVII, 679-680. [3] Warren, P.H. and Kallemeyn, G.W. (1989) Proc. 19th LPSC, 475-486. [4] Kring, D.A. et al. (1991) Meteoritics 26, 360. [5] Kring, D.A. and Boynton, W.V. (1992) LPSC XXIII, 727-728. [6] Mason, B. (1991) Ant. Met. News. 14, No. 2, 22. [7] Ott, U. et al. (1985) Meteoritics 20, 69-78. [8] McSween, H.Y. and Labotka, T.C. (1992) GCA, in press.

  8. Context of culture: Critique of the primitive mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božilović Nikola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The author of this paper has the intention to reach the new meaning and sense of the primitive mentality by analyzing it in early social communities. He also wants to point out the possible reflections of the spirit and consciousness of our ancestors on us, here and now. The first part of the paper is dedicated to a critical deliberation on anthropological conflicts which have arisen concerning the reasoning power of the so-called primitives. The crucial question lies in the following: Is the difference between the “primitive” and the “civilized” mentality fundamental or is it possible only to a certain degree. The author takes the notion of primitive mentality through time and points to the medieval understandings, which are occupied by teratological themes, then to the renaissance comprehension, which relies on the first experiential observations, and, finally, to the enlightenment ideas of exotic peoples out of which the myth of “the good savage” is born. The nineteenth and twentieth centuries introduce the notions of “people’s character” and “national spirit”. The opinions are polarized, on the one hand of ethnocentrism, carried by the prejudice of people and ethnic groups and, on the other hand, of cultural relativism, based on the understanding and appreciation of cultural differences. In the end, the author also recognizes the modern primitive man, one who is not ready to deal with the challenges of his age. The modern primitive recalls the spirits of the past, the surviving and anachronic models of behavior, unaware of the fact that these are the same models that he has ascribed to “savages”. However, while such thinking and acting was justified by the cultural level at which our ancestors had lived, the mental frame of the contemporary primitives is significantly in contrast with the high level of civilization development.

  9. Le Cercle de vie : l'agriculture biologique au Mexique | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 juil. 2011 ... À Guadalajara, dans l'État du Jalisco, au Mexique, cinq ou six agriculteurs vendent toutes les deux semaines leurs produits biologiques d'alimentation et de nettoyage domestique dans un minuscule marché, dans la cour d'un participant accueillant.Pour Danielle Schami, productrice et réalisatrice du ...

  10. Portrait de la compression et de l'expansion de la morbidité au Canada : évolution de l'espérance de vie et de l'espérance de vie ajustée en fonction de la santé, 1994-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Steensma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Notre étude visait à examiner s'il y a eu une expansion ou une compression de la morbidité au Canada, à l'échelle tant nationale que provinciale, en suivant l'évolution de l'espérance de vie (EV et de l'espérance de vie ajustée en fonction de la santé (EVAS entre 1994 et 2010. Une « compression », qui correspond à une diminution de la proportion de la vie marquée par des problèmes de santé, survient lorsque l'EVAS augmente plus rapidement que l'EV. Inversement, une « expansion », qui désigne une augmentation de la proportion de la vie marquée par des problèmes de santé, survient lorsque l'EVAS est stable ou augmente plus lentement que l'EV. Méthodologie : Nous avons estimé l'EV à l'aide des données de Statistique Canada sur la mortalité et sur la population. Nous avons utilisé les données sur la qualité de vie liée à la santé (c.-à-d. morbidité de l'Enquête nationale sur la santé de la population (1994-1999 et de l'Enquête sur la santé dans les collectivités canadiennes (2000-2010 pour calculer l'EVAS. Nous avons établi des tables de mortalité abrégées pour sept intervalles de temps correspondant aux cycles d'enquête disponibles durant la période de 1994 à 2010, ainsi que pour les deux sexes et les dix provinces canadiennes. Les tendances nationales et provinciales ont été examinées à la naissance, à 20 ans et à 65 ans. Résultats : Dans l'ensemble, nous avons constaté une hausse annuelle moyenne statistiquement significative de l'EVAS chez les deux sexes aux trois âges évalués, sauf chez les nouveau-nés de sexe féminin. L'EVAS à la naissance a augmenté en moyenne par année, entre 1994 et 2010, de 0,2 % (p = 0,08 chez les sujets de sexe féminin et de 0,3% (p < 0,001 chez ceux de sexe masculin. À l'échelle nationale, les trois groupes d'âge ont présenté une augmentation annuelle moyenne non statistiquement significative de la proportion de la vie marquée par des

  11. Le mythe du microcèbe primitif The myth of the primitive mouse lemur

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    Fabien Génin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Les microcèbes (genre Microcebus, famille Cheirogaleidés sont de très petits lémuriens nocturnes endémiques de Madagascar, souvent vus comme les plus archaïques de tous les primates. Dans cette contribution, nous critiquons cette vue, véritable mythe des origines, qui n’est supportée ni par le registre fossile ni par les phylogénies les plus récentes. Nous proposons l’alternative d’une réduction de taille corporelle ou nanisme, un phénomène particulièrement fréquent sur les îles et dans les régions géographiquement isolées et soumises à des sécheresses imprévisibles provoquées par le phénomène El Niño. Nous confirmons le modèle de progénèse de Gould, qui explique le nanisme par des conditions hypervariables entrainant une accélération de l’histoire de vie. Les Cheirogaleidés apparaissent comme des nains paedomorphes comparés à leur groupe frère les Lépilémuridés (Lepilemur. Ils ont probablement subi au moins 3 évènements indépendants de nanisme, qui ont conduit à des changements parallèles des proportions de la tête et des membres (allométrie. Le premier (nanisme a conduit à une diminution de la taille du corps et des membres, sans changement significatif de la forme du crâne (à l’exception des dents chez les plus grandes formes de Cheirogaleidés (Phaner, Mirza, et les grandes formes du genre Cheirogaleus. Le second (hyper-nanisme a conduit à des changements parallèles de la forme du crâne chez les plus petites formes (Allocebus, Microcebus et les petites formes du genre Cheirogaleus, associés à des traits paedomorphiques typiques (grands yeux et petit museau pointu. Cette nouvelle hypothèse explique de nombreuses caractéristiques uniques de ce groupe de lémuriens, en particulier leurs histoires de vie rapides.Mouse lemurs (genus Microcebus, family Cheirogaleidae are small, nocturnal lemurs endemic to Madagascar, often viewed as the most archaic primates. In this contribution, we

  12. Vie et mort des cités du Jawf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémie Schiettecatte

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Cette communication est une approche archéogéographique des dynamiques de peuplement d’une large vallée du Yémen, le wâdî al‑Jawf. Par l’étude des sources épigraphiques et des données archéologiques, plusieurs sites archéologiques ont été renseignés au sein d’une base de données ; leur poids hiérarchique a été déterminé sur la base de considérations fonctionnelles et ils ont été analysés par le biais d’un système d’information géographique. Cartographier ces sites par période nous permet de mettre en évidence les dynamiques qui affectent le réseau urbain de cette région, prenant en considération le poids hiérarchique de chaque site, leur évolution au sein de l’armature urbaine et leur évolution à long terme.Au regard de ces cartes, d’anciennes considérations sur les causes du déclin de ces villes doivent être relativisées. Jusqu’à présent, des facteurs socio‑historiques étaient utilisés pour expliquer le déclin de ces villes sudarabiques. Mais si ces facteurs doivent être pris en considération, ce n’est que comme la cause directe ayant précipité ce déclin. La cause profonde semble liée à un recul du front de crue qui permettait la mise en culture des périmètres irrigués. En effet, la cartographie nous permet de montrer, dans une perspective dynamique, le déclin et la disparition des villes de l’aval vers l’amont. Ce retrait progressif se justifie d’une part par l’engorgement des systèmes hydrauliques de la vallée, mais également et surtout par le développement des systèmes de retenue d’eau et des terrasses agricoles sur les Hautes‑Terres, bassin versant de la vallée.This paper deals with an archaeological and geographical approach of the settlement process in a large valley of Yemen, the wâdî al‑Jawf. By studying epigraphic sources and archaeological data, several sites were informed within a database; their hierarchical status has been

  13. Pour une approche des inégalités écologiques à travers les définitions de la “ qualité du cadre de vie ”.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Brodach

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de cet article est de discuter du thème des inégalités écologiques selon le principe du développement durable. Le point de départ de cette réflexion est de montrer l’intérêt de définir la qualité de vie des espaces anthropisés selon les catégories socio-culturelles des habitants d’une même ville et de l’impact de ces différentes perceptions sur la qualité de l’environnement immédiat ainsi que sur l’environnement global. Les principales questions sont les suivantes : Quelle corrélation existe-t-il entre la spatialisation des inégalités sociales et celle des inégalités écologiques ? Qu’est-ce qu’un environnement urbain de “ bonne qualité ” par rapport à quels acteurs et quels indicateurs ? Quel est l’impact des perceptions du cadre de vie sur l’environnement, direct et global ? Comment les politiques d’amélioration du cadre de vie peuvent s’intégrer dans la problématique de la réduction des inégalités écologiques ? S’appuyant sur la valorisation de l’identité patrimoniale des quartiers, comment une politique environnementale et d’amélioration du cadre de vie peut participer au projet politique de la cohésion sociale et du développement durable ?This paper is a contribution to the study of ecological inequality from the point of view of the social and cultural analysis. First, this case study proposes to define the notion of "quality of life" in the urban areas for each social categories of the local population. The point of view is to show the impacts of these various representations of the nature on the local environment and the global environment. Secondly, the results suggest how an environmental strategy of conservation could combine a project of social cohesion and sustainable development.

  14. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RTOS AND PRIMITIVE INTERRUPT IN EMBEDDED SYSTEM

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    Dwi Purnomo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multitasking is one of the most challenging issues in the automation industry which is highly depended on the embedded system. There are two methods to perform multitasking in embedded system: RTOS and primitive interrupt. The main purpose of this research is to compare the performance of R¬TOS with primitive method while concurrently undertaking multiple tasks. The system, which is able to perform various tasks, has been built to evaluate the performance of both methods. There are four tasks introduced in the system: servo task, sensor task, LED task, and LCD task. The performance of each method is indicated by the success rate of the sensor task detection. Sensor task detection will be compared with the true value which is calculated and measured manually during observation time. Observation time was varied after several iterations and the data of the iteration are recorded for both RTOS and primitive interrupt methods. The results of the conducted experiments have shown that, RTOS is more accurate than interrupt method. However, the data variance of the primitive interrupt method is narrower than RTOS. Therefore, to choose a better method, an optimization is needed to be done and each product has its own standard.

  15. The Syntax of Time and Space Primitives in French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Bert

    1997-01-01

    Explores the combinatorial possibilities of semantic primitives of time and space in French, as defined in the theory of Natural Semantic Metalanguage. Highlights the need for new ways to express the allolexical relationship in some combinations, particularly those expressing "when/time." (Author/MSE)

  16. Sums of Power of the Primitive Roots of a Prime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 2. Sums of Power of the Primitive Roots of a Prime. Abhishek Saha. Classroom Volume 7 Issue 2 February 2002 pp 86-89. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/02/0086-0089 ...

  17. Developmental Approach for Behavior Learning Using Primitive Motion Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Farhan; Loo, Chu Kiong

    2017-08-06

    Imitation learning through self-exploration is essential in developing sensorimotor skills. Most developmental theories emphasize that social interactions, especially understanding of observed actions, could be first achieved through imitation, yet the discussion on the origin of primitive imitative abilities is often neglected, referring instead to the possibility of its innateness. This paper presents a developmental model of imitation learning based on the hypothesis that humanoid robot acquires imitative abilities as induced by sensorimotor associative learning through self-exploration. In designing such learning system, several key issues will be addressed: automatic segmentation of the observed actions into motion primitives using raw images acquired from the camera without requiring any kinematic model; incremental learning of spatio-temporal motion sequences to dynamically generates a topological structure in a self-stabilizing manner; organization of the learned data for easy and efficient retrieval using a dynamic associative memory; and utilizing segmented motion primitives to generate complex behavior by the combining these motion primitives. In our experiment, the self-posture is acquired through observing the image of its own body posture while performing the action in front of a mirror through body babbling. The complete architecture was evaluated by simulation and real robot experiments performed on DARwIn-OP humanoid robot.

  18. Reality and Rhetoric: Nigeria Prays, Yet Private Primitive Capital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion Dept

    2008-07-03

    Jul 3, 2008 ... Reality and Rhetoric: Nigeria Prays, Yet Private. Primitive Capital Accumulation Persists. Maximus N.O. Asogwa. Public Administration &. Local Government Studies. University of Nigeria. Nsukka. Abstract. Nigeria's status as an oil producing nation with an enormous revenue generation capacity from other ...

  19. A Test of Durkheim's Theory of Suicide in Primitive Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1992-01-01

    Classified primitive societies as high, moderate, or low on independent measures of social integration and social regulation to test Durkheim's theory of suicide. Estimated frequency of suicide did not differ between those societies predicted to have high, moderate, and low suicide rates. Durkheim's theory was not confirmed. (Author/NB)

  20. Generic expression hardness results for primitive positive formula comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Bova, Simone; Chen, Hubie; Valeriote, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    We study the expression complexity of two basic problems involving the comparison of primitive positive formulas: equivalence and containment. In particular, we study the complexity of these problems relative to finite relational structures. We present two generic hardness results for the studied problems, and discuss evidence that they are optimal and yield, for each of the problems, a complexity trichotomy.

  1. Les cadres de la décision de sédation en fin de vie au domicile : le point de vue des médecins de soins palliatifs

    OpenAIRE

    Legrand, Emilie; Mino, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Dans le débat public sur la fin de vie en France, le terme de « sédation » se fait de plus en plus entendre. Quels sont les enjeux concrets de cette nouvelle modalité des pratiques médicales qui consiste à endormir les patients proches de leur mort ? En France, de tels actes sont très mal connus, en particulier au domicile car ils sont très difficiles à observer voire inaccessibles. Nous avons mené une enquête qualitative par entretiens auprès de 27 médecins français formés aux soins palliati...

  2. Assessment of Primitive Reflexes in High-risk Newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Min; Ahn, Youngmee; Lee, Sangmi

    2011-12-01

    Assessment of primitive reflexes is one of the earliest, simplest, and most frequently used assessment tools among health care providers for newborns and young infants. However, very few data exist for high-risk infants in this topic. Among the various primitive reflexes, this study was undertaken particularly to describe the sucking, Babinski and Moro reflexes in high-risk newborns and to explore their relationships with clinical variables. This study is a cross-sectional descriptive study. Sixty seven high-risk newborns including full-term infants required intensive care as well as premature infants were recruited in a neonatal intensive care unit using convenient sampling method. The sucking, Babinski and Moro reflexes were assessed and classified by normal, abnormal and absence. To explore their relationships with clinical variables, birth-related variables, brain sonogram results, and behavioral state (the Anderson Behavioral State Scale, ABSS) and mental status (the Infant Coma Scale, ICS) were assessed. The sucking reflex presented a normal response most frequently (63.5%), followed by Babinski reflex (58.7%) and Moro reflex (42.9%). Newborns who presented normal sucking and Babinski reflex responses were more likely to have older gestational age, heavier birth and current weight, higher Apgar scores, shorter length of hospitalization, better respiratory conditions, and better mental status assessed by ICS, but not with Moro reflex. High risk newborns presented more frequent abnormal and absence responses of primitive reflex and the proportions of the responses varied by reflex. Further researches are necessary in exploring diverse aspects of primitive reflexes and revealing their clinical implication in the high-risk newborns that are unique and different to normal healthy newborns. Primitive reflex; High risk infants; Korean; Moro reflex; Sucking reflex; Babinski reflex; The Anderson Behavioral State Scale; Infant Coma Scale.

  3. Une approche internationale des initiatives de femmes dans l'ESS

    OpenAIRE

    Hersent, M.; Guérin, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Les initiatives de femmes dans l'économie sociale et solidaire prennent souvent la forme de l'entreprenariat collectif. Elle traduisent la résistance à un modèle établi et des aspirations à la justice sociale. En se dotant de leur propre forme d'organisation appuyée sur la polyvalence et le partage des responsabilités et des tâches, elles réinterrogent l’articulation entre vie familiale et vie professionnelle ainsi que les frontières entre rémunération et engagement bénévole. Mais le fa...

  4. O papel educativo da fotografia de vida selvagem Le rôle educatif de la photographie de la vie sauvage The educacional purpose of wildlife photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Bruzzo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este texto examina duas reportagens dos fotógrafos James Balog e Michael Nichols, da revista National Geographic, sobre animais selvagens em zoológicos para questionar o que nos ensinam as denominadas fotografias de animais a respeito do lugar reservado à vida selvagem na cultura contemporânea. Partindo das considerações do filósofo francês Didi-Huberman e de estudos sobre a domesticação, busca-se fornecer subsídios para compreender o propósito educativo da fotografia de animais.Ce texte examine deux reportages des photographes James Balog et Michael Nichols, de la revue National Geographic, sur les animaux sauvages dans des parcs zoologiques pour questionner ce que nous enseigne les dites photographies d′animaux à propos de la place réservée à la vie sauvage dans la culture contemporaine. Partant des considérations du philosophe français Didi-Huberman et d′études sur la domestication, on cherche à apporter des éléments pour comprendre l′objectif éducatif de la photographie d′animaux.The intention of this paper is to examining two articles of National Geographic photographers James Balog and Michael Nichols on wild animals kept in zoos in order to questioning what the so called photographs of wild animals can teach us on wildlife proper space in contemporary culture. Considering French philosopher′s Didi-Huberman assumptions as well as studies on domestication this paper tries to provide information in order to understand the educational purpose of animal photography.

  5. Corrélats de la violence entre conjoints et en milieu familial chez les Canadiens âgés : une approche fondée sur les parcours de vie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Miszkurka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : La connaissance des corrélats personnels et interpersonnels de la violence chez les aînés canadiens est limitée. Cette étude établit les corrélats de la violence actuelle et passée infligée par un conjoint ou un membre de la famille chez les aînés canadiens résidant dans la collectivité, en tenant compte des conditions défavorables dans l'enfance. Méthodologie : Nous avons procédé à une analyse de régression logistique des données de base d'une étude longitudinale sur des personnes de 65 à 74 ans résidant dans la collectivité à Kingston (Ontario et à Saint-Hyacinthe (Québec. La violence familiale a été mesurée avec l'outil d'évaluation du risque Frapper-Insulter-Menacer-Crier (FIMC (Hurt-Insult-Threaten-Scream, HITS. Les rapports de cotes (RC ont été établis avec un intervalle de confiance (IC à 95 %. Résultats : Dix-huit pour cent des sujets de l'échantillon ont déclaré subir de la violence de nature psychologique. Les femmes présentaient un risque plus élevé que les hommes de subir ou d'avoir subi de la violence de la part d'un membre de leur famille (violence actuelle : RC ajusté = 1,83; IC à 95 % : 1,02 à 3,30 et de la part d'un conjoint au cours de leur vie (RC ajusté = 2,48; IC à 95 % : 1,40 à 4,37. Les facteurs de risque accumulés au cours de la vie associés systématiquement à la violence actuelle et passée sont d'avoir été témoin de violence domestique dans l'enfance (violence au cours de la vie infligée par un membre de la famille : RC ajusté = 9,46; IC à 95 % : 5,11 à 17,52 ainsi que des relations de mauvaise qualité avec le conjoint, la famille et les amis. Conclusion : Notre recherche documente les conséquences à long terme de conditions défavorables dans l'enfance sur la violence conjugale et familiale au Canada. Nos résultats isolent certains facteurs évitables associés à la violence psychologique actuelle et passée chez les personnes âgées r

  6. ANATOMIA CANTITATIVĂ A EPIDERMEI LAMINEI FRUNZEI LA VIŢA DE VIE (VITIS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin CODREANU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pentru a evidenţia caracterele adaptive ale rezistenţei la secetă a viţei de vie, sunt calculate valorile biometrice a 11 caractere anatomice ale epidermei laminei frunzei la 15 specii ale genului Vitis L. şi la 15 soiuri de viţă de vie locale ale speciei Vitis vinifera L.Tipul morfologic actinocit al aparatelor (complexelor stomatice este caracteristic pentru epiderma abaxială a laminei frunzei la viţa de vie (Vitis L..Speciile genului Vitis L. – Vitis californica, V. sylvestris – şi soiurile viţei de vie locale – Coarna neagră, Copciac, Plavae – s-au dovedit a fi mai adaptate la condiţiile concrete de viaţă, deoarece ele nu şi-au schimbat semnificativ den­sitatea stomatelor în anul 2008, an ce a urmat după anul secetos 2007.Mai adaptabile la noile condiţii de viaţă sunt speciile V. monticola, V. rupestris, V.solonis şi soiurile de viţă de vie locale Feteasca neagră şi Rara neagră, la care densitatea stomatelor s-au schimbat destul de mult în anul 2008.Este elaborată metoda de determinare a ariei medii a stomatelor şi a celulelor bazale ale epidermei abaxiale a laminei frunzei la viţa de vie (Vitis L..  THE QUANTITATIVE ANATOMY OF LEAF BLADE EPIDERMIS OF GRAPEVINE (VITIS L.In order to revial adaptable characters of drought resistance of grapevine, are calculated the biometric values of 11 anatomic characters of leaf blade epidermis at 15 species of genus Vitis L. and 15 local cultivars of species Vitis vinifera L.The stomatal density per 1 mm2 of foliar area is specific and sortspecific and varies from 101,14 stomata/mm2, at local sort Rara neagră to 225,50 stomata/mm2, at Vitis silvestris.The stomatal complex of leaf blade abaxial epidermis of studied species and cultivars of grapevine is of actinocytic type and it is characteristic for the genus Vitis L.The species of genus Vitis L. – V. californica, V. sylvestris – and local cultivars – Coarna neagră, Copciac and Plavae – are more adaptable

  7. DaVIE: Database for the Visualization and Integration of Epigenetic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Peter Fejes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges in the analysis of large data sets, particularly in a population-based setting, is the ability to perform comparisons across projects. This has to be done in such a way that the integrity of each individual project is maintained, while ensuring that the data are comparable across projects. These issues are beginning to be observed in human DNA methylation studies, as the Illumina 450k platform and next generation sequencing-based assays grow in popularity and decrease in price. This increase in productivity is enabling new insights into epigenetics, but also requires the development of pipelines and software capable of handling the large volumes of data. The specific problems inherent in creating a platform for the storage, comparison, integration and visualization of DNA methylation data include data storage, algorithm efficiency and ability to interpret the results to derive biological meaning from them. Databases provide a ready-made solution to these issues, but as yet no tools exist that that leverage these advantages while providing an intuitive user interface for interpreting results in a genomic context.We have addressed this void by integrating a database to store DNA methylation data with a web interface to query and visualize the database and a set of libraries for more complex analysis. The resulting platform is called DaVIE: Database for the Visualization and I of Epigenetics data. DaVIE can use data culled from a variety of sources, and the web interface includes the ability to group samples by sub-type, compare multiple projects and visualize genomic features in relation to sites of interest. We have used DaVIE to identify patterns of DNA methylation in specific project and across different projects, identify outlier samples, and cross-check differentially methylated CpG sites identified in specific projects across large numbers of samples.

  8. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the orbit in a 5-year-old girl with microphthalmia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alyahya, Ghassan Ayish Jabur; Heegaard, Steffen; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2000-01-01

    ophthalmology, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), Ewing's sarcoma, small round-cell tumors, retinoblastoma, medulloepithelioma, microphthalmia, orbitotomy......ophthalmology, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), Ewing's sarcoma, small round-cell tumors, retinoblastoma, medulloepithelioma, microphthalmia, orbitotomy...

  9. Berne Mauricette & Monod, Ambroise (dir.), 2010, Théodore Monod. Archives d’une vie

    OpenAIRE

    Bondaz, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Publié à l’occasion du dixième anniversaire de la mort de Théodore Monod (1902-2000), ce beau livre propose moins une biographie intellectuelle du scientifique qu’un récit de la vie quotidienne du chercheur, entre carrière professionnelle et coulisses familiales. la plupart des textes sont d’ailleurs écrits par Ambroise Monod, le plus jeune des trois enfants du savant, qui mobilise ses souvenirs personnels pour compléter les écrits intimes ou autobiographiques de ses parents. l’hommage et l’é...

  10. Morphological Study of Insoluble Organic Matter Residues from Primitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changela, H. G.; Stroud, R. M.; Peeters, Z.; Nittler, L. R.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; DeGregorio, B. T.; Cody, G. D.

    2012-01-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) constitutes a major proportion, 70-99%, of the total organic carbon found in primitive chondrites [1, 2]. One characteristic morphological component of IOM is nanoglobules [3, 4]. Some nanoglobules exhibit large N-15 and D enrichments relative to solar values, indicating that they likely originated in the ISM or the outskirts of the protoplanetary disk [3]. A recent study of samples from the Tagish Lake meteorite with varying levels of hydrothermal alteration suggest that nanoglobule abundance decreases with increasing hydrothermal alteration [5]. The aim of this study is to further document the morphologies of IOM from a range of primitive chondrites in order to determine any correlation of morphology with petrographic grade and chondrite class that could constrain the formation and/or alteration mechanisms.

  11. Quantifying Mapping Orbit Performance in the Vicinity of Primitive Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlak, Thomas A.; Broschart, Stephen B.; Lantoine, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Predicting and quantifying the capability of mapping orbits in the vicinity of primitive bodies is challenging given the complex orbit geometries that exist and the irregular shape of the bodies themselves. This paper employs various quantitative metrics to characterize the performance and relative effectiveness of various types of mapping orbits including terminator, quasi-terminator, hovering, ping pong, and conic-like trajectories. Metrics of interest include surface area coverage, lighting conditions, and the variety of viewing angles achieved. The metrics discussed in this investigation are intended to enable mission designers and project stakeholders to better characterize candidate mapping orbits during preliminary mission formulation activities. The goal of this investigation is to understand the trade space associated with carrying out remote sensing campaigns at small primitive bodies in the context of a robotic space mission. Specifically, this study seeks to understand the surface viewing geometries, ranges, etc. that are available from several commonly proposed mapping orbits architectures

  12. Formalizing the Relationship Between Commitment and Basic Cryptographic Primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sree Vivek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Signcryption is a cryptographic primitive which offers the functionality of both digital signature and encryption with lower combined computational cost. On the other hand, commitment scheme allows an entity to commit to a value, where the entity reveals the committed value later during a decommit phase. In this paper, we explore the connection between commitment schemes, public key encryption, digital signatures and signcryption. We establish formal relationship between commitment and the other primitives. Our main result is that we show signcryption can be used as a commitment scheme with appropriate security notions. We show that if the underlying signcryption scheme is IND-CCA2 secure, then the hiding property of the commitment scheme is satisfied. Similarly, we show that if the underlying signcryption scheme is unforgeable, then the relaxed biding property of the commitment scheme is satisfied. Moreover, we prove that if the underlying signcryption scheme is NM-CCA2, then the commitment scheme is non-malleable.

  13. Neoplastic meningitis as the presentation of occult primitive neuroectodermal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, M T; Slatkin, N; D'Angelo, M; Ketonen, L; Johnson, M D; Rosenblum, M; Creasy, J; Tulipan, N; Walker, R

    1993-10-01

    Seven children and young adults initially presented with subacute meningitis and/or increased intracranial pressure. The diagnosis of neoplastic meningitis secondary to a primitive neuroectodermal neoplasm was delayed by the absence of an obvious primary tumor. The neuroradiologic appearance was that of a basimeningeal infiltrative process, complicated by communicating hydrocephalus or "pseudotumor cerebri." Myelography was important in the diagnosis of disseminated meningeal malignancy in four cases. Cerebrospinal fluid cytologic diagnosis was insensitive but ultimately confirmed in five cases. All seven patients experienced progressive disease despite neuraxis radiotherapy and intensive chemotherapy; six have died. Systemic dissemination to bone and/or peritoneum occurred in three patients while on therapy. In two, a primary parenchymal brain or spinal cord tumor could not be identified at postmortem examination. The presentation of a primitive neuroectodermal tumor as subacute meningitis without an evident primary tumor heralds an aggressive and refractory neoplasm.

  14. Deuterium enrichment in the primitive ices of the protosolar nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Barry L.; Owen, Tobias; De Bergh, Catherine

    1990-01-01

    On the basis of CH3D/CH4-ratio observations in the outer planets, the present effort to estimate the D/H ratio of the protosolar nebula's primitive ices arrives at two simple, yet effectively limiting models which constrain the degree of dilution undergone by deuterated volatiles through mixing with the initial hydrogen envelopes. These volatiles would have been contributed to planetary atmospheres by evaporated primordial ices. Ice D/H ratio model results of 0.0001 to 0.001 are compared with values for other potentially primitive material-containing bodies in the solar system, as well as with D/H ratio values from interstellar polyatomic molecules.

  15. Search for Primitive Matter in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libourel, G.; Michel, P.; Delbo, M.; Ganino, C.; Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Zolensky, M. E.; Krot, A. N.

    2017-01-01

    Recent astronomical observations and theoretical modeling led to a consensus regarding the global scenario of the formation of young stellar objects (YSO) from a cold molecular cloud of interstellar dust (organics and minerals) and gas that, in some cases, leads to the formation of a planetary system. In the case of our Solar System, which has already evolved for approximately 4567 Ma, the quest is to access, through the investigation of planets, moons, cometary and asteroidal bodies, meteorites, micrometeorites, and interplanetary dust particles, the primitive material that contains the key information about the early Solar System processes and its evolution. However, laboratory analyses of extraterrestrial samples, astronomical observations and dynamical models of the Solar System evolution have not brought yet any conclusive evidence on the nature and location of primitive matter in the Solar System, preventing a clear understanding of its early stages.

  16. POÉSIE ET RELIGION, LEURS RAPPORTS ET LEURS PARTICULARITÉS DANS LA VIE DE L’HOMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola KADI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the permanent connection that exists between literature and especially poetry, and the sacred. It is a delicate issue which deserves to be treated anyway, due to this stable coexistence even though has been objected over the centuries. We think that this relationship should not be left in limbo, because poets of all times have been inspired by the sacred as any other topic. It is time to leave behind the prejudices that characterize our modern era in terms of poetry with religious themes, and to highlight its incontestable aesthetic values.

  17. Mesure de durée de vie de porteurs minoritaires dans les structures semiconductrices de basse dimensionnalité

    OpenAIRE

    Daanoune, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    The minority carrier lifetime is one of the main parameters used to analyse the semiconductors quality and photoconductivity decay (PCD) is one of the most widely used lifetime characterization method. Thanks to the variety of automated equipment that has developed, lifetime measurement has become a routine technique to assess the quality of semiconductors. However, the micro and nano materials used in the photovoltaic and microelectronics industry require an adaptation of the existing method...

  18. Protection de la vie privée dans un monde numérique en Asie ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Telecentre Network Startup : Bangladesh - Mission 2011. The second generation of telecentres has seen the emergence of national-level networks in various parts of the word including the Ugandan Telecentre Network, Mission 2007 in India and Mission... View moreTelecentre Network Startup : Bangladesh - Mission 2011.

  19. Protection de la vie privée dans un monde numérique en Asie ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La croissance exponentielle de la capacité de stockage des données conjuguée à l'essor des médias sociaux et à la multiplication des applications commerciales en ligne offrent aux entreprises et aux gouvernements la possibilité ... Extrants. Évaluations. Evaluation of Privacy International. Téléchargez le PDF ...

  20. Primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumour – a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Venkataraman, Sundar; Pandian, Chelladurai; Kumar, Suresh A.

    2013-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET) are aggressive childhood malignancies and offer a significant challenge to treatment. A two years old female child presented with weakness both lower limbs. Preoperative MRI of the spine and paravertebral regionIso – hyper intense posterior placed extradural lesion, non contrast enhancing from D11-L2 levels with cord compression D9 to L3 laminectomy done. Granulation tissue found from D11 to L2. with cord compression. The granulation tissue removed in ...

  1. Transitions between Discrete and Rhythmic Primitives in a Unimanual Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar eSternad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Given the vast complexity of human actions and interactions with objects, we proposed that control of sensorimotor behavior may utilize dynamic primitives. However, greater computational simplicity may come at the cost of reduced versatility. Evidence for primitives may be garnered by revealing such limitations. This study tested subjects performing a sequence of progressively faster discrete movements, in order to stress the system. We hypothesized that the increasing pace would elicit a transition to rhythmic movements, assumed to be computationally and neurally more efficient. Abrupt transitions between the two types of movements would support the hypothesis that rhythmic and discrete movements are distinct primitives. Ten subjects performed planar point-to-point arm movements paced by a metronome: Starting at 2s the metronome intervals decreased by 36ms per cycle to 200ms, stayed at 200ms for several cycles, then increased by similar increments. Instructions emphasized to insert explicit stops between each movement with a duration that equaled the movement time. The experiment was performed with eyes open and closed, and with short and long metronome sounds, the latter explicitly specifying the dwell duration. Results showed that subjects matched instructed movement times but did not preserve the dwell times. Rather, they progressively reduced dwell time to zero, transitioning to continuous rhythmic movements before movement times reached their minimum. The acceleration profiles showed an abrupt change between discrete and rhythmic profiles. The loss of dwell time occurred earlier with long auditory specification, when subjects also showed evidence of predictive control. While evidence for hysteresis was weak, taken together, the results clearly indicated a transition between discrete and rhythmic movements, supporting the proposal that representation is based on primitives rather than on veridical internal models.

  2. Very Massive Stars in the Primitive Galaxy, IZw 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara

    2012-01-01

    IZw 18 is a local blue, compact dwarf galaxy that meets the requirements for a primitive galaxy: low halo mass greater than 10(exp 9) Msun, strong photoionizing radiation, no galactic outflow, and very low metallicity,log(O/H)+12=7.2. We will describe the properties and evolutionary status of very massive stars in IZw 18, based on UV photometry of individual stars in I Zw 18 and analysis of unresolved ultraviolet spectra of IZw 18-NW obtained with HST.

  3. Constraints from olivine-hosted melt inclusions in primitive magmas

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, Eleanor S.; Gibson, Sally A.; Maclennan, John; Heinonen, Jussi S.

    2017-01-01

    We present major and trace element compositions of 154 re-homogenised olivine-hosted melt inclusions found in primitive rocks (picrites and ferropicrites) from the Mesozoic Paraná–Etendeka and Karoo Continental Flood Basalt (CFB) provinces. The major element compositions of the melt inclusions, especially their Fe/Mg ratios, are variable and erratic, and attributed to the re-homogenisation process during sample preparation. In contrast, the trace element compositions of both the picrite and f...

  4. La forme pseudo tumorale de la tuberculose primitive du nasopharynx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La tuberculose primitive du nasopharynx est rare, nous présentons deux observations révélées par un aspect pseudo tumoral et à travers lesquelles nous soulevons le problème de diagnostic différentiel avec les lésions malignes du nasopharynx. La première observation concerne un jeune patient de 22 ans hospitalisé ...

  5. Polycomb enables primitive endoderm lineage priming in embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illingworth, Robert S; Hölzenspies, Jurriaan J; Roske, Fabian V

    2016-01-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), like the blastocyst from which they are derived, contain precursors of the epiblast (Epi) and primitive endoderm (PrEn) lineages. While transient in vivo, these precursor populations readily interconvert in vitro. We show that altered transcription is the driver...... polycomb with dynamic changes in transcription and stalled lineage commitment, allowing cells to explore alternative choices prior to a definitive decision....

  6. Le bilinguisme dans le récit autobiographique de Soumya Ammar-Khodja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Naziha Benbachir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available L'article présenté porte sur l'analyse d'un récit autobiographique de l'écrivain Soumya Ammar Khodja. L'auteure revient dans son texte sur sa trajectoire linguistique, elle évoque les différentes périodes de sa vie au contact des langues. Ainsi, nous allons tenter dans ce travail de confronter le cheminement linguistique de Soumya Ammar-Khodja à la structure narrative du récit de Vladimir Propp qui a été d'ailleurs reprise de manière intéressante dans le champ de la sociolinguistique.

  7. PRIMITIVE MATRICES AND GENERATORS OF PSEUDO RANDOM SEQUENCES OF GALOIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beletsky

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In theory and practice of information cryptographic protection one of the key problems is the forming a binary pseudo-random sequences (PRS with a maximum length with acceptable statistical characteristics. PRS generators are usually implemented by linear shift register (LSR of maximum period with linear feedback [1]. In this paper we extend the concept of LSR, assuming that each of its rank (memory cell can be in one of the following condition. Let’s call such registers “generalized linear shift register.” The research goal is to develop algorithms for constructing Galois and Fibonacci generalized matrix of n-order over the field , which uniquely determined both the structure of corresponding generalized of n-order LSR maximal period, and formed on their basis Galois PRS generators of maximum length. Thus the article presents the questions of formation the primitive generalized Fibonacci and Galois arbitrary order matrix over the prime field . The synthesis of matrices is based on the use of irreducible polynomials of degree and primitive elements of the extended field generated by polynomial. The constructing methods of Galois and Fibonacci conjugated primitive matrices are suggested. The using possibilities of such matrices in solving the problem of constructing generalized generators of Galois pseudo-random sequences are discussed.

  8. Slow dynamics in a primitive tetrahedral network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Michele, Cristiano; Tartaglia, Piero; Sciortino, Francesco

    2006-11-28

    We report extensive Monte Carlo and event-driven molecular dynamics simulations of the fluid and liquid phase of a primitive model for silica recently introduced by Ford et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 121, 8415 (2004)]. We evaluate the isodiffusivity lines in the temperature-density plane to provide an indication of the shape of the glass transition line. Except for large densities, arrest is driven by the onset of the tetrahedral bonding pattern and the resulting dynamics is strong in Angell's classification scheme [J. Non-Cryst. Solids 131-133, 13 (1991)]. We compare structural and dynamic properties with corresponding results of two recently studied primitive models of network forming liquids-a primitive model for water and an angular-constraint-free model of four-coordinated particles-to pin down the role of the geometric constraints associated with bonding. Eventually we discuss the similarities between "glass" formation in network forming liquids and "gel" formation in colloidal dispersions of patchy particles.

  9. C'est La Vie! The Game of Social Life: Using an Intersectionality Approach to Teach About Privilege and Structural Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramesfeld, Kosha D.; Good, Arla

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present the results of two studies that evaluated an experiential intersectionality awareness activity, "C'est La Vie: The Game of Social Life." For Study 1 (N = 55), we content analyzed students' short answer responses about inequality written before and after playing "C'est La Vie." Study 2 compared a…

  10. Rachid Boudjedra's Representations of Terrorism: Le vainqueur de coupe and La Vie à l'endroit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne D. Rogers

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary fiction either idealizes or demonizes the terrorist as a cultural figure of collective values. In his two contemporary novels, Le vainqueur de coupe and La vie à l'endroit , Rachid Boudjedra, an Algerian novelist, renders two very distinct narratives although both center around terrorist activity and a major sporting event. The first novel is a sympathetic portrait of a young Algerian who gives up his studies to become part of L'Organization. Sentenced to life imprisonment, the young man becomes an international hero. Le vainqueur de coupe offers an explanation for understanding terrorism. In the second novel, La Vie à I'endroit , written sixteen years later, Boudjedra describes the horrors of living under a reign of terrorism for a man similar to himself and his lover, an European doctor. The striking discrepancy in the posture taken towards terrorism in the two novels reveals the need for a closer look at the social complexities and human ethics involved in today's violence and the romanticization of the terrorist as a literary hero. While the first novel makes a compassionate plea for humanizing the terrorist, the second novel witnesses the deadly aftermath of political self-righteousness rooted in past victimization.

  11. Panorama des pensions 2011 les systèmes de retraites dans les pays de l'OCDE et du G20

    CERN Document Server

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2011-01-01

    Cette quatrième édition des Pensions dans les pays de l’OCDE est consacrée aux pensions, aux départs en retraite et à l’espérance de vie. De nombreux pays ont relevé l’âge de la retraite pour répondre au vieillissement de la population et à l’allongement de la vie. Certains ont introduit un mécanisme d’indexation automatique des pensions sur l’espérance de vie. De plus, l’amélioration des dispositifs incitant les actifs à rester en activité au lieu de faire valoir leurs droits à retraite est commune à bien des programmes de réforme récemment mis en place dans ce domaine. Néanmoins, s’assurer que les emplois disponibles pour les plus âgés sont en nombre suffisant tient encore de la gageure. Les grandes problématiques des politiques conduites de nos jours en matière de retraite sont analysées de près dans cinq chapitres thématiques portant sur les aspects suivants : âge de la retraite, comportement vis-à-vis de la retraite, incitations au départ induites par le sys...

  12. DaVIE: Database for the Visualization and Integration of Epigenetic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejes, Anthony P; Jones, Meaghan J; Kobor, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges in the analysis of large data sets, particularly in a population-based setting, is the ability to perform comparisons across projects. This has to be done in such a way that the integrity of each individual project is maintained, while ensuring that the data are comparable across projects. These issues are beginning to be observed in human DNA methylation studies, as the Illumina 450k platform and next generation sequencing-based assays grow in popularity and decrease in price. This increase in productivity is enabling new insights into epigenetics, but also requires the development of pipelines and software capable of handling the large volumes of data. The specific problems inherent in creating a platform for the storage, comparison, integration, and visualization of DNA methylation data include data storage, algorithm efficiency and ability to interpret the results to derive biological meaning from them. Databases provide a ready-made solution to these issues, but as yet no tools exist that that leverage these advantages while providing an intuitive user interface for interpreting results in a genomic context. We have addressed this void by integrating a database to store DNA methylation data with a web interface to query and visualize the database and a set of libraries for more complex analysis. The resulting platform is called DaVIE: Database for the Visualization and Integration of Epigenetics data. DaVIE can use data culled from a variety of sources, and the web interface includes the ability to group samples by sub-type, compare multiple projects and visualize genomic features in relation to sites of interest. We have used DaVIE to identify patterns of DNA methylation in specific projects and across different projects, identify outlier samples, and cross-check differentially methylated CpG sites identified in specific projects across large numbers of samples. A demonstration server has been setup using GEO data at http

  13. Intertextualité picturale dans La Rabouilleuse de Honoré de Balzac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... de mettre en exergue ses lectures, ses hantises ou ses obsessions mais aussi, ses compétences culturelles. De là, on arrive aux difficultés qu.il rencontre et aux théories qu.il défend dans la vie artistique du XIX ème siècle et enfin aux personnes qu.il représente. Mots clés: intertextualité, peinture, personage, imitation, ...

  14. The primitive extratesticular seminoma: diagnosis of a rare pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Luca

    2017-04-28

     Background: The Primitive Extratesticular Seminoma is a very rare condition and represents 3% of germ cell tumors; it is an indeterminate origin disease, whose diagnosis is often complicated by a nonspecific and highly variable clinical finding. A caucasian 55 years old male, non-smoker, arrived to our centre with cough, severe respiratory distress and dysphagia, in a context of the superior vena cava syndrome. A Computed Tomography was performed, which shows the presence of a mediastinal anterior mass with aorto-pulmonary window and left paracardiac invasion. A biopsy of the mediastinal mass was performed with mediastinoscopy; the hystological diagnosis was seminoma. After, first of all the 18FDG PET-CT is performed, which shows the presence of an intense hypermetabolism (SUV max=20.3 and metabolic volume 867 cc) at the level of bulky mediastinal mass, with paratracheal, aorto-pulmonary window and left paracardiac invasion. The mass presents also a sternal manubrium invasion. There were no other detectable tissue metabolic alterations with the 18FDG PET-CT and, in particular, the testicles examination was negative. A bilateral testicular ultrasound (US) was executed, which confirms the absence of testicular germ tumor. Clinical laboratory tests show a significant increase of beta-HCG (123 IU/L); AFP is negative. A final diagnosis of primitive extratesticular seminoma was carried. The Primitive Extratesticolar Seminoma is a rare patology, and, for its massive size at the onset diagnosis, curable in early stage often only with radiochemotherapy. The Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, as Testicular Ultrasound, the CT with contrast medium and the 18FDG PET-CT total body examination, are fundamental to the staging and localisation. MRI sometimes is useful for testicular evaluation. The biopsy is needed for tissue characterization.

  15. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, See Hyung; Cho, Jae Ho; Chang, Jay Chun; Park, Bok Hawn [School of Medicine, Yeungnam Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is relatively uncommon, arising outside the central nervous system. Very rarely, it occurs within the urinary system. A 55-year-old woman presented with gross hematuria and right flank pain which had begun two months earlier. A well-marginated, low-density mass containing high-density portions representing hemorrhage was seen in the right kidney at pre-enhanced CT; contrast enhancement was not prominent. As both T1- and T2- weighted MR imaging, a multilocular cystic mass with high signal intensity portions representing hemorrhage was observed. Contrast enhancement was absent. We report the radiologic findings in the case of renal PNET.

  16. Synthesis of putrescine under possible primitive earth conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carlos; Santiago, J. Carlos; Rodriguez-Paez, Lorena; Ibánez, Miguel; Baeza, Isabel; Oró, J.

    1991-05-01

    The synthesis of putrescine was accomplished by decarboxylation of L-orithine when this amino acid was heated in aqueous solution and in the absence of oxygen. Chromatographic, radioisotopic, and enzymatic techniques were used to demonstrate that one mole of non-radioactive putrescine and one mole of14CO2 was formed during the heating of L-(1-14C)-ornithine. This work indicates that the synthesis of putrescine can occur starting with ornithine and in conditions that are presumed could have existed on the primitive Earth. The possible significance of these results in the prebiotic molecular evolution is briefly discussed.

  17. An Incidentaloma: Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne M. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After presenting for a routine screening exam, and 57-year-old man was diagnosed with an incidentaloma—a primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET of the thymus. A member of the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors, a PNET is typically regarded as a malignancy of childhood and adolescence, usually occurring in the central nervous system. In the case at hand, our patient had an extremely unusual presentation, given his age and tumor location. Initial presentation is the only predictor for long-term survival. Current treatment recommendations advocate complete surgical resection whenever possible, radiation therapy, and adjuvant versus neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  18. Uncommon pleural effusion: pleuropulmonary metastasis from primitive neuroectodermal tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Antonangelo, Leila; Rosa, Adriana Gonçalves; Corá, Aline Pivetta; Acencio, Milena Marques Pagliarelli; Moreira, Luís César; Suso, Francisco Vargas

    2009-01-01

    O tumor neuroectodérmico primitivo é uma neoplasia com diferenciação neural de comportamento invasivo que origina metástases para diversos órgãos. Relatamos um caso de tumor neuroectodérmico primitivo primário em axila com metástases para pulmão, pleura, osso, músculo ilíaco e medula óssea. Enfatizamos o achado incomum da análise citológica do líquido pleural.Primitive neuroectodermal tumor is an invasive neoplasm with neuronal differentiation, which frequently results in metastasis in variou...

  19. Claude Romano, Le chant de la vie, phénoménologie de Faulkner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Liénard

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Le chant de la vie s’achève sur la voix d’un autre géant de la littérature, Joseph Conrad, qui déclare : « La tâche que je m’efforce d’accomplir consiste par le seul pouvoir des mots écrits, à vous faire entendre, à vous faire sentir, et avant tout, à vous faire voir » (343. Le credo artistique conradien pourrait bien s’appliquer à Claude Romano pour son parcours philosophique de l’oeuvre de Faulkner qui est un dévoilement plus qu’une simple analyse. Ce que Romano fait en effet partager c’es...

  20. Profil épidémiologique des tumeurs malignes primitives des glandes salivaires : à propos de 154 cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setti, Khadija; Mouanis, Mohamed; Moumni, Abdelmounim; Maher, Mostafa; Harmouch, Amal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Les tumeurs des glandes salivaires sont des tumeurs rares représentant 3à 5% des tumeurs de la tête et du cou. La classification de l'OMS 2005 distingue les tumeurs épithéliales, les tumeurs mésenchymateuses, les tumeurs hématologiques et les tumeurs secondaires. Méthodes Notre travail consiste en une étude rétrospective réalisée sur une période de 10 ans allant de janvier 2002 à janvier 2012. Les critères d'inclusion étaient: l'âge, le sexe, le siège de la tumeur et le type histologique. Résultats L'incidence annuelle des tumeurs malignes primitives des glandes salivaires dans notre série était de 15 cas par an. Cent cinquante quatre cas de tumeurs malignes primitives des glandes salivaires ont été colligés sans prédominance de sexe (78 femmes (50,6%) et 76 hommes (49,4%)). La moyenne d'âge était de 60 ans avec des extrêmes de 4 et 83 ans et un pic de fréquence entre 51et 70 ans. Deux tiers des cas (65%) avaient une localisation au niveau des glandes principales avec 66 cas au niveau de la parotide (43%) et 34 cas au niveau de la glande sous maxillaire (22%). Cinquante quatre patients avaient une tumeur maligne des glandes salivaires accessoires (35%) dont 61% au niveau du palais. Aucun cas de tumeur maligne de la glande sublinguale n'a été recensé dans notre étude. Le type histologique prédominant dans notre série était le carcinome adénoïde kystique et retrouvé chez 43 patients (27,9%), suivi de l'adénocarcinome sans autre indication chez 37 patients (24%) puis du carcinome mucoépidermoïde chez 16 patients (10,4%) et de l'adénocarcinome polymorphe de bas grade également chez 16 patients (10. 4%). Conclusion Les tumeurs malignes des glandes salivaires représentent un ensemble hétérogène de maladies de caractérisation complexe et de fréquence variable. PMID:25120861

  1. Synthesis of phosphatidylcholine under possible primitive earth conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M.; Eichberg, J.; Oro, J.

    1982-01-01

    Using a primitive earth evaporating pond model, the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine was accomplished when a reaction mixture of choline chloride and disodium phosphatidate, in the presence of cyanamide and traces of acid, was evaporated and heated at temperatures ranging from 25 to 100 C for 7 hours. Optimum yields of about 15% were obtained at 80 C. Phosphatidylcholine was identified by chromatographic, chemical and enzymatic degradation methods. On enzymatic hydrolysis with phospholipase A2 and phospholipase C, lysophosphatidylcholine and phosphorylcholine were formed, respectively. Alkaline hydrolysis gave glycerophosphorylcholine. The synthesis of phosphatidylcholine as the major compound was accompanied by the formation of lysophosphatidylcholine in smaller amounts. Cyanamide was found to be essential for the formation of phosphatidylcholine, and only traces of HCl, of the order of that required to convert the disodium phosphatidate to free phosphatidic acid were found necessary for the synthesis. This work suggests that phosphatidylcholine, which is an essential component of most biological membranes, could have been synthesized on the primitive earth.

  2. An online gait generator for quadruped walking using motor primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlin Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents implementation of an online gait generator on a quadruped robot. Firstly, the design of a quadruped robot is presented. The robot contains four leg modules each of which is constructed by a 2 degrees of freedom (2-DOF five-bar parallel linkage mechanism. Together with other two rotational DOF, the leg module is able to perform 4-DOF movement. The parallel mechanism of the robot allows all the servos attached on the body frame, so that the leg mass is decreased and motor load can be balanced. Secondly, an online gait generator based on dynamic movement primitives for the walking control is presented. Dynamic movement primitives provide an approach to generate periodic trajectories and they can be modulated in real time, which makes the online adjustment of walking gaits possible. This gait controller is tested by the quadruped robot in regulating walking speed, switching between forward\\backward movements and steering. The controller is easy to apply, expand and is quite effective on phase coordination and online trajectory modulation. Results of simulated experiments are presented.

  3. Model selection for the extraction of movement primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik M Endres

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of blind source separation methods have been used in motor control research for the extraction of movement primitives from EMG and kinematic data. Popular examples are principal component analysis (PCA,independent component analysis (ICA, anechoic demixing, and the time-varying synergy model. However, choosing the parameters of these models, or indeed choosing the type of model, is often done in a heuristic fashion, driven by result expectations as much as by the data. We propose an objective criterion which allows to select the model type, number of primitives and the temporal smoothness prior. Our approach is based on a Laplace approximation to the posterior distribution of the parameters of a given blind source separation model, re-formulated as a Bayesian generative model.We first validate our criterion on ground truth data, showing that it performs at least as good as traditional model selection criteria (Bayesian information criterion, BIC and the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC. Then, we analyze human gait data, finding that an anechoic mixture model with a temporal smoothness constraint on the sources can best account for the data.

  4. Spermatozoa of the 'primitive type' in Scutigerella (Myriapoda, Symphyla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallai, R; Afzelius, B A

    2000-02-01

    The myriapod class Symphyla is of interest in that insects generally are assumed to be derived from symphylan-like ancestors. Male Symphyla form spermatophores that are picked up by the female. Both euspematozoa and paraspermatozoa are formed. In spite of the mode of fertilization their euspermatozoa were found to be of a kind that is typical of aquatic animals, so called 'primitive spermatozoa;' these are characterized by a short sperm head with a bilayered acrosome, a midpiece containing a few unmodified mitochondria, and a 9 + 2 flagellum. Scutigerella are unique among terrestrial arthropods in having 'primitive spermatozoa'; and together with horseshoe crabs they are only the second case in Arthropoda. Two further sperm plesiomorphies not found in other myriapods or insects are (1) the presence of a cytoplasmic canal housing the proximal flagellum and (2) the existence of microtubular triplets in centrioles, one of which acts as a basal body. Symphyla and Diplopoda both have a striated structure in the center of the subacrosomal material. The paraspermatozoa lack acrosome and nucleus but have a prominent crystal, a single mitochondrion, and two membrane systems. The structure of Scutigerella euspermatozoa is consistent with Symphyla being close to the stem group of Myriapoda plus Insecta.

  5. Crucial Role for Membrane Fluidity in Proliferation of Primitive Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Mercier

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The cell wall is a defining structural feature of the bacterial subkingdom. However, most bacteria are capable of mutating into a cell-wall-deficient “L-form” state, requiring remarkable physiological and structural adaptations. L-forms proliferate by an unusual membrane deformation and scission process that is independent of the conserved and normally essential FtsZ based division machinery, and which may provide a model for the replication of primitive cells. Candidate gene screening revealed no requirement for the cytoskeletal systems that might actively drive membrane deformation or scission. Instead, we uncovered a crucial role for branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA synthesis. BCFA-deficient mutants grow and undergo pulsating shape changes, but membrane scission fails, abolishing the separation of progeny cells. The failure in scission is associated with a reduction in membrane fluidity. The results identify a step in L-form proliferation and demonstrate that purely biophysical processes may have been sufficient for proliferation of primitive cells.

  6. Primitive soft-bodied cephalopods from the Cambrian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin R; Caron, Jean-Bernard

    2010-05-27

    The exquisite preservation of soft-bodied animals in Burgess Shale-type deposits provides important clues into the early evolution of body plans that emerged during the Cambrian explosion. Until now, such deposits have remained silent regarding the early evolution of extant molluscan lineages-in particular the cephalopods. Nautiloids, traditionally considered basal within the cephalopods, are generally depicted as evolving from a creeping Cambrian ancestor whose dorsal shell afforded protection and buoyancy. Although nautiloid-like shells occur from the Late Cambrian onwards, the fossil record provides little constraint on this model, or indeed on the early evolution of cephalopods. Here, we reinterpret the problematic Middle Cambrian animal Nectocaris pteryx as a primitive (that is, stem-group), non-mineralized cephalopod, based on new material from the Burgess Shale. Together with Nectocaris, the problematic Lower Cambrian taxa Petalilium and (probably) Vetustovermis form a distinctive clade, Nectocarididae, characterized by an open axial cavity with paired gills, wide lateral fins, a single pair of long, prehensile tentacles, a pair of non-faceted eyes on short stalks, and a large, flexible anterior funnel. This clade extends the cephalopods' fossil record by over 30 million years, and indicates that primitive cephalopods lacked a mineralized shell, were hyperbenthic, and were presumably carnivorous. The presence of a funnel suggests that jet propulsion evolved in cephalopods before the acquisition of a shell. The explosive diversification of mineralized cephalopods in the Ordovician may have an understated Cambrian 'fuse'.

  7. Les pratiques artistiques dans le champ de l'insertion professionnelle comme support de construction identitaire dans le passage à la vie adulte

    OpenAIRE

    Pittet, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to understand the place and function of artistic practices among young adults receiving social assistance who are part of a work integration process. Starting from conditions linked to development of identity in the transition to adulthood and the changes of the Social State, we were interested to understand how artistic and cultural practices in the field of social work may act as an alternative to support the access to vocational training in young adults. From an integrat...

  8. Primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumour - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Sundar; Pandian, Chelladurai; Kumar, Suresh A

    2013-04-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET) are aggressive childhood malignancies and offer a significant challenge to treatment. A two years old female child presented with weakness both lower limbs. Preoperative MRI of the spine and paravertebral regionIso - hyper intense posterior placed extradural lesion, non contrast enhancing from D11-L2 levels with cord compression D9 to L3 laminectomy done. Granulation tissue found from D11 to L2. with cord compression. The granulation tissue removed in toto. The pathological findings were consistent with PNET. Post operative neurological improvement was minimal. Cranial screening ruled out any intracranialtumour. Hence a diagnosis of primary spinal PNET was made. A review of the literature shows that only 19 cases of primary intraspinal PNETs have been reported to date and the present case extradural in location. Primary intraspinal PNETs are rare tumors and carry a poor prognosis.

  9. Role of Massive Stars in the Evolution of Primitive Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara

    2012-01-01

    An important factor controlling galaxy evolution is feedback from massive stars. It is believed that the nature and intensity of stellar feedback changes as a function of galaxy mass and metallicity. At low mass and metallicity, feedback from massive stars is mainly in the form of photoionizing radiation. At higher mass and metallicity, it is in stellar winds. IZw 18 is a local blue, compact dwarf galaxy that meets the requirements for a primitive galaxy: low halo mass greater than 10(exp 9)Msun, strong photoionizing radiation, no galactic outflow, and very low metallicity,log(O/H)+12=7.2. We will describe the properties of massive stars and their role in the evolution of IZw 18, based on analysis of ultraviolet images and spectra obtained with HST.

  10. LIF supports primitive endoderm expansion during pre-implantation development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgani, Sophie M; Brickman, Joshua M

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are pluripotent cell lines that can be maintained indefinitely in an early developmental state. ESC culture conditions almost always require the cytokine LIF to maintain self-renewal. As ESCs are not homogeneous but contain multiple populations reminiscent of the blast......Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are pluripotent cell lines that can be maintained indefinitely in an early developmental state. ESC culture conditions almost always require the cytokine LIF to maintain self-renewal. As ESCs are not homogeneous but contain multiple populations reminiscent...... report that LIF has two distinct roles: it blocks early epiblast (Epi) differentiation, and it supports the expansion of primitive endoderm (PrE)-primed ESCs and PrE in vivo. We find that activation of JAK/STAT signalling downstream of LIF occurs initially throughout the pre-implantation embryo...

  11. Small supratentorial, extraaxial primitive neuroectodermal tumor causing large intracerebral hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Kockro, Ralf A; Dohmen-Scheufler, Hildegard; Woernle, Christoph M; Bellut, David; Kollias, Spyros; Bertalanffy, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    A 16-year-old boy presented with an unusual case of a supratentorial, extraaxial small round blue cell tumor of the central nervous system, which was most likely a primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). Preoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a large multistage hematoma in the left central region. Intraoperatively, a small, superficial tumorous lesion was found between the sagittal sinus and a large cortical vein hidden by the hematoma. The histological diagnosis was PNET. This tumor is one of the most aggressive intracerebral tumors, not only in children, so treatment strategies must be early, profound, and interdisciplinary. This case represents an important example of atypical extraaxial appearance of this lesion, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cortical or subcortical hemorrhage, since complete resection of this lesion is critical for the successful treatment and outcome.

  12. A new kind of primitive chondrite, Allan Hills 85085

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Edward R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Allan Hills (ALH) 85085, a chemically and mineralogically unique chondrite whose components have suffered little metamorphism or alteration, is discussed. It is found that ALH 85085 has 4 wt pct chondrules (mean diameter 16 microns), 36 wt pct Fe, Ni, 56 wt pct lithic and mineral silicate fragments, and 2 wt pct trolite. It is suggested that, with the exception of matrix lumps, the components of ALH 85085 formed and accreted in the solar nebula. It is shown that ALH 85085 does not belong to any of the nine chondrite groups and is very different from Kakangari. Similarities between ALH 85085 and Bencubbin and Weatherford suggest that the latter two primitive meteorites may be chondrites with high metal abundances and very large, partly fragmented chondrules.

  13. Mise en scène théâtrale de la réflexion bioéthique autour des soins palliatifs et de la fin de vie par des élèves de première scientifique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dargent Géraldine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available L’atelier de bioéthique du Centre International de Valbonne concerne douze élèves de 1ère scientifique et se déroule sur le temps péri-scolaire. Ce groupe d’élèves, encadré par une équipe pédagogique et des intervenants du domaine de la santé et du théâtre a réfléchi sur le thème des soins palliatifs et de la fin de vie. Cette réflexion a été mise en scène par les élèves eux-mêmes, sous la forme d’une pièce de théâtre pour être présentée à la Journée de Bioéthique Jeunes à Aix en Provence, le 24 mars 2015. L’objectif de cet atelier a été de faire réfléchir les élèves sur leur position au sujet de la fin de vie et de susciter le débat et les échanges. Nous montrons dans cet article comment un atelier permet aux élèves d’exprimer et de faire évoluer leurs points de vue à travers une pièce de théâtre sur le thème des soins palliatifs et de la fin de vie.

  14. Lietuvos viešojo sektoriaus institucijų socialinės atsakomybės komunikacija

    OpenAIRE

    Bagdonaitė, Jovita

    2014-01-01

    Magistro darbo objektas – viešojo administravimo institucijų socialinė atsakomybė ir komunikacija. Darbo tikslas – išanalizavus teorinę medžiagą apie socialinės atsakomybės komunikacijos formas viešojo administravimo institucijose, nustatyti kaip jos komunikuoja savo socialinės atsakomybės iniciatyvas ir skatina kitų suinteresuotų grupių socialinę atsakomybę. Darbo uždaviniai: išanalizuoti socialinės atsakomybės ir jos komunikacijos reikšmę organizacijai; aptarti socialinės atsakomybės krypti...

  15. Niveaux d'analyse et cartographie thématique: groupes ethniques et conditions de vie en Bolivie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude ROUX

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Les cartes des conditions de vie en Bolivie montrent des formes d’organisation spatiale récurrentes coïncidant étroitement avec celle des langues quechua et aymara. Mais les conclusions sont tout autres lorsque change le niveau d’analyse notamment en raison des différienciations sociales qui apparaissent à l’échelle locale.

  16. Pathologies chroniques uniques ou multiples : leurs effets sur la qualité de vie sont-ils persistants ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Boxtel; Dr. Sil Aarts; M. van den Akker; F.R. Verhey; H. Bosma; F.E. Tan; J.F. Metsemakers

    2011-01-01

    Contexte La multimorbidité est définie par la coexistence d’au moins deux pathologies chroniques. De précédents travaux ont montré un retentissement négatif de la multimorbidité sur la qualité de vie mentale ou physique1. En soins primaires, la prévalence d’un état dépressif caractérisé est 3 fois

  17. In Pursuit of the Primitive: Van der Post's Lost World | Klopper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of my argument is the contradiction set up by the text between the representation of the primitive as other, and representation of the primitive as that which has been lost to the modern psyche but that can be recovered and reintegrated to yield plenitude of being. I conclude by suggesting that the language ...

  18. Sox7 is dispensable for primitive endoderm differentiation from mouse ES cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Masaki; Shimosato, Daisuke; Yamane, Mariko; Niwa, Hitoshi

    2015-10-16

    Primitive endoderm is a cell lineage segregated from the epiblast in the blastocyst and gives rise to parietal and visceral endoderm. Sox7 is a member of the SoxF gene family that is specifically expressed in primitive endoderm in the late blastocyst, although its function in this cell lineage remains unclear. Here we characterize the function of Sox7 in primitive endoderm differentiation using mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells as a model system. We show that ectopic expression of Sox7 in ES cells has a marginal effect on triggering differentiation into primitive endoderm-like cells. We also show that targeted disruption of Sox7 in ES cells does not affect differentiation into primitive endoderm cells in embryoid body formation as well as by forced expression of Gata6. These data indicate that Sox7 function is supplementary and not essential for this differentiation from ES cells.

  19. Le début d'une nouvelle vie pour de vieux ordinateurs | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    25 janv. 2011 ... Un projet financé par le CRDI qui fournit des ordinateurs aux écoles tout en créant des emplois permet de s'attaquer au problème environnemental causé par les déchets électroniques en Amérique latine et dans les Caraïbes.

  20. Graviton 1992-2009 : 17 ans d'articles et d'entretiens dans le journal du personnel du CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Ce recueil d'interviews, reportages et résumés historiques de la vie du CERN, est destiné à tous ceux qui sont désireux de connaître en quoi consiste le travail des chercheurs des particules élémentaires. [...] Dans un souci de brièveté, entre les articles publiés sur le Graviton, nous avons dû faire un choix obligatoirement subjectif, mais la bibliothèque du CERN dispose de l'ensemble des numéros publiés.

  1. Inondations dans l'Aude: risques et cadre réglementaire de la prévention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Chombard-Gaudin

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Les inondations qui ont particulièrement ravagé le département de l'Aude en novembre 1999 ne sont pas exceptionnelles. Face à de tels risques bien connus, seule une politique volontariste de mise en œuvre des outils réglementaires de prévention et la prise en compte des risques dans la gestion de l'espace peut minorer les conséquences sur les vies et les biens.

  2. Renforcer la résilience dans les collectivités touchées par le tsunami ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Lors du tsunami qui a frappé l'Asie du Sud en décembre 2004, des études ont indiqué qu'une épaisse végétation côtière, telles les mangroves, avait permis de sauver des vies et de réduire les pertes matérielles en servant de barrières naturelles. Par ailleurs, des villageois, comme ceux de Nallavadu dans le territoire de ...

  3. Stratégie de survie et culture de jeunes dans les marchés urbains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    8 déc. 2010 ... Les modalités d'entrée sont liées à des situations globales de précarité causées par les conditions de vie difficiles. L'entrée des adolescentes est définie ici comme le processus selon lequel l'adolescente évolue dans un secteur d'activité représenté par le micro-commerce afin d'en apprendre les ...

  4. Primitive off-rift basalts from Iceland and Jan Mayen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debaille, Vinciane; Trønnes, Reidar G.; Brandon, Alan D.

    2009-01-01

    and appear to be contaminated at a shallow level. The 187Os/188Os ratios in the remaining lavas with >30 ppt Os (n = 17) range between 0.12117 and 0.13324. These values are surprisingly low for oceanic island basalts and include some samples that are less than putative present-day primitive upper mantle (PUM...... with 187Os/188Os of 0.1296). These low 187Os/188Os preclude significant shallow-level contamination from oceanic crust. The 187Os/188Os ratios for Jan Mayen lavas are less than PUM, severely limiting the presence of any continental crust in their mantle source. A positive correlation between 143Nd/144Nd......-members. One end-member, characterized in particular by its unradiogenic 187Os/188Os and 143Nd/144Nd, low 3He/4He and high 87Sr/86Sr, is represented by subcontinental lithospheric mantle stranded and disseminated in the upper mantle during the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. The second end-member corresponds...

  5. Primitive reflexes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremolizzo, Lucio; Susani, Emanuela; Lunetta, Christian; Corbo, Massimo; Ferrarese, Carlo; Appollonio, Ildebrando

    2014-06-01

    Identifying frontal impairment in ALS is an important goal albeit disease-dedicated tools are still scarce. For this reason, we decided to consider primitive reflexes (PRs), variably regarded as correlates of frontal release and/or of upper motor neuron (UMN) impairment, often in the setting of dementias. Specifically, the aims of this work consisted in assessing the exact prevalence of the combination of seven PRs in ALS, trying to clarify their role as putative proxies of cognitive impairment or of UMN dysfunction. In this cross-sectional study, 50 consecutive ALS outpatients were evaluated for the presence of: palmomental (PM), corneomandibular (CM), glabella tap (MY), rooting, sucking, snout, and grasping reflexes. Cognitive screening was performed by the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and the Weigl's Sorting test (WST); UMN dysfunction was concomitantly evaluated. PM, CM and MY were more frequently detected (62, 52, and 44 % of the ALS sample, respectively), while the other reflexes were under-represented. Patients displaying three or more PRs had significantly lower FAB and WST scores. On the other hand, UMN dysfunction was only moderately associated to PRs. In conclusion, PRs' assessment is a promising complementary tool for screening cognitive impairment in ALS; however, further work will be necessary to establish its added value with respect to already existing ALS-dedicated screening tools for cognition.

  6. Primitive object love in Melanie Klein's thinking; early theoretical influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likierman, M

    1993-04-01

    Melanie Klein's thinking on early object love is pivotal to her vision of development. Yet within her texts it is often enmeshed in complex formulations that obscure its full significance. A greater clarity in viewing Klein's concept of early object love is achieved through tracing some of its historical origins. The author notes that it was inspired by aspects of Ferenczi's theory, hence its similarities with the concept of 'primary love' formulated by another of Ferenczi's analysands, Michael Balint. Ferenczi's thinking on the subject formed part of a broader network of theoretical developments in the history of psychoanalytic ideas. These are shown to have origins in Freud's fluctuations between a 'passive' and a 'genital' characterisation of infantile sexuality. A dialectical tension between these two possibilities, as maintained in the Freudian texts, was partly embodied in the differing outlooks of Klein's two psychoanalysts, Abraham and Ferenczi. The author suggests that it is a mixture of their approaches that partly shaped Klein's thinking on the earliest experiences of love. After outlining these developments the author analyses the nature of early object love as it emerges from Klein's powerful, if intermittent descriptions in the texts. The analysis also tackles a textual ambiguity in Klein's formulations, showing that she explored two kinds of primitive ideal experience without explicitly differentiating them. Such differentiation is important inasmuch as it highlights negative and positive aspects of Kleinian theory at root.

  7. Primary Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safi Khuri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET is a tumor of small round cells arising in skeletal tissues. These tumors rarely arise in the stomach. We present a 31-year-old healthy female patient who was admitted to our surgical ward due to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Upper endoscopy revealed a large ulcerated bleeding mass originating from the lesser curvature. Biopsy revealed tumor cell immunoreactivity positive for CD99, vimentin, and Ki67 (an index of proliferation. These findings were compatible with gastric ES/PNET. The fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis result for the EWSR1 gene rearrangement (11: 22 translocation was positive. The patient refused neoadjuvant treatment and thus underwent an operation during which a mass at the lesser curvature of the stomach was found. The mass was adhering to the pancreatic tail and to the mesentery of the transverse and descending colon. Total gastrectomy, distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy, and left adrenalectomy were done. The patient refused adjuvant treatment. She is free of disease 3 years after surgery.

  8. Canine malignant hemangiosarcoma as a model of primitive angiogenic endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosmire, Susan P; Dickerson, Erin B; Scott, Allyson M; Bianco, Stacie R; Pettengill, Marilyn J; Meylemans, Heather; Padilla, Marcia; Frazer-Abel, Ashley A; Akhtar, Nasim; Getzy, David M; Wojcieszyn, John; Breen, Matthew; Helfand, Stuart C; Modiano, Jaime F

    2004-05-01

    Hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a common untreatable cancer of dogs that resembles human angiosarcoma. Detailed studies of these diseases have been historically hindered by the paucity of suitable reagents. Here, we show that expression of CD117 (c-Kit) can distinguish primitive (malignant) from mature (benign) proliferative endothelial lesions, and we describe eight independent cell lines derived from canine HSA explants. Endothelial origin was confirmed by sustained expression of surface CD105 (endoglin), CD146 (MUC18), and CD51/CD61 (alpha(v)beta(3) integrin). The cell lines showed anchorage-independent growth and were motile and invasive when cultured on a basement membrane matrix. They required endothelial growth factors for growth and survival, and they could be induced to form tubular structures resembling blood vessels when cultured under low calcium conditions. The formation of vessel-like structures was blocked by nicotine, and restored by FK506, suggesting that 'nuclear factor of activated T cells' activity prevents differentiation of these cells. In summary, these cell lines represent a unique and novel resource to improve our understanding of endothelial cell biology in general and canine HSA in particular.

  9. Primitive retroperitoneal tumors. Vascular involvement--a major prognostic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, A M; Brătucu, E; Straja, N D; Daha, C; Marincaş, M; Cirimbei, C; Prunoiu, V

    2012-01-01

    Primitive retroperitoneal tumors, although very rare, arouse an increased interest, because of the poor prognosis, unsatisfactory surgical and complementary therapy results. Up to now, the very low number of cases has impeded the acquisition of a unitary view of these tumors, a unanimously accepted algorithm of diagnostic and treatment being absent. Randomized trials regarding the effects of different therapies have not been possible. The main factor that can fundamentally increase the survival of these patients is radical resection, some authors even recommending compartmental surgery. We found no significant statistical difference between the survival rates of the patients with different types of non-radical interventions, that shoud be therefore, as much as possible, avoided. Our study evidences that vascular involvement is the main limiting factor in achieving radicality. The involvement of large retroperitoneal vessels makes often impossible a radical intervention, usually because of the lack of an adequate material and human endowment for ample vascular resections followed by laborious reconstructions. That is why, in our study, vascular involvement was associated with a decreased survival rate for operated patients. Therefore, we underline the necessity both of a solid material base and of establishing multidisciplinary surgical teams for adequate vascular interventions in oncologic general surgery.

  10. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of adrenal: Clinical presentation and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Dutta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET of adrenal is an extremely rare tumor of neural crest origin. A nonfunctional left adrenal mass (14.6 × 10.5 × 10.0 cm on computed tomography (CT was detected in a 40-year-old lady with abdominal pain, swelling, and left pleural effusion. She underwent left adrenalectomy and left nephrectomy with retroperitoneal resection. Histopathology revealed sheets and nest of oval tumor cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, prominent nucleoli, scanty cytoplasm, brisk mitotic activity, necrosis, lymphovascular invasion, capsular invasion, and extension to the surrounding muscles; staining positive for Mic-2 (CD-99 antigen, vimentin, synaptophysin, and Melan-A. Thoracocentesis, pleural fluid study, and pleural biopsy did not show metastasis. She responded well to vincristine, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide followed by ifosfamide and etoposide (IE. This is the first report of adrenal peripheral PNET (pPNET from India. This report intends to highlight that pPNET should be suspected in a patient presenting with huge nonfunctional adrenal mass which may be confused with adrenocortical carcinoma.

  11. De l’adhésion à la connaissance. Vie religieuse et pastorale catholique

    OpenAIRE

    Dedieu, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Une page d’Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie m’a toujours frappé, celle ou dans son Montaillou, il écarte d’un revers de paume l’idée que la religion de ses héros puisse ressembler à un culte agraire : « Dieu, autour d’Ax, de Prades et de Tarascon, est plutôt Yahveh que Baal ; bien davantage souverain maître du salut dans l’”Au-dessus”, qu’Aide à faire pleuvoir, ou à conjurer tempête et typhus [...] Le salut de l’âme, voilà la grande affaire”. Fort bien. Mon expérience des papiers de l’Inquisition espa...

  12. un_focus - Une vie saine pour les femmes et les enfants vulnérables ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    24 oct. 2017 ... Il existe encore des défis importants à relever afin de garantir que les populations les plus vulnérables, y compris les femmes, les enfants et les adolescents, puissent vivre en bonne santé et profiter du mieux-être promis dans les Objectifs de développement durable. Leurs mauvaises conditions de santé ...

  13. Towards a quantum field theory of primitive string fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehl, W., E-mail: wue_ruehl@t-online.de [Technical University of Kaiserslautern, Department of Physics (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    We denote generating functions of massless even higher-spin fields 'primitive string fields' (PSF's). In an introduction we present the necessary definitions and derive propagators and currents of these PDF's on flat space. Their off-shell cubic interaction can be derived after all off-shell cubic interactions of triplets of higher-spin fields have become known. Then we discuss four-point functions of any quartet of PSF's. In subsequent sections we exploit the fact that higher-spin field theories in AdS{sub d+1} are determined by AdS/CFT correspondence from universality classes of critical systems in d-dimensional flat spaces. The O(N) invariant sectors of the O(N) vector models for 1 {<=} N {<=}{infinity} play for us the role of 'standard models', for varying N, they contain, e.g., the Ising model for N = 1 and the spherical model for N = {infinity}. A formula for the masses squared that break gauge symmetry for these O(N) classes is presented for d = 3. For the PSF on AdS space it is shown that it can be derived by lifting the PSF on flat space by a simple kernel which contains the sum over all spins. Finally we use an algorithm to derive all symmetric tensor higher-spin fields. They arise from monomials of scalar fields by derivation and selection of conformal (quasiprimary) fields. Typically one monomial produces a multiplet of spin s conformal higher-spin fields for all s {>=} 4, they are distinguished by their anomalous dimensions (in CFT{sub 3}) or by theirmass (in AdS{sub 4}). We sum over these multiplets and the spins to obtain 'string type fields', one for each such monomial.

  14. Towards a quantum field theory of primitive string fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühl, W.

    2012-10-01

    We denote generating functions of massless even higher-spin fields "primitive string fields" (PSF's). In an introduction we present the necessary definitions and derive propagators and currents of these PDF's on flat space. Their off-shell cubic interaction can be derived after all off-shell cubic interactions of triplets of higher-spin fields have become known. Then we discuss four-point functions of any quartet of PSF's. In subsequent sections we exploit the fact that higher-spin field theories in AdS d+1 are determined by AdS/CFT correspondence from universality classes of critical systems in d-dimensional flat spaces. The O( N) invariant sectors of the O( N) vector models for 1 ≤ N ≤∞ play for us the role of "standard models", for varying N, they contain, e.g., the Ising model for N = 1 and the spherical model for N = ∞. A formula for the masses squared that break gauge symmetry for these O( N) classes is presented for d = 3. For the PSF on AdS space it is shown that it can be derived by lifting the PSF on flat space by a simple kernel which contains the sum over all spins. Finally we use an algorithm to derive all symmetric tensor higher-spin fields. They arise from monomials of scalar fields by derivation and selection of conformal (quasiprimary) fields. Typically one monomial produces a multiplet of spin s conformal higher-spin fields for all s ≥ 4, they are distinguished by their anomalous dimensions (in CFT 3) or by theirmass (in AdS 4). We sum over these multiplets and the spins to obtain "string type fields", one for each such monomial.

  15. Deep Interior: Probing the Structure of Primitive Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphaug, Erik; Scheeres, Daniel; Safaeinili, Ali

    Deep Interior is a mature Discovery-class mission concept focused on probing the geophysical behavior of primitive bodies, from the mechanics of their exterior materials to the structures of their interiors. Its theme is to discover how small bodies work - to learn the natural origin and evolution of asteroids, comets and other primitive bodies through radar reflection tomography and through detailed observations of the local and global effects of cratering. Learning the structure and mechanical response of asteroids and comets is also a precursor to resource utilization and hazardous asteroid mitigation. Overall the mission is aligned with NASA strategic sub-goal 3C, to advance scientific knowledge of the origin and history of the solar system ... and the hazards and resources present as humans explore space. Deep Interior deploys no complex landers or sub-spacecraft; the scientific instruments are a radar and a camera. A blast cratering experiments triggered by grenades leads to a low cost seismological investigation which complements the radar investigation. A desired addition is an imaging spectrometer. The science instruments are high heritage, as are the navigation techniques for orbiting and station-keeping. The mission conducts the following investigations at one or more asteroids: Radar Reflection Tomography (RRT). The first science phase is to operate a penetrating radar during each several-month rendezvous, deployed in reflection mode in the manner of ongoing radar investigations underway by Mars Express, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and Kaguya. The RRT technique (Safaeinili et al., MAPS 2002) is analogous to performing a "CAT scan" from orbit: closely sampled radar echoes are processed to yield volumetric maps of mechanical and compositional boundaries, and to measure interior dielectric properties. Deep Interior utilizes a polar orbit (or station keeping) while the asteroid spins underneath; the result is to "peel the apple" with thousands of unique

  16. Etude de la désorption moléculaire induite par transitions électroniques dans les surfaces techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Le Pimpec, F

    2000-01-01

    L'étude des particules créées lors des collisions protons-protons à 7 TeV, qui se produiront dans le Large Hadron Collider (LHC), permettra aux physiciens des hautes énergies de mieux comprendre la structure de la matière et de notre univers. Pour construire une telle machine, de nouvelles technologies vont devoir être développées. Ces technologies nécessitent de mieux comprendre les problèmes physiques qui se produiront dans l'accélérateur. Un des problèmes est de s'assurer de la durée de vie des faisceaux. Celle-ci est directement liée au nombre de molécules présentes dans les chambres à vide..

  17. Recherche et caractérisation des bacilles thermophiles dans le lait pasteurisé de vache et le lait recombiné

    OpenAIRE

    Chouiti, Fadia

    2015-01-01

    Les thermophiles sont largement incriminés dans les problèmes d'altération du lait pasteurisé et d'autres produits laitiers et de la diminution de leurs durée de vie. Dans ce travail nous avons mis en évidence la présence des bacilles thermophiles dans le lait pasteurisé recombiné ou issu de lait de vache local. L'isolement des souches à été réalisé sur gélose trypticase soja à 55 °C. Les souches isolée sont caractérisé par une forte diversité phénotypique tels que montré par l...

  18. Internetinės rinkodaros įtaka viešbučių verslui Lietuvoje

    OpenAIRE

    Bielko, Juneta

    2012-01-01

    Magistro baigiamajame darbe išanalizuota ir įvertinta Lietuvos viešbučiuose taikomų internetinės rinkodaros priemonių efektyvumas, iškeltos pagrindinės internetinės rinkodaros naudojimo problemos bei pateikti siūlymai, kaip šias problemas spręsti. Pirmoje darbo dalyje, remiantis įvairiais Lietuvos ir užsienio autoriais pateikiama internetinės rinkodaros samprata, teoriniu aspektu tiriamas internetinės rinkodaros turinys, tikslai, komunikacijos priemonės, sąsaja su socialiniais tinklais. Taip ...

  19. Evaluation des traits de vie d'une espèce endémique du Maroc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cette étude a pour objectif la contribution à la détermination de la qualité physicochimique des eaux de l'Oued Sidi Rachid au Moyen Atlas où vit une espèce endémique du Maroc : la truite de rivière (Salmo trutta macrostigma, Duméril, 1858). L'étude des paramètres essentiels pour la vie de ce salmonidé au cours de la ...

  20. From primitive identity to the non-individuality of quantum objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenhart, Jonas Becker; Krause, Décio

    2014-05-01

    We consider the claim by Dorato and Morganti (Grades of individuality. A pluralistic view of identity in quantum mechanics and in the sciences. Philosophical Studies, 163 (2013) 591-610) that primitive individuality should be attributed to the entities dealt with by non-relativistic quantum mechanics. There are two central ingredients in the proposal: (i) in the case of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, individuality should be taken as a primitive notion and (ii) primitive individuality is naturalistically acceptable. We argue that, strictly understood, naturalism faces difficulties in helping to provide a theory with a unique principle of individuation. We also hold that even when taken in a loose sense, naturalism does not provide any sense in which one could hold that quantum mechanics endorses primitive individuality over non-individuality. Rather, we argue that non-individuality should be preferred based on the grounds that such a view fits better the claims of the theory.

  1. Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy of Calcium-Aluminium-Rich Inclusions: A Tool to Detect Primitive Asteroids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melwani Daswani, M.; Morlok, A.; Wolters, S. D.; Grady, M. M.

    2014-09-01

    Calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions in Vigarano, Ornans and Allende have characteristic refractory components that may help us identify primitive near-Earth asteroids through mid-IR space telescope spectrometers. We have identified some features.

  2. Analysis of primitive erythroid cell proliferation and enucleation using a cyan fluorescent reporter in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacaru, Andrei M; Isern, Joan; Fraser, Stuart T; Baron, Margaret H

    2013-11-01

    Primitive erythropoiesis is a vital process for mammalian embryonic development. Here we report the generation and characterization of a new transgenic mouse line that expresses a histone H2B-CFP fusion protein in the nuclei of primitive erythroid cells. We demonstrate the potential of this ε-globin-histone H2B-CFP line for multicolor imaging and flow cytometry analysis. The ε-globin-H2B-CFP line was used to analyze the cell cycle distribution and proliferation of CFP-expressing primitive erythroblasts from E8.5-E13.5. We also evaluated phagocytosis of extruded CFP-positive nuclei by macrophages in fetal liver and placenta. The ε-globin-H2B-CFP transgenic mouse line adds to the available tools for studying the development of the primitive erythroid lineage. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Synthetic biology of minimal living cells: primitive cell models and semi-synthetic cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stano, Pasquale

    2010-01-01

    ... vesicles, which are relevant as primitive cell models is given. These studies can be used as a starting point for the construction of more complex systems, firstly being inspired by possible origins of life scenarioes...

  4. CAVE MEN: STONE TOOLS, VICTORIAN SCIENCE, AND THE 'PRIMITIVE MIND' OF DEEP TIME

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul B. Pettitt; Mark J. White

    2011-01-01

    ... 1880s authors had constructed a basic paradigm of what 'primitive' human life was like. Here we examine the development of Victorian palaeoanthropology for what it reveals of the development of notions of cognitive evolution...

  5. In God's name: violent youth, primitive accumulation and power wars in Nigeria's illegal and legal economies.

    OpenAIRE

    Ifeka, Caroline; Works in Progress Seminars Series

    2014-01-01

    A Works in Progress Seminar Series lecture entitled: In God's name - violent youth, primitive accumulation and power wars in Nigeria's illegal and legal economies. This lecture is delivered by Dr Caroline Ifeka.

  6. Retinoic acid signaling plays a restrictive role in zebrafish primitive myelopoiesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Liang

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid (RA is known to regulate definitive myelopoiesis but its role in vertebrate primitive myelopoiesis remains unclear. Here we report that zebrafish primitive myelopoiesis is restricted by RA in a dose dependent manner mainly before 11 hpf (hours post fertilization when anterior hemangioblasts are initiated to form. RA treatment significantly reduces expressions of anterior hemangioblast markers scl, lmo2, gata2 and etsrp in the rostral end of ALPM (anterior lateral plate mesoderm of the embryos. The result indicates that RA restricts primitive myelopoiesis by suppressing formation of anterior hemangioblasts. Analyses of ALPM formation suggest that the defective primitive myelopoiesis resulting from RA treatment before late gastrulation may be secondary to global loss of cells for ALPM fate whereas the developmental defect resulting from RA treatment during 10-11 hpf should be due to ALPM patterning shift. Overexpressions of scl and lmo2 partially rescue the block of primitive myelopoiesis in the embryos treated with 250 nM RA during 10-11 hpf, suggesting RA acts upstream of scl to control primitive myelopoiesis. However, the RA treatment blocks the increased primitive myelopoiesis caused by overexpressing gata4/6 whereas the abolished primitive myelopoiesis in gata4/5/6 depleted embryos is well rescued by 4-diethylamino-benzaldehyde, a retinal dehydrogenase inhibitor, or partially rescued by knocking down aldh1a2, the major retinal dehydrogenase gene that is responsible for RA synthesis during early development. Consistently, overexpressing gata4/6 inhibits aldh1a2 expression whereas depleting gata4/5/6 increases aldh1a2 expression. The results reveal that RA signaling acts downstream of gata4/5/6 to control primitive myelopoiesis. But, 4-diethylamino-benzaldehyde fails to rescue the defective primitive myelopoiesis in either cloche embryos or lycat morphants. Taken together, our results demonstrate that RA signaling restricts

  7. Une Nouvelle Forme d’Autobiographie dans Les Années d’Annie Ernaux: Autobiographie Impersonnelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seçil Yücedağ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Annie Ernaux, considérée comme l’une des femmes écrivaines les plus célèbres du XXIe siècle, a exprimé l’angoisse commune de son âge et de son passé en rédigeant Les Années. Elle n’avait pas non seulement le but de décrire sa vie, mais aussi d’esquisser l’histoire de la société française à laquelle elle appartient. Lorsqu’elle est venue au monde en 1940, le monde était au seuil de la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Etant élevée dans cette atmosphère chaotique, elle a appris beaucoup de choses de sa société, de sa famille et de son environnement. Annie Ernaux a découvert le monde comme une jeune fille, une mère, une épouse et une grand-mère. Ses expériences sociales et familiales l’ont beaucoup mûrie et elle a commencé à rédiger ses pensées. Ses souvenirs ont fait partie de ses écritures autobiographiques. Dans Les Années, Annie Ernaux a profité de toutes ses expériences personnelles et sociales avec de différents moyens. Elle a essayé d’établir des liens entre l’histoire de sa vie et celle de la société. Elle a accordé une importance à la vie sociale plutôt que sa propre vie dans Les Années. Elle y a développé des propres techniques d’écriture en se servant des photos familiales et personnelles, d’un film, d’une vidéo, des marques de publicité, des chansons, d’un tableau, des notes de journal ainsi que des événements sociologiques et historiques. Elle a ainsi créé une nouvelle forme d’autobiographie : autobiographie impersonnelle.

  8. A mutli-technique search for the most primitive CO chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Greenwood, R. C.; Bowden, R.; Gibson, J. M.; Howard, K. T.; Franchi, I. A.

    2018-01-01

    As part of a study to identify the most primitive COs and to look for weakly altered CMs amongst the COs, we have conducted a multi-technique study of 16 Antarctic meteorites that had been classified as primitive COs. For this study, we have determined: (1) the bulk H, C and N abundances and isotopes, (2) bulk O isotopic compositions, (3) bulk modal mineralogies, and (4) for some selected samples the abundances and compositions of their insoluble organic matter (IOM). Two of the 16 meteorites do appear to be CMs - BUC 10943 seems to be a fairly typical CM, while MIL 090073 has probably been heated. Of the COs, DOM 08006 appears to be the most primitive CO identified to date and is quite distinct from the other members of its pairing group. The other COs fall into two groups that are less primitive than DOM 08006 and ALH 77307, the previously most primitive CO. The first group is composed of members of the DOM 08004 pairing group, except DOM 08006. The second group is composed of meteorites belonging to the MIL 03377 and MIL 07099 pairing groups. These two pairing groups should probably be combined. There is a dichotomy in the bulk O isotopes between the primitive (all Antarctic finds) and the more metamorphosed COs (mostly falls). This dichotomy can only partly be explained by the terrestrial weathering experienced by the primitive Antarctic samples. It seems that the more equilibrated samples interacted to a greater extent with 16O-poor material, probably water, than the more primitive meteorites.

  9. Dans i skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    Dans kan som en del af vores kulturelle arv tilføre skolen nye dimensioner. Det kan både være på kunstens præmisser, hvor eleverne ser dygtige professionelle dansere udtrykke sig gennem deres krop, og det kan være gennem egne kropslige oplevelser med dans. Dans kan imidlertid også give eleverne...

  10. The role of collisional compaction in primitive asteroids and comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Blum, J.

    2008-09-01

    During the early stages of solar system formation the consolidation of asteroids and comets took place. We have just learnt from recent space missions that some of these minor bodies have been preserved in a pristine way in several regions of our Solar System. From our experience on primitive meteorites we know that these bodies should contain valuable clues on the origin of the Solar System. Studies of the physical, chemical, and isotopic properties of the components of these minor bodies will provide important clues on their origin. We expect very different collisional histories undergone by these bodies depending on their particular formation, migration, and storage regions [1]. In Fig. 1 appears a schematic representation of the protoplanetary disk in the region of consolidation of the terrestrial planets about 4565 million years ago. Bodies located in the outer part of the main belt would have incorporated significant amounts of ice in their volume, but their migration to and residence times in other regions would have defined their physico-chemical properties. Recent laboratory studies and observational data compiled from comets, meteorites and meteoroids [2] suggest that the porosity of these bodies should have decreased with time depending on the degree of collisions, aqueous alteration and heating. For typical stony targets, the tensile strength and gravity are the main properties that are defining the formation of impact craters and subsequently the degree of impact metamorphism and mineralogy of the shocked materials. However, little is known about the influence of porosity on the impact process although the crushing of pore space is an efficient mechanism for absorbing shock waves, also increasing the postshock temperatures [2]. In this context, a Near-Earth Object (NEO) sample return mission called Marco Polo is being studied within the Cosmic Vision programme. Such kind of mission would be returning to the Earth unaltered material from a NEO, just

  11. DEPRESI DAN GANGGUAN TIDUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Eko Radityo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Depresi merupakan gangguan mood berupa kesedihan yang intens, berlangsung dalamwaktu lama, dan mengganggu kehidupan normal yang insidennya semakin meningkatseiring dengan meningkatnya tekanan hidup. Tahun 2020, depresi diperkirakanmenempati urutan kedua penyakit di dunia. Gejala-gejala depresi terdiri dari gangguanemosi, gangguan kognitif, keluhan somatik, gangguan psikomotor, dan gangguanvegetatif. Salah satu gejala depresi yang muncul adalah gangguan tidur yang bisaberupa insomnia, bangun secara tiba-tiba, dan hipersomnia. Hal ini disebabkan olehgangguan neurotransmiter dan regulasi hormon. Selain sebagai gejala depresi, gangguantidur juga bisa merupakan penyebab depresi. Beberapa penelitian memberikanhubungan gangguan tidur dapat meningkatkan risiko depresi di kemudian hari.

  12. Etude de la prévalence des escarres dans les hôpitaux belges - Projet PUMap

    OpenAIRE

    Defloor, Tom; Gobert, Micheline; Bouzegta, Nadia; Beeckman, Dimitri; Vanderwee, Katrien; Van Durme, Thérèse

    2008-01-01

    Les escarres constituent un problème de santé publique et altèrent sensiblement la qualité de vie des patients. L’objectif de l’étude est d’estimer la prévalence des escarres dans les hôpitaux belges, selon les recommandations les plus récentes en la matière. C’est pourquoi un enregistrement a été effectué en 2008 dans 84 hôpitaux auprès de 19.968 patients observés par deux infirmières conjointement. La prévalence des escarres observée était de 12,1%. Plus précisément, la prévalence des lésio...

  13. Plasticité du droit constitutionnel et dynamique de l’autoritarisme dans la Tunisie de Ben Ali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Gobe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Le droit des institutions politiques dans la Tunisie de Ben Ali apparaît particulièrement plastique et instable car ce sont les échéances politiques liées à la pérennisation du régime autoritaire qui dictent le rythme et la nature des changements institutionnels. Ce droit est conçu de façon à rendre impensable l’éventualité d’une alternance au sommet de l’État tout en permettant aux pouvoirs publics tunisiens de tenir un discours sur la résolution de la Tunisie à approfondir son engagement démocratique. Les récents textes constitutionnels et législatifs organisant la vie politique concourent, dans le même temps à limiter formellement les pratiques autoritaires tout en les autorisant si nécessaire.

  14. Photons uniques indiscernables à partir d'une boîte quantique unique dans un cristal photonique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, S.; Varoutsis, S.; Le Gratiet, L.; Lemaître, A.; Sagnes, I.; Raineri, F.; Levenson, A.; Robert-Philip, I.; Abram, I.

    2006-10-01

    Nous avons développé et caractérisé une source de photons uniques basée sur l'émission spontanée d'une boîte quantique unique insérée dans une cavité à bande interdite photonique bidimensionnelle. Ce système nous a d'abord permis de produire des photons uniques, puis des photons uniques indiscernables avec une indiscernabilité supérieure à 70%. L'observation de l'indiscernabilité des photons, impossible sans un raccourcissement important de la durée de vie, met en évidence un effet Purcell supérieur à 25 dans ce système.

  15. Vies et mort d’un discours hétéronome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Dirkx

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La plupart des discours universitaires sur la francophonie se ressentent plus ou moins directement d’un projet aux origines et aux développements foncièrement politiques et économiques. Dans la lignée de travaux salutaires comme La Francophonie littéraire de Michel Beniamino, le livre de François Provenzano met à disposition de la recherche de nouveaux outils permettant d’analyser cet engluement, cet écheveau de connivences qui a fini par passer sinon pour normal, du moins pour fatal aux yeux...

  16. Les reconstructions de la vie de Jésus-Christ en aire maya

    OpenAIRE

    Colazo-Simon, Antonia; Geslin, Stéphanie; Reyes, Éric; Le Guen, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Les histoires mayas de Jésus-Christ Les recueils de tradition orale maya enregistrent au fil des terrains l’occurrence de l’histoire de Jésus-Christ dans plusieurs ethnies mayas, à différents moments du xxe siècle, et sous des formes stylistiques distinctes. L’aspect le plus frappant de ces versions est la pluralité des noms concurrents que porte Jésus-Christ selon le lieu de recueil : si Jesukristo est employé chez les Yucatèques, les Tzeltal, les Tzotzil, les K’iche’, les Mam ou encore les ...

  17. Description du fardeau de la dépression sur la santé de la population au Canada : utilisation de l’espérance de vie ajustée en fonction de la santé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Steensma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Peu d’études ont évalué, dans l’ensemble d’une population, les conséquences de la dépression en matière de pertes dues à la mortalité prématurée d’une part et à la qualité de vie liée à la santé (QVLS d’autre part. L’espérance de vie ajustée en fonction de la santé (EVAS est une mesure synthétique de la santé de la population qui combine la morbidité et la mortalité en une seule statistique succincte décrivant l’état de santé d’une population à un moment donné. Méthodologie : Nous avons estimé la QVLS de la population canadienne adulte en fonction de la présence ou non de dépression. Nous avons effectué un suivi de la mortalité, de 1994 à 2009, des participants à l’Enquête nationale sur la santé de la population (ENSP (n = 12 373 de 20 ans et plus, là aussi en fonction de la présence ou non de dépression. La dépression a été définie comme l’état d’une personne susceptible d’avoir connu au cours de l’année précédente un épisode dépressif majeur au sens du formulaire abrégé de l’Entrevue composite diagnostique internationale. L’espérance de vie a été estimée en créant des tables abrégées de mortalité selon le sexe et l’état dépressif à l’aide des risques relatifs de mortalité de l’ENSP et des données sur la mortalité du Système canadien de surveillance des maladies chroniques (2007 à 2009. L’Enquête sur la santé dans les collectivités canadiennes (2009-2010 a fourni des estimations de la prévalence de la dépression, et l’indice de l’état de santé Health Utilities Index a permis de mesurer la QVLS. L’EVAS de la population adulte a été mesurée en fonction de la présence ou non de dépression et en fonction du sexe à l’aide des estimations combinées de la mortalité, de la prévalence de la dépression et de la QVLS. Résultats : Chez les femmes ayant connu récemment un épisode de dépression majeure, l

  18. Laure Schnapper, Henri Herz, magnat de piano. La vie musicale en France au XIXe siècle (1815-1870)

    OpenAIRE

    Adenot, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    Bien plus que la biographie d’un artiste méconnu, l’ouvrage de Laure Schnapper propose un regard original sur la vie musicale française au XIXe siècle sous le prisme des activités de Henri Herz (1803-1886), pianiste virtuose, compositeur prolifique, enseignant renommé, facteur de piano et propriétaire de l’une des seules salles de concert parisiennes. L’approche inédite de l’auteure éveille immédiatement l’attention du sociologue comme du musicologue : elle propose d’analyser la vie musicale...

  19. Modernisation et précarisation de la vie au travail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danièle Linhart

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available En France, comme dans les autres pays européens, les emplois précaires se sont fortement développés. Contrats à durée déterminée, périodes d’intérim, travail à temps partiel, travail saisonnier sont le lot d’une part non négligeable de la population active; une grande partie des salariés les subissent et ne demandent en fait qu’à travailler plus et de façon plus régulière. C’est un phénomène suffisamment connu pour ne pas ne pas le développer ici, même si un débat existe entre ceux qui prétendent que la précarité peut être maîtrisée voire appréciée et vécue comme une moindre contrainte, et ceux qui insistent sur les immenses difficultés dans lesquelles les salariés ont à se débattre en raison de cette précarité.

  20. L'importance de la démarche de coconception dans les processus d'innovation ordinaire : le cas du projet ECOFAMILIES

    OpenAIRE

    Debos, Franck

    2014-01-01

    International audience; L’objet de cet article est de montrer comment un dispositif de recherche centré sur un processus de co-conception permet une plus grande adéquation d’un dispositif technologique numérique innovant, de la vision managériale de leurs concepteurs avec les attentes des usagers et les processus d’innovation, dit ordinaires, que ces usagers développent et qui correspondent à leur créativité dans la vie quotidienne. Ces propos seront illustrés par le projet Écofamilies qui a ...

  1. Apport de la spectrométrie de masse pour la mise en évidence dans les matrices biologiques de xénobiotiques responsable de soumission chimique et pour la quantification des métabolites urinaires des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques

    OpenAIRE

    Shbair, Mohammed K.S.

    2011-01-01

    Les méthodes actuelles d’analyse pour rechercher des xénobiotiques et/ou leurs métabolites dans les liquides biologiques peuvent dans certaines occasions manquer de sensibilité. Ainsi, il est souvent difficile de mettre en évidence les substances utilisées par des agresseurs pour commettre des actes délictuels sur leurs victimes (vols ou encore viols), parce que ces substances administrées en très faibles quantités ont généralement des demi-vies courtes, ou que les recherches de ces substance...

  2. Ectopic Runx1 expression rescues Tal-1-deficiency in the generation of primitive and definitive hematopoiesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Tornack

    Full Text Available The transcription factors SCL/Tal-1 and AML1/Runx1 control the generation of pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells (pHSC and, thereby, primitive and definitive hematopoiesis, during embryonic development of the mouse from mesoderm. Thus, Runx1-deficient mice generate primitive, but not definitive hematopoiesis, while Tal-1-deficient mice are completely defective. Primitive as well as definitive hematopoiesis can be developed "in vitro" from embryonic stem cells (ESC. We show that wild type, as well as Tal-1(-/- and Runx1(-/- ESCs, induced to differentiation, all expand within 5 days to comparable numbers of Flk1(+ mesodermal cells. While wild type ESCs further differentiate to primitive and definitive erythrocytes, to c-fms(+Gr1(+Mac1(+ myeloid cells, and to B220(+CD19(+ B- and CD4(+/CD8(+ T-lymphoid cells, Runx1(-/- ESCs, as expected, only develop primitive erythrocytes, and Tal-1(-/- ESCs do not generate any hematopoietic cells. Retroviral transduction with Runx1 of Runx1(-/- ESCs, differentiated for 4 days to mesoderm, rescues definitive erythropoiesis, myelopoiesis and lymphopoiesis, though only with 1-10% of the efficiencies of wild type ESC hematopoiesis. Surprisingly, Tal-1(-/- ESCs can also be rescued at comparably low efficiencies to primitive and definitive erythropoiesis, and to myelopoiesis and lymphopoiesis by retroviral transduction with Runx1. These results suggest that Tal-1 expression is needed to express Runx1 in mesoderm, and that ectopic expression of Runx1 in mesoderm is sufficient to induce primitive as well as definitive hematopoiesis in the absence of Tal-1. Retroviral transduction of "in vitro" differentiating Tal-1(-/- and Runx1(-/- ESCs should be a useful experimental tool to probe selected genes for activities in the generation of hematopoietic progenitors "in vitro", and to assess the potential transforming activities in hematopoiesis of mutant forms of Tal-1 and Runx1 from acute myeloid leukemia and related tumors.

  3. Islam Dan Hubungan Antarnegara

    OpenAIRE

    Kailani, Kailani

    2013-01-01

    Babak baru sejarah Islam dimulai tatkala Nabi tiba dan diterima penduduk Yatsrib (Madinah), Nabi resmi menjadi pemimpin penduduk kota, bukan saja kepala agama, tetapi juga sebagai kepala negara. Dengan kata lain di dalam diri Nabi terkumpul dua kekuasaan, kekuasaan spritual dan kekuasaan duniawi. Kedududkannya sebagai rasul secara otomatis merupakan kepala negara.

  4. Functional limitations and overweight among migrants in the Histoire de Vie study (Insee, 2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lert, F; Melchior, M; Ville, I

    2007-12-01

    In France, epidemiological data on immigrant population are limited since characterization of immigrants is viewed as a sensitive issue. The Histoire de Vie survey has enabled the description of the association of immigration characteristics and two health indicators. Health-related functional limitations and overweight status (BMI> or =25 kg/m(2)) were studied among 18 to 64 years old using indirect age standardization. Immigration status was characterized in four different ways: via the migratory pathways of interviewees and their parents (French born to two French-born parents, second-generation, immigrated at the age of 15 or younger, immigrated at the age of 16 or older), citizenship (French by birth, French by naturalisation, non French), geographical origin (France, Europe, outside Europe) and language(s) spoken at home (French mother tongue, French for persons who do not have French as mother tongue, French and another language, another language). The analyses were conducted separately in men and in women and stratified by occupational status (upper and lower). For functional limitations, the analysis was repeated excluding participants whose limitations occurred before the age of 19, which was the average age of immigration, to assess a possible healthy migrant effect. Compared to French men born to two French parents, an increased rate of functional limitations was observed among men born in Europe and/or who had at least one parent born in Europe (SMR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.06-1.81) and a reduced rate among participants born outside Europe or who had at least one parent born outside Europe (SMR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.46-0.86); these differences remained when social status was taken into account. Among women, a tendency towards a lower rate of functional limitations was found in lower social status groups among those who immigrated as adults, among non French citizens and among non Europeans. Restricting the analysis to individuals free of limitations at the age of 19

  5. Les manuscrits arabes du Yémen (VIe-IXe/XIIe-XVe siècles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna d’Ottone

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Les études jusqu’ici consacrées aux manuscrits, et aux manuscrits arabes en particulier, ont tantôt privilégié l’aspect philologique, littéraire ou documentaire des textes, tantôt leur aspect artistique et leur appareil décoratif. Bref, le contenu des manuscrits a accaparé l’attention des chercheurs qui, engagés dans l’étude des textes ou celle de l’ornementation, ont presque complètement négligé la matérialité du livre.Mais chaque manuscrit a, pour ainsi dire, une âme double, étant à la fois...

  6. Gallé, une vie au tournant du siècle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Debilly

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available La collection Découvertes de Gallimard propose un nouveau volume dédié à Émile Gallé, le magicien du verre . Il s’agit là déjà, du 446 e numéro de cette collection destinée à l’origine aux adolescents. Ce principe a été en grande partie abandonné, même si l’on trouve encore les volumes de cette collection dans les rayons « jeunesse » de certaines librairies. Le grand public a depuis longtemps plébiscité ces ouvrages qui présentent une riche iconographie, ...

  7. Intrapartum Synthetic Oxytocin Reduce the Expression of Primitive Reflexes Associated with Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olza Fernández, Ibone; Malalana Martínez, Ana M.; González Armengod, Carmen; Costarelli, Valeria; Millán Santos, Isabel; Fernández-Cañadas Morillo, Aurora; Pérez Riveiro, Pilar; López Sánchez, Francisco; García Murillo, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim: Several synthetic peptide manipulations during the time surrounding birth can alter the specific neurohormonal status in the newborn brain. This study is aimed at assessing whether intrapartum oxytocin administration has any effect on primitive neonatal reflexes and determining whether such an effect is dose-dependent. Materials and Methods: A cohort prospective study was conducted at a tertiary hospital. Mother–infant dyads who received intrapartum oxytocin (n=53) were compared with mother–infant dyads who did not receive intrapartum oxytocin (n=45). Primitive neonatal reflexes (endogenous, antigravity, motor, and rhythmic reflexes) were quantified by analyzing videotaped breastfeeding sessions in a biological nurturing position. Two observers blind to the group assignment and the oxytocin dose analyzed the videotapes and assesed the newborn's state of consciousness according to the Brazelton scale. Results: The release of all rhythmic reflexes (p=0.01), the antigravity reflex (p=0.04), and total primitive neonatal reflexes (p=0.02) in the group exposed to oxytocin was lower than in the group not exposed to oxytocin. No correlations were observed between the dose of oxytocin administered and the percentage of primitive neonatal reflexes released (r=0.03; p=0.82). Conclusions: Intrapartum oxytocin administration might inhibit the expression of several primitive neonatal reflexes associated with breastfeeding. This correlation does not seem to be dose-dependent. PMID:25785487

  8. Physically Unclonable Cryptographic Primitives by Chemical Vapor Deposition of Layered MoS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Abdullah; Armstrong, Darren; Alharbi, Somayah; Shahrjerdi, Davood

    2017-11-27

    Physically unclonable cryptographic primitives are promising for securing the rapidly growing number of electronic devices. Here, we introduce physically unclonable primitives from layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) by leveraging the natural randomness of their island growth during chemical vapor deposition (CVD). We synthesize a MoS2 monolayer film covered with speckles of multilayer islands, where the growth process is engineered for an optimal speckle density. Using the Clark-Evans test, we confirm that the distribution of islands on the film exhibits complete spatial randomness, hence indicating the growth of multilayer speckles is a spatial Poisson process. Such a property is highly desirable for constructing unpredictable cryptographic primitives. The security primitive is an array of 2048 pixels fabricated from this film. The complex structure of the pixels makes the physical duplication of the array impossible (i.e., physically unclonable). A unique optical response is generated by applying an optical stimulus to the structure. The basis for this unique response is the dependence of the photoemission on the number of MoS2 layers, which by design is random throughout the film. Using a threshold value for the photoemission, we convert the optical response into binary cryptographic keys. We show that the proper selection of this threshold is crucial for maximizing combination randomness and that the optimal value of the threshold is linked directly to the growth process. This study reveals an opportunity for generating robust and versatile security primitives from layered transition metal dichalcogenides.

  9. Learned graphical models for probabilistic planning provide a new class of movement primitives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rückert, Elmar A; Neumann, Gerhard; Toussaint, Marc; Maass, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    BIOLOGICAL MOVEMENT GENERATION COMBINES THREE INTERESTING ASPECTS: its modular organization in movement primitives (MPs), its characteristics of stochastic optimality under perturbations, and its efficiency in terms of learning. A common approach to motor skill learning is to endow the primitives with dynamical systems. Here, the parameters of the primitive indirectly define the shape of a reference trajectory. We propose an alternative MP representation based on probabilistic inference in learned graphical models with new and interesting properties that complies with salient features of biological movement control. Instead of endowing the primitives with dynamical systems, we propose to endow MPs with an intrinsic probabilistic planning system, integrating the power of stochastic optimal control (SOC) methods within a MP. The parameterization of the primitive is a graphical model that represents the dynamics and intrinsic cost function such that inference in this graphical model yields the control policy. We parameterize the intrinsic cost function using task-relevant features, such as the importance of passing through certain via-points. The system dynamics as well as intrinsic cost function parameters are learned in a reinforcement learning (RL) setting. We evaluate our approach on a complex 4-link balancing task. Our experiments show that our movement representation facilitates learning significantly and leads to better generalization to new task settings without re-learning.

  10. Intrapartum synthetic oxytocin reduce the expression of primitive reflexes associated with breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín Gabriel, Miguel A; Olza Fernández, Ibone; Malalana Martínez, Ana M; González Armengod, Carmen; Costarelli, Valeria; Millán Santos, Isabel; Fernández-Cañadas Morillo, Aurora; Pérez Riveiro, Pilar; López Sánchez, Francisco; García Murillo, Lourdes

    2015-05-01

    Several synthetic peptide manipulations during the time surrounding birth can alter the specific neurohormonal status in the newborn brain. This study is aimed at assessing whether intrapartum oxytocin administration has any effect on primitive neonatal reflexes and determining whether such an effect is dose-dependent. A cohort prospective study was conducted at a tertiary hospital. Mother-infant dyads who received intrapartum oxytocin (n=53) were compared with mother-infant dyads who did not receive intrapartum oxytocin (n=45). Primitive neonatal reflexes (endogenous, antigravity, motor, and rhythmic reflexes) were quantified by analyzing videotaped breastfeeding sessions in a biological nurturing position. Two observers blind to the group assignment and the oxytocin dose analyzed the videotapes and assesed the newborn's state of consciousness according to the Brazelton scale. The release of all rhythmic reflexes (p=0.01), the antigravity reflex (p=0.04), and total primitive neonatal reflexes (p=0.02) in the group exposed to oxytocin was lower than in the group not exposed to oxytocin. No correlations were observed between the dose of oxytocin administered and the percentage of primitive neonatal reflexes released (r=0.03; p=0.82). Intrapartum oxytocin administration might inhibit the expression of several primitive neonatal reflexes associated with breastfeeding. This correlation does not seem to be dose-dependent.

  11. Adult thoracic primitive neuroectodermal tumor - clinical, radiological and pathological features; Tumor neuroectodermico primitivo toracico em adulto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setubal, Roger; Santos, Leynalze Lins Ramos; Georges, Silvana Habib; Souza, Ricardo Pires de [Hospital Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Diagnostico por Imagem; Menezes, Yara de [Hospital heliopolis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Patologia; Gomes, Marcio Rogerio Alcala; Mayo, Suzete Varela; Leiro, Luis Carlos Filgueira [Hospital Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Pneumologia e Cirurgia Toracica

    1997-03-01

    Precise diagnosis of small round cell tumors, which include the thoracic primitive neuroectodermal tumor, is often a challenge to the clinical, oncologist, radiologist and pathologist. Different terms have been used to designate these tumors, depending on their location and extent of neural differentiation. With the progress of immuno-histochemical and cytogenetic diagnosis method, some of this tumors are now classified a unique clinical entity with several locations and mode of presentation. Therefore, tumors-like peripheral neuro epithelioma, Askin`s tumor, adult neuroblastoma, and primitive neuroectodermal tumor are now named peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor. The most common location of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor is the thorax, and the mean age are close of the adolescence. This study reports the clinical, radiological and pathological features of 5 adults (3 men and 2 women) seen at the Hospital Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, SP Brazil, between 1991 and 1995 (5 years), with diagnosis of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor made by immuno-histochemical and pathological studies. The mean age of the patients was 34 years, ranged between 17 and 57 years, and the most common location was the chest wall (n=3), followed by the posterior mediastinum (n=2). All the patients were symptomatic and undergone plain films and computed tomography. (author) 12 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Placement of the AbbVie PEG-J tube for the treatment of Parkinson's disease in the interventional radiology suite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Mark L; Miner, Noel K; Soileau, Michael J; McDonald, Douglas K

    2016-10-01

    The primary treatment for Parkinson's disease is dopaminergic stimulation. Although levodopa has historically been administered orally, maintaining a predictable plasma concentration of the drug is challenging. As a result, enteral administration of carbidopa/levodopa (Duopa) has emerged as a promising tool in the treatment of the disease. This requires placement of an enteric catheter, two of which have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for delivery of Duopa. The approved tubes are placed using the "peroral" or "pull" technique, a method traditionally requiring endoscopy. This technical note describes placement of the AbbVie PEG-J tube by means of the peroral route while utilizing only sonographic and fluoroscopic guidance. After placing an orogastric tube and achieving percutaneous access to the stomach under fluoroscopic visualization, a snare catheter is advanced through the percutaneous access into the stomach. The orogastric tube is engaged with the snare and retracted, bringing the attached snare with it to the mouth. The AbbVie PEG tube is attached to the snare, pulled back down the esophagus and into the stomach before being retracted through the percutaneous access to the skin. Finally, the AbbVie J tube is advanced through the gastrostomy tube into the proximal jejunum and attached with the provided connectors. As demonstrated, the AbbVie PEG-J tube can be placed safely and effectively using a percutaneous image-guided technique without the use of an endoscope.

  13. Primitive interactions between inclusions on a fluid membrane: the role of thermal fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhamou, M

    2011-08-01

    Consider a fluid membrane decorated by moving hard or soft inclusions. The aim of this work is a quantitative study of the influence of thermal fluctuations on the three-dimensional primitive forces between these inclusions. Integrating over all membrane fluctuations, we obtain a general form giving the modified primitive interactions upon the transverse distance. The established formalism enables us to obtain the modified expression of some standard interaction potentials. In particular, for power-like potentials, we found a modified expression featuring the Whittaker function. The present formalism may be extended to other primitive interaction potentials. Finally, the main conclusion is that, decorated fluid membranes may be regarded as effective two-dimensional colloidal solutions where inclusions interact via the computed effective interactions.

  14. Synthesis of New Dynamic Movement Primitives Through Search in a Hierarchical Database of Example Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Deniša

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to discovering motor primitives in a hierarchical database of example trajectories. An initial set of example trajectories is obtained by human demonstration. The trajectories are clustered and organized in a binary tree-like hierarchical structure, from which transition graphs at different levels of granularity are constructed. A novel procedure for searching in this hierarchical structure is presented. It can exploit the interdependencies between movements and can discover new series of partial paths. From these partial paths, complete new movements are generated by encoding them as dynamic movement primitives. In this way, the number of example trajectories that must be acquired with the assistance of a human teacher can be reduced. By combining the results of the hierarchical search with statistical generalization techniques, a complete representation of new, not directly demonstrated, movement primitives can be generated.

  15. Cave men: stone tools, Victorian science, and the 'primitive mind' of deep time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettitt, Paul B; White, Mark J

    2011-03-20

    Palaeoanthropology, the study of the evolution of humanity, arose in the nineteenth century. Excavations in Europe uncovered a series of archaeological sediments which provided proof that the antiquity of human life on Earth was far longer than the biblical six thousand years, and by the 1880s authors had constructed a basic paradigm of what 'primitive' human life was like. Here we examine the development of Victorian palaeoanthropology for what it reveals of the development of notions of cognitive evolution. It seems that Victorian specialists rarely addressed cognitive evolution explicitly, although several assumptions were generally made that arose from preconceptions derived from contemporary 'primitive' peoples. We identify three main phases of development of notions of the primitive mind in the period.

  16. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the kidney with vena caval and atrial tumour thrombus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Poh Ho; Manikandan, Ramaswamy; Philip, Joe; Hope, Kirsten; Williamson, Michael

    2008-08-11

    Renal primitive neuroectodermal tumour is an extremely rare malignancy. A 21-year-old woman presented with microscopic haematuria, a palpable right loin mass, dyspnoea, dizziness and fatigue. Initial ultrasound scan of the kidneys revealed an 11 cm right renal mass with venous extension into the inferior vena cava. Computed tomography of the thorax and abdomen revealed an extension of the large renal mass into the right renal vein, inferior vena cava and up to the right atrium. A small paracaval lymph node was noted and three small metastatic nodules were identified within the lung parenchyma. The patient underwent a radical nephrectomy and inferior vena caval tumour (level IV) thrombectomy with cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Immunohistochemical staining of the specimen showed a highly specific cluster of differentiation (CD) 99, thus confirming the diagnosis of a primitive neuroectodermal tumour. It is important that a renal primitive neuroectodermal tumour be considered, particularly in young patients with a renal mass and extensive thrombus.

  17. Eric Charmes, La ville émiettée. Essai sur la clubbisation de la vie urbaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Frétigny

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Si son titre ne le traduit pas explicitement, le récent ouvrage d’Eric Charmes La ville émiettée. Essai sur la clubbisation de la vie urbaine porte essentiellement sur l’espace périurbain, dont l’auteur est aujourd’hui un des meilleurs spécialistes en France. Ce travail se situe à l’opposé des stigmatisations habituelles du périurbain, trop souvent présenté comme un junk space peuplé de populations rejetées hors des villes. Au contraire, l’auteur met ce « tiers espace » (Vanier, 2001 au cœur...

  18. BAS: Finanšu instrumentu manipulatīvie un aizdomīgie darījumi

    OpenAIRE

    Čečis, Jānis

    2016-01-01

    Kvalifikācijas darbs “BAS: Finanšu instrumentu manipulatīvie un aizdomīgie darījumi” apraksta moduli, kas izstrādāts bankas brokeru sistēmas BAS funkcionalitātes papildināšanai. Tā mērķis ir konstatēt bankas kontos notiekošos manipulatīvos un aizdomīgos darījumus ar finanšu instrumentiem. Tas darbosies importējot iepriekš speciāli sagatavotu izklājlapu failu ar laukiem, kas sagatavoti Bloomberg platformā. Balstoties uz šo failu, tiks salīdzināti dati ar BAS datubāzi un veicot analīzi, aizdomī...

  19. Fahrstuhlfahrten und Einstiegsschwierigkeiten. Erschließungstechniken in Georges Perecs »La Vie mode d’emploi«

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanne Mohs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Der Artikel ist eine produktionsästhetische Untersuchung zu Einstiegsschwierigkeiten in literarische Schreibprozesse und ihre Auflösung mithilfe räumlicher und sprachspielerischer Erschließungstechniken. Als Beispiel dient mir die Poetik des OuLiPo (»Ouvroir de littérature potentielle« und hier insbesondere (die Genese von Georges Perecs Roman »La vie mode d’emploi«. Genauer wird daran gezeigt, wie Perec eine blockierte Fahrstuhlfahrt als metaphorische Referenz auf seine anfängliche Schreibhemmung in den Roman einfügt und wie diese Referenz als Kommentar zur Erzählbarkeit komplexer Raum-Zeit-Gefüge im Gesellschaftsroman des 20. Jahrhunderts, insbesondere zu Marcel Prousts »Recherche«, verstanden werden kann.

  20. METODE PENCARIAN DAN PENGURUTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titin Winarti

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Pengurutan dan pencarian mewakili salah satu dari ilmu komputer. Pengurutan mewakili proses untuk data semacam dalam urutan tertentu secara meningkatkan atau menurunkan. Seleksi mewakili untuk mencari lokasi dari data yang diberikan dalam urutan data. Secara tidak langsung mencari dan urutan di operasi file yang mewakili kumpulan dari record. Setiap catatan dalam file dapat berisi banyak file, tetapi ada satu bidang yang memiliki kunci yang unik yang disebut kunci utama, maka file urutan proses akan persuant ke tombol unik dan proses berusaha untuk mencari nilai berdasarkan kunci tertentu yang unik yang diberikan.

  1. Identification of appropriate primitive polynomials to avoid cross-contamination in multifocal electroretinogram responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, J M; Keating, D; Hoggar, S G; Parks, S

    2002-07-01

    Abstract-The basis of the multifocal/electroretinogram is the use of a decimated m-sequence for simultaneous and independent stimulation of many areas of the visual pathway. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cross-contamination from higher orders of the response. A series of primitive polynomials were found by construction of finite fields. The first-order ERG response was formed by cross-correlation of m-sequence with the physiological response. A second-order response was formed by investigation of particular flash sequences of the stimulation sequence and cross-correlation of a second-order m-sequence with the physiological response. Zech logarithms were used to identify cross-contamination between the various first and second-order sequences. Tables of good and bad primitive polynomials were constructed for degrees 12-16, and the effects of window length and decimation length were examined. When the sequence was decimated into 128 areas, and a window of length 16 was examined, cross-contamination occurred in all sequences generated from primitive polynomials of degree less than or equal to 12, but in only 26% of degree 14, and 5.6% of degree 16. A photodiode (artificial eye) was used in an experiment to construct trace arrays showing responses from 61 individual areas. Additional waveforms were present on the trace array when the experiment was carried out with a bad primitive polynomial. The use of finite field theory to generate primitive polynomials and Zech logarithm analysis allowed prediction of which primitive polynomials were suitable for m-sequence generation for multifocal electroretinography. Practical investigations supported the theoretical analysis. This has important implications for developers of multifocal electrophysiology systems.

  2. The evolution of amniote gastrulation: the blastopore-primitive streak transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stower, Matthew J; Bertocchini, Federica

    2017-03-01

    In the animal kingdom, gastrulation, the process by which the primary germ layers are formed involves a dramatic transformation in the topology of the cells that give rise to all of the tissues of the adult. Initially formed as a mono-layer, this tissue, the epiblast, becomes subdivided through the internalization of cells, thereby forming a two (bi-laminar) or three (tri-laminar) layered embryo. This morphogenetic process coordinates the development of the fundamental body plan and the three-body axes (antero-posterior, dorso-ventral, and left-right) and begins a fundamental segregation of cells toward divergent developmental fates. In humans and other mammals, as well as in avians, gastrulating cells internalize along a structure, called the primitive streak, which builds from the periphery toward the center of the embryo. How these morphogenetic movements are orchestrated and evolved has been a question for developmental biologists for many years. Is the primitive streak a feature shared by the whole amniote clade? Insights from reptiles suggest that the primitive streak arose independently in mammals and avians, while the reptilian internalization site is a structure half-way between an amphibian blastopore and a primitive streak. The molecular machinery driving primitive streak formation has been partially dissected using mainly the avian embryo, revealing a paramount role of the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway in streak formation. How did the employment of this machinery evolve? The reptilian branch of the amniote clade might provide us with useful tools to investigate the evolution of the amniote internalization site up to the formation of the primitive streak. WIREs Dev Biol 2017, 6:e262. doi: 10.1002/wdev.262 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. PRIMITIVE-BASED 3D BUILDING RECONSTRUCTION METHOD TESTED BY REFERENCE AIRBORNE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Airborne LiDAR data and optical imagery are two datasets used for 3D building reconstruction. By study of the complementarities of these two datasets, we proposed a primitive-based 3D building reconstruction method, which can use LiDAR data and optical imagery at the same time. The proposed method comprises following steps: (1 recognize primitives from LiDAR point cloud and roughly measure primitives’ parameters as initial values, and (2 select primitives' features on the imagery, and (3 optimize primitives' parameters by the constraints of LiDAR point cloud and imagery, and (4 represent 3D building model by these optimized primitives. Compared with other model-based or CSG-based methods, the proposed method has some advantages. It is simpler, because it only uses the most straightforward features, i.e. planes of LiDAR point cloud and points of optical imagery. And it can tightly integrate LiDAR point cloud and optical imagery, that is to say, all primitives' parameters are optimized with all constraints in one step. Recently, an ISPRS Test Project on Urban Classification and 3D Building Reconstruction was launched, two datasets both with airborne LiDAR data and images are provided. The proposed method was applied to Area 3 of Dataset 1 Vaihingen, in which there are some buildings with plane roofs or gable roofs. The organizer of this test project evaluated the submitted reconstructed 3D model using reference data. The result shows the feasibility of the proposed 3D building reconstruction method.

  4. L’influence de la langue maternelle dans la perception de la parole

    OpenAIRE

    Dufour, Sophie; Nguyen, Noël

    2013-01-01

    Les études en psycholinguistique et en neurosciences cognitives ont permis de grandes avancées quant à la compréhension des mécanismes impliqués dans la perception des sons de parole. Nous présentons une revue sélective que nous espérons représentative des recherches sur la perception de la parole. Plus particulièrement, les recherches présentées montrent que notre système perceptif se façonne dès la première année de vie, de manière à exploiter finement les régularités phonologiques de notre...

  5. Efficient conservative ADER schemes based on WENO reconstruction and space-time predictor in primitive variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotti, Olindo; Dumbser, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We present a new version of conservative ADER-WENO finite volume schemes, in which both the high order spatial reconstruction as well as the time evolution of the reconstruction polynomials in the local space-time predictor stage are performed in primitive variables, rather than in conserved ones. To obtain a conservative method, the underlying finite volume scheme is still written in terms of the cell averages of the conserved quantities. Therefore, our new approach performs the spatial WENO reconstruction twice: the first WENO reconstruction is carried out on the known cell averages of the conservative variables. The WENO polynomials are then used at the cell centers to compute point values of the conserved variables, which are subsequently converted into point values of the primitive variables. This is the only place where the conversion from conservative to primitive variables is needed in the new scheme. Then, a second WENO reconstruction is performed on the point values of the primitive variables to obtain piecewise high order reconstruction polynomials of the primitive variables. The reconstruction polynomials are subsequently evolved in time with a novel space-time finite element predictor that is directly applied to the governing PDE written in primitive form. The resulting space-time polynomials of the primitive variables can then be directly used as input for the numerical fluxes at the cell boundaries in the underlying conservative finite volume scheme. Hence, the number of necessary conversions from the conserved to the primitive variables is reduced to just one single conversion at each cell center. We have verified the validity of the new approach over a wide range of hyperbolic systems, including the classical Euler equations of gas dynamics, the special relativistic hydrodynamics (RHD) and ideal magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) equations, as well as the Baer-Nunziato model for compressible two-phase flows. In all cases we have noticed that the new ADER

  6. On error detection in the dynamics part of primitive equation models. [of atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, W. C.

    1983-01-01

    Rossby-Haurwitz waves have been commonly employed as initial conditions for testing the dynamics part of global atmospheric models. Difficulties arise in connection with the primitive equation (PE) model. Chao and Geller (1982) have suggested that it would be better if normal mode solutions of the linearized primitive equations would be used as initial conditions. However, tests involving normal mode conditions are not adequate for the detection of errors in the nonlinear terms. The present investigation has the objective to review the study conducted by Chao and Geller and to provide tests for the nonlinear terms.

  7. Primary dorsal spine primitive neuroectodermal tumor in an adult patient: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyashiva Munjal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumor (psPNET is a rare entity with few cases reported in literature. We report a case of a 50-year-old female who presented to us with paraplegia and was diagnosed with extradural dorsal spine psPNET. The diagnosis was not suspected at presentation or on radiology but was established on histopathological examination. It is important to distinguish it from central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors and from other spinal tumors since it follows a different clinical course and therapeutic outcome.

  8. Qualité de vie et vécu de la maladie, avant et après hystérectomie vaginale, chez les femmes admises au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Brazzaville

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbongo, Jean Alfred; Mouanga, Alain; Miabaou, Didace Massamba; Nzelie, Aya; Iloki, Léon Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Toute maladie est un mal en soi qu’il faut éradiquer car elle altère souvent de façon significative la qualité de la vie. L’hystérectomie vaginale est indiquée pour les patientes qui présentent certaines affections gynécologiques graves, elle est donc bénéfique mais, peut également avoir une répercussion néfaste sur la qualité de vie de la femme. Ainsi nous avons voulu explorer le vécu de la maladie et de l’hystérectomie vaginale (HV) des femmes avant et après l’intervention chirurgicale. Nous avons effectué une étude prospective qualitative, à recueil clinique sur une période de 12 mois; qui a concerné les femmes, ayant subi une hystérectomie vaginale. Celles n’ayant pas accepté de participer à l’étude, ou n’ayant pas de contact téléphonique n’ont pas été incluses. Pendant la maladie, le vécu des femmes a été: l’inconfort sexuel 26/40 (65%); les saignements génitaux 12/40 (30%); les douleurs pelviennes 13/40 (32,5%). En Post-opératoire, ont été noté les dyspareunies transitoires30/40 (75%) ; les céphalées secondaires à l’anesthésie 4/40 (10%). Le vécu psychologique a été dominé avant l’HV par la peur de la chirurgie chez toutes les patientes, les troubles du sommeil 38/40 (95%), l’angoisse 30 /40(75%), un sentiment de honte lié aux difficultés à accomplir l’acte sexuel en raison du prolapsus 26/40(65%) et/ ou en raison des saignements génitaux, dus au fibrome utérin 14/40(35%). Le sentiment de la perte de féminité était déclaré par 26/40 femmes porteuses de prolapsus utérin (65%), la modification de l’estime de soi 26/40 (65%). Ces appréciations subjectives ont été améliorées avec l’HV, contre balançant la perte de leur organe de reproduction. Aucune information n’a été donnée par les femmes à leurs proches et aux membres de la famille avant la chirurgie, traduisant ainsi leur sentiment de gène ou de honte. L’arrêt des symptômes a été observé dans tous les

  9. Le vaudeville des chants patriotiques dans La fille soldat de Desfontaines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Nakayama

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans la première moitié du dix-huitième siècle, les vaudevilles servaient surtout à un effet comique. Mais l’époque révolutionnaire donne un nouvel essor aux spectacles à vaudevilles. On peut s’interroger dès lors sur les raisons de cette affinité entre le contexte révolutionnaire et les vaudevilles qui revient au goût du jour. Nous allons, pour ce faire, tenter d’analyser les effets produits par des vaudevilles tirés de La fille soldat (1794 de Desfontaines (1733-1825. La particularité des vaudevilles de cette pièce réside dans l’emploi des chants révolutionnaires. La musique et les paroles de ces chants font directement écho à la guerre appartenant à la réalité des spectateurs ou bien, à la scène détachée du contexte de l’air original et employés de manière autonome. Les vaudevilles tirés des chants révolutionnaires attestent de la pénétration des musiques patriotiques dans tous les secteurs de la vie culturelle, même sur les tréteaux dévolus au pur divertissement.

  10. ISLAM DAN OTORITAS KEAGAMAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumadi Rumadi

    2012-05-01

    Mungkinkah agama tumbuh tanpa otoritas?Pada umumnya jawaban atas per­tanyaan ini ada dua:”agama dapat tumbuh tanpa otoritas” dan “agama tidak dapat tumbuh tanpa otoritas”, Pandangan pertama didasarkan pada argu­mentasi bahwa agama merupakan pemahaman total terhadap ketuhanan. Yang dibutuhkan dalam konteks ini adalah ketundukan terhadap Tuhan semata. Sementara pandangan kedua didasarkan pada argumentasi bahwa agama merupakan hak individual untuk berkomunikasi dan menyerahkan diri kepada Tuhan,namun di dalam lingkup sosial perkembangan agama mem­butuh­kan “penyebar” yang memiliki kredibilitas untuk berbicara dan me­nyampai­kan pesan-pesan agama. Namun demikian,  dalam kenyataannya otori­tas agama bukan merupakan hal yang statis, namun dinamis. Tingkat otoritas keagamaan dan inter relasi antar tingkat-tingkat otoritas merupakan bagian dari dinamika tersebut.

  11. Indkast til dans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paustian, Pia; Gad, Ulla

    2012-01-01

    Dansens Hus og Læreruddannelsen i Haderslev samarbejdede i 2011 om at sætte fokus på dans i linjefaget idræt. Den grundlæggende antagelse bag samarbejdet er, at dans præsenteret som en æstetisk oplevelse og aktivitet udgør et godt potentiale for æstetisk erkendelse – blandt andet i folkeskole og...... gymnasium. Da vi samtidig har erfaring for, at feltet kan virke fremmed for nogle idrætslærere, øjnede vi et udviklingspotentiale i kombinationen ”dans og lærerstuderende”. I modellen for samarbejdet tog vi udgangspunkt i tiltag, der allerede eksisterede for organisationerne hver især. For læreruddannelsens...... vedkommende idrætsundervisningen inden for bevægelse, udtryk og musik, og for Dansens Hus arbejdet med ordningen Dans for Børn....

  12. Dan Performer Mei Lanfang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Janne

    2010-01-01

    The convention of performing female characters (dan characters) in Beijing opera, as practised by its most prominent male performer of female characters Mei Lanfang, and its and his cultural context and aesthetic aim...

  13. Léon Bardalès: Sa vie et son œuvre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Taxidis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude comprend la présentation et l’édition critique de deux lettres et six poèmes de Léon Bardalès qui fut l’un des dignitaires impériaux byzantins de la fin du XIIIe et du début du XIVe siècle. Pour l’occasion, toutes les données concernant l’auteur et son activité politique et littéraire sont réévaluées conformément aux informations fournies par les lettres que Bardalès a reçues d’épistoliers connus de son époque, comme Maxime Planude, Nicéphore Choumnos et Nicéphore Grégoras. Dans l’édition, les erreurs et fautes d’inattention des éditeurs précédents sont corrigées, et un apparat des sources est ajouté.

  14. Makna Dan Ideologi Punk

    OpenAIRE

    Daniar Wikan Setyanto

    2015-01-01

    Punk Sebagai sebuah subkultur telah diadaptasi oleh para remaja Indonesia bukan hanya sebagai semangat bermusik, namun merambah sebagai ideologi dan gaya hidup. Punk merupakan warisan budaya dari barat yang awalnya bergerak pada bidang musik, namun lambat lain punk telah menjadi sebuah identitas global yang mewakili para remaja radikal yang memiliki visi anti kemapanan dan anti pemerintah. Selain ideologinya yang kontroversi, punk mempengaruhi dinamika fashion di dunia. Asesoris punk diadapta...

  15. La faim dans les pays occidentaux développés / Hunger in Western developed societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Chenillé

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Comment la faim dans les pays occidentaux développés est-elle traitée au cinéma ? Si le cinéma se montre sensible à la faim exprimée chez les enfants ou dans des pays hors de la sphère occidentale, même quand il ne s’agit pas d’une faim qui dure sur plusieurs jours, le cinéma se montre incrédule et méfiant par rapport à la faim éprouvée par les adultes. Ainsi la faim est-elle le plus souvent confinée dans un passé révolu, dans des conditions de vie tout à fait exceptionnelles d’isolement géographique, ou liée à un choix d’existence marginale qui peut se révéler criminelle.This article examines the cinematographic treatment of hunger in developed countries. Western filmmakers tend to be sympathetic towards the hunger endured by children and people in developing countries (even for brief periods but seem dismissive and suspicious of adult hunger. Hunger is portrayed as a thing of the past, linked to such exceptional circumstances as extreme geographical or social isolation and the choice of a marginalised, sometimes criminal lifestyle.

  16. La forme pseudo tumorale de la tuberculose primitive du nasopharynx: à propos de deux nouvelles observations et revue de la littérature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Mohammed; Aljalil, Abdelfettah; Chihani, Mehdi; Bouchentouf, Rachid; Bouaity, Brahim; Ammar, Haddou

    2013-01-01

    La tuberculose primitive du nasopharynx est rare, nous présentons deux observations révélées par un aspect pseudo tumoral et à travers lesquelles nous soulevons le problème de diagnostic différentiel avec les lésions malignes du nasopharynx. La première observation concerne un jeune patient de 22 ans hospitalisé pour obstruction nasale bilatérale évoluant dans un contexte d'apyrexie et de conservation de l’état général. La nasofibrosopie et le scanner ont monté un processus tumoral évoquant une hypertrophie des végétations adénoïdes. Le deuxième cas est celui d'un homme de 45 ans tabagique chronique qui a présenté une adénopathie latérocervicale droite, une obstruction nasale et une otite séromuqueuse homolatérale. La nasophibroscopie et le scanner on montré un bourgeon tumoral postéro latéral droit du nasopharynx évoquant un carcinome nasopharyngé. Les biopsies du nasopharynx et les études histologiques, chez les deux patients, ont confirmé le diagnostic de tuberculose. La recherche d'autres localisations était négative. Le pronostic était favorable après 6 mois de traitement antibacillaire. La tuberculose primitive du cavum est rare, elle revêt le plus souvent des formes pseudotumorales et pose des problèmes de diagnostic différentiel avec les tumeurs nasopharyngées, son pronostic sous traitement antibacillaire est. PMID:23565310

  17. Cytopatholologic features of gliosarcoma with areas of primitive neuroepithelial differentiation of the brain in squash smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Kushida, Yoshio; Kadota, Kyuichi; Katsuki, Naomi; Bando, Kenji; Miyai, Yumi; Funamoto, Yasunobu; Haba, Reiji

    2009-12-01

    Gliosarcoma with areas of primitive neuroepithelial differentiation (GSPNED) is an extremely rare neoplasm. A case is presented here in which squash smears of a left temporal lobe tumor in a 76-year-old male demonstrated two distinct and easily recognizable cellular populations, i.e., densely hyperchromatic cells of a primitive nature in a fibrillary background and pleomorphic spindle-shaped cells. Occasional pseudo-rosette formations and nuclear cannibalism suggestive of neuroendocrine differentiation were also found. A cytologic diagnosis of a malignant tumor was suggested, and histochemical and immunohistochemical studies were conducted on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material. Reticulin stain highlighted increased intercellular collagen and reticulin deposition within the spindled regions, whereas nodules with primitive cells were reticulin-poor. There was a diffuse and strong reactivity to neuron specific enolase, synaptophysin and CD56 immunostains. A stain for glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100 protein demonstrated a subset of tumor cells including elongated cytoplasmic processes. The spindled component was positive for vimentin and smooth muscle actin, whereas the primitive-appearing tumor cells were negative. The diagnosis of GSPNED was confirmed based on cytopathologic, histopathological and immunohistochemical results. The cytomorphologic features of this distinctive tumor are illustrated, and the adjunctival value of squash smears for frozen-section diagnosis is also discussed. This is the first presentation of a cytopathologic analysis that provides an important clue to an accurate diagnosis of GSPNED.

  18. Application of the zero separation theorem to the restricted primitive model of electrolyte solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Calculations of activity coefficients by application of the zero separation theorem is discussed for the restricted primitive model of electrolyte solutions. Numerical results within the framework of the hypernetted chain approximation are given. These indicate that the bridge functions—at zero s...

  19. Primitive Liquid Water of the Solar System in an Aqueous Altered Carbonaceous Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, A.; Miyake, A.; Kitayama, A.; Matsuno, J.; Takeuchi, A.; Uesugi, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Nakano, T.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive 3D observations of the aqueous altered CM chondrite Sutter's Mill using scanning imaging x-ray microscopy (SIXM) showed that some of calcite and enstatite grains contain two-phase inclusion, which is most probably composed of liquid water and bubbles. This water should be primitive water responsible for aqueous alteration in an asteroid in the early solar system.

  20. the reception of the deuteronomic social law in the primitive church

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Were members of the Primitive. Church in Jerusalem, which mainly consisted of Jews from Galilee and. Judea, more familiar with Greek philosophy than with those Biblical texts about which they talked at home or on the road, when they lay or woke up, saw on hands, foreheads, doorframes and gates (cf. Deut. 6:7-9)? Since.

  1. Primitive Reflexes and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Developmental Origins of Classroom Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Myra; Houghton, Stephen; Chapman, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    The present research studied the symptomatologic overlap of AD/HD behaviours and retention of four primitive reflexes (Moro, Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex [TLR], Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex [ATNR], Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex [STNR]) in 109 boys aged 7-10 years. Of these, 54 were diagnosed with AD/HD, 34 manifested sub-syndromal coordination,…

  2. Persistent primitive hypoglossal artery associated with Chiari II malformation: Diagnosis and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Mudit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of persistent primitive hypoglossal artery (PPHA associated with Chiari II malformation and discuss the clinical implications. There has been one reported case of PPHA associated with Chiari 1 malformation, but none in association with Chiari II. Our patient also had a widened hypoglossal canal, with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sac herniation through it.

  3. Spatio-temporal articulatory movement primitives during speech production: extraction, interpretation, and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanarayanan, Vikram; Goldstein, Louis; Narayanan, Shrikanth S

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a computational approach to derive interpretable movement primitives from speech articulation data. It puts forth a convolutive Nonnegative Matrix Factorization algorithm with sparseness constraints (cNMFsc) to decompose a given data matrix into a set of spatiotemporal basis sequences and an activation matrix. The algorithm optimizes a cost function that trades off the mismatch between the proposed model and the input data against the number of primitives that are active at any given instant. The method is applied to both measured articulatory data obtained through electromagnetic articulography as well as synthetic data generated using an articulatory synthesizer. The paper then describes how to evaluate the algorithm performance quantitatively and further performs a qualitative assessment of the algorithm's ability to recover compositional structure from data. This is done using pseudo ground-truth primitives generated by the articulatory synthesizer based on an Articulatory Phonology frame-work [Browman and Goldstein (1995). "Dynamics and articulatory phonology," in Mind as motion: Explorations in the dynamics of cognition, edited by R. F. Port and T.van Gelder (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA), pp. 175-194]. The results suggest that the proposed algorithm extracts movement primitives from human speech production data that are linguistically interpretable. Such a framework might aid the understanding of longstanding issues in speech production such as motor control and coarticulation.

  4. A new and primitive retrobursal planarian from Australian fresh waters (Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria, Tricladida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ball, Ian R.

    1977-01-01

    A primitive freshwater planarian, Eviella hynesae gen. et sp. nov. is described from Australia. It is characterized by its lack of eyes and pigment, possession of caudally branched oviducts, and fully fused testes. Although a primary bursa is absent, its function being taken over by the modified

  5. Pediatric Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors of the Central Nervous System Differentially Express Granzyme Inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Jeroen F; van Hecke, Wim; Spliet, Wim G M; Villacorta Hidalgo, José; Fisch, Paul; Broekhuizen, Roel; Bovenschen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are malignant primary brain tumors that occur in young infants. Using current standard therapy, up to 80% of the children still dies from recurrent disease. Cellular immunotherapy might be key to improve overall

  6. Non-interactive Distributed Encryption : A New Primitive for Revocable Privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galindo, D.; Hoepman, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and instantiate a new cryptographic primitive, called non-interactive distributed encryption, that allows a receiver to decrypt a ciphertext only if a minimum number of different senders encrypt the same plaintext. The new functionality can be seen as the dual of the

  7. Dispersion larvaire et cycle de vie dans les environnements hydrothermaux profonds : le cas de Rimicaris exoculata et d'espèces proches

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Ávila, Iván

    2016-01-01

    Deep-water hydrothermal vent host high-biomass communities based on chemoautotrophy supported by the metabolic activity of free-living and symbiotic bacteria associated to invertebrates, especially megafauna. Knowledge on the mechanisms of dispersal and the life cycle of vent species is essential to our understanding of the vent communities in terms of distribution, structure and temporal variation. In this study, I present some advances regarding the dispersal and life cycle of a dominant sp...

  8. Présence nécessaire de l’art dans L’écriture ou la vie de Jorge Semprun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Pedrol-Aguilà

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this autobiographical novel about his internment in Buchenwald, Semprun often alludes to Art. Firstly, former prisoners use the works by artists unconnected with the concentration camp as a reference when trying to portray their inconceivable experi-ence. In this way, Art constitutes a nexus with Freedom, which allows them to en-dure their internment. Secondly, Art is also a doorway to Memory. Thirdly, we must mention the particular relation between totalitarianism and Art. Finally, we will see that, whether it be Art for Art’s sake, or in a more utilitarian way, life and artistic crea-tion unite against death and dehumaniza-tion.

  9. Influence des melanges complexes organiques sur le sort des dioxines et furanes: Implications dans le developpement de facteurs de caracterisation en analyse du cycle de vie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taing, Eric

    The environmental fate of dioxins and furans, or polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs), leaching from wood poles treated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) oil is modified by the presence of oil. Interactions between co-contaminants, which also exist for other pollutants within the mixtures, were shown in the specific context of risk analysis, but have never been taken into account for the generic context of life cycle assessment (LCA). This decision-making tool relies on characterization factors (CF) to estimate the potential impacts of an emitted amount of a pollutant in different impact categories such as aquatic ecotoxicity and human toxicity. For these two impact categories, CFs are calculated from a cause-effect chain that models the environmental fate, exposure and effects of the pollutant (represented by a matrix of fate FF, exposure XF and effect EF, respectively), meaning that a modification of PCDD/Fs fate induces a change in PCDD/Fs CFs. The research question is therefore as follows: In life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), to what extent would the potential impacts of PCDD/Fs on aquatic ecotoxicity and human toxicity change when taking into account the influence of a complex organic mixture on PCDD/Fs fate?. Thus, the main objective is to develop CFs of PCDD/Fs when their fate is influenced by PCP oil and compare them with the CFs of PCDD/Fs without oil for the aquatic ecotoxicity and human toxicity impact categories. A mathematic approach is established to determine the new environmental distribution of PCDD/Fs in the presence of oil and a new FF' matrix is calculated from this new distribution to obtain new CFs' integrating oil influence. FF' and CF' are then compared to FF and CF of PCDD/Fs without the oil. Finally, potential (eco)toxic impacts of the PCDD/F Canadian emissions are calculated with the new CFs' of PCDD/Fs in presence of oil. By only focusing on the results for an emission into air, freshwater and natural soil on a continental scale, the overall elimination fractions of 2,3,7,8-TCDD changed significantly. For the three emissions, organic fractions increased the overall elimination fraction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD into the continental air compartment, induced by a higher volatility of organic fractions than 2,3,7,8-TCDD: for an emission into continental air, organic fractions increased the overall elimination fraction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in the continental air from 29% to 49% at most. For an emission into continental freshwater, 2,3,7,8-TCDD fate was mainly influenced by two groups of organic fractions: the lightest ones that volatilize into continental air (overall elimination fraction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD increasing from 2% to 35%) and the heaviest ones that are removed by sedimentation (DTCDD,fwC,fwC from 87% up to 96%). Therefore, an approach has been proposed to represent the carrier behaviour of the oil for PCDD/Fs. PCDD/F potential impacts in aquatic ecotoxicity and human toxicity change in a range up to two orders of magnitude depending on the emitting compartment (except for the seawater and ocean compartments). As 2,3,7,8-TCDD is one of the most toxic pollutant, this changing is significant in LCA. To assess the validity of the model's result, it is recommended to carry out laboratory experiments on the PCDD/F volatilization with oil. In addition, it could be interesting to integrate the influence of PCP on PCDD/Fs fate and, more broadly, the influence of all cocontaminants on PCDD/Fs exposure and effects. Moreover having a unique CFeco and CF tox via a weighting of the 17 CF'eco and the 17 CF' tox, respectively, is necessary for a use in LCA. Unfortunately the variability of the composition makes the weighting difficult, so it is suggested to calculate the mean CF'eco and CF'tox. Finally this research could be carried out on other pollutants whose fate is known to be modified by a complex organic mixture in an effort to ensure that impact characterization better reflects reality. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  10. „Mais Paris demeure un phare...“ Influences de la France dans la vie d’Edvard et Hana Beneš avant 1919

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, Dagmara; Hajdinová, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 4 (2015), s. 449-472 ISSN 0080-2557 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP410/10/1273 Institutional support: RVO:67985921 Keywords : Beneš, Edvard * Benešová, Hana * First World War Subject RIV: AB - History

  11. Chaos, entropy, and life-time in classical and quantum systems; Chaos, entropie et duree de vie dans les systemes classiques et quantiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyed Majid Saberi Fathi

    2007-07-15

    In this thesis, we first study Lorentz gas as a billiard ball with elastic collision with the obstacles and a system of hard spheres in 2-dimensions. We study a numerical simulation of the dynamical system and we investigate the entropy increasing in non-equilibrium with time under the effect of collisions and its relation to positive Lyapunov exponents. Then, we study a decay model in a quantum system called Friedrichs model. We consider coupling of the kaons and environment with continuous energies. Then, we show that this model is well adapted to describe oscillation, regeneration, decay and CP violation of a kaonic system. In addition, we apply in the Friedrichs model, the time super-operator formalism that predicts the resonance, i.e. the survival probability of the instable states. (author)

  12. Chapitre IV. La vie scolaire dans les établissements populaires : un compromis entre normes scolaires et habitudes de favelas

    OpenAIRE

    Brochier, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Quoi d’étonnant si la prison ressemble aux usines, aux écoles, aux casernes, aux hôpitaux, qui tous ressemblent aux prisons ?Michel Foucault Une école où les écoliers feraient la loi serait une triste école.Ernest Renan Ils s’ennuient les pauvres gamins. Ils se moquent bien des fables, de la grammaire, des villes du monde et des productions de la Sicile, ils pensent à la cantine.Leonardo Sciascia Prendre pour objet la façon dont se déroule la scolarité des enfants pauvres rend indispensable d...

  13. Precise measurement of tau lifetime in ALEPH experiment at the LEP; Mesure precise de la duree de vie du tau dans l`experience ALEPH au LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, I.

    1995-02-01

    A new method is presented for the measurement of the tau lifetime using tau decays to hadrons. Precise measurements ({sigma} {approx} 20{mu}m) of impact parameters (d{sub o} and z{sub o}) of charged tracks using full vertex detector informations allow the reconstruction of the 3-dimensional point of minimum approach of the track to the beam axis. On the other hand, it is shown that an axis perpendicular to the tau axis can be precisely determined ({sigma} {approx} 10 mrad) in the hadronic-hadronic {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} decay events using kinematics and the back-to-back nature of tau pairs in e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders. Combination of both quantities yields a generalized IPS relation in 3D space which is not affected by the beam size nor by the tau direction uncertainty. The experimental resolution can be fitted together with lifetime due to the small smearing. The method allows, therefore, a self-consistent and self-calibrating analysis of tau lifetime. The method has good stability against systematical uncertainties like tracking resolution, non-gaussian tails, etc...The method has been applied to the data collected by the ALEPH detector at LEP in 1992. From 2840 {tau}{sup +} + {sup {tau}-} {yields} hadron + hadron (1-1) decay events and 794 hadron + 3 hadrons (1-3) decay events, the tau lifetimes of 292.9 {+-} 5.9 {+-} 2.7fs and 284.6 {+-} 11.9 {+-} 5.1fs are obtained respectively. The combined {tau} lifetimes is 290.8 {+-} 5.3 {+-} 2.7fs. Statistical uncertainty corresponds to 1.1/{radical}N{sub {tau}}{tau}. This result has low statistical correlation with other precision methods. (author). 70 refs., 80 figs., 21 tabs., 7 ann.

  14. Mesure du temps de vie de la composante CP paire du $B_{s}^{0}$ dans LHCb ; Qualification des phototubes du preshower

    CERN Document Server

    Borras, D; Henrard, P

    2006-01-01

    This manuscript discusses a twofold research: an instrumental work and a prospective physics study both conducted in the framewor k of the LHCb experiment (Cern, Geneva), foreseen to start at the Spring 2008. TheLHC machine is a proton-proton collider clocked at 40MHz and delivering a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. At nominal luminosity, about 1012 pairs of b-particles will be produced in LHCb. After the remarkable achievements of the B factories (BaBar and Belle), it is established that the Standard Mode l(the CK Mmechanism) is the dominant source of CP violation in the B system. Moreover , no significant deviation to the Standard Model predictions is observed in the whole Flavour Physics data up to now. In this scope, the large statistics which will be available at LHCb should allow to reach rare decays potentially sensitive to New Physics contribution. It will also allow to perform precision measurements and deeply test the global consistency of the CKM predictions, in particular with the B particles. Th...

  15. Radiation protection and environment day the low doses in everyday life; Radioprotection et environnement les faibles doses dans la vie quotidienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The consequences of low doses exposures are difficult to explore and the studies give often place to controversies. According to the are, differences exist in the methodological approaches. It results from it a confusion on the acceptable levels of exposure, even on the definition of low dose. This day organised by the sections 'non ionizing and research and health of the French society of radiation protection (S.F.R.P.), will be a meeting between professionals of different disciplines, to compare the approaches used for the ionizing and non ionizing radiations as well as the chemical and microbiological agents. It will allow to share the knowledge and the abilities and to progress on methodologies adapted to the evaluation and the management of risks in relation with low doses. (N.C.)

  16. Bilan et apports de différentes Analyses Sociales du Cycle de Vie menées dans le secteur des agro-industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delcour, A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment and contributions of different Social Life Cycle Assessments performed in the agribusiness sector. Introduction. Consumers are attaching increasing importance to the sustainability of the products they purchase. The agribusiness sector is well aware of this trend and is making efforts to guarantee product sustainability. Literature. Social Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA is a widely used methodology (like others in this field, such as ISO 26000 and SA 8000 for evaluating the social impact of the activities involved in the life cycle of a product. The S-LCA guidelines were published in 2009 and therefore the framework for this methodology is not yet well established. Nevertheless, some S-LCA studies have been completed and have contributed to the development of the methodology. The objective of this paper is to give feedback to the agribusiness sector and researchers regarding prospects for future use of Social Life Cycle Assessment in the agribusiness sector. Papers selected for this literature review have been chosen on the basis of Scopus's query from 2000 to the present day. Scopus's query contains analyses of major international conferences. The case studies in the agribusiness sector that are reviewed in this paper highlight the usefulness of a social hotspots database, the need for stakeholder involvement in S-LCA implementation, the link between S-LCA and its regional context, and the benefits of developing causal links between indicators and impact categories, such as working conditions and governance. Conclusions. Further methodological investigation needs to be conducted in order to standardize this new methodology. Its ability to provide an overview of assessment of socioeconomic impacts makes it a good choice for evaluating the aspect of social impact as part of sustainability studies.

  17. Données sur la croissance de l'anguille (Anguilla anguilla L. dans le cours moyen du Rhin, région alsacienne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEUNIER F. J.

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available La capture régulière, pendant cinq années (1990-94, d'anguilles marquées à la tétracycline au stade civelle et déversées dans le Rhin en mars 1989, confirme la forte variabilité individuelle de leur croissance. La croissance moyenne annuelle, sexes confondus, est de 55 mm, avec un accroissement voisin de 100 mm lors de la première année de vie en eau douce. Ces valeurs se situent dans les limites des résultats obtenus pour d'autres rivières, lacs ou lagunes de l'Europe occidentale.

  18. Eva Illouz et l’irruption de la culture thérapeutique dans la société américaine

    OpenAIRE

    Hippert, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Comment comprendre l’irruption du « discours thérapeutique » dans notre vie quotidienne ? C’est à cette question que la sociologue Eva Illouz, professeur de sociologie à l’université hébraïque de Jérusalem, a consacré un livre intitulé : Saving the Modern Soul. Therapy, Emotions, and the Culture of Self‑Help, paru en 2008. Cet effort analytique pour tenter de cerner l’ethos émotionnel des sociétés modernes capitalistes s’inscrit dans le vaste domaine de la sociologie de la culture. Avec ce de...

  19. Des livres dans la tête : la bibliothèque imaginaire chez Bradbury, Canetti et Joyce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Barazon

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Le livre est un symbole de la liberté créatrice de l’homme et de sa faculté d’exprimer ses émotions. Quand le livre est interdit et même brûlé, cette liberté est mise en danger. L’homme se perd dans le bonheur facile, et finit par s’anéantir. Le livre est considéré comme le plus grand obstacle au bonheur dans une société qui recherche l’absence de douleur. Ray Bradbury évoque une évolution effrayante dans Fahrenheit 451, il dépeint la destruction des livres par le feu. L’homme doit détruire cette société pour retrouver son côté sombre et le droit au livre. Mais ce n’est pas seulement la perte de la liberté créatrice que l’homme cherche à reconquérir, c’est le devoir de mémoire dans les livres. L’isolement que constitue le livre et le rapport à lui reste cependant un danger quand la lecture devient enfermement. Dans Auto-da-fé d’Elias Canetti, c’est un savant qui cherche à remplacer la vie par les livres. Il finit aussi par se détruire parce qu’il ne cherche plus le contact de l’autre. Enfin, c’est Ulysse de James Joyce qui constitue une véritable bibliothèque imaginaire par l’existence d’un seul livre dans la tête du lecteur. Si un seul livre peut concentrer en lui toute lecture possible, le lecteur est enfin libéré de l’immobilité forcée de la lecture et peut aller à la rencontre de l’autre et de la vie, enfin libéré de cette activité qui l’enferme pour la transformer en flux de la conscience, il devient créateur du déploiement d’une véritable activité vitale et libératrice.

  20. The Character as Text in Philip Massinger’s A New Way to Pay Old Debts Le Personnage comme texte dans A New Way to Pay Old Debts de Philip Massinger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Ribeyrol

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Dans A New Way to Pay Old Debts de Philip Massinger la réputation est perçue comme une feuille blanche sur laquelle le personnage doit écrire le récit de sa vie. L’idée de la vie d’un homme comme livre ou comme feuille de papier est fort ancienne, elle figure aussi bien dans la Bible que dans les livres d’emblèmes des XVIe et XVIIe siècles. Au moment de la mort, l’homme laisse ainsi à la postérité un texte édifiant dont il aura été l’auteur (auctor. Cet article démontre  qu’il faut néanmoins faire une distinction entre l’homme, qui prend plume et rédige son propre texte, et la femme qui doit attendre passivement qu’un autre compose le sien.

  1. Effects of the reappearance of primitive reflexes on eating function and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobo, Kimiko; Kawase, Junko; Tamura, Fumiyo; Groher, Michael; Kikutani, Takeshi; Sunakawa, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    Primitive reflexes can reappear with diseases of the brain, particularly those affecting the frontal lobes. Most studies on primitive reflexes have reported an association between such reflexes and brain damage, and the clinical symptoms of dementia. These reflexes can also be present during eating; however, their effects on eating function are difficult to evaluate. The purpose of the present study was to identify the frequency at which primitive reflexes reappear in elderly people, and to determine the effects that such reflexes have on eating function, nutritional status and prognosis. We followed 121 nursing home residents for 6 months. All patients required long-term care and were examined for the presence of a sucking reflex, snout reflex and phasic bite reflex for baseline measures. Demographic characteristics, physical and cognitive function, and nutritional status were obtained from chart reviews, interviews with nurses, and a brief physical examination at baseline and incidence of aspiration pneumonia during the study period. The sucking reflex was confirmed in 31 patients (25.6%), snout reflex in 15 patients (12.3%) and phasic bite reflex in 28 patients (23.1%). One or more of these reflexes was identified in 38 patients (31.4%). A relationship between the presence of a primitive reflex and nutritional status was shown. An association with the presence of these reflexes and the development of aspiration pneumonia during 6 months was also confirmed. The appearance of primitive reflexes appears to be associated with the risk of malnutrition and developing aspiration pneumonia. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  2. Learned parametrized dynamic movement primitives with shared synergies for controlling robotic and musculoskeletal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar eRückert

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A salient feature of human motor skill learning is the ability to exploitsimilarities across related tasks.In biological motor control, it has been hypothesized that muscle synergies,coherent activations of groups of muscles, allow for exploiting shared knowledge.Recent studies have shown that a rich set of complex motor skills can be generated bya combination of a small number of muscle synergies.In robotics, dynamic movement primitives are commonlyused for motor skill learning. This machine learning approach implements a stable attractor systemthat facilitates learning and it can be used in high-dimensional continuous spaces. However, it does not allow for reusing shared knowledge, i.e. for each task an individual set of parameters has to be learned.We propose a novel movement primitive representationthat employs parametrized basis functions, which combines the benefits of muscle synergiesand dynamic movement primitives. For each task asuperposition of synergies modulates a stable attractor system.This approach leads to a compact representation of multiple motor skills andat the same time enables efficient learning in high-dimensional continuous systems.The movement representation supports discrete and rhythmic movements andin particular includes the dynamic movement primitive approach as a special case.We demonstrate the feasibility of the movement representation in three multi-task learning simulated scenarios.First, the characteristics of the proposed representation are illustrated in a point-mass task.Second, in complex humanoid walking experiments,multiple walking patterns with different step heights are learned robustly and efficiently.Finally, in a multi-directional reaching task simulated with a musculoskeletal modelof the human arm, we show how the proposed movement primitives can be used tolearn appropriate muscle excitation patterns and to generalize effectively to new reaching skills.

  3. Modelling 3D spatial objects in a geo-DBMS using a 3D primitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Călin; Stoter, Jantien; van Oosterom, Peter

    2005-03-01

    There is a growing interest in modelling the world in three dimensions, both in applications and in science. At the same time, geographical information systems are changing into integrated architecture in which administrative and spatial data are maintained in one environment. It is for this reason that mainstream Data Base Management Systems (DBMSs) have implemented spatial data types according to the 'Simple Feature Specifications for SQL', described by the OpenGeospatial Consortium. However, these specifications are 2D, as indeed are the implementations in DBMSs. At the Section GIS Technology of TU Delft, research has been carried out in which a 3D primitive was implemented in a DBMS (Oracle Spatial). To explore the possibilities and complications, a fairly simple 3D primitive was chosen to start with: a polyhedron. In the future the study will be extended with more complex primitives, the ultimate aim being to build 3D models with features closer to the real world. Besides the data structure, a validation function was developed to check the geometric accuracy of the data. Rules for validation were established and translated into prototype implementations with the aid of literature. In order to manipulate the data, a list of useful 3D functions was specified. Most of these were translated into algorithms, which were implemented in the DBMS. The algorithms for these functions were obtained from the relevant literature. The research also comprised a comparative performance test on spatial indexing in 2D and 3D, using an R-tree. Finally, existing software was used to visualize 3D objects structured with the implemented 3D primitive. This research is a first attempt to implement a true 3D primitive in a DBMS. Future research will focus on extending and improving the implementations and on optimizing maintenance and query of 3D objects in DBMSs.

  4. LESBIAN, GAY, BISEKSUAL, DAN TRANSGENDER (LGBT DALAMPERSPEKTIF MASYARAKAT DAN AGAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr Suherry

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Pada Intinya Negara Ini Harus Hadir Terdepan Dalam Menjaga Identitas Bangsanya Dan Jangan Terikut Arus Globalisasi Yang Merusak Jati Diri Bangsa Kita, Kemudian Yang Harus Diingat Negara Kita Negara Hukum Dan Juga Penjunjung Hak Asasi Manusia Bukan Penganut Paham Liberalisme Yang Tanpa Batas. Oleh Karena Itu, Mari Kita Kembali Pada Jati Diri Kita, Kembali Pada Falsafah Pancasila Dan Undang-Undang Dasar 1945 Dengan Cara Menanamkan Nilai-Nilai Agama Dan Budaya Luhur. Kita Bentengi Keluarga, Khususnya Anak-Anak  Dari Perilaku Yang Menyimpang. Dan, Kita Ajak Kembali Mereka Yang Terlanjur Melakukan Praktek Menyimpang Dengan Cara Yang Bijak. Lgbt Harus Ditindak Lanjuti Dan Ditegasi. Ketahuilah Dalam Berpasangan  Hanyalah Ada Laki-Laki Dan Perempuan Ini Hal Yang Tidak Bisa Dipungkiri Lagi Sejak Zaman Dahulu. Taukah Anda Cerita-Cerita Fiktif Atau Legenda Percintaan Seperti “Romeo Dan Juliet” Atau “Cinderela” Dan Juga Bisa Kita Ambil Kisah Agama Seperti “Adam Dan Hawa” Ini Sudah Jelas Dan Kita Tau Mungkin Sampai Sekarang Hal Dalam Berpasangan Itu Hanya Di Miliki Pasangan Yang Berbeda Jenis Kelamin. “Hidup Dengan Pernikahan Berbeda Jenis Itu Lebih Damai Dan Bahagia Dari Pada Pernikahan Yang Sesama Jenis Yang Membawa Derita”. Kata Kunci : Lesbian, Gay, Biseksual, Transgender (LGBT,  Masyarakat, Agama.

  5. PERBANDINGAN PEMULUSAN KERNEL DAN SPLINE

    OpenAIRE

    Erfiani Erfiani; Aji Hamim Wigena; Aunuddin Aunuddin

    2014-01-01

    Pendugaan kepekatan kernel dan spline termasuk pendugaan kepekatan nonparametrik. Perilaku pemulus spline terletak dipertengahan antara pemulus kernel yang konstan dan pemulus kernel yang tidak konstan. Pada kasus n besar dan λ tertentu fungsi pembobot spline dapat didekati oleh fungsi kernel. Perbandingan pemulus spline dan kernel secara empirik dilakukan dengan menggunakan data simulasi yang dicobakan pada berbagai lebar jendela kernel serta fungsi spline pada berbagai jumlah kn...

  6. Dan Johnson the mentor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Richard

    2003-04-01

    I first met Dan Johnson in early 1975 as I was interviewing for an engineering job with Henning von Gierke's bioengineering and bionics laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. From the very beginning Dan was always direct and forthright. Over the ensuing next 27 years my knowledge and respect of Dan constantly grew. This presentation will review Dan's technical and personal contributions while at the laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. He was instrumental in the development of a national noise exposure criteria with the equal-energy-rule, an accurate single number hearing protector attenuation measure based on ``C-A,'' an impulse noise exposure criteria, a longitudinal study of hearing loss in children, development of noise dosimeters, and description of hearing damage risk from nonoccupational noise exposures such as disco's, bowling alleys, lawn mowers, and school buses. Dan has had a significant effect on my career. I and the many people who knew him at the laboratory miss him greatly.

  7. Smartphone, Wi-Fi et vie privée : comment votre smartphone peut se révéler être votre pire ennemi

    OpenAIRE

    Cunche, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    1; Nos smartphones et nos tablettes sont des objets qui nous accompagnent partout et qui sont pour la plupart équipés d'une interface Wi-Fi. Certaines spécificités de cette technologie font que ces compagnons de vie numériques se comportent comme de véritables mouchards en révélant des informations personnelles à qui veut bien tendre l'oreille (ou plutôt l'antenne). Nous faisons ici le point sur ces fuites de données et les dangers qu'elles représentent pour notre vie privée.

  8. Les traits d'oralité dans deux manuels de français langue étrangère

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meta Lah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans l'enseignement des langues étangères, la composante orale a longtemps été peu représentée; elle n'est devenue un objectif à part entière qu'avec l'avènement de l'approche communicative dans les années 70 du 20ème siècle. Selon l'approche actionnelle, telle qu'elle est définie dans le Cadre européen commun de référence pour les langues, un des objectifs principaux est de préparer l'apprenant  le plus possible aux situations réelles de la vie courante. L'interaction orale joue sans doute un rôle très important dans ces situations ; que peut-on donc faire pour que nos apprenants ne soient pas traités en France comme « parlant comme Balzac?» L'article se propose de passer en revue plusieurs manuels de FLE récents, édités par différentes maisons d'édition. Le manuel est l'outil de base de chaque enseignant et pour certains le seul outil qu'ils utilisent en classe. Pour cette raison, la langue représentée dans les manuels est d'une grande importance.  Nous allons analyser les documents audiovisuels proposés aux apprenants  du point de vue linguistique et culturel et essayer d'évaluer la pertinence de la langue telle qu'elle est representée dans ces documents.

  9. PENGELOLAAN PENELITIAN DAN PENGEMBANGAN KESEHATAN DI THAILAND, MYANMAR, DAN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anorital, SKM Anorital, SKM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dalam bulan Januari 1991 yang lalu, Sdr. Anorital, SKM (Ka. Subbag. Pengumpulan dan PengolahanData Badan Litbangkes dan H. Syafwani Mirin, SKM (Ka. Bag. Keuangan Badan Litbangkes memperoleh fellowship dari WHO untuk melakukan studi perbandingan ke institusi-institusi penelitian kesehatan di Thailand,Myanmar, dan India.Berikut di bawah ini tulisan bersangkutan yang menggambarkan secara garis besar pengelolaan penelitian dan pengembangan kesehatan pada masing-masing negara obyek studi. Semoga informasi yang terkandung pada tulisan ini dapat bermanfaat bagi pengembangan Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan.

  10. Détermination de la durée de vie géochimique du stock de déchets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    Détermination de la durée de vie géochimique du stock de déchets miniers de Carnoulès (France) à partir d'un modèle hydrodynamique. Kouadio KOFFI1*, Inza DOUMOUYA1, Bi Tié Albert GOULA1 & Séverin PISTRE2. 1Laboratoire Géosciences et Environnement, UFR Sciences et Gestion de l'Environnement, Université ...

  11. Nourrir la vie : éthique de la relation de soin chez les T’ai Dam du Nord-Laos Nurturing Life : Care Relationship and its Ethic among the T’ai Dam of Northern Laos. A Study of the Polysemic Notion of Liang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Collomb

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available La notion de liang, commune aux langues tai, renvoie à une multiplicité de pratiques : nourrir, élever des animaux et des enfants, adopter, prendre soin de ses parents âgés et rendre un culte. Dans un premier temps, cet article propose d’explorer dans le contexte d’un village de riziculteurs t’ai dam du Nord Laos, le champ sémantique et les différentes pratiques auxquelles renvoie cette notion. Qu’il s’agisse des animaux, des humains ou des esprits, d’élevage, de soin ou de culte, liang implique toujours l’institution et le maintien d’une relation fondée sur le don, réel ou symbolique, de nourriture et appelant une certaine forme de réciprocité. La deuxième partie de l’article, consacré à trois études de cas relatant la difficulté à concevoir et à garder en vie des enfants, montrera que liang relève à la fois d’une aptitude, donnée ou acquise, et d’une valeur qui sont essentielles à la reproduction et bon déroulement du cycle de vie.Abstract : The notion of liang, common to all tai languages, denotes a multiplicity of practices : feeding, raising animals and children, adopting, taking care of one’s elders, worshiping spirits. Firstly, this article proposes to explore, in the context if a rice-growing t’ai dam village of Northern Laos, the semantic field and variety of practices concerned by this notion. Whichever the beneficiary (animal, human or spirit and whatever the action (raising, taking care or worshiping, liang always imply the initiation and the preservation of a relationship founded on the gift, real of symbolic, of food. Besides, it requires one sort of another of reciprocity. The second part of the article will be devoted to three case studies narrating difficulties encountered in the conception and raising of children. It will show that liang is all at once a given or achieved aptitude and a value essential to the reproduction and to the continuation of the life cycle.

  12. Désir de maison à l’aune du parcours résidentiel. Quelle promotion sociale dans le périurbain ? Home desire, residential trajectories and social advancement in exurbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Ortar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article interroge une forme d’habitat propre au mode de vie périurbain, la maison, en tant que vecteur de promotion sociale. Entre l’idéal d’une vie meilleure et les tensions provoquées par un nouveau mode de vie aux contraintes spatiales fortes, ce sont les trajectoires professionnelles des parents mais aussi les trajectoires scolaires des enfants qui sont transformées. Si la maison tient toujours son rôle dans l’imaginaire de la réussite sociale, en assure-t-elle vraiment les nouveaux acquéreurs ?This paper examines a form of housing specific to the exurban lifestyle, i.e. the house, as a vector of social advancement. Both parents’ careers and children’s schooling are affected by hopes of a better life and tensions effected by a new lifestyle subjected to major spatial constraints. If the individual house still enjoys a major role in people’s representations of social success, does it still lead new buyers to such success?

  13. ANALISA DAN PERANCANGAN MODEL KEPUTUSAN BAKAT DAN MINAT ANAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasya Latubessy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Analisa dan Perancangan yang baik diperlukan untuk menghasilkan sebuah sistem yang handal. Kebanyakan pengembang program mengabaikan langkah ini, dengan langsung mengerjakan tahap implementasi sistem. Padahal disisi lain, dokumentasi sistem sangat diperlukan untuk pengembangan sistem nantinya. Berdasarkan hal tersebut, penulis melakukan analisa dan perancangan untuk membangun sebuah model keputusan bakat dan minat pada anak SD Kelas 3, 4 dan 5. Model Bayesian digunakan sebagai analisa model keputusan. Sementara Diagram- diagram UML digunakan dalam perancangan sistem. Diagram yang digunakan meliputi use case diagram, activity diagram, sequance diagram dan class diagram. Dengan adanya analisa dan perancangan ini, dapat digunakan sebagai dasar implementasi sistem ke depan. Menghasilkan model keputusan dengan Bayesian yang dapat digunakan untuk penentuan bakat dan minat anak, dengan lima alternatif kemampuan anak. Kata kunci: analisa, perancangan, model, keputusan, bakat, minat.

  14. Makna Dan Ideologi Punk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniar Wikan Setyanto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Punk Sebagai sebuah subkultur telah diadaptasi oleh para remaja Indonesia bukan hanya sebagai semangat bermusik, namun merambah sebagai ideologi dan gaya hidup. Punk merupakan warisan budaya dari barat yang awalnya bergerak pada bidang musik, namun lambat lain punk telah menjadi sebuah identitas global yang mewakili para remaja radikal yang memiliki visi anti kemapanan dan anti pemerintah. Selain ideologinya yang kontroversi, punk mempengaruhi dinamika fashion di dunia. Asesoris punk diadaptasi oleh budaya bopuler sebagai pernak-pernik fashion. Kini punk, telah menjadi bagian dari dunia fashion di seluruh dunia. Apa sebenarnya yang melatar belakangi munculnya Punk? bagaimana Punk bisa berkembang di Indonesia? Kata Kunci: punk, fashion, budaya populer

  15. DanRIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Windows 2000/XP/Vista platform computerprogram til DanRIS indberetning baseret på indskrivning af klienter på CPR, klientsforløb, faseforløb, ASI EuropASI composite score beregninger. Udgave: 2.1.0.5 Udgivelsesdato: 01-01-2009......Windows 2000/XP/Vista platform computerprogram til DanRIS indberetning baseret på indskrivning af klienter på CPR, klientsforløb, faseforløb, ASI EuropASI composite score beregninger. Udgave: 2.1.0.5 Udgivelsesdato: 01-01-2009...

  16. MISKONSEPSI KONSEP ARCHAEBACTERIA DAN EUBACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fina Nurul Khotimah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi miskonsepsi siswa pada konsep Archaebacteria dan Eubacteria. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode survei dengan instrumen berupa pilihan ganda beralasan terbuka sebagai alat ukur. Unit analisis dalam penelitian adalah siswa MAN kelas X berjumlah 72 orang. Hasil analisis ditemukan ketidakpahaman pada konsep Archaebacteria dan Eubacteria (61% yang mendominasi kategori lainnya. Sedangkan kategori Paham konsep dan Miskonsepsi hanya sebesar 19% dan 20%. Miskonsepsi yang dialami siswa dari hasil diagnosa alasan terbuka menunjukkan lebih banyak miskonsepsi utuh dibandingkan dengan miskonsepsi sebagian. Miskonsepsi utuh teridentifikasi dengan siswa beranggapan bahwa bakteri lebih banyak menimbulkan kerugian daripada keuntungan bagi manusia dan lingkungan.

  17. Primal negation as a primitive agony: reflections on the absence of a place-for-becoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Amanda

    2012-02-01

    The fundamental existential question for the borderline/ hysteric patient is not 'who am I?' but 'where am I?' or perhaps 'where can I be?'. This paper(1) explores this statement with reference to a pivotal clinical experience which changed the author's thinking and theorizing about this state. Case material is presented which focuses on an experience of what the author describes as 'primal negation' which gives rise to primitive displacement anxiety and this is proposed as a specific form of primitive mental agony. There is an elaboration of a borderline defence against an unthinkable experience of formless dread which the author conceives as an attempt to construct a sense of a liveable shape. There is a description of an aspect of the analyst's 'dreaming on behalf of the patient' and an elaboration of what this came to mean for both analyst and patient. © 2012, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  18. Interaction learning for dynamic movement primitives used in cooperative robotic tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulvicius, Tomas; Biehl, Martin; Aein, Mohamad Javad

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Since several years dynamic movement primitives (DMPs) are more and more getting into the center of interest for flexible movement control in robotics. In this study we introduce sensory feedback together with a predictive learning mechanism which allows tightly coupled dual-agent system...... to cooperate. Simulations as well as real-robot experiments are shown. Interestingly, all these mechanisms are entirely based on low level interactions without any planning or cognitive component.......Abstract Since several years dynamic movement primitives (DMPs) are more and more getting into the center of interest for flexible movement control in robotics. In this study we introduce sensory feedback together with a predictive learning mechanism which allows tightly coupled dual-agent systems...

  19. Comets and the formation of biochemical compounds on the primitive earth - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oro, J.; Mills, T.; Lazcano, A.

    1992-01-01

    Thirty years ago it was suggested that comets impacting on the primitive earth may have represented a significant source of terrestrial volatiles, including some important precursors for prebiotic synthesis (Oro, 1961). This possibility is strongly supported not only by models of the collisional history of the early earth, but also by astronomical evidence that suggests that frequent collisions of cometlike bodies from the circumstellar disk around the star Beta Pictoris are taking place. Although a significant fraction of the complex organic compounds that appear to be present in cometary nuclei were probably destroyed during impact, it is argued that cometary collisions with the primitive earth represented an important source of both free-energy and volatiles, and may have created transient, gaseous environments in which prebiotic synthesis may have taken place.

  20. New software library of geometrical primitives for modelling of solids used in Monte Carlo detector simulations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    We present our effort for the creation of a new software library of geometrical primitives, which are used for solid modelling in Monte Carlo detector simulations. We plan to replace and unify current geometrical primitive classes in the CERN software projects Geant4 and ROOT with this library. Each solid is represented by a C++ class with methods suited for measuring distances of particles from the surface of a solid and for determination as to whether the particles are located inside, outside or on the surface of the solid. We use numerical tolerance for determining whether the particles are located on the surface. The class methods also contain basic support for visualization. We use dedicated test suites for validation of the shape codes. These include also special performance and numerical value comparison tests for help with analysis of possible candidates of class methods as well as to verify that our new implementation proposals were designed and implemented properly. Currently, bridge classes are u...

  1. John Wesley’s medical guide Primitive Physick from 1747: science, charlatanism or social medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Renders

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1747, John Wesley, spiritus rector of the Methodist movement, published the first edition of his medical guide Primitive Physic[k]. What was its purpose in a world where the Royal Academy, herbalists, healers / as, exorcists and quacks competed for the attention of the population? What is its legacy and limitation, considering the different interests of contemporary religious movements in Brazil? The article introduces the different groups who promoted or pretended to promote health in 18th century England and compares the contents of the guide Primitive Physic [k] with their proposals and therapeutic strategies. The conclusion is that a significant portion of the guide consists of guidelines of the Royal Academy of Medicine, but that it always favors homemade remedies with ingredients available to humbler classes. In relation to the socalled Spiritual Physick, prayer is mentioned as a complementary measure, but the practice of exorcism is totally ignored.

  2. [The cultural history of palliative care in primitive societies: an integrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles González, José; Solano Ruiz, Maria Del Carmen

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the evolution of palliative care in order to reflect on the possibility of its origin in primitive cultures and their relationship with the beginnings of the cult of the dead. It describes the change in the symbolic structures and social interactions involved in palliative care during prehistory: functional unit, functional framework and functional element. The theoretical framework is based on cultural history, the dialectical structural model and symbolic interactionism. Categorization techniques, cultural history and dialectic structuralism analyses were performed. Palliative care existed in primitive societies, mostly associated with the rites of passage with a high symbolic content. The social structures - functional unit, functional framework and functional element - are the pillars that supported palliative care in prehistory societies.

  3. Western Imperialism Against Primitive Communism. A New Reading of Rosa Luxemburg’s Economic Writings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Löwy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on Rosa Luxemburg’s theories of imperialism hasmainly focused on the economic argument - the schemes of reproduction, theprocess of circulation, the need for “external” markets, etc. There is howeveranother dimension, at least as important : the struggle of imperialism againstpre-capitalist economies, the ruthless destruction of “natural” and peasant economies,many of them being forms of primitive communism. Luxemburg’sinterest for primitive communist societies is documented by her Introductionto Political Economy and the imperialist war against them is discussed both inthis work and in the last chapters of The Accumulation of Capital. A whollyoriginal approach to the evolution of social formations, running counter tolinear “progressive” views of bourgeois ideology, is outlined in these reflections. Present indigenous struggles e.g. in Latin America, against multinational oil or mining companies, illustrate the topicality of Rosa Luxemburg’s argument in the 21th century.

  4. PESANTREN DAN UPAYA DERADIKALISASI AGAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukodi Mukodi

    2015-06-01

    Deradikalisasi agama Islam di Pondok Tremas dari generasi ke generasi se­nantiasa menemukan momentum. Melalui praktik budaya Pondok Tremas yang meliputi: budaya keilmuan, budaya keagamaan, budaya sosial dan budaya politik benih-benih deradikalisasi agama Islam disemaikan. Namun demikian, pasang surut paham ekstremisme yang berkembang di transnasional, dan inter­nasional menjadi tantangan tersendiri. Apalagi masifnya perkembangan media teknologi dan informatika berekses secara signifikan pada pola pikir warga Pondok Tremas. Dengan menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif, dan metode fenomenologi, artikel ini menjelaskan bagaimana deradikalisasi agama di Pondok Tremas dirajut, dan dibingkai dalam praktik-praktik budaya keseharian. Hal itu, dilakukan agar generasi Islam dapat bijak dalam bersikap dan bertindak. Lebih dari itu, agar agama Islam dapat menempati area yang semestinya, yakni agama raḥmatan li ’l-‘ālamīn, tanpa kekerasan, cinta perdamaian, dan mengedepankan cinta kasih.

  5. Mesenteric Primitive Myxoid Mesenchymal Tumor in a 7-Month-Old Boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Daniella; Correa, Catalina; Luengas, Juan P

    2017-08-30

    Mesenteric tumors are rare, especially in the pediatric population. We present a case of a 7-month-old boy with an incidental abdominal mass identified as a Primitive Myxoid Mesenchymal Tumor of Infancy derived from the small bowel mesentery. This neoplasm is part of a spectrum of myofibroblastic lesions, with distinct clinical, morphologic, IHQ reactivity, and an aggressive clinical course. There is a paucity of evidence for the management of these tumors, and surgical resection remains the mainstay of treatment.

  6. Do People Understand Spatial Concepts: The Case of First-Order Primitives

    OpenAIRE

    Golledge, Reginald G.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine whether people in general understand elementary spatial concepts, and to examine whether or not naive spatial knowledge includes the ability to understand important spatial primitives that are built into geographic theory, spatial databases and geographic information systems (GIS). The extent of such understanding is a partial measure of spatial ability. Accurate indicators or measures of spatial ability can be used to explain different types of spatial...

  7. Morphologically "primitive" ants: comparative review of social characters, and the importance of queen-worker dimorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Christian

    1997-01-01

    Ants that exhibit a relatively large proportion of ancestral morphological traits are commonly believed to exhibit less social complexity. This was examined through a comparative review of Nothomyrmecia, Myrmecia, and the heterogeneous subfamily Ponerinae. A limited dimorphism between winged queens and workers is a common characteristic of morphologically'primitive'ants. This has two important consequences:(1) queens are not very fecund, and this is reflected in the small ...

  8. An empirically-derived taxonomy of interaction primitives for interactive cartography and geovisualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Robert E

    2013-12-01

    Proposals to establish a 'science of interaction' have been forwarded from Information Visualization and Visual Analytics, as well as Cartography, Geovisualization, and GIScience. This paper reports on two studies to contribute to this call for an interaction science, with the goal of developing a functional taxonomy of interaction primitives for map-based visualization. A semi-structured interview study first was conducted with 21 expert interactive map users to understand the way in which map-based visualizations currently are employed. The interviews were transcribed and coded to identify statements representative of either the task the user wished to accomplish (i.e., objective primitives) or the interactive functionality included in the visualization to achieve this task (i.e., operator primitives). A card sorting study then was conducted with 15 expert interactive map designers to organize these example statements into logical structures based on their experience translating client requests into interaction designs. Example statements were supplemented with primitive definitions in the literature and were separated into two sorting exercises: objectives and operators. The objective sort suggested five objectives that increase in cognitive sophistication (identify, compare, rank, associate, & delineate), but exhibited a large amount of variation across participants due to consideration of broader user goals (procure, predict, & prescribe) and interaction operands (space-alone, attributes-in-space, & space-in-time; elementary & general). The operator sort suggested five enabling operators (import, export, save, edit, & annotate) and twelve work operators (reexpress, arrange, sequence, resymbolize, overlay, pan, zoom, reproject, search, filter, retrieve, & calculate). This taxonomy offers an empirically-derived and ecologically-valid structure to inform future research and design on interaction.

  9. Primitive clasts in the Dar al Gani 319 polymict ureilite: Precursors of the ureilites

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Yukio; Kita,Noriko T.; Morishita,Yuichi; Weisberg, Michael K.

    2003-01-01

    Primitive clasts in the polymict ureilite Dar al Gani (DaG) 319 include dark clasts, sulfide- or metal-rich clasts, and unusual chondritic fragments. The dark clasts consist mainly of phyllosilicates, sulfides and magnetite with or without fayalitic olivine. The sulfide-rich clasts consist of a silicate-rich matrix and heterogeneously distributed sulfide. The metal-rich clasts consist of a silicate-rich matrix with variable amounts of metal. The unusual chondritic fragments are chondrule and ...

  10. Figure and formlessness in primitive art, spoliation and pencil stroke in a proposal of drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rocío Pérez Rincón

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Through the concepts of formlessness and of image as an expression of spoliation, this paper intends to articulate the issue of figure in children’s drawings and primitive art. The image is taken as an ambiguous entity which lies between presence and absence, wavering between appearance and disappearance. These reflections unfold a proposal in which both gesture and pencil stroke are re-signified.

  11. Primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy: a report of a further case with locally aggressive behavior.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulligan, Linda

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of an 8-month-old child with a primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy arising in the thenar eminence. The lesion recurred after conservative excision and was ultimately nonresponsive to chemotherapy, necessitating partial amputation. The patient remains free of disease 5 years after this radical surgery. This is the 1st report of such a tumor since it was initially described by Alaggio and colleagues in 2006. The pathologic differential diagnosis is discussed.

  12. Primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy: a report of a further case with locally aggressive behavior.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulligan, Linda

    2012-02-01

    We report a case of an 8-month-old child with a primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy arising in the thenar eminence. The lesion recurred after conservative excision and was ultimately nonresponsive to chemotherapy, necessitating partial amputation. The patient remains free of disease 5 years after this radical surgery. This is the 1st report of such a tumor since it was initially described by Alaggio and colleagues in 2006. The pathologic differential diagnosis is discussed.

  13. Kondisi oral higiene dan karies gigi pada vegetarian dan non vegetarian di Maha Vihara Maitreya Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Prawira, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Perbedaan pola makan antara vegetarian dan non vegetarian dapat mempengaruhi kesehatan gigi dan mulut. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui kondisi oral higiene dan karies gigi pada umat vegetarian dan non vegetarian di Maha Vihara Maitreya Medan. Jenis penelitian adalah survei deskriptif. Sampel terdiri atas 74 vegetarian dan 65 non vegetarian. Pemeriksaan oral higiene dan karies gigi masing-masing menggunakan indeks OHIS Greene dan Vermillion dan indeks DMFT Klein, se...

  14. Isolation of primitive endoderm, mesoderm, vascular endothelial and trophoblast progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drukker, Micha; Tang, Chad; Ardehali, Reza; Rinkevich, Yuval; Seita, Jun; Lee, Andrew S; Mosley, Adriane R; Weissman, Irving L; Soen, Yoav

    2012-05-27

    To identify early populations of committed progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), we screened self-renewing, BMP4-treated and retinoic acid-treated cultures with >400 antibodies recognizing cell-surface antigens. Sorting of >30 subpopulations followed by transcriptional analysis of developmental genes identified four distinct candidate progenitor groups. Subsets detected in self-renewing cultures, including CXCR4(+) cells, expressed primitive endoderm genes. Expression of Cxcr4 in primitive endoderm was confirmed in visceral endoderm of mouse embryos. BMP4-induced progenitors exhibited gene signatures of mesoderm, trophoblast and vascular endothelium, suggesting correspondence to gastrulation-stage primitive streak, chorion and allantois precursors, respectively. Functional studies in vitro and in vivo confirmed that ROR2(+) cells produce mesoderm progeny, APA(+) cells generate syncytiotrophoblasts and CD87(+) cells give rise to vasculature. The same progenitor classes emerged during the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). These markers and progenitors provide tools for purifying human tissue-regenerating progenitors and for studying the commitment of pluripotent stem cells to lineage progenitors.

  15. Affine differential geometry and smoothness maximization as tools for identifying geometric movement primitives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Felix

    2017-02-01

    Neuroscientific studies of drawing-like movements usually analyze neural representation of either geometric (e.g., direction, shape) or temporal (e.g., speed) parameters of trajectories rather than trajectory's representation as a whole. This work is about identifying geometric building blocks of movements by unifying different empirically supported mathematical descriptions that characterize relationship between geometric and temporal aspects of biological motion. Movement primitives supposedly facilitate the efficiency of movements' representation in the brain and comply with such criteria for biological movements as kinematic smoothness and geometric constraint. The minimum-jerk model formalizes criterion for trajectories' maximal smoothness of order 3. I derive a class of differential equations obeyed by movement paths whose nth-order maximally smooth trajectories accumulate path measurement with constant rate. Constant rate of accumulating equi-affine arc complies with the 2/3 power-law model. Candidate primitive shapes identified as equations' solutions for arcs in different geometries in plane and in space are presented. Connection between geometric invariance, motion smoothness, compositionality and performance of the compromised motor control system is proposed within single invariance-smoothness framework. The derived class of differential equations is a novel tool for discovering candidates for geometric movement primitives.

  16. Technical design and system implementation of region-line primitive association framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Xing, Jinjin; Wang, Jie; Lv, Guonian

    2017-08-01

    Apart from regions, image edge lines are an important information source, and they deserve more attention in object-based image analysis (OBIA) than they currently receive. In the region-line primitive association framework (RLPAF), we promote straight-edge lines as line primitives to achieve powerful OBIAs. Along with regions, straight lines become basic units for subsequent extraction and analysis of OBIA features. This study develops a new software system called remote-sensing knowledge finder (RSFinder) to implement RLPAF for engineering application purposes. This paper introduces the extended technical framework, a comprehensively designed feature set, key technology, and software implementation. To our knowledge, RSFinder is the world's first OBIA system based on two types of primitives, namely, regions and lines. It is fundamentally different from other well-known region-only-based OBIA systems, such as eCogntion and ENVI feature extraction module. This paper has important reference values for the development of similarly structured OBIA systems and line-involved extraction algorithms of remote sensing information.

  17. The language of geometry: Fast comprehension of geometrical primitives and rules in human adults and preschoolers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Amalric

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During language processing, humans form complex embedded representations from sequential inputs. Here, we ask whether a "geometrical language" with recursive embedding also underlies the human ability to encode sequences of spatial locations. We introduce a novel paradigm in which subjects are exposed to a sequence of spatial locations on an octagon, and are asked to predict future locations. The sequences vary in complexity according to a well-defined language comprising elementary primitives and recursive rules. A detailed analysis of error patterns indicates that primitives of symmetry and rotation are spontaneously detected and used by adults, preschoolers, and adult members of an indigene group in the Amazon, the Munduruku, who have a restricted numerical and geometrical lexicon and limited access to schooling. Furthermore, subjects readily combine these geometrical primitives into hierarchically organized expressions. By evaluating a large set of such combinations, we obtained a first view of the language needed to account for the representation of visuospatial sequences in humans, and conclude that they encode visuospatial sequences by minimizing the complexity of the structured expressions that capture them.

  18. Towards a self-organizing pre-symbolic neural model representing sensorimotor primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junpei eZhong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of symbolic and linguistic representations of sensorimotor behavior is a cognitive process performed by an agent when it is executing and/or observing own and others' actions. According to Piaget's theory of cognitive development, these representations develop during the sensorimotor stage and the pre-operational stage. We propose a model that relates the conceptualization of the higher-level information from visual stimuli to the development of ventral/dorsal visual streams. This model employs neural network architecture incorporating a predictive sensory module based on an RNNPB (Recurrent Neural Network with Parametric Biases and a horizontal product model. We exemplify this model through a robot passively observing an object to learn its features and movements. During the learning process of observing sensorimotor primitives, i.e. observing a set of trajectories of arm movements and its oriented object features, the pre-symbolic representation is self-organized in the parametric units. These representational units act as bifurcation parameters, guiding the robot to recognize and predict various learned sensorimotor primitives. The pre-symbolic representation also accounts for the learning of sensorimotor primitives in a latent learning context.

  19. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the kidney with vena caval and atrial tumour thrombus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Poh

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Renal primitive neuroectodermal tumour is an extremely rare malignancy. Case presentation A 21-year-old woman presented with microscopic haematuria, a palpable right loin mass, dyspnoea, dizziness and fatigue. Initial ultrasound scan of the kidneys revealed an 11 cm right renal mass with venous extension into the inferior vena cava. Computed tomography of the thorax and abdomen revealed an extension of the large renal mass into the right renal vein, inferior vena cava and up to the right atrium. A small paracaval lymph node was noted and three small metastatic nodules were identified within the lung parenchyma. The patient underwent a radical nephrectomy and inferior vena caval tumour (level IV thrombectomy with cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Immunohistochemical staining of the specimen showed a highly specific cluster of differentiation (CD 99, thus confirming the diagnosis of a primitive neuroectodermal tumour. Conclusion It is important that a renal primitive neuroectodermal tumour be considered, particularly in young patients with a renal mass and extensive thrombus.

  20. Kinematic primitives for a quadruped robot walk and trot with compliant legs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Thomas Sprowitz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we research the role of body dynamics in the complexity of kinematic patterns in a quadruped robot with compliant legs. Two gait patterns, lateral sequence walk and trot, along with leg length control patterns of different complexity were implemented in a modular, feed-forward locomotion controller. The controller was tested on a small, quadruped robot with compliant, segmented leg design, and led to self-stable and self-stabilizing robot locomotion. In-air stepping and on-ground locomotion leg kinematics were recorded, and the number and shapes of motion primitives accounting for 95% of the variance of kinematic leg data were extracted. This revealed that kinematic patterns resulting from feed-forward control had a lower complexity (in-air stepping, 2 to 3 primitives than kinematic patterns from on-ground locomotion (4 primitives, although both experiments applied identical motor patterns. The complexity of on-ground kinematic patterns had increased, through ground contact and mechanical entrainment. The complexity of observed kinematic on-ground data matches those reported from level-ground locomotion data of legged animals. Results indicate that a very low complexity of modular, rhythmic, feed-forward motor control is sufficient for level-ground locomotion in combination with passive compliant legged hardware.

  1. Kinematic primitives for walking and trotting gaits of a quadruped robot with compliant legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spröwitz, Alexander T; Ajallooeian, Mostafa; Tuleu, Alexandre; Ijspeert, Auke Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this work we research the role of body dynamics in the complexity of kinematic patterns in a quadruped robot with compliant legs. Two gait patterns, lateral sequence walk and trot, along with leg length control patterns of different complexity were implemented in a modular, feed-forward locomotion controller. The controller was tested on a small, quadruped robot with compliant, segmented leg design, and led to self-stable and self-stabilizing robot locomotion. In-air stepping and on-ground locomotion leg kinematics were recorded, and the number and shapes of motion primitives accounting for 95% of the variance of kinematic leg data were extracted. This revealed that kinematic patterns resulting from feed-forward control had a lower complexity (in-air stepping, 2-3 primitives) than kinematic patterns from on-ground locomotion (νm4 primitives), although both experiments applied identical motor patterns. The complexity of on-ground kinematic patterns had increased, through ground contact and mechanical entrainment. The complexity of observed kinematic on-ground data matches those reported from level-ground locomotion data of legged animals. Results indicate that a very low complexity of modular, rhythmic, feed-forward motor control is sufficient for level-ground locomotion in combination with passive compliant legged hardware.

  2. Toward a self-organizing pre-symbolic neural model representing sensorimotor primitives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Junpei; Cangelosi, Angelo; Wermter, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The acquisition of symbolic and linguistic representations of sensorimotor behavior is a cognitive process performed by an agent when it is executing and/or observing own and others' actions. According to Piaget's theory of cognitive development, these representations develop during the sensorimotor stage and the pre-operational stage. We propose a model that relates the conceptualization of the higher-level information from visual stimuli to the development of ventral/dorsal visual streams. This model employs neural network architecture incorporating a predictive sensory module based on an RNNPB (Recurrent Neural Network with Parametric Biases) and a horizontal product model. We exemplify this model through a robot passively observing an object to learn its features and movements. During the learning process of observing sensorimotor primitives, i.e., observing a set of trajectories of arm movements and its oriented object features, the pre-symbolic representation is self-organized in the parametric units. These representational units act as bifurcation parameters, guiding the robot to recognize and predict various learned sensorimotor primitives. The pre-symbolic representation also accounts for the learning of sensorimotor primitives in a latent learning context.

  3. Lipofectamine and related cationic lipids strongly improve adenoviral infection efficiency of primitive human hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, T; Haddada, H; Vainchenker, W; Louache, F

    1998-11-20

    Adenoviral vectors have the potential to infect a large number of cell types including quiescent cells. Their use in hematopoietic cells is limited by the episomal form of their DNA, leading to transgene loss in the progeny cells. However, the use of this vector may be interesting for short-term in vitro modifications of primitive human hematopoietic cells. Therefore, we have investigated the ability of adenovirus to transduce cord blood CD34+ cells. Several promoters were tested using the lacZ reporter gene. The PGK and CMV promoters induced transgene expression in 18-25% of the cells, whereas the HTLV-I and especially the RSV promoter were almost inactive. To improve infection efficiency, adenovirus was complexed with cationic lipids. Lipofectamine, Cellfectin, and RPR120535b, but not Lipofectin, Lipofectace, or DOTAP, markedly improved transgene expression in CD34+ cells (from 19 to 35%). Lipofectamine strongly enhanced infection efficiency of the poorly infectable primitive CD34+CD38low cells (from 11 to 28%) whereas the more mature CD34+CD38+ cells were only slightly affected (from 24 to 31%). Lipofectamine tripled the infection of CFU-GMs and LTC-ICs derived from the CD34+CD38low cell fraction (from 4 to 12% and from 5 to 16%, respectively) and doubled that of BFU-Es (from 13 to 26%). We conclude that cationic lipids can markedly increase the efficiency of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer into primitive hematopoietic cells.

  4. Distinct functions for different scl isoforms in zebrafish primitive and definitive hematopoiesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qian

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The stem-cell leukemia (SCL, also known as TAL1 gene encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is essential for the initiation of primitive and definitive hematopoiesis, erythrocyte and megakarocyte differentiation, angiogenesis, and astrocyte development. Here we report that the zebrafish produces, through an alternative promoter site, a novel truncated scl (tal1 isoform, scl-beta, which manifests a temporal and spatial expression distinct from the previously described full-length scl-alpha. Functional analysis reveals that while scl-alpha and -beta are redundant for the initiation of primitive hematopoiesis, these two isoforms exert distinct functions in the regulation of primitive erythroid differentiation and definitive hematopoietic stem cell specification. We further demonstrate that differences in the protein expression levels of scl-alpha and -beta, by regulating their protein stability, are likely to give rise to their distinct functions. Our findings suggest that hematopoietic cells at different levels of hierarchy are likely governed by a gradient of the Scl protein established through temporal and spatial patterns of expression of the different isoforms.

  5. DanSommer Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders

    2000-01-01

    DanSommer casen om en virksomheds overvejelser i forbindelse med udnyttelse af internettet til at udleje sommerhuse. Casen er udgivet i e-bogsformat, og giver derfor læseren mulighed for at bl.a. at skrive noter, understrege, søge efter bestemte ord mm....

  6. Meer dan zwart rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sliggers, J.; Brinksma, E.; Graaff, E. de; Zyl, P.S. van

    2015-01-01

    Verder dan dat autobanden zwart zijn gaat de kennis niet bij de gemiddelde Nederlander. Zo is slechts vijf tot 10 procent van de automobilisten bekend met het bandenlabel. Onterecht, want banden bepalen voor een groot deel de prestaties van de auto, zoals remweg en brandstofgebruik. De voordelen van

  7. Approches transdisciplinaires de l’éducation au développement durable dans l’enseignement secondaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Vergnolle Mainar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Dans l’enseignement secondaire français, l’éducation au développement durable (EDD suppose que les disciplines scolaires passent d’une logique exclusivement disciplinaire à une logique de contribution à un objectif transdisciplinaire. Cette évolution donne une importance cruciale aux circulations de concepts entre disciplines, à leurs thématiques communes et aux interactions qui se sont développées à leurs frontières. Sont pris comme exemples, la frontière entre la géographie et les sciences de la vie et de la Terre ainsi que le concept de paysage.

  8. Comprendre et faire comprendre le deuil de la mère dans Une femme d’Annie Ernaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftihia Mihelakis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Suite à la mort de sa mère atteinte de la maladie d’Alzheimer - événement qui a aussi été élaboré plus tard dans le journal intime Je ne suis pas sortie de ma nuit, publié en 1999 - Annie Ernaux éprouve le besoin d’écrire Une femme. Publié en 1987, ce récit est une manière de faire le deuil de sa mère. À travers un projet de dévoilement de sa vie, ce récit expose comment sa mort est vécue comme une rupture incompréhensible. (... Pourtant, c’est à partir de cette incompréhension, en passant par l’écriture, qu’Ernaux prétend saisir le sens de sa mort.

  9. Queneau, Perec, Duras : Trois manières de boire dans le roman français

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Montémont

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available L’alcool et les alcools sont des thèmes étroitement associés au monde littéraire : si l’on en doutait, une recherche dans la base Frantext, qui comporte près de 3952 textes français et francophones, suffirait à nous en convaincre : une requête sur le lemme alcool ne ramène pas moins de 3338 occurrences. Si l’on élargit l’isotopie considérée, on trouve 23 372 occurrences de vin, 2953 mentions de bière, 1436 d’eau-de-vie, 834 de Champagne, 122 de cognac… ainsi que quelques dizaines de cuites, r...

  10. Atomes une exploration visuelle de tous les éléments connus dans l'univers

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    Quelle est leur température critique ? Qu'est-ce que la masse atomique, la densité d'un matériau, l'ordre de remplissage des électrons ? Cet ouvrage invite avec pédagogie et humour à un passionnant voyage au pays des éléments, à partir de leur tableau périodique universel. Soutenue par une exploration visuelle qui montre l'élément à l'état pur mais aussi ses composés et ses applications les plus caractéristiques dans la vie quotidienne, cette approche pratique offre une combinaison parfaite de science chimique et de photographies, qui séduira les lecteurs les plus avertis comme tous les autres habitants sensibles de l'univers.

  11. Place de la Revue Qualité Produit dans le système Assurance Qualité

    OpenAIRE

    BABA-AHMED, Sarah; MOHAMMEDI, Sarra

    2014-01-01

    Récemment intégrée dans les bonnes pratiques de fabrication, la Revue Qualité Produit retrace « la vie d’un produit » sur une période définit, cependant, la Revue Qualité Produit est constituée, d’une analyse, d’une évaluation et d’une conclusion sur la maitrise de la qualité fabriquée, de la maitrise de l’état validé et de la sécurité du médicament mis sur le marché. Il est donc important de ne pas considérer la Revue Qualité Produit uniquement comme une exigence réglementaire supplémenta...

  12. « L’indien » à table dans les grands restaurants de Lima (Pérou)

    OpenAIRE

    Matta, Raúl

    2010-01-01

    Maîtrisant les aspects techniques et discursifs en vogue dans la haute gastronomie contemporaine, les chefs cuisiniers sont actuellement des personnages centraux de la vie culturelle de la capitale péruvienne. La majorité de ces cuisiniers médiatiques provient de milieux sociaux privilégiés et a eu la possibilité d’effectuer des séjours de formation à l’étranger, en intégrant des écoles hôtelières européennes et nord-américaines. Le retour au Pérou de ces « migrants d’élite » a entraîné, au c...

  13. MODAL MANUSIA DAN PRODUKTIVITAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlinda Puspita Sari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Modal manusia dianggap sebagai salah satu faktor penentu produktivitas. Modal manusia merupakan dimensi kualitatif dari sumberdaya manusia, seperti keahlian dan keterampilan, yang akan memengaruhi kemampuan produktif manusia tersebut. Dimensi kualitatif tersebut diperoleh melalui pendidikan, pelatihan dan kesehatan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganaliss efek dari modal manusia terhadap tingkat produktivitas di provinsi-provinsi di Indonesia. Dalam penelitian ini, tingkat pendidikan diukur dengan beberapa indikator, yaitu; angka melek huruf dan angka partisipasi murni tingkat SD, SMP maupun SMA. Tingkat kesehatan diukur dengan angka kematian bayi. Data yang digunakan adalah data panel dari 25 provinsi di Indonesia selama perioede 1996-2010 yang dianalisis dengan menggunakan Model Panel Data Fixed Effect. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa modal manusia yang diukur dari tingkat pendidikan (APM dan tingkat kesehatan (AKB merupakan faktor yang berpengaruh dan signifikan untuk menjelaskan variasi produktivitas meskipun magnitude-nya lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan modal fisik. Hasil analisis juga menunjukkan bahwa variabel pendidikan memiliki magnitude yang lebih besar dibandingkan dengan variabel kesehatan. Human capital is regarded as one of the determining factors of productivity. Human capital is qualitative dimension of human resource which includes skills and knowledge. These qualitative dimensions are internalized through education, training and health. This study aimed to analyze the effect of human capital on productivity level across provinces in Indonesia. In this study, the level of education was measured by literacy and school enrollment rate (in primary, secondary and high school. The level of health was measured by infant mortality rate. The study employed a panel data of 25 provinces in Indonesia during the period of 1996-2010. Using fixed effect method, the result showed that secondary school enrollment rate and infant mortality

  14. Adapter, c’est (parfois) trahir : fiction et stéréotypes de genre dans les séries inspirées de Diario de una abuela de verano de Rosa Regàs et El mundo amarillo d’Albert Espinosa

    OpenAIRE

    Houdiard, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Les séries Abuela de verano (TVE, 2005) et Polseres vermelles (TV3, 2011-2013) sont deux fictions télévisées inspirées d’ouvrages non fictionnels. La première est l’adaptation de Diario de una abuela de verano, un essai-témoignage dans lequel la romancière Rosa Regàs relate son expérience de grand-mère. Dans El mundo amarillo, œuvre qui a inspiré la série Polseres vermelles, le réalisateur et comédien Albert Espinosa évoque le bouleversement qu’a provoqué le cancer dans sa vie d’adolescent, l...

  15. Concentration of some heavy metals in organically grown primitive, old and modern wheat genotypes: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abrar; Larsson, Hans; Kuktaite, Ramune; Johansson, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of six HMs (Cd, Cr, Co, Pb, Hg and Ni) was analysed in 321 organically grown winter and spring wheat genotypes from six genotype groups, i.e. selections, old landraces, primitive wheat, spelt, old cultivars and cultivars. Also the potential risk of individual toxic HM to human health was estimated by using the Hazard Quotient (HQ). Significantly the lowest grain concentration of Cd was found in primitive wheat as compared to all other investigated genotype groups. Intake of HM by consumption of whole wheat grain was not found to pose a health risk to human for any of the investigated genotype groups. The bio-concentration factor of Cd for the different genotype groups indicated a lower ability to accumulate Cd for primitive wheat as compared to other genotype groups. The primitive wheat was found the most promising and might be of interest in future wheat breeding programs to develop wheat genotypes with low HMs concentration in the grain.

  16. Learning and Chaining of Motor Primitives for Goal-directed Locomotion of a Snakelike Robot with Screw-drive Units

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sromona Chatterjee; Timo Nachstedt; Minija Tamosiunaite; Florentin Wörgötter; Yoshihide Enomoto; Ryo Ariizumi; Fumitoshi Matsuno; Poramate Manoonpong

    2015-01-01

    .... Inspired by this, here we generate motor primitives for a complex snake-like robot with screw-drive units, and thence chain and combine them, in order to provide a versatile, goal-directed locomotion for the robot...

  17. Écriture (autobiographique dans l'Examen critique d'Alexandre de Humboldt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Drews

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Zusammenfassung Der Bezug auf Kolumbus ist ein Gemeinplatz der Humboldtbiographik. Humboldt selbst betont ihn besonders in seinem Examen critique, wo er eine autobiographische Dimension gewinnt. Der Beitrag geht aus literaturwissenschaftlicher Perspektive dem Material und den Formen der Inszenierung nach, mit denen ein Leben über ein anderes dargestellt wird.  Résumé La référence à Colomb est un lieu commun de la biographie humboldtienne. Humboldt lui-même le souligne particulièrement dans son Examen critique, en y ajoutant une dimension autobiographique. La contribution analyse, dans une perspective philologique, le matériel et les formes de mise en scène avec lesquelles une vie est représentée au travers d'une autre.  Summary The reference to Columbus is a commonplace in Humboldt-biography. Humboldt himself is using it in his Examen critique which subjoins a auto-biographical dimension. This articel examines from a philological point of view the materials and literary strategies by which one life comes to represent another.

  18. Graph C*-Algebras with a T1 Primitive Ideal Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabe, James 'Jamie'

    2013-01-01

    We give necessary and sufficient conditions which a graph should satisfy in order for its associated C∗-algebra to have a T1 primitive ideal space. We give a description of which one-point sets in such a primitive ideal space are open, and use this to prove that anypurely infinite graph C∗-algebr......, and that isomorphisms of their N ~ -filtered K-theory (without coefficients) lift to E(N ~ ) -equivalences, as defined by Dadarlat and Meyer...

  19. Une vie consacrée à la science du Sahara et de son passé

    OpenAIRE

    Sèbe, Berny

    2014-01-01

    Né en 1916, Henri-Jean Hugot est le dernier représentant de l’élite des savants pluri-disciplinaires du Sahara encore parmi nous. A l’instar des Théodore Monod ou des Henri Lhote, qui nous ont quittés dans les deux dernières décennies, il s’est intéressé au cours de sa longue carrière scientifique à de nombreux aspects du passé des grands espaces sahariens, offrant des perspectives pionnières qui ont permis de notables avancées dans la compréhension des populations préhistoriques du Sahara. ...

  20. L’interface Habitat / Habitant : quand le lieu de vie est porteur de maladie - Le cas du radon en PACA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cissé E.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Les préoccupations sont croissantes pour étudier les liens entre des conditions environnementales spécifiques et la fréquence de certaines pathologies. Nous proposons d’analyser ici le lien présupposé entre une exposition au radon et le cancer du poumon. Le radon, est un gaz radioactif d’origine naturelle (issu de la désintégration naturelle de l’uranium présent dans la croûte terrestre et plus particulièrement dans certaines formations géologiques. A partir du sol et de l’eau, le radon se diffuse dans l’air (exhalation et se trouve, par effet de confinement, à des concentrations plus élevées à l’intérieur des bâtiments qu’à l’extérieur. Les descendants solides du radon sont alors inhalés avec l’air respiré et se déposent dans le poumon. Il est établi par diverses études scientifiques que le radon a un impact non négligeable sur certains cancers, notamment du poumon (augmentation de 16 % du risque de cancer du poumon par tranche de 100 Bq/m3, et des cancers digestifs via la consommation d’eau qui s’est chargée en radon au contact du socle. Le nombre annuel de décès par cancer du poumon attribuable à l’exposition domestique au radon en France métropolitaine varie entre 1 200 à 3 575 en fonction des relations exposition-réponse utilisées. Plusieurs régions en France se caractérisent par une problématique radon reconnue et étudiée depuis longtemps (Bretagne, Massif central, Corse. Or, si le radon ne recouvre pas l’ensemble de la région PACA, certaines zones géographiques sont particulièrement concernées et méritent d’être étudiées : le Massif des Maures dans le Var, du Mercantour dans les Alpes-Maritimes et du Briançonnais dans les Hautes-Alpes. La région PACA est une des régions de France et d’Europe les plus touchées par la pollution atmosphérique principalement due à l’augmentation du trafic routier et des contributions de régions industrialisées telles que

  1. La singularité des sciences du vivant quant à la place des SHS dans les écoles d’ingénieurs en France : l’exemple de l’enseignement supérieur agronomique et agricole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roby Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available L’intégration, dans les formations d’ingénieurs, des connaissances produites par les sciences humaines et sociales (SHS représente de forts enjeux pour les professionnels à haut niveau de qualification, notamment quant à la réflexivité nécessaire aux prises de décision en contexte de responsabilité. C’est pourquoi il semble pertinent de chercher à savoir quelle place occupent les SHS dans les formations des ingénieurs, futurs professionnels amenés à engager des choix de société. Pour aborder cette question, une enquête a cherché à identifier la place des enseignements de SHS affichés dans les curricula formels des formations initiales sous statut étudiant, présentés sur les sites internet des écoles. Quels que soient les critères utilisés (appellation générique de ces enseignements, affichage et nom des départements les regroupant ou affichage de recherches en SHS, les résultats mettent en évidence la singularité des écoles d’ingénieurs spécialisées dans les sciences de la vie et de la Terre (agronomie, biologie, géologie…. Dans le cadre de la sociologie du curriculum, cet écart est interprété comme la manifestation d’orientations culturelles technoscientifiques des écoles, pouvant être reliées à la tutelle du ministère de l’agriculture et au domaine particulier des sciences de la vie et de la Terre dans les relations qu’elles entretiennent avec les SHS.

  2. Hassan Fathy dans son temps

    OpenAIRE

    el-Wakil, Leila

    2011-01-01

    Catalogue d'exposition, 19 décembre 2011 au 21 janvier 2012, Gezira Art Center, Zamalek, Le Caire; A l'occasion de l'exposition tenue du 19 décembre 2011 au 21 janvier 2012, au Gezira Art Center à Zamalek, Le Caire, sous le titre Hassan Fathy, une ambition égyptienne, étude de la vie et de l'oeuvre du plus connu des architectures égyptiens contemporains, de renommée internationale, honoré de plusieurs grands prix, dont le Grand Prix de la Fondation Aga Khan pour l'ensemble de son oeuvre, mais...

  3. BAHAYA RADIASI DAN CARA PROTEKSINYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badunggawa P

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Radiasi yang kita terima setiap saat, termasuk radiasi untuk tujuan kedokteran, mempunyai dampak positif dan negatif terhadap keselamatan manusia dan lingkungan. Dampak positif dari radiasi terhadap keselamatan manusia diantaranya adalah digunakan sebagai pengobatan dan dampak negatifnya adalah tergantung dari besar dosis yang diterima diantaranya adalah mulai dari mual, muntah, pusing-pusing, rambut rontok, menyebabkan kanker, diturunkan secara genetik, dan yang lebih berbahaya lagi adalah menyebabkan kematian. Oleh karena itu kita harus berhati-hati terhadap bahaya yang ditimbulkannya, baik terhadap pekerja radiasi maupun masyarakat umum termasuk pasien. Perlindungan terhadap bahaya yang ditimbulkan radiasi ini dikenal dengan istilah proteksi radiasi. Sehingga dosis yang diterima pertahun oleh pekerja atau masyarakat umum tidak melebihi batas dosis yang ditetapkan oleh Bapeten. Berbagai upaya telah dilakukan untuk meminimalkan bahaya tersebut sehingga pekerja dan pasien merasa aman melakukan dan dikenai tindakan medik.[medicina 2009;40:47-51].  

  4. Epistemologi dan Keterbatasan Teori Gravitasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Erwin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Peristiwa tentang kecenderungan jatuhnya benda-benda menuju pusat bumi dan keteraturan peredaran planet dan benda-benda langit lainnya dalam tata surya dahulu dianggap dua fenomena yang berbeda. Mekanika benda langit dan mekanika bumi yang sebelumnya merupakan dua pengetahuan yang terpisah, dianggap satu kesatuan oleh Sir Isaac Newton. Newton mengemukakan hukum gravitasi umum yaitu gaya tarik menarik antara dua benda besarnya sebanding dengan massa masing-masing benda dan berbanding terbalik dengan kuadrat jarak antara kedua benda. Hukum gravitasi ini sukses menjalaskan bagaimana benda cendrung jatuh menuju pusat bumi dan peredaran planet dan benda-benda langit lain mengelilingi matahari dalam sistem tata surya. Namun hukum gravitasi Newton ternyata tidak sepenuhnya tepat, beberapa hal dapat dijelaskan dengan hukum relativitas Einstein, namun demikian hukum relativitas Einstein juga dicurigai masih perlu diamandemen agar dapat menjelaskan fenomena alam dengan tepat.

  5. EPISTEMOLOGI DAN KETERBATASAN TEORI GRAVITASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Erwin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Peristiwa tentang kecenderungan jatuhnya benda-benda menuju pusat bumi dan keteraturan peredaran planet dan benda-benda langit lainnya dalam tata surya dahulu dianggap dua fenomena yang berbeda. Mekanika benda langit dan mekanika bumi yang sebelumnya merupakan dua pengetahuan yang terpisah, dianggap satu kesatuan oleh Sir Isaac Newton. Newton mengemukakan hukum gravitasi umum yaitu gaya tarik menarik antara dua benda besarnya sebanding dengan massa masing-masing benda dan berbanding terbalik dengan kuadrat jarak antara kedua benda. Hukum gravitasi ini sukses menjalaskan bagaimana benda cendrung jatuh menuju pusat bumi dan peredaran planet dan benda-benda langit lain mengelilingi matahari dalam sistem tata surya. Namun hukum gravitasi Newton ternyata tidak sepenuhnya tepat, beberapa hal dapat dijelaskan dengan hukum relativitas Einstein, namun demikian hukum relativitas Einstein juga dicurigai masih perlu diamandemen agar dapat menjelaskan fenomena alam dengan tepat.

  6. Les règles de Heredia : une nouvelle voie pour protéger la vie ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 févr. 2011 ... Les bienfaits de l'ère informatique, nous les connaissons bien, mais nous nous préoccupons rarement de ceux qui pourraient en pâtir. Prenons par exemple un employé qui, dans le passé, a traîné son patron devant la justice. Il se cherche un nouveau travail. Or, comme les détails de l'affaire se trouvent en ...

  7. Sifilis Laten: Diagnosis dan Pengobatan

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmia Rowawi

    2013-01-01

    Abstrak   Sifilis laten merupakan stadium sifilis yang diakibatkan oleh T. pallidum yang masih menetap dalam tubuh, namun tidak menunjukkan gejala dan hanya menunjukkan hasil pemeriksaan serologis yang reaktif. Sifilis laten yang tidak diterapi dapat menetap bertahun-tahun atau seumur hidup dan dapat meningkatkan risiko terinfeksi HIV. Ibu hamil dengan sifilis laten dini akan menyebabkan sekitar 40% bayi yang dilahirkankannya tertular, 20% prematur, 10% lahir mati, dan 4% meningga...

  8. En kamp om dans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Annette

    2004-01-01

    Hvordan er det muligt at medtænke et legende og "kæmpende" element i det faglige indholdsområde musik, bevægelse og kropsudtryk/dans? og hvordan er det muligt at lade sig inspirere af elementer fra genren elektric boogie-battel og brasiliansk kampdans "Capoeira" i tilrettelæggelse af et undervisn......Hvordan er det muligt at medtænke et legende og "kæmpende" element i det faglige indholdsområde musik, bevægelse og kropsudtryk/dans? og hvordan er det muligt at lade sig inspirere af elementer fra genren elektric boogie-battel og brasiliansk kampdans "Capoeira" i tilrettelæggelse af et...

  9. Perancangan dan Implementasi Modul Praktikum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Indah Hapsari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kemajuan teknologi berbasis komputer berkembang dengan sangat pesat. Seiring dengan perkembangan jaman, kemajuan  tersebut memberikan pengaruh  terhadap  perubahan cara penyampaian pengajaran yang mengarah pada penggunaan jenis media penyampaian. Praktikum merupakan salah satu bentuk pengajaran yang memberikan pengalaman belajar secara nyata terhadap kondisi sebenarnya di lapangan mengenai penggunaan dan implementasi alat praktek yang berhubungan dengan berbagai materi yang dipelajari oleh mahasiswa dan memiliki tujuan untuk memberikan keterampilan dan pengenalan terhadap mahasiswa/peserta didik. Penelitian ini melakukan implementasi teknologi augmented reality terhadap salah satu modul praktikum yaitu pengenalan tata letak hardware dan Port I/O pada motherboard dan bertujuan sebagai alat bantu penyampaian pengajaran praktikum. Pengimplementasian teknologi augmented reality melibatkan aksi oleh user terhadap media penangkapan gambar motherboard menggunakan web camera dan tampilan pemetaan tata letak hardware dan port i/o pada motherboard. Penelitian telah diimplementasikan dan diujicoba terhadap 3 kelas dengan 97 responder. Adapun hasil dari penelitiannya adalah 83% responder menyukai aplikasi, 77% memahami materi, 84,5% menginginkan aplikasi ini menjadi alat bantu ajar, 65,98% meminta materi untuk dilengkapi dan diperbanyak, 77,3% dapat belajar mandiri menggunakan aplikasi ini, tanpa bantuan dari dosen ataupun asisten.

  10. NYERI KEPALA DAN GANGGUAN TIDUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Kamelia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nyeri kepala dan tidur merupakan dua fenomena yang saling mempengaruhi dengan patomekanisme yang kompleks. Nyeri kepala primer, terutama migren, nyeri kepala klaster dan hypnic headache dapat timbul karena pengurangan waktu tidur, parasomnia, maupun gangguan pada regulasi arsitektur tidur terutama fase rapid eye movement. Sebaliknya, adanya nyeri kepala memicu timbulnya berbagai macam gangguan tidur. Studi pencitraan otak dan biokimia menunjukkan peranan penting melatonin dan nukleus suprachiasmatik   yang mengalami disfungsi pada penderita nyeri kepala yang berhubungan dengan gangguan tidur. [MEDICINA 2013;44:101-104].

  11. La liberté religieuse dans une société sécularisée : l’expérience québécoise

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonneau, André

    2017-01-01

    Dans une société sécularisée, le défi de plaider devant les tribunaux en faveur de la liberté religieuse est particulièrement accentué lorsque cette société a été, par le passé, elle-même fortement empreinte de la religion. C’est le cas de la province de Québec. En effet, il n’y a pas si longtemps, la vie québécoise était dominée dans une large mesure par l’Église catholique : « Le Québec de la première moitié du XXe siècle enferme sa culture originale, où la langue et la foi se protègent mut...

  12. Histoire d’une absence : la place du père dans les œuvres des écrivaines chinoises des années 1920.

    OpenAIRE

    ESTRAN, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    La filiation occupe, en tant que lien aux parents ou à de plus lointaines origines, une place incontournable dans la vie de tout individu et de toute société. Centrale dans l’organisation de la société traditionnelle chinoise, elle est fortement remise en cause au début du XXe siècle : révolte des fils contre leur père, révolte des filles contre la tradition. Et si les recherches se sont penchées sur la représentation de la mère, les références au père sont peu fréquentes. Les œuvres de quatr...

  13. Causes de décès dans une zone rurale d'Afrique du Sud comparées à deux autres situations (Sénégal et France)

    OpenAIRE

    Garenne, Michel,; Tollman, S; Kahn, K.; Gear, J.

    1999-01-01

    L'étude compare le profil des causes de décès dans une zone rurale de l'Afrique du Sud (Agincourt, 1992-1995) à une autre zone rurale d'Afrique de l'Ouest (Niakhar, 1983-1989) et à un pays développé ayant la même espérance de vie (la France de 1951). Cette comparaison permettra d'identifier les causes de décès ayant une fréquence particulièrement forte (ou faible) et par conséquent de dégager des priorités pour les futures actions de santé publique. Dans les deux sites africains, les causes d...

  14. DAKWAH DAN PEMBERDAYAAN PEREMPUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurmahyati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Da’wah is an attempt to persuade and influence others in realizing the teachings of Islam, to achieve worldly prosperity and welfare of the hereafter. The success was fueled by propaganda aspects are interrelated, anatara preachers, propaganda material, propaganda strategy, mad’u (target da’wah. The number of women in this country nearly half of people (49.36. therefore, it is important to empower women in da’wah to build their own people in consciousness and religious activities that provide the basics of life prosperous world and hereafter.   Dakwah merupakan suatu upaya untuk mengajak dan mempengaruhi orang lain dalam merealisasikan ajaran Islam, untuk mencapai tujuan kesejahteraan duniawi maupun kesejahteraan ukhrawi. Keberhasilan tersebut pun dipicu oleh berbagai aspek dakwah yang saling terkait, antara juru dakwah, materi dakwah, strategi dakwah, mad’u (sasaran dakwah. Jumlah kaum perempuan di negara ini hampir mencapai separuh dari jumlah masyarakatnya (49,36. Oleh karena itu, sangat penting sekali pemberdayaan perempuan dalam dakwah untuk membangun kaumnya sendiri dalam kesadaran dan aktivitas-aktivitas keagamaan yang memberikan dasar kehidupan sejahtera duniawi dan ukhrawi.

  15. ASIMETRI INFORMASI DAN UNDERPRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tety Anggita Safitri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji pengaruh asimetri informasi terhadap underpricing. Penelitian ini menggunakan sampel 63 perusahaan yang melakukan penawaran umum perdana di Bursa Efek Indonesia dalam kurun waktu 2005-2010. Analisis data menggunakan regresi linier berganda, yaitu menguji proksi asimetri informasi yang terdiri atas ukuran perusahaan, umur perusahaan, proporsi saham yang ditawarkan kepada masyarakat, reputasi underwriter dan reputasi auditor terhadap underpricing. Hasil penelitian ini mengindikasikan bahwa reputasi underwriter dan reputasi auditor berpengaruh terhadap underpricing. Ukuran perusahaan, umur perusahaan dan proporsi saham yang ditawarkan tidak berpengaruh terhadap underpricing.The aim of this research is to examine the effect of assymetric information on underpricing. This research used a sample of 63 companies that make initial public offering on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in the period of 2005-2010. The data analysis is using multiple linear regression, which is testing the proxy of asymmetric information which consists of the firm size, the firm age, the proportion of shares offered to the public, underwriter reputation and auditor reputation on underpricing. This research indicates that underwriter reputation and auditor reputation have a significant effect on underpricing. The firm size, the firm age and the proportion of shares offered to the public have no significant effect on underpricing.

  16. La représentation de la sexualité dans la littérature féminine du nouveau millénaire : le cas de Catherine Millet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Dumas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Frédéric Beigbeder, dans son dernier roman intitulé Windows on the World, en vient à la conclusion que, de nos jours, le Play-boy international n’est en fait plus qu’un célibataire en quête de jouissance, ne chassant que la femme superficielle ou la prostituée. Selon l’auteur, aujourd’hui le Play-boy international est une femme. Une Bridget Jones ou une Carrie Bradschaw de Sex and the City (Beigbeder, 178 et 231. Le type de femme qui fait peur, qui assume et expose sa féminité et son indépendance ainsi que sa sexualité. Catherine Millet, rédactrice en chef du magazine Art Press, est l’une d’elles. Dans La vie sexuelle de Catherine M., publié en avril 2001, elle expose au grand public, d’une manière peu conventionnelle, les détails de sa vie sexuelle allant souvent au-delà de l’écriture dite féminine.

  17. A compact representation of drawing movements with sequences of parabolic primitives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Felix; Drori, Rotem; Ben-Shaul, Yoram; Abeles, Moshe; Flash, Tamar

    2009-07-01

    Some studies suggest that complex arm movements in humans and monkeys may optimize several objective functions, while others claim that arm movements satisfy geometric constraints and are composed of elementary components. However, the ability to unify different constraints has remained an open question. The criterion for a maximally smooth (minimizing jerk) motion is satisfied for parabolic trajectories having constant equi-affine speed, which thus comply with the geometric constraint known as the two-thirds power law. Here we empirically test the hypothesis that parabolic segments provide a compact representation of spontaneous drawing movements. Monkey scribblings performed during a period of practice were recorded. Practiced hand paths could be approximated well by relatively long parabolic segments. Following practice, the orientations and spatial locations of the fitted parabolic segments could be drawn from only 2-4 clusters, and there was less discrepancy between the fitted parabolic segments and the executed paths. This enabled us to show that well-practiced spontaneous scribbling movements can be represented as sequences ("words") of a small number of elementary parabolic primitives ("letters"). A movement primitive can be defined as a movement entity that cannot be intentionally stopped before its completion. We found that in a well-trained monkey a movement was usually decelerated after receiving a reward, but it stopped only after the completion of a sequence composed of several parabolic segments. Piece-wise parabolic segments can be generated by applying affine geometric transformations to a single parabolic template. Thus, complex movements might be constructed by applying sequences of suitable geometric transformations to a few templates. Our findings therefore suggest that the motor system aims at achieving more parsimonious internal representations through practice, that parabolas serve as geometric primitives and that non-Euclidean variables are

  18. A high-resolution model for soft tissue deformation based on point primitives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yanni; Liu, Peter X

    2017-09-01

    In order to achieve a high degree of visual realism in surgery simulation, we propose a new model, which is based on point primitives and continuous elastic mechanics theory, for soft tissue deformation, tearing and/or cutting. The model can be described as a two-step local high-resolution strategy. First, appropriate volumetric data are sampled and assigned with proper physical properties. Second, sparsely sampled points in non-deformed regions and densely-sampled points in the deformed zone are selected and evaluated. By using a meshless deformation model based on point primitives for all volumetric data, the affine transform matrix of collision points can be computed. The new positions of neighboring points in the collided surface can be then calculated, and more details in the local deformed zone can be obtained for rendering. Technical details about the derivations of the proposed model as well as its implementation are given. The visual effects and computation cost of the proposed model are evaluated and compared with conventional primitives-based methods. Experimental results show that the proposed model provides users (trainees) with improved visual feedback while the computational cost is at the same magnitude of other similar methods. The proposed method is especially suitable for the simulation of soft tissue deformation and tearing because no grid information needs to be maintained. It can simulate soft tissue deformation in a high degree of authenticity with real-time performance. It could be considered implemented in the development of a mixed reality application of neurosurgery simulators in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. De novo synthesis and functional study of primitive polypeptides in the prebiotic protein world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishima, Kosuke; Wang, Kendrick; Ferreira, Raphael; Rothschild, Lynn

    DNA, RNA and proteins within a lipid-bound membrane are the core components of life, but the order of their appearance during the origin and evolution of life is still under debate. The widely accepted “RNA World” hypothesis states that RNA likely emerged prior to proteins and DNA since RNA can serve both replicative and catalytic roles. While biochemists have reproduced the synthesis, polymerization, and replication of nucleotides/RNA under controlled prebiotic conditions, such complex organic molecules were not present in significant amounts on the prebiotic Earth. In contrast, amino acids are naturally abundant in various prebiotic contexts such as carbonaceous chondrites and Urey-Miller type experiments, and many studies have demonstrated plausible prebiotic conditions that could condense/polymerize amino acids to give rise to short peptides. These findings support the basis of a “Protein World” hypothesis for life, however little has been done to study the functions of such primitive peptides. Here, we present a novel synthetic biology-based approach to the de novo synthesis of over billions of primitive peptides/proteins derived from a limited set of naturally abundant proteinogenic amino acids. Of these peptides, ones with divalent metal-binding capability are of particular interest and will be screened and identified. Certain divalent metals are likely present in prebiotic environments and both coordinate well with amino acids and catalyze reactions, which are difficult to achieve in organic chemistry. Furthermore, since D-chiral and non-proteinogenic amino acids are also abundant in the universe and may provide insight into the pathway by which life developed, the methods to analyze primitive peptides consisting of these amino acids will be discussed. By understanding this natural pathway, we will be able to better understand how life developed here on Earth and the probability of life arising elsewhere.

  20. Versatility of `hemorheologic fitness' according to exercise intensity: emphasis on the "healthy primitive lifestyle"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Jean-Frédéric; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Chevance, Guillaume; Pollatz, Marion; Fedou, Christine; de Mauverger, Eric Raynaud

    2014-05-01

    We recently proposed a unifying hypothesis to reconcile unexpected findings in exercise hemorheology and the classical concepts of "hemorheologic fitness" and the "triphasic effects of exercise", based on the "healthy primitive lifestyle" paradigm. This paradigm assumes that evolution has selected genetic polymorphisms leading to insulin resistance as an adaptative strategy to cope with continuous low intensity physical activity and a special alimentation moderately high in protein, rich in low glycemic index carbohydrates, and poor in saturated fat. According to this protocol the true physiological picture would be that of an individual whose exercise and nutritional habits are close from this lifestyle, both sedentary subjects and trained athletes representing situations on the edge of this model. Unfortunately samples of people truly adhering to this ancestral lifestyle are hard to obtain. In order to address this picture we tried to compare databases obtained with our preceding published studies. As a model of the "healthy primitive lifestyle" we selected patients trained at low intensity (LI) and given an advice of protein intake around 1.2 g/kg/day. Results show a continuum for plasma viscosity which seems to be lower in athletes than LI-trained and even more sedentaries. When sedentary subjects become obese the most obvious characteristic is an increase in red blood cell (RBC) aggregation correlated to the size of fat stores. It is clear that 3 months of LI are not a perfect model of "healthy primitive lifestyle", but these data suggest that the most important effect of LI regular exercise is to decrease plasma viscosity and that sedentarity increases RBC aggregation mostly when it results in increased fat storage.

  1. Verification of chemical evolution of RNA under hydrothermal environments on the primitive Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawamura Kunio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The RNA World hypothesis proposes that primitive forms of life used polymers resembling RNA both as catalysts and as carriers of genetic information. It has also been suggested that the origin of life occurred in hydrothermal conditions, but this implies that the ester bonds of nucleic acids are sufficiently stable to survive in aqueous conditions at elevated temperatures. Here, we summarize the results of experimental tests of RNA in simulated hydrothermal conditions in which stability is monitored at elevated temperatures and pressures. This perspective provides insight into the evolutionary pathway from small nucleotides to functional RNA molecules and the feasibility of RNA-based life.

  2. A mid-Cretaceous Eccrinales infesting a primitive wasp in Myanmar amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinar, George

    2016-12-01

    A mid-Cretaceous Eccrinales in Myanmar amber is described as Paleocadus burmiticus gen. et sp. nov. in the family Eccrinaceae. The fossil is represented by two types of sporangiospores formed on different thalli protruding from the anus of a primitive wasp, with secondary infestation spores multinucleate and thin walled. Its presence establishes the Eccrinales in the mid-Cretaceous and shows that at that time, lineages of this group parasitized wasps, an association unknown with extant members of the Order. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Tafassasset primitive achondrite: Insights into initial stages of planetary differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner-Vandy, Kathryn G.; Lauretta, Dante S.; Greenwood, Richard C.; McCoy, Timothy J.; Killgore, Marvin; Franchi, Ian A.

    2012-05-01

    Tafassasset is an exceptional meteorite that has been linked to both the CR chondrites and the primitive achondrites. Because previous evidence suggests it might be a primitive achondrite from a known chondrite type, we have undertaken a study of the petrology, geochemistry, and formation history of the meteorite. Tafassasset is predominantly FeO-rich olivine (˜58%) yet contains abundant Fe,Ni-metal (˜10 vol.%) and sulfide (˜3 vol.%). Other phases include high- and low-Ca pyroxene, plagioclase, chromite, and phosphate. It has a recrystallized texture, containing equigranular grains that often meet at 120° triple junctions. There are no relict chondrules in the thin sections examined, although they have been reported previously. Electron microprobe analyses reveal homogeneous olivine (Fa28.6), both low-and high-Ca pyroxene (Fs23.6Wo3.7 and Fs12.2Wo39.3±1), a range of plagioclase composition (An23-47), Fe,Ni-metal (with 5.3-36.6 wt.% Ni and 0.1-0.8 wt.% Co), troilite, chromite, and Ca-phosphate. Bulk composition analyses reveal two chips depleted in refractory lithophile and some siderophile elements compared to CI chondrites. Exceptions are enrichments in Fe, Ni and Co. A third chip is essentially chondritic in bulk composition. Different stones of the meteorite have slightly different oxygen isotope composition, yet all lie in the CR chondrite trend with one in the acapulcoite-lodranite field. Thermodynamic calculations show that Tafassasset equilibrated at a temperature above the Fe,Ni-FeS eutectic and at an oxygen fugacity of ˜IW-1. The texture, heterogeneous distribution of mineral phases, plagioclase composition, two-mineral closure temperatures, and bulk composition all provide evidence that Tafassasset partially melted on its parent body. A comparison with the CR chondrites, the brachinites, and two anomalous achondrites indicates that Tafassasset is most similar to ungrouped primitive achondrites Lewis Cliff (LEW) 88763 and Divnoe, and to the

  4. A primitive mantle source for the Neoarchean mafic rocks from the Tanzania Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.A. Cook

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mafic rocks comprising tholeiitic pillow basalt, dolerite and minor gabbro form the basal stratigraphic unit in the ca. 2.8 to 2.6 Ga Geita Greenstone Belt situated in the NW Tanzania Craton. They outcrop mainly along the southern margin of the belt, and are at least 50 million years older than the supracrustal assemblages against which they have been juxtaposed. Geochemical analyses indicate that parts of the assemblage approach high Mg-tholeiite (more than 8 wt.% MgO. This suite of samples has a restricted compositional range suggesting derivation from a chemically homogenous reservoir. Trace element modeling suggests that the mafic rocks were derived by partial melting within the spinel peridotite field from a source rock with a primitive mantle composition. That is, trace elements maintain primitive mantle ratios (Zr/Hf = 32–35, Ti/Zr = 107–147, producing flat REE and HFSE profiles [(La/Ybpm = 0.9–1.3], with abundances of 3–10 times primitive mantle and with minor negative anomalies of Nb [(Nb/Lapm = 0.6–0.8] and Th [(Th/Lapm = 0.6–0.9]. Initial isotope compositions (ɛNd range from 1.6 to 2.9 at 2.8 Ga and plot below the depleted mantle line suggesting derivation from a more enriched source compared to present day MORB mantle. The trace element composition and Nd isotopic ratios are similar to the mafic rocks outcropping ∼50 km south. The mafic rocks outcropping in the Geita area were erupted through oceanic crust over a short time period, between ∼2830 and ∼2820 Ma; are compositionally homogenous, contain little to no associated terrigenous sediments, and their trace element composition and short emplacement time resemble oceanic plateau basalts. They have been interpreted to be derived from a plume head with a primitive mantle composition.

  5. Amino acid codes in mitochondria as possible clues to primitive codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukes, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    Differences between mitochondrial codes and the universal code indicate that an evolutionary simplification has taken place, rather than a return to a more primitive code. However, these differences make it evident that the universal code is not the only code possible, and therefore earlier codes may have differed markedly from the previous code. The present universal code is probably a 'frozen accident.' The change in CUN codons from leucine to threonine (Neurospora vs. yeast mitochondria) indicates that neutral or near-neutral changes occurred in the corresponding proteins when this code change took place, caused presumably by a mutation in a tRNA gene.

  6. Individualised and adaptive upper limb rehabilitation with industrial robot using dynamic movement primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Sørensen, Anders Stengaard; Christensen, Thomas Søndergaard

    Stroke is a leading cause of serious long-term disability. Post-stroke rehabilitation is a demanding task for the patient and a costly challenge for both society and healthcare systems. We present a novel approach for training of upper extremities after a stroke by utilising an industrial robotic...... arm and dynamic movement primitives (DMPs) with force feedback. We show how pre-recorded and learned DMPs can act as basis exercises, that can be modified into individualized and adaptive rehabilitation exercises that fit with the patient’s physical prop- erties and impairments. We conclude that our...

  7. Primary Vaginal Extraosseous Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor with Cranial Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Man Yip

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Extraosseous Ewing sarcoma is now regarded as a member of the Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET family. It typically involves the soft tissues of the chest wall, pelvis, paravertebral region, abdominal wall, retroperitoneal region and extremities of children, adolescents and young adults, but it seldom occurs in the female genital tract. We report an extremely rare case of retrospective diagnosis of vaginal extraosseous Ewing sarcoma/PNET which metastasized to the right frontoparietal scalp, skull, and dura. Surgical resection, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy resulted in a favourable clinical outcome. Both the vaginal and head tumors had similar light microscopic features supporting the diagnosis.

  8. Effets durables d’un stress post-natal au cours de la vie du poulet d’élevage : recherche de marqueurs par analyse transcriptomique

    OpenAIRE

    Foury, Aline; Helbling, Jean-Christophe; Collin, Anne; Crochet, Sabine; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Désert, Colette; Mercerand, Frédéric; Delaveau, Joël; Leterrier, Christine; Koch, Alexia; Guilloteau, Laurence; Moisan, Marie-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    La période périnatale est critique chez les animaux de ferme due à l’immaturité de leurs systèmes digestif et immunitaire et à la forte demande d’adaptation comportementale et physiologique. Chez le poulet d’élevage, les difficultés d’adaptation peuvent se traduire par des omphalites et la mortalité des poussins pendant la première semaine de vie, des troubles respiratoires, des coccidioses et des troubles locomoteurs fréquents autour de 15-30 jours d’âge. Nous avons exposé un groupe de pouss...

  9. PENGARUH KOMPENSASI, KOMPETENSI DAN KOMITMEN ORGANISASIONAL TERHADAP KEPUASAN DAN KINERJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Supiyanto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Pengaruh Kompensasi, Kompetensi dan Komitmen Organisasional Terhadap Kepuasan dan Kinerja. Penelitian ini bertujuan menguji pengaruh kompensasi, kompetensi dan komitmen organisasional terhadap kepuasan kerja dan kinerja karyawan koperasi. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah seluruh karyawan KSP (Koperasi Simpan Pinjam yang tersebar di Kabupaten Tuban. Analisis data menggunakan teknik Path Analysis dengan model trimming. Temuan penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kompensasi, kompetensi dan komitmen organisasi baik secara simultan maupun parsial berpengaruh signifikan terhadap kepuasan kerja karyawan. Kompensasi, kompetensi, komitmen organisasi dan kepuasan kerja secara simultan berpengaruh signifikan terhadap kinerja karyawan; namun secara parsial kompetensi dan kepuasan kerja tidak berpengaruh terhadap kinerja karyawan. Kata kunci: Kompensasi, Kompetensi, Komitmen Organisasional, Kepuasan Kerja Dan Kinerja Karyawan. Abstract: The Effect of Compensation, Competencies and Organizational Commitment toward Job Satisfaction and Performance. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of compensation, competencies and organizational commitment to employee’s job satisfaction and performance of cooperatives. The population in this study is all employees of KSP (Credit Unions/Loan and Saving Cooperative in Tuban. Data analysis employed is path analysis with trimming model. The study's findings indicate that the compensation, competency and organizational commitment simultaneously and partially have a significant effect on employee’s job satisfaction. Compensation, competencies, organizational commitment and job satisfaction simultaneously have a significant effect on employee’s performance, but partially competence and job satisfaction do not has a significant effect on employee’s performance. Keywords: compensation, competency, organizational comitment, job satisfaction, employee’s performance

  10. Playing with Fire: Conflicting Subjects in Elizabeth Spencer’s The Night Travellers Jouer avec le feu : les rapports conflictuels dans The Night Travellers d’Elizabeth Spencer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald Préher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dans son dernier roman en date, The Night Travellers (1991, initialement intitulé “The Lost Children”, Elizabeth Spencer s’intéresse à une période durant laquelle nombre d’Américains s’interrogeaient sur l’avenir de leur pays. Elle analyse les effets de la guerre du Vietnam sur les vies de Mary Kerr et Jefferson Blaise, tous deux natifs du Sud des États-Unis. Chacun d’eux entre en conflit avec l’ordre établi : Mary ne s’entend pas avec sa mère et Jefferson Blaise s’oppose à la guerre, notamment en luttant contre l’incorporation des jeunes Américains dans l’armée, ce qui fait de lui une menace pour le gouvernement. Les deux jeunes gens quittent le Sud pour le Canada afin de vivre librement leur amour et de permettre à Jefferson Blaise de poursuivre son combat idéologique. Leur fuite leur fait comprendre qu’ils doivent trouver leur place dans un monde chaotique et livrer leur propre guerre de manière à trouver un équilibre. Dans ce roman, Spencer utilise des données historiques et met en lumière des aspects de la guerre qui sont rarement transposés de manière fictionnelle, comme les efforts du gouvernement pour faire taire les voix qui s’élèvent contre sa politique étrangère. Le but de cet article est de montrer combien les conflits personnels des personnages reflètent le contexte historique. La vie souterraine que décrit Spencer permet, en effet, de réfléchir sur l’importance des voix de l’ombre pour faire évoluer les choses.

  11. Model-Free Primitive-Based Iterative Learning Control Approach to Trajectory Tracking of MIMO Systems With Experimental Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radac, Mircea-Bogdan; Precup, Radu-Emil; Petriu, Emil M

    2015-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel model-free trajectory tracking of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems by the combination of iterative learning control (ILC) and primitives. The optimal trajectory tracking solution is obtained in terms of previously learned solutions to simple tasks called primitives. The library of primitives that are stored in memory consists of pairs of reference input/controlled output signals. The reference input primitives are optimized in a model-free ILC framework without using knowledge of the controlled process. The guaranteed convergence of the learning scheme is built upon a model-free virtual reference feedback tuning design of the feedback decoupling controller. Each new complex trajectory to be tracked is decomposed into the output primitives regarded as basis functions. The optimal reference input for the control system to track the desired trajectory is next recomposed from the reference input primitives. This is advantageous because the optimal reference input is computed straightforward without the need to learn from repeated executions of the tracking task. In addition, the optimization problem specific to trajectory tracking of square MIMO systems is decomposed in a set of optimization problems assigned to each separate single-input single-output control channel that ensures a convenient model-free decoupling. The new model-free primitive-based ILC approach is capable of planning, reasoning, and learning. A case study dealing with the model-free control tuning for a nonlinear aerodynamic system is included to validate the new approach. The experimental results are given.

  12. Optimisation of an idealised primitive equation ocean model using stochastic parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Fenwick C.

    2017-05-01

    Using a simple parameterization, an idealised low resolution (biharmonic viscosity coefficient of 5 × 1012 m4s-1 , 128 × 128 grid) primitive equation baroclinic ocean gyre model is optimised to have a much more accurate climatological mean, variance and response to forcing, in all model variables, with respect to a high resolution (biharmonic viscosity coefficient of 8 × 1010 m4s-1 , 512 × 512 grid) equivalent. For example, the change in the climatological mean due to a small change in the boundary conditions is more accurate in the model with parameterization. Both the low resolution and high resolution models are strongly chaotic. We also find that long timescales in the model temperature auto-correlation at depth are controlled by the vertical temperature diffusion parameter and time mean vertical advection and are caused by short timescale random forcing near the surface. This paper extends earlier work that considered a shallow water barotropic gyre. Here the analysis is extended to a more turbulent multi-layer primitive equation model that includes temperature as a prognostic variable. The parameterization consists of a constant forcing, applied to the velocity and temperature equations at each grid point, which is optimised to obtain a model with an accurate climatological mean, and a linear stochastic forcing, that is optimised to also obtain an accurate climatological variance and 5 day lag auto-covariance. A linear relaxation (nudging) is not used. Conservation of energy and momentum is discussed in an appendix.

  13. Marco Polo: Hunting and Capture of Material from a Primitive Asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licandro, Javier

    A description of the Spanish contribution to the Marco Polo mission and of the mission itself is presented. Marco Polo is a joint European-Japanese mission of sample return from a Near Earth Object (NEO). Submitted to ESA on July 2007 in the framework of the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025, Marco Polo passed the first evaluation process on October 2007. Seventeen Spanish researchers belonging to six Spanish institutes signed the proposal. The mission is planned to visit a primitive NEO, belonging to a class that cannot be related to known meteorite types, to characterize it at multiple scales, and to bring samples back to Earth. Marco Polo will give us the first opportunity for detailed laboratory study of the most primitive materials that formed the planets. This will allow us to improve our knowledge on the processes which governed the origin and early evolution of the Solar System, and possibly of the life on Earth. Three Spanish institutes are involved in the feasibility studies of two instruments: the THERmal MAPper (THERMAP) and the Marco Polo Camera System (MPCS).

  14. A Novel Non-Invasive Selection Criterion for the Preservation of Primitive Dutch Konik Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon May-Davis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Dutch Konik is valued from a genetic conservation perspective and also for its role in preservation of natural landscapes. The primary management objective for the captive breeding of this primitive horse is to maintain its genetic purity, whilst also maintaining the nature reserves on which they graze. Breeding selection has traditionally been based on phenotypic characteristics consistent with the breed description, and the selection of animals for removal from the breeding program is problematic at times due to high uniformity within the breed, particularly in height at the wither, colour (mouse to grey dun and presence of primitive markings. With the objective of identifying an additional non-invasive selection criterion with potential uniqueness to the Dutch Konik, this study investigates the anatomic parameters of the distal equine limb, with a specific focus on the relative lengths of the individual splint bones. Post-mortem dissections performed on distal limbs of Dutch Konik (n = 47 and modern domesticated horses (n = 120 revealed significant differences in relation to the length and symmetry of the 2nd and 4th Metacarpals and Metatarsals. Distal limb characteristics with apparent uniqueness to the Dutch Konik are described which could be an important tool in the selection and preservation of the breed.

  15. On the Kinematic Motion Primitives (kMPs - Theory and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Lorenzo Moro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Human neuromotor capabilities guarantee a wide variety of motions. A full understanding of human motion can be beneficial for rehabilitation or performance enhancement purposes, or for its reproduction on artificial systems like robots. This work aims at describing the complexity of human motion in a reduced dimensionality, by means of kinematic Motion Primitives (kMPs. A set of five invariant kMPs are identified for periodic motions, and a set of two kMPs for discrete motions. It is shown how these two sets of kMPs can be combined to synthesize more complex motion as the simultaneous execution of the periodic and the discrete motions. The results reported are an evidence of the theory of Central Pattern Generators (CPG, showing its effects on the kinematics, and are related to what presented in the literature on the Motor Primitives extracted from EMG signals.Experimental tests with the COmpliant huMANoid (COMAN were performed to show that the kMPs extracted from human subjects can be used to transfer the features of human locomotion to the gait of a robot.

  16. Conservative multimodal management of a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Haudebourg

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET represent 1% of sarcomas. Head and neck peripheral PNETs have an intermediate prognosis between abdominopelvic disease and extremities. We here report the case of a 40-year old male who presented with primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the thyroid and was treated by multimodal treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy and intermediate dose radiotherapy. The patient is alive and fit with a functional larynx at 27 months. Multimodal treatments yield five-year survival rates of about 60%. Major drug regimens use vincristine, doxorubicin, ifosfamide or cyclophosphamide, dactinomycin and/or etoposide. Complete surgical excision is undertaken whenever possible to improve long-term survival. However, the relative radiosensitivity of tumors of the Ewing family, suggest multimodal treatment including adjuvant conformal radiotherapy in case of positive margins or poor response to chemotherapy rather than resection with 2-3 cm margins, which would imply laryngeal sacrifice for thyroid tumors. The role of expert rare tumor networks is crucial for optimal decision-making and management of such rare tumors on a case by case basis.

  17. PROBABILISTIC FEATURE MATCHING APPLIED TO PRIMITIVE BASED REGISTRATION OF TLS DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Hullo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Many industrial applications require dense point clouds of the installations. Acquisition of the rooms, filled with many objects, of an industrial scene leads to many Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS stations. A precise registration of all the per-station point clouds is crucial for the required accuracy of 1-2 cm of final data. Targets and tachometry, current best practice for registration, slows down the survey and limits the number of campaigns. Indoor geolocation system are faster but do not reach the final required accuracy. Otherwise, 3D primitives can be automatically extracted from the dense point clouds and possibly used for registration. In a four step primitive-based registration, Acquisition – Reconstruction – Matching – Solving, the matching is crucial. This article presents a probabilistic test for 3D lines matching using a priori distributions of approximated transformations. The stochastic model of approximated transformations and resulting uncertain lines is introduced. A test is performed on a real dataset of an industrial scene and the results are analysed. Improvements of the presented test and matching framework are also discussed.

  18. Hierarchical HMM based learning of navigation primitives for cooperative robotic endovascular catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii-Tari, Hedyeh; Liu, Jindong; Payne, Christopher J; Bicknell, Colin; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Despite increased use of remote-controlled steerable catheter navigation systems for endovascular intervention, most current designs are based on master configurations which tend to alter natural operator tool interactions. This introduces problems to both ergonomics and shared human-robot control. This paper proposes a novel cooperative robotic catheterization system based on learning-from-demonstration. By encoding the higher-level structure of a catheterization task as a sequence of primitive motions, we demonstrate how to achieve prospective learning for complex tasks whilst incorporating subject-specific variations. A hierarchical Hidden Markov Model is used to model each movement primitive as well as their sequential relationship. This model is applied to generation of motion sequences, recognition of operator input, and prediction of future movements for the robot. The framework is validated by comparing catheter tip motions against the manual approach, showing significant improvements in the quality of catheterization. The results motivate the design of collaborative robotic systems that are intuitive to use, while reducing the cognitive workload of the operator.

  19. Efficiency of Finding Muon Track Trigger Primitives in CMS Cathode Strip Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Acosta, Darin; Andreev, Valeri; Apollinari, Giorgio; Baek, Yong Wook; Banicz, Karoly; Barashko, Victor; Barberis, Emanuela; Bartalini, Paolo; Bloch, Ingo; Boeriu, Oana; Bondar, Nikolai; Breedon, Richard; Bujak, Adam; Bylsma, Ben; Chen, Mingshui; Clare, Robert; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Cox, Peter Timothy; Denisov, Alexander; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Durkin, S; Eartly, David P; Ershov, Yuri; Ferguson, Thomas; Fortin, Dominique; Geurts, Frank J M; Gilmore, Jason; Golovtsov, Victor; Golutvin, Igor; Golyash, Alexander; Gu, Jianhui; Gutay, Laszlo; Hauser, Jay; He, Kang-Lin; Holbrook, Britt; Holmes, Daniel; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Ippolito, Nicole; Ivanov, Yasen; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Karjavin, Vladimir; Khabarov, Serguei; Killewald, Phillip; Ko, Winston; Kotov, Khristian; Korytov, Andrey; Kozhevnikov, Yuri; Lanaro, Armando; Levchenko, Petr; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Jie; Loveless, Richard; Lusin, Sergei; Madorsky, Alexander; Matveev, Mikhail; Medved, Serguei; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Moisenz, Petr; Padley, Brian Paul; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Pal, Imre; Perelygin, Victor; Petrunin, Anatoly; Pischalnikov, Yuriy; Pivarsky, J; Prokofiev, O; Rakness, Gregory; Roberts, Jay; Roe, Adam; Safonov, Alexei; Schetkovsky, A; Schipunov, L; Schmitt, Michael; Sknar, Vladimir; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sulimov, Valentin; Sun, Han-Sheng; Sytnik, Valeri; Tchekhovski, V; Terentyev, Nikolay; Tripathi, Mani; Tucker, Jordan; Tumanov, Alexander; Uvarov, Lev; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Vasilev, S; Vavilov, Sergey; Velichko, Georgy; Volkov, Serguei; Von der Mey, Martin; Vorobev, I; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Wang, Dayong; Williams, Grayson; Yatsura, V; Zarubin, Anatoli; Zhao, Wei-Ren; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhmakin, G; Zhu, Zian; Zilizi, Gyula

    2007-01-01

    In the CMS Experiment, muon detection in the forward direction is accomplished by cathode strip chambers~(CSC). These detectors identify muons, provide a fast muon trigger, and give a precise measurement of the muon trajectory. There are 468 six-plane CSCs in the system. The efficiency of finding muon trigger primitives (muon track segments) was studied using~36 CMS CSCs and cosmic ray muons during the Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge~(MTCC) exercise conducted by the~CMS experiment in~2006. In contrast to earlier studies that used muon beams to illuminate a very small chamber area ($< \\! 0.01$~m$^2$), results presented in this paper were obtained by many installed CSCs operating {\\em in situ} over an area of $\\approx \\! 23$~m$^2$ as a part of the~CMS experiment. The efficiency of finding 2-dimensional trigger primitives within 6-layer chambers was found to be~$99.93 \\pm 0.03\\%$. These segments, found by the CSC electronics within $800$~ns after the passing of a muon through the chambers, are the input info...

  20. High Precision Neural Decoding of Complex Movement Trajectories using Recursive Bayesian Estimation with Dynamic Movement Primitives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotson, Guy; Smith, Ryan J; Rouse, Adam G; Schieber, Marc H; Thakor, Nitish V; Wester, Brock A

    2016-07-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are a rapidly progressing technology with the potential to restore function to victims of severe paralysis via neural control of robotic systems. Great strides have been made in directly mapping a user's cortical activity to control of the individual degrees of freedom of robotic end-effectors. While BMIs have yet to achieve the level of reliability desired for widespread clinical use, environmental sensors (e.g. RGB-D cameras for object detection) and prior knowledge of common movement trajectories hold great potential for improving system performance. Here we present a novel sensor fusion paradigm for BMIs that capitalizes on information able to be extracted from the environment to greatly improve the performance of control. This was accomplished by using dynamic movement primitives to model the 3D endpoint trajectories of manipulating various objects. We then used a switching unscented Kalman filter to continuously arbitrate between the 3D endpoint kinematics predicted by the dynamic movement primitives and control derived from neural signals. We experimentally validated our system by decoding 3D endpoint trajectories executed by a non-human primate manipulating four different objects at various locations. Performance using our system showed a dramatic improvement over using neural signals alone, with median distance between actual and decoded trajectories decreasing from 31.1 cm to 9.9 cm, and mean correlation increasing from 0.80 to 0.98. Our results indicate that our sensor fusion framework can dramatically increase the fidelity of neural prosthetic trajectory decoding.

  1. Modeling Movement Primitives with Hidden Markov Models for Robotic and Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karg, Michelle; Kulić, Dana

    2017-01-01

    Movement primitives are elementary motion units and can be combined sequentially or simultaneously to compose more complex movement sequences. A movement primitive timeseries consist of a sequence of motion phases. This progression through a set of motion phases can be modeled by Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). HMMs are stochastic processes that model time series data as the evolution of a hidden state variable through a discrete set of possible values, where each state value is associated with an observation (emission) probability. Each motion phase is represented by one of the hidden states and the sequential order by their transition probabilities. The observations of the MP-HMM are the sensor measurements of the human movement, for example, motion capture or inertial measurements. The emission probabilities are modeled as Gaussians. In this chapter, the MP-HMM modeling framework is described and applications to motion recognition and motion performance assessment are discussed. The selected applications include parametric MP-HMMs for explicitly modeling variability in movement performance and the comparison of MP-HMMs based on the loglikelihood, the Kullback-Leibler divergence, the extended HMM-based F-statistic, and gait-specific reference-based measures.

  2. Disruption of IKAROS activity in primitive chronic-phase CML cells mimics myeloid disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Philip A; Knapp, David J H F; Miller, Paul H; Kannan, Nagarajan; Sloma, Ivan; Heel, Kathy; Babovic, Sonja; Bulaeva, Elizabeth; Rabu, Gabrielle; Terry, Jefferson; Druker, Brian J; Loriaux, Marc M; Loeb, Keith R; Radich, Jerald P; Erber, Wendy N; Eaves, Connie J

    2015-01-15

    Without effective therapy, chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CP-CML) evolves into an acute leukemia (blast crisis [BC]) that displays either myeloid or B-lymphoid characteristics. This transition is often preceded by a clinically recognized, but biologically poorly characterized, accelerated phase (AP). Here, we report that IKAROS protein is absent or reduced in bone marrow blasts from most CML patients with advanced myeloid disease (AP or BC). This contrasts with primitive CP-CML cells and BCR-ABL1-negative acute myeloid leukemia blasts, which express readily detectable IKAROS. To investigate whether loss of IKAROS contributes to myeloid disease progression in CP-CML, we examined the effects of forced expression of a dominant-negative isoform of IKAROS (IK6) in CP-CML patients' CD34(+) cells. We confirmed that IK6 disrupts IKAROS activity in transduced CP-CML cells and showed that it confers on them features of AP-CML, including a prolonged increased output in vitro and in xenografted mice of primitive cells with an enhanced ability to differentiate into basophils. Expression of IK6 in CD34(+) CP-CML cells also led to activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 and transcriptional repression of its negative regulators. These findings implicate loss of IKAROS as a frequent step and potential diagnostic harbinger of progressive myeloid disease in CML patients. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  3. Ecologie des communautés des poissons intertropicaux : diversité, traits d'histoire de vie et gradients

    OpenAIRE

    Tedesco, P.

    2006-01-01

    Un objectif récurrent en écologie est l'identification et l'interprétation des processus responsables de la structuration des communautés biologiques. Il est actuellement reconnu que la structuration de communautés résulte de processus qui agissent à plusieurs échelles spatiales et temporelles. Dans ce cadre, l'objectif principal de cette thèse est l'identification des facteurs responsables de la distribution et de l'abondance des espèces de poissons d'eau douce tropicaux en privilégiant une ...

  4. Qualit? de vie et v?cu de la maladie, avant et apr?s hyst?rectomie vaginale, chez les femmes admises au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Brazzaville

    OpenAIRE

    Mbongo, Jean Alfred; Mouanga, Alain; Miabaou, Didace Massamba; Nzelie, Aya; Iloki, L?on Herv?

    2016-01-01

    Toute maladie est un mal en soi qu?il faut ?radiquer car elle alt?re souvent de fa?on significative la qualit? de la vie. L?hyst?rectomie vaginale est indiqu?e pour les patientes qui pr?sentent certaines affections gyn?cologiques graves, elle est donc b?n?fique mais, peut ?galement avoir une r?percussion n?faste sur la qualit? de vie de la femme. Ainsi nous avons voulu explorer le v?cu de la maladie et de l?hyst?rectomie vaginale (HV) des femmes avant et apr?s l?intervention chirurgicale. Nou...

  5. Eau, terre et vie

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    D'utilisateurs pauvres en ressources à gestionnaires des ressources naturelles: un exemple de Java-Ouest Amri Jahi, Indonésie. 97. Recherche participative au Malawi: la gestion par bassin versant axée sur la communication. Meya Kalindekafe, Malawi. 108. Communiquer au-delà des cultures et des langues. Lun Kimhy ...

  6. Mandiri dan Berdaulat dengan Energi Terbarukan

    OpenAIRE

    Burhanuddin, andi Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Mandiri dan Berdaulat dengan Energi Terbarukan Andi Iqbal Burhanuddin Guru Besar Ilmu Kelautan Unhas Hal yang memiliki peran penting dan mendukung berbagai proses kegiatan, serta menjadi prasyarat keberlanjutan kehidupan adalah energi. Seiring dengan meningkatnya pertumbuhan ekonomi serta bertambahnya jumlah penduduk, kebutuhan Indonesia akan energi terus meningkat pesat. Sementara energi fosil cepat atau lambat akan kurang dan habis, dan bahkan menurut para peneliti diperkirak...

  7. PENGARUH KUAT DAN DISTRIBUSI ARUS TERHADAP KETEBALAN DAN KEKERASAN LAPISAN KROM PADA STONEWARE DAN EARTHENWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Sri Adnyani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Proses pelapisan elektroplating dapat dilakukan pada material non logam seperti pada produk stoneware dan earthenware, namun sebelumnya perlu diberi lapisan tipis carbon (thin layer carbon. Hal ini dilakukan agar permukaan material non logam tersebut bersifat sebagai konduktor. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kekerasan dan ketebalan lapisan krom pada permukaan material keramik-gerabah (non konduktor. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode eksperimental (true experimental research. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan dua variabel terikat yaitu ketebalan lapisan krom dan kekerasan. Proses elektroplating  dilakukan dengan kuat dan distribusi arus berbeda-beda. Sampel atau benda uji dibuat dengan ukuran 4 x 8 x 0.5 cm. Selanjutnya agar bahan uji (bahan non konduktor tersebut mampu sebagai konduktor dalam proses elektroplating maka sebelumnya dilapisi dengan lapisan karbon tipis. Ketebalan lapisan akan semakin meningkat seiring dengan naiknya kuat arus dan bertambahnya titik distribusi arus. Nilai ketebalan paling kecil didapatkan pada pelapisan dengan kuat arus 0.24 A dan satu titik distribusi arus yaitu 0.0010 mm, sedangkan ketebalan maksimum didapatkan pada kuat arus 0.7 A dengan tiga titik distribusi arus sebesar 0.00233 mm. Kekerasan permukaan berdasarkan hasil uji kekerasan Vickers akan semakin meningkat dengan naiknya kuat arus dan bertambahnya titik distribusi arus. Nilai kekerasan paling kecil didapatkan pada pelapisan dengan kuat arus 0.24 A dan satu titik distribusi arus yaitu 105 HVN, sedangkan kekerasan maksimum didapatkan pada kuat arus 0.7 A dengan tiga titik distribusi arus sebesar 115 HVN.

  8. Aesthetic primitivism revisited: The global diaspora of ‘primitive art’ and the rise of indigenous modernisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth B. Phillips

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the global export of the construct of primitive art which developed in Europe in the early-twentieth century and the catalytic role it played in the emergence of modernist art forms produced by Indigenous peoples. It argues for the need to distinguish between sociological primitivism grounded in cultural evolutionist theory and the aesthetic primitivism promoted by artists, ethnologists and patrons who admired and appropriated the traditional arts of non-Western peoples classified as 'primitive.' Case studies of two refugees from Nazi Europe, German ethnologist Leonhard Adam and Austrian artist George Swinton, demonstrate the tension between received understandings of primitive art and these men's growing awareness, following emigration, of Indigenous modernities. It also led to their active promotion of modern Australian Aboriginal and Inuit arts, despite the undoubted links between aesthetic primitivism and the oppressive assimilationist policies justified through sociological primitivism.

  9. Hareketli Heykel ve Dans

    OpenAIRE

    RUIZ, Manuel Adsuara

    2016-01-01

    Heykel tarihinin ve anlamının içinden bir yolculukta hareketli heykel ve dans…Dans gibi hareketler ve dansın kinetik değeri, heykelin birden fazla bakış açısı ile yapmacıklıktan beri, birliği kırıyoruz ve çok küçük bir bakış açısı değişikliği ile şekil değişikliğine ulaşıyoruz, başka bir değişle, bir balonun bir kesiti gibi. Hatta mimari bile, uzay, ışık, gölge ve yanlış perspektifleri(bakış açıları) ile yeni, göz kamaştırıcı ve teatral bir hareket ve görüş açısı sunuyor. Bu bize, heykele yük...

  10. Transgression, Nostalgia, Order: Representation of the Primitive in Émile Zola's La Terre and Knut Hamsun's Markens grøde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riikka Rossi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the representation of the primitive in two peasant novels, Émile Zola's La Terre (1887, trans. as The Earth and Knut Hamsun's Markens grøde (1917, trans. as Growth of the Soil. The concept of the primitive crosses a wide range of issues that were central to naturalist and decadent literature at the turn of the twentieth century, from unconscious instincts to the fascination with exotic cultures. It thus offers a fruitful medium for the comparative reading of French and Nordic fiction of the era. I especially focus on analysing the diverse, representative practices of Zola's and Hamsun's works, which betray stylistic differences in their portrayal of the primitive. I suggest that by describing the primitive as a vital, transgressive force that even turns against itself - against nature - Zola's La Terre creates a decadent version of the primitive, which, instead of a "serious", naturalistic portrayal of everyday life, is drawn to the brutal, instinctive primitive and uses the primitive to create vital forces of transgression. Hamsun's neo-naturalist novel, in turn, reconfigures the naturalist themes in a new form and envisions a fusion of the Darwinian, naturalistic primitive and the Romantic cult of innocent primordiality, suggesting the primitive lifestyle as a nostalgic return to a pre-modern lifestyle and a turn away from the degeneration of modernity.

  11. Characterization of the Polish Primitive Horse (Konik) maternal lines using mitochondrial D-loop sequence variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslak, Jakub; Wodas, Lukasz; Borowska, Alicja; Cothran, Ernest G; Khanshour, Anas M; Mackowski, Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    The Polish Primitive Horse (PPH, Konik) is a Polish native horse breed managed through a conservation program mainly due to its characteristic phenotype of a primitive horse. One of the most important goals of PPH breeding strategy is the preservation and equal development of all existing maternal lines. However, until now there was no investigation into the real genetic diversity of 16 recognized PPH dam lines using mtDNA sequence variation. Herein, we describe the phylogenetic relationships between the PPH maternal lines based upon partial mtDNA D-loop sequencing of 173 individuals. Altogether, 19 mtDNA haplotypes were detected in the PPH population. Five haplotypes were putatively novel while the remaining 14 showed the 100% homology with sequences deposited in the GenBank database, represented by both modern and primitive horse breeds. Generally, comparisons found the haplotypes conformed to 10 different recognized mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, E, G, J, M, N, P, Q and R). A multi-breed analysis has indicated the phylogenetic similarity of PPH and other indigenous horse breeds derived from various geographical regions (e.g., Iberian Peninsula, Eastern Europe and Siberia) which may support the hypothesis that within the PPH breed numerous ancestral haplotypes (found all over the world) are still present. Only in the case of five maternal lines (Bona, Dzina I, Geneza, Popielica and Zaza) was the segregation of one specific mtDNA haplotype observed. The 11 remaining lines showed a higher degree of mtDNA haplotype variability (2-5 haplotypes segregating in each line). This study has revealed relatively high maternal genetic diversity in the small, indigenous PPH breed (19 haplotypes, overall HapD = 0.92). However, only some traditionally distinguished maternal lines can be treated as genetically pure. The rest show evidence of numerous mistakes recorded in the official PPH pedigrees. This study has proved the importance of maternal genetic diversity monitoring based upon

  12. Characterization of the Polish Primitive Horse (Konik maternal lines using mitochondrial D-loop sequence variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Cieslak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Polish Primitive Horse (PPH, Konik is a Polish native horse breed managed through a conservation program mainly due to its characteristic phenotype of a primitive horse. One of the most important goals of PPH breeding strategy is the preservation and equal development of all existing maternal lines. However, until now there was no investigation into the real genetic diversity of 16 recognized PPH dam lines using mtDNA sequence variation. Herein, we describe the phylogenetic relationships between the PPH maternal lines based upon partial mtDNA D-loop sequencing of 173 individuals. Altogether, 19 mtDNA haplotypes were detected in the PPH population. Five haplotypes were putatively novel while the remaining 14 showed the 100% homology with sequences deposited in the GenBank database, represented by both modern and primitive horse breeds. Generally, comparisons found the haplotypes conformed to 10 different recognized mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, E, G, J, M, N, P, Q and R. A multi-breed analysis has indicated the phylogenetic similarity of PPH and other indigenous horse breeds derived from various geographical regions (e.g., Iberian Peninsula, Eastern Europe and Siberia which may support the hypothesis that within the PPH breed numerous ancestral haplotypes (found all over the world are still present. Only in the case of five maternal lines (Bona, Dzina I, Geneza, Popielica and Zaza was the segregation of one specific mtDNA haplotype observed. The 11 remaining lines showed a higher degree of mtDNA haplotype variability (2–5 haplotypes segregating in each line. This study has revealed relatively high maternal genetic diversity in the small, indigenous PPH breed (19 haplotypes, overall HapD = 0.92. However, only some traditionally distinguished maternal lines can be treated as genetically pure. The rest show evidence of numerous mistakes recorded in the official PPH pedigrees. This study has proved the importance of maternal genetic diversity

  13. Utilization of normal mode initial conditions for detecting errors in the dynamics part of primitive equation global models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, W. C.; Geller, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    When a global atmospheric basic state has constant angular velocity and its temperature varies with altitude only, there exist normal mode solutions to the linearized global primitive equations. The use of these normal modes, which have known behavior in time, is superior to the use of the Rossby-Haurwitz wave as initial conditions for detecting errors in the dynamics part of primitive equation global models. With these initial conditions, integration through only one time step is sufficient to detect many formulation and coding errors. Other tests are still required for detecting problems of nonlinear instability and conservation of integral properties, however.

  14. Kitab kuning dan perempuan, perempuan dan kitab kuning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinessen, M.M. van

    1993-01-01

    Kitab Kuning dan Emansipasi Perempuan: Konflik Budaya? Pengamatan-pengamatan Masdar mengenai kedudukan perempuan dalam diskursus (wacana, bahasan) dominan kitab kuning terasa tidak enak didengar tetapi memang sulit dibantah. Baik dalam penggunaan bahasa (yang sangat memihak kepada jenis

  15. L'influence de la langue maternelle sur les capacités de l'auditeur dans la perception de la parole

    OpenAIRE

    Dufour, Sophie; Nguyen, Noël

    2008-01-01

    Les études en psycholinguistique et en neurosciences cognitives ont permis de grandes avancées quant à la compréhension des mécanismes impliqués dans la perception des sons de parole. Nous présentons une revue sélective que nous espérons représentative des recherches sur la perception de la parole. Plus particulièrement, les recherches présentées montrent que notre système perceptif se façonne dès la première année de vie, de manière à exploiter finement les régularités phonologiques de notre...

  16. Du harcèlement scolaire au cyber-harcèlement :: état des lieux dans le canton du Jura au cycle 2

    OpenAIRE

    Gurba, Jérémy; Meusy, Vanessa; Boéchat-Heer, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Ce travail de recherche, réalisé en duo, présente la thématique du harcèlement scolaire entre élèves ainsi que le thème du cyber-harcèlement qui en découle. Notre travail expose l’évolution entre ces deux phénomènes dans le canton du Jura au cycle 2. Le harcèlement scolaire est un phénomène faisant partie intégrante de la vie scolaire. Il touche quotidiennement de nombreux enfants. Cette forme de violence scolaire se caractérise par une relation de domination, verbale ou physique, à caractère...

  17. Abundant ammonia in primitive asteroids and the case for a possible exobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzarello, Sandra; Williams, Lynda B; Lehman, Jennifer; Holland, Gregory P; Yarger, Jeffery L

    2011-03-15

    Carbonaceous chondrites are asteroidal meteorites that contain abundant organic materials. Given that meteorites and comets have reached the Earth since it formed, it has been proposed that the exogenous influx from these bodies provided the organic inventories necessary for the emergence of life. The carbonaceous meteorites of the Renazzo-type family (CR) have recently revealed a composition that is particularly enriched in small soluble organic molecules, such as the amino acids glycine and alanine, which could support this possibility. We have now analyzed the insoluble and the largest organic component of the CR2 Grave Nunataks (GRA) 95229 meteorite and found it to be of more primitive composition than in other meteorites and to release abundant free ammonia upon hydrothermal treatment. The findings appear to trace CR2 meteorites' origin to cosmochemical regimes where ammonia was pervasive, and we speculate that their delivery to the early Earth could have fostered prebiotic molecular evolution.

  18. Primitive environment control for preservation of pit relics in archeology museums of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhaolin; Luo, Xilian; Meng, Xiangzhao; Wang, Zanshe; Ma, Tao; Yu, Chuck; Rong, Bo; Li, Ku; Li, Wenwu; Tan, Ying

    2013-02-05

    Immovable historical relics in some archeology museums of China suffer deterioration due to their improper preservation environment. The existing environmental control systems used in archeology museums are often designed for the amenities of visitors, and these manipulated environments are often inappropriate for the conservation of abiotic relics. This paper points out that the large open space of the existing archeology museum could be a cause of deterioration of the relics from the point of view of indoor air convective flow. The paper illustrates the need to introduce a local pit environmental control, which could reintegrate a pit primitive environment for the preservation of the historical relics by using an air curtain system, orientated to isolate the unearthed relics, semiexposed in pits to the large gallery open space of the exhibition hall.

  19. A three-dimensional spectral element model for the solution of the hydrostatic primitive equations

    CERN Document Server

    Iskandarani, M; Levin, J C

    2003-01-01

    We present a spectral element model to solve the hydrostatic primitive equations governing large-scale geophysical flows. The highlights of this new model include unstructured grids, dual h-p paths to convergence, and good scalability characteristics on present day parallel computers including Beowulf-class systems. The behavior of the model is assessed on three process-oriented test problems involving wave propagation, gravitational adjustment, and nonlinear flow rectification, respectively. The first of these test problems is a study of the convergence properties of the model when simulating the linear propagation of baroclinic Kelvin waves. The second is an intercomparison of spectral element and finite-difference model solutions to the adjustment of a density front in a straight channel. Finally, the third problem considers the comparison of model results to measurements obtained from a laboratory simulation of flow around a submarine canyon. The aforementioned tests demonstrate the good performance of th...

  20. Genetic diversity of thiamin and folate in primitive cultivated and wild potato (Solanum) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyer, Aymeric; Sweek, Kortney

    2011-12-28

    Biofortification of staple crops like potato via breeding is an attractive strategy to reduce human micronutrient deficiencies. A prerequisite is metabolic phenotyping of genetically diverse material which can potentially be used as parents in breeding programs. Thus, the natural genetic diversity of thiamin and folate contents was investigated in indigenous cultivated potatoes (Solanum tuberosum group Andigenum) and wild potato species (Solanum section Petota). Significant differences were found among clones and species. For about 50% of the clones there were variations in thiamin and folate contents between years. Genotypes which contained over 2-fold the thiamin and 4-fold the folate content compared to the modern variety Russet Burbank were identified and should be useful material to integrate in breeding programs which aim to enhance the nutritional value of potato. Primitive cultivars and wild species with widely different amounts of thiamin and folate will also be valuable tools to explore their respective metabolic regulation.

  1. A numerical study of the string function using a primitive equation ocean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, R. H.; Käse, R.

    We use results from a primitive-equation ocean numerical model (SCRUM) to test a theoretical 'string function' formulation put forward by Tyler and Käse in another article in this issue. The string function acts as a stream function for the large-scale potential energy flow under the combined beta and topographic effects. The model results verify that large-scale anomalies propagate along the string function contours with a speed correctly given by the cross-string gradient. For anomalies having a scale similar to the Rossby radius, material rates of change in the layer mass following the string velocity are balanced by material rates of change in relative vorticity following the flow velocity. It is shown that large-amplitude anomalies can be generated when wind stress is resonant with the string function configuration.

  2. Genomic analyses of primitive, wild and cultivated citrus provide insights into asexual reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Xu, Yuantao; Zhang, Siqi; Cao, Li; Huang, Yue; Cheng, Junfeng; Wu, Guizhi; Tian, Shilin; Chen, Chunli; Liu, Yan; Yu, Huiwen; Yang, Xiaoming; Lan, Hong; Wang, Nan; Wang, Lun; Xu, Jidi; Jiang, Xiaolin; Xie, Zongzhou; Tan, Meilian; Larkin, Robert M; Chen, Ling-Ling; Ma, Bin-Guang; Ruan, Yijun; Deng, Xiuxin; Xu, Qiang

    2017-05-01

    The emergence of apomixis-the transition from sexual to asexual reproduction-is a prominent feature of modern citrus. Here we de novo sequenced and comprehensively studied the genomes of four representative citrus species. Additionally, we sequenced 100 accessions of primitive, wild and cultivated citrus. Comparative population analysis suggested that genomic regions harboring energy- and reproduction-associated genes are probably under selection in cultivated citrus. We also narrowed the genetic locus responsible for citrus polyembryony, a form of apomixis, to an 80-kb region containing 11 candidate genes. One of these, CitRWP, is expressed at higher levels in ovules of polyembryonic cultivars. We found a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element insertion in the promoter region of CitRWP that cosegregated with polyembryony. This study provides new insights into citrus apomixis and constitutes a promising resource for the mining of agriculturally important genes.

  3. Not so primitive: context-sensitive meta-learning about unattended sound sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Juanita; Provost, Alexander; Whitson, Lisa R; Cooper, Gavin; Heathcote, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN), an evoked response potential elicited when a "deviant" sound violates a regularity in the auditory environment, is integral to auditory scene processing and has been used to demonstrate "primitive intelligence" in auditory short-term memory. Using a new multiple-context and -timescale protocol we show that MMN magnitude displays a context-sensitive modulation depending on changes in the probability of a deviant at multiple temporal scales. We demonstrate a primacy bias causing asymmetric evidence-based modulation of predictions about the environment, and we demonstrate that learning how to learn about deviant probability (meta-learning) induces context-sensitive variation in the accessibility of predictive long-term memory representations that underpin the MMN. The existence of the bias and meta-learning are consistent with automatic attributions of behavioral salience governing relevance-filtering processes operating outside of awareness.

  4. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the midbrain in a murine model of retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, D M; Carpenter, J L; O'Brien, J M; Kivela, T; Brauner, E; Tarkkanen, A; Virtanen, I; Albert, D M

    1991-02-01

    The first heritable model of retinoblastoma was established by retina-specific expression of simian virus 40 T-antigen (SV40 T-ag) in transgenic mice. Bilateral, multifocal ocular tumors were observed in 100% of transgene-bearing mice. Central nervous system neoplasms occurred at a lower rate (27%) and represented the murine counterpart of human trilateral retinoblastoma. The authors characterized the transgenic brain tumors and found them to be primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) of the midbrain. Murine brain tumors do not involve the pineal gland and most closely resemble undifferentiated suprasellar or parasellar tumors occasionally observed in human trilateral retinoblastoma. The murine malignancies arose from the subependymal cells of the cerebral aqueduct. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural examination revealed that the transgenic brain tumors were undifferentiated and lacked all antigens associated with normal murine neuronal, glial, and ependymal cells.

  5. Phase diagram of the restricted primitive model: charge-ordering instability

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    O.V.Patsahan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the phase behaviour of the restricted primitive model (RPM using a microscopic approach based on the method of collective variables with a reference system. Starting from the Hamiltonian of the RPM we derive the functional of the grand partition function given in terms of the two collective variables: the collective variables ρk and ck describing fluctuations of the total number density and charge density, respectively. Within the framework of the Gaussian approximation we found the boundary of stability with respect to fluctuations of the charge density. It is shown that due to the approximated character of the theory the boundary of stability is very sensitive to the particular choice of the long-range part of potential inside the hard core. This point is discussed in more detail.

  6. Calculation Scheme Based on a Weighted Primitive: Application to Image Processing Transforms

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    Gregorio de Miguel Casado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method to improve the calculation of functions which specially demand a great amount of computing resources. The method is based on the choice of a weighted primitive which enables the calculation of function values under the scope of a recursive operation. When tackling the design level, the method shows suitable for developing a processor which achieves a satisfying trade-off between time delay, area costs, and stability. The method is particularly suitable for the mathematical transforms used in signal processing applications. A generic calculation scheme is developed for the discrete fast Fourier transform (DFT and then applied to other integral transforms such as the discrete Hartley transform (DHT, the discrete cosine transform (DCT, and the discrete sine transform (DST. Some comparisons with other well-known proposals are also provided.

  7. Primitive reflexes and cognitive function Reflexos primitivos e função cognitiva

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    Alfredo Damasceno

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data on the prevalence of primitive reflexes (PR in adulthood, their pathological significance and relationship to age and cognition are controversial. OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between PR and cognition in 30 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD and 154 control subjects. METHOD: Diagnosis of probable AD was based on DSM-IV, NINCDS-ADRDA, and CAMDEX criteria. Primitive reflexes were quantified from zero (absent to 1 (mild or 2 (markedly present. The Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument - Short Form (CASI-S was used to evaluate registration, temporal orientation, verbal fluency and recall. A drawing test was added. RESULTS: Most frequent PR among demented and controls were suck (77% and 62%, respectively and snout (60% and 27%, followed by glabellar (30% and 19%, paratonia (37% and 5%, and palmomental (23% and 5%. None of controls had more than three PR. Frequency of PR tended to increase with age and cognitive deterioration. Grasp and Babinski responses were found only in dementia patients. Primitive reflexes were not correlated with each other, except snout with suck, and snout with glabellar reflex. CONCLUSION: The finding of grasp and Babinski sign, or the presence of more than three primitive signs, particularly the combination of paratonia, snout, suck, and palmomental reflexes strongly suggests brain dysfunction, especially when these signs are marked and accompanied by deficits in orientation, recall, verbal fluency, and constructional praxis.CONTEXTO: A prevalência e significado patológico dos reflexos primitivos (RP no adulto, bem como sua relação com a idade e a cognição, são questões controversas. OBJETIVO: Estudar a relação entre RP e cognição em 30 pacientes com doença de Alzheimer (DA e 154 sujeitos controles normais. MÉTODO: O diagnóstico de DA baseou-se nos critérios DSM-IV, NINCDS-ADRDA e CAMDEX. Os RP foram quantificados de 0 (ausente a 1 (leve ou 2 (acentuado. CASI

  8. Solitary epidural brain metastasis of Neuroepithelioma (a Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor: case report

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    Farnaz Farshidfar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A 14 years old male was referred to Computerized tomography scan (CT of our hospital for evaluation of headache. The patient was known case of cervical soft tissue Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET which has undergone surgery and radiotherapy 4 years ago. The CT scan showed large solitary extra axial, epidural lesion in right parietal region, with mass effect and bony involvement. Then surgery was done for him and the resultant biopsy was Neuroepithelioma. After diagnosis the patient has undergone chemotherapy and radiotherapy. He has no signs or symptoms of malignancy, and also follow up CT scan of the brain, chest, and abdomen were normal after two years of surgery. This is the first reported case of epidural metastasis of a head and neck PNET in an adolescent.

  9. Ion Irradiation Experiments on the Murchison CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrite: Simulating Space Weathering of Primitive Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Dukes, C. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Rahman, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing observations show that space weathering processes affect all airless bodies in the Solar System to some degree. Sample analyses and lab experiments provide insights into the chemical, spectroscopic and mineralogic effects of space weathering and aid in the interpretation of remote- sensing data. For example, analyses of particles returned from the S-type asteroid Itokawa by the Hayabusa mission revealed that space-weathering on that body was dominated by interactions with the solar wind acting on LL ordinary chondrite-like materials [1, 2]. Understanding and predicting how the surface regoliths of primitive carbonaceous asteroids respond to space weathering processes is important for future sample return missions (Hayabusa 2 and OSIRIS-REx) that are targeting objects of this type. Here, we report the results of our preliminary ion irradiation experiments on a hydrated carbonaceous chondrite with emphasis on microstructural and infrared spectral changes.

  10. A recursive vesicle-based model protocell with a primitive model cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Kensuke; Okura, Yusaku; Matsuo, Muneyuki; Toyota, Taro; Suzuki, Kentaro; Sugawara, Tadashi

    2015-09-29

    Self-organized lipid structures (protocells) have been proposed as an intermediate between nonliving material and cellular life. Synthetic production of model protocells can demonstrate the potential processes by which living cells first arose. While we have previously described a giant vesicle (GV)-based model protocell in which amplification of DNA was linked to self-reproduction, the ability of a protocell to recursively self-proliferate for multiple generations has not been demonstrated. Here we show that newborn daughter GVs can be restored to the status of their parental GVs by pH-induced vesicular fusion of daughter GVs with conveyer GVs filled with depleted substrates. We describe a primitive model cell cycle comprising four discrete phases (ingestion, replication, maturity and division), each of which is selectively activated by a specific external stimulus. The production of recursive self-proliferating model protocells represents a step towards eventual production of model protocells that are able to mimic evolution.

  11. Coordinates Analyses of Hydrated Interplanetary Dust Particles: Samples of Primitive Solar System Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L. P.; Snead, C.; McKeegan, K. D.

    2016-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere fall into two major groups: an anhydrous group termed the "chondritic-porous (CP) IDPs and a hydrated group, the "chondritic-smooth (CS) IDPs, although rare IDPs with mineralogies intermediate between these two groups are known [1]. The CP-IDPs are widely believed to be derived from cometary sources [e.g. 2]. The hydrated CS-IDPs show mineralogical similarities to heavily aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites (e.g. CI chondrites), but only a few have been directly linked to carbonaceous meteorite parent bodies [e.g. 3, 4]. Most CS-IDPs show distinct chemical [5] and oxygen isotopic composition differences [6-8] from primitive carbonaceous chondrites. Here, we report on our coordinated analyses of a suite of carbon-rich CS-IDPs focusing on their bulk compositions, mineralogy, mineral chemistry, and isotopic compositions.

  12. Perancangan dan Analisis Redistribution Routing Protocol OSPF dan EIGRP

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    DWI ARYANTA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak OSPF (Open Shortest Path First dan EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol adalah dua routing protokol yang banyak digunakan dalam jaringan komputer. Perbedaan karakteristik antar routing protokol menimbulkan masalah dalam pengiriman paket data. Teknik redistribution adalah solusi untuk melakukan komunikasi antar routing protokol. Dengan menggunakan software Cisco Packet Tracer 5.3 pada penelitian ini dibuat simulasi OSPF dan EIGRP yang dihubungkan oleh teknik redistribution, kemudian dibandingkan kualitasnya dengan single routing protokol EIGRP dan OSPF. Parameter pengujian dalam penelitian ini adalah nilai time delay dan trace route. Nilai trace route berdasarkan perhitungan langsung cost dan metric dibandingkan dengan hasil simulasi. Hasilnya dapat dilakukan proses redistribution OSPF dan EIGRP. Nilai delay redistribution lebih baik 1% dibanding OSPF dan 2-3% di bawah EIGRP tergantung kepadatan traffic. Dalam perhitungan trace route redistribution dilakukan 2 perhitungan, yaitu cost untuk area OSPF dan metric pada area EIGRP. Pengambilan jalur utama dan alternatif pengiriman paket berdasarkan nilai cost dan metric yang terkecil, hal ini terbukti berdasarkan perhitungan dan simulasi. Kata kunci: OSPF, EIGRP, Redistribution, Delay, Cost, Metric. Abstract OSPF (Open Shortest Path First and EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol are two routing protocols are widely used in computer networks. Differences between the characteristics of routing protocols pose a problem in the delivery of data packets. Redistribution technique is the solution for communication between routing protocols. By using the software Cisco Packet Tracer 5.3 in this study were made simulating OSPF and EIGRP redistribution linked by technique, then compared its quality with a single EIGRP and OSPF routing protocols. Testing parameters in this study is the value of the time delay and trace route. Value trace route based on direct calculation of cost

  13. Perawatan Pergeseran Mandibula dan Kliking Menggunakan Teknik Edgewise dan Trainer

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    Rully Utami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kasus ini terjadi pada perempuan usia 22 tahun yang bersedia dipublikasikan untuk kepentingan  ilmu pengetahuan. Keluhan utama mandibula dan dagunya bergeser ke kanan, gigitan terbuka posterior dan bunyi click di persendian temporomandibular. Diagnosis pasien adalah maloklusi Angle kelas III tipe dento skeletal, pergeseran garis tengah mandibula dan dagu ke kanan, gigitan terbuka posterior dan clicking pada sendi temporomandibular. Perawatan dilakukan dengan teknik Edgewise dan trainer. Leveling dan unraveling dilakukan menggunakan kawat stainless steel bulat diameter 0,014 mm dengan multiloop. Trainer digunakan untuk koreksi pergeseran mandibula. Perawatan dilakukan selama 11 bulan, dan menunjukkan hasil hubungan molar pertama kanan menjadi kelas I. Overjet meningkat dari 0,1 mm menjadi 2 mm, overbite meningkat dari 0,2 mm menjadi 2,57 mm, garis tengah mandibula yang semula bergeser ke kanan 4,38 mm menjadi 2,53 mm, gigitan terbuka posterior dan clicking telah terkoreksi. Compromised Treatment of Class III Malocclusion with Mandibular Shifting, Posterior Openbite and Clicking Using Edgewise Technique and Trainer In Adult. This case report described the treatment of an adult female 22 years old who complained that her mandibula and chin shift to the right, posterior openbite and clicking. The patient diagnosed class III molar relationship, skeletal class III malocclusion, mandibular midline and chin shift to the right, posterior openbite and clicking on temporomandibular joint. Treatment was conducted using combination between  Edgewise Technique and trainer.  Leveling and unraveling are achieved by round stainless steel archwire 0,014 mm with multiloop. Trainer used to corrected the mandibular shifting. Result after 1 years treatment showed that the right molar relationship became class I, overjet increased  from 0,1 mm to 2 mm, overbite increased  from 0,2 mm to 2,57 mm, mandibular midline shifting decresed from 4,38 mm to 2,53 mm

  14. Octopus arm movements under constrained conditions: adaptation, modification and plasticity of motor primitives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Jonas N; Hochner, Binyamin; Kuba, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    The motor control of the eight highly flexible arms of the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) has been the focus of several recent studies. Our study is the first to manage to introduce a physical constraint to an octopus arm and investigate the adaptability of stereotypical bend propagation in reaching movements and the pseudo-limb articulation during fetching. Subjects (N=6) were placed inside a transparent Perspex box with a hole at the center that allowed the insertion of a single arm. Animals had to reach out through the hole toward a target, to retrieve a food reward and fetch it. All subjects successfully adjusted their movements to the constraint without an adaptation phase. During reaching tasks, the animals showed two movement strategies: stereotypical bend propagation reachings, which were established at the hole of the Perspex box and variant waving-like movements that showed no bend propagations. During fetching movements, no complete pseudo-joint fetching was observed outside the box and subjects pulled their arms through the hole in a pull-in like movement. Our findings show that there is some flexibility in the octopus motor system to adapt to a novel situation. However, at present, it seems that these changes are more an effect of random choices between different alternative motor programs, without showing clear learning effects in the choice between the alternatives. Interestingly, animals were able to adapt the fetching movements to the physical constraint, or as an alternative explanation, they could switch the motor primitive fetching to a different motor primitive 'arm pulling'. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Ionic liquid interface at an electrode: simulations of electrochemical properties using an asymmetric restricted primitive model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongduo; Nordholm, Sture; Woodward, Clifford E.; Forsman, Jan

    2018-02-01

    We use Monte Carlo simulations of a coarse-grained model to investigate structure and electrochemical behaviours at an electrode immersed in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). The simple RTIL model, which we denote the asymmetric restricted primitive model (ARPM), is composed of monovalent hard-sphere ions, all of the same size, in which the charge is asymmetrically placed. Not only the hard-sphere size (d), but also the charge displacement (b), is identical for all species, i.e. the monovalent RTIL ions are fully described by only two parameters (d, b). In earlier work, it was demonstrated that the ARPM can capture typical static RTIL properties in bulk solutions with remarkable accuracy. Here, we investigate its behaviour at an electrode surface. The electrode is assumed to be a perfect conductor and image charge methods are utilized to handle polarization effects. We find that the ARPM of the ionic liquid reproduces typical (static) electrochemical properties of RTILs. Our model predicts a declining differential capacitance with increasing temperature, which is expected from simple physical arguments. We also compare our ARPM, with the corresponding RPM description, at an elevated temperature (1000 K). We conclude that, even though ion pairing occurs in the ARPM system, reducing the concentration of ‘free’ ions, it is still better able to screen charge than a corresponding RPM melt. Finally, we evaluate the option to coarse-grain the model even further, by treating the fraction of the ions that form ion pairs implicitly, only through the contribution to the dielectric constant of the corresponding dipolar (ion pair) fluid. We conclude that this primitive representation of ion pairing is not able to reproduce the structures and differential capacitances of the system with explicit ion pairs. The main problem seems to be due to a limited dielectric screening in a layer near the electrode surface, resulting from a combination of orientational

  16. Prediction of Intention during Interaction with iCub with Probabilistic Movement Primitives

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    Oriane Dermy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes our open-source software for predicting the intention of a user physically interacting with the humanoid robot iCub. Our goal is to allow the robot to infer the intention of the human partner during collaboration, by predicting the future intended trajectory: this capability is critical to design anticipatory behaviors that are crucial in human–robot collaborative scenarios, such as in co-manipulation, cooperative assembly, or transportation. We propose an approach to endow the iCub with basic capabilities of intention recognition, based on Probabilistic Movement Primitives (ProMPs, a versatile method for representing, generalizing, and reproducing complex motor skills. The robot learns a set of motion primitives from several demonstrations, provided by the human via physical interaction. During training, we model the collaborative scenario using human demonstrations. During the reproduction of the collaborative task, we use the acquired knowledge to recognize the intention of the human partner. Using a few early observations of the state of the robot, we can not only infer the intention of the partner but also complete the movement, even if the user breaks the physical interaction with the robot. We evaluate our approach in simulation and on the real iCub. In simulation, the iCub is driven by the user using the Geomagic Touch haptic device. In the real robot experiment, we directly interact with the iCub by grabbing and manually guiding the robot’s arm. We realize two experiments on the real robot: one with simple reaching trajectories, and one inspired by collaborative object sorting. The software implementing our approach is open source and available on the GitHub platform. In addition, we provide tutorials and videos.

  17. Primitive Early Eocene bat from Wyoming and the evolution of flight and echolocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Nancy B; Seymour, Kevin L; Habersetzer, Jörg; Gunnell, Gregg F

    2008-02-14

    Bats (Chiroptera) represent one of the largest and most diverse radiations of mammals, accounting for one-fifth of extant species. Although recent studies unambiguously support bat monophyly and consensus is rapidly emerging about evolutionary relationships among extant lineages, the fossil record of bats extends over 50 million years, and early evolution of the group remains poorly understood. Here we describe a new bat from the Early Eocene Green River Formation of Wyoming, USA, with features that are more primitive than seen in any previously known bat. The evolutionary pathways that led to flapping flight and echolocation in bats have been in dispute, and until now fossils have been of limited use in documenting transitions involved in this marked change in lifestyle. Phylogenetically informed comparisons of the new taxon with other bats and non-flying mammals reveal that critical morphological and functional changes evolved incrementally. Forelimb anatomy indicates that the new bat was capable of powered flight like other Eocene bats, but ear morphology suggests that it lacked their echolocation abilities, supporting a 'flight first' hypothesis for chiropteran evolution. The shape of the wings suggests that an undulating gliding-fluttering flight style may be primitive for bats, and the presence of a long calcar indicates that a broad tail membrane evolved early in Chiroptera, probably functioning as an additional airfoil rather than as a prey-capture device. Limb proportions and retention of claws on all digits indicate that the new bat may have been an agile climber that employed quadrupedal locomotion and under-branch hanging behaviour.

  18. Efficient hematopoietic redifferentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells derived from primitive murine bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Nils; Lachmann, Nico; Kohlscheen, Saskia; Sgodda, Malte; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Greber, Boris; Kues, Wilfried; Glage, Silke; Baum, Christopher; Niemann, Heiner; Schambach, Axel; Cantz, Tobias; Moritz, Thomas

    2012-03-20

    Heterogeneity among induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines with regard to their gene expression profile and differentiation potential has been described and at least partly linked to the tissue of origin. Here, we generated iPSCs from primitive [lineage negative (Lin(neg))] and nonadherent differentiated [lineage positive (Lin(pos))] bone marrow cells (BM-iPSC), and compared their differentiation potential to that of fibroblast-derived iPSCs (Fib-iPSC) and embryonic stem cells (ESC). In the undifferentiated state, individual iPSC clones but also ESCs proved remarkably similar when analyzed for alkaline phosphatase and SSEA-1 staining, endogenous expression of the pluripotency genes Nanog, Oct4, and Sox2, or global gene expression profiles. However, substantial differences between iPSC clones were observed after induction of differentiation, which became most obvious upon cytokine-mediated instruction toward the hematopoietic lineage. All 3 BM-iPSC lines derived from undifferentiated Lin(neg) cells yielded high proportions of cells expressing the hematopoietic differentiation marker CD41 and in 2 of these lines high proportions of CD41+/ CD45+ cells were detected. In contrast, little hematopoiesis-specific surface marker expression was detected in 4 Lin(pos) BM-iPSC and 3 Fib-iPSC lines. These results were corroborated by functional studies demonstrating robust colony outgrowth from hematopoietic progenitors in 2 of the Lin(neg) BM-iPSCs only. Thus, in conclusion, our data demonstrate efficient generation of iPSCs from primitive hematopoietic tissue as well as efficient hematopoietic redifferentiation for Lin(neg) BM-iPSC lines, thereby supporting the notion of an epigenetic memory in iPSCs.

  19. Analysis of immunoglobulin transcripts in the ostrich Struthio camelus, a primitive avian species.

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    Tian Huang

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the immunoglobulin (Ig genes in avian species are limited (mainly to galliformes and anseriformes but have revealed several interesting features, including the absence of the IgD and Igκ encoding genes, inversion of the IgA encoding gene and the use of gene conversion as the primary mechanism to generate an antibody repertoire. To better understand the Ig genes and their evolutionary development in birds, we analyzed the Ig genes in the ostrich (Struthio camelus, which is one of the most primitive birds. Similar to the chicken and duck, the ostrich expressed only three IgH chain isotypes (IgM, IgA and IgY and λ light chains. The IgM and IgY constant domains are similar to their counterparts described in other vertebrates. Although conventional IgM, IgA and IgY cDNAs were identified in the ostrich, we also detected a transcript encoding a short membrane-bound form of IgA (lacking the last two C(H exons that was undetectable at the protein level. No IgD or κ encoding genes were identified. The presence of a single leader peptide in the expressed heavy chain and light chain V regions indicates that gene conversion also plays a major role in the generation of antibody diversity in the ostrich. Because the ostrich is one of the most primitive living aves, this study suggests that the distinct features of the bird Ig genes appeared very early during the divergence of the avian species and are thus shared by most, if not all, avian species.

  20. Hypoxia promotes primitive glycosaminoglycan-rich extracellular matrix composition in developing heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amofa, Dorothy; Hulin, Alexia; Nakada, Yuji; Sadek, Hesham A; Yutzey, Katherine E

    2017-12-01

    During postnatal heart valve development, glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-rich valve primordia transform into stratified valve leaflets composed of GAGs, fibrillar collagen, and elastin layers accompanied by decreased cell proliferation as well as thinning and elongation. The neonatal period is characterized by the transition from a uterine environment to atmospheric O2, but the role of changing O2 levels in valve extracellular matrix (ECM) composition or morphogenesis is not well characterized. Here, we show that tissue hypoxia decreases in mouse aortic valves in the days after birth, concomitant with ECM remodeling and cell cycle arrest of valve interstitial cells. The effects of hypoxia on late embryonic valve ECM composition, Sox9 expression, and cell proliferation were examined in chicken embryo aortic valve organ cultures. Maintenance of late embryonic chicken aortic valve organ cultures in a hypoxic environment promotes GAG expression, Sox9 nuclear localization, and indicators of hyaluronan remodeling but does not affect fibrillar collagen content or cell proliferation. Chronic hypoxia also promotes GAG accumulation in murine adult heart valves in vivo. Together, these results support a role for hypoxia in maintaining a primitive GAG-rich matrix in developing heart valves before birth and also in the induction of hyaluronan remodeling in adults.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Tissue hypoxia decreases in mouse aortic valves after birth, and exposure to hypoxia promotes glycosaminoglycan accumulation in cultured chicken embryo valves and adult murine heart valves. Thus, hypoxia maintains a primitive extracellular matrix during heart valve development and promotes extracellular matrix remodeling in adult mice, as occurs in myxomatous disease. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Scènes de la vie sportive à Sidi Mezghiche, un village de la wilaya de Skikda

    OpenAIRE

    Boulebier, Djamel; Rehail, Tayeb

    2013-01-01

    Le football est une des formes de pratiques sportives la plus exercées par les jeunes au niveau de nos villages en Algérie, et ce grâce à sa plasticité. Quelque soit la figure sous laquelle il se présente, qu’il soit institutionnel ou pratiqué dans les rues, ce football des champs : sans moyens matériels et humains adéquats permet néanmoins, à certains jeunes de se distinguer ou de se distraire.Rédigé à partir d’enquêtes de terrain menés au niveau d’un village de la wilaya de Skikda, cet arti...

  2. L'impact des relations de travail sur la vie de l'entreprise Cas de Soitex Tlemcen

    OpenAIRE

    Frioua, Nardjes

    2014-01-01

    Le premier chapitre de la partie théorique à été consacré à l'importance du facteur humain,aux composantes d'un systéme de relation de travail et au contrat de travail.Le deuxiéme chapitre à été reservé au phénoméne du conflit et de la gréve dans l'entreprise.le troisiéme chapitre à évoqué l'évolution syndicale et le systéme du représentation du personnel et négociation collective au sein de l'entreprise.Quand au quatriéme chapitre il traite le bilan sociale et l'importance ddes tableaux de b...

  3. Modes de vie et politiques municipales : regards sur le milieu périurbain montréalais

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    Sandra Breux

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available À partir d’une lecture critique des travaux d’Alan Walks et d’une enquête de terrain exploratoire menée dans une municipalité du milieu périurbain montréalais, l’objectif de cet article est de démontrer que les frontières municipales sont des marqueurs idéologiques forts, susceptibles d’expliquer les valeurs différentes que l’on associe aux quartiers centraux et aux quartiers suburbains. À ce titre, l’analyse des politiques publiques adoptées par les municipalités de banlieue est un moyen de saisir l’importance de la frontière municipale et des valeurs qu’elle recouvre.

  4. KONSEP DAN PRAKTIK PENDIDIKAN MULTIKULTURAL DI AMERIKA SERIKAT DAN INDONESIA

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    Juju Masunah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Concepts and Practices of Multi Cultural Education in the United States and in Indonesia. The purpose of this article is to discuss multicultural education consepts and practices in the U.S.A and its application to Indonesia. Data is based on a case study research of two dance educators who implemented multicultural education concept in Columbus, Ohio in year 2007. The result of this research is that two dance educators teach students equally by developing a curriculum and pedagogy that face democracy for all students. This concept and practice is possible to be applied to dance education in Indonesia. Abstrak: Konsep dan Praktik Pendidikan Multikultural di Amerika Serikat dan Indonesia. Tujuan artikel ini adalah untuk mendiskusikan konsep dan praktik pendidikan multikultural di Amerika Serikat dan Indonesia. Data-data diperoleh dari hasil penelitian studi kasus dua orang pendidik tari di Columbus, Ohio yang menerapkan konsep pendidikan multikultural dalam pembelajaran tari pada tahun 2007. Peneli­tian ini menyimpulkan bahwa dua guru tari tersebut memberi perlakuan yang sama dan adil terhadap se­mua siswa dengan cara yang demokratis dengan memperhatikan keberagaman dan keperbedaan siswa. Cara-cara ini sangat memungkinkan untuk diaplikasikan dalam pendidikan tari di Indonesia.

  5. Mixité sociale : les handicapés dans la société britannique 

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    Marie-Hélène Adveille

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Depuis la seconde moitié du XXe siècle le regard porté sur la place des handicapés dans la société, a changé de manière significative. Les personnes en situation de handicap qui n’étaient souvent vues auparavant que comme les bénéficiaires d’une aide charitable, ont acquis, grâce à l’action de nombreuses organisations, le droit d’être reconnues comme des individus devant jouir des mêmes droits que les personnes ordinaires. Cependant, bien que des changements aient été opérés dans la perception que les valides ont des handicapés, il n’en demeure pas moins que les personnes en situation de handicap sont toujours confrontées à de nombreux problèmes dans leur vie de tous les jours. La société a fait des progrès pour ce qui est des aides qu’elle apporte aux handicapés moteurs, en instituant par exemple qu’ils puissent avoir accès aux bâtiments publics ainsi qu’aux moyens de transport urbain, ferroviaire, aérien. Les difficultés des handicapés sensoriels (vue, ouie sont prises en compte, avec la mise en place, par exemple, des signaux sonores dans la cité, en favorisant la présence de chiens d’aveugle. Cependant l’accès aux droits fondamentaux de ceux qui présentent des handicaps mentaux (intellectuels et/ou psychiques est encore peu développé. C’est donc sur la politique d’intégration et d’inclusion dans la vie ordinaire des personnes présentant des handicaps intellectuels que portera principalement cette étude. Nous aborderons en premier lieu la législation mise en œuvre pour favoriser leur insertion dans la société britannique, puis nous étudierons la façon dont les enfants sont intégrés dans le système scolaire. Enfin, les arguments qui soulignent l’intérêt que peut revêtir une intégration réussie pour l’adulte et pour la société seront examinés.The way in which the disabled were viewed underwent significant changes in the second half of the 20th century

  6. Mitas kaip kultūrų interpretacijų sankirta Cliffordo Geertzo antropologijoje | Le mythe comme un ensemble des interprétations des cultures dans l‘antropologie de Clifford Geertz

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    Neringa Mikalauskienė

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La méthode que Clifford Geertz appelle, lui-même, «une description dense» [thick description] peut être nommée une interprétation inductive parce qu’ici on passe de différentes formes de la culture aux conclusions générales: on commence par une analyse minutieuse («microscopique» des moindres phénomènes et on finit par des interprétations et des définitions plus globales. Le mythe se trouve introduit dans «les moindres phénomènes» et, en même temps, il apparaît comme agissant dans les différentes sphères de la vie. Le mythe «s’eparpille» tant dans le langage quotidien, tant dans les normes réglant la vie sociale que dans la religion.Pour Geertz le mythe est un système de symboles qui forme des motivations constantes de la conduite humaine. Ce système révèle une conception d’être qui se manifeste dans le quotidien de la sorte que les motivations de la conduite se montrent réellement. L’analyse du mythe, d’après Geertz, est inséparable du celle du rite qui fait, à son tour, partie du drame rituel où la distance entre le spectateur et l’acteur est abolie. La nature humaine, entraînée dans la magie du théâtre rituel, se voit transformée, et les êtres humains sont ainsi inscrits dans la société.Le mythe est un fait culturel concret et il peut surgir dans de différents domaines de la vie. Il est possible donc de le traiter comme un moyen d’approche de toute la culture parce que celle-ci n’est qu’une totalité des systèmes convergents de significations: de la religion, de l’art, de l’idéologie, du droit ect.Le mythe est lu, tout d’abord, comme un texte spécifique utile à l’analyse de la culture parce qu’il est un dépôt de symboles constants. Et la culture, d’après Geertz, effectue un contrôle symbolique de la conduite.L’analyse du mythe est une fiction an premier sens du mot fictio: «modelé», «fait». Cette analyse n’est rien d’autre qu’une prévision des

  7. The epidemiology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD in community-living seniors: protocol of the MemoVie cohort study, Luxembourg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perquin Magali

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease (AD are increasingly considered a major public health problem. The MemoVie cohort study aims to investigate the living conditions or risk factors under which the normal cognitive capacities of the senior population in Luxembourg (≥ 65 year-old evolve (1 to mild cognitive impairment (MCI – transitory non-clinical stage – and (2 to AD. Identifying MCI and AD predictors undeniably constitutes a challenge in public health in that it would allow interventions which could protect or delay the occurrence of cognitive disorders in elderly people. In addition, the MemoVie study sets out to generate hitherto unavailable data, and a comprehensive view of the elderly population in the country. Methods/design The study has been designed with a view to highlighting the prevalence in Luxembourg of MCI and AD in the first step of the survey, conducted among participants selected from a random sample of the general population. A prospective cohort is consequently set up in the second step, and appropriate follow-up of the non-demented participants allows improving the knowledge of the preclinical stage of MCI. Case-control designs are used for cross-sectional or retrospective comparisons between outcomes and biological or clinical factors. To ensure maximal reliability of the information collected, we decided to opt for structured face to face interviews. Besides health status, medical and family history, demographic and socio-cultural information are explored, as well as education, habitat network, social behavior, leisure and physical activities. As multilingualism is expected to challenge the cognitive alterations associated with pathological ageing, it is additionally investigated. Data relative to motor function, including balance, walk, limits of stability, history of falls and accidents are further detailed. Finally, biological examinations, including ApoE genetic polymorphism are

  8. Dépénalisation de l'homosexualité, droit européen, injure, jurisprudence, pénalisation de l'homosexualité, vie privée

    OpenAIRE

    Borrillo, Daniel; Formond, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    ouvrage publié avec le concours du centre national du livre; International audience; Analyse historique et juridique de la dépénalisation de l'homosexualité (droit européen, injure, jurisprudence, vie privée)

  9. CORPORATE IDENTITY SEJARAH DAN APLIKASINYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Suharto Cenadi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent globalization era%2C and the developed market%2C many companies compete to attract consumers to buy their products. One of the keys to compete and survive in this developing market is by creating an image and graphic identity. This paper will discuss about corporate identity%2C image%2C its purpose and applications. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Dalam era globalisasi dewasa ini%2C dan dengan berkembangnya pasar (market%2C banyak perusahaan bersaing untuk menarik perhatian konsumen untuk membeli produknya. Salah satu cara untuk bersaing dan dapat bertahan di dalam pasar yang terus berkembang ini adalah dengan menciptakan suatu image dan identitas graphic. Tulisan ini akan membahas tentang corporate identity%2C image%2C fungsi dan aplikasinya

  10. Pemodelan dan Simulasi Sistem Proteksi Mikrogrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Tio Trisnasari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mikrogrid mengintegrasi sumber energi terdistribusi untuk menyediakan sistem yang handal dan ramah lingkungan. Akibat adanya generator dan PV pada semua level sistem mikrogrid dan 3 konfigurasi sistem yang berbeda, yaitu hanya terhubung grid, terhubung grid dan mikrogrid dan islanding, arus gangguan pada sistem akan bervariasi (arus gangguan naik 8.2 kA ketika sistem terhubung dengan grid. Dengan koordinasi rele dan LVCB yang benar, maka sistem proteksi dapat mengamankan pembangkit dan beban. Sehingga dapat menyediakan keandalan sistem yang lebih tinggi. Sistem proteksi yang didesain dimaksudkan untuk dapat bekerja dalam 3 konfigurasi sistem yang berbeda akibat adanya grid dan sumber energy terdistribusi. Sistem proteksi yang digunakan pada tugas akhir ini dilengkapi dengan Directional Over Current Relay yang diuji menggunakan ETAP pada sebuah sistem mikrogrid yang terdiri dari PV dan biomassa. Dengan menggunakan Zone Selective Interlocking ( ZSI tidak perlu dilakukan pengaturan ulang pada sistem proteksi yang diakibatkan adanya perubahan konfigurasi sistem.

  11. XML specifications DanRIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    XML specifications for DanRIS (Danish Registration- og InformationsSystem), where the the aim is: Improved exchange of data Improved data processing Ensuring future access to all gathered data from the year 1999 until now......XML specifications for DanRIS (Danish Registration- og InformationsSystem), where the the aim is: Improved exchange of data Improved data processing Ensuring future access to all gathered data from the year 1999 until now...

  12. Nyeri Haid, Penyebab, Dan Penanggulangannya

    OpenAIRE

    Kusmiyati, Kusmiyati

    2011-01-01

    Haid atau menstruasi merupakan pelepasan dinding endometrium disertai darah. Nyeri sering menyertai kejadian menstruasi, sebagai hasil kontraksi kuat miometrium yang terjadi menjelang dan selama menstruasiFaktor penyebab nyeri haid bermacam-macam, antara lain faktor endokrin, kejiwaan dan faktor lain yang terkait dengan alat reproduksi. Nyeri dapat terjadi karena sekresi prostaglandin yang berlebih. Umumnya perempuan yangmengalami nyeri haid tidak terlalu memperhatikan atau tidak merawat deng...

  13. Pengaruh Perebusan, Penggaraman Dan Penjemuran Pada Udang Dan Cumi Terhadap Pembentukan 7 Ketokolesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Riyanto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian pengaruh perebusan, penggaraman dan penjemuran pada udang dan cumi terhadap pembentukan 7‑ketokolesterol telah dilakukan. Dalam penelitian ini, udang dan cumi masing ­masing dibagi dalam dua kelompok. Pada kelompok pertama diberikan perlakuan perebusan dalam air, dan pada kelompok kedua diberikan perlakuan perebusan dalam air garam (3% air garam untuk udang dan 20% air garam untuk cumi. Setelah perebusan, dilakukan pengeringan di bawah matahari (udang dikupas dahulu sebelum dijemur. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan saat kondisi segar, setelah direbus dan setelah dijemur. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap kandungan 7‑ketokolesterol, kolesterol, nilai TBA, dan kadar air. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perebusan, penggaraman dan penjemuran berpengaruh terhadap pembentukan 7‑ketokolesterol sampai konsentrasi 20,82 ppm pada udang dan 15,05 ppm pada cumi sebagai konsentrasi tertinggi produk hasil oksidasi kolesterol yang terbentuk. Penelitian ini dapat dijadikan bukti bahwa pemanasan (perebusan dan penjemuran, serta penggaraman berpengaruh dalam proses oksidasi kolesterol pada udang dan cumi.

  14. Memahami Patofisiologi dan Aspek Klinis Syok Hipovolemik: Update dan Penyegar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardisman Hardisman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSecara patofisiologis syok merupakan gangguan hemodinamik yang menyebabkan tidak adekuatnya hantaran oksigen dan perfusi jaringan. Gangguan hemodinamik tersebut dapat berupa penurunan tahanan vaskuler sitemik terutama di arteri, berkurangnya darah balik, penurunan pengisian ventrikel dan sangat kecilnya curah jantung. Gangguan faktor-faktor tersebut disbabkan oleh bermacam-macam proses baik primer pada sistim kardiovaskuler, neurologis ataupun imunologis. Diantara berbagai penyebab syok tersebut, penurunan hebat volume plasma intravaskuler merupakan faktor penyebab utama. Terjadinya penurunan hebat volume intravaskuler dapat terjadi akibat perdarahan atau dehidrasi berat, sehingga menyebabkan yang balik ke jantung berkurang dan curah jantungpun menurun. Penurunan hebat curah jantung menyebabkan hantaran oksigen dan perfusi jaringan tidak optimal dan akhirnya menyebabkan syok. Pada tahap awal dengan perdarahan kurang dari 10%, gejala klinis dapat belum terlihat karena adanya mekanisme kompensasi sisitim kardiovaskuler dan saraf otonom. Baru pada kehilangan darah mulai 15% gejala dan tanda klinis mulai terlihat berupa peningkatan frekuensi nafas, jantung atau nadi (takikardi, pengisian nadi yang lemah, penurunan tekanan nadi, kulit pucat dan dingin, pengisian kapiler yang lambat dan produksi urin berkurang. Perubahan tekanan darah sistolik lebih lambat terjadi akibat adanya mekanisme kompensasi tadi, sehingga pemeriksaan klinis yang seksama harus dilakukan.Kata kunci: syok, hipovolemik dan patofisiologiAbstractShock is hemodynamic disorders, which causes inadequate oxygen delivery and perfusion. The hemodynamic disorders can be decreasing of systemic vascular resistant, venous return, ventricular filling and inadequate of cardiac output. The disorders are caused by cardiovascular dysfunction, neurologic or immunologic factors. Intravascular volume loss is one of the main factors, which is caused by severe dehydration or bleeding. These

  15. Sifilis Laten: Diagnosis dan Pengobatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmia Rowawi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak   Sifilis laten merupakan stadium sifilis yang diakibatkan oleh T. pallidum yang masih menetap dalam tubuh, namun tidak menunjukkan gejala dan hanya menunjukkan hasil pemeriksaan serologis yang reaktif. Sifilis laten yang tidak diterapi dapat menetap bertahun-tahun atau seumur hidup dan dapat meningkatkan risiko terinfeksi HIV. Ibu hamil dengan sifilis laten dini akan menyebabkan sekitar 40% bayi yang dilahirkankannya tertular, 20% prematur, 10% lahir mati, dan 4% meninggal pada waktu dilahirkan. Diagnosis sifilis laten dini ditegakkan bila dalam 12 bulan terakhir ditemukan satu atau lebih dari tanda-tanda berikut ini: peningkatan titer VDRL/RPR sebanyak empat kali atau lebih; pada anamnesis didapatkan gejala sifilis primer dan sekunder; riwayat kontak seksual dengan seseorang yang didiagnosis atau diduga menderita sifilis primer atau sifilis sekunder atau sifilis laten dini; serta kontak seksual dengan seseorang dengan tes VDRL atau RPR dan TPHA reaktif. Pengobatan yang direkomendasikan untuk sifilis laten dini adalah benzatin penisilin 2,4 juta UI, IM, dosis tunggal, sedangkan pada sifilis laten lanjut, benzatin penisilin 2,4 juta UI, IM, diberikan 3 kali dengan interval satu minggu. Pemeriksaan serologis sifilis non- treponemal (VDRL atau RPR dilakukan setelah pengobatan 3, 6, 12, dan 24 bulan untuk menilai keberhasilan pengobatan.   Kata kunci: Diagnosis, silifis laten, terapi

  16. Variability in responsiveness to lovastatin of the primitive CD34(+) AML subfraction compared to normal CD34(+) cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge-Peeters, Susan D. P. W. M.; van der Weide, Karen; Kuipers, Folkert; Sluiter, Wim J.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Vellenga, Edo

    In the present study, we questioned whether the cholesterol synthesis inhibitor lovastatin potentiates the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents in the primitive CD34(+) subpopulation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. AML mononuclear cells (n = 17) were sorted in CD34(+) and CD34(-) fractions

  17. Japan's Future Plans for Missions to Primitive Bodies: Hayabusa-2, Hayabusa-Mk2, and Marco Polo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, M.; Yano, H.; Kawaguchi, J.; Hayabusa-2 Pre-Project Team; Small Body Exploration Wg

    2008-03-01

    In Japan, we have studied about the future missions to primitive bodies in the solar system after Hayabusa mission. The new missions are called Hayabusa-2 and Hayabusa-Mk2. Hayabusa-Mk2 is now considered as Marco Polo with European researchers.

  18. Development of a reliable method for determining sex for a primitive rodent, the Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristine L. Pilgrim; William J. Zielinski; Fredrick V. Schlexer; Michael K. Schwartz

    2012-01-01

    The mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa) is a primitive species of rodent, often considered a living fossil. The Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra) is an endangered subspecies that occurs in a very restricted range in northern California. Efforts to recover this taxon have been limited by the lack of knowledge on their demography, particularly sex and age...

  19. Differential requirement for Gata1 DNA binding and transactivation between primitive and definitive stages of hematopoiesis in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belele, Christiane L.; English, Milton A.; Chahal, Jagman; Burnetti, Anthony; Finckbeiner, Steven M.; Gibney, Gretchen; Kirby, Martha; Sood, Raman

    2009-01-01

    The transcription factor Gata1 is required for the development of erythrocytes and megakaryocytes. Previous studies with a complementation rescue approach showed that the zinc finger domains are required for both primitive and definitive hematopoiesis. Here we report a novel zebrafish gata1 mutant with an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea–induced point mutation in the C-finger (gata1T301K). The Gata1 protein with this mutation bound to its DNA target sequence with reduced affinity and transactivated inefficiently in a reporter assay. gata1T301K/T301K fish had a decreased number of erythrocytes during primitive hematopoiesis but normal adult hematopoiesis. We crossed the gata1T301K/T301K fish with those carrying the R339X mutation, also known as vlad tepes (vlt), which abolishes DNA binding and transactivation activities. As we reported previously, gata1vlt/vlt embryos were “bloodless” and died approximately 11 to 15 days after fertilization. Interestingly, the gata1T301K/vlt fish had nearly a complete block of primitive hematopoiesis, but they resumed hematopoiesis between 7 and 14 days after fertilization and grew to phenotypically normal fish with normal adult hematopoiesis. Our findings suggest that the impact of Gata1 on hematopoiesis correlates with its DNA-binding ability and that primitive hematopoiesis is more sensitive to reduction in Gata1 function than definitive hematopoiesis. PMID:19843882

  20. Discovering motion primitives for unsupervised grouping and one-shot learning of human actions, gestures, and expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Saleemi, Imran; Shah, Mubarak

    2013-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel representation of articulated human actions and gestures and facial expressions. The main goals of the proposed approach are: 1) to enable recognition using very few examples, i.e., one or k-shot learning, and 2) meaningful organization of unlabeled datasets by unsupervised clustering. Our proposed representation is obtained by automatically discovering high-level subactions or motion primitives, by hierarchical clustering of observed optical flow in four-dimensional, spatial, and motion flow space. The completely unsupervised proposed method, in contrast to state-of-the-art representations like bag of video words, provides a meaningful representation conducive to visual interpretation and textual labeling. Each primitive action depicts an atomic subaction, like directional motion of limb or torso, and is represented by a mixture of four-dimensional Gaussian distributions. For one--shot and k-shot learning, the sequence of primitive labels discovered in a test video are labeled using KL divergence, and can then be represented as a string and matched against similar strings of training videos. The same sequence can also be collapsed into a histogram of primitives or be used to learn a Hidden Markov model to represent classes. We have performed extensive experiments on recognition by one and k-shot learning as well as unsupervised action clustering on six human actions and gesture datasets, a composite dataset, and a database of facial expressions. These experiments confirm the validity and discriminative nature of the proposed representation.