WorldWideScience

Sample records for vidicon scanning system

  1. Landsat 3 return beam vidicon response artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Clark, B.

    1981-01-01

    The return beam vidicon (RBV) sensing systems employed aboard Landsats 1, 2, and 3 have all been similar in that they have utilized vidicon tube cameras. These are not mirror-sweep scanning devices such as the multispectral scanner (MSS) sensors that have also been carried aboard the Landsat satellites. The vidicons operate more like common television cameras, using an electron gun to read images from a photoconductive faceplate.In the case of Landsats 1 and 2, the RBV system consisted of three such vidicons which collected remote sensing data in three distinct spectral bands. Landsat 3, however, utilizes just two vidicon cameras, both of which sense data in a single broad band. The Landsat 3 RBV system additionally has a unique configuration. As arranged, the two cameras can be shuttered alternately, twice each, in the same time it takes for one MSS scene to be acquired. This shuttering sequence results in four RBV "subscenes" for every MSS scene acquired, similar to the four quadrants of a square. See Figure 1. Each subscene represents a ground area of approximately 98 by 98 km. The subscenes are designated A, B, C, and D, for the northwest, northeast, southwest, and southeast quarters of the full scene, respectively. RBV data products are normally ordered, reproduced, and sold on a subscene basis and are in general referred to in this way. Each exposure from the RBV camera system presents an image which is 98 km on a side. When these analog video data are subsequently converted to digital form, the picture element, or pixel, that results is 19 m on a side with an effective resolution element of 30 m. This pixel size is substantially smaller than that obtainable in MSS images (the MSS has an effective resolution element of 73.4 m), and, when RBV images are compared to equivalent MSS images, better resolution in the RBV data is clearly evident. It is for this reason that the RBV system can be a valuable tool for remote sensing of earth resources.Until recently

  2. Pulse Characteristic Curves of Vidicons,

    Science.gov (United States)

    microamps, and in vidicons with heterotransition screens, up to 10 microamps. The use of static modulation characteristic curves of vidicons for the...determination of the pulse beam current can lead to an error > 100%. With the help of pulse-modulation characteristic curves, it is possible to obtain the

  3. Integrated micromachined scanning display systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelin, Paul M.; Krishnamoorthy, Uma; Conant, Robert A.; Muller, Richard S.; Lau, Kam Y.; Solgaard, Olav

    1999-07-01

    We describe a raster-scanning display system comprised of two tilt-up micromachined polysilicon mirrors that rotate about orthogonal axes. We have demonstrated a resolution of 102 X 119 pixels. The optical efficiency of our two- mirror micro-optical raster-scanning system is comparable to that of micromachined display systems developed by Texas Instruments and Silicon Light Machines. Ease of integration with on-chip light sources and lenses has the potential to reduce packaging size, complexity and cost of the display system and makes it well suited for head-mounted display applications.

  4. Formation of the color image based on the vidicon TV camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iureva, Radda A.; Maltseva, Nadezhda K.; Dunaev, Vadim I.

    2016-09-01

    The main goal of nuclear safety is to protect from accidents in nuclear power plant (NPP) against radiation arising during normal operation of nuclear installations, or as a result of accidents on them. The most important task in any activities aimed at the maintenance of NPP is a constant maintenance of the desired level of security and reliability. The periodic non-destructive testing during operation provides the most relevant criteria for the integrity of the components of the primary circuit pressure. The objective of this study is to develop a system for forming a color image on the television camera on vidicon which is used to conduct non-destructive testing in conditions of increased radiation at NPPs.

  5. Footwear scanning systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Justin L.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.

    2017-07-25

    Methods and apparatus for scanning articles, such as footwear, to provide information regarding the contents of the articles are described. According to one aspect, a footwear scanning system includes a platform configured to contact footwear to be scanned, an antenna array configured to transmit electromagnetic waves through the platform into the footwear and to receive electromagnetic waves from the footwear and the platform, a transceiver coupled with antennas of the antenna array and configured to apply electrical signals to at least one of the antennas to generate the transmitted electromagnetic waves and to receive electrical signals from at least another of the antennas corresponding to the electromagnetic waves received by the others of the antennas, and processing circuitry configured to process the received electrical signals from the transceiver to provide information regarding contents within the footwear.

  6. Obstacles to Industrial Implementation of Scanning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders Astrom; Olog Broman; John Graffman; Anders Gronlund; Armas Jappinene; Jari Luostarinen; Jan Nystrom; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1998-01-01

    Initially the group discussed what is meant by scanning systems. An operational definition was adopted to consider scanning system in the current context to be nontraditional scanning. Where, traditional scanning is defined as scanning that has been industrially operational and relatively common for several years-a mature technology. For example,...

  7. Landsat 1-2 Return Beam Vidicon Film Only: 1972-1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The three-camera Return Beam Vidicon (RBV) that operated on Landsat satellites 1 and 2 acquired approximately 1600 sub-scenes at 80 meter resolution. The initial RBV...

  8. Suspension system for gimbal supported scanning payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polites, Michael E.

    1995-03-01

    Gimballed scanning devices or instruments are the subject of this invention. Scanning is an important aspect of space science. To achieve a scan pattern some means must be provided which impart to the payload an oscillatory motion. Various forms of machines have been employed for controllably conferring on scanning instruments predetermined scan patterns. They include control moment gyroscopes, reaction wheels, torque motors, reaction control systems, and the like. But rotating unbalanced mass (RUM) devices are a new and efficient way to generate scans in gimballed payloads. RUM devices are superior to previous scanning apparatus, but they require power consuming and frequently complex auxiliary control systems to position and reposition the particular scan pattern relative to a target or a number of targets. Herein the control system is simplified. The most frequently employed method for achieving the various scan patterns is to gimbal the scanning device. Gimbals are suspended in such a way that they can be activated to generate the scan pattern. The suspension means described is for payloads supported in gimbals wherein the payload rotation is restricted by a flex pivot so that the payload oscillates, thereby moving in a scan pattern.

  9. Scanning tunneling microscope assembly, reactor, and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2014-11-18

    An embodiment of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) reactor includes a pressure vessel, an STM assembly, and three spring coupling objects. The pressure vessel includes a sealable port, an interior, and an exterior. An embodiment of an STM system includes a vacuum chamber, an STM reactor, and three springs. The three springs couple the STM reactor to the vacuum chamber and are operable to suspend the scanning tunneling microscope reactor within the interior of the vacuum chamber during operation of the STM reactor. An embodiment of an STM assembly includes a coarse displacement arrangement, a piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement, and a receiver. The piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube is coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement. The receiver is coupled to the piezoelectric scanning tube and is operable to receive a tip holder, and the tip holder is operable to receive a tip.

  10. Scan image compression-encryption hardware system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbakis, Nikolaos G.; Brause, R.; Alexopoulos, C.

    1995-04-01

    This paper deals with the hardware design of an image compression/encryption scheme called SCAN. The scheme is based on the principles and ideas reflected by the specification of the SCAN language. SCAN is a fractal based context-free language which accesses sequentially the data of a 2D array, by describing and generating a wide range (near (nxn)) of space filling curves (or SCAN patterns) from a short set of simple ones. The SCAN method uses the algorithmic description of each 2D image as SCAN patterns combinations for the compression and encryption of the image data. Note that each SCAN letter or word accesses the image data with a different order (or sequence), thus the application of a variety of SCAN words associated with the compression scheme will produce various compressed versions of the same image. The compressed versions are compared in memory size and the best of them with the smallest size in bits could be used for the image compression/encryption. Note that the encryption of the image data is a result of the great number of possible space filling curves which could be generated by SCAN. Since the software implementation of the SCAN compression/encryption scheme requires some time, the hardware design and implementation of the SCAN scheme is necessary in order to reduce the image compression/encryption time to the real-time one. The development of such an image compression encryption system will have a significant impact on the transmission and storage of images. It will be applicable in multimedia and transmission of images through communication lines.

  11. Laser scanning laser diode photoacoustic microscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanzadeh, Mohsen; Kumavor, Patrick D; Zhu, Quing

    2018-03-01

    The development of low-cost and fast photoacoustic microscopy systems enhances the clinical applicability of photoacoustic imaging systems. To this end, we present a laser scanning laser diode-based photoacoustic microscopy system. In this system, a 905 nm, 325 W maximum output peak power pulsed laser diode with 50 ns pulsewidth is utilized as the light source. A combination of aspheric and cylindrical lenses is used for collimation of the laser diode beam. Two galvanometer scanning mirrors steer the beam across a focusing aspheric lens. The lateral resolution of the system was measured to be ∼21 μm using edge spread function estimation. No averaging was performed during data acquisition. The imaging speed is ∼370 A-lines per second. Photoacoustic microscopy images of human hairs, ex vivo mouse ear, and ex vivo porcine ovary are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and potentials of the proposed system.

  12. Lumber Scanning System for Surface Defect Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Y. Jason Hou; Richard W. Conners; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes research aimed at developing a machine vision technology to drive automated processes in the hardwood forest products manufacturing industry. An industrial-scale machine vision system has been designed to scan variable-size hardwood lumber for detecting important features that influence the grade and value of lumber such as knots, holes, wane,...

  13. Cornea Optical Topographical Scan System (COTSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The Cornea Optical Topographical Scan System (COTSS) is an instrument designed for use by opthalmologist to aid in performing surgical procedures such as radial keratotomy and to provide quick accurate data to aid in prescribing contact lenses and eyeglasses. A breadboard of the system was built and demonstrated in June of 1984. Additional refinements to the breadboard are needed to meet systems requirements prior to proceeding with prototype development. The present status of the COTSS instrument is given and the areas in which system refinements are required, are defined.

  14. Influence of scanning strategies on the accuracy of digital intraoral scanning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ender, A; Mehl, A

    2013-01-01

    The digital intraoral impression is a central part in today's CAD/CAM dentistry. With its possibilities, new treatment options for the patient is provided and the prosthetic workflow is accelerated. Nowadays, the major issue with intraoral scanning systems is to gain more accuracy especially for larger scan areas and to simplify clinical handling for the dentist. The aim of this study was to investigate different scanning strategies regardingtheir accuracy with full arch scans in an in-vitro study design. A reference master model was used for the digital impressions with the Lava COS, the Cerec Bluecam and a powderfree intraoral scanning system, Cadent iTero. The trueness and precision of each scanning protocol was measured. Lava COS provides the a trueness of 45.8 microm with the scanning protocol recommended from the manufacturer. A different scanning protocol shows significantly lower accuracy (trueness +/- 90.2 microm). Cerec Bluecam also benefits from an optimal scanning protocol with a trueness of +/- 23.3 microm compared to +/- 52.5 microm with a standard protocol. The powderfree impression system Cadent iTero shows also a high accurate full-arch scan with a trueness of +/- 35.0 microm and a precision of +/- 30.9 microm. With the current intraoral scanning systems, full arch dental impressions are possible with a high accuracy, if adequate scan strategies are used. The powderfree scanning system provides the same level of accuracy compared to scanning systems with surface pretreatment.

  15. Designs for Environmental Scanning Systems: Tests of a Contingency Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Yasai-Ardekani; Paul C. Nystrom

    1996-01-01

    This study compared the relationships between organizational context and the designs of environmental scanning systems for organizational with effective and ineffective scanning systems. The study analyzed data from over 100 North American business organizations. Results indicate that organizations with effective scanning systems tend to align their scanning designs with the requirements of their context. On the other hand, the results show that organizations with ineffective scanning systems...

  16. Development of an automatic pipeline scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Moon, Soon S.; Eom, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R

    1999-11-01

    Pressure pipe inspection in nuclear power plants is one of the mandatory regulation items. Comparing to manual ultrasonic inspection, automatic inspection has the benefits of more accurate and reliable inspection results and reduction of radiation disposal. final object of this project is to develop an automatic pipeline inspection system of pressure pipe welds in nuclear power plants. We developed a pipeline scanning robot with four magnetic wheels and 2-axis manipulator for controlling ultrasonic transducers, and developed the robot control computer which controls the robot to navigate along inspection path exactly. We expect our system can contribute to reduction of inspection time, performance enhancement, and effective management of inspection results. The system developed by this project can be practically used for inspection works after field tests. (author)

  17. Spatial-spectral analysis of a laser scanning video system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapustin, A. A.; Razumovskii, V. N.; Iatsevich, G. B.

    1980-06-01

    A spatial-spectral analysis method is considered for a laser scanning video system with the phase processing of a received signal, on a modulation frequency. Distortions caused by the system are analyzed, and a general problem is reduced for the case of a cylindrical surface. The approach suggested can also be used for scanning microwave systems.

  18. System and method for compressive scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Bryan W

    2015-01-13

    A scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) system is disclosed. The system may make use of an electron beam scanning system configured to generate a plurality of electron beam scans over substantially an entire sample, with each scan varying in electron-illumination intensity over a course of the scan. A signal acquisition system may be used for obtaining at least one of an image, a diffraction pattern, or a spectrum from the scans, the image, diffraction pattern, or spectrum representing only information from at least one of a select subplurality or linear combination of all pixel locations comprising the image. A dataset may be produced from the information. A subsystem may be used for mathematically analyzing the dataset to predict actual information that would have been produced by each pixel location of the image.

  19. Safe Active Scanning for Energy Delivery Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Salazar, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Scheibel, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Engels, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reiger, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Department of Energy’s Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems Program has funded Safe(r) Active Scanning for Energy Delivery Systems, led by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, to investigate and analyze the impacts of active scanning in the operational environment of energy delivery systems. In collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Idaho National Laboratory, active scans across three testbeds including 38 devices were performed. This report gives a summary of the initial literature survey performed on the SASEDS project as well as industry partner interview summaries and main findings from Phase 1 of the project. Additionally, the report goes into the details of scanning techniques, methodologies for testing, testbed descriptions, and scanning results, with appendices to elaborate on the specific scans that were performed. As a result of testing, a single device out of 38 exhibited problems when actively scanned, and a reboot was required to fix it. This single failure indicates that active scanning is not likely to have a detrimental effect on the safety and resilience of energy delivery systems. We provide a path forward for future research that could enable wide adoption of active scanning and lead utilities to incorporate active scanning as part of their default network security plans to discover and rectify rogue devices, adversaries, and services that may be on the network. This increased network visibility will allow operational technology cybersecurity practitioners to improve their situational awareness of networks and their vulnerabilities.

  20. Circular zig-zag scan video format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C. Glen; Simmons, Charles M.

    1992-01-01

    A circular, ziz-zag scan for use with vidicon tubes. A sine wave is generated, rectified and its fourth root extracted. The fourth root, and its inverse, are used to generate horizontal ramp and sync signals. The fourth root is also used to generate a vertical sync signal, and the vertical sync signal, along with the horizontal sync signal, are used to generate the vertical ramp signal. Cathode blanking and preamplifier clamp signals are also obtained from the vertical sync signal.

  1. One-dimensional scatter grid for the SenoScan slot-scanning digital mammography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbakri, Idris A.; shen, Sam; Bloomquist, Aili; Tesic, Mike M.; Mawdsley, Gordon; Yaffe, Martin

    2005-04-01

    The SenoScan full-field digital mammography scanner uses a scanning slot detector that is 10 mm wide and 220 mm long. The X-ray beam is collimated to just outside the area of the detector. One important advantage of slot scanning is its inherent scatter rejection. As previously reported, the SenoScan slot scatter rejection is better than that obtained using a 3.5:1 mammography grid, and somewhat worse than that with a 5:1 grid. Additional scatter reduction can potentially improve the contrast in images of thick breasts. We evaluate a custom-designed grid for the slot scanning system. The grid is one-dimensional, offering scatter rejection along the longitudinal axis of the detector. We evaluate the reduction in scatter fraction, grid absorption and changes in the signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR). Based on phantom studies, our results show effective scatter reduction by the grid with minimal reduction of SDNR. Grid absorption and scatter elimination do not necessarily lead to an increase in patient dose, especially if there is a improvement in the number of digital values in the image that are within the useful dynamic range of the detector. A benefit of removing the scatter contribution is an improvement in system dynamic range, because electronic detector gain adjustments can compensate for the drop in the digital pixel values.

  2. Scanning Systems for Searching Double Strangeness Nuclei in Nuclear Emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Junya; Ito, Hiroki; Kinbara, Shinji; Kobayashi, Hidetaka; Nakashima, Daisuke; Nakazawa, Kazuma; Kyaw Soe, Myint; Moh Moh Theint, Aye; Than Tint, Khin

    Scanning systems for detecting double Lambda hypernucler events in nuclear emulsion plates with high statistics are presented. The systems are complexes of optical microscopes and computers to provide fast emulsion scanning and image recognition for vertex-like objects. We recently introduced a two-stage process of vertex detection to exclude misdetected objects. The method can be expected to reduce conventional eye-check works and increase search speed for double Lambda hypernuclear event.

  3. A Multicounter System for Scanning Ultra-Low-Level Radiochromatograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Theodorsson, P.

    1977-01-01

    A multicounter system consisting of an integrated array of flow counters for the scanning of ultra-low-level radioactivity on paper and thin-layer chromatograms was developed. Experience with routine measurements over a prolonged period has proved the advantages of this system over other systems,......, such as liquid scintillation counting. A description of the flow counter system is given together with an outline of an electronic data acquisition system, and results are presented to demonstrate its features....

  4. Optics designs and system MTF for laser scanning displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urey, Hakan; Nestorovic, Ned; Ng, Baldwin S.; Gross, Abraham A.

    1999-07-01

    The Virtual Retinal DisplayTM (VRDTM) technology is a new display technology being developed at Microvision Inc. The displayed image is scanned onto the viewer's retina using low- power red, green, and blue light sources. Microvision's proprietary miniaturized scanner designs make VRD system very well suited for head-mounted displays. In this paper we discuss some of the advantages of the VRD technology, various ocular designs for HMD and other applications, and details of constructing a system MTF budget for laser scanning systems that includes electronics, modulators, scanners, and optics.

  5. [Moving Mirror Scanning System Based on the Flexible Hinge Support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fei; Feng, Fei; Wang, Fu-bei; Wu, Qiong-shui; Zeng, Li-bo

    2015-08-01

    In order to improve moving mirror drive of Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, we design a dynamic scanning system based on flexible hinge support. Using the flexible hinge support way and the voice coil motor drive mode. Specifically, Using right Angle with high accuracy high stability type flexible hinge support mechanism support moving mirror, dynamic mirror can be moved forward and backward driven by voice coil motor reciprocating motion, DSP control system to control the moving mirror at a constant speed. The experimental results show that the designed of moving mirror scanning system has advantages of stability direction, speed stability, superior seismic performance.

  6. A surface refractive index scanning system and method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The invention relates to a surface refractive index scanning system for characterization of a sample. The system comprises a grating device for holding or receiving the sample, the device comprising at least a first grating region having a first grating width along a transverse direction...

  7. Design features of the Fragment multispectral scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatenko, S. A.; Rozhavskii, E. I.

    Data are presented concerning the design and operation of the Meteor-Priroda Fragment multispectral scanning system. Attention is given to the main principles underlying the design of this system and to the structure of various components and devices which are necessary to satisfy the high performance requirements. Diagrams of the optical system of the internal calibration light source and of the photomultiplier detector are presented.

  8. Closed circuit TV system monitors welding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, M.

    1967-01-01

    TV camera system that has a special vidicon tube with a gradient density filter is used in remote monitoring of TIG welding of stainless steel. The welding operations involve complex assembly welding tools and skates in areas of limited accessibility.

  9. 3D - RECURSIVELY SCANS IMAGING SYSTEM WITH COMPUTER MATHEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Lazurchak

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the algorithm for constructing the N-dimensional recursive Peano scans. Driven by their two-dimensional and three-dimensional realization of a system of computer mathematics Mathematica 7.0. We are discussing the issue of reduction of the multidimensional space to one-dimensional in the calculation of multiple integrals.

  10. The measuring video section of the Fragment multispectral scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazkov, V. D.; Goretov, Iu. M.; Rozhavskii, E. I.; Shcherbakov, V. V.

    The self-correcting video section of the satellite-borne Fragment multispectral scanning system is described. This section scheme makes possible a sufficiently efficient equalization of the transformation coefficients of all the measuring sections in the presence of a reference-radiation source and a single reference time interval for all the sections.

  11. A Robotic System to Scan and Reproduce Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Rossi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An application of a robotic system integrated with a vision system is presented. The robot is a 3-axis revolute prototype, while the vision system essentially consists in a laser scanner made up of a camera and a linear laser projector. Both the robotic and the video system were designed and built at DIME (Department of Mechanical Engineering for Energetics, University of Naples Federico II. The presented application essentially consists of a laser scanner that is installed on the robot arm; the scanner scans a 3D surface, and the data are converted in a cloud of points in the robot’s workspace. Then, starting from those points, the end-effector trajectories adopted to replicate the scanned surface are calculated; so, the same robot, by using a tool, can reproduce the scanned object. The software was developed also at the DIME. The adopted tool was a high-speed drill, installed on the last link of the robot arm, with a spherical milling cutter in order to obtain enough accurate surfaces by the data represented by the cloud of points. An algorithm to interpolate the paths and to plan the trajectories was also developed and successfully tested.

  12. Wireless Authentication System for Barcode Scanning Using Infrared Communication Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Raheel, Muhammad Salman; Asfi, Muhammad Raza; Farooq-I-Azam, Muhammad; Shaukat, H. R.; Shafqat, Jaweria

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the verified methodology for wireless authentication system using infrared barcode based scanner. An alternate approach of scanning a barcode using an infrared communication is implemented here, comprises of a card on which a barcode is printed is illuminated with an infrared beam. The reflections from the card are received by an infrared receiver and transmit them to a remote machine over wireless channel where the retrieve information is further processed and converted i...

  13. Power Measurements for Microvision, Inc., Aircrew Integrated Helmet System Scanning Laser Helmet-Mounted Display

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rash, Clarence

    2002-01-01

    ...) technology based on scanning lasers. Under this program, Microvision, Inc., Bothell, Washington, has developed a scanning laser HMD prototype for use with the Aircrew Integrated Helmet System (AIHS...

  14. LAND-BASED MOBILE LASER SCANNING SYSTEMS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Puente

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile mapping has been using various photogrammetric techniques for many years. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of mobile mapping systems using laser scanners available in the market, partially because of the improvement in GNSS/INS performance for direct georeferencing. In this article, some of the most important land-based mobile laser scanning (MLS systems are reviewed. Firstly, the main characteristics of MLS systems vs. airborne (ALS and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS systems are compared. Secondly, a short overview of the mobile mapping technology is also provided so that the reader can fully grasp the complexity and operation of these devices. As we put forward in this paper, a comparison of different systems is briefly carried out regarding specifications provided by the manufacturers. Focuses on the current research are also addressed with emphasis on the practical applications of these systems. Most of them have been utilized for data collection on road infrastructures or building façades. This article shows that MLS technology is nowadays well established and proven, since the demand has grown to the point that there are several systems suppliers offering their products to satisfy this particular market.

  15. Line-scan system for continuous hand authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Kong, Lingsheng; Diao, Zhihui; Jia, Ping

    2017-03-01

    An increasing number of heavy machinery and vehicles have come into service, giving rise to a significant concern over protecting these high-security systems from misuse. Conventionally, authentication performed merely at the initial login may not be sufficient for detecting intruders throughout the operating session. To address this critical security flaw, a line-scan continuous hand authentication system with the appearance of an operating rod is proposed. Given that the operating rod is occupied throughout the operating period, it can be a possible solution for unobtrusively recording the personal characteristics for continuous monitoring. The ergonomics in the physiological and psychological aspects are fully considered. Under the shape constraints, a highly integrated line-scan sensor, a controller unit, and a gear motor with encoder are utilized. This system is suitable for both the desktop and embedded platforms with a universal serial bus interface. The volume of the proposed system is smaller than 15% of current multispectral area-based camera systems. Based on experiments on a database with 4000 images from 200 volunteers, a competitive equal error rate of 0.1179% is achieved, which is far more accurate than the state-of-the-art continuous authentication systems using other modalities.

  16. Scanning array radar system for bridge subsurface imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chieh-Ping; Ren, Yu-Jiun; Yu, Tzu Yang

    2012-04-01

    Early damage detection of bridge has been an important issue for modern civil engineering technique. Existing bridge inspection techniques used by State Department of Transportation (DOT) and County DOT include visual inspection, mechanical sounding, rebound hammer, cover meter, electrical potential measurements, and ultrasonics; other NDE techniques include ground penetrating radar (GPR), radiography, and some experimental types of sensors. Radar technology like GPR has been widely used for the bridge structure detection with a good penetration depth using microwave energy. The system to be presented in this paper is a different type of microwave sensing technology. It is focus on the subsurface detection and trying to find out detail information at subsurface (10 cm) with high resolution radar imaging from a flexible standoff distance. Our radar operating frequency is from 8-12 GHz, which is different from most of the current GPR systems. Scanning array antenna system is designed for adjustable beamwidth, preferable scanning area, and low sidelobe level. From the theoretical analysis and experimental results, it is found that the proposed technique can successfully capture the presence of the near-surface anomaly. This system is part of our Multi- Modal Remote Sensing System (MRSS) and provides good imaging correlations with other MRSS sensors.

  17. Super-resolution for scanning light stimulation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitzer, L. A.; Neumann, K.; Benson, N., E-mail: niels.benson@uni-due.de; Schmechel, R. [Faculty of Engineering, NST and CENIDE, University of Duisburg-Essen, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    Super-resolution (SR) is a technique used in digital image processing to overcome the resolution limitation of imaging systems. In this process, a single high resolution image is reconstructed from multiple low resolution images. SR is commonly used for CCD and CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) sensor images, as well as for medical applications, e.g., magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we demonstrate that super-resolution can be applied with scanning light stimulation (LS) systems, which are common to obtain space-resolved electro-optical parameters of a sample. For our purposes, the Projection Onto Convex Sets (POCS) was chosen and modified to suit the needs of LS systems. To demonstrate the SR adaption, an Optical Beam Induced Current (OBIC) LS system was used. The POCS algorithm was optimized by means of OBIC short circuit current measurements on a multicrystalline solar cell, resulting in a mean square error reduction of up to 61% and improved image quality.

  18. Circular zig-zag scan video format

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, C.G.; Simmons, C.M.

    1992-06-09

    A circular, ziz-zag scan for use with vidicon tubes is disclosed. A sine wave is generated, rectified and its fourth root extracted. The fourth root, and its inverse, are used to generate horizontal ramp and sync signals. The fourth root is also used to generate a vertical sync signal, and the vertical sync signal, along with the horizontal sync signal, are used to generate the vertical ramp signal. Cathode blanking and preamplifier clamp signals are also obtained from the vertical sync signal. 10 figs.

  19. Circular zig-zag scan video format

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, C.G.; Simmons, C.M.

    1991-03-21

    This invention is comprised of a circular, zig-zag scan for use with vidicon tubes. A sine wave is generated, rectified and its fourth root extracted. The fourth root, and its inverse, are used to generate horizontal ramp and sync signals. The fourth root is also used to generate a vertical sync signal, and the vertical sync signal, along with the horizontal sync signal, are used to generate the vertical ramp signal. Cathode blanking and preamplifier clamp signals are also obtained from the vertical sync signal.

  20. MEMS ultrasonic probe rotary scanning imaging system for medical endoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Wen, Shijie; Yu, Daoyin

    2006-11-01

    Medical ultrasonic endoscope is the combination of electronic endoscope and ultrasonic sensor technology. Ultrasonic endoscope sends the ultrasonic probe into coelom through the biopsy channel of an electronic endoscope and rotates it by a micro motor, acquiring fault histology features of digestive organs. Compared with external ultrasonic detection, the system reduces the distance between the transducer and the organ, diminishing the effects on imaging of fats and body cavity gas. On the basis of ultrasonic imaging system, this paper implements a pulse echo imaging system. We describe the ultrasonic probe, emission circuit, receiving circuit and protective circuit in detail. With the demodulation circuit, we get the amplitude of echo which indicates the objects. And to achieve the rotary scan, we design a synchronous control circuit and a data transfer circuit basing on the USB2.0 interface. Finally we get a grey image with 256 grey levels after coordinate conversion.

  1. MONTE CARLO SIMULATION OF MULTIFOCAL STOCHASTIC SCANNING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIXIN LIU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multifocal multiphoton microscopy (MMM has greatly improved the utilization of excitation light and imaging speed due to parallel multiphoton excitation of the samples and simultaneous detection of the signals, which allows it to perform three-dimensional fast fluorescence imaging. Stochastic scanning can provide continuous, uniform and high-speed excitation of the sample, which makes it a suitable scanning scheme for MMM. In this paper, the graphical programming language — LabVIEW is used to achieve stochastic scanning of the two-dimensional galvo scanners by using white noise signals to control the x and y mirrors independently. Moreover, the stochastic scanning process is simulated by using Monte Carlo method. Our results show that MMM can avoid oversampling or subsampling in the scanning area and meet the requirements of uniform sampling by stochastically scanning the individual units of the N × N foci array. Therefore, continuous and uniform scanning in the whole field of view is implemented.

  2. The Emulsion Scanning System of the OPERA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Juget, F

    2010-01-01

    The OPERA experiment has for goal the direct detection of !μ ! !! oscilla- tion, using an hybrid apparatus composed of electronic detectors and nuclear photographic emulsions. A charged particle crossing an emulsion layer ion- izes the medium along its path leaving a latent image which leads, after de- velopment, to a sequence of aligned grains. Nuclear emulsions are analyzed by means of optical microscopes to reconstruct the 3D particle tracks. The OPERA collaboration has developed a dedicated system to scan a large num- ber of emulsions (surface of about 1000 m2). The achieved resolution is "1 μm and "1 mrad allowing to observe directly the short-lived " particles pro- duced in !!CC interactions.

  3. A Mobile Automated Tomographic Gamma Scanning System - 13231

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, J.M.; LeBlanc, P.J.; Nakazawa, D.; Petroka, D.L.; Kane Smith, S.; Venkataraman, R.; Villani, M. [Canberra Industries, Inc. 800 Research Parkway, Meriden CT 06450 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Canberra Industries have recently designed and built a new automated Tomographic Gamma Scanning (TGS) system for mobile deployment. The TGS technique combines high-resolution gamma spectroscopy with low spatial resolution 3-dimensional image reconstruction to provide increased accuracy over traditional approaches for the assay of non-uniform source distributions in low-to medium-density, non-heterogeneous matrices. Originally pioneered by R. Estep at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the TGS method has been further developed and commercialized by Canberra Industries in recent years. The present system advances the state of the art on several fronts: it is designed to be housed in a standard cargo transport container for ease of transport, allowing waste characterization at multiple facilities under the purview of a single operator. Conveyor feed, drum rotator, and detector and collimator positioning mechanisms operated by programmable logic control (PLC) allow automated batch mode operation. The variable geometry settings can accommodate a wide range of waste packaging, including but not limited to standard 220 liter drums, 380 liter overpack drums, and smaller 20 liter cans. A 20 mCi Eu-152 transmission source provides attenuation corrections for drum matrices up to 1 g/cm{sup 3} in TGS mode; the system can be operated in Segmented Gamma Scanning (SGS) mode to measure higher density drums. To support TGS assays at higher densities, the source shield is sufficient to house an alternate Co-60 transmission source of higher activity, up to 250 mCi. An automated shutter and attenuator assembly is provided for operating the system with a dual intensity transmission source. The system's 1500 kg capacity rotator turntable can handle heavy containers such as concrete lined 380 liter overpack drums. Finally, data acquisition utilizes Canberra's Broad Energy Germanium (BEGE) detector and Lynx MCA, with 32 k channels, providing better than 0.1 ke

  4. Research on calibration algorithm in laser scanning projection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li Juan; Qu, Song; Hou, Mao Sheng

    2017-10-01

    Laser scanning projection technology can project the image defined by the existing CAD digital model to the working surface, in the form of a laser harness profile. This projection is in accordance with the ratio of 1: 1. Through the laser harness contours with high positioning quality, the technical staff can carry out the operation with high precision. In a typical process of the projection, in order to determine the relative positional relationship between the laser projection instrument and the target, it is necessary to place several fixed reference points on the projection target and perform the calibration of projection. This position relationship is the transformation from projection coordinate system to the global coordinate system. The entire projection work is divided into two steps: the first step, the calculation of the projector six position parameters is performed, that is, the projector calibration. In the second step, the deflection angle is calculated by the known projector position parameter and the known coordinate points, and then the actual model is projected. Typically, the calibration requires the establishment of six reference points to reduce the possibility of divergence of the nonlinear equations, but the whole solution is very complex and the solution may still diverge. In this paper, the distance is detected combined with the calculation so that the position parameters of the projector can be solved by using the coordinate values of three reference points and the distance of at least one reference point to the projector. The addition of the distance measurement increases the stability of the solution of the nonlinear system and avoids the problem of divergence of the solution caused by the reference point which is directly under the projector. Through the actual analysis and calculation, the Taylor expansion method combined with the least squares method is used to obtain the solution of the system. Finally, the simulation experiment is

  5. A novel scanning system using an industrial robot and the workspace measurement and positioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ziyue; Zhu, Jigui; Yang, Linghui; Lin, Jiarui

    2015-10-01

    The present scanning system consists of an industrial robot and a line-structured laser sensor which uses the industrial robot as a position instrument to guarantee the accuracy. However, the absolute accuracy of an industrial robot is relatively poor compared with the good repeatability in the manufacturing industry. This paper proposes a novel method using the workspace measurement and positioning system (wMPS) to remedy the lack of accuracy of the industrial robot. In order to guarantee the positioning accuracy of the system, the wMPS which is a laser-based measurement technology designed for large-volume metrology applications is brought in. Benefitting from the wMPS, this system can measure different cell-areas by the line-structured laser sensor and fuse the measurement data of different cell-areas by using the wMPS accurately. The system calibration which is the procedure to acquire and optimize the structure parameters of the scanning system is also stated in detail in this paper. In order to verify the feasibility of the system for scanning the large free-form surface, an experiment is designed to scan the internal surface of the door of a car-body in white. The final results show that the measurement data of the whole measuring areas have been jointed perfectly and there is no mismatch in the figure especially in the hole measuring areas. This experiment has verified the rationality of the system scheme, the correctness and effectiveness of the relevant methods.

  6. A flexible 3D laser scanning system using a robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Zixuan; Zhou, Xiang; Gao, Xiaofei; Zhang, Guanliang

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we present a flexible 3D scanning system based on a MEMS scanner mounted on an industrial arm with a turntable. This system has 7-degrees of freedom and is able to conduct a full field scan from any angle, suitable for scanning object with the complex shape. The existing non-contact 3D scanning system usually uses laser scanner that projects fixed stripe mounted on the Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) or industrial robot. These existing systems can't perform path planning without CAD models. The 3D scanning system presented in this paper can scan the object without CAD models, and we introduced this path planning method in the paper. We also propose a practical approach to calibrating the hand-in-eye system based on binocular stereo vision and analyzes the errors of the hand-eye calibration.

  7. A 3-d laser scanning system and scan data processing method for the monitoring of tunnel deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmelina, Klaus; Jansa, Josef; Hesina, Gerd; Traxler, Christoph

    2012-11-01

    The paper presents the mobile multi-sensor system Orthos Plus for the monitoring and mapping of tunnel walls, a scan data processing method for the evaluation of 3-d tunnel wall displacements from subsequent wall scans and, finally, a virtual reality tool supporting the interpretation of data. The measuring system consists of a 3-d laser scanner, a motorised total station and a digital camera that are integrated on a light metal frame that is installed on a mobile platform. It has been designed to perform tunnel measurements most efficiently and to meet the special requirements of tunnels under construction. The evaluation of 3-d displacements is based on a 3-d matching algorithm that takes advantage of the particular conditions of tunnel (shotcrete) surfaces. The virtual reality tool allows viewing of data in a 3-d virtual reality tunnel model and their animation in time and space in order supports understanding in an optimal way. The measuring system Orthos Plus has been developed in the course of a national research project, the 3-d matching method in the frame of the Austrian Christian Doppler Laboratory Spatial Data from Laser Scanning and Remote Sensing and the VR tool in the Austrian COMET K1 Competence Center VRVis Center (www.vrvis.at).

  8. Multimegabit Operation Multiplexer System. [PCM telemetry unit for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, R. R.; Maxwell, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    The Multimegabit Operation Multiplexer System (MOMS) is a high-data-rate PCM telemetry unit capable of sampling and encoding 60 scanning radiometer and four vidicon channels at 250 kilosamples/second and 5 megasamples/second, respectively. This sampling capacity plus the seven-bit quantization requires a total throughput rate of 40 megasamples/second and 280 megabits/second. To produce these rates efficiently, the system was divided into a pair of identical 140-megabit blocks. A low-power 20-MHz analog multiplexer and analog-to-digital converter were developed together with a video sample-and-hold that features an aperture time error of less than 50 psec. Breadboard testing of these basic building blocks confirmed the design prediction that the total system would consume 27 watts of power. Two 140-megabit output parts are suitable for quadriphase modulation.

  9. Scanning Long-wave Optical Test System: a new ground optical surface slope test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tianquan; Park, Won Hyun; Parks, Robert E.; Su, Peng; Burge, James H.

    2011-09-01

    The scanning long-wave optical test system (SLOTS) is under development at the University of Arizona to provide rapid and accurate measurements of aspherical optical surfaces during the grinding stage. It is based on the success of the software configurable optical test system (SCOTS) which uses visible light to measure surface slopes. Working at long wave infrared (LWIR, 7-14 μm), SLOTS measures ground optical surface slopes by viewing the specular reflection of a scanning hot wire. A thermal imaging camera collects data while motorized stages scan the wire through the field. Current experiments show that the system can achieve a high precision at micro-radian level with fairly low cost equipment. The measured surface map is comparable with interferometer for slow optics. This IR system could be applied early in the grinding stage of fabrication of large telescope mirrors to minimize the surface shape error imparted during processing. This advantage combined with the simplicity of the optical system (no null optics, no high power carbon dioxide laser) would improve the efficiency and shorten the processing time.

  10. Adaptive noise Wiener filter for scanning electron microscope imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, K S; Teh, V; Nia, M E

    2016-01-01

    Noise on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images is studied. Gaussian noise is the most common type of noise in SEM image. We developed a new noise reduction filter based on the Wiener filter. We compared the performance of this new filter namely adaptive noise Wiener (ANW) filter, with four common existing filters as well as average filter, median filter, Gaussian smoothing filter and the Wiener filter. Based on the experiments results the proposed new filter has better performance on different noise variance comparing to the other existing noise removal filters in the experiments. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Singapore Cancer Network (SCAN) Guidelines for Systemic Therapy of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The SCAN colorectal cancer systemic therapy workgroup aimed to develop Singapore Cancer Network (SCAN) clinical practice guidelines for systemic therapy for colorectal cancer in Singapore. The workgroup utilised a modified ADAPTE process to calibrate high quality international evidence-based clinical practice guidelines to our local setting. Five international guidelines were evaluated-those developed by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network for colon (2014) and rectal (2014) cancer, the European Society of Medical Oncology for advanced (2012) and early (2013) cancer and the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (2011). Recommendations on systemic therapy in colorectal cancer were produced. These adapted guidelines form the SCAN Guidelines 2015 for systemic therapy of colorectal cancer.

  12. CAD-based intelligent robot system integrated with 3D scanning for shoe roughing and cementing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng-Chang Chiu; Wen-Teng Wang; Wan-Shan Yin

    2017-01-01

    ...-in program, integrated with real-time 3D scanning information to compensate the planned route, and then converted to working trajectory of robot arm to implement roughing and cementing. The proposed 3D CAD-based intelligent robot arm system integrated with 3D scanning for shoe roughing and cementing is realized and proved to be feasible.

  13. Phantom verification for a ring-scanning and prone diffuse optical imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jhao-Ming; Pan, Min-Chun; Chen, Liang-Yu; Pan, Min-Cheng; Hsu, Ya-Fen

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we proposed and implemented a ring-scanning mechanism in the prone position for application in breast tumour detection. The current scanning module using two zones with three light sources in each zone enables the acquisition of 36 source and 30 detection data (36S × 30D) items during the optical information collection phase. This study employed only three photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), instead of 30 PMTs used in a fixed model. In particular, the circular scanning of source-and-detection module actually behaves as more channels and can acquire more optoelectrical data as the scanning module operates in a fractional motion of a single channel-to-channel span. In this study, the optoelectrical measurement system was first calibrated; then, the feasibility of optical-coefficient image reconstruction was verified using several heterogeneous cylindrical phantoms. The reconstructed μa and μs ‧ images through multilayer scanning presented good outcomes, implying that the developed system is promising for 3D scanning of breasts. In a quantitative analysis, the contrast-to-noise ratios of the μa and μs ‧ images (6.00 and 4.97, respectively) for the flexible scanning scheme were superior to those derived for the fixed scheme (5.05 and 4.31, respectively). This indicates that the higher amount of detection information obtained through the proposed scanning module can enhance the spatial resolution of the reconstructed images while retaining an acceptable scanning time.

  14. An Automated Medical Information Management System (OpScan-MIMS) in a Clinical Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, S.; Baker, T.G.; Ritchey, M.G.; Alterescu, S.; Friedman, C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes an automated medical information management system within a clinic setting. The system includes an optically scanned data entry system (OpScan), a generalized, interactive retrieval and storage software system(Medical Information Management System, MIMS) and the use of time-sharing. The system has the advantages of minimal hardware purchase and maintenance, rapid data entry and retrieval, user-created programs, no need for user knowledge of computer language or technology and is cost effective. The OpScan-MIMS system has been operational for approximately 16 months in a sexually transmitted disease clinic. The system's application to medical audit, quality assurance, clinic management and clinical training are demonstrated.

  15. Imaging systems in the Delft Multi-Beam Scanning Electron Microscope 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this Ph.D. research is to develop imaging systems for the multiple beam scanning electron microscope (MBSEM) built in Delft University of Technology. This thesis includes two imaging systems, transmission electron (TE) imaging system, and secondary electron (SE) imaging system. The major

  16. Catenary System Detection, Localization and Classification Using Mobile Scanning Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Pastucha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for detecting, locating and classifying overhead contact systems (catenary systems in point clouds collected by mobile mapping systems (MMS on rail roads. Contrary to many other application types, railway embankments are highly regulated and standardized. Railway infrastructure geometric relations remain roughly unchanged within established regions and have similarities between them. The newly-developed method exploits both these characteristics, as well as the survey process. There are several steps in this approach. Firstly, it restricts the search for catenaries relative to the distance to registered MMS trajectory, then finds possible support structures according to the density of points above the track. Subsequently, the method verifies the structures’ presence and classifies the points with the use of the RANSAC algorithm. It establishes the presence of cantilevers, as well as poles or structural beams, depending on the type of detected support structure. The method also determines the coordinates of the identified object on the ground. Finally, a classification is clarified with the use of a modified DBSCAN algorithm. The design method has been verified with data collected in four surveys where the cumulative length of the route was almost 90 km. Over 97% of support structures were correctly detected, and out of these, over 95% were completely classified.

  17. Scoring system for CT scan findings of ovarian cystic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Kaoru

    1987-09-01

    It is important to preoperatively establish a diagnosis of a gynecologic pelvic mass. A group of 137 female patients with suspected pelvic cystic lesions were studied by computerized tomography (CT). Histologically, 22 patients were proved to have ovarian cystadenocarcinoma and 115 patients a benign cystic mass, i.e. cystadenoma, lutein cyst, endometrial cyst, retentional cyst and paraovarian cyst. A scoring system was made to obtain higher accuracy in CT evaluation of ovarian cystic lesions. It includes seven factors, (1) volume, (2) solid component protruding from the wall, (3) thickness of the wall, (4) focal thickening of the wall, (5) loculation, (6) attenuation number of the tumor and (7) nonhomogenousess of the tumor. Using this scoring system, a correct differential diagnosis was made in all cases except 7, 4 uterine fibroids with remarkable degenaration, a large endometrial cyst with a high attenuation number, a dermoid cyst with an irregular pattern and a mucinous cystadenoma with benign solid component. The accuracy of diagnosis was 100 % in malignant masses and 93.9 % in benign masses. This scoring system was shown to have clinical significance for the differential diagnosis of a pelvic cystic lesions.

  18. Spacelab data analysis using the space plasma computer analysis network (SCAN) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The Space-plasma Computer Analysis Network (SCAN) currently connects a large number of U.S. Spacelab investigators into a common computer network. Used primarily by plasma physics researchers at present, SCAN provides access to Spacelab investigators in other areas of space science, to Spacelab and non-Spacelab correlative data bases, and to large Class VI computational facilities for modeling. SCAN links computers together at remote institutions used by space researchers, utilizing commercially available software for computer-to-computer communications. Started by the NASA's Office of Space Science in mid 1980, SCAN presently contains ten system nodes located at major universities and space research laboratories, with fourteen new nodes projected for the near future. The Stanford University computer gateways allow SCAN users to connect onto the ARPANET and TELENET overseas networks.

  19. Performances of the scanning system for the CNAO center of oncological hadron therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordanengo, S., E-mail: giordane@to.infn.i [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); Donetti, M. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); CNAO - Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica Foundation, Milano (Italy); Marchetto, F. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); Ansarinejad, A. [Department of Physics, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Attili, A. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); Bourhaleb, F. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Burini, F. [OCEM SpA, Bologna (Italy); Cirio, R. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Fabbricatore, P. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Genova (Italy); Voelker, F. [CERN, Geneve (Switzerland); Garella, M.A. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); Incurvati, M. [OCEM SpA, Bologna (Italy); Monaco, V. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Pardo, J. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); Peroni, C.; Russo, G.; Sacchi, R. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Taddia, G. [OCEM SpA, Bologna (Italy); Zampieri, A. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy)

    2010-02-01

    In hadron therapy one of the most advanced methods for beam delivery is the active scanning technique which uses fast scanning magnets to drive a narrow particle beam across the target. The Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO) will treat tumours with this technique. The CNAO scanning system includes two identical dipole magnets for horizontal and vertical beam deflection, each one connected to a fast power supply. The dose delivery system exploits a set of monitor chambers to measure the fluence and position of the beam and drives the beam during the treatment by controlling the sequence of currents set by the power supplies. A test of the dynamic performance of the scanning system has been performed using a Hall probe to measure the field inside the magnet and the results are presented in this paper.

  20. Integral force feedback control with input shaping: Application to piezo-based scanning systems in ECDLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Liu, Zhigang; Zhu, Yu; Bu, Mingfan; Hong, Jun

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a hybrid control system is developed by integrating the closed-loop force feedback and input shaping method to overcome the problem of the hysteresis and dynamic behavior in piezo-based scanning systems and increase the scanning speed of tunable external cavity diode lasers. The flexible hinge and piezoelectric actuators are analyzed, and a dynamic model of the scanning systems is established. A force sensor and an integral controller are utilized in integral force feedback (IFF) to directly augment the damping of the piezoelectric scanning systems. Hysteresis has been effectively eliminated, but the mechanical resonance is still evident. Noticeable residual vibration occurred after the inflection points and then gradually disappeared. For the further control of mechanical resonance, based on the theory of minimum-acceleration trajectory planning, the time-domain input shaping method was developed. The turning sections of a scanning trajectory are replaced by smooth curves, while the linear sections are retained. The IFF method is combined with the input shaping method to control the non-linearity and mechanical resonance in high-speed piezo-based scanning systems. Experiments are conducted, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approach.

  1. 3D Wide FOV Scanning Measurement System Based on Multiline Structured-Light Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Gao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Structured-light three-dimensional (3D vision measurement is currently one of the most common approaches to obtain 3D surface data. However, the existing structured-light scanning measurement systems are primarily constructed on the basis of single sensor, which inevitably generates three obvious problems: limited measurement range, blind measurement area, and low scanning efficiency. To solve these problems, we developed a novel 3D wide FOV scanning measurement system which adopted two multiline structured-light sensors. Each sensor is composed of a digital CCD camera and three line-structured-light projectors. During the measurement process, the measured object is scanned by the two sensors from two different angles at a certain speed. Consequently, the measurement range is expanded and the blind measurement area is reduced. More importantly, since six light stripes are simultaneously projected on the object surface, the scanning efficiency is greatly improved. The Multiline Structured-light Sensors Scanning Measurement System (MSSS is calibrated on site by a 2D pattern. The experimental results show that the RMS errors of the system for calibration and measurement are less than 0.092 mm and 0.168 mm, respectively, which proves that the MSSS is applicable for obtaining 3D object surface with high efficiency and accuracy.

  2. Review of P-scan computer-based ultrasonic inservice inspection system. Supplement 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, R.V. Jr.; Angel, L.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This Supplement reviews the P-scan system, a computer-based ultrasonic system used for inservice inspection of piping and other components in nuclear power plants. The Supplement was prepared using the methodology described in detail in Appendix A of NUREG/CR-5985, and is based on one month of using the system in a laboratory. This Supplement describes and characterizes: computer system, ultrasonic components, and mechanical components; scanning, detection, digitizing, imaging, data interpretation, operator interaction, data handling, and record-keeping. It includes a general description, a review checklist, and detailed results of all tests performed.

  3. A very low-cost 3D scanning system for whole-body imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy; Kerlin, Scott

    2015-05-01

    A low-cost, high resolution 3D scanning system has been developed at the University of North Dakota that creates 3D models (complete with color and texture data) using hardware and software with a cost of approximately $5,000. This paper presents the design, testing and initial uses for this scanning hardware; it also discusses the efficacy of this technology for a variety of applications and the utility of being able to capture high-quality scans at low cost. A discussion of the required operating conditions and the limitations that this places on the applications the scanner is suitable for is also included.

  4. Design and verification of the miniature optical system for small object surface profile fast scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Sheng; Lee, Shu-Sheng; Huang, Jen, Jen-Yu; Lai, Ti-Yu; Jan, Chia-Ming; Hu, Po-Chi

    2016-04-01

    As the progress of optical technologies, different commercial 3D surface contour scanners are on the market nowadays. Most of them are used for reconstructing the surface profile of mold or mechanical objects which are larger than 50 mm×50 mm× 50 mm, and the scanning system size is about 300 mm×300 mm×100 mm. There are seldom optical systems commercialized for surface profile fast scanning for small object size less than 10 mm×10 mm×10 mm. Therefore, a miniature optical system has been designed and developed in this research work for this purpose. Since the most used scanning method of such system is line scan technology, we have developed pseudo-phase shifting digital projection technology by adopting projecting fringes and phase reconstruction method. A projector was used to project a digital fringe patterns on the object, and the fringes intensity images of the reference plane and of the sample object were recorded by a CMOS camera. The phase difference between the plane and object can be calculated from the fringes images, and the surface profile of the object was reconstructed by using the phase differences. The traditional phase shifting method was accomplished by using PZT actuator or precisely controlled motor to adjust the light source or grating and this is one of the limitations for high speed scanning. Compared with the traditional optical setup, we utilized a micro projector to project the digital fringe patterns on the sample. This diminished the phase shifting processing time and the controlled phase differences between the shifted phases become more precise. Besides, the optical path design based on a portable device scanning system was used to minimize the size and reduce the number of the system components. A screwdriver section about 7mm×5mm×5mm has been scanned and its surface profile was successfully restored. The experimental results showed that the measurement area of our system can be smaller than 10mm×10mm, the precision reached to

  5. Scan statistics with local vote for target detection in distributed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junhai; Wu, Qi

    2017-12-01

    Target detection has occupied a pivotal position in distributed system. Scan statistics, as one of the most efficient detection methods, has been applied to a variety of anomaly detection problems and significantly improves the probability of detection. However, scan statistics cannot achieve the expected performance when the noise intensity is strong, or the signal emitted by the target is weak. The local vote algorithm can also achieve higher target detection rate. After the local vote, the counting rule is always adopted for decision fusion. The counting rule does not use the information about the contiguity of sensors but takes all sensors' data into consideration, which makes the result undesirable. In this paper, we propose a scan statistics with local vote (SSLV) method. This method combines scan statistics with local vote decision. Before scan statistics, each sensor executes local vote decision according to the data of its neighbors and its own. By combining the advantages of both, our method can obtain higher detection rate in low signal-to-noise ratio environment than the scan statistics. After the local vote decision, the distribution of sensors which have detected the target becomes more intensive. To make full use of local vote decision, we introduce a variable-step-parameter for the SSLV. It significantly shortens the scan period especially when the target is absent. Analysis and simulations are presented to demonstrate the performance of our method.

  6. Optimization, Characterization and Commissioning of a Novel Uniform Scanning Proton Beam Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascia, Anthony Edward

    Purpose: To develop and characterize the required detectors for uniform scanning optimization and characterization, and to develop the methodology and assess their efficacy for optimizing, characterizing and commissioning a novel proton beam uniform scanning system. Methods and Materials: The Multi Layer Ion Chamber (MLIC), a 1D array of vented parallel plate ion chambers, was developed in-house for measurement of longitudinal profiles. The Matrixx detector (IBA Dosimetry, Germany) and XOmat V film (Kodak, USA) were characterized for measurement of transverse profiles. The architecture of the uniform scanning system was developed and then optimized and characterized for clinical proton radiotherapy. Results: The MLIC detector significantly increased data collection efficiency without sacrificing data quality. The MLIC was capable of integrating an entire scanned and layer stacked proton field with one measurement, producing results with the equivalent spatial sampling of 1.0mm. The Matrixx detector and modified 1D water phantom jig improved data acquisition efficiency and complemented the film measurements. The proximal, central and distal proton field planes were measured using these methods, yielding better than 3% uniformity. The binary range modulator was programmed, optimized and characterized such that the proton field ranges were separated by approximately 5.0mm modulation width and delivered with an accuracy of 1.0mm in water. Several wobbling magnet scan patterns were evaluated and the raster pattern, spot spacing, scan amplitude and overscan margin were optimized for clinical use. Conclusion: Novel detectors and methods are required for clinically efficient optimization and characterization of proton beam scanning systems. Uniform scanning produces proton beam fields that are suited for clinical proton radiotherapy.

  7. Autoblocker: a system for detecting and blocking of network scanning based on analysis of netflow data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobyshev, A.; Lamore, D.; Demar, P.; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    In a large campus network, such at Fermilab, with tens of thousands of nodes, scanning initiated from either outside of or within the campus network raises security concerns. This scanning may have very serious impact on network performance, and even disrupt normal operation of many services. In this paper we introduce a system for detecting and automatic blocking excessive traffic of different kinds of scanning, DoS attacks, virus infected computers. The system, called AutoBlocker, is a distributed computing system based on quasi-real time analysis of network flow data collected from the border router and core switches. AutoBlocker also has an interface to accept alerts from IDS systems (e.g. BRO, SNORT) that are based on other technologies. The system has multiple configurable alert levels for the detection of anomalous behavior and configurable trigger criteria for automated blocking of scans at the core or border routers. It has been in use at Fermilab for about 2 years, and has become a very valuable tool to curtail scan activity within the Fermilab campus network.

  8. Georeferenced Scanning System to Estimate the Leaf Wall Area in Tree Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio del-Moral-Martínez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of a terrestrial light detection and ranging (LiDAR system to scan the vegetation of tree crops to estimate the so-called pixelated leaf wall area (PLWA. Scanning rows laterally and considering only the half-canopy vegetation to the line of the trunks, PLWA refers to the vertical projected area without gaps detected by LiDAR. As defined, PLWA may be different depending on the side from which the LiDAR is applied. The system is completed by a real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS sensor and an inertial measurement unit (IMU sensor for positioning. At the end, a total leaf wall area (LWA is computed and assigned to the X, Y position of each vertical scan. The final value of the area depends on the distance between two consecutive scans (or horizontal resolution, as well as the number of intercepted points within each scan, since PLWA is only computed when the laser beam detects vegetation. To verify system performance, tests were conducted related to the georeferencing task and synchronization problems between GPS time and central processing unit (CPU time. Despite this, the overall accuracy of the system is generally acceptable. The Leaf Area Index (LAI can then be estimated using PLWA as an explanatory variable in appropriate linear regression models.

  9. Frequency scanning-based stability analysis method for grid-connected inverter system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a frequency scanning-based impedance analysis for stability assessment of grid-connected inverter system, which is able to perform stability assessment without using system mathematical models and inherit the superior feature of impedance-based stability criterion with conside...

  10. Eddy current analysis and optimization of fast scanning magnet for a proton therapy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Qin, Bin; Liu, Kaifeng; Chen, Wei; Liang, Zhikai; Chen, Qushan; Chen, Dezhi; Fan, Mingwu

    2017-08-01

    Proton therapy is now recognized as one of the most effective radiation therapy methods for cancers. A proton therapy facility with multiple gantry treatment rooms is under development in HUST (Huazhong University of Science and Technology), which is based on isochronous superconducting cyclotron scheme. In the beam line, the scanning system spreads out the proton beam on the target according to the complex tumour shape by two scanning magnets for horizontal and vertical scanning independently. Since these two magnets are excited by alternating currents and the maximum repetition frequency is up to 100 Hz, eddy currents and losses are expected to be significant. Slits are proven to be an effective way to reduce the eddy currents. To evaluate the heat distribution due to eddy losses in the pole end of the scanning magnet, the transient electromagnetic analysis and steady-state thermal analysis are performed. This paper describes design considerations of the scanning system and mainly analyses the eddy current effect of the scanning magnets. Different coil shapes and slit arrangements are simulated and compared to obtain the optimal configuration. The maximum temperatures of two magnets are optimized below 70 °C. In addition, the lag effect due to eddy currents is also discussed.

  11. Optimization and applications of an excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Sam A.; Klomkaew, Phiwat; Leavesley, Silas J.; Rich, Thomas C.

    2017-02-01

    Currently, the majority of microscopic and endoscopic technologies utilize white light illumination. For a number of applications, hyper-spectral imaging can be shown to have significant improvements over standard white-light imaging techniques. This is true for both microscopy and in vivo imaging. However, hyperspectral imaging methods have suffered from slow application times. Often, minutes are required to gather a full imaging stack. Here we will describe the system and evaluate optimizations and applications of a novel excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging system. We have developed and are optimizing a novel approach called excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging that provides an order of magnitude increased signal strength. Optimization of the light path, optical components and illumination sources have allowed us to achieve high speed image acquisition. This high speed allows for potential live video acquisition. This excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging technology has potential to impact a range of applications. The current system allows triggering of up to 16 wavelengths at less than 1 millisecond per image using digital strobing. Analog intensity control is also provided for a fully customizable excitation profile. A significant advantage of excitation scanning hyperspectral imaging is can identify multiple targets simultaneously in real time. We are optimizing the system to compare sensitivity and specificity of excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging with pathology techniques. Finally, we are exploring utilizing this technology to measure cAMP distribution in three dimensions within a cell.

  12. Monte Carlo simulation of Ray-Scan 64 PET system and performance evaluation using GATE toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suying; Zhang, Qiushi; Vuletic, Ivan; Xie, Zhaoheng; Yang, Kun; Ren, Qiushi

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to develop a GATE model for the simulation of Ray-Scan 64 PET scanner and model its performance characteristics. A detailed implementation of system geometry and physical process were included in the simulation model. Then we modeled the performance characteristics of Ray-Scan 64 PET system for the first time, based on National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU-2 2007 protocols and validated the model against experimental measurement, including spatial resolution, sensitivity, counting rates and noise equivalent count rate (NECR). Moreover, an accurate dead time module was investigated to simulate the counting rate performance. Overall results showed reasonable agreement between simulation and experimental data. The validation results showed the reliability and feasibility of the GATE model to evaluate major performance of Ray-Scan 64 PET system. It provided a useful tool for a wide range of research applications.

  13. Scanning Ultrasonic Spectroscopy System Developed for the Inspection of Composite Flywheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard E.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2002-01-01

    Composite flywheels are being considered as replacements for chemical batteries aboard the International Space Station. A flywheel stores energy in a spinning mass that can turn a generator to meet power demands. Because of the high rotational speeds of the spinning mass, extensive testing of the flywheel system must be performed prior to flight certification. With this goal in mind, a new scanning system has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center for the nondestructive inspection of composite flywheels and flywheel subcomponents. The system uses ultrasonic waves to excite a material and examines the response to detect and locate flaws and material variations. The ultrasonic spectroscopy system uses a transducer to send swept-frequency ultrasonic waves into a test material and then receives the returning signal with a second transducer. The received signal is then analyzed in the frequency domain using a fast Fourier transform. A second fast Fourier transform is performed to examine the spacing of the peaks in the frequency domain. The spacing of the peaks is related to the standing wave resonances that are present in the material because of the constructive and destructive interferences of the waves in the full material thickness as well as in individual layers within the material. Material variations and flaws are then identified by changes in the amplitudes and positions of the peaks in both the frequency and resonance spacing domains. This work, conducted under a grant through the Cleveland State University, extends the capabilities of an existing point-by-point ultrasonic spectroscopy system, thus allowing full-field automated inspection. Results of an ultrasonic spectroscopy scan of a plastic cylinder with intentionally seeded flaws. The result of an ultrasonic spectroscopy scan of a plastic cylinder used as a proof-of-concept specimen is shown. The cylinder contains a number of flat bottomed holes of various sizes and shapes. The scanning system

  14. Data analysis using the Internet: the World Wide Web scanning probe microscopy data analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P M; Davies, M C; Roberts, C J; Tendler, S J

    1997-10-01

    The first interactive world-wide web-based image analysis system is presented (http://pharm6.pharm.nottingham.ac.uk/processing/main. html). The system, currently tailored to scanning probe microscopy image data, has been developed to permit the use of software algorithms developed within our laboratory by researchers throughout the world. The implementation and functionality of the scanning probe microscopy server is described. Feedback from users of the facility has demonstrated its value within the research community, and highlighted key operational issues which are to be addressed. A future role of Internet-based data processing software is also discussed.

  15. Development of NIRS pencil beam scanning system for carbon ion radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, T.; Hara, Y.; Mizushima, K.; Saotome, N.; Tansho, R.; Saraya, Y.; Inaniwa, T.; Mori, S.; Iwata, Y.; Shirai, T.; Noda, K.

    2017-09-01

    At Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), more than 9000 patients have been successfully treated by carbon ion beams since 1994. The successful results of treatments have led us to construct a new treatment facility equipped with a three-dimensional pencil beam scanning irradiation system, which is one of sophisticated techniques for cancer therapy with high energetic ion beam. This new facility comprises two treatment rooms having fixed beam lines and one treatment room having rotating gantry line. The challenge of this project is to realize treatment of a moving target by scanning irradiation. Thus, to realize this, the development of the fast scanning system is one of the most important issues in this project. After intense commissioning and quality assurance tests, the treatment with scanned ion beam was started in May 2011. After treatment of static target starts, we have developed related technologies. As a result, we can start treatment of moving target and treatment without range shifter plates since 2015. In this paper, the developments of the scanning irradiation system are described.

  16. Calculation of narcissus effect in scanning systems with detector arrays by exact numerical ray tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeninger, Werner

    1993-04-01

    The narcissus-effect is a well known phenomena in IR-scanning systems. Several methods of calculation have been proposed. Due to advances in IR-detector technology it is now possible to use detector line-arrays instead of single detectors for scanning systems. We have modified the model published by A. S. Lau. In our calculations the transmission of all optical components is taken into account, especially the transmission of the imager is also considered. We have developed a program based on this model. With this tool the calculations of the narcissus-equivalent temperature can be done by exact numerical ray-tracing for an array with up to twelve detectors. Separately for each of them you can see the exact narcissus-effect over the whole scan angle, showing a varying intensity over the detector array. The calculation can be done in arbitrary small steps over the whole scanning angle. Thus it is possible to take into account all effects of vignetting due to the mountings of the components or any other mechanical limitations. An example of such a scanning system is presented.

  17. INITIAL TESTS AND ACCURACY ASSESMENT OF A COMPACT MOBILE LASER SCANNING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Julge

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile laser scanning (MLS is a faster and cost-effective alternative to static laser scanning, even though there is a slight trade-off in accuracy. This contribution describes a compact mobile laser scanning system mounted on a vehicle. The technical parameters of the used system components, i.e. a small LIDAR sensor Velodyne VLP-16 and a dual antenna GNSS/INS system Advanced Navigation Spatial Dual, are reviewed, along with the integration of these components for spatial data acquisition. Calculation principles of 3D coordinates from the real-time data of all the involved sensors are discussed. The field tests were carried out in a controlled environment of a parking lot and at different velocities. Experiments were carried out to test the ability of the GNSS/INS system to cope with difficult conditions, e.g. sudden movements due to cornering or swerving. The accuracy of the resulting MLS point cloud is evaluated with respect to high-accuracy static terrestrial laser scanning data. Problems regarding combining LIDAR, GNSS and INS sensors are outlined, as well as the initial accuracy assessments. Initial tests revealed errors related to insufficient quality of inertial data and a need for the trajectory post-processing calculations. Although this study was carried out while the system was mounted on a car, there is potential for operating the system on an unmanned aerial vehicle, all-terrain vehicle or in a backpack mode due to its relatively compact size.

  18. EpiScanGIS: an online geographic surveillance system for meningococcal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Jürgen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveillance of infectious diseases increasingly relies on Geographic Information Systems (GIS. The integration of pathogen fine typing data in dynamic systems and visualization of spatio-temporal clusters are a technical challenge for system development. Results An online geographic information system (EpiScanGIS based on open source components has been launched in Germany in May 2006 for real time provision of meningococcal typing data in conjunction with demographic information (age, incidence, population density. Spatio-temporal clusters of disease detected by computer assisted cluster analysis (SaTScan™ are visualized on maps. EpiScanGIS enables dynamic generation of animated maps. The system is based on open source components; its architecture is open for other infectious agents and geographic regions. EpiScanGIS is available at http://www.episcangis.org, and currently has 80 registered users, mostly from the public health service in Germany. At present more than 2,900 cases of invasive meningococcal disease are stored in the database (data as of June 3, 2008. Conclusion EpiScanGIS exemplifies GIS applications and early-warning systems in laboratory surveillance of infectious diseases.

  19. Fundamental analysis and algorithms for development of a mobile fast-scan lateral migration radiography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhong

    Lateral migration radiography (LMR) is a unique x-ray Compton backscatter imaging (CBI) technique to image surface and subsurface, or internal structure of an object. An x-ray pencil beam scans the interrogated area and the backscattered photons are registered by detectors which have varying degrees of collimation. In early LMR applications, either the LMR systems or the imaged objects are moved on a rectangular grid, and at each node, the systems register backscattered photon energy deposition as pixel intensity in acquired images. The mechanical movement of the system or objects from pixel to pixel causes prolonged image scan time with a high percentage of system dead time. To avoid this drawback, a particular x-ray beam formation technique is proposed and analyzed. A corresponding mobile, fast-scan LMR system is designed, fabricated and tested. The results show a two orders-of-magnitude reduction in image scan time compared with those of previous systems. The x-ray beam formation technique, based on a rotating collimator in the LMR system, implements surface line scan by sampling an x-ray fan beam. This rotating collimator yields unique imaging effects compared to those for an x-ray beam with fixed collimation and perpendicular incidence: (1) the speed of the x-ray beam spot on the scanned surface is not uniform; (2) constant movement of the x-ray beam spot changes the resolution in the image raster direction; (3) x-ray beam spot size changes with location on the scanned surface; (4) the object image shows a squeezed effect in the raster scan direction; (5) under a uniform background, the Compton scatter angular distribution causes the x-ray backscatter field to be stronger, when the x-ray beam has greater incidence angle; and (6) the x-ray illumination spot trace on the scanned surface is skewed. The physics generating these effects is analyzed with Monte Carlo computer simulations and/or measurements. Image acquisition and image processing algorithms are

  20. Influence of scanning system and dentist's level of training in the accuracy of digital impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hategan, Simona; Gabor, Alin; Zaharia, Cristian; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Jivanescu, Anca

    2016-03-01

    Background: The principal aim of our study was to evaluate digital impressions, taken with spray powder and powderfree scan systems, in order to determine the influence of the dentist's commitment to training as a critical factor regarding quality. Material and method: Two digital intraoral impression systems from the same manufacture (Sirona) : Apollo DI and CEREC Omnicam, were used to scan 16 crown preparations on teeth on a typodont maxillary model. Because an Apollo Di intraoral camera is a powder system, an adhesive was applied before using the powder spray. Three groups were used to scan the crown preparations in order to determine coating thickness homogeneity. One group consisted of senior year dental students, a second consisted of prosthodontics residents, and the third consisted of prosthodontics specialists. The same procedure was applied with a CEREC Omnicam intraoral camera, which is a powder-free system. By using the two systems software parameters we were able to determine the scanning precision. Results: Homogeneity scores for Apollo Di regarding the spray layer was significantly thinner for all dental surfaces in the first group, while the second group had thinner coatings for buccal and distal surfaces. For the third group, the crown preparations were coated more homogeneously than the first two groups. The powder-free system CEREC Omnicam can, to a degree, mask the lack of experience in direct optical impressions by avoiding the poor quality coating, which can lead to defective marginal adaptation of definitive restoration. Conclusions: The dentist's lack of experience can be mitigated, and partially avoided, by using powder-free systems. At the same time, the dentist can give more time towards learning how to integrate computerized fabricated restoration into the practice. The commitment to training is a critical factor in the successful integration of the technology. In addition, scanning marginal preparation details needs time in order to

  1. Hi-Res scan mode in clinical MDCT systems: Experimental assessment of spatial resolution performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Bastida, Juan P; Gomez-Cardona, Daniel; Li, Ke; Sun, Heyi; Hsieh, Jiang; Szczykutowicz, Timothy P; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2016-05-01

    The introduction of a High-Resolution (Hi-Res) scan mode and another associated option that combines Hi-Res mode with the so-called High Definition (HD) reconstruction kernels (referred to as a Hi-Res/HD mode in this paper) in some multi-detector CT (MDCT) systems offers new opportunities to increase spatial resolution for some clinical applications that demand high spatial resolution. The purpose of this work was to quantify the in-plane spatial resolution along both the radial direction and tangential direction for the Hi-Res and Hi-Res/HD scan modes at different off-center positions. A technique was introduced and validated to address the signal saturation problem encountered in the attempt to quantify spatial resolution for the Hi-Res and Hi-Res/HD scan modes. Using the proposed method, the modulation transfer functions (MTFs) of a 64-slice MDCT system (Discovery CT750 HD, GE Healthcare) equipped with both Hi-Res and Hi-Res/HD modes were measured using a metal bead at nine different off-centered positions (0-16 cm with a step size of 2 cm); at each position, both conventional scans and Hi-Res scans were performed. For each type of scan and position, 80 repeated acquisitions were performed to reduce noise induced uncertainties in the MTF measurements. A total of 15 reconstruction kernels, including eight conventional kernels and seven HD kernels, were used to reconstruct CT images of the bead. An ex vivo animal study consisting of a bone fracture model was performed to corroborate the MTF results, as the detection of this high-contrast and high frequency task is predominantly determined by spatial resolution. Images of this animal model generated by different scan modes and reconstruction kernels were qualitatively compared with the MTF results. At the centered position, the use of Hi-Res mode resulted in a slight improvement in the MTF; each HD kernel generated higher spatial resolution than its counterpart conventional kernel. However, the MTF along the

  2. A LabVIEW{sup TM}-based scanning and control system for proton beam micromachining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettiol, Andrew A. E-mail: phybaa@nus.edu.sg; Kan, J.A. van; Sum, T.C.; Watt, F

    2001-07-01

    LabVIEW{sup TM} is steadily gaining in popularity as the programming language of choice for scientific data acquisition and control. This is due to the vast array of measurement instruments and data acquisition cards supported by the LabVIEW{sup TM} environment, and the relative ease with which advanced software can be programmed. Furthermore, virtual instruments that are designed for a given system can be easily ported to other LabVIEW{sup TM} platforms and hardware. This paper describes the new LabVIEW{sup TM} based scanning and control system developed specifically for proton beam micromachining (PBM) applications. The new system is capable of scanning figures at 16-bit resolution with improved sub-microsecond scan rates. Support for electrostatic beam blanking and external dose normalization using a TTL signal have been implemented. The new software incorporates a semi-automated dose calibration system, and a number of novel dose normalization methods. Limitations of the current beam scanning hardware are discussed in light of new results obtained from micromachining experiments performed in SU-8 photoresist.

  3. T-scan III system diagnostic tool for digital occlusal analysis in orthodontics - a modern approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trpevska, Vesna; Kovacevska, Gordana; Benedeti, Alberto; Jordanov, Bozidar

    2014-01-01

    This systematic literature review was performed to establish the mechanism, methodology, characteristics, clinical application and opportunities of the T-Scan III System as a diagnostic tool for digital occlusal analysis in different fields of dentistry, precisely in orthodontics. Searching of electronic databases, using MEDLINE and PubMed, hand searching of relevant key journals, and screening of reference lists of included studies with no language restriction was performed. Publications providing statistically examined data were included for systematic review. Twenty potentially relevant Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) were identified. Only ten met the inclusion criteria. The literature demonstrates that using digital occlusal analysis with T-Scan III System in orthodontics has significant advantage with regard to the capability of measuring occlusal parameters in static positions and during dynamic of the mandible. Within the scope of this systematic review, there is evidence to support that T-Scan system is rapid and accurate in identifying the distribution of the tooth contacts and it shows great promise as a clinical diagnostic screening device for occlusion and for improving the occlusion after various dental treatments. Additional clinical studies are required to advance the indication filed of this system. Importance of using digital occlusal T-Scan analysis in orthodontics deserves further investigation.

  4. Mössbauer thermal scan study of a spin crossover system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Zélis, P.; Pasquevich, G. A.; Sánchez, F. H.; Veiga, A.; Ceolin, M.; Cabrera, A. F.; Coronado-Miralles, E.; Monrabal-Capilla, M.; Galan-Mascaros, J. R.

    2010-03-01

    Programmable Velocity equipment was used to perform a Mössbauer Thermal Scans to allow a quasi-continuous temperature study of the magnetic transition between the low-spin and a high-spin configurations in [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)](BF4) system. The material was studied both in bulk as in nanoparticles sample forms.

  5. An Investigation of the Feasibility of a Video Game System for Developing Scanning and Selection Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Eva; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Three nonvocal students (ages 5-8) with severe physical handicaps were trained in scan and selection responses (similar to responses needed for operating augmentative communication systems) using a microcomputer-operated video-game format. Results indicated that all three children showed substantial increases in the number of correct responses and…

  6. Phase behavior of polymer-diluent systems characterized by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, P.C.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Wessling, Matthias

    2001-01-01

    The thermodynamic phase behavior of a polymer–diluent system (atactic polystyrene–1-dodecanol) forms the fundamental basis of the description of thermally-induced demixing processes. In this paper, we demonstrate that temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) can accurately

  7. Verifying Data Integrity of Electronically Scanned Pressure Systems at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, Joseph W.

    2001-01-01

    The proper operation of the Electronically Scanned Pressure (ESP) System critical to accomplish the following goals: acquisition of highly accurate pressure data for the development of aerospace and commercial aviation systems and continuous confirmation of data quality to avoid costly, unplanned, repeat wind tunnel or turbine testing. Standard automated setup and checkout routines are necessary to accomplish these goals. Data verification and integrity checks occur at three distinct stages, pretest pressure tubing and system checkouts, daily system validation and in-test confirmation of critical system parameters. This paper will give an overview of the existing hardware, software and methods used to validate data integrity.

  8. NMR scanning of the pelvis: initial experience with a 0. 3 T system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, P.J.; Butler, H.E.; LiPuma, J.P.; Haaga, J.R.; El Yousef, S.J.; Resnick, M.I.; Cohen, A.M.; Malviya, V.K.; Nelson, A.D.; Clampitt, M.

    1983-12-01

    Pelvic NMR scans were obtained on 29 patients using a 0.3 T superconducting magnet system. Pathologies studied included four bladder carcinomas, four prostatic carcinomas, four ovarian dermoid cysts, three ovarian cysts, three endometrial carcinomas, two endometriomas, and one each of serous cystadenoma of the ovary, benign prostatic hypertrophy, pelvic hematoma, and undifferentiated sarcoma. NMR is a very promising method for characterizing pelvic masses and in staging pelvic malignancies. It can show primary tumors of the prostate, bladder, and uterus and reveals tumor extension into pelvic fat. The pelvis is particularly well suited to NMR scanning because of the abundant natural contrast provided by pelvic fat and by urine in the bladder and gas in the bowel. There is also less motion blurring than in the upper abdomen and chest because there is relatively little respiratory motion of pelvic organs. Various pulse sequences were used in scanning the pelvis; their relative merits are discussed.

  9. AUTOMATIC RECOGNITION OF PIPING SYSTEM FROM LARGE-SCALE TERRESTRIAL LASER SCAN DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kawashima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, changes in plant equipment have been becoming more frequent because of the short lifetime of the products, and constructing 3D shape models of existing plants (as-built models from large-scale laser scanned data is expected to make their rebuilding processes more efficient. However, the laser scanned data of the existing plant has massive points, captures tangled objects and includes a large amount of noises, so that the manual reconstruction of a 3D model is very time-consuming and costs a lot. Piping systems especially, account for the greatest proportion of plant equipment. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to propose an algorithm which can automatically recognize a piping system from terrestrial laser scan data of the plant equipment. The straight portion of pipes, connecting parts and connection relationship of the piping system can be recognized in this algorithm. Eigenvalue analysis of the point clouds and of the normal vectors allows for the recognition. Using only point clouds, the recognition algorithm can be applied to registered point clouds and can be performed in a fully automatic way. The preliminary results of the recognition for large-scale scanned data from an oil rig plant have shown the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  10. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy on heavy-fermion systems; Rastertunnelspektroskopie an Schwere-Fermionen-Systemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Stefan

    2011-06-24

    in the framework of this thesis different heavy-fermion systems were studied by means of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. In the experiment two main topics existed. On the one hand the heavy-fermion superconductivity in the compounds CeCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, CeCoIn{sub 5}, and on the other hand the Kondo effect in the Kondo-lattice system YbRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2}.

  11. Virtual microscopy, data management and image analysis in Aperio ScanScope system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Staniszewski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The histology and the pathology clinical practice undergo a digital revolution. Essential change in laboratory practice - from classical light microscopes, thousands of glass specimens waiting on plates to a virtual microscope and onscreen diagnosis is right now. Currently there are more than 30 different systems for the Virtual Microscopy available on the market. However none of them is so oriented for the practical matters as Aperio ScanScope system.

  12. Low-cost compact MEMS scanning ladar system for robotic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Robert; Yuan, Ping; Bai, Xiaogang; Quesada, Emilio; Sudharsanan, Rengarajan; Stann, Barry L.; Dammann, John F.; Giza, Mark M.; Lawler, William B.

    2012-06-01

    Future robots and autonomous vehicles require compact low-cost Laser Detection and Ranging (LADAR) systems for autonomous navigation. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) had recently demonstrated a brass-board short-range eye-safe MEMS scanning LADAR system for robotic applications. Boeing Spectrolab is doing a tech-transfer (CRADA) of this system and has built a compact MEMS scanning LADAR system with additional improvements in receiver sensitivity, laser system, and data processing system. Improved system sensitivity, low-cost, miniaturization, and low power consumption are the main goals for the commercialization of this LADAR system. The receiver sensitivity has been improved by 2x using large-area InGaAs PIN detectors with low-noise amplifiers. The FPGA code has been updated to extend the range to 50 meters and detect up to 3 targets per pixel. Range accuracy has been improved through the implementation of an optical T-Zero input line. A compact commercially available erbium fiber laser operating at 1550 nm wavelength is used as a transmitter, thus reducing the size of the LADAR system considerably from the ARL brassboard system. The computer interface has been consolidated to allow image data and configuration data (configuration settings and system status) to pass through a single Ethernet port. In this presentation we will discuss the system architecture and future improvements to receiver sensitivity using avalanche photodiodes.

  13. Reliability of the TekScan MatScan® system for the measurement of postural stability in older people with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenton-Rule Angela

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postural stability can be measured in clinical and research settings using portable plantar pressure systems. People with rheumatoid arthritis (RA have decreased postural stability compared to non-RA populations and impaired postural stability is associated with falls in people with RA. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the reliability of the TekScan MatScan® system in assessing postural stability in people with RA. Methods Twenty three participants with RA, mean (SD age 69.74 (10.1 years, were assessed in barefoot double-limb quiet standing, with eyes open and eyes closed, for antero-posterior and medio-lateral postural sway values. Three repetitions, at a sampling frequency of 40 Hz, were recorded for each test condition to obtain a mean value. Measurements were repeated one hour later. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated to determine between-session reliability. Measurement error was assessed through the calculation of the standard error of the measurement (SEM and the smallest real difference (SRD. Results The system displayed good to excellent reliability for antero-posterior and medio-lateral sway, with eyes open and closed, as indicated by ICC values ranging from 0.84 to 0.92. Measurement error, as evidenced by the SEM, ranged from 1.27 to 2.35 mm. The degree of change required to exceed the expected trial to trial variability was relatively high, compared to mean values, with SRD ranging from 3.08 to 5.71 mm. Conclusions The portability and ease of use of the TekScan MatScan® makes it a useful tool for the measurement of postural stability in clinical and research settings. The TekScan MatScan® system can reliably measure double-limb quiet standing in older people, aged 60 to 80 years, with RA.

  14. Low noise SQUID based NDE with non-magnetic scanning system in unshielded environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatami, Y; Alavi, M; Sarreshtedari, F; Fardmanesh, M [Electrical Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vesaghi, M [Physics Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Banzet, M; Schubert, J [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany)], E-mail: fardmanesh@sharif.edu

    2008-02-01

    A Non-magnetic scanning Robotic system with special EMC considerations has been designed for SQUID-Based NDE of room temperature stationary samples in unshielded environment. Considerable efforts have been made to cancel out noise of the system which resulted in detection of two major noise sources. Characterizing the noise contribution of the involved parts, a minor noise component was found to be due to the robot and the other due to liquid nitrogen bubbling in some frequencies which could be avoided by choosing proper excitation frequency. Using our NDE system we performed a NDE scan of hidden cracks in aluminum plates with white noise level of 50 {mu}{phi}{sub 0}/Hz{sup -1/2}.

  15. Volumetric display system based on three-dimensional scanning of inclined optical image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Daisuke; Shiba, Kensuke; Sotsuka, Koji; Matsushita, Kenji

    2006-12-25

    A volumetric display system based on three-dimensional (3D) scanning of an inclined image is reported. An optical image of a two-dimensional (2D) display, which is a vector-scan display monitor placed obliquely in an optical imaging system, is moved laterally by a galvanometric mirror scanner. Inclined cross-sectional images of a 3D object are displayed on the 2D display in accordance with the position of the image plane to form a 3D image. Three-dimensional images formed by this display system satisfy all the criteria for stereoscopic vision because they are real images formed in a 3D space. Experimental results of volumetric imaging from computed-tomography images and 3D animated images are presented.

  16. A system level boundary scan controller board for VME applications [to CERN experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, N; Da Silva, J C

    2000-01-01

    This work is the result of a collaboration between INESC and LIP in the CMS experiment being conducted at CERN. The collaboration addresses the application of boundary scan test at system level namely the development of a VME boundary scan controller (BSC) board prototype and the corresponding software. This prototype uses the MTM bus existing in the VME64* backplane to apply the 1149.1 test vectors to a system composed of nineteen boards, called here units under test (UUTs). A top-down approach is used to describe our work. The paper begins with some insights about the experiment being conducted at CERN, proceed with system level considerations concerning our work and with some details about the BSC board. The results obtained so far and the proposed work is reviewed in the end of this contribution. (11 refs).

  17. Quasi-4D laser diagnostics using an acousto-optic deflector scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Pareja, Jhon; Becker, Lukas; Heddrich, Wolfgang; Dreizler, Andreas; Böhm, Benjamin

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a novel scanning system for laser diagnostics was developed and characterized. The system is based on the acousto-optic deflection of a high-speed pulsed laser. Results showed that quasi-volumetric laser illumination with high precision and accuracy can be achieved with a simplified and flexible optical setup. The feasibility of the method for performing high-speed quasi-4D laser diagnostics was demonstrated by the tomographic visualization of a lifted turbulent jet flame using Mie-scattering and multi-plane particle image velocimetry measurements of a turbulent non-reactive mixing case. Three-dimensional flame and flow structures can be detected and tracked with this new scanning system.

  18. MRT letter: An extended scanning probe microscopy system for macroscopic topography imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ji; Li, Faxin

    2014-10-01

    Enlightened by the principle of scanning probe microscopy or atomic force microscope (AFM), we proposed a novel surface topography imaging system based on the scanning of a piezoelectric unimorph cantilever. The height of sample surface can be obtained by recording the cantilever's strain using an ultra-sensitive strain gauge and the Z-axis movement is realized by electric bending of the cantilever. This system can be operated in the way similar to the contact mode in AFM, with the practical height detection resolution better than 100 nm. Imaging of the inner surface of a steel tube and on a transparent wing of a honey bee were conducted and the obtained results showed that this proposed system is a very promising solution for in situ topography mapping. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Evaluation of a Backpack-Mounted 3D Mobile Scanning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge A. Lauterbach

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several backpack-mounted systems, also known as personal laser scanning systems, have been developed. They consist of laser scanners or cameras that are carried by a human operator to acquire measurements of the environment while walking. These systems were first designed to overcome the challenges of mapping indoor environments with doors and stairs. While the human operator inherently has the ability to open doors and to climb stairs, the flexible movements introduce irregularities of the trajectory to the system. To compete with other mapping systems, the accuracy of these systems has to be evaluated. In this paper, we present an extensive evaluation of our backpack mobile mapping system in indoor environments. It is shown that the system can deal with the normal human walking motion, but has problems with irregular jittering. Moreover, we demonstrate the applicability of the backpack in a suitable urban scenario.

  20. Laser cutting of irregular shape object based on stereo vision laser galvanometric scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Li; Zhang, Yixin; Wang, Shun; Tang, Zhiqiang; Yang, Huan; Zhang, Xuping

    2015-05-01

    Irregular shape objects with different 3-dimensional (3D) appearances are difficult to be shaped into customized uniform pattern by current laser machining approaches. A laser galvanometric scanning system (LGS) could be a potential candidate since it can easily achieve path-adjustable laser shaping. However, without knowing the actual 3D topography of the object, the processing result may still suffer from 3D shape distortion. It is desirable to have a versatile auxiliary tool that is capable of generating 3D-adjusted laser processing path by measuring the 3D geometry of those irregular shape objects. This paper proposed the stereo vision laser galvanometric scanning system (SLGS), which takes the advantages of both the stereo vision solution and conventional LGS system. The 3D geometry of the object obtained by the stereo cameras is used to guide the scanning galvanometers for 3D-shape-adjusted laser processing. In order to achieve precise visual-servoed laser fabrication, these two independent components are integrated through a system calibration method using plastic thin film target. The flexibility of SLGS has been experimentally demonstrated by cutting duck feathers for badminton shuttle manufacture.

  1. Temporal subtraction system on torso FDG-PET scans based on statistical image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yusuke; Hara, Takeshi; Fukuoka, Daisuke; Zhou, Xiangrong; Muramatsu, Chisako; Ito, Satoshi; Hakozaki, Kenta; Kumita, Shin-ichiro; Ishihara, Kei-ichi; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    Diagnostic imaging on FDG-PET scans was often used to evaluate chemotherapy results of cancer patients. Radiologists compare the changes of lesions' activities between previous and current examinations for the evaluation. The purpose of this study was to develop a new computer-aided detection (CAD) system with temporal subtraction technique for FDGPET scans and to show the fundamental usefulness based on an observer performance study. Z-score mapping based on statistical image analysis was newly applied to the temporal subtraction technique. The subtraction images can be obtained based on the anatomical standardization results because all of the patients' scans were deformed into standard body shape. An observer study was performed without and with computer outputs to evaluate the usefulness of the scheme by ROC (receiver operating characteristics) analysis. Readers responded as confidence levels on a continuous scale from absolutely no change to definitely change between two examinations. The recognition performance of the computer outputs for the 43 pairs was 96% sensitivity with 31.1 false-positive marks per scan. The average of area-under-the-ROC-curve (AUC) from 4 readers in the observer performance study was increased from 0.85 without computer outputs to 0.90 with computer outputs (p=0.0389, DBM-MRMC). The average of interpretation time was slightly decreased from 42.11 to 40.04 seconds per case (p=0.625, Wilcoxon test). We concluded that the CAD system for torso FDG-PET scans with temporal subtraction technique might improve the diagnostic accuracy of radiologist in cancer therapy evaluation.

  2. Accuracy enhanced distance measurement system using double-sideband modulated frequency scanning interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xilun; Wang, Xiangchuan; Pan, Shilong

    2017-03-01

    An implementation of a distance measurement system using double-sideband with suppressed carrier modulation (DSB-SC) frequency scanning interferometry is proposed to reduce the variations in the optical path and improve the measurement accuracy. In this proposed system, the electro-optic DSB-SC is used to create dual-swept signals with opposite scanning directions. For each swept signal, the relative distance between the reference arm and the measuring arm is determined by the beat frequency of signals from two arms. By multiplying both beat signals, measurement errors caused by variations in the optical path can be greatly reduced. As an experimental demonstration, a vibration was introduced in the optical path length. The experimental results show that the variations can be suppressed for over 19.9 dB.

  3. Scanning, non-contact, hybrid broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Johannes D; Mireles, Miguel; Morales-Dalmau, Jordi; Farzam, Parisa; Martínez-Lozano, Mar; Casanovas, Oriol; Durduran, Turgut

    2016-02-01

    A scanning system for small animal imaging using non-contact, hybrid broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy (ncDOS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (ncDCS) is presented. The ncDOS uses a two-dimensional spectrophotometer retrieving broadband (610-900 nm) spectral information from up to fifty-seven source-detector distances between 2 and 5 mm. The ncDCS data is simultaneously acquired from four source-detector pairs. The sample is scanned in two dimensions while tracking variations in height. The system has been validated with liquid phantoms, demonstrated in vivo on a human fingertip during an arm cuff occlusion and on a group of mice with xenoimplanted renal cell carcinoma.

  4. Capabilities of a single scan TV-radiographic system for digital data acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baily, N. A.; Crepeau, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    A single scan TV-radiography system capable of providing analogue signals ready for A-D conversion for input to a computer has been investigated. Modulation transfer functions of both horizontal and vertical resolution have been obtained. The capability for gray scale reproduction was also investigated. The output data rate of the system is 16 KHz thereby providing compatibility to A-D converters generally available for most computers. In general, the capability of the system was found to exceed the input capabilities of available image-amplifiers and is therefore acceptable for quantitative fluoroscopic applications.

  5. Compact Multipurpose Mobile Laser Scanning System — Initial Tests and Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Glennie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a prototype compact mobile laser scanning system that may be operated from a backpack or unmanned aerial vehicle. The system is small, self-contained, relatively inexpensive, and easy to deploy. A description of system components is presented, along with the initial calibration of the multi-sensor platform. The first field tests of the system, both in backpack mode and mounted on a helium balloon for real-world applications are presented. For both field tests, the acquired kinematic LiDAR data are compared with highly accurate static terrestrial laser scanning point clouds. These initial results show that the vertical accuracy of the point cloud for the prototype system is approximately 4 cm (1σ in balloon mode, and 3 cm (1σ in backpack mode while horizontal accuracy was approximately 17 cm (1σ for the balloon tests. Results from selected study areas on the Sacramento River Delta and San Andreas Fault in California demonstrate system performance, deployment agility and flexibility, and potential for operational production of high density and highly accurate point cloud data. Cost and production rate trade-offs place this system in the niche between existing airborne and tripod mounted LiDAR systems.

  6. Accuracy of optical scanning methods of the Cerec®3D system in the process of making ceramic inlays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifković Branka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. One of the results of many years of Cerec® 3D CAD/CAM system technological development is implementation of one intraoral and two extraoral optical scanning methods which, depending on the current indications, are applied in making fixed restorations. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of precision of optical scanning methods by the use of the Cerec®3D CAD/CAM system in the process of making ceramic inlays. Methods. The study was conducted in three experimental groups of inlays prepared using the procedure of three methods of scanning Cerec ®3D system. Ceramic inlays made by conventional methodology were the control group. The accuracy of optical scanning methods of the Cerec®3D system computer aided designcomputer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM was indirectly examined by measuring a marginal gap size between inlays and demarcation preparation by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results. The results of the study showed a difference in the accuracy of the existing methods of scanning dental CAD/CAM systems. The highest level of accuracy was achieved by the extraoral optical superficial scanning technique. The value of marginal gap size inlays made with the technique of extraoral optical superficial scanning was 32.97 ± 13.17 μ. Techniques of intraoral optical superficial and extraoral point laser scanning showed a lower level of accuracy (40.29 ± 21.46 μ for inlays of intraoral optical superficial scanning and 99.67 ± 37.25 μ for inlays of extraoral point laser scanning. Conclusion. Optical scanning methods in dental CAM/CAM technologies are precise methods of digitizing the spatial models; application of extraoral optical scanning methods provides the hightest precision.

  7. A slow-light laser radar system with two-dimensional scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinsberg, Aaron; Shi, Zhimin; Vornehm, Joseph E; Boyd, Robert W

    2012-02-01

    We propose a multi-aperture slow-light laser radar with two-dimensional scanning. We demonstrate experimentally that we can use two independent slow-light mechanisms, namely dispersive delay and stimulated Brillouin scattering, to dynamically compensate the group delay mismatch among different apertures, while we use optical phase locking to control the relative phases of the optical signals emitted from different apertures, as the system steers the beam in two dimensions.

  8. New light on chromotherapy: Grakov's 'Virtual Scanning' system of medical assessment and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Alex; Ewing, Elena

    2007-06-01

    Virtual Scanning incorporates novel uses of colored light into its system of health assessment and therapy. Independent investigations of its effectiveness in Russia and the UK have revealed unique abilities to correct incipient and fully developed chronic conditions. As such it forms an important new addition to the field of Chromotherapy. It differs from most others, in that its development depended on discoveries in neuroscience by its inventor, and subsequent application of new models in computational neuroscience.

  9. New Light on Chromotherapy: Grakov's ?Virtual Scanning? System of Medical Assessment and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hankey, Alex; Ewing, Elena

    2006-01-01

    Virtual Scanning incorporates novel uses of colored light into its system of health assessment and therapy. Independent investigations of its effectiveness in Russia and the UK have revealed unique abilities to correct incipient and fully developed chronic conditions. As such it forms an important new addition to the field of Chromotherapy. It differs from most others, in that its development depended on discoveries in neuroscience by its inventor, and subsequent application of new models in ...

  10. A Structured Light-based System for Scanning Subcutaneous Tumors in Laboratory Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Girit, Ibrahim Cem; Jure-Kunkel, Maria; McIntyre, Kim W

    2008-01-01

    Tumor size or volume is often the primary endpoint in preclinical efficacy studies of anticancer drugs. Efficient and accurate measurement of such tumors is crucial to rapid evaluation of novel drug candidates. Currently available techniques for acquiring high-throughput data on tumor volume are time-consuming and prone to various inaccuracies and errors. The laser-scanning technology we describe here provides a convenient, high-throughput system for tumor measurement that reduces interoperat...

  11. Spatial characterisation of a 36-fold segmented AGATA detector via a novel scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, Namita

    2011-06-06

    The core principle of segmented gamma-tracking germanium detector arrays like AGATA and GRETA, that will be used in future for 4{pi} gamma detection, is the application of pulse shape analysis (PSA). The 3D position sensitivity of the HPGe detectors is based on differences in the shape of the charge pulses associated with different interaction points inside the whole volume. It is therefore necessary for this analysis to have a data base containing pulses for all the interaction points inside the detector volume. A full 3D scanning of the detectors, which experimentally determines pulse shapes for each position inside the active volume, is therefore needed. In this thesis, a novel scanning system is presented to determine the HPGe detector pulse shapes as a function of the {gamma}-ray interaction position inside the detector. The device is based on a pulse shape comparison scan (PSCS) and the positron annihilation correlation (PAC) method which makes it about 100 times faster than the conventional coincidence based scanners. The performance and efficiency of the system is superior because of using a position sensitive detector (PSD)/gamma camera. It consists of a LYSO scintillating crystal optically coupled to a position sensitive photomultiplier tube. The individual multianode readout (IMAR) approach is used to achieve a spatial resolution of {approx}1 mm and to optimize its field of view to {approx}28 cm{sup 2}. A Compton scattering imaging technique is implemented to perform an accurate position calibration of the gamma camera. The employment of PSD yields an added advantage of imaging capability which allows to study e.g. the details of the inner structure of HPGe detectors and electric field anisotropy effects. The position response of a planar HPGe detector is obtained using the apparatus and the risetime distribution plots are compared with those obtained via a conventional scanning system. However, to validate the aforementioned scanning principle, an AGATA

  12. A LOW BUDGET MOBILE LASER SCANNING SOLUTION USING ON BOARD SENSORS AND FIELD BUS SYSTEMS OF TODAY'S CONSUMER AUTOMOBILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. M. Vock

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile laser scanning systems (MLS offer a great potential for acquiring detailed point cloud data of urban and suburban surroundings with minimum effort. In this paper a new solution for MLSs is presented, requiring solely a combination of a profile laser scanning device and systems that are included in today's serialized end consumer vehicles. While today's mobile laser scan systems require different and expensive additional hardware that needs to be mounted onto the vehicle, the devices included within vehicle electronics offer good alternatives without additional costs.The actual scan consists of a continuous profile scan together with information gathered from on-board sensor modules. In a post- processing step, the sensor data is used to reconstruct the car's trajectory for the period of the scan and, based on this information, the track of the scan device for every measured laser pixel. Synchronization of pixel data and vehicle movement is realized via a timestamp signal which is transmitted to the car's field bus system and the scan device. To generate the final point cloud scenario, the trajectory is interpolated for every single scan point and used to convert its local position within the profile into the global coordinate system (Fig.1, Left.

  13. A beam monitoring and validation system for continuous line scanning in proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimpki, G.; Psoroulas, S.; Bula, C.; Rechsteiner, U.; Eichin, M.; Weber, D. C.; Lomax, A.; Meer, D.

    2017-08-01

    Line scanning represents a faster and potentially more flexible form of pencil beam scanning than conventional step-and-shoot irradiations. It seeks to minimize dead times in beam delivery whilst preserving the possibility of modulating the dose at any point in the target volume. Our second generation proton gantry features irradiations in line scanning mode, but it still lacks a dedicated monitoring and validation system that guarantees patient safety throughout the irradiation. We report on its design and implementation in this paper. In line scanning, we steer the proton beam continuously along straight lines while adapting the speed and/or current frequently to modulate the delivered dose. We intend to prevent delivery errors that could be clinically relevant through a two-stage system: safety level 1 monitors the beam current and position every 10 μs. We demonstrate that direct readings from ionization chambers in the gantry nozzle and Hall probes in the scanner magnets provide required information on current and position, respectively. Interlocks will be raised when measured signals exceed their predefined tolerance bands. Even in case of an erroneous delivery, safety level 1 restricts hot and cold spots of the physically delivered fraction dose to  ±36~mGy (±2% of 2~Gy biologically). In safety level 2—an additional, partly redundant validation step—we compare the integral line profile measured with a strip monitor in the nozzle to a forward-calculated prediction. The comparison is performed between two line applications to detect amplifying inaccuracies in speed and current modulation. This level can be regarded as an online quality assurance of the machine. Both safety levels use devices and functionalities already installed along the beamline. Hence, the presented monitoring and validation system preserves full compatibility of discrete and continuous delivery mode on a single gantry, with the possibility of switching between modes during the

  14. A beam monitoring and validation system for continuous line scanning in proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimpki, G; Psoroulas, S; Bula, C; Rechsteiner, U; Eichin, M; Weber, D C; Lomax, A; Meer, D

    2017-07-12

    Line scanning represents a faster and potentially more flexible form of pencil beam scanning than conventional step-and-shoot irradiations. It seeks to minimize dead times in beam delivery whilst preserving the possibility of modulating the dose at any point in the target volume. Our second generation proton gantry features irradiations in line scanning mode, but it still lacks a dedicated monitoring and validation system that guarantees patient safety throughout the irradiation. We report on its design and implementation in this paper. In line scanning, we steer the proton beam continuously along straight lines while adapting the speed and/or current frequently to modulate the delivered dose. We intend to prevent delivery errors that could be clinically relevant through a two-stage system: safety level 1 monitors the beam current and position every 10 μs. We demonstrate that direct readings from ionization chambers in the gantry nozzle and Hall probes in the scanner magnets provide required information on current and position, respectively. Interlocks will be raised when measured signals exceed their predefined tolerance bands. Even in case of an erroneous delivery, safety level 1 restricts hot and cold spots of the physically delivered fraction dose to  ±[Formula: see text] (±[Formula: see text] of [Formula: see text] biologically). In safety level 2-an additional, partly redundant validation step-we compare the integral line profile measured with a strip monitor in the nozzle to a forward-calculated prediction. The comparison is performed between two line applications to detect amplifying inaccuracies in speed and current modulation. This level can be regarded as an online quality assurance of the machine. Both safety levels use devices and functionalities already installed along the beamline. Hence, the presented monitoring and validation system preserves full compatibility of discrete and continuous delivery mode on a single gantry, with the possibility

  15. Integrated fringe projection 3D scanning system for large-scale metrology based on laser tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hui; Chen, Xiaobo; Zhou, Dan; Guo, Gen; Xi, Juntong

    2017-10-01

    Large scale components exist widely in advance manufacturing industry,3D profilometry plays a pivotal role for the quality control. This paper proposes a flexible, robust large-scale 3D scanning system by integrating a robot with a binocular structured light scanner and a laser tracker. The measurement principle and system construction of the integrated system are introduced. And a mathematical model is established for the global data fusion. Subsequently, a flexible and robust method and mechanism is introduced for the establishment of the end coordination system. Based on this method, a virtual robot noumenon is constructed for hand-eye calibration. And then the transformation matrix between end coordination system and world coordination system is solved. Validation experiment is implemented for verifying the proposed algorithms. Firstly, hand-eye transformation matrix is solved. Then a car body rear is measured for 16 times for the global data fusion algorithm verification. And the 3D shape of the rear is reconstructed successfully.

  16. The CNAO dose delivery system for modulated scanning ion beam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordanengo, S.; Marchetto, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Torino 10125 (Italy); Garella, M. A.; Donetti, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Torino 10125, Italy and Centro Nazionale Adroterapia Oncologica, Pavia 27100 (Italy); Bourhaleb, F.; Monaco, V.; Hosseini, M. A.; Peroni, C.; Sacchi, R.; Cirio, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Torino 10125, Italy and Physics Department, University of Torino, Torino 10125 (Italy); Ciocca, M.; Mirandola, A. [Centro Nazionale Adroterapia Oncologica, Pavia 27100 (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: This paper describes the system for the dose delivery currently used at the Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO) for ion beam modulated scanning radiotherapy. Methods: CNAO Foundation, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and University of Torino have designed, built, and commissioned a dose delivery system (DDS) to monitor and guide ion beams accelerated by a dedicated synchrotron and to distribute the dose with a full 3D scanning technique. Protons and carbon ions are provided for a wide range of energies in order to cover a sizable span of treatment depths. The target volume, segmented in several layers orthogonally to the beam direction, is irradiated by thousands of pencil beams which must be steered and held to the prescribed positions until the prescribed number of particles has been delivered. For the CNAO beam lines, these operations are performed by the DDS. The main components of this system are two independent beam monitoring detectors, called BOX1 and BOX2, interfaced with two control systems performing the tasks of real-time fast and slow control, and connected to the scanning magnets and the beam chopper. As a reaction to any condition leading to a potential hazard, a DDS interlock signal is sent to the patient interlock system which immediately stops the irradiation. The essential tasks and operations performed by the DDS are described following the data flow from the treatment planning system through the end of the treatment delivery. Results: The ability of the DDS to guarantee a safe and accurate treatment was validated during the commissioning phase by means of checks of the charge collection efficiency, gain uniformity of the chambers, and 2D dose distribution homogeneity and stability. A high level of reliability and robustness has been proven by three years of system activity needing rarely more than regular maintenance and working with 100% uptime. Four identical and independent DDS devices have been tested showing

  17. Superresolution upgrade for confocal spinning disk systems using image scanning microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbaner, Sebastian; Hähnel, Dirk; Gregor, Ingo; Enderlein, Jörg

    2017-02-01

    Confocal Spinning Disk Systems are widely used for 3D cell imaging because they offer the advantage of optical sectioning at high framerates and are easy to use. However, as in confocal microscopy, the imaging resolution is diffraction limited, which can be theoretically improved by a factor of 2 using the principle of Image Scanning Microscopy (ISM) [1]. ISM with a Confocal Spinning Disk setup (CSDISM) has been shown to improve contrast as well as lateral resolution (FWHM) from 201 +/- 20 nm to 130 +/- 10 nm at 488 nm excitation. A minimum total acquisition time of one second per ISM image makes this method highly suitable for 3D live cell imaging [2]. Here, we present a multicolor implementation of CSDISM for the popular Micro-Manager Open Source Microscopy platform. Since changes in the optical path are not necessary, this will allow any researcher to easily upgrade their standard Confocal Spinning Disk system at remarkable low cost ( 5000 USD) with an ISM superresolution option. [1]. Müller, C.B. and Enderlein, J. Image Scanning Microscopy. Physical Review Letters 104, (2010). [2]. Schulz, O. et al. Resolution doubling in fluorescence microscopy with confocal spinning-disk image scanning microscopy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110, 21000-5 (2013).

  18. Application of information theory to the design of line-scan imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, F. O.; Park, S. K.; Halyo, N.; Stallman, S.

    1981-01-01

    Information theory is used to formulate a single figure of merit for assessing the performance of line scan imaging systems as a function of their spatial response (point spread function or modulation transfer function), sensitivity, sampling and quantization intervals, and the statistical properties of a random radiance field. Computational results for the information density and efficiency (i.e., the ratio of information density to data density) are intuitively satisfying and compare well with experimental and theoretical results obtained by earlier investigators concerned with the performance of TV systems.

  19. Foveated scanning: dynamic monodimensional enlargement of resolved field of view in lenses of scanner systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaherian, Farhang; Rashidian, Bizhan

    2016-09-10

    An inconsistency between the circular symmetric geometry of conventional optical imagers and the geometry of long linear sensors used in today's line-scan cameras results in suboptimal separate design of optics and electronics of scanner systems. Based on the method of foveated optical imaging, a technique named foveated scanning (FS) is proposed in this paper. The FS technique is employed to enlarge the one-dimensional resolved field of view (RFOV) of conventional lenses and permits optimized performance on a line-of-interest in the image plane where the optoelectronic sensor is located. The achieved enlargement of RFOV is verified on a proof-of-concept basic telephoto lens. Both modulation transfer function analysis and the imaging simulation of a standard target have been performed. Results show a twofold increase in RFOV by this technique.

  20. CAD-based intelligent robot system integrated with 3D scanning for shoe roughing and cementing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Cheng-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Roughing and cementing are very essential to the process of bonding shoe uppers and the corresponding soles; however, for shoes with complicated design, such as sport shoes, roughing and cementing greatly relied on manual operation. Recently, shoe industry is progressing to 3D design, thus 3D model of the shoe upper and sole will be created before launching into mass production. Taking advantage of the 3D model, this study developed a plug-in program on Rhino 3D CAD platform, which realized the complicated roughing and cementing route planning to be performed by the plug-in program, integrated with real-time 3D scanning information to compensate the planned route, and then converted to working trajectory of robot arm to implement roughing and cementing. The proposed 3D CAD-based intelligent robot arm system integrated with 3D scanning for shoe roughing and cementing is realized and proved to be feasible.

  1. Acquisition of quantitative physiological data and computerized image reconstruction using a single scan TV system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baily, N. A.

    1976-01-01

    A single-scan radiography system has been interfaced to a minicomputer, and the combined system has been used with a variety of fluoroscopic systems and image intensifiers available in clinical facilities. The system's response range is analyzed, and several applications are described. These include determination of the gray scale for typical X-ray-fluoroscopic-television chains, measurement of gallstone volume in patients, localization of markers or other small anatomical features, determinations of organ areas and volumes, computer reconstruction of tomographic sections of organs in motion, and computer reconstruction of transverse axial body sections from fluoroscopic images. It is concluded that this type of system combined with a minimum of statistical processing shows excellent capabilities for delineating small changes in differential X-ray attenuation.

  2. Optimization of an Adaptive SPECT System with the Scanning Linear Estimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Nasrin; Clarkson, Eric; Kupinski, Matthew; Li, Xin

    2017-09-01

    A method for optimization of an adaptive Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) system is presented. Adaptive imaging systems can quickly change their hardware configuration in response to data being generated in order to improve image quality for a specific task. In this work we simulate an adaptive SPECT system and propose a method for finding the adaptation that maximizes the performance on a signal estimation task. To start with, a simulated object model containing a spherical signal is imaged with a scout configuration. A Markov-Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique utilizes the scout data to generate an ensemble of possible objects consistent with the scout data. This object ensemble is imaged by numerous simulated hardware configurations and for each system estimates of signal activity, size and location are calculated via the Scanning Linear Estimator (SLE). A figure of merit, based on a Modified Dice Index (MDI), quantifies the performance of each imaging configuration and it allows for optimization of the adaptive SPECT. This figure of merit is calculated by multiplying two terms: the first term uses the definition of the Dice similarity index to determine the percent of overlap between the actual and the estimated spherical signal, the second term utilizes an exponential function that measures the squared error for the activity estimate. The MDI combines the error in estimates of activity, size, and location, in one convenient metric and it allows for simultaneous optimization of the SPECT system with respect to all the estimated signal parameters. The results of our optimizations indicate that the adaptive system performs better than a non-adaptive one in conditions where the diagnostic scan has a low photon count - on the order of thousand photons per projection. In a statistical study, we optimized the SPECT system for one hundred unique objects and demonstrated that the average MDI on an estimation task is 0.84 for the adaptive system and 0

  3. Excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging system for microscopic and endoscopic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Sam A.; Leavesley, Silas J.; Rich, Thomas C.

    2016-04-01

    Current microscopic and endoscopic technologies for cancer screening utilize white-light illumination sources. Hyper-spectral imaging has been shown to improve sensitivity while retaining specificity when compared to white-light imaging in both microscopy and in vivo imaging. However, hyperspectral imaging methods have historically suffered from slow acquisition times due to the narrow bandwidth of spectral filters. Often minutes are required to gather a full image stack. We have developed a novel approach called excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging that provides 2-3 orders of magnitude increased signal strength. This reduces acquisition times significantly, allowing for live video acquisition. Here, we describe a preliminary prototype excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging system that can be coupled with endoscopes or microscopes for hyperspectral imaging of tissues and cells. Our system is comprised of three subsystems: illumination, transmission, and imaging. The illumination subsystem employs light-emitting diode arrays to illuminate at different wavelengths. The transmission subsystem utilizes a unique geometry of optics and a liquid light guide. Software controls allow us to interface with and control the subsystems and components. Digital and analog signals are used to coordinate wavelength intensity, cycling and camera triggering. Testing of the system shows it can cycle 16 wavelengths at as fast as 1 ms per cycle. Additionally, more than 18% of the light transmits through the system. Our setup should allow for hyperspectral imaging of tissue and cells in real time.

  4. Development of a wing-beat-modulation scanning lidar system for insect studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauc, Martin Jan; Fristrup, Kurt M.; Shaw, Joseph A.

    2017-08-01

    The spatial distributions of flying insects are not well understood since most sampling methods - Malaise traps, sticky traps, vacuum traps, light traps - are not suited to documenting movements or changing distributions of various insects on short time scales. These methods also capture and kill the insects. To noninvasively monitor the spatial distributions of flying insects, we developed and implemented a scanning lidar system that measured wing-beat-modulated scattered laser light. The oscillating signal from wing-beat returns allowed for reliable separation of lidar returns for insects and stationary objects. Transmitting and receiving optics were mounted to a telescope that was attached to a scanning mount. As it scanned, the lidar collected and analyzed the light scattered from insect wings of various species. Mount position and pulse time-of-flight determined spatial location and spectral analysis of the backscattered light provided clues to insect identity. During one day of a four-day field campaign at Grand Teton National Park in June of 2016, 76 very likely insects and 662 somewhat likely insects were detected, with a maximum range to the insect of 87.6 m for very likely insects

  5. Development of an ultra wide band microwave radar based footwear scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezgui, Nacer Ddine; Bowring, Nicholas J.; Andrews, David A.; Harmer, Stuart W.; Southgate, Matthew J.; O'Reilly, Dean

    2013-10-01

    At airports, security screening can cause long delays. In order to speed up screening a solution to avoid passengers removing their shoes to have them X-ray scanned is required. To detect threats or contraband items hidden within the shoe, a method of screening using frequency swept signals between 15 to 40 GHz has been developed, where the scan is carried out whilst the shoes are being worn. Most footwear is transparent to microwaves to some extent in this band. The scans, data processing and interpretation of the 2D image of the cross section of the shoe are completed in a few seconds. Using safe low power UWB radar, scattered signals from the shoe can be observed which are caused by changes in material properties such as cavities, dielectric or metal objects concealed within the shoe. By moving the transmission horn along the length of the shoe a 2D image corresponding to a cross section through the footwear is built up, which can be interpreted by the user, or automatically, to reveal the presence of concealed threat within the shoe. A prototype system with a resolution of 6 mm or less has been developed and results obtained for a wide range of commonly worn footwear, some modified by the inclusion of concealed material. Clear differences between the measured images of modified and unmodified shoes are seen. Procedures for enhancing the image through electronic image synthesis techniques and image processing methods are discussed and preliminary performance data presented.

  6. Scanning laser optical computed tomography system for large volume 3D dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Kurtis H.; Battista, Jerry J.; Jordan, Kevin J.

    2017-04-01

    Stray light causes artifacts in optical computed tomography (CT) that negatively affect the accuracy of radiation dosimetry in gels or solids. Scatter effects are exacerbated by a large dosimeter volume, which is desirable for direct verification of modern radiotherapy treatment plans such as multiple-isocenter radiosurgery. The goal in this study was to design and characterize an optical CT system that achieves high accuracy primary transmission measurements through effective stray light rejection, while maintaining sufficient scan speed for practical application. We present an optical imaging platform that uses a galvanometer mirror for horizontal scanning, and a translation stage for vertical movement of a laser beam and small area detector for minimal stray light production and acceptance. This is coupled with a custom lens-shaped optical CT aquarium for parallel ray sampling of projections. The scanner images 15 cm diameter, 12 cm height cylindrical volumes at 0.33 mm resolution in approximately 30 min. Attenuation coefficients reconstructed from CT scans agreed with independent cuvette measurements within 2% for both absorbing and scattering solutions as well as small 1.25 cm diameter absorbing phantoms placed within a large, scattering medium that mimics gel. Excellent linearity between the optical CT scanner and the independent measurement was observed for solutions with between 90% and 2% transmission. These results indicate that the scanner should achieve highly accurate dosimetry of large volume dosimeters in a reasonable timeframe for clinical application to radiotherapy dose verification procedures.

  7. A structured light-based system for scanning subcutaneous tumors in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girit, Ibrahim Cem; Jure-Kunkel, Maria; McIntyre, Kim W

    2008-06-01

    Tumor size or volume is often the primary endpoint in preclinical efficacy studies of anticancer drugs. Efficient and accurate measurement of such tumors is crucial to rapid evaluation of novel drug candidates. Currently available techniques for acquiring high-throughput data on tumor volume are time-consuming and prone to various inaccuracies and errors. The laser-scanning technology we describe here provides a convenient, high-throughput system for tumor measurement that reduces interoperator variability and bias while providing automated data collection, processing and analysis.

  8. Electronic properties of (Zn,CoO systems probed by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Moldovan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to gain insight into theelectronic properties of (Zn,CoO system - a widebandgap Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors (DMSshowing room temperature (RT ferromagnetism undern-type doping conditions. On the experimental side, ultrahigh-vacuum scanning tunnelling microscopy andspectroscopy (STM and STS at variable temperature (Tare used to probe the local electronic structure of thesystem. It is presented the map of the local density ofstates (LDOS of polar ZnO surfaces. Then, it is possibleto decorate (incorporate Co atoms onto (into thesemiconductor.

  9. USE OF A LASER SCANNING SYSTEM FOR PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION AND SCENE ASSESSMENT OF FIRE RESCUE UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk MAREK

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a study focused on usability of a 3D laser scanning system by fire rescue units during emergencies, respectively during preparations for inspection and tactical exercises. The first part of the study focuses on an applicability of a 3D scanner in relation to an accurate evaluation of a fire scene through digitization and creation of virtual walk-through of the fire scene. The second part deals with detailed documentation of access road to the place of intervention, including a simulation of the fire vehicle arrival.

  10. Conceptual study of the use of laser scanning systems for plate dimension and shape measurement in shipbuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ian; Pan, X.; Wang, X.

    1996-08-01

    A laser scanning system is proposed to enable the measurement of dimensions of steel plates used in shipbuilding with the objective being design verification and tolerance monitoring at the early stages of assembly. When the system is combined with a second scanning-viewing system it is demonstrated that depth measurements can be obtained giving the 3D shape of the plate or structure. The precision of the two configurations is discussed and evaluated.

  11. D Scanning of Live Pigs System and its Application in Body Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H.; Wang, K.; Su, W.; Zhu, D. H.; Liu, W. L.; Xing, Ch.; Chen, Z. R.

    2017-09-01

    The shape of a live pig is an important indicator of its health and value, whether for breeding or for carcass quality. This paper implements a prototype system for live single pig body surface 3d scanning based on two consumer depth cameras, utilizing the 3d point clouds data. These cameras are calibrated in advance to have a common coordinate system. The live 3D point clouds stream of moving single pig is obtained by two Xtion Pro Live sensors from different viewpoints simultaneously. A novel detection method is proposed and applied to automatically detect the frames containing pigs with the correct posture from the point clouds stream, according to the geometric characteristics of pig's shape. The proposed method is incorporated in a hybrid scheme, that serves as the preprocessing step in a body measurements framework for pigs. Experimental results show the portability of our scanning system and effectiveness of our detection method. Furthermore, an updated this point cloud preprocessing software for livestock body measurements can be downloaded freely from https://github.com/LiveStockShapeAnalysis to livestock industry, research community and can be used for monitoring livestock growth status.

  12. 3D SCANNING OF LIVE PIGS SYSTEM AND ITS APPLICATION IN BODY MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a live pig is an important indicator of its health and value, whether for breeding or for carcass quality. This paper implements a prototype system for live single pig body surface 3d scanning based on two consumer depth cameras, utilizing the 3d point clouds data. These cameras are calibrated in advance to have a common coordinate system. The live 3D point clouds stream of moving single pig is obtained by two Xtion Pro Live sensors from different viewpoints simultaneously. A novel detection method is proposed and applied to automatically detect the frames containing pigs with the correct posture from the point clouds stream, according to the geometric characteristics of pig’s shape. The proposed method is incorporated in a hybrid scheme, that serves as the preprocessing step in a body measurements framework for pigs. Experimental results show the portability of our scanning system and effectiveness of our detection method. Furthermore, an updated this point cloud preprocessing software for livestock body measurements can be downloaded freely from https://github.com/LiveStockShapeAnalysis to livestock industry, research community and can be used for monitoring livestock growth status.

  13. A flexible Labview{trademark}-based data acquisition and analysis system for scanning microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel H. Morse; Arlyn J. Antolak; Graham S. Bench; Mark L. Roberts

    1998-10-08

    A new data analysis system has been developed with computer-controlled beam and sample positioning, video sample imaging, multiple large solid angle detectors for x-rays and gamma-rays, and surface barrier detectors for charged particles. The system uses the LabVIEW{trademark} programming language allowing it to be easily ported between different computer operating systems. In the present configuration, digital signal processors are directly interfaced to a SCSI CAMAC controller. However, the modular software design permits the substitution of other hardware with LabVIEW-supported drivers. On-line displays of histogram and two-dimensional elemental map images provide a user-friendly data acquisition interface. Subregions of the two-dimensional maps may be selected interactively for detailed analysis or for subsequent scanning. Off-line data processing of archived data currently yields elemental maps, analyzed spectra and reconstructions of tomographic data.

  14. A hand-held 3D laser scanning with global positioning system of subvoxel precision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Nestor [GOM, Departamento de Fisica y Geologia, Universidad de Pamplona (Colombia); Meneses, Nestor; Meneses, Jaime [GOTS-CENM, Escuela de Fisica, UIS, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Gharbi, Tijani, E-mail: nesariher@unipamplona.edu.co [Departement D' Optique, FEMTO-ST, 16 Route de Gray, 25030 Besancon (France)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a hand-held 3D laser scanner composed of an optical head device to extract 3D local surface information and a stereo vision system with subvoxel precision to measure the position and orientation of the 3D optical head. The optical head is manually scanned over the surface object by the operator. The orientation and position of the 3D optical head is determined by a phase-sensitive method using a 2D regular intensity pattern. This phase reference pattern is rigidly fixed to the optical head and allows their 3D location with subvoxel precision in the observation field of the stereo vision system. The 3D resolution achieved by the stereo vision system is about 33 microns at 1.8 m with an observation field of 60cm x 60cm.

  15. Integral three-dimensional television using a 2000-scanning-line video system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Jun; Okui, Makoto; Yamashita, Takayuki; Okano, Fumio

    2006-03-01

    We have developed an integral three-dimensional (3-D) television that uses a 2000-scanning-line video system that can shoot and display 3-D color moving images in real time. We had previously developed an integral 3-D television that used a high-definition television system. The new system uses ˜6 times as many elemental images [160 (horizontal)×118 (vertical) elemental images] arranged at ˜1.5 times the density to improve further the picture quality of the reconstructed image. Through comparison an image near the lens array can be reconstructed at ˜1.9 times the spatial frequency, and the viewing angle is ˜1.5 times as wide.

  16. CADBOSS: A computer-aided diagnosis system for whole-body bone scintigraphy scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslantas, Ali; Dandil, Emre; Saǧlam, Semahat; Çakiroǧlu, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a computer-aided diagnosis system for bone scintigraphy scans. (CADBOSS). CADBOSS can detect metastases with a high success rates. The primary purpose of CADBOSS is as supplementary software to facilitate physician's decision making. CADBOSS consists of various elements, such as hotspot segmentation, feature extraction/selection and classification. A level set active contour segmentation algorithm was used for the detection of hotspots. Moreover, a novel image gridding method was proposed for feature extraction of metastatic regions. An artificial neural network classifier was used to determine whether metastases were present. Performance evaluation of CADBOSS was performed with the help of an image database which included 130 images. (30 non-metastases and 100 metastases) collected from 60 volunteers. All images were obtained within approximately 3 hours after injecting a small amount of radioactive material 99mTc-MDP into the patients and then carrying out scanning with a gamma camera. The 10-fold cross-validation technique was used for all tests. CADBOSS could correctly identify in 120 out of 130 images. Thus, the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of CADBOSS were 92.30%, 94%, and 86.67%, respectively. Moreover, CADBOSS increased physician's success in detecting metastases from 95.38% to 96.9%. Detailed experiments showed that CADBOSS outperforms state-of-the-art computer-aided diagnosis. (CAD) systems and reasonably improves physician' diagnostic success.

  17. The Calibration Model and Simulation Analysis of Circular Scanning Airborne Laser Bathymetry System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEN Erhua

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To improve the positioning accuracy of circular scanning airborne laser bathymetry system, a calibration method is presented in this paper. When the laser points are collected by the bathymetry system on the level area, they should be on the same plane. However, they are not coplanar because of systematic error and random error. So we try to fit the points to a plane, which may help to adjust the errors and then correct the point location.Firstly, the circular scanning airborne laser bathymetry positioning model is derived in the simple mode. The intersection of laser line and sea surface is simulated depending on the mathematical principles of line and plane intersection. Combined with the direction vector of laser line in the water got by the refraction principle, the sea floor plane mathematical equation is used to compute the location of the laser points. Then, the parameter weighted least squares adjustment model is derived with the prior variance introduced, which lays the foundation for the following computing of calibration model. Finally, the calibration adjustment mathematic model and the detailed computing process are derived. The simulation computing and analysis for the calibration process is presented, and some meaningful conclusions for the calibration are achieved.

  18. Design and construction of a cost-efficient Arduino-based mirror galvanometer system for scanning optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jen-Feng; Dhingra, Shonali; D'Urso, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Mirror galvanometer systems (galvos) are commonly employed in research and commercial applications in areas involving laser imaging, laser machining, laser-light shows, and others. Here, we present a robust, moderate-speed, and cost-efficient home-built galvo system. The mechanical part of this design consists of one mirror, which is tilted around two axes with multiple surface transducers. We demonstrate the ability of this galvo by scanning the mirror using a computer, via a custom driver circuit. The performance of the galvo, including scan range, noise, linearity, and scan speed, is characterized. As an application, we show that this galvo system can be used in a confocal scanning microscopy system.

  19. Application of a self-compensation mechanism to a rotary-laser scanning measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Siyang; Lin, Jiarui; Ren, Yongjie; Shi, Shendong; Zhu, Jigui

    2017-11-01

    In harsh environmental conditions, the relative orientations of transmitters of rotary-laser scanning measuring systems are easily influenced by low-frequency vibrations or creep deformation of the support structure. A self-compensation method that counters this problem is presented. This method is based on an improved workshop Measurement Positioning System (wMPS) with inclinometer-combined transmitters. A calibration method for the spatial rotation between the transmitter and inclinometer with an auxiliary horizontal reference frame is presented. It is shown that the calibration accuracy can be improved by a mechanical adjustment using a special bubble level. The orientation-compensation algorithm of the transmitters is described in detail. The feasibility of this compensation mechanism is validated by Monte Carlo simulations and experiments. The mechanism mainly provides a two-degrees-of-freedom attitude compensation.

  20. Ultra-High Vacuum Compatible Optical Chopper System for Synchrotron X-ray Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hao; Cummings, Marvin L.; Shirato, Nozomi; Stripe, Benjamin D.; Rosenmann, Daniel; Preissner, Curt A.; Freeland, John W.; Kersell, Heath R.; Hla, Saw Wai; Rose, Volker

    2015-01-01

    High-speed beam choppers are a crucial part of time-resolved x-ray studies as well as a necessary component to enable elemental contrast in synchrotron x-ray scanning tunneling microscopy (SX-STM). However, many chopper systems are not capable of operation in vacuum, which restricts their application to x-ray studies with high photon energies, where air absorption does not present a significant problem. To overcome this limitation, we present a fully ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible chopper system capable of operating at variable chopping frequencies up to 4 kHz. The lightweight aluminum chopper disk is coated with Ti and Au films to provide the required beam attenuation for soft and hard x-rays with photon energies up to about 12 keV. The chopper is used for lock-in detection of x-ray enhanced signals in SX-STM.

  1. Ultra-high vacuum compatible optical chopper system for synchrotron x-ray scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hao, E-mail: hc000211@ohio.edu [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Physics & Astronomy Department, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States); Cummings, Marvin; Shirato, Nozomi; Stripe, Benjamin; Preissner, Curt; Freeland, John W. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Rosenmann, Daniel [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Kersell, Heath; Hla, Saw-Wai [Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Physics & Astronomy Department, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States); Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Rose, Volker, E-mail: vrose@anl.gov [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2016-01-28

    High-speed beam choppers are a crucial part of time-resolved x-ray studies as well as a necessary component to enable elemental contrast in synchrotron x-ray scanning tunneling microscopy (SX-STM). However, many chopper systems are not capable of operation in vacuum, which restricts their application to x-ray studies with high photon energies, where air absorption does not present a significant problem. To overcome this limitation, we present a fully ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible chopper system capable of operating at variable chopping frequencies up to 4 kHz. The lightweight aluminum chopper disk is coated with Ti and Au films to provide the required beam attenuation for soft and hard x-rays with photon energies up to about 12 keV. The chopper is used for lock-in detection of x-ray enhanced signals in SX-STM.

  2. Efficacy of Lens Protection Systems: Dependency on Different Cranial CT Scans in The Acute Stroke Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guberina, Nika; Forsting, Michael; Ringelstein, Adrian

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate the dose-reduction potential with different lens protectors for patients undergoing cranial computed tomography (CT) scans. Eye lens dose was assessed in vitro (α-Al2O3:C thermoluminescence dosemeters) using an Alderson-Rando phantom® in cranial CT protocols at different CT scanners (SOMATOM-Definition-AS+®(CT1) and SOMATOM-Definition-Flash® (CT2)) using two different lens-protection systems (Somatex® (SOM) and Medical Imaging Systems® (MIS)). Summarised percentage of the transmitted photons: (1) CT1 (a) unenhanced CT (nCT) with gantry angulation: SOM = 103%, MIS = 111%; (2) CT2 (a) nCT without gantry angulation: SOM = 81%, MIS = 91%; (b) CT angiography (CTA) with automatic dose-modulation technique: SOM = 39%, MIS = 74%; (c) CTA without dose-modulation technique: SOM = 22%, MIS = 48%; (d) CT perfusion: SOM = 44%, MIS = 69%. SOM showed a higher dose-reduction potential than MIS maintaining equal image quality. Lens-protection systems are most effective in CTA protocols without dose-reduction techniques. Lens-protection systems lower the average eye lens dose during CT scans up to 1/3 (MIS) and 2/3 (SOM), respectively, if the eye lens is exposed to the direct beam of radiation. Considering both the CT protocol and the material of lens protectors, they seem to be mandatory for reducing the radiation exposure of the eye lens. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Upgrade and benchmarking of a 4D treatment planning system for scanned ion beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, D.; Schwarzkopf, A.; Trautmann, J.; Durante, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Abt. Biophysik, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); TU Darmstadt, Hochschulstrasse 6, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Kraemer, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Abt. Biophysik, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Jaekel, O. [Clinic for Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Bert, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Abt. Biophysik, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Universitaetsstr. 27, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: Upgrade and benchmarking of a research 4D treatment planning system (4DTPS) suitable for realistic patient treatment planning and treatment simulations taking into account specific requirements for scanned ion beam therapy, i.e., modeling of dose heterogeneities due to interplay effects and range changes caused by patient motion and dynamic beam delivery. Methods: The 4DTPS integrates data interfaces to 4D computed tomography (4DCT), deformable image registration and clinically used motion monitoring devices. The authors implemented a novel data model for 4D image segmentation using Boolean mask volume datasets and developed an algorithm propagating a manually contoured reference contour dataset to all 4DCT phases. They further included detailed treatment simulation and dose reconstruction functionality, based on the irregular patient motion and the temporal structure of the beam delivery. The treatment simulation functionality was validated against experimental data from irradiation of moving radiographic films in air, 3D moving ionization chambers in a water phantom, and moving cells in a biological phantom with a scanned carbon ion beam. The performance of the program was compared to results obtained with predecessor programs. Results: The measured optical density distributions of the radiographic films were reproduced by the simulations to (-2 {+-} 12)%. Compared to earlier versions of the 4DTPS, the mean agreement improved by 2%, standard deviations were reduced by 7%. The simulated dose to the moving ionization chambers in water showed an agreement with the measured dose of (-1 {+-} 4)% for the typical beam configuration. The mean deviation of the simulated from the measured biologically effective dose determined via cell survival was (617 {+-} 538) mGy relative biological effectiveness corresponding to (10 {+-} 9)%. Conclusions: The authors developed a research 4DTPS suitable for realistic treatment planning on patient data and capable of simulating

  4. Tree Root System Characterization and Volume Estimation by Terrestrial Laser Scanning and Quantitative Structure Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Smith

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The accurate characterization of three-dimensional (3D root architecture, volume, and biomass is important for a wide variety of applications in forest ecology and to better understand tree and soil stability. Technological advancements have led to increasingly more digitized and automated procedures, which have been used to more accurately and quickly describe the 3D structure of root systems. Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS have successfully been used to describe aboveground structures of individual trees and stand structure, but have only recently been applied to the 3D characterization of whole root systems. In this study, 13 recently harvested Norway spruce root systems were mechanically pulled from the soil, cleaned, and their volumes were measured by displacement. The root systems were suspended, scanned with TLS from three different angles, and the root surfaces from the co-registered point clouds were modeled with the 3D Quantitative Structure Model to determine root architecture and volume. The modeling procedure facilitated the rapid derivation of root volume, diameters, break point diameters, linear root length, cumulative percentages, and root fraction counts. The modeled root systems underestimated root system volume by 4.4%. The modeling procedure is widely applicable and easily adapted to derive other important topological and volumetric root variables.

  5. Development of teaching modules for geology and engineering coursework using terrestrial LiDAR scanning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbrough, L. D.; Katzenstein, K.

    2012-12-01

    Exposing students to active and local examples of physical geologic processes is beneficial to the learning process. Students typically respond with interest to examples that use state-of-the-art technologies to investigate local or regional phenomena. For lower cognitive level of learning (e.g. knowledge, comprehension, and application), the use of "close-to-home" examples ensures that students better understand concepts. By providing these examples, the students may already have a familiarity or can easily visit the location. Furthermore, these local and regional examples help students to offer quickly other examples of similar phenomena. Investigation of these examples using normal photographic techniques, as well as a more sophisticated 3-D Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) (AKA Terrestrial Laser Scanning or TLS) system, allows students to gain a better understanding of the scale and the mechanics of the geologic processes and hazards. The systems are used for research, teaching and outreach efforts and depending on departmental policies can be accessible to students are various learning levels. TLS systems can yield scans at sub-centimeter resolution and contain surface reflectance of targets. These systems can serve a number of learning goals that are essential for training geoscientists and engineers. While querying the data to answer geotechnical or geomorphologic related questions, students will develop skills using large, spatial databases. The upper cognitive level of learning (e.g. analysis, synthesis, and evaluation) is also promoted by using a subset of the data and correlating the physical geologic process of stream bank erosion and rock slope failures with mathematical and computer models using the scanned data. Students use the examples and laboratory exercises to help build their engineering judgment skills with Earth materials. The students learn not only applications of math and engineering science but also the economic and social implication

  6. Permanent 3D laser scanning system for an active landslide in Gresten (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canli, Ekrem; Höfle, Bernhard; Hämmerle, Martin; Benni, Thiebes; Glade, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) have widely been used for high spatial resolution data acquisition of topographic features and geomorphic analyses. Existing applications encompass different landslides including rockfall, translational or rotational landslides, debris flow, but also coastal cliff erosion, braided river evolution or river bank erosion. The main advantages of TLS are (a) the high spatial sampling density of XYZ-measurements (e.g. 1 point every 2-3 mm at 10 m distance), particularly in comparison with the low data density monitoring techniques such as GNSS or total stations, (b) the millimeter accuracy and precision of the range measurement to centimeter accuracy of the final DEM, and (c) the highly dense area-wide scanning that enables to look through vegetation and to measure bare ground. One of its main constraints is the temporal resolution of acquired data due to labor costs and time requirements for field campaigns. Thus, repetition measurements are generally performed only episodically. However, for an increased scientific understanding of the processes as well as for early warning purposes, we present a novel permanent 3D monitoring setup to increase the temporal resolution of TLS measurements. This accounts for different potential monitoring deliverables such as volumetric calculations, spatio-temporal movement patterns, predictions and even alerting. This system was installed at the active Salcher landslide in Gresten (Austria) that is situated in the transition zone of the Gresten Klippenbelt (Helvetic) and the Flyschzone (Penninic). The characteristic lithofacies are the Gresten Beds of Early Jurassic age that are covered by a sequence of marly and silty beds with intercalated sandy limestones. Permanent data acquisition can be implemented into our workflow with any long-range TLS system offering fully automated capturing. We utilize an Optech ILRIS-3D scanner. The time interval between two scans is currently set to 24 hours, but can be

  7. Influence of dentist experience with scan spray systems used in direct CAD/CAM impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehurtevent, Marion; Robberecht, Lieven; Béhin, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Direct optical impression systems requiring powder opacification are widely used in prosthodontics, but little information is available about the influence of the dentist on the quality of scan sprays used for computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) impressions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of operator experience on scan spray homogeneity and thickness on tooth surfaces before direct optical impressions are made. A total of 36 crown-prepared acrylic resin teeth were coated (Optispray) for direct optical impressions by 3 experienced dentists and 3 inexperienced dentists (n=18 teeth per group). The teeth were visually scored for coating homogeneity (1, heterogeneous; 2, average; 3, homogeneous). To determine the coating thickness (μm), the teeth were resin-embedded, cut, and polished. A stereomicroscope (×100 magnification) was used to examine 148 areas per tooth. The results were statistically analyzed with the nonparametric Spearman and Mann-Whitney tests (α=.05). Coating homogeneity was significantly higher (Pdentists achieved greater homogeneity and thinner coatings on crown-preparation surfaces than inexperienced dentists. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Microwave bone imaging: a preliminary scanning system for proof-of-concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccaro, Antonio; Solimene, Raffaele; Brancaccio, Adriana; Basile, Bruno; Ammann, Max J.

    2016-01-01

    This Letter introduces a feasibility study of a scanning system for applications in biomedical bone imaging operating in the microwave range 0.5–4 GHz. Mechanical uncertainties and data acquisition time are minimised by using a fully automated scanner that controls two antipodal Vivaldi antennas. Accurate antenna positioning and synchronisation with data acquisition enables a rigorous proof-of-concept for the microwave imaging procedure of a multi-layer phantom including skin, fat, muscle and bone tissues. The presence of a suitable coupling medium enables antenna miniaturisation and mitigates the impedance mismatch between antennas and phantom. The three-dimensional image of tibia and fibula is successfully reconstructed by scanning the multi-layer phantom due to the distinctive dielectric contrast between target and surrounding tissues. These results show the viability of a microwave bone imaging technology which is low cost, portable, non-ionising, and does not require specially trained personnel. In fact, as no a-priori characterisation of the antenna is required, the image formation procedure is very conveniently simplified. PMID:27733930

  9. Scanning Electron Microscopic Features of the External and Internal Surfaces of Normal Adult Lacrimal Drainage System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad Javed; Baig, Farhana; Lakshman, Mekala; Naik, Milind N

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the ultrastructural features of the external and internal surfaces of healthy lacrimal drainage systems. A prospective interventional study was performed on the healthy adult lacrimal drainage systems obtained from fresh exenterated specimens. Exenteration was performed for malignancies unrelated to lacrimal system where preoperative lacrimal evaluation was normal. A careful and thorough dissection was carried out to isolate the entire lacrimal drainage system from the punctum to the nasolacrimal duct. The analysis was performed using the standard protocols of scanning electron microscopy. Inner punctal surfaces showed a definite and slightly elevated junction between the luminal surfaces of punctum and beginning of the vertical canaliculus. Similar junction could be identified between the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct. The valves of the canaliculi showed broad rugae-like mucosal surfaces, whereas the external surfaces of the canaliculi demonstrated well-defined orbicularis muscle with collagenous attachments. The walls of the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct showed dense vascular plexus which included wide luminal arteries, throttle veins, and large capacitance vessels. Ultrastructural features of external and internal surfaces of lacrimal drainage system help in better understanding of its anatomy and physiology. The junctional area between the punctum-vertical canaliculus and lacrimal sac-nasolacrimal duct needs further exploration to understand their roles.

  10. Design and Implementation of a Mechanical Control System for the Scanning Microwave Limb Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, William

    2011-01-01

    The Scanning Microwave Limb Sounder (SMLS) will use technological improvements in low noise mixers to provide precise data on the Earth's atmospheric composition with high spatial resolution. This project focuses on the design and implementation of a real time control system needed for airborne engineering tests of the SMLS. The system must coordinate the actuation of optical components using four motors with encoder readback, while collecting synchronized telemetric data from a GPS receiver and 3-axis gyrometric system. A graphical user interface for testing the control system was also designed using Python. Although the system could have been implemented with a FPGA-based setup, we chose to use a low cost processor development kit manufactured by XMOS. The XMOS architecture allows parallel execution of multiple tasks on separate threads-making it ideal for this application and is easily programmed using XC (a subset of C). The necessary communication interfaces were implemented in software, including Ethernet, with significant cost and time reduction compared to an FPGA-based approach. For these reasons, the XMOS technology is an attractive, cost effective, alternative to FPGA-based technologies for this design and similar rapid prototyping projects.

  11. Performance evaluation of the small-animal nanoScan PET/MRI system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Kálmán; Tóth, Miklós; Major, Péter; Patay, Gergely; Egri, Gyozo; Häggkvist, Jenny; Varrone, Andrea; Farde, Lars; Halldin, Christer; Gulyás, Balázs

    2013-10-01

    nanoScan is a high-resolution integrated system for consecutive PET and MR imaging of small laboratory animals. We evaluated the performance of the system, using the NEMA NU 4-2008 protocol for the PET component and the NEMA MS 1-2007, MS 2-2008, and MS 3-2007 standards for the MR imaging component. The imaging system uses magnetically shielded position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes and a compact 1-T permanent-magnet MR imaging platform. Spatial resolution, sensitivity, counting rate capabilities, and image quality parameters were evaluated in accordance with the aforementioned NEMA standards. Further in vivo evaluation experiments complement the physical validation results. The spatial resolution of the PET system enabled the 0.8-mm rods of a Derenzo phantom to be resolved. With point source and 2-dimensional filtered backprojection reconstruction, the resolution varied from 1.50 to 2.01 mm in full width at half maximum in the radial direction and from 1.32 to 1.65 mm in the tangential direction within the radius of 25 mm. Peak absolute sensitivity was 8.41%. Scatter fraction was 17.3% and 34.0%, and maximum noise-equivalent counting rate was 406 and 119 kcps in the mouselike and ratlike phantom, respectively. The image quality test found a nonuniformity of 3.52% and a spillover ratio of 6.2% and 5.8% in water and air, respectively. In testing of the MR imaging component, artifact-free images with high signal-to-noise ratio were recorded. Geometric distortion was below 5%, and image uniformity was at least 94.5% and 96.6% for the 60- and 35-mm radiofrequency coils, respectively. The nanoScan integrated small-animal PET/MR imaging system has excellent spatial resolution and sensitivity. The performance characteristics of the PET and the MR imaging components are not compromised as a result of their integration onto a single platform. Because of its combination of features and performance parameters, the system provides crucial advantages for preclinical imaging

  12. Resolution enhancement of scanning four-point-probe measurements on two-dimensional systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Mikael; Stokbro, Kurt; Hansen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    /15 of the four-point-probe electrode spacing. The real conductance sheet is simulated by a grid of discrete resistances, which is optimized by means of a standard optimization algorithm, until the simulated voltage-to-current ratios converges with the measurement. The method has been tested against simulated...... data as well as real measurements and is found to successfully deconvolute the four-point-probe measurements. In conjunction with a newly developed scanning four-point probe with electrode spacing of 1.1 µm, the method can resolve the conductivity with submicron resolution. ©2003 American Institute......A method to improve the resolution of four-point-probe measurements of two-dimensional (2D) and quasi-2D systems is presented. By mapping the conductance on a dense grid around a target area and postprocessing the data, the resolution can be improved by a factor of approximately 50 to better than 1...

  13. LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System in GNSS-Denied Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Chen, Yuwei; Niu, Xiaoji; Wang, Li; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jingbin; Shi, Chuang; Hyyppä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    A new scan that matches an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) with a low-cost LiDAR is proposed as an alternative to GNSS-based navigation systems in GNSS-degraded or -denied environments such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons. In these areas, INS-based Dead Reckoning (DR) and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technologies are normally used to estimate positions as separate tools. However, there are critical implementation problems with each standalone system. The drift errors of velocity, position, and heading angles in an INS will accumulate over time, and on-line calibration is a must for sustaining positioning accuracy. SLAM performance is poor in featureless environments where the matching errors can significantly increase. Each standalone positioning method cannot offer a sustainable navigation solution with acceptable accuracy. This paper integrates two complementary technologies—INS and LiDAR SLAM—into one navigation frame with a loosely coupled Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to use the advantages and overcome the drawbacks of each system to establish a stable long-term navigation process. Static and dynamic field tests were carried out with a self-developed Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) platform—NAVIS. The results prove that the proposed approach can provide positioning accuracy at the centimetre level for long-term operations, even in a featureless indoor environment. PMID:26184206

  14. LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System in GNSS-Denied Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Chen, Yuwei; Niu, Xiaoji; Wang, Li; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jingbin; Shi, Chuang; Hyyppä, Juha

    2015-07-10

    A new scan that matches an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) with a low-cost LiDAR is proposed as an alternative to GNSS-based navigation systems in GNSS-degraded or -denied environments such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons. In these areas, INS-based Dead Reckoning (DR) and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technologies are normally used to estimate positions as separate tools. However, there are critical implementation problems with each standalone system. The drift errors of velocity, position, and heading angles in an INS will accumulate over time, and on-line calibration is a must for sustaining positioning accuracy. SLAM performance is poor in featureless environments where the matching errors can significantly increase. Each standalone positioning method cannot offer a sustainable navigation solution with acceptable accuracy. This paper integrates two complementary technologies-INS and LiDAR SLAM-into one navigation frame with a loosely coupled Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to use the advantages and overcome the drawbacks of each system to establish a stable long-term navigation process. Static and dynamic field tests were carried out with a self-developed Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) platform-NAVIS. The results prove that the proposed approach can provide positioning accuracy at the centimetre level for long-term operations, even in a featureless indoor environment.

  15. An Airborne Scanning LiDAR System for Ocean and Coastal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reineman, B. D.; Lenain, L.; Castel, D.; Melville, W. K.

    2008-12-01

    We have developed an airborne scanning LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) system and demonstrated its functionality for terrestrial and oceanographic measurements. Differential GPS (DGPS) and an Inertial Navigation System (INS) are synchronized with the LiDAR, providing end result vertical rms errors of approximately 6~cm. Flying 170~m above the surface, we achieve a point density of ~ 0.7 m-2 and a swath width of 90 to 120~m over ocean and 200~m over land. Georeferencing algorithms were developed in-house and earth-referenced data are available several hours after acquisition. Surveys from the system are compared with ground DGPS surveys and existing airborne surveys of fixed targets. Twelve research flights in a Piper Twin Comanche from August 2007 to July 2008 have provided topography of the Southern California coastline and sea surface wave fields in the nearshore ocean environment. Two of the flights also documented the results of the October 2007 landslide on Mt.~Soledad in La Jolla, California. Eight research flights aboard a Cessna Caravan surveyed the topography, lagoon, reef, and surrounding seas of Lady Elliot Island (LEI) in Australia's Great Barrier Reef in April 2008. We describe applications for the system, including coastal topographic surveys, wave measurements, reef research, and ship wake studies.

  16. Effective Data-Driven Calibration for a Galvanometric Laser Scanning System Using Binocular Stereo Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Junchao; Zhang, Liyan

    2018-01-12

    A new solution to the problem of galvanometric laser scanning (GLS) system calibration is presented. Under the machine learning framework, we build a single-hidden layer feedforward neural network (SLFN)to represent the GLS system, which takes the digital control signal at the drives of the GLS system as input and the space vector of the corresponding outgoing laser beam as output. The training data set is obtained with the aid of a moving mechanism and a binocular stereo system. The parameters of the SLFN are efficiently solved in a closed form by using extreme learning machine (ELM). By quantitatively analyzing the regression precision with respective to the number of hidden neurons in the SLFN, we demonstrate that the proper number of hidden neurons can be safely chosen from a broad interval to guarantee good generalization performance. Compared to the traditional model-driven calibration, the proposed calibration method does not need a complex modeling process and is more accurate and stable. As the output of the network is the space vectors of the outgoing laser beams, it costs much less training time and can provide a uniform solution to both laser projection and 3D-reconstruction, in contrast with the existing data-driven calibration method which only works for the laser triangulation problem. Calibration experiment, projection experiment and 3D reconstruction experiment are respectively conducted to test the proposed method, and good results are obtained.

  17. 3-D ultrasonic strain imaging based on a linear scanning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua; Xie, Bo; Ye, Pengfei; Chen, Zhaohong

    2015-02-01

    This paper introduces a 3-D strain imaging method based on a freehand linear scanning mode. We designed a linear sliding track with a position sensor and a height-adjustable holder to constrain the movement of an ultrasound probe in a freehand manner. When moving the probe along the sliding track, the corresponding positional measures for the probe are transmitted via a wireless communication module based on Bluetooth in real time. In a single examination, the probe is scanned in two sweeps in which the height of the probe is adjusted by the holder to collect the pre- and postcompression radio-frequency echoes, respectively. To generate a 3-D strain image, a volume cubic in which the voxels denote relative strains for tissues is defined according to the range of the two sweeps. With respect to the post-compression frames, several slices in the volume are determined and the pre-compression frames are re-sampled to precisely correspond to the post-compression frames. Thereby, a strain estimation method based on minimizing a cost function using dynamic programming is used to obtain the 2-D strain image for each pair of frames from the re-sampled pre-compression sweep and the post-compression sweep, respectively. A software system is developed for volume reconstruction, visualization, and measurement of the 3-D strain images. The experimental results show that high-quality 3-D strain images of phantom and human tissues can be generated by the proposed method, indicating that the proposed system can be applied for real clinical applications (e.g., musculoskeletal assessments).

  18. A system architecture for sharing de-identified, research-ready brain scans and health information across clinical imaging centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, Ann L; van Erp, Theo G M; Kesselman, Carl; D'Arcy, Mike; Sobell, Janet; Keator, David; Dahm, Lisa; Murry, Jim; Law, Meng; Hasso, Anton; Ames, Joseph; Macciardi, Fabio; Potkin, Steven G

    2012-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of brain disorders increasingly relies on the costly collection of large standardized brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets. Moreover, the clinical interpretation of brain scans benefits from compare and contrast analyses of scans from patients with similar, and sometimes rare, demographic, diagnostic, and treatment status. A solution to both needs is to acquire standardized, research-ready clinical brain scans and to build the information technology infrastructure to share such scans, along with other pertinent information, across hospitals. This paper describes the design, deployment, and operation of a federated imaging system that captures and shares standardized, de-identified clinical brain images in a federation across multiple institutions. In addition to describing innovative aspects of the system architecture and our initial testing of the deployed infrastructure, we also describe the Standardized Imaging Protocol (SIP) developed for the project and our interactions with the Institutional Review Board (IRB) regarding handling patient data in the federated environment.

  19. Vibration Pattern Imager (VPI): A control and data acquisition system for scanning laser vibrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Brown, Donald E.; Shaffer, Thomas A.

    1993-01-01

    The Vibration Pattern Imager (VPI) system was designed to control and acquire data from scanning laser vibrometer sensors. The PC computer based system uses a digital signal processing (DSP) board and an analog I/O board to control the sensor and to process the data. The VPI system was originally developed for use with the Ometron VPI Sensor, but can be readily adapted to any commercially available sensor which provides an analog output signal and requires analog inputs for control of mirror positioning. The sensor itself is not part of the VPI system. A graphical interface program, which runs on a PC under the MS-DOS operating system, functions in an interactive mode and communicates with the DSP and I/O boards in a user-friendly fashion through the aid of pop-up menus. Two types of data may be acquired with the VPI system: single point or 'full field.' In the single point mode, time series data is sampled by the A/D converter on the I/O board (at a user-defined sampling rate for a selectable number of samples) and is stored by the PC. The position of the measuring point (adjusted by mirrors in the sensor) is controlled via a mouse input. The mouse input is translated to output voltages by the D/A converter on the I/O board to control the mirror servos. In the 'full field' mode, the measurement point is moved over a user-selectable rectangular area. The time series data is sampled by the A/D converter on the I/O board (at a user-defined sampling rate for a selectable number of samples) and converted to a root-mean-square (rms) value by the DSP board. The rms 'full field' velocity distribution is then uploaded for display and storage on the PC.

  20. Virtobot--a multi-functional robotic system for 3D surface scanning and automatic post mortem biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Lars Christian; Ptacek, Wolfgang; Naether, Silvio; Fürst, Martin; Ross, Steffen; Buck, Ursula; Weber, Stefan; Thali, Michael

    2010-03-01

    The Virtopsy project, a multi-disciplinary project that involves forensic science, diagnostic imaging, computer science, automation technology, telematics and biomechanics, aims to develop new techniques to improve the outcome of forensic investigations. This paper presents a new approach in the field of minimally invasive virtual autopsy for a versatile robotic system that is able to perform three-dimensional (3D) surface scans as well as post mortem image-guided soft tissue biopsies. The system consists of an industrial six-axis robot with additional extensions (i.e. a linear axis to increase working space, a tool-changing system and a dedicated safety system), a multi-slice CT scanner with equipment for angiography, a digital photogrammetry and 3D optical surface-scanning system, a 3D tracking system, and a biopsy end effector for automatic needle placement. A wax phantom was developed for biopsy accuracy tests. Surface scanning times were significantly reduced (scanning times cut in half, calibration three times faster). The biopsy module worked with an accuracy of 3.2 mm. Using the Virtobot, the surface-scanning procedure could be standardized and accelerated. The biopsy module is accurate enough for use in biopsies in a forensic setting. The Virtobot can be utilized for several independent tasks in the field of forensic medicine, and is sufficiently versatile to be adapted to different tasks in the future. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Review: Marine Seismic And Side-Scan Sonar Investigations For Seabed Identification With Sonar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zainuddin Lubis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine seismic reflection data have been collected for decades and since the mid-to late- 1980s much of this data is positioned relatively accurately. Marine geophysical acquisition of data is a very expensive process with the rates regularly ship through dozens of thousands of euros per day. Acquisition of seismic profiles has the position is determined by a DGPS system and navigation is performed by Hypack and Maxview software that also gives all the offsets for the equipment employed in the survey. Examples of some projects will be described in terms of the project goals and the geophysical equipment selected for each survey and specific geophysical systems according to with the scope of work. For amplitude side scan sonar image, and in the multi-frequency system, color, becoming a significant properties of the sea floor, the effect of which is a bully needs to be fixed. The main confounding effect is due to absorption of water; geometric spread; shape beam sonar function (combined transmit-receive sonar beam intensity as a function of tilt angle obtained in this sonar reference frame; sonar vehicle roll; form and function of the seabed backscatter (proportion incident on the seabed backscattered signal to sonar as a function of the angle of incidence relative to the sea floor; and the slope of the seabed. The different angles of view are generated by the translation of the sonar, because of the discrete steps involved by the sequential pings, the angular sampling of the bottom.

  2. Development of beam monitoring system for proton pencil beam scanning using fiber-optic radiation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jaeman; Koo, Jihye; Moon, Sunyoung; Yoon, Myonggeun; Jeong, Jonghwi; Kim, Sun-Young; Lim, Youngkyung; Lee, Se Byeong; Shin, Dongho; Kim, Meyoung; Kim, Dongwook

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to develop a beam monitoring system based on a fiber-optic radiation sensor (FORS), which can be used in real time in a beam control room, to monitor a beam in proton therapy, where patients are treated using a pencil beam scanning (PBS) mode, by measuring the beam spot width (BSW) and beam spot position (BSP) of the PBS. We developed two-dimensional detector arrays to monitor the PBS beam in the beam control room. We measured the BSW for five energies of the PBS beam and compared the measurements with those of Lynx and EBT3 film. In order to confirm the BSP, we compared the BSP values of the PBS calculated from radiation treatment planning (RTP), to five BSP values measured using FORS at 224.2 MeV. When comparing BSW values obtained using developed monitoring system to the measurements obtained using commercial EBT3 film, the average difference in BSW value of the PBS beam was 0.1 ± 0.1 mm. In the comparison of BSW values with the measurements obtained using Lynx, the average difference was 0.2 ± 0.1 mm. When comparing BSP measurements to the values calculated from RTP, the average difference was 0.4 ± 0.2 mm. The study results confirmed that the developed FORS-based beam monitoring system can monitor a PBS beam in real time in a beam control room, where proton beam is controlled for the patient.

  3. Optical scanning system for light-absorption measurement of deep biological tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funane, Tsukasa; Atsumori, Hirokazu; Kiguchi, Masashi; Tanikawa, Yukari; Okada, Eiji

    2011-09-01

    A noncontact near-infrared scanning system for multi-distance absorption measurement of deep biological tissue was developed. An 808-nm laser, whose focal point on the surface of biological tissue is controlled by a galvano scanner, is used as a light source. A phosphor is placed at a detection focal point on the tissue surface. The light that propagates through tissue and exits from the tissue surface beneath the phosphor excites the phosphor. The fluorescence emitted from the phosphor is detected by an avalanche photodiode. The system is used to measure 20 points on tissue surface at which source-detector (S-D) distances are 7-45 mm (with 2-mm intervals). Neither the light source nor the detector contacts the tissue surface. The system was validated by using it to measure the absorption change of an absorber (which is embedded in a deep layer of a tissue-simulating phantom) while the surface-layer thickness of the phantom was changed from 1 to 12 mm. It was demonstrated that both the relative absorption change of the absorber and the absolute thickness of the surface layer can be estimated from the measured optical-density change (ΔOD) and the dependence of ΔOD on S-D distance, respectively. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  4. Simultaneous Bright-Field and Dark-Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy in Scanning Electron Microscopy: A New Approach for Analyzing Polymer System Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Binay S.

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy in scanning electron microscopy (STEM-IN-SEM) is a convenient technique for polymer characterization. Utilizing the lower accelerating voltages, larger field of view and, exclusion of post-specimen projection lens in an SEM; STEM-IN-SEM has shown results comparable to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation of polymer morphology. Various specimen-holder geometries and detector arrangements have been used for bright field (BF) STEM-IN-SEM imaging. To further the characterization potential of STEM-IN-SEM a new specimen holder has been developed to facilitate simultaneous BF and dark field (DF) STEM-IN-SEM imaging. A new specimen holder and a new microscope configuration were designed for this new imaging technique. BF and DF signals were maximized for optimal STEM-IN-SEM imaging. BF signal intensities were found to be twice as large as DF signal intensities. BF and DF STEM-IN-SEM imaging spatial resolutions are limited to 1.8 nm and approximately 5 nm, respectively. Simultaneous BF & DF STEM-IN-SEM imaging is applicable to both industrial and academic research environments. Examples of commodity and engineering polymer morphology characterization are provided. Results are comparable to TEM observation and may serve as a suitable precursor to STEM characterization of polymer systems. Finally, future developments of various accessories for this technique are discussed.

  5. Atmospheric scanning electron microscope system with an open sample chamber: Configuration and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiyama, Hidetoshi, E-mail: hinishiy@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2, Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Koizumi, Mitsuru, E-mail: koizumi@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Technics Ltd., 2-6-38 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-0021 (Japan); Ogawa, Koji, E-mail: kogawa@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Technics Ltd., 2-6-38 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-0021 (Japan); Kitamura, Shinich, E-mail: kitamura@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2, Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Konyuba, Yuji, E-mail: ykonyuub@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2, Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Watanabe, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: watanabeyoshiy@pref.yamagata.jp [Yamagata Research Institute of Technology, 2-2-1, Matsuei, Yamagata 990-2473 (Japan); Ohbayashi, Norihiko, E-mail: n.ohbayashi@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Laboratory of Membrane Trafficking Mechanisms, Department of Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aobayama, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Fukuda, Mitsunori, E-mail: nori@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Laboratory of Membrane Trafficking Mechanisms, Department of Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aobayama, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Suga, Mitsuo, E-mail: msuga@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2, Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Sato, Chikara, E-mail: ti-sato@aist.go.jp [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-4, Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    An atmospheric scanning electron microscope (ASEM) with an open sample chamber and optical microscope (OM) is described and recent developments are reported. In this ClairScope system, the base of the open sample dish is sealed to the top of the inverted SEM column, allowing the liquid-immersed sample to be observed by OM from above and by SEM from below. The optical axes of the two microscopes are aligned, ensuring that the same sample areas are imaged to realize quasi-simultaneous correlative microscopy in solution. For example, the cathodoluminescence of ZnO particles was directly demonstrated. The improved system has (i) a fully motorized sample stage, (ii) a column protection system in the case of accidental window breakage, and (iii) an OM/SEM operation system controlled by a graphical user interface. The open sample chamber allows the external administration of reagents during sample observation. We monitored the influence of added NaCl on the random motion of silica particles in liquid. Further, using fluorescence as a transfection marker, the effect of small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous Varp on Tyrp1 trafficking in melanocytes was examined. A temperature-regulated titanium ASEM dish allowed the dynamic observation of colloidal silver nanoparticles as they were heated to 240 °C and sintered. - Highlights: • Atmospheric SEM (ASEM) allows observation of samples in liquid or gas. • Open sample chamber allows in situ monitoring of evaporation and sintering processes. • in situ monitoring of processes during reagent administration is also accomplished. • Protection system for film breakage is developed for ASEM. • Usability of ASEM has been improved significantly including GUI control.

  6. A New High Channel-Count, High Scan-Rate, Data Acquisition System for the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanco, Thomas G.; Sekula, Martin K.; Piatak, David J.; Simmons, Scott A.; Babel, Walter C.; Collins, Jesse G.; Ramey, James M.; Heald, Dean M.

    2016-01-01

    A data acquisition system upgrade project, known as AB-DAS, is underway at the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. AB-DAS will soon serve as the primary data system and will substantially increase the scan-rate capabilities and analog channel count while maintaining other unique aeroelastic and dynamic test capabilities required of the facility. AB-DAS is configurable, adaptable, and enables buffet and aeroacoustic tests by synchronously scanning all analog channels and recording the high scan-rate time history values for each data quantity. AB-DAS is currently available for use as a stand-alone data system with limited capabilities while development continues. This paper describes AB-DAS, the design methodology, and the current features and capabilities. It also outlines the future work and projected capabilities following completion of the data system upgrade project.

  7. Evaluation of an automated system for root canal irrigation: a scanning electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica; Orsini, Giovanna; Giuliodori, Francesca; DI Cristoforo, Adriano; Procaccini, Maurizio; Mengucci, Paolo; Putignano, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated a new automated system using alternative irrigants for root canal cleaning treatments. This method relies on a system inserting an enzymatic solution based on Trypsin flowing inside the pulp chambers and root canals, completely avoiding traditional endodontic instrumentation. Sixty freshly extracted human molar teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups to assess 3 regimens (R1-3) differing in 0.25% Trypsin/EDTA and 5% Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) solutions administration. Scanning electron microscopy observations and scores taking into account changes in dentin tubules were used to assess treatment effects in pulp chambers and roots. Significant changes in root cleaning ability relative to administration timing were observed, with the best results found in R3, with scheduled alternated cycles of Trypsin/EDTA and NaOCl inside the tooth. The non-invasive root canal method demonstrates good teeth cleaning ability independent of root morphology. This equipment may provide lower discomfort levels for patients undergoing endodontic treatment.

  8. Laser-assisted scanning probe alloying nanolithography (LASPAN) and its application in gold-silicon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Luohan

    Nanoscale science and technology demand novel approaches and new knowledge to further advance. Nanoscale fabrication has been widely employed in both modern science and engineering. Micro/nano lithography is the most common technique to deposit nanostructures. Fundamental research is also being conducted to investigate structural, physical and chemical properties of the nanostructures. This research contributes fundamental understanding in surface science through development of a new methodology. Doing so, experimental approaches combined with energy analysis were carried out. A delicate hardware system was designed and constructed to realize the nanometer scale lithography. We developed a complete process, namely laser-assisted scanning probe alloying nanolithography (LASPAN), to fabricate well-defined nanostructures in gold-silicon (Au-Si) system. As a result, four aspects of nanostructures were made through different experimental trials. A non-equilibrium phase (AuSi3) was discovered, along with a non-equilibrium phase diagram. Energy dissipation and mechanism of nanocrystalization in the process have been extensively discussed. The mechanical energy input and laser radiation induced thermal energy input were estimated. An energy model was derived to represent the whole process of LASPAN.

  9. Three-photon fluorescence imaging of melanin with a dual-wedge confocal scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mega, Yair; Kerimo, Joseph; Robinson, Joseph; Vakili, Ali; Johnson, Nicolette; DiMarzio, Charles

    2012-03-01

    Confocal microscopy can be used as a practical tool in non-invasive applications in medical diagnostics and evaluation. In particular, it is being used for the early detection of skin cancer to identify pathological cellular components and, potentially, replace conventional biopsies. The detection of melanin and its spatial location and distribution plays a crucial role in the detection and evaluation of skin cancer. Our previous work has shown that the visible emission from melanin is strong and can be easily observed with a near-infrared CW laser using low power. This is due to a unique step-wise, (SW) three-photon excitation of melanin. This paper shows that the same SW, 3-photon fluorescence can also be achieved with an inexpensive, continuous-wave laser using a dual-prism scanning system. This demonstrates that the technology could be integrated into a portable confocal microscope for clinical applications. The results presented here are in agreement with images obtained with the larger and more expensive femtosecond laser system used earlier.

  10. Adaptation of scanning saccades co-occurs in different coordinate systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy-Bencheton, Delphine; Pélisson, Denis; Panouillères, Muriel; Urquizar, Christian; Tilikete, Caroline; Pisella, Laure

    2014-06-15

    Plastic changes of saccades (i.e., following saccadic adaptation) do not transfer between oppositely directed saccades, except when multiple directions are trained simultaneously, suggesting a saccadic planning in retinotopic coordinates. Interestingly, a recent study in human healthy subjects revealed that after an adaptive increase of rightward-scanning saccades, both leftward and rightward double-step, memory-guided saccades, triggered toward the adapted endpoint, were modified, revealing that target location was coded in spatial coordinates (Zimmermann et al. 2011). However, as the computer screen provided a visual frame, one alternative hypothesis could be a coding in allocentric coordinates. Here, we questioned whether adaptive modifications of saccadic planning occur in multiple coordinate systems. We reproduced the paradigm of Zimmermann et al. (2011) using target light-emitting diodes in the dark, with and without a visual frame, and tested different saccades before and after adaptation. With double-step, memory-guided saccades, we reproduced the transfer of adaptation to leftward saccades with the visual frame but not without, suggesting that the coordinate system used for saccade planning, when the frame is visible, is allocentric rather than spatiotopic. With single-step, memory-guided saccades, adaptation transferred to leftward saccades, both with and without the visual frame, revealing a target localization in a coordinate system that is neither retinotopic nor allocentric. Finally, with single-step, visually guided saccades, the classical, unidirectional pattern of amplitude change was reproduced, revealing retinotopic coordinate coding. These experiments indicate that the same procedure of adaptation modifies saccadic planning in multiple coordinate systems in parallel-each of them revealed by the use of different saccade tasks in postadaptation. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Prognostic value of the bone scan index using a computer-aided diagnosis system for bone scans in hormone-naive prostate cancer patients with bone metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Yasuhide; Yoneyama, Shuko; Kawahara, Takashi; Hattori, Yusuke; Teranishi, Jun-ichi; Kondo, Keiichi; Moriyama, Masatoshi; Takebayashi, Shigeo; Yokomizo, Yumiko; Yao, Masahiro; Uemura, Hiroji; Noguchi, Kazumi

    2016-02-19

    The bone scan index (BSI) using a computer-aided diagnosis system for bone scans is expected to be an objective and quantitative clinical tool for evaluating bone metastatic prostate cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the pretreatment BSI as a prognostic factor in hormone-naive prostate cancer patients with bone metastases. The study included 60 patients with hormone-naive, bone metastatic prostate cancer that was initially treated with combined androgen blockade therapy. The BONENAVI system was used for calculating the BSI. We evaluated the correlation between overall survival (OS) and pretreatment clinicopathological characteristics, including patients' age, initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value, Gleason scores, clinical TNM stage, and the BSI. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for statistical analysis. The median follow-up duration was 21.4 months. Clinical or PSA progression occurred in 37 (61.7%) patients and 18 (30.0%) received docetaxel. Death occurred in 16 (26.7%) patients. Of these deaths, 15 (25.0%) were due to prostate cancer. The median OS was not reached. In multivariate analysis, age and the BSI were independent prognostic factors for OS. We evaluated the discriminatory ability of our models, including or excluding BSI by quantifying the C-index. The BSI improved the C-index from 0.751 to 0.801 for OS. Median OS was not reached in patients with a BSI ≤ 1.9 and median OS was 34.8 months in patients with a BSI >1.9 (p = 0.039). The pretreatment BSI and patients' age are independent prognostic factors for patients with hormone-naive, bone metastatic prostate cancer.

  12. Scanning E-field sensor device for online measurements in annular phased-array systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wust, P; Berger, J; Fähling, H; Nadobny, J; Gellermann, J; Tilly, W; Rau, B; Petermann, K; Felix, R

    1999-03-01

    A measurement device for noninvasive and simultaneous control of antennas during regional radiofrequency (rf) hyperthermia and, subsequently, the estimation of the power distribution in the interior of patients are essential preconditions for further technological progress. Aiming at this, the feasibility of an electro-optical electric field sensor was investigated during clinical rf hyperthermia. The electro-optical electric field (E-field) sensor is based on lithiumniobate crystals and the Mach-Zehnder interferometer structure, and was tested in an earlier phantom study. For this study, a mechanical scanning device was developed allowing the registration of the E-field during clinical application. Data were recorded along a curve in the water bolus of the SIGMA 60 applicator of the annular phased-array system BSD-2000 (BSD Medical Corp., Salt Lake City, UT) close to the base points of the flat biconical dipole antennas. The results were compared with modeling calculations using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. For the latter, different antenna models were assumed. For systematic registration of the E-field curves in amplitude and phase, we employed an elliptical lamp phantom with fat-equivalent ring (filled with saline solution) and an elliptical polyacrylamide phantom with acrylic glass wall. Further measurements were carried out during the treatment of 5 patients with 20 hyperthermia treatments. Data of both phantom and patient measurements can be satisfactorily described by the FDTD method, if the antenna model is refined by taking into account the conical form of the dipoles and the special dielectric environment of the feeding point. Phase deviations can be entered ex posteriori for correction in the calculation algorithm. A comparison of amplifier power measurement (forward and backward power) and bolus E-field scans near the antenna base points demonstrates that E-field measurements between antennas and patient are a necessity for the

  13. The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System Data Products from the Aqua Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, D.; Troisi, V.; Marquis, M.; Armstrong, R.; Stroeve, J.; Maslanik, J.; Axford, Y.; Wolfe, J.

    2001-12-01

    The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) is scheduled to launch on NASA's Aqua Satellite in early 2002. The Aqua mission is an important part of the NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE). The Aqua mission provides a multi-disciplinary study of the Earth's atmospheric, oceanic, cryospheric, and land processes and their relationship to global change. With six instruments aboard, the Aqua Satellite will travel in a polar, sun-synchronous orbit. The AMSR-E will measure passive microwave radiation, allowing for derivation of many geophysical parameters, including cloud properties, radiative energy flux, precipitation, land surface wetness, sea surface temperatures, sea ice, snow cover, and sea surface wind fields. The AMSR-E has much greater spatial resolution than previous passive microwave radiometers: approximately double the spatial resolution of the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I). Further, the AMSR-E combines in one sensor all the channels that SMMR and SSM/I had individually. The AMSR-E has the following frequencies (in GHz): 6.9, 10.7, 18.7, 23.8, 36.5, and 89. The level 1A data product will contain chronological antenna temperature count data. The level 2A data product will contain spatially-resampled brightness temperatures (in global swath format) at resolutions of 56, 38, 21, 12 and 5.4 km. Level 2B data will include ocean, soil moisture, and rain products. Level 3 data will include gridded ocean, soil moisture, and rain products; gridded snow water equivalent products; gridded brightness temperatures; and gridded sea ice concentration and snow depth products. The National Space Agency of Japan (NASDA) will process level 0 data to level 1A data. The AMSR-E Science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) will process the level 1A data product to level 2 and 3 data products. The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) will archive and distribute all AMSR

  14. Three-dimensional Ultrasound Elasticity Imaging on an Automated Breast Volume Scanning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqi; Nasief, Haidy G; Kohn, Sarah; Milkowski, Andy; Clary, Tom; Barnes, Stephen; Barbone, Paul E; Hall, Timothy J

    2017-11-01

    Ultrasound elasticity imaging has demonstrated utility in breast imaging, but it is typically performed with handheld transducers and two-dimensional imaging. Two-dimensional (2D) elastography images tissue stiffness of only a plane and hence suffers from errors due to out-of-plane motion, whereas three-dimensional (3D) data acquisition and motion tracking can be used to track out-of-plane motion that is lost in 2D elastography systems. A commercially available automated breast volume scanning system that acquires 3D ultrasound data with precisely controlled elevational movement of the 1D array ultrasound transducer was employed in this study. A hybrid guided 3D motion-tracking algorithm was developed that first estimated the displacements in one plane using a modified quality-guided search method, and then performed an elevational guided-search for displacement estimation in adjacent planes. To assess the performance of the method, 3D radiofrequency echo data were acquired with this system from a phantom and from an in vivo human breast. For both experiments, the axial displacement fields were smooth and high cross-correlation coefficients were obtained in most of the tracking region. The motion-tracking performance of the new method was compared with a correlation-based exhaustive-search method. For all motion-tracking volume pairs, the average motion-compensated cross-correlation values obtained by the guided-search motion-tracking method were equivalent to those by the exhaustive-search method, and the computation time was about a factor of 10 lesser. Therefore, the proposed 3D ultrasound elasticity imaging method was a more efficient approach to produce a high quality of 3D ultrasound strain image.

  15. Scanning laser video camera/ microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. P.; Bow, R. T.

    1984-10-01

    A laser scanning system capable of scanning at standard video rate has been developed. The scanning mirrors, circuit design and system performance, as well as its applications to video cameras and ultra-violet microscopes, are discussed.

  16. Technical Development of Gamma Scanning for Irradiated Fuel Rod after Upgrade of System in Hot-cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, Hee Moon; Baik, Seung Je; Yoo, Byung Ok; Choo, Yong Sun

    2007-06-15

    Non-destructive test system was installed at hot-cell(M1) in IMEF(Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) more than 10 years ago for the diametric measurement and gamma scanning of fuel rod. But this system must be needed to be remodeled for the effective operations. In 2006, the system was upgraded for 3 months. The collimator bench can be movable with horizontal direction(x-direction) by motorized system for sectional gamma scanning and 3-dimensional tomography of fuel rod. So, gamma scanning for fuel rod can be detectable by x, y and rotation directions. It may be possible to obtain the radioactivities with radial and axial directions of pellet. This system is good for the series experiments with several positions. Operation of fuel bench and gamma detection program were linked each other by new program tools. It can control detection and bench moving automatically when gamma inspection of fuel rod is carried out with axial or radial positions. Some of electronic parts were added in PLC panel, and operating panel was re-designed for the remote control. To operate the fuel bench by computer, AD converter and some I/O cards were installed in computer. All of software were developed in Windows-XP system instead of DOS system. Control programs were made by visual-C language. After upgrade of system, DUPIC fuel which was irradiated in HANARO research reactor was detected by gamma scanning. The results were good and operation of gamma scanning showed reduced inspection time and easy control of data on series of detection with axial positions. With consideration of ECT(Eddy Current Test) installation, the computer program and hardware were set up as well. But ECT is not installed yet, so we have to check abnormal situation of program and hardware system. It is planned to install ECT in 2007.

  17. INS/GPS/LiDAR Integrated Navigation System for Urban and Indoor Environments Using Hybrid Scan Matching Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanbin; Liu, Shifei; Atia, Mohamed M; Noureldin, Aboelmagd

    2015-09-15

    This paper takes advantage of the complementary characteristics of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to provide periodic corrections to Inertial Navigation System (INS) alternatively in different environmental conditions. In open sky, where GPS signals are available and LiDAR measurements are sparse, GPS is integrated with INS. Meanwhile, in confined outdoor environments and indoors, where GPS is unreliable or unavailable and LiDAR measurements are rich, LiDAR replaces GPS to integrate with INS. This paper also proposes an innovative hybrid scan matching algorithm that combines the feature-based scan matching method and Iterative Closest Point (ICP) based scan matching method. The algorithm can work and transit between two modes depending on the number of matched line features over two scans, thus achieving efficiency and robustness concurrently. Two integration schemes of INS and LiDAR with hybrid scan matching algorithm are implemented and compared. Real experiments are performed on an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) for both outdoor and indoor environments. Experimental results show that the multi-sensor integrated system can remain sub-meter navigation accuracy during the whole trajectory.

  18. INS/GPS/LiDAR Integrated Navigation System for Urban and Indoor Environments Using Hybrid Scan Matching Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Gao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes advantage of the complementary characteristics of Global Positioning System (GPS and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR to provide periodic corrections to Inertial Navigation System (INS alternatively in different environmental conditions. In open sky, where GPS signals are available and LiDAR measurements are sparse, GPS is integrated with INS. Meanwhile, in confined outdoor environments and indoors, where GPS is unreliable or unavailable and LiDAR measurements are rich, LiDAR replaces GPS to integrate with INS. This paper also proposes an innovative hybrid scan matching algorithm that combines the feature-based scan matching method and Iterative Closest Point (ICP based scan matching method. The algorithm can work and transit between two modes depending on the number of matched line features over two scans, thus achieving efficiency and robustness concurrently. Two integration schemes of INS and LiDAR with hybrid scan matching algorithm are implemented and compared. Real experiments are performed on an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV for both outdoor and indoor environments. Experimental results show that the multi-sensor integrated system can remain sub-meter navigation accuracy during the whole trajectory.

  19. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  20. Quantitative analysis of CT scan in degenerative diseases of the nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Yukihiko; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Sobue, Itsuro.

    1988-05-01

    Quantitative analysis was made on cranial CT scans of 142 patients with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD), 16 with dentato-rubro-pallido-luysian atrophy (DRPLA), 12 with Huntington's chorea (HC), and four with chorea-acanthocytosis (CA). One hundred sex- and age-matched persons without any neurologic signs served as controls. Regarding parameters for atrophy in the infratentorial brain tissue, there was statistically significant difference between the SCD group and the control group. This indicated remarkable atrophy in the cerebellum and brain stem in SCD. According to subgroups of SCD, both bilateral atrophy of the pons and dilation of the prepontine cistern were significantly greater in the group of sporadic olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy than the group of Menzel type of olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy. The subgroup of hereditary spastic paraplegia had the mildest atrophy of the brain on CT, although there was still a significant atrophy compared with controls. In the DRPLA group, finding in the infratentorial brain tissue were similar to those in the SCD group. The HC group was characterized by having the greatest atrophy in the lateral ventricle, especially the caudate nuclei. Similar findings were seen in the CA group, although atrophy was generally mild. The results indicate the usefulness of quantitative analysis on CT in the diagnosis of degenerative diseases of the nervous system. (Namekawa, K.).

  1. Application of chemometric methods to differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) to estimate nimodipine polymorphs from cosolvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Akhtar; Rahman, Ziyaur; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-06-01

    The focus of this study was to evaluate the applicability of chemometrics to differential scanning calorimetry data (DSC) to evaluate nimodipine polymorphs. Multivariate calibration models were built using DSC data from known mixtures of the nimodipine modification. The linear baseline correction treatment of data was used to reduce dispersion in thermograms. Principal component analysis of the treated and untreated data explained 96% and 89% of the data variability, respectively. Score and loading plots correlated variability between samples with change in proportion of nimodipine modifications. The R(2) for principal component regression (PCR) and partial lease square regression (PLS) were found to be 0.91 and 0.92. The root mean square of standard error of the treated samples for calibration and validation in PCR and PLS was found to be lower than the untreated sample. These models were applied to samples recrystallized from a cosolvent system, which indicated different proportion of modifications in the mixtures than those obtained by placing samples under different storage conditions. The model was able to predict the nimodipine modifications with known margin of error. Therefore, these models can be used as a quality control tool to expediently determine the nimodipine modification in an unknown mixture.

  2. A new total body scanning system for automatic change detection in multiple pigmented skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkov, Konstantin; Quintana, Josep; Puig, Susana; Malvehy, Josep; Garcia, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The detection of newly appearing and changing pigmented skin lesions (PSLs) is essential for timely diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma. Total body skin examination (TBSE) procedures, currently practiced for this purpose, can be extremely time-consuming for patients with numerous lesions. In addition, these procedures are prone to subjectivity when selecting PSLs for baseline image comparison, increasing the risk of missing a developing cancer. To address this issue, we propose a new photogrammetry-based total body scanning system allowing for skin surface image acquisition using cross-polarized light. Equipped with 21 high-resolution cameras and a turntable, this scanner automatically acquires a set of overlapping images, covering 85%-90% of the patient's skin surface. These images are used for the automated mapping of PSLs and their change estimation between explorations. The maps produced relate images of individual lesions with their locations on the patient's body, solving the body-to-image and image-to-image correspondence problem in TBSEs. Currently, the scanner is limited to patients with sparse body hair and, for a complete skin examination, the scalp, palms, soles and inner arms should be photographed manually. The initial tests of the scanner showed that it can be successfully applied for automated mapping and temporal monitoring of multiple lesions: PSLs relevant for follow-up were repeatedly mapped in several explorations. Moreover, during the baseline image comparison, all lesions with artificially induced changes were correctly identified as "evolved."

  3. Feasibility of fiber optic displacement sensor scanning system for imaging of dental cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Husna Abdul; Che Ani, Adi Izhar; Harun, Sulaiman Wadi; Yasin, Moh.; Apsari, Retna; Ahmad, Harith

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of intensity modulated fiber optic displacement sensor scanning system for the imaging of dental cavity. Here, we discuss our preliminary results in the imaging of cavities on various teeth surfaces, as well as measurement of the diameter of the cavities which are represented by drilled holes on the teeth surfaces. Based on the analysis of displacement measurement, the sensitivities and linear range for the molar, canine, hybrid composite resin, and acrylic surfaces are obtained at 0.09667 mV/mm and 0.45 mm 0.775 mV/mm and 0.4 mm 0.5109 mV/mm and 0.5 mm and 0.25 mV/mm and 0.5 mm, respectively, with a good linearity of more than 99%. The results also show a clear distinction between the cavity and surrounding tooth region. The stability, simplicity of design, and low cost of fabrication make it suitable for restorative dentistry.

  4. 3D Body Scanning Measurement System Associated with RF Imaging, Zero-padding and Parallel Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyung Tae

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel signal processing method for high-speed 3D body measurements using millimeter waves with a general processing unit (GPU and zero-padding fast Fourier transform (ZPFFT. The proposed measurement system consists of a radio-frequency (RF antenna array for a penetrable measurement, a high-speed analog-to-digital converter (ADC for significant data acquisition, and a general processing unit for fast signal processing. The RF waves of the transmitter and the receiver are converted to real and imaginary signals that are sampled by a high-speed ADC and synchronized with the kinematic positions of the scanner. Because the distance between the surface and the antenna is related to the peak frequency of the conjugate signals, a fast Fourier transform (FFT is applied to the signal processing after the sampling. The sampling time is finite owing to a short scanning time, and the physical resolution needs to be increased; further, zero-padding is applied to interpolate the spectra of the sampled signals to consider a 1/m floating point frequency. The GPU and parallel algorithm are applied to accelerate the speed of the ZPFFT because of the large number of additional mathematical operations of the ZPFFT. 3D body images are finally obtained by spectrograms that are the arrangement of the ZPFFT in a 3D space.

  5. OCCLUSION AND ARTICULATION IN BRUXISM AND BRUXOMANIA INVESTIGATED WITH THE SYSTEM T-SCAN III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Dimova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To be analyzed common features of occlusal relationships in patients with bruxism and bruxomania at maximum intercuspation (MIP and eccentric jaw movements. Materials and Methods: 30 patients (22 women and 8 men, mean aged of 42,8 ± 13,3 with bruxism and/or bruxomania are examined with the system T-Scan III. Sequence of records is - at maximum intercuspation (MIP; in manual leading to central relation and in eccentric jaw movements. In the same sequence is investigated control group - 30 people (15 women and 15 men aged between 21 and 45 who didn’t have bruxism and/or bruxomania and dentition is preserved. Results: In the control group 85% of cases there is a balance of forces in both halves of the dental arch. In patients with bruxism is established uneven distribution of forces in MIP and articulation blockages (95%. There are three major reasons that impede spontaneous bilateral closing - force outliers (93% of cases; low force outliers (82% and presence of interceptive contacts and sliding occurring in the beginning of occlusion time until MIP (in all patients. Conclusions: In order to achieve a balanced occlusion in patients with bruxism and/or bruxomania required are correct diagnosis, registration and removal of preliminary contacts, articulation blockages and infraocclusion. Occlusal analysis is objective and an indicator of subsequent treatment only when it is a combination of clinical, instrumental and computerized occlusal analysis.

  6. Robust dead reckoning system for mobile robots based on particle filter and raw range scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhuohua; Cai, Zixing; Min, Huaqing

    2014-09-04

    Robust dead reckoning is a complicated problem for wheeled mobile robots (WMRs), where the robots are faulty, such as the sticking of sensors or the slippage of wheels, for the discrete fault models and the continuous states have to be estimated simultaneously to reach a reliable fault diagnosis and accurate dead reckoning. Particle filters are one of the most promising approaches to handle hybrid system estimation problems, and they have also been widely used in many WMRs applications, such as pose tracking, SLAM, video tracking, fault identification, etc. In this paper, the readings of a laser range finder, which may be also interfered with by noises, are used to reach accurate dead reckoning. The main contribution is that a systematic method to implement fault diagnosis and dead reckoning in a particle filter framework concurrently is proposed. Firstly, the perception model of a laser range finder is given, where the raw scan may be faulty. Secondly, the kinematics of the normal model and different fault models for WMRs are given. Thirdly, the particle filter for fault diagnosis and dead reckoning is discussed. At last, experiments and analyses are reported to show the accuracy and efficiency of the presented method.

  7. Robust Dead Reckoning System for Mobile Robots Based on Particle Filter and Raw Range Scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuohua Duan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Robust dead reckoning is a complicated problem for wheeled mobile robots (WMRs, where the robots are faulty, such as the sticking of sensors or the slippage of wheels, for the discrete fault models and the continuous states have to be estimated simultaneously to reach a reliable fault diagnosis and accurate dead reckoning. Particle filters are one of the most promising approaches to handle hybrid system estimation problems, and they have also been widely used in many WMRs applications, such as pose tracking, SLAM, video tracking, fault identification, etc. In this paper, the readings of a laser range finder, which may be also interfered with by noises, are used to reach accurate dead reckoning. The main contribution is that a systematic method to implement fault diagnosis and dead reckoning in a particle filter framework concurrently is proposed. Firstly, the perception model of a laser range finder is given, where the raw scan may be faulty. Secondly, the kinematics of the normal model and different fault models for WMRs are given. Thirdly, the particle filter for fault diagnosis and dead reckoning is discussed. At last, experiments and analyses are reported to show the accuracy and efficiency of the presented method.

  8. Ultrahigh-definition color video camera system with 4K-scanning lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Kohji; Sugawara, Masayuki; Shimamoto, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Takayuki; Okano, Fumio

    2003-05-01

    An experimental ultrahigh-definition color video camera system with 7680(H) × 4320(V) pixels has been developed using four 8-million-pixel CCDs. The 8-million-pixel CCD with a progressive scanning rate of 60 frames per second has 4046(H) × 2048(V) effective imaging pixels, each of which is 8.4 micron2. We applied the four-imager pickup method to increase the camera"s resolution. This involves attaching four CCDs to a special color-separation prism. Two CCDs are used for the green image, and the other two are used for red and blue. The spatial image sampling pattern of these CCDs to the optical image is equivalent to one with 32 million pixels in the Bayer pattern color filter. The prototype camera attains a limiting resolution of more than 2700 TV lines both horizontally and vertically, which is higher than that of an 8-million-CCD. The sensitivity of the camera is 2000 lux, F 2.8 at approx. 50 dB of dark-noise level on the HDTV format. Its other specifications are a dynamic range of 200%, a power consumption of about 600 W and a weight, with lens, of 76 kg.

  9. Open source deformable image registration system for treatment planning and recurrence CT scans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukauskaite, Ruta; Brink, Carsten; Hansen, Christian Rønn

    2016-01-01

    CT) images of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients was evaluated. PATIENTS AND MATERIALS: Twenty patients treated with definitive IMRT for HNSCC in 2010-2012 were included. For each patient, a pCT and an rCT scan were used. Median interval between the scans was 8.5 months. One observer...... on pCT. DSC for DIR varied between 0.58 and 0.79 for soft tissues and was 0.79 or higher for bony structures, and correlated with the volumes of ROIs (r = 0.5, p CT scans is feasible...

  10. The neuromuscular system of Pycnophyes kielensis (Kinorhyncha: Allomalorhagida investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Altenburger

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kinorhynchs are ecdysozoan animals with a phylogenetic position close to priapulids and loriciferans. To understand the nature of segmentation within Kinorhyncha and to infer a probable ancestry of segmentation within the last common ancestor of Ecdysozoa, the musculature and the nervous system of the allomalorhagid kinorhynch Pycnophyes kielensis were investigated by use of immunohistochemistry, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and 3D reconstruction software. Results The kinorhynch body plan comprises 11 trunk segments. Trunk musculature consists of paired ventral and dorsal longitudinal muscles in segments 1–10 as well as dorsoventral muscles in segments 1–11. Dorsal and ventral longitudinal muscles insert on apodemes of the cuticle inside the animal within each segment. Strands of longitudinal musculature extend over segment borders in segments 1–6. In segments 7–10, the trunk musculature is confined to the segments. Musculature of the digestive system comprises a strong pharyngeal bulb with attached mouth cone muscles as well as pharyngeal bulb protractors and retractors. The musculature of the digestive system shows no sign of segmentation. Judged by the size of the pharyngeal bulb protractors and retractors, the pharyngeal bulb, as well as the introvert, is moved passively by internal pressure caused by concerted action of the dorsoventral muscles. The nervous system comprises a neuropil ring anterior to the pharyngeal bulb. Associated with the neuropil ring are flask-shaped serotonergic somata extending anteriorly and posteriorly. A ventral nerve cord is connected to the neuropil ring and runs toward the anterior until an attachment point in segment 1, and from there toward the posterior with one ganglion in segment 6. Conclusions Segmentation within Kinorhyncha likely evolved from an unsegmented ancestor. This conclusion is supported by continuous trunk musculature in the anterior segments 1–6, continuous

  11. Review: two-photon scanning systems for clinical high resolution in vivo tissue imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, K.; Müller, J.; Höfer, M.; Müller, C.; Weinigel, M.; Bückle, R.; Elsner, P.; Kaatz, M.; Messerschmidt, B.

    2008-02-01

    The femtosecond laser multiphoton tomograph DermaInspect as well as high NA two-photon GRIN microendoscopes for in vivo tomography of human skin have been used to detect malignant melanoma as well as to study the diffusion and intradermal accumulation of topically applied cosmetical and pharmaceutical components. So far, more than 500 patients and volunteers in Europe, Australia, and Asia have been investigated with this unique tomograph. Near infrared 80 MHz picojoule femtosecond laser pulses were employed to excite endogenous fluorophores such as NAD(P)H, flavoproteins, melanin, and elastin as well as fluorescent components of a variety of ointments via a twophoton excitation process. In addition, collagen has been imaged by second harmonic generation. Using a two-PMT detection system, the ratio of elastin to collagen was determined during optical sectioning. A high submicron spatial resolution and 50 picosecond temporal resolution was achieved using galvoscan mirrors and piezodriven focusing optics as well as a time-correlated single photon counting module with a fast microchannel plate detector and fast photomultipliers. Individual intratissue cells, mitochondria, melanosomes, and the morphology of the nuclei as well as extracellular matrix elements could be clearly visualized due to molecular imaging and the calculation of fluorescence lifetime images. Nanoparticles and intratissue drugs have been detected non-invasively, in situ and over a period of up to 3 months. In addition, hydration effects and UV effects were studied by monitoring modifications of cellular morphology and autofluorescence. The system was used to observe the diffusion through the stratum corneum and the accumulation and release of functionalized nanoparticles along hair shafts and epidermal ridges. The DermaInspect been also employed to gain information on skin age and wound healing in patients with ulcers. Novel developments include a galvo/piezo-scan driven flexible articulated arm as

  12. Characterizing a Proton Beam Scanning System for Monte Carlo Dose Calculation in Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassberger, C; Lomax, Tony; Paganetti, H

    2015-01-01

    The presented work has two goals. First, to demonstrate the feasibility of accurately characterizing a proton radiation field at treatment head exit for Monte Carlo dose calculation of active scanning patient treatments. Second, to show that this characterization can be done based on measured depth dose curves and spot size alone, without consideration of the exact treatment head delivery system. This is demonstrated through calibration of a Monte Carlo code to the specific beam lines of two institutions, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Comparison of simulations modeling the full treatment head at MGH to ones employing a parameterized phase space of protons at treatment head exit reveals the adequacy of the method for patient simulations. The secondary particle production in the treatment head is typically below 0.2% of primary fluence, except for low–energy electrons (protons), whose contribution to skin dose is negligible. However, there is significant difference between the two methods in the low-dose penumbra, making full treatment head simulations necessary to study out-of field effects such as secondary cancer induction. To calibrate the Monte Carlo code to measurements in a water phantom, we use an analytical Bragg peak model to extract the range-dependent energy spread at the two institutions, as this quantity is usually not available through measurements. Comparison of the measured with the simulated depth dose curves demonstrates agreement within 0.5mm over the entire energy range. Subsequently, we simulate three patient treatments with varying anatomical complexity (liver, head and neck and lung) to give an example how this approach can be employed to investigate site-specific discrepancies between treatment planning system and Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:25549079

  13. Mapping chemicals in air using an environmental CAT scanning system: evaluation of algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, A.; Todd, L. A.

    A new technique is being developed which creates near real-time maps of chemical concentrations in air for environmental and occupational environmental applications. This technique, we call Environmental CAT Scanning, combines the real-time measuring technique of open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with the mapping capabilitites of computed tomography to produce two-dimensional concentration maps. With this system, a network of open-path measurements is obtained over an area; measurements are then processed using a tomographic algorithm to reconstruct the concentrations. This research focussed on the process of evaluating and selecting appropriate reconstruction algorithms, for use in the field, by using test concentration data from both computer simultation and laboratory chamber studies. Four algorithms were tested using three types of data: (1) experimental open-path data from studies that used a prototype opne-path Fourier transform/computed tomography system in an exposure chamber; (2) synthetic open-path data generated from maps created by kriging point samples taken in the chamber studies (in 1), and; (3) synthetic open-path data generated using a chemical dispersion model to create time seires maps. The iterative algorithms used to reconstruct the concentration data were: Algebraic Reconstruction Technique without Weights (ART1), Algebraic Reconstruction Technique with Weights (ARTW), Maximum Likelihood with Expectation Maximization (MLEM) and Multiplicative Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (MART). Maps were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. In general, MART and MLEM performed best, followed by ARTW and ART1. However, algorithm performance varied under different contaminant scenarios. This study showed the importance of using a variety of maps, particulary those generated using dispersion models. The time series maps provided a more rigorous test of the algorithms and allowed distinctions to be made among the algorithms. A

  14. Equivalente esférico e valores da espessura da camada de fibras nervosas obtidas com o GDX TM Scanning Laser System® Spherical equivalent and nerve fiber layer thickness assessed with GDX TM Scanning Laser System®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lênio Souza Alvarenga

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudar a influência do equivalente esférico nos valores obtidos pelo GDX TM Scanning Laser System®. Métodos: Foram avaliados 41 olhos de 41 voluntários sem doenças oculares e com campo visual sem alterações. Foi realizada a polarimetria de varredura a laser com o GDX TM Scanning Laser System® de acordo com as instruções contidas no manual do aparelho. Foram comparados os valores obtidos nesse exame em um grupo de pacientes com equivalente esférico positivo e em um outro com este valor nulo ou negativo, pelo teste de Mann-Whitney. Resultados: Não se verificou diferença estatística entre os valores obtidos nos olhos de pacientes do grupo I e os do grupo II. Não foi encontrada correlação entre o equivalente esférico e os valores obtidos com o GDX TM Scanning Laser System®. Conclusões: Na amostra estudada não houve diferença estatística entre os valores obtidos em um grupo de olhos com equivalente esférico positivo e outro com este valor negativo ou nulo, usando-se o GDX TM Scanning Laser System®.Purpose: To evaluate the effect of spherical equivalent on the acquisition of nerve fiber layer (NFL thickness with GDX TM Scanning Laser System®. Methods: Forty-one eyes of 41 volunteers were enrolled in this study. All of them presented with no ocular disease and no visual field defect. The NFL thickness was measured with GDX TM Scanning Laser System® as described in its manual. The values obtained in a group of volunteers with negative spherical equivalent (group I were compared to those from a group with a positive spherical equivalent (group II by the Mann-Whitney test. Results: There was no statistical difference between mea-surements in eyes of group I and those in group II. The NFL thickness measurements were not correlated with the sphe-rical equivalent. Conclusions: In the studied group there was no statistical difference in the GDX TM Scanning Laser System® parameters related to spherical equivalent.

  15. Image-based tracking system for vibration measurement of a rotating object using a laser scanning vibrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongkyu; Khalil, Hossam; Jo, Youngjoon; Park, Kyihwan

    2016-06-01

    An image-based tracking system using laser scanning vibrometer is developed for vibration measurement of a rotating object. The proposed system unlike a conventional one can be used where the position or velocity sensor such as an encoder cannot be attached to an object. An image processing algorithm is introduced to detect a landmark and laser beam based on their colors. Then, through using feedback control system, the laser beam can track a rotating object.

  16. Image-based tracking system for vibration measurement of a rotating object using a laser scanning vibrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongkyu, E-mail: akein@gist.ac.kr; Khalil, Hossam; Jo, Youngjoon; Park, Kyihwan, E-mail: khpark@gist.ac.kr [School of Mechatronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Buk-gu, Gwangju, South Korea, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-28

    An image-based tracking system using laser scanning vibrometer is developed for vibration measurement of a rotating object. The proposed system unlike a conventional one can be used where the position or velocity sensor such as an encoder cannot be attached to an object. An image processing algorithm is introduced to detect a landmark and laser beam based on their colors. Then, through using feedback control system, the laser beam can track a rotating object.

  17. A High-Precision Registration Technology Based on Bundle Adjustment in Structured Light Scanning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianying Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiview 3D data registration precision will decrease with the increasing number of registrations when measuring a large scale object using structured light scanning. In this paper, we propose a high-precision registration method based on multiple view geometry theory in order to solve this problem. First, a multiview network is constructed during the scanning process. The bundle adjustment method from digital close range photogrammetry is used to optimize the multiview network to obtain high-precision global control points. After that, the 3D data under each local coordinate of each scan are registered with the global control points. The method overcomes the error accumulation in the traditional registration process and reduces the time consumption of the following 3D data global optimization. The multiview 3D scan registration precision and efficiency are increased. Experiments verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  18. Computer-assisted evaluation of pulmonary emphysema in CT scans: comparison between a locally developed system and a freeware system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, John Hebert da Silva; Cortez, Paulo Cesar; Costa, Rodrigo Carvalho Sousa [Federal University of Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. of Computer Engineering. Computing Systems Engineering Lab.], e-mail: jhsfelix@gmail.com; Fortaleza, Simone Castelo Branco; Pereira, Eanes Delgado Barros; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara [Federal University of Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Walter Cantidio University Hospital

    2009-09-15

    Objective: to present a locally developed system of computer vision for use with HRCT images, designated SIStema para a Deteccao e a quantificacao de Enfisema Pulmonar (SISDEP, System to Detect and Quantify Pulmonary Emphysema), and to compare this system with a free ware system tool. Methods: thirty-three HRCT images scanned at the apex, hilum and base of the lungs of 11 patients with COPD were analyzed. The SISDEP was compared with the Osiris Medical Imaging Software Program regarding lung parenchyma segmentation, precision of the measurement of the cross-sectional area of the lungs in mm{sup 2}, mean lung density (MLD), relative area (RA) of the lung occupied by voxels with attenuation values < -950 Hounsfield units (RA -950), 15th percentile point (Perc15) and visualization of hyper inflated areas using a color mask. Results: although both computational systems were efficient in segmenting the lungs, the SISDEP performed this task automatically and more rapidly. There were significant correlations between the two systems in terms of the results obtained for lung cross-sectional area, MLD, RA -950 and Perc15 (r{sup 2} = 0.99, 0.99, 0.99 and 1.00, respectively). The color mask tool of the SISDEP allowed excellent visualization of hyper inflated areas, discriminating them from normal areas. Conclusions: the SISDEP was efficient in segmenting the lungs and quantifying lung hyper inflation, presenting an excellent correlation with the Osiris system. The SISDEP constitutes a promising computational tool for diagnosing and assessing the progression of emphysema in HRCT images of COPD patients. (author)

  19. Computer-assisted evaluation of pulmonary emphysema in CT scans: comparison between a locally developed system and a freeware system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, John Hebert da Silva; Cortez, Paulo César; Costa, Rodrigo Carvalho Sousa; Fortaleza, Simone Castelo Branco; Pereira, Eanes Delgado Barros; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara

    2009-09-01

    To present a locally developed system of computer vision for use with HRCT images, designated SIStema para a Detecção e a quantificação de Enfisema Pulmonar (SISDEP, System to Detect and Quantify Pulmonary Emphysema), and to compare this system with a freeware system tool. Thirty-three HRCT images scanned at the apex, hilum and base of the lungs of 11 patients with COPD were analyzed. The SISDEP was compared with the Osiris Medical Imaging Software Program regarding lung parenchyma segmentation, precision of the measurement of the cross-sectional area of the lungs in mm(2), mean lung density (MLD), relative area (RA) of the lung occupied by voxels with attenuation values < -950 hounsfield units (RA -950), 15th percentile point (Perc15) and visualization of hyperinflated areas using a color mask. Although both computational systems were efficient in segmenting the lungs, the SISDEP performed this task automatically and more rapidly. There were significant correlations between the two systems in terms of the results obtained for lung cross-sectional area, MLD, RA -950 and Perc15 (r(2) = 0.99, 0.99, 0.99 and 1.00, respectively). The color mask tool of the SISDEP allowed excellent visualization of hyperinflated areas, discriminating them from normal areas. The SISDEP was efficient in segmenting the lungs and quantifying lung hyperinflation, presenting an excellent correlation with the Osiris system. The SISDEP constitutes a promising computational tool for diagnosing and assessing the progression of emphysema in HRCT images of COPD patients.

  20. Organizations as Information Processing Systems. Environmental Characteristics, Company Performance, and Chief Executive Scanning: An Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    environment (Hamhrick, 1981). Scanning provides the external intelligence that is used in planning, decision making and strategy formulation ( Ansoff , 1979...discussion. Personal communications are content rich and enable executives to detect weak N. signals ( Ansoff , 1975). Impersonal sources are appropriate...Management Review, 25, No. 2 (January 1983), pp. 76-83. , Aguilar, Francis Joseph, Scanning the Business Environment, New York: MacMillan Co., 1967. Ansoff

  1. Issues of Security and Informational Privacy in relation to an Environmental Scanning System for Fighting Organized Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Anne; Larsen, Henrik Legind; Rouces, Jacobo

    2013-01-01

    This paper clarifies privacy challenges related to the EU project, ePOOLICE, which aims at developing an environmental scanning system for fighting organized crime by improving law enforcement agencies opportunities for strategic proactive planning in response to emerging organized crime threats....

  2. [A new laser scan system for video ophthalmoscopy. Initial clinical experiences also in relation to digital image processing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, E; Mertz, M; Hofmann, H; Wertheimer, R; Foos, C

    1990-06-01

    The clinical advantages of a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) and video imaging of fundus pictures are described. Image quality (contrast, depth of field) and imaging possibilities (confocal stop) are assessed. Imaging with different lasers (argon, He-Ne) and changes in imaging rendered possible by confocal alignment of the imaging optics are discussed. Hard copies from video images are still of inferior quality compared to fundus photographs. Methods of direct processing and retrieval of digitally stored SLO video fundus images are illustrated by examples. Modifications for a definitive laser scanning system - in regard to the field of view and the quality of hard copies - are proposed.

  3. Final report: Mapping Interactions in Hybrid Systems with Active Scanning Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezovsky, Jesse [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2017-09-29

    This project aimed to study and map interactions between components of hybrid nanodevices using a novel scanning probe approach. To enable this work, we initially constructed a flexible experimental apparatus allowing for simultaneous scanning probe and confocal optical microscopy measurements. This setup was first used for all-optical measurements of nanostructures, with the focus then shifting to hybrid devices in which single coherent electron spins are coupled to micron-scale ferromagnetic elements, which may prove useful for addressing single spins, enhanced sensing, or spin-wave-mediated coupling of spins for quantum information applications. A significant breakthrough was the realization that it is not necessary to fabricate a magnetic structure on a scanning probe – instead a ferromagnetic vortex core can act as an integrated, solid state, scanning probe. The core of the vortex produces a very strong, localized fringe field which can be used analogously to an MFM tip. Unlike a traditional MFM tip, however, the vortex core is scanned within an integrated device (eliminating drift), and can be moved on vastly faster timescales. This approach allows the detailed investigation of interactions between single spins and complex driven ferromagnetic dynamics.

  4. Damage identification of beam structures using free response shapes obtained by use of a continuously scanning laser Doppler vibrometer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y. F.; Chen, Da-Ming; Zhu, W. D.

    2017-08-01

    Spatially dense operating deflection shapes and mode shapes can be rapidly obtained by use of a continuously scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (CSLDV) system, which sweeps its laser spot over a vibrating structure surface. This paper introduces a new type of vibration shapes called a free response shape (FRS) that can be obtained by use of a CSLDV system, and a new damage identification methodology using FRSs is developed for beam structures. An analytical expression of FRSs of a damped beam structure is derived, and FRSs from the analytical expression compare well with those from a finite element model. In the damage identification methodology, a free-response damage index (FRDI) is proposed, and damage regions can be identified near neighborhoods with consistently high values of FRDIs associated with different modes; an auxiliary FRDI is defined to assist identification of the neighborhoods. A FRDI associated with a mode consists of differences between curvatures of FRSs associated with the mode in a number of half-scan periods of a CSLDV system and those from polynomials that fit the FRSs with properly determined orders. A convergence index is proposed to determine the proper order of a polynomial fit. One advantage of the methodology is that the FRDI does not require any baseline information of an undamaged beam structure, if it is geometrically smooth and made of materials that have no stiffness and mass discontinuities. Another advantage is that FRDIs associated with multiple modes can be obtained using free response of a beam structure measured by a CSLDV system in one scan. The number of half-scan periods for calculation of the FRDI associated with a mode can be determined by use of the short-time Fourier transform. The proposed methodology was numerically and experimentally applied to identify damage in beam structures; effects of the scan frequency of a CSLDV system on qualities of obtained FRSs were experimentally investigated.

  5. [Clinical effect of three dimensional human body scanning system BurnCalc in the evaluation of burn wound area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J; Wang, L; Zhang, Y C; Tang, H T; Xia, Z F

    2017-10-20

    Objective: To validate the clinical effect of three dimensional human body scanning system BurnCalc developed by our research team in the evaluation of burn wound area. Methods: A total of 48 burn patients treated in the outpatient department of our unit from January to June 2015, conforming to the study criteria, were enrolled in. For the first 12 patients, one wound on the limbs or torso was selected from each patient. The stability of the system was tested by 3 attending physicians using three dimensional human body scanning system BurnCalc to measure the area of wounds individually. For the following 36 patients, one wound was selected from each patient, including 12 wounds on limbs, front torso, and side torso, respectively. The area of wounds was measured by the same attending physician using transparency tracing method, National Institutes of Health (NIH) Image J method, and three dimensional human body scanning system BurnCalc, respectively. The time for getting information of 36 wounds by three methods was recorded by stopwatch. The stability among the testers was evaluated by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Data were processed with randomized blocks analysis of variance and Bonferroni test. Results: (1) Wound area of patients measured by three physicians using three dimensional human body scanning system BurnCalc was (122±95), (121±95), and (123±96) cm(2,) respectively, and there was no statistically significant difference among them ( F =1.55, P >0.05). The ICC among 3 physicians was 0.999. (2) The wound area of limbs of patients measured by transparency tracing method, NIH Image J method, and three dimensional human body scanning system BurnCalc was (84±50), (76±46), and (84±49) cm(2,) respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the wound area of limbs of patients measured by transparency tracing method and three dimensional human body scanning system BurnCalc ( P >0.05). The wound area of limbs of patients

  6. LOW COST MULTI-SENSOR ROBOT LASER SCANNING SYSTEM AND ITS ACCURACY INVESTIGATIONS FOR INDOOR MAPPING APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the automation of 3D indoor mapping task, a low cost multi-sensor robot laser scanning system is proposed in this paper. The multiple-sensor robot laser scanning system includes a panorama camera, a laser scanner, and an inertial measurement unit and etc., which are calibrated and synchronized together to achieve simultaneously collection of 3D indoor data. Experiments are undertaken in a typical indoor scene and the data generated by the proposed system are compared with ground truth data collected by a TLS scanner showing an accuracy of 99.2% below 0.25 meter, which explains the applicability and precision of the system in indoor mapping applications.

  7. Low Cost Multi-Sensor Robot Laser Scanning System and its Accuracy Investigations for Indoor Mapping Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Zou, X.; Tian, M.; Li, J.; Wu, W.; Song, Y.; Dai, W.; Yang, B.

    2017-11-01

    In order to solve the automation of 3D indoor mapping task, a low cost multi-sensor robot laser scanning system is proposed in this paper. The multiple-sensor robot laser scanning system includes a panorama camera, a laser scanner, and an inertial measurement unit and etc., which are calibrated and synchronized together to achieve simultaneously collection of 3D indoor data. Experiments are undertaken in a typical indoor scene and the data generated by the proposed system are compared with ground truth data collected by a TLS scanner showing an accuracy of 99.2% below 0.25 meter, which explains the applicability and precision of the system in indoor mapping applications.

  8. Integrating TV/digital data spectrograph system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, B. J.; Fay, T. D.; Miller, E. R.; Wamsteker, W.; Brown, R. M.; Neely, P. L.

    1975-01-01

    A 25-mm vidicon camera was previously modified to allow operation in an integration mode for low-light-level astronomical work. The camera was then mated to a low-dispersion spectrograph for obtaining spectral information in the 400 to 750 nm range. A high speed digital video image system was utilized to digitize the analog video signal, place the information directly into computer-type memory, and record data on digital magnetic tape for permanent storage and subsequent analysis.

  9. A new scanning system for alpha decay events as calibration sources for range-energy relation in nuclear emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, J., E-mail: jyoshida@gifu-u.ac.jp; Kinbara, S.; Mishina, A.; Nakazawa, K.; Soe, M.K.; Theint, A.M.M.; Tint, K.T.

    2017-03-01

    A new scanning system named “Vertex picker” has been developed to rapid collect alpha decay events, which are calibration sources for the range-energy relation in nuclear emulsion. A computer-controlled optical microscope scans emulsion layers exhaustively, and a high-speed and high-resolution camera takes their micrographs. A dedicated image processing picks out vertex-like shapes. Practical operations of alpha decay search were demonstrated by emulsion sheets of the KEK-PS E373 experiment. Alpha decays of nearly 28 events were detected in eye-check work on a PC monitor per hour. This yield is nearly 20 times more effective than that by the conventional eye-scan method. The speed and quality is acceptable for the coming new experiment, J-PARC E07.

  10. EchoScan: A new system to objectively assess peripheral hearing disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Venet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure-tone air-conduction audiometry (PTA is the reference clinical test used in Europe and the United States to measure the extent of hearing loss. It is a subjective, behavioral test, which measures thresholds of hearing sensations and perceptions based on patient responses to frequency-specific pure-tone stimuli. PTA can detect hearing problems due to cochlear or retro-cochlear impairment, without identifying the source of the problem. In contrast, cubic distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs detect inner-ear dysfunctions, particularly those involving the outer hair cells sensitive to noise and ototoxicants. Recently, ototoxicants were shown to have an action on the central nuclei driving the middle-ear acoustic reflex. Therefore, a new device, called EchoScan, was conceived to collect and measure performance both in the middle- and inner-ear. Its originality: the use of a battery of DPOAE measurements associated with contra-lateral acoustic stimulation. Changes in DPOAE amplitude due to ageing and gender were incidentally detected and EchoScan was more sensitive than impedancemetry to detect the stapedial reflex. EchoScan can be used both in clinical investigations and in occupational medicine, especially for the auditory follow-up of people exposed to noise or ototoxic agents. EchoScan could be promising to assess early detection in programs to prevent hearing loss.

  11. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Procedure for HE Powders on a LEO 438VP System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaka, Fowzia [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Energetic Materials Center

    2016-03-08

    This method describes the characterization of HE powders by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). HE particles are dispersed onto an aluminum standard SEM specimen mount. Electron micrographs are collected at various magnifications (150 to 10,000 X) depending on HE particle size.

  12. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Procedure for HE Powders on a LEO 438VP System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaka, Fowzia [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Energetic Materials Center

    2016-03-21

    This method describes the characterization of HE powders by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). HE particles are dispersed onto an aluminum standard SEM specimen mount. Electron micrographs are collected at various magnifications (150 to 10,000 X) depending on HE particle size.

  13. Development of an efficient scanning and purging magnet system for IMRT with narrow high energy photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreassen, Bjoern, E-mail: bjorn.andreassen@gmail.co [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, P.O. Box 260, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Svensson, Roger; Holmberg, Rickard [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, P.O. Box 260, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Danared, Hakan [Manne Siegbahn Laboratory, Stockholm University, Frescativaegen 26, SE-114 18 Stockholm (Sweden); Brahme, Anders [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, P.O. Box 260, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-12-21

    Due to the clinical advantages of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) high flexibility and accuracy in intensity modulated dose delivery is desirable to really maximize treatment outcome. Although it is possible to deliver IMRT by using broad beams in combination with dynamic multileaf collimation the process is rather time consuming and inefficient. By using narrow scanned high energy photon beams the treatment outcome can be improved, the treatment time reduced and accurate 3D in vivo dose delivery monitoring is possible by PET-CT based dose delivery imaging of photo nuclear reactions in human tissues. Narrow photon beams can be produced by directing a low emittance high energy electron beam on a thin target, and then cleaning the therapeutic photon beam from transmitted high energy electrons, and photon generated charged leptons, with a dedicated purging magnet placed directly downstream of the target. To have an effective scanning and purging magnet system the purging magnet should be placed immediately after the bremsstrahlung target to deflect the transmitted electrons to an efficient electron stopper. In the static electron stopper the electrons should be safely collected independent of the desired direction of the therapeutic scanned photon beam. The SID (Source to Isocenter Distance) should preferably be short while retaining the ability to scan over a large area on the patient and consequently there are severe requirements both on the strength and the geometry of the scanning and purging magnets. In the present study an efficient magnet configuration with a purging and scanning magnet assembly is developed for electron energies in the 50-75 MeV range and a SID of 75 cm. For a bremsstrahlung target of 3 mm Be these electron energies produce a photon beam of 25-17 mm FWHM (Full Width Half Maximum) at a SID of 75 cm. The magnet system was examined both in terms of the efficiency in scanning the narrow bremsstrahlung beam and the deflection of

  14. Hyper-track selector nuclear emulsion readout system aimed at scanning an area of one thousand square meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Nakano, Toshiyuki; Komatani, Ryosuke; Kawahara, Hiroaki

    2017-10-01

    Automatic nuclear emulsion readout systems have seen remarkable progress since the original idea was developed almost 40 years ago. After the success of its full application to a large-scale neutrino experiment, OPERA, a much faster readout system, the hyper-track selector (HTS), has been developed. HTS, which has an extremely wide-field objective lens, reached a scanning speed of 4700 cm^2/h, which is nearly 100 times faster than the previous system and therefore strongly promotes many new experimental projects. We will describe the concept, specifications, system structure, and achieved performance in this paper.

  15. Three-dimensional integral television using extremely high-resolution video system with 4,000 scanning lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Fumio; Kawakita, Masahiro; Arai, Jun; Sasaki, Hisayuki; Yamashita, Takayuki; Sato, Masahito; Suehiro, Koya; Haino, Yasuyuki

    2007-09-01

    The integral method enables observers to see 3D images like real objects. It requires extremely high resolution for both capture and display stages. We present an experimental 3D television system based on the integral method using an extremely high-resolution video system. The video system has 4,000 scanning lines using the diagonal offset method for two green channels. The number of elemental lenses in the lens array is 140 (vertical) × 182 (horizontal). The viewing zone angle is wider than 20 degrees in practice. This television system can capture 3D objects and provides full color and full parallax 3D images in real time.

  16. Range 7 Scanner Integration with PaR Robot Scanning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Jason; Burns, Bradley; Carlson, Jeffrey; Minich, Mark

    2011-01-01

    An interface bracket and coordinate transformation matrices were designed to allow the Range 7 scanner to be mounted on the PaR Robot detector arm for scanning the heat shield or other object placed in the test cell. A process was designed for using Rapid Form XOR to stitch data from multiple scans together to provide an accurate 3D model of the object scanned. An accurate model was required for the design and verification of an existing heat shield. The large physical size and complex shape of the heat shield does not allow for direct measurement of certain features in relation to other features. Any imaging devices capable of imaging the entire heat shield in its entirety suffers a reduced resolution and cannot image sections that are blocked from view. Prior methods involved tools such as commercial measurement arms, taking images with cameras, then performing manual measurements. These prior methods were tedious and could not provide a 3D model of the object being scanned, and were typically limited to a few tens of measurement points at prominent locations. Integration of the scanner with the robot allows for large complex objects to be scanned at high resolution, and for 3D Computer Aided Design (CAD) models to be generated for verification of items to the original design, and to generate models of previously undocumented items. The main components are the mounting bracket for the scanner to the robot and the coordinate transformation matrices used for stitching the scanner data into a 3D model. The steps involve mounting the interface bracket to the robot's detector arm, mounting the scanner to the bracket, and then scanning sections of the object and recording the location of the tool tip (in this case the center of the scanner's focal point). A novel feature is the ability to stitch images together by coordinates instead of requiring each scan data set to have overlapping identifiable features. This setup allows models of complex objects to be developed

  17. ANALYSIS OF THE POSSIBILITIES OF USING LOW-COST SCANNING SYSTEM IN 3D MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kedzierski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The laser scanning technique is still a very popular and fast growing method of obtaining information on modeling 3D objects. The use of low-cost miniature scanners creates new opportunities for small objects of 3D modeling based on point clouds acquired from the scan. The same, the development of accuracy and methods of automatic processing of this data type is noticeable. The article presents methods of collecting raw datasets in the form of a point-cloud using a low-cost ground-based laser scanner FabScan. As part of the research work 3D scanner from an open source FabLab project was constructed. In addition, the results for the analysis of the geometry of the point clouds obtained by using a low-cost laser scanner were presented. Also, some analysis of collecting data of different structures (made of various materials such as: glass, wood, paper, gum, plastic, plaster, ceramics, stoneware clay etc. and of different shapes: oval and similar to oval and prism shaped have been done. The article presents two methods used for analysis: the first one - visual (general comparison between the 3D model and the real object and the second one - comparative method (comparison between measurements on models and scanned objects using the mean error of a single sample of observations. The analysis showed, that the low-budget ground-based laser scanner FabScan has difficulties with collecting data of non-oval objects. Items built of glass painted black also caused problems for the scanner. In addition, the more details scanned object contains, the lower the accuracy of the collected point-cloud is. Nevertheless, the accuracy of collected data (using oval-straight shaped objects is satisfactory. The accuracy, in this case, fluctuates between ± 0,4 mm and ± 1,0 mm whereas when using more detailed objects or a rectangular shaped prism the accuracy is much more lower, between 2,9 mm and ± 9,0 mm. Finally, the publication presents the possibility (for the

  18. SCANS (Shipping Cask ANalysis System) a microcomputer-based analysis system for shipping cask design review: User`s manual to Version 3a. Volume 1, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mok, G.C.; Thomas, G.R.; Gerhard, M.A.; Trummer, D.J.; Johnson, G.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    SCANS (Shipping Cask ANalysis System) is a microcomputer-based system of computer programs and databases developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for evaluating safety analysis reports on spent fuel shipping casks. SCANS is an easy-to-use system that calculates the global response to impact loads, pressure loads and thermal conditions, providing reviewers with an independent check on analyses submitted by licensees. SCANS is based on microcomputers compatible with the IBM-PC family of computers. The system is composed of a series of menus, input programs, cask analysis programs, and output display programs. All data is entered through fill-in-the-blank input screens that contain descriptive data requests. Analysis options are based on regulatory cases described in the Code of Federal Regulations 10 CFR 71 and Regulatory Guides published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 1977 and 1978.

  19. Renal scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003790.htm Renal scan To use the sharing features on this ... anaphylaxis . Alternative Names Renogram; Kidney scan Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Chernecky CC, ...

  20. Development of kinematic 3D laser scanning system for indoor mapping and as-built BIM using constrained SLAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Sanghyun; Ju, Sungha; Heo, Joon

    2015-10-16

    The growing interest and use of indoor mapping is driving a demand for improved data-acquisition facility, efficiency and productivity in the era of the Building Information Model (BIM). The conventional static laser scanning method suffers from some limitations on its operability in complex indoor environments, due to the presence of occlusions. Full scanning of indoor spaces without loss of information requires that surveyors change the scanner position many times, which incurs extra work for registration of each scanned point cloud. Alternatively, a kinematic 3D laser scanning system, proposed herein, uses line-feature-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique for continuous mapping. Moreover, to reduce the uncertainty of line-feature extraction, we incorporated constrained adjustment based on an assumption made with respect to typical indoor environments: that the main structures are formed of parallel or orthogonal line features. The superiority of the proposed constrained adjustment is its reduction for uncertainties of the adjusted lines, leading to successful data association process. In the present study, kinematic scanning with and without constrained adjustment were comparatively evaluated in two test sites, and the results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed system. The accuracy of the 3D mapping result was additionally evaluated by comparison with the reference points acquired by a total station: the Euclidean average distance error was 0.034 m for the seminar room and 0.043 m for the corridor, which satisfied the error tolerance for point cloud acquisition (0.051 m) according to the guidelines of the General Services Administration for BIM accuracy.

  1. Research and Development of High-speed Laser Scanning Galvanometer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Ching Ho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study developed and controlled laser scanning mechanism and circuit design, in order to reduce the vibratory magnitude resulted from high-speed operation. The principle of mechanism design is that the output end mirror can swing within ± 3° when the laser scanning mechanism is in operation, the accuracy value is ± 0.2°. The static simulation and dynamic measurement were carried out for mutual validation. The vibration generated in the operation of machine causes dynamic unbalance, influencing the stability of machine. In order to overcome and improve the dynamic unbalance generated when the mechanism is in motion, different solutions were proposed, such as changing the output end mass, to add elastic material in or to change constant speed control of input end motor to variable speed control.

  2. The Dentin Tubule System: A Replica and Scanning Electron Microscope Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-20

    this laboratory to prepare soft and calci fied tissues for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The resolution, magnification range and...several intertubular connections , originally examined at a magnification of 17,000 times (Fig. 7). In addition to the omnipresent lateral tubule...branches , and the ease of penetration therein of endodontic reagents from the pulp. Intratubular network throughout the dentin may be a route of intra

  3. Wide area scanning system and carbon microbeams at the external microbeam facility of the INFN LABEC laboratory in Florence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuntini, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Massi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Calusi, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Castelli, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Carraresi, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Fedi, M.E.; Gelli, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Liccioli, L.; Mandò, P.A.; Mazzinghi, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Palla, L. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa and Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Romano, F.P. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali (IBAM), Via Biblioteca, 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), LNS, Via S.Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); and others

    2015-04-01

    Recently, developments have been made to the external scanning microbeam of INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence. A new system for mechanical sample scanning was implemented. This system allows us to acquire large maps (up to 20 × 20 cm{sup 2}), of great interest in the Cultural Heritage field. In parallel, the possibility of using carbon microbeams for experiments, such as, for example, ion beam modification of materials and MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, has been investigated. As a test application, Particle Induced X-ray Emission with carbon microbeams has been performed on a lapis lazuli stone. First results for both wide area imaging and external carbon microbeams are briefly reported.

  4. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy: a computer controlled, scanning monochromator system for the rapid determination of the elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floyd, M.A.

    1980-03-01

    A computer controlled, scanning monochromator system specifically designed for the rapid, sequential determination of the elements is described. The monochromator is combined with an inductively coupled plasma excitation source so that elements at major, minor, trace, and ultratrace levels may be determined, in sequence, without changing experimental parameters other than the spectral line observed. A number of distinctive features not found in previously described versions are incorporated into the system here described. Performance characteristics of the entire system and several analytical applications are discussed.

  5. An acousto-optically steered laser scanning system for measurement of action potential spread in intact heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morad, M; Dillon, S; Weiss, J

    1986-01-01

    An optical scanning device that combines a voltage-sensitive dye and an acousto-optically steered He-Ne laser beam is described. This device is capable of scanning 128 sites every 4 ms and recording and storing the fluorescence signals for a duration of up to 1 s (several beats). Comparison of an activation map constructed from laser scanning to those obtained from multiple extracellular electrodes suggests that this technique is highly reliable. Although motion-induced light scattering appears to alter the shape of the action potential, the upstroke can be distinguished quite reliably even in a vigorously contracting muscle. This technique provides high resolution (up to 50 micron) and high flexibility (i.e., the scanned sites can be concentrated over a small or very large area) in measuring the spread of activation in heart muscle. By having only one excitation and one measurement element, the approach offers simplicity and high flexibility to the user. We have shown that this system can be readily applied to the task for which it was intended--probing the mechanisms of arrhythmias in the mammalian myocardium. It has been demonstrated, for example, that arrhythmias due to automaticity can be readily distinguished from those due to reentry through the mapping capability of the laser scanner. In addition, the ability of laser scanner to measure membrane depolarization directly during arrhythmias may make this technique superior to conventional electrocardiographic mapping techniques.

  6. SU-F-T-156: Monte Carlo Simulation Using TOPAS for Synchrotron Based Proton Discrete Spot Scanning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskvin, V; Pirlepesov, F; Tsiamas, P; Axente, M; Lukose, R; Zhao, L; Farr, J [St. Jude Children’s Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Shin, J [Massachusetts General Hospital, Brookline, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This study provides an overview of the design and commissioning of the Monte Carlo (MC) model of the spot-scanning proton therapy nozzle and its implementation for the patient plan simulation. Methods: The Hitachi PROBEAT V scanning nozzle was simulated based on vendor specifications using the TOPAS extension of Geant4 code. FLUKA MC simulation was also utilized to provide supporting data for the main simulation. Validation of the MC model was performed using vendor provided data and measurements collected during acceptance/commissioning of the proton therapy machine. Actual patient plans using CT based treatment geometry were simulated and compared to the dose distributions produced by the treatment planning system (Varian Eclipse 13.6), and patient quality assurance measurements. In-house MATLAB scripts are used for converting DICOM data into TOPAS input files. Results: Comparison analysis of integrated depth doses (IDDs), therapeutic ranges (R90), and spot shape/sizes at different distances from the isocenter, indicate good agreement between MC and measurements. R90 agreement is within 0.15 mm across all energy tunes. IDDs and spot shapes/sizes differences are within statistical error of simulation (less than 1.5%). The MC simulated data, validated with physical measurements, were used for the commissioning of the treatment planning system. Patient geometry simulations were conducted based on the Eclipse produced DICOM plans. Conclusion: The treatment nozzle and standard option beam model were implemented in the TOPAS framework to simulate a highly conformal discrete spot-scanning proton beam system.

  7. [Quantitative analysis of the palatal features affected by digit-sucking habit using a laser scanning system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yingjie; Ge, Lihong; Miao, Jiangxia

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the influence of digit-sucking habit on palatal features in pre-school children by using a laser scanning system. Forty pre-school children were chosen according to the results of questionnaires, among which 20 with digit-sucking habit(digit-sucking group) and 20 without any oral habits(control group). Impression of the upper jaw was taken from each child. After laser scanning the plaster casts, and three-dimensional reconstruction by the computer, parameters of anterior and posterior palatal length, width and height were measured, ratios of height/width, length/width and width ratio of anterior and posterior palatal were analyzed. The differences of palatal features between two groups were analyzed by t test. There was statistical significance between digit-sucking group and control group in posterior palatal width, anterior palatal length and anterior palatal height. The ratios of height/width and length/width in both posterior and anterior areas were statistically significant (P features were relatively deeper, narrower and more protrusive in digit-sucking group. The digit-sucking habit may have some deleterious impacts on the palatal features in pre-school children with primary dentition. And it is practical to measure the spacial palatal features by using laser scanning system to some extent.

  8. Broadband ultrasound attenuation in the calcaneal region: a comparative study of single-position versus scanning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Joaquim A; Costa, Eduardo T; Neto, João F Marques; Button, Vera L S N

    2008-01-01

    This work describes a system developed to measure the broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) in the calcaneal region. The patient's calcanei were inspected using a microcomputer-controlled X-Y axis displacement unit with two 500-kHz, central-frequency, ultrasound transducers. The transducers facing each other are submerged in a small water tank with a support for the patient's foot between them. The system allows data to be collected from a single position or by scanning the calcaneal region to obtain a BUA map. Tests were carried out on 201 patients (110 using the single-position method, and 91 using the scanning method). The results were compared with those of densitometry tests performed using the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) technique (single position: r=0.50; Pposition method is more susceptible to errors due to the difficulty in positioning the transducers relative to the calcaneus. The scanning method provides better results and can be used to screen patients before referring them for DEXA.

  9. Imaging of the human choroid with a 1.7 MHz A-scan rate FDML swept source OCT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczynska, I.; Migacz, J. V.; Jonnal, R.; Zawadzki, R. J.; Poddar, R.; Werner, J. S.

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate OCT angiography (OCTA) and Doppler OCT imaging of the choroid in the eyes of two healthy volunteers and in a geographic atrophy case. We show that visualization of specific choroidal layers requires selection of appropriate OCTA methods. We investigate how imaging speed, B-scan averaging and scanning density influence visualization of various choroidal vessels. We introduce spatial power spectrum analysis of OCT en face angiographic projections as a method of quantitative analysis of choroicapillaris morphology. We explore the possibility of Doppler OCT imaging to provide information about directionality of blood flow in choroidal vessels. To achieve these goals, we have developed OCT systems utilizing an FDML laser operating at 1.7 MHz sweep rate, at 1060 nm center wavelength, and with 7.5 μm axial imaging resolution. A correlation mapping OCA method was implemented for visualization of the vessels. Joint Spectral and Time domain OCT (STdOCT) technique was used for Doppler OCT imaging.

  10. 77 FR 59941 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Terahertz Scanning Systems for Cancer Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Systems for Cancer Pathology AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, HHS. ACTION... systems for cancer pathology. Upon the expiration or termination of the exclusive evaluation option...

  11. a Real-Time Earthquake Moment Tensor Scanning Code for the Antelope System (brtt, Inc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, K. A.; Ruppert, N. A.; Freymueller, J. T.; Lindquist, K.; Harvey, D.; Dreger, D. S.; Lombard, P. N.; Guilhem, A.

    2015-12-01

    While all seismic observatories routinely determine hypocentral location and local magnitude within a few minutes of an earthquake's occurrence, the ability to estimate seismic moment and sense of slip in a similar time frame is less widespread. This is unfortunate, because moment and mechanism are critical parameters for rapid hazard assessment; for larger events, moment magnitude is more reliable due to the tendency of local magnitude to saturate, and certain mechanisms such as off-shore thrust events might indicate earthquakes with tsunamigenic potential. In order to increase access to this capability, we have developed a continuous moment tensor scanning code for Antelope, the ubiquitous open-architecture seismic acquisition and processing software in use around the world. The scanning code, which uses an algorithm that has previously been employed for real-time monitoring at the University of California, Berkeley, is able to produce full moment tensor solutions for moderate events from regional seismic data. The algorithm monitors a grid of potential sources by continuously cross-correlating pre-computed synthetic seismograms with long-period recordings from a sparse network of broad-band stations. The code package consists of 3 modules. One module is used to create a monitoring grid by constructing source-receiver geometry, calling a frequency-wavenumber code to produce synthetics, and computing the generalized linear inverse of the array of synthetics. There is a real-time scanning module that correlates streaming data with pre-inverted synthetics, monitors the variance reduction, and writes the moment tensor solution to a database if an earthquake detection occurs. Finally, there is an 'off-line' module that is very similar to the real-time scanner, with the exception that it utilizes pre-recorded data stored in Antelope databases and is useful for testing purposes or for quickly producing moment tensor catalogs for long time series. The code is open source

  12. Annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF-STEM) tomography of polymer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kangbo; Sourty, Erwan; Loos, Joachim

    2010-08-01

    We have utilized bright-field conventional transmission electron microscopy tomography and annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF-STEM) tomography to characterize a well-defined carbon black (CB)-filled polymer nanocomposite with known CB volume concentration. For both imaging methods, contrast can be generated between the CB and the surrounding polymer matrix. The involved contrast mechanisms, in particular for ADF-STEM, will be discussed in detail. The obtained volume reconstructions were analysed and the CB volume concentrations were carefully determined from the reconstructed data. For both imaging modes, the measured CB volume concentrations are substantially different and only quantification based on the ADF-STEM data revealed about the same value as the known CB loading. Moreover, when applying low-convergence angles for imaging ADF-STEM tomography, data can be obtained of micrometre-thick samples.

  13. Weld quality inspection using laser-EMAT ultrasonic system and C-scan method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Ume, I. Charles

    2014-02-01

    Laser/EMAT ultrasonic technique has attracted more and more interests in weld quality inspection because of its non-destructive and non-contact characteristics. When ultrasonic techniques are used to detect welds joining relative thin plates, the dominant ultrasonic waves present in the plates are Lamb waves, which propagate all through the thickness. Traditional Time of Flight(ToF) method loses its power. The broadband nature of laser excited ultrasound plus dispersive and multi-modal characteristic of Lamb waves make the EMAT acquired signals very complicated in this situation. Challenge rises in interpreting the received signals and establishing relationship between signal feature and weld quality. In this paper, the laser/EMAT ultrasonic technique was applied in a C-scan manner to record full wave propagation field over an area close to the weld. Then the effect of weld defect on the propagation field of Lamb waves was studied visually by watching an movie resulted from the recorded signals. This method was proved to be effective to detect the presence of hidden defect in the weld. Discrete wavelet transform(DWT) was applied to characterize the acquired ultrasonic signals and ideal band-pass filter was used to isolate wave components most sensitive to the weld defect. Different interactions with the weld defect were observed for different wave components. Thus this C-Scan method, combined with DWT and ideal band-pass filter, proved to be an effective methodology to experimentally study interactions of various laser excited Lamb Wave components with weld defect. In this work, the method was demonstrated by inspecting a hidden local incomplete penetration in weld. In fact, this method can be applied to study Lamb Wave interactions with any type of structural inconsistency. This work also proposed a ideal filtered based method to effectively reduce the total experimental time.

  14. The research on calibration methods of dual-CCD laser three-dimensional human face scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjiang; Chang, Tianyu; Ge, Baozhen; Tian, Qingguo; Yang, Fengting; Shi, Shendong

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, on the basis of considering the performance advantages of two-step method, we combines the stereo matching of binocular stereo vision with active laser scanning to calibrate the system. Above all, we select a reference camera coordinate system as the world coordinate system and unity the coordinates of two CCD cameras. And then obtain the new perspective projection matrix (PPM) of each camera after the epipolar rectification. By those, the corresponding epipolar equation of two cameras can be defined. So by utilizing the trigonometric parallax method, we can measure the space point position after distortion correction and achieve stereo matching calibration between two image points. Experiments verify that this method can improve accuracy and system stability is guaranteed. The stereo matching calibration has a simple process with low-cost, and simplifies regular maintenance work. It can acquire 3D coordinates only by planar checkerboard calibration without the need of designing specific standard target or using electronic theodolite. It is found that during the experiment two-step calibration error and lens distortion lead to the stratification of point cloud data. The proposed calibration method which combining active line laser scanning and binocular stereo vision has the both advantages of them. It has more flexible applicability. Theory analysis and experiment shows the method is reasonable.

  15. Cooperative scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Zukowski (Marcin); P.A. Boncz (Peter); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractData mining, information retrieval and other application areas exhibit a query load with multiple concurrent queries touching a large fraction of a relation. This leads to individual query plans based on a table scan or large index scan. The implementation of this access path in most

  16. Micrometric precision of prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Neves, Flávio Domingues; de Almeida Prado Naves Carneiro, Thiago; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Zancopé, Karla; Davi, Letícia Resende; Mendonça, Gustavo; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-08-01

    The current study evaluated prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and a computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system using micro-computed tomography to compare the marginal fit. The virtual models were obtained with four different scanning surfaces: typodont (T), regular impressions (RI), master casts (MC), and powdered master casts (PMC). Five virtual models were obtained for each group. For each model, a crown was designed on the software and milled from feldspathic ceramic blocks. Micro-CT images were obtained for marginal gap measurements and the data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. The mean vertical misfit was T=62.6±65.2 μm; MC=60.4±38.4 μm; PMC=58.1±38.0 μm, and RI=89.8±62.8 μm. Considering a percentage of vertical marginal gap of up to 75 μm, the results were T=71.5%, RI=49.2%, MC=69.6%, and PMC=71.2%. The percentages of horizontal overextension were T=8.5%, RI=0%, MC=0.8%, and PMC=3.8%. Based on the results, virtual model acquisition by scanning the typodont (simulated mouth) or MC, with or without powder, showed acceptable values for the marginal gap. The higher result of marginal gap of the RI group suggests that it is preferable to scan this directly from the mouth or from MC.

  17. Using the T-scan III system to analyze occlusal function in mandibular reconstruction patients: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Wei Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to analyze the post-rehabilitation occlusal function of subjects treated with complex mandibular resection and subsequently rehabilitated with fibula osteoseptocutaneous flaps, dental implants, and fixed prostheses utilizing the T-scan system. Methods: Ten mandibular complex resection cases that adopted fibula osteoseptocutaneous flaps, dental implants, and fixed prostheses to reconstruct occlusal function were analyzed. The mandibular reconstructions were divided into three groups based on size: full mandibular reconstructions, mandibular reconstructions larger than half of the arch, and mandibular reconstructions smaller than half of the arch. The T-scan III system was used to measure maximum occlusal force, occlusal time, anterior-posterior as well as left-right occlusal force asymmetries, and anterior-posterior as well as left-right asymmetrical locations of occlusal centers. Results: Subjects with larger mandibular reconstructions and dental implants with fixed partial dentures demonstrated decreased average occlusal force; however, the difference did not reach the statistically significant level (p > 0.05. The most significant asymmetry of occlusal center location occurred among subjects with mandibular reconstructed areas larger than half of the mandibular arch. Conclusions: Comparison of the parameters of T-scan system used to analyze the occlusal function showed that the occlusal force was not an objective reference. Measurements of the location of the occlusal center appeared more repeatable, and were less affected by additional factors. The research results of this study showed that the size of a reconstruction did not affect the occlusal force after reconstruction and larger reconstructed areas did not decrease the average occlusal force. The most significant parameter was left and right asymmetry of the occlusion center (LROC and was measured in subjects with reconstruction areas larger than half

  18. Electronic structure of carbon nanotube systems measured with scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbaker, Daniel Jay

    Carbon fullerenes are unusually structured molecules with robust mechanical and electronic properties. Their versatility is astounding; envisioned applications range from field emission displays to impregnated metal composites, battery storage media, and nanoelectronic devices. The combination of simple constituency, diverse behavior, and ease of fabrication makes these materials a cornerstone topic in current research. This thesis details scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments investigating how carbon nanotube fullerenes interact with and couple to their local environment. Scanning tunneling microscopy continues to be a key method for characterizing fullerenes, particularly in regards to their electronic properties. The atomic scale nature of this technique makes it uniquely suited for observing individual molecules and determining correlations between locally measured electronic properties and the particular environment of the molecule. The primary subject of this study is single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), which were observed under various perturbative influences resulting in measurable changes in the electronic structure. Additionally, fullerene heterostructures formed by the encapsulation of C60 molecules within the hollow interiors of SWNTs were characterized for the first time with STM. These novel macromolecules (dubbed "peapods") demonstrate the potential for custom engineering the properties of fullerene materials. Measurements indicate that the properties of individual nanotubes depend sensitively on local interactions. In particular, pronounced changes in electronic behavior are observed in nanotubes exhibiting mechanical distortion, interacting with extrinsic materials (including other nanotubes), and possessing intrinsic defects in the atomic lattice. In fullerene peapods, while no discernable change in the atomic ordering of the encapsulating nanotubes was evident, the presence of interior C60 molecules has a dramatic effect on the

  19. Electro interstitial scan system: assessment of 10 years of research and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarek A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Albert MaarekResearch and Development, LD Technology, Miami, FL, USABackground: Ten years of research and development have allowed an understanding of how the electro interstitial scan (EIS works and what its clinical applications may be.Materials and methods: The EIS is a galvanic skin response device. The measurements are performed by electrical stimulation of the post sympathetic cholinergic fiber with weak DC current and voltage 1.28V applied during 2 minutes and in bipolar mode.Current scientific knowledge: EIS electrical measurements are related to: (1 the concentration of free chloride ions in the interstitial fluid, which affects the transfer of electrical current and the ratio intensity/voltage; (2 the morphology of the interstitial fluid, which is related to the electrical dispersion calculated from the Cole equation (α parameter; (3 electrical stimulation, which causes a change in sweat rate at the passive electrodes – post sympathetic cholinergic fiber electrical stimulation appears to be responsible for activating M2 receptors, which regulate nitric oxide (NO production in the endothelial cell and cause vasodilation and a released sweat response; and (4 the electrochemical redox reactions (electrolysis of the released sweat on electrodes, which are different on the bulk of the metal electrodes (O2 + [4H+] + [4e-] and on the Ag/AgCl disposable electrodes (AgCl precipitation.Results: For each of the EIS clinical results, various explanations were posited, such as: (1 electrical stimulation of the postsympathetic cholinergic fiber-activating NO production in the endothelial cell, which causes vasodilation and a released sweat response (diabetes detection; (2 estimation of interstitial fluid's acid–base balance, which is reflected in an electrochemical reaction on the bulk of the electrodes through the released sweat (prostate cancer detection; (3 estimation of cerebral interstitial fluid chloride ions (detection of ADHD in

  20. Extrinsic Parameter Calibration for Line Scanning Cameras on Ground Vehicles with Navigation Systems Using a Calibration Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Wendel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Line scanning cameras, which capture only a single line of pixels, have been increasingly used in ground based mobile or robotic platforms. In applications where it is advantageous to directly georeference the camera data to world coordinates, an accurate estimate of the camera’s 6D pose is required. This paper focuses on the common case where a mobile platform is equipped with a rigidly mounted line scanning camera, whose pose is unknown, and a navigation system providing vehicle body pose estimates. We propose a novel method that estimates the camera’s pose relative to the navigation system. The approach involves imaging and manually labelling a calibration pattern with distinctly identifiable points, triangulating these points from camera and navigation system data and reprojecting them in order to compute a likelihood, which is maximised to estimate the 6D camera pose. Additionally, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC algorithm is used to estimate the uncertainty of the offset. Tested on two different platforms, the method was able to estimate the pose to within 0.06 m/1.05 ∘ and 0.18 m/2.39 ∘ . We also propose several approaches to displaying and interpreting the 6D results in a human readable way.

  1. CO-REGISTRATION OF DSMs GENERATED BY UAV AND TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Persad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An approach for the co-registration of Digital Surface Models (DSMs derived from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs and Terrestrial Laser Scanners (TLS is proposed. Specifically, a wavelet-based feature descriptor for matching surface keypoints on the 2.5D DSMs is developed. DSMs are useful in wide-scope of various applications such as 3D building modelling and reconstruction, cultural heritage, urban and environmental planning, aircraft navigation/path routing, accident and crime scene reconstruction, mining as well as, topographic map revision and change detection. For these listed applications, it is not uncommon that there will be a need for automatically aligning multi-temporal DSMs which may have been acquired from multiple sensors, with different specifications over a period of time, and may have various overlaps. Terrestrial laser scanners usually capture urban facades in an accurate manner; however this is not the case for building roof structures. On the other hand, vertical photography from UAVs can capture the roofs. Therefore, the automatic fusion of UAV and laser-scanning based DSMs is addressed here as it serves various geospatial applications.

  2. MEBES IV: a new generation raster-scan electron-beam lithography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Frank E.; Poreda, John T.; Smith, Robert L.

    1992-07-01

    The MEBES IV Electron Beam Lithography System was developed to meet requirements for advanced maskmaking. This necessitates support of 16- and 64-Mbit DRAM production and early development of 256-Mbit DRAMs. Using the original MEBES concepts and Etec's many years of experience with MEBES manufacturing, several major subsystems were redesigned, including the electron beam column and electron source. New test methods and test patterns were also developed to characterize system performance. As a result of the combined efforts of Etec Manufacturing and Engineering, a number of MEBES IV systems have already been built and tested. This paper provides a brief description of the MEBES IV systems. The new test patterns and methods are discussed. System performance data collected during factory acceptance of MEBES IV-LaB6 and -TFE (thermal field emission) systems are also presented.

  3. A flexible LabVIEW{sup TM}-based data acquisition and analysis system for scanning microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, Daniel H. E-mail: dhmorse@sandia.gov; Antolak, Arlyn J.; Bench, Graham S.; Roberts, Mark L

    1999-09-02

    A new data analysis system has been developed with computer-controlled beam and sample positioning, video sample imaging, multiple large solid angle detectors for X-rays and gamma-rays, and surface barrier detectors for charged particles. The system uses the LabVIEW{sup TM} programming language allowing it to be easily ported between different computer operating systems. In the present configuration, digital signal processors are directly interfaced to a SCSI CAMAC controller. However, the modular software design permits the substitution of other hardware with LabVIEW-supported drivers. On-line displays of histogram and two-dimensional elemental map images provide a user-friendly data acquisition interface. Subregions of the two-dimensional maps may be selected interactively for detailed analysis or for subsequent scanning. Off-line data processing of archived data currently yields elemental maps, analyzed spectra and reconstructions of tomographic data.

  4. The evaluation of unmanned aerial system-based photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning to generate DEMs of agricultural watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Mohamar Moussa; Degré, Aurore; Debouche, Charles; Lisein, Jonathan

    2014-06-01

    Agricultural watersheds tend to be places of intensive farming activities that permanently modify their microtopography. The surface characteristics of the soil vary depending on the crops that are cultivated in these areas. Agricultural soil microtopography plays an important role in the quantification of runoff and sediment transport because the presence of crops, crop residues, furrows and ridges may impact the direction of water flow. To better assess such phenomena, 3-D reconstructions of high-resolution agricultural watershed topography are essential. Fine-resolution topographic data collection technologies can be used to discern highly detailed elevation variability in these areas. Knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of existing technologies used for data collection on agricultural watersheds may be helpful in choosing an appropriate technology. This study assesses the suitability of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and unmanned aerial system (UAS) photogrammetry for collecting the fine-resolution topographic data required to generate accurate, high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) in a small watershed area (12 ha). Because of farming activity, 14 TLS scans (≈ 25 points m- 2) were collected without using high-definition surveying (HDS) targets, which are generally used to mesh adjacent scans. To evaluate the accuracy of the DEMs created from the TLS scan data, 1098 ground control points (GCPs) were surveyed using a real time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS). Linear regressions were then applied to each DEM to remove vertical errors from the TLS point elevations, errors caused by the non-perpendicularity of the scanner's vertical axis to the local horizontal plane, and errors correlated with the distance to the scanner's position. The scans were then meshed to generate a DEMTLS with a 1 × 1 m spatial resolution. The Agisoft PhotoScan and MicMac software packages were used to process the aerial photographs and generate a DEMPSC

  5. NAVIS-An UGV indoor positioning system using laser scan matching for large-area real-time applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Chen, Yuwei; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Liu, Jinbing; Hyyppä, Juha; Hyyppä, Hannu

    2014-07-04

    Laser scan matching with grid-based maps is a promising tool for real-time indoor positioning of mobile Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs). While there are critical implementation problems, such as the ability to estimate the position by sensing the unknown indoor environment with sufficient accuracy and low enough latency for stable vehicle control, further development work is necessary. Unfortunately, most of the existing methods employ heuristics for quick positioning in which numerous accumulated errors easily lead to loss of positioning accuracy. This severely restricts its applications in large areas and over lengthy periods of time. This paper introduces an efficient real-time mobile UGV indoor positioning system for large-area applications using laser scan matching with an improved probabilistically-motivated Maximum Likelihood Estimation (IMLE) algorithm, which is based on a multi-resolution patch-divided grid likelihood map. Compared with traditional methods, the improvements embodied in IMLE include: (a) Iterative Closed Point (ICP) preprocessing, which adaptively decreases the search scope; (b) a totally brute search matching method on multi-resolution map layers, based on the likelihood value between current laser scan and the grid map within refined search scope, adopted to obtain the global optimum position at each scan matching; and (c) a patch-divided likelihood map supporting a large indoor area. A UGV platform called NAVIS was designed, manufactured, and tested based on a low-cost robot integrating a LiDAR and an odometer sensor to verify the IMLE algorithm. A series of experiments based on simulated data and field tests with NAVIS proved that the proposed IMEL algorithm is a better way to perform local scan matching that can offer a quick and stable positioning solution with high accuracy so it can be part of a large area localization/mapping, application. The NAVIS platform can reach an updating rate of 12 Hz in a feature-rich environment and 2 Hz

  6. Measurement of stray neutron doses inside the treatment room from a proton pencil beam scanning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojżeszek, N; Farah, J; Kłodowska, M; Ploc, O; Stolarczyk, L; Waligórski, M P R; Olko, P

    2017-02-01

    To measure the environmental doses from stray neutrons in the vicinity of a solid slab phantom as a function of beam energy, field size and modulation width, using the proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) technique. Measurements were carried out using two extended range WENDI-II rem-counters and three tissue equivalent proportional counters. Detectors were suitably placed at different distances around the RW3 slab phantom. Beam irradiation parameters were varied to cover the clinical ranges of proton beam energies (100-220MeV), field sizes ((2×2)-(20×20)cm(2)) and modulation widths (0-15cm). For pristine proton peak irradiations, large variations of neutron H(∗)(10)/D were observed with changes in beam energy and field size, while these were less dependent on modulation widths. H(∗)(10)/D for pristine proton pencil beams varied between 0.04μSvGy(-1) at beam energy 100MeV and a (2×2)cm(2) field at 2.25m distance and 90° angle with respect to the beam axis, and 72.3μSvGy(-1) at beam energy 200MeV and a (20×20) cm(2) field at 1m distance along the beam axis. The obtained results will be useful in benchmarking Monte Carlo calculations of proton radiotherapy in PBS mode and in estimating the exposure to stray radiation of the patient. Such estimates may be facilitated by the obtained best-fitted simple analytical formulae relating the stray neutron doses at points of interest with beam irradiation parameters. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of pain scores between patients undergoing panretinal photocoagulation using navigated or pattern scan laser systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Ubeyt Inan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the pain responses of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR undergoing panretinal photocoagulation (PRP using either pattern scan laser (PASCAL or navigated laser photocoagulation (NAVILAS. Methods: Patients diagnosed with PDR were randomly assigned to undergo either PASCAL or NAVILAS photocoagulation treatment. PRP was performed using the multi-shot mode with a spot size of 200-400 µm and a pulse duration of 30 ms to obtain a white-grayish spot on the retina. Parameters were identical in both procedures. After 30 min of PRP application, patients were asked to verbally describe their pain perception as either "none," "mild," "moderate," "severe," or "very severe" using a verbal rating scale (VRS and visual analog scale (VAS by indicating a score from "0" to "10," representing the severity of pain from "no pain" to "severe pain." Results: A total of 60 eyes of 60 patients (20 females and 40 males diagnosed with PDR were treated. The mean age of patients was 62.22 ± 9.19 years, and the mean diabetes duration was 195.47 ± 94.54 months. The mean number of laser spots delivered during PRP was 389.47 ± 71.52 in the NAVILAS group and 392.70 ± 54.33 in the PASCAL group (p=0.57. The difference in pain responses between patients in the NAVILAS and PASCAL groups was significant with regard to the mean VRS (1.10 ± 0.67 and 1.47 ± 0.69, respectively; p=0.042 and mean VAS (2.13 ± 1.17 and 2.97 ± 1.35, respectively; p=0.034 scores. Conclusions: Pain responses in patients undergoing PRP with a 30-ms pulse duration were significantly milder in the NAVILAS group than in the PASCAL group.

  8. MRI Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI scans to diagnose a variety of conditions, from ...

  9. Bone Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... posts Join Mayo Clinic Connect Bone scan About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  10. A Model Based System For The Interpretation Of MR Human Brain Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapouleas, Ioannis; Kulikowski, Casimir A.

    1988-06-01

    This paper describes a prototype system for identifying and characterizing Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesions in the brain from magnetic resonance (MR) images. The system is designed to obtain an initial segmentation of each cross-sectional image with low level vision methods, and then derive successive refinements of image subregions through a model-driven approach that correlates relevant information from T1 and T2 images and 3-D information from complementary cross-sections when necessary. The system uses a b-spline surface model of the brain that matches the characteristics of the individual's brain. The normal internal structures of the brain are then scaled proportionately before carrying out the successive refinement operations for the detection of the MS lesions. The low level vision and the solid modeling components of the system have been successfully tested on several hundred images from a number of MR patient studies. The first steps of model fitting have been implemented and show promising results.

  11. Total Measurement Uncertainty for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Segmented Gamma Scan Assay System

    CERN Document Server

    Fazzari, D M

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for the Canberra manufactured Segmented Gamma Scanner Assay System (SGSAS) as employed at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). In this document, TMU embodies the combined uncertainties due to all of the individual random and systematic sources of measurement uncertainty. It includes uncertainties arising from corrections and factors applied to the analysis of transuranic waste to compensate for inhomogeneities and interferences from the waste matrix and radioactive components. These include uncertainty components for any assumptions contained in the calibration of the system or computation of the data. Uncertainties are propagated at 1 sigma. The final total measurement uncertainty value is reported at the 95% confidence level. The SGSAS is a gamma assay system that is used to assay plutonium and uranium waste. The SGSAS system can be used in a stand-alone mode to perform the NDA characterization of a containe...

  12. A high sensitivity optically stimulated luminescence scanning system for measurement of single sand-sized grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duller, G.A.T.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Kohsiek, P.

    1999-01-01

    An instrument has been designed for the routine analysis of the optically stimulated luminescence signal from single grains of sand. The system is capable of analysing over 3000 individual grains in a single measurement sequence, and the OSL signal from each grain can be read in less than 3 s....... The design principles are described, along with preliminary measurements that illustrate the operation of the system and its capabilities....

  13. Hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence line-scan imaging system for online detection of fecal contamination on apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon S.; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Yang, Chun-Chieh; Chao, Kaunglin; Lefcourt, Alan M.; Chen, Yud-Ren

    2006-10-01

    We have developed nondestructive opto-electronic imaging techniques for rapid assessment of safety and wholesomeness of foods. A recently developed fast hyperspectral line-scan imaging system integrated with a commercial apple-sorting machine was evaluated for rapid detection of animal feces matter on apples. Apples obtained from a local orchard were artificially contaminated with cow feces. For the online trial, hyperspectral images with 60 spectral channels, reflectance in the visible to near infrared regions and fluorescence emissions with UV-A excitation, were acquired from apples moving at a processing sorting-line speed of three apples per second. Reflectance and fluorescence imaging required a passive light source, and each method used independent continuous wave (CW) light sources. In this paper, integration of the hyperspectral imaging system with the commercial applesorting machine and preliminary results for detection of fecal contamination on apples, mainly based on the fluorescence method, are presented.

  14. Efficacy of 3 different irrigation systems on removal of calcium hydroxide from the root canal: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alturaiki, Sami; Lamphon, Hebah; Edrees, Hadeel; Ahlquist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different irrigation systems on removing calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2) from the root canal by using a scanning electron microscope. Forty extracted single-rooted teeth were divided randomly into 4 groups. Canal instrumentation was done, and the teeth were filled with Ca(OH)2 paste. One week later, 4 techniques were used for Ca(OH)2 removal. In the first group, the canals were cleaned with a master apical file. The second, third, and fourth groups were irrigated using the EndoVac (Discus Dental, Culver City, CA), EndoActivator (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK), and ProUltra (Dentsply Tulsa, Tulsa, OK) systems, respectively. All the groups were irrigated with 3 mL (18%) EDTA and 3 mL (1%) NaOCl for 1 minute. The canal walls were viewed, and the remaining amount of Ca(OH)2 was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope. A scoring system was used to assess the amount of residue Ca(OH)2 on each third of the canal. The obtained data for comparisons between the conventional irrigation needle and each device were statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. To compare the 4 devices, the results were statistically analyzed using the analysis of variance test. None of the investigated techniques removed the Ca(OH)2 dressing completely. However, the EndoActivator System showed better results in removing Ca(OH)2 in each third of the root canals in comparison with the other techniques. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding Ionic Bonding--A Scan across the Croatian Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladušic, R.; Bucat, R. B.; Ožic, M.

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted on the understandings of the accepted model of ionic substances that are held by participants at all levels of the chemical education system in Croatia, including secondary school students, university students, and chemistry teachers. We follow the research of Taber who found that a diagram of a layer of a sodium chloride…

  16. Twelve-point scale grading system of scanning electron microscopic examination to investigate subtle changes in damaged hair surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S Y; Choi, A R; Baek, J H; Kim, H O; Shin, M K; Koh, J S

    2016-11-01

    To assess the hair surface condition, scanning electron microscope (SEM) is commonly used and it remains an indispensable hair morphology characterization technique. Yet, the technique is criticized for having subjective viewpoints and limitations in distinguishing the appearance of cuticle layers. The aim of this study is to establish an objective classification system and also to subdivide by detailed description of damaged cuticle layers. Hair samples were collected from female subjects (n = 500) who participated in hair efficacy study and Asian hair bunches (n = 180) that were previously collected. Damage to hair was initiated by chemical, heat stress and ultraviolet irradiation. We suggested the grading criterion on a 12-point scale and compared with a wide range grading system on a 5-point scale. We evaluated other hair surface-related parameters such as hair luster-ring and combing load to verify the validity and efficacy of our new grading system. The grading criterion on our 12-point scale revealed an improved discrimination compared to the wide range grading system. Hair surface-related parameters were significantly improved after hair care product, and these tendencies were likely to be determined to be similarly improved using the 12-point scale grading system. The 12-point scale classification system was demonstrated to be a more precise standardization and appropriate evaluation method to investigate the subtle distinction of the hair shaft after hair care product application. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Development and Verification of a Novel Robot-Integrated Fringe Projection 3D Scanning System for Large-Scale Metrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Du

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale surfaces are prevalent in advanced manufacturing industries, and 3D profilometry of these surfaces plays a pivotal role for quality control. This paper proposes a novel and flexible large-scale 3D scanning system assembled by combining a robot, a binocular structured light scanner and a laser tracker. The measurement principle and system construction of the integrated system are introduced. A mathematical model is established for the global data fusion. Subsequently, a robust method is introduced for the establishment of the end coordinate system. As for hand-eye calibration, the calibration ball is observed by the scanner and the laser tracker simultaneously. With this data, the hand-eye relationship is solved, and then an algorithm is built to get the transformation matrix between the end coordinate system and the world coordinate system. A validation experiment is designed to verify the proposed algorithms. Firstly, a hand-eye calibration experiment is implemented and the computation of the transformation matrix is done. Then a car body rear is measured 22 times in order to verify the global data fusion algorithm. The 3D shape of the rear is reconstructed successfully. To evaluate the precision of the proposed method, a metric tool is built and the results are presented.

  18. Development and Verification of a Novel Robot-Integrated Fringe Projection 3D Scanning System for Large-Scale Metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hui; Chen, Xiaobo; Xi, Juntong; Yu, Chengyi; Zhao, Bao

    2017-12-12

    Large-scale surfaces are prevalent in advanced manufacturing industries, and 3D profilometry of these surfaces plays a pivotal role for quality control. This paper proposes a novel and flexible large-scale 3D scanning system assembled by combining a robot, a binocular structured light scanner and a laser tracker. The measurement principle and system construction of the integrated system are introduced. A mathematical model is established for the global data fusion. Subsequently, a robust method is introduced for the establishment of the end coordinate system. As for hand-eye calibration, the calibration ball is observed by the scanner and the laser tracker simultaneously. With this data, the hand-eye relationship is solved, and then an algorithm is built to get the transformation matrix between the end coordinate system and the world coordinate system. A validation experiment is designed to verify the proposed algorithms. Firstly, a hand-eye calibration experiment is implemented and the computation of the transformation matrix is done. Then a car body rear is measured 22 times in order to verify the global data fusion algorithm. The 3D shape of the rear is reconstructed successfully. To evaluate the precision of the proposed method, a metric tool is built and the results are presented.

  19. SU-F-J-21: Clinical Evaluation of Surface Scanning Systems in Different Treatment Locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, T; Karger, C [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Stefanowicz, S; Rhein, B; Oetzel, D; Adeberg, S; Koenig, L; Wolf, R; Rieken, S [Heidelberg University, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To reduce imaging dose in fractionated IGRT, the ability of optical surface imaging systems (OSIS) to detect setup errors was tested. Therefore, clinical studies to evaluate for different treatment locations setup corrections derived by OSIS in comparison with x-ray image guidance in fractionated radiation therapy was performed. Methods: The setup correction accuracy of an OSIS system (AlignRT, VisionRT, London, UK) will be analysed for the 4 tumour locations Pelvis, Upper Abdomen, Thorax and Breast, 20 patients for each location in comparison to a different system (Sentinel, C-RAD, SE). For each patient, the setup corrections of the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) of an Elekta Versa HD linear accelerator (Elekta, Crawley, UK) is considered as gold-standard and then compared with those of the OSIS for the first ten fractions retrospectively. There were no clinical decisions made based on the surrogate system. For the OSIS, the reference surface is highly important as it represents the actual ground truth. It can be obtained either with the system itself or the surface structure delineated in the planning CT can be imported via DICOM interface. In this paper, the first results for the treatment region thorax are presented. The reference image modalities were compared. Results: Table 1 displays the difference between the setup corrections obtained with OSIS and CBCT in lateral (LAT), longitudinal (LNG) and vertical (VRT) direction for the DICOM reference image. While the median deviations are within a few millimeters, some outliers showed large deviations. Generally, the mean deviation as well as the spread was smallest in lateral and largest in vertical direction. Conclusion: Although the system allows fast, simple and non-invasive determination of setup corrections, it should be evaluated treatment region dependant. Therefore, the study is ongoing. The application of OSIS may help to reduce the imaging dose for the patient. We gratefully acknowledge

  20. Design and Analysis of an Axisymmetric Phased Array Fed Gregorian Reflector System for Limited Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-22

    artist’s concept in Figure 1. Thin -film materials with and without electrically conducting coatings can be considered for designing a space...applications. For space applications, attitude control systems can provide good angular control of the antenna aperture with small residual angular...and optimized using numerical simulations conducted with the multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM) using FEKO software (www.feko.info). The

  1. Design and Implementation of a Pilot Signal Scanning Receiver for CDMA Personal Communication Services Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Blankenship, T. Keith III

    1998-01-01

    In cellular and personal communications services (PCS) systems based on code division multiple access (CDMA), a pilot signal is used on the forward link for synchronization, coherent detection, soft handoff, maintaining orthogonality between base stations, and, in the future, position location. It is critical that the percentage of power allocated to the pilot signal transmitted by each base station be fixed properly to ensure the ability of the CDMA ne...

  2. Using axicons for depth discrimination in excitation-emission laser scanning imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Ignacio

    2017-10-01

    Besides generating good approximations to zero-order Bessel beams, an axicon lens coupled to a spatial filter can be used to collect light while preserving information on the depth coordinate of the source location. To demonstrate the principle, we describe an experimental excitation-emission fluorescence imaging system that uses an axicon twice: to generate an excitation Bessel beam and to collect the emitted light.

  3. Characterisation of bicontinuous cubic liquid crystalline systems of phytantriol and water using cryo field emission scanning electron microscopy (cryo FESEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, S B; Dong, Y-D; Boyd, B J; Rades, T; Hook, S

    2007-01-01

    Cubosomes are a novel lipid particulate delivery system currently being investigated for drug delivery purposes. The present study investigates bicontinuous cubic liquid crystalline systems (bulk phase and cubosomes) formed by phytantriol and water using cryo field emission scanning electron microscopy (cryo FESEM). Previously cubosomes have been characterized by cryo transmission electron microscopy (cryo TEM) with small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXS) confirming the bicontinuous liquid crystalline type. Bulk cubic phase and cubosomes were prepared from phytantriol and Pluronic F127 and analysed using cryo FESEM and SAXS. The micrographs showed the cubic phase had a tortuous, bicontinuous nature with a non-intersecting network of water channels. The cubosomes also show the same underlying tortuous structure entirely consistent with that of the bulk cubic phase and closely resemble the mathematical description of cubosomes described using nodal surface representation. The structure of both systems was confirmed using SAXS as a bicontinuous cubic liquid crystalline phase with Pn3m geometry. Cryo FESEM provides valuable insights into the morphological features of bicontinuous cubic liquid crystalline systems. The unique details shown provide strength to support the nodal surface representation of bicontinuous cubic liquid crystalline systems. Cryo FESEM provides a new technique to complement cryo TEM and SAXS for investigating their structure and function.

  4. A Novel Concept for Observing Land-Surface-Atmosphere Feedback Based on a Synergy of Scanning Lidar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulfmeyer, V.; Turner, D. D.; Mauder, M.; Behrendt, A.; Ingwersen, J.; Streck, T.

    2015-12-01

    Improved simulations of land-surface-atmosphere interaction are fundamental for improving weather forecast and climate models. This requires observations of 2D fields of surface fluxes and the 3D structure of the atmospheric boundary layer simultaneously. A novel strategy is introduced for studying land-surface exchange and entrainment processes in the convective boundary layer (CBL) over complex terrain by means of a new generation of remote sensing systems. The sensor synergy consists of scanning Doppler lidar (DL), water-vapor differential absorption lidar (WVDIAL), and temperature rotational Raman lidar (TRRL) systems supported by surface in-situ measurements. The 2D measurements of surface fluxes are realized by the operation of a DL, a WVDIAL, and a TRRL along the same line-of-sight (LOS) in a range-height-indicator (RHI) mode whereas the other DL is performing a series of cross track RHI scans along this LOS. This new setup enables us to determine the friction velocity as well as surface sensible and latent heat fluxes by closing the complete set of Monin-Obukhov similarity relationships under a variety of surface layer stability conditions and different land cover and soil properties. As this closure is performed at all DL crossing points along the LOS, this is a strategy towards a 2D mapping of surface fluxes entirely based on remote sensing systems. Further details are presented at the conference. The second configuration is the simultaneous vertical profiling of vertical wind, humidity and temperature by DL, WVDIAL and TRRL so that latent heat and sensible heat flux profiles as well as a variety of different turbulent moments can be measured in the CBL. Consequently, by alternating of RHI scanning and vertical pointing modes, entrainment fluxes and surface fluxes can be measured almost simultaneously. This novel strategy has been realized for the first time during the Surface Atmospheric Boundary Layer Exchange (SABLE) campaign in the Kraichgau region

  5. Data Processing and Quality Evaluation of a Boat-Based Mobile Laser Scanning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaaja, Matti; Kukko, Antero; Kaartinen, Harri; Kurkela, Matti; Kasvi, Elina; Flener, Claude; Hyyppä, Hannu; Hyyppä, Juha; Järvelä, Juha; Alho, Petteri

    2013-01-01

    Mobile mapping systems (MMSs) are used for mapping topographic and urban features which are difficult and time consuming to measure with other instruments. The benefits of MMSs include efficient data collection and versatile usability. This paper investigates the data processing steps and quality of a boat-based mobile mapping system (BoMMS) data for generating terrain and vegetation points in a river environment. Our aim in data processing was to filter noise points, detect shorelines as well as points below water surface and conduct ground point classification. Previous studies of BoMMS have investigated elevation accuracies and usability in detection of fluvial erosion and deposition areas. The new findings concerning BoMMS data are that the improved data processing approach allows for identification of multipath reflections and shoreline delineation. We demonstrate the possibility to measure bathymetry data in shallow (0–1 m) and clear water. Furthermore, we evaluate for the first time the accuracy of the BoMMS ground points classification compared to manually classified data. We also demonstrate the spatial variations of the ground point density and assess elevation and vertical accuracies of the BoMMS data. PMID:24048340

  6. Numerical calibration of laser line scanning system with multiple sensors for inspecting cross-section profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jingbo; Li, Yuehua; Huang, Fengshan; Liu, Lijian

    2016-11-01

    Line structured light sensors (LSLSs) have gained more and more applications in industry. An interested profile can be easily obtained through the analysis of laser-object intersection stripe. But one sensor is inadequate to get a closed crosssection profile due to the obstacle of the laser light. Thus, multiple LSLSs were integrated as a whole for profile inspection and a numerical calibration method was also proposed. Firstly, the laser planes from all laser projectors were adjusted to coincide with the target plane by adjusting the fixtures of the laser projector. For each sensor, origin of the world coordinate system (WCS) was fixed at the center of a corner calibration dot with its X and Y axis coincide with the row and column direction of target dots. Each sensor camera captured one image of the same target. The relationship between the pixel coordinate system (PCS) and the WCS was established using an interpolation method via the world coordinates of target dot centers and their corresponding pixel coordinates. Then the measurement points from all the sensors were transformed into the global WCS, and a closed cross-section profile can be achieved. This proposed method neither need to establish the intrinsic, the extrinsic and the distortion models of the camera, nor need to solve the complex optimization equations to determine the model coefficients. Finally, a workpeice with stairs and a rectangular block were inspected. The comparison with the measuring results from the coordinate measuring machine further validates the high accuracy of the proposed method.

  7. Ultrasonic sensor properties characterized by a PC-controlled scanning measuring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning; Prange; Dierks; Daur

    2000-03-01

    The use of ultrasonic sensors for process control is currently widespread for flow, level or distance measurements. Recently, interest has increased, too in the application of ultrasonic sensors to concentration measurements in complex liquids. In this application there are high demands for a defined and stable quality of the properties of both the sensor transfer function and the sound field characteristic. For a detailed investigation and characterization of ultrasonic sensor propertiess, an efficient PC-controlled measuring system was developed by the Institut fur Automation und Kommunikation (IFAK). In this contribution, this high performance approach is presented to make visible the vibrating ultrasonic sensor surface as well as the sound field in front of acoustic sensors in liquids.

  8. VPI - VIBRATION PATTERN IMAGER: A CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM FOR SCANNING LASER VIBROMETERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    The Vibration Pattern Imager (VPI) system was designed to control and acquire data from laser vibrometer sensors. The PC computer based system uses a digital signal processing (DSP) board and an analog I/O board to control the sensor and to process the data. The VPI system was originally developed for use with the Ometron VPI Sensor (Ometron Limited, Kelvin House, Worsley Bridge Road, London, SE26 5BX, England), but can be readily adapted to any commercially available sensor which provides an analog output signal and requires analog inputs for control of mirror positioning. VPI's graphical user interface allows the operation of the program to be controlled interactively through keyboard and mouse-selected menu options. The main menu controls all functions for setup, data acquisition, display, file operations, and exiting the program. Two types of data may be acquired with the VPI system: single point or "full field". In the single point mode, time series data is sampled by the A/D converter on the I/O board at a user-defined rate for the selected number of samples. The position of the measuring point, adjusted by mirrors in the sensor, is controlled via a mouse input. In the "full field" mode, the measurement point is moved over a user-selected rectangular area with up to 256 positions in both x and y directions. The time series data is sampled by the A/D converter on the I/O board and converted to a root-mean-square (rms) value by the DSP board. The rms "full field" velocity distribution is then uploaded for display and storage. VPI is written in C language and Texas Instruments' TMS320C30 assembly language for IBM PC series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. The program requires 640K of RAM for execution, and a hard disk with 10Mb or more of disk space is recommended. The program also requires a mouse, a VGA graphics display, a Four Channel analog I/O board (Spectrum Signal Processing, Inc.; Westborough, MA), a break-out box and a Spirit-30 board (Sonitech

  9. Measurement of effective detective quantum efficiency for a photon counting scanning mammography system and comparison with two flat panel full-field digital mammography systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Tim J.; Moore, Craig S.; Saunderson, John R.; Beavis, Andrew W.

    2018-01-01

    Effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE) describes the resolution and noise properties of an imaging system along with scatter and primary transmission, all measured under clinically appropriate conditions. Effective dose efficiency (eDE) is the eDQE normalised to mean glandular dose and has been proposed as a useful metric for the optimisation of clinical imaging systems. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for measuring eDQE and eDE on a Philips microdose mammography (MDM) L30 photon counting scanning system, and to compare performance with two conventional flat panel systems. A custom made lead-blocker was manufactured to enable the accurate determination of dose measurements, and modulation transfer functions were determined free-in-air at heights of 2, 4 and 6 cm above the breast support platform. eDQE were calculated for a Philips MDM L30, Hologic Dimensions and Siemens Inspiration digital mammography system for 2, 4 and 6 cm thick poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The beam qualities (target/filter and kilovoltage) assessed were those selected by the automatic exposure control, and anti-scatter grids were used where available. Measurements of eDQE demonstrate significant differences in performance between the slit- and scan-directions for the photon counting imaging system. MTF has been shown to be the limiting factor in the scan-direction, which results in a rapid fall in eDQE at mid-to-high spatial frequencies. A comparison with two flat panel mammography systems demonstrates that this may limit image quality for small details, such as micro-calcifications, which correlates with a more conventional image quality assessment with the CDMAM phantom. eDE has shown the scanning photon counting system offers superior performance for low spatial frequencies, which will be important for the detection of large low contrast masses. Both eDQE and eDE are proposed as useful metrics that should enable optimisation of the Philips MDM L30.

  10. Coupling auto trophic in vitro plant cultivation system to scanning electron microscope to study plant-fungal interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, N. de; Decock, C.; Declereck, S.; Providencia, I. E. de la

    2010-07-01

    The interactions of plants with pathogens and beneficial micro-organisms have been seldom compared on the same host and under strict controlled auto trophic in vitro culture conditions. Here, the life cycle of two plant beneficial (Glomus sp. MUCL 41833 and Trichoderma harzianum) and one plant pathogen (Rhizoctonia solani) fungi were described on potato (Solanum tuberosum) plantlets under auto trophic in vitro culture conditions using video camera imaging and the scanning electron microscope (SEM). (i) The colony developmental pattern of the extraradical mycelium within the substrate, (ii) the reproduction structures and (iii) the three-dimensional spatial arrangements of the fungal hyphae within the potato root cells were successfully visualized, monitored and described. The combination of the autotrophic in vitro culture system and SEM represent a powerful tool for improving our knowledge on the dynamics of plant-fungal interactions. (Author) 41 refs.

  11. Volumetric rendering and metrology of spherical gradient refractive index lens imaged by angular scan optical coherence tomography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianing; Thompson, Kevin P; Ma, Bin; Ponting, Michael; Rolland, Jannick P

    2016-08-22

    In this paper, we develop the methodology, including the refraction correction, geometrical thickness correction, coordinate transformation, and layer segmentation algorithms, for 3D rendering and metrology of a layered spherical gradient refractive index (S-GRIN) lens based on the imaging data collected by an angular scan optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. The 3D mapping and rendering enables direct 3D visualization and internal defect inspection of the lens. The metrology provides assessment of the surface geometry, the lens thickness, the radii of curvature of the internal layer interfaces, and the misalignment of the internal S-GRIN distribution with respect to the lens surface. The OCT metrology results identify the manufacturing defects, and enable targeted process development for optimizing the manufacturing parameters. The newly fabricated S-GRIN lenses show up to a 7x spherical aberration reduction that allows a significantly increased utilizable effective aperture.

  12. Evaluation of Fracture Resistance of Various Restorative Systems for Posterior Full Contour Restorations by Means of Scanning Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhima, Matilda

    Aims: The goals of this study were to: 1.) assess a range of the performance of four restorative systems for posterior single tooth crowns under single load to fracture submerged in an aqueous environment, 2.) identify restorative system(s) of interest to be examined under sliding contact step-stress fatigue as full contour anatomically appropriate single posterior tooth restoration(s) of various thicknesses submerged in water, 3.) assess a range of the performance of various thicknesses of restorative system(s) of interest. Material and Methods: A total of forty samples (n=10 each group) 2 mm uniform thickness were tested. Group 1. monolithic lithium disilicate IPS e.max Press; group 2. IPS e.max ZirPress, 0.8mm zirconia core with 1.2mm pressed veneering porcelain, group 3. IPS e.max ZirPress, 0.4mm zirconia core with 1.6mm pressed veneering porcelain, group 4. IPS InLine PoM. Samples were bonded to a block of polycast acrylic resin on a 30 degree sloped surface with resin cement. Samples were axially single loaded to failure while submerged under water. Findings from the testing were statistically analyzed and used to establish parameters for the material of interest to test submerged in aqueous environment under sliding contact step-stress fatigue as full contour single posterior restoration. This second phase assessed the performance of four groups (n=10 each group) of 0.5mm, 1.0mm, 1.5mm and 2.0mm of lithium disilicate restorations were tested. The tooth preparation for each sample was uniformly reduced, scanned digitally and milled for each group. The restorations were fabricated by scanning and milling technology. Results: There was a statistically significant difference (p< 0.001) in single failure load among the four restorative systems. Lithium disilicate showed a mean failure load similar to mean maximum posterior bite forces (743.1N +/- 114.3 N). This material was identified of interest to test submerged in aqueous environment under peak value force and

  13. Development of real-time line-scan hyperspectral imaging system for online agricultural and food product inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seung Chul; Park, Bosoon; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Windham, William R.; Heitschmidt, Gerald W.

    2010-04-01

    This paper reports a recent development of a line-scan hyperspectral imaging system for real-time multispectral imaging applications in agricultural and food industries. The hyperspectral imaging system consisted of a spectrograph, an EMCCD camera, and application software. The real-time multispectral imaging with the developed system was possible due to (1) data binning, especially a unique feature of the EMCCD sensor allowing the access to non-contiguous multispectral bands, (2) an image processing algorithm designed for real-time multispectral imaging, and (3) the design and implementation of the real-time application software. The imaging system was developed as a poultry inspection instrument determining the presence of surface feces on poultry carcasses moving at commercial poultry processing line speeds up to 180 birds per minute. The imaging system can be easily modifiable to solve other real-time inspection/sorting problems. Three wavelengths at 517 nm, 565 nm and 802 nm were selected for real-time fecal detection imaging. The fecal detection algorithm was based on dual band ratios of 565nm/517nm and 802nm/517nm followed by thresholding. The software architecture was based on a ping pong memory and a circular buffer for the multitasking of image grabbing and processing. The software was written in Microsoft Visual C++. An image-based internal triggering (i.e. polling) algorithm was developed to determine the start and end positions of birds. Twelve chickens were used for testing the imaging system at two different speeds (140 birds per minute and 180 bird per minute) in a pilot-scale processing line. Four types of fecal materials (duodenum, ceca, colon and ingesta) were used for the evaluation of the detection algorithm. The software grabbed and processed multispectral images of the dimension 118 (line scans) x 512 (height) x 3 (bands) pixels obtained from chicken carcasses moving at the speed up to 180 birds per minute (a frame rate 286 Hz). Intensity

  14. High Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Studies of AdsorbateStructure and Mobility during Catalytic Reactions: Novel Design of anUltra High Pressure, High Temperature Scanning Tunneling MicroscopeSystem for Probing Catalytic Conversions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, David Chi-Wai [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2005-05-16

    The aim of the work presented therein is to take advantage of scanning tunneling microscope’s (STM) capability for operation under a variety of environments under real time and at atomic resolution to monitor adsorbate structures and mobility under high pressures, as well as to design a new generation of STM systems that allow imaging in situ at both higher pressures (35 atm) and temperatures (350 °C).

  15. Scanning table

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Before the invention of wire chambers, particles tracks were analysed on scanning tables like this one. Today, the process is electronic and much faster. Bubble chamber film - currently available - (links can be found below) was used for this analysis of the particle tracks.

  16. Scan Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Glaz, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Suitable for graduate students and researchers in applied probability and statistics, as well as for scientists in biology, computer science, pharmaceutical science and medicine, this title brings together a collection of chapters illustrating the depth and diversity of theory, methods and applications in the area of scan statistics.

  17. Comparison of vessel contrast measured with a scanning-beam digital x-ray system and an image intensifier/television system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speidel, M A; Wilfley, B P; Heanue, J A; Betts, T D; Van Lysel, M S

    2001-02-01

    Vessel contrast was measured in the fluoroscopic images produced by a scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) system and an image intensifier/television (II/TV) based system. The SBDX system electronically scans a series of pencil x-ray beams across the patient, each of which is directed at a distant small-area detector array. The reduction in detected scatter achieved with this geometry was expected to provide an increase in image contrast. Vessel contrast was evaluated from images of a phantom containing iodinated tubes. The vessels were inserted into an acrylic stack to provide a patient-mimicking scattering medium. Vessel diameter ranged from 0.3 to 3.1 mm. Images were acquired at 100 kVp with the SBDX and II/TV systems and averaged to reduce x-ray noise. The II/TV system was operated in the 6-in. image intensifier mode with an anti-scatter grid. The increase in contrast in the SBDX images, expressed as a ratio of the measured SBDX and II/TV contrasts, ranged from 1.63 to 1.79 for individual vessels. This agreed well with a prediction of the contrast improvement ratio for this experiment, based on measurements of the scatter fraction, object-plane line spread functions, and consideration of the source spectrum and detector absorption properties. The predicted contrast improvement ratio for SBDX relative to II/TV images was 1.62 to 1.77.

  18. Cleaning efficacy using two engine-driven systems versus manual instrumentation in curved root canals: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmener, Osvaldo; Pameijer, Cornelis H; Alvarez Serrano, Susana; Hernandez, Sandra R

    2011-09-01

    This ex vivo study evaluated the cleanliness of curved root canal walls after chemomechanical instrumentation using two automated systems versus manual instrumentation while using a standardized irrigation protocol. Thirty mesial root canals of extracted human first and second mandibular molars were prepared with the TiLOS hybrid engine-driven instrumentation system (Ultradent Products Inc, South Jordan, UT) (n = 10), ProTaper engine-driven file series (n = 10), and manual instrumentation (n = 10). Irrigation was performed using alternately 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and 17% EDTA followed by rinsing with distilled water. After the roots were split longitudinally, the presence of debris and/or smear layer was visualized using serial scanning electron microscopic digital photomicrographs taken at 1, 5, and 10 mm from the working length. Mean scores for debris and the smear layer were calculated and statistically analyzed for significance (P .05) were found between TiLOS and ProTaper (Dentsply/Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK) groups, whereas both performed significantly better than the manual instrumentation group. Engine-driven TiLOS and ProTaper instrumentation systems combined with a standardized irrigation protocol produced cleaner root canal walls than the manual instrumentation technique although complete cleanliness was not achieved. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Contributors to focal plane nonuniformity and their impact on linewidth control in DUV step-and-scan system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govil, Pradeep K.; Tsacoyeanes, James G.; Eron, Randell P.; Walters, Dave

    1998-06-01

    A significant contributor to linewidth control in a step and scan system is the focal plane nonuniformity. The various sources contributing to this focus nonuniformity such as wafer and reticle flatness will be discussed. Effective wafer flatness presented in the form of flatness variation histograms, as a function of focus sensor fill factor will be presented. A clear understanding of the effective wafer plane flatness variation is important in predicting lithographic tool linewidth control performance. Statistical approaches using joint probability distributions to combine various error sources will be developed. Data will be presented to show that the systematic error sources can be represented reasonably well by uniform distributions, and random error sources by Gaussian distributions. It will also be shown that the focal system performance estimated using this approach could accurately predict system performance and its impact on linewidth control. This allows determination of significant contributors to the focal plane nonuniformity, which is important in establishing the lithographic tool areas of improvements. Data illustrating the influence of contributors such as wafer and reticle flatness, and optical field curvature on linewidth control will presented together with a statistical metrology for incorporating them into a meaningful focal plane error budget.

  20. Laser Scanning in Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Olsson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS to forests has been revolutionary during the last decade. This development was facilitated by combining earlier ranging lidar discoveries [1–5], with experience obtained from full-waveform ranging radar [6,7] to new airborne laser scanning systems which had components such as a GNSS receiver (Global Navigation Satellite System, IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit and a scanning mechanism. Since the first commercial ALS in 1994, new ALS-based forest inventory approaches have been reported feasible for operational activities [8–12]. ALS is currently operationally applied for stand level forest inventories, for example, in Nordic countries. In Finland alone, the adoption of ALS for forest data collection has led to an annual savings of around 20 M€/year, and the work is mainly done by companies instead of governmental organizations. In spite of the long implementation times and there being a limited tradition of making changes in the forest sector, laser scanning was commercially and operationally applied after about only one decade of research. When analyzing high-ranked journal papers from ISI Web of Science, the topic of laser scanning of forests has been the driving force for the whole laser scanning research society over the last decade. Thus, the topic “laser scanning in forests” has provided a significant industrial, societal and scientific impact. [...

  1. Reducing scan angle using adaptive prior knowledge for a limited-angle intrafraction verification (LIVE) system for conformal arc radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yawei; Yin, Fang-Fang; Zhang, You; Ren, Lei

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an adaptive prior knowledge guided image estimation technique to reduce the scan angle needed in the limited-angle intrafraction verification (LIVE) system for 4D-CBCT reconstruction. The LIVE system has been previously developed to reconstruct 4D volumetric images on-the-fly during arc treatment for intrafraction target verification and dose calculation. In this study, we developed an adaptive constrained free-form deformation reconstruction technique in LIVE to further reduce the scanning angle needed to reconstruct the 4D-CBCT images for faster intrafraction verification. This technique uses free form deformation with energy minimization to deform prior images to estimate 4D-CBCT based on kV-MV projections acquired in extremely limited angle (orthogonal 3°) during the treatment. Note that the prior images are adaptively updated using the latest CBCT images reconstructed by LIVE during treatment to utilize the continuity of the respiratory motion. The 4D digital extended-cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom and a CIRS 008A dynamic thoracic phantom were used to evaluate the effectiveness of this technique. The reconstruction accuracy of the technique was evaluated by calculating both the center-of-mass-shift (COMS) and 3D volume-percentage-difference (VPD) of the tumor in reconstructed images and the true on-board images. The performance of the technique was also assessed with varied breathing signals against scanning angle, lesion size, lesion location, projection sampling interval, and scanning direction. In the XCAT study, using orthogonal-view of 3° kV and portal MV projections, this technique achieved an average tumor COMS/VPD of 0.4  ±  0.1 mm/5.5  ±  2.2%, 0.6  ±  0.3 mm/7.2  ±  2.8%, 0.5  ±  0.2 mm/7.1  ±  2.6%, 0.6  ±  0.2 mm/8.3  ±  2.4%, for baseline drift, amplitude variation, phase shift, and patient breathing signal variation

  2. Feasibility of CT-based 3D anatomic mapping with a scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagowski, Jordan M.; Tomkowiak, Michael T.; Dunkerley, David A. P.; Speidel, Michael A.

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of obtaining CT-derived 3D surfaces from data provided by the scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) system. Simulated SBDX short-scan acquisitions of a Shepp-Logan and a thorax phantom containing a high contrast spherical volume were generated. 3D reconstructions were performed using a penalized weighted least squares method with total variation regularization (PWLS-TV), as well as a more efficient variant employing gridding of projection data to parallel rays (gPWLS-TV). Voxel noise, edge blurring, and surface accuracy were compared to gridded filtered back projection (gFBP). PWLS reconstruction of a noise-free reduced-size Shepp-Logan phantom had 1.4% rRMSE. In noisy gPWLS-TV reconstructions of a reduced-size thorax phantom, 99% of points on the segmented sphere perimeter were within 0.33, 0.47, and 0.70 mm of the ground truth, respectively, for fluences comparable to imaging through 18.0, 27.2, and 34.6 cm acrylic. Surface accuracies of gFBP and gPWLS-TV were similar at high fluences, while gPWLS-TV offered improvement at the lowest fluence. The gPWLS-TV voxel noise was reduced by 60% relative to gFBP, on average. High-contrast linespread functions measured 1.25 mm and 0.96 mm (FWHM) for gPWLS-TV and gFBP. In a simulation of gated and truncated projection data from a full-sized thorax, gPWLS-TV reconstruction yielded segmented surface points which were within 1.41 mm of ground truth. Results support the feasibility of 3D surface segmentation with SBDX. Further investigation of artifacts caused by data truncation and patient motion is warranted.

  3. Development of an automatic scanning system for nuclear emulsion analysis in the OPERA experiment and study of neutrino interactions location; Developpement d'un systeme ultra rapide pour le scan des emulsions nucleaires d'OPERA et etude sur la localistion des vertex de l'interaction des neutrinos a l'aide de ce systeme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrabito, L

    2007-10-15

    Following Super Kamiokande and K2K experiments, Opera (Oscillation Project with Emulsion tracking Apparatus), aims to confirm neutrino oscillation in the atmospheric sector. Taking advantage of a technique already employed in Chorus and in Donut, the Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC), Opera will be able to observe the {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillation, through the {nu}{sub {tau}} appearance in a pure {nu}{sub {mu}} beam. The Opera experiment, with its {approx} 100000 m{sup 2} of nuclear emulsions, needs a very fast automatic scanning system. Optical and mechanics components have been customized in order to achieve a speed of about 20 cm{sup 2}/hour per emulsion layer (44 {mu}m thick), while keeping a sub-micro-metric resolution. The first part of this thesis was dedicated to the optimization of 4 scanning systems at the French scanning station, based in Lyon. An experimental study on a dry objective scanning system has also been realized. The obtained results show that the performances of dry scanning are similar with respect to the traditional oil scanning, so that it can be successfully used for Opera. The second part of this work was devoted to the study of the neutrino interaction location and reconstruction strategy actually used in Opera. A dedicated test beam was performed at CERN in order to simulate Opera conditions. The obtained results definitely confirm that the proposed strategy is well adapted for tau search. (author)

  4. OBSCAN Observer Scanning System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Paper logs are the primary data collection tool used by observers of the Northeast Fisheries Observer Program deployed on commercial fishing vessels. After the data...

  5. Weak interactions in clobazam-lactose mixtures examined by differential scanning calorimetry: Comparison with the captopril-lactose system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toscani, S. [Departement de Chimie - UMR 6226, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Rennes 1, Batiment 10B, 263 avenue du General Leclerc, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Cornevin, L. [Universite de Rennes 1, Faculte de Pharmacie, 2 Avenue Leon Bernard, F-35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Burgot, G., E-mail: Gwenola.burgot@univ-rennes1.fr [Universite de Rennes 1, Faculte de Pharmacie, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, EA 1274 ' Mouvement, sports, sante' , 2 Avenue Leon Bernard, F-35043 Rennes Cedex (France); CHGR Rennes, Pole Medico-Technique Pharmacie, F-35703 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2012-09-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of weak interactions in binary systems by DSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy-barrier decrease for lactose dehydration induced by clobazam. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recrystallisation of metastable liquid clobazam induced by anhydrous alpha lactose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decrease of lactose dehydration temperature in binary mixtures with captopril. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase of lactose dehydration enthalpy in binary mixtures with captopril. - Abstract: The thermal behaviour of binary mixtures of two drugs (clobazam and captopril, respectively) and a pharmaceutical excipient (lactose monohydrate) was measured with differential scanning calorimetry to determine thermodynamic and kinetic parameters (dehydration and melting enthalpies and dehydration and glass-transition activation energies) which might be affected by intermolecular interactions. A kinetic study showed that lactose dehydration is not a single-step conversion and that clobazam contributed to reduce the energy barrier for the bulk dehydration of the excipient. On the other hand, the physical interactions between metastable liquid clobazam and crystalline anhydrous {alpha}-lactose obtained from monohydrate dehydration gave rise to the recrystallisation of clobazam. In the captopril-lactose system, the liquid captopril influenced the lactose dehydration: a sharp increase of the dehydration enthalpy and a concurrent reduction of the dehydration temperature were observed. Finally, it turned out that solid-phase transitions were enhanced by the contact with a liquid phase.

  6. Development of a new ridge filter with honeycomb geometry for a pencil beam scanning system in particle radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansho, R.; Furukawa, T.; Hara, Y.; Mizushima, K.; Saotome, N.; Saraya, Y.; Shirai, T.; Noda, K.

    2017-09-01

    A ridge filter (RGF), a beam energy modulation device, is usually used for particle radiotherapy with a pencil beam scanning system. The conventional RGF has a one-dimensional (1D) periodic laterally stepped structure in orthogonal plane with a central beam direction. The energy of a beam passing through the different thicknesses of the stepped RGF is modulated. Although the lateral pencil beam size is required to cover the several stepped RGF units to modulate its energy as designed, the current trend is to decrease lateral beam size to improve the scanning system. As a result, the beam size becomes smaller than the size of the individual RGF unit. The aim of this study was to develop a new RGF with two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb geometry to simultaneously achieve both a decrease in lateral beam size and the desired energy modulation. The conventional 1D-RGF and the 2D-RGF with honeycomb geometry were both designed so that the Bragg peak size of a 79 MeV/u carbon ion pencil beam in water was 1 mm RMS in the beam direction. To validate the design of the 2D-RGF, we calculated depth dose distributions in water using a simplified Monte Carlo method. In the calculations, we decreased the lateral pencil beam size at the entrance of the RGF and investigated the threshold of lateral beam size with which the pencil beam can reproduce the desired Bragg peak size for each type of RGF. In addition, we calculated lateral dose distributions in air downstream from the RGF and evaluated the inhomogeneity of the lateral dose distributions. Using the 2D-RGF, the threshold of lateral beam size with which the pencil beam can reproduce the desired Bragg peak size was smaller than that using the 1D-RGF. Moreover, the distance from the RGF at which the lateral dose distribution becomes uniform was shorter using the 2D-RGF than that using the 1D-RGF. These results indicate that when the periodic length of both RGFs is the same, the 2D-RGF allows use of a pencil beam with smaller lateral

  7. A line fiducial method for geometric calibration of cone-beam CT systems with diverse scan trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Matthew W; Ketcha, Michael Daniel; Capostagno, Sarah; Martin, Alexander; Uneri, Ali; Goerres, Joseph; De Silva, Tharindu; Reaungamornrat, Sureerat; Han, Runze; Manbachi, Amir; Stayman, Joseph Webster; Vogt, Sebastian; Kleinszig, Gerhard; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H

    2017-11-08

    Modern cone-beam CT systems, especially C-arms, are capable of diverse source-detector orbits. However, geometric calibration of these systems using conventional configurations of spherical fiducials (BBs) may be challenged for novel source-detector orbits and system geometries. In part, this is because the BB configurations are designed with careful forethought regarding the intended orbit so that BB marker projections do not overlap in projection views. Examples include helical arrangements of BBs (Rougee et al Proc. SPIE 1897 161-9) such that markers do not overlap in projections acquired from a circular orbit and circular arrangements of BBs (Cho et al Med Phys 32 968-83). As a more general alternative, this work proposes a calibration method based on an array of line-shaped, radio-opaque wire segments. With this method, geometric parameter estimation is accomplished by relating the 3D line equations representing the wires to the 2D line equations of their projections. The use of line fiducials simplifies many challenges with fiducial recognition and extraction in an orbit-independent manner. For example, their projections can overlap only mildly, for any gantry pose, as long as the wires are mutually non-coplanar in 3D. The method was tested in application to circular and non-circular trajectories in simulation and in real orbits executed using a mobile C-arm prototype for cone-beam CT. Results indicated high calibration accuracy, as measured by forward and backprojection/triangulation error metrics. Triangulation errors on the order of microns and backprojected ray deviations uniformly less than 0.2 mm were observed in both real and simulated orbits. Mean forward projection errors less than 0.1 mm were observed in a comprehensive sweep of different C-arm gantry angulations. Finally, successful integration of the method into a CT imaging chain was demonstrated in head phantom scans. © 2017 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

  8. Slow Scan Telemedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Originally developed under contract for NASA by Ball Bros. Research Corporation for acquiring visual information from lunar and planetary spacecraft, system uses standard closed circuit camera connected to a device called a scan converter, which slows the stream of images to match an audio circuit, such as a telephone line. Transmitted to its destination, the image is reconverted by another scan converter and displayed on a monitor. In addition to assist scans, technique allows transmission of x-rays, nuclear scans, ultrasonic imagery, thermograms, electrocardiograms or live views of patient. Also allows conferencing and consultation among medical centers, general practitioners, specialists and disease control centers. Commercialized by Colorado Video, Inc., major employment is in business and industry for teleconferencing, cable TV news, transmission of scientific/engineering data, security, information retrieval, insurance claim adjustment, instructional programs, and remote viewing of advertising layouts, real estate, construction sites or products.

  9. A 3D Freehand Ultrasound System for Multi-view Reconstructions from Sparse 2D Scanning Planes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agurto Carla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant limitation of existing 3D ultrasound systems comes from the fact that the majority of them work with fixed acquisition geometries. As a result, the users have very limited control over the geometry of the 2D scanning planes. Methods We present a low-cost and flexible ultrasound imaging system that integrates several image processing components to allow for 3D reconstructions from limited numbers of 2D image planes and multiple acoustic views. Our approach is based on a 3D freehand ultrasound system that allows users to control the 2D acquisition imaging using conventional 2D probes. For reliable performance, we develop new methods for image segmentation and robust multi-view registration. We first present a new hybrid geometric level-set approach that provides reliable segmentation performance with relatively simple initializations and minimum edge leakage. Optimization of the segmentation model parameters and its effect on performance is carefully discussed. Second, using the segmented images, a new coarse to fine automatic multi-view registration method is introduced. The approach uses a 3D Hotelling transform to initialize an optimization search. Then, the fine scale feature-based registration is performed using a robust, non-linear least squares algorithm. The robustness of the multi-view registration system allows for accurate 3D reconstructions from sparse 2D image planes. Results Volume measurements from multi-view 3D reconstructions are found to be consistently and significantly more accurate than measurements from single view reconstructions. The volume error of multi-view reconstruction is measured to be less than 5% of the true volume. We show that volume reconstruction accuracy is a function of the total number of 2D image planes and the number of views for calibrated phantom. In clinical in-vivo cardiac experiments, we show that volume estimates of the left ventricle from multi-view reconstructions

  10. Acquisition of a Scanning Laser Vibrometer System for Experimental Studies on Nonparametric Nonlinear System Identification and Aeroelastic Instability Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-06

    Polytec Model PSV -400-H4 Turnkey 4-Channel High Performance, 80 kHz Bandwidth Vibrascan System and Model UHF-120 High Frequency Laser Doppler...lock-down acquired with Polytec PSV -400 LDV. Left: 2 nd bending (11.25 Hz); right: 1 st torsion (30.31 Hz). Figure 4: Accelerance frequency...NL 480N), and with NES in operating mode under peak loading (NL 800 N). Data acquired with Polytec PSV -400 LDV. Note the strong coupling of the

  11. Assessment of a Microsoft Kinect-based 3D scanning system for taking body segment girth measurements: a comparison to ISAK and ISO standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Sean; Wheat, Jon; Heller, Ben; Choppin, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Use of anthropometric data to infer sporting performance is increasing in popularity, particularly within elite sport programmes. Measurement typically follows standards set by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). However, such techniques are time consuming, which reduces their practicality. Schranz et al. recently suggested 3D body scanners could replace current measurement techniques; however, current systems are costly. Recent interest in natural user interaction has led to a range of low-cost depth cameras capable of producing 3D body scans, from which anthropometrics can be calculated. A scanning system comprising 4 depth cameras was used to scan 4 cylinders, representative of the body segments. Girth measurements were calculated from the 3D scans and compared to gold standard measurements. Requirements of a Level 1 ISAK practitioner were met in all 4 cylinders, and ISO standards for scan-derived girth measurements were met in the 2 larger cylinders only. A fixed measurement bias was identified that could be corrected with a simple offset factor. Further work is required to determine comparable performance across a wider range of measurements performed upon living participants. Nevertheless, findings of the study suggest such a system offers many advantages over current techniques, having a range of potential applications.

  12. Restriction landmark cDNA scanning (RLCS): a novel cDNA display system using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H; Yaoi, T; Kawai, J; Hara, A; Kuwajima, G; Wantanabe, S

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a new method, designated restriction landmark cDNA scanning (RLCS), which displays many cDNA species quantitatively and simultaneously as two-dimensional gel spots. In this method cDNA species of uniform length were prepared for each mRNA species using restriction enzymes. After the restriction enzyme sites were radiolabeled as landmarks, the labeled fragments were subjected to high resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In analyses of cDNA samples from adult mouse liver and brain (cerebral cortex, cerebellum and brain stem) we detected approximately 500 and >1000 discrete gel spots respectively of various intensities at a time. The spot patterns of the three brain regions were very similar, although not identical, but were quite different from the pattern for the liver. RNA blot hybridization analysis using several cloned spot DNAs as probes showed that differences in intensity of the spots among RLCS profiles correlated well with expression levels of the corresponding mRNA species in the brain regions. Because the spots and their intensities reflect distinct mRNA species and their expression level respectively, the RLCS is a novel cDNA display system which provides a great deal of information and should be useful for systematic documentation of differentially expressed genes. PMID:8628652

  13. Study of the surfactant role in latex-aerogel systems by scanning transmission electron microscopy on aqueous suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, A; Foray, G; Masenelli-Varlot, K; Maire, E; Yrieix, B

    2018-01-01

    For insulation applications, boards thinner than 2 cm are under design with specific thermal conductivities lower than 15 mW m-1  K-1 . This requires binding slightly hydrophobic aerogels which are highly nanoporous granular materials. To reach this step and ensure insulation board durability at the building scale, it is compulsory to design, characterise and analyse the microstructure at the nanoscale. It is indeed necessary to understand how the solid material is formed from a liquid suspension. This issue is addressed in this paper through wet-STEM experiments carried out in an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM). Latex-surfactant binary blends and latex-surfactant-aerogel ternary systems are studied, with two different surfactants of very different chemical structures. Image analysis is used to distinguish the different components and get quantitative morphological parameters which describe the sample architecture. The evolution of such morphological parameters during water evaporation permits a good understanding of the role of the surfactant. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  14. Study of corrosion in archaeological gilded irons by Raman imaging and a coupled scanning electron microscope-Raman system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneranda, Marco; Costantini, Ilaria; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz; Garcia, Laura; García, Iñaki; Castro, Kepa; Azkarate, Agustín; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2016-12-01

    In this work, analytical and chemical imaging tools have been applied to the study of a gilded spur found in the medieval necropolis of Erenozar (Bizkaia, Spain). As a first step, a lot of portable equipment has been used to study the object in a non-invasive way. The hand-held energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence equipment allowed us to characterize the artefact as a rare example of an iron matrix item decorated by means of a fire gilding technique. On the other hand, the use of a portable Raman system helped us to detect the main degradation compounds affecting the spur. Afterwards, further information was acquired in the laboratory by analysing detached fragments. The molecular images obtained using confocal Raman microscopy permitted us to characterize the stratigraphic succession of iron corrosions. Furthermore, the combined use of this technique with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was achieved owing to the use of a structural and chemical analyser interface. In this way, the molecular characterization, enhanced by the magnification feature of the SEM, allowed us to identify several micrometric degradation compounds. Finally, the effectiveness of one of the most used desalination baths (NaOH) was evaluated by comparing its effects with those provided by a reference bath (MilliQ). The comparison proved that basic treatment avoided any side effects on the spur decorated by fire gilding, compensating for the lack of bibliographic documentation in this field. This article is part of the themed issue "Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology".

  15. A patient-specific aperture system with an energy absorber for spot scanning proton beams: Verification for clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Keisuke, E-mail: k.yasui.20@west-med.jp [Nagoya Proton Therapy Center, Nagoya City West Medical Center, 1-1-1, Hirate-cho, Kita-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken 462-8508, Japan and Department of Radiological Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-20, Daikouminami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken 461-8673 (Japan); Toshito, Toshiyuki; Omachi, Chihiro; Kibe, Yoshiaki; Hayashi, Kensuke; Shibata, Hiroki; Tanaka, Kenichiro; Nikawa, Eiki; Asai, Kumiko; Shimomura, Akira; Kinou, Hideto; Isoyama, Shigeru; Mizoe, Jun-etsu [Nagoya Proton Therapy Center, Nagoya City West Medical Center, 1-1-1, Hirate-cho, Kita-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken 462-8508 (Japan); Fujii, Yusuke; Takayanagi, Taisuke; Hirayama, Shusuke [Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi Research Laboratory, 7-1-1, Omika-chou, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken 319-1292 (Japan); Nagamine, Yoshihiko [Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi Works, 3-1-1, Saiwai-chou, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken 317-8511 (Japan); Shibamoto, Yuta [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1, Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken 467-8601 (Japan); Komori, Masataka [Department of Radiological Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-20, Daikouminami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken 461-8673 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: In the authors’ proton therapy system, the patient-specific aperture can be attached to the nozzle of spot scanning beams to shape an irradiation field and reduce lateral fall-off. The authors herein verified this system for clinical application. Methods: The authors prepared four types of patient-specific aperture systems equipped with an energy absorber to irradiate shallow regions less than 4 g/cm{sup 2}. The aperture was made of 3-cm-thick brass and the maximum water equivalent penetration to be used with this system was estimated to be 15 g/cm{sup 2}. The authors measured in-air lateral profiles at the isocenter plane and integral depth doses with the energy absorber. All input data were obtained by the Monte Carlo calculation, and its parameters were tuned to reproduce measurements. The fluence of single spots in water was modeled as a triple Gaussian function and the dose distribution was calculated using a fluence dose model. The authors compared in-air and in-water lateral profiles and depth doses between calculations and measurements for various apertures of square, half, and U-shaped fields. The absolute doses and dose distributions with the aperture were then validated by patient-specific quality assurance. Measured data were obtained by various chambers and a 2D ion chamber detector array. Results: The patient-specific aperture reduced the penumbra from 30% to 70%, for example, from 34.0 to 23.6 mm and 18.8 to 5.6 mm. The calculated field width for square-shaped apertures agreed with measurements within 1 mm. Regarding patient-specific aperture plans, calculated and measured doses agreed within −0.06% ± 0.63% (mean ± SD) and 97.1% points passed the 2%-dose/2 mm-distance criteria of the γ-index on average. Conclusions: The patient-specific aperture system improved dose distributions, particularly in shallow-region plans.

  16. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ESTIMATION OF STREET TREES BASED ON POINT CLOUD FROM VEHICLE-BORNE LASER SCANNING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Continuous development of urban road traffic system requests higher standards of road ecological environment. Ecological benefits of street trees are getting more attention. Carbon sequestration of street trees refers to the carbon stocks of street trees, which can be a measurement for ecological benefits of street trees. Estimating carbon sequestration in a traditional way is costly and inefficient. In order to solve above problems, a carbon sequestration estimation approach for street trees based on 3D point cloud from vehicle-borne laser scanning system is proposed in this paper. The method can measure the geometric parameters of a street tree, including tree height, crown width, diameter at breast height (DBH, by processing and analyzing point cloud data of an individual tree. Four Chinese scholartree trees and four camphor trees are selected for experiment. The root mean square error (RMSE of tree height is 0.11m for Chinese scholartree and 0.02m for camphor. Crown widths in X direction and Y direction, as well as the average crown width are calculated. And the RMSE of average crown width is 0.22m for Chinese scholartree and 0.10m for camphor. The last calculated parameter is DBH, the RMSE of DBH is 0.5cm for both Chinese scholartree and camphor. Combining the measured geometric parameters and an appropriate carbon sequestration calculation model, the individual tree’s carbon sequestration will be estimated. The proposed method can help enlarge application range of vehicle-borne laser point cloud data, improve the efficiency of estimating carbon sequestration, construct urban ecological environment and manage landscape.

  17. Carbon Sequestration Estimation of Street Trees Based on Point Cloud from Vehicle-Borne Laser Scanning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Hu, Q.

    2017-09-01

    Continuous development of urban road traffic system requests higher standards of road ecological environment. Ecological benefits of street trees are getting more attention. Carbon sequestration of street trees refers to the carbon stocks of street trees, which can be a measurement for ecological benefits of street trees. Estimating carbon sequestration in a traditional way is costly and inefficient. In order to solve above problems, a carbon sequestration estimation approach for street trees based on 3D point cloud from vehicle-borne laser scanning system is proposed in this paper. The method can measure the geometric parameters of a street tree, including tree height, crown width, diameter at breast height (DBH), by processing and analyzing point cloud data of an individual tree. Four Chinese scholartree trees and four camphor trees are selected for experiment. The root mean square error (RMSE) of tree height is 0.11m for Chinese scholartree and 0.02m for camphor. Crown widths in X direction and Y direction, as well as the average crown width are calculated. And the RMSE of average crown width is 0.22m for Chinese scholartree and 0.10m for camphor. The last calculated parameter is DBH, the RMSE of DBH is 0.5cm for both Chinese scholartree and camphor. Combining the measured geometric parameters and an appropriate carbon sequestration calculation model, the individual tree's carbon sequestration will be estimated. The proposed method can help enlarge application range of vehicle-borne laser point cloud data, improve the efficiency of estimating carbon sequestration, construct urban ecological environment and manage landscape.

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ... the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is a ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ... the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is a ...

  20. Multi-Range Conditional Random Field for Classifying Railway Electrification System Objects Using Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewook Jung

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Railways have been used as one of the most crucial means of transportation in public mobility and economic development. For safe railway operation, the electrification system in the railway infrastructure, which supplies electric power to trains, is an essential facility for stable train operation. Due to its important role, the electrification system needs to be rigorously and regularly inspected and managed. This paper presents a supervised learning method to classify Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS data into ten target classes representing overhead wires, movable brackets and poles, which are key objects in the electrification system. In general, the layout of the railway electrification system shows strong spatial regularity relations among object classes. The proposed classifier is developed based on Conditional Random Field (CRF, which characterizes not only labeling homogeneity at short range, but also the layout compatibility between different object classes at long range in the probabilistic graphical model. This multi-range CRF model consists of a unary term and three pairwise contextual terms. In order to gain computational efficiency, MLS point clouds are converted into a set of line segments to which the labeling process is applied. Support Vector Machine (SVM is used as a local classifier considering only node features for producing the unary potentials of the CRF model. As the short-range pairwise contextual term, the Potts model is applied to enforce a local smoothness in the short-range graph; while long-range pairwise potentials are designed to enhance the spatial regularities of both horizontal and vertical layouts among railway objects. We formulate two long-range pairwise potentials as the log posterior probability obtained by the naive Bayes classifier. The directional layout compatibilities are characterized in probability look-up tables, which represent the co-occurrence rate of spatial relations in the horizontal and vertical

  1. Genome-wide scan identifies TNIP1, PSORS1C1, and RHOB as novel risk loci for systemic sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Allanore

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (SSc is an orphan, complex, inflammatory disease affecting the immune system and connective tissue. SSc stands out as a severely incapacitating and life-threatening inflammatory rheumatic disease, with a largely unknown pathogenesis. We have designed a two-stage genome-wide association study of SSc using case-control samples from France, Italy, Germany, and Northern Europe. The initial genome-wide scan was conducted in a French post quality-control sample of 564 cases and 1,776 controls, using almost 500 K SNPs. Two SNPs from the MHC region, together with the 6 loci outside MHC having at least one SNP with a P<10(-5 were selected for follow-up analysis. These markers were genotyped in a post-QC replication sample of 1,682 SSc cases and 3,926 controls. The three top SNPs are in strong linkage disequilibrium and located on 6p21, in the HLA-DQB1 gene: rs9275224, P = 9.18×10(-8, OR = 0.69, 95% CI [0.60-0.79]; rs6457617, P = 1.14×10(-7 and rs9275245, P = 1.39×10(-7. Within the MHC region, the next most associated SNP (rs3130573, P = 1.86×10(-5, OR = 1.36 [1.18-1.56] is located in the PSORS1C1 gene. Outside the MHC region, our GWAS analysis revealed 7 top SNPs (P<10(-5 that spanned 6 independent genomic regions. Follow-up of the 17 top SNPs in an independent sample of 1,682 SSc and 3,926 controls showed associations at PSORS1C1 (overall P = 5.70×10(-10, OR:1.25, TNIP1 (P = 4.68×10(-9, OR:1.31, and RHOB loci (P = 3.17×10(-6, OR:1.21. Because of its biological relevance, and previous reports of genetic association at this locus with connective tissue disorders, we investigated TNIP1 expression. A markedly reduced expression of the TNIP1 gene and also its protein product were observed both in lesional skin tissue and in cultured dermal fibroblasts from SSc patients. Furthermore, TNIP1 showed in vitro inhibitory effects on inflammatory cytokine-induced collagen production. The genetic signal of

  2. Should the automatic exposure control system of CT be disabled when scanning patients with endoaortic stents or mechanical heart valves? A phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Leo, Giovanni; Zanardo, Moreno; Secchi, Francesco [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Radiology Unit, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Spadavecchia, Chiara [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano (Italy); Veronese, Ivan [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano (Italy); Cantone, Marie Claire [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Chirurgiche ed Odontoiatriche, Milano (Italy); Sardanelli, Francesco [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Radiology Unit, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Biomedical Science for Health, San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2017-07-15

    To estimate the impact of endoaortic stents/mechanical heart valves on the output of an automatic exposure control (AEC) system and CT radiation dose. In this phantom study, seven stents and two valves were scanned with varying tube voltage (80/100/120 kVp), AEC activation (enabled/disabled) and prosthesis (present/absent), for a total of 540 scans. For each prosthesis, the dose-length product (DLP) was compared between scans with the AEC enabled and disabled. Percentage confidence levels for differences due to the prosthesis were calculated. Differences between results with the AEC enabled and disabled were not statistically significant (p ≥ 0.059). In the comparison with and without the prosthesis, DLP was unchanged at 80 kVp and 100 kVp, while a slight increase was observed at 120 kVp. The radiation dose varied from 1.8 mGy to 2.4 mGy without the prosthesis and from 1.8 mGy to 2.5 mGy with the prosthesis (confidence level 37-100%). The effect of the prosthesis on the AEC system was negligible and not clinically relevant. Therefore, disabling the AEC system when scanning these patients is not likely to provide a benefit. (orig.)

  3. Scanning bubble chamber pictures

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    These were taken at the 2 m hydrogen bubble chamber. The photo shows an early Shiva system where the pre-measurements needed to qualify the event were done manually (cf photo 7408136X). The scanning tables were located in bld. 12. Gilberte Saulmier sits on foreground, Inge Arents at centre.

  4. Emission Trading System in the SER Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth. Macro-economic calculation by means of WorldScan; ETS in het SER Energieakkoord. Macro-economische doorrekening met WorldScan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, C. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    The Dutch National Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth aims at strengthening the European system for emissions trading by a more strict emission ceiling. Also, the agreement aims at guarantee the competitiveness of global energy intensive businesses by adjusting the allocation method for emission rights. In the calculations for the energy agreement this is reflected in the adjustment of the ETS pricing path. In this memo the calculations with the equilibrium model WordlScan are described and presented [Dutch] Het Nationaal Energieakkoord voor Duurzame Groei zet in op een versterking van het Europees systeem voor emissiehandel (ETS) door aanscherpen van het emissieplafond. Verder wil het akkoord de concurrentiepositie van het mondiaal opererende energie-intensieve bedrijfsleven borgen door aanpassing van de allocatiemethode voor emissierechten. In de doorrekening van het Energieakkoord is deze inzet tot uitdrukking gebracht in een aanpassing van het ETS-prijspad. Deze notitie beschrijft de berekeningen met het algemeen evenwichtsmodel WorldScan waar deze aanpassing van het ETS-prijspad op is gebaseerd.

  5. Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Eric W.; Zelten, J. Peter; Wiseman, Benjamin A.

    1988-06-01

    We report on the development of a laser scanning fluorescence microscope possessing several features which facilitate its application to biological and biophysical analyses in living cells. It is built around a standard inverted microscope stand, enabling the use of standard optics, micromanipulation apparatus, and conventional (including video) microscopy in conjunction with laser scanning. The beam is scanned across the specimen by a pair of galvanometer-mounted mirrors, driven by a programmable controller which can operate in three modes: full raster scan, region of interest, and random-access. A full 512x512 pixel image can be acquired in one second. In region of interest mode, several subareas of the field can be selected for more rapid or detailed analysis. For those cases where the time scale of the observed phenomenon precludes full-field imaging, or where a full-field image is unnecessary, the random access mode enables an arbitrary pattern of isolated points to be selected and rapidly sequenced through. Via a graphical user interface implemented on the system's host computer, a user will be able to take a scout image either with video or a full-field laser scan, select regions or points on the scout image with a mouse, and set up experimental parameters such as detector integration times with a window-style menu. The instrument is designed to be a flexible testbed for investigating new techniques, without compromising its utility as a tool for biological research.

  6. Measurement of shape property distributions of quartzite aggregate from different crushers using 3D laser scanning system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mgangira, MB

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available four crushers. In this paper, a description is provided on the quantification of particle shapes using data from a 3-D laser scanning device. The images from the laser were fully utilized in quantifying the shape descriptors in order to identify...

  7. Detection of morphological changes in cliff face surrounding a waterfall using terrestrial laser scanning and unmanned aerial system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Obanawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-04-01

    Waterfall or bedrock knickpoint appears as an erosional front in bedrock rivers forming deep v-shaped valley downstream. Following the rapid fluvial erosion of waterfall, rockfalls and gravita-tional collapses often occur in surrounding steep cliffs. Although morphological changes of such steep cliffs are sometimes visually observed, quantitative and precise measurements of their spatio-temporal distribution have been limited due to the difficulties in direct access to such cliffs if with classical measurement methods. However, for the clarification of geomorphological processes oc-curring in the cliffs, multi-temporal mapping of the cliff face at a high resolution is necessary. Re-mote sensing approaches are therefore suitable for the topographic measurements and detection of changes in such inaccessible cliffs. To achieve accurate topographic mapping of cliffs around a wa-terfall, here we perform multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), as well as structure-from-motion multi-view stereo (SfM-MVS) photogrammetry based on unmanned aerial system (UAS). The study site is Kegon Falls in central Japan, having a vertical drop of surface water from top of its overhanging cliff, as well as groundwater outflows from its lower portions. The bedrock is composed of alternate layers of andesite lava and conglomerates. Minor rockfalls in the cliffs are often ob-served by local people. The latest major rockfall occurred in 1986, causing ca. 8-m upstream propa-gation of the waterfall lip. This provides a good opportunity to examine the changes in the surround-ing cliffs following the waterfall recession. Multi-time point clouds were obtained by TLS measure-ment over years, and the three-dimensional changes of the rock surface were detected, uncovering the locus of small rockfalls and gully developments. Erosion seems particularly frequent in relatively weak the conglomerates layer, whereas small rockfalls seems to have occurred in the andesite layers. Also, shadows in the

  8. A Framework Based on Reference Data with Superordinate Accuracy for the Quality Analysis of Terrestrial Laser Scanning-Based Multi-Sensor-Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenz, Ulrich; Hartmann, Jens; Paffenholz, Jens-André; Neumann, Ingo

    2017-08-16

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is an efficient solution to collect large-scale data. The efficiency can be increased by combining TLS with additional sensors in a TLS-based multi-sensor-system (MSS). The uncertainty of scanned points is not homogenous and depends on many different influencing factors. These include the sensor properties, referencing, scan geometry (e.g., distance and angle of incidence), environmental conditions (e.g., atmospheric conditions) and the scanned object (e.g., material, color and reflectance, etc.). The paper presents methods, infrastructure and results for the validation of the suitability of TLS and TLS-based MSS. Main aspects are the backward modelling of the uncertainty on the basis of reference data (e.g., point clouds) with superordinate accuracy and the appropriation of a suitable environment/infrastructure (e.g., the calibration process of the targets for the registration of laser scanner and laser tracker data in a common coordinate system with high accuracy) In this context superordinate accuracy means that the accuracy of the acquired reference data is better by a factor of 10 than the data of the validated TLS and TLS-based MSS. These aspects play an important role in engineering geodesy, where the aimed accuracy lies in a range of a few mm or less.

  9. REGISTRATION OF CENTRIC OCCLUSION IN PATIENTS WITH BRUXISM AND BRUXOMANIA THROUGH ARTICULATING PAPER AND THE SYSTEM T-SCAN - COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Dimova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study and documentation of occlusal-articulation relationships has a high diagnostic significance in patients with bruxism and bruxomania. The study aims on the basis of registration of occlusal contacts via articulating paper and the T-Scan system to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of both methods in occlusal diagnosis of patients with bruxism and bruxomania. Material and Methods: 40 patients with bruxism and / or bruxomania (29 women and 11 men aged between 21 and 77 years from October 2010 to February 2014 was conducted computerized occlusal analysis using the systems T-Scan II (in 12 patients, T-Scan III (in 28 patients and the software T-Scan III. All patients were subjected to registration of occlusal relationships in centric occlusion (CO with articulating paper Bausch PROGRESS 100 µ and Bausch® Arti-Fol® 8 µ. Results and Discussion: In 90.0% of patients it is established unevenly distributed, irregular in size and intensity occlusal contacts. Essential factor for preventing the spontaneous bilateral closure with balanced forces is the presence of interceptive contacts and sliding occurring in the first frame of the occlusion time until the maximum intercuspation - MIP. Conclusion: Registration with articulating paper visualizes cumulative picture of the contacts in CO and interceptive contacts without being able to distinguish them in size and time of onset. Computerized occlusal analysis objectively and quantitatively determines interceptive contacts and distinguishes them from contacts in MIP and gives real meaning to the terms "strong" and "light contacts".

  10. Effectiveness and usability of Scanning Wizard software: a tool for enhancing switch scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Heidi Horstmann; Simpson, Richard C

    2017-11-24

    Scanning Wizard software helps scanning users improve the setup of their switch and scanning system. This study evaluated Scanning Wizard's effectiveness and usability. Ten people who use switch scanning and ten practitioners used Scanning Wizard in the initial session. Usability was high, based on survey responses averaging over 4.5 out of 5, and qualitative feedback was very positive. Five switch users were able to complete the multi-week protocol, using settings on their own scanning system that were recommended from the Scanning Wizard session. Using these revised settings, text entry rates improved by an average of 71%, ranging from 29% to 172% improvement. Results suggest that Scanning Wizard is a useful tool for improving the configuration of scanning systems for people who use switch scanning to communicate. Implications for Rehabilitation Some individuals with severe physical impairments use switch scanning for spoken and written communication. Scanning Wizard software helps scanning users improve the setup of their switch and scanning system. This study demonstrated high usability of Scanning Wizard (with 10 switch userpractitioner teams) and increased text entry rate by an average of 71% (for five switch users). Results suggest that Scanning Wizard is a useful tool for improving the configuration of scanning systems for people who use switch scanning to communicate.

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... limitations of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to determine ...

  13. Lumbar spine CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAT scan - lumbar spine; Computed axial tomography scan - lumbar spine; Computed tomography scan - lumbar spine; CT - lower ... The lumbar CT scan is good for evaluating large herniated disks, ... smaller ones. This test can be combined with a myelogram to get ...

  14. Arm CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAT scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the arm area, called slices. These images can be stored, ...

  15. Thoracic spine CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAT scan - thoracic spine; Computed axial tomography scan - thoracic spine; Computed tomography scan - thoracic spine; CT scan - ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 44. US Food and Drug Administration. Computed tomography (CT). Updated August ...

  16. Should the automatic exposure control system of CT be disabled when scanning patients with endoaortic stents or mechanical heart valves? A phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Leo, Giovanni; Spadavecchia, Chiara; Zanardo, Moreno; Secchi, Francesco; Veronese, Ivan; Cantone, Marie Claire; Sardanelli, Francesco

    2017-07-01

    To estimate the impact of endoaortic stents/mechanical heart valves on the output of an automatic exposure control (AEC) system and CT radiation dose. In this phantom study, seven stents and two valves were scanned with varying tube voltage (80/100/120 kVp), AEC activation (enabled/disabled) and prosthesis (present/absent), for a total of 540 scans. For each prosthesis, the dose-length product (DLP) was compared between scans with the AEC enabled and disabled. Percentage confidence levels for differences due to the prosthesis were calculated. Differences between results with the AEC enabled and disabled were not statistically significant (p ≥ 0.059). In the comparison with and without the prosthesis, DLP was unchanged at 80 kVp and 100 kVp, while a slight increase was observed at 120 kVp. The radiation dose varied from 1.8 mGy to 2.4 mGy without the prosthesis and from 1.8 mGy to 2.5 mGy with the prosthesis (confidence level 37-100%). The effect of the prosthesis on the AEC system was negligible and not clinically relevant. Therefore, disabling the AEC system when scanning these patients is not likely to provide a benefit. • CT-AEC system is not impaired in patients with endoaortic prostheses/heart valves. • Negligible differences may be observed only at 120 kVp. • Disabling the AEC system in these patients is not recommended.

  17. Measurement of stray radiation within a scanning proton therapy facility: EURADOS WG9 intercomparison exercise of active dosimetry systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farah, J., E-mail: jad.farah@irsn.fr; Trompier, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), Pôle Radioprotection de l’Homme, BP17, Fontenay-aux-Roses 92260 (France); Mares, V.; Schinner, K.; Wielunski, M. [Helmholtz Zentrum München, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, Neuherberg 85764 (Germany); Romero-Expósito, M.; Domingo, C. [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra E-08193 (Spain); Trinkl, S. [Helmholtz Zentrum München, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, Neuherberg 85764, Germany and Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, Garching 85748 (Germany); Dufek, V. [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Břehová 7, Prague 115 19, Czech Republic and National Radiation Protection Institute, Bartoškova 28, Prague 140 00 (Czech Republic); Klodowska, M.; Liszka, M.; Stolarczyk, L.; Olko, P. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Kubancak, J. [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Břehová 7, Prague 115 19, Czech Republic and Department of Radiation Dosimetry, Nuclear Physics Institute, Řež CZ-250 68 (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: To characterize stray radiation around the target volume in scanning proton therapy and study the performance of active neutron monitors. Methods: Working Group 9 of the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS WG9—Radiation protection in medicine) carried out a large measurement campaign at the Trento Centro di Protonterapia (Trento, Italy) in order to determine the neutron spectra near the patient using two extended-range Bonner sphere spectrometry (BSS) systems. In addition, the work focused on acknowledging the performance of different commercial active dosimetry systems when measuring neutron ambient dose equivalents, H{sup ∗}(10), at several positions inside (8 positions) and outside (3 positions) the treatment room. Detectors included three TEPCs—tissue equivalent proportional counters (Hawk type from Far West Technology, Inc.) and six rem-counters (WENDI-II, LB 6411, RadEye™ NL, a regular and an extended-range NM2B). Meanwhile, the photon component of stray radiation was deduced from the low-lineal energy transfer part of TEPC spectra or measured using a Thermo Scientific™ FH-40G survey meter. Experiments involved a water tank phantom (60 × 30 × 30 cm{sup 3}) representing the patient that was uniformly irradiated using a 3 mm spot diameter proton pencil beam with 10 cm modulation width, 19.95 cm distal beam range, and 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} field size. Results: Neutron spectrometry around the target volume showed two main components at the thermal and fast energy ranges. The study also revealed the large dependence of the energy distribution of neutrons, and consequently of out-of-field doses, on the primary beam direction (directional emission of intranuclear cascade neutrons) and energy (spectral composition of secondary neutrons). In addition, neutron mapping within the facility was conducted and showed the highest H{sup ∗}(10) value of ∼51 μSv Gy{sup −1}; this was measured at 1.15 m along the beam axis. H{sup ∗}(10) values

  18. Biba Scan

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Matthew Rose worked at the Naval Postgraduate School as a graphic designer from February 2002-November 2011. His work for NPS included logos, brochures, business packs, movies/presentations, posters, the CyberSiege video game and many other projects. This material was organized and provided by the artist, for inclusion in the NPS Archive, Calhoun. Document: Integrity Consideration for Secure Computer Systems, ESD-TR-76-372, April 1977

  19. Impact of grid size on uniform scanning and IMPT plans in XiO treatment planning system for brain cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Suresh; Zheng, Yuanshui

    2015-09-08

    The main purposes of this study are to: 1) evaluate the accuracy of XiO treatment planning system (TPS) for different dose calculation grid size based on head phan-tom measurements in uniform scanning proton therapy (USPT); and 2) compare the dosimetric results for various dose calculation grid sizes based on real computed tomography (CT) dataset of pediatric brain cancer treatment plans generated by USPT and intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) techniques. For phantom study, we have utilized the anthropomorphic head proton phantom provided by Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core (IROC). The imaging, treatment planning, and beam delivery were carried out following the guidelines provided by the IROC. The USPT proton plan was generated in the XiO TPS, and dose calculations were performed for grid size ranged from 1 to 3 mm. The phantom containing thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLDs) and films was irradiated using uniform scanning proton beam. The irradiated TLDs were read by the IROC. The calculated doses from the XiO for different grid sizes were compared to the measured TLD doses provided by the IROC. Gamma evaluation was done by comparing calculated planar dose distribution of 3 mm grid size with measured planar dose distribution. Additionally, IMPT plan was generated based on the same CT dataset of the IROC phantom, and IMPT dose calculations were performed for grid size ranged from 1 to 3 mm. For comparative purpose, additional gamma analysis was done by comparing the planar dose distributions of standard grid size (3 mm) with that of other grid sizes (1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 mm) for both the USPT and IMPT plans. For patient study, USPT plans of three pediatric brain cancer cases were selected. IMPT plans were generated for each of three pediatric cases. All patient treatment plans (USPT and IMPT) were generated in the XiO TPS for a total dose of 54 Gy (relative biological effectiveness [RBE]). Treatment plans (USPT and IMPT) of each case was recalculated for grid

  20. Development of electron optical system using annular pupils for scanning transmission electron microscope by focused ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsutani, Takaomi, E-mail: matutani@ele.kindai.ac.jp [Kinki University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Yasumoto, Tsuchika; Tanaka, Takeo [Osaka Sangyo University, 3-1-1 Nakagaito, Daito, Osaka 574-8530 (Japan); Kawasaki, Tadahiro; Ichihashi, Mikio [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Ikuta, Takashi [Osaka Electro-Communication University, 18-8 Hatsu-cho, Neyagawa, Osaka 572-8530 (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    Annular pupils for electron optics were produced using a focused ion beam (FIB), enabling an increase in the depth of focus and allowing for aberration-free imaging and separation of the amplitude and phase images in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Simulations demonstrate that an increased focal depth is advantageous for three-dimensional tomography in the STEM. For a 200 kV electron beam, the focal depth is increased to approximately 100 nm by using an annular pupil with inner and outer semi-angles of 29 and 30 mrad, respectively. Annular pupils were designed with various outer diameters of 40-120 {mu}m and the inner diameter was designed at 80% of the outer diameter. A taper angle varying from 1 Degree-Sign to 20 Degree-Sign was applied to the slits of the annular pupils to suppress the influence of high-energy electron scattering. The fabricated annular pupils were inspected by scanning ion beam microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. These annular pupils were loaded into a STEM and no charge-up effects were observed in the scintillator projection images recorded by a CCD camera.

  1. Computed tomography scanning can monitor the effects of soil medium on root system development: An example of salt stress in corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmyalakshmi eSubramanian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Seeds and young seedlings often encounter high soluble salt levels in the upmost soil layers, impeding vigorous growth by affecting root establishment. Computed tomography (CT scanning used at low X-ray doses can help study root development in such conditions non-destructively, because plants are allowed to grow throughout the experiment. Using a high-resolution Toshiba XVision CT scanner, we studied corn (Zea mays L. root growth under optimal and salt-stressed conditions in 3D and on a weekly basis over 3 weeks. Two groups of 3 corn plants were grown in the controlled environment of a growth chamber, in mid-sized plastic pots filled with sieved and autoclaved sand. Seedlings were subjected to first CT scanning one week after seed planting. Our main research objectives concerning root systems were: (i to quantify structural complexity from fractal dimensions estimated on skeletal 3-D images built from CT scanning data; (ii to measure growth from volumes and derived relative rates, after isolating primary and secondary roots from the soil medium in CT scanning data; and (iii to assess differences in complexity and growth per week and over Weeks 1–3 for groups of corn plants. Differences between groups were present from Week 1; starting in Week 2 secondary roots were present and could be isolated, which refined the complexity and growth analyses of root systems. Besides expected Week main effects (P < 0.01 or 0.05, Week x Group interaction (P < 0.05 or 0.10 and Group main effects were observed, which is remarkable given the small sample sizes. Graphical, quantitative and statistical analyses of CT scanning data were thus completed at an unprecedented level, and provided new and important insights regarding root system development. Repeated CT scanning is the key to a better understanding of the establishment in the soil medium of crop plants such as corn and the assessment of salt stress effects on developing root systems, in complexity and

  2. Scan converting video tape recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, N. I. (Inventor)

    1971-01-01

    A video tape recorder is disclosed of sufficient bandwidth to record monochrome television signals or standard NTSC field sequential color at current European and American standards. The system includes scan conversion means for instantaneous playback at scanning standards different from those at which the recording is being made.

  3. Detectors for scanning video imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Robert H.; Hughes, George W.

    1993-11-01

    In scanning video imagers, a single detector sees each pixel for only 100 ns, so the bandwidth of the detector needs to be about 10 MHz. How this fact influences the choice of detectors for scanning systems is described here. Some important parametric quantities obtained from manufacturer specifications are related and it is shown how to compare detectors when specified quantities differ.

  4. SU-D-204-06: Dose and Image Quality Evaluation of a Low-Dose Slot-Scanning X-Ray System for Pediatric Orthopedic Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z; Hoerner, M; Lamoureux, R; Rill, L; Arreola, M [Univ Florida, Jacksonville Beach, FL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Children in early teens with scoliosis require repeated radiographic exams over a number of years. The EOS (EOS imaging S.A., Paris, France) is a novel low-dose slot-scanning digital radiographic system designed to produce full-spine images of a free-standing patient. The radiation dose and image quality characteristics of the EOS were evaluated relative to those of a Computed Radiography (CR) system for scoliosis imaging. Methods: For dose evaluation, a full-torso anthropomorphic phantom was scanned five times using the default standard clinical protocols for both the EOS and a CR system, which include both posteroanterior and lateral full-spine views. Optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs), also known as nanoDots™ (Landauer, Inc., Glenwood, IL), were placed on the phantom’s surface to measure entrance skin dose. To assess image quality, MTF curves were generated from sampling the noise levels within the high-contrast regions of a line-pair phantom. Vertical and horizontal distortions were measured for the square line-pair phantom with the EOS system to evaluate the effects of geometric magnification and misalignment with the indicated imaging plane. Results: The entrance skin dose was measured to be 0.4 to 1.1 mGy for the EOS, and 0.7 to 3.6 mGy for the CR study. MTF comparison shows that CR greatly outperforms the EOS, despite both systems having a limiting resolution at 1.8 line-pairs per mm. Vertical distortion was unaffected by phantom positioning, because of the EOS slot-scanning geometry. Horizontal distortion increased linearly with miscentering distance. Conclusion: The EOS system resulted in approximately 70% lower radiation dose than CR for full-spine images. Image quality was found to be inferior to CR. Further investigation is required to see if EOS system is an acceptable modality for performing clinically diagnostic scoliosis examinations.

  5. Mammographic scanning equalization radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabol, J M; Soutar, I C; Plewes, D B

    1993-01-01

    It is well recognized that variations in breast thickness and parenchymal composition can produce a range of exposure which exceeds the latitude of high contrast mammographic film/screen combinations. Optimal imaging of the dense breast is desired since 30%-60% of women present with dense breasts, and they are believed to be at the highest relative risk of developing breast cancer. The application of scanning equalization radiography to mammography has been investigated through the construction and characterization of a prototype mammographic scanning equalization radiography (MSER) system, designed to image mammographic phantoms. The MSER system exposes a Min-R/MRH cassette by raster scanning a 2.0 x 1.6 cm beam of pulsed x-rays across the cassette. A scanning detector behind the cassette measures the local x-ray transmission of the breast. Feedback of the transmission information is used to modulate the duration of each x-ray pulse, to equalize the film exposure. The effective dynamic range of the MSER system is 25 times greater than that of conventional mammography. Artifact-free images of mammographic phantoms show that MSER effectively overcomes the latitude limitations of film/screen mammography, enabling high contrast imaging over a wide range of object x-ray transmission. Anthropomorphic phantom images show that MSER offers up to a sixfold increase in film contrast in the normally underexposed regions of conventional mammograms. Characterization of the entrance exposure shows that there is not a significant difference in exposure between MSER and conventional mammographic techniques, suggesting that both would pose comparable risk to the patient. Calculations show that the construction of a clinical multiple beam MSER system is feasible with minor changes to existing technology.

  6. The registration of CT image to the patient head by using an automated laser surface scanning system--a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, J Y; Tarng, Y S

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, a practical methodology of surface-based registration supported by an automated laser surface scanning system to achieve good mapping performance is reported. The laser scanning system is used to digitize the facial feature of a phantom so as to mesh the physical space into triangular frame. The image space is established by translating the corresponding CT image into point set through using the medical image software tools. The image-to-physical registration task is carried out by a direct searching mechanism together with the objective function in an optimal fashion. The unconstrained nonlinear optimization algorithm performs the optimal searching iteration to find those parameters in the rigid-body transformation until the sum of the squared normal distances is minimized. Considering mapping the massive points in registration task would consume the computation time, there is only a suitable sample size to stand for the entire population with sufficient confidence and accuracy are extracted statistically from the CT point space to map to the laser scanning space. Registration results evaluated by gauging the position errors of the landmarks on phantom forehead show the proposed methodology has good ability to perform the image-to-physical registration.

  7. High-throughput critical dimensions uniformity (CDU) measurement of two-dimensional (2D) structures using scanning electron microscope (SEM) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullam, Jennifer; Boye, Carol; Standaert, Theodorus; Gaudiello, John; Tomlinson, Derek; Xiao, Hong; Fang, Wei; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Fei; Ma, Long; Zhao, Yan; Jau, Jack

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we tested a novel methodology of measuring critical dimension (CD) uniformity, or CDU, with electron beam (e-beam) hotspot inspection and measurement systems developed by Hermes Microvision, Inc. (HMI). The systems were used to take images of two-dimensional (2D) array patterns and measure CDU values in a custom designated fashion. Because this methodology combined imaging of scanning micro scope (SEM) and CD value averaging over a large array pattern of optical CD, or OCD, it can measure CDU of 2D arrays with high accuracy, high repeatability and high throughput.

  8. Non-contact scanning diffuse correlation tomography system for three-dimensional blood flow imaging in a murine bone graft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Songfeng; Johansson, Johannes; Mireles, Miguel; Proctor, Ashley R; Hoffman, Michael D; Vella, Joseph B; Benoit, Danielle S W; Durduran, Turgut; Choe, Regine

    2015-07-01

    A non-contact galvanometer-based optical scanning system for diffuse correlation tomography was developed for monitoring bone graft healing in a murine femur model. A linear image reconstruction algorithm for diffuse correlation tomography was tested using finite-element method based simulated data and experimental data from a femur or a tube suspended in a homogeneous liquid phantom. Finally, the non-contact system was utilized to monitor in vivo blood flow changes prior to and one week after bone graft transplantation within murine femurs. Localized blood flow changes were observed in three mice, demonstrating a potential for quantification of longitudinal blood flow associated with bone graft healing.

  9. 3D scanning and 3D printing as innovative technologies for fabricating personalized topical drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Det-Amornrat, Usanee; Wang, Jie; Basit, Abdul W; Gaisford, Simon

    2016-07-28

    Acne is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease with high prevalence. In this work, the potential of 3D printing to produce flexible personalised-shape anti-acne drug (salicylic acid) loaded devices was demonstrated by two different 3D printing (3DP) technologies: Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) and stereolithography (SLA). 3D scanning technology was used to obtain a 3D model of a nose adapted to the morphology of an individual. In FDM 3DP, commercially produced Flex EcoPLA™ (FPLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) filaments were loaded with salicylic acid by hot melt extrusion (HME) (theoretical drug loading - 2% w/w) and used as feedstock material for 3D printing. Drug loading in the FPLA-salicylic acid and PCL-salicylic acid 3D printed patches was 0.4% w/w and 1.2% w/w respectively, indicating significant thermal degradation of drug during HME and 3D printing. Diffusion testing in Franz cells using a synthetic membrane revealed that the drug loaded printed samples released 3D printing technology to manufacture anti-acne devices with salicylic acid. The combination of 3D scanning and 3D printing has the potential to offer solutions to produce personalised drug loaded devices, adapted in shape and size to individual patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Brain PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have false results on a PET scan. Blood sugar or insulin levels may affect the test results in people with diabetes . PET scans may be done along with a CT scan. This combination scan is called a PET/CT. Alternative Names Brain positron emission tomography; PET scan - brain References Chernecky ...

  11. Coronary Calcium Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Coronary Calcium Scan Coronary Calcium Scan Also known as Calcium Scan Test A coronary calcium scan is a CT scan of your heart that detects and measures the amount of calcium in the walls of your coronary arteries. Overview ...

  12. Comparison of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) for geomorphic change detection in beach-dune systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathfield, D.; Walker, I. J.; Grilliot, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    The recent emergence of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and unmanned aerial systems (UAS) as mapping platforms in geomorphology research has allowed for expedited acquisition of high spatial and temporal resolution, three-dimensional topographic datasets. TLS provides dense 3D `point cloud' datasets that require careful acquisition strategies and appreciable post-processing to produce accurate digital elevation models (DEMs). UAS provide overlapping nadir and oblique imagery that can be analysed using Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry software to provide accurate, high-resolution orthophoto mosaics and accurate digital surface models (DSMs). Both methods yield centimeter to decimeter scale accuracy, depending on various hardware and field acquisition considerations (e.g., camera resolution, flight height, on-site GNSS control, etc.). Combined, the UAS-SfM workflow provides a comparable and more affordable solution to the more expensive TLS or aerial LiDAR methods. This paper compares and contrasts SfM and TLS survey methodologies and related workflow costs and benefits as used to quantify and examine seasonal beach-dune erosion and recovery processes at a site (Calvert Island) on British Columbia's central coast in western Canada. Seasonal SfM- and TLS-derived DEMs were used to quantify spatial patterns of surface elevation change, geomorphic responses, and related significant sediment volume changes. Cluster maps of positive (depositional) and negative (erosional) change are analysed to detect and interpret the geomorphic and sediment budget responses following an erosive water level event during winter 2016 season (Oct. 2015 - Apr. 2016). Vantage cameras also provided qualitative data on the frequency and magnitude of environmental drivers (e.g., tide, wave, wind forcing) of erosion and deposition events during the observation period. In addition, we evaluate the costs, time expenditures, and accuracy considerations for both SfM and TLS methodologies.

  13. Mesoscale and synoptic scale features of North Pacific weather systems observed with the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer on Nimbus 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaros, K. B.; Lewis, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    Employing data on integrated atmospheric water vapor, total cloud liquid water and rain rate obtainable from the Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), the frontal structure of several mid-latitude cyclones over the North Pacific Ocean as they approach the West Coast of North America in the winter of 1979. The fronts, analyzed with all available independent data, are consistently located at the leading edge of the strongest gradient in integrated water vapor. The cloud liquid water content, which unfortunately has received very little in situ verification, has patterns which are consistent with the structure seen in visible and infrared imagery. The rain distribution is also a good indicator of frontal location and rain amounts are generally within a factor of two of what is observed with rain gauges on the coast. Furthermore, the onset of rain on the coast can often be accurately forecast by simple advection of the SMMR observed rain areas.

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... code: Phone no: Thank you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story ...

  15. Heart PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... A PET scan requires a small amount of radioactive material (tracer). This tracer is given through a vein (IV), ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... taking our brief survey: Survey Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story ...

  17. Effective X-ray beam size measurements of an X-ray tube and polycapillary X-ray lens system using a scanning X-ray fluorescence method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gherase, Mihai R., E-mail: mgherase@csufresno.edu; Vargas, Andres Felipe

    2017-03-15

    Size measurements of an X-ray beam produced by an integrated polycapillary X-ray lens (PXL) and X-ray tube system were performed by means of a scanning X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) method using three different metallic wires. The beam size was obtained by fitting the SXRF data with the analytical convolution between a Gaussian and a constant functions. For each chemical element in the wire an effective energy was calculated based on the incident X-ray spectrum and its photoelectric cross section. The proposed method can be used to measure the effective X-ray beam size in XRF microscopy studies.

  18. Comparison of tissue damage caused by various laser systems with tissue tolerable plasma by light and laser scan microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersee, Staffan; Lademann, Jürgen; Richter, Heike; Patzelt, Alexa; Lange-Asschenfeldt, Bernhard

    2013-10-01

    Tissue tolerable plasma (TTP) represents a novel therapeutic method with promising capabilities in the field of dermatological interventions, in particular disinfection but also wound antisepsis and regeneration. The energy transfer by plasma into living tissue is not easily educible, as a variety of features such as the medium’s actual molecule-stream, the ions, electrons and free radicals involved, as well as the emission of ultraviolet, visible and infrared light contribute to its increasingly well characterized effects. Thus, relating possible adversary effects, especially of prolonged exposure to a single component of the plasma’s mode of action, is difficult. Until now, severe adverse events connected to plasma exposure have not been reported when conducted according to existing therapeutic protocols. In this study, we have compared the tissue damage-potential of CO2 and dye lasers with TTP in a porcine model. After exposure of pig ear skin to the three treatment modalities, all specimens were examined histologically and by means of laser scan microscopy (LSM). Light microscopical tissue damage could only be shown in the case of the CO2 laser, whereas dye laser and plasma treatment resulted in no detectable impairment of the specimens. In the case of TTP, LSM examination revealed only an impairment of the uppermost corneal layers of the skin, thus stressing its safety when used in vivo.

  19. Assessment of the accuracy of an ultrasound elastography liver scanning system using a PVA-cryogel phantom with optimal acoustic and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cournane, S; Fagan, A J [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, St James' s Hospital, Dublin 8 (Ireland); Cannon, L; Browne, J E [Medical Ultrasound Physics and Technology Group, School of Physics, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin' s Street, Dublin 8 (Ireland)

    2010-10-07

    The accuracy of a transient elastography liver-scanning ultrasound system was assessed using a novel application of PVA-cryogel as a tissue-mimicking material with acoustic and shear elasticity properties optimized to best represent those of liver tissue. Although the liver-scanning system has been shown to offer a safer alternative for diagnosing liver cirrhosis through stiffness measurement, as compared to the liver needle biopsy exam, the scanner's accuracy has not been fully established. Young's elastic modulus values of 5-6 wt% PVA-cryogel phantoms, also containing glycerol and 0.3 {mu}m Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 3 {mu}m Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, were measured using a 'gold standard' mechanical testing technique and transient elastography. The mechanically measured values and acoustic velocities of the phantoms ranged between 1.6 and 16.1 kPa and 1540 and 1570 m s{sup -1}, respectively, mimicking those observed in liver tissue. The values reported by the transient elastography system overestimated Young's elastic modulus values representative of the progressive stages of liver fibrosis by up to 32%. These results were attributed to the relative rather than absolute nature of the measurement arising from the single-point acoustic velocity calibration of the system, rendering the measurements critically dependent on the speed of sound of the sample under investigation. Given the wide range of acoustic velocities which exist in the liver, spanning healthy tissue to cirrhotic pathology, coupled with the system's assumption that the liver is approximately elastic when it is rather highly viscoelastic, care should be exercised when interpreting the results from this system in patient groups.

  20. SU-E-T-107: Development of a GPU-Based Dose Delivery System for Adaptive Pencil Beam Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordanengo, S; Russo, G; Marchetto, F; Attili, A [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Torino (Italy); Monaco, V; Varasteh, M [University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Pella, A [Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica, Pavia (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A description of a GPU-based dose delivery system (G-DDS) to integrate a fast forward planning implementing in real-time the prescribed sequence of pencil beams. The system, which is under development, is designed to evaluate the dose distribution deviations due to range variations and interplay effects affecting mobile tumors treatments. Methods: The Dose Delivery System (DDS) in use at the Italian Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO), is the starting point for the presented system. A fast and partial forward planning (FP) tool has been developed to evaluate in few seconds the delivered dose distributions using the DDS data (on-line measurements of spot properties, i.e. number of particles and positions). The computation is performed during the intervals between synchrotron spills and, made available at the end of each spill. In the interval between two spills, the G-DDS will evaluate the delivered dose distributions taking into account the real-time target positions measured by a tracking system. The sequence of prescribed pencil beams for the following spill will be adapted taking into account the variations with respect to the original plan due to the target motion. In order to speed up the computation required to modify pencil beams distribution (up to 400 times has been reached), the Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) and advanced Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are used. Results: An existing offline forward planning is going to be optimized for the CUDA architecture: the gain in time will be presented. The preliminary performances of the developed GPU-based FP algorithms will be shown. Conclusion: A prototype of a GPU-based dose delivery system is under development and will be presented. The system workflow will be illustrated together with the approach adopted to integrate the three main systems, i.e. CNAO dose delivery system, fast forward planning, and tumor tracking system.

  1. An eye tracking system for monitoring face scanning patterns reveals the enhancing effect of oxytocin on eye contact in common marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Manato; Shimono, Kohei; Yoneyama, Toshihiro; Nakako, Tomokazu; Matsumoto, Kenji; Ogi, Yuji; Konoike, Naho; Nakamura, Katsuki; Ikeda, Kazuhito

    2017-09-01

    Eye tracking systems are used to investigate eyes position and gaze patterns presumed as eye contact in humans. Eye contact is a useful biomarker of social communication and known to be deficient in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Interestingly, the same eye tracking systems have been used to directly compare face scanning patterns in some non-human primates to those in human. Thus, eye tracking is expected to be a useful translational technique for investigating not only social attention and visual interest, but also the effects of psychiatric drugs, such as oxytocin, a neuropeptide that regulates social behavior. In this study, we report on a newly established method for eye tracking in common marmosets as unique New World primates that, like humans, use eye contact as a mean of communication. Our investigation was aimed at characterizing these primates face scanning patterns and evaluating the effects of oxytocin on their eye contact behavior. We found that normal common marmosets spend more time viewing the eyes region in common marmoset's picture than the mouth region or a scrambled picture. In oxytocin experiment, the change in eyes/face ratio was significantly greater in the oxytocin group than in the vehicle group. Moreover, oxytocin-induced increase in the change in eyes/face ratio was completely blocked by the oxytocin receptor antagonist L-368,899. These results indicate that eye tracking in common marmosets may be useful for evaluating drug candidates targeting psychiatric conditions, especially ASDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of the effectiveness of the protaper system versus hand instrumentation in endodontic retreatment: a scanning electron microscopy study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luana Schwerz; Carlos Eduardo Fontana; Carlos Eduardoda Silveira Bueno; Roberta Aranha de Araújo Arruda; Rina Andréa Pelegrine; Flavia Casale Abe; Alexandre Sigrist De Martin

    2012-01-01

    .... Moreover, studies focusing on the comparison of the effectiveness of rotary systems versus hand instrumentation have yielded mixed results in terms of the efficacy and amount of time required by each technique. Objective...

  3. Clinical Evaluation of a Laser Surface Scanning System in 120 Patients for Improving Daily Setup Accuracy in Fractionated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Torsten, E-mail: t.moser@dkfz.de [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Habl, Gregor; Uhl, Matthias; Schubert, Kai; Sroka-Perez, Gabriele; Debus, Jürgen; Herfarth, Klaus [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Karger, Christian P. [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical suitability of a specific optical surface imaging system to detect setup errors in fractionated radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The setup correction accuracy of a 3-dimensional laser imaging system was analyzed for 6 different tumor locations with 20 patients each. For each patient, the setup corrections of the megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) images of a TomoTherapy unit (TomoTherapy, Madison, WI) were compared with those of the laser system for the first 10 fractions. For the laser system, the reference surface either was obtained from the DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) surface structure delineated on the planning computed tomography images or was acquired with the system itself at the first fraction after the MVCT-based setup correction. Data analysis was performed for both reference types. Results: By use of the DICOM reference image, systematic shifts between 3 and 9 mm were found, depending on the tumor location. For the optical reference, no clinically relevant systematic shifts were found. MVCT-based setup corrections were detected with high accuracy, and only small movements were observed during treatment. Conclusions: Using a reference image acquired with the laser system itself after MVCT-based setup correction appears more reliable than importing the DICOM reference surface. After generation of the optical reference, the laser system may be used to derive setup corrections over a certain number of fractions, but additional radiologic imaging may still be necessary on a regular basis (eg, weekly) or if the corrections of the optical system appear implausibly large. Nevertheless, such a combined application may help to reduce the imaging dose for the patient.

  4. Graded morphogenetic patterns during the development of the extraembryonic blood system and coelom of the chick blastoderm: A scanning electron microscope and light microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, J; Fabian, B C

    1985-06-01

    This scanning electron- and light-microscopic study traces the morphogenesis of the yolk-sac vascular system and extraembryonic coelom in the chick blastoderm. The fate of the mesodermal cells in both the area opaca vasculosa (AOV) and the area pellucida (AP) is followed, and the cellular patterning in these two areas is compared. We describe new details of the formation of coelom lining in the AOV, and new observations of the tendency of the intravascular blood island cells of the AOV to become flattened and attenuated. The morphogenesis of the blood system and coelom is analyzed in terms of polarized morphological patterns with coordinates in two modes:proximodistal (from the AP to the AOV) and dorsoventral (from the ectoderm to the endoderm). By highlighting differences in the methods of formation of blood vessels and coelom lining in the AP and AOV, this paper resolves some paradoxes in the literature.

  5. The morphology and histology of the male reproductive system in Dolycoris baccarum Linnaeus 1758 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)--light and scanning electron micoscope studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyurt, Nurcan; Candan, Selami; Suludere, Zekiye

    2013-01-01

    The male reproductive system of Dolycoris baccarum (Linnaeus 1758) is studied morphologically and histologically using both light and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). The reproductive system of the male D. baccarum consists of a pair of testis, a pair of vas deferens, a pair of seminal vesicles, accessory glands (mesadenia, ectadenia), a bulbus ejaculatorius, a pair of ectodermal sacs, and a ductus ejaculatorius. The number of testicular follicles varies from four to six. The testicular follicles have three different development zones (growth zone, maturation zone, differentiation zone). The testes are connected to the seminal vesicles by the vas deferens. Vas deferens and seminal vesicles, which are fine-long and cylindrical. The seminal vesicle is connected with bulbus ejaculatorius which is balloon-shaped and surrounded with accessory glands. The bulbus ejaculatorius is continuous with ductus ejaculatorius which connected to the aedeagus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of intracanal smear layer removal by two different final irrigation activation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Deepti Dua; Ankur Dua; Uppin, Veerendra M

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare smear layer removal at apical 1 mm level after final irrigation activation with an EndoVac system and Max-I probe. Materials and Methods: Fifty freshly extracted maxillary central incisors were randomly divided into two groups after completing cleaning and shaping with ProTaper rotary files. In one group, final irrigation was performed with an EndoVac system while in the other group final irrigation was performed with a 30 gauge Max-I probe. 3% sodium...

  7. [Study on the spatiotemporal trend of Japanese encephalitis in Guangxi, based on geographic information system and space-time permutation scan statistic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xian-yan; Gan, Wen-ye; Xu, Bin; Chen, Chang-yan; Chu, Min; Liang, Jing; Li, Bin; Dong, Ai-hu; Zhou, Hong-xia

    2011-03-01

    To study the spatiotemporal trend of Japanese encephalitis in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region between 1989 and 2006. Retrospective space-time permutation scan statistic and inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation were employed to detect the spatiotemporal trend of Japanese encephalitis in Guangxi, from the year 1989 to 2006. The spatiotemporal pattern of Japanese encephalitis was divided into four phases by IDW interpolation maps, from 1989 to 2006. The first phase was spatiotemporal cluster located in southeast region, from 1989 to 1996. The second phase showed discrete distribution from 1997 to 1998. The third phase of spatiotemporal cluster located in Lingshan county, Pubei county and Bobai county, in 1999. And the last phase was spatiotemporal cluster located in northwest region from 2000 to 2006. Three statistically significant spatiotemporal clusters were detected by retrospective space-time permutation scan statistic. The primary cluster appeared in 1999 (LLR = 253.25, P = 0.001, RR = 4.62), with 109°54' E, 22°28' N (located in Pubei county) as its center and radiated 45.24 km. From 2000 to 2006, the secondary cluster showed in northwest (LLR = 75.91, P = 0.001, RR = 1.88), with center located at 105° 23' E, 24° 68' N (Longlin county), and radiated 199.85 km. From 1989 to 1996, the other secondary cluster appeared in the southeast area (LLR = 46.29, P = 0.001, RR = 1.16), with center located at 110°94' E, 24°03' N (Zhaoping county) and radiated 229.12 km. Space-time permutation scan statistic and geographical information system could be applied to quantitatively detect the potentially spatiotemporal trend of the disease. The spatiotemporal cluster shifted from southeast to northwest, from 1989 to 2006.

  8. A System for Automated Extraction of Metadata from Scanned Documents using Layout Recognition and String Pattern Search Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Dharitri; Chen, Siyuan; Thoma, George R

    2009-01-01

    One of the most expensive aspects of archiving digital documents is the manual acquisition of context-sensitive metadata useful for the subsequent discovery of, and access to, the archived items. For certain types of textual documents, such as journal articles, pamphlets, official government records, etc., where the metadata is contained within the body of the documents, a cost effective method is to identify and extract the metadata in an automated way, applying machine learning and string pattern search techniques.At the U. S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) we have developed an automated metadata extraction (AME) system that employs layout classification and recognition models with a metadata pattern search model for a text corpus with structured or semi-structured information. A combination of Support Vector Machine and Hidden Markov Model is used to create the layout recognition models from a training set of the corpus, following which a rule-based metadata search model is used to extract the embedded metadata by analyzing the string patterns within and surrounding each field in the recognized layouts.In this paper, we describe the design of our AME system, with focus on the metadata search model. We present the extraction results for a historic collection from the Food and Drug Administration, and outline how the system may be adapted for similar collections. Finally, we discuss some ongoing enhancements to our AME system.

  9. Evaluation of a new computerized analysis system developed for the processing of CT follow-up scans after EVR of infrarenal aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, J; Chemelli, A; Wick, M; Soimu, D; Pontow, C; Lopez, A; Netzer, M; Chemelli-Steingruber, I E

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to present a new computerized analysis system developed for the evaluation of follow-up CT scans after endovascular repair (EVR) of infrarenal aneurysm and to compare it to the conventional evaluation method as regards preciseness and ease of application. The system is based on the extraction of the surface of the stent-graft (SG) and that of the spinal canal and the overlay of surfaces obtained at different points in time. A total of 116 CT follow-up data sets obtained from 49 patients after EVR of infrarenal aneurysm were evaluated using both, the conventional method and the new computerized system. Two parameters were analyzed: SG length and the distance between the most ventral point of the SG and the vertebral column. The correlation between the results of the two methods and the correlation between the results obtained by two independent observers (radiologist and lay person) using the new system were assessed by statistical analysis. Comparison of the two methods yielded a very high correlation for both parameters, (correlation coefficients of around 0.9 and pnew computerized system is as precise and reliable as the conventional method, but allows better visualization and quantification of SG changes by surface overlay. Moreover, it is easier to apply and less time-consuming and can be easily integrated into existing systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Integration of a real-time tumor monitoring system into gated proton spot-scanning beam therapy: an initial phantom study using patient tumor trajectory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Taeko; Miyamoto, Naoki; Shimizu, Shinichi; Fujii, Yusuke; Umezawa, Masumi; Takao, Seishin; Nihongi, Hideaki; Toramatsu, Chie; Sutherland, Kenneth; Suzuki, Ryusuke; Ishikawa, Masayori; Kinoshita, Rumiko; Maeda, Kenichiro; Umegaki, Kikuo; Shirato, Hiroki

    2013-07-01

    In spot-scanning proton therapy, the interplay effect between tumor motion and beam delivery leads to deterioration of the dose distribution. To mitigate the impact of tumor motion, gating in combination with repainting is one of the most promising methods that have been proposed. This study focused on a synchrotron-based spot-scanning proton therapy system integrated with real-time tumor monitoring. The authors investigated the effectiveness of gating in terms of both the delivered dose distribution and irradiation time by conducting simulations with patients' motion data. The clinically acceptable range of adjustable irradiation control parameters was explored. Also, the relation between the dose error and the characteristics of tumor motion was investigated. A simulation study was performed using a water phantom. A gated proton beam was irradiated to a clinical target volume (CTV) of 5 × 5 × 5 cm(3), in synchronization with lung cancer patients' tumor trajectory data. With varying parameters of gate width, spot spacing, and delivered dose per spot at one time, both dose uniformity and irradiation time were calculated for 397 tumor trajectory data from 78 patients. In addition, the authors placed an energy absorber upstream of the phantom and varied the thickness to examine the effect of changing the size of the Bragg peak and the number of required energy layers. The parameters with which 95% of the tumor trajectory data fulfill our defined criteria were accepted. Next, correlation coefficients were calculated between the maximum dose error and the tumor motion characteristics that were extracted from the tumor trajectory data. With the assumed CTV, the largest percentage of the data fulfilled the criteria when the gate width was ± 2 mm. Larger spot spacing was preferred because it increased the number of paintings. With a prescribed dose of 2 Gy, it was difficult to fulfill the criteria for the target with a very small effective depth (the sum of an assumed

  11. Acquisition parameters optimization of a transmission electron forward scatter diffraction system in a cold-field emission scanning electron microscope for nanomaterials characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodusch, Nicolas; Demers, Hendrix; Trudeau, Michel; Gauvin, Raynald

    2013-01-01

    Transmission electron forward scatter diffraction (t-EFSD) is a new technique providing crystallographic information with high resolution on thin specimens by using a conventional electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) system in a scanning electron microscope. In this study, the impact of tilt angle, working distance, and detector distance on the Kikuchi pattern quality were investigated in a cold-field emission scanning electron microscope (CFE-SEM). We demonstrated that t-EFSD is applicable for tilt angles ranging from -20° to -40°. Working distance (WD) should be optimized for each material by choosing the WD for which the EBSD camera screen illumination is the highest, as the number of detected electrons on the screen is directly dependent on the scattering angle. To take advantage of the best performances of the CFE-SEM, the EBSD camera should be close to the sample and oriented towards the bottom to increase forward scattered electron collection efficiency. However, specimen chamber cluttering and beam/mechanical drift are important limitations in the CFE-SEM used in this work. Finally, the importance of t-EFSD in materials science characterization was illustrated through three examples of phase identification and orientation mapping. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Implementation of a Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) System on a Ti:Sapphire and OPO Laser Based Standard Laser Scanning Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytskaniuk, Vasyl; Bardin, Fabrice; Boukhaddaoui, Hassan; Rigneault, Herve; Tricaud, Nicolas

    2016-07-17

    Laser scanning microscopes combining a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser and an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) to duplicate the laser line have become available for biologists. These systems are primarily designed for multi-channel two-photon fluorescence microscopy. However, without any modification, complementary non-linear optical microscopy such as second-harmonic generation (SHG) or third harmonic generation (THG) can also be performed with this set-up, allowing label-free imaging of structured molecules or aqueous medium-lipid interfaces. These techniques are well suited for in-vivo observation, but are limited in chemical specificity. Chemically selective imaging can be obtained from inherent vibration signals based on Raman scattering. Confocal Raman microscopy provides 3D spatial resolution, but it requires high average power and long acquisition time. To overcome these difficulties, recent advances in laser technology have permitted the development of nonlinear optical vibrational microscopy, in particular coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). CARS microscopy has therefore emerged as a powerful tool for biological and live cell imaging, by chemically mapping lipids (via C-H stretch vibration), water (via O-H stretch vibrations), proteins or DNA. In this work, we describe the implementation of the CARS technique on a standard OPO-coupled multiphoton laser scanning microscope. It is based on the in-time synchronization of the two laser lines by adjusting the length of one of the laser beam path. We present a step-by-step implementation of this technique on an existing multiphoton system. A basic background in experimental optics is helpful and the presented system does not require expensive supplementary equipment. We also illustrate CARS imaging obtained on myelin sheaths of sciatic nerve of rodent, and we show that this imaging can be performed simultaneously with other nonlinear optical imaging, such as standard two-photon fluorescence technique

  13. Scanning radiographic apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, R.D.

    1980-04-01

    Visual display of dental, medical or other radiographic images is realized with an x-ray tube in which an electron beam is scanned through an x-y raster pattern on a broad anode plate, the scanning being synchronized with the x-y sweep signals of a cathode ray tube display and the intensity signal for the display being derived from a small x-ray detector which receives x-rays that have passed through the subject to be imaged. Positioning and support of the detector are provided for by disposing the detector in a probe which may be attached to the x-ray tube at any of a plurality of different locations and by providing a plurality of such probes of different configuration in order to change focal length, to accommodate to different detector placements relative to the subject, to enhance patient comfort and to enable production of both periapical images and wider angle pantomographic images. High image definition with reduced radiation dosage is provided for by a lead glass collimator situated between the x-ray tube and subject and having a large number of spaced-apart minute radiation transmissive passages convergent on the position of the detector. Releasable mounting means enable changes of collimator in conjunction with changes of the probe to change focal length. A control circuit modifies the x-y sweep signals applied to the x-ray tube and modulates electron beam energy and current in order to correct for image distortions and other undesirable effects which can otherwise be present in a scanning x-ray system.

  14. Ultraviolet laser writing system based on polar scanning strategy to produce subwavelength metal gratings for surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amako, Jun; Fujii, Eiichi

    2013-06-01

    We demonstrate the use of ultraviolet (UV) laser lithography in the production of subwavelength metal gratings. A laser writing system with a 413-nm Kr laser is used to write patterns on a resist-coated fused silica substrate mounted on a rotating table with a linear slider. One- and two-dimensional patterns are written in the resist at a selected sampling pitch or grating period, and the substrate is dry etched and coated with Au to obtain metallized gratings. Surface plasmon resonance dips, which appear in the reflectance spectra of the gratings, shift depending on the orientation of the incident polarization, because the gratings lack perfect symmetry owing to a system-induced skew in the writing beam. This dip shift can be considered tolerable when the gratings are used as a signal enhancer in Raman sensing applications. We conclude that UV laser writing based on polar coordinates is a candidate method for surface structuring on submicron scales. Devising a method to attain an unskewed beam will be the subject of future work.

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... concern for you. If you had an intravenous line inserted for the procedure, it will usually be ... procedure that same day that requires an intravenous line. Actual scanning time for a thyroid scan is ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid ... body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The ...

  17. RBC nuclear scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  18. 0.25-μm lithography using a 50-kV shaped electron-beam vector scan system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesley, Mark A.; Mulera, Terry; Nurmi, C.; Radley, J.; Sagle, Allan L.; Standiford, Keith P.; Tan, Zoilo C. H.; Thomas, John R.; Veneklasen, Lee

    1995-05-01

    Performance data from a prototype 50 kV shaped electron-beam (e-beam) pattern generator is presented. This technology development is targeted towards 180-130 nm device design rules. It will be able to handle 1X NIST X-ray membranes, glass reduction reticles, and 4- to 8-inch wafers. The prototype system uses a planar stage adapted from the IBM EL-4 design. The electron optics is an 50 kV extension of the AEBLE%+TM) design. Lines and spaces of 0.12 micrometers with flash rate. To match its much finer address structure, the pattern generator figure word size will increase from 80 to 96 bits. The data path electronics uses field programmable gate array (FPGA) logic allowing writing strategy optimization via software reconfiguration. An advanced stage position control (ASPC) includes three-axis, (lambda) /1024 interferometry and a high bandwidth dynamic corrections processor (DCP). Along with its normal role of coordinate transformation and dynamic correction of deflection distortion, astigmatism, and defocus; the DCP improves accuracy by modifying deflection conditions and focus according to measured substrate height variations. It also enables yaw calibration and correction for Write-on-the FlyTM motion. The electronics incorporates JTAG components for built-in self- test (BIST), as well as syndrome checking to ensure data integrity. The design includes diagnostic capabilities from offsite as well as from the operator console. A combination of third-party software and an internal job preparation software system is used to fracture patterns. It handles tone reversal, overlap removal, sizing, and proximity correction. Processing of large files in a commercial mask shop environment is made more efficient by retaining hierarchy and using parallel processing and data compression techniques. Large GDSIITM and MEBES data files can be processed. Data includes timing benchmarks for a 1 Gbit DRAM on both proximity and reduction reticles. The paper presents 50 kV results on

  19. Scanning electron microscopic analysis to compare the cleaning efficiency of three different irrigation systems at different root canal levels: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambe, Varsha H; Vishwas, Jayshree; Ghonmode, W N; Nagmode, Pradnya; Agrawal, Gaurav Pralhad; Balsaraf, Omkar

    2014-07-01

    This study compared the efficacy of conventional, endovac and ultrasonic irrigation system for the removal of debris from root canal walls, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at cervical, middle and apical 3rd. A total of 30 freshly extracted human mandibular premolars with complete root formation were selected and divided into group 1 endovac, group 2 conventional and group 3 ultrasonic. After instrumentation and irrigation, the teeth were sectioned in buccolingual direction and analyzed by SEM and the results were analyzed statistically by students unpaired 't' test. There was significant difference between mean values of cervical (CV), middle (M), and apical (A) when endovac compared with conventional and conventional compared with ultrasonic group (i.e. irrigation of canals leading to least debris and better prognosis.

  20. Retracted: Evaluation of the incidence of microcracks caused by Mtwo and ProTaper NEXT rotary file systems versus the Self Adjusting File: A scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S G; Vijaywargiya, N; Dubey, S; Saxena, D; Kala, S

    2015-11-24

    The following article from International Endodontic Journal, 'Evaluation of the incidence of microcracks caused by Mtwo and ProTaper NEXT rotary file systems versus the Self Adjusting File: a scanning electron microscopic study' by S. G. Saha, N. Vijaywargiya, S. Dubey, D. Saxena & S. Kala, published online on 24 November 2015 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary. com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Prof. Paul Dummer, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed due to the consideration that the SEM methodology used by the authors has the potential to cause cracks and is thus is not suitable for the evaluation of micro-cracks in roots. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Limited accuracy of dose calculation for large fields at deep depths using the BrainSCAN v5.21 treatment planning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, Wen C; Zhang, Yunkai; Kirk, Michael C; Bernard, Damian; Chu, James C H

    2005-01-01

    The Varian 120 multileaf collimator (MLC) has a leaf thickness of 5 mm projected at the isocenter plane and can deliver a radiation beam of large field size (up to 30 cm) to be used in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Often the dose must be delivered to depths greater than 20 cm. Therefore, during the commissioning of the BrainSCAN v5.21 or any radiation treatment-planning (RTP) systems, extensive testing of dose and monitor unit calculations must encompass the field sizes (1 cm to 30 cm) and the prescription depths (1 cm to 20 cm). Accordingly, the central-axis percent depth doses (PDDs) and off-axis percentage profiles must be measured at several depths for various field sizes. The data for this study were acquired with a 6-MV X-ray beam from a Varian 2100EX LINAC with a water phantom at a source-to-surface distance (SSD) of 100 cm. These measurements were also used to generate a photon beam module, based on a photon pencil beam dose-calculation algorithm with a fast-Fourier transform method. To commission the photon beam module used in our BrainSCAN RTP system, we performed a quantitative comparison of measured and calculated central-axis depth doses and off-axis profiles. Utilizing the principles of dose difference and distance-to-agreement introduced by Van Dyk et al. [Commissioning and quality assurance of treatment planning computers. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1993; 26:261-273], agreements between calculated and measured doses are dose gradients, respectively. However, large errors (up to approximately 5% and approximately 7% for 20-cm and 30-cm fields, respectively, at the depth 20 cm) were observed for monitor unit calculations. For a given field size, the disagreement increased with the depth. Similarly, for a given depth the disagreement also increase with the field size. These large systematic errors were caused by using the tissue maximum ratio (TMR) in BrainSCAN v5.21 without considering increased field size as depth increased. These

  2. RPC High Voltage Scan 2015

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    During the LS1 the CMS RPC system has been upgraded with 144 new chambers installed on the forth endcap stations. An annual HV (RPC efficiency vs HV) scan for the entire RPC system has been performed during the Run2 data taking period in 2015. The obtained results have been compared to the HV scans performed in 2011 and 2012. No significant differences are observed in the compared results. The optimal HV working points for the newly installed chambers have been evaluated for the first time with collision data.

  3. Evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry-based VITEK MS system for the identification of Acinetobacter species from blood cultures: comparison with VITEK 2 and MicroScan systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yeob; Shin, Jong Hee; Kim, Soo Hyun; Shin, Myung Geun; Suh, Soon Pal; Ryang, Dong Wook

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter species are the leading cause of bloodstream infection (BSI), but their correct identification is challenging. We evaluated the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based VITEK MS (bioMérieux, France), and two automated systems, VITEK 2 (bioMérieux) and MicroScan (Siemens, USA) for identification of Acinetobacter BSI isolates. A total of 187 BSI isolates recovered at a university hospital in Korea between 2010 and 2012 were analyzed. The identification results obtained using VITEK MS and two automated systems were compared with those of rpoB sequencing. Of 187 isolates analyzed, 176 were identified to the species level by rpoB sequencing: the Acinetobacter baumannii group (ABG; 101 A. baumannii, 43 A. nosocomialis, 10 A. pittii isolates) was most commonly identified (82.4%), followed by Acinetobacter genomic species 13BJ/14TU (5.3%), A. ursingii (2.1%), A. soli (2.1%), A. bereziniae (1.1%), and A. junii (1.1%). Correct identification rates to the species group (ABG) level or the species level was comparable among the three systems (VITEK MS, 90.3%; VITEK 2, 89.2%; MicroScan, 86.9%). However, VITEK MS generated fewer misidentifications (0.6%) than VITEK 2 (10.8%) and MicroScan (13.1%) (PAcinetobacter BSI isolates, with fewer misidentifications and better discrimination between the ABG and non-ABG isolates.

  4. Scanning quantum decoherence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jared H; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L

    2009-12-09

    The use of qubits as sensitive nanoscale magnetometers has been studied theoretically and recently demonstrated experimentally. In this paper we propose a new concept, in which a scanning two-state quantum system is used to probe a sample through the subtle effects of decoherence. Mapping both the Hamiltonian and decoherence properties of a qubit simultaneously provides a unique image of the magnetic (or electric) field properties at the nanoscale. The resulting images are sensitive to the temporal as well as spatial variation in the fields created by the sample. As examples we theoretically study two applications; one from condensed matter physics, the other biophysics. The individual components required to realize the simplest version of this device (characterization and measurement of qubits, nanoscale positioning) have already been demonstrated experimentally.

  5. Infrared Scanning For Electrical Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbath, Steven E.

    1983-03-01

    Given the technological age that we have now entered, the purpose of this paper is to relate how infrared scanning can be used for an electrical preventative maintenance program. An infrared scanner is able to produce an image because objects give off infrared radiation in relationship to their temperature. Most electrical problems will show up as an increase in temperature, thereby making the infrared scanner a useful preventative maintenance tool. Because of the sensitivity of most of the scanners, .1 to .2 of a degree, virtually all electrical problems can be pinpointed long before they become a costly failure. One of the early uses of infrared scanning was to check the power company's electrical distribution system. Most of this was performed via aircraft or truck mounted scanning devices which necessitated its semi-permanent mounting. With the advent of small hand held infrared imagers, along with more portability of the larger systems, infrared scanning has gained more popularity in checking electrical distribution systems. But the distribution systems are now a scaled down model, mainly the in-plant electrical systems. By in-plant, I mean any distribution of electricity; once it leaves the power company's grid. This can be in a hospital, retail outlet, warehouse or manufacturing facility.

  6. Remotely scanned multiphoton temporal focusing by axial grism scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Hod; Shoham, Shy

    2012-07-15

    A simple technique for remote scanning of the focal plane in temporal focusing multiphoton microscopy is demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. A new on-axis light propagation optical setup design enables this scanning, which was considered not feasible in previous studies. The focal plane is axially displaced by the movement of a remote optical device, consisting of a double prism grating, and optionally a cylindrical lens. The displacement is linear, and its slope is inversely proportional to the square of the optical system's magnification.

  7. Spontaneous combined rupture of a pelvicalyceal cyst into the collector system and retroperitoneal space during the acquisition of computed tomography scan images: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Diogo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pelvicalyceal cysts are common findings in autopsies and can manifest with a variety of patterns. These cystic lesions are usually a benign entity with no clinical significance unless they enlarge enough to cause compression of the adjacent collecting system and consequently obstructive uropathy. Few cases of the spontaneous rupture of pelvicalyceal renal cysts have been published and to the best of our knowledge there is no report of a combined rupture to collector system and retroperitoneal space documented during a multiphase computed tomography. Case presentation We report a case of a ‘real-time’ spontaneous rupture of a pelvicalyceal cyst into the collecting system with fistulization into the retroperitoneum. The patient was a 78-year-old Caucasian man with a previous history of renal stones and a large pelvicalyceal renal cyst who was admitted to our Emergency department with acute right flank pain. A multiphase computed tomography was performed and the pre-contrast images demonstrated a right pelvicalyceal renal cyst measuring 12.0 × 6.1cm in the lower pole causing moderate dilation of the upper right renal collection system. In addition, a partially obstructive stone on the left distal ureter with mild left hydronephrosis was noted. The nephrographic phase did not add any new information. The excretory phase (10-minute delay demonstrated a spontaneous rupture of the cyst into the pelvicalyceal system with posterior fistulization into the retroperitoneal space. Conclusion In this case study we present time-related changes of a rare pelvicalyceal cyst complication, which to the best of our knowledge has fortunately not been previously documented. Analysis of the sequential images and comparison with an earlier scan allowed us to better understand the physiopathological process of the rupture, the clinical presentation and to elaborate hypotheses for its etiopathogenesis.

  8. Size-dependent scanning parameters (kVp and mAs) for photon-counting spectral CT system in pediatric imaging: simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han; Danielsson, Mats; Xu, Cheng

    2016-06-07

    We are developing a photon-counting spectral CT detector with a small pixel size of [Formula: see text] mm(2), offering a potential advantage for better visualization of small structures in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study is to determine the patient size dependent scanning parameters (kVp and mAs) for pediatric CT in two imaging cases: adipose imaging and iodinated blood imaging. Cylindrical soft-tissue phantoms of diameters between 10-25 cm were used to mimic patients of different ages from 0 to 15 y. For adipose imaging, a 5 mm diameter adipose sphere was assumed as an imaging target, while in the case of iodinated imaging, an iodinated blood sphere of 1 mm in diameter was assumed. By applying the geometry of a commercial CT scanner (GE Lightspeed VCT), simulations were carried out to calculate the detectability index, [Formula: see text], with tube potentials varying from 40 to 140 kVp. The optimal kVp for each phantom in each imaging case was determined such that the dose-normalized detectability index, [Formula: see text]dose, is maximized. With the assumption that the detectability index in pediatric imaging is required the same as in typical adult imaging, the value of mAs at optimal kVp for each phantom was selected to achieve a reference detectability index that was obtained by scanning an adult phantom (30 cm in diameter) in a typical adult CT procedure (120 kVp and 200 mAs) using a modeled energy-integrating system. For adipose imaging, the optimal kVps are 50, 60, 80, and 120 kVp, respectively, for phantoms of 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm in diameter. The corresponding mAs values required to achieve the reference detectability index are only 9%, 23%, 24%, and 54% of the mAs that is used for adult patients at 120 kVp, for 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm diameter phantoms, respectively. In the case of iodinated imaging, a tube potential of 60 kVp was found optimal for all phantoms investigated, and the mAs values required to achieve the reference

  9. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Nels W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  10. Development of an automatic scanning system for the detection of charged particles in Opera and pion/muon separation at low energies; Developpement d'un systeme de scan automatique pour la detection des particules chargees dans OPERA et separation des {pi}/{mu} de basse energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royole-Degieux, P

    2005-07-15

    The OPERA experiment (Oscillation Project with Emulsion t-Racking Apparatus) aims to check Super-Kamiokande results, searching for tau neutrinos apparition in an originally pure muon neutrino beam, by the direct observation of the tau decay topology. The OPERA target is made of walls of bricks, whose structure consists in a sandwich of lead plates and emulsion plates. The emulsions are very precise trajectographs ({approx} 1 micron) which will be used in a huge quantity during the experiment. Therefore, their analysis requires an automatic and dedicated acquisition system. First, this thesis aimed to tune and to develop the first French scanning system. The performances presented showed that the precision of the system respects the OPERA requirements and its speed is expected to increase in a few months. Then, the pion/muon separation at low energies was studies and test beams, designed to answer this problem, were performed. The firs results, showing the possibility of a separation, were presented. Finally, a reconstruction program dedicated to these stopping particles and taking into account the scanning efficiencies has been developed and tested. (author)

  11. Scanning Electron Microscope Analysis System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides the capability to examine surfaces microscopically with high resolution (5 nanometers), perform micro chemical analyses of these surfaces, and...

  12. Phase sensitive scanning optical microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungerman, R.L.; Hobbs, P.C.D.; Kino, G.S.

    1984-10-15

    An electronically scanned optical microscope which quantitatively measures amplitude and phase is described. The system is insenstive to mechanical vibrations. The phase infromation makes it possible to measure surface height variations with an accuracy of better than 100 A and can also be used to improve the lateral resolution.

  13. Electronically-Scanned Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, C. F.; Parra, G. T.; Kauffman, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Sensors not pneumatically switched. Electronic pressure-transducer scanning system constructed in modular form. Pressure transducer modules and analog to digital converter module small enough to fit within cavities of average-sized wind-tunnel models. All switching done electronically. Temperature controlled environment maintained within sensor modules so accuracy maintained while ambient temperature varies.

  14. Oocytes as an experimental system to analyze the ultrastructure of endogenous and ectopically expressed nuclear envelope components by field-emission scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stick, Reimer; Goldberg, Martin W

    2010-05-01

    Xenopus oocytes provide a powerful model system for studying the structure and function of the nuclear envelope and its components. Firstly, the nuclear envelope is easily isolated by hand under gentle conditions that have little effect on its structural organization. They can then be prepared for several types of electron microscopy (EM) including field-emission scanning EM (feSEM) (described here) and cryo-EM. They can be immuno-gold labeled to determine the localization of individual proteins. There is also enough material to analyze biochemically. Secondly, they possess an efficient transcription and translation system so that proteins of interest can be ectopically expressed by injection of either mRNA into the cytoplasm or plasmids into the nucleus. Such proteins can be tagged and mutated. They are post-translationally modified and usually incorporate into the correct compartment. We describe here methods developed to analyze the structural organization of the nuclear envelope by feSEM including the structural organization of ectopically expressed nuclear envelope proteins.

  15. Structure refinement of the δ1p phase in the Fe-Zn system by single-crystal X-ray diffraction combined with scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Norihiko L; Tanaka, Katsushi; Yasuhara, Akira; Inui, Haruyuki

    2014-04-01

    The structure of the δ1p phase in the iron-zinc system has been refined by single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction combined with scanning transmission electron microscopy. The large hexagonal unit cell of the δ1p phase with the space group of P63/mmc comprises more or less regular (normal) Zn12 icosahedra, disordered Zn12 icosahedra, Zn16 icosioctahedra and dangling Zn atoms that do not constitute any polyhedra. The unit cell contains 52 Fe and 504 Zn atoms so that the compound is expressed with the chemical formula of Fe13Zn126. All Fe atoms exclusively occupy the centre of normal and disordered icosahedra. Iron-centred normal icosahedra are linked to one another by face- and vertex-sharing forming two types of basal slabs, which are bridged with each other by face-sharing with icosioctahedra, whereas disordered icosahedra with positional disorder at their vertex sites are isolated from other polyhedra. The bonding features in the δ1p phase are discussed in comparison with those in the Γ and ζ phases in the iron-zinc system.

  16. Integration of a real-time tumor monitoring system into gated proton spot-scanning beam therapy: An initial phantom study using patient tumor trajectory data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Taeko; Miyamoto, Naoki; Takao, Seishin; Nihongi, Hideaki; Toramatsu, Chie; Sutherland, Kenneth; Suzuki, Ryusuke; Ishikawa, Masayori; Maeda, Kenichiro [Department of Medical Physics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8638 (Japan); Shimizu, Shinichi; Kinoshita, Rumiko; Umegaki, Kikuo; Shirato, Hiroki [Department of Radiation Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8648 (Japan); Fujii, Yusuke; Umezawa, Masumi [Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi Research Laboratory, 7-2-1 Omika-cho, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki 319-1221 (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: In spot-scanning proton therapy, the interplay effect between tumor motion and beam delivery leads to deterioration of the dose distribution. To mitigate the impact of tumor motion, gating in combination with repainting is one of the most promising methods that have been proposed. This study focused on a synchrotron-based spot-scanning proton therapy system integrated with real-time tumor monitoring. The authors investigated the effectiveness of gating in terms of both the delivered dose distribution and irradiation time by conducting simulations with patients' motion data. The clinically acceptable range of adjustable irradiation control parameters was explored. Also, the relation between the dose error and the characteristics of tumor motion was investigated.Methods: A simulation study was performed using a water phantom. A gated proton beam was irradiated to a clinical target volume (CTV) of 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 cm{sup 3}, in synchronization with lung cancer patients' tumor trajectory data. With varying parameters of gate width, spot spacing, and delivered dose per spot at one time, both dose uniformity and irradiation time were calculated for 397 tumor trajectory data from 78 patients. In addition, the authors placed an energy absorber upstream of the phantom and varied the thickness to examine the effect of changing the size of the Bragg peak and the number of required energy layers. The parameters with which 95% of the tumor trajectory data fulfill our defined criteria were accepted. Next, correlation coefficients were calculated between the maximum dose error and the tumor motion characteristics that were extracted from the tumor trajectory data.Results: With the assumed CTV, the largest percentage of the data fulfilled the criteria when the gate width was {+-}2 mm. Larger spot spacing was preferred because it increased the number of paintings. With a prescribed dose of 2 Gy, it was difficult to fulfill the

  17. Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation of Residual Smear Layer Following Preparation of Curved Root Canals Using Hand Instrumentation or Two Engine-Driven Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, Abbasali; Saatchi, Masoud; Shokouhi, Mohammad Mehdi; Baghaei, Badri

    2015-01-01

    In this experimental study, the amount of smear layer (SL) remnants in curved root canals after chemomechanical instrumentation with two engine-driven systems or hand instrumentation was evaluated. Forty-eight mesiobuccal roots of mandibular first molars with curvatures ranging between 25 and 35 degrees (according to Schneider's method) were divided into three groups (n=16) which were prepared by either the ProTaper Universal file series, Reciproc single file system or hand instrumentation. The canals were intermittently irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl and 17% (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) EDTA, followed by distilled water as the final rinse. The roots were split longitudinally and the apical third of the specimens were evaluated under 2500× magnification with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The mean scores of the SL were calculated and analyzed using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The mean scores of the SL were 2.00±0.73, 1.94±0.68 and 1.44±0.63 µm for the ProTaper Universal, Reciproc and hand instrumentation, respectively. Mean score of SL was significantly less in the hand instrumentation group than the ProTaper (P=0.027) and Reciproc (P=0.035) groups. The difference between the two engine-driven systems, however, was not significant (P=0.803). The amount of smear layer in the apical third of curved root canals prepared with both engine-driven systems was similar and greater than the hand instrumentation technique. Complete cleanliness was not attained.

  18. Global scanning assessment of calcium channel blockers in the environment: Review and analysis of occurrence, ecotoxicology and hazards in aquatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, Gavin N; Scott, W Casan; Brooks, Bryan W

    2017-12-01

    As an urban water cycle is increasingly realized, aquatic systems are influenced by sewage and wastewater effluent discharges of variable quality. Such urbanization results in exposures of non-target aquatic organisms to medicines and other contaminants. In the present study, we performed a unique global hazard assessment of calcium channel blockers (CCB) in multiple environmental matrices. Effluent and freshwater observations were primarily from North America (62% and 76%, respectively) and Europe (21% and 10%, respectively) with limited-to-no information from rapidly urbanizing regions of developing countries in Asia-Pacific, South America, and Africa. Only 9% and 18% of occurrence data were from influent sewage and marine systems, though developing countries routinely discharge poorly treated wastewater to heavily populated coastal regions. Probabilistic environmental exposure distribution (EED) 5th and 95th percentiles for all CCBs were 1.5 and 309.1 ng/L in influent, 5.0 and 448.7 ng/L for effluent, 1.3 and 202.3 ng/L in freshwater, and 0.17 and 12.9 ng/L in saltwater, respectively. Unfortunately, global hazards and risks of CCBs to non-target organisms remain poorly understood, particularly for sublethal exposures. Thus, therapeutic hazard values (THV) were calculated and employed during probabilistic hazard assessments with EEDs when sufficient data was available. Amlodipine and verapamil in effluents and freshwater systems exceeded THVs 28% of the time, highlighting the need to understand ecological consequences of these CCBs. This global scanning approach demonstrated the utility of global assessments to identify specific CCBs, chemical mixtures with common mechanisms of action, and geographic locations for which environmental assessment efforts appear warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. SU-F-T-172: A Method for Log File QA On An IBA Proteus System for Patient Specific Spot Scanning Quality Assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, S; Ho, M; Chen, C; Mah, D [ProCure NJ, Somerset, NJ (United States); Rice, I; Doan, D; Mac Rae, B [IBA, Somerset, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The use of log files to perform patient specific quality assurance for both protons and IMRT has been established. Here, we extend that approach to a proprietary log file format and compare our results to measurements in phantom. Our goal was to generate a system that would permit gross errors to be found within 3 fractions until direct measurements. This approach could eventually replace direct measurements. Methods: Spot scanning protons pass through multi-wire ionization chambers which provide information about the charge, location, and size of each delivered spot. We have generated a program that calculates the dose in phantom from these log files and compares the measurements with the plan. The program has 3 different spot shape models: single Gaussian, double Gaussian and the ASTROID model. The program was benchmarked across different treatment sites for 23 patients and 74 fields. Results: The dose calculated from the log files were compared to those generate by the treatment planning system (Raystation). While the dual Gaussian model often gave better agreement, overall, the ASTROID model gave the most consistent results. Using a 5%–3 mm gamma with a 90% passing criteria and excluding doses below 20% of prescription all patient samples passed. However, the degree of agreement of the log file approach was slightly worse than that of the chamber array measurement approach. Operationally, this implies that if the beam passes the log file model, it should pass direct measurement. Conclusion: We have established and benchmarked a model for log file QA in an IBA proteus plus system. The choice of optimal spot model for a given class of patients may be affected by factors such as site, field size, and range shifter and will be investigated further.

  20. Scanning laser Doppler vibrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Marie; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    With a Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer (SLDV) a vibrating surface is automatically scanned over predefined grid points, and data processed for displaying vibration properties like mode shapes, natural frequencies, damping ratios, and operational deflection shapes. Our SLDV – a PSV-500H from...

  1. Frequency scanning microstrip antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Magnus; Jørgensen, Rolf

    1979-01-01

    The principles of using radiating microstrip resonators as elements in a frequency scanning antenna array are described. The resonators are cascade-coupled. This gives a scan of the main lobe due to the phase-shift in the resonator in addition to that created by the transmission line phase...

  2. Reproductive system abnormalities in Schistosoma mansoni adult worms isolated from Nectomys squamipes (Muridae: Sigmodontinae: brightfield and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Renata Heisler

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni adult worms with genital anomalies isolated from Nectomys squamipes (Muridae: Sigmodontinae were studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy under the reflected mode. One male without testicular lobes (testicular agenesia/anorchism and two females, one with an atrophied ovary and another with 17 uterine eggs, were identified. The absence of testicular lobes occurred in a worm presenting otherwise normal male adult characteristics: tegument, tubercles and a gynaecophoric canal with spines. In both female specimens the digestive tube showed a vacuolated appearance, and the specimen with supernumerary uterine eggs exhibited a developing miracidium and an egg with a formed shell. The area of the ventral sucker was similar in both specimens however the tegument thickness, ovary and vitelline glands of the specimen with the atrophied ovary were smaller than those of the one with supernumerary eggs. These reported anomalies in the reproductive system call attention to the need to improve our understanding of genetic regulation and the possible role of environmental influences upon trematode development.

  3. Scanning electron microscopy comparison of the cleaning efficacy of a root canal system by Nd:YAG laser and rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiei, Mohammad; Pakdel, Seyyed Mahdi Vahid; Rikhtegaran, Sahand; Shakoei, Sahar; Ebrahimpour, Delaram; Taghavi, Pedram

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the cleaning efficacy of a root canal system by Nd:YAG laser and rotary instruments. Sixty single-rooted human teeth were divided into four experimental groups (n=15). In the first group the teeth were prepared with a step-back technique using conventional K-files. In the second and third groups, tooth preparation was carried out using Nd:YAG laser and rotary NiTi instruments, respectively. Teeth in the fourth group were prepared by combined laser and rotary methods. The smear layer remaining on canal walls was then assessed by scanning electron microscopy in the coronal, middle, and apical portions. The comparison of smear layer removal efficacy between groups was carried out by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The mean grades of smear layer removal in rotary-laser, rotary, laser and step-back techniques were 1.34 ± 0.18, 2.2 ± 0.28, 1.91 ± 0.25, and 2.42 ± 0.19, respectively. On the whole, differences between rotary-laser and rotary groups, step-back, and the three other techniques (rotary, laser, and rotary-laser) were significant at p=0.034. Based on the findings of this study, the cleaning efficacy of rotary, laser, and rotary-laser techniques were better than the step-back technique and the combined laser and rotary technique was the most efficient method.

  4. Comparison between a digital scanning system and a conventional screen film system in the full spine radiological procedure in pediatrics; Valoracion de un sistema de Scan digital frente a un sistema convencional cartulina pelicula en exploraciones de columna total en pediatria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espana, M. L.; Gomez, G.; Romero, A.; Minambres, A.; Albi, G.; Floriano, A.; Rodirguez, A.; Lopez Franco, P.

    2004-07-01

    To compare from both dosimetry and image quality standpoints, a digital scanning system with a conventional screen film system, in the full spine radiological procedure. The standard patient is considered to be 12 years old, and a sample of forty patients referred for full spine radiological procedure has been studied. Gonad shielding has been used in all the patients, and its efficiency has been evaluated. Dosimetric study includes Kerma-area product, and thorax and gonad entrance surface dose. Kerma area product has been measured using a transmission camera, and for entrance surface dose estimation both thermoluminescent dosemeter LiF: Mg, Cu, P and LiF: Mg, Ti have been utilized. Three radiologists have evaluated the image quality according to the degree of fulfilment of the image quality criteria. (Author) 22 refs.

  5. Seasonal Beach-dune Morphodynamics and Sediment Budget Responses to Erosive Events Derived Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, I. J.; Grilliot, M. J.; Heathfield, D.

    2016-12-01

    This paper examines seasonal geomorphic and sediment budget responses of an embayed, high-energy beach-dune system on the central coast of British Columbia, Canada prior to, and following, the 2015-16 extreme El Niño season. Detailed terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and unmanned aerial system (UAS) mapping campaigns provided seasonal bare-earth digital elevation models (DEMs) and orthophoto mosaics. Spatial change detection methods were used to identify patterns and quantify volumes of significant erosion and deposition within the beach-dune system. The frequency and magnitude of erosive events and aeolian activity were also estimated from oblique, time-lapse vantage photography. From this, preliminary observations on geomorphic and sediment budget responses and related erosion and recovery processes is interpreted in relation to driving wind, wave and/or surge conditions. Over the past 400 years, this beach-dune system has prograded at 0.7 m a-1 and large blowouts and foredunes backing the modern foredune have stabilized in recent decades. High water events during winter storms erode the upper beach and foredune toe annually to varying degrees. Recovery by littoral and aeolian processes occurs typically within the following seasons. During the 2016 El Niño season, elevated water levels and storm waves eroded the foredune and lowered the beach surface by 1m. Erosion was greatest in the middle of the beach where wave energy was focused, resulting in dune scarping of over 2m. About 15,000 m3 ( 0.9 m3m-2) of sediment was eroded from the system. Since April 2016, minor accretion occurred on the upper beach and dune rebuilding was observed resulting mostly from slumping and avalanching of existing dune sands. Aeolian delivery was limited to localized sand ramp development in large woody debris fronting the foredune and depositional lobes at the dune crest in areas where scarping was lowest. Ongoing research will extend these observations to a fuller assessment of the

  6. Calibration Transfer Between a Bench Scanning and a Submersible Diode Array Spectrophotometer for In Situ Wastewater Quality Monitoring in Sewer Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Rita S; Pinheiro, Helena M; Ferreira, Filipa; Matos, José S; Pinheiro, Alexandre; Lourenço, Nídia D

    2016-03-01

    Online monitoring programs based on spectroscopy have a high application potential for the detection of hazardous wastewater discharges in sewer systems. Wastewater hydraulics poses a challenge for in situ spectroscopy, especially when the system includes storm water connections leading to rapid changes in water depth, velocity, and in the water quality matrix. Thus, there is a need to optimize and fix the location of in situ instruments, limiting their availability for calibration. In this context, the development of calibration models on bench spectrophotometers to estimate wastewater quality parameters from spectra acquired with in situ instruments could be very useful. However, spectra contain information not only from the samples, but also from the spectrophotometer generally invalidating this approach. The use of calibration transfer methods is a promising solution to this problem. In this study, calibration models were developed using interval partial least squares (iPLS), for the estimation of total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in sewage from Ultraviolet-visible spectra acquired in a bench scanning spectrophotometer. The feasibility of calibration transfer to a submersible, diode array equipment, to be subsequently operated in situ, was assessed using three procedures: slope and bias correction (SBC); single wavelength standardization (SWS) on mean spectra; and local centering (LC). The results showed that SBC was the most adequate for the available data, adding insignificant error to the base model estimates. Single wavelength standardization was a close second best, potentially more robust, and independent of the base iPLS model. Local centering was shown to be inadequate for the samples and instruments used. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. SU-F-T-136: Breath Hold Lung Phantom Study in Using CT Density Versus Relative Stopping Power Ratio for Proton Pencil Beam Scanning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syh, J; Wu, H; Rosen, L [Willis-Knighton Medical Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate mass density effects of CT conversion table and its variation in current treatment planning system of spot scanning proton beam using an IROC proton lung phantom for this study. Methods: A proton lung phantom study was acquired to Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Houston (IROC) Quality Assurance Center. Inside the lung phantom, GAF Chromic films and couples of thermal luminescent dosimeter (TLD) capsules embedded in specified PTV and adjacent structures to monitor delivered dosage and 3D dose distribution profiles. Various material such as cork (Lung), blue water (heart), Techron HPV (ribs) and organic material of balsa wood and cork as dosimetry inserts within phantom of solid water (soft tissue). Relative stopping power (RLSP) values were provided. Our treatment planning system (TPS) doesn’t require SP instead relative density was converted relative to water. However lung phantom was irradiated by planning with density override and the results were compared with IROC measurements. The second attempt was conducted without density override and compared with IROC’s. Results: The higher passing rate of imaging and measurement results of the lung phantom irradiation met the criteria by IROC without density override. The film at coronal plane was found to be shift due to inclined cylinder insertion. The converted CT density worked as expected to correlate relative stopping power. Conclusion: The proton lung phantom provided by IROC is a useful tool to qualify our commissioned proton pencil beam delivery with TPS within reliable confidence. The relative mass stopping power ratios of materials were converted from the relative physical density relative to water and the results were satisfied.

  8. Benchmarking of a treatment planning system for spot scanning proton therapy: Comparison and analysis of robustness to setup errors of photon IMRT and proton SFUD treatment plans of base of skull meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, R., E-mail: ruth.harding2@wales.nhs.uk [St James’s Institute of Oncology, Medical Physics and Engineering, Leeds LS9 7TF, United Kingdomand Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University Health Board, Medical Physics and Clinical Engineering, Swansea SA2 8QA (United Kingdom); Trnková, P.; Lomax, A. J. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Centre for Proton Therapy, Villigen 5232 (Switzerland); Weston, S. J.; Lilley, J.; Thompson, C. M.; Cosgrove, V. P. [St James’s Institute of Oncology, Medical Physics and Engineering, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Short, S. C. [Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oncology and Clinical Research, Leeds LS9 7TF, United Kingdomand St James’s Institute of Oncology, Oncology, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Loughrey, C. [St James’s Institute of Oncology, Oncology, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Thwaites, D. I. [St James’s Institute of Oncology, Medical Physics and Engineering, Leeds LS9 7TF, United Kingdomand Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Base of skull meningioma can be treated with both intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and spot scanned proton therapy (PT). One of the main benefits of PT is better sparing of organs at risk, but due to the physical and dosimetric characteristics of protons, spot scanned PT can be more sensitive to the uncertainties encountered in the treatment process compared with photon treatment. Therefore, robustness analysis should be part of a comprehensive comparison between these two treatment methods in order to quantify and understand the sensitivity of the treatment techniques to uncertainties. The aim of this work was to benchmark a spot scanning treatment planning system for planning of base of skull meningioma and to compare the created plans and analyze their robustness to setup errors against the IMRT technique. Methods: Plans were produced for three base of skull meningioma cases: IMRT planned with a commercial TPS [Monaco (Elekta AB, Sweden)]; single field uniform dose (SFUD) spot scanning PT produced with an in-house TPS (PSI-plan); and SFUD spot scanning PT plan created with a commercial TPS [XiO (Elekta AB, Sweden)]. A tool for evaluating robustness to random setup errors was created and, for each plan, both a dosimetric evaluation and a robustness analysis to setup errors were performed. Results: It was possible to create clinically acceptable treatment plans for spot scanning proton therapy of meningioma with a commercially available TPS. However, since each treatment planning system uses different methods, this comparison showed different dosimetric results as well as different sensitivities to setup uncertainties. The results confirmed the necessity of an analysis tool for assessing plan robustness to provide a fair comparison of photon and proton plans. Conclusions: Robustness analysis is a critical part of plan evaluation when comparing IMRT plans with spot scanned proton therapy plans.

  9. Study on breast carcinoma Her2/neu and hormonal receptors status assessed by automated images analysis systems: ACIS III (Dako and ScanScope (Aperio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Staniszewski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Her-2/neu is overexpressed in 20-30% of breast cancer patients and is associated with a more aggressive disease. Identification of Her-2/c-erbB-2-neu overexpression is based on immunohistochemical [ihc] detection of protein and/or gene amplification in fluorescence in situ hybridization test (FISH. Also Estrogen receptors [ER] and Progesterone receptors [PR] are the prognostic and predictive biomarkers, recently analysed by ihc methods. Subjective, manual scoring of the ihc Her-2/neu expression and expression of the ER/PR reported as the percentage of immunopositive cells are the most common mode of interpretation among pathologists. Automated microscopy and computerised processing have provided increased accuracy in quantification and standardisation. The aims of our study were: to evaluate the scoring reproducibility of Her-2 /neu ihc expression tested by two automated systems: ACIS (Dako and ScanScope (Aperio; to estimate the ER/PR expression in ihc staining methods with different anti-ER/anti-PR antibodies (the monoclonal and the ER/PR pharmDx TM Kit by the ACIS system. Her-2/neu ihc expression was measured in 114 primary invasive breast carcinomas by the manual and the automated scoring (ACIS and Aperio system. 106 slides stained ihc with two types of anti-ER/anti-PR antibodies entered the quantisation. The results of our investigations showed very high reproducibility of Her-2/neu scores in intra- and interobserver analysis by ACIS evaluation. The major concordance was present in strong 3+ ihc cases; very small discordance was shown by cases with low expression of Her-2/neu. The accuracy of scoring by the Aperio was little lower in comparison to ACIS but it might result from the smaller and variable series of samples analysed by Aperio. The concordance in scoring of two automated systems was 86.5% (p<0.0001; gamma=0.887; the discordance was referred only to the lower expression of Her-2/neu. The concordance in manual scoring performed by

  10. Multibeam scanning electron microscope : Experimental results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi-Gheidari, A.; Hagen, C.W.; Kruit, P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors present the first results obtained with their multibeam scanning electron microscope. For the first time, they were able to image 196 (array of 14×14) focused beams of a multielectron beam source on a specimen using single beam scanning electron microscope (SEM) optics. The system

  11. Towards high-speed scanning tunneling microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabak, Femke Chantal

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, two routes towards high-speed scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) are described. The first possibility for high-speed scanning that is discussed is the use of MEMS (Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems) devices as high-speed add-ons in STM microscopes. The functionality of these devices

  12. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Is an Intellectual Disability? Movie: Endocrine System Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía ...

  13. Usability of a barcode scanning system as a means of data entry on a PDA for self-report health outcome questionnaires: a pilot study in individuals over 60 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Karen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout the medical and paramedical professions, self-report health status questionnaires are used to gather patient-reported outcome measures. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate in individuals over 60 years of age the usability of a PDA-based barcode scanning system with a text-to-speech synthesizer to collect data electronically from self-report health outcome questionnaires. Methods Usability of the system was tested on a sample of 24 community-living older adults (7 men, 17 women ranging in age from 63 to 93 years. After receiving a brief demonstration on the use of the barcode scanner, participants were randomly assigned to complete two sets of 16 questions using the bar code wand scanner for one set and a pen for the other. Usability was assessed using directed interviews with a usability questionnaire and performance-based metrics (task times, errors, sources of errors. Results Overall, participants found barcode scanning easy to learn, easy to use, and pleasant. Participants were marginally faster in completing the 16 survey questions when using pen entry (20/24 participants. The mean response time with the barcode scanner was 31 seconds longer than traditional pen entry for a subset of 16 questions (p = 0.001. The responsiveness of the scanning system, expressed as first scan success rate, was less than perfect, with approximately one-third of first scans requiring a rescan to successfully capture the data entry. The responsiveness of the system can be explained by a combination of factors such as the location of the scanning errors, the type of barcode used as an answer field in the paper version, and the optical characteristics of the barcode scanner. Conclusion The results presented in this study offer insights regarding the feasibility, usability and effectiveness of using a barcode scanner with older adults as an electronic data entry method on a PDA. While participants in this study found

  14. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of root canal surfaces prepared with three rotary endodontic systems: Lightspeed, ProTaper and EndoWave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hema, B S; Chandu, G S; Shiraguppi, V L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the cleaning efficiency, preparation time, instrument deformation and fracture with LightSpeed (LS), ProTaper (PT) and EndoWave (Ew) rotary instruments. A total of 45 freshly extracted human mandibular premolars were subjected for the study. They were divided into three groups, each group consisting of 15 teeth. Group 1: The canals were prepared with LS system; Group 2: PT rotary system, Group 3: Ew rotary system. All the groups were prepared according to manufacturer's recommendation, using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (dent wash, prime dent) alternately as an irrigants. Crowns of each tooth were removed with diamond disks at the level of cemento enamel junction. Canal length was determined by placing a size 10 K-file. The working length was 0.5 mm short of canal length. Two longitudinal grooves were prepared on the lingual and buccal surfaces of each root to facilitate vertical splitting with a chisel after canal instrumentation. The sections were then observed under scanning electron microscope for presence or absence of debris and smear layer and the photographs were taken at coronal, middle and apical 1/3 with a magnification of × 200 and × 1000 respectively. The time taken to enlarge each canal was recorded in minutes and seconds. The instruments were examined after every use for deformation. The scores recorded were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney test. There was statistically significant difference with regard to removal of debris and smear layer at coronal, middle and apical third for LS versus PT and LS versus Ew (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference between PT and Ew. The mean preparation time for LS, PT and Ew was 1.76, 2.50 and 2.75 respectively. The study demonstrated that, LS instrumentation removed debris and smear layer effectively with shorter preparation time and Ew instrument showed

  15. SU-F-T-152: Experimental Validation and Calculation Benchmark for a Commercial Monte Carlo Pencil BeamScanning Proton Therapy Treatment Planning System in Heterogeneous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, L; Huang, S; Kang, M; Ainsley, C; Simone, C; McDonough, J; Solberg, T [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Eclipse AcurosPT 13.7, the first commercial Monte Carlo pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy treatment planning system (TPS), was experimentally validated for an IBA dedicated PBS nozzle in the CIRS 002LFC thoracic phantom. Methods: A two-stage procedure involving the use of TOPAS 1.3 simulations was performed. First, Geant4-based TOPAS simulations in this phantom were experimentally validated for single and multi-spot profiles at several depths for 100, 115, 150, 180, 210 and 225 MeV proton beams, using the combination of a Lynx scintillation detector and a MatriXXPT ionization chamber array. Second, benchmark calculations were performed with both AcurosPT and TOPAS in a phantom identical to the CIRS 002LFC, with the exception that the CIRS bone/mediastinum/lung tissues were replaced with similar tissues that are predefined in AcurosPT (a limitation of this system which necessitates the two stage procedure). Results: Spot sigmas measured in tissue were in agreement within 0.2 mm of TOPAS simulation for all six energies, while AcurosPT was consistently found to have larger spot sigma (<0.7 mm) than TOPAS. Using absolute dose calibration by MatriXXPT, the agreements between profiles measurements and TOPAS simulation, and calculation benchmarks are over 97% except near the end of range using 2 mm/2% gamma criteria. Overdosing and underdosing were observed at the low and high density side of tissue interfaces, respectively, and these increased with increasing depth and decreasing energy. Near the mediastinum/lung interface, the magnitude can exceed 5 mm/10%. Furthermore, we observed >5% quenching effect in the conversion of Lynx measurements to dose. Conclusion: We recommend the use of an ionization chamber array in combination with the scintillation detector to measure absolute dose and relative PBS spot characteristics. We also recommend the use of an independent Monte Carlo calculation benchmark for the commissioning of a commercial TPS. Partially

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used ... gland evaluate changes in the gland following medication use, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy top of page How ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential to ... tells you otherwise, you may resume your normal activities after your nuclear medicine scan. If any special ...

  18. Body CT (CAT Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Computed tomography (CT) of the body uses special ... the Body? What is CT Scanning of the Body? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special camera and a computer ... last two months that used iodine-based contrast material. Your doctor will instruct you on how to ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... evaluate changes in the gland following medication use, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy top of page How should ... such as an x-ray or CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated contrast material within the ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information needed to make a ... any. Nuclear medicine is less expensive and may yield more precise information than exploratory surgery. Risks Because ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... Actual scanning time for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will ... diagnostic procedures have been used for more than five decades, and there are no known long-term ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. Jewelry and ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... iodine, medications and anesthetics. are breastfeeding. In the days prior to your examination, blood tests may be ... are scheduled for an additional procedure that same day that requires an intravenous line. Actual scanning time ...

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at which the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is ...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... liquid or capsule form, it is typically swallowed up to 24 hours before the scan. The radiotracer given by intravenous injection is usually given up to 30 minutes prior to the test. When ...

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... regulates the rate at which the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential ... or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide ...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... body. top of page How does the procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, an image is ... with other imaging techniques, such as CT or MRI. However, nuclear medicine scans are more sensitive than ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... a special camera or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. The thyroid scan and ... and with the help of a computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function ...

  12. Pediatric CT Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Radiation Epidemiology Branch and collaborators have initiated a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the relationship between radiation exposure from CT scans conducted during childhood and adolescence and the subsequent development of cancer.

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... abnormal was found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. If you had an ... abnormal was found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. Actual scanning time for ...

  14. Scanning Auger Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A JEOL model 7830F field emission source, scanning Auger microscope.Specifications / Capabilities:Ultra-high vacuum (UHV), electron gun range from 0.1 kV to 25 kV,...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is ... computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your ...

  16. The Scanning Optical Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, C. J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the principle of the scanning optical microscope and explains its advantages over the conventional microscope in the improvement of resolution and contrast, as well as the possibility of producing a picture from optical harmonies generated within the specimen.

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan you are undergoing. top of page What does the equipment look like? The special camera and ... area of your body. top of page How does the procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. If you had an intravenous line ... found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. Actual scanning time for each thyroid ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to determine ... you are undergoing. top of page What does the equipment look like? The special camera and imaging ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... to identify disease in its earliest stages as well as a patient’s immediate response to therapeutic interventions. ... but is often performed on hospitalized patients as well. Thyroid Scan You will be positioned on an ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medical tests that help physicians diagnose and evaluate medical conditions. These imaging scans use radioactive materials called radiopharmaceuticals or radiotracers . Depending on the type of nuclear medicine exam, the radiotracer is either injected into the body, ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... many types of cancers, heart disease, gastrointestinal, endocrine, neurological disorders and other abnormalities within the body. Because ... with other imaging techniques, such as CT or MRI. However, nuclear medicine scans are more sensitive than ...

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are noninvasive and, with the exception of intravenous injections, are usually painless medical tests that help physicians ... before the scan. The radiotracer given by intravenous injection is usually given up to 30 minutes prior ...

  6. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-01-01

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for whic...

  7. High-resolution and high sensitivity mesoscopic fluorescence tomography based on de-scanning EMCCD: System design and thick tissue imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Mehmet Saadeddin

    Optical microscopy has been one of the essential tools for biological studies for decades, however, its application areas was limited to superficial investigation due to strong scattering in live tissues. Even though advanced techniques such as confocal or multiphoton methods have been recently developed to penetrate beyond a few hundreds of microns deep in tissues, they still cannot perform in the mesoscopic regime (millimeter scale) without using destructive sample preparation protocols such as clearing techniques. They provide rich cellular information; however, they cannot be readily employed to investigate the biological processes at larger scales. Herein, we will present our effort to establish a novel imaging approach that can quantify molecular expression in intact tissues, well beyond the current microscopy depth limits. Mesoscopic Fluorescence Molecular Tomography (MFMT) is an emerging imaging modality that offers unique potential for the non-invasive molecular assessment of thick in-vitro and in-vivo live tissues. This novel imaging modality is based on an optical inverse problem that allows for retrieval of the quantitative spatial distribution of fluorescent tagged bio-markers at millimeter depth. MFMT is well-suited for in-vivo subsurface tissue imaging and thick bio-printed specimens due to its high sensitivity and fast acquisition times, as well as relatively large fields of view. Herein, we will first demonstrate the potential of this technique using our first generation MFMT system applied to multiplexed reporter gene imaging (in-vitro) and determination of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) agent bio-distribution in a mouse model (in-vivo). Second, we will present the design rationale, in silico benchmarking, and experimental validation of a second generation MFMT (2GMFMT) system. We will demonstrate the gain in resolution and sensitivity achieved due to the de-scanned dense detector configuration implemented. The potential of this novel platform will be

  8. Study of accuracy in the position determination with SALSA, a γ-scanning system for the characterization of segmented HPGe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Prieto, A., E-mail: alvaro.prieto@usal.es [Laboratorio de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Departamento de Física Fundamental, Universidad de Salamanca, C /Espejo s/n, Salamanca (Spain); Quintana, B.; Martìn, S. [Laboratorio de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Departamento de Física Fundamental, Universidad de Salamanca, C /Espejo s/n, Salamanca (Spain); Domingo-Pardo, C. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular, C /Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, Paterna (Spain)

    2016-07-01

    Accurate characterization of the electric response of segmented high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors as a function of the interaction position is one of the current goals of the Nuclear Physics community seeking to perform γ-ray tracking or even imaging with these detectors. For this purpose, scanning devices must be developed to achieve the signal-position association with the highest precision. With a view to studying the accuracy achieved with SALSA, the SAlamanca Lyso-based Scanning Array, here we report a detailed study on the uncertainty sources and their effect in the position determination inside the HPGe detector to be scanned. The optimization performed on the design of SALSA, aimed at minimizing the effect of the uncertainty sources, afforded an intrinsic uncertainty of ∼2 mm for large coaxial detectors and ∼1 mm for planar ones.

  9. Asymmetric distribution of the scanned field of a rotating reflective polygon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Katz, J

    1997-01-01

    A rigorous vector analysis is performed to investigate the structure of the scan field produced by a rotating polygon, and it is shown that the scan field is asymmetric to the ray reflected by the polygon at a neutral scan position. Some fundamental aspects of the polygon scanning systems are addressed, such as the scan duty cycle, the locus of the scan center, the depth of the scan field, and the off-axis defocus in convergent beam scanning.

  10. Hyperchromatic laser scanning cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárnok, Attila; Mittag, Anja

    2007-02-01

    In the emerging fields of high-content and high-throughput single cell analysis for Systems Biology and Cytomics multi- and polychromatic analysis of biological specimens has become increasingly important. Combining different technologies and staining methods polychromatic analysis (i.e. using 8 or more fluorescent colors at a time) can be pushed forward to measure anything stainable in a cell, an approach termed hyperchromatic cytometry. For cytometric cell analysis microscope based Slide Based Cytometry (SBC) technologies are ideal as, unlike flow cytometry, they are non-consumptive, i.e. the analyzed sample is fixed on the slide. Based on the feature of relocation identical cells can be subsequently reanalyzed. In this manner data on the single cell level after manipulation steps can be collected. In this overview various components for hyperchromatic cytometry are demonstrated for a SBC instrument, the Laser Scanning Cytometer (Compucyte Corp., Cambridge, MA): 1) polychromatic cytometry, 2) iterative restaining (using the same fluorochrome for restaining and subsequent reanalysis), 3) differential photobleaching (differentiating fluorochromes by their different photostability), 4) photoactivation (activating fluorescent nanoparticles or photocaged dyes), and 5) photodestruction (destruction of FRET dyes). With the intelligent combination of several of these techniques hyperchromatic cytometry allows to quantify and analyze virtually all components of relevance on the identical cell. The combination of high-throughput and high-content SBC analysis with high-resolution confocal imaging allows clear verification of phenotypically distinct subpopulations of cells with structural information. The information gained per specimen is only limited by the number of available antibodies and by sterical hindrance.

  11. Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Kollár, Alicia J.; Taylor, Stephen F.; Turner, Richard W.; Lev, Benjamin L.

    2017-03-01

    Microscopic imaging of local magnetic fields provides a window into the organizing principles of complex and technologically relevant condensed-matter materials. However, a wide variety of intriguing strongly correlated and topologically nontrivial materials exhibit poorly understood phenomena outside the detection capability of state-of-the-art high-sensitivity high-resolution scanning probe magnetometers. We introduce a quantum-noise-limited scanning probe magnetometer that can operate from room-to-cryogenic temperatures with unprecedented dc-field sensitivity and micron-scale resolution. The Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope (SQCRAMscope) employs a magnetically levitated atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), thereby providing immunity to conductive and blackbody radiative heating. The SQCRAMscope has a field sensitivity of 1.4 nT per resolution-limited point (approximately 2 μ m ) or 6 nT /√{Hz } per point at its duty cycle. Compared to point-by-point sensors, the long length of the BEC provides a naturally parallel measurement, allowing one to measure nearly 100 points with an effective field sensitivity of 600 pT /√{Hz } for each point during the same time as a point-by-point scanner measures these points sequentially. Moreover, it has a noise floor of 300 pT and provides nearly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in magnetic flux sensitivity (down to 10-6 Φ0/√{Hz } ) over previous atomic probe magnetometers capable of scanning near samples. These capabilities are carefully benchmarked by imaging magnetic fields arising from microfabricated wire patterns in a system where samples may be scanned, cryogenically cooled, and easily exchanged. We anticipate the SQCRAMscope will provide charge-transport images at temperatures from room temperature to 4 K in unconventional superconductors and topologically nontrivial materials.

  12. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Weight for Me? What Is an Intellectual Disability? Movie: Endocrine System Getting a ... Translated, that means a scanner takes computer pictures of what's going on inside your body. The scan itself is painless. All you'll ...

  13. Calibration of scanning Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Courtney, Michael

    This report describes the tests carried out on a scanning lidar at the DTU Test Station for large wind turbines, Høvsøre. The tests were divided in two parts. In the first part, the purpose was to obtain wind speed calibrations at two heights against two cup anemometers mounted on a mast. Additio......This report describes the tests carried out on a scanning lidar at the DTU Test Station for large wind turbines, Høvsøre. The tests were divided in two parts. In the first part, the purpose was to obtain wind speed calibrations at two heights against two cup anemometers mounted on a mast...

  14. Tomographic scanning imager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Harald

    2009-07-06

    In tomographic scanning (TOSCA) imaging, light from a scene is focused onto a reticle mask using conical scan optics, and collected on a single element detector. Alternatively, one or several detectors replace the reticle. Tomographic processing techniques are then applied to the one-dimensional signal to reproduce a two-dimensional image. The TOSCA technique is presented in detail, including its mathematical foundations and some of its limitations. It is shown how TOSCA imaging can be used in a multispectral configuration, and compares well with more conventional alternatives both in simplicity and performance. Examples of image reconstruction using TOSCA techniques are shown.

  15. Scanning the phenomenological MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Wuerzinger, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    A framework to perform scans in the 19-dimensional phenomenological MSSM is developed and used to re-evaluate the ATLAS experiments' sensitivity to R-parity-conserving supersymmetry with LHC Run 2 data ($\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV), using results from 14 separate ATLAS searches. We perform a $\\tilde{t}_1$ dedicated scan, only considering models with $m_{\\tilde{t}_1}<1$ TeV, while allowing both a neutralino ($\\tilde{\\chi}_1^0$) and a sneutrino ($\\tilde{\

  16. Performance of the SRRC scanning photoelectron microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, I H; Yin, G C; Wei, D H; Juang, J M; Dann, T E; Klauser, R; Chuang, T J; Chen, C T; Tsang, K L

    2001-01-01

    A scanning photoelectron microscope has been constructed at SRRC. This SPEM system consists primarily of a Fresnel zone plate (ZP) with an order-selection aperture, a flexure scanning stage, a hemispherical electron analyzer, and sample/ZP insertion system. The flexure stage is used to scan the sample. A hemispherical analyzer with Omni V lens and a 16-channel multichannel detector (MCD) is used to collect photoelectrons. A set of 16 photoelectron images at different kinetic energies can be simultaneously acquired in one single scan. The data acquisition system is designed to collect up to 32 images concurrently, including 16 MCD signals, total electron yield and transmitted photon flux. The design and some initial test results of this SPEM station are presented and discussed.

  17. Scanning transmission electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, P.

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a scanning transmission electron microscope comprising an electron source, an electron accelerator and deflection means for directing electrons emitted by the electron source at an object to be examined, and in addition a detector for detecting electrons coming from the

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you: have had any tests, such as an x-ray or CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated ... page How does the procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, an image is made by passing x- ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may be performed to measure the level of thyroid hormones in your blood. You may be told not to eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the ... as well. Thyroid Scan You will be positioned on an examination ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or less. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan ... areas. Outside links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo. ...

  1. Cervical MRI scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer in the spine Arthritis in the spine MRI works better than CT scan in diagnosing these problems ... test. The strong magnetic fields created during an MRI can cause heart pacemakers and other implants to not work as well. It can also cause a piece ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer top of page ... and Neck Cancer Treatment Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear ... to Thyroid Scan and Uptake ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. ... a patient’s immediate response to therapeutic interventions. Nuclear ... medical tests that help physicians diagnose and evaluate medical conditions. ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake ...

  5. Terahertz scanning probe microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klapwijk, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides aterahertz scanning probe microscope setup comprising (i) a terahertz radiation source configured to generate terahertz radiation; (ii) a terahertz lens configured to receive at least part of the terahertz radiation from the terahertz radiation source; (iii) a cantilever unit

  6. SPM: Scanning positron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Dickmann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Munich scanning positron microscope, operated by the Universität der Bundeswehr München and the Technische Universität München, located at NEPOMUC, permits positron lifetime measurements with a lateral resolution in the µm range and within an energy range of 1 – 20 keV.

  7. Laser Beam Scanning Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    metal mirror. Multiple thermocouple wires attached to the rear of the mirror provide temperature (and hence beam power) information at various points...on the mirror. Scanning is achieved by means of a selector switch which sequentially samples the thermocouple outputs. The thermocouple output voltages are measured and recorded as a function of laser beam power.

  8. Feedback-induced voltage change of a Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser as an active detection system for miniature optical scanning probe microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinis, Dominique; Gorecki, Christophe; Bargiel, Sylwester; Cretin, Bernard

    2006-04-17

    We propose a novel detection technique for scanning probe microscopy based on the measuring of the feedback-induced voltage change of 780-nm VCSEL operating at constant current in far-field regime when we modulate mechanically the length of a coupled-cavity generating the feedback conditions. The voltage change of the VCSEL is produced by light back reflected from the sample to the laser cavity. Two-dimensional image probing is successfully demonstrated with high temporal resolution, offering a viable solution for miniature parallel scanning probe optical microscopes, such as confocal microscope, where the use of a photodetector is avoided. This approach opens the possibility to perform imaging tasks in a low cost and hand-held miniature device with much improved effective-space.

  9. Full cycle rapid scan EPR deconvolution algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Rapid scan electron paramagnetic resonance (RS EPR) is a continuous-wave (CW) method that combines narrowband excitation and broadband detection. Sinusoidal magnetic field scans that span the entire EPR spectrum cause electron spin excitations twice during the scan period. Periodic transient RS signals are digitized and time-averaged. Deconvolution of absorption spectrum from the measured full-cycle signal is an ill-posed problem that does not have a stable solution because the magnetic field passes the same EPR line twice per sinusoidal scan during up- and down-field passages. As a result, RS signals consist of two contributions that need to be separated and postprocessed individually. Deconvolution of either of the contributions is a well-posed problem that has a stable solution. The current version of the RS EPR algorithm solves the separation problem by cutting the full-scan signal into two half-period pieces. This imposes a constraint on the experiment; the EPR signal must completely decay by the end of each half-scan in order to not be truncated. The constraint limits the maximum scan frequency and, therefore, the RS signal-to-noise gain. Faster scans permit the use of higher excitation powers without saturating the spin system, translating into a higher EPR sensitivity. A stable, full-scan algorithm is described in this paper that does not require truncation of the periodic response. This algorithm utilizes the additive property of linear systems: the response to a sum of two inputs is equal the sum of responses to each of the inputs separately. Based on this property, the mathematical model for CW RS EPR can be replaced by that of a sum of two independent full-cycle pulsed field-modulated experiments. In each of these experiments, the excitation power equals to zero during either up- or down-field scan. The full-cycle algorithm permits approaching the upper theoretical scan frequency limit; the transient spin system response must decay within the scan

  10. Detection of urinary stones at reduced radiation exposure: a phantom study comparing computed radiography and a low-dose digital radiography linear slit scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs-Farkas, Zsolt; Chakraborty, D. P.; Thoeny, Harriet C.; Loupatatzis, Christos; Vock, Peter; Harald, Bonel

    2010-01-01

    Objective In this experimental study we assessed the diagnostic performance of linear slit scanning radiography (LSSR) compared to conventional computed radiography (CR) in the detection of urinary calculi in an anthropomorphic phantom imitating patients weighing approximately 58 to 88 kg. Conclusion Compared to computed radiography, LSSR is superior in the detection of urinary stones and may be used for pretreatment localization and follow-up at a lower patient exposure. PMID:19457787

  11. Anticipating, measuring, and minimizing MEMS mirror scan error to improve laser scanning microscopy's speed and accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, John P; York, Andrew G; Shroff, Hari

    2017-01-01

    We describe a method to speed up microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirror scanning by > 20x, while also improving scan accuracy. We use Landweber deconvolution to determine an input voltage which would produce a desired output, based on the measured MEMS impulse response. Since the MEMS is weakly nonlinear, the observed behavior deviates from expectations, and we iteratively improve our input to minimize this deviation. This allows customizable MEMS angle vs. time with <1% deviation from the desired scan pattern. We demonstrate our technique by optimizing a point scanning microscope's raster patterns to image mammal submandibular gland and pollen at ~10 frames/s.

  12. Scanning mirror for infrared sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. H.; Bernstein, S. B.

    1972-01-01

    A high resolution, long life angle-encoded scanning mirror, built for application in an infrared attitude sensor, is described. The mirror uses a Moire' fringe type optical encoder and unique torsion bar suspension together with a magnetic drive to meet stringent operational and environmental requirements at a minimum weight and with minimum power consumption. Details of the specifications, design, and construction are presented with an analysis of the mirror suspension that allows accurate prediction of performance. The emphasis is on mechanical design considerations, and brief discussions are included on the encoder and magnetic drive to provide a complete view of the mirror system and its capabilities.

  13. Maritime Laser Scanning as the Source for Spatial Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szulwic Jakub

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of scanning technology, especially mobile scanning, gives the possibility to collect spatial data coming from maritime measurement platforms and autonomous manned or unmanned vehicles. Presented solution is derived from the mobile scanning. However we should keep in mind that the specificity of laser scanning at sea and processing collected data should be in the form acceptable in Geographical Information Systems, especially typical for the maritime needs. At the same time we should be aware that data coming from maritime mobile scanning constitutes a new approach to the describing of maritime environment and brings a new perspective that is completely different than air and terrestrial scanning.

  14. Scanning transmission electron microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Kruit, P.

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a scanning transmission electron microscope comprising an electron source, an electron accelerator and deflection means for directing electrons emitted by the electron source at an object to be examined, and in addition a detector for detecting electrons coming from the object and, connected to the detector, a device for processing the detected electrons so as to form an object image, wherein a beam splitter is provided for dividing the electron beam from the electron...

  15. Scanning micro-sclerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Warren C.; Blau, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    A scanning micro-sclerometer measures changes in contact stiffness and correlates these changes to characteristics of a scratch. A known force is applied to a contact junction between two bodies and a technique employing an oscillating force is used to generate the contact stiffness between the two bodies. As the two bodies slide relative to each other, the contact stiffness changes. The change is measured to characterize the scratch.

  16. Scanning drop sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Shinde, Aniketa A.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Jones, Ryan J.; Marcin, Martin R.; Mitrovic, Slobodan

    2017-05-09

    Electrochemical or electrochemical and photochemical experiments are performed on a collection of samples by suspending a drop of electrolyte solution between an electrochemical experiment probe and one of the samples that serves as a test sample. During the electrochemical experiment, the electrolyte solution is added to the drop and an output solution is removed from the drop. The probe and collection of samples can be moved relative to one another so the probe can be scanned across the samples.

  17. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2010-08-24

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability.

  18. Transmittance measurement using scanning LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Yao; Mohan, Rosmin Elsa; Lau, Gih-Keong; Asundi, Anand Krishna

    2017-06-01

    In order to measure the transmittance for a large field of view (FOV), a system based on scanning LED is developed. The system mainly consists of tunable LEDs, a glass diffuser and a camera. The LED panel would display different colors in the CIE color space. An algorithm of converting the light wavelength to the RGB values is adopted. The images are captured using a monochrome camera. Depending on the number of colors displayed, the transmittance map for the entire spread of visible colors can be determined. Results are compared with those measured through a spectrometer. The spectral transmittance for the two methods exhibit good similarity. The system provides a means of measuring transmittance with no moving parts and can be extended to other hyperspectral imaging applications.

  19. Quantitative measurements of Jupiter, Saturn, their rings and satellites made from Voyager imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, S. A.; Bunker, A. S.

    1983-01-01

    The Voyager spacecraft cameras use selenium-sulfur slow scan vidicons to convert focused optical images into sensible electrical signals. The vidicon-generated data thus obtained are the basis of measurements of much greater precision than was previously possible, in virtue of their superior linearity, geometric fidelity, and the use of in-flight calibration. Attention is given to positional, radiometric, and dynamical measurements conducted on the basis of vidicon data for the Saturn rings, the Saturn satellites, and the Jupiter atmosphere.

  20. Geant4 simulation of clinical proton and carbon ion beams for the treatment of ocular melanomas with the full 3-D pencil beam scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farina, Edoardo; Riccardi, Cristina; Rimoldi, Adele; Tamborini, Aurora [University of Pavia and the INFN section of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Piersimoni, Pierluigi [Division of Radiation Research, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92354 (United States); Ciocca, Mario [Medical Physics Unit, CNAO Foundation, Strada Campeggi 53, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    This work investigates the possibility to use carbon ion beams delivered with active scanning modality, for the treatment of ocular melanomas at the Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO) in Pavia. The radiotherapy with carbon ions offers many advantages with respect to the radiotherapy with protons or photons, such as a higher relative radio-biological effectiveness (RBE) and a dose release better localized to the tumor. The Monte Carlo (MC) Geant4 10.00 patch-03 toolkit is used to reproduce the complete CNAO extraction beam line, including all the active and passive components characterizing it. The simulation of proton and carbon ion beams and radiation scanned field is validated against CNAO experimental data. For the irradiation study of the ocular melanoma an eye-detector, representing a model of a human eye, is implemented in the simulation. Each element of the eye is reproduced with its chemical and physical properties. Inside the eye-detector a realistic tumor volume is placed and used as the irradiation target. A comparison between protons and carbon ions eye irradiations allows to study possible treatment benefits if carbon ions are used instead of protons. (authors)

  1. Horizon Scanning for Pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepage-Nefkens, Isabelle; Douw, Karla; Mantjes, GertJan

    In 2016, the Belgian, Dutch, Luxembourg and Austrian governments declared their intention to collaborate on pharmaceutical policy (BeNeLuxA Collaboration). KCE was asked to lead a task force responsible for developing a Horizon Scanning methodology for pharmaceuticals and a possible model...... and filtration of new and emerging pharmaceutical products. It will maintain and update the HS database, organise company pipeline meetings, and disseminate the HSS’s outputs.  The HS unit works closely together with the designated national HS experts in each collaborating country. The national HS experts...

  2. Surface micromachined scanning mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Kent Erik

    1992-01-01

    Both aluminum cantilever and torsional scanning mirrors have been fabricated and their static and dynamic properties are studied experimentally and theoretically. The experiments showed resonance frequencies in the range of 163 k-Hz - 632 kHz for cantilever beams with Q values between 5 and 11....... Torsional mirrors showed resonance frequencies in the range of 410 kHz - 667 kHz with Q values of 10 - 17. All measurements performed at atmospheric pressure. Both types of mechanical structures were deflected electrostatically at large angles (± 5°) more than 1011 times without breaking and without any...

  3. [Fast 2-dimension scanning and line-scanning of intracellular Ca2+ transients in cardiac myocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian-xin; Wang, Hai-yan; Li, Chao-yan; Xiao, Jian-feng

    2008-11-01

    Fast 2-dimension scanning and line-scanning of confocal imaging were employed for measurement of cardiac Ca2+ transients, and the advantages and disadvantages about these two scannings were discussed. Single adult SD rat cardiac myocytes were made freshly and loaded with fluo4-AM. Intracellular Ca2+ was imaging by the LSMS10 META system. The Ca2+ transients were evoked by electrical field stimulation from an electronic stimulator which was triggered to work synchronically with the confocal imaging system. Fast 2-dimension scanning showed the global Ca2+ signal clearly, which would be more helpful especially in monitoring a cell of Ca2+ overload or in other pathological conditions. And the images could be packaged into a vivid animation, which showed the process of Ca2+ transients and cell contraction visually and virtually. Line-scanning showed the Ca2+ transients in good temporal and spacial resolutions along the long axis of the cell. And the dynamic shortening of the cell length could be used for indicating the contraction of the cell. Data from line-scanning would be helpful for drawing some more exact conclusions. In general, fast 2-dimension scanning and line-scanning could work reciprocally to show a more perfect picture of the intracellular Ca2+ transients in cardiac myocytes.

  4. Galvanometer scanning technology for laser additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xi; Li, Jin; Lucas, Mark

    2017-02-01

    A galvanometer laser beam scanning system is an essential element in many laser additive manufacturing (LAM) technologies including Stereolithography (SLA), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and Selective Laser Melting (SLM). Understanding the laser beam scanning techniques and recent innovations in this field will greatly benefit the 3D laser printing system integration and technology advance. One of the challenges to achieve high quality 3D printed parts is due to the non-uniform laser power density delivered on the materials caused by the acceleration and deceleration movements of the galvanometer at ends of the hatching and outlining patterns. One way to solve this problem is to modulate the laser power as the function of the scanning speed during the acceleration or deceleration periods. Another strategy is to maintain the constant scanning speed while accurately coordinating the laser on and off operation throughout the job. In this paper, we demonstrate the high speed, high accuracy and low drift digital scanning technology that incorporates both techniques to achieve uniform laser density with minimal additional process development. With the constant scanning speed method, the scanner not only delivers high quality and uniform results, but also a throughput increase of 23% on a typical LAM job, compared to that of the conventional control method that requires galvanometer acceleration and deceleration movements.

  5. Intelligent Classification and Visualization of Network Scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L; Muelder, C; Ma, K; Bartoletti, A

    2007-03-01

    Network scans are a common first step in a network intrusion attempt. In order to gain information about a potential network intrusion, it is beneficial to analyze these network scans. Statistical methods such as wavelet scalogram analysis have been used along with visualization techniques in previous methods. However, applying these statistical methods to reduce the data causes a substantial amount of data loss. This paper presents a study of using associative memory learning techniques to directly compare network scans in order to create a classification which can be used by itself or in conjunction with existing visualization techniques to better characterize the sources of these scans. This produces an integrated system of visual and intelligent analysis which is applicable to real world data.

  6. Study of Glass-Transition Kinetics of Pb-Modified SeIn System by Using Non-isothermal Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Indra Sen; Singh, Kedar

    2014-01-01

    Glass-transition kinetics of ( 0, 5, 10, and 15) chalcogenide glasses have been carried out at different heating rates by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) under the non-isothermal condition. The glass-transition temperature and peak glass-transition temperature have been determined from DSC thermograms. The reduced glass temperature , total relaxation time thermal-stability parameters and , the activation energy of glass transition , the fragility index , and the average coordination number have been calculated on the basis of the experimental results. The temperature differences , and are found to be maxima for glass. This indicates that glass has the highest thermal stability and glass-forming ability in the investigated compositional range. These results could be explained on the basis of modification of the chemical bond formation due to incorporation of Pb in the Se-In glassy matrix.

  7. Confocal scanning Mueller polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lompado, Arthur

    2009-08-01

    We describe the design, construction, calibration and testing of a confocal scanning Mueller polarimeter. A polarization state generator and polarization state analyzer have been inserted into the optical path of a conventional confocal scanning imager to collect the reflectance Muller matrix of samples measuring up to 6.26 mm on a side. Four sources are available for sample interrogation using diode lasers centered at 532 nm, 635 nm, 670 nm, and 785 nm. The device captures all required imagery to calculate the Mueller matrix of each image pixel in approximately 90 s. These matrices are then reduced into polarization imagery such as the diattenuation, retardance and depolarization index. Oftentimes this polarization imagery is quite different and potentially more informative than a conventional intensity image. There are a number of fields that can benefit from alternative/enhanced imagery, most notably in the biomedical, discrimination, and target recognition communities. The sensor has been designed for biomedical applications aimed at improving the technique of noninvasive detection of melanoma lesions.

  8. Multifunctional scanning ion conductance microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ashley; Perry, David; Unwin, Patrick R

    2017-04-01

    Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is a nanopipette-based technique that has traditionally been used to image topography or to deliver species to an interface, particularly in a biological setting. This article highlights the recent blossoming of SICM into a technique with a much greater diversity of applications and capability that can be used either standalone, with advanced control (potential-time) functions, or in tandem with other methods. SICM can be used to elucidate functional information about interfaces, such as surface charge density or electrochemical activity (ion fluxes). Using a multi-barrel probe format, SICM-related techniques can be employed to deposit nanoscale three-dimensional structures and further functionality is realized when SICM is combined with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), with simultaneous measurements from a single probe opening up considerable prospects for multifunctional imaging. SICM studies are greatly enhanced by finite-element method modelling for quantitative treatment of issues such as resolution, surface charge and (tip) geometry effects. SICM is particularly applicable to the study of living systems, notably single cells, although applications extend to materials characterization and to new methods of printing and nanofabrication. A more thorough understanding of the electrochemical principles and properties of SICM provides a foundation for significant applications of SICM in electrochemistry and interfacial science.

  9. Schistosomiasis collection at NHM (SCAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emery Aidan M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Natural History Museum (NHM is developing a repository for schistosomiasis-related material, the Schistosomiasis Collection at NHM (SCAN as part of its existing Wolfson Wellcome Biomedical Laboratory (WWBL. This is timely because a major research and evaluation effort to understand control and move towards elimination of schistosomiasis in Africa has been initiated by the Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE, resulting in the collection of many important biological samples, including larval schistosomes and snails. SCAN will collaborate with a number of research groups and control teams and the repository will acquire samples relevant to both immediate and future research interest. The samples collected through ongoing research and field activities, WWBL’s existing collections, and other acquisitions will be maintained over the long term and made available to the global research community for approved research purposes. Goals include: · Consolidation of the existing NHM schistosome and snail collections and transfer of specimens into suitable long-term storage systems for DNA retrieval, · Long-term and stable storage of specimens collected as part of on going field programmes initially in Africa especially relating to the SCORE research programmes, · Provision of access to snail and schistosome collections for approved research activities.

  10. Automatic Ultrasound Scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshavegh, Ramin

    Medical ultrasound has been a widely used imaging modality in healthcare platforms for examination, diagnostic purposes, and for real-time guidance during surgery. However, despite the recent advances, medical ultrasound remains the most operator-dependent imaging modality, as it heavily relies...... on the user adjustments on the scanner interface to optimize the scan settings. This explains the huge interest in the subject of this PhD project entitled “AUTOMATIC ULTRASOUND SCANNING”. The key goals of the project have been to develop automated techniques to minimize the unnecessary settings...... on the scanners, and to improve the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in ultrasound by introducing new quantitative measures. Thus, four major issues concerning automation of the medical ultrasound are addressed in this PhD project. They touch upon gain adjustments in ultrasound, automatic synthetic aperture image...

  11. High-speed Lissajous-scan atomic force microscopy: Scan pattern planning and control design issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazaei, A.; Yong, Yuen K.; Moheimani, S. O. Reza

    2012-06-01

    Tracking of triangular or sawtooth waveforms is a major difficulty for achieving high-speed operation in many scanning applications such as scanning probe microscopy. Such non-smooth waveforms contain high order harmonics of the scan frequency that can excite mechanical resonant modes of the positioning system, limiting the scan range and bandwidth. Hence, fast raster scanning often leads to image distortion. This paper proposes analysis and design methodologies for a nonlinear and smooth closed curve, known as Lissajous pattern, which allows much faster operations compared to the ordinary scan patterns. A simple closed-form measure is formulated for the image resolution of the Lissajous pattern. This enables us to systematically determine the scan parameters. Using internal model controllers (IMC), this non-raster scan method is implemented on a commercial atomic force microscope driven by a low resonance frequency positioning stage. To reduce the tracking errors due to actuator nonlinearities, higher order harmonic oscillators are included in the IMC controllers. This results in significant improvement compared to the traditional IMC method. It is shown that the proposed IMC controller achieves much better tracking performances compared to integral controllers when the noise rejection performances is a concern.

  12. Alignment technique for second-level exposure of phase-shifting masks using 10-kV raster-scan electron-beam lithography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Frank E.; Freyer, Jorge L.; Muray, Andrew J.; Naber, Robert J.; Poreda, John T.; Thomas, John R.

    1993-03-01

    The fabrication of phase shifting masks requires precise alignment between the primary and shifter layers. The MEBESR IV electron-beam lithography system uses its SEM mode to acquire a video image of the phase shift mask (PSM) alignment mark. Digital signal- processing algorithms have been developed to accurately determine the locations of the marks. Alignment marks are acquired through various resist systems and film thicknesses. Machine control software translates and rotates the MEBES coordinate system to align it with the mask coordinate system, as determined by the location of the alignment marks. Results showing overlay accuracy between layers are presented.

  13. Real-time polarization mode dispersion monitoring system for a multiple-erbium-doped fiber amplifier, dense wavelength division multiplexing optical fiber transmission by amplified spontaneous emission modulation and acousto-optic tunable fiber scanning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Bao-Jang; Tarn, Chen-Wen

    2009-03-01

    Without interruption or affecting the transmission of ordinary payload channels, we propose a real time polarization mode dispersion (PMD) monitoring system for long-haul, multiple erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) optical fiber transmission using modulated amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) of one of the EDFAs as the supervisory (SV) signal source. An acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) at the receiver side is adopted to scan the spectrum of the transmitted ASE SV signal. Using the fixed-analyzer method, PMDs of different wavelength bands that range from 1545 to 1580 nm of a DWDM fiber-optic communication system can be found by adaptively changing the radio frequency of the AOTF. The resolution and the measuring range of the proposed monitoring system can be significantly improved by cascading the AOTFs at the receiver side.

  14. UAVSAR Active Electronically Scanned Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowy, Gregory, A.; Chamberlain, Neil F.; Zawadzki, Mark S.; Brown, Kyle M.; Fisher, Charles D.; Figueroa, Harry S.; Hamilton, Gary A.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Vorperian, Vatche; Grando, Maurio B.

    2011-01-01

    The Uninhabited Airborne Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is a pod-based, L-band (1.26 GHz), repeatpass, interferometric, synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) used for Earth science applications. Repeat-pass interferometric radar measurements from an airborne platform require an antenna that can be steered to maintain the same angle with respect to the flight track over a wide range of aircraft yaw angles. In order to be able to collect repeat-pass InSAR data over a wide range of wind conditions, UAVSAR employs an active electronically scanned array (AESA). During data collection, the UAVSAR flight software continuously reads the aircraft attitude state measured by the Embedded GPS/INS system (EGI) and electronically steers the beam so that it remains perpendicular to the flight track throughout the data collection

  15. Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy in Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Albert; Nebel, Michaela; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2010-07-01

    This article reviews recent work involving the application of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) to the study of individual cultured living cells, with an emphasis on topographical and functional imaging of neuronal and secretory cells of the nervous and endocrine system. The basic principles of biological SECM and associated negative amperometric-feedback and generator/collector-mode SECM imaging are discussed, and successful use of the methodology for screening soft and fragile membranous objects is outlined. The drawbacks of the constant-height mode of probe movement and the benefits of the constant-distance mode of SECM operation are described. Finally, representative examples of constant-height and constant-distance mode SECM on a variety of live cells are highlighted to demonstrate the current status of single-cell SECM in general and of SECM in neuroscience in particular.

  16. GPR scan assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas M. Abbas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mekaad Radwan monument is situated in the neighborhood of Bab Zuweila in the historical Cairo, Egypt. It was constructed at the middle XVII century (1635 AD. The building has a rectangle shape plan (13 × 6 m with the longitudinal sides approximately WNW-ESE. It comprises three storages namely; the ground floor; the opened floor (RADWAN Bench and the living floor with a total elevation of 15 m above the street level. The building suffers from severe deterioration phenomena with patterns of damage which have occurred over time. These deterioration and damages could be attributed to foundation problems, subsoil water and also to the earthquake that affected the entire Greater Cairo area in October 1992. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR scan was accomplished against the walls of the opened floor (RADWAN Bench to evaluate the hazard impact on the walls textures and integrity. The results showed an anomalous feature through the southern wall of RADWAN Bench. A mathematical model has been simulated to confirm the obtained anomaly and the model response exhibited a good matching with the outlined anomaly.

  17. Characterization of a time-resolved non-contact scanning diffuse optical imaging system exploiting fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Sieno, Laura, E-mail: laura.disieno@polimi.it; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Contini, Davide [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Wabnitz, Heidrun; Macdonald, Rainer [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Pifferi, Antonio [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Mazurenka, Mikhail [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Hannoversches Zentrum für Optische Technologien, Nienburger Str. 17, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Hoshi, Yoko [Department of Biomedical Optics, Medical Photonics Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Boso, Gianluca; Tosi, Alberto [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Becker, Wolfgang [Becker and Hickl GmbH, Nahmitzer Damm 30, 12277 Berlin (Germany); Martelli, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell’Università degli Studi di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze 50019 (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    We present a system for non-contact time-resolved diffuse reflectance imaging, based on small source-detector distance and high dynamic range measurements utilizing a fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode. The system is suitable for imaging of diffusive media without any contact with the sample and with a spatial resolution of about 1 cm at 1 cm depth. In order to objectively assess its performances, we adopted two standardized protocols developed for time-domain brain imagers. The related tests included the recording of the instrument response function of the setup and the responsivity of its detection system. Moreover, by using liquid turbid phantoms with absorbing inclusions, depth-dependent contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio as well as lateral spatial resolution were measured. To illustrate the potentialities of the novel approach, the characteristics of the non-contact system are discussed and compared to those of a fiber-based brain imager.

  18. A system for simultaneously measuring contact force, ultrasound, and position information for use in force-based correction of freehand scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcher, Michael R; Noble, J Alison; Han, Lianghao; Gooding, Mark

    2005-08-01

    During freehand ultrasound imaging, the sonographer places the ultrasound probe on the patient's skin. This paper describes a system that simultaneously records the position of the probe, the contact force between the probe and skin, and the ultrasound image. The system consists of an ultrasound machine, a probe, a force sensor, an optical localizer, and a host computer. Two new calibration methods are demonstrated: a temporal calibration to determine the time delay between force and position measurements, and a gravitational calibration to remove the effect of gravity on the recorded force. Measurements made with the system showed good agreement with those obtained from a standard materials testing machine. The system's uses include three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound imaging, force-based deformation correction of ultrasound images, and indentation testing.

  19. Rapid visual scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.D.

    1976-08-01

    A description is given of improvements in equipment and inspection techniques for visual inspection of electronic component assemblies. Comparison devices for enhancing differences between a master and test parts are evaluated. Illumination methods and television inspection developments were investigated. Indexing devices were evaluated and improved optical systems and methods were developed. An effective low-cost television comparison system was built; this system uses techniques such as blinking and subtraction for detecting differences in printed circuit boards. A glare-free illumination system called omnidirectional illumination was also developed and tested. This system reduces eyestrain, and performs very well on all types of surfaces and especially well on highly polished substrates. A low-cost manual indexing system called the Pantograph was designed and tested for quick, precise positioning of small circuit boards. The ultimate inspection system is one in which the inspector is an equipment operator instead of a decision maker. This is the reason for development of an automated comparison system. In this system, a PDP-11 computer controls a digital scanner and software was developed to monitor subtraction, hole location and size, path width, texture analysis, missing components, and feature analysis.

  20. Hardwood lumber scanning tests to determine NHLA lumber grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman; Ssang-Mook Lee; A. Lynn Abbott; Matthew F. Winn

    2011-01-01

    This paper concerns the scanning, and grading of kiln-dried hardwood lumber. A prototype system is described that uses laser sources and a video camera to scan boards. The system automatically detects defects and wane, grades the boards, and then searches for higher value boards within the original board. The goal is to derive maximum commercial value based on current...

  1. Projections of scan patterns on human retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, D. H.; Crane, H. D.

    1972-01-01

    Fundus camera tracks eye movements by using camera optics with the aid of an inverted system. Camera provides a flying-spot circular scanning light source in the normal film plane and a broadband photodetector in position normally occupied by light source.

  2. Distribution and localization of vinculin-talin-integrin system and dystrophin-glycoprotein complex in human skeletal muscle. Immunohistochemical study using confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, G; Amato, A; Tarone, G; Vita, G; Monici, M C; Magaudda, L; Brancaccio, M; Sidoti, A; Trimarchi, F; Favaloro, A; Cutroneo, G

    2003-01-01

    The vinculin-talin-integrin system and the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) are two protein systems with structural and signaling functions, allowing interaction between muscle fibers and extracellular matrix. Although numerous studies have been conducted on these systems, their localization and distribution patterns along the nonjunctional sarcolemma are not clear. On this basis, we carried out an indirect immunofluorescence study on the vastus lateralis muscle of human adults not affected by neuromuscular diseases to better define these patterns. Our results showed that all tested proteins of the two systems have a costameric distribution; all tested proteins of the two systems colocalize with each other (about 90-95% of the cases); only alpha-sarcoglycan in a few cases (about 6%) does not colocalize with other proteins; in about 9-10% of the cases, dystrophin and beta-dystroglycan colocalize partially with other proteins; all tested proteins can be localized in different fibers, both in the region of the sarcolemma over I or A bands. The colocalization between the vinculin-talin-integrin and DGC systems may imply their functional interaction involving the structural aspect, by providing a stronger adhesion between sarcolemma and extracellular matrix in well-defined regions of the muscle fiber. Besides, their colocalization may suggest the existence of a mechanism of mutual modulation of the transmitted signals. This reciprocal control may determine, in different conditions, the prevalence of one system over another with a consequent transmission of different messages to the sarcolemma-associated cytoskeleton. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Quick scan IMS vendors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norp, A.H.J.; Pals, H.; Walraven, F.A.

    2007-01-01

    IMS is gaining momentum in the market. First operators are deploying IMS, while other operators are considering buying IMS. Operators have two approaches for introducing IMS and building an IMS eco-system: • Buying IMS from a large vendor or system integrator. Vendors like Alcatel-Lucent, Ericsson

  4. A Scanning Microwave Radar and Radiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    1995-01-01

    The Scanning Microwave Radar and Radiometer (SMRR) is a line scanner featuring a combined radar and radiometer system operating around 35 and 94 GHz. The layout of the SMRR is shown. The 2 offset antenna parabolas scan in synchronism, the receiver antenna has the highest gain in order to ensure...... that footprints are identical for the radar and the radiometer. The instrument will be flown in a pod under a Gulfstream G3 normally cruising with 240 m/sec at 12500 m, and will thus be able to sense clouds and precipitation from above...

  5. Multislice CT urography (MSCTU): evaluation of a modified scan protocol for optimized opacification of the collecting system; Mehrschicht-CT-Urographie (MSCTU): Beurteilung eines modifizierten Untersuchungsprotokolls zur Optimierung der Kontrastierung des Harnwegsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper, J.; Regier, M.; Stork, A.; Adam, G.; Nolte-Ernsting, C. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively quantify opacification of the urinary tract using a MSCTU protocol based on furosemide and individual adaptation of urographic acquisition delay. Materials and methods: MSCTU examinations obtained from 4-row and 16-row CT scanners in 53 patients (35 men, 18 women, average age 59) were independently reviewed by two radiologists. MSCTUs were performed using a low-dose injection of furosemide. No fixed scan delay for urographic image acquisition was applied. The urographic timing was individually adapted by performing low-dose test images of the distal ureters to display their current opacification. Image analysis included grading of the opacification of the segmented collecting system. The average urographic delay was calculated. Stratified comparisons of mean scores were assessed using the Friedman and Wilcoxon tests. The inter-observer kappa value was calculated. Results: The calculated median scan delay for patients with normal serum-creatinine levels (n=51) was 418 sec (mean 447 sec; SD, 118 sec). The median number of acquired test images was 2 (range 1-6 images). The opacification analysis demonstrated that 98% of the ICS, 90% of the proximal, 86% of the middle, and 83% of the distal ureteral segments showed opacification greater than 90%. 9.5% of the distal ureteral segments could not be visualized. Statistics did not show significant opacification differences between proximal, middle, and distal ureteral segments (p>0.05). The two observers were largely in agreement (kappa coefficient r=0.81). Conclusion: The analyzed MSCTU technique based on furosemide and scan delay timing by means of test images reliably lead to a homogeneous opacification of the entire upper urinary tract. It features the individual adaptation of MSCTU to the excretory rate of the kidneys. (orig.)

  6. A graphical automated detection system to locate hardwood log surface defects using high-resolution three-dimensional laser scan data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liya Thomas; R. Edward. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an automated defect detection system and a state-of-the-art Graphic User Interface (GUI) for hardwood logs. The algorithm identifies defects at least 0.5 inch high and at least 3 inches in diameter on barked hardwood log and stem surfaces. To summarize defect features and to build a knowledge base, hundreds of defects were measured, photographed, and...

  7. Usability of a barcode scanning system as a means of data entry on a PDA for self-report health outcome questionnaires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boissy, Patrice; Jacobs, Karen; Roy, Serge H

    2006-01-01

    with a text-to-speech synthesizer to collect data electronically from self-report health outcome questionnaires. METHODS: Usability of the system was tested on a sample of 24 community-living older adults (7 men, 17 women) ranging in age from 63 to 93 years. After receiving a brief demonstration on the use...

  8. Literature review and desk scan : task 2 of preparing a possible Oregon road map for connected vehicle/cooperative systems deployment scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this project was to lay the groundwork for Oregon to be prepared to lead in the : implementation of a connected vehicle/cooperative systems transportation portfolio, and/or to avoid being caught by : surprise as developments in this area ...

  9. Development of scanning holographic display using MEMS SLM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Yasuhiro

    2016-10-01

    Holography is an ideal three-dimensional (3D) display technique, because it produces 3D images that naturally satisfy human 3D perception including physiological and psychological factors. However, its electronic implementation is quite challenging because ultra-high resolution is required for display devices to provide sufficient screen size and viewing zone. We have developed holographic display techniques to enlarge the screen size and the viewing zone by use of microelectromechanical systems spatial light modulators (MEMS-SLMs). Because MEMS-SLMs can generate hologram patterns at a high frame rate, the time-multiplexing technique is utilized to virtually increase the resolution. Three kinds of scanning systems have been combined with MEMS-SLMs; the screen scanning system, the viewing-zone scanning system, and the 360-degree scanning system. The screen scanning system reduces the hologram size to enlarge the viewing zone and the reduced hologram patterns are scanned on the screen to increase the screen size: the color display system with a screen size of 6.2 in. and a viewing zone angle of 11° was demonstrated. The viewing-zone scanning system increases the screen size and the reduced viewing zone is scanned to enlarge the viewing zone: a screen size of 2.0 in. and a viewing zone angle of 40° were achieved. The two-channel system increased the screen size to 7.4 in. The 360-degree scanning increases the screen size and the reduced viewing zone is scanned circularly: the display system having a flat screen with a diameter of 100 mm was demonstrated, which generates 3D images viewed from any direction around the flat screen.

  10. MEMS-BASED 3D CONFOCAL SCANNING MICROENDOSCOPE USING MEMS SCANNERS FOR BOTH LATERAL AND AXIAL SCAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Wang, Erkang; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Liang, Wenxuan; Li, Xingde; Xie, Huikai

    2014-08-15

    A fiber-optic 3D confocal scanning microendoscope employing MEMS scanners for both lateral and axial scan was designed and constructed. The MEMS 3D scan engine achieved a lateral scan range of over ± 26° with a 2D MEMS scanning micromirror and a depth scan of over 400 μm with a 1D MEMS tunable microlens. The lateral resolution and axial resolution of this system were experimentally measured as 1.0 μm and 7.0 μm, respectively. 2D and 3D confocal reflectance images of micro-patterns, micro-particles, onion skins and acute rat brain tissue were obtained by this MEMS-based 3D confocal scanning microendoscope.

  11. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1995-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in STM I, these studies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described in chapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, and scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Together, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspects of STM. They provide essential reading and reference material for all students and researchers involved in this field. In this second edition the text has been updated and new methods are discussed.

  12. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1992-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in Vol. I, these sudies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described inchapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Togehter, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspcets of STM. They provide essentialreading and reference material for all students and researchers involvedin this field.

  13. About infrared scanning of photovoltaic solar plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, T.; Panouillot, P.-E.; Siikanen, S.; Athanasakou, E.; Baltas, P.; Nikopoulous, B.

    2015-05-01

    The paper is discussing about infrared scanning of PV solar plants. It is important that the performance of each solar panel and cell is verified. One new possibility compared to traditional ground-based scanning (handheld camera) is the utilization of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle). In this paper results from a PV solar Plant in Western Greece are introduced. The nominal power of the solar plants were 0, 9 MW and 2 MW and they were scanned both by a ground-controlled drone and by handheld equipment. It is essential to know all the factors effecting to results and also the time of scanning is important. The results done from the drone and from ground-based scanning are compared; also results from various altitudes and time of day are discussed. The UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle/RPAS (Remote Piloted Aircraft Systems) will give an excellent opportunity to monitor various targets which are impossible or difficult to access from the ground. Compared to fixed-wing and helicopter-based platforms it will give advantages but also this technology has limitations. One limitation is the weight of the equipment and the short operational range and short flight time. Also valid procedures must be created for different solutions in the future. The most important thing, as in all infrared thermography applications, is the proper interpretation of results.

  14. Scanning-time evaluation of Digimarc Barcode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Rebecca; Pinard, Dan; Weaver, Matt; Alattar, Adnan

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a speed comparison between the use of Digimarc® Barcodes and the Universal Product Code (UPC) for customer checkout at point of sale (POS). The recently introduced Digimarc Barcode promises to increase the speed of scanning packaged goods at POS. When this increase is exploited by workforce optimization systems, the retail industry could potentially save billions of dollars. The Digimarc Barcode is based on Digimarc's watermarking technology, and it is imperceptible, very robust, and does not require any special ink, material, or printing processes. Using an image-based scanner, a checker can quickly scan consumer packaged goods (CPG) embedded with the Digimarc Barcode without the need to reorient the packages with respect to the scanner. Faster scanning of packages saves money and enhances customer satisfaction. It reduces the length of the queues at checkout, reduces the cost of cashier labor, and makes self-checkout more convenient. This paper quantifies the increase in POS scanning rates resulting from the use of the Digimarc Barcode versus the traditional UPC. It explains the testing methodology, describes the experimental setup, and analyzes the obtained results. It concludes that the Digimarc Barcode increases number of items per minute (IPM) scanned at least 50% over traditional UPC.

  15. [T-Scan tracing of the arches. Computerized analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collesano, V; de Rysky, C; Bernasconi, G; Magenes, G

    1989-12-15

    This work deals with a quality control of the dental arch reconstructing software developed for T-Scan. We have developed an original system that employs computer controlled optical acquisition of data. This system behaves satisfactorily following our metodology.

  16. Scanning electron microscopy of cold gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, Bodhaditya; Ott, Herwig

    2015-06-01

    Ultracold quantum gases offer unique possibilities to study interacting many-body quantum systems. Probing and manipulating such systems with ever increasing degree of control requires novel experimental techniques. Scanning electron microscopy is a high resolution technique which can be used for in situ imaging, single site addressing in optical lattices and precision density engineering. Here, we review recent advances and achievements obtained with this technique and discuss future perspectives.

  17. Grading apical vertebral rotation without a computed tomography scan: a clinically relevant system based on the radiographic appearance of bilateral pedicle screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upasani, Vidyadhar V; Chambers, Reid C; Dalal, Ali H; Shah, Suken A; Lehman, Ronald A; Newton, Peter O

    2009-08-01

    Bench-top and retrospective analysis to assess vertebral rotation based on the appearance of bilateral pedicle screws in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). To develop a clinically relevant radiographic grading system for evaluating postoperative thoracic apical vertebral rotation that would correlate with computed tomography (CT) measures of rotation. The 3-column vertebral body control provided by bilateral pedicle screws has enabled scoliosis surgeons to develop advanced techniques of direct vertebral derotation. Our ability to accurately quantify spinal deformity in the axial plane, however, continues to be limited. Trigonometry was used to define the relationship between the position of bilateral pedicle screws and vertebral rotation. This relationship was validated using digital photographs of a bench-top model. The mathematical relationships were then used to calculate vertebral rotation from standing postoperative, posteroanterior radiographs in AIS patients and correlated with postoperative CT measures of rotation. Fourteen digital photographs of the bench-top model were independently analyzed twice by 3 coauthors. The mathematically calculated degree of rotation was found to correlate significantly with the actual degree of rotation (r = 0.99; P < 0.001) and the intra- and interobserver reliability for these measurements were both excellent (kappa = 0.98 and kappa = 0.97, respectively). In the retrospective analysis of 17 AIS patients, the average absolute difference between the radiographic measurement of rotation and the CT measure was only 1.9 degrees +/- 2.0 degrees (r = 0.92; P < 0.001). Based on these correlations a simple radiographic grading system for postoperative apical vertebral rotation was developed. An accurate assessment of vertebral rotation can be performed radiographically, using screw lengths and screw tip-to-rod distances of bilateral segmental pedicle screws and a trigonometric calculation. These data support the use

  18. Scanning Productivity in Interlibrary Loan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Wayne A.; Runestad, Anders

    2009-01-01

    The authors report findings of a research study conducted at the Iowa State University Library. Data was gathered on the scanning of library materials by students working in the Interlibrary Loan (ILL) unit. The goals of the study were fourfold: (1) Develop measures of scanning productivity in ILL, (2) Determine if it is more productive to scan…

  19. Technetium-99m thyroid scan; does it have a diagnostic aid in sub-clinical auto-immune thyroid disease in systemic lupus erythematosus patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, A; Alkemary, A; Abdo, M; Salama, M

    2016-02-01

    Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) thyroid scintigraphy is a well known diagnostic tool that shows the entire gland in a single image. We aimed to evaluate its additive diagnostic value in subclinical autoimmune thyroid disease (S-AITD) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. We investigated 100 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients without overt thyroid involvement (eight men and 92 women; mean age 40±6.5 years) and 50 age and sex matched controls. All were subjected to thyroid evaluation using anti-thyroglobulin (anti-TG) and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies; hormones (FT3; FT4 and TSH) and Tc-99m thyroid scintigraphy. 14/100 (14%) and none (0%) were positive for S-AITD in SLE and control groups, respectively (P = 0.0001). They were classified by thyroid scintigraphy and hormonal profile into 2/14 Hashimoto; 10/14 atrophic thyroiditis and 2/14 Graves' disease. Anti-TPO was elevated in 12 SLE cases, while anti-TG was elevated in only 2/14 (P = 0.0001). Thyroid scintigraphy showed statistically significant associations with FT4, TSH and anti-TPO. Tc-99m thyroid scintigraphy may have an additional diagnostic role in S-AITD among SLE patients, with an impact on patient management. This potential needs to be further evaluated in a larger series on a multicenter basis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Spatially resolved analyses of uranium species using a coupled system made up of confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS); Ortsaufgeloeste Analyse von Uranspezies mittels einem Gekoppelten System aus Konfokaler Laser-Scanning Mikroskopie (CLSM) und Laser Induzierter Fluoreszenzspektroskopie (LIFS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockmann, S. [Verein fuer Kernverfahrenstechnik und Analytik Rossendorf e.V. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany); Grossmann, K.; Arnold, T. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. (Germany). Inst. fuer Ressourcenoekologie

    2014-01-15

    The fluorescent properties of uranium when excited by UV light are used increasingly for spectroscope analyses of uranium species within watery samples. Here, alongside the fluorescent properties of the hexavalent oxidation phases, the tetra and pentavalent oxidation phases also play an increasingly important role. The detection of fluorescent emission spectrums on solid and biological samples using (time-resolved) laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS or LIFS respectively) has, however, the disadvantage that no statements regarding the spatial localisation of the uranium can be made. However, particularly in complex, biological samples, such statements on the localisation of the uranium enrichment in the sample are desired, in order to e.g. be able to distinguish between intra and extra-cellular uranium bonds. The fluorescent properties of uranium (VI) compounds and minerals can also be used to detect their localisation within complex samples. So the application of fluorescent microscopic methods represents one possibility to localise and visualise uranium precipitates and enrichments in biological samples, such as biofilms or cells. The confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) is especially well suited to this purpose. Coupling confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) with laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) makes it possible to localise and visualise fluorescent signals spatially and three-dimensionally, while at the same time being able to detect spatially resolved, fluorescent-spectroscopic data. This technology is characterised by relatively low detection limits from up to 1.10{sup -6} M for uranium (VI) compounds within the confocal volume. (orig.)