WorldWideScience

Sample records for videotaped diagnostic evaluations

  1. Radiologic evaluation of the globus symptom using videotape recorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myeong Jin; Chung, Tae Sub; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Suh, Jung Ho; Chang, Tae Young; Park, In Yong

    1988-01-01

    The authors examined barium swallow in 213 patients with globus symptom and 79 patients with vague gastric problems without globus symptom. Abnormal findings were more frequently detected on videorecording than on conventional esophagogram. Radiologic findings were transient cricopharyngeal indentation (CPI), residual barium collection and delayed clearing from hypopharynx (RB), laryngeal penetration of barium, barium retention in vallecula and or pyriform sinuses. Among them residual barium in hypopharynx was more frequently detected in patients with globus symptom than in patients without globus symptom. Globus symptom was more frequent in adult women, but age and sex difference did not affect the incidence of the abnormal radiologic findings. Cricopharyngeal indentation was most frequently seen at the level of C5-6 interspace and had a tendency of moving upward gradually during the indentation in about half of the cases. Most of the CPI was seen in early phase of swallowing and was visible within 1 sec. Residual barium collection was mostly seen in C6 or C6-7 level. RB had no cause and effect relationship with CPI, and it was not secondary result of obstructive effect of CPI. The authors think that videotape recording can be a useful method for evaluation of globus symptom. The residual barium collection in hypopharynx can be a significant finding in globus symptom

  2. Evaluating first-year nursing students' ability to self-assess psychomotor skills using videotape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Wilda Ellen; Rush, Kathy; Wright, Marjorie

    2009-01-01

    Developing confidence in self-assessment is an important skill in becoming a self-regulated learner. This article describes the process undertaken by a group of educators of incorporating self-assessment in combination with psychomotor skill development with freshman students. Students were videotaped performing a wound-dressing change; the videotaping was immediately followed by a self-assessment of their performance using a faculty-generated checklist. Comparison of faculty and student ratings revealed the tendency for students to overrate their performance and identified discordance between students and faculty on several steps of the procedure. These evaluation findings are discussed and future directions explored.

  3. Evaluation of two videotape instruction programmes on how to break bad news--for Cantonese-speaking medical students in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betson, C L; Fielding, R; Wong, G; Chung, S F; Nestel, D F

    1997-12-01

    To evaluate a culture-specific videotape on how to 'break bad news' and another videotape produced by a western university, and to determine if the language of presentation influenced the students' perceived abilities to execute basic skills. Third year medical students at the Faculty of Medicine, the University of Hong Kong. Longitudinal study with experimental design. Two instructional tapes on breaking bad news; one using Chinese speaking role models and one using English. In both groups, self-efficacy summed scores increased from 26.8 (95% CI = 25.9-27.7) at the pre-test to 29.0 (95% CI = 28.4-29.6). The biggest changes occurred in perceived self-efficacy regarding specific skills. However, students using the Chinese tape rated skills as more useful than those using the English tape. The videotapes were useful in teaching communication skills. Culturally relevant audiovisual materials were more effective.

  4. Diagnostic evaluation of rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Jessica R; Mammen, Andrew L

    2015-06-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is characterized by severe acute muscle injury resulting in muscle pain, weakness, and/or swelling with release of myofiber contents into the bloodstream. Symptoms develop over hours to days after an inciting factor and may be associated with dark pigmentation of the urine. Serum creatine kinase and urine myoglobin levels are markedly elevated. Clinical examination, history, laboratory studies, muscle biopsy, and genetic testing are useful tools for diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis, and they can help differentiate acquired from inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis. Acquired causes include substance abuse, medication or toxic exposures, electrolyte abnormalities, endocrine disturbances, and autoimmune myopathies. Inherited predisposition to rhabdomyolysis can occur with disorders of glycogen metabolism, fatty acid β-oxidation, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Less common inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis include structural myopathies, channelopathies, and sickle-cell disease. This review focuses on the differentiation of acquired and inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis and proposes a practical diagnostic algorithm. Muscle Nerve 51: 793-810, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A controlled evaluation of an eating disorders primary prevention videotape using the Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Giselle F; Twigg, Kylie; Wertheim, Eleanor H; Paxton, Susan J

    2002-11-01

    The aim was to extend findings related to a previously reported eating disorders prevention program by comparing treatment and control groups, adding a follow-up, and examining whether receiver characteristics, personal relevance and need for cognition (NFC), could predict attitude change in early adolescent girls. Grade 7 girls were either shown a brief prevention videotape on dieting and body image (n = 104) or given no intervention (n = 114). All girls completed pre-, post- and 1-month follow-up questionnaires. The intervention group resulted in significantly more positive changes in attitude and knowledge at post-intervention, but only in knowledge at follow-up. There was no strong evidence that pre-intervention characteristics of recipients predicted responses to the videotape intervention when changes were compared to the control group. This prevention videotape appeared to have positive immediate effects, but additional intervention (e.g., booster sessions) may be required for longer-term change. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.

  6. Transient ischemic attack: diagnostic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messé, Steven R; Jauch, Edward C

    2008-08-01

    A transient ischemic attack portends significant risk of a stroke. Consequently, the diagnostic evaluation in the emergency department is focused on identifying high-risk causes so that preventive strategies can be implemented. The evaluation consists of a facilitated evaluation of the patient's metabolic, cardiac, and neurovascular systems. At a minimum, the following tests are recommended: fingerstick glucose level, electrolyte levels, CBC count, urinalysis, and coagulation studies; noncontrast computed tomography (CT) of the head; electrocardiography; and continuous telemetry monitoring. Vascular imaging studies, such as carotid ultrasonography, CT angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography, should be performed on an urgent basis and prioritized according to the patient's risk stratification for disease. Consideration should be given for echocardiography if no large vessel abnormality is identified.

  7. The Use of Videotape Recordings to Teach Clinical Skills (Evaluation and Remediation) In the Fields of Communicative Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeaud, Frances P.

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the benefits derived by speech and language pathology students who used video tape recordings to learn diagnosis of communication disorders, to observe professional therapists and therapy programs, and to improve their own clinical techniques through self-observation. The use of video tapes to teach clinical…

  8. Methodology for quantitative evaluation of diagnostic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, C.

    1981-01-01

    Of various approaches that might be taken to the diagnostic performance evaluation problem, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis holds great promise. Further development of the methodology for a unified, objective, and meaningful approach to evaluating the usefulness of medical imaging procedures is done by consideration of statistical significance testing, optimal sequencing of correlated studies, and analysis of observer performance

  9. Fluoroscopic and arthrographic evaluation of carpal instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunstein, E.M.; Louis, D.S.; Greene, T.L.; Hankin, F.M.

    1985-06-01

    The efficacy of a diagnostic protocol involving videotape fluoroscopy of carpal motion and radiocarpal arthrography was evaluated in patients with wrist pain unexplained by physical examination and conventional radiographs. Videotape fluoroscopy was performed as the first study in 68 consecutive cases and was positive in 44 (66%). Radiocarpal arthrography was performed after videotape fluoroscopy in 39 of the cases (57%), including the 24 in which videotape fluoroscopy was normal and 15 others in which further information was desired in spite of positive videotape fluoroscopy. The addition of radiocarpal arthrography to videotape fluoroscopy increased the diagnostic yield to 52 (76%) of the 68 cases and excluded significant anatomic or dynamic abnormality in the others. The diagnosis was proven surgically in 25 cases. This protocol was efficacious for ligament tears of the proximal carpal row, triangular fibrocartilage tears, and proximal and midcarpal instability.

  10. Evaluation of laboratory diagnostic methods for cryptosporidiosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conventional method of modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) is very laborious, and stool ... Objective: This research was set to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of ... 93.1% (MZN to ELISA) with ELISA techniques showing the highest sensitivity at ...

  11. Cognitive diagnostic assessment via Bayesian evaluation of informative diagnostic hypotheses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoijtink, Herbert; Béland, Sébastien; Vermeulen, Jorine A.

    2014-01-01

    There exist diverse approaches that can be used for cognitive diagnostic assessment, such as mastery testing, constrained latent class analysis, rule space methodology, diagnostic cognitive modeling, and person-fit analysis. Each of these approaches can be used within 1 of the 4 psychometric

  12. Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment via Bayesian Evaluation of Informative Diagnostic Hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoitink, Herbert; Beland, Sebastien; Vermeulen, Jorine

    2014-01-01

    There exist diverse approaches that can be used for cognitive diagnostic assessment, such as mastery testing, constrained latent class analysis, rule space methodology, diagnostic cognitive modeling, and person-fit analysis. Each of these approaches can be used within 1 of the 4 psychometric

  13. Internet Roadside Cafe #6. [Videotape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Library Association Video/Library Video Network, Towson, MD.

    This 30-minute videotape takes an in-depth look at World Wide Web business transactions, potential risks, client privacy and security issues by asking businesses and consumers how they do business on the Internet. Also featured in the program is advice about choosing a secure password, the use of credit cards for Web purchasing and a review of…

  14. Improving Instruction through a Videotape Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batesky, James

    1979-01-01

    Videotape and a videotape library can be used to expand the quality of instruction of a physical education program by allowing greater diversity of material taught and increased use of professionals and experts in various sports. (JMF)

  15. Methodology for evaluation of diagnostic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    Effort in this project during the past year has focused on the development, refinement, and distribution of computer software that will allow current Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) methodology to be used conveniently and reliably by investigators in a variety of evaluation tasks in diagnostic medicine; and on the development of new ROC methodology that will broaden the spectrum of evaluation tasks and/or experimental settings to which the fundamental approach can be applied. Progress has been limited by the amount of financial support made available to the project

  16. Empirical development of brief smoking prevention videotapes which target African-American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, S; Parker, V C; Lopes, C; Crippens, D L; Elder, P; Scholl, D

    1995-07-01

    Two studies are described which provide evaluations for two brief videotapes developed as supplemental materials in the prevention of tobacco use among African-American adolescents. One videotape (the "soap opera") provides a more general audience-oriented presentation of prevention material and it was filmed primarily at a shopping mall, whereas the other videotape (the "rap") provides a "hip-hop generation" presentation, and it was filmed primarily at an outdoor hangout. The first study compared the two videotapes against each other. The second study compared the two videotapes combined in the same presentation, controlling for order of presentation, against a discussion group control. The results of the two studies indicated few differences in receptivity to the two videotapes among primarily African-American and Latino young adolescents. The rap videotape was rated as more accurate in its depiction of the African-American lifestyle, although both videotapes were equally liked. When shown together, the videotapes were not found to be superior in decreasing behavioral intention to smoke compared to a discussion group control. No change in trial of smoking was observed within or across conditions measured over a pre-post summer interval. These data suggest that "culturally sensitive" videotapes have no more of a short-term effect on youth than do other types of brief interventions which involve minority implementers.

  17. Videotapes

    CERN Document Server

    Chavanne, A

    1989-01-01

    1666 : impact de la creation de l'Academie des Sciences par Colbert, trente ans apres le proces de Galile, et au moment des disparitions de Pascal, Descartes et Fermat. Elle dirigee par le hollandais Huyggens jusqu'a sa fuite de France au moment de la revocation de l'Edit de Nantes. - 1750 : l'Encyclopedie (ou "Dictionnaire raisonne des Sciences, des Arts et des Metiers") de Diderot et d'Alembert, soutenus par Malherbes, Buffon, Condorcet et Rousseau. - 1789 : Revolution francaise. - 8 aout 1793 : l'Assemblee, par une declaration de Marat, dissout l'Academie des Sciences. Celle-ci continue cependant ses travaux pour les poids et mesures jusqu'en 1795. - la Terreur : la condamnation a mort, pas au nom d'une "Revolution qui n'a pas besoin de savants", de trois grands hommes de science : Lavoisier, Bailly et Condorcet. - 1793-1794 : Au printemps 93, le Comite de Salut Publique s'inquiete du demi-million de soldats etrangers de toutes les pays frontaliers qui essaient de penetrer en France pour occuper le pays. C...

  18. Technology Is the Answer, But What Was the Question? Audiotape vs. Videotape for Individualized Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, Barbara Gerson; And Others

    1978-01-01

    In an evaluation of supplementary learning aids students were assigned to one of four learning conditions: (1) videotape plus worksheet, (2) audiotape plus worksheet, (3) combination of audio- and videotape plus worksheet, and (4) worksheet only. Results reported include test scores and ratings of helpfulness, as well as student preferences and…

  19. Improving early cycle economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda; Ramsey, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly increasing range and expense of new diagnostics, compels consideration of a different, more proactive approach to health economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies. Early cycle economic evaluation is a decision analytic approach to evaluate technologies in development so as to

  20. Diagnostic Evaluation of Effective Thyroxine Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Chul; Choi, Sang Jae; Ro, Heung Kyu; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-09-15

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of the ETR test as compared to other thyroid function tests in normal persons, patients with thyroid disorders and patients with alterations of thyroxine-binding proteins. The ETR values were obtained from 35 cases as normal control, 63 hyperthyroid patients, 56 euthyroid patients, 23 hypothyroid patients, 10 pregnant women, 5 women taking oral contraceptive medication, 8 liver cirrhosis patients and 4 nephrotic syndrome patients. The results obtained were as follows. 1) The mean value of ETR obtained from the normal controls was 0.99+-0.06. 2) The mean ETR values of various thyroid states were 1.25+-0.16 in hyperthyroidism, 0.99+-0.08 in euthyroidism and 0.82+-0.05 in hypothyroidism and significant difference was found between these groups. 3) Seven out of 63 hyperthyroid patients (11.1%) and 2 out of 23 hypothyroid patients (8.7%) had ETR values within normal range and among the 56 euthyroid patients 6 (10.7%) had ETR values outside normal range, so the diagnostic compatibility of ETR was 89.4% in thyroid diseases. 4) Even though the ETR value was well correlated with {sup 131}I-thyroid uptake rate, serum T{sub 3} resin uptake rate and serum T{sub 4}, a high positive correlation was found (r=0.79) between ETR and T{sub 7}. 5) The mean ETR values from patients with alteration in TBG binding capacity were 0.99+-0.05 in pregnant women, 0.98+-0.04 in women with oral contraceptive medication, 1.04+-0.09 in liver cirrhosis patients and 0.94+-0.02 in nephrotic syndrome patients and most of them (85.2%) had ETR values within normal range. Our results, therefore, suggests that the ETR estimation does offer the simplest and most reliable single procedure for the screening and diagnosis of various thyroid diseases as a indirect indicator of serum-free thyroxine concentration without essential influence of changes in the thyroxine-binding proteins in serum.

  1. Diagnostic Evaluation of Effective Thyroxine Ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Chul; Choi, Sang Jae; Ro, Heung Kyu; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of the ETR test as compared to other thyroid function tests in normal persons, patients with thyroid disorders and patients with alterations of thyroxine-binding proteins. The ETR values were obtained from 35 cases as normal control, 63 hyperthyroid patients, 56 euthyroid patients, 23 hypothyroid patients, 10 pregnant women, 5 women taking oral contraceptive medication, 8 liver cirrhosis patients and 4 nephrotic syndrome patients. The results obtained were as follows. 1) The mean value of ETR obtained from the normal controls was 0.99±0.06. 2) The mean ETR values of various thyroid states were 1.25±0.16 in hyperthyroidism, 0.99±0.08 in euthyroidism and 0.82±0.05 in hypothyroidism and significant difference was found between these groups. 3) Seven out of 63 hyperthyroid patients (11.1%) and 2 out of 23 hypothyroid patients (8.7%) had ETR values within normal range and among the 56 euthyroid patients 6 (10.7%) had ETR values outside normal range, so the diagnostic compatibility of ETR was 89.4% in thyroid diseases. 4) Even though the ETR value was well correlated with 131 I-thyroid uptake rate, serum T 3 resin uptake rate and serum T 4 , a high positive correlation was found (r=0.79) between ETR and T 7 . 5) The mean ETR values from patients with alteration in TBG binding capacity were 0.99±0.05 in pregnant women, 0.98±0.04 in women with oral contraceptive medication, 1.04±0.09 in liver cirrhosis patients and 0.94±0.02 in nephrotic syndrome patients and most of them (85.2%) had ETR values within normal range. Our results, therefore, suggests that the ETR estimation does offer the simplest and most reliable single procedure for the screening and diagnosis of various thyroid diseases as a indirect indicator of serum-free thyroxine concentration without essential influence of changes in the thyroxine-binding proteins in serum.

  2. Instructional Uses of Videotape: A Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Harold E.; And Others

    This collection of seven articles for the college teacher of speech relates specific ways that videotape has been used in training teachers and in teaching the fundamentals of speech, advanced public speaking, and discussion. Included are articles by (1) Harold E. Nelson, who explains how videotape is used in college speech classes to aid in…

  3. Evaluating Utility in Diagnostic Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, Jean R.

    1981-01-01

    The utility of the procedures special educators apply in making decisions about the identification of handicapped individuals has not been thoroughly studied. The paper examines the utility of diagnostic decision making from the perspective of receiver operating curve analysis. (Author)

  4. Colonoscopy: Evaluating indications and diagnostic yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shamali, Mohammed A.; Hasan, F.; Siddiqe, I.; Al-Nakeeb, B.; Kalaoui, M.; Khajah, A.

    2001-01-01

    Colonoscopic procedure is an accepted modality for the evaluation ofcolonic disease. Open-access versus restricted-access colonoscopy has beenargued over in the recent literature. The aim of this retrospective analysisis to identify the yield of the major indications for the procedure, and thepattern of colon pathology in our community. We retrospectively analyzed ourexperience in 3000 colonoscopies over a five-year period. The patientscomprised 1145 females (38%) and 1855 males (62%) and their ages ranged from9 months to 95 years (mean 39.2). There were 2283 patients (76%) who wereaged less than 55 years. Complete examination to the cecum was possible in2850 cases (95%). Pathological findings were identified in 640 patients(21%). The diagnostic yield of patients referred for lower abdominal pain andsurveillance was low, at 7% and 17%, respectively. The yield was high forthose with lower gastrointestinal bleeding (47%), non-bloody diarrhea (35%),iron deficiency anemia (30%), mass lesions identified by radiology (53%) andpolyps identified by radiology (70%). Inflammatory bowel disease wasdiagnosed in 220 patients, carcinoma in 64 patients and colonic polyps in 139patients. Colonic diseases are not uncommon in our part of the world.Colonoscopy is a rewarding procedure in those patients referred with lowergastrointestinal bleeding, mass lesions, polyps and diarrhea. The procedureis less rewarding in patients with lower abdominal pain and in thoseundergoing surveillance colonoscopy. Patient selection on the basis of thepresenting complaint may help to utilize the limited resource available togastroenterologists. About 63% of the procedures were done for indicationsfound to have a low yield. Inflammatory bowel disease is seen with increasingfrequency in our population. (author)

  5. [Chronic diarrhea: etiologies and diagnostic evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepfer, A

    2008-04-30

    Chronic diarrhea is defined as a decrease in fecal consistency lasting for four or more weeks. A myriad of disorders are associated with chronic diarrhea. In developed countries, chronic diarrhea is mostly caused by non-infectious diseases. There are four pathogenic mechanisms leading to chronic diarrhea: osmotic diarrhea, secretory diarrhea, inflammatory diarrhea, and dysmotility. Overlaps between these mechanisms are possible. A 72-hour fecal collection as well as the fasting test are important diagnostic tools to identify the underlying pathomechanism. The identification of the pathomechanism narrows down the possible etiologies of chronic diarrhea and allows therefore a cost-saving diagnostic workup. The endoscopy is well established in the workup of chronic diarrhea. This article gives an overview about the main causes and mechanisms leading to chronic diarrhea and proposes an algorithm for the diagnostic evalution.

  6. The evaluation and impact of diagnostic tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royal, H.D.; McNeil, B.J.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe the usefulness of the techniques that are applied to study the role of tests and point out their limitations. In many instances, complex tasks must be oversimplified in order to use currently available analytic tools. Certain tools, such as decision analysis, are useful not only because they can provide insight regarding the most favorable diagnostic/therapeutic strategies but also because they can identify areas where present knowledge is inadequate and thereby help put priorities on areas of research

  7. Diagnostics and performance evaluation of multikilohertz capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDuff, G.; Nunnally, W.C.; Rust, K.; Sarjeant, J.

    1980-01-01

    The observed performance of nanofarad polypropylene-silicone oil, mica paper, and polytetrafluoroethylene-silicone oil capacitors discharged in a 100-ns, 1-kA pulse with a pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz is presented. The test facility circuit, diagnostic parameters, and the preliminary test schedule are outlined as a basis for discussion of the observed failure locations and proposed failure mechanisms. Most of the test data and discussion presented involves the polypropylene-silicone oil units

  8. Methodology for quantitative evaluation of diagnostic medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, C.

    1980-01-01

    This report deals with the evaluation of the performance of diagnostic medical imaging procedures using the Receiver Operating Characteristic or ROC analysis. The development of new tests for the statistical significance of apparent differences between ROC curves is discussed

  9. Improving early cycle economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuten, Lotte M G; Ramsey, Scott D

    2014-08-01

    The rapidly increasing range and expense of new diagnostics, compels consideration of a different, more proactive approach to health economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies. Early cycle economic evaluation is a decision analytic approach to evaluate technologies in development so as to increase the return on investment as well as patient and societal impact. This paper describes examples of 'early cycle economic evaluations' as applied to diagnostic technologies and highlights challenges in its real-time application. It shows that especially in the field of diagnostics, with rapid technological developments and a changing regulatory climate, early cycle economic evaluation can have a guiding role to improve the efficiency of the diagnostics innovation process. In the next five years the attention will move beyond the methodological and analytic challenges of early cycle economic evaluation towards the challenge of effectively applying it to improve diagnostic research and development and patient value. Future work in this area should therefore be 'strong on principles and soft on metrics', that is, the metrics that resonate most clearly with the various decision makers in this field.

  10. Role of diagnostic tests in esophageal evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverstein, B.D.; Pope, C.E. II

    1980-01-01

    In the evaluation of esophageal disease, the appropriate question must be asked before the correct tests can be selected. Reflux can be demonstrated by radiologic methods, pH testing or radioisotopic techniques. Esophageal mucosal damage is best evaluated by x-ray, endoscopy, or biopsy. Chest pain is demonstrated by acid infusion or by manometry. Two algorithms are presented for the evaluation of chest pain and reflux symptoms

  11. Evaluation and construction of diagnostic criteria for inclusion body myositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammen, Andrew L.; Amato, Anthony A.; Weiss, Michael D.; Needham, Merrilee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To use patient data to evaluate and construct diagnostic criteria for inclusion body myositis (IBM), a progressive disease of skeletal muscle. Methods: The literature was reviewed to identify all previously proposed IBM diagnostic criteria. These criteria were applied through medical records review to 200 patients diagnosed as having IBM and 171 patients diagnosed as having a muscle disease other than IBM by neuromuscular specialists at 2 institutions, and to a validating set of 66 additional patients with IBM from 2 other institutions. Machine learning techniques were used for unbiased construction of diagnostic criteria. Results: Twenty-four previously proposed IBM diagnostic categories were identified. Twelve categories all performed with high (≥97%) specificity but varied substantially in their sensitivities (11%–84%). The best performing category was European Neuromuscular Centre 2013 probable (sensitivity of 84%). Specialized pathologic features and newly introduced strength criteria (comparative knee extension/hip flexion strength) performed poorly. Unbiased data-directed analysis of 20 features in 371 patients resulted in construction of higher-performing data-derived diagnostic criteria (90% sensitivity and 96% specificity). Conclusions: Published expert consensus–derived IBM diagnostic categories have uniformly high specificity but wide-ranging sensitivities. High-performing IBM diagnostic category criteria can be developed directly from principled unbiased analysis of patient data. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that published expert consensus–derived IBM diagnostic categories accurately distinguish IBM from other muscle disease with high specificity but wide-ranging sensitivities. PMID:24975859

  12. Cushing's disease: diagnostic evaluation, therapeutics and prognostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, M.A.A.; Jugue, S.M.; Moura, O.M.D.; Gross, K.; Halpern, A.; Nicolau, W.; Liberman, B.; Bloise, W.; Mendonca, B.; Cabral, N.D.; Marino Junior, R.; Wajchenberg, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    Aspects as clinical, diagnosis, laboratory tests and radiological evaluations concerning Cushing's disease are analysed in 56 patients. Several options of non medicamental therapy are presented. The relationship between preoperative data (hormonal and radiological information), postoperative findings and hypophyseal adenomectomy is discussed. (M.A.C.)

  13. Evaluation of the diagnostic performance and operational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of the study were (i) to assess the sensitivity and specificity of four on site rapid tests in comparison with Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA) as a gold standard and (ii) to evaluate the operational characteristics of those tests among health workers in a maternity unit. Methods: Four rapid ...

  14. Diagnostic evaluation of patients presenting with hirsutism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Zeki Tekiş

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hirsutism, similar to men, is the presence of terminal hairs in androgen-to sensitive areas in women. The present report aimed to study etiology and determine the prevalence of the diseases that causes hirsutism in these patients. Methods: In this study, total number of 40 patients who admitted because of hirsutism to Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism clinic was enrolled. Demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters of the patients were evaluated. Results: Result of the study showed that polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common cause of hirsutism. The second most common cause was found as idiopathic hirsutism. Conclusion: By the present study, etiologic factors of hirsutism were examined firstly in our region in which Ethnic and cultural diversity is concentrated. In rare cases like Cushing's syndrome, hyperprolactinemia, non-classic adrenal hyperplasia, androgen-secreting tumors should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hirsutism. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 69-75

  15. Method of evaluation of diagnostics reference levels in computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Walter Flores

    1999-04-01

    Computerized tomography is a complex technique with several selectable exposition parameters delivering high doses to the patient. In this work it was developed a simple methodology to evaluate diagnostic reference levels in computerized tomography, using the concept of Multiple Scan Average Dose (MSAD), recently adopted by the Health Ministry. For evaluation of the MSAD, a dose distribution was obtained through a measured dose profile on the axial axis of a water phantom with thermoluminescence dosemeters, TLD-100, for different exam technique. The MSAD was evaluated hrough two distinct methods. First, it was evaluated by the integration of the dose profile of a single slice and, second, obtained by the integration on central slice of the profile of several slices. The latter is in of accordance with the ionization chamber method, suggesting to be the most practical method of dose evaluation to be applied in the diagnostic reference level assessment routine for CT, using TLDs. (author)

  16. Space Science in Action: Space Exploration [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    In this videotape recording, students learn about the human quest to discover what is out in space. Students see the challenges and benefits of space exploration including the development of rocket science, a look back at the space race, and a history of manned space travel. A special section on the Saturn V rocket gives students insight into the…

  17. Adding Feminist Therapy to Videotape Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Jennifer L.; Yoder, Janice D.

    2000-01-01

    Provides directions for presenting a 32-minute series of four videotape segments that highlights the fundamental features of four approaches to psychotherapy, extending its reach to include a feminist perspective. Describes the approaches and included segments. Reports that students' comments demonstrate that the video sequence provided a helpful…

  18. Space Science in Action: Earth's Atmosphere [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    In this videotape recording, students learn about the layers of the atmosphere and why each is important to the survival of life on the planet. Students discover why the atmosphere is responsible for weather and see how special aircraft actually fly into hurricanes. Students build their own working barometer in a hands-on activity. Contents…

  19. Uncertainty during breast diagnostic evaluation: state of the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Mariann

    2010-01-01

    To present the state of the science on uncertainty in relationship to the experiences of women undergoing diagnostic evaluation for suspected breast cancer. Published articles from Medline, CINAHL, PubMED, and PsycINFO from 1983-2008 using the following key words: breast biopsy, mammography, uncertainty, reframing, inner strength, and disruption. Fifty research studies were examined with all reporting the presence of anxiety persisting throughout the diagnostic evaluation until certitude is achieved through the establishment of a definitive diagnosis. Indirect determinants of uncertainty for women undergoing breast diagnostic evaluation include measures of anxiety, depression, social support, emotional responses, defense mechanisms, and the psychological impact of events. Understanding and influencing the uncertainty experience have been suggested to be key in relieving psychosocial distress and positively influencing future screening behaviors. Several studies examine correlational relationships among anxiety, selection of coping methods, and demographic factors that influence uncertainty. A gap exists in the literature with regard to the relationship of inner strength and uncertainty. Nurses can be invaluable in assisting women in coping with the uncertainty experience by providing positive communication and support. Nursing interventions should be designed and tested for their effects on uncertainty experienced by women undergoing a breast diagnostic evaluation.

  20. Evaluation of microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests in screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by the protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. Infection of individual is through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. This study evaluated the performance of microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in diagnosing malaria. A total of 400 clinically suspected malaria ...

  1. Diagnostic evaluation of rare lesions of the arteria poplitea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.; Christopoulos, G.; Froehner, S.; Binder, F.; Schweiger, H.

    2001-01-01

    Clinical and radiological findings of six patients are discussed who, due to a specific pathology of the arteria poplitea, developed claudicatio primarily in the lower leg. Applying MS-CT and MRI, the following lesions of the arteria poplitea wer found: bilateral aneurysm verum (1 case), unilateral aneurysm spurium (1 case), the arteria magna syndrome (1 case), entrapment syndrome (2 cases), and cystic adventitia degeneration. The outstanding diagnostic value of MR angiography combined with MR imaging is explained. Good knowledge of the specific pathology of the arteria poplitea is pre-requisite of efficient diagnostic evaluation, and prevention of thromboembolic complications, or ineffective therapy. (orig./CB) [de

  2. The evaluation of diagnostic medical exposures in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, K.; Klener, V.; Heribanova, A.; Husak, V.; Masopust, J.

    1998-01-01

    Surveys were performed in the Czech Republic to evaluate diagnostic medical exposures. The results are presented in 4 tables: (i) burden from the use of radiopharmaceuticals (examination, radiopharmaceutical, no. of procedures, average administered activity, conversion factor, collective effective dose); (ii) use of radiopharmaceuticals at nuclear medicine departments (type of examination, type of radiopharmaceutical, no. of departments, average administered activity); (iii) reference levels of administered activity specified for some diagnostic procedures for the adult patient (examination, radionuclide, chemical form, administered activity); and (iv) X-ray examinations (examination, annual no. of procedures, effective dose, age distribution, sex distribution). (P.A.)

  3. Laboratories and Demonstrations in Child Development with Unedited Videotapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Debra Ann

    1986-01-01

    Multipurpose demonstrations of child development are easy to produce by videotaping children while they interact with parents, siblings, or friends. Unlike commercial films, videotapes without narration allow students to formulate and test their own research questions. This article describes how to use unedited videotapes for laboratories in…

  4. "Yes! Animation Is Possible with Your Videotape Recorder!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Alfreda; Martin, Ron

    1987-01-01

    Describes a project in which students are involved in producing an animated videotape recording and discusses the advantages of modern videotape equipment over other film media. An outline of the process covers materials used, storyboard and artwork production, videotaping procedures, and audio dubbing. (CLB)

  5. Evaluating online diagnostic decision support tools for the clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Marie; White, David; Potter, Bronwyn; Traill, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Clinical decision support tools available at the point of care are an effective adjunct to support clinicians to make clinical decisions and improve patient outcomes. We developed a methodology and applied it to evaluate commercially available online clinical diagnostic decision support (DDS) tools for use at the point of care. We identified 11 commercially available DDS tools and assessed these against an evaluation instrument that included 6 categories; general information, content, quality control, search, clinical results and other features. We developed diagnostically challenging clinical case scenarios based on real patient experience that were commonly missed by junior medical staff. The evaluation was divided into 2 phases; an initial evaluation of all identified and accessible DDS tools conducted by the Clinical Information Access Portal (CIAP) team and a second phase that further assessed the top 3 tools identified in the initial evaluation phase. An evaluation panel consisting of senior and junior medical clinicians from NSW Health conducted the second phase. Of the eleven tools that were assessed against the evaluation instrument only 4 tools completely met the DDS definition that was adopted for this evaluation and were able to produce a differential diagnosis. From the initial phase of the evaluation 4 DDS tools scored 70% or more (maximum score 96%) for the content category, 8 tools scored 65% or more (maximum 100%) for the quality control category, 5 tools scored 65% or more (maximum 94%) for the search category, and 4 tools score 70% or more (maximum 81%) for the clinical results category. The second phase of the evaluation was focused on assessing diagnostic accuracy for the top 3 tools identified in the initial phase. Best Practice ranked highest overall against the 6 clinical case scenarios used. Overall the differentiating factor between the top 3 DDS tools was determined by diagnostic accuracy ranking, ease of use and the confidence and

  6. Statistical evaluation of diagnostic performance topics in ROC analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, Kelly H; Bandos, Andriy I; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Rockette, Howard E

    2016-01-01

    Statistical evaluation of diagnostic performance in general and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis in particular are important for assessing the performance of medical tests and statistical classifiers, as well as for evaluating predictive models or algorithms. This book presents innovative approaches in ROC analysis, which are relevant to a wide variety of applications, including medical imaging, cancer research, epidemiology, and bioinformatics. Statistical Evaluation of Diagnostic Performance: Topics in ROC Analysis covers areas including monotone-transformation techniques in parametric ROC analysis, ROC methods for combined and pooled biomarkers, Bayesian hierarchical transformation models, sequential designs and inferences in the ROC setting, predictive modeling, multireader ROC analysis, and free-response ROC (FROC) methodology. The book is suitable for graduate-level students and researchers in statistics, biostatistics, epidemiology, public health, biomedical engineering, radiology, medi...

  7. [Situational diagnostic of an evaluation process of professional perfomance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Vera Lúcia Mira; Leite, Maria Madalena Januário

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to realize a diagnostic situational about the evaluation process of the nursing team performance of USP Hospital. Based in two guiding questions, it was carried out 9 interviews with nurses of this hospital. These interviews were analyzed according Analyze of Contend. The most frequent themes were: The meaning of evaluation; the feelings; the difficulties and facilities concerning the instrument and the capacitacion. This experience brought about many feelings, as well as aspects that either favor or make the execution of the evaluation difficult, showing the principal points of vulnerability of the process and, therefore, deserving better attention and short-term intervention.

  8. Evaluation of radiation protection in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Ezzeldien Mohammed Nour

    2013-05-01

    This study conducted to evaluate the radiation protection in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures in four nuclear medicine departments in Sudan. The evaluated procedures followed in these departments were in accordance with the standards, International Recommendations and code of practice for radiation protection in nuclear medicine. The evolution included the optimum design for diagnostic nuclear medicine departments, dealing with radioactive sources, quality assurance and quality control, training and responsibilities for radiation worker taking into account economic factors in Sudan. Evaluation of radiation protection procedures in diagnostic investigations was carried out by taken direct measurements of dose rate and the contamination level in some areas where radiation sources, radiation workers and public are involved. Designated questionnaires covered thirteen areas of radiation protection based on inspection check list for nuclear medicine prepared by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and American Association of Physicist in Medicine (AAPM) were used in the evaluation. This questionnaire has been Filled by Radiation Protection Officer (RPO), nuclear medicine technologist, nuclear medicine specialist in the nuclear medicine departments. Four hospitals, two governmental hospital and two private hospitals, have been assisted, the assessment shows that although the diagnostic nuclear medicine department in Sudan are not applying a fully safety and radiation protection procedures, but the level of radiation dose and the contamination level were found within acceptable limits. The private hospital D scored the higher level of protection (85.25%) while the governmental hospital C scored the lower level of protection (59.02%). Finally, this study stated some recommendations that if implemented could improve the level of radiation protection in nuclear medicine department. One of the most important recommendations is that a proper radiation protection

  9. The Evaluation of Diagnostic Tests for Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max A Chernesky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic tests should receive method- and use-effectiveness evaluations. Method-effectiveness evaluations determine sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for new tests. Use-effectiveness evaluations determine how practical or convenient a new test will be in a specific setting and may not be performed in a formal way in North American laboratories. To perform a clinical method evaluation of diagnostic tests, a good relationship between laboratory and clinical personnel is essential. Studies are usually conducted separately on populations of men and women, and should include sampling from different prevalence groups. Test performance comparisons may be made on a single specimen type or on more than one specimen from the same patient, which allows for the expansion of a reference standard and includes the ability of a particular assay, performed on a specimen type to diagnose an infected individual. The following components of the evaluation should be standardized and carefully followed: specimen identification; collection; transportation; processing; quality control; reading; proficiency testing; confirmatory testing; discordant analysis -- sensitivity, specificity and predictive value calculations; and record keeping. Methods are available to determine whether sample results are true or false positives or negatives. Use-effectiveness evaluations might determine the stability or durability of supplies and equipment; the logistics of shipping, receiving and storing supplies; the clarity and completeness of test instructions; the time and effort required to process and read results; the subjectivity factors in interpretation and reporting; and the costs. These determinations are usually more apparent for commercial assays than for homemade tests.

  10. Facial diplegia: etiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnostic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefer Varol

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Facial diplegia (FD is a rare neurological manifestation with diverse causes. This article aims to systematically evaluate the etiology, diagnostic evaluation and treatment of FD. Method The study was performed retrospectively and included 17 patients with a diagnosis of FD. Results Patients were diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS (11, Bickerstaff’s brainstem encephalitis (1, neurosarcoidosis (1, non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (1, tuberculous meningitis (1 herpes simplex reactivation (1 and idiopathic (1. In addition, two patients had developed FD during pregnancy. Conclusion Facial diplegia is an ominous symptom with widely varying causes that requires careful investigation.

  11. Quality of dementia diagnostic evaluation for ethnic minority patients: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T Rune; Andersen, Birgitte Bo; Kastrup, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims: Diagnostic evaluation of dementia for ethnic minority patients may be challenging. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of diagnostic evaluation of dementia for patients from ethnic minorities in Denmark. Methods: The Danish national hospital registers were used to identify p......: There are significant ethnic disparities in the quality of diagnostic evaluations and outcome of dementia in the secondary healthcare sector....

  12. Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donné, A.J.H.; Costley, A.E.; Barnsley, R.

    2007-01-01

    of the measurements—time and spatial resolutions, etc—will in some cases be more stringent. Many of the measurements will be used in the real time control of the plasma driving a requirement for very high reliability in the systems (diagnostics) that provide the measurements. The implementation of diagnostic systems...... on ITER is a substantial challenge. Because of the harsh environment (high levels of neutron and gamma fluxes, neutron heating, particle bombardment) diagnostic system selection and design has to cope with a range of phenomena not previously encountered in diagnostic design. Extensive design and R......&D is needed to prepare the systems. In some cases the environmental difficulties are so severe that new diagnostic techniques are required. The starting point in the development of diagnostics for ITER is to define the measurement requirements and develop their justification. It is necessary to include all...

  13. Clinical diagnostic evaluation for scaphoid fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mallee, Wouter H.; Henny, Erik P.; van Dijk, C. Niek; Kamminga, Sjoerd P.; van Enst, Wynanda A.; Kloen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    To provide an overview of available clinical evaluation tests for scaphoid fractures and to compare their diagnostic accuracies. PWe performed a systematic review of all studies assessing diagnostic characteristics of clinical evaluation in scaphoid fractures by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane,

  14. Medical Student Assessment of Videotape for Teaching in Diagnostic Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, J. R.; McLachlan, M. S. F.

    1976-01-01

    A series of six recordings that describe some aspects of the radiology of the chest, using only radiographs, were viewed by a small group of final year medical students. Their scores for factual questions immediately afterwards were compared with their attitudes to the learning experience; higher scores correlated with positive attitudes. (LBH)

  15. Diagnostic Evaluation of Nontraumatic Chest Pain in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Byron; Bryan, Sean; Farrar, Ted; Salud, Chris; Visser, Gary; Decuba, Raymond; Renelus, Deborah; Buckley, Tyler; Dressing, Michael; Peterkin, Nicholas; Coris, Eric

    This article is a clinically relevant review of the existing medical literature relating to the assessment and diagnostic evaluation for athletes complaining of nontraumatic chest pain. The literature was searched using the following databases for the years 1975 forward: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; CINAHL; PubMed (MEDLINE); and SportDiscus. The general search used the keywords chest pain and athletes. The search was revised to include subject headings and subheadings, including chest pain and prevalence and athletes. Cross-referencing published articles from the databases searched discovered additional articles. No dissertations, theses, or meeting proceedings were reviewed. The authors discuss the scope of this complex problem and the diagnostic dilemma chest pain in athletes can provide. Next, the authors delve into the vast differential and attempt to simplify this process for the sports medicine physician by dividing potential etiologies into cardiac and noncardiac conditions. Life-threatening causes of chest pain in athletes may be cardiac or noncardiac in origin, which highlights the need for the sports medicine physician to consider pathology in multiple organ systems simultaneously. This article emphasizes the importance of ruling out immediately life threatening diagnoses, while acknowledging the most common causes of noncardiac chest pain in young athletes are benign. The authors propose a practical algorithm the sports medicine physician can use as a guide for the assessment and diagnostic work-up of the athlete with chest pain designed to help the physician arrive at the correct diagnosis in a clinically efficient and cost-effective manner.

  16. Evaluations of gonad and fetal doses for diagnostic radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, C J; Tsai, H Y

    1999-07-01

    A national survey of patient doses for diagnostic radiology was planned in the Republic of China. We performed a pilot study for this survey to develop a protocol of the dose assessments. Entrance skin doses and organ (including ovary, testicle and uterus) doses were measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters and calculated by means of Monte Carlo simulations for several diagnostic procedures. We derived a formula and used the RadComp software for the computation of entrance skin doses. This formula involves several factors, such as kVp, mAs, the focus-to-skin-distance and aluminum filtration. RadComp software was applied to obtain free-air entrance exposures which were converted to entrance skin doses by considering the backscattering radiation from the body. Organ doses were measured using a RANDO phantom and calculated using a mathematical phantom for several diagnostic examinations. Genetically significant doses were calculated from ovary and testicle doses for the evaluation of hereditary effects. Embryo/fetal doses were determined from the uterine doses by considering the increase in uterus size with gestational age. We found that the patient doses studied in this work were all below the reference doses recommended by the National Radiological Protection Board of the U.K.

  17. Evaluation of PC-based diagnostic radiology workstations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, T.; Brueggenwerth, G.; Kaulfuss, K.; Niederlag, W.

    2000-01-01

    Material and Methods: During February 1999 and September 1999 medical users at the hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt Germany had tested 7 types of radiology diagnostic workstations. Two types of test methods were used: In test type 1 ergonomic and handling functions were evaluated impartial according to 78 selected user requirements. In test type 2 radiologists and radiographers (3+4) performed 23 work flow steps with a subjectively evaluation. Results: By using a progressive rating no product could fully meet the user requirements. As a result of the summary evaluation for test 1 and test 2 the following compliance rating was calculated for the different products: Rad Works (66%), Magic View (63%), ID-Report (58%), Impax 3000 (53%), Medical Workstation (52%), Pathspeed (46%) and Autorad (39%). (orig.) [de

  18. Evaluation of two-beam spectroscopy as a plasma diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, B.D.

    1980-04-01

    A two-beam spectroscopy (TBS) system is evaluated theoretically and experimentally. This new spectroscopic technique uses correlations between components of emitted light separated by a small difference in angle of propagation. It is thus a non-perturbing plasma diagnostic which is shown to provide local (as opposed to line-of-sight averaged) information about fluctuations in the density of light sources within a plasma - information not obtainable by the usual spectroscopic methods. The present design is an improvement on earlier systems proposed in a thesis by Rostler

  19. The Effectiveness of Substance Abuse Prevention Videotapes with Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polansky, Joan M.; Buki, Lydia P.; Horan, John J.; Ceperich, Sherry Dyche; Burows, Deborah Dyer

    1999-01-01

    The effectiveness of three substance-abuse-prevention videotapes derived from contrasting theoretical frameworks was evaluated using 312 rural Mexican-American students in grades seven through eight. The assertion-training video produced higher levels of assertiveness among ninth-graders; the others had no impact. Discusses the importance of…

  20. Diagnostic evaluation of dementia in the secondary health care sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phung, Thien Kieu Thi; Andersen, Birgitte Bo; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We conducted a nationwide registry-based study of the quality of diagnostic evaluation for dementia in the secondary health care sector. METHOD: Two hundred patients were randomly selected from the patient population (4,682 patients) registered for the first time with a dementia...... diagnosis in the nationwide hospital registries during the last 6 months of 2003. Through medical record review, we evaluated the completeness of the work-up on which the dementia diagnosis was based, using evidence-based dementia guidelines as reference standards. RESULTS: Satisfactory or acceptable...... completion of the basic dementia work-up was documented in 51.3% of the patients. Only 11.5% of those with unsatisfactory work-up were referred to follow-up investigations. Dementia syndrome was confirmed in 88.5% of the cases, but correct subtypes were diagnosed in only 35.1%. CONCLUSION: The adherence...

  1. Legal IEPs: A Common Sense Approach with Barbara Bateman. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Div. for Learning Disabilities.

    In this 2-hour videotape workshop designed for teachers, administrators, parents, and others, Dr. Barbara Bateman answers many key questions that have been raised about Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) since the 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the 1999 regulations. The videotape reviews the…

  2. All about Mammals. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    In this videotape, students learn more about the characteristics of common warm-blooded mammals and what makes them different from other animals. Children also find out how humans are more advanced in structure than other mammals, but how they still share the same basic traits. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education…

  3. Evaluation of pain in outpatient diagnostic hysteroscopy with gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Barreto Fraguglia Quental Diniz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the intensity of pain reported by patients undergoing outpatient diagnostic hysteroscopy. Methods: Exam performed with a 5-mm lens hysteroscope, vaginal speculum, tenaculum and uterine distention with carbon dioxide gas. Before and after the examination, patients were interviewed to define, in a verbal scale from 0 to 10, pain values that they expected to feel and that they experienced after the end, and also if they would repeat it if indicated. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 15.0, statistic significance was defined as p < 0.05 with a study power of 95%. Results: Fifty-eight patients were included with mean age of 50.9 years, with 32.8% at postmenopause and 6.9% nulliparous. Among those with previous deliveries, mean parity was 2.21 and at least one vaginal delivery had occurred in 63.8%. Only 24.1% of patients knew how the exam would be done, 62.1% needed an endometrial sample and the result was considered satisfactory in 89.7%. The means of expected and experienced pain were similar (6.0 versus 6.1, and 91.4% of women would repeat the hysteroscopy if necessary. The only factor associated with less pain after the exam was previous vaginal delivery, with a decrease of pain score from 7.1 to 5.5 (p = 0.03. Mean pain was significantly lower in those who agreed to repeat the exam (5.8 versus 9.4; p = 0.003. Conclusions: Outpatient diagnostic hysteroscopy with gas can be associated with moderate but tolerable discomfort and satisfactory results.

  4. FISH analysis for diagnostic evaluation of challenging melanocytic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, A K; Hirschmann, A; Pfeiffer, D; Paredes, B E; Diebold, J

    2010-09-01

    The differential diagnosis of malignant melanomas and atypical melanocytic nevi is still a diagnostic challenge. The currently accepted morphologic criteria show substantial interobserver variability, likewise immunohistochemical studies are often not able to discriminate these lesions reliably. Techniques that support diagnostic accuracy are of the greatest importance considering the growing incidence of malignant melanomas and their increase in younger patients. In this study we analyzed the feasibility of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for the discrimination of malignant and benign melanocytic tumors. A panel of DNA probes was used to detect chromosomal aberrations of chromosomes 6 and 11. On a series of 5 clearly malignant and benign melanocytic tumors we confirmed the applicability of the test. Then we focused on examination of ambiguous melanocytic lesions, where atypical cells are often difficult to relocalize in the 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindol (DAPI)-fluorescence stain. FISH analyses were conducted on destained H&E-stained slides. By comparison of the DAPI-image with photos taken from the H&E stain, unambiguous assignment of the FISH results to the conspicuous groups of cells was possible. The results of FISH analysis were consistent with the conventional diagnosis in 11 of 14 small ambiguous lesions. Of the remaining 3 cases, 2 showed FISH-results close to the cut-off level. Comparison of FISH results on thin and thick sections revealed that the cut-off values have to be adapted for 2 microm destained sections. In conclusion, FISH analysis is a useful and applicable tool for assessment of even smallest melanocytic neoplasms, although there will remain unclear cases that cannot be solved even after additional FISH evaluation.

  5. Clinical diagnostic potentials of thyroid ultrasonography and scintigraphy; An evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torizuka, Tatsuo; Kasagi, Kanji; Hatabu, Hiroto; Misaki, Takashi; Iida, Yasuhiro; Konishi, Junji (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Hospital); Endo, Keigo

    1993-06-01

    This prospective study was designed to evaluate the potential contributions of high resolution ultrasonography (US) and Tc-99m scintigraphy in the routine diagnosis of thyroid disease. The diagnostic impacts of US and Tc-99m scintigraphy results in 177 patients visiting our thyroid clinic were assessed and scored according to the following criteria: when the information provided by either test supported, confirmed or changed the initial clinical diagnosis, they received scores of 2, 3 and 4 respectively, while score 1 was given when the test itself was useless for the differential diagnosis. US identified focal lesions that both palpation and scintigraphy had failed to detect in 14 (12.1%) of 116 patients with diffuse thyroid diseases, suggesting the necessity of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, adenoma, adenocarcinoma and adenomatous goiter, and vice versa in the diagnosis of hyperthyroid and euthyroid Graves's diseases. Thus, the advantages of US over scintigraphy for morphological evaluation were confirmed. US was particularly useful for the differential diagnosis of adenomatous goiter from Hashimoto's thyroiditis or a single nodular disease. In contrast, scintigraphy gave functional images, being especially helpful for the differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis. (author).

  6. Quality of life evaluation of workers for diagnostic radiology services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Ivani Martins

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of diagnostic radiology services workers at a hospital of Sao Paulo city. It aimed also to draw the profile of these workers identifying the variables, as its influence on their quality of life. A descriptive exploratory study with qualitative and quantitative approaches was carried out. The data were collected using the questionnaires: the abbreviated instrument for the assessment of the QOL, World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument bref (WHOQOL-bref) and a questionnaire including the social demographic variables, work conditions and the variables that express the lifestyle of individuals, both questionnaires self-applied. The sample was formed by 118 workers, among them: physicians, technologists/technicians in radiology, nurses, technicians and assistants in nursing, and others health professionals. The data analysis included descriptive statistics, nonparametric tests and the use of a linear regression model. The reliability of the instrument for the studied sample was verified by Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient (α). The WHOQOL-bref proved to be an adequate instrument, with a good level of internal consistency (α=0.884), being easily and quickly administrated for the evaluation of the QOL. The study provided an overview of the perception of quality of life of the studied group. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the field size in dental diagnostic radiology system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, P.S.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this work the field size of a dental X rays machine was evaluated considering the recommendation of the Brazilian Health Ministry Regulation 453 which established basic lines of radiological protection in medical and dental diagnostic radiology. The diameter of the field should not be superior to 6 cm in the localized end point, limiting the radiated area and protecting the head-neck region. The measurements were carried out in a dental X rays machine, Dabi Atlante, model Spectro 70X Seletronic. For the field size or useful beam determination, the intra-oral films were positioned on a plain surface to be exposed in four stages and two focus-film distances (FFD), 20 cm and 27.5 cm: 1) with spacer cone; 2) without spacer cone; 3) with spacer cone and film-holding device; 4) without spacer cone and film-holding device. The results show that the diameter of the field size is satisfactory only for FFD = 20 cm. When the film-holding device is used, which is recommended by the Regulation 453, item 5.8 d(ii), the diameter of the field size exceeds the maximum recommended value of 6 cm. (authors)

  8. MR imaging for diagnostic evaluation of encephalopathy in the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Manohar M; Soares-Fernandes, João P; Whyte, Hilary; Raybaud, Charles

    2010-05-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is used with increasing frequency to evaluate the neonatal brain because it can provide important diagnostic and prognostic information that is needed for optimal treatment and appropriate counseling. Special care must be taken in preparing encephalopathic neonates for an MR study, transporting them from the intensive care unit, monitoring their vital signs, and optimizing MR sequences and protocols. Moreover, to accurately interpret the findings, specific knowledge is needed about the normal MR imaging appearances of the physiologic processes of myelination, cell migration, and sulcation, as well as patterns of injury, in the neonatal brain at various stages of gestational development. Hypoxic-ischemic injury, the most common cause of neonatal encephalopathy, has characteristic appearances that depend on the severity and duration of the insult as well as the stage of brain development. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging and MR spectroscopy depict abnormalities earlier than do conventional MR imaging sequences. However, diffusion-weighted imaging, if performed in the first 24 hours after the insult, might lead to underestimation of the extent of injury. When the MR findings are atypical, the differential diagnosis of neonatal encephalopathy also should include congenital and metabolic disorders and infectious diseases. Despite recent advances in the MR imaging-based characterization of these conditions, the clinical history must be borne in mind to achieve an accurate diagnosis.

  9. Evaluation of the effectiveness of gonad protection in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaura, Chiyo; Aoyama, Takahiko; Koyama, Shuji

    2004-01-01

    In the present study we describes the evaluation of the effectiveness of gonad protection in diagnostic radiology based on the measurement of organ and the effective doses with and without lead clothing to gonads. We devised in-phantom dosimetry system and measured organ and effective doses in x-ray radiography and CT examinations with the new dosimetry system. From the data of organ and the effective doses we assessed the effectiveness of radiological protection by the use of lead clothing to gonads. Although in chest radiography and chest CT examinations, the effectiveness of radiological protection was not found, in the case of hip joint radiography (AP), gonad doses decreased remarkably by using lead clothing. The effectiveness of radiological protection, i.e. the ratio of the decreased dose to the dose value without protection, in testis and ovary were found to be 91.4% and 68.0%, respectively. It was also found that gonad doses observed with and without gonad protection were extremely lower than those of threshold for sterility recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection 60 (ICRP Publ. 60). (author)

  10. [Evaluation of the effectiveness of gonad protection in diagnostic radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaura, Chiyo; Aoyama, Takahiko; Koyama, Shuji

    2004-01-01

    In the present study we describe the evaluation of the effectiveness of gonad protection in diagnostic radiology based on the measurement of organ and the effective doses with and without lead clothing to gonads. We devised in-phantom dosimetry system and measured organ and effective doses in x-ray radiography and CT examinations with the new dosimetry system. From the data of organ and the effective doses we assessed the effectiveness of radiological protection by the use of lead clothing to gonads. Although in chest radiography and chest CT examinations, the effectiveness of radiological protection was not found, in the case of hip joint radiography (AP), gonad doses decreased remarkably by using lead clothing. The effectiveness of radiological protection, i.e. the ratio of the decreased dose to the dose value without protection, in testis and ovary were found to be 91.4% and 68.0%, respectively. It was also found that gonad doses observed with and without gonad protection were extremely lower than those of threshold for sterility recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection 60 (ICRP Publ. 60).

  11. Evaluation of coproexamination as a diagnostic test for avian botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Wayne I.

    1981-01-01

    Fecal extracts and blood sera from 113 ducks showing clinical signs of botulism were examined for Clostridium botulinum type C toxin by means of the mouse toxicity test to evaluate coproexamination as a diagnostic procedure, as compared with demonstration of toxin in serum. When death of test mice unprotected with type specific antitoxin (while protected controls survived) was the criterion, 78.8% of the sera and 5.3% of the fecal extracts were positive. When characteristic signs of intoxication in the unprotected mice was included as evidence of toxin in the specimens, these percentages increased to 86.7 and 6.2, respectively.Fecal specimens were collected hourly for the first 6 h after peroral dosing of eight mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) with 1.0 LD50, of type C toxin and at 24, 48, and 72 h from birds surviving that long. From 2 to 4 toxin-positive specimens were passed by all eight ducks during the first 6 h, five specimens were positive at 24 h, and three were positive at 48 h. Only three specimens were collected at 72 h, all of which were negative. These findings suggest that attempts to detect toxin in the feces of wild ducks might have been more successful had the birds been captured earlier in the course of the disease.

  12. Usefulness of Videotape Instruction in an Academic Department of Neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, David M.; Kaufman, Rita G.

    1983-01-01

    Videotape instruction produced better performance in identification in only certain areas in a neurology clerkship: neuropsychologic phenomena, disorders with subtle or unique movements, and seizures. The choice and cost of equipment and some professional assurances are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  13. Diagnostic information management system for the evaluation of medical images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, Toshiaki; Torizuka, Kanji; Minato, Kotaro; Komori, Masaru; Hirakawa, Akina

    1985-04-01

    A practical, small and low-cost diagnostic information management system has been developed for a comparative study of various medical imaging procedures, including ordinary radiography, X-ray computed tomography, emission computed tomography, and so forth. The purpose of the system is to effectively manage the original image data files and diagnostic descriptions during the various imaging procedures. A diagnostic description of each imaging procedure for each patient is made on a hand-sort punched-card with line-drawings and ordinary medical terminology and then coded and computerized using Index for Roentgen Diagnoses (American College of Radiology). A database management software (DB Master) on a personal computer (Apple II) is used for searching for patients' records on hand-sort punched-cards and finally original medical images. Discussed are realistic use of medical images and an effective form of diagnostic descriptions.

  14. Diagnostic information management system for the evaluation of medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higa, Toshiaki; Torizuka, Kanji; Minato, Kotaro; Komori, Masaru; Hirakawa, Akina.

    1985-01-01

    A practical, small and low-cost diagnostic information management system has been developed for a comparative study of various medical imaging procedures, including ordinary radiography, X-ray computed tomography, emission computed tomography, and so forth. The purpose of the system is to effectively manage the original image data files and diagnostic descriptions during the various imaging procedures. A diagnostic description of each imaging procedure for each patient is made on a hand-sort punched-card with line-drawings and ordinary medical terminology and then coded and computerized using Index for Roentgen Diagnoses (American College of Radiology). A database management software (DB Master) on a personal computer (Apple II) is used for searching for patients' records on hand-sort punched-cards and finally original medical images. Discussed are realistic use of medical images and an effective form of diagnostic descriptions. (author)

  15. Applications of ROC analysis in diagnostic image evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    The need for Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis is indicated by a discussion of the limitations of accuracy and of sensitivity and specificity as indices of diagnostic detection or discrmination performance. The concept of a variable decision threshold is shown to lead in a natural way to the ROC curve as a means for specifying diagnostic performance. Practical techniques for measuring ROC curves are described, and directions for possible generalizations of conventional ROC analysis are indicated

  16. Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of cerebral aneurysms on MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Hitoshi

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MR angiography (MRA) for detection of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) by prospective and retrospective examinations. The detection rates for MRA were: 3D time-of-flight (TOF), 94.2% (n=69); 3D phase contrast (PC), 75% (n=20); 2D TOF, 68% (n=25); and 2D PC, 59.4% (n=32). In aneurysms smaller than 5-mm, the detection rates were: 3D TOF, 87.9% (n=33); 3D PC, 42.9% (n=7); 2D TOF, 0% (n=8); and 2D PC, 14.3% (n=14). In the detection of IAs smaller than 5-mm, 3D TOF was superior to other MRA methods. Four IAs could not be detected by 3D TOF with a standard voxel size. These four IAs smaller than 3-mm were detected by 3D TOF with a small voxel size. In the blinded examination, the detection rate of IAs using MIP images was 71.8%, however, it using MIP and source images was 93.5%. False positive cases were reduced by using source images. In prospective study including 200 cases, IAs smaller than 5-mm were detected in 12 individuals underwent conventional angiography or CT angiography. Seven of them were true positive, however, 5 smaller than 2-mm on MRA were false positive. In conclusions, IAs 3-mm or larger can be identified by 3D TOF MRA with a small voxel size; however, IAs smaller than 2-mm on MRA are difficult to detect without false positive. (author)

  17. Concurrent and predictive evaluation of malnutrition diagnostic measures in hip fracture inpatients: a diagnostic accuracy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J J; Bauer, J D; Capra, S; Pulle, R C

    2014-03-01

    Differences in malnutrition diagnostic measures impact malnutrition prevalence and outcomes data in hip fracture. This study investigated the concurrent and predictive validity of commonly reported malnutrition diagnostic measures in patients admitted to a metropolitan hospital acute hip fracture unit. A prospective, consecutive level II diagnostic accuracy study (n=142; 8 exclusions) including the International Classification of Disease, 10th Revision, Australian Modification (ICD10-AM) protein-energy malnutrition criteria, a body mass index (BMI) Patients were predominantly elderly (median age 83.5, range 50-100 years), female (68%), multimorbid (median five comorbidities), with 15% 4-month mortality. Malnutrition prevalence was lowest when assessed by BMI (13%), followed by MNA-SF (27%), ICD10-AM (48%), albumin (53%) and geriatrician assessment (55%). Agreement between measures was highest between ICD10-AM and geriatrician assessment (κ=0.61) followed by ICD10-AM and MNA-SF measures (κ=0.34). ICD10-AM diagnosed malnutrition was the only measure associated with 48-h mobilisation (35.0 vs 55.3%; P=0.018). Reduced likelihood of home discharge was predicted by ICD-10-AM (20.6 vs 57.1%; P=0.001) and MNA-SF (18.8 vs 47.8%; P=0.035). Bivariate analysis demonstrated ICD10-AM (relative risk (RR)1.2; 1.05-1.42) and MNA-SF (RR1.2; 1.0-1.5) predicted 4-month mortality. When adjusted for age, usual place of residency, comorbidities and time to surgery only ICD-10AM criteria predicted mortality (odds ratio 3.59; 1.10-11.77). Albumin, BMI and geriatrician assessment demonstrated limited concurrent and predictive validity. Malnutrition prevalence in hip fracture varies substantially depending on the diagnostic measure applied. ICD-10AM criteria or the MNA-SF should be considered for the diagnosis of protein-energy malnutrition in frail, multi-morbid hip fracture inpatients.

  18. Economic evaluation of diagnostic localization following biochemical prostate cancer recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barocas, Daniel A; Bensink, Mark E; Berry, Kristin; Musa, Zahra; Bodnar, Carolyn; Dann, Robert; Ramsey, Scott D

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess potential cost-effectiveness of using a prostate cancer specific functional imaging technology capable of identifying residual localized disease versus small volume metastatic disease for asymptomatic men with low but detectable prostate specific antigen (PSA) elevation following radical prostatectomy. Markov modeling was used to estimate the incremental impact on healthcare system costs (2012 USD) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of two alternative strategies: (i) using the new diagnostic to guide therapy versus (ii) current usual care-using a combination of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and bone scan to guide therapy. Costs were based on estimates from literature and Medicare reimbursement. Prostate cancer progression, survival, utilities, and background risk of all-cause mortality were obtained from literature. Base-case diagnostic sensitivity (75 percent), specificity (90 percent), and cost (USD 2,500) were provided by our industry partner GE Healthcare. The new diagnostic strategy provided an average gain of 1.83 (95 percent uncertainty interval [UI]: 1.24-2.64) QALYs with added costs of USD 15,595 (95 percent UI: USD -6,330-44,402) over 35 years. The resulting incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was USD 8,516/QALY (95 percent UI: USD -2,947-22,372). RESULTS were most influenced by the utility discounting rate and test performance characteristics; however, the new diagnostic provided clinical benefits over a wide range of sensitivity and specificity. This analysis suggests a diagnostic technology capable of identifying whether men with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy have localized versus metastatic disease would be a cost-effective alternative to current standard work-up. The results support additional investment in development and validation of such a diagnostic.

  19. Imaging nuclear medicine techniques for diagnostic evaluation of arterial hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, B.M.; Linss, G.

    1989-01-01

    Arterial hypertension may be caused by a malfunction of organs and in turn may lead to secondary organic lesions. Modern diagnostic nuclear medicine is applied for function studies in order to detect or exclude secondary hypertension and functional or perfusion disturbances due to hypertension, or to assess and follow up hemodynamic conditions and cardiac functions prior to and during therapy. The article presents a survey of imaging diagnostic nuclear medicine techniques for the eamination of the heart, the brain, the kidneys and endocrine glands in patients with arterial hypertension, discussing the methods with a view to obtainable information, limits of detection, and indications. (orig.) [de

  20. Development of an equipment diagnostic system that evaluates sensor drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanada, Masaki; Arita, Setsuo; Tada, Nobuo; Yokota, Katsuo

    2011-01-01

    The importance of condition monitoring technology for equipment has increased with the introduction of condition-based maintenance in nuclear power plants. We are developing a diagnostic system using process signals for plant equipment, such as pumps and motors. It is important to enable the diagnostic system to distinguish sensor drift and equipment failure. We have developed a sensor drift diagnostic method that combines some highly correlative sensor signals by using the MT (Mahalanobis-Taguchi) method. Furthermore, we have developed an equipment failure diagnostic method that measures the Mahalanobis distance from the normal state of equipment by the MT method. These methods can respectively detect sensor drift and equipment failure, but there are the following problems. In the sensor drift diagnosis, there is a possibility of misjudging the sensor drift when the equipment failure occurs and the process signal changes because the behavior of the process signal is the same as that of the sensor drift. Oppositely, in the equipment failure diagnosis, there is a possibility of misjudging the equipment failure when the sensor drift occurs because the sensor drift influences the change of process signal. To solve these problems, we propose a diagnostic method combining the sensor drift diagnosis and the equipment failure diagnosis by the MT method. Firstly, the sensor drift values are estimated by the sensor drift diagnosis, and the sensor drift is removed from the process signal. It is necessary to judge the validity of the estimated sensor drift values before removing the sensor drift from the process signal. We developed a method for judging the validity of the estimated sensor drift values by using the drift distribution based on the sensor calibration data. And then, the equipment failure is diagnosed by using the process signals after removal of the sensor drifts. To verify the developed diagnostic system, several sets of simulation data based on abnormal cases

  1. Methods and results of implementing a commercially available videotaped health physics training program in a multi-disciplined DOE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neal, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    Sandia, a prime contractor for DOE, is a multi-disciplined research and development laboratory. Its various activities include the operations of two nuclear reactors, several multi-kilocurie gamma irradiation facilities, a transuranic hot cell facility, various and numerous particle accelerators and x-ray generators, and many other areas involving employees working with or around radioactive materials or radiation producing machines. Since March 1979, Sandia has conducted a formalized basic radiation safety training program using a commercially available videotaped training package. The videotapes are generic in nature and are accompanied with hard copy text material, vu-graphs, quizzes, and an instructor's guide. Sandia's overall training program and the methods, results, and problem areas of implementing an off the shelf, commercially available videotaped training program are described. Results are summarized using an instructor/course/student evaluation form

  2. Use and evaluation of molecular diagnostics for pneumonia etiology studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhat, Niranjan; O'Brien, Katherine L.; Karron, Ruth A.; Driscoll, Amanda J.; Murdoch, David R.; Black, Robert E.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Campbell, Harry; Cherian, Thomas; Crook, Derrick W.; de Jong, Menno D.; Dowell, Scott F.; Graham, Stephen M.; Klugman, Keith P.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Madhi, Shabir A.; Martin, Paul; Nataro, James P.; Piazza, Franco M.; Qazi, Shamim A.; Zar, Heather J.

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive microbiological testing will be a core function of the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) project. The development stage of PERCH provided the time and resources necessary for us to conduct a comprehensive review of the current state of respiratory diagnostics. These

  3. Diagnostic value of ultrasonography in evaluation and management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Common causes of acute abdominal emergencies in pediatric patients as noted on ultrasonography included nonspecifi c pain (28%), abdominal abscess (21%), acute appendicitis (7%) and intussusception (7%). Ultrasonography was diagnostic in 45.2% cases and supportive in 12.3% of the cases. As for as the fi ...

  4. Acquiring, Representing, and Evaluating a Competence Model of Diagnostic Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.

    This paper describes NEOMYCIN, a computer program that models one physician's diagnostic reasoning within a limited area of medicine. NEOMYCIN's knowledge base and reasoning procedure constitute a model of how human knowledge is organized and how it is used in diagnosis. The hypothesis is tested that such a procedure can be used to simulate both…

  5. Diagnosing Chronic Pancreatitis Comparison and Evaluation of Different Diagnostic Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, Yama; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.; van Dieren, Susan; Besselink, Marc G.; Boermeester, Marja A.; Ahmed Ali, Usama

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to compare theM-ANNHEIM, Buchler, and Luneburg diagnostic tools for chronic pancreatitis (CP). Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of the development of CP was performed in a prospectively collected multicenter cohort including 669 patients after a first episode of acute

  6. Diagnostic evaluation of left-sided prosthetic heart valve dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, Jesse; Budde, Ricardo P.; Symersky, Petr; van den Brink, Renee B.; de Mol, Bas A.; Mali, Willem P.; van Herwerden, Lex A.; Chamuleau, Steven A.

    Prosthetic heart valve (PHV) dysfunction is a rare, but potentially life-threatening, complication. In clinical practice, PHV dysfunction poses a diagnostic dilemma. Echocardiography and fluoroscopy are the imaging techniques of choice and are routinely used in daily practice. However, these

  7. Diagnostic evaluation of left-sided prosthetic heart valve dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, Jesse; Budde, Ricardo P.; Symersky, Petr; van den Brink, Renee B.; de Mol, Bas A.; Mali, Willem P.; van Herwerden, Lex A.; Chamuleau, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    Prosthetic heart valve (PHV) dysfunction is a rare, but potentially life-threatening, complication. In clinical practice, PHV dysfunction poses a diagnostic dilemma. Echocardiography and fluoroscopy are the imaging techniques of choice and are routinely used in daily practice. However, these

  8. Diagnostic X-ray equipment evaluation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos de Araujo, A.M.; Peixoto, J.E.; Reis, V.R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the diagnostic X-ray equipment in use in Brazil is presented. Procedures for testing radiation quality (kilovoltage and filtration), tube output, beam collimation and protection devices are described and results of tests are tabulated. (H.K.)

  9. [Evaluation of quality of HIV diagnostic procedures in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parczewski, Miłosz; Madaliński, Kazimierz; Leszczyszyn-Pynka, Magdalena; Boroń-Kaczmarska, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was quality assessment of HIV diagnostic procedures in Poland, including human and technical resources as well as laboratory practice. Sixty questionnaires were distributed among diagnostic centers to obtain qualitative data. Basing on the survey data serological control using coded panels of HIV-1/2 samples was performed. Thirty-one filled questionnaires were received (50.8%). Surveyed laboratories perform from 350 to 5500 serological screening tests per year. In most of laboratories fourth generation assays are available, while Blood Donation Centers screen the blood both with serological assays and by HIV-RNA detection. Sanitary and Epidemiological Stations and academic laboratories hold the ISO/IEC 17025 or IS0 9001:2001 accreditation, five of the surveyed centers participate in Labquality assurance and two in Quality Control in Molecular Diagnostics programs. Data of control serological testing were received from 21 centers. In the quality control assessment 194 analyses were performed with 91 true negative, 2 false negative, 96 true positive and 5 false positive results. False negative rate of % and false positive rate of 5.2% was noted for this study. Currently, virtually no guidelines related to the HIV-diagnostics quality assurance and control in Poland are in delineated. Development of the national unified quality control system, basing on the central institution is highly desirable. National certification within the frames of the quality control and assurance program should be mandatory for all the diagnostic labs, and aim at improvement of reliability of the result distributed among clinicians and patients.

  10. The diagnostic adaptive behavior scale: evaluating its diagnostic sensitivity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, Giulia; Tassé, Marc J; Schalock, Robert L; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A; Spreat, Scott; Thissen, David; Widaman, Keith F; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2014-11-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was constructed with items across three domains--conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills--and normed on a representative sample of American individuals from 4 to 21 years of age. The DABS was developed to focus its assessment around the decision point for determining the presence or absence of significant limitations of adaptive behavior for the diagnosis of Intellectual Disability (ID). The purpose of this study, which was composed of 125 individuals with and 933 without an ID-related diagnosis, was to determine the ability of the DABS to correctly identify the individuals with and without ID (i.e., sensitivity and specificity). The results indicate that the DABS sensitivity coefficients ranged from 81% to 98%, specificity coefficients ranged from 89% to 91%, and that the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve were excellent or good. These results indicate that the DABS has very good levels of diagnostic efficiency. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Quantitative evaluation of risks for individuals in diagnostic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iinuma, T A; Tateno, Y; Hashizume, T [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1980-05-01

    A method to estimate quantitatively risks of individual patients due to exposure to diagnostic radiation (carcinogenetic and genetic effects of radiation) was proposed on the basis of ICRP-26. Carcinogenetic effect of radiation was calculated by multiplying mean dose equivalent for each organ per each radiological examination by shortening of average life-expectancy which was calculated from incidence of fetal carcinoma of each organ, latent period of carcinoma, and incidence period of carcinoma. Genetic effect of radiation was calculated by multiplying mean dose equivalent for gonad per each radiological examination by incidence of genetically severe radiation damages due to parent's exposure and child expectancy rate. Three examples were shown on calculations of risks in the photofluorographic examinations of the stomach and chest, and mammography. The same method of calculation could be applied to the in-vivo nuclear medicine examinations. Further investigation was required to calculate the risks quantitatively for various types of diagnostic procedures using radiation.

  12. Quantitative evaluation of risks for individuals in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iinuma, T.A.; Tateno, Yukio; Hashizume, Tadashi

    1980-01-01

    A method to estimate quantitatively risks of individual patients due to exposure to diagnostic radiation (carcinogenetic and genetic effects of radiation) was proposed on the basis of ICRP-26. Carcinogenetic effect of radiation was calculated by multiplying mean dose equivalent for each organ per each radiological examination by shortening of average life-expectancy which was calculated from incidence of fetal carcinoma of each organ, latent period of carcinoma, and incidence period of carcinoma. Genetic effect of radiation was calculated by multiplying mean dose equivalent for gonad per each radiological examination by incidence of genetically severe radiation damages due to parent's exposure and child expectancy rate. Three examples were shown on calculations of risks in the photofluorographic examinations of the stomach and chest, and mammography. The same method of calculation could be applied to the in-vivo nuclear medicine examinations. Further investigation was required to calculate the risks quantitatively for various types of diagnostic procedures using radiation. (Tsunoda, M.)

  13. Requirements for appropriate evaluation of diagnostic tests in suspected pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanson, B. J.; Meinders, A. J.; Kraaijenhagen, R. A.; van Beek, E. J.; Büller, H. R.

    1999-01-01

    In contrast to the development of new drugs, strict guidelines for the development of new diagnostic methods do not exist. A diagnostic test can be made available without proper evaluation of its clinical utility, which can lead to its premature introduction and inappropriate use. In this review

  14. The diagnostic work up of growth failure in secondary health care ; An evaluation of consensus guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grote, F.K.; Oostdijk, W.; Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F. de; Dommelen, P. van; Buuren, S. van; Dekker, F.W.; Ketel, A.G.; Moll, H.A.; Wit, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: As abnormal growth might be the first manifestation of undetected diseases, it is important to have accurate referral criteria and a proper diagnostic work-up. In the present paper we evaluate the diagnostic work-up in secondary health care according to existing consensus guidelines and

  15. The diagnostic protocol for evaluation of periprosthetic joint infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen Mlekuž

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection is becoming the most important as well as the most devastating mechanism of prosthetic joint failure. The incidence is increasing due to increased sensitivity of orthopedic surgeons for this diagnosis, better diagnostics, and  because the absolute number of operated patients is increasing and because more often very sick, debilitated, and immunocompromised patients are operated on. The trend shows the incidence to further increase in the years to come. The diagnosis may be very easy in case of high grade processes, but also extremely difficult in low grade infections. Misdiagnosing infection leads to repeat early failures and revisions that are distressing for patients as well as for surgeons. To avoid failures related to misdiagnosed prosthetic joint infections a step-wise algorithm of action is proposed and the diagnostic strength of the steps discussed. The key point is to select the potential candidates to define the possibility of an ongoing infection and then to select the tools to strengthen the suspicion. The further procedures base on the analysis of the pseudo-synovial fluid obtained by aspiration. The diagnostic conclusions form the basis for considered treatment decisions.

  16. Colonic polyps: inheritance, susceptibility, risk evaluation, and diagnostic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Neri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Emanuele Neri, Lorenzo Faggioni, Lorenzo Cini, Carlo BartolozziDiagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Pisa, Pisa, ItalyAbstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third-ranked neoplasm in order of incidence and mortality, worldwide, and the second cause of cancer death in industrialized countries. One of the most important environmental risk factors for CRC is a Western-type diet, which is characterized by a low-fiber and high-fat content. Up to 25% of patients with CRC have a family history for CRC, and a fraction of these patients are affected by hereditary syndromes, such as familial adenomatous polyposis, Gardner or Turcot syndromes, or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. The onset of CRC is triggered by a well-defined combination of genetic alterations, which form the bases of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence hypothesis and justify the set-up of CRC screening techniques. Several screening and diagnostic tests for CRC are illustrated, including rectosigmoidoscopy, optical colonoscopy (OC, double contrast barium enema (DCBE, and computed tomography colonography (CTC. The strengths and weaknesses of each technique are discussed. Particular attention is paid to CTC, which has evolved from an experimental technique to an accurate and mature diagnostic approach, and gained wide acceptance and clinical validation for CRC screening. This success of CTC is due mainly to its ability to provide cross-sectional analytical images of the entire colon and secondarily detect extracolonic findings, with minimal invasiveness and lower cost than OC, and with greater detail and diagnostic accuracy than DCBE. Moreover, especially with the advent and widespread availability of modern multidetector CT scanners, excellent quality 2D and 3D reconstructions of the large bowel can be obtained routinely with a relatively low radiation dose. Computer-aided detection systems have also been developed to assist radiologists in reading CTC examinations

  17. Master's degree in nuclear engineering by videotaped courses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradini, M.L.; Vogelsang, W.F.

    1991-01-01

    In 1986, a group of northern midwest utilities met with faculty from the nuclear engineering department at the University of Wisconsin (UW) to discuss the possibility of offering graduate courses by videotape for academic credit and earning a master's degree. Four years later, two utility employees from Northern States Power (NSP) and Wisconsin Electric Power Companies (WEPCO) graduated from the University of Wisconsin with master's degrees earned entirely by taking videotape graduate courses at their individual nuclear power plant sites. Within these 4 years, more than a dozen videotaped graduate courses were developed by the faculty of the department in a formalized master's degree program in nuclear engineering and engineering physics. This paper outlines the program's development and its current features

  18. Library orientation on videotape: production planning and administrative support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlock, J; Tawyea, E W

    1989-01-01

    New student-faculty-staff orientation is an important public service in a medical library and demands creativity, imagination, teaching skill, coordination, and cooperation on the part of public services staff. The Northwestern University Medical Library (NUML) implemented a video production service in the spring of 1986 and used the new service to produce an orientation videotape for incoming students, new faculty, and medical center staff. Planning is an important function in video production, and the various phases of outlining topics, drafting scripts, matching video sequences, and actual taping of video, voice, and music are described. The NUML orientation videotape demonstrates how reference and audiovisual services merge talent and skills to benefit the library user. Videotape production, however, cannot happen in a vacuum of good intentions and high ideals. This paper also presents the management support and cost analysis needed to make video production services a reality for use by public service departments.

  19. Diagnostic evaluation of a case of lingual thyroid ectopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Fiaschetti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid ectopia can occur when the process of thyroid embryogenesis fails. Here, we present the case of a 30-year-old woman with thyroid ectopia that was discovered during magnetic resonance imaging of cervical spine for referred neck pain. Imaging revealed the presence of an encapsulated mass at the base of her tongue. The patient was not symptomatic for any compression of the airways. Diagnosis of ectopic lingual thyroid was confirmed by 99mTC scintigraphy. Incidental diagnosis of thyroid ectopia in asymptomatic adult patients is rare, and it should be considered on diagnostic imaging in case of an anterior midline cervical mass.

  20. Diagnostic evaluation of dementia in general practice in Denmark. A national survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Møller, S

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine GPs' self-reported basic diagnostic evaluation of dementia according to the recommendations in multidisciplinary consensus guidelines and to analyse explanatory factors for GP performance. DESIGN: Postal questionnaire study, spring 1998. SETTING: General practice in Denmark...

  1. Diagnostic Air Quality Model Evaluation of Source-Specific Primary and Secondary Fine Particulate Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient measurements of 78 source-specific tracers of primary and secondary carbonaceous fine particulate matter collected at four midwestern United States locations over a full year (March 2004–February 2005) provided an unprecedented opportunity to diagnostically evaluate...

  2. Diagnostic Evaluation of Ozone Production and Horizontal Transport in a Regional Photochemical Air Quality Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    A diagnostic model evaluation effort has been performed to focus on photochemical ozone formation and the horizontal transport process since they strongly impact the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of ozone (O3) within the lower troposphere. Results from th...

  3. Computational evaluation of a pencil ionization chamber in a standard diagnostic radiology beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, Dalila Souza Costa; Neves, Lucio Pereira; Perini, Ana Paula; Belinato, Walmir

    2016-01-01

    In this work a pencil ionization chamber was evaluated. This evaluation consisted in the determination of the influence of the ionization chamber components in its response. For this purpose, the Monte Carlo simulations and the spectrum of the standard diagnostic radiology beam (RQR5) were utilized. The results obtained, showed that the influence of the ionization chamber components presented no significant influence on the chamber response. Therefore, this ionization chamber is a good alternative for dosimetry in diagnostic radiology. (author)

  4. New directions in diagnostic evaluation of insect allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, David B K

    2014-08-01

    Diagnosis of insect sting allergy and prediction of risk of sting anaphylaxis are often difficult because tests for venom-specific IgE antibodies have a limited positive predictive value and do not reliably predict the severity of sting reactions. Component-resolved diagnosis using recombinant venom allergens has shown promise in improving the specificity of diagnostic testing for insect sting allergy. Basophil activation tests have been explored as more sensitive assays for identification of patients with insect allergy and for prediction of clinical outcomes. Measurement of mast cell mediators reflects the underlying risk for more severe reactions and limited clinical response to treatment. Measurement of IgE to recombinant venom allergens can distinguish cross-sensitization from dual sensitization to honeybee and vespid venoms, thus helping to limit venom immunotherapy to a single venom instead of multiple venoms in many patients. Basophil activation tests can detect venom allergy in patients who show no detectable venom-specific IgE in standard diagnostic tests and can predict increased risk of systemic reactions to venom immunotherapy, and to stings during and after stopping venom immunotherapy. The risk of severe or fatal anaphylaxis to stings can also be predicted by measurement of baseline serum tryptase or other mast cell mediators.

  5. Urinary tract infections in pregnancy: evaluation of diagnostic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jido, Tukur Ado

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed with the objective to examine the diagnostic framework for urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnancy and physician response to the clinical diagnosis and to correlate responses to the results of urine culture and sensitivity. Over a 6-month period, 81 consecutive patients attending the labor ward admission of a district general hospital with the diagnosis of UTI during pregnancy were analyzed. Relevant information on symptom complex, result of dipstick urinalysis and culture and sensitivity were recorded. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Of the 78 patients analyzed, 79% had increased urinary frequency, 73.1% had suprapubic pains and 53.1% had dysuria. All the patients had urinalysis with dipsticks, 41 (52.6%) were positive for nitrites and 64 (82.1%) were positive for leukocyte esterase. All 78 patients had urine culture and sensitivity, 21 (26.8%) of who were positive, and coliforms were the most commonly isolated pathogens. The sensitivity for nitrite was 80.9%, specificity 57.9% and positive predictive value 41.4%. The corresponding figures for leukocyte esterase were sensitivity 100%, specificity 24.6% and positive predictive value 32.8%. Sixty-six (84.6%) patients had treatment started on the basis of the clinical diagnosis, mostly with co-amoxyclavullinic acid or amoxicillin alone. A high resistance rate to these empirically chosen antibiotics was seen in the sensitivity pattern of isolated pathogens. Current clinical diagnostic algorithms for the diagnosis of UTI when applied in the context of pregnancy have low specificity and positive predictive values; yet, empirical antibiotics are frequently employed on this basis. These are often not in keeping with the sensitivity pattern of isolated organisms. There is need for a continuing research for more specific bedside tests.

  6. Urinary tract infections in pregnancy: Evaluation of diagnostic framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukur Ado Jido

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed with the objective to examine the diagnostic framework for urinary tract infection (UTI in pregnancy and physician response to the clinical diagnosis and to correlate responses to the results of urine culture and sensitivity. Over a 6-month period, 81 consecutive patients attending the labor ward admission of a district general hospital with the diagnosis of UTI during pregnancy were analyzed. Relevant information on symptom complex, result of dipstick urinalysis and culture and sensitivity were recorded. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Of the 78 patients analyzed, 79% had increased urinary frequency, 73.1% had suprapubic pains and 53.1% had dysuria. All the patients had urinalysis with dipsticks, 41 (52.6% were positive for nitrites and 64 (82.1% were positive for leukocyte esterase. All 78 patients had urine culture and sensitivity, 21 (26.8% of who were positive, and coliforms were the most commonly isolated pathogens. The sensitivity for nitrite was 80.9%, specificity 57.9% and positive predictive value 41.4%. The corresponding figures for leukocyte esterase were sensi-tivity 100%, specificity 24.6% and positive predictive value 32.8%. Sixty-six (84.6% patients had treatment started on the basis of the clinical diagnosis, mostly with co-amoxyclavullinic acid or amoxicillin alone. A high resistance rate to these empirically chosen antibiotics was seen in the sensitivity pattern of isolated pathogens. Current clinical diagnostic algorithms for the diagnosis of UTI when applied in the context of pregnancy have low specificity and positive predictive values; yet, empirical antibiotics are frequently employed on this basis. These are often not in keeping with the sensitivity pattern of isolated organisms. There is need for a continuing research for more specific bedside tests.

  7. Inadequate Diagnostic Evaluation in Young Patients Registered with a Diagnosis of Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salem, Lise Cronberg; Andersen, Birgitte Bo; Nielsen, T Rune

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Establishing a diagnosis of dementia in young patients may be complex and have significant implications for the patient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of the diagnostic work-up in young patients diagnosed with dementia in the clinical routine. METHODS: Two hundred...... patients were randomly selected from 891 patients aged ≤65 years registered with a diagnosis of dementia for the first time in 2008 in Danish hospitals, and 159 medical records were available for review. Three raters evaluated their medical records for the completeness of the diagnostic work-up on which...... the diagnosis of dementia had been based, using evidence-based guidelines for the diagnostic evaluation of dementia as reference standards. RESULTS: According to the rater review, only 111 (70%) patients met the clinical criteria for dementia. An acceptable diagnostic work-up including all items of recommended...

  8. Diagnostic Accuracy of Coronary CT Angiography for the Evaluation of Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collet, Carlos; Chevalier, Bernard; Cequier, Angel

    2018-01-01

    : 44 to 90) and a specificity of 82% (95% CI: 75 to 87). The diagnostic accuracy of coronary CTA was similar to coronary angiography in its ability to identify patients with a significant lesion based on the IVUS criteria (p = 0.75). CONCLUSIONS: Coronary CTA has good diagnostic accuracy to detect in-scaffold...... luminal obstruction and to assess luminal dimensions after BVS implantation. Coronary angiography and coronary CTA yielded similar diagnostic accuracy to identify the presence and severity of obstructive disease. Coronary CTA might become the method of choice for the evaluation of patients treated......OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) for bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) evaluation. BACKGROUND: Coronary CTA has emerged as a noninvasive method to evaluate patients with suspected or established coronary artery disease...

  9. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children Referred for Diagnostic Autism Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Sonia A; Spinks-Franklin, Adiaha; Treadwell-Deering, Diane; Berry, Leandra; Sellers-Vinson, Sherry; Smith, Eboni; Proud, Monica; Voigt, Robert G

    2015-12-01

    Increased public awareness of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and routine screening in primary care have contributed to increased requests for diagnostic ASD evaluations. However, given the scarcity of subspecialty autism diagnostic resources, overreferral of children suspected of having ASD may be contributing to long waiting lists at tertiary care autism centers and delaying diagnosis for those children who truly have ASD. To determine whether children are being excessively referred to ASD-specific diagnostic clinics, our objective was to determine the prevalence of true ASD diagnoses in children referred for diagnostic ASD evaluation. Charts of all patients referred to a regional autism center between April 2011 and August 2012 for suspicion of a possible ASD were retrospectively reviewed and demographic and clinical diagnoses abstracted. Only 214 of 348 patients evaluated (61%) received an ASD diagnosis. Thus, concerns about autism are not confirmed by an ASD diagnosis in a significant number of children. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Use of Videotape Feedback with Severely Disturbed Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Jane; Blitstein, Sheldon

    1979-01-01

    Summarizes the design and effects of a group therapy project using videotape feedback with seriously disturbed adolescents. Offers anecdotal evidence that the feedback facilitated the correction of the participants' distorted body images, low self-esteem, lack of capacity for self-observation, and poor peer relationships. (SS)

  11. Tips & Techniques: Storytelling with Puppets and Props. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    On this 20-minute videotape, two accomplished storytellers share their expertise on using puppets and props to enhance the art of storytelling. Schroeder Cherry uses several types of puppets to tell his educational story about the Underground Railroad, while Karen Quinn-Wisniewski entertains her audience of young children with classic fables,…

  12. Educators Using Information Technology. GIS Video Series. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    A M Productions Inc., Vancouver (British Columbia).

    This 57-minute videotape covers the "Florida Educators Using Information Technology" session of the "Eco-Informa '96" conference. Two speakers presented examples of environmental educators using information technology. The first speaker, Brenda Maxwell, is the Director and Developer of the Florida Science Institute based at…

  13. All about Fish. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    There is a completely new world to discover in the oceans, lakes, and rivers--a world filled with an amazing variety of fish. While all fish live and breathe underwater, each type looks very different and develops its own unique living habits. In this videotape, students learn more about the body structures of fish as well as how they reproduce…

  14. Me & Isaac Newton. [Videotape and] KIDSNET Guide for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001

    This videotape records the stories of 7 scientists, 3 women and 4 men who range in age from 33 to 81. Beginning with their earliest scientific questions and including their most personal ponderings, the scientists reveal their histories and professional obligations to affect the world. Director Michael Apted allows the personal adventures of the…

  15. All about Reptiles. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Dinosaurs may be extinct, but reptiles are distant cousins to the beasts that once walked the earth. From snakes and lizards to iguanas and tuataras, children learn what factors make them different from other animals. In this videotape, students explore the mysterious, often misunderstood, world of reptiles and learn about their characteristics…

  16. Doing Things. A Live Action Video for Preschoolers [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo Peep Productions, Eureka, MT.

    Some preschool teachers have expressed concern regarding the lack of science instructional material for students age 2 through the preschool years. This videotape was developed to help fill this chasm in our educational system. It contains activities from students' everyday life such as eating, washing, and playing. These daily processes are then…

  17. All about Animal Adaptations. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Animals change to better adapt to their environment. Over long periods of time, nature helps the animals adapt by changing their body shape and color as well as adjusting their methods of getting and eating food, defending themselves, and caring for their young. In this videotape, students learn what changes different animals go through in order…

  18. All about Dinosaurs. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Dinosaurs were the rulers of the land 65 million years ago. In this videotape, children learn more about the different kinds of dinosaurs by viewing vivid illustrations and fossil discoveries. Students compare the dinosaurs to their modern kin--snakes, lizards, and crocodiles. Students also listen to different theories to try to answer the big…

  19. Breaststroke learning through the use of videotape feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela de Castro Ferracioli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n2p204 People from all age groups and social backgrounds have always sought to learn swimming. However, the swimming learning process is usually considered repetitive and tiring, requiring the teacher to use methods that motivate students to join the practice without ignoring the need for improvement in their performance. This study assessed motivation during a breaststroke learning process in students who received videotape feedback, verbal feedback, and who did not receive any feedback during practice. Thirty seven swimming inexperienced students were divided into three groups: Video (n=13, which received videotape feedback; Verbal (n=15, which received verbal feedback; and Control (n=9, which did not receive any feedback during experimental phases (pre-test, acquisition (5 days, post-test and retention. Participants completed a questionnaire based on Likert scale for motivation assessment. Scores were given to their performance by a swimming teacher to assess breaststroke learning during each experimental phase. Results of motivation assessment showed that students who received feedback (videotape or verbal felt more motivated during practice than those who did not receive any feedback. Regarding the breaststroke learning, all participants improved their performance along experimental phases, but, during the retention one, Verbal group’s performance was considered superior to the Control group’s performance. This study concluded that the use of videotape and verbal feedback has motivational results on breaststroke learning, and that it is effective in the learning process.

  20. All about Food Chains. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Whether animals are herbivores, carnivores, or omnivores, each one is part of an eternal food chain that carries on from one generation to the next. In this videotape, students learn more about terms like "predator,""pre-consumer" and "producer," as well as the cycles of food chains and food webs and how they support…

  1. All about Amphibians. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    This videotape teaches children about their favorite amphibious creatures, as well as amphibians' nearest cousins--toads, newts, and salamanders. Young students discover how these amazing creatures can live both in and out of water, learn about the amphibious life cycle, and compare the differences between amphibians and reptiles. This videotape…

  2. Evaluating Intervention Effects in a Diagnostic Classification Model Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Matthew J.; Bradshaw, Laine

    2018-01-01

    The evaluation of intervention effects is an important objective of educational research. One way to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention is to conduct an experiment that assigns individuals to control and treatment groups. In the context of pretest/posttest designed studies, this is referred to as a control-group pretest/posttest design.…

  3. Evaluating Diagnostic Point-of-Care Tests in Resource-Limited Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drain, Paul K; Hyle, Emily P; Noubary, Farzad; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Wilson, Douglas; Bishai, William; Rodriguez, William; Bassett, Ingrid V

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic point-of-care (POC) testing is intended to minimize the time to obtain a test result, thereby allowing clinicians and patients to make an expeditious clinical decision. As POC tests expand into resource-limited settings (RLS), the benefits must outweigh the costs. To optimize POC testing in RLS, diagnostic POC tests need rigorous evaluations focused on relevant clinical outcomes and operational costs, which differ from evaluations of conventional diagnostic tests. Here, we reviewed published studies on POC testing in RLS, and found no clearly defined metric for the clinical utility of POC testing. Therefore, we propose a framework for evaluating POC tests, and suggest and define the term “test efficacy” to describe a diagnostic test’s capacity to support a clinical decision within its operational context. We also proposed revised criteria for an ideal diagnostic POC test in resource-limited settings. Through systematic evaluations, comparisons between centralized diagnostic testing and novel POC technologies can be more formalized, and health officials can better determine which POC technologies represent valuable additions to their clinical programs. PMID:24332389

  4. Evaluation of microbiological diagnostics in urogenital infections in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Hunjak,

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish the percentage of infections in postmenopausal women with urinary symptoms which can be confirmed by microbiological analysis, the most common causative agents and whether the urethra and vagina in patients with cystitis are concurrently colonized by pathogenic microorganisms. Methods Laboratories of the Croatian National Institute of Public Health in Zagreb, in the period of two years, analyzed 245 samples taken from patients with urinary symptoms who had been postmenopausal at least for a year. Urine samples, as well as urethral and vaginal swabs were taken from each patient and tested for causative agents of urogenital infections, genital mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis.Results Cystitis was confirmed by microbiological analysis in 31.4% women, urethritis in 24.8%, and vaginitis in 15.1%. The most common causative agent of urethritis was Ureaplasma urealyticum, while Gardnerella vaginalis was the most common in vaginal infections. E. coli was concurrently isolated in urine, urethral and vaginal samples in 65.1% of patients with E. coli cystitis, while Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated in urethral and vaginal samples in each patient with Streptococcus agalactiae cystitis.Conclusion Mucosal colonization of the urethra and vagina contributes to the incidence of cystitis in postmenopausal women. Microbiological diagnostics is necessary to distinguish between the symptoms of ageing of the urogenital system and infection, with a view to preventing unnecessary antibiotic therapy.

  5. Diagnostics for Evaluating Performance of NSTX Liquid Lihium Divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; Kallman, J.; Leblanc, B.; Paul, S.; Roquemore, A. L.; Skinner, C.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Maingi, R.; Ahn, J.-W.; Wilgen, J.; Allain, J.-P.; Taylor, C.

    2009-11-01

    A Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) is being installed on NSTX to investigate particle control and power handling with liquid lithium as plasma-facing component (PFC). The LLD is expected to provide a low-recycling plasma-facing component (PFC). To study the effects of such a PFC on plasma performance, a variety of edge measurements are required. Since its surface is highly reflective at visible wavelengths, a Lyman-alpha detector array will be used to monitor the recycling. To understand changes in edge transport, electron temperature and density measurements will be made with Langmuir probes mounted in PFC's near the LLD, and the edge sightlines of a multipoint Thomson scattering system. A frequency-scanning reflectometer will also provide scrapeoff layer electron density profiles. The LLD response to heat loads will be examined with infrared cameras and thermocouples. Diagnostics are also needed to measure the erosion and codeposition of lithium. They include quartz deposition monitors and a retractable probe for exposing samples to the plasma.

  6. Neuroimaging in the Diagnostic Evaluation of Eye Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmáry, Gabriella

    2016-09-01

    Ocular or eye pain is a frequent complaint encountered not only by eye care providers but neurologists. Isolated eye pain is non-specific and non-localizing; therefore, it poses significant differential diagnostic problems. A wide range of neurologic and ophthalmic disorders may cause pain in, around, or behind the eye. These include ocular and orbital diseases and primary and secondary headaches. In patients presenting with an isolated and chronic eye pain, neuroimaging is usually normal. However, at the beginning of a disease process or in low-grade disease, the eye may appear "quiet," misleading a provider lacking familiarity with underlying disorders and high index of clinical suspicion. Delayed diagnosis of some neuro-ophthalmic causes of eye pain could result in significant neurologic and ophthalmic morbidity, conceivably even mortality. This article reviews some recent advances in imaging of the eye, the orbit, and the brain, as well as research in which neuroimaging has advanced the discovery of the underlying pathophysiology and the complex differential diagnosis of eye pain.

  7. Diagnostic imaging learning resources evaluated by students and recent graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kate; Bélisle, Marilou; Dallaire, Sébastien; Fernandez, Nicolas; Doucet, Michèle

    2013-01-01

    Many learning resources can help students develop the problem-solving abilities and clinical skills required for diagnostic imaging. This study explored veterinary students' perceptions of the usefulness of a variety of learning resources. Perceived resource usefulness was measured for different levels of students and for academic versus clinical preparation. Third-year (n=139) and final (fifth) year (n=105) students and recent graduates (n=56) completed questionnaires on perceived usefulness of each resource. Resources were grouped for comparison: abstract/low complexity (e.g., notes, multimedia presentations), abstract/high complexity (e.g., Web-based and film case repositories), concrete/low complexity (e.g., large-group "clicker" workshops), and concrete/high complexity (e.g., small-group interpretation workshops). Lower-level students considered abstract/low-complexity resources more useful for academic preparation and concrete resources more useful for clinical preparation. Higher-level students/recent graduates also considered abstract/low-complexity resources more useful for academic preparation. For all levels, lecture notes were considered highly useful. Multimedia slideshows were an interactive complement to notes. The usefulness of a Web-based case repository was limited by accessibility problems and difficulty. Traditional abstract/low-complexity resources were considered useful for more levels and contexts than expected. Concrete/high-complexity resources need to better represent clinical practice to be considered more useful for clinical preparation.

  8. Quantitative evaluation of visual detection performance in medicine: ROC analysis and determination of diagnostic benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, C.E.; Starr, S.J.; Lusted, L.B.

    1976-01-01

    An ROC curve provides an empirical description of the trade-offs which are possible among the various types of correct and incorrect decisions as the human decision-maker varies one or more confidence thresholds. Conventional ROC curves measured in simple decision-making situations can, in some cases, be used to predict human decision performance in more complex situations. By considering both the consequences of the various types of diagnostic decisions and the overhead cost of a diagnostic study, one can use the ROC curve to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of a study in any particular clinical context. Since the ROC curve describes the possible relationships among the probabilities of the various types of correct and incorrect decisions, it plays a central role in optimizing diagnostic strategies using the general techniques of decision analysis. Applications in radiographic image evaluation are described

  9. Evaluating next-generation sequencing for direct clinical diagnostics in diarrhoeal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Katrine Grimstrup; Engsbro, A L Ø; Lukjancenko, Oksana

    2017-01-01

    The accurate microbiological diagnosis of diarrhoea involves numerous laboratory tests and, often, the pathogen is not identified in time to guide clinical management. With next-generation sequencing (NGS) becoming cheaper, it has huge potential in routine diagnostics. The aim of this study...... was to evaluate the potential of NGS-based diagnostics through direct sequencing of faecal samples. Fifty-eight clinical faecal samples were obtained from patients with diarrhoea as part of the routine diagnostics at Hvidovre University Hospital, Denmark. Ten samples from healthy individuals were also included...

  10. Echocardiographic evaluation of pre-diagnostic development in young relatives genetically predisposed to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten K; Havndrup, Ole; Christiansen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Identification of the first echocardiographic manifestations of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may be important for clinical management and our understanding of the pathogenesis. We studied the development of pre-diagnostic echocardiographic changes in young relatives to HCM patients during long...... of relatives with unknown genetic status. Children carrying pathogenic sarcomere gene mutations develop reduced LVEDd and increased E/e' as first pre-diagnostic echocardiographic manifestations during follow-up into adulthood.......-term years follow-up. HCM-relatives not fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for HCM and age of family screening of 11 sarcomere genes, CRYAB, α-GAL, and titin, we evaluated...

  11. The Diagnostic Utility of Midcarpal Anesthetic Injection in the Evaluation of Chronic Wrist Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, S. Josh; Hofmeister, Eric P.; Moran, Steven L.; Shin, Alexander Y.

    2007-01-01

    The evaluation of chronic wrist pain can be a diagnostic dilemma. Lidocaine injections combined with corticosteroids are often used for both diagnosis and therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine if a midcarpal injection of lidocaine could serve as a diagnostic tool in patients with chronic wrist pain. Specifically, the relationship of pain relief from the injection and improvement of grip strength were compared to the presence of intracarpal pathology as confirmed by wrist arthros...

  12. [The development and evaluation of software to verify diagnostic accuracy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Rodrigo; de Moraes Lopes, Maria Helena Baena; Silveira, Paulo Sérgio Panse; Ortega, Neli Regina Siqueira

    2012-02-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of software that verifies the accuracy of diagnoses made by nursing students. The software was based on a model that uses fuzzy logic concepts, including PERL, the MySQL database for Internet accessibility, and the NANDA-I 2007-2008 classification system. The software was evaluated in terms of its technical quality and usability through specific instruments. The activity proposed in the software involves four stages in which students establish the relationship values between nursing diagnoses, defining characteristics/risk factors and clinical cases. The relationship values determined by students are compared to those of specialists, generating performance scores for the students. In the evaluation, the software demonstrated satisfactory outcomes regarding the technical quality and, according to the students, helped in their learning and may become an educational tool to teach the process of nursing diagnosis.

  13. Parameters of Instrumental Swallowing Evaluations: Describing a Diagnostic Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisegna, Jessica M; Langmore, Susan E

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare selected parameters of two swallow evaluations: fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) and the modified barium swallow (MBS) study. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Fifty-five clinicians were asked to watch video recordings of swallow evaluations of 2 patients that were done using fluoroscopy and endoscopy simultaneously. In a randomized order, clinicians viewed 4 edited videos from simultaneous evaluations: the FEES and MBS videos of patient 1 and 2 each taking one swallow of 5 mL applesauce. Clinicians filled out a questionnaire that asked (1) which anatomical sites they could visualize on each video, (2) where they saw pharyngeal residue after a swallow, (3) their overall clinical impression of the pharyngeal residue, and (4) their opinions of the evaluation styles. Clinicians reported a significant difference in the visualization of anatomical sites, 11 of the 15 sites were reported as better-visualized on the FEES than on the MBS video (p < 0.05). Clinicians also rated residue to be present in more locations on the FEES than on the MBS. Clinicians' overall impressions of the severity of residue on the same exact swallow were significantly different depending on the evaluation type (FEES vs. MBS for patient 1 χ(2) = 20.05, p < 0.0001; patient 2 χ(2) = 7.52, p = 0.006), with FEES videos rated more severely. FEES advantages were: more visualization of pharyngeal and laryngeal swallowing anatomy and residue. However, as a result, clinicians provided more severe impressions of residue amount on FEES. On one hand, this suggests that FEES is a more sensitive tool than MBS studies, but on the other hand, clinicians might provide more severe interpretations on FEES.

  14. Identification and diagnostic evaluation of possible dementia in general practice. A prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Rishøj, Susanne; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2005-01-01

    , and 4 (3%) were treated for depression or referred for another condition. A total of 6 patients were lost to follow-up. In the remaining 102 undiagnosed patients the main reasons for not performing a diagnostic evaluation of dementia were patient/relative hesitation (34%), the GP thought that it would......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the rate of diagnostic evaluation of dementia for patients in whom a suspicion of dementia was raised, and to investigate reasons why a diagnostic evaluation was not always being performed. DESIGN: A prospective study among elderly patients aged 65+, and a follow-up study...... of dementia, laboratory-screening tests prescribed by the GPs and referral status after 6 months, and follow-up questionnaire. RESULTS: Of 793 patients a total of 138 patients were identified with possible dementia. Among the identified patients 26 (20%) were referred for further evaluation within 6 months...

  15. Anticipated identification costs: Improving assortment evaluation by diagnostic attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van E.; Pieters, F.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Consumers often make quick assessments of product assortments, to determine if these are worthwhile for further investigation. They anticipate how difficult it will be to distinguish the various options in the assortment, which will influence their assortment evaluations. We reason that

  16. Evaluation Of Vibration-Monitoring Gear-Diagnostic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Dennis P.; Zakrajsek, James J.

    1995-01-01

    Report describes experimental evaluation of commercial electronic system designed to monitor vibration signal from accelerometer on gear-box to detect vibrations indicative of damage to gears. System includes signal-conditioning subsystem and personal computer in which analog-to-digital converter installed. Results show system fairly effective in detecting surface fatigue pits on spur-gear teeth.

  17. Evaluation of the Revised Algorithm of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in the Diagnostic Investigation of High-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp-Becker, Inge; Ghahreman, Mardjan; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Peters, Mira; Remschmidt, Helmut; Becker, Katja

    2013-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) is a semi-structured, standardized assessment designed for use in diagnostic evaluation of individuals with suspected autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The ADOS has been effective in categorizing children who definitely have autism or not, but has lower specificity and sometimes sensitivity for…

  18. Modeling companion diagnostics in economic evaluations of targeted oncology therapies: systematic review and methodological checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, Brett; Tan, Marcus; Harris, Anthony; Lorgelly, Paula

    2015-02-01

    The successful use of a targeted therapy is intrinsically linked to the ability of a companion diagnostic to correctly identify patients most likely to benefit from treatment. The aim of this study was to review the characteristics of companion diagnostics that are of importance for inclusion in an economic evaluation. Approaches for including these characteristics in model-based economic evaluations are compared with the intent to describe best practice methods. Five databases and government agency websites were searched to identify model-based economic evaluations comparing a companion diagnostic and subsequent treatment strategy to another alternative treatment strategy with model parameters for the sensitivity and specificity of the companion diagnostic (primary synthesis). Economic evaluations that limited model parameters for the companion diagnostic to only its cost were also identified (secondary synthesis). Quality was assessed using the Quality of Health Economic Studies instrument. 30 studies were included in the review (primary synthesis n = 12; secondary synthesis n = 18). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios may be lower when the only parameter for the companion diagnostic included in a model is the cost of testing. Incorporating the test's accuracy in addition to its cost may be a more appropriate methodological approach. Altering the prevalence of the genetic biomarker, specific population tested, type of test, test accuracy and timing/sequence of multiple tests can all impact overall model results. The impact of altering a test's threshold for positivity is unknown as it was not addressed in any of the included studies. Additional quality criteria as outlined in our methodological checklist should be considered due to the shortcomings of standard quality assessment tools in differentiating studies that incorporate important test-related characteristics and those that do not. There is a need to refine methods for incorporating the characteristics

  19. ROLE OF DIAGNOSTIC HYSTEROLAPAROSCOPY IN EVALUATION OF FEMALE INFERTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM To evaluate the role of hysterolaparoscopy in female infertility. SETTINGS AND DESIGN Patients with female infertility presenting to outpatient Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Kempegowda Institute of Medical sciences, Bengaluru were evaluated for infertility by hysterolaparoscopy and chromopertubation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seventy consenting subjects excluding male factor infertility with normal hormonal profile and no contraindication to laparoscopy underwent ultra-sonography. Then all patients were subjected to combined hysterolaparoscopy including chromopertubation and the results were recorded. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED T-test. RESULTS We studied 70 patients comprising of 40(57.1% cases of primary infertility and 30(42.9% patients of secondary infertility. In our study most commonly found pathologies were PCOD, endometriosis and tubal blockage. CONCLUSIONS Results show that hysterolaparoscopy has a promising role in diagnosing and treating infertility. hysterolaparoscopy has emerged as a new hope for infertile couples before they proceed to time-consuming and expensive assisted reproduction techniques.

  20. Development and clinical evaluation of a rapid diagnostic kit for feline leukemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Shik; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Kim, Hak-Yong; Lee, Gyu-Cheol; Jeong, Wooseog; An, Dong-Jun; Jeoung, Hye-Young; Lee, Jae-In; Lee, Young-Ki

    2014-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) causes a range of neoplastic and degenerative diseases in cats. To obtain a more sensitive and convenient diagnosis of the disease, we prepared monoclonal antibodies specific for the FeLV p27 to develop a rapid diagnostic test with enhanced sensitivity and specificity. Among these antibodies, we identified two clones (hybridomas 8F8B5 and 8G7D1) that specifically bound to FeLV and were very suitable for a diagnostic kit. The affinity constants for 8F8B5 and 8G7D1 were 0.35 × 10⁸ and 0.86 × 10⁸, respectively. To investigate the diagnostic abilities of the rapid kit using these antibodies, we performed several clinical studies. Assessment of analytical sensitivity revealed that the detection threshold of the rapid diagnostic test was 2 ng/mL for recombinant p27 and 12.5 × 10⁴ IU/mL for FeLV. When evaluating 252 cat sera samples, the kit was found to have a kappa value of 0.88 compared to polymerase chain reaction (PCR), indicating a significant correlation between data from the rapid diagnostic test and PCR. Sensitivity and specificity of the kit were 95.2% (20/21) and 98.5% (257/261), respectively. Our results demonstrated that the rapid diagnostic test would be a suitable diagnostic tool for the rapid detection of FeLV infection in cats.

  1. Radioiodination and Biological Evaluation of Lidocaine for Diagnostic Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attallah, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Lidocaine is a common local anesthetic drug. 125 I-Lidocaine was prepared with labeling yield about 95%. The conditions required to obtain this yield were 50 μg substrate, 50 μg CAT, 5-10 min reaction time, ph 7 and at room temperature. Different chromatographic techniques (electrophoresis and thin layer chromatography TLC) were used to evaluate the radiochemical yield and purity of the labeled product. Biodistribution studies were carried out in normal Albino Swiss mice and the result indicate the possibility of using 125 I-Lidocaine to be used as imaging agent

  2. Evaluation device of diagnostic X-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pela, Carlos Alberto; Paula, Eldereis de; Bruco, Jose Luiz; Ghilardi Netto, Thomaz

    1996-01-01

    A device developed to determine the physical parameters useful to the evaluation of both dental and medical X-ray equipment is presented. Nine detectors connected each one to a signal amplifier are used. The amplifiers output has being connected to an analog to digital interface plugged in a PC-AT microcomputer. The X-ray pass through filters before reaching the detectors. The data collected by microcomputer are used to calculate the kVp and other factors as total tube filtration, waveform, half-value layer, exposure rate and exposure time

  3. Ergonomic design and evaluation of a diagnostic ultrasound transducer holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Mohamad Sadegh; Hosseinzadeh, Payam; Zamani, Farhad; Ahmadpoor, Hossein; Dehghan, Naser

    2017-12-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are injuries and disorders that affect the body's movement and musculoskeletal system. Awkward postures represent one of the major ergonomic risk factors that cause WMSDs among sonographers while working with an ultrasound transducer. This study aimed to design and evaluate a new holder for the ultrasound transducer. In the first phase a new holder was designed for the transducer, considering design principles. Evaluation of the new holder was then carried out by electrogoniometry and a locally perceived discomfort (LPD) scale. The application of design principles to the new holder resulted in an improvement of wrist posture and comfort. Wrist angles in extension, flexion, radial deviation and ulnar deviation were lower with utilization of the new holder. The severity of discomfort based on the LPD method in the two modes of work with and without the new holder was reported with values of 1.3 and 1.8, respectively (p ergonomics design principles was effective in minimizing wrist deviation and increasing comfort while working with the new holder.

  4. Evaluation of oropharyngeal dysphagia: which diagnostic tool is superior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmore, Susan E

    2003-12-01

    As flexible endoscopic examinations of swallowing become more widely used to evaluate patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia, it is important to be aware of research regarding the efficacy of this procedure as compared with the videofluoroscopy procedure. A recent evidence-based review of the field threw some long-held findings into question and has stimulated a surge of new research studying the sensitivity of the two instrumental examinations, health outcomes of patients who receive each procedure, and a look at different patient outcomes. Since 1999, one quasi-randomized clinical trial has directly compared outcomes of patients given a fluoroscopy versus a fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) examination. This study showed no significant difference in pneumonia rates between the two groups of patients. A multitude of studies have shown a high level of agreement between the two instrumental examinations, and the use of the term gold standard as applied to fluoroscopy is no longer appropriate. The attempt to standardize each examination has been slow, and inter-judge reliability of results has come under fire. Several new scales for quality of life and functional status are now ready to be applied to research that can measure outcomes other than pneumonia. Research to date has suggested that both instrumental examinations are valuable. It is likely that both will continue to be used and will be seen as complementary rather than competitors.

  5. MRI in diagnostic evaluation of osteomyelitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoever, B.; Sigmund, G.; Langer, M.; Brandis, M.

    1994-01-01

    Several MRI investigations for detecting or excluding acute and non-post-traumatic chronic osteomyelitis were performed in 31 children, osteomyelitis was evident in 21 patients. The sensitivity of MRI for osteomyelitis was 90%, and specificity was 100%. In children with confirmed osteomyelitis 23 follow-up investigations were carried out in order to evaluate duration of the medullary edema. In uncomplicated cases only treated by antibiotics edema regression was evident after 4 weeks and completed after 12-16 weeks. In cases in whom extended concomitant soft-tissue infection was depicted regression of edema was prolonged independent of surgical intervention. The study reveals that at onset of acute osteomyelitis in children MRI can replace technetium 99m-labeled scintigraphy and reduce plain-film investigations. The results support the usefulness of MRI in discrimination of isolated soft-tissue infection and noninfectious diseases of bone. (orig.)

  6. Diagnostic imaging in liver transplantation. Preoperative evaluation and postoperative complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, T.; Ruehm, S.G.

    2005-01-01

    Complimentary to orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is increasingly considered a therapeutic option in the therapy of end-stage liver disease. Accurate pre- and postoperative imaging is crucial for the transplantation success and represents an established part of the current evaluation algorithms. This article summarizes the most important requirements and the current imaging standards. Preoperative imaging is important for exclusion of transplantation contraindications in the recipient and for reliable assessment of anatomical variants in the donor. The main purpose of postoperative imaging is the early detection and characterization of complications. In both instances, multislice CT currently represents the most versatile and reliable imaging modality, still superior to MRI. For postoperative follow-up, the imaging modality of first choice is still bedside ultrasound; however, unclear findings usually need to be further assessed by CT. (orig.) [de

  7. Prenatal diagnostic evaluation of fetal ventricular dilatation by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Ichiro; Tamaya, Teruhiko; Iwata, Tatsuo; Ando, Takashi; Yamada, Hiromu

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in MRI have contributed to the antenatal confirmatory diagnosis of fetal anomalies, especially in the fetal brain and central nervous system. In this study, eight infants with fetal ventricular dilatation, suggested by prenatal ultrasonography, were evaluated with confirmatory diagnosis by MRI (SIGNA; General Electric Company, 1.5 tesla). These anomalies were demonstrated at 19 to 36 weeks by ultrasonography. One of the eight died in utero at 22 weeks of gestation, another one day after birth (33 weeks of gestation). Two were delivered by Cesarean section. It has been proved that clear and effective images can be obtained by mother's walking without sedative drugs. Fetal MRI gave clear images not only in fetal horizontal section, but also in sagittal section, which is usually difficult to obtain by ultrasonography. Confirmatory diagnosis of eight cases were obtained by MRI. Fetal MRI can provide an effective prenatal diagnosis, especially in cases of fetal brain anomaly, even when compared with postnatal CT findings. (author)

  8. Esophageal Achalasia: Pathophysiology, Clinical Presentation, and Diagnostic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlottmann, Francisco; Neto, Rafael M L; Herbella, Fernando A M; Patti, Marco G

    2018-04-01

    Esophageal achalasia is a primary esophageal motility disorder characterized by the absence of esophageal peristalsis and failure of the lower esophageal sphincter to relax in response to swallowing. These abnormalities lead to impaired emptying of food from the esophagus into the stomach with resulting food stasis. Most patients experience severe dysphagia, and regurgitation can lead to aspiration and respiratory problems. Consequently, the quality of life of patients affected by achalasia is severely impacted. A thorough evaluation with upper endoscopy, barium swallow, and esophageal manometry is mandatory to establish the diagnosis and plan the optimal treatment. In selected patients, an ambulatory pH monitoring is recommended to distinguish between gastroesophageal reflux disease and achalasia.

  9. Evaluating the role of the diagnostic research radiographer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Karen; Edwards, Hazel

    2011-01-01

    The NHS has an increasingly strong focus on evidence-based medicine to underpin policy making and the development of a culture of evaluation and learning. Good quality research is the foundation for this ethos. Numbers of research projects and clinical trials involving imaging are increasing and therefore more radiographers are contributing to these studies but perhaps on some occasions they may be unaware. This paper describes the benefits of having a dedicated research radiographer within a radiology department to organise and monitor studies. We explain the procedures of the research process, the knowledge and skills that such a radiographer requires and the value of coordination and governance in developing a culture of research in a radiology department. We make suggestions to overcome perceived barriers to engaging with research and discuss the advantages and limitations of the role. Others who are considering appointing a dedicated research radiographer may find our experience helpful.

  10. Standardized evaluation of accident victims: demands on diagnostic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanz, K.G.; Mutschler, W.; Linsenmaier, U.; Pfeifer, K.J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction. Evaluation of trauma systems requires a complete and exact injury classification. The purpose of this study was the introduction of the Abbreviated injury scale (AIS) for radiological trauma scoring. The development of these easy to use coding tools is essential for prompt quality management of trauma.Material and methods. Standardized radiological injury description using a modified Abbreviated injury scale in combination with a Microsoft Excel trademark spreadsheet allows an immediate calculation of the probability of survival according to TRISS methodology.Results. Computed tomography is the main instrument for injury scoring in trauma care. Postmortem scanning provides a direct feedback for trauma teams especially in cases when autopsy is not possible.Conclusion. Computed tomography enables in combination with a standardized injury description exact trauma scoring. Quality management of trauma care depends on a valid and reliable calculation of the probability of survival using TRISS. (orig.) [de

  11. Diagnostic Tools for Doctors' Evaluation of Tattoo Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serup, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis of tattoo complications is a multi-facetted field since many clinical entities and disease mechanisms are represented. Infections, allergies, and pigment foreign body reactions with granuloma are the major groups. The clinician needs a structured approach to diagnosis and an armamentarium of standard tests. Diagnosis primarily builds on patient history, objective clinical examination, and punch biopsy, supplemented with microbiology testing, ultrasound scanning, and clinical photography. Evaluation of allergic tattoo reactions and allergy to pigments by patch testing is not applicable and has a falsely negative outcome except for the diagnosis of allergy to metals and preservatives. Simple inspection of raw punch biopsies from chronic tattoo reactions, preferably evaluated with stereo microscopy, provides important information about the density and the local distribution of tattoo pigment in the dermis and changes of micro- anatomical skin structures. Histology may show subtle structural changes, but traditional patterns (lichenoid reaction, pseudolymphoma, granuloma, and pseudoepitheliomatous epidermal hyperplasia) are of little or no help in the diagnosis since the patterns overlap and have no distinct clinical correlates. Histology cannot separate allergic and nonallergic reactions. However, granulomatous reaction and sarcoid granuloma are significant findings since papulonodular reaction of black tattoos and sarcoidosis are strongly associated with each other. 20-MHz ultrasound scanning is important for noninvasive imaging and characterization of inflammatory tattoo reactions and can be used preoperatively as guide to treatment. Electron microscopy can visualize pigment particles in tissues, cells, and tattoo inks. Chemicals of pigment in tissues and in tattoo inks can be analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Evaluation of Diagnostic Tests Using Information Theory for Multi-Class Diagnostic Problems and its Application for the Detection of Occlusal Caries Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Arslan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several methods are available to evaluate the performance of the tests when the purpose of the diagnostic test is to discriminate between two possible disease states. However multi-class diagnostic problems frequently appear in many areas of medical science. Hence, there is a need for methods which will enable us to characterize the accuracy of diagnostic tests when there are more than two possible disease states. Aims: To show that two information theory measures, information content (IC and proportional reduction in diagnostic uncertainty (PRDU, can be used for the evaluation of the performance of diagnostic tests for multi-class diagnostic problems that may appear in different areas of medical science. Study Design: Diagnostic accuracy study. Methods: Sixty freshly extracted permanent human molar and premolar teeth suspected to have occlusal caries lesions were selected for the study and were assessed by two experienced examiners. Each examiner performed two evaluations. Histological examination was used as the gold standard. The scores of the histological examination were defined as sound (n=11, enamel caries (n=22 and dentin caries (n=27. Diagnostic performance of i visual inspection, ii radiography, iii laser fluorescence (LF and iv micro-computed tomography (M-CT caries detection methods was evaluated by calculating IC and PRDU. Results: Micro-computed tomography examination was the best method among the diagnostic techniques for the diagnosis of occlusal caries in terms of both IC and PRDU. M-CT examination supplied the maximum diagnostic information about the diagnosis of occlusal caries in the first (IC: 1.056; p<0.05, (PRDU: 70.5% and second evaluation (IC: 1.105; p<0.05, (PRDU: 73.8% for the first examiner. M-CT examination was the best method among the diagnostic techniques for the second examiner in both the first (IC:1.105; p<0.05, (PRDU:73.8% and second evaluation (IC:1.061; p<0.05, (PRDU:70.8%. IC and PRDU were

  13. Evaluation of spine boards for X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsenmaier, U.; Kroetz, M.; Papst, E.; Rieger, J.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Kranz, K.G.; Russ, W.; Mutscher, W.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Spine boards are frequently used in preclinical emergency care. Different models were examined with regard to their feasibility for plain film radiography and computed tomography (CT). Methods: Five current spine board models were measured for their dimensions and weight. Transmission of radiation [μGyls] and dose area product [cGy x cm 2 ] were determined with a patient equivalent aluminium phantom. Image artifacts, image quality and resolution of anatomic details were evaluated with an anthropomorphic Alderson phantom. Results: With only 6.3 kg new models show a 28% reduction in weight, three spine boards generate lateral artifacts due to a narrow width of 41 - 42 cm. Radiation transmission of all boards was similar, however dose area products differed by up to 59%. Image quality was impaired in 4 out 5 boards because of image artifacts, CT scanning was not impaired with all boards. Conclusion: Only one board (Ferno Millenia trademark ) showed sufficient properties for plain film radiography and CT. There is no suitable spine board for preclinical and clinical applications as well as for trauma radiology, further improvements of current designs are essential. (orig.) [de

  14. Evaluation of diagnostic value of procalcitonin in pediatric acute pyelonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Sadeghi-bojd

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Urinary tract infection (UTI in children is among the prevalent infections of childhood, which occurs due to growth of bacteria in the urinary tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of procalcitonin (PCT as a reliable marker for distinguishing urinary tract infection (UTI with or without renal parenchyma (cystitis. Materials and Methods: Eighty children, who were suspicious of having UTI and had been referred to Ali Ibne Abitaleb hospital (in Zahedan or pediatric clinics (June 2007- Oct 2009 were included in the study after their urine culture revealed their infection. Besides, their clinical and lab symptoms including erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C– reactive protein (CRP, serum WBC, and serum procalcitonin (PCT were recorded. The patients were divided into two groups based on their lab clinical symptoms and radio-isotope scans, namely acute pyelonephritis and acute cystitis (lower UTI. Serum procalcitonin was measured in these cases in a semi-quantitative manner. Results: Fifty children with mean age of 4.89±3.50 years were compared with 30 children with mean age of 5.20±3.07 years. ESR, WBC, and PCT were significantly higher in patients with upper UTI (P<0.001 , but CRP was not significantly different in the two groups. PCT, which was semi-quantitatively measured, when lower than 0.5 had a relationship with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative value of 72%, 83.3%, 87.8%, and 64.1% respectively. When PCT was more than 2, the relationship with the mentioned features was 50%, 96.6%, 96.2%, and 53.7%, respectively. The relationships in these two domains can both be assistant in differentiating pyelonephritis from cystitis. Conclusion: PCT was more sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of upper versus lower UTI compared with CRP, and it can be a better marker than CRP for early prediction of febrile pyelonephritis in children.

  15. Evaluation Of The Diagnostic Performance Of A Multimedia Medical Communications System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, John G.; Coristine, Marjorie; Goldberg, Morris; Beeton, Carolyn; Belanger, Garry; Tombaugh, Jo W.; Hickey, Nancy M.; Millward, Steven F.; Davis, Michael; Whittingham, David

    1989-05-01

    The central concern of radiologists when evaluating Picture Archiving Communication System (PACS) is the diagnostic performance of digital images compared to the original analog versions of the same images. Considerable work has been done comparing the ROC curves of various types of digital systems to the corresponding analog systems for the detection of specific phantoms or diseases. Although the studies may notify the radiologists that for a specific lesion a digital system may perform as well as the analog system, it tells the radiologists very little about the impact on diagnostic performance of a digital system in the general practice of radiology. We describe in this paper an alternative method for evaluating the diagnostic performance of a digital system and a preliminary experiment we conducted to test the methodology.

  16. Performance Evaluation of Commercial Dengue Diagnostic Tests for Early Detection of Dengue in Clinical Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan Nur Akmalina Mat Jusoh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The shattering rise in dengue virus infections globally has created a need for an accurate and validated rapid diagnostic test for this virus. Rapid diagnostic test (RDT and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR diagnostic detection are useful tools for diagnosis of early dengue infection. We prospectively evaluated the diagnostic performance of nonstructural 1 (NS1 RDT and real-time RT-PCR diagnostic kits in 86 patient serum samples. Thirty-six samples were positive for dengue NS1 antigen while the remaining 50 were negative when tested with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Commercially available RDTs for NS1 detection, RTK ProDetect™, and SD Bioline showed high sensitivity of 94% and 89%, respectively, compared with ELISA. GenoAmp® Trioplex Real-Time RT-PCR and RealStar® Dengue RT-PCR tests presented a comparable kappa agreement with 0.722. The result obtained from GenoAmp® Real-Time RT-PCR Dengue test showed that 14 samples harbored dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1, 8 samples harbored DENV-2, 2 samples harbored DENV-3, and 1 sample harbored DENV-4. 1 sample had a double infection with DENV-1 and DENV-2. The NS1 RDTs and real-time RT-PCR tests were found to be a useful diagnostic for early and rapid diagnosis of acute dengue and an excellent surveillance tool in our battle against dengue.

  17. Development of an Adaptable Display and Diagnostic System for the Evaluation of Tropical Cyclone Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, P. A.; Burek, T.; Halley-Gotway, J.

    2015-12-01

    NCAR's Joint Numerical Testbed Program (JNTP) focuses on the evaluation of experimental forecasts of tropical cyclones (TCs) with the goal of developing new research tools and diagnostic evaluation methods that can be transitioned to operations. Recent activities include the development of new TC forecast verification methods and the development of an adaptable TC display and diagnostic system. The next generation display and diagnostic system is being developed to support evaluation needs of the U.S. National Hurricane Center (NHC) and broader TC research community. The new hurricane display and diagnostic capabilities allow forecasters and research scientists to more deeply examine the performance of operational and experimental models. The system is built upon modern and flexible technology that includes OpenLayers Mapping tools that are platform independent. The forecast track and intensity along with associated observed track information are stored in an efficient MySQL database. The system provides easy-to-use interactive display system, and provides diagnostic tools to examine forecast track stratified by intensity. Consensus forecasts can be computed and displayed interactively. The system is designed to display information for both real-time and for historical TC cyclones. The display configurations are easily adaptable to meet the needs of the end-user preferences. Ongoing enhancements include improving capabilities for stratification and evaluation of historical best tracks, development and implementation of additional methods to stratify and compute consensus hurricane track and intensity forecasts, and improved graphical display tools. The display is also being enhanced to incorporate gridded forecast, satellite, and sea surface temperature fields. The presentation will provide an overview of the display and diagnostic system development and demonstration of the current capabilities.

  18. Evaluating Secondary Students' Scientific Reasoning in Genetics Using a Two-Tier Diagnostic Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Chi-Yan; Treagust, David

    2010-05-01

    While genetics has remained as one key topic in school science, it continues to be conceptually and linguistically difficult for students with the concomitant debates as to what should be taught in the age of biotechnology. This article documents the development and implementation of a two-tier multiple-choice instrument for diagnosing grades 10 and 12 students' understanding of genetics in terms of reasoning. The pretest and posttest forms of the diagnostic instrument were used alongside other methods in evaluating students' understanding of genetics in a case-based qualitative study on teaching and learning with multiple representations in three Western Australian secondary schools. Previous studies have shown that a two-tier diagnostic instrument is useful in probing students' understanding or misunderstanding of scientific concepts and ideas. The diagnostic instrument in this study was designed and then progressively refined, improved, and implemented to evaluate student understanding of genetics in three case schools. The final version of the instrument had Cronbach's alpha reliability of 0.75 and 0.64, respectively, for its pretest and the posttest forms when it was administered to a group of grade 12 students (n = 17). This two-tier diagnostic instrument complemented other qualitative data collection methods in this research in generating a more holistic picture of student conceptual learning of genetics in terms of scientific reasoning. Implications of the findings of this study using the diagnostic instrument are discussed.

  19. Evaluation of dimensions of diagnostic X-ray tube focal spots using direct digitalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Paulo R.; Furquim, Tania A.C.

    1996-01-01

    An image digitalization system is proposed as an alternative method for replacing direct exposure X-ray films on the evaluation of dimensions of diagnostic X-ray tube focal spots. Results of measurements are presented and compared to nominal values

  20. Does Sex Influence the Diagnostic Evaluation of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. Ellie; Murphy, Clodagh M.; McAlonan, Grainne; Robertson, Dene M.; Spain, Debbie; Hayward, Hannah; Woodhouse, Emma; Deeley, P. Quinton; Gillan, Nicola; Ohlsen, J. Chris; Zinkstok, Janneke; Stoencheva, Vladimira; Faulkner, Jessica; Yildiran, Hatice; Bell, Vaughan; Hammond, Neil; Craig, Michael C.; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether sex influences the diagnostic evaluation of autism spectrum disorder, or whether male and female adults within the spectrum have different symptom profiles. This study reports sex differences in clinical outcomes for 1,244 adults (935 males and 309 females) referred for autism spectrum disorder assessment. Significantly, more…

  1. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of the HemoCue device for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the validity of the HemoCue in relation to the gold-standard laboratory method. Methods. A cross-sectional study of children aged 6 - 8 years, analysing the diagnostic accuracy of the HemoCue in determining Hb levels in venous blood. Agreement between the HemoCue and laboratory techniques was evaluated ...

  2. An ARM data-oriented diagnostics package to evaluate the climate model simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Xie, S.

    2016-12-01

    A set of diagnostics that utilize long-term high frequency measurements from the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is developed for evaluating the regional simulation of clouds, radiation and precipitation in climate models. The diagnostics results are computed and visualized automatically in a python-based package that aims to serve as an easy entry point for evaluating climate simulations using the ARM data, as well as the CMIP5 multi-model simulations. Basic performance metrics are computed to measure the accuracy of mean state and variability of simulated regional climate. The evaluated physical quantities include vertical profiles of clouds, temperature, relative humidity, cloud liquid water path, total column water vapor, precipitation, sensible and latent heat fluxes, radiative fluxes, aerosol and cloud microphysical properties. Process-oriented diagnostics focusing on individual cloud and precipitation-related phenomena are developed for the evaluation and development of specific model physical parameterizations. Application of the ARM diagnostics package will be presented in the AGU session. This work is performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, IM release number is: LLNL-ABS-698645.

  3. Diagnostic investigation of patients with chronic polyneuropathy: evaluation of a clinical guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberg, N. R.; Portegies, P.; de Visser, M.; Vermeulen, M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: (1) To evaluate a clinical guideline for the diagnostic investigation of patients presenting with signs and symptoms (present for longer than 6 weeks) suggesting a chronic polyneuropathy. (2) To investigate the contribution of electrophysiological studies to a focused search for aetiology

  4. Evaluating radiographers' diagnostic accuracy in screen-reading mammograms: what constitutes a quality study?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debono, Josephine C; Poulos, Ann E

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to first evaluate the quality of studies investigating the diagnostic accuracy of radiographers as mammogram screen-readers and then to develop an adapted tool for determining the quality of screen-reading studies. A literature search was used to identify relevant studies and a quality evaluation tool constructed by combining the criteria for quality of Whiting, Rutjes, Dinnes et al. and Brealey and Westwood. This constructed tool was then applied to the studies and subsequently adapted specifically for use in evaluating quality in studies investigating diagnostic accuracy of screen-readers. Eleven studies were identified and the constructed tool applied to evaluate quality. This evaluation resulted in the identification of quality issues with the studies such as potential for bias, applicability of results, study conduct, reporting of the study and observer characteristics. An assessment of the applicability and relevance of the tool for this area of research resulted in adaptations to the criteria and the development of a tool specifically for evaluating diagnostic accuracy in screen-reading. This tool, with further refinement and rigorous validation can make a significant contribution to promoting well-designed studies in this important area of research and practice

  5. The evaluation of diagnostic value of the tumor markers: CCSA-2 and CEA in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knychalski, Bartłomiej; Lukieńczuk, Tadeusz

    2012-02-01

    Finding the biomarker or biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity in colorectal cancer, and thus a high diagnostic value will determine their clinical usefulness in clinical practice. An effective noninvasive blood test would be an ideal method to detect colorectal cancer. Discovered in 2007 a novel tumor marker CCSA-2 showes a promising results in patients with colorectal cancer. THE AIM OF THE STUDY was the evaluation of diagnostic and clinical value of a novel marker - colon cancer specific antigen-2 (CCSA-2) in colorectal adenocarcinoma in comparison to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in patients operated during the years 2008 to 2010 at Wrocław Medical University 1st Department and Clinic of General, Gastroenterological and Endocrinologic Surgery. The study was performed on 40 patients with colorectal cancer and 40 patients in control group consisted of healthy subjects who had colonoscopy examinations with negative results (no pathology in the colon was found). The obtained results were statistically analyzed using nonparametric tests - Mann Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. To determine the clinical value of CCSA-2 and CEA in those groups, their sensitivity and specifity was evaluated using ROC analysis. This analysis determines the accuracy and diagnostic value of both tests. There was a positive correlation between markers in patients with colorectal cancer and a statistically significant relationship according to which respondents with higher concentrations of CCSA-2 also have higher concentrations of CEA (R=0.754, ptumor markers increase and correlate with the clinical progression of the disease. Accuracy of CCSA-2 test using ROC analysis showed a slightly lower measurement of antigen CCSA-2 as diagnostic value in colorectal cancer in comparison to measurement of antigen CEA (accuracy of tests: CCSA-2 - 52%, CEA - 60%). CCSA-2 as a single tumor marker has a low diagnostic value in colorectal cancer because

  6. Does evaluation of the ligamentous compartment enhance diagnostic utility of sacroiliac joint MRI in axial spondyloarthritis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Ulrich; Maksymowych, Walter P; Chan, Stanley M

    2015-01-01

    in the ligamentous compartment and their potential diagnostic utility in axial SpA. We therefore aimed to evaluate the ligamentous compartment on sacroiliac joint MRI for lesion distribution and potential incremental value towards diagnosis of SpA over and above the traditional assessment of the cartilaginous...... and ligamentous compartment. The incremental value of evaluating the ligamentous additionally to the cartilaginous compartment alone for diagnosis of SpA was graded qualitatively. We determined the lesion distribution between the two compartments, and the impact of the ligamentous compartment evaluation...... on diagnostic utility. RESULTS: MRI bone marrow lesions solely in the ligamentous compartment in the absence of lesions in the cartilaginous compartment were reported in just 0-2.0/0-4.0 % (BME/fat metaplasia) of all subjects. Additional assessment of the ligamentous compartment was regarded as essential...

  7. Enhancing traditional, televised, and videotaped courses with Web-based technologies: a comparison of student satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sole, M L; Lindquist, M

    2001-01-01

    Varied distance learning strategies can be used to deliver nursing courses, including interactive television, videotape, and Web-based approaches. (1) To assess student assess student satisfaction with a critical care elective course offered simultaneously via traditional and distance learning formats in which Web-based strategies were added, and (2) to compare satisfaction of students taking the traditional course versus those taking the class via distance technology. Students (n = 113) who took the course during the spring 1998 and 1999 semesters completed a teacher-constructed evaluation at the end of the semester. Mean ratings on the evaluation were positive. Ratings of interaction, communication with instructor, and facilitation of learning were higher from students who took the traditional course. The application of Web-based technologies may be one factor for the overall course satisfaction. However, it is important to continue to evaluate strategies that work best for students taking courses via distance technology.

  8. Systematic Review of Health Economic Evaluations of Diagnostic Tests in Brazil: How accurate are the results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maria Regina Fernandes; Leandro, Roseli; Decimoni, Tassia Cristina; Rozman, Luciana Martins; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; De Soárez, Patrícia Coelho

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is to identify and characterize the health economic evaluations (HEEs) of diagnostic tests conducted in Brazil, in terms of their adherence to international guidelines for reporting economic studies and specific questions in test accuracy reports. We systematically searched multiple databases, selecting partial and full HEEs of diagnostic tests, published between 1980 and 2013. Two independent reviewers screened articles for relevance and extracted the data. We performed a qualitative narrative synthesis. Forty-three articles were reviewed. The most frequently studied diagnostic tests were laboratory tests (37.2%) and imaging tests (32.6%). Most were non-invasive tests (51.2%) and were performed in the adult population (48.8%). The intended purposes of the technologies evaluated were mostly diagnostic (69.8%), but diagnosis and treatment and screening, diagnosis, and treatment accounted for 25.6% and 4.7%, respectively. Of the reviewed studies, 12.5% described the methods used to estimate the quantities of resources, 33.3% reported the discount rate applied, and 29.2% listed the type of sensitivity analysis performed. Among the 12 cost-effectiveness analyses, only two studies (17%) referred to the application of formal methods to check the quality of the accuracy studies that provided support for the economic model. The existing Brazilian literature on the HEEs of diagnostic tests exhibited reasonably good performance. However, the following points still require improvement: 1) the methods used to estimate resource quantities and unit costs, 2) the discount rate, 3) descriptions of sensitivity analysis methods, 4) reporting of conflicts of interest, 5) evaluations of the quality of the accuracy studies considered in the cost-effectiveness models, and 6) the incorporation of accuracy measures into sensitivity analyses.

  9. CT fluoroscopy-guided renal tumour cutting needle biopsy. Retrospective evaluation of diagnostic yield, safety, and risk factors for diagnostic failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Toshihiro; Hiraki, Takao; Matsui, Yusuke; Fujiwara, Hiroyasu; Sakurai, Jun; Masaoka, Yoshihisa; Gobara, Hideo; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate retrospectively the diagnostic yield, safety, and risk factors for diagnostic failure of computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopy-guided renal tumour biopsy. Biopsies were performed for 208 tumours (mean diameter 2.3 cm; median diameter 2.1 cm; range 0.9-8.5 cm) in 199 patients. One hundred and ninety-nine tumours were ≤4 cm. All 208 initial procedures were divided into diagnostic success and failure groups. Multiple variables related to the patients, lesions, and procedures were assessed to determine the risk factors for diagnostic failure. After performing 208 initial and nine repeat biopsies, 180 malignancies and 15 benign tumours were pathologically diagnosed, whereas 13 were not diagnosed. In 117 procedures, 118 Grade I and one Grade IIIa adverse events (AEs) occurred. Neither Grade ≥IIIb AEs nor tumour seeding were observed within a median follow-up period of 13.7 months. Logistic regression analysis revealed only small tumour size (≤1.5 cm; odds ratio 3.750; 95% confidence interval 1.362-10.326; P = 0.011) to be a significant risk factor for diagnostic failure. CT fluoroscopy-guided renal tumour biopsy is a safe procedure with a high diagnostic yield. A small tumour size (≤1.5 cm) is a significant risk factor for diagnostic failure. (orig.)

  10. CT fluoroscopy-guided renal tumour cutting needle biopsy. Retrospective evaluation of diagnostic yield, safety, and risk factors for diagnostic failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, Toshihiro; Hiraki, Takao; Matsui, Yusuke; Fujiwara, Hiroyasu; Sakurai, Jun; Masaoka, Yoshihisa; Gobara, Hideo; Kanazawa, Susumu [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Okayama (Japan)

    2018-01-15

    To evaluate retrospectively the diagnostic yield, safety, and risk factors for diagnostic failure of computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopy-guided renal tumour biopsy. Biopsies were performed for 208 tumours (mean diameter 2.3 cm; median diameter 2.1 cm; range 0.9-8.5 cm) in 199 patients. One hundred and ninety-nine tumours were ≤4 cm. All 208 initial procedures were divided into diagnostic success and failure groups. Multiple variables related to the patients, lesions, and procedures were assessed to determine the risk factors for diagnostic failure. After performing 208 initial and nine repeat biopsies, 180 malignancies and 15 benign tumours were pathologically diagnosed, whereas 13 were not diagnosed. In 117 procedures, 118 Grade I and one Grade IIIa adverse events (AEs) occurred. Neither Grade ≥IIIb AEs nor tumour seeding were observed within a median follow-up period of 13.7 months. Logistic regression analysis revealed only small tumour size (≤1.5 cm; odds ratio 3.750; 95% confidence interval 1.362-10.326; P = 0.011) to be a significant risk factor for diagnostic failure. CT fluoroscopy-guided renal tumour biopsy is a safe procedure with a high diagnostic yield. A small tumour size (≤1.5 cm) is a significant risk factor for diagnostic failure. (orig.)

  11. Visualization Mode, Perceived Immediacy and Audience Evaluation of TV News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksobiech, Kenneth; And Others

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of audience perceptions of videotaped versus filmed actualities on television newscasts suggested that videotaped actualities were perceived as more immediate than filmed actualities, and that audience evaluation of newscasts using videotaped actualities was higher than audience evaluation of newscasts using filmed actualities. (GT)

  12. Emergency coronary angioplasty with stenting using Cordis® diagnostic coronary catheters when there is difficulty in engaging guide catheters and bench evaluation of diagnostic and guide catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokiaraj, Mark Christopher

    2018-02-01

    Difficulty in engaging with guide catheters is not uncommon in acute emergencies. We aimed to evaluate the use of Cordis ® INFINITI diagnostic catheters to perform angioplasty in patients in whom the coronaries cannot be engaged using standard guide catheters. In 34 cases of acute coronary syndrome, when difficulty in engagement with two standard guide catheters was encountered with reasonable manipulations, angioplasty was performed using diagnostic catheters. In total, 40 stents were placed by this technique. Pushability and trackability, distal tip flexion and three-point bending tests were performed to evaluate the performance of the guide and diagnostic catheters. Angioplasty was performed easily in a setting where it would have been very difficult to perform. Coronary dissection occurred in one patient, treated by a stent. The stent and dilatation balloons were easily passed through the diagnostic catheters. Pressure tracings were clearly preserved with certain stent delivery systems, and at angioplasty, although there was slightly reduced opacification of the respective artery, the coronary anatomy was sufficiently visualized to perform angioplasty. No periprocedural target lesion complications were seen in any cases. Pushability and trackability tests showed good force transmission along a tortuous path with diagnostic catheters, and balanced force-displacement curves from three-point bending tests and distal tip softness tests. Angioplasty with stenting can be performed safely through 6F Cordis ® infiniti diagnostic catheters when difficulty in engaging guide catheters is encountered. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluating the diagnostic device DETEC-PC for the thyroid uptakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Abad, Dolores; Arista Romeu, Eduardo; Alonso Abad, Ariel

    2008-01-01

    A study is presented for evaluating the diagnostic capacity of the DETEC-PC, detection measurement system for the Thyroid Uptakes. A clinical trial was designed for that effect and all the patients included were evaluated using the DETEC-PC and the well-known radioimmunoassay (RIA) standard diagnostic procedure known by acronym RIA. For the Thyroid Uptakes using the DETEC-PC patients received an oral administration of a solution of radioactive iodine. The radioactive substance is attracted chemically to the gland and ionising radiation detector captures their emissions. The iodine concentration in the Thyroid, as well as the variation of this concentration over time reflects the function of the gland. The RIA is based on the analysis of the values associated with the t3, t4 and tsh hormones, and when these three parameters are in a certain range the patients can be classified. The sample size was calculated in order to estimate the gross coincidence percent between both methods with a precision of 1 % at a confidence level of 95%. In total 110 patients were included in the trial. Mainly two types of statistical analysis were carried out, in the first analysis all the patients included in the study were considered whereas in the second analysis the patients with doubtful RIA results were not included. Ideally the performance of a diagnostic tool is evaluated through the estimation of its sensitivity and specificity. Nevertheless, in the present study the reference procedure (RIA) can not be considered a gold standard diagnostic device. In such a setting the international regulations advise to use measurements of agreement to evaluate the diagnostic capacity of the new method. In the present study we evaluated the level of diagnostic agreement between the DETEC-PC and the RIA using the Kappa statistics. Additionally, the confidence interval for the Kappa statistics and the corresponding significant test for the present of agreement were also computes. The obtained

  14. CT fluoroscopy-guided renal tumour cutting needle biopsy: retrospective evaluation of diagnostic yield, safety, and risk factors for diagnostic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Toshihiro; Hiraki, Takao; Matsui, Yusuke; Fujiwara, Hiroyasu; Sakurai, Jun; Masaoka, Yoshihisa; Gobara, Hideo; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate retrospectively the diagnostic yield, safety, and risk factors for diagnostic failure of computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopy-guided renal tumour biopsy. Biopsies were performed for 208 tumours (mean diameter 2.3 cm; median diameter 2.1 cm; range 0.9-8.5 cm) in 199 patients. One hundred and ninety-nine tumours were ≤4 cm. All 208 initial procedures were divided into diagnostic success and failure groups. Multiple variables related to the patients, lesions, and procedures were assessed to determine the risk factors for diagnostic failure. After performing 208 initial and nine repeat biopsies, 180 malignancies and 15 benign tumours were pathologically diagnosed, whereas 13 were not diagnosed. In 117 procedures, 118 Grade I and one Grade IIIa adverse events (AEs) occurred. Neither Grade ≥IIIb AEs nor tumour seeding were observed within a median follow-up period of 13.7 months. Logistic regression analysis revealed only small tumour size (≤1.5 cm; odds ratio 3.750; 95% confidence interval 1.362-10.326; P = 0.011) to be a significant risk factor for diagnostic failure. CT fluoroscopy-guided renal tumour biopsy is a safe procedure with a high diagnostic yield. A small tumour size (≤1.5 cm) is a significant risk factor for diagnostic failure. • CT fluoroscopy-guided renal tumour biopsy has a high diagnostic yield. • CT fluoroscopy-guided renal tumour biopsy is safe. • Small tumour size (≤1.5 cm) is a risk factor for diagnostic failure.

  15. Interrater reliability of videotaped observational gait-analysis assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastlack, M E; Arvidson, J; Snyder-Mackler, L; Danoff, J V; McGarvey, C L

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the interrater reliability of videotaped observational gait-analysis (VOGA) assessments. Fifty-four licensed physical therapists with varying amounts of clinical experience served as raters. Three patients with rheumatoid arthritis who demonstrated an abnormal gait pattern served as subjects for the videotape. The raters analyzed each patient's most severely involved knee during the four subphases of stance for the kinematic variables of knee flexion and genu valgum. Raters were asked to determine whether these variables were inadequate, normal, or excessive. The temporospatial variables analyzed throughout the entire gait cycle were cadence, step length, stride length, stance time, and step width. Generalized kappa coefficients ranged from .11 to .52. Intraclass correlation coefficients (2,1) and (3,1) were slightly higher. Our results indicate that physical therapists' VOGA assessments are only slightly to moderately reliable and that improved interrater reliability of the assessments of physical therapists utilizing this technique is needed. Our data suggest that there is a need for greater standardization of gait-analysis training.

  16. Structured approach to design of diagnostic test evaluation studies for chronic progressive infections in animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils; Gardner, Ian Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Diagnostic test evaluations (DTEs) for chronic infections are challenging because a protracted incubation period has to be considered in the design of the DTE, and the adverse effects of infection may be widespread and progressive over an animal's entire life. Frequently, the specific purpose......) than originally intended. The objective of this paper is to outline a structured approach to the design and conduct of a DTE for diagnostic tests used for chronic infections in animals, and intended for different purposes. We describe the process from reflections about test purpose and the underlying...... of the test is not formally considered when a test is evaluated. Therefore, the result is often a DTE where test sensitivity and specificity estimates are biased, either because of problems with establishing the true infection status or because the test detects another aspect of the infection (and analyte...

  17. Efficient diagnostic evaluation of fractures of the talus - an analysis based on examination of 40 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, A.; Roehnert, W.; Koehler, K.

    1997-01-01

    Conventional radiography imaging the ankle joint in two planes is the initial technique applied, giving information on further diagnostic evaluation required. CT is of importance for such additional examination, and spiral CT in particular, as it can generate directly comparable pictures due to its standardised examination techniques. Joint surfaces are visualized without superpositions. Fractures and their numbers, dislocations as well as involvement of joint surfaces can be better detected. Also, spiral CT, due to the continuous data set generated, permits 2D reconstructions of high quality. 3D Reconstructions as a rule do not supply additional information. CT can be applied for diagnostic evaluation of the tendon and ligamentum system/soft tissue, but MRI will yield better results. (orig./CB) [de

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging for diagnostic evaluation of hernia of an invertebral disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, H.K.; Oppel, G.; Bluemm, R.; Uhlenbrock, D.

    1988-01-01

    The article reports experience gained within three years with diagnostic NMR imaging of the lumbar spine. On the basis of results obtained by almost 500 examinations, an optimisation concept with regard to measuring sequences and orientation of sectional cuts is presented. Imaging of the spine in three planes, with sectional layer thickness between 3 and 5 mm, using a 1.5 Tesla system, seems to yield the diagnostic optimum, and in our opinion is superior over invasive myelography and CT scanning. A prospective study we made indicates a hit rate of 97.2%, and of 100% for evaluation of the results obtained with the 1.5 Tesla system together with an evaluation of the paraxial sections. The magnetic field intensity of 1.5 Tesla especially improves the quality of images of paraxial cuts as compared with the 0.5 Tesla field system, due to the better contrast-to-noise ratio, and thinner sections. (orig.) [de

  19. CT-guided core needle biopsy of pleural lesions: Evaluating diagnostic yield and associated complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Xiang Ke; Bhetuwal, Anup; Yang, Han Feng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and complications of CT-guided core needle biopsy (CT-guided CNB) of pleural lesion and the possible effects of influencing factors. From September 2007 to June 2013, 88 consecutive patients (60 men and 28 women; mean [+/- standard deviation] age, 51.1 +/- 14.4 years; range, 19-78 years) underwent CT-guided CNB, which was performed by two experienced chest radiologists in our medical center. Out of 88 cases, 56 (63%) were diagnosed as malignant, 28 (31%) as benign and 4 (5%) as indeterminate for CNB of pleural lesions. The final diagnosis was confirmed by either histopathological diagnosis or clinical follow-up. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and complication rates were statistically evaluated. Influencing factors (patient age, sex, lesion size, pleural-puncture angle, patient position, pleural effusion, and number of pleural punctures) were assessed for their effect on accuracy of CT-guided CNB using univariate and subsequent multivariate analysis. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 89.2%, 86.1%, 100%, 100%, and 67.8%, respectively. The influencing factors had no significant effect in altering diagnostic accuracy. As far as complications were concerned, occurrence of pneumothorax was observed in 14 (16%) out of 88 patients. Multivariate analysis revealed lesion size/pleural thickening as a significant risk factor (odds ratio [OR]: 8.744, p = 0.005) for occurrence of pneumothorax. Moreover, presence of pleural effusion was noted as a significant protective factor (OR: 0.171, p = 0.037) for pneumothorax. CT-guided CNB of pleural lesion is a safe procedure with high diagnostic yield and low risk of significant complications.

  20. CT-guided core needle biopsy of pleural lesions: Evaluating diagnostic yield and associated complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Xiang Ke [Dept. of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu University, Chengdu (China); Bhetuwal, Anup; Yang, Han Feng [Dept. of Radiology, Sichuan Key Laboratory of Medical Imaging, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong (China)

    2015-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and complications of CT-guided core needle biopsy (CT-guided CNB) of pleural lesion and the possible effects of influencing factors. From September 2007 to June 2013, 88 consecutive patients (60 men and 28 women; mean [+/- standard deviation] age, 51.1 +/- 14.4 years; range, 19-78 years) underwent CT-guided CNB, which was performed by two experienced chest radiologists in our medical center. Out of 88 cases, 56 (63%) were diagnosed as malignant, 28 (31%) as benign and 4 (5%) as indeterminate for CNB of pleural lesions. The final diagnosis was confirmed by either histopathological diagnosis or clinical follow-up. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and complication rates were statistically evaluated. Influencing factors (patient age, sex, lesion size, pleural-puncture angle, patient position, pleural effusion, and number of pleural punctures) were assessed for their effect on accuracy of CT-guided CNB using univariate and subsequent multivariate analysis. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 89.2%, 86.1%, 100%, 100%, and 67.8%, respectively. The influencing factors had no significant effect in altering diagnostic accuracy. As far as complications were concerned, occurrence of pneumothorax was observed in 14 (16%) out of 88 patients. Multivariate analysis revealed lesion size/pleural thickening as a significant risk factor (odds ratio [OR]: 8.744, p = 0.005) for occurrence of pneumothorax. Moreover, presence of pleural effusion was noted as a significant protective factor (OR: 0.171, p = 0.037) for pneumothorax. CT-guided CNB of pleural lesion is a safe procedure with high diagnostic yield and low risk of significant complications.

  1. Compression evaluation of surgery video recordings retaining diagnostic credibility (compression evaluation of surgery video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplaga, M.; Leszczuk, M. I.; Papir, Z.; Przelaskowski, A.

    2008-12-01

    Wider dissemination of medical digital video libraries is affected by two correlated factors, resource effective content compression that directly influences its diagnostic credibility. It has been proved that it is possible to meet these contradictory requirements halfway for long-lasting and low motion surgery recordings at compression ratios close to 100 (bronchoscopic procedures were a case study investigated). As the main supporting assumption, it has been accepted that the content can be compressed as far as clinicians are not able to sense a loss of video diagnostic fidelity (a visually lossless compression). Different market codecs were inspected by means of the combined subjective and objective tests toward their usability in medical video libraries. Subjective tests involved a panel of clinicians who had to classify compressed bronchoscopic video content according to its quality under the bubble sort algorithm. For objective tests, two metrics (hybrid vector measure and hosaka Plots) were calculated frame by frame and averaged over a whole sequence.

  2. Evaluation of the contribution of the importance of neuroimaging for the diagnostics of dementias - comparison to the psychological diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentschel, F.; Kreis, M.; Damian, M.; Syren, M.; Krumm, B.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: While psychology is accepted as a necessary component of the dementia diagnostics, the extended clinical diagnostics with neuroimaging is differently estimated. The goal of the study is the quantification of the individual contribution of the two different methods. Methods: Of 100 patient the diagnosis of entrance, the neurological, the psychological, and the final clinical diagnosis were documented. For both imaging and psychology the sensitivity, specificity, and the positive predictive value were computed. The diagnostic of each method was determined from the change of the final in relation to the initial clinical diagnosis. The neuroradiological investigation took place with MRI, the psychological examination used both usual power and special speed tests. Results: The extended clinical diagnostics led for 26% of the patients to the change of the clinical diagnosis. Imaging and psychology supplied different own but supplementing contributions. In the case of annihilation imaging contributed with 73.3%, psychology with 54.1% to the diagnosis of a neurodegenerative dementia, whereas the contributions to the diagnosis of a vascular dementia were 83.3% and 70.8%, respectively. However psychology diagnosed and quantified the dementia. The contribution of neuroimaging consisted in the differential diagnosis of the dementias organic causes of symptomatic clementias and vascular encephalopathy without dementia but with consequences for a secondary prophylaxis were additional information also. Conclusion: Psychology improves the diagnostic accuracy of dementias. Neuroimaging improves the differential diagnosis of dementias and supplies additional clinically relevant findings. In the qualified diagnostics and differential diagnostics of the dementias both methods are indispensable. (orig.) [de

  3. The pilot evaluation for the National Evaluation System in South Africa – A diagnostic review of early childhood development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Davids

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Policymaking in many instances does not follow proper diagnosis of a problem using evidence to justify why particular decisions have been taken. This article describes findings of a diagnostic review of existing challenges facing early childhood development (ECD in South Africa. The review is part of the government’s attempt to use information to drive policy in strategic areas. It is part of the role that the Presidency is seeking to play in ensuring government programmes are evaluated to ensure that money that is spent is spent on programmes that have an impact and that there is value for money. This article summarises the key findings of the diagnostic review that was conducted of policy, services and coordination.The results reveal that a broader definition of ECD programmes is needed to cover all aspects of children’s development, growth and health, from conception to the foundation phase of schooling. Many elements of comprehensive ECD support and services are already in place and some are performing well. However, there are important gaps. Key ECD strategies for the future are identified. The diagnostic evaluation used a variety of methods, including desktop analysis, interviews and data analysis. Issues emerged around how to link the evaluation with other processes in the involved departments. A particular challenge was how to handle the transition to implementation of the findings, as responsibility shifted from the steering committee to the departments. The process worked well despite past challenges with coordination across government.

  4. Evaluation performance of diagnostic methods of intestinal parasitosis in school age children in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimer, Mulat; Hailu, Tadesse; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-12-26

    Although the sensitivity of Wet mount technique is questionable, it is the major diagnostic technique for routine diagnosis of intestinal parasitosis in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was the evaluation performance of diagnostic methods of intestinal parasitosis in school age children in Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from May to June 2013. Single stool sample was processed for direct, Formol ether concentration (FEC) and Kato Katz methods. The sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of diagnostic tests were calculated in terms of the "Gold" standard method (the combined result of the three methods altogether). A total of 422 school age children were participated in this study. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was high (74.6%) with Kato Katz technique. The sensitivity of Wet mount, FEC and Kato Katz tests against the Gold standard test was 48.9, 63.1 and 93.7%, respectively. Kato Katz technique revealed a better NPV 80.4 (80.1-80.6) as compared to the Wet mount (33.7%) and FEC techniques (41.3%). In this study, the Kato Katz technique outperformed the other two methods but the true values for sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic values are not known. Moreover, it is labor intensive and not easily accessible. Hence, it is preferable to use FEC technique to complement the Wet mount test.

  5. A Comprehensive Diagnostic Framework for Evaluating Business Intelligence and Analytics Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Foshay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Business intelligence and analytics (BIA initiatives are costly, complex and experience high failure rates. Organizations require effective approaches to evaluate their BIA capabilities in order to develop strategies for their evolution. In this paper, we employ a design science paradigm to develop a comprehensive BIA effectiveness diagnostic (BIAED framework that can be easily operationalized. We propose that a useful BIAED framework must assess the correct factors, should be deployed in the proper process context and acquire the appropriate input from different constituencies within an organization. Drawing on the BIAED framework, we further develop an online diagnostic toolkit that includes a comprehensive survey instrument. We subsequently deploy the diagnostic mechanism within three large organizations in North America (involving over 1500 participants and use the results to inform BIA strategy formulation. Feedback from participating organizations indicates that BIA diagnostic toolkit provides insights that are essential inputs to strategy development. This work addresses a significant research gap in the area of BIA effectiveness assessment.

  6. ARM Data-Oriented Metrics and Diagnostics Package for Climate Model Evaluation Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chengzhu [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Xie, Shaocheng [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-15

    A Python-based metrics and diagnostics package is currently being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Infrastructure Team at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to facilitate the use of long-term, high-frequency measurements from the ARM Facility in evaluating the regional climate simulation of clouds, radiation, and precipitation. This metrics and diagnostics package computes climatological means of targeted climate model simulation and generates tables and plots for comparing the model simulation with ARM observational data. The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) model data sets are also included in the package to enable model intercomparison as demonstrated in Zhang et al. (2017). The mean of the CMIP model can serve as a reference for individual models. Basic performance metrics are computed to measure the accuracy of mean state and variability of climate models. The evaluated physical quantities include cloud fraction, temperature, relative humidity, cloud liquid water path, total column water vapor, precipitation, sensible and latent heat fluxes, and radiative fluxes, with plan to extend to more fields, such as aerosol and microphysics properties. Process-oriented diagnostics focusing on individual cloud- and precipitation-related phenomena are also being developed for the evaluation and development of specific model physical parameterizations. The version 1.0 package is designed based on data collected at ARM’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) Research Facility, with the plan to extend to other ARM sites. The metrics and diagnostics package is currently built upon standard Python libraries and additional Python packages developed by DOE (such as CDMS and CDAT). The ARM metrics and diagnostic package is available publicly with the hope that it can serve as an easy entry point for climate modelers to compare their models with ARM data. In this report, we first present the input data, which

  7. The diagnostic work up of growth failure in secondary health care; An evaluation of consensus guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekker Friedo W

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As abnormal growth might be the first manifestation of undetected diseases, it is important to have accurate referral criteria and a proper diagnostic work-up. In the present paper we evaluate the diagnostic work-up in secondary health care according to existing consensus guidelines and study the frequency of underlying medical disorders. Methods Data on growth and additional diagnostic procedures were collected from medical records of new patients referred for short stature to the outpatient clinics of the general paediatric departments of two hospitals (Erasmus MC – Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam and Spaarne Hospital, Haarlem between January 1998 and December 2002. As the Dutch Consensus Guideline (DCG is the only guideline addressing referral criteria as well as diagnostic work-up, the analyses were based on its seven auxological referral criteria to determine the characteristics of children who are incorrectly referred and the adequacy of workup of those who are referred. Results Twenty four percent of children older than 3 years were inappropriately referred (NCR. Of the correctly referred children 74–88% were short corrected for parental height, 40–61% had a height SDS Conclusion Existing guidelines for workup of children with suspected growth failure are poorly implemented. Although poorly implemented the DCG detects at least 5% pathologic causes of growth failure in children referred for short stature. New guidelines for referral are required with a better sensitivity and specificity, wherein distance to target height should get more attention. The general diagnostic work up for short stature should include testing for celiac disease in all children and for Turner syndrome in girls.

  8. Evaluation of diagnostic quality in musculoskeletal three-dimensional CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vannier, M.W.; Hildebolt, C.F.; Gilula, L.A.; Sutherland, C.J.; Offutt, C.J.; Drebin, R.; Mantle, M.; Giordono, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    A major application of three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) is in the imaging of the skeleton. Three-dimensional CT has an important role in determining the presence and extent of congenital and acquired orthopedic abnormalities. The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of three-dimensional CT, planar CT, and plain radiography in the detection and characterization of orthopedic abnormalities. Three-dimensional CT scan reconstructions were obtained by two methods, surface reconstruction and volumetric techniques. Seventy patients were imaged with CT, three-dimensional CT, and plain radiography. The consensus opinion of experts with access to all images plus clinical history, surgical findings, and follow-up findings were taken as truth. Expert radiologists read these cases in a blinded fashion. The results were compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The diagnostic value of each three-dimensional reconstruction method and the parameters used to perform the reconstructions were evaluated

  9. How To Dance through Time. Volume V: Victorian Era Couple Dances. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Carol

    This 55-minute VHS videotape is the fifth in a series of "How To Dance Through Time" videos. It continues the tradition of the romance of the mid-19th century couple dances, focusing on Victorian era couple dances. The videotape offers 35 variations of the renowned 19th century couple dances, including the waltz, the polka, the galop,…

  10. Good Morning, Good Night. A Day on the Farm. A Live Action Video for Preschoolers [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo Peep Productions, Eureka, MT.

    Some preschool teachers have expressed concern regarding the lack of science instructional material for students age 2 through the preschool years. This videotape was developed to help fill this chasm in our educational system. The videotape provides activities from children's' daily routines, such as eating, playing, and sleeping. It also…

  11. Journey to Planet Earth: The Urban Explosion. The Public Television Series. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    This videotape attempts to show students how the uncontrolled development of the world's major cities has led to a series of problems such as air pollution, water pollution, limited room for waste disposal, housing shortages, and loss of farmland. The videotape profiles four mega-cities: Mexico City, Shanghai, Istanbul, and New York City. Students…

  12. Vicarious Desensitization of Test Anxiety Through Observation of Video-taped Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Jay

    1972-01-01

    Procedural variations were compared for a vicarious group treatment of test anxiety involving observation of videotapes depicting systematic desensitization of a model. The theoretical implications of the present study and the feasibility of using videotaped materials to treat test anxiety and other avoidance responses in school settings are…

  13. Begin with Love[R]. The First Three Months: Connecting with Your Child. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    CIVITAS Initiative, Chicago, IL.

    Hosted by Oprah Winfrey and featuring Dr. Kyle Pruett, this videotape focuses on new parents' relationship with their infant in the first 3 months of life. The 30-minute videotape begins with footage of infants during the newborn period and depicts parents talking about their emotional response to their infant's birth. The video focuses on…

  14. Does sex influence the diagnostic evaluation of autism spectrum disorder in adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C Ellie; Murphy, Clodagh M; McAlonan, Grainne; Robertson, Dene M; Spain, Debbie; Hayward, Hannah; Woodhouse, Emma; Deeley, P Quinton; Gillan, Nicola; Ohlsen, J Chris; Zinkstok, Janneke; Stoencheva, Vladimira; Faulkner, Jessica; Yildiran, Hatice; Bell, Vaughan; Hammond, Neil; Craig, Michael C; Murphy, Declan GM

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether sex influences the diagnostic evaluation of autism spectrum disorder, or whether male and female adults within the spectrum have different symptom profiles. This study reports sex differences in clinical outcomes for 1244 adults (935 males and 309 females) referred for autism spectrum disorder assessment. Significantly, more males (72%) than females (66%) were diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder of any subtype (x2 = 4.09; p = 0.04). In high-functioning autism spectrum disorder adults (IQ > 70; N = 827), there were no significant sex differences in severity of socio-communicative domain symptoms. Males had significantly more repetitive behaviours/restricted interests than females (p = 0.001, d = 0.3). A multivariate analysis of variance indicated a significant interaction between autism spectrum disorder subtype (full-autism spectrum disorder/partial-autism spectrum disorder) and sex: in full-autism spectrum disorder, males had more severe socio-communicative symptoms than females; for partial-autism spectrum disorder, the reverse was true. There were no sex differences in prevalence of co-morbid psychopathologies. Sex influenced diagnostic evaluation in a clinical sample of adults with suspected autism spectrum disorder. The sexes may present with different manifestations of the autism spectrum disorder phenotype and differences vary by diagnostic subtype. Understanding and awareness of adult female repetitive behaviours/restricted interests warrant attention and sex-specific diagnostic assessment tools may need to be considered. PMID:26802113

  15. Diagnostic tests and algorithms used in the investigation of haematuria: systematic reviews and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, M; Nixon, J; Hempel, S; Aho, T; Kelly, J; Neal, D; Duffy, S; Ritchie, G; Kleijnen, J; Westwood, M

    2006-06-01

    To determine the most effective diagnostic strategy for the investigation of microscopic and macroscopic haematuria in adults. Electronic databases from inception to October 2003, updated in August 2004. A systematic review was undertaken according to published guidelines. Decision analytic modelling was undertaken, based on the findings of the review, expert opinion and additional information from the literature, to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of plausible alternative tests that are part of diagnostic algorithms for haematuria. A total of 118 studies met the inclusion criteria. No studies that evaluated the effectiveness of diagnostic algorithms for haematuria or the effectiveness of screening for haematuria or investigating its underlying cause were identified. Eighteen out of 19 identified studies evaluated dipstick tests and data from these suggested that these are moderately useful in establishing the presence of, but cannot be used to rule out, haematuria. Six studies using haematuria as a test for the presence of a disease indicated that the detection of microhaematuria cannot alone be considered a useful test either to rule in or rule out the presence of a significant underlying pathology (urinary calculi or bladder cancer). Forty-eight of 80 studies addressed methods to localise the source of bleeding (renal or lower urinary tract). The methods and thresholds described in these studies varied greatly, precluding any estimate of a 'best performance' threshold that could be applied across patient groups. However, studies of red blood cell morphology that used a cut-off value of 80% dysmorphic cells for glomerular disease reported consistently high specificities (potentially useful in ruling in a renal cause for haematuria). The reported sensitivities were generally low. Twenty-eight studies included data on the accuracy of laboratory tests (tumour markers, cytology) for the diagnosis of bladder cancer. The majority of tumour marker studies

  16. The development, evaluation and performance of molecular diagnostics for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Matthew; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2016-01-01

    The unique pathogenesis of tuberculosis (TB) poses several barriers to the development of accurate diagnostics: a) the establishment of life-long latency by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) after primary infection confounds the development of classical antibody or antigen based assays; b) our poor understanding of the molecular pathways that influence progression from latent to active disease; c) the intracellular nature of M.tb infection in tissues means that M.tb and/or its components, are not readily detectable in peripheral specimens; and d) the variable presence of M.tb bacilli in specimens from patients with extrapulmonary TB or children. The literature on the current portfolio of molecular diagnostics tests for TB is reviewed here and the developmental pipeline is summarized. Also reviewed are data from recently published operational research on the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay and discussed are the lessons that can be taken forward for the design of studies to evaluate the impact of TB diagnostics.

  17. Evaluation of diagnostic ability of CCD digital radiography in the detection of incipient dental caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of a CCD-based digital system (CDX-2000HQ) in the detection of incipient dental caries. 93 extracted human teeth with sound proximal surfaces and interproximal artificial cavities were radiographed using 4 imaging methods. Automatically processed No.2 Insight film (Eastman Kodak Co., U.S.A.) was used for conventional radiography, scanned images of conventional radiograms for indirect digital radiography were used. For the direct digital radiography, the CDX-2000HQ CCD system (Biomedisys Co. Korea) was used. The subtraction images were made from two direct digital images by Sunny program in the CDX-2000HQ system. Two radiologists and three endodontists examined the presence of lesions using a five-point confidence scale and compared the diagnostic ability by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and one way ANOVA test. The mean ROC areas of conventional radiography, indirect digital radiography, direct digital radiography, and digital subtraction radiography were 0.9093, 0.9102, 0.9184, and 0.9056, respectively. The diagnostic ability of direct digital radiography was better than the other imaging modalities, but there were no statistical differences among these imaging modalities (p>0.05). These results indicate that new CCD-based digital systems (CDX-2000HQ) have the potential to serve as an alternative to conventional radiography in the detection of incipient dental caries.

  18. Evaluating Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Diagnostic Criteria in Older Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajewski, Amy J; Scheeringa, Michael S; Weems, Carl F

    2017-05-01

    Few studies have assessed how the diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) apply to older children and adolescents. With the introduction of a new, developmentally sensitive set of criteria for very young children (age 6 years and younger) in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5), this raises new questions about the validity of the criteria for older children and adolescents. The current study investigated how diagnostic changes in DSM-5 impact diagnosis rates in 7-18-year olds. PTSD, impairment, and comorbid psychopathology were assessed in 135 trauma-exposed, treatment-seeking participants. Children (ages 7-12) were examined separately from adolescents (ages 13-18) to assess for potential developmental differences. A significantly higher proportion of 7-12-year-old children met criteria for DSM-5 diagnosis (53%) compared to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) (37%). However, among 13-18-year-old adolescents, the proportions diagnosed with DSM-5 (73%) and DSM-IV (74%) did not differ. Participants who met criteria for DSM-5 only (17%) did not differ from those diagnosed with DSM-IV in terms impairment or comorbidity. Using the newly accepted age 6 years and younger criteria resulted in a significantly higher proportion of 7-12-year-old (but not 13-18-year olds) children meeting criteria compared to DSM-IV or DSM-5. However, these children showed less impairment and comorbidity than those diagnosed with DSM-IV. These findings suggest that DSM-5 criteria may be more developmentally sensitive than DSM-IV criteria, and may lead to higher prevalence rates of PTSD for 7-12-year-old children, but not for adolescents. Using the very young children criteria for 7-12-year-old children may further increase prevalence, but capture children with less severe psychopathology.

  19. Evaluating Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Diagnostic Criteria in Older Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeringa, Michael S.; Weems, Carl F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Few studies have assessed how the diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) apply to older children and adolescents. With the introduction of a new, developmentally sensitive set of criteria for very young children (age 6 years and younger) in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5), this raises new questions about the validity of the criteria for older children and adolescents. The current study investigated how diagnostic changes in DSM-5 impact diagnosis rates in 7–18-year olds. Methods: PTSD, impairment, and comorbid psychopathology were assessed in 135 trauma-exposed, treatment-seeking participants. Children (ages 7–12) were examined separately from adolescents (ages 13–18) to assess for potential developmental differences. Results: A significantly higher proportion of 7–12-year-old children met criteria for DSM-5 diagnosis (53%) compared to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) (37%). However, among 13–18-year-old adolescents, the proportions diagnosed with DSM-5 (73%) and DSM-IV (74%) did not differ. Participants who met criteria for DSM-5 only (17%) did not differ from those diagnosed with DSM-IV in terms impairment or comorbidity. Using the newly accepted age 6 years and younger criteria resulted in a significantly higher proportion of 7–12-year-old (but not 13–18-year olds) children meeting criteria compared to DSM-IV or DSM-5. However, these children showed less impairment and comorbidity than those diagnosed with DSM-IV. Conclusion: These findings suggest that DSM-5 criteria may be more developmentally sensitive than DSM-IV criteria, and may lead to higher prevalence rates of PTSD for 7–12-year-old children, but not for adolescents. Using the very young children criteria for 7–12-year-old children may further increase prevalence, but capture children with less severe psychopathology. PMID:28170306

  20. Recommendations for CSF AD biomarkers in the diagnostic evaluation of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anja Hviid; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Andreasen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    . The recommendations were developed by a multidisciplinary working group based on the available evidence and consensus from focused discussions for (i) identification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) as the cause of dementia, (ii) prediction of rate of decline, (iii) cost-effectiveness, and (iv) interpretation of results......This article presents recommendations, based on the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation method, for the clinical application of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-β1-42, tau, and phosphorylated tau in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with dementia....... The working group found sufficient evidence to support a recommendation to use CSF AD biomarkers as a supplement to clinical evaluation, particularly in uncertain and atypical cases, to identify or exclude AD as the cause of dementia. Because of insufficient evidence, it was uncertain whether CSF AD...

  1. Method for Evaluating Information to Solve Problems of Control, Monitoring and Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, V. A.; Dobrynina, N. V.

    2017-06-01

    The article describes a method for evaluating information to solve problems of control, monitoring and diagnostics. It is necessary for reducing the dimensionality of informational indicators of situations, bringing them to relative units, for calculating generalized information indicators on their basis, ranking them by characteristic levels, for calculating the efficiency criterion of a system functioning in real time. The design of information evaluation system has been developed on its basis that allows analyzing, processing and assessing information about the object. Such object can be a complex technical, economic and social system. The method and the based system thereof can find a wide application in the field of analysis, processing and evaluation of information on the functioning of the systems, regardless of their purpose, goals, tasks and complexity. For example, they can be used to assess the innovation capacities of industrial enterprises and management decisions.

  2. Prospective evaluation of three rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosis of human leptospirosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga G A Goris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of leptospirosis by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT or by culture is confined to specialized laboratories. Although ELISA techniques are more common, they still require laboratory facilities. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs can be used for easy point-of-care diagnosis. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the RDTs LeptoTek Dri Dot, LeptoTek Lateral Flow, and Leptocheck-WB, prospectively. METHODOLOGY: During 2001 to 2012, one or two of the RDTs at the same time have been applied prior to routine diagnostics (MAT, ELISA and culture on serum specimens from participants sent in for leptospirosis diagnosis. The case definition was based on MAT, ELISA and culture results. Participants not fulfilling the case definition were considered not to have leptospirosis. The diagnostic accuracy was determined based on the 1(st submitted sample and paired samples, either in an overall analysis or stratified according to days post onset of illness. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity and specificity for the LeptoTek Dri Dot was 75% respectively 96%, for the LeptoTek Lateral Flow 78% respectively 95%, and for the Leptocheck-WB 78% respectively 98%. Based on the 1(st submitted sample the sensitivity was low (51% for LeptoTek Dri Dot, 69% for LeptoTek Lateral Flow, and 55% for Leptocheck-WB, but substantially increased when the results of paired samples were combined, although accompanied by a lower specificity (82% respectively 91% for LeptoTek Dri Dot, 86% respectively 84% for LeptoTek Lateral Flow, and 80% respectively 93% for Leptocheck-WB. CONCLUSIONS: All three tests present antibody tests contributing to the diagnosis of leptospirosis, thus supporting clinical suspicion and contributing to awareness. Since the overall sensitivity of the tested RDTs did not exceed 80%, one should be cautious to rely only on an RDT result, and confirmation by reference tests is strongly recommended.

  3. Laboratory evaluation of immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests for cholera in Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo R Matias

    Full Text Available Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT for cholera are promising tools for detecting cholera in areas with limited laboratory infrastructure. However, evidence on the characteristics of the many available RDTs is scarce, and their use has been limited by suboptimal performance. We evaluated the performance characteristics of three cholera RDTs from Span Diagnostics, Artron Laboratories, and Standard Diagnostics in a regional laboratory in Haiti.We retrospectively reviewed records from May 2014 to October 2015 of a laboratory-based surveillance program for Vibrio cholerae at Hôpital Saint-Nicolas in Saint-Marc, Haiti. We compared the results of 511 Crystal VC, 129 Artron and 451 SD Bioline RDTs to bacterial culture as the gold standard. Of 905 cultures, 477 (52.7% were positive for V. cholerae O1, of which 27.7% were serotype Inaba. No cultures grew V. cholerae O139. Sensitivity and specificity of Crystal VC were 98.6% (95%CI: 96.5%-99.6% and 71.1% (95%CI: 64.7%-76.9%, respectively. Artron demonstrated a sensitivity of 98.6% (95%CI: 92.7%-100% and specificity of 69.1% (95%CI: 55.2%-80.9%. SD Bioline demonstrated a sensitivity of 81.1% (95%CI: 75.6%-85.8% and specificity of 92.8% (95%CI: 88.4%-95.9%. Crystal VC and Artron frequently showed false positive O139 bands, whereas none were seen with SD Bioline.There is significant variation in the performance of different cholera diagnostic RDTs. Artron and Crystal VC RDTs have high sensitivity and low specificity, while SD Bioline RDT has low to moderate sensitivity and high specificity when performed by laboratory technicians in Haiti. Study limitations included its retrospective design. The suboptimal characteristics of these tests limit their use as clinical point-of-care tests; however, they may be useful in outbreak response, surveillance, and research in resource-limited settings.

  4. A methodology for the quantitative evaluation of NPP fault diagnostic systems' dynamic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Seong, P.H.

    2000-01-01

    A fault diagnostic system (FDS) is an operator decision support system which is implemented both to increase NPP efficiency as well as to reduce human error and cognitive workload that may cause nuclear power plant (NPP) accidents. Evaluation is an indispensable activity in constructing a reliable FDS. We first define the dynamic aspects of fault diagnostic systems (FDSs) for evaluation in this work. The dynamic aspect is concerned with the way a FDS responds to input. Next, we present a hierarchical structure in the evaluation for the dynamic aspects of FDSs. Dynamic aspects include both what a FDS provides and how a FDS operates. We define the former as content and the latter as behavior. Content and behavior contain two elements and six elements in the lower hierarchies, respectively. Content is a criterion for evaluating the integrity of a FDS, the problem types which a FDS deals with, along with the level of information. Behavior contains robustness, understandability, timeliness, transparency, effectiveness, and communicativeness of FDSs. On the other hand, the static aspects are concerned with the hardware and the software of the system. For quantitative evaluation, the method used to gain and aggregate the priorities of the criteria in this work is the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The criteria at the lowest level are quantified through simple numerical expressions and questionnaires developed in this work. these well describe the characteristics of the criteria and appropriately use subjective, empirical, and technical methods. Finally, in order to demonstrate the feasibility of our evaluation method, we have performed one case study for the fault diagnosis module of OASYS TM (On-Line Operator Aid SYStem for Nuclear Power Plant), which is an operator support system developed at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST)

  5. Therapy evaluation and diagnostic accuracy in neuroendocrine tumours: assessment of radiological methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvin, A.

    1993-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonically guided biopsy-gun biopsies was assessed in a group of 47 patients with suspected pancreatic carcinoma. A correct diagnosis was obtained in 44 of the 47 patients (94%). Biopsy-gun biopsy of the pancreas is considered a useful, reliable and non-traumatic method for the diagnosis of pancreatic malignancy. Twenty-five patients with known neuroendocrine tumour disease were biopsied with 1.2 mm and 0.9 mm biopsy-gun needles. The influence of treatment-related fibrosis was also evaluated. The overall diagnostic accuracy with the 0.9 mm needle was 69% as compared to 92% with the 1.2 mm needle. In order to assess the diagnostic accuracy rate for radiologists with different experience of biopsy procedures 175 cases of renal biopsy-gun biopsies were evaluated. No statistical significant difference was found between the different operators. The role of duplex Doppler ultrasound in monitoring interferon treatment-related changes in carcinoid metastases was evaluated. It present duplex Doppler ultrasound does not seem to play a role in the evaluation of tumour therapy in carcinoid patients. Therapy response evaluation was performed with MR imaging in a group of 17 patients with neuroendocrine liver metastases. A significant difference was found between patients responding to and patients with failure of treatment in terms of tumour T1, contrast enhancement and signal intensity ratio. This indicates that MR investigation may be used in therapy monitoring of patients with neuroendocrine metastases. The neuroendocrine-differentiated colonic carcinoma cell line (LCC-18) was transplanted to 29 mice to establish a tumour/animal model that would allow the monitoring of changes with MR imaging induced by interferon therapy and to evaluate whether the therapeutic response could be modulated by different interferon dosages. Interferon does not seem to have any prolonged anti-proliferative effect on the LCC-18 tumour cell line when transplanted to

  6. Maladaptive eating behavior assessment among bariatric surgery candidates: Evaluation of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gail A; Hawkins, Misty A W; Duncan, Jennifer; Rummell, Christina M; Perkins, Shannon; Crowther, Janis H

    2017-07-01

    Eating pathology among bariatric surgery candidates is common and associated with adverse outcomes. However, its assessment is complicated by the inconsistent use of standardized measures. We addressed this by examining the use of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS) in a large bariatric sample (N = 343). To evaluate the EDDS among bariatric surgery candidates via examination of: (1) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) and fifth edition (DSM-5) rates of binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and maladaptive eating behaviors, and (2) the relationship between response biases and self-reported eating disorder symptoms. Participants were bariatric surgery candidates at a large public hospital in the Midwest. As part of a larger preoperative evaluation, 343 patients seeking bariatric surgery completed the EDDS and measures of problematic response bias. Approximately 16% of the sample met full threshold criteria for binge eating disorder using DSM-5 criteria. Using the DSM-IV-TR, rates were lower but still substantial at 13%. Rates for bulimia nervosa were 8% (DSM-5) and 6% (DSM-IV-TR). The majority (66.1%) of participants reported at least one binge-eating episode per week. The most commonly used compensatory behavior was fasting (20.4%), followed by excessive exercise (11.7%), laxative use (5.6%), and vomiting (1.8%). An inverse relationship between severity of the eating symptomatology and problematic response bias emerged. The EDDS shows promise as a screening tool that uses diagnostic criteria to provide rates of binge eating and eating psychopathology among surgical candidates. Our findings suggest that subsequent validation studies of this measure are needed, should address potential response bias concerns, and should employ clear definitions of binge eating to promote standardization of eating pathology assessment in the bariatric population. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric

  7. Diagnostic performance of dark-blood T2-weighted CMR for evaluation of acute myocardial injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srichai, Monvadi B; Lim, Ruth P; Lath, Narayan; Babb, James; Axel, Leon; Kim, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We compared the image quality and diagnostic performance of 2 fat-suppression methods for black-blood T2-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE), which are as follows: (a) short T1 inversion recovery (STIR; FSE-STIR) and (b) spectral adiabatic inversion recovery (SPAIR; FSE-SPAIR), for detection of acute myocardial injury. Edema-sensitive T2-weighted FSE cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is useful in detecting acute myocardial injury but may experience reduced myocardial signal and signal dropout. The SPAIR pulse aims to eliminate artifacts associated with the STIR pulse. A total of 65 consecutive patients referred for CMR evaluation of myocardial structure and function underwent FSE-STIR and FSE-SPAIR, in addition to cine and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) CMR. T2-weighted FSE images were independently evaluated by 2 readers for image quality and artifacts (Likert scale of 1-5; best-worst) and presence of increased myocardial signal suggestive of edema. In addition, clinical CMR interpretation, incorporating all CMR sequences available, was recorded for comparison. Diagnostic performance of each T2-weighted sequence was measured using recent (T2, and wall motion. There was a statistically significant difference in sensitivity between the clinical interpretation and each of the T2-weighted sequences but not between each T2-weighted sequence. Although FSE-SPAIR demonstrated significantly improved image quality and decreased artifacts, isolated interpretations of each T2-weighted technique demonstrated high specificity but overall low sensitivity for the detection of myocardial injury, with no difference in accuracy between the techniques. However, real-world interpretation in combination with cine and LGE CMR methods significantly improves the overall sensitivity and diagnostic performance.

  8. Evaluation of written patient educational materials in the field of diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryhaenen, A.M.; Johansson, K.; Virtanen, H.; Salo, S.; Salanterae, S.; Leino-Kilpi, H.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the quality of written educational materials for diagnostic imaging (radiological and nuclear medicine) patients. Materials and methods: Written educational materials (n = 70) for diagnostic imaging patients were analysed. The materials were evaluated based on their external appearance (9 criteria), instructiveness (7), content (7), language and structure (8) and readability (1). Deductive content analysis was used. Quantified parts of the analyses were analysed by SAS for Windows. Dependence between criteria (32) was tested by Pearson correlation coefficients. Results: The external appearance fulfilled almost completely the criteria of good written education materials. The instructiveness was addressed clearly, except for the purpose of the material. The contents of materials dealt with bio-physiological, functional and cognitive dimensions of knowledge, while financial dimensions of knowledge were hardly dealt with at all. The language and the structure were reasonably good, but the language was partly in passive voice and the text contained strange words. Most of the education material was moderately easy to read. Conclusions: The results show that the quality of material was quite good in all dimensions. Only a small number of criteria were unsatisfactory. The results can be used to further improve written patient education materials and patient education in the imaging unit.

  9. Theoretical evaluation of measurement uncertainties of two-color pyrometry applied to optical diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Tairan; Cheng Xiaofang; Yang Zangjian

    2008-01-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of two-color pyrometry applied to optical diagnostics. A two-color pyrometer built with a single CCD is advantageous due to the simple system design. We evaluate the possibility and degree of ill-conditionness on the basis of measurement uncertainties for different measurement approaches of this two-color system. We classify measurement approaches. The corresponding ill-conditionness criterion is established. The greater the criterion value is, the worse the ill-conditioned degree of solution is. So, the optimum choice of measurement approach for the two-color system is achieved through intercomparison of the criterion values. Numerical examples are also given to illustrate this point. The theoretical analysis not only provides an effective way of evaluating different measurement approaches, but also may help us to better understand the influences that determine the choices between wavelength/waveband measurements and calibration/noncalibration modes for temperature and soot distribution

  10. Climate Model Diagnostic and Evaluation: With a Focus on Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliser, Duane

    2011-01-01

    Each year, we host a summer school that brings together the next generation of climate scientists - about 30 graduate students and postdocs from around the world - to engage with premier climate scientists from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and elsewhere. Our yearly summer school focuses on topics on the leading edge of climate science research. Our inaugural summer school, held in 2011, was on the topic of "Using Satellite Observations to Advance Climate Models," and enabled students to explore how satellite observations can be used to evaluate and improve climate models. Speakers included climate experts from both NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), who provided updates on climate model diagnostics and evaluation and remote sensing of the planet. Details of the next summer school will be posted here in due course.

  11. Resource utilization and costs associated with the diagnostic evaluation of nonrefluxing primary hydronephrosis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Ardavan; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Garrison, Louis P; Merguerian, Paul A

    2014-09-01

    Long-term evaluation of postnatal nonrefluxing primary hydronephrosis presents a dilemma for urologists since most cases resolve without surgery. We report longitudinal resource utilization and costs associated with diagnostic evaluation of infants with isolated primary nonrefluxing hydronephrosis to determine the costs associated with diagnosing a surgical case, and we assess the implications using a cost-consequences analysis. A retrospective chart review was used to capture resource utilization for all patients younger than 6 months with hydronephrosis evaluated at our institution during a 5-year period. Infants with confounding urological diagnoses were excluded. Payer and societal perspectives were used. Costs were estimated from resource utilization, including radiographic imaging and clinical encounter types. Data were collected from first clinic visit until surgery or resolution or 3 years, whichever was shortest. Of 165 included patients surgical rates for hydronephrosis were 0% for grade I, 5% for grade II, 21% for grade III and 74% for grade IV. Median respective costs of identifying a single surgical case per increasing hydronephrosis grade 0 to IV were infinite, $37,600, $11,741 and $2,124 (p hydronephrosis is significantly more productive in terms of identifying patients requiring surgery vs evaluation of patients with lower grade disease. In patients with grades I and II hydronephrosis a more abbreviated diagnostic strategy than the current standard of care may be warranted. For the population in this analysis we project that a less intensive approach could save about 24% of costs. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Diagnostic evaluation of the developmental level in children identified at risk of delay through the Child Development Evaluation Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli-Córdoba, Antonio; Campos-Maldonado, Martha Carmen; Vélez-Andrade, Víctor Hugo; Delgado-Ginebra, Ismael; Baqueiro-Hernández, César Iván; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Ojeda-Lara, Lucía; Davis-Martínez, Erika Berenice; O'Shea-Cuevas, Gabriel; Aceves-Villagrán, Daniel; Carrasco-Mendoza, Joaquín; Villagrán-Muñoz, Víctor Manuel; Halley-Castillo, Elizabeth; Sidonio-Aguayo, Beatriz; Palma-Tavera, Josuha Alexander; Muñoz-Hernández, Onofre

    The Child Development Evaluation (or CDE Test) was developed in Mexico as a screening tool for child developmental problems. It yields three possible results: normal, slow development or risk of delay. The modified version was elaborated using the information obtained during the validation study but its properties according to the base population are not known. The objective of this work was to establish diagnostic confirmation of developmental delay in children 16- to 59-months of age previously identified as having risk of delay through the CDE Test in primary care facilities. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in one Mexican state. CDE test was administered to 11,455 children 16- to 59-months of age from December/2013 to March/2014. The eligible population represented the 6.2% of the children (n=714) who were identified at risk of delay through the CDE Test. For inclusion in the study, a block randomization stratified by sex and age group was performed. Each participant included in the study had a diagnostic evaluation using the Battelle Development Inventory, 2 nd edition. From the 355 participants included with risk of delay, 65.9% were male and 80.2% were from rural areas; 6.5% were false positives (Total Development Quotient ˃90) and 6.8% did not have any domain with delay (Domain Developmental Quotient <80). The proportion of delay for each domain was as follows: communication 82.5%; cognitive 80.8%; social-personal 33.8%; motor 55.5%; and adaptive 41.7%. There were significant differences in the percentages of delay both by age and by domain/subdomain evaluated. In 93.2% of the participants, developmental delay was corroborated in at least one domain evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. Diagnostic Accuracy of Ultrasonography in the Initial Evaluation of Patients with Penetrating Chest Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Heydari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traumatic chest injuries (TCI are one of the most common causes of referring to the emergency departments, with high mortality and disability. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography versus chest X ray (CXR in detection of hemo-pneumothorax for patients suffering penetrating TCI. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in penetrating TCI victims referred to the emergency department of Shahid Kashani and Alzahra hospitals of Isfahan, Iran, from July 2012 to June 2013. Bedside ultrasonography and plain CXR was done on arrival and three hours after admission. The results of ultrasonography and radiography were separately evaluated by an emergency medicine specialist and a radiologist, who were blind to the aims of the study. Then, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV, and kappa coefficient was considered to evaluate the accuracy of ultrasonography. Results: In this research 64 patients with penetrating chest trauma were assessed (98.4% male. The mean age of them was 25.6±8.5 years (rang: 13-65. The plain radiography revealed the eight (12.5 % cases of pneumothorax and one (1.6% hemothorax. The findings of primary ultrasonography also showed the same number of hemo-pneumothorax. Sensitivity and specificity of primary ultrasound in diagnosis of pneumothorax were 100% (95% Cl: 60.7- 100 and 100.0% (95% Cl, 92.0% to 100.0% and in detection of hemothorax were 100% (95% Cl: 50.5-100 and 100% (95% Cl: 92.8-100, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound in the third hour were 100% (95% Cl: 31.3-100 and 100% (95% Cl: 91.4-100, respectively. Conclusion: Findings of the present study have shown that ultrasonography has an acceptable diagnostic accuracy in the initial assessment of patients with penetrating chest trauma. However, because of its dependency on operator

  14. Clinical Evaluation of Rapid Diagnostic Test Kit for Scrub Typhus with Improved Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Jin; Park, Sungman; Premaratna, Ranjan; Selvaraj, Stephen; Park, Sang-Jin; Kim, Sora; Kim, Donghwan; Kim, Min Soo; Shin, Dong Hoon; Choi, Kyung-Chan; Kwon, Soon-Hwan; Seo, Wonjun; Lee, Nam Taek; Kim, Seung-Han; Kang, Heui Keun; Kim, Yoon-Won

    2016-08-01

    Diagnosis of scrub typhus is challenging due to its more than twenty serotypes and the similar clinical symptoms with other acute febrile illnesses including leptospirosis, murine typhus and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Accuracy and rapidity of a diagnostic test to Orientia tsutsugamushi is an important step to diagnose this disease. To discriminate scrub typhus from other diseases, the improved ImmuneMed Scrub Typhus Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) was evaluated in Korea and Sri Lanka. The sensitivity at the base of each IgM and IgG indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) in Korean patients was 98.6% and 97.1%, and the specificity was 98.2% and 97.7% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for retrospective diagnosis at the base of IFA in Sri Lanka was 92.1% and 96.1%. ImmuneMed RDT was not reactive to any serum from seventeen diseases including hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (n = 48), leptospirosis (n = 23), and murine typhus (n = 48). ImmuneMed RDT shows superior sensitivity (98.6% and 97.1%) compared with SD Bioline RDT (84.4% at IgM and 83.3% at IgG) in Korea. The retrospective diagnosis of ImmuneMed RDT exhibits 94.0% identity with enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using South India patient serum samples. These results suggest that this RDT can replace other diagnostic tests and is applicable for global diagnosis of scrub typhus. This rapid and accurate diagnosis will be beneficial for diagnosing and managing scrub typhus.

  15. Comparative Evaluation of the Diagnostic Performance of the Prototype Cepheid GeneXpert Ebola Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen van Vuren, Petrus; Grobbelaar, Antoinette; Storm, Nadia; Conteh, Ousman; Konneh, Kelfala; Kamara, Abdul; Sanne, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa has highlighted an urgent need for point-of-care (POC) assays for the diagnosis of this devastating disease in resource-limited African countries. The diagnostic performance characteristics of a prototype Cepheid GeneXpert Ebola POC used to detect Ebola virus (EBOV) in stored serum and plasma samples collected from suspected EVD cases in Sierra Leone in 2014 and 2015 was evaluated. The GeneXpert Ebola POC is a self-contained single-cartridge automated system that targets the glycoprotein (GP) and nucleoprotein (NP) genes of EBOV and yields results within 90 min. Results from 281 patient samples were compared to the results of a TaqMan real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) targeting the polymerase gene and performed on two real-time PCR machines. Agreement between the three platforms was 100% at cycle threshold (CT) values of ≤34.99, but discordant results were noted between CT values of 35 and 45.The diagnostic sensitivity of the three platforms was 100% in 91 patient samples that were confirmed to be infectious by virus isolation. All three molecular platforms detected viral EBOV RNA in additional samples that did not contain viable EBOV. The analytical sensitivity of the GeneXpert Ebola POC for the detection of NP was higher, and comparable to that of polymerase gene detection, than that for the detection of GP when using a titrated laboratory stock of EBOV. There was no detectable cross-reactivity with other hemorrhagic fever viruses or arboviruses. The GeneXpert Ebola POC offers an easy to operate and sensitive diagnostic tool that can be used for the rapid screening of suspected EVD cases in treatment or in holding centers during EVD outbreaks. PMID:26637383

  16. A Performance Evaluation of Diagnostic X-ray Unit Depends on the Hospitals Size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju Hun; Im, In Chul; Dong, Kyung Rae; Kang, Se Sik

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure the tube voltage, the tube current/volume, exposure time and exposure dose of diagnostic X-ray unit in each doctor offices, hospitals and general hospitals for evaluating the performance of such device, to learn the method and technology of its measurement and to suggest its importance. Research subjects were total 30 X-ray units and divided into groups of 10 X-ray units each. The tube voltage, the tube current/volume, exposure time and exposure dose were measured using percentage average error, and then reproducibility of exposure dose was measured through calculating coefficient of variation. The results are like followings; The tube voltage correctness examination showed that incongruent devices among total 30 X-ray units were 5 devices (16.7%). The tube current correctness examination showed that incongruent X-ray units were 3 devices (10.0%). The tube current volume correctness examination showed that incongruent X-ray units were 4 devices (13.3%). Finally, according to exposure time correctness examination, incongruent X-ray units were 5 devices (16.7%) and according to reproducibility examination of exposure dose, incongruent X-ray units were 7 devices (23.3%). Above results showed serious problem in performance management based on management regulation of diagnostic X-ray unit; it means that regular checkout and safety management are required, and as doing so, patients will be able to receive good quality of medical service by the reduction of radiation exposure time, image quality administration, unnecessary retake and etc. Therefore, this study suggests that the performance of diagnostic X-ray units should be checked regularly

  17. A Performance Evaluation of Diagnostic X-ray Unit Depends on the Hospitals Size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ju Hun [Kaya University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Im, In Chul [Gwangju Health College University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Se Sik [College of Health Science, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to measure the tube voltage, the tube current/volume, exposure time and exposure dose of diagnostic X-ray unit in each doctor offices, hospitals and general hospitals for evaluating the performance of such device, to learn the method and technology of its measurement and to suggest its importance. Research subjects were total 30 X-ray units and divided into groups of 10 X-ray units each. The tube voltage, the tube current/volume, exposure time and exposure dose were measured using percentage average error, and then reproducibility of exposure dose was measured through calculating coefficient of variation. The results are like followings; The tube voltage correctness examination showed that incongruent devices among total 30 X-ray units were 5 devices (16.7%). The tube current correctness examination showed that incongruent X-ray units were 3 devices (10.0%). The tube current volume correctness examination showed that incongruent X-ray units were 4 devices (13.3%). Finally, according to exposure time correctness examination, incongruent X-ray units were 5 devices (16.7%) and according to reproducibility examination of exposure dose, incongruent X-ray units were 7 devices (23.3%). Above results showed serious problem in performance management based on management regulation of diagnostic X-ray unit; it means that regular checkout and safety management are required, and as doing so, patients will be able to receive good quality of medical service by the reduction of radiation exposure time, image quality administration, unnecessary retake and etc. Therefore, this study suggests that the performance of diagnostic X-ray units should be checked regularly

  18. Diagnostic validity of hematologic parameters in evaluation of massive pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Hale; Ates, Ihsan; Kundi, Harun; Yilmaz, Fatma Meric

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the hematologic parameter with the highest diagnostic differentiation in the identification of massive acute pulmonary embolism (APE). A retrospective study was performed on patients diagnosing with APE between June 2014 and June 2016. All radiological and laboratory parameters of patients were scanned through the electronic information management system of the hospital. PLR was obtained from the ratio of platelet count to lymphocyte count, NLR was obtained from the ratio of neutrophil count to lymphocyte count, WMR was obtained from white blood cell in mean platelet volume ratio, MPR was obtained from the ratio of mean platelet volume to platelet count, and RPR was obtained from the ratio of red distribution width to platelet count. Six hundred and thirty-nine patients consisting of 292 males (45.7%) and 347 females (54.3%) were included in the research. Independent predictors of massive risk as compared to sub-massive group were; pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) (OR=1.40; P=.001), PLR (OR=1.59; P<.001), NLR (OR=2.22; P<.001), WMR (OR=1.22; P<.001), MPR (OR=0.33; P<.001), and RPR (OR=0.68; P<.001). Upon evaluation of the diagnostic differentiation of these risk factors for massive APE by employing receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, it was determined that PLR (AUC±SE=0.877±0.015; P<.001), and NLR (AUC±SE=0.893±0.013; P<.001) have similar diagnostic differentiation in diagnosing massive APE and these two parameters are superior over PASP, MPR, WMR, and RPR. We determined that the levels of NLR and PLR are superior to other parameters in the determination of clinical severity in APE cases. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Diagnostic glenohumeral arthroscopy fails to fully evaluate the biceps-labral complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Samuel A; Khair, M Michael; Gulotta, Lawrence V; Pearle, Andrew D; Baret, Nikolas J; Newman, Ashley M; Dy, Christopher J; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to define the limits of diagnostic glenohumeral arthroscopy and determine the prevalence and frequency of hidden extra-articular "bicipital tunnel" lesions among chronically symptomatic patients. Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens underwent diagnostic glenohumeral arthroscopy with percutaneous tagging of the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) during maximal tendon excursion. The percentage of visualized LHBT was calculated relative to the distal margin of subscapularis tendon and the proximal margin of the pectoralis major tendon. Then, a retrospective review of 277 patients who underwent subdeltoid transfer of the LHBT to the conjoint tendon were retrospectively analyzed for lesions of the biceps-labral complex. Lesions were categorized by anatomic location (inside, junctional, or bicipital tunnel). Inside lesions were labral tears. Junctional lesions were LHBT tears visualized during glenohumeral arthroscopy. Bicipital tunnel lesions were extra-articular lesions hidden from view during standard glenohumeral arthroscopy. Seventy-eight percent of LHBT were visualized relative to the distal margin of the subscapularis tendon and only 55% relative to the proximal margin of the pectoralis major tendon. No portion of the LHBT inferior to the subscapularis tendon was visualized. Forty-seven percent of patients had hidden bicipital tunnel lesions. Scarring was most common and accounted for 48% of all such lesions. Thirty-seven percent of patients had multiple lesion locations. Forty-five percent of patients with junctional lesions also had hidden bicipital tunnel lesions. The only offending lesion was in the bicipital tunnel for 18% of patients. Diagnostic glenohumeral arthroscopy fails to fully evaluate the biceps-labral complex because it visualizes only 55% of the LHBT relative to the proximal margin of the pectoralis major tendon and did not identify extra-articular bicipital tunnel lesions present in 47% of chronically

  20. Evaluation of serum angiotension converting enzyme (SACE) as a diagnostic marker for pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhari, S.N.H.; Naeem, M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: A number of supportive laboratory tests such as ECG, Chest x-ray, ABGs SLDH, SGOT, S. Bilirubin and D-dimer with variable sensitivity and specificity are available to facilitate the clinical diagnosis of acute Pulmonary Embolism (PE). Serum Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (SACE) which is produced mainly by the pulmonary vascular endothelial cells, is found altered during a variety of diffuse lung diseases. This study was designed to evaluate the validity of SACE level as a marker for hypoxic damage to the pulmonary endothelium in PE. Design: A prospective study carried out on forty patients with high clinical suspicion of PE. Besides routine diagnostic tests mentioned above all of them had ventilation Perfusion isotope (v/q) scans (as a diagnostic test) and SACE level checked. Setting: Shaikh Zayed Hospital Lahore. Results: Among forty consecutive patients with age range 25-59 years (mean: 42 Yr). Twenty six patients (65%) with abnormal scans reported as High probability were included in group-A (True Positive), whereas 14(35)% patients having low-probability (suspected or Normal scan were included in group-b, low SACE level (<28iu/l) was found in 19/26 (sensitivity of 73% in group-A (positive Predictive Value: 47%) and 9/14(sensitivity of 64%) in Group-B. Whereas mean levels for both groups were 34.55 and 54.84 respectively. Rise in LDH was pronounced in group A. Only chest x-ray and ECGS were found to be more sensitive for group-A than group-B. Changes in ABGs (type-1 resp. Failure) had low sensitivity. Conclusion: Among clinically suspected cases of PE, fall in SACE level can be used as a sensitive and reliable diagnostic marker as more than 75% of the enzyme in produced in the lungs compared with other enzymes which have extra-pulmonary source. (author)

  1. Diagnostic evaluation of rapid tests for scrub typhus in the Indian population is needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivalli, Siddharudha

    2016-05-12

    Owing to frequent outbreaks witnessed in different parts of the country in the recent past, scrub typhus is being described as a re-emerging infectious disease in India. Differentiating scrub typhus from other endemic diseases like malaria, leptospirosis, dengue fever, typhoid, etc. is difficult due to overlapping clinical features and a lower positivity for eschars in Asian populations. Hence, the diagnosis heavily relies on laboratory tests. Costs and the need of technical expertise limit the wide use of indirect immunoperoxidase or immunofluorescence assays, ELISA and PCR. The Weil-Felix test is the most commonly used and least expensive serological test, but lacks both sensitivity and specificity. Hence, the diagnosis of scrub typhus is often delayed or overlooked. With due consideration of the cost, rapidity, single test result and simplicity of interpretation, rapid diagnostic tests have come into vogue. However, evaluation of rapid diagnostic tests for scrub typhus in the Indian population is needed to justify or discourage their use. Research studies are needed to find the most suitable test in terms of the rapidity of the result, simplicity of the procedure, ease of interpretation and cost to be used in the Indian populace.

  2. Diagnostic performance of sonoelastographic Tsukuba score and strain ratio in evaluation of breast masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Abd Elaziz Dawood

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the use of strain index ratio by sonoelastography to differentiate between benign and malignant breast lesions. Patients & Methods: This prospective study including 40 females, complaining of breast masses which were suspicious to be malignant on clinical examination. All patients were submitted to B-mode Ultrasound and sonoelastography. Biopsy as a gold standard and pathological study were done for all breast lesions. Results: US examination of every mass was done and categorized according to BI-RADS categories according to ACR2013, according to US lexicon. Sonoelastography examination with Lesions classification was performed on the basis of a 5-point scoring method proposed by Tsukuba elasticity score. Then measurements of strain ratio were done. Statistical analysis of combination of the three methods was sensitivity of 96.7%, specificity of 100% when we use cut off value of 3–4 in elastography score and ≤3 cut off value of strain ratio. Conclusion: The combined use of strain ratio with Tsukuba score and BI-RADS categorization increased the diagnostic performance in differentiation between benign and malignant breast lesions. Keywords: Elastography, Breast masses, Strain ratio, Ultrasound, BI-RADS classification, Tsukuba score

  3. Evaluating photographic scales of facial pores and diagnostic agreement of tests using latent class models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yao; Qing, Zeng; Qing, Wang; Li, Li

    2017-02-01

    Ordinal severity scales illustrated by photographs have been widely developed to help dermatologists in evaluating skin problems or improvements. Numerous scales have been published, and none of them were used for assessing facial pores. A five-point photographic scale of facial pores was formulated, and photographs of pores on nasal ala from 128 female volunteers were acquired. Five dermatologists with similar experiences rated the 128 photographs independently using the reference photographs. Latent Class Models (LCM) were used to analyze the data. Firstly, we hypothesized that the conditional probabilities of the five dermatologists were identical to build the first LCM and without the restriction to formulate the second LCM. Conditional probability and posterior probability were also calculated. The five-point scales were ambiguous as the raters actually had difficulties in distinguishing between some adjacent categories. Adjacent categories were pooled for reanalyzing, and the model fitted well. The newly developed photographic scale of Chinese facial pores should be redefined to improve their quality and reproducibility in future studies. Standardized scales for the measurement of aging and response to cosmetic therapy were essential for assessing diagnostic experiment. The LCM can effectively deal with diagnostic test of agreement and reproducibility.

  4. The utility of an online diagnostic decision support system (Isabel) in general practice: a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Emily J; Rubin, Greg P

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the utility of Isabel, an online diagnostic decision support system developed by Isabel Healthcare primarily for secondary medical care, in the general practice setting. Focus groups were conducted with clinicians to understand why and how they used the system. A modified online post-use survey asked practitioners about its impact on their decision-making. Normalization process theory (NPT) was used as a theoretical framework to determine whether the system could be incorporated into routine clinical practice. The system was introduced by NHS County Durham and Darlington in the UK in selected general practices as a three-month pilot. General practitioners and nurse practitioners who had access to Isabel as part of the Primary Care Trust's pilot. General practitioners' views, experiences and usage of the system. Seven general practices agreed to pilot Isabel. Two practices did not subsequently use it. The remaining five practices conducted searches on 16 patients. Post-use surveys (n = 10) indicated that Isabel had little impact on diagnostic decision-making. Focus group participants stated that, although the diagnoses produced by Isabel in general did not have an impact on their decision-making, they would find the tool useful if it were better tailored to the primary care setting. Our analysis concluded that normalization was not likely to occur in its current form. Isabel was of limited utility in this short pilot study and may need further modification for use in general practice.

  5. Evaluation of the equine digital flexor tendon sheath using diagnostic ultrasound and contrast radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redding, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the normal anatomy of the digital flexor tendon sheath using contrast radiography and diagnostic ultrasound. Iodinated contrast medium was injected into eight cadaver limbs and the limbs immediately frozen. Lateromedial and dorsopalmar/plantar radiographs were made. These limps were then cut transversely and proximal to distal radiographs of each slab were made. This cross sectional contrast methodology allowed the visualization of the relative size and shape of the superficial and deep digital flexor tendons as well as the potential space taken by effusions of the digital flexor tendon sheath. The second part of the study used twelve live animals with normal digital flexor tendon sheaths. Ultrasonographic measurement of the structures of the digital flexor tendon sheath at each level were compiled. This documented the ability of diagnostic ultrasound to image: 1) the superficial and deep digital flexor tendons, 2) the proximal and distal ring of the manica flexoria, 3) the straight and oblique sesamoidean ligaments, and 4) the mesotendinous attachments to the superficial and deep flexor tendons. Iodinated contrast medium was then injected into the digital flexor tendon sheath and the ultrasonography repeated. These images were compared with those obtained from contrast radiography and prosections of twenty normal limbs. The iodinated contrast medium enhanced sonographic imaging of the structures of the digital tendon sheath, particularly the abaxial borders of the superficial digital flexor tendon branches and the mesotendinous attachments to the superficial and deep digital flexor tendons

  6. Multicenter evaluation of molecular and culture-dependent diagnostics for Shigella species and Entero-invasive Escherichia coli in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Beld, Maaike J. C.; Friedrich, Alexander W.; van Zanten, Evert; Reubsaet, Frans A. G.; Kooistra-Smid, Mirjam A. M. D.; Rossen, John W. A.

    2016-01-01

    An inter-laboratory collaborative trial for the evaluation of diagnostics for detection and identification of Shigella species and Entero-invasive Escherichia coil (EIEC) was performed. Sixteen Medical Microbiological Laboratories (MMLs) participated. MMLs were interviewed about their diagnostic

  7. An Evaluation of the Performance Diagnostic Checklist-Human Services (PDC-HS) Across Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, David A; Lipschultz, Joshua; Gehrman, Chana

    2018-06-01

    The Performance Diagnostic Checklist-Human Services (PDC-HS) is an informant-based tool designed to assess the environmental variables that contribute to poor employee performance in human service settings. Although the PDC-HS has been shown to effectively identify variables contributing to problematic performance, interventions based on only two of the four PDC-HS domains have been evaluated to date. In addition, the extent to which PDC-HS-indicated interventions are more effective than nonindicated interventions for two domains remains unclear. In the current study, we administered the PDC-HS to supervisors to assess the variables contributing to infrequent teaching of verbal operants and use of a timer by therapists at a center-based autism treatment program. Each of the four PDC-HS domains was identified as contributing to poor performance for at least one therapist. We then evaluated PDC-HS-indicated interventions for each domain. In addition, to assess the predictive validity of the tool, we evaluated various nonindicated interventions prior to implementing a PDC-HS-indicated intervention for two of the four domains. Results suggest that the PDC-HS-indicated interventions were effective across all four domains and were more effective than the nonindicated interventions for the two domains for which they were evaluated. Results are discussed in terms of the utility of the PDC-HS to identify appropriate interventions to manage therapist performance in human service settings.

  8. Diagnostic efficacy of optimised evaluation of planar MIBI myocardium perfusion scintigraphy: a probabilistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusmierek, J.; Plachcinska, A.

    1999-01-01

    Background: The Bayesian (probabilistic) approach to the results of a diagnostic test appears to be more informative than an interpretation of results in binary terms (having disease or not). The aim of our study was the analysis of the effect of an optimised evaluation of myocardium perfusion scintigrams on the probability of CAD in individual patients. Methods: 197 patients (132 males and 65 females) suspected of CAD, with no history of myocardial infarction were examined. Scintigraphic images were evaluated applying two methods of analysis: visual (semiquantitative) and quantitative, and the combination of both. The sensitivity and specificity of both methods (and their combination) in the detection of CAD were determined and optimal methods of scintigram evaluation, separately for males and females, were selected. All patients were subjected to coronary angiography. The pre-test probability of CAD was assessed according to Diamond (1) and the post-test probability was evaluated in accordance with Bayes's theorem. Patients were divided, according to a pre-test probability of CAD, into 3 groups: with low, medium and high probability of the disease. The same subdivision was made in relation to post-test probability of CAD. The numbers of patients in respective subgroups, before and after the test, were compared. Moreover, in order to test the reliability of post-test probability, its values were compared with real percentages of CAD occurrence among the patients under study, as demonstrated by the angiography. Results: The combination of visual and quantitative methods was accepted as the optimal method of male scintigram evaluation (with sensitivity and specificity equalling 95% and 82%, respectively) and a sole quantitative analysis as the optimal method of female scintigram evaluation (sensitivity and specificity amounted to 81% and 84%, respectively). In the subgroup of males the percentage of individuals with medium pre-test CAD probability equalled 52 and

  9. Analysis of Participant Reactivity in Dyads Performing a Videotaped Conflict-Management Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeniuk, Yulia Y; Riesch, Susan K

    2011-01-01

    Videotaping is used frequently in nursing research. A threat to the validity of videotaping is participant reactivity, that is, being recorded by a camera may influence the behavior of interest. This paper's purpose is to report how youth ages 10 to 14 years old and their parent viewed participation in a videotaped conflict-management task. Five dyads, who were part of a randomized clinical trial testing an intervention to promote parent-child communication, participated in a structured interview. All parents were mothers. Youth were eighth graders. Three were boys and two were girls. Findings indicated that (a) dyads felt that the videotaped interaction had a progression of feeling unnatural in the beginning to feeling natural toward the end, (b) dyads found it relatively easy to choose a topic of discussion, and (c) dyads felt that the discussions were meaningful. Based on these data, recommendations for researchers to reduce participant reactivity are provided.

  10. Experimental guinea pig model of dermatophytosis: a simple and useful tool for the evaluation of new diagnostics and antifungals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunte, D.M.; Hasselby, J.P.; Brillowska-Dabrowska, A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a simple guinea pig model for the purpose of evaluating diagnostic principles and treatment modalities for dermatophytic infections. The following variables were evaluated; pre-treatment of the skin by shaving versus tape stripping, Microsporum canis...

  11. Evaluation of TLD dose response compared to MCNP-5 simulation of diagnostic X ray equipment - radiation diagnostic image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez G, R.; Cavalieri, T. A.; De Paiva, F.; Dalledone S, P. de T.; Yoriyaz, H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Centro de Engenharia Nuclear / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rodrigues F, M. A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Departamento de Dermatologia e Radioterapia, Av. Prof. Montenegro s/n, Rubiao Junior, 18601-970 Botucatu (Brazil); Vivolo, V., E-mail: chancez@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Gerencia de Metrologia das Radiacoes / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The thermo luminescent dosimeter (TLD) is used as a radiation dosimeter and can be used as environmental and staff personnel monitoring. The TLD measures ionizing radiation exposure by a process in which the amount of radiation collected by the dosimeter is converted in visible light when the crystal is heated. The amount of emitted light is proportional to the radiation exposure, and then the response of the TLD must be the related to the real dose. In this work it was used twenty four TLD 700 in order to obtain eight values of doses from a diagnostic X-ray equipment. The TLD-700 is a LiF TLD enriched with {sup 7}Li isotope. One way to compare and study the response of TLD is by Monte Carlo method, which has been used as a computational tool to solve problems stochastically. This method can be applied to any geometry, even those where the boundary conditions are unknown, making the method particularly useful to solve problems a priori. In this work it was modeled the X-ray tube exactly as the one used to irradiate the TLD, after the simulation and the TLD irradiation the results of dose value from both were compared. (Author)

  12. Evaluation of TLD dose response compared to MCNP-5 simulation of diagnostic X ray equipment - radiation diagnostic image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez G, R.; Cavalieri, T. A.; De Paiva, F.; Dalledone S, P. de T.; Yoriyaz, H.; Rodrigues F, M. A.; Vivolo, V.

    2014-08-01

    The thermo luminescent dosimeter (TLD) is used as a radiation dosimeter and can be used as environmental and staff personnel monitoring. The TLD measures ionizing radiation exposure by a process in which the amount of radiation collected by the dosimeter is converted in visible light when the crystal is heated. The amount of emitted light is proportional to the radiation exposure, and then the response of the TLD must be the related to the real dose. In this work it was used twenty four TLD 700 in order to obtain eight values of doses from a diagnostic X-ray equipment. The TLD-700 is a LiF TLD enriched with 7 Li isotope. One way to compare and study the response of TLD is by Monte Carlo method, which has been used as a computational tool to solve problems stochastically. This method can be applied to any geometry, even those where the boundary conditions are unknown, making the method particularly useful to solve problems a priori. In this work it was modeled the X-ray tube exactly as the one used to irradiate the TLD, after the simulation and the TLD irradiation the results of dose value from both were compared. (Author)

  13. Development, Evaluation, and Integration of a Quantitative Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Diagnostic Test for Ebola Virus on a Molecular Diagnostics Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cnops, Lieselotte; Van den Eede, Peter; Pettitt, James; Heyndrickx, Leo; De Smet, Birgit; Coppens, Sandra; Andries, Ilse; Pattery, Theresa; Van Hove, Luc; Meersseman, Geert; Van Den Herrewegen, Sari; Vergauwe, Nicolas; Thijs, Rein; Jahrling, Peter B; Nauwelaers, David; Ariën, Kevin K

    2016-10-15

     The 2013-2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa resulted in accelerated development of rapid diagnostic tests for emergency outbreak preparedness. We describe the development and evaluation of the Idylla™ prototype Ebola virus test, a fully automated sample-to-result molecular diagnostic test for rapid detection of Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) and Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV).  The Idylla™ prototype Ebola virus test can simultaneously detect EBOV and SUDV in 200 µL of whole blood. The sample is directly added to a disposable cartridge containing all reagents for sample preparation, RNA extraction, and amplification by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. The performance was evaluated with a variety of sample types, including synthetic constructs and whole blood samples from healthy volunteers spiked with viral RNA, inactivated virus, and infectious virus.  The 95% limits of detection for EBOV and SUDV were 465 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL (1010 copies/mL) and 324 PFU/mL (8204 copies/mL), respectively. In silico and in vitro analyses demonstrated 100% correct reactivity for EBOV and SUDV and no cross-reactivity with relevant pathogens. The diagnostic sensitivity was 97.4% (for EBOV) and 91.7% (for SUDV), the specificity was 100%, and the diagnostic accuracy was 95.9%.  The Idylla™ prototype Ebola virus test is a fast, safe, easy-to-use, and near-patient test that meets the performance criteria to detect EBOV in patients with suspected Ebola. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Recommendations for cerebrospinal fluid Alzheimer's disease biomarkers in the diagnostic evaluation of mild cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Simonsen, Anja Hviid; Andreasen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    ) patient counseling. The working group recommended using CSF AD biomarkers in the diagnostic workup of MCI patients, after prebiomarker counseling, as an add-on to clinical evaluation to predict functional decline or conversion to AD dementia and to guide disease management. Because of insufficient...... evidence, it was uncertain whether CSF AD biomarkers outperform imaging biomarkers. Furthermore, the working group provided recommendations for interpretation of ambiguous CSF biomarker results and for pre- and post-biomarker counseling....... impairment (MCI). The recommendations were developed by a multidisciplinary working group and based on the available evidence and consensus from focused group discussions for 1) prediction of clinical progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia, 2) cost-effectiveness, 3) interpretation of results, and 4...

  15. A systematic review and economic evaluation of diagnostic strategies for Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowsill, Tristan; Huxley, Nicola; Hoyle, Martin; Jones-Hughes, Tracey; Coelho, Helen; Cooper, Chris; Frayling, Ian; Hyde, Chris

    2014-09-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS) is an inherited autosomal dominant disorder characterised by an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and other cancers, and caused by mutations in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) mismatch repair genes. To evaluate the accuracy and cost-effectiveness of strategies to identify LS in newly diagnosed early-onset CRC patients (aged strategies for individuals in whom LS is identified. Systematic reviews were conducted of the test accuracy of microsatellite instability (MSI) testing or immunohistochemistry (IHC) in individuals with CRC at risk of LS, and of economic evidence relating to diagnostic strategies for LS. Reviews were carried out in April 2012 (test accuracy); and in February 2012, repeated in February 2013 (economic evaluations). Databases searched included MEDLINE (1946 to April week 3, 2012), EMBASE (1980 to week 17, 2012) and Web of Science (inception to 30 April 2012), and risk of bias for test accuracy was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) quality appraisal tool. A de novo economic model of diagnostic strategies for LS was developed. Inconsistencies in study designs precluded pooling of diagnostic test accuracy results from a previous systematic review and nine subsequent primary studies. These were of mixed quality, with significant methodological concerns identified for most. IHC and MSI can both play a part in diagnosing LS but neither is gold standard. No UK studies evaluated the cost-effectiveness of diagnosing and managing LS, although studies from other countries generally found some strategies to be cost-effective compared with no testing. The de novo model demonstrated that all strategies were cost-effective compared with no testing at a threshold of £20,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), with the most cost-effective strategy utilising MSI and BRAF testing [incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) = £5491 per QALY]. The maximum health benefit to the

  16. Clinical application and evaluation of the diagnostic significance of NMR-tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielke, G.; Higer, P.

    1987-01-01

    Aim of the project was the clinical application and evaluation of the diagnostic significance of NMR-tomography. About 3 000 patients have been examined especially with diseases of the brain. In 75% of all cases pathological findings could be detected. A subgroup of these patients was used for comprehensive studies with regard to tissue characterization based on the calculation of relaxation time parameters. With methods of image processing and classification techniques we tried to get a clear correlation between combined NMR-parameters and human tissue types. The results show that this procedure is able to improve the detectibility and the association to finding groups and tumorgradings in certain cases. (orig./ECB) With 134 refs., 17 tabs., 86 figs [de

  17. An economic evaluation of public programs for internationalization: the case of the Diagnostic Program in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansino, José M; Lopez-Melendo, Jaime; Pablo-Romero, María del P; Sánchez-Braza, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    This paper evaluates the Diagnostic Program in Spain which is a publicly funded program to promote internationalization of companies located in Andalusia (south of Spain). The methodology used is the propensity score-matching. The treatment group consists of companies which participated in the Program until 2008. The control group has companies which planned to participate in the Program but had not done so up to that date. The response variable measures the ratio of export to total sales for each company. Four covariates have been taken into account: activity, location, sales and number of employees. The analysis leads to the conclusion that the companies that participated in the Program improved their ratio of exports to total sales by about 10 percentage points. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Aging evaluation of electrical circuits using the ECCAD [Electrical Circuit Characterization and Diagnostic] system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edson, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    As a part of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program, an aging assessment of electrical circuits was conducted at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station Decommissioning Project. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Electrical Circuit Characterization and Diagnostic (ECCAD) system in identifying circuit conditions, to determine the present condition of selected electrical circuits, and correlate the results with aging effects. To accomplish this task, a series of electrical tests was performed on each circuit using the ECCAD system, which is composed of commercially available electronic test equipment under computer control. Test results indicate that the ECCAD system is effective in detecting and identifying aging and service wear in selected electrical circuits. The major area of degradation in the circuits tested was at the termination/connection points, whereas the cables were in generally good condition

  19. Evaluation of Analysis by Cross-Validation, Part II: Diagnostic and Optimization of Analysis Error Covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Ménard

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a general theory of estimation of analysis error covariances based on cross-validation as well as a geometric interpretation of the method. In particular, we use the variance of passive observation-minus-analysis residuals and show that the true analysis error variance can be estimated, without relying on the optimality assumption. This approach is used to obtain near optimal analyses that are then used to evaluate the air quality analysis error using several different methods at active and passive observation sites. We compare the estimates according to the method of Hollingsworth-Lönnberg, Desroziers et al., a new diagnostic we developed, and the perceived analysis error computed from the analysis scheme, to conclude that, as long as the analysis is near optimal, all estimates agree within a certain error margin.

  20. Reproducibility and diagnostic performance of shear wave elastography in evaluating breast solid mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sun; Woo, Ok Hee; Shin, Hye Seon; Hwang, Soon-Young; Cho, Kyu Ran; Seo, Bo Kyoung

    Shear wave elastography (SWE) was performed independently by two radiologists in 264 solid breast masses. The images were reviewed for color overlay pattern (COP) classification by the two radiologists, double blinded to any information. The interobserver agreement of the COP was almost perfect (κ=0.908) and high in E max (ICC=0.89). The AUC value of the COP (0.954) was significantly higher than that of E max (0.915) (p=0.002) but not significantly different from that of E max combined with COP (0.957) (p=0.098). The SWE color overlay pattern and E max of breast masses were highly reproducible. The COP had better diagnostic ability than E max , suggesting that COP may be a more reliable parameter for solid breast mass evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Operational evaluation of rapid diagnostic testing for Ebola Virus Disease in Guinean laboratories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda VanSteelandt

    Full Text Available Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs for Ebola Virus Disease (EVD at the point of care have the potential to increase access and acceptability of EVD testing and the speed of patient isolation and secure burials for suspect cases. A pilot program for EVD RDTs in high risk areas of Guinea was introduced in October 2015. This paper presents concordance data between EVD RDTs and PCR testing in the field as well as an assessment of the acceptability, feasibility, and quality assurance of the RDT program.Concordance data were compiled from laboratory surveillance databases. The operational measures of the laboratory-based EVD RDT program were evaluated at all 34 sentinel sites in Guinea through: (1 a technical questionnaire filled by the lab technicians who performed the RDTs, (2 a checklist filled by the evaluator during the site visits, and (3 direct observation of the lab technicians performing the quality control test. Acceptability of the EVD RDT was good for technicians, patients, and families although many technicians (69.8% expressed concern for their safety while performing the test. The feasibility of the program was good based on average technician knowledge scores (6.6 out of 8 but basic infrastructure, equipment, and supplies were lacking. There was much room for improvement in quality assurance of the program.The implementation of new diagnostics in weak laboratory systems requires general training in quality assurance, biosafety and communication with patients in addition to specific training for the new test. Corresponding capacity building in terms of basic equipment and a long-term commitment to transfer supervision and quality improvement to national public health staff are necessary for successful implementation.

  2. Fluorophotometry as a diagnostic tool for the evaluation of dry eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Vincent C

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dry eye disease is a common debilitating ocular disease. Current diagnostic tests used in dry eye disease are often neither sensitive nor reproducible, making it difficult to accurately diagnose and determine end points for clinical trials, or evaluate the usefulness of different medications in the treatment of dry eye disease. The recently developed fluorophotometer can objectively detect changes in the corneal epithelium by quantitatively measuring its barrier function or permeability. The purpose of the study is to investigate the use of corneal fluorescein penetration measured by the fluorophotometer as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of dry eye patients. Methods Dry eye patients (16 eyes, who presented with a chief complaint of ocular irritation corresponding with dry eye, low Schirmer's one test ( Results Ten minutes after fluorescein installition, patients with dry eye disease averaged a five-fold increase in corneal tissue fluorescein concentration (mean = 375.26 ± 202.67 ng/ml compared with that of normal subjects (mean = 128.19 ± 85.84 ng/ml. Sixty minutes after dye installation, patients with dry eye disease still revealed higher corneal tissue fluorescein concentration (mean = 112.87 ± 52.83 ng/ml compared with that of controls (mean = 40.64 ± 7.96 ng/ml, averaging a three-fold increase. Conclusion Patients with dry eye disease demonstrated an increased corneal permeability and a slower rate of elimination to topically administered fluorescein when measured by the fluorophotometer. This suggests that fluorophotometry may serve as a valuable quantitative and objective tool for the diagnosis of dry eye disease, and in following patients' response to new treatment modalities. Fluorophotometry may serve as an objective non-invasive tool for end-point analysis in clinical trials of new treatments for dry eye disease.

  3. Comparative Evaluation for Assessing Oratest as a Diagnostic Tool for Evaluation of Plaque Levels & Gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahasweta Joshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims & Objectives: Periodontal disease comprises a group of inflammatory conditions of the supporting tissues of the teeth that are caused by bacteria. The present study was undertaken to evaluate whether Oratest could be used as a sensitive indicator of plaque levels and gingivitis. Material and Methods: Hundred caries free patients visiting the out-patient department of A.E.C.S. Maaruti College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Banglore were selected according to predetermined selection criteria. The study consisted of two clinical stages: Stage 1. Recording of Plaque Index (Loe, 1967 and Gingival Index (Loe & Silness 1963 in the subjects. Stage 2. Performance of the Oratest and recording the scores in the same subjects. The Oratest was performed by rinsing the mouth with sterilized UHT (Ultra high temperature milk. About 3 ml of expectorated milk was added to a test tube containing the 0.12 ml of 0.1% methylene blue. The time required for colour change from blue to white attained at the bottom of the tube was recorded. Plaque Index, Gingival Index and Oratest scores were compared using Student t test. Pearson correlation test was applied to assess correlation between the indices and Oratest scores. Results:The results of the study showed that as age increased plaque and Gingival Indexes also increased whereas Oratest scores decreased. No significant difference between males and females was found in mean values of Plaque Index, Gingival Index and Oratest scores. Negative correlation was seen between Plaque Index and Oratest scores (r = 0.724 and also between Gingival Index and Oratest scores (r = 0.728. Conclusions: The study showed high correlation between the plaque and gingival indices and Oratest scores. This study validates Oratest as a predictable & sensitive test to assess periodontal disease.

  4. Laboratory evaluation of three dual rapid diagnostic tests for HIV and syphilis in China and Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yue-Ping; Ngige, Evelyn; Anyaike, Chukwuma; Ijaodola, Gbenga; Oyelade, Taiwo A; Vaz, Rui Gama; Newman, Lori M; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    To determine the laboratory-based performance and operational characteristics of three dual rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for testing HIV and syphilis. Three dual RDTs (SD Bioline, Chembio, and MedMira) were evaluated using 1514 serum specimens archived at laboratories or collected from clinics in China and Nigeria to determine sensitivity and specificity, with 95% confidence intervals. Concordance of testing results read by two technicians, stability of testing results read at two time points, and test operation characteristics were also assessed. All three of the evaluated RDTs gave excellent performance with a combined sensitivity ranging from 99.0%-99.6% for HIV and 98.3%-99.0% for syphilis, and a combined specificity ranging from 97.9%-99.0% for HIV and 97.2%-99.6% for syphilis. Concordance of testing results between two technicians and stability of testing results read within and one hour past the recommended reading period showed excellent agreement, with Kappa greater than or equal to 0.98. All the tests were found to be very or fairly easy to use and easy to interpret the results. Further evaluations of these dual RDTs with whole blood in field settings, and more studies on the implication of introduction of these tests in HIV and syphilis control programs are needed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. A new computerized diagnostic algorithm for quantitative evaluation of binocular misalignment in patients with strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kyoung Won; Kim, In Young; Kang, Ho Chul; Yang, Hee Kyung; Yoon, Chang Ki; Hwang, Jeong Min; Kim, Young Jae; Kim, Tae Yun; Kim, Kwang Gi

    2012-10-01

    Accurate measurement of binocular misalignment between both eyes is important for proper preoperative management, surgical planning, and postoperative evaluation of patients with strabismus. In this study, we proposed a new computerized diagnostic algorithm that can calculate the angle of binocular eye misalignment photographically by using a dedicated three-dimensional eye model mimicking the structure of the natural human eye. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, eight healthy volunteers and eight individuals with strabismus were recruited in this study, the horizontal deviation angle, vertical deviation angle, and angle of eye misalignment were calculated and the angular differences between the healthy and the strabismus groups were evaluated using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test and the Pearson correlation test. The experimental results demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the healthy and strabismus groups (p = 0.015 0.05). The measurements of the two methods were highly correlated (r = 0.969, p human eye to diagnose non-invasively the severity of strabismus.

  6. Evaluation of doses given to foetus in diagnostic radiology in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, T.; Donagi, A.; Karpinovitz, A.

    1975-01-01

    Among the various groups exposed to diagnostic radiation, pregnant women, during the first months of pregnancy, require special attention, because of the high sensitivity of the developing foetus to ionizing radiation. In light of this sensitivity, special limitations were adopted in different countries, concerning female X-ray technicians in the reproductive age. However, it frequently happens that a pregnant woman is irradiated during the first months of pregnancy, due to the fact that neither she nor the attending physician is aware that she is pregnant. Many times, after this fact is realized, physicists are asked to ''reconstruct'' the radiographs in order to evaluate the foetus dose. The purpose of this ''reconstruction'' is to determine whether an abortion is to be performed. The present work constitutes the first stage of a research desianed to provide the radiologist with typical Israeli data, which he could use for evaluating the order of magnitude of the foetus dose. The purpose of this ''preliminary evaluation'' carried out by the radiologist is to determine whether the foetus dose is of such a magnitude justifying the performance of a specific ''reconstruction test'' or not. (B.G.)

  7. [Evaluation of the toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in pregnant women and creating a diagnostic algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumcuoglu, Ipek; Toyran, Alparslan; Cetin, Feyza; Coskun, Feride Alaca; Baran, Irmak; Aksu, Neriman; Aksoy, Altan

    2014-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, an obligatory intracellular protozoon is widely distributed around the world and can infect all mammals and birds. While acquired toxoplasmosis is usually asymptomatic in healthy subjects, acute infection during pregnancy may lead to abortion, stillbirth, fetal neurological and ocular damages. For the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis it is recommended that a screening programme and a diagnostic algorithm in pregnant women should be implemented while considering the cost effectiveness. Thus, it is necessary to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and the actual risk of T.gondii transmission during pregnancy in a certain area. The aims of this study were to detect the T.gondii seropositivity in the pregnant women admitted to our hospital and to create a diagnostic algorithm in order to solve the problems arising from interpretation of the serological test results. A total of 6140 women aged 15-49 years who were admitted to our hospital between April 1st, 2010 to July 31st, 2013, were evaluated retrospectively. In the serum samples, T.gondii IgM, IgG and IgG avidity tests were performed by VIDAS automated analyzer using TOXO IgM, TOXO IgG II and TOXO IgG avidity kits (bioMerieux, France). It was noted that, both T.gondii IgM and IgG tests were requested from 4758 (77.5%) of the pregnant women, while only IgM test from 1382 (22.5%) cases. Sole IgM positivity was found as 0.2% (11/6140), IgG as 26.4% (1278/4758) and both IgM + IgG as 0.9% (44/4758). T.gondii IgG avidity tests were requested from 12 of 44 women who were found both IgM and IgG positive and eight of them revealed high avidity and four low avidity. Avidity test was ordered for the 91 (7.1%) of 1278 sole IgG positive cases and four of them were found to have low avidity. IgG avidity test was ordered for 554 (16.2%) of IgM and/or IgG negative subjects, however, the test was not performed according to rejection criteria of the laboratory. It was noticed that

  8. Model-Independent Evaluation of Tumor Markers and a Logistic-Tree Approach to Diagnostic Decision Support

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    Weizeng Ni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity and specificity of using individual tumor markers hardly meet the clinical requirement. This challenge gave rise to many efforts, e.g., combing multiple tumor markers and employing machine learning algorithms. However, results from different studies are often inconsistent, which are partially attributed to the use of different evaluation criteria. Also, the wide use of model-dependent validation leads to high possibility of data overfitting when complex models are used for diagnosis. We propose two model-independent criteria, namely, area under the curve (AUC and Relief to evaluate the diagnostic values of individual and multiple tumor markers, respectively. For diagnostic decision support, we propose the use of logistic-tree which combines decision tree and logistic regression. Application on a colorectal cancer dataset shows that the proposed evaluation criteria produce results that are consistent with current knowledge. Furthermore, the simple and highly interpretable logistic-tree has diagnostic performance that is competitive with other complex models.

  9. Border Collie Collapse: Owner Survey Results and Veterinary Description of Videotaped Episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Susan; Minor, Katie; Shmon, Cindy L; Shelton, G Diane; Patterson, Edward E; Mickelson, James R

    Completed surveys were obtained from owners of 165 border collies experiencing repeated episodes of abnormal gait or collapse during strenuous exercise. Unremarkable veterinary evaluation and lack of disease progression over time made common systemic, cardiac, and neurologic causes of exercise intolerance unlikely. Survey questions addressed signalment, age of onset, description of episodes, and owner perception of factors associated with collapse. Most dogs were young adults (median 2 yr) when episodes began, and they had experienced from 2 to more than 100 episodes (median 6) prior to their owners completing the survey. Retrieving was the activity most commonly associated with episodes (112/165 dogs, 68%), followed by herding stock (39/165 dogs, 24%). Owners reported that high environmental temperatures (111/165 dogs, 67%) and excitement (67/165 dogs, 41%) increased the likelihood of their dog having an episode during strenuous activity. Veterinary evaluation of videotapes of presumed border collie collapse (BCC) episodes (40 dogs) were used to provide a description of the typical features of BCC episodes. Altered mentation, symmetrical ataxia affecting all four limbs, increased pelvic limb extensor tone and toe scuffing or knuckling, truncal swaying, and falling to the side were common features, suggesting that BCC may be an episodic diffuse central nervous system disorder.

  10. International quality assurance project in colorectal cancer-unifying diagnostic and histopathological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannasch, O; Udelnow, A; Romano, G; Dziki, A; Pavalkis, D; Lippert, H; Mroczkowski, P

    2014-04-01

    .9-87.6 %). In-hospital deaths ranged between 1.1 and 3.2 %. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an international quality assurance project in colorectal cancer. This concept ensures data analysis based on a comparable data input. Differences in preoperative diagnostics, completeness of histopathological evaluation and short-term outcomes for Germany, Poland and Italy might result from disparities in socioeconomic factors and implementation of existing guidelines. Further activities are necessary to warrant the use of common standards in outcome control.

  11. Diagnostic Accuracy of Ultrasonography and Radiography in Initial Evaluation of Chest Trauma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaei, Ali; Hatamabadi, Hamid Reza; Heidary, Kamran; Alimohammadi, Hosein; Tarbiyat, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Application of chest radiography for all multiple trauma patients is associated with a significant increase in total costs, exposure to radiation, and overcrowding of the emergency department. Ultrasound has been introduced as an alternative diagnostic tool in this regard. The aim of the present study is to compare the diagnostic accuracy of chest ultrasonography and radiography in detection of traumatic intrathoracic injuries. In the present prospective cross-sectional study, patients with traumatic intrathoracic injuries, who were referred to the emergency department from December 2013 to December 2014, were assessed. The patients underwent bedside ultrasound, radiographic and computed tomography (CT) scan examinations based on ATLS recommendations. Screening performance characteristics of ultrasonography and radiography were compared using SPSS 21.0. Chest CT scan was considered as gold standard. 152 chest trauma patients with a mean age of 31.4 ± 13.8 years (range: 4 ‒ 67), were enrolled (77.6% male). Chest CT scan showed pulmonary contusion in 48 (31.6%) patients, hemothorax in 29 (19.1%), and pneumothorax in 55 (36.2%) cases. Area under the ROC curve of ultrasonography in detection of pneumothorax, hemothorax, and pulmonary contusion were 0.91 (95% CI: 0.86‒0.96), 0.86 (95% CI: 0.78‒0.94), and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.736‒0.88), respectively. Area under the ROC curve of radiography was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.736‒0.87) for detection of pneumothorax, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.68‒0.86) for hemothorax, and 0.58 (95% CI: 0.5‒0.67) for pulmonary contusion. Comparison of areas under the ROC curve declared the significant superiority of ultrasonography in detection of pneumothorax (p = 0.02) and pulmonary contusion (p < 0.001). However, the diagnostic value of the two tests was equal in detection of hemothorax (p = 0.08). The results of the present study showed that ultrasonography is preferable to radiography in the initial evaluation of patients with traumatic injuries to the

  12. Diagnostic Accuracy of Ultrasonography and Radiography in Initial Evaluation of Chest Trauma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Vafaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Application of chest radiography for all multiple trauma patients is associated with a significant increase in total costs, exposure to radiation, and overcrowding of the emergency department. Ultrasound has been introduced as an alternative diagnostic tool in this regard. The aim of the present study is to compare the diagnostic accuracy of chest ultrasonography and radiography in detection of traumatic intrathoracic injuries. Methods: In the present prospective cross-sectional study, patients with traumatic intrathoracic injuries, who were referred to the emergency department from December 2013 to December 2014, were assessed. The patients underwent bedside ultrasound, radiographic and computed tomography (CT scan examinations based on ATLS recommendations. Screening performance characteristics of ultrasonography and radiography were compared using SPSS 21.0. Chest CT scan was considered as gold standard. Results: 152 chest trauma patients with a mean age of 31.4 ± 13.8 years (range: 4 ‒ 67, were enrolled (77.6% male. Chest CT scan showed pulmonary contusion in 48 (31.6% patients, hemothorax in 29 (19.1%, and pneumothorax in 55 (36.2% cases. Area under the ROC curve of ultrasonography in detection of pneumothorax, hemothorax, and pulmonary contusion were 0.91 (95% CI: 0.86‒0.96, 0.86 (95% CI: 0.78‒0.94, and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.736‒0.88, respectively. Area under the ROC curve of radiography was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.736‒0.87 for detection of pneumothorax, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.68‒0.86 for hemothorax, and 0.58 (95% CI: 0.5‒0.67 for pulmonary contusion. Comparison of areas under the ROC curve declared the significant superiority of ultrasonography in detection of pneumothorax (p = 0.02 and pulmonary contusion (p < 0.001. However, the diagnostic value of the two tests was equal in detection of hemothorax (p = 0.08. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that ultrasonography is preferable to radiography in the initial

  13. Evaluation of diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine services of Pernambuco and Alagoas states - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Ricardo Braz F. da; Hazin, Clovis A.

    2011-01-01

    The medical use of ionizing radiation contributes significantly to population exposure to radiation. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic procedures carried out in nuclear medicine (SMN) in Pernambuco and Alagoas in order to gather data to subsidize the proposal of reference levels for nuclear medicine in Brazil. Data were collected of the SMN in Pernambuco and Alagoas in the period of 2005 to 2009, according by UNSCEAR. The study used data from IBGE. The results showed that the total number of examinations in the period 2005 to 2009 was 34.828 in Pernambuco and 27.700 in Alagoas, corresponding to 6.966 and 5.540 average annual examinations in Pernambuco and Alagoas, respectively. The total number of examinations performed in both states in 2009 was twice the number carried out in 2005. Scintigraphy is the cardiovascular examination most performed in both states, followed by bone scintigraphy. Tc-99m is the radionuclide used most often, followed by I-131. The number of tests using Tc-99m in 2009 doubled when compared with the examinations performed in 2005. The results indicate that there has been a significant increase in the number of examinations in MN, and that females outnumber males, as far as the use of this diagnostic resource is concerned. The study of the activities of the radionuclides administered to patients in the states of Pernambuco and Alagoas showed that they are high when compared to the values recommended by the IAEA in its Safety Report Series Document No. 40. (author)

  14. Role of diagnostic laproscopy in evaluation and treatment of chronic abdominal pain in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talat, N.; Afzal, M.; Ahmad, S.; Rasool, N.; Wasti, A.R.; Saleem, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic abdominal Pain in children is a very common cause of hospital admission. Many of them are discharged without a diagnosis even after battery of investigations. Laparoscopy plays a significant role in diagnosis and management of many causes of acute and chronic abdominal pain. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of laparoscopy as an efficient diagnostic and management tool in children with chronic abdominal pain. Methods: A descriptive, prospective case series was collected in the department of Paediatric surgery Mayo Hospital Lahore, over the period of 5 years between Jan 2007- Dec 2013. The data of consecutive 50 patients, who were admitted in the department with the diagnosis of chronic abdominal pain, was recorded. All patients who had 2-3 admissions in hospital for last 2 months and failed to establish a definitive diagnosis after clinical examination and base line investigations underwent laparoscopy. The details of associated symptoms, finding of laparoscopy, laparoscopic procedures done, definitive diagnosis, histopathology, complications and relief of symptoms were collected and analysed and results were evaluated using SPSS17. Results: Out of 50 patients studies, 27/50 (54 percentage) were male, 23/50 (46 percentage) were female. Age ranged from 2-12 years, with the mean age of 7.24 year. Tuberculosis abdomen, adhesions, mesenteric lymphadenitis, appendicitis and cholecystitis were the final diagnosis. Five abdomens were found normal on laparoscopy. Complete pain relief was achieved in 30/50 (60 percentage), reduced intensity of pain was gained in 12/50 (24 percentage) cases while 16 percentage (8/50) still complained of pain. Conclusions: Laparoscopy is an efficient diagnostic and treatment tool in children with chronic unexplained abdominal pain. It avoids serial examinations; prolong admission, battery of investigations and unnecessary surgeries. (author)

  15. ROLE OF DIAGNOSTIC LAPAROSCOPY IN EVALUATION AND TREATMENT OF CHRONIC ABDOMINAL PAIN IN CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talat, Nabila; Afzal, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sarfraz; Rasool, Naima; Wasti, Arsalan Raza; Saleem, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Chronic abdominal Pain in children is a very common cause of hospital admission. Many of them are discharged without a diagnosis even after battery of investigations. Laparoscopy plays a significant role in diagnosis and management of many causes of acute and chronic abdominal pain. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of laparoscopy as an efficient diagnostic and management tool in children with chronic abdominal pain. A descriptive, prospective case series was collected in the department of Paediatric surgery Mayo's Hospital Lahore, over the period of 5 years between Jan 2007-Dec 2013. The data of consecutive 50 patients, who were admitted in the department with the diagnosis of chronic abdominal pain, was recorded. All patients who had 2-3 admissions in hospital for last 2 months and failed to establish a definitive diagnosis after clinical examination and base line investigations underwent laparoscopy. The details of associated symptoms, finding of laparoscopy, laparoscopic procedures done, definitive diagnosis, histopathology, complications and relief of symptoms were collected and analysed and results were evaluated using SPSS-17. Out of 50 patients studies, 27/50 (54%) were male, 23/50 (46%) were female. Age ranged from 2-12 years, with the mean age of 7.24 year. Tuberculosis abdomen, adhesions, mesenteric lymphadenitis, appendicitis and cholecystitis were the final diagnosis. Five abdomens were found normal on laparoscopy. Complete pain relief was achieved in 30/50 (60%), reduced intensity of pain was gained in 12/50 (24%) cases while 16% (8/50) still complained of pain. Laparoscopy is an efficient diagnostic and treatment tool in children with chronic unexplained abdominal pain. It avoids serial examinations; prolong admission, battery of investigations and unnecessary surgeries.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology of thyroid and evaluation of discordant cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    The main role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) lies in differentiating between a malignant and benign thyroid nodule. It greatly influences the treatment decision. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the cytology–histopathology correlation and to analyze the cause of diagnostic errors with an eventual aim to improve diagnostic accuracy. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective study comparing cytology and corresponding histopathology report in 724 thyroid cases. The statistical analysis included false positive rate, false negative rate, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy. Results On cytological examination, 635/724 were reported as benign, 68 malignant and 21 suspicious. On histopathological examination, 626/635 cases were confirmed as benign but there were 9 discordant cases. Among the other cases histopathology diagnosis of malignancy matched in 66/68 and 11/21 cases. Diagnosis correlated in 703/724 cases (97%) [p < 0.001]. False positive and false negative rates were 1.9% and 10.5%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity were 89.5% and 98%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 84.6% and negative predictive value was 98.6%. Accuracy of FNA was 97%. Conclusion In spite of high accuracy of FNAC in differentiating between a benign and malignant lesion, certain pitfalls should be kept in mind. The common false negative diagnoses were follicular pattern cases which constitute a ‘gray zone’, cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and papillary micro carcinoma. The reason for false positive diagnoses was the occurrence of nuclear features characteristic of PTC in other thyroid lesions. Awareness of pathologist regarding these pitfalls can minimize false negative/positive diagnoses

  17. Energy dependence evaluation of a ZnO detector for diagnostic X-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valença, C.P.V.; Silveira, M.A.L.; Macedo, M.A.; Santos, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades the international organizations of human health and radiation protection have recommended certain care for using X-ray as a diagnosis tool. The current concern is to avoid any type of radiological accident or overdose to the patient. This can be done assessing the parameters of the X-ray equipment and there are various types of detectors available for that: ionizing chamber, semiconductor devices, etc. These detectors must be calibrated so that they can be used for any energy range and such a procedure is correlated with what is called the energy dependence of the detector. In accordance with the stated requirements of IEC 61267, the standard radiation quality beams and irradiation conditions (RQRs) are the tools and techniques for calibrating diagnostic X-Ray instruments and detectors. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the behavior of the energy dependence of a detector fabricated from a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanofilm. A Pantak industrial X-ray equipment was used to generate the RQR radiation quality beams and test three ZnO detector samples. A 6430 sub-femto-ammeter, Keithley, was used to bias the ZnO detector and simultaneously perform the output readings. The results showed that the ZnO device has some increase in its sensitivity to the ionizing radiation as the X-ray effective energy decreases unlike other types of semiconductor electronic devices typically used as an X-ray detector. We can be concluded that, after calibration, the ZnO device can be used as a diagnostic X-ray detector. (author)

  18. Autofluorescence guided diagnostic evaluation of suspicious oral mucosal lesions: opportunities, limitations, and pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneswaran, Nadarajah

    2011-03-01

    Wide-filed autofluorescence examination is currently considered as a standard of care for screening and diagnostic evaluation of early neoplastic changes of the skin, cervix, lung, bladder, gastrointestinal tract and oral cavity. Naturally occurring fluorophores within the tissue absorb UV and visible light and can re-emit some of this light at longer wavelengths in the form of fluorescence. This non-invasive tissue autofluorescence imaging is used in optical diagnostics, especially in the early detection of cancer. Usually, malignant transformation is associated with thickening of the epithelium, enhanced cellular density due to increased nuclear cytoplasmic ratio which may attenuate the excitation leading to a decrease in collagen autofluorescence. Hence, dysplastic and cancerous tissues often exhibit decreased blue-green autofluorescence and appear darker compared to uninvolved mucosa. Currently, there are three commercially available devices to examine tissue autofluorescence in the oral cavity. In this study we used the oral cancer screening device IdentafiTM 3000 to examine the tissue reflectance and autofluorescence of PML and confounding lesions of the oral cavity. Wide-field autofluorescence imaging enables rapid inspection of large mucosal surfaces, to aid in recognition of suspicious lesions and may also help in discriminate the PML (class 1) from some of the confounding lesions (class II). However, the presence of inflammation or pigments is also associated with loss of stromal autofluorescence, and may give rise to false-positive results with widefield fluorescence imaging. Clinicians who use these autofluorescence based oral cancer screening devices should be aware about the benign oral mucosal lesions that may give false positivity so that unnecessary patient's anxiety and the need for scalpel biopsy can be eliminated.

  19. Evaluating the accuracy of molecular diagnostic testing for canine visceral leishmaniasis using latent class analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela da Silva Solcà

    Full Text Available Host tissues affected by Leishmania infantum have differing degrees of parasitism. Previously, the use of different biological tissues to detect L. infantum DNA in dogs has provided variable results. The present study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of molecular diagnostic testing (qPCR in dogs from an endemic area for canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL by determining which tissue type provided the highest rate of parasite DNA detection. Fifty-one symptomatic dogs were tested for CVL using serological, parasitological and molecular methods. Latent class analysis (LCA was performed for accuracy evaluation of these methods. qPCR detected parasite DNA in 100% of these animals from at least one of the following tissues: splenic and bone marrow aspirates, lymph node and skin fragments, blood and conjunctival swabs. Using latent variable as gold standard, the qPCR achieved a sensitivity of 95.8% (CI 90.4-100 in splenic aspirate; 79.2% (CI 68-90.3 in lymph nodes; 77.3% (CI 64.5-90.1 in skin; 75% (CI 63.1-86.9 in blood; 50% (CI 30-70 in bone marrow; 37.5% (CI 24.2-50.8 in left-eye; and 29.2% (CI 16.7-41.6 in right-eye conjunctival swabs. The accuracy of qPCR using splenic aspirates was further evaluated in a random larger sample (n = 800, collected from dogs during a prevalence study. The specificity achieved by qPCR was 76.7% (CI 73.7-79.6 for splenic aspirates obtained from the greater sample. The sensitivity accomplished by this technique was 95% (CI 93.5-96.5 that was higher than those obtained for the other diagnostic tests and was similar to that observed in the smaller sampling study. This confirms that the splenic aspirate is the most effective type of tissue for detecting L. infantum infection. Additionally, we demonstrated that LCA could be used to generate a suitable gold standard for comparative CVL testing.

  20. Epidural phlebography - Its diagnostic value in the evaluation of lumbar discal hernia when compared with radiculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, M.B. dos

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare two neuroradiological methods used in the diagnosis of lumbar discal hernia-radiculography and epidural phlebography - as the result of the evaluation of 36 patients submitted to both procedures at the X-ray Diagnostic Service of the University Hospital of the University of Rio de Janeiro. The results of both examinations to which all the patients were submitted, were compared with the surgical reports (laminectomy) to which some of the patients were submitted. In this way it was possible to determine the sensitivity and the specificity of both methods. From these comparative study it could be verified that the procedures evaluated have a similar potentiality for the diagnosis of discal hernia. The analysis of other aspects of the two procedures showed that phlebography is more expensive, more difficult to interpret and to perform than radiculography. In terms of complications or side effects that may occur during or after the exams these can be more severe and may happen more oftern in the case of radiculography. In conclusion, we recommend radiculography as the method of choice for initial evaluation of a patient suspect of discal hernia. Phlebography should only be initially used for the evaluation of patients who refuse to submit themselves to lumbar puncture for the radiculography. In those patients where discal hernia is strongly suspected and the radiculography proves to be normal, the epidural radiculography could be used, without greater chances, however, of supplying more information that could benefit the patien in clarifying this clinical condition. (Author) [pt

  1. Evaluating and tuning system response in the MFTF-B control and diagnostics computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palasek, R.L.; Butner, D.N.; Minor, E.G.

    1983-01-01

    The software system running on the Supervisory Control and Diagnostics System (SCDS) of MFTF-B is, for the major part, an event driven one. Regular, periodic polling of sensors' outputs takes place only at the local level, in the sensors' corresponding local control microcomputers (LCC's). An LCC reports a sensor's value to the supervisory computer only if there was a significant change. This report is passed as a message, routed among and acted upon by a network of applications and systems tasks within the supervisory computer (SCDS). Commands from the operator's console are similarly routed through a network of tasks, but in the oppostie direction to the experiment's hardware. In a network such as this, response time is partialy determined by system traffic. Because the hardware of MFTF-B will not be connected to the computer system for another two years, we are using the local control computers to simulate the event driven traffic that we expect to see during MFTF-B operation. In this paper we show how we are using the simulator to measure and evaluate response, loading, throughput, and utilization of components within the computer system. Measurement of the system under simulation allows us to identify bottlenecks and verify their unloosening. We also use the traffic simulators to evaluate prototypes of different algorithms for selected tasks, comparing their responses under the spectrum of traffic intensities

  2. Evaluation of radiation protection in x rays room design in diagnostic radiography department in Omdurman locality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Ahmed yusif Abdelrahman

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study is conducted in order to evaluate the application of radiation protection in x-ray rooms design in diagnosis radiology department, evaluate personal monitoring devices, to assess primary scatter and leakage radiation dose, to assess monitoring devices if available, in period from March 2013 to August 2013. The design data included room size, control room size, manufacture of equipment, room surrounding areas, workload of all equipment rooms, type of x-ray equipment, radiation worker's in all hospital, number of patient in each shift, structural material and shielding, K vp and m As used in x-ray room department during examination testing. The results of this study show that there is x-ray room design, the design of x-ray equipment is accepted according to the radiation safety institute team of quality control. Also the study shows that the radiation protection devices are available and in a good condition and enough in number. The study shows that there are not personal monitoring devices and services. the radiological technologist are well trained. Also the study investigation the radiation protection in x-ray room in diagnostic department in Omdurman locality. Finally the study shows that there is compact able to ICRP recommended and National quality control in Sudan Atomic Energy Council exception, Alwedad, Abusied and Blue Nile there are have not control room concludes that there is only in relationship hospital have a window without shield.(Author)

  3. Main causes and diagnostic evaluation in patients with primary complaint of olfactory disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Fornazieri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Establishing a diagnosis in patients with olfactory disturbances has always been challenging for physicians.One reason for this is the rarity of some of the diseases that affect this sense, such as Kallmann's syndrome and post-viral olfactory loss. OBJECTIVE: To identify the major causes of olfactory disturbances and to describe the diagnostic evaluation in outpatients attended to at an ambulatory clinic specialized in olfaction disorders. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed in outpatients with primary olfactory complaint attended to between June 1, 2011 and September 30, 2013 in a center specialized in olfactory disorders. Patient history, nasofibroscopy, and the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT comprised the examination. RESULTS: Sixty-two patients were evaluated. The major causes were chronic rhinosinusitis (31%; rhinitis, primarily the allergic type (19%; post-viral olfactory loss (13%; and post-traumatic loss (8%. UPSIT scores were statistically different among different etiologies (p = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: The major diagnoses that should be part of the physician assessment when a patient complains of olfactory disturbance are chronic rhinosinusitis with and without polyps, allergic rhinitis, post-viral olfactory loss, and post-traumatic loss.

  4. Diagnostic value and timing of serum antichlamidial antibody level evaluation during infertility workup among infertile women in whom tubal factor was detected with diagnostic laparoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Kahyaoğlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: With normal hysterosalpingography (HSG results, selecting suitable candidates for the laparoscopic treatment of probable pelvic adhesions following previous pelvic inflammatory disease, it would be wise to investigate serum antibody screening against chlamidia trachomatis. It is worth to evaluate whether it is useful to detect a negative antichlamidial antibody disease for cancelling laparoscopy for a while with abnormal HSG findings. These two subjects have been investigated in study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For detecting diagnostic value of serum antichlamidial antibody, in our infertility clinic, postoperative blood samples of 80 patients who were hospitalized for diagnostic laparoscopy to investigate infertility ethiology between May 2004 and November 2005 have been tested with microelisa method for antichlamidial IgM and IgG antibodies. HSG films of the patients performed at least one year were evaluated. Venous blood was drawn from these patients during postoperative early period for studying serum IgM and IgG antibodies of chlamidia trachomatis and the results were compared with operative findings. RESULTS: According to the antichlamidial antibody levels 60 (75% patients have not been infected with chlamidia and 20 (25% patients have been infected previously. When the patients were divided to two groups; normal and abnormal; based on preoperative HSG films; 18 (30% of the 60 patients with abnormal HSG films and 2 (10% of the 20 patients with normal HSG films had positive antichlamidial antibody levels respectively. CONCLUSION: The relationship between chlamidia trachomatis infection and tubal infertility has been demonstrated among 85% of patients with positive antichlamidial antibody levels and 46.7% of patients with negative levels who had tubal passage defects detected during diagnostic laparoscopy.

  5. Evaluation of diagnostic performance of whole-body simultaneous PET/MRI in pediatric lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponisio, Maria Rosana; Laforest, Richard; Khanna, Geetika; McConathy, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Whole-body 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is the standard of care for lymphoma. Simultaneous PET/MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is a promising new modality that combines the metabolic information of PET with superior soft-tissue resolution and functional imaging capabilities of MRI while decreasing radiation dose. There is limited information on the clinical performance of PET/MRI in the pediatric setting. This study evaluated the feasibility, dosimetry, and qualitative and quantitative diagnostic performance of simultaneous whole-body FDG-PET/MRI in children with lymphoma compared to PET/CT. Children with lymphoma undergoing standard of care FDG-PET/CT were prospectively recruited for PET/MRI performed immediately after the PET/CT. Images were evaluated for quality, lesion detection and anatomical localization of FDG uptake. Maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUV max/mean ) of normal organs and SUV max of the most FDG-avid lesions were measured for PET/MRI and PET/CT. Estimation of radiation exposure was calculated using specific age-related factors. Nine PET/MRI scans were performed in eight patients (mean age: 15.3 years). The mean time interval between PET/CT and PET/MRI was 51 ± 10 min. Both the PET/CT and PET/MRI exams had good image quality and alignment with complete (9/9) concordance in response assessment. The SUVs from PET/MRI and PET/CT were highly correlated for normal organs (SUV mean r 2 : 0.88, P<0.0001) and very highly for FDG-avid lesions (SUV max r 2 : 0.94, P=0.0002). PET/MRI demonstrated an average percent radiation exposure reduction of 39% ± 13% compared with PET/CT. Simultaneous whole-body PET/MRI is clinically feasible in pediatric lymphoma. PET/MRI performance is comparable to PET/CT for lesion detection and SUV measurements. Replacement of PET/CT with PET/MRI can significantly decrease radiation dose from diagnostic imaging in children. (orig.)

  6. Early evaluation of a second generation information monitoring and diagnostic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Bourassa, Norman; Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Kinney, Kristopher; Shockman, Christine

    2002-03-25

    Private sector commercial office buildings are challenging environments for energy efficiency projects. This challenge is related to the complexity of business environments that involve ownership, operation, and tenant relationships. Whether it is poor quality design, inefficient operations, degradation of equipment over time, or merely the increasing use of energy by tenants and inattention from landlords, commercial office building energy use continues to increase. This research project was developed to examine the environment for building operations and identify causes of inefficient use of energy related to technical and organizational issues. This report discusses a second-generation Information Monitoring and Diagnostic System (IMDS) installed at a leased office building in Sacramento, California. The report begins with a brief summary of the IMDS research at the previous building, followed by a discussion of the building selection process, the IMDS design and installation, recent use of the IMDS, costs and benefits, and fault detection and diagnostic research using the IMDS. A web site describes the IMDS in detail (see imds.lbl.gov). The underlying principle of this research project is that high quality building performance data can help show where energy is being used and how buildings systems actually perform is an important first step toward improving building energy efficiency. The project utilizes a high-quality monitoring system that has been developed during the past decade by a partnership between LBNL and private industry. This research project has been successful in demonstrating that the IMDS is tremendously valuable to the building operators at the Sacramento site. The building operators not only accept the technology, but it has become the core of their day-to-day building control concepts. The innovative property management company, Jones Lang LaSalle, is interested in installing more sites to determine if the system could provide an economic

  7. Air quality modeling for accountability research: Operational, dynamic, and diagnostic evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lucas R. F.; Liu, Cong; Hu, Yongtao; Mulholland, James A.; Russell, Armistead G.

    2017-10-01

    Photochemical grid models play a central role in air quality regulatory frameworks, including in air pollution accountability research, which seeks to demonstrate the extent to which regulations causally impacted emissions, air quality, and public health. There is a need, however, to develop and demonstrate appropriate practices for model application and evaluation in an accountability framework. We employ a combination of traditional and novel evaluation techniques to assess four years (2001-02, 2011-12) of simulated pollutant concentrations across a decade of major emissions reductions using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. We have grouped our assessments in three categories: Operational evaluation investigates how well CMAQ captures absolute concentrations; dynamic evaluation investigates how well CMAQ captures changes in concentrations across the decade of changing emissions; diagnostic evaluation investigates how CMAQ attributes variability in concentrations and sensitivities to emissions between meteorology and emissions, and how well this attribution compares to empirical statistical models. In this application, CMAQ captures O3 and PM2.5 concentrations and change over the decade in the Eastern United States similarly to past CMAQ applications and in line with model evaluation guidance; however, some PM2.5 species-EC, OC, and sulfate in particular-exhibit high biases in various months. CMAQ-simulated PM2.5 has a high bias in winter months and low bias in the summer, mainly due to a high bias in OC during the cold months and low bias in OC and sulfate during the summer. Simulated O3 and PM2.5 changes across the decade have normalized mean bias of less than 2.5% and 17%, respectively. Detailed comparisons suggest biased EC emissions, negative wintertime SO42- sensitivities to mobile source emissions, and incomplete capture of OC chemistry in the summer and winter. Photochemical grid model-simulated O3 and PM2.5 responses to emissions and

  8. Clinical and diagnostic methods for evaluation of sharp foreign body syndrome in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr-Eldin M. Aref

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was designed to evaluate clinically and under laboratory condition the sharp foreign body syndrome (SFBS in buffaloes with special emphasis on the diagnostic value of radiography, ultrasonography and blood gases and acidbase balance. Materials and Methods: 196 buffaloes with a history of anorexia, reduction of milk production and no response to previous medical treatment were included in the present study. These animals were subjected to clinical and radiographical examinations. Positive cases for SFBS were further evaluated by sonography, hemato-biochemical and blood gas and acid base balance analysis.Results: Out of 196 admitted cases, 49 (25% cases were confirmed as SFBS by clinical and radiographical examination. Positive cases were subsequently divided into two main categories (complicated and non complicated according to radiographical and sonographical findings. SFBS with no complication was diagnosed in 16 cases while 33 cases showed various degrees of complication including reticular adhesion (abdominal and diaphragmatic, n= 23, diaphragmatic hernia (n = 6 and traumatic pericarditis (n = 4. Leukocytosis, hyperprotenemia and increased activity of AST and ALT were of additional values in the diagnosis of SFBS. A consistent finding of primary metabolic alkalosis was recorded in all cases except one with advanced traumatic pericarditis that showed metabolic acidosis. Conclusion: While there is no substitution for clinical examination, using of ultrasonography and radiography simultaneously are essential for proper evaluation and differentiation between various sequelae of SFBS in buffaloes. Radiography is an efficient tool for visualization of metallic foreign body while ultrasonography is an excellent device in assessing fibrinous deposits. Hemato-biochemical and blood gases and acid base balance are of additional values in discriminating between various outcomes of SFBS.

  9. Evaluation of the accuracy of diagnostic scales for a syndrome in Chinese medicine in the absence of a gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Nan; Zhou, Vanessa; Liu, Qiang; Gao, Ying; Zhou, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The concept of syndromes (zhengs) is unique to Chinese medicine (CM) and difficult to measure. Expert consensus is used as a gold standard to identify zhengs and evaluate the accuracy of existing diagnostic scales for zhengs. But, the use of expert consensus as a gold standard is problematic because the diagnosis of zhengs by expert consensus is not 100 % accurate. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of standardized diagnostic scales for a syndrome zhengs in the absence of a gold standard, with application to internal wind (nei feng) syndrome in ischemic stroke patients. A total of 204 participants (age 41-84 years) with ischemic stroke were assessed by the stroke syndrome differentiation diagnostic criterion (SSDC), ischemic stroke TCM syndrome diagnostic scale (ISDS), and expert syndrome differentiation (ESD). The diagnostic tests and data collection process were conducted over a 10-month period (February 2008 to November 2008) in 10 hospitals across nine cities in China. The Bayesian method was used to estimate the accuracy of the SSDC, ISDS, and ESD. For internal wind syndrome, the estimated sensitivities and specificities of the SSDC, ISDS, and ESD without use of a gold standard were respectively: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]; and [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]. After adjusting for imperfect gold standard bias, we found that both the sensitivity and specificity of the ISDS were higher than those of the SSDC for diagnosis of internal wind syndrome in ischemic stroke patients.

  10. Risk-adjusted capitation based on the Diagnostic Cost Group Model: an empirical evaluation with health survey information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Lamers (Leida)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the predictive accuracy of the Diagnostic Cost Group (DCG) model using health survey information. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Longitudinal data collected for a sample of members of a Dutch sickness fund. In the Netherlands the sickness

  11. Evaluation of the research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders for the recognition of an anterior disc displacement with reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naeije, M.; Kalaykova, S.; Visscher, C.M.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this Focus Article is to review critically the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) for the recognition of an anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDR) in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). This evaluation is based upon the experience gained

  12. Assessing Autism in Adults: An Evaluation of the Developmental, Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview-Adult Version (3Di-Adult)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, William; Clarke, Kiri; McKenner, Michele; Strydom, Andre; Crabtree, Jason; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Allison, Carrie; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Skuse, David

    2018-01-01

    We developed a brief, informant-report interview for assessing autism spectrum conditions (ASC) in adults, called the Developmental, Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview-Adult Version (3Di-Adult); and completed a preliminary evaluation. Informant reports were collected for participants with ASC (n = 39), a non-clinical comparison group (n = 29)…

  13. Mindfulness training in a heterogeneous psychiatric sample : Outcome evaluation and comparison of different diagnostic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Elisabeth H.; Merea, Ria; van den Brink, Erik; Sanderman, Robbert; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.

    ObjectivesTo examine outcome after mindfulness training in a heterogeneous psychiatric outpatient population and to compare outcome in different diagnostic groups. MethodOne hundred and forty-three patients in 5 diagnostic categories completed questionnaires about psychological symptoms, quality of

  14. Evaluation of Diagnostic Systems: The Selection of Students at Risk of Academic Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolkowski, Keith; Cummings, Kelli D.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic tools can help schools more consistently and fairly match instructional resources to the needs of their students. To ensure the best educational outcome for each child, diagnostic decision-making systems seek to balance time, clarity, and accuracy. However, recent research notes that many educational decisions tend to be made using…

  15. Impact of an intra-cycle motion correction algorithm on overall evaluability and diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontone, Gianluca; Bertella, Erika; Baggiano, Andrea; Mushtaq, Saima; Loguercio, Monica; Segurini, Chiara; Conte, Edoardo; Beltrama, Virginia; Annoni, Andrea; Formenti, Alberto; Petulla, Maria; Trabattoni, Daniela; Pepi, Mauro [Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, Milan (Italy); Andreini, Daniele; Montorsi, Piero; Bartorelli, Antonio L. [Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, Milan (Italy); University of Milan, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences and Community Health, Milan (Italy); Guaricci, Andrea I. [University of Foggia, Department of Cardiology, Foggia (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a novel intra-cycle motion correction algorithm (MCA) on overall evaluability and diagnostic accuracy of cardiac computed tomography coronary angiography (CCT). From a cohort of 900 consecutive patients referred for CCT for suspected coronary artery disease (CAD), we enrolled 160 (18 %) patients (mean age 65.3 ± 11.7 years, 101 male) with at least one coronary segment classified as non-evaluable for motion artefacts. The CCT data sets were evaluated using a standard reconstruction algorithm (SRA) and MCA and compared in terms of subjective image quality, evaluability and diagnostic accuracy. The mean heart rate during the examination was 68.3 ± 9.4 bpm. The MCA showed a higher Likert score (3.1 ± 0.9 vs. 2.5 ± 1.1, p < 0.001) and evaluability (94%vs.79 %, p < 0.001) than the SRA. In a 45-patient subgroup studied by clinically indicated invasive coronary angiography, specificity, positive predictive value and accuracy were higher in MCA vs. SRA in segment-based and vessel-based models, respectively (87%vs.73 %, 50%vs.34 %, 85%vs.73 %, p < 0.001 and 62%vs.28 %, 66%vs.51 % and 75%vs.57 %, p < 0.001). In a patient-based model, MCA showed higher accuracy vs. SCA (93%vs.76 %, p < 0.05). MCA can significantly improve subjective image quality, overall evaluability and diagnostic accuracy of CCT. (orig.)

  16. Diagnostic efficacy and therapeutic impact of computed tomography in the evaluation of clinically suspected otosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudau, Cristina; Salim, Fakhruddin; Jiang, Dan; Connor, Steve E.J.

    2017-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic efficacy and therapeutic impact of CT in evaluating patients with clinically suspected otosclerosis. CT scans performed over a 5-year period for clinically suspected otosclerosis were retrospectively reviewed. CT diagnoses were correlated with subsequent surgical management. For otosclerosis positive cases, clinically significant extensions of otosclerosis were correlated with audiometry and the diagnosis was correlated with surgical findings. Of 259 CT studies, 46 % of patients were positive, 49 % negative and 5 % equivocal for otosclerosis. A relevant alternative CT diagnosis was evident in 33 % of the negative studies. One targeted surgery was performed for every four CT studies. CT outcome influenced the decision to perform stapedectomy in 41 % CT-positive versus 4 % CT-negative patients. CT-positive ears for otosclerosis could not be predicted from baseline clinical or audiometric criteria. Those with endosteal extension demonstrated lower bone conduction thresholds presurgically. The positive predictive value of CT diagnosis of otosclerosis was 100 %. CT demonstrated a high rate of clinically relevant diagnoses in both CT-positive and -negative for otosclerosis patients, and this frequently influenced surgical management. CT also added value by demonstrating relevant extensions of the otosclerotic foci, some of which were predictive of audiometric parameters. (orig.)

  17. A Diagnostic Post-Occupancy Evaluation of the Nacadia® Therapy Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidenius, Ulrik; Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Linn Lygum, Victoria; K. Stigsdotter, Ulrika

    2017-01-01

    The design of the Nacadia® therapy garden is based on a model for evidence-based health design in landscape architecture (EBHDL). One element of the model is a diagnostic post-occupancy evaluation (DPOE), which has not previously been fully developed. The present study develops a generic DPOE for therapy gardens, with a focus on studying the effects of the design on patients’ health outcomes. This is done in order to identify successes and failures in the design. By means of a triangulation approach, the DPOE employs a mixture of methods, and data is interpreted corroborating. The aim of the present study is to apply the DPOE to the Nacadia® therapy garden. The results of the DPOE suggest that the design of the Nacadia® therapy garden fulfills its stated aims and objectives. The overall environment of the Nacadia ® therapy garden was experienced as protective and safe, and successfully incorporated the various elements of the nature-based therapy programme. The participants encountered meaningful spaces and activities which suited their current physical and mental capabilities, and the health outcome measured by EQ-VAS (self-estimated general health) indicated a significant increase. Some design failures were identified, of which visual exposure was the most noteworthy. The DPOE model presented appears to be efficient but would nonetheless profit from being validated by other cases. PMID:28783060

  18. Evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test for yaws infection in a community surveillance setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marks

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yaws is a non-venereal treponemal infection caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue. The WHO has launched a worldwide control programme, which aims to eradicate yaws by 2020. The development of a rapid diagnostic test (RDT for serological diagnosis in the isolated communities affected by yaws is a key requirement for the successful implementation of the WHO strategy. We conducted a study to evaluate the utility of the DPP test in screening for yaws, utilizing samples collected as part of a community prevalence survey conducted in the Solomon Islands. 415 serum samples were tested using both traditional syphilis serology (TPPA and quantitative RPR and the Chembio DPP Syphilis Screen and Confirm RDT. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of the RDT as compared to gold standard serology. The sensitivity of the RDT against TPPA was 58.5% and the specificity was 97.6%. The sensitivity of the RDT against RPR was 41.7% and the specificity was 95.2%. The sensitivity of the DPP was strongly related to the RPR titre with a sensitivity of 92.0% for an RPR titre of >1/16. Wider access to DPP testing would improve our understanding of worldwide yaws case reporting and the test may play a key role in assessing patients presenting with yaws like lesions in a post-mass drug administration (MDA setting.

  19. Diagnostic Value of CT Arthrography for Evaluation of Osteochondral Lesions at the Ankle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan S. Kirschke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To retrospectively determine the diagnostic value of computed tomography arthrography (CTA of the ankle in the evaluation of (osteochondral lesions in comparison to conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and intraoperative findings. Methods. A total of N=79 patients had CTAs and MRI of the ankle; in 17/79 cases surgical reports with statements on cartilage integrity were available. Cartilage lesions and bony defects at talus and tibia were scored according to defect depth and size by two radiologists. Statistical analysis included sensitivity analyses and Cohen’s kappa calculations. Results. On CTA, 41/79 and 31/79 patients had full thickness cartilage defects at the talus and at the tibia, respectively. MRI was able to detect 54% of these defects. For the detection of full thickness cartilage lesions, interobserver agreement was substantial (0.72 ± 0.05 for CTA and moderate (0.55 ± 0.07 for MRI. In surgical reports, 88–92% and 46–62% of full thickness defects detected by CTA and MRI were described. CTA findings changed the further clinical management in 15.4% of cases. Conclusions. As compared to conventional MRI, CTA improves detection and visualization of cartilage defects at the ankle and is a relevant tool for treatment decisions in unclear cases.

  20. Use of diagnostic imaging in the evaluation of gastrointestinal tract duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowska, Katarzyna; Gałązka, Przemysław; Daniluk-Matraś, Irena; Leszczyński, Waldemar; Serafin, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract duplication is a rare malformation associated with the presence of additional segment of the fetal gut. The aim of this study was to retrospectively review clinical features and imaging findings in intraoperatively confirmed cases of gastrointestinal tract duplication in children. The analysis included own material from the years 2002-2012. The analyzed group included 14 children, among them 8 boys and 6 girls. The youngest patient was diagnosed at the age of three weeks, and the oldest at 12 years of age. The duplication cysts were identified in the esophagus (n=2), stomach (n=5), duodenum (n=1), terminal ileum (n=5), and rectum (n=1). In four cases, the duplication coexisted with other anomalies, such as patent urachus, Meckel's diverticulum, mesenteric cyst, and accessory pancreas. Clinical manifestation of gastrointestinal duplication cysts was variable, and some of them were detected accidently. Thin- or thick-walled cystic structures adjacent to the wall of neighboring gastrointestinal segment were documented on diagnostic imaging. Ultrasound and computed tomography are the methods of choice in the evaluation of gastrointestinal duplication cysts. Apart from the diagnosis of the duplication cyst, an important issue is the detection of concomitant developmental pathologies, including pancreatic heterotopy.

  1. A Diagnostic Post-Occupancy Evaluation of the Nacadia® Therapy Garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidenius, Ulrik; Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Linn Lygum, Victoria; K Stigsdotter, Ulrika

    2017-08-05

    The design of the Nacadia® therapy garden is based on a model for evidence-based health design in landscape architecture (EBHDL). One element of the model is a diagnostic post-occupancy evaluation (DPOE), which has not previously been fully developed. The present study develops a generic DPOE for therapy gardens, with a focus on studying the effects of the design on patients' health outcomes. This is done in order to identify successes and failures in the design. By means of a triangulation approach, the DPOE employs a mixture of methods, and data is interpreted corroborating. The aim of the present study is to apply the DPOE to the Nacadia® therapy garden. The results of the DPOE suggest that the design of the Nacadia® therapy garden fulfills its stated aims and objectives. The overall environment of the Nacadia ® therapy garden was experienced as protective and safe, and successfully incorporated the various elements of the nature-based therapy programme. The participants encountered meaningful spaces and activities which suited their current physical and mental capabilities, and the health outcome measured by EQ-VAS (self-estimated general health) indicated a significant increase. Some design failures were identified, of which visual exposure was the most noteworthy. The DPOE model presented appears to be efficient but would nonetheless profit from being validated by other cases.

  2. Diagnostic evaluation and aggressive surgical approach in bleeding pseudoaneurysms associated with pancreatic pseudocysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaeranta, P.; Haapiainen, R.; Kivisaari, L.; Schroeder, T.

    1991-01-01

    Hemorrhage is an uncommon but serious complication of pancreatic pseudocysts. When gastrointestinal bleeding or intra-abdominal hemorrhage is associated with a pancreatic pseudocysts and the usual sources of bleeding are not detected by endoscopy, the rupture of a pseudoaneurysm inside the pseudocyst should be suspected. The article present 13 cases, 11 associated with chronic and 2 with late complications after acute necrotizing pancreatitis. On the basis of sonographic findings, bleeding site was suspected in 8 of 11 patients. Computed tomography (CT) was performed on 10, and bleeding was suspected in 8. The pseudoaneurysm itself was detected by CT in one and by ultrasonography in none. Visceral angiography was performed on five patients, and the pseudoaneurysm was evident in all. External drainage with arterial ligation was done as a primary operation in five patients; four of them later underwent pancreatic resection because of rebleeding. In eight cases pancreatic resection was the initial operation; none of these patients continued to bleed or needed reoperation because of the same pseudoaneurysm. There were no intraoperative deaths, but one patient died postoperatively. Aggressive diagnostic evaluation and surgical approach are associated with a reduction in mortality and morbidity in this serious complication of pancreatic pseudocysts. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  3. Diagnostic yield of device interrogation in the evaluation of syncope in an elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Robert N; Pickett, Christopher C

    2017-06-01

    Device interrogation has become a standard part of the syncope evaluation for patients admitted with permanent pacemakers (PPM) or implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICD), although few studies have shown interrogation yields clinically useful data. The purpose of this study is to determine the diagnostic yield of device interrogation as well as other commonly performed tests in the workup of unexplained syncope in patients with previously implanted PPMs or ICDs. We retrospectively reviewed records of 88 patients admitted to our medical center for syncope with previously implanted pacemakers between January 1, 2005 and January 1, 2015 using ICD-9 billing data. Pacemaker interrogation demonstrated an arrhythmia as the cause for syncope in 4 patients (4%) and evidence of device failure secondary to perforation in 1 patient (1%). The cause of syncope was unknown in 34 patients (39%). Orthostatic hypotension was the most commonly identified cause of syncope (26%), followed by vasovagal syncope (13%), autonomic dysfunction (5%), ventricular arrhythmia (3%), atrial arrhythmia (2%), congestive heart failure (2%), stroke (2%), and other less common causes (8%). History was the most important determinant of syncope (36%), followed by orthostatic vital signs (14%), device interrogations (4%), head CT (2%), and transthoracic echocardiogram (1%). Device interrogation is rarely useful for elucidating a cause of syncope without concerning physical exam, telemetry, or EKG findings. Interrogation may occasionally yield paroxysmal arrhythmias responsible for syncopal episode, but these rarely alter clinical outcomes. Interrogation appears to be more useful in patients with syncope after recent device placement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Diagnostic electrocardiography in epidemiological studies of Chagas' disease: multicenter evaluation of a standardized method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázzari Julio O.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available An electrocardiographic recording method with an associated reading guide, designed for epidemiological studies on Chagas' disease, was tested to assess its diagnostic reproducibility. Six cardiologists from five countries each read 100 electrocardiographic (ECG tracings, including 30 from chronic chagasic patients, then reread them after an interval of 6 months. The readings were blind, with the tracings numbered randomly for the first reading and renumbered randomly for the second reading. The physicians, all experienced in interpreting ECGs from chagasic patients, followed printed instructions for reading the tracings. Reproducibility of the readings was evaluated using the kappa (k index for concordance. The results showed a high degree of interobserver concordance with respect to the diagnosis of normal vs. abnormal tracings (k = 0.66; SE 0.02. While the interpretations of some categories of ECG abnormalities were highly reproducible, others, especially those having a low prevalence, showed lower levels of concordance. Intraobserver concordance was uniformly higher than interobserver concordance. The findings of this study justify the use by specialists of the recording of readings method proposed for epidemiological studies on Chagas' disease, but warrant caution in the interpretation of some categories of electrocardiographic alterations.

  5. Diagnostic electrocardiography in epidemiological studies of Chagas' disease: multicenter evaluation of a standardized method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio O. Lázzari

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available An electrocardiographic recording method with an associated reading guide, designed for epidemiological studies on Chagas' disease, was tested to assess its diagnostic reproducibility. Six cardiologists from five countries each read 100 electrocardiographic (ECG tracings, including 30 from chronic chagasic patients, then reread them after an interval of 6 months. The readings were blind, with the tracings numbered randomly for the first reading and renumbered randomly for the second reading. The physicians, all experienced in interpreting ECGs from chagasic patients, followed printed instructions for reading the tracings. Reproducibility of the readings was evaluated using the kappa (k index for concordance. The results showed a high degree of interobserver concordance with respect to the diagnosis of normal vs. abnormal tracings (k = 0.66; SE 0.02. While the interpretations of some categories of ECG abnormalities were highly reproducible, others, especially those having a low prevalence, showed lower levels of concordance. Intraobserver concordance was uniformly higher than interobserver concordance. The findings of this study justify the use by specialists of the recording of readings method proposed for epidemiological studies on Chagas' disease, but warrant caution in the interpretation of some categories of electrocardiographic alterations.

  6. Diagnostic evaluation of the mammary gland for conservative therapy of breast cancer, mastoplasty, gynecomastia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, V.; Mueller, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    Mammography and especially xeromammography are a significant tool for early detection of breast cancer and for diagnostic evaluation for the planning of conservative therapy of breast cancer, or the monitoring of mastoplasty. The mortality rate due to breast cancer can be drastically reduced by early scanning and detection, as an American statistical survey has shown. Every tentative diagnosis calls for verification by mammography. The xeromammography displays its advantages in cases where the glandular tissue is very dense, as e.g. after conservative surgery or radiotherapy. Its particular value lies in its capacity of detecting or excluding a local recidivation. A symposium held at the Radiology Centre of Essen University on May 16, 1987 had been a platform for thorough, interdisciplinary discussion of the relevant problems, and the 13 papers presented there have been included in the book. The rare cases of changes in the male mammary glands are less frequently discussed in the literature so far, so that the book's chapters on aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of gynecomastia deserve special attention. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Diagnostic efficacy and therapeutic impact of computed tomography in the evaluation of clinically suspected otosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudau, Cristina [King' s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Neuroradiology, London (United Kingdom); Salim, Fakhruddin; Jiang, Dan [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Auditory Implantation Centre, London (United Kingdom); Connor, Steve E.J. [Department of Radiology, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-15

    To assess the diagnostic efficacy and therapeutic impact of CT in evaluating patients with clinically suspected otosclerosis. CT scans performed over a 5-year period for clinically suspected otosclerosis were retrospectively reviewed. CT diagnoses were correlated with subsequent surgical management. For otosclerosis positive cases, clinically significant extensions of otosclerosis were correlated with audiometry and the diagnosis was correlated with surgical findings. Of 259 CT studies, 46 % of patients were positive, 49 % negative and 5 % equivocal for otosclerosis. A relevant alternative CT diagnosis was evident in 33 % of the negative studies. One targeted surgery was performed for every four CT studies. CT outcome influenced the decision to perform stapedectomy in 41 % CT-positive versus 4 % CT-negative patients. CT-positive ears for otosclerosis could not be predicted from baseline clinical or audiometric criteria. Those with endosteal extension demonstrated lower bone conduction thresholds presurgically. The positive predictive value of CT diagnosis of otosclerosis was 100 %. CT demonstrated a high rate of clinically relevant diagnoses in both CT-positive and -negative for otosclerosis patients, and this frequently influenced surgical management. CT also added value by demonstrating relevant extensions of the otosclerotic foci, some of which were predictive of audiometric parameters. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of diagnostic procedures for subclinical mastitis in meat-producing sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Archie C A; Taylor, David J; Fitzpatrick, Julie L

    2003-05-01

    Samples of foremilk were collected from 261 clinically normal glands of 150 ewes, and tested using the California mastitis test (CMT). Further samples were collected from 195 of these glands for determination of automated somatic cell counts (SCC), and from 60 of these glands for bacteriological assessment. The sensitivity and specificity of CMT for detecting samples with SCC above different threshold levels and for CMT and SCC in determining bacteriological status were evaluated using two-graph receiver operating characteristics (TG-ROC). Milk samples were obtained subsequently from ten CMT positive, and five CMT negative first- and second-lactation ewes. Samples were cultured using a variety of media, incubation temperatures and atmospheric conditions, immediately after collection, and 1 week after storage at 4 degrees C and -21 degrees C. Results suggested that CMT is best used as a diagnostic test for ovine subclinical mastitis (SCM) with a cut-off of 3 (distinct gel formation), and that automated SCC thresholds of > 1200 x 10(3) cells/ml are appropriate, especially where low prevalences are expected (e.g. culture, either at 4 degrees C or -21 degrees C, was detrimental to the isolation of several of these organisms.

  9. Field evaluation of a dual rapid diagnostic test for HIV infection and syphilis in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Claire C; Leon, Segundo R; Huang, Emily; Brown, Brandon J; Ramos, Lourdes B; Vargas, Silver K; Flores, Juan A; Caceres, Carlos F; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-05-01

    Screening for HIV and syphilis in key populations is recommended by the WHO to reduce the morbidity, mortality and transmission associated with undiagnosed and untreated infections. Rapid point-of-care tests that can detect multiple infections with a single fingerprick whole blood specimen using a single device are gaining popularity. We evaluated the field performance of a rapid dual HIV and syphilis test in people at high risk of HIV and syphilis infections. Participants included men who have sex with men and transgender women recruited in Lima, Peru. Reference standard testing for detection of HIV and syphilis infections, conducted using blood samples from venipuncture, included Treponema pallidum particle agglutination and fourth-generation HIV enzyme immunoassay for which positive results had a confirmation HIV Western blot test. For the evaluation test, SD BIOLINE HIV/Syphilis Duo test (Standard Diagnostics, Korea), a fingerprick blood specimen was used. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated and the exact binomial method was used to determine 95% CIs. A total of 415 participants were recruited for the study. The dual test sensitivity for detection of T. pallidum infection was 89.2% (95% CI 83.5% to 93.5%) and specificity 98.8% (95% CI 96.5% to 99.8%). For detection of HIV infection, the sensitivity of the dual test was 99.1% (95% CI 94.8% to 100%) and specificity 99.4% (95% CI 97.7% to 99.9%). This high performing dual test should be considered for the use in clinical settings to increase uptake of simultaneous testing of HIV and syphilis and accelerate time to treatment for those who need it. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Evaluation of compression ratio using JPEG 2000 on diagnostic images in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Gi Hun; Han, Won Jeong; Yoo, Dong Soo; Kim, Eun Kyung; Choi, Soon Chul

    2005-01-01

    To find out the proper compression ratios without degrading image quality and affecting lesion detectability on diagnostic images used in dentistry compressed with JPEG 2000 algorithm. Sixty Digora peri apical images, sixty panoramic computed radiographic (CR) images, sixty computed tomography (CT) images, and sixty magnetic resonance (MR) images were compressed into JPEG 2000 with ratios of 10 levels from 5:1 to 50:1. To evaluate the lesion detectability, the images were graded with 5 levels (1 : definitely absent ; 2 : probably absent ; 3 : equivocal ; 4 : probably present ; 5 : definitely present), and then receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed using the original image as a gold standard. Also to evaluate subjectively the image quality, the images were graded with 5 levels (1 : definitely unacceptable ; 2 : probably unacceptable ; 3 : equivocal ; 4 : probably acceptable ; 5 : definitely acceptable), and then paired t-test was performed. In Digora, CR panoramic and CT images, compressed images up to ratios of 15:1 showed nearly the same lesion detectability as original images, and in MR images, compressed images did up to ratios of 25:1. In Digora and CR panoramic images, compressed images up to ratios of 5:1 showed little difference between the original and reconstructed images in subjective assessment of image quality. In CT images, compressed images did up to ratios of 10:1 and in MR images up to ratios of 15:1. We considered compression ratios up to 5:1 in Digora and CR panoramic images, up to 10:1 in CT images, up to 15:1 in MR images as clinically applicable compression ratios.

  11. Methods for the field evaluation of quantitative G6PD diagnostics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Benedikt; Bancone, Germana; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Thriemer, Kamala; Richards, Jack S; Domingo, Gonzalo J; Price, Ric N

    2017-09-11

    Individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency are at risk of severe haemolysis following the administration of 8-aminoquinoline compounds. Primaquine is the only widely available 8-aminoquinoline for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax. Tafenoquine is under development with the potential to simplify treatment regimens, but point-of-care (PoC) tests will be needed to provide quantitative measurement of G6PD activity prior to its administration. There is currently a lack of appropriate G6PD PoC tests, but a number of new tests are in development and are likely to enter the market in the coming years. As these are implemented, they will need to be validated in field studies. This article outlines the technical details for the field evaluation of novel quantitative G6PD diagnostics such as sample handling, reference testing and statistical analysis. Field evaluation is based on the comparison of paired samples, including one sample tested by the new assay at point of care and one sample tested by the gold-standard reference method, UV spectrophotometry in an established laboratory. Samples can be collected as capillary or venous blood; the existing literature suggests that potential differences in capillary or venous blood are unlikely to affect results substantially. The collection and storage of samples is critical to ensure preservation of enzyme activity, it is recommended that samples are stored at 4 °C and testing occurs within 4 days of collection. Test results can be visually presented as scatter plot, Bland-Altman plot, and a histogram of the G6PD activity distribution of the study population. Calculating the adjusted male median allows categorizing results according to G6PD activity to calculate standard performance indicators and to perform receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.

  12. Diagnostic evaluation and management of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: A clinical practice guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sanjay; Helmersen, Doug; Provencher, Steeve; Hirani, Naushad; Rubens, Fraser D; De Perrot, Marc; Blostein, Mark; Boutet, Kim; Chandy, George; Dennie, Carole; Granton, John; Hernandez, Paul; Hirsch, Andrew M; Laframboise, Karen; Levy, Robert D; Lien, Dale; Martel, Simon; Shoemaker, Gerard; Swiston, John; Weinkauf, Justin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pulmonary embolism is a common condition. Some patients subsequently develop chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Many care gaps exist in the diagnosis and management of CTEPH patients including lack of awareness, incomplete diagnostic assessment, and inconsistent use of surgical and medical therapies. METHODS A representative interdisciplinary panel of medical experts undertook a formal clinical practice guideline development process. A total of 20 key clinical issues were defined according to the patient population, intervention, comparator, outcome (PICO) approach. The panel performed an evidence-based, systematic, literature review, assessed and graded the relevant evidence, and made 26 recommendations. RESULTS Asymptomatic patients postpulmonary embolism should not be screened for CTEPH. In patients with pulmonary hypertension, the possibility of CTEPH should be routinely evaluated with initial ventilation/ perfusion lung scanning, not computed tomography angiography. Pulmonary endarterectomy surgery is the treatment of choice in patients with surgically accessible CTEPH, and may also be effective in CTEPH patients with disease in more ‘distal’ pulmonary arteries. The anatomical extent of CTEPH for surgical pulmonary endarterectomy is best assessed by contrast pulmonary angiography, although positive computed tomography angiography may be acceptable. Novel medications indicated for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension may be effective for selected CTEPH patients. CONCLUSIONS The present guideline requires formal dissemination to relevant target user groups, the development of tools for implementation into routine clinical practice and formal evaluation of the impact of the guideline on the quality of care of CTEPH patients. Moreover, the guideline will be updated periodically to reflect new evidence or clinical approaches. PMID:21165353

  13. Automated registration of diagnostic to prediagnostic x-ray mammograms: Evaluation and comparison to radiologists' accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M.; Hipwell, John H.; McCormack, Valerie A.; Tanner, Christine; Moss, Sue M.; Wilkinson, Louise S.; Khoo, Lisanne A. L.; Pagliari, Catriona; Skippage, Pippa L.; Kliger, Carole J.; Hawkes, David J.; Santos Silva, Isabel M. dos

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare and evaluate intensity-based registration methods for computation of serial x-ray mammogram correspondence. Methods: X-ray mammograms were simulated from MRIs of 20 women using finite element methods for modeling breast compressions and employing a MRI/x-ray appearance change model. The parameter configurations of three registration methods, affine, fluid, and free-form deformation (FFD), were optimized for registering x-ray mammograms on these simulated images. Five mammography film readers independently identified landmarks (tumor, nipple, and usually two other normal features) on pairs of diagnostic and corresponding prediagnostic digitized images from 52 breast cancer cases. Landmarks were independently reidentified by each reader. Target registration errors were calculated to compare the three registration methods using the reader landmarks as a gold standard. Data were analyzed using multilevel methods. Results: Between-reader variability varied with landmark (p<0.01) and screen (p=0.03), with between-reader mean distance (mm) in point location on the diagnostic/prediagnostic images of 2.50 (95% CI 1.95, 3.15)/2.84 (2.24, 3.55) for nipples and 4.26 (3.43, 5.24)/4.76 (3.85, 5.84) for tumors. Registration accuracy was sensitive to the type of landmark and the amount of breast density. For dense breasts (≥40%), the affine and fluid methods outperformed FFD. For breasts with lower density, the affine registration surpassed both fluid and FFD. Mean accuracy (mm) of the affine registration varied between 3.16 (95% CI 2.56, 3.90) for nipple points in breasts with density 20%-39% and 5.73 (4.80, 6.84) for tumor points in breasts with density <20%. Conclusions: Affine registration accuracy was comparable to that between independent film readers. More advanced two-dimensional nonrigid registration algorithms were incapable of increasing the accuracy of image alignment when compared to affine registration.

  14. Diagnostic yield in the evaluation of dysphagia: experience at a single tertiary care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, J; Rajagopal, S; Kushnir, V; Gyawali, C P

    2018-05-24

    Evaluation of dysphagia typically starts with esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD); further testing is pursued if this is negative. When no mucosal, structural, or motor esophageal disorders are identified with persisting symptoms, functional dysphagia is considered. We evaluated outcomes in patients undergoing EGD for dysphagia, and estimated prevalence of functional dysphagia. The endoscopy database at single tertiary care center was interrogated to identify EGDs performed for an indication of 'dysphagia' over a 12-month period (2008-09). Electronic medical records were reviewed over the next 8 years to assess if an etiology was identified. Data were analyzed to assess the diagnostic yield of endoscopy and subsequent tests in the evaluation of dysphagia. Of 5486 EGDs, 822 (15.0%) were performed for dysphagia in 694 patients (58.4 ± 0.6 year, range: 18-95 year, 55.8% female). Of these, 529 (76.2%) had EGD findings that explained dysphagia; another 22 (3.2%) had findings on histopathology. Of the remainder 143 patients (20.6%) with normal index EGD, 38 (26.6%) patients underwent barium esophagram with 15 (39.5%) having abnormal studies. 19 patients (13.3%) underwent esophageal high resolution manometry with 12 (63.2%) being abnormal, and 7 had a mechanism for dysphagia on alternate testing. A repeat EGD was abnormal in 6 patients, while 45 patients were lost to follow-up. 42 patients had complete resolution of symptoms despite normal endoscopy, of which 30 were treated empirically with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). Only 16 patients had no findings on evaluation, and had continued dysphagia symptoms, representing true functional dysphagia in 2.3% of all dysphagia patients and 11.2% of patients with normal EGD. Endoscopy remains the test with the highest yield (over 75%) for a diagnosis in patients presenting with dysphagia; secondary tests are useful when endoscopy does not provide a diagnosis. Benign strictures and GERD-related etiologies are leading causes; PPI

  15. Diagnostic performance and useful findings of ultrasound re-evaluation for patients with equivocal CT features of acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Sung; Kwon, Heon-Ju; Kang, Kyung A; Do, In-Gu; Park, Hee-Jin; Kim, Eun Young; Hong, Hyun Pyo; Choi, Yoon Jung; Kim, Young Hwan

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of ultrasound and to determine which ultrasound findings are useful to differentiate appendicitis from non-appendicitis in patients who underwent ultrasound re-evaluation owing to equivocal CT features of acute appendicitis. 62 patients who underwent CT examinations for suspected appendicitis followed by ultrasound re-evaluation owing to equivocal CT findings were included. Equivocal CT findings were considered based on the presence of only one or two findings among the CT criteria, and ultrasound re-evaluation was done based on a predefined structured report form. The diagnostic performance of ultrasound and independent variables to discriminate appendicitis from non-appendicitis were assessed. There were 27 patients in the appendicitis group. The overall diagnostic performance of ultrasound re-evaluation was sensitivity of 96.3%, specificity of 91.2% and accuracy of 91.9%. In terms of the performance of individual ultrasound findings, probe-induced tenderness showed the highest accuracy (86.7%) with sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 97%, followed by non-compressibility (accuracy 71.7%, sensitivity 85.2% and specificity 60.6%). The independent ultrasound findings for discriminating appendicitis were non-compressibility (p = 0.002) and increased flow on the appendiceal wall (p = 0.001). Ultrasound re-evaluation can be used to improve diagnostic accuracy in cases with equivocal CT features for diagnosing appendicitis. The presence of non-compressibility and increased vascular flow on the appendix wall are useful ultrasound findings to discriminate appendicitis from non-appendicitis. Advances in knowledge: Ultrasound re-evaluation is useful to discriminate appendicitis from non-appendicitis when CT features are inconclusive.

  16. Evaluation of electromagnetic loads on various design options of the ITER diagnostic upper port plug during plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, Sunil; Ku, Duck Young; Oh, Dong-Keun; Jhang, Hogun; Kim, Duck-Hoi; Cheon, Mun-Seong; Seon, Chang Rae; Lee, Hyeon Gon; Pitcher, Spencer

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) loads due to eddy current and halo current during plasma disruptions are evaluated for the ITER diagnostic upper port plug. To reduce strong EM loads acting on the port plug fixed to the vacuum vessel like a cantilever beam, three design options have been considered: removal of the diagnostic first wall, slitting of the diagnostic shield module and recess of the port plug. The main focus of the present study is to examine the efficacy of these options in terms of EM loads on the upper port plug. It is found that making slits is more effective than removing the first wall. It is also shown that the upper port plug needs to be recessed to reduce the EM load induced by halo current.

  17. Evaluation of diagnostic thresholds dependability for tribologic signals received in the environment disturbed by vibroacoustic and functional signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindstedt Paweł

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Determination of dependable diagnostic thresholds for tribologic signals received e.g. from antifriction bearings (in particular for insufficient number of measurements, only 4÷5 is a really difficult task due to complexity of working environment where such bearings are operated. Typical working environment for such objects must take account for operation time under various working conditions and accompanying (and disturbing signals, e.g. vibroacoustic ones. The sought assessment of the relationship between diagnostic signals and environmental noise can be determined from convolution of both diagnostic and environments signals that make up the complete set of received information. The convolution of these two series of signals can be obtained from an algorithm based on the Cauchy product. Then one has to find the coherence factor and the square of amplitude gain for the set of diagnostic signals with reference to various sets of signals received from environment, which makes it possible to evaluate cohesion of the investigated series of signals, thus their suitability to determine diagnostic threshold for tribologic signals intended for the analysis.

  18. Evaluation of Serum Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Concentration as a Diagnostic Test for Hyperthyroidism in Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M E; Guterl, J N; Nichols, R; Rishniw, M

    2015-01-01

    In humans, measurement of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration is commonly used as a first-line discriminatory test of thyroid function. Recent reports indicate that canine TSH (cTSH) assays can be used to measure feline TSH and results can help diagnose or exclude hyperthyroidism. To investigate the usefulness of cTSH measurements as a diagnostic test for cats with hyperthyroidism. Nine hundred and seventeen cats with untreated hyperthyroidism, 32 euthyroid cats suspected of having hyperthyroidism, and 131 clinically normal cats. Prospective study. Cats referred to the Animal Endocrine Clinic for suspected hyperthyroidism were evaluated with serum T4, T3, free T4 (fT4), and TSH concentrations. Thyroid scintigraphy was used as the gold standard to confirm or exclude hyperthyroidism. Median serum TSH concentration in the hyperthyroid cats (hyperthyroid cats had measurable TSH concentrations (≥0.03 ng/mL), whereas 114 (69.9%) of the 163 euthyroid cats had detectable concentrations. Combining serum TSH with T4 or fT4 concentrations lowered the test sensitivity of TSH from 98.0 to 97.0%, but markedly increased overall test specificity (from 69.9 to 98.8%). Serum TSH concentrations are suppressed in 98% of hyperthyroid cats, but concentrations are measurable in a few cats with mild-to-moderate hyperthyroidism. Measurement of serum TSH represents a highly sensitive but poorly specific test for diagnosis of hyperthyroidism and is best measured in combination with T4 and fT4. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. Diagnostic Accuracy of Transvaginal Sonography, Sonohysterography and Office Hysteroscopy in the Evaluation of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Göktolga

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To find out the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal sonography (TVS and saline infusion sonography (SIS by comparing the results with hysteroscopy (HSC and hystological reports obtained by endometrial biopsies in pre and postmenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB.\tDesign: Prospective study\tSetting: women presenting with abnormal uterine bleeeding as an outpatient procedure, in Gülhane Military Medical Faculty, between June 01, 2004 – August 01, 2005.\tPatients: 38 premenopausal and 6 postmenopausal patients\tInterventions: TVS and SIS was performed at the same seance and they underwent hysteroscopy and hysteroscopic biopsy one week later.\tMain outcome measures: The findings at TVS and SIS were compared with the hysteroscopic views and histologic findings. The sensitivity and spesifity ratios of all three methods were calculated in defining the endometrial and intracavitary pathologies.\tRESULTS: The sensitivity ratios of TVS and SIS in defining endometrial pathologies was 36.4% and 33.8% respectively and the sensitivity of hysteroscopy was lower. (%28.6, p=0.24 In the comparison of spesifity ratios sonohysterography had a higher ratio than others. (TVS vs SIS, p=0.08; HSC vs SIS, p=0.07 As a result; in outpatient group, hysteroscopy gives not much more information than SIS.\tThe detection rate of focal intrauterine pathology (polyp/submucous myoma using conventional TVS was significantly lower than sonohysterography. (sensitivity ratios; 46.5% and 97.1% respectively; p=0.0009 The sensitivity ratios of hysteroscopy (100% and SIS (97.1 was similar. (p=0.98\tCONCLUSIONS: Sonohysterography is a current, trustable method which can replace office hysteroscopy in the diagnosis and evaluation of cases presenting with AUB especially in outpatient group.

  20. Low-Dose CT for Evaluation of Suspected Urolithiasis: Diagnostic Yield for Assessment of Alternative Diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, Julius Matthias; Bannas, Peter; Regier, Marc; Keller, Sarah; Kluth, Luis; Adam, Gerhard; Henes, Frank Oliver

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the diagnostic yield of low-dose (LD) CT for alternative diagnoses in patients with suspected urolithiasis. In this retrospective study, we included 776 consecutive patients who underwent unenhanced abdominal CT for evaluation of suspected urolithiasis. All examinations were performed with an LD CT protocol; images were reconstructed using iterative reconstruction. The leading LD CT diagnosis was recorded for each patient and compared with the final clinical diagnosis, which served as the reference standard. The mean (± SD) effective dose of CT was 1.9 ± 0.6 mSv. The frequency of urolithiasis was 82.5% (640/776). LD CT reached a sensitivity of 94.1% (602/640), a specificity of 100.0% (136/136), and an accuracy of 95.1% (738/776) for the detection of urolithiasis. In 93 of 136 patients (68.4%) without urolithiasis, alternative diagnoses were established as the final clinical diagnoses. Alternative diagnoses were most commonly located in the genitourinary (n = 53) and gastrointestinal (n = 18) tracts. LD CT correctly provided alternative diagnoses for 57 patients (61.3%) and was false-negative for five patients (5.4%). The most common clinical alternative diagnoses were urinary tract infections (n = 22). Seven diagnoses missed at LD CT were located outside the FOV. For 43 of all 776 patients (5.5%), neither LD CT nor clinical workup could establish a final diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of LD CT for the detection of alternative diagnoses were 91.9% (57/62), 95.6% (43/45), and 93.5% (100/107), respectively. LD CT enables the diagnosis of most alternative diagnoses in the setting of suspected urolithiasis. The most frequent alternative diagnoses missed by LD CT are urinary tract infections or diagnoses located outside the FOV of the abdominopelvic CT scan.

  1. Clinical utility of a complete diagnostic protocol for the ocular evaluation of free-living raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, Amber L; Whittington, Julia K; Breaux, Carrie B; Labelle, Philippe; Mitchell, Mark A; Zarfoss, Mitzi K; Schmidt, Stephanie A; Hamor, Ralph E

    2012-01-01

      To describe a protocol for the examination of free-living raptors and report the ophthalmic examination findings of seven raptor species native to central Illinois, namely the barred owl, Cooper's hawk, eastern screech owl, great horned owl, American kestrel, red-tailed hawk, and turkey vulture and to determine if the findings relative to visual prognosis affected eligibility for future release.   Seventy-nine free-living raptors.   Under manual restraint, complete ophthalmic examination including slit-lamp biomicroscopy and indirect funduscopy, applanation tonometry, rebound tonometry, ocular morphometrics, B-mode ultrasound, and electroretinography (ERG) were performed on each bird. Histopathology of enucleated globes was performed after euthanasia or death in selected cases.   The examination protocol was easily performed using manual restraint alone on all birds. Ocular lesions were detected in 48.1% of birds, with 47.3% affected unilaterally and 52.6% affected bilaterally. Ocular lesions were considered to be vision threatening in 29.0% of the unilaterally affected birds and 29.0% of the bilaterally affected birds. The most common case outcomes were discharge from hospital to rehabilitation facility (45.6%) followed by euthanasia (43.0%). The presence of an ocular lesion or a vision-threatening ocular lesion was not significantly associated with outcome. Reference ranges are reported for B-mode ultrasound, ocular morphometrics, and horizontal corneal diameter in all species.   Complete ophthalmic examination can be supplemented by the use of ocular morphometrics, ultrasound, and ERG in the manually restrained raptor. These advanced diagnostic techniques may be useful in developing more objective criteria for evaluating eligibility for release following rehabilitation of free-living birds of prey. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  2. Mycoplasma hyorhinis infection in early cases of mycoplasmal pneumonia in swine and evaluation of diagnostic assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E.R. Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Mycoplasmal pneumonia is an important disease in the pig industry. Due to the controversial role of Mycoplasma hyorhinis in this disease, confirmation of the presence of this bacterium and the identification of its roles in respiratory disease remain major challenges. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the presence of M. hyorhinis in early cases of mycoplasmal pneumonia and to determine the usefulness of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH for the diagnosis of respiratory mycoplasmosis in naturally infected pigs. Ninety M. hyopneumoniae and/or M. hyorhinis-infected lung tissue samples based on diagnostic mosaic (DM were used. The average age of the animals was 116 and 57 days (P<0.01 for groups 1 (positive-M. hyopneumoniae only and 2 (positive-M. hyorhinis only, respectively. These findings suggest that development of lesions caused by M. hyorhinis occurs earlier than for M. hyopneumoniae. Using the DM as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of FISH for M. hyopneumoniae were 75 and 100%, respectively, and were 40 and 73.3% for the immunohistochemistry (IHC. The sensitivity and specificity of FISH for M. hyorhinis were 76.7 and 100%, respectively. These findings demonstrate that FISH can be a useful tool for diagnosing mycoplasmosis. Viral antigens (PCV2 or influenza A were detected in 53.3% (16/30 of the samples in group 2 (M. hyorhinis-PCR positive and 13.3% (4/30 of the samples in group 1 (M. hyopneumoniae-PCR positive. This finding indicates that the association of M. hyorhinis and viral infection in nursery pigs likely starts due to a viral immunosuppressive condition.

  3. Advanced MR diagnostic imaging in pediatric glial cell tumors: from morphological to pathophysiological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balev, B.; Georgiev, R.; Novakova, M.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: The conventional MR imaging is important, and in most cases necessary imaging tool for studying the macroscopic structure, for localization and distribution of a glial brain tumor. It is an integral part of the optimal MR protocol, which further comprises a diffusion, perfusion techniques, techniques for the permeability and oxygenation assessment, as well as MR spectroscopy to the metabolism assessment. What you will learn: Glial brain tumors in children - incidence, histology, classification, diagnosis; Nature and principles of MR diffusion, perfusion, techniques for permeability and oxygenation assessment, MR spectroscopy; Contemporary techniques allowing to obtain not only MR morphological information but also to evaluate the tumor the pathophysiology: the cellular atypia, cellularity, tumor neovascularization, oxygen consumption, metabolism, status of the blood-brain barrier. This assessment determines the biological potential of the tumor, treatment options and prognosis. Discussion: The findings from conventional MR examinations, incl. administration of gadolinium contrast agents are associated with the degree of glioma and can be useful for their classification. Taking into account that from 20% to 45 % of the unenhanced supratentorial gliomas are malignant, some low-grade gliomas enhance (ganglioglioma, pilocytic astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma), 9% of malignant gliomas have no contrast enhancement, and in general, the contrast enhancement is not seen as a reliable indicator for the infiltration extent. The contemporary MR techniques improve the assessment of the pathophysiology of the tumor which is relevant to its histology and biological potential. Conclusion: Modern MR techniques besides purely diagnostic advantages (determine the extent and distribution of glioma), enable: differentiation of tumor recurrence from radiation necrosis; identification of optimal locations for biopsy or operative resection; prognosis, planning and

  4. PET and diagnostic technology evaluation in a global clinical process. DGN's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzerke, J.; Dietlein, M.; Gruenwald, F.; Bockisch, A.

    2010-01-01

    The German Society of Nuclear Medicine (DGN) criticizes the methodological approach of the IQWiG for evaluation of PET and the conclusions, which represent the opposite point of view compared to the most other European countries and health companies in the USA: (1) Real integration of experienced physicians into the interpretation of data and the evaluation of effectiveness should be used for best possible reporting instead of only formal hearing. (2) Data of the National Oncologic PET Registry (NOPR) from the USA have shown, that PET has changed the therapeutic management in 38% of patients. (3) The decision of the IQWiG to accept outcome data only for their benefit analyses, is controversial. Medical knowledge is generated by different methods, and an actual analysis of the scientific guidelines has shown that only 15% out of all guidelines are based on the level of evidence demanded by the IQWiG. Health economics has created different assessment methods for the evaluation of a diagnostic procedure. The strategy chosen by the IQWiG overestimated the perspective of the population and undervalue the benefit for an individual patient. (4) PET evaluates the effectiveness of a therapeutic procedure, but does not create an effective therapy. When the predictive value of PET is already implemented in a specific study design and the result of PET define a specific management, the trial evaluate the whole algorithm and PET is part of this algorithm only. When PET is implemented as test during chemotherapy or by the end of chemotherapy, the predictive value of PET will depend decisively on the effectiveness of the therapy: The better the therapy, the smaller the differences in survival detected by PET. (5) The significance of an optimal staging by the integration of PET will increase. Rationale is the actual development of ''titration'' of chemotherapy intensity and radiation dose towards the lowest possible, just about effective dosage. (6) The medical therapy of

  5. Diagnostic value of the evaluation of the glycogen content in muscle diseases by carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehenson, P.; Syrota, A.; Labrune, P.; Odievre, M.; Fardeau, M.

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a method for the evaluation of the muscle glycogen content by natural abundance C13 NMR and we here evaluate its diagnostic value on a large number of muscle diseases (20 glycogenoses and 42 other myopathies) and 8 normal subjects. The results show high values of the glycogen/creatine ratio in muscle glycogenoses, with no overlap with other diseased or normal subjects. This evaluation of the muscle glycogen content, which is performed at rest and thus easily applicable, in particular for children, is thus very sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of muscle glycogenosis. (authors). 9 refs

  6. Evaluation of the diagnostic performance and operational characteristics of four rapid immunochromatographic syphilis tests in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocoum, Fadima Yaya; Ouédraogo, Henri; Tarnagda, Grissoum; Kiba, Alice; Tiendrebeogo, Simon; Bationo, Fabrice; Liestman, Benjamin; Diagbouga, Serge; Zarowsky, Christina; Traoré, Ramata Ouédraogo; Kouanda, Séni

    2015-06-01

    Little information is available on the rapid diagnostic testing for syphilis in Burkina Faso. The objectives of the study were (i) to assess the sensitivity and specificity of four on site rapid tests in comparison with Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA) as a gold standard and (ii) to evaluate the operational characteristics of those tests among health workers in a maternity unit. Four rapid syphilis tests commercially available in Burkina Faso were evaluated using archived serum samples and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA) as the gold standard. Blood samples were collected between November 2011 and June 2012 from blood donors at the Regional Blood Transfusion Center of Ouagadougou. The sensitivity and specificity of the tests were calculated. Evaluation of operational characteristics such as clarity of pamphlet, complexity of technique, duration, was conducted in a first-level healthcare center with health workers in maternity unit. Alere DetermineTM Syphilis was the most sensitive of the four rapid syphilis tests evaluated. It was followed by SD Bioline Syphilis 3.0, Cypress Diagnostics Syphilis Quick test and Accu-Tell ® Rapid Anti-TP, which was the least sensitive. The four tests demonstrated a good diagnostic specificity for syphilis (95-98%), and healthcare workers found them easy to use. The study allowed confirming the good performance of three of four rapid syphilis tests in Burkina Faso. More research will be conducted to assess the feasibility of introducing selected rapid tests for syphilis in antenatal care services.

  7. Achieving successful evidence-based practice implementation in juvenile justice: The importance of diagnostic and evaluative capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sarah Cusworth; Bumbarger, Brian K; Phillippi, Stephen W

    2015-10-01

    Evidence-based programs (EBPs) are an increasingly visible aspect of the treatment landscape in juvenile justice. Research demonstrates that such programs yield positive returns on investment and are replacing more expensive, less effective options. However, programs are unlikely to produce expected benefits when they are not well-matched to community needs, not sustained and do not reach sufficient reach and scale. We argue that achieving these benchmarks for successful implementation will require states and county governments to invest in data-driven decision infrastructure in order to respond in a rigorous and flexible way to shifting political and funding climates. We conceptualize this infrastructure as diagnostic capacity and evaluative capacity: Diagnostic capacity is defined as the process of selecting appropriate programing and evaluative capacity is defined as the ability to monitor and evaluate progress. Policy analyses of Washington State, Pennsylvania and Louisiana's program implementation successes are used to illustrate the benefits of diagnostic and evaluate capacity as a critical element of EBP implementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Critical evaluation of current diagnostic classification systems in psychiatry: the case of DSM-5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Mario; Sampogna, Gaia; Del Vecchio, Valeria; De Rosa, Corrado; Albert, Umberto; Carrà, Giuseppe; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Lorenzo, Giorgio Di; Ferrari, Silvia; Martinotti, Giovanni; Nanni, Maria Giulia; Pinna, Federica; Pompili, Maurizio; Volpe, Umberto; Catapano, Francesco; Fiorillo, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Since its first edition, the Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental disorders (DSM) has had a great impact on the scientific community and the public opinion as well. In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association released the fifth edition of the manual and - as for the previous versions - several criticisms raised. In particular, the persistence of the categorical approach to mental disorders represents one of the main debated topics, as well as the introduction of new diagnostic syndromes, which are not based on an adequate evidences. Moreover, the threshold of diagnostic criteria for many mental disorders has been lowered, with the consequence that the boundaries between "normality" and "pathology" is not so clear. In this paper, we will: 1) report the historical development of the DSM from the publication of its first edition; 2) describe the main changes introduced in the DSM-5; 3) discuss critical elements in the DSM-5. The current debate regarding the validity of diagnostic manuals and its criteria is threatening the psychiatric discipline, but a possible solution should be represented by the integration of diagnostic criteria with the in-depth description of patient's psychopathological experiences.

  9. Brief Report: Recognition of Autism Spectrum Disorder before One Year of Age: A Retrospective Study Based on Home Videotapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Emily; Dawson, Geraldine; Osterling, Julie; Dinno, Nuhad

    2000-01-01

    This retrospective study compared videotape footage at 8-10 months of 15 children later known to have autism spectrum disorder and videotapes of 15 same-age children with typical development. The strongest finding was that infants with early onset autism were much less likely to orient when their name was called than typically developing infants.…

  10. Evaluation of the diagnostic capacity of the DETEC-PC for the attract of iodine in thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso A, D.; Arista R, E.; Alonso A, A.

    2006-01-01

    A comparative study whose main objective is the evaluation of the diagnoses capacity of the DETEC - PC, a detection-measurement system for the reception of iodine in thyroid, with it presumptive diagnostic is presented. To such effect a clinical essay was designed in which all the patients included in the study were evaluated using the new equipment (DETEC - PC) and the standard diagnoses procedure well-known for the initials RIA. The sample size was calculated in a such way that the percent of gross coincidence among both methods could be estimate with a precision of 1% at a trust level of 95%. In total 110 patients were included in the essay. For the analysis of the agreement in the diagnostic it was used the Kappa statistician. The obtained results showed a high grade of gross agreement and an agreement level among moderate and substantial when it was corrected by possible random agreement among both procedures. (Author)

  11. Evaluation of a vibration diagnostic system for the detection of spur gear pitting failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Dennis P.; Zakrajsek, James J.

    1993-01-01

    A vibration diagnostic system was used to detect spur gear surface pitting fatigue in a closed-loop spur gear fatigue test rig. The diagnostic system, comprising a personal computer with an analog-to-digital conversion board, a diagnostic system unit, and software, uses time-synchronous averaging of the vibration signal to produce a vibration image of each tooth on any gear in a transmission. Several parameters were analyzed including gear pair stress wave and raw baseband vibration, kurtosis, peak ratios, and others. The system provides limits for the various parameters and gives a warning when the limits are exceeded. Several spur gear tests were conducted with this system and vibration data analyzed at 5-min. intervals. The results presented herein show that the system is fairly effective at detecting spur gear tooth surface fatigue pitting failures.

  12. Evaluation of Fibroblast Activation Protein-Alpha (FAP) as a Diagnostic Marker and Therapeutic Target in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    low molecular weight recombinant human gelatin: development of a substitute for animal- derived gelatin with superior features, Protein Expr. Purif...by the honey - bee , could be modified to a form that was no longer hydro- lyzed by the native activator protease DPP4 but, instead, was hydrolyzed by...TITLE: Evaluation of Fibroblast Activation Protein -Alpha (FAP) as a Diagnostic Marker and Therapeutic Target in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL

  13. Imaging nuclear medicine techniques for diagnostic evaluation of arterial hypertension. Bildgebende nuklearmedizinische Diagnostik bei arterieller Hypertonie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberg, B M; Linss, G

    1989-01-01

    Arterial hypertension may be caused by a malfunction of organs and in turn may lead to secondary organic lesions. Modern diagnostic nuclear medicine is applied for function studies in order to detect or exclude secondary hypertension and functional or perfusion disturbances due to hypertension, or to assess and follow up hemodynamic conditions and cardiac functions prior to and during therapy. The article presents a survey of imaging diagnostic nuclear medicine techniques for the eamination of the heart, the brain, the kidneys and endocrine glands in patients with arterial hypertension, discussing the methods with a view to obtainable information, limits of detection, and indications. (orig.).

  14. Evaluation of observed blast loading effects on NIF x-ray diagnostic collimators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, N D; Fisher, A; Kalantar, D; Prasad, R; Stölken, J S; Wlodarczyk, C

    2014-11-01

    We present the "debris wind" models used to estimate the impulsive load to which x-ray diagnostics and other structures are subject during National Ignition Facility experiments. These models are used as part of the engineering design process. Isotropic models, based on simulations or simplified "expanding shell" models, are augmented by debris wind multipliers to account for directional anisotropy. We present improvements to these multipliers based on measurements of the permanent deflections of diagnostic components: 4× for the polar direction and 2× within the equatorial plane-the latter relaxing the previous heuristic debris wind multiplier.

  15. Refining multi-model projections of temperature extremes by evaluation against land-atmosphere coupling diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Sebastian; Zscheischler, Jakob; Mahecha, Miguel D.; Orth, Rene; Reichstein, Markus; Vogel, Martha; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-05-01

    and present-day climate extremes are affected to a lesser extent by the applied constraint, i.e. projected changes are reduced locally by around 0.5 to 1 °C - but this remains a local effect in regions that are highly sensitive to land-atmosphere coupling. In summary, our approach offers a physically consistent, diagnostic-based avenue to evaluate multi-model ensembles and subsequently reduce model biases in simulated and projected extreme temperatures.

  16. Refining multi-model projections of temperature extremes by evaluation against land–atmosphere coupling diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sippel

    2017-05-01

    , the differences between projected and present-day climate extremes are affected to a lesser extent by the applied constraint, i.e. projected changes are reduced locally by around 0.5 to 1 °C – but this remains a local effect in regions that are highly sensitive to land–atmosphere coupling. In summary, our approach offers a physically consistent, diagnostic-based avenue to evaluate multi-model ensembles and subsequently reduce model biases in simulated and projected extreme temperatures.

  17. Evaluation of the Palutop+4 malaria rapid diagnostic test in a non-endemic setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Esbroeck Marjan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Palutop+4 (All. Diag, Strasbourg, France, a four-band malaria rapid diagnostic test (malaria RDT targeting the histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP-2, Plasmodium vivax-specific parasite lactate dehydrogenase (Pv-pLDH and pan Plasmodium-specific pLDH (pan-pLDH was evaluated in a non-endemic setting on stored whole blood samples from international travellers suspected of malaria. Methods Microscopy corrected by PCR was the reference method. Samples include those infected by Plasmodium falciparum (n = 323, Plasmodium vivax (n = 97, Plasmodium ovale (n = 73 and Plasmodium malariae (n = 25 and 95 malaria negative samples. Results The sensitivities for the diagnosis of P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale were 85.1%, 66.0%, 32.0% and 5.5%. Sensitivities increased at higher parasite densities and reached 90.0% for P. falciparum >100/μl and 83.8% for P. vivax > 500/μl. Fourteen P. falciparum samples reacted with the Pv-pLDH line, one P. vivax sample with the HRP-2 line, and respectively two and four P. ovale and P. malariae samples reacted with the HRP-2 line. Two negative samples gave a signal with the HRP-2 line. Faint and weak line intensities were observed for 129/289 (44.6% HRP-2 lines in P. falciparum samples, for 50/64 (78.1% Pv-pLDH lines in P. vivax samples and for 9/13 (69.2% pan-pLDH lines in P. ovale and P. malariae samples combined. Inter-observer reliabilities for positive and negative readings were excellent for the HRP-2 and Pv-pLDH lines (overall agreement > 92.0% and kappa-values for each pair of readers ≥ 0.88, and good for the pan-pLDH line (85.5% overall agreement and kappa-values ≥ 0.74. Conclusions Palutop+4 performed moderately for the detection of P. falciparum and P. vivax, but sensitivities were lower than those of three-band malaria RDTs.

  18. Animal Classification. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. They learn what the terms "kingdom", "phylum", and "order" mean, and discover how the 3.5 million-plus organisms found on Earth fit into…

  19. All about Endangered and Extinct Animals. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    While there are thousands of different animals in the world, some have been extinct for many years and others are on the verge of extinction. In this videotape, students learn about the natural and man-made factors that lead to the endangerment and extinction of animals. Children find out why it is essential for people to help all forms of…

  20. Endangered & Extinct Animals. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. Due to environmental factors and human interference, many of Earth's creatures have ceased to exist or are on the verge of extinction. In…

  1. Understanding IDEA 1997 and the 1999 Regulations with Barbara Bateman. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Div. for Learning Disabilities.

    The United States Congress amended the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in 1997 to reflect changes in the special education field over the previous twenty years. In this 2-hour videotape recording designed for teachers, administrators, parents, and others, Dr. Barbara Bateman presents her insights about changes in IDEA law and…

  2. Making the Case for Public-Private Child Care Partnerships: Child Care Partnership Project. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finance Project, Washington, DC.

    The quality of child care in the United States has important implications for school preparedness, welfare reform, economic vitality, and the quality of family life. In this 8-minute videotape, business leaders describe why child care makes good business sense. Visuals explain the importance of early childhood for school and life success, and the…

  3. Fish. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. There are many types of fish that live in oceans, lakes, and streams. Students learn about fish characteristics and environmental habitats,…

  4. Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume I: 15th-19th Centuries. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Carol

    This VHS videotape recording is the first in a two-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It focuses on the 15th-19th centuries, including Renaissance nobility, Baroque extravagance, Regency refinement, and Victorian romanticism. Each era reflects the changing relationships between men and women through the…

  5. Photocopying and Videotaping for Educational Purposes: The Doctrine of Fair Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flygare, Thomas J.

    1984-01-01

    Photocopying guidelines of the 1976 amendments to the Copyright Act have been further legitimized by a 1982 settlement involving New York University. Important recent developments concerning videotape copyrights include the 1981 guidelines of the House Judiciary Committee and the 1984 United States Supreme Court case, "Sony Corporation v.…

  6. Marine & Other Invertebrates. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. Invertebrate animals include a vast array of spineless creatures. In this video, students discover marine lifeforms such as jellyfish,…

  7. Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume II: 20th Century. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Carol

    This 50-minute VHS videotape is the second in a 2-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It features dance and music of the 20th century, including; 1910s: animal dances, castle walk, apache, and tango; 1920s: black bottom and charleston; 1930s: marathon, movie musicals, big apple, and jitterbug; 1940s: rumba;…

  8. Reptiles. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. The ancestors of reptiles date back to the dinosaurs. After the dinosaurs died out, it was one of the best-adapted species that survived and…

  9. Darwin's Revolution in Thought: An Illustrated Lecture. Teaching Guide and Videotape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Stephen Jay

    "Darwin's Revolution in Thought" is Stephen Jay Gould's definitive treatise on Charles Darwin. This 50-minute classroom edition videotaped lecture is structured in the form of a paradox and three riddles about Darwin's life. Each is designed to shed light on one of the key features of the theory of natural selection, its philosophical…

  10. How To Dance through Time. Volume III: The Majesty of Renaissance Dance. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Carol

    This 42-minute VHS videotape is the third in a series of "How To Dance Through Time" videos. It highlights the intricacies of an Italian court dance suite, which mirrors the episodic changes of courtship. Nido D'Amore" (The Nest of Love) exposes the technique for all the dance suites of the era, and features The Opening (which…

  11. Insects & Other Arthropods. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. They also learn that there are more species of insects than any other animal class in the world. Insects are incredible creatures with many…

  12. High/Scope Preschool Key Experiences: Initiative and Social Relations. [with] Curriculum Videotape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Michelle

    As preschoolers develop the ability to carry out their ideas and play alone and with others, they are developing the foundation for social competence. This booklet and a companion videotape help teachers and parents recognize and support nine High/Scope key experiences in initiative and social relations: (1) making and expressing choices, plans,…

  13. High/Scope Preschool Key Experiences: Language and Literacy. [with]Curriculum Videotape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Nancy A.

    During the preschool years, children experience great strides in their ability to use language. This booklet and companion videotape help teachers and parents recognize and support six High/Scope key experiences in language and literacy: (1) talking with others about personally meaningful experiences; (2) describing objects, events, and relations;…

  14. Animal Interdependency. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. No organism on Earth can exist independently. Students find out more about animal relationships such as predator/prey relationships and…

  15. Presenting Social Issues with Videotape [and] Teaming Up to Take a Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Diana; Jackson, Dick

    1991-01-01

    Two articles discuss the use of media in schools. One describes the use of videotapes to present social issues; the second describes the use of an integrated learning system with ninth and tenth grade at-risk students to improve their rate of attendance, academic achievement, and self-esteem. (LRW)

  16. Food Chains. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. The food chain provides a clear example of how life continues year after year. Students learn how the cycle of energy starts with the sun,…

  17. Using video-taped examples of standardized patient to teach medical students taking informed consent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHIRIN HABIBI KHORASANI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical student should be trained in medical ethics and one of the most essential issues in this field is taking informed consents. In this research, we compared the effect of effectiveness of teaching methods on students’ ability in taking informed consent from patients. Methods: This semi-experimental study was carried out on fifty eight subjects from the 4th-year students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences who attended in medical ethics course before their ‘clinical clerkship’training.Method of sampling was census and students were randomly allocated into two groups of control group (n=28 was trained in traditional lecture-based class and the case groupnamed as A1 (n=22 were taught by video-taped examples of standardized patient.Then A1 group attended in traditional lecture-based classes named as A2. The groups were evaluated in terms the ability of recognition of ethical issues through the scenario based ethical examination before and after each training. Scenarios were related to the topics of informed consent. Data were analyzed by SPSS 14 software using descriptive statistics and anova test. P-value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The mean scores results of A2, A1 and B group were found to be 7.21, 5.91 and 5.73 out of 8, respectively. Comparison between the groups demonstrated that the ability of taking informed consent was significantly higher in A2 group (p<0.001, followed by A1 group (p<0.05, while was the least in the B group (p=0.875. Conclusion: According to this research, lecture-based teaching is still of great value in teaching medical ethics, but when combined with standardized patient, the outcome will be much better. It should be considered that mixed methods of teaching should be used together for better result.

  18. Using video-taped examples of standardized patient to teach medical students taking informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi Khorasani, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Sedigheh

    2015-04-01

    Medical student should be trained in medical ethics and one of the most essential issues in this field is taking informed consents. In this research, we compared the effect of effectiveness of teaching methods on students' ability intaking informed consent from patients. This semi-experimental study was carried out on fifty eight subjects from the 4th-year students  of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences who attended in medical ethics coursebefore their 'clinical clerkship'training.Method of sampling was census and students were randomly allocated into two groups of control group(n=28) was trained in traditional lecture-based class and the case groupnamed as A1(n=22) were taught by video-taped examples of standardized patient.Then A1 group attended in traditional lecture-based classes named as A2. The groups were evaluated in terms the ability of recognition of ethical issuesthrough the scenario based ethical examination before and after each training. Scenarios were related to the topics ofinformed consent. Data were analyzed by SPSS 14 software using descriptive statistics and anovatest.P-Value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. The mean scores results of A2, A1and B groupwere found to be7.21 , 5.91 and 5.73 out of 8,respectively. Comparison between the groups demonstrated that the ability of taking informed consent was significantly higher in A2 group (plecture-based teaching is still of great value in teaching medical ethics, but when combined with standardized patient, the outcome will be much better.it should be considered that mixed methodsof teaching should be used together for better result.

  19. A Global Comparative Evaluation of Commercial Immunochromatographic Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Visceral Leishmaniasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, Jane; Hasker, Epco; Das, Pradeep; El Safi, Sayda; Goto, Hiro; Mondal, Dinesh; Mbuchi, Margaret; Mukhtar, Maowia; Rabello, Ana; Rijal, Suman; Sundar, Shyam; Wasunna, Monique; Adams, Emily; Menten, Joris; Peeling, Rosanna; Boelaert, Marleen; Khanal, Basudha; Das, Murari; Oliveira, Edward; de Assis, Tália Machado; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Bhaskar, Khondaker Rifathassan; Huda, M. Mamun; Hassan, Mukidul; Abdoun, Asim Osman; Awad, Aymen; Osman, Mohamed; Prajapati, Dinesh Kumar; Gidwani, Kamlesh; Tiwary, Puja; Paniago, Anamaria Mello Miranda; Sanchez, Maria Carmen Arroyo; Celeste, Beatriz Julieta; Jacquet, Diane; Magiri, Charles; Muia, A.; Kesusu, J.; Ageed, Al Farazdag; Galal, Nuha; Osman, Osman Salih; Gupta, A. K.; Bimal, Afrad S.; Das, V. N. R.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Poor access to diagnosis stymies control of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Antibody-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) can be performed in peripheral health settings. However, there are many brands available and published reports of variable accuracy. Methods. Commercial VL RDTs

  20. A multi-center comparison of diagnostic methods for the biochemical evaluation of suspected mitochondrial disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Schoonderwoerd, G.C.; Tiranti, V.; Taylor, R.W.; Rotig, A.; Valente, L.; Invernizzi, F.; Chretien, D.; He, L.; Backx, G.P.; Janssen, K.J.; Chinnery, P.F.; Smeets, H.J.M.; Coo, I.F. de; Heuvel, L.P. van den

    2013-01-01

    A multicenter comparison of mitochondrial respiratory chain and complex V enzyme activity tests was performed. The average reproducibility of the enzyme assays is 16% in human muscle samples. In a blinded diagnostic accuracy test in patient fibroblasts and SURF1 knock-out mouse muscle, each lab made

  1. Evaluation of entrance skin dose to the skull in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Anas Ali Elbushari

    2015-12-01

    Diagnostic x-ray radiology is a common diagnostic practice.Despite of its increasing hazard to human beings, imaging procedures should be achieved with less radiation dose and sufficient image quality. The aim of this study was to estimate the entrance skin dose(ESD) for patients undergoing selected diagnostic x-ray examinations in four hospitals.The study included the examinations of the skull; posterior- anterior(PA) and lateral projections. Fifty patients were enrolled in this study. ESDs were estimated from patients specific exposure parameters using established relation between output (μGy/mAs) and tube voltage(kVp). The estimated ESDs ranged from 0.0097-0.1846 mGy for skull (PA), 0.0097-0.1399 mGy for skull (LAT). These values were acceptable as compared with the international reference dose levels. This study provides additional data that can help the regulatory authority to establish reference dose levels for diagnostic radiology in Sudan.(Author)

  2. Newborn Congenital Cytomegalovirus Screening Based on Clinical Manifestations and Evaluation of DNA-based Assays for In Vitro Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Tomoyuki; Oka, Akira; Morioka, Ichiro; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Koyano, Shin; Yamada, Hideto; Saito, Shigeru; Sameshima, Hiroshi; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Tsuchida, Shinya; Inoue, Naoki

    2017-10-01

    To establish a strategy for congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) screening and to establish confirmatory assays approved as in vitro diagnostics by the regulatory authorities, we evaluated the clinical risks and performance of diagnostic assays developed by commercial companies, since cCMV infection has significant clinical consequences. Newborns with clinical manifestations considered to be consequences of cCMV infection (n = 575) were screened for the presence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in urine specimens collected onto filter paper placed in their diapers using the polymerase chain reaction-based assay reported previously. Liquid urine specimens were obtained from all of 20 CMV-positive newborns and 107 of the CMV-negative newborns identified in the screening. We used these 127 specimens, as well as 12 from cCMV cases identified in a previous study and 41 from healthy newborns, to compare the performance of 2 commercial assays and 1 in-house assay. The risk-based screening allowed the identification of cCMV cases at least 10-fold more efficiently than our previous universal screening, although there appears to be a limit to the identification of asymptomatically infected newborns. Although CMV-specific IgM during pregnancy was found frequently in mothers of cCMV newborns, CMV-IgM alone is not an effective diagnostic marker. The urine-filter-based assay and the 3 diagnostic assays yielded identical results. Although risk-based and universal newborn screening strategies for cCMV infection each have their respective advantages and disadvantages, urine-filter-based assay followed by confirmatory in vitro diagnostics assays is able to identify cCMV cases efficiently.

  3. Evaluation of diagnostic efficiency of intelligence program for automatic diagnosis of circumferential profiles of myocardial short axial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunko, Hisashi; Tada, Akira; Nakajima, Kenichi; Taki, Junichi; Kojima, Kazuhiko.

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative diagnosis using circumferential profile (CFP) is widely employed for Tl-201 myocardial imaging. However, its diagnostic efficiency is susceptible to the number and composition of the confirmed normal (CN) group. Intelligence program for CFP data file and automatic diagnosis (CAD), which was previously developed by us, was modified for creating universal data file (d-base) and evaluated its diagnostic efficiency for myocardial short axial images according to the number of CNs. CAD consists of following 3 major functions: (1) CFP data filing to d-base, (2) modification and correction of file data, and (3) automatic diagnosis of CFP. When function (1) or (2) is completed, new diagnostic criteria (mean-2 sd) are generated automatically using CN data in the d-base at that time. Because of this function, diagnostic criteria are changeable according to the number of CNs. Sensitivity (TP) and specificity (TN) of CAD program for Tl-201 7-pinhole images of 16 normals and 17 ischemic heart diseases (IHDs) were 100%, 44% (CN = 4), 88%, 94% (CN = 8 or 16) and 88%, 100% (CN = 12), respectively. Diagnostic efficiency reached plateau in more than 8 CNs. Although number of patients were limited (8 CNs and 6 IHDs), results of CAD for short axial SPECT showed consistent tendency with 7-pinhole images. In conclusion, intelligence program is necessary for automatic diagnosis using quantitative criteria under the clinical condition of daily increasing informations. Automatic diagnosis of CFP using CAD program is simple, effective and useful for interpretation of Tl-201 myocardial short axial images. CAD program is applicable to any quantitative distribution study using CFPs. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the Quality Control Program for Diagnostic Radiography and Fluoroscopy Devices in Syria during 2005-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Kharita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Extensive use of diagnostic radiology is the largest contributor to total population radiation doses. Thus, appropriate equipment and safe practice are necessary for good-quality images with optimal doses. This study aimed to perform quality control (QC audit for radiography and fluoroscopy devices owned by private sector in Syria (2005-2013 to verify compliance of performance of X-ray machines with the regulatory requirements stipulated by the national regulatory body. Materials and Methods: In this study, QC audit included 487 X-ray diagnostic machines, (363 radiography and 124 fluoroscopy devices, installed in 306 medical diagnostic radiology centers in 14 provinces in Syria. We employed an X-ray beam analyzer device (NERO model 8000, Victoreen, USA, which was tested and calibrated at the National Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory traceable to the IAEA Network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories. Standard QC tool kits were used to evaluate tube and generator of the X-ray machines, which constituted potential (kVp, timer accuracy, radiation output consistency, tube filtration, small and large focal spot sizes, X-ray beam collimation and alignment, as well as high- and low-resolution and entrance surface dose in fluoroscopy. Results: According to our results, most of the assessed operating parameters were in compliance with the standards stipulated by the National Regulatory Authority. In cases of noncompliance for the assessed parameters, maximum value (28.77% pertained to accuracy of kVp calibration for radiography units, while the lowest value (2.42% belonged to entrance surface dose in fluoroscopy systems. Conclusion: Effective QC program in diagnostic radiology leads to obtaining information regarding quality of radiology devices used for medical diagnosis and minimizing the doses received by patients and medical personnel. The findings of this QC program, as the main part of QA program, illustrated that most

  5. Dental flat panel conebeam CT in the evaluation of patients with inflammatory sinonasal disease: Diagnostic efficacy and radiation dose savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva-Salinas, C; Flors, L; Gras, P; Más-Estellés, F; Lemercier, P; Patrie, J T; Wintermark, M; Martí-Bonmatí, L

    2014-01-01

    CT is the imaging modality of choice to study the paranasal sinuses; unfortunately, it involves significant radiation dose. Our aim was to assess the diagnostic validity, image quality, and radiation-dose savings of dental conebeam CT in the evaluation of patients with suspected inflammatory disorders of the paranasal sinuses. We prospectively studied 40 patients with suspected inflammatory disorders of the sinuses with dental conebeam CT and standard CT. Two radiologists analyzed the images independently, blinded to clinical information. The image quality of both techniques and the diagnostic validity of dental conebeam CT compared with the reference standard CT were assessed by using 3 different scoring systems. Image noise, signal-to-noise ratio, and contrast-to-noise ratio were calculated for both techniques. The absorbed radiation dose to the lenses and thyroid and parotid glands was measured by using a phantom and dosimeter chips. The effective radiation dose for CT was calculated. All dental conebeam CT scans were judged of diagnostic quality. Compared with CT, the conebeam CT image noise was 37.3% higher (P radiation dose to the lenses and parotid and thyroid glands with conebeam CT was 4%, 7.8%, and 7.3% of the dose delivered to the same organs by conventional CT (P Dental conebeam CT is a valid imaging procedure for the evaluation of patients with inflammatory sinonasal disorders. © 2014 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  6. Role of diagnostic hystero-laparoscopy in the evaluation of infertility: A retrospective study of 300 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta K Nayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the role of diagnostic hysterolaparoscopy in the evaluation of infertility in tertiary care centres. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at two tertiary care centres (the infertility clinics of Sriram Chandra Bhanj Medical College and Prachi hospital at Cuttack, Odisha throughout the year in 2008. Women aged 20-40 years with normal hormone profile without male factor infertility were included. Results: Out of 300 cases, 206 (69% patients had primary infertility. While laparoscopy detected abnormalities in 34% of the cases, significant hysteroscopy findings were noted in 18% of cases. Together, diagnostic hysterolaparoscopy detected abnormalities in 26% of the infertile patients in both groups. While the most common laparoscopic abnormality was endometriosis (14% and adnexal adhesion (12% in primary and secondary infertile patients, respectively, hysteroscopy found intrauterine septum as the most common abnormality in both groups. Conclusions: Hysterolaparoscopy is an effective diagnostic tool for evaluation of certain significant and correctable tubo-peritoneal and intrauterine pathologies like peritoneal endometriosis, adnexal adhesions, and subseptate uterus, which are usually missed by other imaging modalities.

  7. Model-based evaluation of the use of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons molecular diagnostic ratios as a source identification tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Breivik, Knut

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) molecular diagnostic ratios (MDRs) are unitless concentration ratios of pair-PAHs with the same molecular weight (MW); MDRs have long been used as a tool for PAHs source identification purposes. In the present paper, the efficiency of the MDR methodology is evaluated through the use of a multimedia fate model, the calculation of characteristic travel distances (CTD) and the estimation of air concentrations for individual PAHs as a function of distance from an initial point source. The results show that PAHs with the same MW are sometimes characterized by substantially different CTDs and therefore their air concentrations and hence MDRs are predicted to change as the distance from the original source increases. From the assessed pair-PAHs, the biggest CTD difference is seen for Fluoranthene (107 km) vs. Pyrene (26 km). This study provides a strong indication that MDRs are of limited use as a source identification tool. -- Highlights: • Model-based evaluation of the PAHs molecular diagnostic ratios efficiency. • Individual PAHs are characterized by different characteristic travel distances. • MDRs are proven to be a limited tool for source identification. • Use of MDRs for other environmental media is likely unfeasible. -- PAHs molecular diagnostic ratios which change greatly as a function of distance from the emitting source are improper for source identification purposes

  8. Evaluation of a new rapid diagnostic kit (FemExam) for bacterial vaginosis in patients with vaginal discharge syndrome in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, Beryl; Morison, Linda; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten; Gooding, Euphemia; Awasana, Akum Aveika; Demba, Edward; Mayaud, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) in resource-poor primary health care settings is often overlooked; there is a need for a cheap, rapid, objective point-of-care diagnostic test. The goal was to determine the prevalence of BV and to evaluate the performance of a new commercial diagnostic test kit

  9. Diagnostic evaluation of the MRP-8/14 for the emergency assessment of chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Amit N; Bonaca, Marc P; Ruff, Christian T; Jarolim, Petr; Murphy, Sabina; Croce, Kevin; Sabatine, Marc S; Simon, Daniel I; Morrow, David A

    2012-08-01

    Elevated levels of myeloid-related protein (MRP)-8/14 (S100A8/A9) are associated with first cardiovascular events in healthy individuals and worse prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The diagnostic utility of MRP-8/14 in patients presenting to the emergency room with symptoms concerning for ACS is uncertain. MRP-8/14 was measured in serial serum and plasma samples in a single center prospective cohort-study of patients presenting to the emergency room with non-traumatic chest pain concerning for ACS. Final diagnosis was adjudicated by an endpoint committee. Of patients with baseline MRP-8/14 results (n = 411), the median concentration in serum was 1.57 μg/ml (25th, 75th: 0.87, 2.68) and in plasma was 0.41 μg/ml (MRP-8/14 was higher in patients presenting with MI (p MRP-8/14 was poor: sensitivity 28% (95% CI 20-38), specificity 82% (78-86), positive predictive value 36% (26-47), and negative predictive value 77% (72-81). The area under the ROC curve for diagnosis of MI with MRP-8/14 was 0.55 (95% CI 0.51-0.60) compared with 0.95 for cTnI. The diagnostic performance was not improved in early-presenters, patients with negative initial cTnI, or using later MRP-8/14 samples. Patients presenting with MI had elevated levels of serum MRP-8/14 compared to patients with non-cardiac chest pain. However, overall diagnostic performance of MRP-8/14 was poor and neither plasma nor serum MRP-8/14 offered diagnostic utility comparable to cardiac troponin.

  10. Diagnostic evaluation of brain SPECT imaging in diseases of nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongsheng, Jiang; Chengmo, Zhu; Jixian, Zhang; Weijia, Tian [Shanghai Second Medical Univ. (China). Ruijing Hospital

    1992-11-01

    The dynamic distributions of home made ECD and the Amersham brain SPECT imaging agent 'Ceretec' in normal person as well as their diagnostic use in diseases of nervous system were investigated. Semi-quantitative analysis combined with direct observation was more accurate for the diagnosis. Aside from cerebrovascular diseases, SPECT brain imaging has its unique value for the diagnosis of transient ischemic attack, Alzheimer disease, multiple ischemic dementia and epilepsy etc.

  11. New roentgen technologies (tomosynthesis for diagnostics and outcomes evaluation of genital tuberculosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Tsybulskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the specific primary disorder of small pelvis organs in the female patient with no tuberculosis in her medical history. Use of this roentgen technique for genital tuberculosis detection and assessment of treatment efficacy enhances the effectiveness of diagnostic activities and allows early detection of this pathology thus reducing the risk of complications which is crucial for pregnancy planning given the young age of the patient.

  12. The evaluation of the irradiation of medical team in critical X-ray diagnostic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, S; Pavlovic, R [Inst. of Nuclear Science Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Radiation and Environmental Protection Lab.; Boreli, F [Fac. of Electrical Engineering, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1996-12-31

    A good realized assessment of the irradiation for any exposed group of population serves as the base for the radiation protection measures (emergency radiation preparedness, radiation protection optimization etc.). This is especially important, by the radiation protection point of view, in contrast X-ray diagnostic techniques - angiographies. This paper presents the way for the realization of the medical team irradiation assessment, based on originally derived simple equations for the scattered radiation field around patient. (author) 1 fig., 3 figs.

  13. [The scientific videotape with digital processing in surgery. The new opportunities offered surgery for videotape recording and postprocessing with the use of information and digital technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, N

    1999-01-01

    The facility of the tape recording of a surgical operation, by means of simple manageable apparatuses and at low costs, especially in comparison with the former cinematography, makes it possible for all surgeons to record their own operative activity. Therefore at present the demonstration in video of surgical interventions is very common, but very often the video-tapes show surgical events only in straight chronological succession, as for facts of chronicle news. The simplification of the otherwise sophisticated digital technology of informatics elaboration of images makes more convenient and advisable to assemble the more meaningful sequences for a final product of higher scientific value. The digital technology gives at the best its contribution during the phase of post-production of the video-tape, where the surgeon himself can assemble an end product of more value because aimed to a scientific and rational communication. Thanks to such an elaboration the video-tape can aim not simply to become a good documentary, but also to achieve an educational purpose or becomes a truly scientific film. The initial video will be recorded following a specific project, the script, foreseeing and programming what has to be demonstrated of the surgical operation, establishing therefore in advance the most important steps of the intervention. The sequences recorded will then be assembled not necessarily in a chronological succession but integrating the moving images with static pictures, as drawings, schemes, tables, aside the picture-in picture technique, and besides the vocal descriptive comment. The cinema language has accustomed us to a series of passages among the different sequences as fading, cross-over, "flash-back", aiming to stimulate the psychological associative powers and encourage those critical. The video-tape can be opportunely shortened, paying attention to show only the essential phases of the operation for demonstrate only the core of the problem and utilize

  14. Evaluation of techniques for inspection and diagnostics of HWR pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-Ho

    2008-01-01

    Efficient and accurate inspection and diagnostic techniques for various reactor components and systems, especially pressure tubes for Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs), are an important factor in assuring reliable and safe plant operation. To foster international collaboration in the efficient and safe use of nuclear power, the IAEA conducted a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Inter-comparison of Techniques for HWR Pressure Tube Inspection and Diagnostics. The objective of the CRP was to inter-compare inspection and diagnostic techniques, in use and being developed, for structural integrity assessment of HWR pressure tubes. During the first phase of the CRP, participants investigated the capability of different techniques to detect and characterize flaws. During the second phase, participants collaborated to determine the hydrogen concentration and to detect and characterize hydride blisters in zirconium alloy pressure tubes. Eight organizations from six countries, which operate HWRs, have participated in this CRP, Most of the techniques examined are well established and many of them are regularly used during in-service inspection of pressure tubes. The inter-comparison of these techniques provides a platform for identifying a particular technique (or a set of techniques), which is more accurate and reliable as compared to others for a specified task. The CRP also witnessed some new methodologies, which can be implemented on in-service inspection tools. These new techniques could complement the existing ones to overcome their limitations, thereby improving the reliability and accuracy of in-service inspection. This CRP also identified future areas of research and development. (author)

  15. Adulticidal Susceptibility Evaluation of Aedes albopictus Using New Diagnostic Doses in Penang Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Junaid; Ahmad, Abu H; Ahmad, Hamdan; Ishak, Intan H; Rus, Adanan Che; Maimusa, Hamisu A

    2017-09-01

    Insecticide-based vector control approaches are facing challenges due to the development of resistance in vector mosquitoes. Therefore, a proper resistance surveillance program using baseline lethal concentrations is crucial for resistance management strategies. Currently, the World Health Organization's (WHO) diagnostic doses established for Aedes aegypti and Anopheles species are being used to study the resistance status of Aedes albopictus. In this study, we established the diagnostic doses for permethrin, deltamethrin, and malathion using a known susceptible reference strain. Five field-collected populations were screened against these doses, following the WHO protocol. This study established the diagnostic dose of malathion at 2.4%, permethrin at 0.95%, and deltamethrin at 0.28%, which differ from the WHO doses for Aedes aegypti and Anopheles spp. Among the insecticides tested on the 5 wild populations, only deltamethrin showed high effectiveness. Different susceptibility and resistance patterns were observed with permethrin, malathion, and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) at 4%. This study may assist the health authorities to improve future chemical-based vector control operations in dengue-endemic areas.

  16. Current state of a dosimetric evaluation programme in diagnostic radiology installations in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vano, E.; Gonzalez, L.; Calzado, A.; Delgado, V.; Moran, P.; Sanchez, B.; Murias, F.

    1988-01-01

    The Medical Physics Group at the School of Medicine of the Complutense University of Madrid, started a programme on the study of radiation doses in relation to Diagnostic Radiology in the area of Madrid in 1986, in cooperation with the Department of Health and Consumer Affairs, and several Madrid area hospitals as well as some Outpatient Centers. In Spain, the National Health Service (NHS) (through the National Institute of Health, INSALUD), potentially cares for the health of approximately 94% of the population. This figure reaches 99% at the Community of Madrid. Radiological examinations are performed mainly in Hospitals and Outpatient Centers (the latter making up a first link in the patient's radiological diagnosis). Private Diagnostic Radiology is used by the remaining 6% of the population (not taking into account the population attended in military hospitals), and by patients who in spite of having access to NHS Diagnostic Radiology Services, prefer to choose the private sector for different reasons. Besides the data we obtained during the first year of study from four large Madrid-area hospitals (and a few outpatient centers); we have used data furnished by the Department of Health and Consumer Affairs, the INSALUD and other sources

  17. Water chemistry data acquisition, processing, evaluation and diagnostic systems in Light Water Reactors: Future improvement of plant reliability and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, S.; Takiguchi, H.; Ishigure, K.

    2006-01-01

    Data acquisition, processing and evaluation systems have been applied in major Japanese PWRs and BWRs to provide (1) reliable and quick data acquisition with manpower savings in plant chemical laboratories and (2) smooth and reliable information transfer among chemists, plant operators, and supervisors. Data acquisition systems in plants consist of automatic and semi-automatic instruments for chemical analyses, e. g., X-ray fluorescence analysis and ion chromatography, while data processing systems consist of PC base-sub-systems, e.g., data storage, reliability evaluation, clear display, and document preparation for understanding the plant own water chemistry trends. Precise and reliable evaluations of water chemistry data are required in order to improve plant reliability and safety. For this, quality assurance of the water chemistry data acquisition system is needed. At the same time, theoretical models are being applied to bridge the gaps between measured water chemistry data and the information desired to understand the interaction of materials and cooling water in plants. Major models which have already been applied for plant evaluation are: (1) water radiolysis models for BWRs and PWRs; (2) crevice radiolysis model for SCC in BWRs; and (3) crevice pH model for SG tubing in PWRs. High temperature water chemistry sensors and automatic plant diagnostic systems have been applied in only restricted areas. ECP sensors are gaining popularity as tools to determine the effects of hydrogen injection in BWR systems. Automatic plant diagnostic systems based on artificial intelligence will be more popular after having sufficient experience with off line diagnostic systems. (author)

  18. Diagnostic efficacy of a modified low-dose acquisition protocol for the preoperative evaluation of mini-implant sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadinada, Aditya; Marczak, Alana; Yadav, Sumit [University of Connecticut School of Dental Medicine, Farmington (United States)

    2017-09-15

    The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of surgical mini-implant placement when potential mini-implant sites were scanned using a lower-dose 180° acquisition protocol versus a conventional 360° acquisition protocol. Ten dentate human skulls were used to provide sites for potential mini-implant placement. The sites were randomly divided into 2 groups: 360° and 180° cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) acquisition protocols. A small-volume 180° CBCT scan and a 360° CBCT scan of each site were acquired using a Morita Accuitomo-170 CBCT machine and then a mini-implant was placed. A follow-up 360° CBCT scan was done as a gold standard to evaluate the location of the mini-implant and root perforation. Two raters evaluated the scans. Ninety-eight percent of the mini-implants placed did not perforate any root structure. Two percent of the sites had an appearance suggestive of perforation. On a Likert scale, both raters agreed that their subjective evaluation of the diagnostic quality of the protocols, ability to make and read measurements of the sites, and preferences for the specified diagnostic task were comparable. The Cohen kappa showed high inter-rater and intra-rater agreement. In this ex vivo study, we found that the 180° rotational acquisition was as effective as the conventional 360° rotational acquisition for the preoperative evaluation of potential mini-implant sites.

  19. Diagnostic imaging capabilities of the Ocelot -Optical Coherence Tomography System, ex-vivo evaluation and clinical relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohad, Suhail; Shao, John; Cawich, Ian; Kankaria, Manish; Desai, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution sub-surface imaging modality using near-infrared light to provide accurate and high contrast intra-vascular images. This enables accurate assessment of diseased arteries before and after intravascular intervention. This study was designed to corroborate diagnostic imaging equivalence between the Ocelot and the Dragonfly OCT systems with regards to the intravascular features that are most important in clinical management of patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease. These intravascular features were then corroborated in vivo during treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) pathology using the Ocelot catheter. In order to compare the diagnostic information obtained by Ocelot (Avinger Inc., Redwood City, CA) and Dragonfly (St. Jude Medical, Minneapolis, MN) OCT systems, we utilized ex-vivo preparations of arterial segments. Ocelot and Dragonfly catheters were inserted into identical cadaveric femoral peripheral arteries for image acquisition and interpretation. Three independent physician interpreters assessed the images to establish accuracy and sensitivity of the diagnostic information. Histologic evaluation of the corresponding arterial segments provided the gold standard for image interpretation. In vivo clinical images were obtained during therapeutic interventions that included crossing of peripheral chronic total occlusions (CTOs) using the Ocelot catheter. Strong concordance was demonstrated when matching image characteristics between both OCT systems and histology. The Dragonfly and Ocelot system’s vessel features were interpreted with high sensitivity (91.1–100 %) and specificity (86.7–100 %). Inter-observer concordance was documented with excellent correlation across all vessel features. The clinical benefit that the Ocelot OCT system provided was demonstrated by comparable procedural images acquired at the point of therapy. The study demonstrates equivalence of image acquisition and

  20. Evaluation of serological diagnostic tests for typhoid fever in Papua New Guinea using a composite reference standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siba, Valentine; Horwood, Paul F; Vanuga, Kilagi; Wapling, Johanna; Sehuko, Rebecca; Siba, Peter M; Greenhill, Andrew R

    2012-11-01

    Typhoid fever remains a major global health problem. A major impediment to improving outcomes is the lack of appropriate diagnostic tools, which have not significantly improved in low-income settings for 100 years. We evaluated two commercially available rapid diagnostic tests (Tubex and TyphiDot), a prototype (TyphiRapid TR-02), and the commonly used single-serum Widal test in a previously reported high-burden area of Papua New Guinea. Samples were collected from 530 outpatients with axillary temperatures of ≥37.5°C, and analysis was conducted on all malaria-negative samples (n = 500). A composite reference standard of blood culture and PCR was used, by which 47 participants (9.4%) were considered typhoid fever positive. The sensitivity and specificity of the Tubex (51.1% and 88.3%, respectively) and TyphiDot (70.0% and 80.1%, respectively) tests were not high enough to warrant their ongoing use in this setting; however, the sensitivity and specificity for the TR-02 prototype were promising (89.4% and 85.0%, respectively). An axillary temperature of ≥38.5°C correlated with typhoid fever (P = 0.014). With an appropriate diagnostic test, conducting typhoid fever diagnosis only on patients with high-grade fever could dramatically decrease the costs associated with diagnosis while having no detrimental impact on the ability to accurately diagnose the illness.

  1. Male bladder outlet obstruction: Time to re-evaluate the definition and reconsider our diagnostic pathway? ICI-RS 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademakers, Kevin; Drake, Marcus J; Gammie, Andrew; Djurhuus, Jens C; Rosier, Peter F W M; Abrams, Paul; Harding, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    The diagnosis of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in the male is dependent on measurements of pressure and flow made during urodynamic studies. The procedure of urodynamics and the indices used to delineate BOO are well standardized largely as a result of the work of the International Continence Society. The clinical utility of the diagnosis of BOO is however, less well defined and there are several shortcomings and gaps in the currently available medical literature. Consequently the International Consultation on Incontinence Research Society (ICI-RS) held a think tank session in 2015 entitled "Male bladder outlet obstruction: Time to re-evaluate the definition and reconsider our diagnostic pathway?" This manuscript details the discussions that took place within that think tank setting out the pros and cons of the current definition of BOO and exploring alternative clinical tests (alone or in combination) which may be useful in the future investigation of male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. The think tank panel concluded that pressure-flow studies remain the diagnostic gold-standard for BOO although there is still a lack of high quality evidence. Newer, less invasive, investigations have shown promise in terms of diagnostic accuracy for BOO but similar criticisms can be levelled against these tests. Therefore, the think tank suggests further research with regard to these alternative indicators to determine their clinical utility. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Qualitative study of sexual functioning in couples with erectile dysfunction: prospective evaluation of the thermography diagnostic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wan Kee; Ng, Yin Kwee; Tan, Yung Khan

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the prospective use of the thermography diagnostic system in assessing sexual function in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). Thermographs were taken on 14 subjects in a clinical trial conducted at Tan Tock Seng Hospital. After a thorough clinical interview with a standardized questionnaire, patients were scanned for baseline temperature profile before being given an oral dose of sildenafil 100 mg. Subjects were scanned again in the same setting an hour later. If so desired, subjects were given visual stimulation and were allowed minimum direct stimulation, excluding the penis, to elicit erection. Temperature profiles were analyzed using the thermography analysis software in the VarioCAM camera. Three representative cases are presented to illustrate the potential for using the Infrared thermography (IR) diagnostic system in differentiating psychogenic ED. IR was able to capture a significant difference in blood flow to the corpus cavernosum. Subjects with psychogenic ED have higher surface temperatures (34.3 degrees C +/- 0.71 in the flaccid state and 35.3 degrees C +/- 0.2 during erection) compared to subjects with organic ED (33.64 degrees C +/- 0.4 in flaccid and 33.55 degrees C +/- 0.91 during erection). The difference in surface temperature between flaccid and erected states in subjects with organic ED was not significant. The proposed diagnostic test based on IR has tremendous clinical potential in differentiating psychogenic ED from organic ED. IR could potentially be a portable, noninvasive and convenient adjunct in the diagnosis and management of ED.

  3. The experiences of health-related quality of life in patients with nonspecific symptoms who undergo a diagnostic evaluation for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moseholm, Ellen; Lindhardt, Bjarne Oerskov; Rydahl-Hansen, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The diagnostic phase of cancer can affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to investigate how patients with nonspecific symptoms experience HRQoL while undergoing diagnostic evaluations for cancer. Twenty-one participants who had completed a fast-track evaluation...... of Cancer Quality of Life questionnaire (EORCT-QLQ-C30). Data analysis was based on qualitative content analysis by Krippendorff. The analysis generated six categories: symptoms, physical-, role-, emotional-, cognitive- and social functioning, and the diagnostic fast-track experience. From these categories......, a main theme was identified: Health-related quality of life is not solely affected by the diagnostic process. The results provide a comprehensive understanding of HRQoL in the diagnostic phase of possible cancer, which can be used not only to enhance evidence-based care, but also in the interpretation...

  4. Evaluation of dose to tooth enamel from medical diagnostic X-ray examinations at Mayak PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieser, A., E-mail: wieser@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Vasilenko, E. [Mayak Production Association, 456780 Ozyorsk (Russian Federation); Zankl, M.; Greiter, M.; Ulanovsky, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Sabayev, A.; Knyazev, V.; Zahrov, P. [Mayak Production Association, 456780 Ozyorsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-15

    The nuclear workers of the Mayak Production Association had regular check-ups including medical diagnostic X-ray examinations since start of the production lines in 1948. Doses from diagnostic examinations need to be considered in reconstruction of occupational doses of the workers with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of tooth enamel. The numbers and types of examinations of an individual worker can be assessed from the Mayak PA archives but no information was available on doses delivered to teeth by a single specific examination. Of the twenty one applied examination procedures only three affected the teeth, these being X-ray examinations of teeth, skull and cervical spine. For these three kinds of examinations operational procedures and operating modes of X-ray units were compiled from the archive and photon spectra were obtained from a catalog of spectral data for diagnostic X-rays. Entrance doses in air kerma were calculated using the fluence of photon spectra and absorbed dose in tooth enamel for various tooth positions and exposure geometry was then calculated using dose conversion coefficients obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. Doses were calculated for examinations in 1948-2000. Except for examination of the skull, absorbed doses in enamel of incisors were found to be about twice as large as in enamel of molars. In the period before 1970 the largest mean absorbed doses in tooth enamel were due to X-ray examination of teeth, with 64 mGy and 34 mGy calculated for incisors and molars, respectively. In the same period the lowest mean doses were due to X-ray examination of the skull, with 11 mGy and 12 mGy calculated for incisors and molars, respectively. In the period from 1970 to 2000, largest mean doses in enamel were due to X-ray examination of cervical spine, with 23 mGy and 12 mGy calculated for incisors and molars, respectively.

  5. Evaluation of Temporal Diagnostic Techniques for Two-Bunch Facet Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litos, M.D.; Bionta, M.R.; Dolgashev, V.A.; England, R.J.; Fritz, D.; Gilevich, S.; Hering, Ph.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    Three temporal diagnostic techniques are considered for use in the FACET facility at SLAC, which will incorporate a unique two-bunch beam for plasma wakefield acceleration experiments. The results of these experiments will depend strongly on the the inter-bunch spacing as well as the longitudinal profiles of the two bunches. A reliable, singleshot, high resolution measurement of the beam's temporal profile is necessary to fully quantify the physical mechanisms underlying the beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. In this study we show that a transverse deflecting cavity is the diagnostic which best meets our criteria. Based on our laboratory testing, numerical calculations, and simulations of the three single-shot temporal diagnostic devices, the X-band TCAV system is the best candidate for resolving FACET's two-bunch beam, with an estimated resolution of 7 {micro}m. Both the S-band TCAV system and the EO system could resolve the peak-to-peak separation of the two bunches in the FACET beam with estimated resolutions of 25 {micro}m and 30 {micro}m, respectively, but would be unable to resolve the temporal profiles of the individual bunches themselves. Because the TCAV signal is more easily interpreted and because the reliability of the EO system is less well known, however, the S-band TCAV system would be the next preferred option after the X-band TCAV system. The Fesca-200 streak camera, though simple, compact, and reliable, is unable to achieve a resolution that would be of use to FACET.

  6. Integration of PET/CT in Current Diagnostic and Response Evaluation Methods in Patients with Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezmen, Oelem; Goekcek, Atila; Tatci, Ebru; Biner, Inci; Akkalyoncu, Behiye

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a systemic disease that still affects many people. While pleural involvement is frequently observed in extrapulmonary tuberculosis, multiple skeletal system and articular involvements are quite rare. FDG PET imaging could be a promising diagnostic and treatment monitoring method, especially in complicated cases and if the other methods are inadequate. In this case study, we report a patient who was admitted with suspected malignancy and then diagnosed with tuberculosis pleuritis, lymphadenitis, spondylodiscitis, and sacroiliitis with specific symptoms; the response to anti-tuberculosis therapy was shown using FDG PET/CT

  7. Integration of PET/CT in Current Diagnostic and Response Evaluation Methods in Patients with Tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezmen, Oelem; Goekcek, Atila; Tatci, Ebru; Biner, Inci; Akkalyoncu, Behiye [Atatuerk Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2014-03-15

    Tuberculosis is a systemic disease that still affects many people. While pleural involvement is frequently observed in extrapulmonary tuberculosis, multiple skeletal system and articular involvements are quite rare. FDG PET imaging could be a promising diagnostic and treatment monitoring method, especially in complicated cases and if the other methods are inadequate. In this case study, we report a patient who was admitted with suspected malignancy and then diagnosed with tuberculosis pleuritis, lymphadenitis, spondylodiscitis, and sacroiliitis with specific symptoms; the response to anti-tuberculosis therapy was shown using FDG PET/CT.

  8. Clinical Evaluation of Iliopsoas Strain with Findings from Diagnostic Musculoskeletal Ultrasound in Agility Performance Canines – 73 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cullen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Iliopsoas injury and strain is a commonly diagnosed disease process, especially amongst working and sporting canines. There has been very little published literature regarding iliopsoas injuries and there is no information regarding the ultrasound evaluation of abnormal iliopsoas muscles. This manuscript is intended to describe the ultrasound findings in 73 canine agility athletes who had physical examination findings consistent with iliopsoas discomfort. The population was chosen given the high incidence of these animals for the development of iliopsoas injury; likely due to repetitive stress.Methods: Medical records of 73 agility performance canines that underwent musculoskeletal ultrasound evaluation of bilateral iliopsoas muscle groups were retrospectively reviewed. Data included signalment, previous radiographic findings, and ultrasound findings. A 3-tier grading scheme for acute strains was used while the practitioner also evaluated for evidence of chronic injury and bursitis.Results: The majority of pathologies were localised to the tendon of insertion, with the majority being low grade I-II strains (80.8%. Tendon fibre disruption (71.2% and indistinct hypoechoic lesions (91.8% were the most common of acute changes noted. Hyperechoic chronic changes were noted in 84.9 percent of cases. Acute and chronic changes were commonly seen together (62.8%.Conclusion: Diagnostic musculoskeletal ultrasound was used to identify lesions of the iliopsoas tendon consistent with acute and chronic injury, as well as identifying the region of pathology. The majority of agility performance dogs had low grade acute strains based on the tiered system, with mixed acute and chronic lesions being noted frequently.Application: Diagnostic musculoskeletal ultrasound provides a non-invasive diagnostic modality for patients suspected of having an iliopsoas strain.

  9. Virtual microscopy: an evaluation of its validity and diagnostic performance in routine histologic diagnosis of skin tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Patricia Switten; Lindebjerg, Jan; Rasmussen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Digitization of histologic slides is associated with many advantages, and its use in routine diagnosis holds great promise. Nevertheless, few articles evaluate virtual microscopy in routine settings. This study is an evaluation of the validity and diagnostic performance of virtual microscopy...... in routine histologic diagnosis of skin tumors. Our aim is to investigate whether conventional microscopy of skin tumors can be replaced by virtual microscopy. Ninety-six skin tumors and skin-tumor-like changes were consecutively gathered over a 1-week period. Specimens were routinely processed, and digital...... slides were captured on Mirax Scan (Carl Zeiss MicroImaging, Göttingen, Germany). Four pathologists evaluated the 96 virtual slides and the associated 96 conventional slides twice with intermediate time intervals of at least 3 weeks. Virtual slides that caused difficulties were reevaluated to identify...

  10. Plasma Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaveryaev, V [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); others, and

    2012-09-15

    The success in achieving peaceful fusion power depends on the ability to control a high temperature plasma, which is an object with unique properties, possibly the most complicated object created by humans. Over years of fusion research a new branch of science has been created, namely plasma diagnostics, which involves knowledge of almost all fields of physics, from electromagnetism to nuclear physics, and up-to-date progress in engineering and technology (materials, electronics, mathematical methods of data treatment). Historically, work on controlled fusion started with pulsed systems and accordingly the methods of plasma parameter measurement were first developed for short lived and dense plasmas. Magnetically confined hot plasmas require the creation of special experimental techniques for diagnostics. The diagnostic set is the most scientifically intensive part of a plasma device. During many years of research operation some scientific tasks have been solved while new ones arose. New tasks often require significant changes in the diagnostic system, which is thus a very flexible part of plasma machines. Diagnostic systems are designed to solve several tasks. As an example here are the diagnostic tasks for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER: (1) Measurements for machine protection and basic control; (2) Measurements for advanced control; (3) Additional measurements for performance evaluation and physics. Every new plasma machine is a further step along the path to the main goal - controlled fusion - and nobody knows in advance what new phenomena will be met on the way. So in the planning of diagnostic construction we should keep in mind further system upgrading to meet possible new scientific and technical challenges. (author)

  11. Evaluation of subjective image quality in relation to diagnostic task for cone beam computed tomography with different fields of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofthag-Hansen, Sara; Thilander-Klang, Anne; Gröndahl, Kerstin

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate subjective image quality for two diagnostic tasks, periapical diagnosis and implant planning, for cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using different exposure parameters and fields of view (FOVs). Examinations were performed in posterior part of the jaws on a skull phantom with 3D Accuitomo (FOV 3 cm×4 cm) and 3D Accuitomo FPD (FOVs 4 cm×4 cm and 6 cm×6 cm). All combinations of 60, 65, 70, 75, 80 kV and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 mA with a rotation of 180° and 360° were used. Dose-area product (DAP) value was determined for each combination. The images were presented, displaying the object in axial, cross-sectional and sagittal views, without scanning data in a random order for each FOV and jaw. Seven observers assessed image quality on a six-point rating scale. Intra-observer agreement was good (κw=0.76) and inter-observer agreement moderate (κw=0.52). Stepwise logistic regression showed kV, mA and diagnostic task to be the most important variables. Periapical diagnosis, regardless jaw, required higher exposure parameters compared to implant planning. Implant planning in the lower jaw required higher exposure parameters compared to upper jaw. Overall ranking of FOVs gave 4 cm×4 cm, 6 cm×6 cm followed by 3 cm×4 cm. This study has shown that exposure parameters should be adjusted according to diagnostic task. For this particular CBCT brand a rotation of 180° gave good subjective image quality, hence a substantial dose reduction can be achieved without loss of diagnostic information. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of subjective image quality in relation to diagnostic task for cone beam computed tomography with different fields of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofthag-Hansen, Sara; Thilander-Klang, Anne; Groendahl, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate subjective image quality for two diagnostic tasks, periapical diagnosis and implant planning, for cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using different exposure parameters and fields of view (FOVs). Materials and methods: Examinations were performed in posterior part of the jaws on a skull phantom with 3D Accuitomo (FOV 3 cm x 4 cm) and 3D Accuitomo FPD (FOVs 4 cm x 4 cm and 6 cm x 6 cm). All combinations of 60, 65, 70, 75, 80 kV and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 mA with a rotation of 180 o and 360 o were used. Dose-area product (DAP) value was determined for each combination. The images were presented, displaying the object in axial, cross-sectional and sagittal views, without scanning data in a random order for each FOV and jaw. Seven observers assessed image quality on a six-point rating scale. Results: Intra-observer agreement was good (κ w = 0.76) and inter-observer agreement moderate (κ w = 0.52). Stepwise logistic regression showed kV, mA and diagnostic task to be the most important variables. Periapical diagnosis, regardless jaw, required higher exposure parameters compared to implant planning. Implant planning in the lower jaw required higher exposure parameters compared to upper jaw. Overall ranking of FOVs gave 4 cm x 4 cm, 6 cm x 6 cm followed by 3 cm x 4 cm. Conclusions: This study has shown that exposure parameters should be adjusted according to diagnostic task. For this particular CBCT brand a rotation of 180 o gave good subjective image quality, hence a substantial dose reduction can be achieved without loss of diagnostic information.

  13. Diagnostic investigations and historical-stylistic evaluation on the oil painting: "reading man by oil lamp light"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Lorusso

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This investigation intends to verify the attribution of the oil painting (70x50,5 cm portraying a reading man by oil lamp light, to Gerrit van Hontorst. The note refers not only to a stylistic and historical-artistical evaluation but also to the knowledge, through diagnostic techniques, of the application to characterize components of matter, and of the manufacture execution technique and preservation conditions. This investigation denies the attribution to the painter Gerrit van Hontorst, but it does not exclude a dating within the XVII century.

  14. Improvement of diagnostic accuracy, and clinical evaluation of computed tomography and ultrasonography for deep seated cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimizu, Noboru

    1980-01-01

    Cancers of the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas which were difficult to be detected at an early stage were studied. Diagnostic accuracy of CT and ultrasonography for vesectable small cancers was investigated by the project team and coworkers. Only a few cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, cancer of the common bile duct, and cancer of the pancreas head, with the maximum diameter of 1 - 2 cm, were able to be diagnosed by CT. There seemed to be more false negative cases with small cancers of that size. The limit of the size which could be detected by CT was thought to be 2 - 3 cm. Similar results were obtained by ultrasonography. Cancer of the pancreas body with the maximum diameter of less than 3.5 cm could not be detected by both CT and ultrasonography. Diagnostic accuracy of CT for liver cancer was improved by selective intraarterial injection of contrast medium. Improvement of the quality of ultrasonograms was achieved through this study. Merits and demerits of CT and ultrasonography were also compared. (Tsunoda, M.)

  15. Improvement of diagnostic accuracy, and clinical evaluation of computed tomography and ultrasonography for deep seated cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arimizu, N [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1980-06-01

    Cancers of the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas which were difficult to be detected at an early stage were studied. Diagnostic accuracy of CT and ultrasonography for resectable small cancers was investigated by the project team and co-workers. Only a few cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, cancer of the common bile duct, and cancer of the pancreas head, with the maximum diameter of 1 - 2 cm, were able to be diagnosed by CT. There seemed to be more false negative cases with small cancers of that size. The limit of the size which could be detected by CT was thought to be 2 - 3 cm. Similar results were obtained by ultrasonography. Cancer of the pancreas body with the maximum diameter of less than 3.5 cm could not be detected by both CT and ultrasonography. Diagnostic accuracy of CT for liver cancer was improved by selective intraarterial injection of contrast medium. Improvement of the quality of ultrasonograms was achieved through this study. Merits and demerits of CT and ultrasonography were also compared.

  16. Quantity of Candida Colonies in Saliva: 
A Diagnostic Evaluation for Oral Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pei Ru; Hua, Hong; Liu, Xiao Song

    To investigate the relationship between the quantity of Candida colonies in saliva and oral candidiasis (OC), as well as to identify the threshold for distinguishing oral candidiasis from healthy carriage. A diagnostic test was conducted in 197 patients with different oral problems. The diagnosis of OC was established based on clinical features. Whole saliva samples from the subjects were cultured for Candida species. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used in this study. OC patients had significantly more Candida colony-forming units per millilitre saliva (795 cfu/ml) than asymptomatic carriers (40 cfu/ml; P candidiasis, the quantity of Candida colonies differed. The number of Candida colonies in pseudomembranous type was significantly higher than that in the erythematous type (P < 0.05). Candida albicans was the predominant species of Candida. The cut-off point with the best fit for OC diagnosis was calculated to be 266 cfu/ml. The sensitivity and specificity were 0.720 and 0.825, respectively. Analysis of the ROC curve indicated that Candida colonies had a high diagnostic value for OC, as demonstrated by the area under the curve (AUC = 0.873). Based on this study, the value of 270 cfu/ml was considered a threshold for distinguishing OC from carriage.

  17. Diagnostic evaluation of rolling behavior in ball bearings by ultrasonic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, T

    2012-01-01

    Failures of machines having rotating parts are mostly caused by damage to bearings and there exist increasing demands for detecting damaged bearings at an early stage. However, conventional diagnostic methods, such as measuring temperature and observing vibration, have found difficulties in performing the early detection, so that more advanced diagnosis is necessary. This study therefore applies an ultrasonic technique as an advanced diagnostic method to bearing life tests. Ultrasonic wave pulses (UWP) emitted from a piezoelectric UWP generator can partially reflect from the interfaces of contact zones within the housing and the bearing with regard to the different acoustic impedance between a solid-to-solid contact and a contact dominated by some fluid layers. Hence, the intensity of the resultant UWP echoes can be determined by the real contact area formed at the interfaces. The experimental results of UWP echoes under the different operating conditions have demonstrated that the time intervals between peaks of UWP echoes varied in accordance with the movement of rolling balls and the lubricating phenomena in bearings. This behavior has further suggested the possibility of the early detection of abnormalities in ball bearings by using the variation in UWP echoes.

  18. Profile of usage of a reference diagnostic service on oral pathology: a 10-year evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira e Silva, Karla Rachel; Siqueira, Ana Luísa Lara; Caldeira, Patrícia Carlos; de Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães; de Aguiar, Maria Cássia Ferreira

    2014-12-20

    Despite the professional and academic relevance of the Brazilian oral pathology diagnostic laboratories, no information about their usage profile is available in the English literature. The objective of the present study is to report data about the histopathological and immunohistochemical exams performed in a Brazilian regional reference laboratory of oral pathology, as well as its main users. Information about all histopathological exams performed between 2002 and 2012 was retrieved from the files of the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Service of the School of Dentistry of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Data collected included: 1) requestor of exam; 2) diagnosis classification; and 3) immunohistochemical tests. Descriptive statistical analyses were done. 13,522 histopathological exams were performed, mean 1,229/year. The Public Health System of the city of Belo Horizonte was the main requestor of exams (77.13%), followed by private professionals (19.26%), and other cities (2.03%). Most lesions were considered benign (12,599/ 93.17%), with 854 malignant lesions (6.32%). 469 immunohistochemical tests were performed; 324 (69.08%) were from benign diagnosis, and 145 (30.92%) from malignant diagnosis. The most used antibodies were against S100, vimentin, smooth muscle actin, actin muscle specific HHF-35, and pan-cytokeratin AE1/AE3. Public Health System is the major user of the diagnostic service on oral pathology in our institution. Most diagnoses were of benign lesions, although many malignant lesions were detected. Immunohistochemistry was particularly important in solving challenging cases.

  19. Childhood videotaped social and neuromotor precursors of schizophrenia: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Walker, Elaine; Ekstrøm, Morten

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors examined videotaped behaviors of children who developed schizophrenia as adults and of comparison subjects to disclose possible social and neuromotor deficits foreshadowing later development of schizophrenia. METHOD: In 1972, a sample of 265 11-13-year-old Danish children...... were filmed under standardized conditions while they were eating lunch. The examination was part of a larger study investigating early signs of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Many of the subjects had a parent with schizophrenia, leaving them at high risk for developing a schizophrenia spectrum...... disorder. In 1991, adult psychiatric outcome data were obtained for 91.3% (N=242). This study systematically analyzed the videotapes to determine whether the children who developed schizophrenia as adults evidenced greater social and/or neuromotor deficits than children who did not develop a psychiatric...

  20. Evaluation of reduced-dose CT for acute non-traumatic abdominal pain: evaluation of diagnostic accuracy in comparison to standard-dose CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ahmed E; Bongers, Malte Niklas; Zinsser, Dominik; Schabel, Christoph; Wichmann, Julian L; Arshid, Rami; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Bamberg, Fabian

    2018-01-01

    Background Patients with acute non-traumatic abdominal pain often undergo abdominal computed tomography (CT). However, abdominal CT is associated with high radiation exposure. Purpose To evaluate diagnostic performance of a reduced-dose 100 kVp CT protocol with advanced modeled iterative reconstruction as compared to a linearly blended 120 kVp protocol for assessment of acute, non-traumatic abdominal pain. Material and Methods Two radiologists assessed 100 kVp and linearly blended 120 kVp series of 112 consecutive patients with acute non-traumatic pain (onset diagnostic confidence. Both 100 kVp and linearly blended 120 kVp series were quantitatively evaluated regarding radiation dose and image noise. Comparative statistics and diagnostic accuracy was calculated using receiver operating curve (ROC) statistics, with final clinical diagnosis/clinical follow-up as reference standard. Results Image quality was high for both series without detectable significant differences ( P = 0.157). Image noise and artifacts were rated low for both series but significantly higher for 100 kVp ( P ≤ 0.021). Diagnostic accuracy was high for both series (120 kVp: area under the curve [AUC] = 0.950, sensitivity = 0.958, specificity = 0.941; 100 kVp: AUC ≥ 0.910, sensitivity ≥ 0.937, specificity = 0.882; P ≥ 0.516) with almost perfect inter-rater agreement (Kappa = 0.939). Diagnostic confidence was high for both dose levels without significant differences (100 kVp 5, range 4-5; 120 kVp 5, range 3-5; P = 0.134). The 100 kVp series yielded 26.1% lower radiation dose compared with the 120 kVp series (5.72 ± 2.23 mSv versus 7.75 ± 3.02 mSv, P diagnostic accuracy for the assessment of acute non-traumatic abdominal pain.

  1. Diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging and pre-surgical evaluation in the assessment of traumatic intra-articular knee disorders in children and adolescents: what conditions still pose diagnostic challenges?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gans, Itai; Ganley, Theodore J. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Orthopaedics, 34th and Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bedoya, Maria A.; Ho-Fung, Victor [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-08-31

    Diagnosis of intra-articular lesions in children based on clinical examination and MRI is particularly challenging. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of MRI and pre-surgical evaluation of the knee in pediatric patients relative to arthroscopic evaluation as the gold standard. We report diagnoses frequently missed or inaccurately diagnosed pre-operatively. We conducted a retrospective review of MRI and pre-surgical evaluation in children and adolescents ages 1-17 years who were treated by knee arthroscopy during a 21/2-year period. All MRIs were reviewed by a pediatric radiologist blinded to clinical findings. Pediatric orthopedic clinic notes were reviewed for pre-surgical evaluation (based on physical exam, radiograph, MR images and radiologist's MRI report). Arthroscopic findings were used as the gold standard. We calculated the percentages of diagnoses at arthroscopy missed on both MRI and pre-surgical evaluation. Diagnostic accuracy between children and adolescents and in patients with one pathological lesion vs. those with >1 lesion was analyzed. We performed a second review of MR images of the missed or over-called MRI diagnoses with knowledge of arthroscopic findings. We included 178 children and adolescents. The most common diagnoses missed on MRI or pre-surgical evaluation but found at arthroscopy were: discoid meniscus (8/30, or 26.7% of cases); lateral meniscal tears (15/80, or 18.8% of cases); intra-articular loose bodies (5/36, or 13.9% of cases), and osteochondral injuries (9/73, or 12.3% of cases). Overall diagnostic accuracy of MRI and pre-surgical evaluation was 92.7% and 95.3%, respectively. No significant difference in diagnostic accuracy between children and adolescents was observed. When multiple intra-articular lesions were present, lateral meniscal tears were more likely to be inaccurately diagnosed (missed or over-called) on both MRI (P = 0.009) and pre-surgical evaluation (P < 0.001). Overall diagnostic accuracy of MRI and pre

  2. Diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging and pre-surgical evaluation in the assessment of traumatic intra-articular knee disorders in children and adolescents: what conditions still pose diagnostic challenges?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, Itai; Ganley, Theodore J.; Bedoya, Maria A.; Ho-Fung, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of intra-articular lesions in children based on clinical examination and MRI is particularly challenging. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of MRI and pre-surgical evaluation of the knee in pediatric patients relative to arthroscopic evaluation as the gold standard. We report diagnoses frequently missed or inaccurately diagnosed pre-operatively. We conducted a retrospective review of MRI and pre-surgical evaluation in children and adolescents ages 1-17 years who were treated by knee arthroscopy during a 21/2-year period. All MRIs were reviewed by a pediatric radiologist blinded to clinical findings. Pediatric orthopedic clinic notes were reviewed for pre-surgical evaluation (based on physical exam, radiograph, MR images and radiologist's MRI report). Arthroscopic findings were used as the gold standard. We calculated the percentages of diagnoses at arthroscopy missed on both MRI and pre-surgical evaluation. Diagnostic accuracy between children and adolescents and in patients with one pathological lesion vs. those with >1 lesion was analyzed. We performed a second review of MR images of the missed or over-called MRI diagnoses with knowledge of arthroscopic findings. We included 178 children and adolescents. The most common diagnoses missed on MRI or pre-surgical evaluation but found at arthroscopy were: discoid meniscus (8/30, or 26.7% of cases); lateral meniscal tears (15/80, or 18.8% of cases); intra-articular loose bodies (5/36, or 13.9% of cases), and osteochondral injuries (9/73, or 12.3% of cases). Overall diagnostic accuracy of MRI and pre-surgical evaluation was 92.7% and 95.3%, respectively. No significant difference in diagnostic accuracy between children and adolescents was observed. When multiple intra-articular lesions were present, lateral meniscal tears were more likely to be inaccurately diagnosed (missed or over-called) on both MRI (P = 0.009) and pre-surgical evaluation (P < 0.001). Overall diagnostic accuracy of MRI and pre

  3. Crohn's Disease Evaluated with Magnetic Resonance Enteroclysis: Diagnostic Performance of Experienced and Inexperienced Readers before and after Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negaard, A.; Mulahasanovic, A.; Reisaeter, L.A.; Aasekjaer, K.; Sandvik, L.; Klow, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance enteroclysis (MRE) is suggested to become the preferred radiological method in small-bowel Crohn's disease (CD). However, the performance of inexperienced readers may influence the diagnostic value of the method and has not been previously investigated. Purpose: To compare readings of MRE in small-bowel CD performed by experienced and inexperienced readers before and after training.Material and Methods: One experienced radiologist (observer 1) and two trainees (observers 2 and 3) reviewed 60 MRE examinations. A second reading was performed after training. Bowel wall thickness (BWT), ulcers (BWU), stenosis (BWS), fistulas (FIS), and abscesses (ABS) were evaluated. A reference standard based on clinical records was established. Results: BWT in the terminal ileum was evaluated with high diagnostic performance (sensitivity: observer 1, 83%; observer 2, 72%; observer 3, 78%). Only BWU was diagnosed with a higher sensitivity by observer 1 (78% vs. 33% and 39%, respectively; P=0.02). False-positive findings for BWT in the jejunum (observer 2: 7; observer 3: 4) and fistulas and abscesses (observer 2: 11/5; observer 3: 5/4) were made by the trainees. Interobserver agreement in the jejunum was poor (observer 1/observer 2: κ=0.23; observer 1/observer 3: κ=-0.03) and in the ileum good (observer 1/observer 2: κ=0.78; observer 1/observer 3: κ=0.73). After training, evaluation of BWU (observer 2: 56%, P=0.22; observer 3: 44%, P=0.03), BWT (observer 2: 2; observer 3: 2), and interobserver agreement in the jejunum improved (observer 1/observer 2: κ=0.66; observer 1/observer 3: κ=0.66). However, the number of diagnosed fistulas and abscesses remained high. Conclusion: Before training, most findings of Crohn's disease in the terminal ileum were evaluated with high diagnostic performance by all readers. However, the inexperienced readers evaluated BWU with a low sensitivity and overestimated the number of FIS, number of ABS, and increased BWT in

  4. Digital Breast Tomosynthesis versus Supplemental Diagnostic Mammographic Views for Evaluation of Noncalcified Breast Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandos, Andriy I.; Ganott, Marie A.; Sumkin, Jules H.; Kelly, Amy E.; Catullo, Victor J.; Rathfon, Grace Y.; Lu, Amy H.; Gur, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance of breast tomosynthesis versus supplemental mammography views in classification of masses, distortions, and asymmetries. Materials and Methods: Eight radiologists who specialized in breast imaging retrospectively reviewed 217 consecutively accrued lesions by using protocols that were HIPAA compliant and institutional review board approved in 182 patients aged 31–60 years (mean, 50 years) who underwent diagnostic mammography and tomosynthesis. The lesions in the cohort included 33% (72 of 217) cancers and 67% (145 of 217) benign lesions. Eighty-four percent (182 of 217) of the lesions were masses, 11% (25 of 217) were asymmetries, and 5% (10 of 217) were distortions that were initially detected at clinical examination in 8% (17 of 217), at mammography in 80% (173 of 217), at ultrasonography (US) in 11% (25 of 217), or at magnetic resonance imaging in 1% (2 of 217). Histopathologic examination established truth in 191 lesions, US revealed a cyst in 12 lesions, and 14 lesions had a normal follow-up. Each lesion was interpreted once with tomosynthesis and once with supplemental mammographic views; both modes included the mediolateral oblique and craniocaudal views in a fully crossed and balanced design by using a five-category Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) assessment and a probability-of-malignancy score. Differences between modes were analyzed with a generalized linear mixed model for BI-RADS–based sensitivity and specificity and with modified Obuchowski-Rockette approach for probability-of-malignancy–based area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: Average probability-of-malignancy–based area under the ROC curve was 0.87 for tomosynthesis versus 0.83 for supplemental views (P tomosynthesis, the false-positive rate decreased from 85% (989 of 1160) to 74% (864 of 1160) (P tomosynthesis, more cancers were classified as BI-RADS category 5 (39% [226 of 576] vs 33% [188

  5. Critical evaluation of fine needle aspiration cytology as a diagnostic technique in bone tumors and tumor-like lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Sudipta; Datta, Alok Sobhan; Hira, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Though open surgical biopsy is the procedure of choice for the diagnosis of bone tumors, many disadvantages are associated with this approach. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as a diagnostic tool in cases of bony tumors and tumor-like lesions which may be conducted in centers where facilities for surgical biopsies are inadequate. The study population consisted of 51 cases presenting with a skeletal mass. After clinical evaluation, radiological correlation was done to assess the nature and extent of each lesion. Fine needle aspiration was performed aseptically and smears were prepared. Patients subsequently underwent open surgical biopsy and tissue samples were obtained for histopathological examination. Standard statistical methods were applied for analysis of data. Adequate material was not obtained even after repeated aspiration in seven cases, six of which were benign. Among the remaining 44 cases, diagnosis of malignancy was correctly provided in 28 (93.3%) out of 30 cases and categorical diagnosis in 20 (66.67%). Interpretation of cytology was more difficult in cases of benign and tumor-like lesions, with a categorical opinion only possible in seven (50%) cases. Statistical analysis showed FNAC with malignant tumors to have high sensitivity (93.3%), specificity (92.9%) and positive predictive value of 96.6%, whereas the negative predictive value was 86.7%. FNAC should be included in the diagnostic workup of a skeletal tumor because of its simplicity and reliability. However, a definitive pathologic diagnosis heavily depends on compatible clinical and radiologic features which can only be accomplished by teamwork. The cytological technique applied in this study could detect many bone tumors and tumor-like conditions and appears particularly suitable as a diagnostic technique for rural regions of India as other developing countries.

  6. Evaluation of diagnostic technique for degradation of low-voltage electric cables with silicone rubber insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, Masao

    2005-01-01

    As a part of countermeasures against ageing problems of nuclear power plants, it is requested to establish non-destructive diagnostic technique for their degradation of low voltage electric cables and assessment standard of their life. Having aimed at investigating the degradation of low-voltage electric cable with silicone rubber insulator, change of its surface hardness at elevated temperature were measured by indenter modules. Moreover, we also measured the elongation at break, which is regarded as general degradation index of electric cables, and the surface hardness with a micro hardness meter. Consequently, it is seen that the indenter modulus measurement is (1) capable to obtain general feature of the thermal degradation of silicone rubber insulator, (2) applicable to diagnose the degree of degradation of the electric cable by converting the result to elongation at break, (3) well correlated with the hardness measurement of the electric cable with the micro hardness meter. (author)

  7. Preliminary evaluation of operational parameters in fixed x-ray diagnostics equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacelar, Alexandre; Oliveira, Sandro Soletti de; Streck, Elaine E.; Furtado, Alvaro Porto Alegre; Pinto, Ana Lucia Acosta

    1998-01-01

    In this work they were appraised 22 fixed X-ray diagnostic equipment belonging to three great medical institutions in Porto Alegre - RS, Brazil, with the purpose of demonstrating the importance of the implementation of a Quality Warranty program, advised by a health physicist, in the performance of these equipment. For so some data of alignment and collimation of the beam, peak tube voltage, tube current, transportable charge and exposition time were collected. The results of the tests showed that in only one of the institutions all the equipment remained in operationally acceptable conditions, with relative percent errors below 10%, concerning to the analyzed parameters. This study also showed that the performance of the equipment of the three analyzed institutions is a direct reflex of the maintenance of a Quality Warranty Program, advised by a qualified professional. (author)

  8. Diagnostic performance of PET/MR in the evaluation of active inflammation in Crohn disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Onofrio Antonio; Wu, Vincent; Mahmood, Umar; Signore, Alberto; Vangel, Mark; Soricelli, Andrea; Salvatore, Marco; Gervais, Debra; Rosen, Bruce R

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the performance of PET/MR versus each sub-modality alone in the assessment of active inflammation in patients with Crohn disease, when compared to surgery as standard of reference. Sensitivity for detecting active inflammation was 91.5% for PET, 80% for MR, and 88% for PET/MR. Specificity for active inflammation was 74% for PET, 87% for MR, and 93% for PET/MR. Diagnostic accuracy was 84% for PET, 83% for MR, and 91% for PET/MR. In conclusion, PET/MR is significantly more accurate than either sub-modality alone and more specific than PET alone in the detection of active inflammation in patients with Crohn disease.

  9. Diagnostic Evaluation of the Knee in the Office Setting Using Small-Bore Needle Arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Karan A; Hartigan, David E; Makovicka, Justin L; Dulle, Donald L; Chhabra, Anikar

    2018-01-01

    Arthroscopy is currently the gold standard for diagnosing intra-articular knee pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be a clinical adjunct for diagnosis; however, it is not without its shortcomings. Although highly accurate, even advanced imaging misdiagnoses the condition in 1 in 14 patients with regard to anterior cruciate ligament pathology. Previous studies have indicated that MRI fails to identify meniscal pathology when one exists in 1 of every 10 cases, and diagnoses pathology when pathology truly does not exist in 1 of every 5 patients. In-office arthroscopy offers an alternative to formal diagnostic arthroscopy, with reduced cost and risk of complications. This is a technique article that discusses the use of small-bore needle arthroscopy in the office setting.

  10. Nuclear medicine for treatment of thyroid diseases. Diagnostic evaluation and imaging of the intrathyroid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, F.D.

    1996-01-01

    The diagnostic interest of nuclear medicine is focussed on the imaging and quantification of intrathyroidal iodine metabolism. Most frequently the various forms of autonomy will be investigated by functional scintigraphy. Cold nodules and the differential diagnosis of Graves disease are further indications. In the case of a sufficient iodine uptake hyperthyroidism can be treated by 1311. Severe hyperthyroidism requires a medical pretreatment before radioiodine therapy. A rigid age limit for radioiodine therapy is not necessary. Pregnancy and the suspicion of malignancy are contraindications of a radioiodine therapy. The after-treatment depends on the nature of the treated hyperthyroidism and the posttreatment result. If a focal autonomy could be eliminated a sufficient amount of iodine should be supplied. To prevent the development of hypothyroidism clinical and thyroid hormon controls, and if necessary a substitution with thyroxin is necessary. (orig.) [de

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging-a diagnostic tool for postoperative evaluation of dental implants: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Laura; Ludwig, Ute; Hövener, Jan-Bernd; Nelson, Katja; Flügge, Tabea

    2018-04-01

    Compared with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) might be superior for the diagnosis of nerve lesions associated with implant placement. A patient presented with unilateral pain associated with dysesthesia in the region of the right lower lip and chin after implant placement. Conventional orthopantomography could not identify an association between the position of the inferior alveolar nerve and the implant. For 3-dimensional display of the implant in relation to the surrounding anatomy, CBCT was compared with MRI. MRI enabled the precise depiction of the implant position and its spatial relation to the inferior alveolar nerve, whereas the nerve position and its exact course within the mandible could not be directly displayed in CBCT. MRI may be a valuable, radiation-free diagnostic tool for the visualization of intraoral hard and soft tissues, offering an objective assessment of nerve injuries by a direct visualization of the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Diagnostic value of ultrasonography in evaluation and management of acute abdominal conditions in the paediatric age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Khalid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aims of this study have been elaborated below: (1 to enumerate the common causes of acute abdominal emergencies by ultrasonography in paediatric patients; (2 to establish the diagnostic efficacy of ultrasonography in evaluation of acute abdominal conditions in children and to illustrate the associated ultrasonographic findings; (3 and, to discuss the role of ultrasonography in guiding the mode of intervention in these cases. Patients and Methods: This prospective study of ultrasonographic examination in 146 paediatric patients presenting with acute onset abdominal pain at the emergency/paediatric outpatient department section of Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College & Hospital, Aligarh, between June 2006 and December 2007, using 3.75 MHz and 8 MHz transducers of the ADARA (Siemens machine. Results : Common causes of acute abdominal emergencies in pediatric patients as noted on ultrasonography included nonspecific pain (28%, abdominal abscess (21%, acute appendicitis (7% and intussusception (7%. Ultrasonography was diagnostic in 45.2% cases and supportive in 12.3% of the cases. As for as the final outcome, ultrasonography prevented surgery in almost 20% cases and laparotomy was avoided in 7% of the patients as ultrasound guided interventions in the form of abscess aspiration were carried out. Conclusion: Ultrasonography evaluation of children with acute abdominal pain, helps in making significant changes in the management plan of the patients, and also reveals various clinically unsuspected diseases.

  13. The experiences of health-related quality of life in patients with nonspecific symptoms who undergo a diagnostic evaluation for cancer: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseholm, Ellen; Lindhardt, Bjarne Oerskov; Rydahl-Hansen, Susan

    2017-09-01

    The diagnostic phase of cancer can affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to investigate how patients with nonspecific symptoms experience HRQoL while undergoing diagnostic evaluations for cancer. Twenty-one participants who had completed a fast-track evaluation for possible cancer at one of three hospitals in the Capital Region, Denmark were interviewed 2-4 weeks after completing diagnostic evaluations. The interviews were semi-structured and were supported by an interview guide based on the same themes as in The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life questionnaire (EORCT-QLQ-C30). Data analysis was based on qualitative content analysis by Krippendorff. The analysis generated six categories: symptoms, physical-, role-, emotional-, cognitive- and social functioning, and the diagnostic fast-track experience. From these categories, a main theme was identified: Health-related quality of life is not solely affected by the diagnostic process. The results provide a comprehensive understanding of HRQoL in the diagnostic phase of possible cancer, which can be used not only to enhance evidence-based care, but also in the interpretation of the EORTC-QLQ-C30 scores. Psycho-social support with a focus on individual informational needs during the diagnostic phase may be warranted. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  14. Specialized data analysis for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and diagnostic evaluation of advanced propulsion system components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for the development and management of advanced launch vehicle propulsion systems, including the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), which is presently operational, and the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) under development. The SSME's provide high performance within stringent constraints on size, weight, and reliability. Based on operational experience, continuous design improvement is in progress to enhance system durability and reliability. Specialized data analysis and interpretation is required in support of SSME and advanced propulsion system diagnostic evaluations. Comprehensive evaluation of the dynamic measurements obtained from test and flight operations is necessary to provide timely assessment of the vibrational characteristics indicating the operational status of turbomachinery and other critical engine components. Efficient performance of this effort is critical due to the significant impact of dynamic evaluation results on ground test and launch schedules, and requires direct familiarity with SSME and derivative systems, test data acquisition, and diagnostic software. Detailed analysis and evaluation of dynamic measurements obtained during SSME and advanced system ground test and flight operations was performed including analytical/statistical assessment of component dynamic behavior, and the development and implementation of analytical/statistical models to efficiently define nominal component dynamic characteristics, detect anomalous behavior, and assess machinery operational condition. In addition, the SSME and J-2 data will be applied to develop vibroacoustic environments for advanced propulsion system components, as required. This study will provide timely assessment of engine component operational status, identify probable causes of malfunction, and indicate feasible engineering solutions. This contract will be performed through accomplishment of negotiated task orders.

  15. Diagnostic efficacy of color Doppler ultrasound in evaluation of cervical lymphadenopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepankar Misra

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, CDUS evaluation was found to be highly significant with a high sensitivity and specificity over clinical evaluation CDUS examination provides a prospect to reduce the need for biopsy/fine needle aspiration cytology in reactive nodes.

  16. SU-F-T-427: Utilization and Evaluation of Diagnostic CT Imaging with MAR Technique for Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, M; Foster, R; Parks, H; Pankuch, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The objective was to utilize and evaluate diagnostic CT-MAR technique for radiation therapy treatment planning. Methods: A Toshiba-diagnostic-CT acquisition with SEMAR(Single-energy-MAR)-algorism was performed to make the metal-artifact-reduction (MAR) for patient treatment planning. CT-imaging datasets with and without SEMAR were taken on a Catphan-phantom. Two sets of CT-numbers were calibrated with the relative electron densities (RED). A tissue characterization phantom with Gammex various simulating material rods was used to establish the relationship between known REDs and corresponding CT-numbers. A GE-CT-sim acquisition was taken on the Catphan for comparison. A patient with bilateral hip arthroplasty was scanned in the radiotherapy CT-sim and the diagnostic SEMAR-CT on a flat panel. The derived SEMAR images were used as a primary CT dataset to create contours for the target, critical-structures, and for planning. A deformable registration was performed with VelocityAI to track voxel changes between SEMAR and CT-sim images. The SEMAR-CT images with minimal artifacts and high quality of geometrical and spatial integrity were employed for a treatment plan. Treatment-plans were evaluated based on deformable registration of SEMAR-CT and CT-sim dataset with assigned CT-numbers in the metal artifact regions in Eclipse v11 TPS. Results: The RED and CT-number relationships were consistent for the datasets in CT-sim and CT’s with and without SEMAR. SEMAR datasets with high image quality were used for PTV and organ delineation in the treatment planning process. For dose distribution to the PTV through the DVH analysis, the plan using CT-sim with the assigned CT-number showed a good agreement to those on deformable CT-SEMAR. Conclusion: A diagnostic-CT with MAR-algorithm can be utilized for radiotherapy treatment planning with CT-number calibrated to the RED. Treatment planning comparison and DVH shows a good agreement in the PTV and critical organs between

  17. Diagnostic imaging of acute aortic dissection; Evaluation of thrombosed type aortic dissection by CT and angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohya, Tohru; Kumazaki, Tatsuo (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    One hundred and nineteen patients with aortic dissection who underwent diagnostic imaging were reviewed and angiographic findings as well as those of CT were analysed. Thirty eight cases (43.1%) had non-contrast opacified false lumen, the type of which we call 'thrombosed type aortic dissection'. A comparative study of the thrombosed type with the patent type of false lumens was made particularly from the stand point of the characteristic diagnostic imagings (CT and angiography). At the same time, the pitfalls of these imagings in thrombosed type aortic dissection were studied. At the onset the average age of thrombosed type was 62.3 years old, while that of the patent type was 57.3. A statistical significance between the two groups was p<0.05. Thrombosed type in all cases was caused by atherosclerosis, whereas patent type was caused by the Marfan's syndrome in 11 cases. Other clinical findings, such as initial symptoms and blood pressure revealed no significant differences between the two groups. Pre-contrast CT in acute thrombosed type aortic dissection showed 'hyperdense crescent sign' in 89.4%. However, in 3 cases with thrombosed type in which the pre-contrast CT showed 'hyperdense crescent sign' contrast-enhanced CT detected no clear evidence of aortic dissection in the same site. This was due to obscurity induced by contrast medium. Angiographic findings of thrombosed type were classified into 3 groups: normal type, stenosed true lumen type and ulcer-like projection type. The incidence of normal type was estimated to be 48.4%, whereas stenosed true lumen type was 24.2% and ulcer-like projection was 27.7%. The present study concluded that thrombosed type is not rare in acute aortic dissection and contrast-enhanced CT as well as pre-contrast CT, is of great value in diagnosing thrombosed type. 'Hyperdense crescent sign' in pre-contrast CT is characteristic of intramural hematoma. (author).

  18. Advanced error diagnostics of the CMAQ and Chimere modelling systems within the AQMEII3 model evaluation framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Solazzo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The work here complements the overview analysis of the modelling systems participating in the third phase of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII3 by focusing on the performance for hourly surface ozone by two modelling systems, Chimere for Europe and CMAQ for North America. The evaluation strategy outlined in the course of the three phases of the AQMEII activity, aimed to build up a diagnostic methodology for model evaluation, is pursued here and novel diagnostic methods are proposed. In addition to evaluating the base case simulation in which all model components are configured in their standard mode, the analysis also makes use of sensitivity simulations in which the models have been applied by altering and/or zeroing lateral boundary conditions, emissions of anthropogenic precursors, and ozone dry deposition. To help understand of the causes of model deficiencies, the error components (bias, variance, and covariance of the base case and of the sensitivity runs are analysed in conjunction with timescale considerations and error modelling using the available error fields of temperature, wind speed, and NOx concentration. The results reveal the effectiveness and diagnostic power of the methods devised (which remains the main scope of this study, allowing the detection of the timescale and the fields that the two models are most sensitive to. The representation of planetary boundary layer (PBL dynamics is pivotal to both models. In particular, (i the fluctuations slower than ∼ 1.5 days account for 70–85 % of the mean square error of the full (undecomposed ozone time series; (ii a recursive, systematic error with daily periodicity is detected, responsible for 10–20 % of the quadratic total error; (iii errors in representing the timing of the daily transition between stability regimes in the PBL are responsible for a covariance error as large as 9 ppb (as much as the standard deviation of the network

  19. Advanced error diagnostics of the CMAQ and Chimere modelling systems within the AQMEII3 model evaluation framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solazzo, Efisio; Hogrefe, Christian; Colette, Augustin; Garcia-Vivanco, Marta; Galmarini, Stefano

    2017-09-01

    The work here complements the overview analysis of the modelling systems participating in the third phase of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII3) by focusing on the performance for hourly surface ozone by two modelling systems, Chimere for Europe and CMAQ for North America. The evaluation strategy outlined in the course of the three phases of the AQMEII activity, aimed to build up a diagnostic methodology for model evaluation, is pursued here and novel diagnostic methods are proposed. In addition to evaluating the base case simulation in which all model components are configured in their standard mode, the analysis also makes use of sensitivity simulations in which the models have been applied by altering and/or zeroing lateral boundary conditions, emissions of anthropogenic precursors, and ozone dry deposition. To help understand of the causes of model deficiencies, the error components (bias, variance, and covariance) of the base case and of the sensitivity runs are analysed in conjunction with timescale considerations and error modelling using the available error fields of temperature, wind speed, and NOx concentration. The results reveal the effectiveness and diagnostic power of the methods devised (which remains the main scope of this study), allowing the detection of the timescale and the fields that the two models are most sensitive to. The representation of planetary boundary layer (PBL) dynamics is pivotal to both models. In particular, (i) the fluctuations slower than ˜ 1.5 days account for 70-85 % of the mean square error of the full (undecomposed) ozone time series; (ii) a recursive, systematic error with daily periodicity is detected, responsible for 10-20 % of the quadratic total error; (iii) errors in representing the timing of the daily transition between stability regimes in the PBL are responsible for a covariance error as large as 9 ppb (as much as the standard deviation of the network-average ozone observations in

  20. Myositis ossificans: radiologic evaluation of two cases with diagnostic computed tomograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeanah, W.R.; Hudson, T.M.

    1982-01-01

    Although most physicians associated myositis ossificans with recent, acute trauma, only 40%-60% of patients give such a history. The appearance of a soft tissue mass without a clear history of trauma may suggest a diagnosis of sarcoma, especially because results of a biopsy of the central portion of an area of myositis ossificans may yield immature, undifferentiated tissue resembling a sarcoma. Pain and rapid growth of a mass are more usual in myositis ossificans than in sarcomas, and careful inquiry may reveal stretching injury or chronic trauma associated with normal, vigorous, physical activities. Recognizing the characteristic histologic zoning phenomenon (immature tissue centrally surrounded by more mature tissue and a peripheral shell of benign bone) during the biopsy procedure permits the correct diagnosis of myositis ossificans. Plain radiographs or conventional tomograms may reflect this histologic zoning by demonstrating the typical, mature, outer shell of bone. Although additional radiographic studies are not usually necessary, they may be obtained when the mass is suspected to be a sarcoma. In two patients computed tomographic scans clearly demonstrated well-defined, peripheral shells of mature bone, diagnostic of myositis ossificans

  1. System diagnostic builder: a rule-generation tool for expert systems that do intelligent data evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieten, Joseph L.; Burke, Roger

    1993-03-01

    The system diagnostic builder (SDB) is an automated knowledge acquisition tool using state- of-the-art artificial intelligence (AI) technologies. The SDB uses an inductive machine learning technique to generate rules from data sets that are classified by a subject matter expert (SME). Thus, data is captured from the subject system, classified by an expert, and used to drive the rule generation process. These rule-bases are used to represent the observable behavior of the subject system, and to represent knowledge about this system. The rule-bases can be used in any knowledge based system which monitors or controls a physical system or simulation. The SDB has demonstrated the utility of using inductive machine learning technology to generate reliable knowledge bases. In fact, we have discovered that the knowledge captured by the SDB can be used in any number of applications. For example, the knowledge bases captured from the SMS can be used as black box simulations by intelligent computer aided training devices. We can also use the SDB to construct knowledge bases for the process control industry, such as chemical production, or oil and gas production. These knowledge bases can be used in automated advisory systems to ensure safety, productivity, and consistency.

  2. Translating the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders into Malay: evaluation of content and process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Suan-Phaik; Yap, Adrian U Jin; Chan, Yiong Huak; Bulgiba, Awang M

    2008-01-01

    To develop a Malay-language version of the Axis II Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) through a formal translation/back-translation process and to summarize available data about the psychometric properties of the translated scales. To cross-culturally adapt the instrument, the RDC/TMD underwent translation using a forward-backward method. Subjects were recruited to test the congruency between translated and original versions of the RDC/TMD. The psychometric properties of 3 domains (Graded Chronic Pain Scale, Nonspecific Physical Symptoms, and Depression) of the RDC/TMD were examined, and the literature on this topic was reviewed. All the items scored 93% to 100% congruency. Cronbach's alphas for Graded Chronic Pain Scale, Nonspecific Physical Symptoms, and Depression were 0.77, 0.71, and 0.88, respectively (n = 40). The test-retest reliability of scores (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) and levels (Spearman's rho) for these domains showed ICCs of 0.97, 0.94, and 0.95, respectively, with a lowest ICC value of 0.84 (n = 40); the Spearman's rho values were 0.93, 0.74, and 0.74, respectively. The discriminant validity between patients with pain symptoms (n = 40) and normal pain-free controls (n = 40) were statistically significant (P cultural adaptation of the RDC/TMD into the Malay language is suitable for use in Malaysia.

  3. Diagnostic performance of multidetector computed tomography in the evaluation of esoph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek ELKammash

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: MDCT is a fast, well tolerable, non-invasive procedure and accepted from most of the examined patients for evaluation and grading of EV, detection of other portosystemic collaterals and hepatobiliary pathologies.

  4. The diagnostic significance of endoscopic cytology in evaluating pancreatic and biliary lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Nilüfer ONAK KANDEMİR; Banu DOĞAN GÜN; Sibel BEKTAŞ; Figen BARUT1; Burak BAHADIR; Gamze YURDAKAN; Şükrü Oğuz ÖZDAMAR; Gamze MOCAN KUZEY

    2007-01-01

    Cytology is a widely performed technique in evaluating biliary and pancreatic ductal lesions. The contribution of cytological methods to the diagnosis of the disorders causing biliary stricture, and biopsy diagnoses of the cases were evaluated together with clinical follow-up outcomes and the results presented in this study.From January 2005 to December 2006, in Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Gastroenterology, 20 biliary endoscopic brush cytology and 2 exfo...

  5. Prevalence of dental disorders in degus and evaluation of diagnostic methods to determine dental disease and its prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bolhuis, Hester; van Hoffen, Lotte; van Zijll Langhout, Martine; van Engeldorp Gastelaars, Heleen; Hendriks, Wouter; Lamberts, Marnix; Kik, Marja

    2017-12-01

    Degus ( Octodon degus ) are prone to develop dental disease with deleterious health effects. The two studies reported here aimed to determine the prevalence of dental disorders in degus and to identify and evaluate diagnostic tools for determination of prognosis of these disorders. In study A, health data from 225 degus at AAP, Rescue Center for Exotic Animals in the Netherlands, were collated and the prevalence of dental disorders and differences in sex and age at clinical onset of symptoms associated with dental disorders were described. The prevalence was 34.7 per cent and higher (P<0.01) in males than in females. The occurrence of cheek teeth malocclusion was highly positively (P<0.0001) correlated to mortality. In study B, 36 skulls were examined by macroscopic evaluation, radiography and histology. Additionally, the calcium:phosphorus (Ca:P) of mandibular bone in degus with and without dental disorders were determined. There was no significant (P=0.10) difference in Ca:P between the two groups. Quantifying mandibular apical cheek teeth elongation via macroscopic evaluation was highly correlated (P<0.01) to the results obtained via radiography. Examination for apical elongation by palpation and diagnostic imaging should be included in routine health monitoring of degus. Apical elongation appeared to develop before coronal elongation and when cheek teeth malocclusion occurred, prognosis for recovery of dental disease was poor. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Evaluation of a new paleosecular variation activity index as a diagnostic tool for geomagnetic field variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panovska, Sanja; Constable, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Geomagnetic indices like Dst, K and A, have been used since the early twentieth century to characterize activity in the external part of the modern geomagnetic field and as a diagnostic for space weather. These indices reflect regional and global activity and serve as a proxy for associated physical processes. However, no such tools are yet available for the internal geomagnetic field driven by the geodynamo in Earth's liquid outer core. To some extent this reflects limited spatial and temporal sampling for longer timescales associated with paleomagnetic secular variation, but recent efforts in both paleomagnetic data gathering and modeling activity suggest that longer term characterization of the internal geomagnetic weather/climate and its variability would be useful. Specifically, we propose an index for activity in paleosecular variation, useful as both a local and global measure of field stability during so-called normal secular variation and as a means of identifying more extreme behavior associated with geomagnetic excursions and reversals. To date, geomagnetic excursions have been identified by virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) deviating more than some conventional limit from the geographic pole (often 45 degrees), and/or by periods of significant intensity drops below some critical value, for example 50% of the present-day field. We seek to establish a quantitative definition of excursions in paleomagnetic records by searching for synchronous directional deviations and lows in relative paleointensity. We combine paleointensity variations with deviations from the expected geocentric axial dipole (GAD) inclination in a single parameter, which we call the paleosecular variation (PSV) activity index. This new diagnostic can be used on any geomagnetic time series (individual data records, model predictions, spherical harmonic coefficients, etc.) to characterize the level of paleosecular variation activity, find excursions, or even study incipient reversals

  7. PERSPECTIVE OF IN VITRO LYMPHOCYTES ANTIGENICITY EVALUATION FOR THE DIAGNOSTICS OF ACUTE BRUCELLOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Kostyuchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The brucellosis remains to one of the most urgent dangerous infections in regions with developed livestock production. An exclusive polymorphism of symptoms, variety of forms of a disease, small informational content of results of routine laboratory all-clinical inspection, quite often leads to diagnostic mistakes at a pre-hospital stage. Improvement of a complex of laboratory diagnosis of a brucellous infection demands development of the modern padding methods of verification based on cell-like factors of immunity as leaders in an immunogenesis and a pathogenesis of a brucellosis. Considering the leading role of cell-like immunity in formation of protection against the majority of bacteriemic especially dangerous infections, studying of cell-like reaction in response to antigenic stimulation, it is necessary to consider the most informative (marker and objective at assessment of immunologic reorganization of an organism at a disease or vaccination. The following markers (receptors of activation of lymphocytes can act as perspective indexes of a specific cell-like antigenreactivity: CD25 — a high-affine receptor of interleukin 2 (IL-2Ra, a marker of early activation of Tlymphocytes; HLA-DR — an antigen of the main complex of a histocompatibility of a class II, an expression of a marker is associated not only with late, but also long-lived activation of lymphocytes; CD95 (Fas, APO-1 — a receptor of an induction of an apoptosis (“cell death”, a marker of “late” activation (CD4+ lymphocytes is presented mainly and Fas L (CD178 — a receptor of an induction of an apoptosis, expresses generally on CD8+ cages. The work purpose — to estimate an opportunity and prospects of use of technology of a flowing cytofluorometry and the in vitro cell tests for diagnosis of a acute brucellosis. 35 people with the diagnosis “Acute brucellosis” and 12 people — not the patients who did not have a brucellosis, are not vaccinated

  8. Evaluation of outpatients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis in a high HIV prevalence setting in Ethiopia: clinical, diagnostic and epidemiological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchfeld, Judith; Aderaye, Getachew; Palme, Ingela Berggren; Bjorvatn, Bjarne; Britton, Sven; Feleke, Yewenhareg; Källenius, Gunilla; Lindquist, Lars

    2002-01-01

    In a setting with a high prevalence of HIV we studied (i) the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and HIV; (ii) clinical and epidemiological characteristics of PTB; and (iii) the usefulness of standard procedures for diagnosing PTB. Of 509 consecutive outpatients evaluated on clinical suspicion of PTB in Addis Ababa, 33.0% were culture-verified as having PTB. PTB patients, non-TB patients and controls were HIV-1-positive in 57.1%, 38.5% and 8.3% of cases, respectively. Predictors for culture-verified PTB were age infection. Diagnosis of PTB based on clinical symptoms, sputum microscopy for acid-fast bacilli and chest radiography was sensitive (86.7%) but unspecific (64.1%). In HIV-positive patients both sensitivity and specificity were significantly lower (p infections are often misinterpreted as smear-negative PTB. HIV screening is therefore warranted not only in cases of verified TB but also as part of the diagnostic work-up in patients with respiratory symptoms suggestive of PTB. Also, increased awareness of, and improved diagnostic tools for, HIV-related pulmonary infections other than PTB are required, together with algorithms for patients with suspected PTB.

  9. Evaluation of diagnostic methods for the detection of Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsy specimens of dyspeptic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Bastos Ramis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infects nearly 50% of the world's population. This microorganism is accepted as the most important agent of gastritis and as a risk factor for peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma. Currently many diagnostic methods exist for detecting H. pylori, however they all have limitations, thus it is recommend a combination of at least two methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic methods, such as in-house urease test, culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, for the detection of the H. pylori in gastric biopsy specimens of 144 dyspeptic patients, using as gold standard the association between histology and rapid urease test. According to the gold standard used in this study, 48 (33.3% patients were infected with H. pylori, while 96 (66.7% were classified as not infected. The in-house urease test and the PCR were the most sensitive methods (100%, followed by culture (85.4%. However, the in-house urease test and the culture were the most specific (100%, followed by PCR (75%. In conclusion, this study showed that, in comparison with the combination of histology and rapid urease test, the in-house urease test and the PCR presented 100% of sensitivity in the diagnosis of gastric infection by H. pylori, while the in-house urease test and the culture reached 100% of specificity. These finding suggest that the combination of two or more methods may improve the accuracy of the H. pylori detection.

  10. [Evaluation of general practitioners' knowledge about diagnostic and therapeuthic management of erysipelas in the city of Marrakech].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihbibane, Fatima; Arsène, Ntini Lebi; Adarmouch, Latifa; Amine, Mohamed; Tassi, Noura

    2018-01-01

    Erysipelas is the most common non necrotizing bacterial dermohypodermitis (NNBDH). This study aimed to evaluate the adequacy of general practitioners' knowledge about literature data on the diagnostic and therapeuthic management of erysipelas. We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical survey of 167 general practitioners in the public and private sectors in Marrakech over the period from 19 May to 20 October 2014. The 114 questionnaires which had been returned revealed that local and general risk factors were often reported for erysipelas. 92 (80.7%) physicians thought that positive diagnosis of common types was based on clinical examination. 97(85.1%) physicians thought that it required only out-patient service and that hospitalization and para-clinical examinations should only be performed in patients with severe, atypical or complicated erysipelas. 25 (21.9%) physicians thought that oral amoxicillin should be the gold standard therapy. 15(13.2%) physicians thought that bi-antibiotic therapy including antistreptococcique molecule should be the gold standard. 16 doctors (14%) advocated anti-inflammatory drugs. The primary and secondary prevention levels generated interest from physicians of whom 108 (94.7%) were favorable to the treatment of the portals of entry in the skin while 53 (46.5%) to the antibioprophylaxis after the second recurrence. Our study highlights that erysipelas is relatively frequent in city medical practice; clinical diagnosis guidelines should be shared between the specialists in order to improve the diagnostic and therapeutic approch of our physicians.

  11. Evaluation with stabilometric platform of balance disorders in osteoporosis patients. A proposal for a diagnostic protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultrera, Pina; Pratelli, Elisa; Petrai, Veronica; Postiglione, Marco; Zambelan, Giulia; Pasquetti, Pietro

    2010-05-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic disease with reduced bone mass and qualitative alterations of the bone, associated to increased risk of fracture. Pathogenesis of osteoporosis fractures is multifactorial. Main risk factor is falls (except for vertebral fragility fractures which occurs often in absence of trauma). Aging by itself produces physiological changes: muscular hypotrophy with asthenia, deficit of visus and hearing together with associated pathologies and multi-drug therapies. In osteoporosis patients with vertebral fractures posture change occurs which reduces balance. After clinical postural evaluation it is possible to carry out instrumental evaluation of posture with computerized methods such as stabilometry, baropodometry, dynanometry and gait analysis. Examination carried out with use of stabilometric computerized platform allows stabilometric (body sway assessment) as well as posturometric examination (center of pressure assessment during quiet standing). Fundamental parameters obtained are: position of the body center of gravity, area and shape of sway density curve and velocity variables. Protocol of evaluation includes assessment of examination in standard condition and in condition of temporary sensorial deprivation (to investigate the influence of various afferent systems on the maintenance of posture and balance). Accurate evaluation of postural control in osteoporosis patients constitutes a fundamental tool in fracture risk evaluation due to fall and in identification and correction of modifiable factors responsible for balance defect. This approach, together with adequate drug therapy, may lead to significant reduction of fractures in osteoporosis patients with subsequent reduction of hospitalization and residual consequent disabilities.

  12. Evaluation with stabilometric platform of balance disorders in osteoporosis patients. A proposal for a diagnostic protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultrera, Pina; Pratelli, Elisa; Petrai, Veronica; Postiglione, Marco; Zambelan, Giulia; Pasquetti, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic disease with reduced bone mass and qualitative alterations of the bone, associated to increased risk of fracture. Pathogenesis of osteoporosis fractures is multifactorial. Main risk factor is falls (except for vertebral fragility fractures which occurs often in absence of trauma). Aging by itself produces physiological changes: muscular hypotrophy with asthenia, deficit of visus and hearing together with associated pathologies and multi-drug therapies. In osteoporosis patients with vertebral fractures posture change occurs which reduces balance. After clinical postural evaluation it is possible to carry out instrumental evaluation of posture with computerized methods such as stabilometry, baropodometry, dynanometry and gait analysis. Examination carried out with use of stabilometric computerized platform allows stabilometric (body sway assessment) as well as posturometric examination (center of pressure assessment during quiet standing). Fundamental parameters obtained are: position of the body center of gravity, area and shape of sway density curve and velocity variables. Protocol of evaluation includes assessment of examination in standard condition and in condition of temporary sensorial deprivation (to investigate the influence of various afferent systems on the maintenance of posture and balance). Accurate evaluation of postural control in osteoporosis patients constitutes a fundamental tool in fracture risk evaluation due to fall and in identification and correction of modifiable factors responsible for balance defect. This approach, together with adequate drug therapy, may lead to significant reduction of fractures in osteoporosis patients with subsequent reduction of hospitalization and residual consequent disabilities. PMID:22460016

  13. Evaluating eosin-5-maleimide binding as a diagnostic test for hereditary spherocytosis in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, R D; Agarwal, A M; Nussenzveig, R H; Heikal, N; Liew, M A; Yaish, H M

    2015-05-01

    Neonates with undiagnosed hereditary spherocytosis (HS) are at risk for developing hazardous hyperbilirubinemia and anemia. Making an early diagnosis of HS in a neonate can prompt anticipatory guidance to prevent these adverse outcomes. A recent comparison study showed that a relatively new diagnostic test for HS, eosin-5-maleimide (EMA)-flow cytometry, performs better than other available tests in confirming HS. However, reports have not specifically examined the performance of this test among neonates. We compared EMA-flow cytometry from blood samples of healthy control neonates vs samples from neonates suspected of having HS on the basis of severe Coombs-negative jaundice and spherocytes on blood film. The diagnosis of HS was later either confirmed or excluded based on clinical findings and next generation sequencing (NGS) after which we correlated the EMA-flow results with the diagnosis. EMA-flow was performed on the blood of 31 neonates; 20 healthy term newborns and 11 who were suspected of having HS. Eight of the 11 were later confirmed positive for HS and one was confirmed positive for hereditary elliptocytosis (HE). All nine had persistently abnormal erythroid morphology, reticulocytosis and anemia, and eight of the nine had relevant mutations discovered using NGS. The other was confirmed positive for HS on the basis that a parent had HS, and the neonate's spherocytosis, reticulocytosis and anemia persisted. The 20 healthy controls and the 2 in whom HS was initially suspected but later excluded all had EMA-flow results in the range reported in healthy children and adults. In contrast, all nine in whom HS or HE was confirmed had abnormal EMA-flow results consistent with previous reports in older children and adults with HS. Although our sample size is small, our findings are consistent with the literature in older children and adults suggesting that EMA-flow cytometric testing performs well in supporting the diagnosis of HS/HE during the early neonatal

  14. Evaluation of the distribution of absorbed dose in child phantoms exposed to diagnostic medical x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine, by theoretical calculation and experimental measurement, the absorbed dose distributions in two heterogeneous phantoms representing one-year- and five-year-old children from typical radiographic examinations for those ages. Theoretical work included the modification of an existing internal dose code which used Monte Carlo methods to determine doses within the Snyder-Fisher mathematical phantom. A Ge(Li) detector and a pinhole collimator were used to measure x-ray spectra which served as input (i.e., the source routine) to the modified Monte Carlo codes which were used to calculate organ doses in children. Experimental work included the fabrication of child phantoms to match the existing mathematical models. These phantoms were constructed of molded lucite shells filled with differing materials to simulate lung, skeletal, and soft-tissue regions. The skeleton regions of phantoms offered the opportunity to perform meaningful measurements of absorbed dose to bone marrow and bone. Thirteen to fourteen sites in various bones of the skeleton were chosen for placement of TLDs. These sites represented important regions in which active bone marrow is located. Sixteen typical radiographic examinations were performed representing common pediatric diagnostic procedures. The calculated and measured tissue-air values were compared for a number of organs. For most organs, the results of the calculated absorbed doses agreed with the measured absorbed doses within twice the coefficient of variation of the calculated value. The absorbed dose to specific organs for several selected radiological examinations are given for one-year-old, five-year-old, and adult phantoms. For selected radiological exposures, the risk factors of leukemia, thyroid cancer, and genetic death are estimated for one-year- and five-year-old children

  15. Evaluation of diagnostic tests for Wuchereria bancrofti infection in Brazilian schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Since the launch of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, more than 70% of the endemic countries have implemented mass drug administration (MDA to interrupt disease transmission. The monitoring of filarial infection in sentinel populations, particularly schoolchildren, is recommended to assess the impact of MDA. A key issue is choosing the appropriate tools for these initial assessments (to define the best intervention and for monitoring transmission. Methods This study compared the pre-MDA performance of five diagnostic methods, namely, thick film test, Knott's technique, filtration, Og4C3-ELISA, and the AD12-ICT card test, in schoolchildren from Brazil. Venous and capillary blood samples were collected between 11 pm and 1 am. The microfilarial loads were analyzed with a negative binomial regression, and the prevalence and associated 95% confidence intervals were estimated for all methods. The accuracies of the AD12-ICT card and Og4C3-ELISA tests were assessed against the combination of parasitological test results. Results A total of 805 schoolchildren were examined. The overall and stratified prevalence by age group and gender detected by Og4C3-ELISA and AD12-ICT were markedly higher than the prevalence estimated by the parasitological methods. The sensitivity of the AD12-ICT card and Og4C3-ELISA tests was approximately 100%, and the positive likelihood ratios were above 6. The specificity of the Og4C3-ELISA was higher than that of the AD12-ICT at different prevalence levels. Conclusions The ICT card test should be the recommended tool for monitoring school-age populations living in areas with ongoing or completed MDA.

  16. Diagnostic performance of the upper gastrointestinal series in the evaluation of children with clinically suspected malrotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizemore, Alecia W.; Rabbani, Kaneez Z.; Ladd, Alan; Applegate, Kimberly E.

    2008-01-01

    Malrotation is a congenital disorder of abnormal intestinal rotation and fixation that predisposes infants to potentially life-threatening midgut volvulus. Upper gastrointestinal tract (UGI) examination is sometimes equivocal and can lead to inaccurate diagnosis. To determine the diagnostic performance of UGI examinations in children who subsequently underwent a Ladd procedure for suspected malrotation or volvulus. We reviewed all children up to 21 years old who had undergone both a UGI examination and a Ladd procedure for possible malrotation across 9 years. Children were excluded if they had not undergone either a UGI examination or a Ladd procedure and if congenital abdominal wall defects were present. Of 229 patients identified, 166 (59% male, median age 67 days) were included. Excluded were 47 without a UGI series, 12 with omphalocele or gastroschisis, 1 without verifiable operative data, 1 who had not undergone a Ladd procedure, and 2 older than 21 years. Of the 166 patients, 40% were neonates and 73% were <12 months old, and 31% presented with bilious vomiting and 15% with abdominal distention. Of 163 patients with surgically verified malrotation, 156 had a positive UGI examination, a sensitivity of 96%. There were two patients with a false-positive UGI examination and seven with false-negative examination. Jejunal position was normal in six of the seven with a false-negative examination and abnormal in the two with a false-positive examination. Of 38 patients with surgically verified volvulus, 30 showed volvulus on the UGI series. Five required bowel resection and three died. Jejunal position can lead to inaccurate UGI series interpretation. Meticulous technique and periodic assessment of performance will help more accurately diagnose difficult or equivocal cases. (orig.)

  17. Diagnostic performance of the upper gastrointestinal series in the evaluation of children with clinically suspected malrotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizemore, Alecia W [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); University of Virginia School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Rabbani, Kaneez Z [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Ladd, Alan [Indiana University School of Medicine, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Riley Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Applegate, Kimberly E [Indiana University School of Medicine, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Malrotation is a congenital disorder of abnormal intestinal rotation and fixation that predisposes infants to potentially life-threatening midgut volvulus. Upper gastrointestinal tract (UGI) examination is sometimes equivocal and can lead to inaccurate diagnosis. To determine the diagnostic performance of UGI examinations in children who subsequently underwent a Ladd procedure for suspected malrotation or volvulus. We reviewed all children up to 21 years old who had undergone both a UGI examination and a Ladd procedure for possible malrotation across 9 years. Children were excluded if they had not undergone either a UGI examination or a Ladd procedure and if congenital abdominal wall defects were present. Of 229 patients identified, 166 (59% male, median age 67 days) were included. Excluded were 47 without a UGI series, 12 with omphalocele or gastroschisis, 1 without verifiable operative data, 1 who had not undergone a Ladd procedure, and 2 older than 21 years. Of the 166 patients, 40% were neonates and 73% were <12 months old, and 31% presented with bilious vomiting and 15% with abdominal distention. Of 163 patients with surgically verified malrotation, 156 had a positive UGI examination, a sensitivity of 96%. There were two patients with a false-positive UGI examination and seven with false-negative examination. Jejunal position was normal in six of the seven with a false-negative examination and abnormal in the two with a false-positive examination. Of 38 patients with surgically verified volvulus, 30 showed volvulus on the UGI series. Five required bowel resection and three died. Jejunal position can lead to inaccurate UGI series interpretation. Meticulous technique and periodic assessment of performance will help more accurately diagnose difficult or equivocal cases. (orig.)

  18. Economic evaluation of spondyloarthritis: economic impact of diagnostic delay in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennini, Francesco S; Viti, Raffaella; Marcellusi, Andrea; Sciattella, Paolo; Viapiana, Ombretta; Rossini, Maurizio

    2018-01-01

    Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a disease that normally affects the axial skeleton. It progressively leads to overall stiffness up to severe postural deformity of rachis and functional impotence. The objective of the study was to quantify, through an economic model, the impact of specialized testing and pharmacological treatments carried out by the National Health Service (NHS) in normal clinical practice, before the patient is diagnosed with SpA in Italy. In line with the analysis objective, the chosen perspective is that of the NHS. The study was conducted by analyzing the Health Search Database - IMS Health Longitudinal Patient Database, from which newly diagnosed SpA patients were identified over the period 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2013. The use of specialist health care services and pharmacological treatments provided to the patients before the final SpA diagnosis were estimated. Through a retrospective analysis of the Health Search Database, 1,084 subjects (aged 25-45 years) were identified. These patients produced an expense of approximately €153,000 in the 3 years prior to a confirmed SpA diagnosis, in terms of specialist check-ups and drugs, presumably not appropriately used due to a lack of diagnosis. If we assume that the Health Search Database is a representative sample of the Italian population, it may be estimated that, in the 3 years prior to SpA diagnosis, over €5.4 million was largely unduly spent in Italy to examine and manage 38,232 newly diagnosed SpA patients, between 2010 and 2013. The costs due to the delay in SpA diagnosis were quantified for the first time in Italy. For this reason, this work represents a contribution for national and regional decision makers to understand the current clinical practice and the economic consequences of a diagnostic delay in the short and medium term.

  19. Diagnostic evaluation of the adrenal scanning using 131I-adosterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Seiya; Nakamura, Mamoru; Sawai, Yoshikazu; Fukuchi, Soitsu.

    1978-01-01

    We have performed adrenal scanning in the 30 patients with suspected adrenal disorders eight days after the intravenous administration of about 500 μCi of 131 I-adosterol (NCL-6- 131 I), using 5 inch crystal rectilinear scintiscanner. Successful image of the adrenals was obtained in all the patients. In the 30 patients, 27 were proved to have adrenal disorders by surgical and hormonal findings. In 13 patients with primary aldosteronism, the side of adrenal adenoma was diagnosed correctly in all the cases by adrenal scanning. We could detected a small aldosterone-producing adenoma which measured 11 x 8 x 6 mm in size. In two patients with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism, asymmetrical radio-uptake between the two adrenals was seen on the standard scanning, and it was difficult to differentiate between tumor or hyperplasia. Dexamethazone-modified suppression scanning was very effective in lateralizing adenomas in the patients with primary aldosteronism. Two patients with Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal hyperplasia showed prominent and almost equal radioactivity of both the adrenal glands. Adrenal adenomas in 8 patients with Cushing's syndrome were definitely visualized on adrenal scanning, with no uptake in the contralateral sides. In one patient with Cushing's syndrome due to an adrenal carcinoma, adrenal scanning showed significant activity in the area of the carcinoma, and no uptake on the opposite side. In one patient with adrenogenital syndrome due to a virilizing adenoma with focal malignancy, adrenal scanning showed high radioactivity in the region of the tumor, and moderate activity on the opposite side. Also in the case of adrenal carcinoma, we appreciated diagnostic value of the adrenal scanning utilizing 131 I-adosterol. (author)

  20. Evaluation of Ultrasonography as a Diagnostic Tool in Maxillofacial Space Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Pandey

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the study was to establish the role of ultrasonography in determining the involvement of specific fascial spaces in maxillofacial region and the stage of infection, in indicating the appropriate time for surgical intervention and to compare clinical and ultrasonographic findings.Material and Methods: Twenty five patients with fascial space infection in maxillofacial region were subjected to ultrasonographic examination following a detailed clinical and radiological examination. Ultrasonography guided needle aspiration was performed. Based on the findings, patients diagnosed with abscess were subjected to incision and drainage and those with cellulitis were subjected to medical line of treatment.Results: More than one fascial space was involved in all patients. On clinical examination 64 spaces were involved, of them 34 spaces had abscess formation and 30 spaces were in the stage of cellulitis. On ultrasonography examination, 28 spaces were reported to have abscess formation and 36 spaces were diagnosed to be in the stage of cellulitis. On comparative analysis of both clinical and ultrasonographic findings, ultrasonography was found to be sensitive in 65% of the cases and having specificity of 80%. It was registered statistically significant (P < 0.001 agreement between these two methods of assessment (kappa index = 0.814.Conclusions: Ultrasonography is a quick, widely available, relatively inexpensive, and painless procedure and can be repeated as often as necessary without risk to the patient. Thus ultrasonography is a valuable diagnostic aid to the oral and maxillofacial surgeon for early and accurate diagnosis of fascial space infection, their appropriate treatment and to limit their further spread.

  1. The diagnostic value of double-contrast-technique cystography in the evaluation of benign and malignant lesions of the urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, D.; Koester, R.; Schuett, H.

    1979-01-01

    Cystography by double-contrast-technique as simple and quick method of evaluating benign and malignant lesions of the urinary bladder is being described. 301 examinations were reviewed and are being discussed in regard to diagnostic value, indication, complication and radiation exposure of this method. A few typical cases are being demonstrated to illustrate the value of this method in the spectrum of other diagnostic methods in the workup of urinary bladder lesions. (orig.) [de

  2. Evaluation of the Effect of Diagnostic Molecular Testing on the Surgical Decision-Making Process for Patients With Thyroid Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureldine, Salem I; Najafian, Alireza; Aragon Han, Patricia; Olson, Matthew T; Genther, Dane J; Schneider, Eric B; Prescott, Jason D; Agrawal, Nishant; Mathur, Aarti; Zeiger, Martha A; Tufano, Ralph P

    2016-07-01

    Diagnostic molecular testing is used in the workup of thyroid nodules. While these tests appear to be promising in more definitively assigning a risk of malignancy, their effect on surgical decision making has yet to be demonstrated. To investigate the effect of diagnostic molecular profiling of thyroid nodules on the surgical decision-making process. A surgical management algorithm was developed and published after peer review that incorporated individual Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology classifications with clinical, laboratory, and radiological results. This algorithm was created to formalize the decision-making process selected herein in managing patients with thyroid nodules. Between April 1, 2014, and March 31, 2015, a prospective study of patients who had undergone diagnostic molecular testing of a thyroid nodule before being seen for surgical consultation was performed. The recommended management undertaken by the surgeon was then prospectively compared with the corresponding one in the algorithm. Patients with thyroid nodules who did not undergo molecular testing and were seen for surgical consultation during the same period served as a control group. All pertinent treatment options were presented to each patient, and any deviation from the algorithm was recorded prospectively. To evaluate the appropriateness of any change (deviation) in management, the surgical histopathology diagnosis was correlated with the surgery performed. The study cohort comprised 140 patients who underwent molecular testing. Their mean (SD) age was 50.3 (14.6) years, and 75.0% (105 of 140) were female. Over a 1-year period, 20.3% (140 of 688) had undergone diagnostic molecular testing before surgical consultation, and 79.7% (548 of 688) had not undergone molecular testing. The surgical management deviated from the treatment algorithm in 12.9% (18 of 140) with molecular testing and in 10.2% (56 of 548) without molecular testing (P = .37). In the group with

  3. Determining skeletal maturation stage using cervical vertebrae: evaluation of three diagnostic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci Mara Fachardo Jaqueira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the use of three cervical vertebral evaluation methods (Hassel-Farman, Baccetti et al., and Seedat-Forsberg for determinating skeletal maturation stage in orthodontic patients. Twenty-three radiographs were randomly selected from a private orthodontic practice. Each radiograph was analyzed on three separate occasions by four evaluators (one radiologist and three orthodontists, who determined the skeletal maturation stage using the references established by each of the three methods. Intraevaluator and interevaluator comparisons were performed, and the degree of agreement was established using the weighted Kappa coefficient (95% CI. Good agreement (Kappa between 0.61 and 0.80 was observed between the determinations of most of the evaluators. The three methods demonstrated clinical applicability. However, the method proposed by Baccetti et al. achieved the best results, followed by the Hassel-Farman and the Seedat-Forsberg methods.

  4. [Discussion on development of four diagnostic information scale for clinical re-evaluation of postmarketing herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yongyan

    2011-12-01

    Post-marketing re-evaluation of Chinese herbs can well reflect Chinese medicine characteristics, which is the most easily overlooked the clinical re-evaluation content. Since little attention has been paid to this, study on the clinical trial design method was lost. It is difficult to improving the effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese medicine. Therefore, more attention should be paid on re-evaluation of the clinical trial design method point about tcm syndrome such as the type of research program design, the study of Chinese medical information collection scale and statistical analysis methods, so as to improve the clinical trial design method study about tcm syndrome of Chinese herbs postmarketing re-evalutation status.

  5. [THE VIRTUAL CYTOLOGIC SLIDES FOR EXTERNAL EVALUATION OF QUALITY OF IMPLEMENTATION OF CYTOLOGIC ANALYSES IN CLINICAL DIAGNOSTIC LABORATORIES: POSSIBILITIES AND PERSPECTIVES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djangirova, T V; Shabalova, I P; Pronichev, A N; Polyakov, E V

    2015-08-01

    The article considers application of technology of analysis of cytological slides in external quality control of clinical diagnostic laboratories. The advantages of virtual slides are demonstrated against other applied technologies of external evaluation of quality i.e. slide plate and digital micro-photography. The conditions of formation of virtual slides for external evaluation of quality of clinical diagnostic laboratories. The technology of their application is described. The success of practical application of considered technology in the Federal system of external evaluation of quality is emphasized.

  6. The diagnostic yield of the first episode of a periodic health evaluation: a descriptive epidemiology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kermott Cindy A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of a periodic health evaluation remain debatable. The incremental value added by such evaluations beyond the delivery of age appropriate screening and preventive medicine recommendations is unclear. Methods We retrospectively collected data on a cohort of consecutive patients presenting for their first episode of a comprehensive periodic health evaluation. We abstracted data on new diagnoses that were identified during this single episode of care and that were not trivial (i.e., required additional testing or intervention. Results The cohort consisted of 491 patients. The rate of new diagnoses per this single episode of care was 0.9 diagnoses per patient. The majority of these diagnoses was not prompted by patients’ complaints (71% and would not have been identified by screening guidelines (51%. Men (odds ratio 2.67; 95% CI, 1.76, 4.03 and those with multiple complaints at presentation (odds ratio 1.12; 95% CI, 1.05, 1.19 were more likely to receive a clinically relevant diagnosis at the conclusion of the visit. Age was not a predictor of receiving a diagnosis in this cohort. Conclusion The first episode of a comprehensive periodic health evaluation may reveal numerous important diagnoses or risk factors that are not always identified through routine screening.

  7. Evaluation of diagnostic tests when there is no gold standard. A review of methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutjes, A. W. S.; Reitsma, J. B.; Coomarasamy, A.; Khan, K. S.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To generate a classification of methods to evaluate medical tests when there is no gold standard. METHODS: Multiple search strategies were employed to obtain an overview of the different methods described in the literature, including searches of electronic databases, contacting experts

  8. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of hand and foot MRI for early Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis, Wouter P; van Steenbergen, Hanna W; Mangnus, Lukas; Newsum, Elize C; Bloem, Johan L; Huizinga, Tom W J; le Cessie, Saskia; Reijnierse, Monique; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M

    2017-08-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of MRI for early RA. In some RA patients, a classifiable diagnosis cannot be made at first presentation; these patients present with unclassified arthritis (UA). The use of MRI for early diagnosis of RA is recommended, yet the evidence for its reliability is limited. MRI of hand and foot was performed in 589 early arthritis patients included in the Leiden Early Arthritis Clinic (229 presented with RA, 159 with other arthritides and 201 with UA). Symptom-free controls provided a reference for defining an abnormal MRI. In preliminary investigations, MRI of patients who presented with RA was compared with MRI of symptom-free controls and of patients with other arthritides. Thereafter, the value of MRI in early RA diagnosis was determined in UA patients using the 1-year follow-up on fulfilling the 1987 RA criteria and start of disease-modifying drugs as outcomes. Preliminary investigations were promising. Of the UA patients, 14% developed RA and 37% started disease-modifying treatment. MRI-detected tenosynovitis was associated with RA development independent of other types of MRI-detected inflammation [odds ratio (OR) = 7.5, 95% CI: 2.4, 23] and also independent of age and other inflammatory measures (swollen joints, CRP) (OR = 4.2, 95% CI: 1.4, 12.9). Within UA patients, the negative predictive value of abnormal tenosynovitis was 95% (95% CI: 89%, 98%) and the positive predictive value 25% (95% CI: 17%, 35%). The performance was best in the subgroup of UA patients presenting with oligoarthritis (18% developed RA): the positive predictive value was 36% (95% CI: 23%, 52%), the negative predictive value was 98% (95% CI: 88%, 100%), the sensitivity was 93% (95% CI: 70%, 99%) and the specificity was 63% (95% CI: 51%, 74%). MRI contributes to the identification of UA patients who will develop RA, mostly in UA patients presenting with oligoarthritis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for

  9. Evaluation of modified Alvarado scoring system and RIPASA scoring system as diagnostic tools of acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaib, Abdullah; Shuaib, Ali; Fakhra, Zainab; Marafi, Bader; Alsharaf, Khalid; Behbehani, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical condition presented in emergency departments worldwide. Clinical scoring systems, such as the Alvarado and modified Alvarado scoring systems, were developed with the goal of reducing the negative appendectomy rate to 5%-10%. The Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Appendicitis (RIPASA) scoring system was established in 2008 specifically for Asian populations. The aim of this study was to compare the modified Alvarado with the RIPASA scoring system in Kuwait population. This study included 180 patients who underwent appendectomies and were documented as having "acute appendicitis" or "abdominal pain" in the operating theatre logbook (unit B) from November 2014 to March 2016. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), diagnostic accuracy, predicted negative appendectomy and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the modified Alvarado and RIPASA scoring systems were derived using SPSS statistical software. A total of 136 patients were included in this study according to our criteria. The cut-off threshold point of the modified Alvarado score was set at 7.0, which yielded a sensitivity of 82.8% and a specificity of 56%. The PPV was 89.3% and the NPV was 42.4%. The cut-off threshold point of the RIPASA score was set at 7.5, which yielded a 94.5% sensitivity and an 88% specificity. The PPV was 97.2% and the NPV was 78.5%. The predicted negative appendectomy rates were 10.7% and 2.2% for the modified Alvarado and RIPASA scoring systems, respectively. The negative appendectomy rate decreased significantly, from 18.4% to 10.7% for the modified Alvarado, and to 2.2% for the RIPASA scoring system, which was a significant difference (PAsian populations. It consists of 14 clinical parameters that can be obtained from a good patient history, clinical examination and laboratory investigations. The RIPASA scoring system is more accurate and specific than the modified Alvarado

  10. An Evaluation of Serum Procalcitonin and C-Reactive Protein Levels as Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers of Severe Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szederjesi Janos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recommendations have been made, following the multicenter Surviving Sepsis Campaign study, to standardize the definition of severe sepsis with reference to several parameters such as haemodynamic stability, acid-base balance, bilirubin, creatinine, International Normalized Ratio (INR, urine output and pulmonary functional value of the ratio between arterial oxigen partial pressure and inspiratory oxigen concentration. Procalcitonin (PCT is considered to be a gold standard biomarker for the inflammatory response, and recent studies have shown that it may help to discover whether a seriously ill person is developing sepsis. C-reactive protein (CRP is also used as a marker of inflammation in the body, as its blood levels increase if there is any inflammation in the body. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein levels as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of severe sepsis.

  11. Evaluation of the Standard Diagnostics Leptospira IgM ELISA for diagnosis of acute leptospirosis in Lao PDR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Smythe, Lee; Dohnt, Michael; Hartskeerl, Rudy; Vongsouvath, Manivanh; Davong, Viengmone; Lattana, Olay; Newton, Paul N.; Blacksell, Stuart D.

    2012-01-01

    The diagnostic utility of the Standard Diagnostics Leptospira IgM ELISA for detection of acute leptospirosis was assessed in febrile adults admitted in Vientiane, Laos. Using the cut-off suggested by the manufacturer [optical density (OD) >= 0.75], the assay demonstrated limited diagnostic capacity

  12. Evaluation of the effect of presence of blood in the stomach on endoscopic diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mittal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Presence of blood in the stomach has been thought to affect the performance of diagnostic tests used in detecting Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori in the stomach. This study evaluated the effect of blood on the efficacy of rapid urease test (RUT and microscopic appearance of the biopsy after staining with Giemsa stain. Materials and Methods: Patients with bleeding oesophageal varices who met the inclusion criteria were tested for H. pylori by RUT and microscopic examination of the biopsy. A repeat endoscopy, RUT and histology were done one month following initial presentation. The performance of the diagnostic tests was evaluated with and without the presence of intraluminal blood. A combined result of the two tests, RUT and histology, carried out in presence or absence of blood for the diagnosis of H. pylori, when considered together was considered as the gold standard. Results: Thirty six patients included in the study were in the ages ranging between 15-60 years (mean age = 44.14 years ±2.1. The combination of tests at both visits showed 20/36 (55.6% patients were positive for H. pylori. The decrease in H. pylori positivity in the presence of blood was significant for RUT (8.3% vs. 38.9%; P=0.005 and combined test (19.4% vs. 47.2%; P=0.02 but the decrease in positivity for histology (11.1% vs 30.6% was not significant (P=0.08. In the presence of blood, the sensitivity of RUT, histology and combined tests were 15%, 20% and 35%, respectively. In the absence of blood, the sensitivity of RUT, histology and combination of tests was 70%, 55% and 85%, respectively. Conclusion: Blood in the stomach significantly decreased the sensitivity of RUT, histology and the combination of both. Negative results of these tests in acute upper gastro intestinal (GI bleeding should therefore be interpreted carefully.

  13. Diagnostic utility of carotid artery duplex ultrasonography in the evaluation of syncope: a good test ordered for the wrong reason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadian-Dodov, Daniella; Papolos, Alexander; Olin, Jeffrey W

    2015-06-01

    Syncope refers to a transient loss of consciousness and postural tone secondary to cerebral hypoperfusion. Guidelines recommend against neurovascular testing in cases of syncope without neurologic symptoms; however, many pursue carotid artery duplex ultrasonography (CUS) due to the prognostic implications of identified cerebrovascular disease. Our objective was to determine the diagnostic utility of CUS in the evaluation of syncope and the identification of new or severe atherosclerosis with the potential to change patient management. We reviewed records of 569 patients with CUS ordered for the primary indication of syncope through an accredited vascular laboratory at an academic, urban medical centre. Findings on CUS, patient demographic, clinical and laboratory information, and medications within 6 months of the CUS exam were reviewed. Bivariate relationships between key medical history characteristics and atherosclerosis status (known vs. new disease) were examined. Among 495 patients with complete information, cerebrovascular findings could potentially explain syncope in 2% (10 patients). Optimization of cardiovascular risk factors would benefit patients with known (56.6%) and new atherosclerosis (33.5%) with suboptimal lipid control, (LDL > 70 in 42.2 and 34.9% respectively; LDL > 100 in 15.7 and 20.4%), and those not on high-intensity statin therapy (80 and 87.5%) or antiplatelet medications (13.2 and 50.6%). CUS is a low-yield diagnostic test in the evaluation of syncope, but it is useful in the diagnosis of atherosclerosis and identification of subjects who would benefit from optimal medical therapy. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The Shoulder Objective Practical Assessment Tool: Evaluation of a New Tool Assessing Residents Learning in Diagnostic Shoulder Arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Christopher L; Holt, Edward M; Gooding, Benjamin W T; Tennent, Thomas D; Foden, Philip

    2015-08-01

    To design and validate an objective practical assessment tool for diagnostic shoulder arthroscopy that would provide residents with a method to evaluate their progression in this field of surgery and to identify specific learning needs. We designed and evaluated the shoulder Objective Practical Assessment Tool (OPAT). The shoulder OPAT was designed by us, and scoring domains were created using a Delphi process. The shoulder OPAT was trialed by members of the British Elbow & Shoulder Society Education Committee for internal consistency and ease of use before being offered to other trainers and residents. Inter-rater reliability and intrarater reliability were calculated. One hundred forty orthopaedic residents, of varying seniority, within 5 training regions in the United Kingdom, were questioned regarding the tool. A pilot study of 6 residents was undertaken. Internal consistency was 0.77 (standardized Cronbach α). Inter-rater reliability was 0.60, and intrarater reliability was 0.82. The Spearman correlation coefficient (r) between the global summary score for the shoulder OPAT and the current assessment tool used in postgraduate training for orthopaedic residents undertaking diagnostic shoulder arthroscopy equaled 0.74. Of the residents, 82% agreed or strongly agreed when asked if the shoulder OPAT would be a useful tool in monitoring progression and 72% agreed or strongly agreed with the introduction of the shoulder OPAT within the orthopaedic domain. This study shows that the shoulder OPAT fulfills several aspects of reliability and validity when tested. Despite the inter-rater reliability being 0.60, we believe that the shoulder OPAT has the potential to play a role alongside the current assessment tool in the training of orthopaedic residents. The shoulder OPAT can be used to assess residents during shoulder arthroscopy and has the potential for use in medical education, as well as arthroscopic skills training in the operating theater. Copyright © 2015

  15. Survivors of early childhood trauma: evaluating a two-dimensional diagnostic model of the impact of trauma and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Wildschut

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A two-dimensional diagnostic model for (complex trauma-related and personality disorders has been proposed to assess the severity and prognosis of the impact of early childhood trauma and emotional neglect. An important question that awaits empirical examination is whether a distinction between trauma-related disorders and personality disorders reflects reality when focusing on survivors of early childhood trauma. And, is a continuum of trauma diagnoses a correct assumption and, if yes, what does it look like? Objective: We describe the design of a cross-sectional cohort study evaluating this two-dimensional model of the impact of trauma and neglect. To provide the rationale of our study objectives, we review the existing literature on the impact of early childhood trauma and neglect on trauma-related disorders and personality disorders. Aims of the study are to: (1 quantify the two-dimensional model and test the relation with trauma and neglect; and (2 compare the two study groups. Method: A total of 200 consecutive patients referred to two specific treatment programs (100 from a personality disorder program and 100 from a trauma-related disorder program in the north of Holland will be included. Data are collected at the start of treatment. The assessments include all DSM-5 trauma-related and personality disorders, and general psychiatric symptoms, trauma history, and perceived emotional neglect. Discussion: The results will provide an evaluation of the model and an improvement of the understanding of the relationship between trauma-related disorders and personality disorders and early childhood trauma and emotional neglect. This may improve both diagnostic as well as indication procedures. We will discuss possible strengths and limitations of the design.

  16. Diagnostic and economic evaluation of new biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease: the research protocol of a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handels Ron LH

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New research criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD have recently been developed to enable an early diagnosis of AD pathophysiology by relying on emerging biomarkers. To enable efficient allocation of health care resources, evidence is needed to support decision makers on the adoption of emerging biomarkers in clinical practice. The research goals are to 1 assess the diagnostic test accuracy of current clinical diagnostic work-up and emerging biomarkers in MRI, PET and CSF, 2 perform a cost-consequence analysis and 3 assess long-term cost-effectiveness by an economic model. Methods/design In a cohort design 241 consecutive patients suspected of having a primary neurodegenerative disease are approached in four academic memory clinics and followed for two years. Clinical data and data on quality of life, costs and emerging biomarkers are gathered. Diagnostic test accuracy is determined by relating the clinical practice and new research criteria diagnoses to a reference diagnosis. The clinical practice diagnosis at baseline is reflected by a consensus procedure among experts using clinical information only (no biomarkers. The diagnosis based on the new research criteria is reflected by decision rules that combine clinical and biomarker information. The reference diagnosis is determined by a consensus procedure among experts based on clinical information on the course of symptoms over a two-year time period. A decision analytic model is built combining available evidence from different resources among which (accuracy results from the study, literature and expert opinion to assess long-term cost-effectiveness of the emerging biomarkers. Discussion Several other multi-centre trials study the relative value of new biomarkers for early evaluation of AD and related disorders. The uniqueness of this study is the assessment of resource utilization and quality of life to enable an economic evaluation. The study results

  17. Diagnostic performance of quantitative shear wave elastography in the evaluation of solid breast masses: determination of the most discriminatory parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Frederick Wing-Fai; Ghai, Sandeep; Moshonov, Hadas; Kahn, Harriette; Brennan, Cressida; Dua, Hemi; Crystal, Pavel

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to assess the diagnostic performance of quantitative shear wave elastography in the evaluation of solid breast masses and to determine the most discriminatory parameter. B-mode ultrasound and shear wave elastography were performed before core biopsy of 123 masses in 112 women. The diagnostic performance of ultrasound and quantitative shear wave elastography parameters (mean elasticity, maximum elasticity, and elasticity ratio) were compared. The added effect of shear wave elastography on the performance of ultrasound was determined. The mean elasticity, maximum elasticity, and elasticity ratio were 24.8 kPa, 30.3 kPa, and 1.90, respectively, for 79 benign masses and 130.7 kPa, 154.9 kPa, and 11.52, respectively, for 44 malignant masses (p shear wave elastography parameter was higher than that of ultrasound (p shear wave elastography parameters to the evaluation of BI-RADS category 4a masses, about 90% of masses could be downgraded to BI-RADS category 3. The numbers of downgraded masses were 40 of 44 (91%) for mean elasticity, 39 of 44 (89%) for maximum elasticity, and 42 of 44 (95%) for elasticity ratio. The numbers of correctly downgraded masses were 39 of 40 (98%) for mean elasticity, 38 of 39 (97%) for maximum elasticity, and 41 of 42 (98%) for elasticity ratio. There was improvement in the diagnostic performance of ultrasound of mass assessment with shear wave elastography parameters added to BI-RADS category 4a masses compared with ultrasound alone. Combined ultrasound and elasticity ratio had the highest improvement, from 35.44% to 87.34% for specificity, from 45.74% to 80.77% for positive predictive value, and from 57.72% to 90.24% for accuracy (p shear wave elastography parameters of benign and malignant solid breast masses. By adding shear wave elastography parameters to BI-RADS category 4a masses, we found that about 90% of them could be correctly downgraded to BI-RADS category 3, thereby avoiding biopsy. Elasticity ratio

  18. Pelvic insufficiency fractures associated with radiation atrophy: clinical recognition and diagnostic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumber, M.P.; Greven, K.M.; Haygood, T.M.

    1997-01-01

    Pelvic bone injuries are infrequent complications of radiotherapy. However, insufficiency fractures in irradiated pelvic bones may be underdetected, particularly in postmenopausal women. We describe the clinical presentation, radiologic evaluation, and course of disease in three patients with postradiation pelvic insufficiency fractures. Differential diagnosis included metastatic disease, tumor recurrence, and second malignancy. Recognition of radiographic features may prevent unnecessary, possibly morbid treatments. (orig.). With 6 figs

  19. Clinical characteristics, diagnostic evaluation, and antibiotic prescribing patterns for skin infections in nursing homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Yogo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The epidemiology and management of skin infections in nursing homes has not been adequately described. We reviewed the characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of skin infections among residents of nursing homes to identify opportunities to improve antibiotic use. Methods: A retrospective study involving 12 nursing homes in the Denver metropolitan area. For residents at participating nursing homes diagnosed with a skin infection between July 1, 2013 and June 30, 2014, clinical and demographic information was collected through manual chart review.Results: Of 100 cases included in the study, the most common infections were non-purulent cellulitis (n=55, wound infection (n=27, infected ulcer (n=8, and cutaneous abscess (n=7. In 26 cases, previously published minimum clinical criteria for initiating antibiotics (Loeb criteria were not met. Most antibiotics (n=52 were initiated as a telephone order following a call from a nurse, and 41 patients were not evaluated by a provider within 48 hours after initiation of antibiotics. Nearly all patients (n=95 were treated with oral antibiotics alone. The median treatment duration was 7 days (interquartile range [IQR] 7-10; 43 patients received treatment courses of ≥ 10 days.Conclusions: Most newly diagnosed skin infections in nursing homes were non-purulent infections treated with oral antibiotics. Antibiotics were initiated by telephone in over half of cases, and lack of a clinical evaluation within 48 hours after starting antibiotics was common. Improved diagnosis through more timely clinical evaluations and decreasing length of therapy are important opportunities for antibiotic stewardship in nursing homes.

  20. Current and capacitance measurements as a fast diagnostic tool for evaluation of semiconductor parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Kemmer, J; Krause, N; Krieglmeyer, C; Yang Yi

    2000-01-01

    A fast qualitative method is described for evaluation of semiconductor parameters by analyzing both the capacitance/voltage (C/V) and current/voltage (I/V) characteristics of pn- or Schottky-diodes, which are fabricated on the material under investigation. The method is applied for measurement of recombination and generation lifetimes of minority charge carriers and for determination of doping profiles and distribution of active generation/recombination (G/R) centers after irradiation with Am-alpha particles and deep phosphorus implantation. Measurements on epitaxial silicon result in doping profiles and distributions of active impurities within the epi-layer.

  1. Evaluation of diagnostic radiology services in five Latin American countries: Results for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandan, M.E.; Caspani, C.E.M.; Mora, R. de la; Miranda, A.A.; Plazas, M.-C.; Borras, C.

    2001-01-01

    Under the auspices of PAHO/WHO, a multicentric investigation is carried out in five Latin American countries. Its aim is to correlate quality indicators of radiology services with the accuracy of the radiological interpretation as determined by a panel of experts. We present preliminary results from mammographic imaging facilities, which indicate that the failure to comply with the international standards of quality control produces images of unacceptable quality, as measured either by using a phantom or by an independent evaluation of the clinical images. (author)

  2. Undergoing Diagnostic Evaluation for Possible Cancer Affects the Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients Presenting with Non-Specific Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ellen Frøsig Moseholm; Rydahl Hansen, Susan; Lindhardt, Bjarne Ørskov

    2016-01-01

    Aim Undergoing diagnostic evaluation for possible cancer can affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aims of this study were to examine the HRQoL in patients undergoing a diagnostic evaluation for possible cancer due to non-specific symptoms and further to investigate the impact of socio...... diagnosis had the greatest effect on HRQoL around the time of diagnosis. Conclusions Patients with non-specific symptoms reported an affected HRQoL while undergoing a diagnostic evaluation for possible cancer. Morbidity, being unemployed and receiving a cancer diagnosis had the greatest effect on HRQo...... in the study; 680 (81%) also completed follow-up. Twenty-two percent of the patients received a cancer diagnosis at the end of follow-up. Patients presented initially with a high burden of symptoms, less role and emotional functioning and a lower global health/QoL. Most domains improved after diagnosis...

  3. Proton (1H) MR spectroscopy for routine diagnostic evaluation of brain lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtscher, I.M.; Holtaas, S.; Staahlberg, F.; Univ. Hospital, Lund

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the introduction and performance of proton MR spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) in the daily routine of a modern standard MR unit. Material and Methods: Over an 8-month period, 52 patients with brain lesions were studied with 1 H-MRS, using SE and STEAM sequences for chemical-shift imaging and single-volume spectroscopy. The quality of the spectra was graded from 1 (best) to 3, and the main factors influencing the quality of the spectra were evaluated. Results: Of the measurements: 85% were graded as 1; 12% as 2; and 3% as 3. The main reasons for poor spectral quality were: the unfortunate positioning of the VOI; hemorrhage; and/or postoperative changes within the VOI. Of 40 patients with a final diagnosis: MRS provided an increased confidence in MR diagnosis in 18 cases; MRS contributed significantly to preoperative diagnosis in 3 cases; and the spectra were not specific (n=10) or were difficult to evaluate (n=9) owing to reduced quality (grade 2 or 3) in 19 cases. Conclusion: MRS of the brain can provide a high percentage of interpretable spectra and frequently can increase confidence in the MR diagnosis of brain lesions in clinical routine. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of tumor motion effect in canine model for diagnostic and radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Sangkeun; Nam, Taewon; Kim, Kyeongmin [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seungwoo; Han, Suchul; Ji, Younghoon [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Nohwon; Eom, Kidong [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The internal organs move up to 35mm maximum and it provides information and uncertainty that has been distorted in the diagnosis and treatment. Previous most studies for the effect of respiration have been performed with external monitoring systems but it cannot represent internal organ motion such as liver, pancreas, and lung. Positron emission tomography (PET) is more influenced by motion than computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since measurement time for image acquisition is longer than CT and MRI. Thus, count of tumor is to be underestimated and region of tumor is to be overestimated. The first aim of this study was developing the artificial pulmonary nodule which can be performed non-invasive transplant into thorax of dogs and second is to assess the effect of respiratory motion on PET image with evaluating the applicability of the artificial model using dogs for diagnosis and treatment. The developed artificial pulmonary nodule showed reproducibility and motion effect as respiratory cycle and it was verified in PET images. Radiation dose estimated was not changed and was reduced slightly of 10 rpm and 15 rpm, respectively, in both of glass dosimeter and ion chamber. The developed artificial pulmonary nodule will be useful tool for evaluating respiratory motion and better research performance for diagnosis and treatment will be expected with performing simulated experiment using the nodule conducted in this study.

  5. The diagnostic efficiency of ultrasound guided imaging algorithm in evaluation of patients with hematuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsal, Alparslan, E-mail: alparslanunsal@yahoo.com [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 09100 Aydin (Turkey); Caliskan, Eda Kazak [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 09100 Aydin (Turkey); Erol, Haluk [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Urology, 09100 Aydin (Turkey); Karaman, Can Zafer [Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 09100 Aydin (Turkey)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To assess the efficiency of the following imaging algorithm, including intravenous urography (IVU) or computed tomography urography (CTU) based on ultrasonographic (US) selection, in the radiological management of hematuria. Materials and methods: One hundred and forty-one patients with hematuria were prospectively evaluated. Group 1 included 106 cases with normal or nearly normal US result and then they were examined with IVU. Group 2 was composed of the remaining 35 cases which had any urinary tract abnormality, and they were directed to CTU. Radiological results were compared with clinical diagnosis. Results: Ultrasonography and IVU results of 97 cases were congruent in group 1. Eight simple cysts were detected with US and 1 non-obstructing ureter stone was detected with IVU in remaining 9 patients. The only discordant case in clinical comparison was found to have urinary bladder cancer on conventional cystoscopy. Ultrasonography and CTU results were congruent in 30 cases. Additional lesions were detected with CTU (3 ureter stones, 1 ureter TCC, 1 advanced RCC) in remaining 5 patients. Ultrasonography + CTU combination results were all concordant with clinical diagnosis. Except 1 case, radio-clinical agreement was achieved. Conclusion: Cross-sectional imaging modalities are preferred in evaluation of hematuria. CTU is the method of choice; however the limitations preclude using CTU as first line or screening test. Ultrasonography is now being accepted as a first line imaging modality with the increased sensitivity in mass detection compared to IVU. The US guided imaging algorithm can be used effectively in radiological approach to hematuria.

  6. Diagnostic, evaluation and handling of the tumors of soft tissues. Experience in the Central Military Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda Acero, Gustavo Adolfo; Torres Quintero, Pio

    2001-01-01

    With the purpose of analyzing the experience of the orthopedics service and traumatology of the central military hospital in the treatment of the tumors of soft tissues, it carries out a descriptive observational study, type series of cases and retrospective. The incidence of the tumors of soft tissues compared with carcinomas and other neoplasia, constitutes less than 1% of all cancerous and the benign ones are more common than the wicked ones in a range of 100:1. The knowledge of the classification, stadification, evaluation strategies, previous biopsy, surgical treatment, radiotherapy y/o chemotherapy is vital for a good final result. 29 clinical histories were included of patient with tumoral lesions in the soft tissues, valued in the central military hospital between March of 1996 and March of 2001. The age average was of 39 years and the pursuit of 24 months. In most of the cases the anatomical commitment belonged to the inferior members (93%), 79% for benign tumors and 21% for wicked tumors. To avoid incorrect diagnoses and inappropriate treatments it is necessary the coordinated evaluation of all multidisciplinary team

  7. Evaluation of datum unit for diagnostics of journal-bearing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Byung Chul; Jung, Joon Ha; Youn, Byeng Doog; Kim, Yeon Whan; Bae, Yong Chae

    2015-01-01

    Journal bearings support rotors using fluid film between the rotor and the stator. Generally, journal bearings are used in large rotor systems such as turbines in a power plant, because even in high-speed and load conditions, journal bearing systems run in a stable condition. To enhance the reliability of journal-bearing systems, in this paper, we study health-diagnosis algorithms that are based on the supervised learning method. Specifically, this paper focused on defining the unit of features, while other previous papers have focused on defining various features of vibration signals. We evaluate the features of various lengths or units on the separable ability basis. From our results, we find that one cycle datum in the time-domain and 60 cycle datum in the frequency domain are the optimal datum units for real-time journal-bearing diagnosis systems

  8. Evaluation of datum unit for diagnostics of journal-bearing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Byung Chul; Jung, Joon Ha; Youn, Byeng Doog [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yeon Whan; Bae, Yong Chae [Power Generation Laboratory, KEPCO Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Journal bearings support rotors using fluid film between the rotor and the stator. Generally, journal bearings are used in large rotor systems such as turbines in a power plant, because even in high-speed and load conditions, journal bearing systems run in a stable condition. To enhance the reliability of journal-bearing systems, in this paper, we study health-diagnosis algorithms that are based on the supervised learning method. Specifically, this paper focused on defining the unit of features, while other previous papers have focused on defining various features of vibration signals. We evaluate the features of various lengths or units on the separable ability basis. From our results, we find that one cycle datum in the time-domain and 60 cycle datum in the frequency domain are the optimal datum units for real-time journal-bearing diagnosis systems.

  9. Diagnostic potentialities of pneumomediastinography and selective phlebography in the evaluation of thymus evolution in myasthenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasil' ev, V.N.; Bel' chikova, N.S.; Kuksinskij, V.E. (Leningradskij Inst. Usovershenstvovaniya Vrachej (USSR))

    1983-01-01

    Based on an analysis of X-ray, intraoperative and histological findings in 124 operated on patients (thymectomy) with myasthenia the authors describe potentialities of pneumomediastinography (PMG) (pheumomediastinotomography-PMTG) in the determination of its main variants (hyperplasia, involution, tumor). Clear knowledge of the variants of x-ray image of the normal anatomical structures of the anterior mediastinum and age peculiarities of the thymus for correct interpretation of pneumomediastinograms is necessary. The importance of selective phlebography of the thymus for differential diagnosis of thymomas and nodular indurations of the fatty tissue in the anterior mediastinum, thymomas and fatty involution of the thymus, residual thymus and zones of fibrous-adipose tissue in the mediastinum is stressed. Selective phlebography is a simple and safe method that adds to PMG (PMTG) potentialities in the evaluation of thymus evolution in myasthenia.

  10. Diagnostic potentialities of pneumomediastinography and selective phlebography in the evaluation of thymus evolution in myasthenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, V.N.; Bel'chikova, N.S.; Kuksinskij, V.E.

    1983-01-01

    Basing on an analysis of X-ray, intraoperative and histological findings in 124 operated on patients (thymectomy) with myasthenia the authors describe potentialities of pneumomediastinography (PMG) (pheumomediastinotomography-PMTG) in the determination of its main variants (hyperplasia, involUtion, tumor). Clear knowledge of the variants of x-ray image of the normal anatomical structures of the anterior mediastinum and age peculiarities of the thymus for correct interpretation of pneumomediastinograms is necessary. The importance of selective phlebography of the thymus for differential diagnosis of thymomas and nodular indurations of the fatty tissue in the anterior mediastinum, thymomas and fatty involution of the thymus, residual thymus and zones of fibrous-adipose tissue in the mediastinum is stressed. Selective phlebography is a simple and safe method that adds to PMG (PMTG) potentialities in the evaluation of thymus evolution in myasthenia

  11. Diagnostic value of radioisotopic cystography in evaluation of VUR in children with urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiri, M.; Shabestani- Monfared, A.; Derazgisoo, M.

    2002-01-01

    Radioisotope scanning is very important in evaluation, diagnosis and proper treatment of urinary tract infection and vesico ureteral reflux because of high sensitivity of this technique and less radiation dose delivered to the patients. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study to determine the frequency vesico ureteral reflux in a group of children aged 28 days to 14 years referred to our department with diagnosis of urinary tract infection .The radioisotope scanning was conducted for all of patients (30 patients) and the results were analyzed. The results showed that urinary tract infection is seen in wide age group and is usually associated with vesico ureteral reflux . The above findings revealed the important role of radioisotope scanning in early diagnosis and subsequent treatment of urinary tract infection to detect vesico ureteral reflux and prevent subsequent side effects in these patients

  12. Evaluation of colonoscopic allergen provocation as a diagnostic tool in dogs with proven food hypersensitivity reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allenspach, K; Vaden, S L; Harris, T S; Gröne, A; Doherr, M G; Griot-Wenk, M E; Bischoff, S C; Gaschen, F

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the colonoscopic allergen provocation (COLAP) test as a new tool for the diagnosis of IgE-mediated food allergy. Oral food challenges as well as COLAP testing were performed in a colony of nine research dogs with proven immediate-type food allergic reactions. In addition, COLAP was performed in five healthy dogs. When compared with the oral challenge test, COLAP accurately determined 18 of 23 (73 per cent) positive oral challenge reactions (73 per cent) in dogs with food allergies and was negative in the healthy dogs. The accuracy of this new test may be higher than that for gastric sensitivity testing. Therefore, COLAP holds promise as a new test to confirm the diagnosis of suspect IgE-mediated food allergy in dogs.

  13. Evaluation of three different methods of distance learning for postgraduate diagnostic imaging education: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Jean-Nicolas; Cooley, Jeffrey R; Wessely, Michelle; Guebert, Gary M; Petrocco-Napuli, Kristina

    2014-10-01

    Objective : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceived effectiveness and learning potential of 3 Web-based educational methods in a postgraduate radiology setting. Methods : Three chiropractic radiology faculty from diverse geographic locations led mini-courses using asynchronous discussion boards, synchronous Web conferencing, and asynchronous voice-over case presentations formatted for Web viewing. At the conclusion of each course, participants filled out a 14-question survey (using a 5-point Likert scale) designed to evaluate the effectiveness of each method in achieving specified course objectives and goals and their satisfaction when considering the learning potential of each method. The mean, standard deviation, and percentage agreements were tabulated. Results : Twenty, 15, and 10 participants completed the discussion board, Web conferencing, and case presentation surveys, respectively. All educational methods demonstrated a high level of agreement regarding the course objective (total mean rating >4.1). The case presentations had the highest overall rating for achieving the course goals; however, all but one method still had total mean ratings >4.0 and overall agreement levels of 70%-100%. The strongest potential for interactive learning was found with Web conferencing and discussion boards, while case presentations rated very low in this regard. Conclusions : The perceived effectiveness in achieving the course objective and goals was high for each method. Residency-based distance education may be a beneficial adjunct to current methods of training, allowing for international collaboration. When considering all aspects tested, there does not appear to be a clear advantage to any one method. Utilizing various methods may be most appropriate.

  14. Diagnostic evaluation of the breast using PET: optimization of data acquisition and postprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brix, G.; Lucht, R.; Henze, M.; Doll, J.; Zaers, J.; Trojan, H.; Knopp, M.V.; Haberkorn, U.; Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Development and evaluation of an optimized protocol for PET examinations of the female breast with 2-F-18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (F-18-FDG). Methods: All PET measurements were performed with a whole-body PET system (ECAT EXACT HR + ). In order to examine the women with the breasts freely pendant, a special extension for the patient table made of carbon layer composite was designed. After data acquisition in the 3D modus, emission data were sorted into 2D sinograms using the Fourier rebinning algorithm and reconstructed by means of an ultra-fast iterative 2D algorithm (HOSP). The reconstructed emission scans were superimposed onto the corresponding transmission images. The protocol presented was evaluated in examinations on 6 women with breast lesions after the administration of 150-220 MBq F-18-FDG. From two adjacent bed positions, emission and transmission data were acquired over periods of 20 min and 10 min, respectively. For comparison, dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) image series were acquired with a whole-body MR system (MAGNETOM SP 4000) using a double-breast coil. Results and Conclusion: Using the designed extension of the patient table, it was possible to examine corpulent women despite the limited patient part of the PET system in the prone position with the breasts freely pendant. Alongside a reduction in motion artifacts, this positioning also offers the possibility of making a direct comparison between PET and MR images. Despite the fact that the amount of F-18-FDG applied to the patient was markedly reduced, the combination of 3D data acquisition and iterative image reconstruction resulted in excellent quality of the emission scans. By superpositioning of iteratively reconstructed emission and transmission scans, anatomical localization of breast lesions visualized on the emission scans could be improved. The postprocessing of the PET data described was completed in 60 min, this meaning that the presented concept can readily be employed in

  15. Evaluation of the Internet precence of diagnostic radiology units at German universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, J.; Siegmund, M.; Voelk, M.; Feuerbach, S.; Strotzer, M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose. Analyzing the availability and the contents of the internet homepages of the radiological departments of German universities.Material and method. In June and July 2001 the internet homepages of 36 radiological departments of German universities were evaluated in a study. A medical student experienced in using the world wide web examined the websites concerning the following criteria: research, teaching, informations for patients, clinical topics and general information. Additionally an evaluation of the technical standard of the presentation was performed.Results. 31 of the 36 radiological departments presented a homepage in the world wide web. The subject research was presented by 29 institutes. Also 29 departments provided information concerning teaching in their presentations. In 24 cases informations especially for patients were given. In all topics there is a huge variety of the quality and quantity of the provided information throughout the different institutions. 21 homepages available without restriction during the study period; 3 were nearly completely under construction. Multimedia techniques were only used in 2 homepages. The structural hierarchy of the webpages was in the average only two or three levels. Only 6 providers presented an additional version of their homepage in english.Conclusion. In the moment the possibility of internet-presentation is sub-optimal used by the responsible persons of the radiological institutions. The main emphasis is on research and teaching. There is nearly no use of multimedial elements in the presentations. Only a minority of the homepages can be read by international viewers because of the lack of an english version of the pages. (orig.) [de

  16. Spatial pattern evaluation of a calibrated national hydrological model - a remote-sensing-based diagnostic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiguren, Gorka; Koch, Julian; Stisen, Simon

    2017-11-01

    Distributed hydrological models are traditionally evaluated against discharge stations, emphasizing the temporal and neglecting the spatial component of a model. The present study widens the traditional paradigm by highlighting spatial patterns of evapotranspiration (ET), a key variable at the land-atmosphere interface, obtained from two different approaches at the national scale of Denmark. The first approach is based on a national water resources model (DK-model), using the MIKE-SHE model code, and the second approach utilizes a two-source energy balance model (TSEB) driven mainly by satellite remote sensing data. Ideally, the hydrological model simulation and remote-sensing-based approach should present similar spatial patterns and driving mechanisms of ET. However, the spatial comparison showed that the differences are significant and indicate insufficient spatial pattern performance of the hydrological model.The differences in spatial patterns can partly be explained by the fact that the hydrological model is configured to run in six domains that are calibrated independently from each other, as it is often the case for large-scale multi-basin calibrations. Furthermore, the model incorporates predefined temporal dynamics of leaf area index (LAI), root depth (RD) and crop coefficient (Kc) for each land cover type. This zonal approach of model parameterization ignores the spatiotemporal complexity of the natural system. To overcome this limitation, this study features a modified version of the DK-model in which LAI, RD and Kc are empirically derived using remote sensing data and detailed soil property maps in order to generate a higher degree of spatiotemporal variability and spatial consistency between the six domains. The effects of these changes are analyzed by using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to evaluate spatial patterns. The EOF analysis shows that including remote-sensing-derived LAI, RD and Kc in the distributed hydrological model adds

  17. Diagnostic evaluation of neck torsion test in objective examination in patients with vertigo and/or hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewiadomski, Piotr; Bielińska, Marzena; Pietkiewicz, Piotr; Olszewski, Jurek

    2017-10-30

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the neck torsion test in objective examinations of patients with vertigo and/or hearing loss. The study was conducted in 100 patients, including 54 women and 46 men aged 17-79 years, who were divided into two groups: I - 50 patients, including 30 women and 20 men aged 17-79 years (mean age 49.92 years) with dizziness and/or hearing impairments, and confirmed asymmetry of intracranial vessels, II - 50 patients - the control group, including 24 women and 26 men aged 20-71 years without dizziness and/or hearing disorders and without disturbance in the construction of intracranial vessels. For each patient, the following tests were carried out: subjective, objective otorhinolaryngological, Doppler ultrasound specifying the diameter of vertebral and carotid arteries and the velocity of blood flow in these vessels, audiological diagnostics, including the examination of latency of waves I, III, V of the auditory evoked potentials of the brain stem, otoneurological diagnostics with used the neck torsion test. It appears from the analysis of the material presented that the application of the neck torsion test in the Doppler ultrasound results in the fact that the difference in the mean systolic velocity of blood flow in vertebral artery is higher on the side opposite to the turning of the neck, and the increase in the average diastolic blood flow velocity in the vertebral artery on the side of the test being performed and its reduction on the opposite side in the study group, when compared to the control group. The value of the wave I, II, V latency in the ABR test during the neck torsion test is extended more in the study group than in the controls, on the side of the performed test. The performed neck torsion test in the VNG test increases the occurrence of both, square waves and nystagmus (much higher in the study group than in the controls). The application of the neck torsion test in the Doppler ultrasound, ABR and VNG test in

  18. Diagnostic evaluation of neck torsion test in objective examination in patients with vertigo and/or hearing-impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewiadomski, Piotr; Bielińska, Marzena; Pietkiewicz, Piotr; Olszewski, Jurek

    2017-06-30

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the neck torsion test in objective examinations of patients with vertigo and/or hearing loss. The study was conducted in 100 patients, including 54 women and 46 men aged 17-79 years, who were divided into two groups: I - 50 patients, including 30 women and 20 men aged 17-79 years (mean age 49.92 years) with dizziness and/or hearing impairments, and confirmed asymmetry of intracranial vessels, II - 50 patients - control group, including 24 women and 26 men aged 20-71 years without dizziness and/or hearing disorders and without disturbance in the construction of intracranial vessels. For each patient, the following tests were carried out: subjective, objective otorhinolaryngological, Doppler ultrasound specifying diameter of vertebral and carotid arteries and the velocity of blood flow in these vessels, audiological diagnostics, including the examination of latency of waves I, III, V of the auditory evoked potentials of the brain stem, otoneurological diagnostics with used the neck torsion test. It appears from the analysis of the material presented that the application of the neck torsion test in the Doppler ultrasound results in the fact that the difference in the mean systolic velocity of blood flow in vertebral artery is higher on the side opposite to the turning of the neck, and the increase in the average diastolic blood flow velocity in the vertebral artery on the side of the test being performed and its reduction on the opposite side in the study group, when compared to the control group. The value of the wave I, II, V latency in the ABR test during the neck torsion test is extended more in the study group than in the controls, on the side of the performed test. The performed neck torsion test in the VNG test increases the occurrence of both, square waves and nystagmus (much higher in the study group than in the controls). Conclussion. The application of the neck torsion test in the Doppler ultrasound, ABR and VNG test in

  19. Automated registration of diagnostic to prediagnostic x-ray mammograms: Evaluation and comparison to radiologists' accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M.; Hipwell, John H.; McCormack, Valerie A.; Tanner, Christine; Moss, Sue M.; Wilkinson, Louise S.; Khoo, Lisanne A. L.; Pagliari, Catriona; Skippage, Pippa L.; Kliger, Carole J.; Hawkes, David J.; Santos Silva, Isabel M. dos [Cancer Research UK Epidemiology and Genetics Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom); Centre for Medical Image Computing, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Lifestyle and Cancer Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, Lyon 69008 (France); Centre for Medical Image Computing, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Cancer Screening Evaluation Unit, Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); St. George' s Healthcare NHS Trust and South West London Breast Screening Service, London SW17 0QT (United Kingdom); Centre for Medical Image Computing, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Cancer Research UK Epidemiology and Genetics Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: To compare and evaluate intensity-based registration methods for computation of serial x-ray mammogram correspondence. Methods: X-ray mammograms were simulated from MRIs of 20 women using finite element methods for modeling breast compressions and employing a MRI/x-ray appearance change model. The parameter configurations of three registration methods, affine, fluid, and free-form deformation (FFD), were optimized for registering x-ray mammograms on these simulated images. Five mammography film readers independently identified landmarks (tumor, nipple, and usually two other normal features) on pairs of diagnostic and corresponding prediagnostic digitized images from 52 breast cancer cases. Landmarks were independently reidentified by each reader. Target registration errors were calculated to compare the three registration methods using the reader landmarks as a gold standard. Data were analyzed using multilevel methods. Results: Between-reader variability varied with landmark (p<0.01) and screen (p=0.03), with between-reader mean distance (mm) in point location on the diagnostic/prediagnostic images of 2.50 (95% CI 1.95, 3.15)/2.84 (2.24, 3.55) for nipples and 4.26 (3.43, 5.24)/4.76 (3.85, 5.84) for tumors. Registration accuracy was sensitive to the type of landmark and the amount of breast density. For dense breasts ({>=}40%), the affine and fluid methods outperformed FFD. For breasts with lower density, the affine registration surpassed both fluid and FFD. Mean accuracy (mm) of the affine registration varied between 3.16 (95% CI 2.56, 3.90) for nipple points in breasts with density 20%-39% and 5.73 (4.80, 6.84) for tumor points in breasts with density <20%. Conclusions: Affine registration accuracy was comparable to that between independent film readers. More advanced two-dimensional nonrigid registration algorithms were incapable of increasing the accuracy of image alignment when compared to affine registration.

  20. Evaluation of plasma fibrinogen concentration as a diagnostic indicator of inflammation in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, A Russell; Allender, Matthew C; Mitchell, Mark A; MacNeill, Amy L

    2015-01-15

    To critically evaluate plasma fibrinogen concentration as a diagnostic indicator of inflammation in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans). Prospective induced-disease model and prospective cross-sectional study. Plasma samples from 12 purpose-bred red-eared sliders and 153 farm-raised red-eared sliders. A modification of the Jacobsson method was developed to measure fibrinogen concentration in platelet-poor plasma from red-eared sliders. Purpose-bred turtles had been inoculated with a ranavirus (n = 4) or sterile PBS solution (8) as part of another study. Farm-raised red-eared sliders were categorized as healthy (n = 138) or overtly ill (15) on the basis of physical examination findings at the time of blood sample collection. Samples from 124 of the 138 healthy red-eared sliders were used to establish a fibrinogen concentration reference interval as measured by the modified Jacobsson method. Fibrinogen concentrations in ranavirus-infected and physically ill turtles were compared with those of healthy turtles to determine whether fibrinogen concentration would be a useful diagnostic indicator of inflammation in red-eared sliders. The modified Jacobsson method was reliably used to measure fibrinogen concentration. The fibrinogen concentration reference interval from healthy reproductively active female red-eared sliders was right skewed. Fibrinogen concentration did not differ significantly between healthy red-eared sliders and ranavirus-infected or overtly ill red-eared sliders. A reference interval for red-eared slider plasma fibrinogen concentration was established and partitioned by sex to account for considerable right skewing observed for females. Fibrinogen concentration was not a useful indicator of inflammation in red-eared sliders with ranavirus infection or other overt illnesses.

  1. Role of Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Diagnostic Evaluation of Carcinoma Urinary Bladder: Comparison with Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Dhritiman; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Kashyap, Raghava; Mete, Utham Kumar; Narang, Vikram; Das, Ashim; Bhattacharya, Anish; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Mandal, Arup K.

    2014-01-01

    Bladder carcinoma is the most frequent tumor of the urinary tract and accounts 7% of all malignancies in men and 2% of all malignancies in women. This retrospective study was carried out to assess the diagnostic utility of F18-fludeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the imaging evaluation of bladder carcinoma. Seventy-seven consecutive patients diagnosed to have carcinoma urinary bladder referred for F18-FDG PET/CT were included in this study. Thirty-four patients were for initial staging after transurethral biopsy and remaining 43 patients were for restaging. All patients also underwent CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis. PET/CT findings were correlated with diagnostic CT scan and histopathological findings. In 30 of the 34 patients for initial staging, both PET/CT and CT confirmed the primary lesion in the bladder. Histopathology report was available in 23 patients. Lymph nodes FDG uptake reported to be metastatic in 10/23 patients while CT detected lymph node metastasis in 12 patients. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy have been calculated to be 87.5%, 80%, 70%, 92%, 82% for PET/CT and 66%, 57%, 50%, 72%, 60% for CT respectively. PET/CT detected metastatic disease in 8 patients whereas CT detected in 4 patients. Of the 43 patients for restaging, local recurrence was detected in 24 patients on both PET/CT and CT. Histopathology report was available in 17 patients. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy were 85%, 60%, 60%, 85%, 70% for PET/CT and 80%, 50%, 40%, 85%, 58% for CT respectively. Nineteen patients were detected to have metastatic disease by PET/CT, whereas CT detected metastases in 11 patients. F-18 FDG PET/CT is a very useful modality in pre-operative staging and monitoring after surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy of patients with carcinoma urinary bladder

  2. Diagnostic evaluation of uterine artery Doppler sonography for the prediction of adverse pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Barati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Increased impedance to flow in the uterine arteries assessed by value of the Doppler is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, especially pre-eclampsia. We investigated the predictive value of a uterine artery Doppler in the identification of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as ′pre-eclampsia′ and ′small fetus for gestational age′ (SGA. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and seventy-nine women, with singleton pregnancy, between 18 and 40 years of age, without risk factors, randomly underwent Doppler interrogation of the uterine arteries, between 16-22 weeks of gestation. Those who had a mean pulsatility index (PI of >1.45 were considered to have an abnormal result, and were evaluated and compared with those who had normal results for adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pre-eclampsia and small for gestational age. The relationship between the variables was assessed with the use of the chi-square test. Results : There were 17 cases (4.5% of abnormal uterine artery Doppler results and 15 of them (88.2% developed pre-eclampsia and four cases (23.5% had neonates small for gestational age. For predicting pre-eclampsia, the mean uterine artery PI had to be >1.45, had to have a specificity of 95.5% (95% CI, 70-92%, a sensitivity of 79% (95% CI, 43-82%, a negative predictive value (NPV of 98.9% (95% CI, 72-96%, and a positive predictive value (PPV of 88.2% (95% CI, 68-98%. In the case of ′small for gestational age′ it had to have a specificity of 96.5% (95% CI, 42-68%, a sensitivity of 57% (95% CI, 53-76%, an NPV of 99.2% (95% CI, 70-92%, and a PPV of 23.5% (95% CI, 30-72%. Conclusion : Uterine artery Doppler evaluation at 16-22 weeks of gestation might be an appropriate tool for identifying pregnancies that may be at an increased risk for development of pre-eclampsia and small fetus for gestational age.

  3. Evaluation of 1024 channel VUV-photo-diodes for soft x-ray diagnostic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molvik, A.W.

    1997-01-01

    We tested the operation of 1024 channel diode arrays (Model AXUV-1024, from IRD, Inc.) in subdued room light to establish that they worked and to determine the direction and speed of the scan of the 1024 channels. Further tests were performed in vacuum in the HAP, High-Average-Power Facility. There we found that the bare or glass covered diodes detected primarily visible light as expected, but diodes filtered by aluminized parylene, produced a signal consistent with soft x-rays. It is probable that the spectral response and sensitivity, as discussed below, reproduce that previously demonstrated by 1 to 16 channel VUV-photodiodes; however, significantly more effort would be required to establish that experimentally. These detectors appear to be worth further evaluation where 25 w spatial resolution bolometers or spectrograph detectors of known sensitivity are required, and single-shot or 0.02-0.2s time response is adequate. (Presumably, faster readout would be available with custom drive circuitry.)

  4. Development and evaluation of diagnostic tests for the serological diagnosis of brucellosis in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Di Febo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA, an indirect ELISA (i-ELISA and a dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA were developed to test for antibodies to Brucella suis in pig and wild boar sera. An anti-Brucella-LPS monoclonal antibody (MAb 4B5A (c-ELISA and DELFIA and an anti-swine IgG monoclonal antibody (MAb 10C2G5 (i-ELISA were used for the three assays. The specificity (Sp and sensitivity (Se of the assays gave the following results: Se and Sp = 100% at a cut-off value of 61.0% (B/B0% for c-ELISA; Sp = 99.1% and Se = 100% at a cut-off value of 21.7% (percentage positivity: PP% for i-ELISA; Sp = 91.0% and Se = 75% at a cut-off value of 37.0% (B/B0% for DELFIA. In addition, the performance of a commercial fluorescence polarisation assay (FPA, standardised for bovine sera, was evaluated in swine sera. The specificity and sensitivity obtained were both 100% at a cut-off value of 99.5 (millipolarisation unit values. These results suggest that the combination of c-ELISA, i-ELISA and FPA can be used to improve the serological diagnosis of swine brucellosis.

  5. Evaluation of the practical peak voltage quantity for clinical equipment in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Joao dos Santos Justo

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the calculation of the Practical Peak Voltage (PPV) from the voltage waveform and the kerma contrast for two kinds of X-ray equipment: a single phase clinical equipment, a three phase clinical equipment. The PPV from a mammography system voltage waveform will also be established. The development of this work involves intermediate objectives that indicate the quality of the used methods to calculate the PPV. One of these intermediate objectives is the comparison between the invasive calculations of PPV (using a voltage divider) with the response of kVp meter that calculate the PPV. Another intermediate objective is to compare the PPV with the Contrast Equivalent Voltage (the original non-invasive PPV definition). The variation of the PPV with quantities that influence in the voltage waveform like ripple and sample rate will also be contemplated in this work. The results showed that the PPV quantity could be invasive determined trustworthy. Therefore, the ripple quantity is the mainly influence to determinate the PPV that affecting the non-invasive determination. This fact suggest that the non-invasive instruments manufacturers must reevaluate the calculation of the PPV quantity in their instruments. (author)

  6. Salivary Pepsin Lacks Sensitivity as a Diagnostic Tool to Evaluate Extraesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dy, Fei; Amirault, Janine; Mitchell, Paul D; Rosen, Rachel

    2016-10-01

    To determine the sensitivity of salivary pepsin compared with multichannel intraluminal impedance with pH testing (pH-MII), endoscopy, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) questionnaires. We prospectively recruited 50 children from Boston Children's Hospital who were undergoing pH-MII to evaluate for GERD. The patients completed 24-hour pH-MII testing, completed symptom and quality of life questionnaires, and provided a saliva specimen that was analyzed using the PepTest lateral flow test. A subset of patients also underwent bronchoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed to determine the sensitivity of salivary pepsin compared with each reference standard. Twenty-one of the 50 patients (42%) were salivary pepsin-positive, with a median salivary pepsin concentration of 10 ng/mL (IQR, 10-55 ng/mL). There was no significant difference in the distributions of acid, nonacid, total reflux episodes, full column reflux, or any other reflux variable in patients who were pepsin-positive compared with those who were pepsin-negative (P > .50). There was no significant correlation between the number of reflux episodes and pepsin concentration (P > .10). There was no positive relationship between salivary pepsin positivity, any extraesophageal symptoms or quality of life scores, or inflammation on bronchoscopy or esophagogastroduodenoscopy (P > .30). Salivary pepsin measurement has a low sensitivity for predicting pathological gastroesophageal reflux in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prenatal diagnostic evaluation of fetal ventricular dilatation by MRI; A report of eight cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, Ichiro; Tamaya, Teruhiko; Iwata, Tatsuo; Ando, Takashi; Yamada, Hiromu (Gifu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1992-10-01

    Recent advances in MRI have contributed to the antenatal confirmatory diagnosis of fetal anomalies, especially in the fetal brain and central nervous system. In this study, eight infants with fetal ventricular dilatation, suggested by prenatal ultrasonography, were evaluated with confirmatory diagnosis by MRI (SIGNA; General Electric Company, 1.5 tesla). These anomalies were demonstrated at 19 to 36 weeks by ultrasonography. One of the eight died in utero at 22 weeks of gestation, another one day after birth (33 weeks of gestation). Two were delivered by Cesarean section. It has been proved that clear and effective images can be obtained by mother's walking without sedative drugs. Fetal MRI gave clear images not only in fetal horizontal section, but also in sagittal section, which is usually difficult to obtain by ultrasonography. Confirmatory diagnosis of eight cases were obtained by MRI. Fetal MRI can provide an effective prenatal diagnosis, especially in cases of fetal brain anomaly, even when compared with postnatal CT findings. (author).

  8. Quantification of video-taped images in microcirculation research using inexpensive imaging software (Adobe Photoshop).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J; Krummenauer, F; Lehr, H A

    2000-04-01

    Study end-points in microcirculation research are usually video-taped images rather than numeric computer print-outs. Analysis of these video-taped images for the quantification of microcirculatory parameters usually requires computer-based image analysis systems. Most software programs for image analysis are custom-made, expensive, and limited in their applicability to selected parameters and study end-points. We demonstrate herein that an inexpensive, commercially available computer software (Adobe Photoshop), run on a Macintosh G3 computer with inbuilt graphic capture board provides versatile, easy to use tools for the quantification of digitized video images. Using images obtained by intravital fluorescence microscopy from the pre- and postischemic muscle microcirculation in the skinfold chamber model in hamsters, Photoshop allows simple and rapid quantification (i) of microvessel diameters, (ii) of the functional capillary density and (iii) of postischemic leakage of FITC-labeled high molecular weight dextran from postcapillary venules. We present evidence of the technical accuracy of the software tools and of a high degree of interobserver reliability. Inexpensive commercially available imaging programs (i.e., Adobe Photoshop) provide versatile tools for image analysis with a wide range of potential applications in microcirculation research.

  9. [Methods for evaluating diagnostic tests in Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, J M; Hernández, I

    1998-04-01

    In the field of infectious diseases and clinical microbiology, the evaluation of diagnostic tests (DT) is an important research area. The specific difficulties of this type of research has motivated that have not caught the severity methodological of others areas of clinical research. This article try to asses and characterize the methodology of articles about DT published in Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica (EIMC) journal. Forty-five articles was selected in the EIMC journal during the 1990-1996 period, because of determinate the sensitivity and specificity of different DT. Methodological standards, extensively accepted was used. In all of articles, except one (98%) the gold standard was specified yours use, however in 4 studies (9%) include the DT in the gold standard (incorporation bias). The correct description of DT was reported in 75% of cases, but only in 11% cases the reproducibility of test was evaluated. The description of source of reference population, standard of inclusion and spectrum of composition was described in 58, 33 and 40% of articles, respectively. In 33% of studies presented workup bias, only 6% commented blind-analysis of results, and 11% presented indeterminate test results. Half of the studies reported test indexes for clinical subgroups, only one article (2%) provided numerical precision for test indexes, and only 7% reported receiver operating characteristics curves. The methodological quality of DT research in the EIMC journal may improve in different aspects of design and presentation of results.

  10. Evaluation of tuberculosis diagnostics in children: 1. Proposed clinical case definitions for classification of intrathoracic tuberculosis disease. Consensus from an expert panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Stephen M; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Amanullah, Farhana; Browning, Renee; Cardenas, Vicky; Casenghi, Martina; Cuevas, Luis E; Gale, Marianne; Gie, Robert P; Grzemska, Malgosia; Handelsman, Ed; Hatherill, Mark; Hesseling, Anneke C; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Kampmann, Beate; Kabra, Sushil Kumar; Lienhardt, Christian; Lighter-Fisher, Jennifer; Madhi, Shabir; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Marais, Ben J; McNeeley, David F; Menzies, Heather; Mitchell, Charles; Modi, Surbhi; Mofenson, Lynne; Musoke, Philippa; Nachman, Sharon; Powell, Clydette; Rigaud, Mona; Rouzier, Vanessa; Starke, Jeffrey R; Swaminathan, Soumya; Wingfield, Claire

    2012-05-15

    There is a critical need for improved diagnosis of tuberculosis in children, particularly in young children with intrathoracic disease as this represents the most common type of tuberculosis in children and the greatest diagnostic challenge. There is also a need for standardized clinical case definitions for the evaluation of diagnostics in prospective clinical research studies that include children in whom tuberculosis is suspected but not confirmed by culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A panel representing a wide range of expertise and child tuberculosis research experience aimed to develop standardized clinical research case definitions for intrathoracic tuberculosis in children to enable harmonized evaluation of new tuberculosis diagnostic technologies in pediatric populations. Draft definitions and statements were proposed and circulated widely for feedback. An expert panel then considered each of the proposed definitions and statements relating to clinical definitions. Formal group consensus rules were established and consensus was reached for each statement. The definitions presented in this article are intended for use in clinical research to evaluate diagnostic assays and not for individual patient diagnosis or treatment decisions. A complementary article addresses methodological issues to consider for research of diagnostics in children with suspected tuberculosis.

  11. Evaluation of Tuberculosis Diagnostics in Children: 1. Proposed Clinical Case Definitions for Classification of Intrathoracic Tuberculosis Disease. Consensus From an Expert Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Stephen M.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Amanullah, Farhana; Browning, Renee; Cardenas, Vicky; Casenghi, Martina; Cuevas, Luis E.; Gale, Marianne; Gie, Robert P.; Grzemska, Malgosia; Handelsman, Ed; Hatherill, Mark; Hesseling, Anneke C.; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Kampmann, Beate; Kabra, Sushil Kumar; Lienhardt, Christian; Lighter-Fisher, Jennifer; Madhi, Shabir; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Marais, Ben J.; McNeeley, David F.; Menzies, Heather; Mitchell, Charles; Modi, Surbhi; Mofenson, Lynne; Musoke, Philippa; Nachman, Sharon; Powell, Clydette; Rigaud, Mona; Rouzier, Vanessa; Starke, Jeffrey R.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Wingfield, Claire

    2012-01-01

    There is a critical need for improved diagnosis of tuberculosis in children, particularly in young children with intrathoracic disease as this represents the most common type of tuberculosis in children and the greatest diagnostic challenge. There is also a need for standardized clinical case definitions for the evaluation of diagnostics in prospective clinical research studies that include children in whom tuberculosis is suspected but not confirmed by culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A panel representing a wide range of expertise and child tuberculosis research experience aimed to develop standardized clinical research case definitions for intrathoracic tuberculosis in children to enable harmonized evaluation of new tuberculosis diagnostic technologies in pediatric populations. Draft definitions and statements were proposed and circulated widely for feedback. An expert panel then considered each of the proposed definitions and statements relating to clinical definitions. Formal group consensus rules were established and consensus was reached for each statement. The definitions presented in this article are intended for use in clinical research to evaluate diagnostic assays and not for individual patient diagnosis or treatment decisions. A complementary article addresses methodological issues to consider for research of diagnostics in children with suspected tuberculosis. PMID:22448023

  12. Evaluation of FTIR Spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for lung cancer using sputum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wills John

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survival time for lung cancer is poor with over 90% of patients dying within five years of diagnosis primarily due to detection at late stage. The main objective of this study was to evaluate Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR as a high throughput and cost effective method for identifying biochemical changes in sputum as biomarkers for detection of lung cancer. Methods Sputum was collected from 25 lung cancer patients in the Medlung observational study and 25 healthy controls. FTIR spectra were generated from sputum cell pellets using infrared wavenumbers within the 1800 to 950 cm-1 "fingerprint" region. Results A panel of 92 infrared wavenumbers had absorbances significantly different between cancer and normal sputum spectra and were associated with putative changes in protein, nucleic acid and glycogen levels in tumours. Five prominent significant wavenumbers at 964 cm-1, 1024 cm-1, 1411 cm-1, 1577 cm-1 and 1656 cm-1 separated cancer spectra from normal spectra into two distinct groups using multivariate analysis (group 1: 100% cancer cases; group 2: 92% normal cases. Principal components analysis revealed that these wavenumbers were also able to distinguish lung cancer patients who had previously been diagnosed with breast cancer. No patterns of spectra groupings were associated with inflammation or other diseases of the airways. Conclusions Our results suggest that FTIR applied to sputum might have high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing lung cancer with potential as a non-invasive, cost-effective and high-throughput method for screening. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00899262

  13. [Mini-Mental State Examination in geriatrics : An evaluation of diagnostic quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyermann, S; Trippe, R H; Bähr, A A; Püllen, R

    2013-12-01

    Several studies have identified moderate reliability and validity for the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Some researchers showed the superiority of other dementia screening tests over the MMSE considering the test quality criteria. The aim of this study was the evaluation of MMSE, especially in the area of geriatrics. MMSE and DemTect were carried out with 154 geriatric patients: 71 persons without cognitive impairment and 83 persons without delirium showed cognitive impairments as revealed by the DemTect. In addition, we also applied the Clock-Drawing-Test (CDT), Reisberg-Scale, Geriatric Depression-Scale (GDS, 15-item version) and the Confusion-Assessment-Method (CAM). According to the multitrait-multimethod approach, MMSE's convergent and divergent validity is similar to that of the DemTect. Both tests correlate only moderately with Spearman (r = 0.609) and revealed similar results for dementia in 57.1 % of the patients. MMSE showed low reliability and moderate reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.82) when ten items with low discriminatory power were excluded from the total test score. Difficulty of all items is only moderate (p = 0.86) and only eight items of the MMSE showed good test difficulty. All in all, DemTect and MMSE are not interchangeable. The MMSE estimates the average cognitive impairment of patients as considerably less pronounced than the DemTect. MMSE is, thus, not an instrument that would be recommended for the identification of mild cognitive impairment. In this case, tests with higher reliability and validity should be used.

  14. Diagnostic evaluation of ischemic heart disease by X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Yoshiaki; Kobayashi, Shiro; Takasu, Junichiro; Sakakibara, Makoto; Imai, Hitoshi; Aoyagi, Yutaka; Morooka, Nobuhiro; Watanabe, Shigeru; Inagaki, Yoshiaki

    1987-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of X-ray computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting and evaluating ischemic heart disease, conventional and enhanced CT were performed for 180 patients (150 with transmural infarction, 12 with subendocardial infarction, and 18 with angina pectoris). MRI examinations were performed for 38 patients (31 with transmural infarction, three with subendocardial infarction, and four with angina pectoris). With enhanced CT, two findings in the myocardium were direct evidence of myocardial infarction: 1) filling defects on the early scans, and 2) late enhancement of the myocardium on the delayed scans. The former were observed mainly at the sites of recent anterior myocardial infarction and the latter were seen in about half of the patients with recent and remote anterior myocardial infarctions. However, these findings were inadequately imaged in patients with inferoposterior infarction and subendocardial infarction. Among 137 patients with transmural infarction, enhanced CT revealed left ventricular aneurysms in 51 (37 %) and ventricular thrombi in 26 (19 %). ECG-gated MRI apparatus having a superconducting magnetic operating at 0.25 Tesla was used, and data for this study were collected using the single-slice spin echo technique. In eight of nine patients with acute myocardial infarction, gated MRI demonstrated the infarcted myocardium as regions of high signal intensity relative to that of the adjacent normal myocardium. Such a difference in MRI signal intensity was scarcely recognized in the chronic stage of myocardial infarction, but the indirect findings of infarction, such as regional wall thinning, wall motion disturbances, left ventricular aneurysms, and ventricular thrombi were easily detected using MRI. No characteristic finding was obtained by CT or MRI in patients with angina pectoris. (author)

  15. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae type I signal peptidase: expression and evaluation of its diagnostic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Heineck, Bianca L; Reolon, Luciano A; Paes, Jéssica A; Klein, Cátia S; Rebelatto, Raquel; Schrank, Irene S; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique B

    2012-01-27

    Type I signal peptidase (SPase I) is a membrane-anchored protease of the general secretory pathway, which is encoded by the sipS gene in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the etiological agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP). In this study, the expression of the M. hyopneumoniae SPase I (MhSPase I) was analyzed in virulent and avirulent strains, and the recombinant protein (rMhSPase I), expressed in Escherichia coli, was evaluated regarding its potential as an immunodiagnostic antigen. It was demonstrated that the sipS coding DNA sequence (CDS) is most likely part of an operon, being co-transcribed along with four other CDSs. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR and immunoblot assays showed that MhSPase I is expressed by all three strains analyzed, with no transcriptional difference, but with evidence of a higher protein level in a pathogenic strain (7422), in comparison to another pathogenic (7448) and a non-pathogenic (J) strain. rMhSPase I was strongly immunogenic for mice, and the MhSPase I antigenicity was confirmed. Polyclonal serum anti-rMhSPase I presented no detectable cross-reaction with Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a low conservation between MhSPase I and orthologous proteins from other porcine respiratory disease complex-related bacteria, Firmicutes and other Mycoplasma species. The potential of an rMhSPase I-based ELISA for PEP immunodiagnosis was demonstrated. Overall, we investigated the expression of sipS and the encoded MhSPase I in three M. hyopneumoniae strains and showed that this protein is a good antigen for use in PEP serodiagnosis and possibly vaccination, as well as a potential target for antibiotic development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of diagnostic serological results in cases of suspected primary syphilis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratzer, Beau; Pohl, Daniel; Hotton, Anna L

    2014-05-01

    syphilis compared with the RPR. Further evaluation of the sensitivity of the TS-EIA in high-morbidity settings is warranted before the adoption of reverse sequence screening algorithms.

  17. Method of evaluation of diagnostics reference levels in computerized tomography; Metodo de avaliacao de niveis de referencia de radiodiagnostico em tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Walter Flores

    1999-04-01

    Computerized tomography is a complex technique with several selectable exposition parameters delivering high doses to the patient. In this work it was developed a simple methodology to evaluate diagnostic reference levels in computerized tomography, using the concept of Multiple Scan Average Dose (MSAD), recently adopted by the Health Ministry. For evaluation of the MSAD, a dose distribution was obtained through a measured dose profile on the axial axis of a water phantom with thermoluminescence dosemeters, TLD-100, for different exam technique. The MSAD was evaluated hrough two distinct methods. First, it was evaluated by the integration of the dose profile of a single slice and, second, obtained by the integration on central slice of the profile of several slices. The latter is in of accordance with the ionization chamber method, suggesting to be the most practical method of dose evaluation to be applied in the diagnostic reference level assessment routine for CT, using TLDs. (author)

  18. Evaluation of the Novel Monoclonal Antibody Against DOG1 as a Diagnostic Marker for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hadi, M.; Hamam, S.M.; Bessa, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. With the growing effectiveness and availability of first and second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) drugs, the accurate diagnosis of GIST has become imperative. The problem is that some GISTs with KIT or Alpha-type platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFRA) mutations may have low KIT expression by immunohistochemistry yet will still benefit from TKI drugs. Molecular analysis is a costly and laborious process. Therefore the emergence of a new sensitive immunohistochemical marker for GISTs would be ideal. Recently antibodies against D iscovered on GIST-1 ( DOG1) have been generated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the monoclonal DOG1.1 antibody as a diagnostic marker for GISTs and to compare immunohistochemical staining and diagnostic efficacy of DOG1.1 with that of KIT in GISTs. Materials and Methods: Forty seven paraffin embedded GISTs were immuno stained with both Kit and DOG1.1 antibodies. Immunoreactivity was graded semiquantitatively from 0 to 4. Some other mesenchymal tumors were included in the study and stained for both markers to test for their specificity. Results: Out of the 47 GISTs, 44 were immunoreactive for both KIT and DOG1.1 antibodies (93.62%). Two cases (4.25%) were KIT-positive DOG-negative and the remaining case was DOG-positive KIT-negative (2.13%). A statistically significant concordance was found between KIT and DOG1.1 immunoreactivity (p=0.004), with moderate agreement between immunostaining scores (kappa =0.379). As regards tumor site, a statistically significant association was found between high DOG1.1 scores and gastric GIST (p=0.008). High KIT and DOG1.1 immunostaining scores were significantly associated with high risk tumors (p=0.002 and p=0.002 respectively). DOG1.1 immunoreactivity was focal in more than half of the cases. The overall diagnostic accuracy of DOG1.1 was 96.5%, with a specificity and

  19. Evaluation of the e-Learning material developed by EMERALD and EMIT for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Victoria; Tabakov, Slavik

    2005-09-01

    Two Leonardo projects, EMERALD and EMIT, have developed in a partnershipof university and hospital departments (the consortia) e-Learning materials in X-ray diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging for medical physics graduates and other healthcare professionals. These e-Learning materials are described in a separate paper in this issue. To assess the effectiveness and relevance of the e-Learning material, a series of evaluations by student users groups plus experts in medical physics education and training were undertaken. The students, with backgrounds in physics and clinical ultrasound, reviewed the e-Learning material using an evaluation form developed by the consortia. The student feedback was favourable with students commenting that their level of knowledge had increased having completed the tasks. Areas identified for development were a reduction in text volume and an increase in the time allowed for completion of some tasks. The feedback from the experts was positive with an overall appreciation of the value of the learning material as a resource for students in medical physics field across Europe and identified other disciplines in which the access to the learning material could be useful contribution to their learning. Suggestions made for improvements ranged from grading the tasks into basic and advanced topics to increasing the interactive nature of the material. These early evaluation of the e-Learning material look promising and provide a framework for further developments in the field. Insight into users and providers views is important if developers are to provide relevant and worthwhile educational learning opportunities.

  20. Applying the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion to a videotape-based eating disorders primary prevention program for adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Giselle F; Wertheim, Eleanor H

    2004-01-01

    This study applied principles from the Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion to the prevention of disordered eating. Early adolescent girls watched either a preventive videotape only (n=114) or video plus post-video activity (verbal discussion, written exercises, or control discussion) (n=187); or had no intervention (n=104). Significantly more body image and knowledge improvements occurred at post video and follow-up in the intervention groups compared to no intervention. There were no outcome differences among intervention groups, or between girls with high or low elaboration likelihood. Further research is needed in integrating the videotape into a broader prevention package.

  1. Evaluation of the Criterion and Convergent Validity of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders in Young and Low-Functioning Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina

    2012-01-01

    The Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO; Wing, 2006) is a standardized, semi-structured and interviewer-based schedule for diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The objective of this study was to evaluate the criterion and convergent validity of the DISCO-11 ICD-10 algorithm in young and low-functioning…

  2. Role of FDG PET/CT in Diagnostic Evaluation of Granulocytic Sarcomas: A Series of 12 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Piyush; Dhake, Sanket; Purandare, Nilendu; Agrawal, Archi; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2017-01-01

    Granulocytic sarcoma (GS) is a rare extramedullary manifestation in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which can precede the diagnosis or occur in the posttreatment setting. Unlike its established role in other hematological malignancies like Hodgkin's on non-Hodgkin's disease, the exact role of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in AML with or without GS remains to be defined. We retrospectively reviewed PET/CT scans of 12 patients with histologically proven GS. Marrow examination of these patients identified nine patients with isolated GS (without existent leukemia) and three patients with coexistent leukemia. PET/CT accurately identified all clinically evident GS in all 12 patients at initial staging and at follow-up with tumors, showing moderate to high 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose uptake. Coexistent marrow disease was seen on PET/CT in three patients, which was confirmed on histopathology. In the same patients, PET/CT also detected additional sites of extramedullary disease in 66.6% (n = 8), which was either clinically occult or not evident on routine CT. PET/CT appears to be a highly sensitive imaging modality in diagnostic evaluation of GS. The most important indication of using PET/CT in these cases is to identify additional sites of clinically occult extramedullary disease, which can potentially impact treatment decisions and outcomes.

  3. [Evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Cotonou (Bénin)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogouyèmi-Hounto, A; Agbayahoun-Chokki, F; Sissinto Savi de Tove, Y; Biokou Bankole, B; Adinsi de Souza, V; Assogba, M; Kinde-Gazard, D; Massougbodji, A

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of the ImmunoComb® Toxo IgG and ImmunoComb® Toxo IgMassays (rapid diagnostic test) in the laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Cotonou. We interviewed 266 pregnant women, who first answered an epidemiological questionnaire, and collected blood samples for measurement of IgG and IgM anti T. gondii antibodies with the ImmunoComb toxo assays and with the ARCHITECT CIMA method. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated to determine the performance of the rapid test. The seroprevalences of IgG against T. gondii by CIMA technique and rapid test were respectively 48.9% and 48.5%. The prevalence increased with age. Performances for IgG were: sensitivity 97%, specificity 100%, PPV 100%, NPV = 97.10%. For IgM, Sensitivity: 33.3% Specificity: 100%, PPV 100%, NPV = 99.2%. Seroprevalence obtained shows that about half of the study population is not immune against T. gondii and requires regular serological monitoring until delivery. According to these results, and given the needs of toxoplasmosis diagnosis on the field characterized by an important decrease of immunized women, this test may be recommended in the laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in peripheral levels of the health pyramid.

  4. Assessment of different biomarkers provides valuable diagnostic standards in the evaluation of the risk of acute rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin; Ding, Xiaoming; Tian, Xiaohui; Jin, Zhankui; Pan, Xiaoming; Yan, Hang; Feng, Xinshun; Hou, Jun; Xiang, Heli; Ren, Li; Tian, Puxun; Xue, Wujun

    2012-09-01

    Acute rejection (AR) is a strong risk factor for chronic rejection in renal transplant recipients. Accurate and timely diagnosis of AR episodes is very important for disease control and prognosis. Therefore, objectively evaluated the immune status of patients is essential in the field of post-transplantation treatment. This longitudinal study investigated the usefulness of five biomarkers, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G5 and sCD30 level in sera, intracellular adenosine triphosphate (iATP) release level of CD4(+) T cells, and granzyme B/perforin expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and biopsies, to detect AR and the resolution of biomarkers in a total of 84 cases of renal transplantation. The data demonstrated that recipients with clinical or biopsy proven rejection significantly increased iATP release level of CD4(+) T cells, and elevated sCD30 but lowered HLA-G5 level in sera compared with individuals with stable graft function. Expression levels of granzyme B and perforin were also elevated in PBMCs and graft biopsies of AR patients. Taken together, we identified that upregulation of sCD30, iATP, granzyme B, perforin, and downregulation of HLA-G5 could provide valuable diagnostic standards to identify those recipients in the risk of AR. And iATP may be a better biomarker than others for predicting the graft rejection episode.

  5. The Evaluation of Bivariate Mixed Models in Meta-analyses of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies with SAS, Stata and R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelgesang, Felicitas; Schlattmann, Peter; Dewey, Marc

    2018-05-01

    Meta-analyses require a thoroughly planned procedure to obtain unbiased overall estimates. From a statistical point of view not only model selection but also model implementation in the software affects the results. The present simulation study investigates the accuracy of different implementations of general and generalized bivariate mixed models in SAS (using proc mixed, proc glimmix and proc nlmixed), Stata (using gllamm, xtmelogit and midas) and R (using reitsma from package mada and glmer from package lme4). Both models incorporate the relationship between sensitivity and specificity - the two outcomes of interest in meta-analyses of diagnostic accuracy studies - utilizing random effects. Model performance is compared in nine meta-analytic scenarios reflecting the combination of three sizes for meta-analyses (89, 30 and 10 studies) with three pairs of sensitivity/specificity values (97%/87%; 85%/75%; 90%/93%). The evaluation of accuracy in terms of bias, standard error and mean squared error reveals that all implementations of the generalized bivariate model calculate sensitivity and specificity estimates with deviations less than two percentage points. proc mixed which together with reitsma implements the general bivariate mixed model proposed by Reitsma rather shows convergence problems. The random effect parameters are in general underestimated. This study shows that flexibility and simplicity of model specification together with convergence robustness should influence implementation recommendations, as the accuracy in terms of bias was acceptable in all implementations using the generalized approach. Schattauer GmbH.

  6. A comparative evaluation of Eosin-5'-maleimide flow cytometry reveals a high diagnostic efficacy for hereditary spherocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, P; Aggarwal, A; Jamwal, M; Sachdeva, M U S; Bansal, D; Malhotra, P; Sharma, P; Das, R

    2016-10-01

    Laboratory diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis (HS) relies on increased incubated red cell osmotic fragility test for screening. We evaluated the diagnostic role of eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) binding test by flow cytometry in spherocytic and microcytic hypochromic hematological disorders in North Indians. EMA binding test using flow cytometry was performed on 55 HS (40 families), 26 iron deficiency anemia (IDA), 32 β-thalassemia trait (βTT), and 10 autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) cases and 121 normals. Mean channel fluorescence (MCF) and coefficient of variation (CV) were studied. Different MCF parameters (MCF, MCF ratio, percent decrease MCF) and percent increase in CV were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was performed to determine best cutoff values, sensitivity, and specificity for discriminating HS from other red cell disorders. MCF ratio of HS group was significantly lower than normals (0.67 ± 0.07 vs. 1.01 ± 0.05, P < 0.001) and other cases. All patients with HS showed MCF ratio to be ≤0.79. Four postsplenectomy cases with near-normal hemograms also revealed low MCF ratio, showing the specificity of the test. EMA assay was efficient to diagnose cases of HS including postsplenectomy cases and shows no overlap with IDA, βTT, and AIHA. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Evaluation of the Acridine Orange Fluorescence Technique and the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody as Diagnostic Tests for Tropical Theileriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the use of acridine orange fluorescence technique on blood slides as a rapid diagnostic test for tropical theileriosis in comparison with the Giemsa-stained thin blood film technique. Also the indirect fluorescent antibody test has been employed for the serodiagnosis of tropical theileriosis. The study was carried out on 62 young and 48 adult Friesian cattle suffering from clinical tropical theileriosis in Qassim Region, Central Saudi Arabia, during the period from August 2006 to July 2008. For control, blood samples were also obtained from 25 young and 25 adult, clinically healthy, Friesian cattle, selected at random from different dairy farms in Qassim Region. Thin blood films were fixed with methanol and stained with Giemsa and acridine orange and were examined by two independent microbiologists. There was 100% correlation in the interpretation of slides stained with Giemsa and acridine orange both with respect to positivity and negativity, between the two microbiologists. It is concluded that if facilities are available acridine orange is a valuable alternative for screening tropical theileriosis. The method may also have potential value in the diagnosis of Theileria parva, which causes East Coast fever, and also other Theileria species. Results of the present study also showed that IFA test was not found sufficiently sensitive and specific as has been reported earlier. [Vet. World 2011; 4(8.000: 341-344

  8. Diagnostic relevance of radioiron-absorption-measurements and immunoradiometric serum-ferritin-assay in the evaluation of iron stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, H.C.

    1978-01-01

    Negative iron balance and enhanced iron demand respectively causes deficient iron stores (prelatent iron deficiency) with increased iron absorption, later on decrease of serum iron and increase of transferrin (latent Fe deficiency) and at least iron deficient anemia (manifest iron deficiency). In prelatend iron deficiency diagnostic 59 Fe 2+ absorption is increased and the RES cells do not show storage iron cytochemically. In latent iron deficiency in addition serum iron, transferrin iron saturation and serum ferritin is decreased and hypochromic mikrocytic anemia completes the signs of manifest iron deficiency. Besides rare cases of primary hemochromatosis and marked hyperdasia of ineffective erythropoiesis in homocygotic beta-thalassemia, hereditary non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia caused by pyruvate kinase deficiency and some sideroblastic anemias increased 59 Fe 2+ absorption is a reliable measure of exhausted iron stores. In these exceptional cases differential diagnosis between sideroachrestic and siderosensitive iron deficiency anemia can be made by measurement of serum iron and serum ferritin respectively. The etiology of iron deficiency is to be cleared by measurement of 59 Fe absorption from 59 Fe 2+ and 59 Fe-marked meat with consecutive estimation of whole body 59 Fe elimination. Shortly after completion or during oral iron therapy serum ferritin concentration is not suitable to evaluate the content of iron stores. (orig.) [de

  9. The role of diagnostic imaging in the evaluation of suspected osteomyelitis in the foot: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, James L; Pickard, James; Stinchcombe, Simon J

    2011-09-01

    The early diagnosis of osteomyelitis in the foot from its clinical presentation alone can be difficult particularly in cases when the early signs are subtle. Early diagnosis and subsequent early intervention are imperative to reduce the risk of chronic infection, associated early lytic changes to bone and potential long term structural complications caused by subsequent deformity and lost anatomy. Diagnostic imaging has a major role to play in the early assessment and diagnosis of bone infection, yet the choice of approach can be controversial. Several imaging modalities have been advocated, imaging of the infected foot is complex and no single test is ideal for every situation. The clinician needs to be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of each imaging modality so that the most appropriate test is selected for the individual case. Factors such as site of infection in the foot, the aggressive nature of the organism, the time since onset, previous associated surgery and co-morbidity may all play apart in the clinician's decision making process to determine the best approach in detecting the sometimes subtle changes which may be seen in some cases of osteomyelitis. This review considers the literature and highlights the advantages and disadvantages of the main imaging techniques used for the evaluation of the foot when osteomyelitis is suspected. An evidence based algorithm for the selection of appropriate imaging techniques is suggested to aid clinicians in there decision making process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. EVALUATION OF HYPERBILIRUBINAEMIA AS A NEW DIAGNOSTIC MARKER FOR ACUTE APPENDICITIS AND ITS ROLE IN THE PREDICTION OF APPENDICULAR PERFORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Kumar Regar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND There are various investigations recommended to diagnose acute appendicitis; however, till date there is no confirmatory laboratory marker to diagnose preoperatively acute appendicitis & appendicular perforation. The purpose of study is to evaluate hyperbilirubinaemia as a new diagnostic marker for acute appendicitis and its role in the prediction of appendicular perforation. Preoperative assessment of serum bilirubin appears to be a promising new laboratory marker for diagnosing acute appendicitis & have a predictive potential for the diagnosis of appendicular perforation. METHODS A prospective analytical study of 100 cases comprising of a non-randomised cohort. RESULTS Hyperbilirubinaemia was found in most of the patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis (68.23% or appendicular perforation (73.33%. The mean total bilirubin level in patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis was 1.34 mg% while in patients diagnosed with appendicular perforation was 2.12 mg%. CONCLUSIONS Preoperative assessment of serum bilirubin should be routinely performed in cases of acute appendicitis as it can help in diagnosis of acute appendicitis as well as also serve as an important maker of acute gangrenous appendicitis.

  11. Non-Organic Failure to Thrive: Decision for Placement and Videotaped Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Clare F.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    In a study involving 16 cases of infants hospitalized for nonorganic failure to thrive, eight of whom were placed in foster homes and eight discharged home, mother-infant interactions in the group requiring foster care were clearly more dysfunctional than those in the discharged group. (Author/CL)

  12. Development and preliminary evaluation of a multiplexed amplification and next generation sequencing method for viral hemorrhagic fever diagnostics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Brinkmann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe the development and evaluation of a novel method for targeted amplification and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS-based identification of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF agents and assess the feasibility of this approach in diagnostics.An ultrahigh-multiplex panel was designed with primers to amplify all known variants of VHF-associated viruses and relevant controls. The performance of the panel was evaluated via serially quantified nucleic acids from Yellow fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF virus, Ebola virus, Junin virus and Chikungunya virus in a semiconductor-based sequencing platform. A comparison of direct NGS and targeted amplification-NGS was performed. The panel was further tested via a real-time nanopore sequencing-based platform, using clinical specimens from CCHF patients.The multiplex primer panel comprises two pools of 285 and 256 primer pairs for the identification of 46 virus species causing hemorrhagic fevers, encompassing 6,130 genetic variants of the strains involved. In silico validation revealed that the panel detected over 97% of all known genetic variants of the targeted virus species. High levels of specificity and sensitivity were observed for the tested virus strains. Targeted amplification ensured viral read detection in specimens with the lowest virus concentration (1-10 genome equivalents and enabled significant increases in specific reads over background for all viruses investigated. In clinical specimens, the panel enabled detection of the causative agent and its characterization within 10 minutes of sequencing, with sample-to-result time of less than 3.5 hours.Virus enrichment via targeted amplification followed by NGS is an applicable strategy for the diagnosis of VHFs which can be adapted for high-throughput or nanopore sequencing platforms and employed for surveillance or outbreak monitoring.

  13. Development and preliminary evaluation of a multiplexed amplification and next generation sequencing method for viral hemorrhagic fever diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Annika; Ergünay, Koray; Radonić, Aleksandar; Kocak Tufan, Zeliha; Domingo, Cristina; Nitsche, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    We describe the development and evaluation of a novel method for targeted amplification and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)-based identification of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) agents and assess the feasibility of this approach in diagnostics. An ultrahigh-multiplex panel was designed with primers to amplify all known variants of VHF-associated viruses and relevant controls. The performance of the panel was evaluated via serially quantified nucleic acids from Yellow fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus, Ebola virus, Junin virus and Chikungunya virus in a semiconductor-based sequencing platform. A comparison of direct NGS and targeted amplification-NGS was performed. The panel was further tested via a real-time nanopore sequencing-based platform, using clinical specimens from CCHF patients. The multiplex primer panel comprises two pools of 285 and 256 primer pairs for the identification of 46 virus species causing hemorrhagic fevers, encompassing 6,130 genetic variants of the strains involved. In silico validation revealed that the panel detected over 97% of all known genetic variants of the targeted virus species. High levels of specificity and sensitivity were observed for the tested virus strains. Targeted amplification ensured viral read detection in specimens with the lowest virus concentration (1-10 genome equivalents) and enabled significant increases in specific reads over background for all viruses investigated. In clinical specimens, the panel enabled detection of the causative agent and its characterization within 10 minutes of sequencing, with sample-to-result time of less than 3.5 hours. Virus enrichment via targeted amplification followed by NGS is an applicable strategy for the diagnosis of VHFs which can be adapted for high-throughput or nanopore sequencing platforms and employed for surveillance or outbreak monitoring.

  14. Comparative evaluation of molecular diagnostic tests for Nucleospora salmonis and prevalence in migrating juvenile salmonids from the Snake River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badil, Samantha; Elliott, Diane G.; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Clemens, Kathy; Blair, Marilyn; Purcell, Maureen K.

    2011-01-01

    Nucleospora salmonis is an intranuclear microsporidian that primarily infects lymphoblast cells and contributes to chronic lymphoblastosis and a leukemia-like condition in a range of salmonid species. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of N. salmonis in out-migrating juvenile hatchery and wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss from the Snake River in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. To achieve this goal, we first addressed the following concerns about current molecular diagnostic tests for N. salmonis: (1) nonspecific amplification patterns by the published nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) test, (2) incomplete validation of the published quantitative PCR (qPCR) test, and (3) whether N. salmonis can be detected reliably from nonlethal samples. Here, we present an optimized nPCR protocol that eliminates nonspecific amplification. During validation of the published qPCR test, our laboratory developed a second qPCR test that targeted a different gene sequence and used different probe chemistry for comparison purposes. We simultaneously evaluated the two different qPCR tests for N. salmonis and found that both assays were highly specific, sensitive, and repeatable. The nPCR and qPCR tests had good overall concordance when DNA samples derived from both apparently healthy and clinically diseased hatchery rainbow trout were tested. Finally, we demonstrated that gill snips were a suitable tissue for nonlethal detection of N. salmonis DNA in juvenile salmonids. Monitoring of juvenile salmonid fish in the Snake River over a 3-year period revealed low prevalence of N. salmonis in hatchery and wild Chinook salmon and wild steelhead but significantly higher prevalence in hatchery-derived steelhead. Routine monitoring of N. salmonis is not performed for all hatchery steelhead populations. At present, the possible contribution of this pathogen to delayed mortality of steelhead has not been determined.

  15. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of ultra-miniaturized pocket ultrasound device on cardiac function in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li WANG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To compare the diagnostic accuracy of a new ultra-miniaturized pocket ultrasound device (PUD (VscanTM, GE Healthcare, Wauwatosa, WI and conventional high-quality echocardiography system (Vivid qTM, GE Healthcare for a cardiac focused ultrasonography in critical patients. Methods  The patients admitted to our hospital and receiving transthoracic echocardiography (TTE using a PUD and a conventional echocardiography system were included in this study during the 10 months from December 2013 to October 2014. Each examination was performed independently by an intensive care unit (ICU physician and an experienced ultrasound doctor, unaware of the results found by the alternative device. The following parameters were assessed: global cardiac systolic function, identification of ventricular size, whether or not accompanying enlargement or hypertrophy, assessment for the morphology of cardiac valves and its function, pericardial effusion and estimation of the inferior vena cava (IVC diameter. The time-consuming of each device were recorded. Results  One hundred and twenty-eight patients were included in the study. Their left ventricular wall motion abnormalities, global left ventricular systolic dysfunction, pericardial effusion, IVC dilation were assessed by PUD and the assessment results were highly consistent with those by Vivid q (κ>0.84. The consistency was slightly lower in evaluating the left and right ventricular size. For evaluating the cardiac valves function, the agreement of two devices were relatively low (κ=0.69-0.84. Compared with Vivid q, PUD took less time (4.7±1.4min vs 6.3±2.6min; P<0.05. Conclusion  PUD can provide fast, reliable cardiac examination, thus being an effective method for ICU physicians to assess the cardiac f unction in critical patients. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.08.10

  16. A Simple Evaluation Tool (ET-CET) Indicates Increase of Diagnostic Skills From Small Bowel Capsule Endoscopy Training Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, J.G.; Humbla, O.; McAlindon, M.E.; Davison, C.; Seitz, U.; Fraser, C.; Hagenmüller, F.; Noetzel, E.; Spada, C.; Riccioni, M.E.; Barnert, J.; Filmann, N.; Keuchel, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) has become a first line diagnostic tool. Several training courses with a similar format have been established in Europe; however, data on learning curve and training in SBCE remain sparse. Between 2008 and 2011, different basic SBCE training courses were organized internationally in UK (n = 2), Italy (n = 2), Germany (n = 2), Finland (n = 1), and nationally in Germany (n = 10), applying similar 8-hour curricula with 50% lectures and 50% hands-on training. The Given PillCam System was used in 12 courses, the Olympus EndoCapsule system in 5, respectively. A simple evaluation tool for capsule endoscopy training (ET-CET) was developed using 10 short SBCE videos including relevant lesions and normal or irrelevant findings. For each video, delegates were required to record a diagnosis (achievable total score from 0 to 10) and the clinical relevance (achievable total score 0 to 10). ET-CET was performed at baseline before the course and repeated, with videos in altered order, after the course. Two hundred ninety-four delegates (79.3% physicians, 16.3% nurses, 4.4% others) were included for baseline analysis, 268 completed the final evaluation. Forty percent had no previous experience in SBCE, 33% had performed 10 or less procedures. Median scores for correct diagnosis improved from 4.0 (IQR 3) to 7.0 (IQR 3) during the courses (P endoscopy may be useful before attending an SBCE course. PMID:26512623

  17. Multicountry Prospective Clinical Evaluation of Two Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays and Two Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Diagnosing Dengue Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauner, Allison L.; Valks, Andrea; Forshey, Brett M.; Long, Kanya C.; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Sierra, Gloria; Picos, Victor; Talmage, Sara; Morrison, Amy C.; Halsey, Eric S.; Comach, Guillermo; Yasuda, Chadwick; Loeffelholz, Michael; Jarman, Richard G.; Fernandez, Stefan; An, Ung Sam; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Jasper, Louis E.; Wu, Shuenn-Jue L.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated four dengue diagnostic devices from Alere, including the SD Bioline Dengue Duo (nonstructural [NS] 1 Ag and IgG/IgM), the Panbio Dengue Duo Cassette (IgM/IgG) rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), and the Panbio dengue IgM and IgG capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) in a prospective, controlled, multicenter study in Peru, Venezuela, Cambodia, and the United States, using samples from 1,021 febrile individuals. Archived, well-characterized samples from an additional 135 febrile individuals from Thailand were also used. Reference testing was performed on all samples using an algorithm involving virus isolation, in-house IgM and IgG capture ELISAs, and plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT) to determine the infection status of the individual. The primary endpoints were the clinical sensitivities and specificities of these devices. The SD Bioline Dengue Duo had an overall sensitivity of 87.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.1 to 90.2%) and specificity of 86.8% (95% CI, 83.9 to 89.3%) during the first 14 days post-symptom onset (p.s.o.). The Panbio Dengue Duo Cassette demonstrated a sensitivity of 92.1% (87.8 to 95.2%) and specificity of 62.2% (54.5 to 69.5%) during days 4 to 14 p.s.o. The Panbio IgM capture ELISA had a sensitivity of 87.6% (82.7 to 91.4%) and specificity of 88.1% (82.2 to 92.6%) during days 4 to 14 p.s.o. Finally, the Panbio IgG capture ELISA had a sensitivity of 69.6% (62.1 to 76.4%) and a specificity of 88.4% (82.6 to 92.8%) during days 4 to 14 p.s.o. for identification of secondary dengue infections. This multicountry prospective study resulted in reliable real-world performance data that will facilitate data-driven laboratory test choices for managing patient care during dengue outbreaks. PMID:25588659

  18. Improving diagnostic sensitivity of combined dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy imaging through double reader concordance evaluation in telemedicine settings: A retrospective study of 1000 equivocal cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Witkowski

    Full Text Available Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM is an imaging device that permits non-invasive visualization of cellular morphology and has been shown to improve diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopically equivocal cutaneous lesions. The application of double reader concordance evaluation of dermoscopy-RCM image sets in retrospective settings and its potential application to telemedicine evaluation has not been tested in a large study population.To improve diagnostic sensitivity of RCM image diagnosis using a double reader concordance evaluation approach; to reduce mismanagement of equivocal cutaneous lesions in retrospective consultation and telemedicine settings.1000 combined dermoscopy-RCM image sets were evaluated in blind by 10 readers with advanced training and internship in dermoscopy and RCM evaluation. We compared sensitivity and specificity of single reader evaluation versus double reader concordance evaluation as well as the effect of diagnostic confidence on lesion management in a retrospective setting.Single reader evaluation resulted in an overall sensitivity of 95.2% and specificity of 76.3%, with misdiagnosis of 8 melanomas, 4 basal cell carcinomas and 2 squamous cell carcinomas. Combined double reader evaluation resulted in an overall sensitivity of 98.3% and specificity of 65.5%, with misdiagnosis of 1 in-situ melanoma and 2 basal cell carcinomas.Evaluation of dermoscopy-RCM image sets of cutaneous lesions by single reader evaluation in retrospective settings is limited by sensitivity levels that may result in potential mismanagement of malignant lesions. Double reader blind concordance evaluation may improve the sensitivity of diagnosis and management safety. The use of a second check can be implemented in telemedicine settings where expert consultation and second opinions may be required.

  19. Debo